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Sample records for inline phase contrast

  1. In-line phase contrast micro-CT reconstruction for biomedical specimens.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jian; Tan, Renbo

    2014-01-01

    X-ray phase contrast micro computed tomography (micro-CT) can non-destructively provide the internal structure information of soft tissues and low atomic number materials. It has become an invaluable analysis tool for biomedical specimens. Here an in-line phase contrast micro-CT reconstruction technique is reported, which consists of a projection extraction method and the conventional filter back-projection (FBP) reconstruction algorithm. The projection extraction is implemented by applying the Fourier transform to the forward projections of in-line phase contrast micro-CT. This work comprises a numerical study of the method and its experimental verification using a biomedical specimen dataset measured at an X-ray tube source micro-CT setup. The numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the presented technique can improve the imaging contrast of biomedical specimens. It will be of interest for a wide range of in-line phase contrast micro-CT applications in medicine and biology.

  2. Geometry-constraint-scan imaging for in-line phase contrast micro-CT.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jian; Yu, Guangyuan; Fan, Dekai

    2014-01-01

    X-ray phase contrast computed tomography (CT) uses the phase shift that x-rays undergo when passing through matter, rather than their attenuation, as the imaging signal and may provide better image quality in soft-tissue and biomedical materials with low atomic number. Here a geometry-constraint-scan imaging technique for in-line phase contrast micro-CT is reported. It consists of two circular-trajectory scans with x-ray detector at different positions, the phase projection extraction method with the Fresnel free-propagation theory and the filter back-projection reconstruction algorithm. This method removes the contact-detector scan and the pure phase object assumption in classical in-line phase contrast Micro-CT. Consequently it relaxes the experimental conditions and improves the image contrast. This work comprises a numerical study of this technique and its experimental verification using a biomedical composite dataset measured at an x-ray tube source Micro-CT setup. The numerical and experimental results demonstrate the validity of the presented method. It will be of interest for a wide range of in-line phase contrast Micro-CT applications in biology and medicine.

  3. CO2-based in-line phase contrast imaging of small intestine in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Rongbiao; Li, Wei-Xia; Huang, Wei; Yan, Fuhua; Chai, Wei-Min; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Chen, Ke-Min

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the potential of CO2 single contrast in-line phase contrast imaging (PCI) for pre-clinical small intestine investigation. The absorption and phase contrast images of CO2 gas production were attained and compared. A further increase in image contrast was observed in PCI. Compared with CO2-based absorption contrast imaging (ACI), CO2-based PCI significantly enhanced the detection of mucosal microstructures, such as pits and folds. The CO2-based PCI could provide sufficient image contrast for clearly showing the intestinal mucosa in living mice without using barium. We concluded that CO2-based PCI might be a novel and promising imaging method for future studies of gastrointestinal disorders.

  4. Characterization of a high-energy in-line phase contrast tomosynthesis prototype

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Di; Yan, Aimin; Li, Yuhua; Wong, Molly D.; Zheng, Bin; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this research, a high-energy in-line phase contrast tomosynthesis prototype was developed and characterized through quantitative investigations and phantom studies. Methods: The prototype system consists of an x-ray source, a motorized rotation stage, and a CMOS detector with a pixel pitch of 0.05 mm. The x-ray source was operated at 120 kVp for this study, and the objects were mounted on the rotation stage 76.2 cm (R1) from the source and 114.3 cm (R2) from the detector. The large air gap between the object and detector guarantees sufficient phase-shift effects. The quantitative evaluation of this prototype included modulation transfer function and noise power spectrum measurements conducted under both projection mode and tomosynthesis mode. Phantom studies were performed including three custom designed phantoms with complex structures: a five-layer bubble wrap phantom, a fishbone phantom, and a chicken breast phantom with embedded fibrils and mass structures extracted from an ACR phantom. In-plane images of the phantoms were acquired to investigate their image qualities through observation, intensity profile plots, edge enhancement evaluations, and/or contrast-to-noise ratio calculations. In addition, the robust phase-attenuation duality (PAD)-based phase retrieval method was applied to tomosynthesis for the first time in this research. It was utilized as a preprocessing method to fully exhibit phase contrast on the angular projection before reconstruction. Results: The resolution and noise characteristics of this high-energy in-line phase contrast tomosynthesis prototype were successfully investigated and demonstrated. The phantom studies demonstrated that this imaging prototype can successfully remove the structure overlapping in phantom projections, obtain delineate interfaces, and achieve better contrast-to-noise ratio after applying phase retrieval to the angular projections. Conclusions: This research successfully demonstrated a high-energy in-line

  5. Second order x-ray in-line phase-contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Wenxiang; Wang, Ge

    2014-09-01

    X-ray phase imaging is sensitive to structural variation of soft tissue, and offers excellent contrast resolution for characterization of cancerous tissues. Also, the cross-section of x-ray phase shift is a thousand times greater than that of x-ray attenuation in soft tissue over the diagnostic energy range, allowing a much higher signal-to-noise ratio at a substantially lower radiation dose than attenuation-based x-ray imaging. In this paper, we present a second order approximation model with respect to phase shift based on the paraxial Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction theory, and also discuss in-line dark-field imaging based on the second order model. This proposed model accurately establishes a quantitative correspondence between phases and recorded intensity images, outperforming the linear phase approximation model widely used in the conventional methods of x-ray in-line phase-contrast imaging. This new model can be iteratively solved using the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART). The state of the art compressive sensing ingredients can be incorporated to achieve high quality image reconstruction. Our numerical simulation studies demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach that is more accurate and stable, and more robust against noise than the conventional approach.

  6. A fast-converging iterative method for X-ray in-line phase contrast tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo, Nghia T.; Atwood, Robert C.; Moser, Herbert O.; Lee, Peter D.; Breese, Mark B. H.; Drakopoulos, Michael

    2012-11-01

    X-ray in-line phase contrast tomography holds great promise for the quantitative analysis of soft materials. However, its applications have been limited, so far, by the fact that direct methods based on the transport-of-intensity equation and the contrast transfer function are sensitive to noise and applicable only to limited types of samples. Here, we propose an iterative method based on the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, Optik 35, 237 (1972)), but overcoming its slow convergence by an acceleration technique, named random signed feedback, which shows an excellent performance, both in numerical simulation and tomographic experiment, of discriminating various polymers even when using 53 keV synchrotron X-rays.

  7. A fast-converging iterative method for X-ray in-line phase contrast tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, Nghia T.; Breese, Mark B. H.; Atwood, Robert C.; Drakopoulos, Michael; Moser, Herbert O.; Lee, Peter D.

    2012-11-26

    X-ray in-line phase contrast tomography holds great promise for the quantitative analysis of soft materials. However, its applications have been limited, so far, by the fact that direct methods based on the transport-of-intensity equation and the contrast transfer function are sensitive to noise and applicable only to limited types of samples. Here, we propose an iterative method based on the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, Optik 35, 237 (1972)), but overcoming its slow convergence by an acceleration technique, named random signed feedback, which shows an excellent performance, both in numerical simulation and tomographic experiment, of discriminating various polymers even when using 53 keV synchrotron X-rays.

  8. In-line Phase Contrast Imaging of Soft Tissue in the Mammalian Cochlea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lixin; Rau, C.; Robinson, I.; Richter, C.-P.

    2007-03-01

    Soft tissue has been visualized in a mammalian cochlea with hard X-rays in-line phase contrast imaging at the UNICAT beamline 34 ID-C, APS. The sensation of hearing results from a series of complex events that transform acoustic pressure waves into the perception of sound. During the normal hearing process, sound energy is converted to mechanical energy by the middle ear, which then is converted to motions in the structures of the cochlea. To date, many aspects of the sound induced vibrations are still unclear. Firstly, mechanics of the cochlea are likely to changes by the manipulations, and secondly, cochlear micromechanics are unexplored for the cochlear middle section. Therefore, our objective is to measure the motion patterns of cochlear tissues in a closed cochlea. Thick mammalian cochlear slices have been imaged and were compared with those obtained by light microscopy. Furthermore, intact cochleae have been imaged to identify the soft tissue structures involved in the hearing process.

  9. Performance analysis of the attenuation-partition based iterative phase retrieval algorithm for in-line phase-contrast imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Aimin; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2010-01-01

    The phase retrieval is an important task in x-ray phase contrast imaging. The robustness of phase retrieval is especially important for potential medical imaging applications such as phase contrast mammography. Recently the authors developed an iterative phase retrieval algorithm, the attenuation-partition based algorithm, for the phase retrieval in inline phase-contrast imaging [1]. Applied to experimental images, the algorithm was proven to be fast and robust. However, a quantitative analysis of the performance of this new algorithm is desirable. In this work, we systematically compared the performance of this algorithm with other two widely used phase retrieval algorithms, namely the Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) algorithm and the Transport of Intensity Equation (TIE) algorithm. The systematical comparison is conducted by analyzing phase retrieval performances with a digital breast specimen model. We show that the proposed algorithm converges faster than the GS algorithm in the Fresnel diffraction regime, and is more robust against image noise than the TIE algorithm. These results suggest the significance of the proposed algorithm for future medical applications with the x-ray phase contrast imaging technique. PMID:20720992

  10. Using digital inline holographic microscopy and quantitative phase contrast imaging to assess viability of cultured mammalian cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missan, Sergey; Hrytsenko, Olga

    2015-03-01

    Digital inline holographic microscopy was used to record holograms of mammalian cells (HEK293, B16, and E0771) in culture. The holograms have been reconstructed using Octopus software (4Deep inwater imaging) and phase shift maps were unwrapped using the FFT-based phase unwrapping algorithm. The unwrapped phase shifts were used to determine the maximum phase shifts in individual cells. Addition of 0.5 mM H2O2 to cell media produced rapid rounding of cultured cells, followed by cell membrane rupture. The cell morphology changes and cell membrane ruptures were detected in real time and were apparent in the unwrapped phase shift images. The results indicate that quantitative phase contrast imaging produced by the digital inline holographic microscope can be used for the label-free real time automated determination of cell viability and confluence in mammalian cell cultures.

  11. Influence of imaging geometry on noise texture in quantitative in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Chou, Cheng-Ying; Anastasio, Mark A

    2009-08-17

    Quantitative in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging methods seek to reconstruct separate images that depict an object's projected absorption and refractive properties. An understanding of the statistical properties of the reconstructed images can facilitate the identification of optimal imaging parameters for specific diagnostic tasks. However, the statistical properties of quantitative X-ray phase-contrast imaging remain largely unexplored. In this work, we derive analytic expressions that describe the second-order statistics of the reconstructed absorption and phase images. Concepts from statistical decision theory are applied to demonstrate how the statistical properties of images corresponding to distinct imaging geometries can influence signal detectability.

  12. In-line phase-contrast and grating-based phase-contrast synchrotron imaging study of brain micrometastasis of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Sheng; Kou, Binquan; Chi, Yayun; Xi, Yan; Cao, Yixin; Cui, Wenli; Hu, Xin; Shao, Zhimin; Guo, Han; Fu, Yanan; Xiao, Tiqiao; Sun, Jianqi; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Yujie; Wu, Jiong

    2015-03-01

    Current bio-medical imaging researches aim to detect brain micrometastasis in early stage for its increasing incidence and high mortality rates. Synchrotron phase-contrast imaging techniques, such as in-line phase-contrast (IPC) and grating-based phase-contrast (GPC) imaging, could provide a high spatial and density imaging study of biological specimens' 3D structures. In this study, we demonstrated the detection efficiencies of these two imaging tools on breast cancer micrometastasis in an ex vivo mouse brain. We found that both IPC and GPC can differentiate abnormal brain structures induced by micrometastasis from the surrounding normal tissues. We also found that GPC was more sensitive in detecting the small metastasis as compared to IPC.

  13. In-line phase-contrast stereoscopic X-ray imaging for radiological purposes: An initial experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegbahn, E. A.; Coan, P.; Zhou, S.-A.; Bravin, A.; Brahme, A.

    2011-02-01

    We report results from a pilot study in which the in-line propagation-based phase-contrast imaging technique is combined with the stereoscopic method. Two phantoms were imaged at several sample-detector distances using monochromatic, 30 keV, X-rays. High contrast- and spatial-resolution phase-contrast stereoscopic pairs of X-ray images were constructed using the anaglyph approach and a vivid stereoscopic effect was demonstrated. On the other hand, images of the same phantoms obtained with a shorter sample-to-detector distance, but otherwise the same experimental conditions (i.e. the same X-ray energy and absorbed radiation dose), corresponding to the conventional attenuation-based imaging mode, hardly revealed stereoscopic effects because of the lower image contrast produced. These results have confirmed our hypothesis that stereoscopic X-ray images of samples with objects composed of low-atomic-number elements are considerably improved if phase-contrast imaging is used. It is our belief that the high-resolution phase-contrast stereoscopic method will be a valuable new medical imaging tool for radiologists and that it will be of help to enhance the diagnostic capability in the examination of patients in future clinical practice, even though further efforts will be needed to optimize the system performance.

  14. In-line phase-contrast breast tomosynthesis: a phantom feasibility study at a synchrotron radiation facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliznakova, K.; Russo, P.; Kamarianakis, Z.; Mettivier, G.; Requardt, H.; Bravin, A.; Buliev, I.

    2016-08-01

    The major objective is to adopt, apply and test developed in-house algorithms for volumetric breast reconstructions from projection images, obtained in in-line phase-contrast mode. Four angular sets, each consisting of 17 projection images obtained from four physical phantoms, were acquired at beamline ID17, European Synchroton Radiation Facility, Grenoble, France. The tomosynthesis arc was  ±32°. The physical phantoms differed in complexity of texture and introduced features of interest. Three of the used phantoms were in-house developed, and made of epoxy resin, polymethyl-methacrylate and paraffin wax, while the fourth phantom was the CIRS BR3D. The projection images had a pixel size of 47 µm  ×  47 µm. Tomosynthesis images were reconstructed with standard shift-and-add (SAA) and filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithms. It was found that the edge enhancement observed in planar x-ray images is preserved in tomosynthesis images from both phantoms with homogeneous and highly heterogeneous backgrounds. In case of BR3D, it was found that features not visible in the planar case were well outlined in the tomosynthesis slices. In addition, the edge enhancement index calculated for features of interest was found to be much higher in tomosynthesis images reconstructed with FBP than in planar images and tomosynthesis images reconstructed with SAA. The comparison between images reconstructed by the two reconstruction algorithms shows an advantage for the FBP method in terms of better edge enhancement. Phase-contrast breast tomosynthesis realized in in-line mode benefits the detection of suspicious areas in mammography images by adding the edge enhancement effect to the reconstructed slices.

  15. Using X-ray in-line phase-contrast imaging for the investigation of nude mouse hepatic tumors.

    PubMed

    Tao, Qiang; Li, Dongyue; Zhang, Lu; Luo, Shuqian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the noninvasive imaging of hepatic tumors without contrast agents. Both normal tissues and tumor tissues can be detected, and tumor tissues in different stages can be classified quantitatively. We implanted BEL-7402 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells into the livers of nude mice and then imaged the livers using X-ray in-line phase-contrast imaging (ILPCI). The projection images' texture feature based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and dual-tree complex wavelet transforms (DTCWT) were extracted to discriminate normal tissues and tumor tissues. Different stages of hepatic tumors were classified using support vector machines (SVM). Images of livers from nude mice sacrificed 6 days after inoculation with cancer cells show diffuse distribution of the tumor tissue, but images of livers from nude mice sacrificed 9, 12, or 15 days after inoculation with cancer cells show necrotic lumps in the tumor tissue. The results of the principal component analysis (PCA) of the texture features based on GLCM of normal regions were positive, but those of tumor regions were negative. The results of PCA of the texture features based on DTCWT of normal regions were greater than those of tumor regions. The values of the texture features in low-frequency coefficient images increased monotonically with the growth of the tumors. Different stages of liver tumors can be classified using SVM, and the accuracy is 83.33%. Noninvasive and micron-scale imaging can be achieved by X-ray ILPCI. We can observe hepatic tumors and small vessels from the phase-contrast images. This new imaging approach for hepatic cancer is effective and has potential use in the early detection and classification of hepatic tumors.

  16. Hybrid quantitative simulation on the in-line phase-contrast x-ray imaging of three dimensional samples under actual clinic imaging parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Hong; Han Shensheng; Ding Jianhui; Jiang Zhaoxia; Peng Weijun

    2009-07-06

    A hybrid model combining Monte Carlo method with diffraction theory of wave optics has been developed and applied to quantitatively simulate the in-line diffractive phase-contrast x-ray imaging of three dimensional tissue samples under actual clinic imaging parameters. The primary microcosmic interactions of medical-energy x-ray within matter including photoabsorption, Compton scattering, and coherent scattering, have been taken into account in the Monte Carlo simulation. A diffraction processing based on Fresnel diffraction theory is carried out to simulate the macroscopic diffraction effect. A comparison with experiment results has also been performed.

  17. In-line phase-contrast imaging of a biological specimen using a compact laser-Compton scattering-based x-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeura-Sekiguchi, H.; Kuroda, R.; Yasumoto, M.; Toyokawa, H.; Koike, M.; Yamada, K.; Sakai, F.; Mori, K.; Maruyama, K.; Oka, H.; Kimata, T.

    2008-03-01

    Laser-Compton scattering (LCS) x-ray sources have recently attracted much attention for their potential use at local medical facilities because they can produce ultrashort pulsed, high-brilliance, and quasimonochromatic hard x rays with a small source size. The feasibility of in-line phase-contrast imaging for a "thick" biological specimens of rat lumbar vertebrae using the developed compact LCS-X in AIST was investigated for the promotion of clinical imaging. In the higher-quality images, anatomical details of the spinous processes of the vertebrae are more clearly observable than with conventional absorption radiography. The results demonstrate that phase-contrast radiography can be performed using LCS-X.

  18. Propagator based formalism for optimizing in-line phase contrast imaging in laboratory X-ray setups.

    PubMed

    Balles, Andreas; Zabler, Simon; Ebensperger, Thomas; Fella, Christian; Hanke, Randolf

    2016-09-01

    We derive a propagator based formalism for optimizing phase contrast imaging in laboratory setups as well as in synchrotron setups. We confirm based on five different setups the well known existence of an optimum position for the sample in terms of phase contrast by measuring two types of fibers and evaluating the fringe contrast. Furthermore, we demonstrate for these setups a correlation of our formula and the fringe contrast. Hence, an estimate of this optimum position is given by our formalism which only depends on the source size, the detector blurring, and the total distance between source and detector.

  19. Preliminary comparison of grating-based and in-line phase contrast X-ray imaging with synchrotron radiation for mouse kidney at TOMCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, J.; Liu, P.; Irvine, S.; Pinzer, B.; Stampanoni, M.; Xu, L. X.

    2013-06-01

    Phase contrast imaging has been demonstrated to be advantageous in revealing detailed structures inside biological specimens without contrast agents. Grating-based differential phase contrast (DPC) and in-line phase contrast (ILPC) X-ray imaging are the two modalities frequently used at the beamline of TOmographic Microscopy and Coherent rAdiology experimenTs (TOMCAT) at the Swiss Light Source (SLS). In this paper, we preliminarily compared the abilities of two types of phase contrast imaging in distinguishing micro structures in mouse kidneys. The 3D reconstructions showed that the microstructures in kidney, such as micro vessels and renal tubules, were displayed clearly with both imaging modalities. The two techniques may be viewed as complementary. For larger features with very small density variations DPC is the desirable method. In cases where dose and time limits may prohibit the multiple steps required for DPC, and when the focus is on finer features, the ILPC method may be considered as a more viable alternative. Moreover, high resolution ILPC images are comparable with histological results.

  20. Quantitative studies on inner interfaces in conical metal joints using hard x-ray inline phase contrast radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabler, S.; Rack, T.; Rack, A.; Nelson, K.

    2010-10-01

    Quantitative investigation of micrometer and submicrometer gaps between joining metal surfaces is applied to conical plug-socket connections in dental titanium implants. Microgaps of widths well beyond the resolving power of industrial x-ray systems are imaged by synchrotron phase contrast radiography. Furthermore, by using an analytical model for the relatively simple sample geometry and applying it to numerical forward simulations of the optical Fresnel propagation, we show that quantitative measurements of the microgap width down to 0.1 μm are possible. Image data recorded at the BAMline (BESSY-II light source, Germany) are presented, with the resolving power of the imaging system being 4 μm in absorption mode and ˜14 μm in phase contrast mode (z2=0.74 m). Thus, phase contrast radiography, combined with numerical forward simulations, is capable of measuring the widths of gaps that are two orders of magnitude thinner than the conventional detection limit.

  1. Quantitative studies on inner interfaces in conical metal joints using hard x-ray inline phase contrast radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Zabler, S.; Rack, T.; Nelson, K.; Rack, A.

    2010-10-15

    Quantitative investigation of micrometer and submicrometer gaps between joining metal surfaces is applied to conical plug-socket connections in dental titanium implants. Microgaps of widths well beyond the resolving power of industrial x-ray systems are imaged by synchrotron phase contrast radiography. Furthermore, by using an analytical model for the relatively simple sample geometry and applying it to numerical forward simulations of the optical Fresnel propagation, we show that quantitative measurements of the microgap width down to 0.1 {mu}m are possible. Image data recorded at the BAMline (BESSY-II light source, Germany) are presented, with the resolving power of the imaging system being 4 {mu}m in absorption mode and {approx}14 {mu}m in phase contrast mode (z{sub 2}=0.74 m). Thus, phase contrast radiography, combined with numerical forward simulations, is capable of measuring the widths of gaps that are two orders of magnitude thinner than the conventional detection limit.

  2. In-line phase shift tomosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hammonds, Jeffrey C.; Price, Ronald R.; Pickens, David R.; Donnelly, Edwin F.

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to (1) demonstrate laboratory measurements of phase shift images derived from in-line phase-contrast radiographs using the attenuation-partition based algorithm (APBA) of Yan et al.[Opt. Express 18(15), 16074–16089 (2010)], (2) verify that the APBA reconstructed images obey the linearity principle, and (3) reconstruct tomosynthesis phase shift images from a collection of angularly sampled planar phase shift images.Methods: An unmodified, commercially available cabinet x-ray system (Faxitron LX-60) was used in this experiment. This system contains a tungsten anode x-ray tube with a nominal focal spot size of 10 μm. The digital detector uses CsI/CMOS with a pixel size of 50 × 50 μm. The phantoms used consisted of one acrylic plate, two polystyrene plates, and a habanero pepper. Tomosynthesis images were reconstructed from 51 images acquired over a ±25° arc. All phase shift images were reconstructed using the APBA.Results: Image contrast derived from the planar phase shift image of an acrylic plate of uniform thickness exceeded the contrast of the traditional attenuation image by an approximate factor of two. Comparison of the planar phase shift images from a single, uniform thickness polystyrene plate with two polystyrene plates demonstrated an approximate linearity of the estimated phase shift with plate thickness (−1600 rad vs −2970 rad). Tomographic phase shift images of the habanero pepper exhibited acceptable spatial resolution and contrast comparable to the corresponding attenuation image.Conclusions: This work demonstrated the feasibility of laboratory-based phase shift tomosynthesis and suggests that phase shift imaging could potentially provide a new imaging biomarker. Further investigation will be needed to determine if phase shift contrast will be able to provide new tissue contrast information or improved clinical performance.

  3. SU-E-I-91: Quantitative Assessment of Early Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Cavernous Hemangioma of Live Using In-Line Phase-Contrast X-Ray Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the potential utility of in-line phase-contrast imaging (ILPCI) technique with synchrotron radiation in detecting early hepatocellular carcinoma and cavernous hemangioma of live using in vitro model system. Methods: Without contrast agents, three typical early hepatocellular carcinoma specimens and three typical cavernous hemangioma of live specimens were imaged using ILPCI. To quantitatively discriminate early hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and cavernous hemangioma tissues, the projection images texture feature based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were extracted. The texture parameters of energy, inertia, entropy, correlation, sum average, sum entropy, difference average, difference entropy and inverse difference moment, were obtained respectively. Results: In the ILPCI planar images of early hepatocellular carcinoma specimens, vessel trees were clearly visualized on the micrometer scale. Obvious distortion deformation was presented, and the vessel mostly appeared as a ‘dry stick’. Liver textures appeared not regularly. In the ILPCI planar images of cavernous hemangioma of live specimens, typical vessels had not been found compared with the early hepatocellular carcinoma planar images. The planar images of cavernous hemangioma of live specimens clearly displayed the dilated hepatic sinusoids with the diameter of less than 100 microns, but all of them were overlapped with each other. The texture parameters of energy, inertia, entropy, correlation, sum average, sum entropy, and difference average, showed a statistically significant between the two types specimens image (P<0.01), except the texture parameters of difference entropy and inverse difference moment(P>0.01). Conclusion: The results indicate that there are obvious changes in morphological levels including vessel structures and liver textures. The study proves that this imaging technique has a potential value in evaluating early hepatocellular carcinoma and cavernous

  4. Some simple rules for contrast, signal-to-noise and resolution in in-line x-ray phase-contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Gureyev, Timur E; Nesterets, Yakov I; Stevenson, Andrew W; Miller, Peter R; Pogany, Andrew; Wilkins, Stephen W

    2008-03-03

    Simple analytical expressions are derived for the spatial resolution, contrast and signal-to-noise in X-ray projection images of a generic phase edge. The obtained expressions take into account the maximum phase shift generated by the sample and the sharpness of the edge, as well as such parameters of the imaging set-up as the wavelength spectrum and the size of the incoherent source, the source-to-object and object-to-detector distances and the detector resolution. Different asymptotic behavior of the expressions in the cases of large and small Fresnel numbers is demonstrated. The analytical expressions are compared with the results of numerical simulations using Kirchhoff diffraction theory, as well as with experimental X-ray measurements.

  5. SU-E-I-90: Characterizing Small Animal Lung Properties Using Speckle Observed with An In-Line X-Ray Phase Contrast Benchtop System

    SciTech Connect

    Garson, A; Gunsten, S; Guan, H; Brody, S; Anastasio, M; Vasireddi, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We demonstrate a novel X-ray phase-contrast (XPC) method for lung imaging representing a paradigm shift in the way small animal functional imaging is performed. In our method, information regarding airway microstructure that is encoded within speckle texture of a single XPC radiograph is decoded to produce 2D parametric images that will spatially resolve changes in lung properties such as microstructure sizes and air volumes. Such information cannot be derived from conventional lung radiography or any other 2D imaging modality. By computing these images at different points within a breathing cycle, dynamic functional imaging will be readily achieved without the need for tomography. Methods: XPC mouse lung radiographs acquired in situ with an in-line X-ray phase contrast benchtop system. The lung air volume is varied and controlled with a small animal ventilator. XPC radiographs will be acquired for various lung air volume levels representing different phases of the respiratory cycle. Similar data will be acquired of microsphere-based lung phantoms containing hollow glass spheres with known distributions of diameters. Image texture analysis is applied to the data to investigate relationships between texture characteristics and airspace/microsphere physical properties. Results: Correlations between Fourier-based texture descriptors (FBTDs) and regional lung air volume indicate that the texture features in 2D radiographs reveal information on 3D properties of the lungs. For example, we find for a 350 × 350 πm2 lung ROI a linear relationship between injected air volume and FBTD value with slope and intercept of 8.9×10{sup 5} and 7.5, respectively. Conclusion: We demonstrate specific image texture measures related to lung speckle features are correlated with physical characteristics of refracting elements (i.e. lung air spaces). Furthermore, we present results indicating the feasibility of implementing the technique with a simple imaging system design, short

  6. Quantitative evaluation of a single-distance phase-retrieval method applied on in-line phase-contrast images of a mouse lung.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Sara; Larsson, Emanuel; Alves, Frauke; Dal Monego, Simeone; Biffi, Stefania; Garrovo, Chiara; Lorenzon, Andrea; Tromba, Giuliana; Dullin, Christian

    2014-07-01

    Propagation-based X-ray phase-contrast computed tomography (PBI) has already proven its potential in a great variety of soft-tissue-related applications including lung imaging. However, the strong edge enhancement, caused by the phase effects, often hampers image segmentation and therefore the quantitative analysis of data sets. Here, the benefits of applying single-distance phase retrieval prior to the three-dimensional reconstruction (PhR) are discussed and quantified compared with three-dimensional reconstructions of conventional PBI data sets in terms of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and preservation of image features. The PhR data sets show more than a tenfold higher CNR and only minor blurring of the edges when compared with PBI in a predominately absorption-based set-up. Accordingly, phase retrieval increases the sensitivity and provides more functionality in computed tomography imaging.

  7. Quantitative evaluation of a single-distance phase-retrieval method applied on in-line phase-contrast images of a mouse lung

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Sara; Larsson, Emanuel; Alves, Frauke; Dal Monego, Simeone; Biffi, Stefania; Garrovo, Chiara; Lorenzon, Andrea; Tromba, Giuliana; Dullin, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Propagation-based X-ray phase-contrast computed tomography (PBI) has already proven its potential in a great variety of soft-tissue-related applications including lung imaging. However, the strong edge enhancement, caused by the phase effects, often hampers image segmentation and therefore the quantitative analysis of data sets. Here, the benefits of applying single-distance phase retrieval prior to the three-dimensional reconstruction (PhR) are discussed and quantified compared with three-dimensional reconstructions of conventional PBI data sets in terms of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and preservation of image features. The PhR data sets show more than a tenfold higher CNR and only minor blurring of the edges when compared with PBI in a predominately absorption-based set-up. Accordingly, phase retrieval increases the sensitivity and provides more functionality in computed tomography imaging. PMID:24971975

  8. Functionalized synchrotron in-line phase-contrast computed tomography: a novel approach for simultaneous quantification of structural alterations and localization of barium-labelled alveolar macrophages within mouse lung samples.

    PubMed

    Dullin, Christian; dal Monego, Simeone; Larsson, Emanuel; Mohammadi, Sara; Krenkel, Martin; Garrovo, Chiara; Biffi, Stefania; Lorenzon, Andrea; Markus, Andrea; Napp, Joanna; Salditt, Tim; Accardo, Agostino; Alves, Frauke; Tromba, Giuliana

    2015-01-01

    Functionalized computed tomography (CT) in combination with labelled cells is virtually non-existent due to the limited sensitivity of X-ray-absorption-based imaging, but would be highly desirable to realise cell tracking studies in entire organisms. In this study we applied in-line free propagation X-ray phase-contrast CT (XPCT) in an allergic asthma mouse model to assess structural changes as well as the biodistribution of barium-labelled macrophages in lung tissue. Alveolar macrophages that were barium-sulfate-loaded and fluorescent-labelled were instilled intratracheally into asthmatic and control mice. Mice were sacrificed after 24 h, lungs were kept in situ, inflated with air and scanned utilizing XPCT at the SYRMEP beamline (Elettra Synchrotron Light Source, Italy). Single-distance phase retrieval was used to generate data sets with ten times greater contrast-to-noise ratio than absorption-based CT (in our setup), thus allowing to depict and quantify structural hallmarks of asthmatic lungs such as reduced air volume, obstruction of airways and increased soft-tissue content. Furthermore, we found a higher concentration as well as a specific accumulation of the barium-labelled macrophages in asthmatic lung tissue. It is believe that XPCT will be beneficial in preclinical asthma research for both the assessment of therapeutic response as well as the analysis of the role of the recruitment of macrophages to inflammatory sites.

  9. Functionalized synchrotron in-line phase-contrast computed tomography: a novel approach for simultaneous quantification of structural alterations and localization of barium-labelled alveolar macrophages within mouse lung samples

    PubMed Central

    Dullin, Christian; dal Monego, Simeone; Larsson, Emanuel; Mohammadi, Sara; Krenkel, Martin; Garrovo, Chiara; Biffi, Stefania; Lorenzon, Andrea; Markus, Andrea; Napp, Joanna; Salditt, Tim; Accardo, Agostino; Alves, Frauke; Tromba, Giuliana

    2015-01-01

    Functionalized computed tomography (CT) in combination with labelled cells is virtually non-existent due to the limited sensitivity of X-ray-absorption-based imaging, but would be highly desirable to realise cell tracking studies in entire organisms. In this study we applied in-line free propagation X-ray phase-contrast CT (XPCT) in an allergic asthma mouse model to assess structural changes as well as the biodistribution of barium-labelled macrophages in lung tissue. Alveolar macrophages that were barium-sulfate-loaded and fluorescent-labelled were instilled intratracheally into asthmatic and control mice. Mice were sacrificed after 24 h, lungs were kept in situ, inflated with air and scanned utilizing XPCT at the SYRMEP beamline (Elettra Synchrotron Light Source, Italy). Single-distance phase retrieval was used to generate data sets with ten times greater contrast-to-noise ratio than absorption-based CT (in our setup), thus allowing to depict and quantify structural hallmarks of asthmatic lungs such as reduced air volume, obstruction of airways and increased soft-tissue content. Furthermore, we found a higher concentration as well as a specific accumulation of the barium-labelled macrophages in asthmatic lung tissue. It is believe that XPCT will be beneficial in preclinical asthma research for both the assessment of therapeutic response as well as the analysis of the role of the recruitment of macrophages to inflammatory sites. PMID:25537601

  10. X-ray phase-contrast methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lider, V. V. Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2013-11-15

    This review is devoted to a comparative description of the methods for forming X-ray phase-contrast images of weakly absorbing (phase) objects. These include the crystal interferometer method, the Talbot interferometer method, diffraction-enhanced X-ray imaging, and the in-line method. The potential of their practical application in various fields of science and technology is discussed. The publications on the development and optimization of X-ray phase-contrast methods and the experimental study of phase objects are analyzed.

  11. Phase contrast imaging of cochlear soft tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shintani Smith, Stephanie; Hwang, Margaret; Rau, Christoph; Fishman, Andrew J.; Lee, Wah-Keat; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2011-03-01

    A noninvasive technique to image soft tissue could expedite diagnosis and disease management in the auditory system. We propose inline phase contrast imaging with hard X-rays as a novel method that overcomes the limitations of conventional absorption radiography for imaging soft tissue. In this study, phase contrast imaging of mouse cochleae was performed at the Argonne National Laboratory Advanced Photon Source. The phase contrast tomographic reconstructions show soft tissue structures of the cochlea, including the inner pillar cells, the inner spiral sulcus, the tectorial membrane, the basilar membrane, and the Reissner's membrane. The results suggest that phase contrast X-ray imaging and tomographic techniques hold promise to noninvasively image cochlear structures at an unprecedented cellular level.

  12. Differential-interference-contrast digital in-line holography microscopy based on a single-optical-element.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuchao; Xie, Changqing

    2015-11-01

    Both digital in-line holography (DIH) and zone plate-based microscopy have received considerable interest as powerful imaging tools. However, the former suffers from a twin-image noise problem. The latter suffers from low efficiency and difficulty in fabrication. Here, we present an effective and efficient phase-contrast imaging approach, named differential-interference-contrast digital in-line holography (DIC-DIH), by using a single optical element to split the incident light into a plane wave and a converging spherical wave and generate a two-dimensional (2D) DIC effect simultaneously. Specifically, to improve image contrast, we present a new single optical element, termed 2D DIC compound photon sieves, by combining two overlaid binary gratings and a compound photon sieve through two logical XOR operations. The proof-of-concept experiments demonstrate that the proposed technique can eliminate the twin-image noise problem and improve image contrast with high efficiency. Additionally, we present an example of the phase-contrast imaging nonuniform thick photoresist development process.

  13. Compressive Phase Contrast Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Maia, Filipe; MacDowell, Alastair; Marchesini, Stefano; Padmore, Howard A.; Parkinson, Dula Y.; Pien, Jack; Schirotzek, Andre; Yang, Chao

    2010-09-01

    When x-rays penetrate soft matter, their phase changes more rapidly than their amplitude. Interference effects visible with high brightness sources creates higher contrast, edge enhanced images. When the object is piecewise smooth (made of big blocks of a few components), such higher contrast datasets have a sparse solution. We apply basis pursuit solvers to improve SNR, remove ring artifacts, reduce the number of views and radiation dose from phase contrast datasets collected at the Hard X-Ray Micro Tomography Beamline at the Advanced Light Source. We report a GPU code for the most computationally intensive task, the gridding and inverse gridding algorithm (non uniform sampled Fourier transform).

  14. Phase-contrast radiography.

    PubMed

    Gao, D; Pogany, A; Stevenson, A W; Wilkins, S W

    1998-01-01

    For the past 100 years, the paradigm for radiography has been premised on absorption as the sole means of contrast formation and on ray optics as the basis for image interpretation. A new conceptual approach to radiography has been developed that includes phase (ie, refractive) contrast and requires wave optics for proper treatment. This new approach greatly increases the amount of information that can be obtained with radiographic techniques and is particularly well suited to the imaging of soft tissue and of very small features in biologic samples. A key feature of the present technique of phase-contrast radiography is the use of a microfocus x-ray source about an order of magnitude (< or = 20 microm) smaller than that used in conventional radiography. Phase-contrast radiography offers a number of improvements over conventional radiography in a clinical setting, especially in soft-tissue imaging. These improvements include increased contrast resulting in improved visualization of anatomic detail, reduced absorbed dose to the patient, inherent image magnification and high spatial resolution, use of harder x rays, and relative ease of implementation. More technologically advanced detectors are currently being developed and commercialized, which will help fully realize the considerable potential of phase-contrast imaging.

  15. Inline SAW RFID tag using time position and phase encoding.

    PubMed

    Härmä, Sanna; Arthur, Wesley G; Hartmann, Clinton S; Maev, Roman G; Plessky, Victor P

    2008-08-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags are encoded according to partial reflections of an interrogation signal by short metal reflectors. The standard encryption method involves time position encoding that uses time delays of response signals. However, the data capacity of a SAW RFID tag can be significantly enhanced by extracting additional phase information from the tag responses. In this work, we have designed, using FEM-BEM simulations, and fabricated, on 128 degrees -LiNbO3, inline 2.44-GHz SAW RFID tag samples that combine time position and phase encoding. Each reflective echo has 4 possible time positions and a phase of 0 degrees , -90 degrees , -180 degrees , or -270 degrees. This corresponds to 16 different states, i.e., 4 bits of data, per code reflector. In addition to the enhanced data capacity, our samples also exhibit a low loss level of -38 dB for code reflections.

  16. Phase Contrast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Menk, Ralf Hendrik

    2008-11-13

    All standard (medical) x-ray imaging technologies, rely primarily on the amplitude properties of the incident radiation, and do not depend on its phase. This is unchanged since the discovery by Roentgen that the intensity of an x-ray beam, as measured by the exposure on a film, was related to the relative transmission properties of an object. However, recently various imaging techniques have emerged which depend on the phase of the x-rays as well as the amplitude. Phase becomes important when the beam is coherent and the imaging system is sensitive to interference phenomena. Significant new advances have been made in coherent optic theory and techniques, which now promise phase information in medical imaging. The development of perfect crystal optics and the increasing availability of synchrotron radiation facilities have contributed to a significant increase in the application of phase based imaging in materials and life sciences. Unique source characteristics such as high intensity, monochromaticity, coherence and high collimating provide an ideal source for advanced imaging. Phase contrast imaging has been applied in both projection and computed tomography modes, and recent applications have been made in the field of medical imaging. Due to the underlying principle of X-ray detection conventional image receptors register only intensities of wave fields and not their phases. During the last decade basically five different methods were developed that translate the phase information into intensity variations. These methods are based on measuring the phase shift {phi} directly (using interference phenomena), the gradient {nabla}{sub {phi}}, or the Laplacian {nabla}{sup 2}{phi}. All three methods can be applied to polychromatic X-ray sources keeping in mind that the native source is synchrotron radiation, featuring monochromatic and reasonable coherent X-ray beams. Due to the vast difference in the coefficients that are driven absorption and phase effects (factor 1

  17. Experimentally enhanced model-based deconvolution of propagation-based phase-contrast data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichotka, M.; Palma, K.; Hasn, S.; Jakubek, J.; Vavrik, D.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years phase-contrast has become a much investigated modality in radiographic imaging. The radiographic setups employed in phase-contrast imaging are typically rather costly and complex, e.g. high performance Talbot-Laue interferometers operated at synchrotron light sources. In-line phase-contrast imaging states the most pedestrian approach towards phase-contrast enhancement. Utilizing small angle deflection within the imaged sample and the entailed interference of the deflected and un-deflected beam during spatial propagation, in-line phase-contrast imaging only requires a well collimated X-ray source with a high contrast & high resolution detector. Employing high magnification the above conditions are intrinsically fulfilled in cone-beam micro-tomography. As opposed of 2D imaging, where contrast enhancement is generally considered beneficial, in tomographic modalities the in-line phase-contrast effect can be quite a nuisance since it renders the inverse problem posed by tomographic reconstruction inconsistent, thus causing reconstruction artifacts. We present an experimentally enhanced model-based approach to disentangle absorption and in-line phase-contrast. The approach employs comparison of transmission data to a system model computed iteratively on-line. By comparison of the forward model to absorption data acquired in continuous rotation strong local deviations of the data residual are successively identified as likely candidates for in-line phase-contrast. By inducing minimal vibrations (few mrad) to the sample around the peaks of such deviations the transmission signal can be decomposed into a constant absorptive fraction and an oscillating signal caused by phase-contrast which again allows to generate separate maps for absorption and phase-contrast. The contributions of phase-contrast and the corresponding artifacts are subsequently removed from the tomographic dataset. In principle, if a 3D handling of the sample is available, this method also

  18. Phase contrast MR angiography techniques.

    PubMed

    Dumoulin, C L

    1995-08-01

    Phase contrast MR methods encode information from macroscopic motion into the phase of the MR signal. Phase contrast methods can be applied with small and large fields-of-view, can give quantitative measures of velocity, and provide excellent suppression of signals from stationary tissue. Unlike time-of-flight methods, phase contrast methods directly measure flow and thus are not hindered by the artifactual appearance of tissue having short T1. Phase contrast angiograms can be two-dimensional (thin slice or projectile), three-dimensional, and/or time resolved and have applications throughout the body.

  19. X-ray Phase Contrast analysis - Digital wavefront development

    SciTech Connect

    Idir, Mourad; Potier, Jonathan; Fricker, Sebastien; Snigirev, Anatoly; Snigireva, Irina; Modi, M. H.

    2010-06-23

    Optical schemes that enable imaging of the phase shift produced by an object have become popular in the x-ray region, where phase can be the dominant contrast mechanism. The propagation-based technique consists of recording the interference pattern produced by choosing one or several sample-to-detector distances. Pioneering studies, carried out making use of synchrotron radiation, demonstrated that this technique results in a dramatic increase of image contrast and detail visibility, allowing the detection of structures invisible with conventional techniques. An experimental and theoretical study of in-line hard x-ray phase-contrast imaging had been performed. The theoretical description of the technique is based on Fresnel diffraction. As an illustration of the potential of this quantitative imaging technique, high-resolution x-ray phase contrast images of simple objects will be presented.

  20. Superresolved common-path phase-shifting digital inline holographic microscopy using a spatial light modulator.

    PubMed

    Micó, Vicente; Zalevsky, Zeev; Garcia, Javier

    2012-12-01

    Common-path phase-shifting lensless holographic microscopy has been recently proposed as a novel approach capable of high numerical aperture imaging in a lensless digital inline holographic microscopy layout [Opt. Lett.35, 3919 (2010)]. Here we present proof-of-concept validation for improving the resolution limit imposed by diffraction in such a setup. This is accomplished by shifting the phase lens displayed at the spatial light modulator, which moves the illumination point source to different off-axis positions. For each off-axis position, a set of inline phase-shifted holograms are recorded by the digital sensor and stored at the computer's memory for later digital postprocessing. As a consequence, each recording allows the recovery of different spatial frequency content of the object's diffracted wavefront meaning a superresolved image of the input object. Experimental results are reported validating the proposed method.

  1. Phase contrast imaging with coherent high energy X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Snigireva, I.

    1997-02-01

    X-ray imaging concern high energy domain (>6 keV) like a contact radiography, projection microscopy and tomography is used for many years to discern the features of the internal structure non destructively in material science, medicine and biology. In so doing the main contrast formation is absorption that makes some limitations for imaging of the light density materials and what is more the resolution of these techniques is not better than 10-100 {mu}m. It was turned out that there is now way in which to overcome 1{mu}m or even sub-{mu}m resolution limit except phase contrast imaging. It is well known in optics that the phase contrast is realised when interference between reference wave front and transmitted through the sample take place. Examples of this imaging are: phase contrast microscopy suggested by Zernike and Gabor (in-line) holography. Both of this techniques: phase contrast x-ray microscopy and holography are successfully progressing now in soft x-ray region. For imaging in the hard X-rays to enhance the contrast and to be able to resolve phase variations across the beam the high degree of the time and more importantly spatial coherence is needed. Because of this it was reasonable that the perfect crystal optics was involved like Bonse-Hart interferometry, double-crystal and even triple-crystal set-up using Laue and Bragg geometry with asymmetrically cut crystals.

  2. Quantitative characterization of edge enhancement in phase contrast x-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Monnin, P; Bulling, S; Hoszowska, J; Valley, J F; Meuli, R; Verdun, F R

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to model the edge enhancement effect in in-line holography phase contrast imaging. A simple analytical approach was used to quantify refraction and interference contrasts in terms of beam energy and imaging geometry. The model was applied to predict the peak intensity and frequency of the edge enhancement for images of cylindrical fibers. The calculations were compared with measurements, and the relationship between the spatial resolution of the detector and the amplitude of the phase contrast signal was investigated. Calculations using the analytical model were in good agreement with experimental results for nylon, aluminum and copper wires of 50 to 240 microm diameter, and with numerical simulations based on Fresnel-Kirchhoff theory. A relationship between the defocusing distance and the pixel size of the image detector was established. This analytical model is a useful tool for optimizing imaging parameters in phase contrast in-line holography, including defocusing distance, detector resolution and beam energy.

  3. Dual-channel in-line digital holographic double random phase encryption.

    PubMed

    Das, Bhargab; Yelleswarapu, Chandra S; Rao, D V G L N

    2012-10-01

    We present a robust encryption method for the encoding of 2D/3D objects using digital holography and virtual optics. Using our recently developed dual-plane in-line digital holography technique, two in-line digital holograms are recorded at two different planes and are encrypted using two different double random phase encryption configurations, independently. The process of using two mutually exclusive encryption channels makes the system more robust against attacks since both the channels should be decrypted accurately in order to get a recognizable reconstruction. Results show that the reconstructed object is unrecognizable even when the portion of the correct phase keys used during decryption is close to 75%. The system is verified against blind decryptions by evaluating the SNR and MSE. Validation of the proposed method and sensitivities of the associated parameters are quantitatively analyzed and illustrated.

  4. Phase shifting technique for extended inline holographic microscopy with a pinhole array.

    PubMed

    Graulig, Christian; Kanka, Mario; Riesenberg, Rainer

    2012-09-24

    Digital inline holographic microscopy using a pinhole for sample illumination allows lensless imaging. To overcome restrictions of the sample size and density in the setup additional reference waves are generated by extending the single pinhole to a regular 2D pinhole array illumination. A technique is presented that uses phase shifting between the pinhole waves. Multiple foci with stable phase differences and a phase error (rms) of 0.027 rad generate pinhole waves which illuminate an undiluted, dense blood smear sample. Amplitude and phase images of the blood sample were successfully reconstructed.

  5. In-line retro-reflective polarizing contrast scope for translucent objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun

    2012-11-01

    We propose a very-low-cost fixed interferential polarizing phase contrast scope suitable for the study of translucent objects. Our key design approach is relied on the arrangement of a circular polarizer sheet, a mirror, and a digital camera in a retro-reflective optical structure. The linear polarizer embedded in the circular polarizer sheet acts as both a polarization beam splitter and a polarization beam combiner. Meanwhile the quarter waveplate inside the circular polarizer sheet functions as a fixed phase plate but without narrowing the field of view of the digital camera. The retroreflective configuration amplifies the phase difference between the two orthogonal polarized optical beams twice, thus automatically creating an initial dark background. Experimental demonstration using an off-the-shelf digital microscope with built-in white light emitting diodes and a specified 400x maximum magnification, a circular polarizer sheet, and a mirror shows that onion cells and Steinernema Thailandense nematodes can be clearly observed with striking color, high contrast, and three-dimensional appearance.

  6. Contrast and resolution in direct Fresnel diffraction phase-contrast imaging with partially coherent x-ray source

    SciTech Connect

    Han Shensheng; Yu Hong; Cheng Jing; Gao Chen; Luo Zhenlin

    2004-10-01

    A general treatment of x-ray image formation by direct Fresnel diffraction with partially coherent hard x rays is presented. Contrast and resolution are the criteria used to specify the visibility of an image, which depend primarily on the spatial coherence of the illumination and the distance from object to the image, with chromatic coherence of lesser importance. The dependence of the quality of phase-contrast images on the parameters of in-line imaging configuration is described quantitatively. The influence of spatial coherence of hard x-ray source on the imaging quality is also discussed based on the partially coherent direct Fresnel diffraction phase-contrast imaging theory. Experimental results are also presented for phase-contrast x-ray images with partially coherent hard x rays.

  7. Refraction-Contrast Articular Cartilage Image: Comparison of Depiction Abilities between In-Line Holographic Method and a Laue Type Analyzer Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimao, Daisuke; Mori, Koichi; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Hyodo, Kazuyuki

    2005-01-01

    Two kinds of refraction-contrast image, one obtained using the in-line holographic method and the other obtained using an analyzer crystal in the Laue geometry, from a specimen of a human articular cartilage were investigated using synchrotron X-rays at 30 keV. The former image was superior in spatial resolution and the latter image was superior in contrast regarding the delineation of the articular cartilage, which is invisible by the absorption contrast.

  8. A general theoretical formalism for X-ray phase contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2003-01-01

    The in-line phase-contrast imaging has great potential for clinical imaging applications. This work presents a general theoretical formalism for the in-line phase-contrast imaging. The theoretical formalism developed in this work is derived by taking a new strategy to calculate the Fourier transform of image intensity directly. Different from the transport of intensity equation (TIE) formalism for phase-contrast imaging in literature [6], this general formalism covers both the near field regime and the holography regime of phase-contrast imaging. The image intensity formulas have been derived in both the image space and frequency space. Especially our results show that the Fresnel diffraction image intensity is a sum of convolutions of the cosine- and sine-Fresnel filters with the object attenuation A20(x) and attenuated phase A20(x)φ(x), respectively. The Pogany-Gao-Wilkins (PGW) formalism is recovered as a special case of our general formalism. In addition, in the low-resolution approximation, the general formula is reduced a spherical wave-generalization of the TIE-based formula for phase-contrast imaging. This spherical wave-generalization will be useful for phase-contrast imaging with a micro-focus x-ray tube. The transition of the formalism from 1-D to 2-D cases has been provided as well.

  9. Motion compensation and noise tolerance in phase-shifting digital in-line holography.

    PubMed

    Stenner, Michael D; Neifeld, Mark A

    2006-05-15

    We present a technique for phase-shifting digital in-line holography which compensates for lateral object motion. By collecting two frames of interference between object and reference fields with identical reference phase, one can estimate the lateral motion that occurred between frames using the cross-correlation. We also describe a very general linear framework for phase-shifting holographic reconstruction which minimizes additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) for an arbitrary set of reference field amplitudes and phases. We analyze the technique's sensitivity to noise (AWGN, quantization, and shot), errors in the reference fields, errors in motion estimation, resolution, and depth of field. We also present experimental motion-compensated images achieving the expected resolution.

  10. In-line phase retarder and polarimeter for conversion of linear to circular polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Kortright, J.B.; Smith, N.V.; Denlinger, J.D.

    1997-04-01

    An in-line polarimeter including phase retarder and linear polarizer was designed and commissioned on undulator beamline 7.0 for the purpose of converting linear to circular polarization for experiments downstream. In commissioning studies, Mo/Si multilayers at 95 eV were used both as the upstream, freestanding phase retarder and the downstream linear polarized. The polarization properties of the phase retarder were characterized by direct polarimetry and by collecting MCD spectra in photoemission from Gd and other magnetic surfaces. The resonant birefringence of transmission multilayers results from differing distributions of s- and p-component wave fields in the multilayer when operating near a structural (Bragg) interference condition. The resulting phase retardation is especially strong when the interference is at or near the Brewster angle, which is roughly 45{degrees} in the EUV and soft x-ray ranges.

  11. Terahertz in-line digital holography of dragonfly hindwing: amplitude and phase reconstruction at enhanced resolution by extrapolation.

    PubMed

    Rong, Lu; Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Wang, Dayong; Zhou, Xun; Huang, Haochong; Li, Zeyu; Wang, Yunxin

    2014-07-14

    We report here on terahertz (THz) digital holography on a biological specimen. A continuous-wave (CW) THz in-line holographic setup was built based on a 2.52 THz CO(2) pumped THz laser and a pyroelectric array detector. We introduced novel statistical method of obtaining true intensity values for the pyroelectric array detector's pixels. Absorption and phase-shifting images of a dragonfly's hindwing were reconstructed simultaneously from single in-line hologram. Furthermore, we applied phase retrieval routines to eliminate twin image and enhanced the resolution of the reconstructions by hologram extrapolation beyond the detector area. The finest observed features are 35 μm width cross veins.

  12. X-ray phase-contrast imaging: transmission functions separable in Cartesian coordinates.

    PubMed

    Cao, Guohua; Hamilton, Theron J; Rose-Petruck, Christoph; Diebold, Gerald J

    2007-04-01

    In-line, x-ray phase-contrast imaging is responsive to both phase changes and absorption as the x radiation traverses a body. Expressions are derived for phase-contrast imaging of objects having transmission functions separable in Cartesian coordinates. Starting from the Fresnel-Kirchhoff integral formula for image formation, an expression is found for the phase-contrast image produced by an x-ray source with nonvanishing dimensions. This expression is evaluated in limiting cases where the source-to-object distance is large, where the source acts as a point source, and where the weak phase approximation is valid. The integral expression for the image is evaluated for objects with simple geometrical shapes, showing the influence of the source dimensions on the visibility of phase-contrast features. The expressions derived here are evaluated for cases where the magnification is substantially greater than one as would be employed in biological imaging. Experiments are reported using the in-line phase-contrast imaging method with a microfocus x-ray source and a CCD camera.

  13. Morphological analysis of GeTe in inline phase change switches

    SciTech Connect

    King, Matthew R.; El-Hinnawy, Nabil; Salmon, Mike; Gu, Jitty; Wagner, Brian P.; Jones, Evan B.; Howell, Robert S.; Nichols, Doyle T.; Young, Robert M.; Borodulin, Pavel

    2015-09-07

    Crystallization and amorphization phenomena in indirectly heated phase change material-based devices were investigated. Scanning transmission electron microscopy was utilized to explore GeTe phase transition processes in the context of the unique inline phase change switch (IPCS) architecture. A monolithically integrated thin film heating element successfully converted GeTe to ON and OFF states. Device cycling prompted the formation of an active area which sustains the majority of structural changes during pulsing. A transition region on both sides of the active area consisting of polycrystalline GeTe and small nuclei (<15 nm) in an amorphous matrix was also observed. The switching mechanism, determined by variations in pulsing parameters, was shown to be predominantly growth-driven. A preliminary model for crystallization and amorphization in IPCS devices is presented.

  14. Morphological analysis of GeTe in inline phase change switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Matthew R.; El-Hinnawy, Nabil; Salmon, Mike; Gu, Jitty; Wagner, Brian P.; Jones, Evan B.; Borodulin, Pavel; Howell, Robert S.; Nichols, Doyle T.; Young, Robert M.

    2015-09-01

    Crystallization and amorphization phenomena in indirectly heated phase change material-based devices were investigated. Scanning transmission electron microscopy was utilized to explore GeTe phase transition processes in the context of the unique inline phase change switch (IPCS) architecture. A monolithically integrated thin film heating element successfully converted GeTe to ON and OFF states. Device cycling prompted the formation of an active area which sustains the majority of structural changes during pulsing. A transition region on both sides of the active area consisting of polycrystalline GeTe and small nuclei (<15 nm) in an amorphous matrix was also observed. The switching mechanism, determined by variations in pulsing parameters, was shown to be predominantly growth-driven. A preliminary model for crystallization and amorphization in IPCS devices is presented.

  15. Helical X-ray phase-contrast computed tomography without phase stepping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschner, M.; Willner, M.; Potdevin, G.; Fehringer, A.; Noël, P. B.; Pfeiffer, F.; Herzen, J.

    2016-04-01

    X-ray phase-contrast computed tomography (PCCT) using grating interferometry provides enhanced soft-tissue contrast. The possibility to use standard polychromatic laboratory sources enables an implementation into a clinical setting. Thus, PCCT has gained significant attention in recent years. However, phase-contrast CT scans still require significantly increased measurement times in comparison to conventional attenuation-based CT imaging. This is mainly due to a time-consuming stepping of a grating, which is necessary for an accurate retrieval of the phase information. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel scan technique, which directly allows the determination of the phase signal without a phase-stepping procedure. The presented work is based on moiré fringe scanning, which allows fast data acquisition in radiographic applications such as mammography or in-line product analysis. Here, we demonstrate its extension to tomography enabling a continuous helical sample rotation as routinely performed in clinical CT systems. Compared to standard phase-stepping techniques, the proposed helical fringe-scanning procedure enables faster measurements, an extended field of view and relaxes the stability requirements of the system, since the gratings remain stationary. Finally, our approach exceeds previously introduced methods by not relying on spatial interpolation to acquire the phase-contrast signal.

  16. Digital in-line holography on amplitude and phase objects prepared with electron beam lithography.

    PubMed

    Schwenke, J; Lorek, E; Rakowski, R; He, X; Kvennefors, A; Mikkelsen, A; Rudawski, P; Heyl, C M; Maximov, I; Pettersson, S-G; Persson, A; L'Huillier, A

    2012-08-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of amplitude and phase samples consisting of well defined Au or Al features formed on ultrathin silicon nitride membranes. The samples were manufactured using electron beam lithography, metallization and a lift-off technique, which allow precise lateral control and thickness of the metal features. The fabricated specimens were evaluated by conventional microscopy, atomic force microscopy and with the digital in-line holography set-up at the Lund Laser Centre. The latter uses high-order harmonic generation as a light source, and is capable of recovering both the shape and phase shifting properties of the samples. We report on the details of the sample production and on the imaging tests with the holography set-up.

  17. High Resolution X-Ray Phase Contrast Imaging with Acoustic Tissue-Selective Contrast Enhancement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Contrast and resolution in imaging with microfocus x - ray source. Rev. Sci. Instr. 68, 2774 (1997). 8. Krol, A. et al. Laser-based microfocused x - ray ...water jet of carbon suspension and imaged using a microfocus x - ray source coupled in-line with a synchronously gated intensified optically coupled...

  18. Phase-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Minoda, Hiroki; Tamai, Takayuki; Iijima, Hirofumi; Hosokawa, Fumio; Kondo, Yukihito

    2015-06-01

    This report introduces the first results obtained using phase-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy (P-STEM). A carbon-film phase plate (PP) with a small center hole is placed in the condenser aperture plane so that a phase shift is introduced in the incident electron waves except those passing through the center hole. A cosine-type phase-contrast transfer function emerges when the phase-shifted scattered waves interfere with the non-phase-shifted unscattered waves, which passed through the center hole before incidence onto the specimen. The phase contrast resulting in P-STEM is optically identical to that in phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy that is used to provide high contrast for weak phase objects. Therefore, the use of PPs can enhance the phase contrast of the STEM images of specimens in principle. The phase shift resulting from the PP, whose thickness corresponds to a phase shift of π, has been confirmed using interference fringes displayed in the Ronchigram of a silicon single crystal specimen. The interference fringes were found to abruptly shift at the edge of the PP hole by π.

  19. Dissolved oxygen determination by electrocatalysed chemiluminescence with in-line solid phase media.

    PubMed

    Atwater, J E; DeHart, J; Wheeler, R R

    1998-01-01

    Dissolved elemental oxygen is determined in a flowing aqueous stream using glucose oxidase to catalyse the reaction between D-glucose and O2 to produce hydrogen peroxide. The levels of the resulting H2O2 are detected and quantified by luminol chemiluminescence using in-line solid phase media for pH adjustment of the reagent stream and for controlled release of the luminophore. The reaction is initiated by electrochemical catalysis. By the use of excess D-glucose in the reagent flow stream, the intensity of chemiluminescence is rendered proportional only to fluctuations in the dissolved O2 concentration. The methodology provides a means for the detection of aqueous O2 in the range 0-10 mg/L.

  20. Optimization of phase contrast imaging using hard x rays

    SciTech Connect

    Zabler, S.; Cloetens, P.; Guigay, J.-P.; Baruchel, J.; Schlenker, M.

    2005-07-15

    X ray radiography and tomography are important tools in medicine as well as in life science and materials science. Not long ago an approach called in-line holography based on simple propagation became possible using partially coherent synchrotron beams like the ones available at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). Theoretical and experimental work by Cloetens et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett 75, 2912 (1999)] have shown that quantitative retrieval of the optical phase, from a set of radiographs taken at different sample-to-detector distances, is feasible. Mathematically speaking we are dealing with a direct method based on linearization in order to solve an inverse nonlinear problem. The phase retrieval can be combined with classical tomography in order to obtain a three-dimensional representation of the object's electron density (holotomography). In order to optimize the image contrast for the numerical phase retrieval process, we have carried out calculations resulting in an optimized choice of value and number of the sample-to-detector distances as well as of the photon energy. These results were then confirmed by experiments on the ESRF long beamline ID19.

  1. X-ray elastography: Modification of x-ray phase contrast images using ultrasonic radiation pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Theron J.; Bailat, Claude; Rose-Petruck, Christoph; Diebold, Gerald J.; Gehring, Stephan; Laperle, Christopher M.; Wands, Jack

    2009-05-15

    The high resolution characteristic of in-line x-ray phase contrast imaging can be used in conjunction with directed ultrasound to detect small displacements in soft tissue generated by differential acoustic radiation pressure. The imaging method is based on subtraction of two x-ray images, the first image taken with, and the second taken without the presence of ultrasound. The subtraction enhances phase contrast features and, to a large extent, removes absorption contrast so that differential movement of tissues with different acoustic impedances or relative ultrasonic absorption is highlighted in the image. Interfacial features of objects with differing densities are delineated in the image as a result of both the displacement introduced by the ultrasound and the inherent sensitivity of x-ray phase contrast imaging to density variations. Experiments with ex vivo murine tumors and human tumor phantoms point out a diagnostic capability of the method for identifying tumors.

  2. Clinical implementation of x-ray phase-contrast imaging: theoretical foundations and design considerations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2003-08-01

    Theoretical foundation and design considerations of a clinical feasible x-ray phase contrast imaging technique were presented in this paper. Different from the analysis of imaging phase object with weak absorption in literature, we proposed a new formalism for in-line phase-contrast imaging to analyze the effects of four clinically important factors on the phase contrast. These are the body parts attenuation, the spatial coherence of spherical waves from a finite-size focal spot, and polychromatic x-ray and radiation doses to patients for clinical applications. The theory presented in this paper can be applied widely in diagnostic x-ray imaging procedures. As an example, computer simulations were conducted and optimal design parameters were derived for clinical mammography. The results of phantom experiments were also presented which validated the theoretical analysis and computer simulations.

  3. Comparative analysis of autofocus functions in digital in-line phase-shifting holography.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Elsa S R; Fiadeiro, Paulo T; Pereira, Manuela; Pinheiro, António

    2016-09-20

    Numerical reconstruction of digital holograms relies on a precise knowledge of the original object position. However, there are a number of relevant applications where this parameter is not known in advance and an efficient autofocusing method is required. This paper addresses the problem of finding optimal focusing methods for use in reconstruction of digital holograms of macroscopic amplitude and phase objects, using digital in-line phase-shifting holography in transmission mode. Fifteen autofocus measures, including spatial-, spectral-, and sparsity-based methods, were evaluated for both synthetic and experimental holograms. The Fresnel transform and the angular spectrum reconstruction methods were compared. Evaluation criteria included unimodality, accuracy, resolution, and computational cost. Autofocusing under angular spectrum propagation tends to perform better with respect to accuracy and unimodality criteria. Phase objects are, generally, more difficult to focus than amplitude objects. The normalized variance, the standard correlation, and the Tenenbaum gradient are the most reliable spatial-based metrics, combining computational efficiency with good accuracy and resolution. A good trade-off between focus performance and computational cost was found for the Fresnelet sparsity method.

  4. In-line phase-sensitive amplification of QPSK signal using multiple quasi-phase matched LiNbO₃ waveguide.

    PubMed

    Asobe, Masaki; Umeki, Takeshi; Takenouchi, Hirokazu; Miyamoto, Yutaka

    2014-11-03

    Phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSA) using periodically poled (PPLN) LiNbO₃ waveguides are promising as low-noise optical amplifiers. However, it is difficult to realize in-line operation for multi-level phase modulated signals using a PPLN based PSA with the conventional configuration. In this paper, we report a PPLN based in-line PSA that can regenerate quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) signals. Multi-stage frequency mixing in a multiple quasi-phase matched LiNbO₃waveguide allows carrier phase recovery from a QPSK signal. Non-degenerate parametric amplification enables the phase-sensitive amplification of a QPSK signal. Amplitude and phase regeneration is examined utilizing gain saturation and phase squeezing capability.

  5. Phased Contrast X-Ray Imaging

    ScienceCinema

    Erin Miller

    2016-07-12

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing a range of technologies to broaden the field of explosives detection. Phased contrast X-ray imaging, which uses silicon gratings to detect distortions in the X-ray wave front, may be applicable to mail or luggage scanning for explosives; it can also be used in detecting other contraband, small-parts inspection, or materials characterization.

  6. X-ray phase-contrast imaging with an Inverse Compton Scattering source

    SciTech Connect

    Endrizzi, M.; Carpinelli, M.; Oliva, P.; Golosio, B.; Delogu, P.; Stefanini, A.; Gureyev, T. E.; Bottigli, U.

    2010-07-23

    Single-shot in-line phase-contrast imaging with the Inverse Compton Scattering X-ray source available at ATF (Accelerator Test Facility) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is experimentally demonstrated. Phase-contrast images of polymer wires are obtained with a single X-ray pulse whose time length is about 1 picosecond. The edge-enhancement effect is clearly visible in the images and simulations show a quantitative agreement with experimental data. A phase-retrieval step in the image processing leads to a accurate estimation of the projected thickness of our samples. Finally, a single-shot image of a wasp is presented as an example of a biological sample.

  7. Reconstruction methods for phase-contrast tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Raven, C.

    1997-02-01

    Phase contrast imaging with coherent x-rays can be distinguished in outline imaging and holography, depending on the wavelength {lambda}, the object size d and the object-to-detector distance r. When r << d{sup 2}{lambda}, phase contrast occurs only in regions where the refractive index fastly changes, i.e. at interfaces and edges in the sample. With increasing object-to-detector distance we come in the area of holographic imaging. The image contrast outside the shadow region of the object is due to interference of the direct, undiffracted beam and a beam diffracted by the object, or, in terms of holography, the interference of a reference wave with the object wave. Both, outline imaging and holography, offer the possibility to obtain three dimensional information of the sample in conjunction with a tomographic technique. But the data treatment and the kind of information one can obtain from the reconstruction is different.

  8. Phase contrast portal imaging using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umetani, K.; Kondoh, T.

    2014-07-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy is an experimental form of radiation treatment with great potential to improve the treatment of many types of cancer. We applied a synchrotron radiation phase contrast technique to portal imaging to improve targeting accuracy for microbeam radiation therapy in experiments using small animals. An X-ray imaging detector was installed 6.0 m downstream from an object to produce a high-contrast edge enhancement effect in propagation-based phase contrast imaging. Images of a mouse head sample were obtained using therapeutic white synchrotron radiation with a mean beam energy of 130 keV. Compared to conventional portal images, remarkably clear images of bones surrounding the cerebrum were acquired in an air environment for positioning brain lesions with respect to the skull structure without confusion with overlapping surface structures.

  9. Phase contrast portal imaging using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Umetani, K.; Kondoh, T.

    2014-07-15

    Microbeam radiation therapy is an experimental form of radiation treatment with great potential to improve the treatment of many types of cancer. We applied a synchrotron radiation phase contrast technique to portal imaging to improve targeting accuracy for microbeam radiation therapy in experiments using small animals. An X-ray imaging detector was installed 6.0 m downstream from an object to produce a high-contrast edge enhancement effect in propagation-based phase contrast imaging. Images of a mouse head sample were obtained using therapeutic white synchrotron radiation with a mean beam energy of 130 keV. Compared to conventional portal images, remarkably clear images of bones surrounding the cerebrum were acquired in an air environment for positioning brain lesions with respect to the skull structure without confusion with overlapping surface structures.

  10. Phase contrast in high resolution electron microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Rose, H.H.

    1975-09-23

    This patent relates to a device for developing a phase contrast signal for a scanning transmission electron microscope. The lens system of the microscope is operated in a condition of defocus so that predictable alternate concentric regions of high and low electron density exist in the cone of illumination. Two phase detectors are placed beneath the object inside the cone of illumination, with the first detector having the form of a zone plate, each of its rings covering alternate regions of either higher or lower electron density. The second detector is so configured that it covers the regions of electron density not covered by the first detector. Each detector measures the number of electrons incident thereon and the signal developed by the first detector is subtracted from the signal developed by the record detector to provide a phase contrast signal. (auth)

  11. Low Dose High Energy X-ray In-Line Phase Sensitive Imaging Prototype: Investigation of Optimal Geometric Conditions and Design Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Ghani, Muhammad. U.; Yan, Aimin; Wong, Molly. D.; Li, Yuhua; Ren, Liqiang; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the optimization of a high energy in-line phase sensitive x-ray imaging prototype under different geometric and operating conditions for mammography application. A phase retrieval algorithm based on phase attenuation duality (PAD) was applied to the phase contrast images acquired by the prototype. Imaging performance was investigated at four magnification values of 1.67, 2, 2.5 and 3 using an acrylic edge, an American College of Radiology (ACR) mammography phantom and contrast detail (CD) phantom with tube potentials of 100, 120 and 140 kVp. The ACR and CD images were acquired at the same mean glandular dose (MGD) of 1.29 mGy with a computed radiography (CR) detector of 43.75 µm pixel pitch at a fixed source to image distance (SID) of 170 cm. The x-ray tube focal spot size was kept constant as 7 µm while a 2.5 mm thick aluminum (Al) filter was used for beam hardening. The performance of phase contrast and phase retrieved images were compared with computer simulations based on the relative phase contrast factor (RPF) at high x-ray energies. The imaging results showed that the x-ray tube operated at 100 kVp under the magnification of 2.5 exhibits superior imaging performance which is in accordance to the computer simulations. As compared to the phase contrast images, the phase retrieved images of the ACR and CD phantoms demonstrated improved imaging contrast and target discrimination. We compared the CD phantom images acquired in conventional contact mode with and without the anti-scatter grid using the same prototype at 1.295 mGy and 2.59 mGy using 40 kVp, a 25 µm rhodium (Rh) filter. At the same radiation dose, the phase sensitive images provided improved detection capabilities for both the large and small discs, while compared to the double dose image acquired in conventional mode, the observer study also indicated that the phase sensitive images provided improved detection capabilities for the large discs. This

  12. Low dose high energy x-ray in-line phase sensitive imaging prototype: Investigation of optimal geometric conditions and design parameters.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Muhammad U; Yan, Aimin; Wong, Molly D; Li, Yuhua; Ren, Liqiang; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the optimization of a high energy in-line phase sensitive x-ray imaging prototype under different geometric and operating conditions for mammography application. A phase retrieval algorithm based on phase attenuation duality (PAD) was applied to the phase contrast images acquired by the prototype. Imaging performance was investigated at four magnification values of 1.67, 2, 2.5 and 3 using an acrylic edge, an American College of Radiology (ACR) mammography phantom and contrast detail (CD) phantom with tube potentials of 100, 120 and 140 kVp. The ACR and CD images were acquired at the same mean glandular dose (MGD) of 1.29 mGy with a computed radiography (CR) detector of 43.75 μm pixel pitch at a fixed source to image distance (SID) of 170 cm. The x-ray tube focal spot size was kept constant as 7 μm while a 2.5 mm thick aluminum (Al) filter was used for beam hardening. The performance of phase contrast and phase retrieved images were compared with computer simulations based on the relative phase contrast factor (RPF) at high x-ray energies. The imaging results showed that the x-ray tube operated at 100 kVp under the magnification of 2.5 exhibits superior imaging performance which is in accordance to the computer simulations. As compared to the phase contrast images, the phase retrieved images of the ACR and CD phantoms demonstrated improved imaging contrast and target discrimination. We compared the CD phantom images acquired in conventional contact mode with and without the anti-scatter grid using the same prototype at 1.295 mGy and 2.59 mGy using 40 kVp, a 25 μm rhodium (Rh) filter. At the same radiation dose, the phase sensitive images provided improved detection capabilities for both the large and small discs, while compared to the double dose image acquired in conventional mode, the observer study also indicated that the phase sensitive images provided improved detection capabilities for the large discs. This

  13. Quantitative phase-contrast confocal microscope

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changgeng; Marchesini, Stefano; Kim, Myung K.

    2014-01-01

    We present a quantitative phase-contrast confocal microscope (QPCCM) by combining a line-scanning confocal system with digital holography (DH). This combination can merge the merits of these two different imaging modalities. High-contrast intensity images with low coherent noise, and the optical sectioning capability are made available due to the confocality. Phase profiles of the samples become accessible thanks to DH. QPCCM is able to quantitatively measure the phase variations of optical sections of the opaque samples and has the potential to take high-quality intensity and phase images of non-opaque samples such as many biological samples. Because each line scan is recorded by a hologram that may contain the optical aberrations of the system, it opens avenues for a variety of numerical aberration compensation methods and development of full digital adaptive optics confocal system to emulate current hardware-based adaptive optics system for biomedical imaging, especially ophthalmic imaging. Preliminary experiments with a microscope objective of NA 0.65 and 40 × on opaque samples are presented to demonstrate this idea. The measured lateral and axial resolutions of the intensity images from the current system are ~0.64μm and ~2.70μm respectively. The noise level of the phase profile by QPCCM is ~2.4nm which is better than the result by DH. PMID:25089404

  14. 3D differential phase contrast microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Michael; Tian, Lei; Waller, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate 3D phase and absorption recovery from partially coherent intensity images captured with a programmable LED array source. Images are captured through-focus with four different illumination patterns. Using first Born and weak object approximations (WOA), a linear 3D differential phase contrast (DPC) model is derived. The partially coherent transfer functions relate the sample’s complex refractive index distribution to intensity measurements at varying defocus. Volumetric reconstruction is achieved by a global FFT-based method, without an intermediate 2D phase retrieval step. Because the illumination is spatially partially coherent, the transverse resolution of the reconstructed field achieves twice the NA of coherent systems and improved axial resolution. PMID:27867705

  15. 3D differential phase contrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Michael; Tian, Lei; Waller, Laura

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) optical phase and amplitude reconstruction based on coded source illumination using a programmable LED array. Multiple stacks of images along the optical axis are computed from recorded intensities captured by multiple images under off-axis illumination. Based on the first Born approximation, a linear differential phase contrast (DPC) model is built between 3D complex index of refraction and the intensity stacks. Therefore, 3D volume reconstruction can be achieved via a fast inversion method, without the intermediate 2D phase retrieval step. Our system employs spatially partially coherent illumination, so the transverse resolution achieves twice the NA of coherent systems, while axial resolution is also improved 2× as compared to holographic imaging.

  16. Phase Contrast Wavefront Sensing for Adaptive Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloemhof, E. E.; Wallace, J. K.; Bloemhof, E. E.

    2004-01-01

    Most ground-based adaptive optics systems use one of a small number of wavefront sensor technologies, notably (for relatively high-order systems) the Shack-Hartmann sensor, which provides local measurements of the phase slope (first-derivative) at a number of regularly-spaced points across the telescope pupil. The curvature sensor, with response proportional to the second derivative of the phase, is also sometimes used, but has undesirable noise propagation properties during wavefront reconstruction as the number of actuators becomes large. It is interesting to consider the use for astronomical adaptive optics of the "phase contrast" technique, originally developed for microscopy by Zemike to allow convenient viewing of phase objects. In this technique, the wavefront sensor provides a direct measurement of the local value of phase in each sub-aperture of the pupil. This approach has some obvious disadvantages compared to Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing, but has some less obvious but substantial advantages as well. Here we evaluate the relative merits in a practical ground-based adaptive optics system.

  17. Halo-free Phase Contrast Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tan H; Kandel, Mikhail; Shakir, Haadi M; Best-Popescu, Catherine; Arikkath, Jyothi; Do, Minh N; Popescu, Gabriel

    2017-03-24

    We present a new approach for retrieving halo-free phase contrast microscopy (hfPC) images by upgrading the conventional PC microscope with an external interferometric module, which generates sufficient data for reversing the halo artifact. Acquiring four independent intensity images, our approach first measures haloed phase maps of the sample. We solve for the halo-free sample transmission function by using a physical model of the image formation under partial spatial coherence. Using this halo-free sample transmission, we can numerically generate artifact-free PC images. Furthermore, this transmission can be further used to obtain quantitative information about the sample, e.g., the thickness with known refractive indices, dry mass of live cells during their cycles. We tested our hfPC method on various control samples, e.g., beads, pillars and validated its potential for biological investigation by imaging live HeLa cells, red blood cells, and neurons.

  18. Halo-free Phase Contrast Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Tan H.; Kandel, Mikhail; Shakir, Haadi M.; Best-Popescu, Catherine; Arikkath, Jyothi; Do, Minh N.; Popescu, Gabriel

    2017-03-01

    We present a new approach for retrieving halo-free phase contrast microscopy (hfPC) images by upgrading the conventional PC microscope with an external interferometric module, which generates sufficient data for reversing the halo artifact. Acquiring four independent intensity images, our approach first measures haloed phase maps of the sample. We solve for the halo-free sample transmission function by using a physical model of the image formation under partial spatial coherence. Using this halo-free sample transmission, we can numerically generate artifact-free PC images. Furthermore, this transmission can be further used to obtain quantitative information about the sample, e.g., the thickness with known refractive indices, dry mass of live cells during their cycles. We tested our hfPC method on various control samples, e.g., beads, pillars and validated its potential for biological investigation by imaging live HeLa cells, red blood cells, and neurons.

  19. Halo-free Phase Contrast Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tan H.; Kandel, Mikhail; Shakir, Haadi M.; Best-Popescu, Catherine; Arikkath, Jyothi; Do, Minh N.; Popescu, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    We present a new approach for retrieving halo-free phase contrast microscopy (hfPC) images by upgrading the conventional PC microscope with an external interferometric module, which generates sufficient data for reversing the halo artifact. Acquiring four independent intensity images, our approach first measures haloed phase maps of the sample. We solve for the halo-free sample transmission function by using a physical model of the image formation under partial spatial coherence. Using this halo-free sample transmission, we can numerically generate artifact-free PC images. Furthermore, this transmission can be further used to obtain quantitative information about the sample, e.g., the thickness with known refractive indices, dry mass of live cells during their cycles. We tested our hfPC method on various control samples, e.g., beads, pillars and validated its potential for biological investigation by imaging live HeLa cells, red blood cells, and neurons. PMID:28338086

  20. Phase-contrast computed tomography for quantification of structural changes in lungs of asthma mouse models of different severity.

    PubMed

    Dullin, Christian; Larsson, Emanuel; Tromba, Giuliana; Markus, Andrea M; Alves, Frauke

    2015-07-01

    Lung imaging in mouse disease models is crucial for the assessment of the severity of airway disease but remains challenging due to the small size and the high porosity of the organ. Synchrotron inline free-propagation phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) with its intrinsic high soft-tissue contrast provides the necessary sensitivity and spatial resolution to analyse the mouse lung structure in great detail. Here, this technique has been applied in combination with single-distance phase retrieval to quantify alterations of the lung structure in experimental asthma mouse models of different severity. In order to mimic an in vivo situation as close as possible, the lungs were inflated with air at a constant physiological pressure. Entire mice were embedded in agarose gel and imaged using inline free-propagation phase-contrast CT at the SYRMEP beamline (Synchrotron Light Source, `Elettra', Trieste, Italy). The quantification of the obtained phase-contrast CT data sets revealed an increasing lung soft-tissue content in mice correlating with the degree of the severity of experimental allergic airways disease. In this way, it was possible to successfully discriminate between healthy controls and mice with either mild or severe allergic airway disease. It is believed that this approach may have the potential to evaluate the efficacy of novel therapeutic strategies that target airway remodelling processes in asthma.

  1. Phase-contrast computed tomography for quantification of structural changes in lungs of asthma mouse models of different severity

    PubMed Central

    Dullin, Christian; Larsson, Emanuel; Tromba, Giuliana; Markus, Andrea M.; Alves, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    Lung imaging in mouse disease models is crucial for the assessment of the severity of airway disease but remains challenging due to the small size and the high porosity of the organ. Synchrotron inline free-propagation phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) with its intrinsic high soft-tissue contrast provides the necessary sensitivity and spatial resolution to analyse the mouse lung structure in great detail. Here, this technique has been applied in combination with single-distance phase retrieval to quantify alterations of the lung structure in experimental asthma mouse models of different severity. In order to mimic an in vivo situation as close as possible, the lungs were inflated with air at a constant physiological pressure. Entire mice were embedded in agarose gel and imaged using inline free-propagation phase-contrast CT at the SYRMEP beamline (Synchrotron Light Source, ‘Elettra’, Trieste, Italy). The quantification of the obtained phase-contrast CT data sets revealed an increasing lung soft-tissue content in mice correlating with the degree of the severity of experimental allergic airways disease. In this way, it was possible to successfully discriminate between healthy controls and mice with either mild or severe allergic airway disease. It is believed that this approach may have the potential to evaluate the efficacy of novel therapeutic strategies that target airway remodelling processes in asthma. PMID:26134818

  2. Hybridization approach to in-line and off-axis (electron) holography for superior resolution and phase sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Ozsoy-Keskinbora, C.; Boothroyd, C. B.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.; van Aken, P. A.; Koch, C. T.

    2014-01-01

    Holography - originally developed for correcting spherical aberration in transmission electron microscopes - is now used in a wide range of disciplines that involve the propagation of waves, including light optics, electron microscopy, acoustics and seismology. In electron microscopy, the two primary modes of holography are Gabor's original in-line setup and an off-axis approach that was developed subsequently. These two techniques are highly complementary, offering superior phase sensitivity at high and low spatial resolution, respectively. All previous investigations have focused on improving each method individually. Here, we show how the two approaches can be combined in a synergetic fashion to provide phase information with excellent sensitivity across all spatial frequencies, low noise and an efficient use of electron dose. The principle is also expected to be widely to applications of holography in light optics, X-ray optics, acoustics, ultra-sound, terahertz imaging, etc. PMID:25387480

  3. Hybridization approach to in-line and off-axis (electron) holography for superior resolution and phase sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozsoy-Keskinbora, C.; Boothroyd, C. B.; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E.; van Aken, P. A.; Koch, C. T.

    2014-11-01

    Holography - originally developed for correcting spherical aberration in transmission electron microscopes - is now used in a wide range of disciplines that involve the propagation of waves, including light optics, electron microscopy, acoustics and seismology. In electron microscopy, the two primary modes of holography are Gabor's original in-line setup and an off-axis approach that was developed subsequently. These two techniques are highly complementary, offering superior phase sensitivity at high and low spatial resolution, respectively. All previous investigations have focused on improving each method individually. Here, we show how the two approaches can be combined in a synergetic fashion to provide phase information with excellent sensitivity across all spatial frequencies, low noise and an efficient use of electron dose. The principle is also expected to be widely to applications of holography in light optics, X-ray optics, acoustics, ultra-sound, terahertz imaging, etc.

  4. Monitoring stem cells in phase contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, K. P.; Dempsey, K. P.; Collins, D. J.; Richardson, J. B.

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms behind the proliferation of Mesenchymal Stem cells (MSCs) can offer a greater insight into the behaviour of these cells throughout their life cycles. Traditional methods of determining the rate of MSC differentiation rely on population based studies over an extended time period. However, such methods can be inadequate as they are unable to track cells as they interact; for example, in autologous cell therapies for osteoarthritis, the development of biological assays that could predict in vivo functional activity and biological action are particularly challenging. Here further research is required to determine non-histochemical biomarkers which provide correlations between cell survival and predictive functional outcome. This paper proposes using a (previously developed) advanced texture-based analysis algorithm to facilitate in vitro cells tracking using time-lapsed microscopy. The technique was adopted to monitor stem cells in the context of unlabelled, phase contrast imaging, with the goal of examining the cell to cell interactions in both monoculture and co-culture systems. The results obtained are analysed using established exploratory procedures developed for time series data and compared with the typical fluorescent-based approach of cell labelling. A review of the progress and the lessons learned are also presented.

  5. The application of phase contrast X-ray techniques for imaging Li-ion battery electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastwood, D. S.; Bradley, R. S.; Tariq, F.; Cooper, S. J.; Taiwo, O. O.; Gelb, J.; Merkle, A.; Brett, D. J. L.; Brandon, N. P.; Withers, P. J.; Lee, P. D.; Shearing, P. R.

    2014-04-01

    In order to accelerate the commercialization of fuel cells and batteries across a range of applications, an understanding of the mechanisms by which they age and degrade at the microstructural level is required. Here, the most widely commercialized Li-ion batteries based on porous graphite based electrodes which de/intercalate Li+ ions during charge/discharge are studied by two phase contrast enhanced X-ray imaging modes, namely in-line phase contrast and Zernike phase contrast at the micro (synchrotron) and nano (laboratory X-ray microscope) level, respectively. The rate of charge cycling is directly dependent on the nature of the electrode microstructure, which are typically complex multi-scale 3D geometries with significant microstructural heterogeneities. We have been able to characterise the porosity and the tortuosity by micro-CT as well as the morphology of 5 individual graphite particles by nano-tomography finding that while their volume varied significantly their sphericity was surprisingly similar. The volume specific surface areas of the individual grains measured by nano-CT are significantly larger than the total volume specific surface area of the electrode from the micro-CT imaging, which can be attributed to the greater particle surface area visible at higher resolution.

  6. The effect of interocular phase difference on perceived contrast.

    PubMed

    Baker, Daniel H; Wallis, Stuart A; Georgeson, Mark A; Meese, Tim S

    2012-01-01

    Binocular vision is traditionally treated as two processes: the fusion of similar images, and the interocular suppression of dissimilar images (e.g. binocular rivalry). Recent work has demonstrated that interocular suppression is phase-insensitive, whereas binocular summation occurs only when stimuli are in phase. But how do these processes affect our perception of binocular contrast? We measured perceived contrast using a matching paradigm for a wide range of interocular phase offsets (0-180°) and matching contrasts (2-32%). Our results revealed a complex interaction between contrast and interocular phase. At low contrasts, perceived contrast reduced monotonically with increasing phase offset, by up to a factor of 1.6. At higher contrasts the pattern was non-monotonic: perceived contrast was veridical for in-phase and antiphase conditions, and monocular presentation, but increased a little at intermediate phase angles. These findings challenge a recent model in which contrast perception is phase-invariant. The results were predicted by a binocular contrast gain control model. The model involves monocular gain controls with interocular suppression from positive and negative phase channels, followed by summation across eyes and then across space. Importantly, this model--applied to conditions with vertical disparity--has only a single (zero) disparity channel and embodies both fusion and suppression processes within a single framework.

  7. In-line micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction for simultaneous separation and extraction of Sudan dyes in different spices.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, Maryam; Sabzalian, Sedigheh; Barfi, Behruz; Arghavani-Beydokhti, Somayeh; Asghari, Alireza

    2015-12-18

    A novel, simple, fast, and miniaturized method, termed in-line micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion (in-line MMSPD), coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for the simultaneous extraction and determination of Sudan dyes (i.e. Sudan I-IV, Sudan orange G, Sudan black B, and Sudan red G) with the aid of an experimental design strategy. In this method, a matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) column including a suitable mixture of polar sorbents was inserted in the mobile phase pathway, and while the interfering compounds were retained, the analytes were eluted and entered into the analytical column. In this way, the extraction, elution, and separation of the analytes were performed sequentially. Under the optimal experimental conditions (including the amount of sample, 0.0426g; amount of dispersant phase, 0.0216g of florisil, 0.0227g of silica, 0.0141g of alumina; and blending time, 112s), the limits of detection (LODs), limits of quantification, linear dynamic ranges, and recoveries were obtained to be 0.3-15.3μgkg(-1), 1-50μgkg(-1), 50-28,000μgkg(-1), and 94.5-99.1%, respectively. The results obtained showed that determination of the selected Sudan dyes in food samples using an enough sensitive and a simple analytically validated method like in-line MMSPD may offer a suitable screening method, which could be useful for food analysis and adulteration.

  8. Characterization of an x-ray phase contrast imaging system based on the miniature synchrotron MIRRORCLE-6X

    SciTech Connect

    Heekeren, Joop van; Kostenko, Alexander; Hanashima, Takayasu; Yamada, Hironari; Stallinga, Sjoerd; Offerman, S. Erik; Vliet, Lucas J. van

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: The implementation of in-line x-ray phase contrast imaging (PCI) for soft-tissue patient imaging is hampered by the lack of a bright and spatially coherent x-ray source that fits into the hospital environment. This article provides a quantitative characterization of the phase-contrast enhancement of a PCI system based on the miniature synchrotron technology MIRRORCLE-6X. Methods: The phase-contrast effect was measured using an edge response of a plexiglass plate as a function of the incident angle of radiation. We have developed a comprehensive x-ray propagation model based on the system's components, properties, and geometry in order to interpret the measurement data. Monte-Carlo simulations are used to estimate the system's spectral properties and resolution. Results: The measured ratio of the detected phase-contrast to the absorption contrast is currently in the range 100% to 200%. Experiments show that with the current implementation of the MIRRORCLE-6X, a target smaller than 30-40 {mu}m does not lead to a larger phase-contrast. The reason for this is that the fraction of x-rays produced by the material (carbon filament and glue) that is used for mounting the target in the electron beam is more than 25% of the total amount of x-rays produced. This increases the apparent source size. The measured phase-contrast is at maximum two times larger than the absorption contrast with the current set-up. Conclusions: Calculations based on our model of the present imaging system predict that the phase-contrast can be up to an order of magnitude larger than the absorption contrast in case the materials used for mounting the target in the electron beam do not (or hardly) produce x-rays. The methods described in this paper provide vital feedback for guiding future modifications to the design of the x-ray target of MIRRORCLE-type system and configuration of the in-line PCI systems in general.

  9. Spatial frequency, phase, and the contrast of natural images.

    PubMed

    Bex, Peter J; Makous, Walter

    2002-06-01

    We examined contrast sensitivity and suprathreshold apparent contrast with natural images. The spatial-frequency components within single octaves of the images were removed (notch filtered), their phases were randomized, or the polarity of the images was inverted. Of Michelson contrast, root-mean-square (RMS) contrast, and band-limited contrast, RMS contrast was the best index of detectability. Negative images had lower apparent contrast than their positives. Contrast detection thresholds showed spatial-frequency-dependent elevation following both notch filtering and phase randomization. The peak of the spatial-frequency tuning function was approximately 0.5-2 cycles per degree (c/deg). Suprathreshold contrast matching functions also showed spatial-frequency-dependent contrast loss for both notch-filtered and phase-randomized images. The peak of the spatial-frequency tuning function was approximately 1-3 c/deg. There was no detectable difference between the effects of phase randomization and notch filtering on contrast sensitivity. We argue that these observations are consistent with changes in the activity within spatial-frequency channels caused by the higher-order phase structure of natural images that is responsible for the presence of edges and specularities.

  10. Spatial frequency, phase, and the contrast of natural images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bex, Peter J.; Makous, Walter

    2002-06-01

    We examined contrast sensitivity and suprathreshold apparent contrast with natural images. The spatial-frequency components within single octaves of the images were removed (notch filtered), their phases were randomized, or the polarity of the images was inverted. Of Michelson contrast, root-mean-square (RMS) contrast, and band-limited contrast, RMS contrast was the best index of detectability. Negative images had lower apparent contrast than their positives. Contrast detection thresholds showed spatial-frequency-dependent elevation following both notch filtering and phase randomization. The peak of the spatial-frequency tuning function was approximately 0.5-2 cycles per degree (c/deg). Suprathreshold contrast matching functions also showed spatial-frequency-dependent contrast loss for both notch-filtered and phase-randomized images. The peak of the spatial-frequency tuning function was approximately 1-3 c/deg. There was no detectable difference between the effects of phase randomization and notch filtering on contrast sensitivity. We argue that these observations are consistent with changes in the activity within spatial-frequency channels caused by the higher-order phase structure of natural images that is responsible for the presence of edges and specularities.

  11. Photon-counting spectral phase-contrast mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredenberg, E.; Roessl, E.; Koehler, T.; van Stevendaal, U.; Schulze-Wenck, I.; Wieberneit, N.; Stampanoni, M.; Wang, Z.; Kubik-Huch, R. A.; Hauser, N.; Lundqvist, M.; Danielsson, M.; Åslund, M.

    2012-03-01

    Phase-contrast imaging is an emerging technology that may increase the signal-difference-to-noise ratio in medical imaging. One of the most promising phase-contrast techniques is Talbot interferometry, which, combined with energy-sensitive photon-counting detectors, enables spectral differential phase-contrast mammography. We have evaluated a realistic system based on this technique by cascaded-systems analysis and with a task-dependent ideal-observer detectability index as a figure-of-merit. Beam-propagation simulations were used for validation and illustration of the analytical framework. Differential phase contrast improved detectability compared to absorption contrast, in particular for fine tumor structures. This result was supported by images of human mastectomy samples that were acquired with a conventional detector. The optimal incident energy was higher in differential phase contrast than in absorption contrast when disregarding the setup design energy. Further, optimal weighting of the transmitted spectrum was found to have a weaker energy dependence than for absorption contrast. Taking the design energy into account yielded a superimposed maximum on both detectability as a function of incident energy, and on optimal weighting. Spectral material decomposition was not facilitated by phase contrast, but phase information may be used instead of spectral information.

  12. Resistive phase transition of the superconducting Si(111)-([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.])-In surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchihashi, Takashi; Mishra, Puneet; Nakayama, Tomonobu

    2013-04-01

    Recently, superconductivity was found on semiconductor surface reconstructions induced by metal adatoms, promising a new field of research where superconductors can be studied from the atomic level. Here we measure the electron transport properties of the Si(111)-([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.])-In surface near the resistive phase transition and analyze the data in terms of theories of two-dimensional (2D) superconductors. In the normal state, the sheet resistances (2D resistivities) R □ of the samples decrease significantly between 20 and 5 K, suggesting the importance of the electron-electron scattering in electron transport phenomena. The decrease in R □ is progressively accelerated just above the transition temperature ( T c ) due to the direct (Aslamazov-Larkin term) and the indirect (Maki-Thompson term) superconducting fluctuation effects. A minute but finite resistance tail is found below T c down to the lowest temperature of 1.8 K, which may be ascribed to a dissipation due to free vortex flow. The present study lays the ground for a future research aiming to find new superconductors in this class of materials.

  13. Simulation of phase contrast MRI of turbulent flow.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Sven; Dyverfeldt, Petter; Gårdhagen, Roland; Karlsson, Matts; Ebbers, Tino

    2010-10-01

    Phase contrast MRI is a powerful tool for the assessment of blood flow. However, especially in the highly complex and turbulent flow that accompanies many cardiovascular diseases, phase contrast MRI may suffer from artifacts. Simulation of phase contrast MRI of turbulent flow could increase our understanding of phase contrast MRI artifacts in turbulent flows and facilitate the development of phase contrast MRI methods for the assessment of turbulent blood flow. We present a method for the simulation of phase contrast MRI measurements of turbulent flow. The method uses an Eulerian-Lagrangian approach, in which spin particle trajectories are computed from time-resolved large eddy simulations. The Bloch equations are solved for each spin for a frame of reference moving along the spins trajectory. The method was validated by comparison with phase contrast MRI measurements of velocity and intravoxel velocity standard deviation (IVSD) on a flow phantom consisting of a straight rigid pipe with a stenosis. Turbulence related artifacts, such as signal drop and ghosting, could be recognized in the measurements as well as in the simulations. The velocity and the IVSD obtained from the magnitude of the phase contrast MRI simulations agreed well with the measurements.

  14. Acoustically modulated x-ray phase contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Theron J; Bailat, Claude J; Rose-Petruck, Christoph; Diebold, Gerald J

    2004-11-07

    We report the use of ultrasonic radiation pressure with phase contrast x-ray imaging to give an image proportional to the space derivative of a conventional phase contrast image in the direction of propagation of an ultrasonic beam. Intense ultrasound is used to exert forces on objects within a body giving displacements of the order of tens to hundreds of microns. Subtraction of images made with and without the ultrasound field gives an image that removes low spatial frequency features and highlights high frequency features. The method acts as an acoustic 'contrast agent' for phase contrast x-ray imaging, which in soft tissue acts to highlight small density changes.

  15. Complex dark-field contrast in grating-based x-ray phase contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yi; Tang, Xiangyang

    2015-03-01

    Without assuming that the sub-pixel microstructures of an object to be imaged distribute in space randomly, we investigate the influence of the object's microstructures on grating-based x-ray phase contrast imaging. Our theoretical analysis and 3D computer simulation study based on the paraxial Fresnel-Kirchhoff theory show that the existing dark-field contrast can be generalized into a complex dark-field contrast in a way such that its imaginary part quantifies the effect of the object's sub-pixel microstructures on the phase of intensity oscillations. A method based on the phase-attenuation duality that holds for soft tissues to be imaged at high x-ray energies is proposed to retrieve the imaginary part of the complex dark-field contrast for imaging. In comparison to the existing dark-field contrast, the imaginary part of complex dark-field contrast exhibits significantly stronger selectivity on the shape of the object's sub-pixel microstructures. Thus the x-ray imaging corresponding to the imaginary part of complex dark-field contrast can provide additional and complementary information to that corresponding to the attenuation contrast, phase contrast and the existing dark-field contrast.

  16. Lensless phase contrast microscopy based on multiwavelength Fresnel diffraction.

    PubMed

    Noom, Daniel W E; Eikema, Kjeld S E; Witte, Stefan

    2014-01-15

    We demonstrate a compact, wide-field, quantitative phase contrast microscope that does not require lenses for image formation. High-resolution images are retrieved from Fresnel diffraction patterns recorded at multiple wavelengths, combined with a robust iterative phase retrieval algorithm. Quantitative phase contrast images of living cultured neurons are obtained with a transverse resolution of <2 μm. Our system is well suited for high-resolution live cell imaging and provides a compact, cost-effective alternative to full-sized phase-contrast microscopes.

  17. Axial Phase-Darkfield-Contrast (APDC), a new technique for variable optical contrasting in light microscopy.

    PubMed

    Piper, T; Piper, J

    2012-09-01

    Axial phase-darkfield-contrast (APDC) has been developed as an illumination technique in light microscopy which promises significant improvements and a higher variability in imaging of several transparent 'problem specimens'. With this method, a phase contrast image is optically superimposed on an axial darkfield image so that a partial image based on the principal zeroth order maximum (phase contrast) interferes with an image, which is based on the secondary maxima (axial darkfield). The background brightness and character of the resulting image can be continuously modulated from a phase contrast-dominated to a darkfield-dominated character. In order to achieve this illumination mode, normal objectives for phase contrast have to be fitted with an additional central light stopper needed for axial (central) darkfield illumination. In corresponding condenser light masks, a small perforation has to be added in the centre of the phase contrast providing light annulus. These light modulating elements are properly aligned when the central perforation is congruent with the objective's light stop and the light annulus is conjugate with the phase ring. The breadth of the condenser light annulus and thus the intensity of the phase contrast partial image can be regulated with the aperture diaphragm. Additional contrast effects can be achieved when both illuminating light components are filtered at different colours. In this technique, the axial resolution (depth of field) is significantly enhanced and the specimen's three-dimensional appearance is accentuated with improved clarity as well as fine details at the given resolution limit. Typical artefacts associated with phase contrast and darkfield illumination are reduced in our methods.

  18. Contrast-to-noise ratio optimization for a prototype phase-contrast computed tomography scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Mark; Yaroshenko, Andre; Velroyen, Astrid; Bech, Martin; Tapfer, Arne; Pauwels, Bart; Bruyndonckx, Peter; Sasov, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-12-01

    In the field of biomedical X-ray imaging, novel techniques, such as phase-contrast and dark-field imaging, have the potential to enhance the contrast and provide complementary structural information about a specimen. In this paper, a first prototype of a preclinical X-ray phase-contrast CT scanner based on a Talbot-Lau interferometer is characterized. We present a study of the contrast-to-noise ratios for attenuation and phase-contrast images acquired with the prototype scanner. The shown results are based on a series of projection images and tomographic data sets of a plastic phantom in phase and attenuation-contrast recorded with varying acquisition settings. Subsequently, the signal and noise distribution of different regions in the phantom were determined. We present a novel method for estimation of contrast-to-noise ratios for projection images based on the cylindrical geometry of the phantom. Analytical functions, representing the expected signal in phase and attenuation-contrast for a circular object, are fitted to individual line profiles of the projection data. The free parameter of the fit function is used to estimate the contrast and the goodness of the fit is determined to assess the noise in the respective signal. The results depict the dependence of the contrast-to-noise ratios on the applied source voltages, the number of steps of the phase stepping routine, and the exposure times for an individual step. Moreover, the influence of the number of projection angles on the image quality of CT slices is investigated. Finally, the implications for future imaging purposes with the scanner are discussed.

  19. Contrast-to-noise ratio optimization for a prototype phase-contrast computed tomography scanner.

    PubMed

    Müller, Mark; Yaroshenko, Andre; Velroyen, Astrid; Bech, Martin; Tapfer, Arne; Pauwels, Bart; Bruyndonckx, Peter; Sasov, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-12-01

    In the field of biomedical X-ray imaging, novel techniques, such as phase-contrast and dark-field imaging, have the potential to enhance the contrast and provide complementary structural information about a specimen. In this paper, a first prototype of a preclinical X-ray phase-contrast CT scanner based on a Talbot-Lau interferometer is characterized. We present a study of the contrast-to-noise ratios for attenuation and phase-contrast images acquired with the prototype scanner. The shown results are based on a series of projection images and tomographic data sets of a plastic phantom in phase and attenuation-contrast recorded with varying acquisition settings. Subsequently, the signal and noise distribution of different regions in the phantom were determined. We present a novel method for estimation of contrast-to-noise ratios for projection images based on the cylindrical geometry of the phantom. Analytical functions, representing the expected signal in phase and attenuation-contrast for a circular object, are fitted to individual line profiles of the projection data. The free parameter of the fit function is used to estimate the contrast and the goodness of the fit is determined to assess the noise in the respective signal. The results depict the dependence of the contrast-to-noise ratios on the applied source voltages, the number of steps of the phase stepping routine, and the exposure times for an individual step. Moreover, the influence of the number of projection angles on the image quality of CT slices is investigated. Finally, the implications for future imaging purposes with the scanner are discussed.

  20. Contrast-to-noise ratio optimization for a prototype phase-contrast computed tomography scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Müller, Mark Yaroshenko, Andre; Velroyen, Astrid; Tapfer, Arne; Bech, Martin; Pauwels, Bart; Bruyndonckx, Peter; Sasov, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-12-15

    In the field of biomedical X-ray imaging, novel techniques, such as phase-contrast and dark-field imaging, have the potential to enhance the contrast and provide complementary structural information about a specimen. In this paper, a first prototype of a preclinical X-ray phase-contrast CT scanner based on a Talbot-Lau interferometer is characterized. We present a study of the contrast-to-noise ratios for attenuation and phase-contrast images acquired with the prototype scanner. The shown results are based on a series of projection images and tomographic data sets of a plastic phantom in phase and attenuation-contrast recorded with varying acquisition settings. Subsequently, the signal and noise distribution of different regions in the phantom were determined. We present a novel method for estimation of contrast-to-noise ratios for projection images based on the cylindrical geometry of the phantom. Analytical functions, representing the expected signal in phase and attenuation-contrast for a circular object, are fitted to individual line profiles of the projection data. The free parameter of the fit function is used to estimate the contrast and the goodness of the fit is determined to assess the noise in the respective signal. The results depict the dependence of the contrast-to-noise ratios on the applied source voltages, the number of steps of the phase stepping routine, and the exposure times for an individual step. Moreover, the influence of the number of projection angles on the image quality of CT slices is investigated. Finally, the implications for future imaging purposes with the scanner are discussed.

  1. Magnetic field induced differential neutron phase contrast imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Strobl, M.; Treimer, W.; Walter, P.; Keil, S.; Manke, I.

    2007-12-17

    Besides the attenuation of a neutron beam penetrating an object, induced phase changes have been utilized to provide contrast in neutron and x-ray imaging. In analogy to differential phase contrast imaging of bulk samples, the refraction of neutrons by magnetic fields yields image contrast. Here, it will be reported how double crystal setups can provide quantitative tomographic images of magnetic fields. The use of magnetic air prisms adequate to split the neutron spin states enables a distinction of field induced phase shifts and these introduced by interaction with matter.

  2. Synchrotron-radiation phase-contrast imaging of human stomach and gastric cancer: in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lei; Li, Gang; Sun, Ying-Shi; Li, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Peng

    2012-05-01

    The electron density resolution of synchrotron-radiation phase-contrast imaging (SR-PCI) is 1000 times higher than that of conventional X-ray absorption imaging in light elements, through which high-resolution X-ray imaging of biological soft tissue can be achieved. For biological soft tissue, SR-PCI can give better imaging contrast than conventional X-ray absorption imaging. In this study, human resected stomach and gastric cancer were investigated using in-line holography and diffraction enhanced imaging at beamline 4W1A of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. It was possible to depict gastric pits, measuring 50-70 µm, gastric grooves and tiny blood vessels in the submucosa layer by SR-PCI. The fine structure of a cancerous ulcer was displayed clearly on imaging the mucosa. The delamination of the gastric wall and infiltration of cancer in the submucosa layer were also demonstrated on cross-sectional imaging. In conclusion, SR-PCI can demonstrate the subtle structures of stomach and gastric cancer that cannot be detected by conventional X-ray absorption imaging, which prompt the X-ray diagnosis of gastric disease to the level of the gastric pit, and has the potential to provide new methods for the imageology of gastric cancer.

  3. Phase contrast image guidance for synchrotron microbeam radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelliccia, Daniele; Crosbie, Jeffrey C.; Larkin, Kieran G.

    2016-08-01

    Recent image guidance developments for preclinical synchrotron microbeam radiotherapy represent a necessary step for future clinical translation of the technique. Image quality can be further improved using x-ray phase contrast, which is readily available at synchrotron facilities. We here describe a methodology for phase contrast image guidance at the Imaging and Medical Beamline at the Australian Synchrotron. Differential phase contrast is measured alongside conventional attenuation and used to improve the image quality. Post-processing based on the inverse Riesz transform is employed on the measured data to obtain noticeably sharper images. The procedure is extremely well suited for applications such as image guidance which require both visual assessment and sample alignment based on semi automatic image registration. Moreover, our approach can be combined with all other differential phase contrast imaging techniques, in all cases where a quantitative evaluation of the refractive index is not required.

  4. Feasibility of ultrasound phase contrast for heating localization.

    PubMed

    Farny, Caleb H; Clement, Greg T

    2008-03-01

    Ultrasound-based methods for temperature monitoring could greatly assist focused ultrasound visualization and treatment planning based on sound speed-induced change in phase as a function of temperature. A method is presented that uses reflex transmission integration, planar projection, and tomographic reconstruction techniques to visualize phase contrast by measuring the sound field before and after heat deposition. Results from experiments and numerical simulations employing a through-transmission setup are presented to demonstrate feasibility of using phase contrast methods for identifying temperature change. A 1.088-MHz focused transducer was used to interrogate a medium with a phase contrast feature, following measurement of the baseline reference field with a hydrophone. A thermal plume in water and a tissue phantom with multiple water columns was used in separate experiments to produce a phase contrast. The reference and phase contrast field scans were numerically backprojected and the phase difference correctly identified the position and orientation of the features. The peak temperature reconstructed from the phase shift was within 0.2 degrees C of the measured temperature in the plume. Simulated results were in good agreement with experimental results. Finally, employment of reflex transmission imaging techniques for adopting a pulse-echo arrangement was simulated, and its future experimental application is discussed.

  5. Improving visibility of X-ray phase-contrast imaging with Wiener filtering.

    PubMed

    Gong, Shaorun; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Zhongxing

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the degrading effects of the physical parameters on the in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCi), a simulation tool based on the Fresnel/Kirchhoff diffraction integral was firstly developed with comprehensively considering effects of the source-to-sample (S-S) and sample-to-detector (S-D) distances, the practical characteristics of a polychromatic and finite size source, the point spread function (PSF) of the fluorescent screen and the spatial resolution of the detector on the theoretical phase-contrast pattern. By a comparison between the simulative profile and the experimental one under the commonly-used parameters, an acceptable consistency has been demonstrated in despite of the deviation between the theoretically-predicted contrast (0.188) and the original experimental one (0.12). From the simulations, it is apparently observed that the fine interference pattern has been severely degraded by the finite spatial resolution, and will inevitably be further deteriorated by the system noise in practice. Since the image quality of the X-ray phase-contrast imaging is strongly dependent on the physical parameters of the system, a model-based deblurring procedure to upgrade the image visibility is preferably desired. As a simple restoration way, a Wiener filter was then introduced to offer an optimal tradeoff between the contrast preservation and the noise suppression. Finally, to minimize the deviation resulting from the finite spatial resolution, one-dimensional interpolation was performed by positioning the set square at a tiny angle to the vertical direction. The result after the Wiener-filtering-based deblurring has shown a considerably improved profile visibility: the processed experimental contrast (0.156) increased by 30% as compared to the original one (0.12) in company with the increase in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by 0.9dB. With the trend of the post-filtered experimental contrast to the theoretical one, it could be motivated that

  6. Differential phase contrast OCT in transparant and scattering media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sticker, Markus; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.; Leitgeb, Rainer; Fercher, Adolf F.

    2001-05-01

    Many biological objects have a poor contrast in microscopy when they are imaged on the basis of the intensity of transmitted and reflected light. For pure phase objects the differential phase contrast technique increases the contrast of the images. We combined the differential phase contrast technique with optical coherence tomography. Our setup is based on a Michelson interferometer with a polarization sensitive detection unit. We scan the sample with two orthogonally polarized beams, which are separated by a distance of 17.5 micrometers . The full interferometric signal of each object beam is recorded by a separate detector. We calculate the phase functions of the interferometric signal through analytic continuation by use of the Hilbert transformation. Subtracting the two phase functions we get the phase difference between the object beams. Now we can derive the path length difference of the object beams at a certain depth in the object where the light was backscattered. The method is independent of variations in the backscattering coefficient, which was a problem in an earlier version of our setup. To investigate the performance of the technique we measured pure phase objects in the nm range. Differential phase measurements through scattering test samples quantified the influence of scattering on the phase measurement. First images of cell structures are presented.

  7. Mesh-based phase contrast Fourier transform imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Sajjad; Bashir, Sajid; MacDonald, C. A.; Petruccelli, Jonathan C.

    2017-04-01

    Traditional x-ray radiography is limited by low attenuation contrast in materials of low electron density. Phase contrast imaging offers the potential to improve the contrast between such materials, but due to the requirements on the spatial coherence of the x-ray beam, practical implementation of such systems with tabletop (i.e. non-synchrotron) sources has been limited. One phase imaging technique employs multiple fine-pitched gratings. However, the strict manufacturing tolerances and precise alignment requirements have limited the widespread adoption of grating-based techniques. In this work, we have investigated a recently developed technique that utilizes a single grid of much coarser pitch. Our system consisted of a low power 100 μm spot Mo source, a CCD with 22 μm pixel pitch, and either a focused mammography linear grid or a stainless steel woven mesh. Phase is extracted from a single image by windowing and comparing data localized about harmonics of the mesh in the Fourier domain. The effects on the diffraction phase contrast and scattering amplitude images of varying grid types and periods, and of varying the width of the window function used to separate the harmonics were investigated. Using the wire mesh, derivatives of the phase along two orthogonal directions were obtained and combined to form improved phase contrast images.

  8. Grid-Based Fourier Transform Phase Contrast Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Sajjad

    Low contrast in x-ray attenuation imaging between different materials of low electron density is a limitation of traditional x-ray radiography. Phase contrast imaging offers the potential to improve the contrast between such materials, but due to the requirements on the spatial coherence of the x-ray beam, practical implementation of such systems with tabletop (i.e. non-synchrotron) sources has been limited. One recently developed phase imaging technique employs multiple fine-pitched gratings. However, the strict manufacturing tolerances and precise alignment requirements have limited the widespread adoption of grating-based techniques. In this work, we have investigated a technique recently demonstrated by Bennett et al. that utilizes a single grid of much coarser pitch. Our system consisted of a low power 100 microm spot Mo source, a CCD with 22 microm pixel pitch, and either a focused mammography linear grid or a stainless steel woven mesh. Phase is extracted from a single image by windowing and comparing data localized about harmonics of the grid in the Fourier domain. A Matlab code was written to perform the image processing. For the first time, the effects on the diffraction phase contrast and scattering amplitude images of varying grid types and periods, and of varying the window function type used to separate the harmonics, and the window widths, were investigated. Using the wire mesh, derivatives of the phase along two orthogonal directions were obtained and new methods investigated to form improved phase contrast images.

  9. Development of neutron tomography and phase contrast imaging technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kashyap, Y. S.; Agrawal, Ashish; Sarkar, P. S.; Shukla, Mayank; Sinha, Amar

    2013-02-05

    This paper presents design and development of a state of art neutron imaging technique at CIRUS reactor with special reference for techniques adopted for tomography and phase contrast imaging applications. Different components of the beamline such as collimator, shielding, sample manipulator, digital imaging system were designed keeping in mind the requirements of data acquisition time and resolution. The collimator was designed in such a way that conventional and phase contrast imaging can be done using same collimator housing. We have done characterization of fuel pins, study of hydride blisters in pressure tubes hydrogen based cells, two phase flow visualization, and online study of locomotive parts etc. using neutron tomography and radiography technique. We have also done some studies using neutron phase contrast imaging technique on this beamline.

  10. High Resolution X-ray Phase Contrast Imaging with Acoustic Tissue-Selective Contrast Enhancement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    murine liver. 15. SUBJECT TERMS X-ray, ultrasound, phase contrast, imaging, elastography 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...of the veins in a mouse liver that was excised from an euthanized mouse, fixed in paraformaldehyde and subsequently dried. The vascular tree is...clearly visible in the x-ray image. Contrast agent injections into the portal vein of another mouse liver verified that the veins are imaged and not

  11. High Resolution X-Ray Phase Contrast Imaging With Acoustic Tissue-Selective Contrast Enhancement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    microfocus x - ray source. Rev. Sci. Instr. 68, 2774 (1997). 8. Krol, A. et al. Laser-based microfocused x - ray source for mammography: Feasibility study...W81XWH-04-1-0481 TITLE: High Resolution X - ray Phase Contrast Imaging With Acoustic Tissue-Selective Contrast Enhancement PRINCIPAL...REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 Jun 2005 – 31 May 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER High Resolution X - ray

  12. Contrast agent influences MRI phase-contrast flow measurements in small vessels.

    PubMed

    Lagerstrand, Kerstin M; Vikhoff-Baaz, Barbro; Starck, Göran; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2010-07-01

    Contrast-enhanced MR angiography is often combined with phase contrast (PC) flow measurement to answer a particular clinical question. The contrast agent that is administered during contrast-enhanced MR angiography may still be present in the blood during the consecutive PC flow measurement. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of contrast agent on PC flow measurements in small vessels. For that purpose, both in vivo measurements and computer simulations were performed. The dependence of the PC flow quantification on the signal amplitude difference between blood and stationary background tissue for various vessel sizes was characterized. Results show that the partial-volume effect strongly affects the accuracy of the PC flow quantification when the imaged vessel is small compared to the spatial resolution. A higher blood-to-background-contrast level during imaging significantly increases the partial-volume effect and thereby reduces the accuracy of the flow quantification. On the other hand, a higher blood-to-background-contrast level facilitated the segmentation of the vessel for flow rate determination. PC flow measurements should therefore be performed after contrast agent administration in large vessels, but before contrast agent administration in small vessels.

  13. Projection phase contrast microscopy with a hard x-ray nanofocused beam: Defocus and contrast transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Salditt, T.; Giewekemeyer, K.; Fuhse, C.; Krueger, S. P.; Tucoulou, R.; Cloetens, P.

    2009-05-01

    We report a projection phase contrast microscopy experiment using hard x-ray pink beam undulator radiation focused by an adaptive mirror system to 100-200 nm spot size. This source is used to illuminate a lithographic test pattern with a well-controlled range of spatial frequencies. The oscillatory nature of the contrast transfer function with source-to-sample distance in this holographic imaging scheme is quantified and the validity of the weak phase object approximation is confirmed for the experimental conditions.

  14. Optimization of phase contrast in bimodal amplitude modulation AFM

    PubMed Central

    Damircheli, Mehrnoosh; Payam, Amir F

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bimodal force microscopy has expanded the capabilities of atomic force microscopy (AFM) by providing high spatial resolution images, compositional contrast and quantitative mapping of material properties without compromising the data acquisition speed. In the first bimodal AFM configuration, an amplitude feedback loop keeps constant the amplitude of the first mode while the observables of the second mode have not feedback restrictions (bimodal AM). Here we study the conditions to enhance the compositional contrast in bimodal AM while imaging heterogeneous materials. The contrast has a maximum by decreasing the amplitude of the second mode. We demonstrate that the roles of the excited modes are asymmetric. The operational range of bimodal AM is maximized when the second mode is free to follow changes in the force. We also study the contrast in trimodal AFM by analyzing the kinetic energy ratios. The phase contrast improves by decreasing the energy of second mode relative to those of the first and third modes. PMID:26114079

  15. Cone beam geometry for small objects in phase contrast tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonas, P.; Louis, A. K.

    2013-09-01

    Phase contrast tomography has developed rapidly within the last ten years. The new method enables the reconstruction of the refraction index in addition to the attenuation coefficient and can therefore be very well applied to samples which are only weakly absorbing. First studies in phase contract tomography were done using synchrotron devices which are modeled by the so-called parallel geometry. Samples studied so far are special foams and fiber materials, see Cloetens et al (1999 App. Phys. Lett. 75 2912-4), which give almost no contrast due to absorption but provide excellent images in phase contrast. Recently tubes were successfully applied to a variety of applications. These laboratory devices no longer fulfil the requirement of a parallel geometry but need to be treated as a fan/cone beam geometry. In this paper we derive a mathematical model for cone beam geometry in phase contrast tomography in two and three dimensions for objects small compared to the two distances of object to detector and x-ray source to object. All approximations needed are analyzed and an efficient reconstruction method providing both phase and absorption in a single step is derived, based on the method by Louis and Maaß (1990 Inverse Problems 6 427-39). The reconstruction method is successfully tested using numerical examples with simulated phantom data.

  16. Quantitative analysis of contrast to noise ratio using a phase contrast x-ray imaging prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghani, Muhammad U.; Wu, Di; Li, Yuhua; Kang, Minhua; Chen, Wei R.; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR) of the x-ray images taken with the phase contrast imaging mode and compare them with the CNR of the images taken under the conventional mode. For each mode, three images were taken under three exposure conditions of 100 kVp (2.8mAs), 120 kVp (1.9mAs) and 140kVp (1.42mAs). A 1.61cm thick contrast detail phantom was used as an imaging object. For phase contrast, the source to image detector distance (SID) was 182.88 cm and the source to object (SOD) distance was 73.15 cm. The SOD was the same as SID in the conventional imaging mode. A computed radiography (CR) plate was used as a detector and the output CR images were converted to linear form in relation with the incident x-ray exposure. To calculate CNR, an image processing software was used to determine the mean pixel value and the standard deviation of the pixels in the region of interest (ROI) and in the nearby background around ROI. At any given exposure condition investigated in this study, the CNR values for the phase contrast images were better as compared to the corresponding conventional mode images. The superior image quality in terms of CNR is contributed by the phase-shifts resulted contrast, as well as the reduced scatters due to the air gap between the object and the detector.

  17. Evaluation of microbubble contrast agents for dynamic imaging with x-ray phase contrast.

    PubMed

    Millard, T P; Endrizzi, M; Everdell, N; Rigon, L; Arfelli, F; Menk, R H; Stride, E; Olivo, A

    2015-07-29

    X-rays are commonly used as a means to image the inside of objects opaque to visible light, as their short wavelength allows penetration through matter and the formation of high spatial resolution images. This physical effect has found particular importance in medicine where x-ray based imaging is routinely used as a diagnostic tool. Increasingly, however, imaging modalities that provide functional as well as morphological information are required. In this study the potential to use x-ray phase based imaging as a functional modality through the use of microbubbles that can be targeted to specific biological processes is explored. We show that the concentration of a microbubble suspension can be monitored quantitatively whilst in flow using x-ray phase contrast imaging. This could provide the basis for a dynamic imaging technique that combines the tissue penetration, spatial resolution, and high contrast of x-ray phase based imaging with the functional information offered by targeted imaging modalities.

  18. Phase contrast image segmentation using a Laue analyser crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitchen, Marcus J.; Paganin, David M.; Uesugi, Kentaro; Allison, Beth J.; Lewis, Robert A.; Hooper, Stuart B.; Pavlov, Konstantin M.

    2011-02-01

    Dual-energy x-ray imaging is a powerful tool enabling two-component samples to be separated into their constituent objects from two-dimensional images. Phase contrast x-ray imaging can render the boundaries between media of differing refractive indices visible, despite them having similar attenuation properties; this is important for imaging biological soft tissues. We have used a Laue analyser crystal and a monochromatic x-ray source to combine the benefits of both techniques. The Laue analyser creates two distinct phase contrast images that can be simultaneously acquired on a high-resolution detector. These images can be combined to separate the effects of x-ray phase, absorption and scattering and, using the known complex refractive indices of the sample, to quantitatively segment its component materials. We have successfully validated this phase contrast image segmentation (PCIS) using a two-component phantom, containing an iodinated contrast agent, and have also separated the lungs and ribcage in images of a mouse thorax. Simultaneous image acquisition has enabled us to perform functional segmentation of the mouse thorax throughout the respiratory cycle during mechanical ventilation.

  19. Differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system and components

    DOEpatents

    Stutman, Daniel; Finkenthal, Michael

    2014-07-01

    A differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system includes an X-ray illumination system, a beam splitter arranged in an optical path of the X-ray illumination system, and a detection system arranged in an optical path to detect X-rays after passing through the beam splitter.

  20. Differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system and components

    DOEpatents

    Stutman, Daniel; Finkenthal, Michael

    2017-01-31

    A differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system includes an X-ray illumination system, a beam splitter arranged in an optical path of the X-ray illumination system, and a detection system arranged in an optical path to detect X-rays after passing through the beam splitter.

  1. Grating Based, Phase Contrast Radiography with Bremsstrahlung Source

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher Goldin and Shaun Hampton

    2009-09-11

    Phase-contrast radiography (PCR) generates an image from gradients in the phase of the probing X-radiation induced by the radiographic object, and can therefore make visible features difficult or impossible to see with conventional, absorption-contrast (ACR) radiography. For any particular object, variations in either the real or imaginary parts of the index of refraction could be greater. Most practical difficulties of PCR arise from the very small deviation from unity (~10-5-10-6, depending of material and energy) of the real part of the index of refraction. In principal, straightforward shadowgraphy would provide a phase-contrast image, but in practice this is usually overwhelmed by the zero-order (bright field) signal. Eliminating this sets the phase-contrast signal against a dark field (as in Schlieren photography with visible light). One way to do this with X-rays is with a grating that produces a Talbot interference pattern. Minute variations in optical path lengths through the radiographic object can significantly shift the Talbot fringes, and these shifts constitute a dark-field signal separate from the zero-order wave. This technique has recently been investigated up to ~20keV [1-3]; this work addresses what sets the practical upper limit, and where that limit is. These appear to be grating fabrication, and ~60keV, respectively.

  2. Newly designed, simple relief phase contrast for microscopy of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Zižka, Z

    2010-11-01

    A new method providing a relief phase contrast for investigation of microorganisms by optical microscopy used a neutral filter Zeiss NG 10/1 that could be controllably slid at a certain azimuthal angle below the aperture condenser diaphragm of the microscope phase contrast. Two ways of application are described depending on the type of the microscope: (1) in a special holder, and (2) fixed on a rubber ring. The device enabled us to obtain excellent results in the area of both optical microscopy and microphotography. With the microorganisms visualized, a better resolution, higher contrast and a significant 3D effect were obtained; outer morphology and organelles (chloroplasts, nuclei, granules, oil reserve vacuoles, etc.) could also be investigated.

  3. Nonlinear dynamic phase contrast microscopy for microfluidic and microbiological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denz, C.; Holtmann, F.; Woerdemann, M.; Oevermann, M.

    2008-08-01

    In live sciences, the observation and analysis of moving living cells, molecular motors or motion of micro- and nano-objects is a current field of research. At the same time, microfluidic innovations are needed for biological and medical applications on a micro- and nano-scale. Conventional microscopy techniques are reaching considerable limits with respect to these issues. A promising approach for this challenge is nonlinear dynamic phase contrast microscopy. It is an alternative full field approach that allows to detect motion as well as phase changes of living unstained micro-objects in real-time, thereby being marker free, without contact and non destructive, i.e. fully biocompatible. The generality of this system allows it to be combined with several other microscope techniques such as conventional bright field or fluorescence microscopy. In this article we will present the dynamic phase contrast technique and its applications in analysis of micro organismic dynamics, micro flow velocimetry and micro-mixing analysis.

  4. Covalent triazine framework-1 as adsorbent for inline solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of trace nitroimidazoles in porcine liver and environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Cheng; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Hu, Bin

    2017-02-03

    In this study, covalent triazine framework-1 (CTF-1) was adopted as solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbents, and a method of SPE inline coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) detection was developed for trace analysis of three nitroimidazolaes (including metronidazole, ronidazole and dimetridazole) in porcine liver and environmental water samples. CTF-1 has rich π-electron and N containing triazine, thus can form π-π interaction and intermolecular hydrogen bond with three target polar nitroimidazoles, resulting in high extraction efficiency (87%-98%). Besides, CTF-1 has large specific area, which benefits rapid mass transfer and low column pressure, leading to fast adsorption/desorption dynamics. Several parameters affecting inline SPE including pH, sample flow rate, sample volume, desorption reagents, elution flow rate, elution volume, and ionic strength were investigated. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the limits of detection (S/N=3) were found to be in the range of 0.11-0.13μg/L. The enrichment factors (EFs) ranged from 52 to 59 fold (theoretical EF was 60-fold). The relative standard deviations were in the range of 4.3-9.4% (n=7, c=1μg/L), and the linear range was 0.5-500μg/L for three target analytes. The sample throughput is 7/h. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of nitroimidazoles in porcine liver and environmental water samples with good recoveries for the spiked samples.

  5. Dynamic Studies of Lung Fluid Clearance with Phase Contrast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kitchen, Marcus J.; Williams, Ivan; Irvine, Sarah C.; Morgan, Michael J.; Paganin, David M.; Lewis, Rob A.; Pavlov, Konstantin; Hooper, Stuart B.; Wallace, Megan J.; Siu, Karen K. W.; Yagi, Naoto; Uesugi, Kentaro

    2007-01-19

    Clearance of liquid from the airways at birth is a poorly understood process, partly due to the difficulties of observing and measuring the distribution of air within the lung. Imaging dynamic processes within the lung in vivo with high contrast and spatial resolution is therefore a major challenge. However, phase contrast X-ray imaging is able to exploit inhaled air as a contrast agent, rendering the lungs of small animals visible due to the large changes in the refractive index at air/tissue interfaces. In concert with the high spatial resolution afforded by X-ray imaging systems (<100 {mu}m), propagation-based phase contrast imaging is ideal for studying lung development. To this end we have utilized intense, monochromatic synchrotron radiation, together with a fast readout CCD camera, to study fluid clearance from the lungs of rabbit pups at birth. Local rates of fluid clearance have been measured from the dynamic sequences using a single image phase retrieval algorithm.

  6. High Resolution X-Ray Phase Contrast Imaging with Acoustic Tissue-Selective Contrast Enhancement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    microfocus x - ray source. Rev. Sci. Instr. 68, 2774 (1997). 8. Krol, A. et al. Laser-based microfocused x - ray ...high spatial coherence, such as synchrotrons 46, microfocus x - ray tubes 7, or laser plasma x - ray sources 8,9are employed is the phase contrast component...imaging apparatus to determine the deflection of the bead as a function of acoustic pressure. The x - rays , generated by a microfocus x - ray tube

  7. Phase contrast hard x-ray microscopy with submicron resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Lagomarsino, S.; Cedola, A.; Cloetens, P.; Di Fonzo, S.; Jark, W.; Soullie, G.; Riekel, C.

    1997-11-01

    In this letter we present a hard x-ray phase contrast microscope based on the divergent and coherent beam exiting an x-ray waveguide. It uses lensless geometrical projection to magnify spatial variations in optical path length more than 700 times. Images of a nylon fiber and a gold test pattern were obtained with a resolution of 0.14 {mu}m in one direction. Exposure times as short as 0.1 s gave already visible contrast, opening the way to high resolution, real time studies. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Clinical application of low-dose phase contrast breast CT: methods for the optimization of the reconstruction workflow.

    PubMed

    Pacilè, S; Brun, F; Dullin, C; Nesterest, Y I; Dreossi, D; Mohammadi, S; Tonutti, M; Stacul, F; Lockie, D; Zanconati, F; Accardo, A; Tromba, G; Gureyev, T E

    2015-08-01

    Results are presented of a feasibility study of three-dimensional X-ray tomographic mammography utilising in-line phase contrast. Experiments were performed at SYRMEP beamline of Elettra synchrotron. A specially designed plastic phantom and a mastectomy sample containing a malignant lesion were used to study the reconstructed image quality as a function of different image processing operations. Detailed evaluation and optimization of image reconstruction workflows have been carried out using combinations of several advanced computed tomography algorithms with different pre-processing and post-processing steps. Special attention was paid to the effect of phase retrieval on the diagnostic value of the reconstructed images. A number of objective image quality indices have been applied for quantitative evaluation of the results, and these were compared with subjective assessments of the same images by three experienced radiologists and one pathologist. The outcomes of this study provide practical guidelines for the optimization of image processing workflows in synchrotron-based phase-contrast mammo-tomography.

  9. Clinical application of low-dose phase contrast breast CT: methods for the optimization of the reconstruction workflow

    PubMed Central

    Pacilè, S.; Brun, F.; Dullin, C.; Nesterest, Y. I.; Dreossi, D.; Mohammadi, S.; Tonutti, M.; Stacul, F.; Lockie, D.; Zanconati, F.; Accardo, A.; Tromba, G.; Gureyev, T. E.

    2015-01-01

    Results are presented of a feasibility study of three-dimensional X-ray tomographic mammography utilising in-line phase contrast. Experiments were performed at SYRMEP beamline of Elettra synchrotron. A specially designed plastic phantom and a mastectomy sample containing a malignant lesion were used to study the reconstructed image quality as a function of different image processing operations. Detailed evaluation and optimization of image reconstruction workflows have been carried out using combinations of several advanced computed tomography algorithms with different pre-processing and post-processing steps. Special attention was paid to the effect of phase retrieval on the diagnostic value of the reconstructed images. A number of objective image quality indices have been applied for quantitative evaluation of the results, and these were compared with subjective assessments of the same images by three experienced radiologists and one pathologist. The outcomes of this study provide practical guidelines for the optimization of image processing workflows in synchrotron-based phase-contrast mammo-tomography. PMID:26309770

  10. AUTOMATED ANALYSIS OF AQUEOUS SAMPLES CONTAINING PESTICIDES, ACIDIC/BASIC/NEUTRAL SEMIVOLATILES AND VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION COUPLED IN-LINE TO LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GC/MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data is presented on the development of a new automated system combining solid phase extraction (SPE) with GC/MS spectrometry for the single-run analysis of water samples containing a broad range of organic compounds. The system uses commercially available automated in-line 10-m...

  11. Phase-Change Contrast Agents for Imaging and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sheeran, Paul S.; Dayton, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Phase-change contrast agents (PCCAs) for ultrasound-based applications have resulted in novel ways of approaching diagnostic and therapeutic techniques beyond what is possible with microbubble contrast agents and liquid emulsions. When subjected to sufficient pressures delivered by an ultrasound transducer, stabilized droplets undergo a phase-transition to the gaseous state and a volumetric expansion occurs. This phenomenon, termed acoustic droplet vaporization, has been proposed as a means to address a number of in vivo applications at the microscale and nanoscale. In this review, the history of PCCAs, physical mechanisms involved, and proposed applications are discussed with a summary of studies demonstrated in vivo. Factors that influence the design of PCCAs are discussed, as well as the need for future studies to characterize potential bioeffects for administration in humans and optimization of ultrasound parameters. PMID:22352770

  12. Analyser-based phase contrast image reconstruction using geometrical optics.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, M J; Pavlov, K M; Siu, K K W; Menk, R H; Tromba, G; Lewis, R A

    2007-07-21

    Analyser-based phase contrast imaging can provide radiographs of exceptional contrast at high resolution (<100 microm), whilst quantitative phase and attenuation information can be extracted using just two images when the approximations of geometrical optics are satisfied. Analytical phase retrieval can be performed by fitting the analyser rocking curve with a symmetric Pearson type VII function. The Pearson VII function provided at least a 10% better fit to experimentally measured rocking curves than linear or Gaussian functions. A test phantom, a hollow nylon cylinder, was imaged at 20 keV using a Si(1 1 1) analyser at the ELETTRA synchrotron radiation facility. Our phase retrieval method yielded a more accurate object reconstruction than methods based on a linear fit to the rocking curve. Where reconstructions failed to map expected values, calculations of the Takagi number permitted distinction between the violation of the geometrical optics conditions and the failure of curve fitting procedures. The need for synchronized object/detector translation stages was removed by using a large, divergent beam and imaging the object in segments. Our image acquisition and reconstruction procedure enables quantitative phase retrieval for systems with a divergent source and accounts for imperfections in the analyser.

  13. Clinical study in phase- contrast mammography: image-quality analysis.

    PubMed

    Longo, Renata; Tonutti, Maura; Rigon, Luigi; Arfelli, Fulvia; Dreossi, Diego; Quai, Elisa; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Castelli, Edoardo; Tromba, Giuliana; Cova, Maria A

    2014-03-06

    The first clinical study of phase-contrast mammography (PCM) with synchrotron radiation was carried out at the Synchrotron Radiation for Medical Physics beamline of the Elettra synchrotron radiation facility in Trieste (Italy) in 2006-2009. The study involved 71 patients with unresolved breast abnormalities after conventional digital mammography and ultrasonography exams carried out at the Radiology Department of Trieste University Hospital. These cases were referred for mammography at the synchrotron radiation facility, with images acquired using a propagation-based phase-contrast imaging technique. To investigate the contribution of phase-contrast effects to the image quality, two experienced radiologists specialized in mammography assessed the visibility of breast abnormalities and of breast glandular structures. The images acquired at the hospital and at the synchrotron radiation facility were compared and graded according to a relative seven-grade visual scoring system. The statistical analysis highlighted that PCM with synchrotron radiation depicts normal structures and abnormal findings with higher image quality with respect to conventional digital mammography.

  14. Zernike phase contrast in scanning microscopy with X-rays.

    PubMed

    Holzner, Christian; Feser, Michael; Vogt, Stefan; Hornberger, Benjamin; Baines, Stephen B; Jacobsen, Chris

    2010-11-01

    Scanning X-ray microscopy focuses radiation to a small spot and probes the sample by raster scanning. It allows information to be obtained from secondary signals such as X-ray fluorescence, which yields an elemental mapping of the sample not available in full-field imaging. The analysis and interpretation from these secondary signals can be considerably enhanced if these data are coupled with structural information from transmission imaging. However, absorption often is negligible and phase contrast has not been easily available. Originally introduced with visible light, Zernike phase contrast(1) is a well-established technique in full-field X-ray microscopes for visualization of weakly absorbing samples(2-7). On the basis of reciprocity, we demonstrate the implementation of Zernike phase contrast in scanning X-ray microscopy, revealing structural detail simultaneously with hard-X-ray trace-element measurements. The method is straightforward to implement without significant influence on the resolution of the fluorescence images and delivers complementary information. We show images of biological specimens that clearly demonstrate the advantage of correlating morphology with elemental information.

  15. Optimal Phase Masks for High Contrast Imaging Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruane, Garreth J.

    2016-05-01

    Phase-only optical elements can provide a number of important functions for high-contrast imaging. This thesis presents analytical and numerical optical design methods for accomplishing specific tasks, the most significant of which is the precise suppression of light from a distant point source. Instruments designed for this purpose are known as coronagraphs. Here, advanced coronagraph designs are presented that offer improved theoretical performance in comparison to the current state-of-the-art. Applications of these systems include the direct imaging and characterization of exoplanets and circumstellar disks with high sensitivity. Several new coronagraph designs are introduced and, in some cases, experimental support is provided. In addition, two novel high-contrast imaging applications are discussed: the measurement of sub-resolution information using coronagraphic optics and the protection of sensors from laser damage. The former is based on experimental measurements of the sensitivity of a coronagraph to source displacement. The latter discussion presents the current state of ongoing theoretical work. Beyond the mentioned applications, the main outcome of this thesis is a generalized theory for the design of optical systems with one of more phase masks that provide precise control of radiation over a large dynamic range, which is relevant in various high-contrast imaging scenarios. The optimal phase masks depend on the necessary tasks, the maximum number of optics, and application specific performance measures. The challenges and future prospects of this work are discussed in detail.

  16. Single-shot quantitative phase microscopy with color-multiplexed differential phase contrast (cDPC)

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We present a new technique for quantitative phase and amplitude microscopy from a single color image with coded illumination. Our system consists of a commercial brightfield microscope with one hardware modification—an inexpensive 3D printed condenser insert. The method, color-multiplexed Differential Phase Contrast (cDPC), is a single-shot variant of Differential Phase Contrast (DPC), which recovers the phase of a sample from images with asymmetric illumination. We employ partially coherent illumination to achieve resolution corresponding to 2× the objective NA. Quantitative phase can then be used to synthesize DIC and phase contrast images or extract shape and density. We demonstrate amplitude and phase recovery at camera-limited frame rates (50 fps) for various in vitro cell samples and c. elegans in a micro-fluidic channel. PMID:28152023

  17. Spline based iterative phase retrieval algorithm for X-ray differential phase contrast radiography.

    PubMed

    Nilchian, Masih; Wang, Zhentian; Thuering, Thomas; Unser, Michael; Stampanoni, Marco

    2015-04-20

    Differential phase contrast imaging using grating interferometer is a promising alternative to conventional X-ray radiographic methods. It provides the absorption, differential phase and scattering information of the underlying sample simultaneously. Phase retrieval from the differential phase signal is an essential problem for quantitative analysis in medical imaging. In this paper, we formalize the phase retrieval as a regularized inverse problem, and propose a novel discretization scheme for the derivative operator based on B-spline calculus. The inverse problem is then solved by a constrained regularized weighted-norm algorithm (CRWN) which adopts the properties of B-spline and ensures a fast implementation. The method is evaluated with a tomographic dataset and differential phase contrast mammography data. We demonstrate that the proposed method is able to produce phase image with enhanced and higher soft tissue contrast compared to conventional absorption-based approach, which can potentially provide useful information to mammographic investigations.

  18. Single-shot quantitative phase microscopy with color-multiplexed differential phase contrast (cDPC).

    PubMed

    Phillips, Zachary F; Chen, Michael; Waller, Laura

    2017-01-01

    We present a new technique for quantitative phase and amplitude microscopy from a single color image with coded illumination. Our system consists of a commercial brightfield microscope with one hardware modification-an inexpensive 3D printed condenser insert. The method, color-multiplexed Differential Phase Contrast (cDPC), is a single-shot variant of Differential Phase Contrast (DPC), which recovers the phase of a sample from images with asymmetric illumination. We employ partially coherent illumination to achieve resolution corresponding to 2× the objective NA. Quantitative phase can then be used to synthesize DIC and phase contrast images or extract shape and density. We demonstrate amplitude and phase recovery at camera-limited frame rates (50 fps) for various in vitro cell samples and c. elegans in a micro-fluidic channel.

  19. Multi-pore carbon phase plate for phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sannomiya, Takumi; Junesch, Juliane; Hosokawa, Fumio; Nagayama, Kuniaki; Arai, Yoshihiro; Kayama, Yoko

    2014-11-01

    A new fabrication method of carbon based phase plates for phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy is presented. This method utilizes colloidal masks to produce pores as well as disks on thin carbon membranes for phase modulation. Since no serial process is involved, carbon phase plate membranes containing hundreds of pores can be mass-produced on a large scale, which allows "disposal" of contaminated or degraded phase modulating objects after use. Due to the spherical shape of the mask colloid particles, the produced pores are perfectly circular. The pore size and distribution can be easily tuned by the mask colloid size and deposition condition. By using the stencil method, disk type phase plates can also be fabricated on a pore type phase plate. Both pore and disk type phase plates were tested by measuring amorphous samples and confirmed to convert the sinus phase contrast transfer function to the cosine shape.

  20. Various clinical application of phase contrast X-ray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Chilhwan; Park, Sangyong; Ha, Seunghan; Park, Gyuman; Lee, Gunwoo; Lee, Onseok; Je, Jungho

    2008-02-01

    In biomedical application study using phase contrast X-ray, both sample thickness or density and absorption difference are very important factors in aspects of contrast enhancement. We present experimental evidence that synchrotron hard X-ray are suitable for radiological imaging of biological samples down to the cellular level. We investigated the potential of refractive index radiology using un-monochromatized synchrotron hard X-rays for the imaging of cell and tissue in various diseases. Material had been adopted various medical field, such as apoE knockout mouse in cardiologic field, specimen from renal and prostatic carcinoma patient in urology, basal cell epithelioma in dermatology, brain tissue from autosy sample of pakinson's disease, artificially induced artilrtis tissue from rabbits and extracted tooth from patients of crack tooth syndrome. Formalin and paraffin fixed tissue blocks were cut in 3 mm thickness for the X-ray radiographic imaging. From adjacent areas, 4 μm thickness sections were also prepared for hematoxylin-eosin staining. Radiographic images of dissected tissues were obtained using the hard X-rays from the 7B2 beamline of the Pohang Light Source (PLS). The technique used for the study was the phase contrast images were compared with the optical microscopic images of corresponding histological slides. Radiographic images of various diseased tissues showed clear histological details of organelles in normal tissues. Most of cancerous lesions were well differentiated from adjacent normal tissues and detailed histological features of each tumor were clearly identified. Also normal microstructures were identifiable by the phase contrast imaging. Tissue in cancer or other disease showed clearly different findings from those of surrounding normal tissue. For the first time we successfully demonstrated that synchrotron hard X-rays can be used for radiological imaging of relatively thick tissue samples with great histological details.

  1. X-ray phase contrast for CO2 microangiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundström, U.; Larsson, D. H.; Burvall, A.; Takman, P. A. C.; Scott, L.; Brismar, H.; Hertz, H. M.

    2012-05-01

    We demonstrate a laboratory method for imaging small blood vessels using x-ray propagation-based phase-contrast imaging and carbon dioxide (CO2) gas as a contrast agent. The limited radiation dose in combination with CO2 being clinically acceptable makes the method promising for small-diameter vascular visualization. We investigate the possibilities and limitations of the method for small-animal angiography and compare it with conventional absorption-based x-ray angiography. Photon noise in absorption-contrast imaging prevents visualization of blood vessels narrower than 50 µm at the highest radiation doses compatible with living animals, whereas our simulations and experiments indicate the possibility of visualizing 20 µm vessels at radiation doses as low as 100 mGy. Experimental computed tomography of excised rat kidney shows blood vessels of diameters down to 60 µm with improved image quality compared to absorption-based methods. With our present prototype x-ray source, the acquisition time for a tomographic dataset is approximately 1 h, which is long compared to the 1-20 min common for absorption-contrast micro-CT systems. Further development of the liquid-metal-jet microfocus x-ray sources used here and high-resolution x-ray detectors shows promise to reduce exposure times and make this high-resolution method practical for imaging of living animals.

  2. Non-linear regularized phase retrieval for unidirectional X-ray differential phase contrast radiography.

    PubMed

    Thüring, Thomas; Modregger, Peter; Pinzer, Bernd R; Wang, Zhentian; Stampanoni, Marco

    2011-12-05

    Phase retrieval from unidirectional radiographic differential phase contrast images requires integration of noisy data. A method is presented, which aims to suppress stripe artifacts arising from direct image integration. It is purely algorithmic and therefore, compared to alternative approaches, neither additional alignment nor an increased scan time is required. We report on the theory of this method and present results using numerical as well as experimental data. The method shows significant improvements on the phase retrieval accuracy and enhances contrast in the phase image. Due to its general applicability, the proposed method provides a valuable tool for various 2D imaging applications using differential data.

  3. Multi-illumination Gabor holography recorded in a single camera snap-shot for high-resolution phase retrieval in digital in-line holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, Martin; Picazo-Bueno, Jose A.; Garcia, Javier; Micó, Vicente

    2015-05-01

    In this contribution we introduce MISHELF microscopy, a new concept and design of a lensless holographic microscope based on wavelength multiplexing, single hologram acquisition and digital image processing. The technique which name comes from Multi-Illumination Single-Holographic-Exposure Lensless Fresnel microscopy, is based on the simultaneous illumination and recording of three diffraction patterns in the Fresnel domain. In combination with a novel and fast iterative phase retrieval algorithm, MISHELF microscopy is capable of high-resolution (micron range) phase-retrieved (twin image elimination) biological imaging of dynamic events (video rate recording speed) since it avoids the time multiplexing needed for the in-line hologram sequence recording when using conventional phase-shifting or phase retrieval algorithms. MISHELF microscopy is validated using two different experimental layouts: one using RGB illumination and detection schemes and another using IRRB as illumination while keeping the RGB color camera as detection device. Preliminary experimental results are provided for both experimental layouts using a synthetic object (USAF resolution test target).

  4. Motionless phase stepping in X-ray phase contrast imaging with a compact source

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Houxun; Chen, Lei; Bennett, Eric E.; Adamo, Nick M.; Gomella, Andrew A.; DeLuca, Alexa M.; Patel, Ajay; Morgan, Nicole Y.; Wen, Han

    2013-01-01

    X-ray phase contrast imaging offers a way to visualize the internal structures of an object without the need to deposit significant radiation, and thereby alleviate the main concern in X-ray diagnostic imaging procedures today. Grating-based differential phase contrast imaging techniques are compatible with compact X-ray sources, which is a key requirement for the majority of clinical X-ray modalities. However, these methods are substantially limited by the need for mechanical phase stepping. We describe an electromagnetic phase-stepping method that eliminates mechanical motion, thus removing the constraints in speed, accuracy, and flexibility. The method is broadly applicable to both projection and tomography imaging modes. The transition from mechanical to electromagnetic scanning should greatly facilitate the translation of X-ray phase contrast techniques into mainstream applications. PMID:24218599

  5. Phase Contrast Imaging on the HL-2A Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yi; Gong, Shaobo; Xu, Min; Jiang, Wei; Zhong, Wulv; Shi, Zhongbin; Wang, Huajie; Wu, Yifan; Yuan, Boda; Lan, Tao; Ye, Minyou; Duan, Xuru; HL-2A Team

    2016-10-01

    In this article we present the design of a phase contrast imaging (PCI) system on the HL-2A tokamak. This diagnostic is developed to infer line integrated plasma density fluctuations by measuring the phase shift of an expanded CO2 laser beam passing through magnetically confined high temperature plasmas. This system is designed to diagnose plasma density fluctuations with the maximum wavenumber of 66 cm-1. The designed wavenumber resolution is 2.09cm-1, and the time resolution is higher than 0.2 μs. The broad kρs ranging from 0.34 to 13.37 makes it suitable for turbulence measurement. An upgraded PCI system is also discussed, which is designed for the HL-2M tokamak. Supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Energy Research Project (Grant No. 2015GB120002), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11375053, 11105144, 10905057, 11535013).

  6. Hard X-ray Phase-Contrast Tomographic Nanoimaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stampanoni, M.; Marone, F.; Vila-Comamala, J.; Gorelick, S.; David, C.; Trtik, P.; Jefimovs, K.; Mokso, R.

    2011-09-01

    Synchrotron-based full-field tomographic microscopy established itself as a tool for noninvasive investigations. Many beamlines worldwide routinely achieve micrometer spatial resolution while the isotropic 100-nm barrier is reached and trespassed only by few instruments, mainly in the soft x-ray regime. We present an x-ray, full-field microscope with tomographic capabilities operating at 10 keV and with a 3D isotropic resolution of 144 nm recently installed at the TOMCAT beamline of the Swiss Light Source. Custom optical components, including a beam-shaping condenser and phase-shifting dot arrays, were used to obtain an ideal, aperture-matched sample illumination and very sensitive phase-contrast imaging. The instrument has been successfully used for the nondestructive, volumetric investigation of single, unstained cells.

  7. Design, development and characterization of an x-band 5 bit DMTL phase shifter using an inline MEMS bridge and MAM capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sukomal; Koul, Shiban K.

    2014-09-01

    A radio frequency micro-electro-mechanical system (RF-MEMS) 5 bit phase shifter based on a distributed MEMS transmission line concept with excellent phase accuracy and good repeatability is presented in this paper. The phase shifter is built with three fixed-fixed beams; one is switchable with electrostatic actuation and the other two are fixed for a metal-air-metal (MAM) capacitor. The design is based on a coplanar waveguide (CPW) configuration using alumina substrate. Gold-based surface micromachining is used to develop the individual primary phase bits (11.25°/22.5°/45°/90°/180°), which are fundamental building blocks of the complete 5 bit phase shifter. All of the primary phase bits are cascaded together to build the complete phase shifter. Detailed design methodology and performance analysis of the unit cell phase shifter has been carried out with structural and parametric optimization using an in-line bridge and MAM capacitors. The mechanical, electrical, transient, intermodulation distortion (IMD), temperature distribution, power handling and loss performances of the MEMS bridge have been experimentally obtained and validated using simulations up to reasonable extent. A single unit cell is able to provide 31 dB return loss, maximum insertion loss of 0.085 dB and a differential phase shift of 5.95° (at 10 GHz) over the band of interest. Furthermore, all primary phase bits are individually tested to ensure overall optimum phase shifter performance. The complete 5 bit phase shifter demonstrates an average insertion loss of 4.72 dB with return loss of better than 12 dB within 8-12 GHz using periodic placement of 62 unit cells and a maximum phase error of ±3.2° has been obtained at 10 GHz. Finally, the x-band 5 bit phase shifter is compared with the present state-of-the-art. The performance of the 5 bit phase shifter when mounted inside a test jig has been experimentally investigated and the results are presented. The total area of

  8. Phase Contrast X-ray Imaging of Shuttle Insulating Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Zhengwei

    2005-01-01

    X-ray radiation has been widely used for imaging applications since Rontgen first discovered X-rays over a century ago. Its large penetration depth makes it ideal for the nondestructive visualization of internal structure of materials or objects unobtainable otherwise. Currently widely used nondestructive evaluation (NDE) tools-X-ray radiography and tomography are absorption-based, and work well in highly absorbing materials where density or composition variations due to internal structure or defects are high enough to be spatially distinguished in terms of absorption contrast. However, in many cases where materials such as insulating foam are light-weight, the conventional absorption-based X-ray methods for NDE become less effective. Indeed, the low-density shuttle insulating foam used for flight mission poses a great challenge to the standard NDE tools in that the absorption contrast arising from internal defects of such a low- density material is either weak or indistinguishable. In this presentation, the latest progress in phase contrast X-ray imaging of internal defects of insulating foam will be presented and discussed, demonstrating new opportunities to solve challenging issues involved in advanced materials development and processing for space exploration.

  9. A phase contrast interferometer on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Coda, S.; Porkolab, M. ); Carlstrom, T.N. )

    1992-04-01

    A novel imaging diagnostic has recently become operational on the DIII-D tokamak for the study of density fluctuations at the outer edge of the plasma. The phase contrast imaging approach overcomes the limitations of conventional scattering techniques in the spectral range of interest for transport-related phenomena, by allowing detection of long wavelength modes (up to 7.6 cm) with excellent spatial resolution (5 mm) in the radial direction. Additional motivation for the diagnostic is provided by wave-plasma interactions during heating and current drive experiments in the Ion Cyclotron range of frequencies. Density perturbations of 4 {times} 10{sup 7} cm{sup {minus}3} with a 1 MHz bandwidth can be resolved. The diagnostic employs a 7.6 cm diameter CO{sub 2} laser beam launched vertically across the plasma edge. An image of the plasma is then created on a 16-element detector array: the detector signals are directly proportional to the density fluctuations integrated along each chord. Wavelengths and correlation lengths can be inferred from the spatial mapping. The phase contrast method and its application to DIII-D are described and tests and first plasma data are presented.

  10. [Measurement of cerebral blood flow using phase-contrast MRI].

    PubMed

    Obata, T; Shishido, F; Koga, M; Ikehira, H; Kimura, F; Yoshida, K

    1997-07-01

    The development of phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging(P-C MRI) provides a noninvasive method for measurement of volumetric blood flow(VFR). The VFR of the left and right internal carotid arteries and basilar artery were measured using P-C MRI, and total cerebral blood flow(tCBF) was calculated by summing up the VFR values in three vessels. We investigated the changes in these blood flows as influenced from age, head size, height, weight, body surface area and handedness. Moreover, regional CBF(rCBF) was measured by combining with the single photon emission computed tomography(SPECT) of 123I. The blood flows were 142 +/- 58 mL/ min(mean +/- SD) in the basilar artery, 229 +/- 86 mL/min in the left, 223 +/- 58 mL/min in the right internal carotid artery, and tCBF was 617 +/- 128 mL/min(Ref. Magn Resn Imaging 14:P. 1143, 1996). Significant increases were observed in head-size-related change of VFR in the basilar artery and height-related change of tCBF. The value of rCBF was easily acquired in combination with SPECT. Phase-contrast MRI is useful for a noninvasive and rapid analysis of cerebral VFR and has potential for clinical use.

  11. Demonstration of synchrotron x-ray phase contrast imaging computed tomography of infiltrative transitional cell carcinoma of the prostatic urethra in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, James E.; Wesolowski, Michal J.; Wolkowski, Bailey; Chibbar, Rajni; Snead, Elisabeth C. R.; Singh, Jaswant; Pettitt, Murray; Malhi, Pritpal S.; Barboza, Trinita; Adams, Gregg

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Prostatic urethral transitional cell carcinoma with prostatic invasion in a dog was imaged with abdominal radiography and abdominal ultrasonography antemortem. Synchrotron in-line x-ray phase contrast imaging computed tomography (XPCI-CT) was performed on the prostate ex vivo at the Canadian Light Source Synchrotron and compared to histology. XPCI-CT imaging provides greater soft tissue contrast than conventional absorption-based x-ray imaging modalities, permitting visualization of regions of inflammatory cell infiltration, differentiation of invasive versus noninvasive tumor regions, and areas of necrosis and mineralization. This represents the first report of XPCI-CT images of an invasive prostatic urothelial neoplasm in a dog. PMID:27014719

  12. In-line cold column trapping of organic phase in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction: enrichment and determination of curcumin in human serum.

    PubMed

    Safdarian, Mehdi; Hashemi, Payman; Naderlou, Malihe

    2012-06-29

    A new temperature controlled cold column trapping (CCT) system was developed for in-line sequestration of organic phase in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method. In the developed CCT-DLLME method, the dispersed organic extraction phase is solidified and trapped in the CCT, packed with glass particles. Subsequently, the sequestered phase is washed out in an elevated temperature by using an appropriate solvent. The column temperature is controlled by a pair of thermal electric cooler (TEC) plates. The new device is simple and portable and can eliminate the need for centrifugation in the DLLME method for solvents with an appropriate melting point. Some important parameters such as types of extraction and disperser solvents and their volumes, minimum and maximum column temperatures and extraction time were optimized for the extraction of curcumin, as a model compound. Using 1-dodecanol as the organic solvent and acetone as the disperser, recoveries exceeding 90% and a relative standard deviation of 2.87% were obtained for 5 replicated analyses of curcumin by an HPLC method. The detection limit of curcumin (3σ) extracted by the CCT-DLLME system was 28 μg L⁻¹. The method was successfully applied to the determination of curcumin in some human serum samples.

  13. Dual-wavelength in-line phase-shifting interferometry based on two dc-term-suppressed intensities with a special phase shift for quantitative phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yawei; Xu, Yuanyuan; Jin, Weifeng

    2016-06-01

    To efficiently promote the phase retrieval in quantitative phase imaging, a new approach of quantitative phase extraction is proposed based on two intensities with dual wavelength after filtering the corresponding dc terms for each wavelength, in which a special phase shift is used. In this approach, only the combination of the phase-shifting technique and subtraction procedures is needed, and no additional algorithms are required. The thickness of the phase object can be achieved from the phase image, which is related to the synthetic beat wavelength. The feasibility of this method is verified by the simulated experiments of the optically transparent objects.

  14. First application of liquid-metal-jet sources for small-animal imaging: High-resolution CT and phase-contrast tumor demarcation

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, Daniel H.; Lundstroem, Ulf; Burvall, Anna; Hertz, Hans M.

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Small-animal studies require images with high spatial resolution and high contrast due to the small scale of the structures. X-ray imaging systems for small animals are often limited by the microfocus source. Here, the authors investigate the applicability of liquid-metal-jet x-ray sources for such high-resolution small-animal imaging, both in tomography based on absorption and in soft-tissue tumor imaging based on in-line phase contrast. Methods: The experimental arrangement consists of a liquid-metal-jet x-ray source, the small-animal object on a rotating stage, and an imaging detector. The source-to-object and object-to-detector distances are adjusted for the preferred contrast mechanism. Two different liquid-metal-jet sources are used, one circulating a Ga/In/Sn alloy and the other an In/Ga alloy for higher penetration through thick tissue. Both sources are operated at 40-50 W electron-beam power with {approx}7 {mu}m x-ray spots, providing high spatial resolution in absorption imaging and high spatial coherence for the phase-contrast imaging. Results: High-resolution absorption imaging is demonstrated on mice with CT, showing 50 {mu}m bone details in the reconstructed slices. High-resolution phase-contrast soft-tissue imaging shows clear demarcation of mm-sized tumors at much lower dose than is required in absorption. Conclusions: This is the first application of liquid-metal-jet x-ray sources for whole-body small-animal x-ray imaging. In absorption, the method allows high-resolution tomographic skeletal imaging with potential for significantly shorter exposure times due to the power scalability of liquid-metal-jet sources. In phase contrast, the authors use a simple in-line arrangement to show distinct tumor demarcation of few-mm-sized tumors. This is, to their knowledge, the first small-animal tumor visualization with a laboratory phase-contrast system.

  15. Small-animal microangiography using phase-contrast X-ray imaging and gas as contrast agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundström, Ulf; Larsson, Daniel H.; Westermark, Ulrica K.; Burvall, Anna; Hertz, Hans M.

    2014-03-01

    We use propagation-based phase-contrast X-ray imaging with gas as contrast agent to visualize the microvasculature in small animals like mice and rats. The radiation dose required for absorption X-ray imaging is proportional to the minus fourth power of the structure size to be detected. This makes small vessels impossible to image at reasonable radiation doses using the absorption of conventional iodinated contrast agents. Propagation-based phase contrast gives enhanced contrast for high spatial frequencies by moving the detector away from the sample to let phase variations in the transmitted X-rays develop into intensity variations at the detector. Blood vessels are normally difficult to observe in phase contrast even with iodinated contrast agents as the density difference between blood and most tissues is relatively small. By injecting gas into the blood stream this density difference can be greatly enhanced giving strong phase contrast. One possible gas to use is carbon dioxide, which is a clinically accepted X-ray contrast agent. The gas is injected into the blood stream of patients to temporarily displace the blood in a region and thereby reduce the X-ray absorption in the blood vessels. We have shown that this method can be used to image blood vessels down to 8 μm in diameter in mouse ears. The low dose requirements of this method indicate a potential for live small-animal imaging and longitudinal studies of angiogenesis.

  16. Determination of perfluorooctanoate and perfluorooctanesulfonate in water matrices by inline matrix elimination liquid chromatography with reversed phase separation and suppressed conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, N Harihara; Manigandan, P; Wille, Andrea; Radhakrishnan, Ganga

    2011-09-01

    This work describes a new method for the determination of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in water matrices by suppressed conductivity detection. Separation was achieved by isocratic elution on a reversed-phase column thermostated at 45°C using an aqueous mobile phase containing boric acid and acetonitrile. The PFOA and PFOS content in the water matrix were quantified by a pre-concentration technique. For the concentration range of 1 to 15 ng/mL and 2 to 30 ng/mL, the linear calibration curve for PFOA and PFOS yielded coefficients of determination (R(2)) of 0.9995 and 0.9985, respectively. The relative standard deviations were smaller than 1.5% for PFOA and PFOS. The retention-time precision of four consecutive 12 h injections was smaller than 0.641% and 0.818%, respectively. The presence of common divalent cations, such as calcium, magnesium, and iron in water matrices impairs PFOS recovery. This drawback was overcome by applying inline matrix elimination method. The optimized method was successfully applied for drinking water, ground water, and seawater samples.

  17. Robustness of phase retrieval methods in x-ray phase contrast imaging: A comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Aimin; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: The robustness of the phase retrieval methods is of critical importance for limiting and reducing radiation doses involved in x-ray phase contrast imaging. This work is to compare the robustness of two phase retrieval methods by analyzing the phase maps retrieved from the experimental images of a phantom. Methods: Two phase retrieval methods were compared. One method is based on the transport of intensity equation (TIE) for phase contrast projections, and the TIE-based method is the most commonly used method for phase retrieval in the literature. The other is the recently developed attenuation-partition based (AP-based) phase retrieval method. The authors applied these two methods to experimental projection images of an air-bubble wrap phantom for retrieving the phase map of the bubble wrap. The retrieved phase maps obtained by using the two methods are compared. Results: In the wrap's phase map retrieved by using the TIE-based method, no bubble is recognizable, hence, this method failed completely for phase retrieval from these bubble wrap images. Even with the help of the Tikhonov regularization, the bubbles are still hardly visible and buried in the cluttered background in the retrieved phase map. The retrieved phase values with this method are grossly erroneous. In contrast, in the wrap's phase map retrieved by using the AP-based method, the bubbles are clearly recovered. The retrieved phase values with the AP-based method are reasonably close to the estimate based on the thickness-based measurement. The authors traced these stark performance differences of the two methods to their different techniques employed to deal with the singularity problem involved in the phase retrievals. Conclusions: This comparison shows that the conventional TIE-based phase retrieval method, regardless if Tikhonov regularization is used or not, is unstable against the noise in the wrap's projection images, while the AP-based phase retrieval method is shown in these

  18. Cumulative phase delay imaging - A new contrast enhanced ultrasound modality

    SciTech Connect

    Demi, Libertario Sloun, Ruud J. G. van; Mischi, Massimo; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2015-10-28

    Recently, a new acoustic marker for ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) has been introduced. A cumulative phase delay (CPD) between the second harmonic and fundamental pressure wave field components is in fact observable for ultrasound propagating through UCAs. This phenomenon is absent in the case of tissue nonlinearity and is dependent on insonating pressure and frequency, UCA concentration, and propagation path length through UCAs. In this paper, ultrasound images based on this marker are presented. The ULA-OP research platform, in combination with a LA332 linear array probe (Esaote, Firenze Italy), were used to image a gelatin phantom containing a PVC plate (used as a reflector) and a cylindrical cavity measuring 7 mm in diameter (placed in between the observation point and the PVC plate). The cavity contained a 240 µL/L SonoVueO{sup ®} UCA concentration. Two insonating frequencies (3 MHz and 2.5 MHz) were used to scan the gelatine phantom. A mechanical index MI = 0.07, measured in water at the cavity location with a HGL-0400 hydrophone (Onda, Sunnyvale, CA), was utilized. Processing the ultrasound signals backscattered from the plate, ultrasound images were generated in a tomographic fashion using the filtered back-projection method. As already observed in previous studies, significantly higher CPD values are measured when imaging at a frequency of 2.5 MHz, as compared to imaging at 3 MHz. In conclusion, these results confirm the applicability of the discussed CPD as a marker for contrast imaging. Comparison with standard contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging modalities will be the focus of future work.

  19. Cumulative phase delay imaging - A new contrast enhanced ultrasound modality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demi, Libertario; van Sloun, Ruud J. G.; Wijkstra, Hessel; Mischi, Massimo

    2015-10-01

    Recently, a new acoustic marker for ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) has been introduced. A cumulative phase delay (CPD) between the second harmonic and fundamental pressure wave field components is in fact observable for ultrasound propagating through UCAs. This phenomenon is absent in the case of tissue nonlinearity and is dependent on insonating pressure and frequency, UCA concentration, and propagation path length through UCAs. In this paper, ultrasound images based on this marker are presented. The ULA-OP research platform, in combination with a LA332 linear array probe (Esaote, Firenze Italy), were used to image a gelatin phantom containing a PVC plate (used as a reflector) and a cylindrical cavity measuring 7 mm in diameter (placed in between the observation point and the PVC plate). The cavity contained a 240 µL/L SonoVueO® UCA concentration. Two insonating frequencies (3 MHz and 2.5 MHz) were used to scan the gelatine phantom. A mechanical index MI = 0.07, measured in water at the cavity location with a HGL-0400 hydrophone (Onda, Sunnyvale, CA), was utilized. Processing the ultrasound signals backscattered from the plate, ultrasound images were generated in a tomographic fashion using the filtered back-projection method. As already observed in previous studies, significantly higher CPD values are measured when imaging at a frequency of 2.5 MHz, as compared to imaging at 3 MHz. In conclusion, these results confirm the applicability of the discussed CPD as a marker for contrast imaging. Comparison with standard contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging modalities will be the focus of future work.

  20. Advanced contrast modalities for X-ray radiology: Phase-contrast and dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer.

    PubMed

    Bech, Martin; Jensen, Torben H; Bunk, Oliver; Donath, Tilman; David, Christian; Weitkamp, Timm; Le Duc, Geraldine; Bravin, Alberto; Cloetens, Peter; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2010-01-01

    Here we review our recent progress in the field of X-ray dark-field and phase-contrast imaging using a grating interferometer. We describe the basic imaging principles of grating-based phase-contrast and dark-field radiography and present some exemplary results obtained for simple test objects and biological specimens. Furthermore, we discuss how phase-contrast and dark-field radiography can be combined with the concept of computed tomography, and yield highly detailed three-dimensional insights into biomedical sample. Exemplary results obtained with standard X-ray tube sources and highly brilliant synchrotron sources are presented.

  1. On-sky multiwavelength phasing of segmented telescopes with the Zernike phase contrast sensor.

    PubMed

    Vigan, Arthur; Dohlen, Kjetil; Mazzanti, Silvio

    2011-06-10

    Future extremely large telescopes will adopt segmented primary mirrors with several hundreds of segments. Cophasing of the segments together is essential to reach high wavefront quality. The phasing sensor must be able to maintain very high phasing accuracy during the observations, while being able to phase segments dephased by several micrometers. The Zernike phase contrast sensor has been demonstrated on-sky at the Very Large Telescope. We present the multiwavelength scheme that has been implemented to extend the capture range from ±λ/2 on the wavefront to many micrometers, demonstrating that it is successful at phasing mirrors with piston errors up to ±4.0  μm on the wavefront. We discuss the results at different levels and conclude with a phasing strategy for a future extremely large telescope.

  2. Quantitative volumetric breast density estimation using phase contrast mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhentian; Hauser, Nik; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; D'Isidoro, Fabio; Stampanoni, Marco

    2015-05-01

    Phase contrast mammography using a grating interferometer is an emerging technology for breast imaging. It provides complementary information to the conventional absorption-based methods. Additional diagnostic values could be further obtained by retrieving quantitative information from the three physical signals (absorption, differential phase and small-angle scattering) yielded simultaneously. We report a non-parametric quantitative volumetric breast density estimation method by exploiting the ratio (dubbed the R value) of the absorption signal to the small-angle scattering signal. The R value is used to determine breast composition and the volumetric breast density (VBD) of the whole breast is obtained analytically by deducing the relationship between the R value and the pixel-wise breast density. The proposed method is tested by a phantom study and a group of 27 mastectomy samples. In the clinical evaluation, the estimated VBD values from both cranio-caudal (CC) and anterior-posterior (AP) views are compared with the ACR scores given by radiologists to the pre-surgical mammograms. The results show that the estimated VBD results using the proposed method are consistent with the pre-surgical ACR scores, indicating the effectiveness of this method in breast density estimation. A positive correlation is found between the estimated VBD and the diagnostic ACR score for both the CC view (p=0.033 ) and AP view (p=0.001 ). A linear regression between the results of the CC view and AP view showed a correlation coefficient γ = 0.77, which indicates the robustness of the proposed method and the quantitative character of the additional information obtained with our approach.

  3. Unstained viable cell recognition in phase-contrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoczylas, M.; Rakowski, W.; Cherubini, R.; Gerardi, S.

    2011-09-01

    Individual cell recognition is a relevant task to be accomplished when single-ion microbeam irradiations are performed. At INFN-LNL facility cell visualization system is based on a phase-contrast optical microscope, without the use of any cell dye. Unstained cells are seeded in the special designed Petri dish, between two mylar foils, and at present the cell recognition is achieved manually by an expert operator. Nevertheless, this procedure is time consuming and sometimes it could be not practical if the amount of living cells to be irradiated is large. To reduce the time needed to recognize unstained cells on the Petri dish, it has been designed and implemented an automated, parallel algorithm. Overlapping ROIs sliding in steps over the captured grayscale image are firstly pre-classified and potential cell markers for the segmentation are obtained. Segmented objects are additionally classified to categorize cell bodies from other structures considered as sample dirt or background. As a result, cell coordinates are passed to the dedicated CELLView program that controls all the LNL single-ion microbeam irradiation protocol, including the positioning of individual cells in front of the ion beam. Unstained cell recognition system was successfully tested in experimental conditions with two different mylar surfaces. The recognition time and accuracy was acceptable, however, improvements in speed would be useful.

  4. Twin-image reduction method for in-line digital holography using periphery and random reference phase-shifting techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Teppei; Matsudo, Yusuke; Kakue, Takashi; Arai, Daisuke; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2015-09-01

    Digital holography has the twin image problem that unwanted lights (conjugate and direct lights) overlap in the object light in the reconstruction process. As a method for extracting only the object light, phase-shifting digital holography is widely used; however, this method is not applicable for the observation of moving objects, because this method requires the recording of plural holograms. In this study, we propose a twin-image reduction method by combining the "periphery" method with the "random phase-shifting" method. The proposed method succeeded in improving the reconstruction quality, compared to other one-shot recording methods ("parallel phase-shifting digital holography" and "random phase-shifting").

  5. High sensitivity phase retrieval method in grating-based x-ray phase contrast imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zhao; Gao, Kun; Chen, Jian; Wang, Dajiang; Wang, Shenghao; Chen, Heng; Bao, Yuan; Shao, Qigang; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Kai; Zhu, Peiping; Wu, Ziyu

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Grating-based x-ray phase contrast imaging is considered as one of the most promising techniques for future medical imaging. Many different methods have been developed to retrieve phase signal, among which the phase stepping (PS) method is widely used. However, further practical implementations are hindered, due to its complex scanning mode and high radiation dose. In contrast, the reverse projection (RP) method is a novel fast and low dose extraction approach. In this contribution, the authors present a quantitative analysis of the noise properties of the refraction signals retrieved by the two methods and compare their sensitivities. Methods: Using the error propagation formula, the authors analyze theoretically the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the refraction images retrieved by the two methods. Then, the sensitivities of the two extraction methods are compared under an identical exposure dose. Numerical experiments are performed to validate the theoretical results and provide some quantitative insight. Results: The SNRs of the two methods are both dependent on the system parameters, but in different ways. Comparison between their sensitivities reveals that for the refraction signal, the RP method possesses a higher sensitivity, especially in the case of high visibility and/or at the edge of the object. Conclusions: Compared with the PS method, the RP method has a superior sensitivity and provides refraction images with a higher SNR. Therefore, one can obtain highly sensitive refraction images in grating-based phase contrast imaging. This is very important for future preclinical and clinical implementations.

  6. Development of ultrafast laser-based x-ray in-vivo phase-contrast micro-CT beamline for biomedical applications at Advanced Laser Light Source (ALLS).

    PubMed

    Kincaid, Russell; Krol, Andrzej; Fourmaux, Sylvain; Kieffer, Jean-Claude; Serbanescu, Cristina; Servol, Marina; Vogelsang, Levon; Wilkins, Steve; Stevenson, Andrew; Nesterets, Yakov; Lipson, Edward; Ye, Hongwei; Pogany, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    We are developing and exploring the imaging performance of, an in vivo, in-line holography, x-ray phase-contrast, micro-CT system with an ultrafast laser-based x-ray (ULX) source. By testing and refining our system, and by performing computer simulations, we plan to improve system performance in terms of contrast resolution and multi-energy imaging to a level beyond what can be obtained using a conventional microfocal x-ray tube. Initial CT projection sets at single energy (Mo K(alpha) and K(beta) lines) were acquired in the Fresnel regime and reconstructed for phantoms and a euthanized mouse. We also performed computer simulations of phase-contrast micro-CT scans for low-contrast, soft-tissue, tumor imaging. We determined that, in order to perform a phase-contrast, complete micro-CT scan using ULX, the following conditions must be met: (i) the x-ray source needs to be stable during the scan; (ii) the laser focal spot size needs to be less than 10 mum for source-to-object distance greater than 30 cm; (iii) the laser light intensity on the target needs to be in the range of 5 x 10(17) to 5 x 10(19) W/cm(2); (iv) the ablation protection system needs to allow uninterrupted scans; (v) the laser light focusing on the target needs to remain accurate during the entire scan; (vi) a fresh surface of the target must be exposed to consecutive laser shots during the entire scan; (vii) the effective detector element size must be less than 12 mum. Based on the results obtained in this research project, we anticipate that the new 10 Hz, 200 TW laser with 50 W average power that is being commissioned at ALLS will allow us practical implementation of in vivo x-ray phase-contrast micro-CT.

  7. MR phase-contrast imaging in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Ursula; Reiter, Gert; Fuchsjäger, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a life-threatening, multifactorial pathophysiological haemodynamic condition, diagnosed when the mean pulmonary arterial pressure equals or exceeds 25 mmHg at rest during right heart catheterization. Cardiac MRI, in general, and MR phase-contrast (PC) imaging, in particular, have emerged as potential techniques for the standardized assessment of cardiovascular function, morphology and haemodynamics in PH. Allowing the quantification and characterization of macroscopic cardiovascular blood flow, MR PC imaging offers non-invasive evaluation of haemodynamic alterations associated with PH. Techniques used to study the PH include both the routine two-dimensional (2D) approach measuring predominant velocities through an acquisition plane and the rapidly evolving four-dimensional (4D) PC imaging, which enables the assessment of the complete time-resolved, three-directional blood-flow velocity field in a volume. Numerous parameters such as pulmonary arterial mean velocity, vessel distensibility, flow acceleration time and volume and tricuspid regurgitation peak velocity, as well as the duration and onset of vortical blood flow in the main pulmonary artery, have been explored to either diagnose PH or find non-invasive correlates to right heart catheter parameters. Furthermore, PC imaging-based analysis of pulmonary arterial pulse-wave velocities, wall shear stress and kinetic energy losses grants novel insights into cardiopulmonary remodelling in PH. This review aimed to outline the current applications of 2D and 4D PC imaging in PH and show why this technique has the potential to contribute significantly to early diagnosis and characterization of PH.

  8. Phase-contrast and magnification radiography at diagnostic X-ray energies using a pseudo-microfocus X-ray source

    PubMed Central

    Robson, K J

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the use of conventional diagnostic X-ray tubes for applications in which specialist microfocus sources are normally required. Methods: A conventional diagnostic X-ray tube was used in conjunction with a range of apertures to investigate improvements in spatial resolution using a line-pairs test object. Phase-contrast effects were investigated by varying source-to-object and object-to-receptor distances using a 2-French catheter as a clinically realistic test object. Results: For magnification radiography using a computed radiography receptor and conventional X-ray tube with a 1-mm nominal focus size, the limiting spatial resolution was improved from 3.55 line-pairs per millimetre, for a conventional contact image, to 5.6 line-pairs per millimetre, for a ×2 magnified view with a 250-µm aperture. For inline phase-contrast radiography, phase contrast enhancement of a 2-French catheter was demonstrated, and the expected trends with variations in source-to-object and object-to-receptor distances were found. Images of a neonatal phantom demonstrated a subtle improvement in visibility of a superimposed 1-French catheter simulating a percutaneously inserted central catheter for no increase in patient radiation dose. Conclusion: Spatial resolution improvement and visible phase contrast can be produced in clinically relevant objects using a pseudo-microfocus geometry at X-ray energies in the normal diagnostic range, using conventional diagnostic X-ray tubes and image receptors. The disadvantages of the proposal are the large distances required to produce phase contrast and limitations imposed by the resulting tube loading. Advances in knowledge: It is possible to use conventional diagnostic X-ray equipment in applications that normally require microfocus X-ray sources. This presents some possibilities for clinical applications. PMID:24779409

  9. On-sky performance of the Zernike phase contrast sensor for the phasing of segmented telescopes.

    PubMed

    Surdej, Isabelle; Yaitskova, Natalia; Gonte, Frederic

    2010-07-20

    The Zernike phase contrast method is a novel technique to phase the primary mirrors of segmented telescopes. It has been tested on-sky on a unit telescope of the Very Large Telescope with a segmented mirror conjugated to the primary mirror to emulate a segmented telescope. The theoretical background of this sensor and the algorithm used to retrieve the piston, tip, and tilt information are described. The performance of the sensor as a function of parameters such as star magnitude, seeing, and integration time is discussed. The phasing accuracy has always been below 15 nm root mean square wavefront error under normal conditions of operation and the limiting star magnitude achieved on-sky with this sensor is 15.7 in the red, which would be sufficient to phase segmented telescopes in closed-loop during observations.

  10. Vibration-resistant phase retrieval method with contrast compensation for phase-shifting interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qian; He, Huabin; Yuan, Daocheng; He, Jianguo; Ji, Fang

    2017-04-01

    Vibration hinders the application of phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) to on-machine test and large-aperture mirror measurement. The investigation of PSI fringe disturbed by vibration indicates that, besides tilt-shifting error, inter- and intra-frame contrast variation is significant. The contrast variation is another dominant error source in phase retrieval of PSI. An inter- and intra-frame contrast compensation method is proposed here to retrieve wavefront phase from interferograms subjected to vibration. The method constructs algebraic equations with interferogram data and solves equations using iterative procedures. Experiments validate its effectiveness and manifest its capability to suppress vibration-induced error over a large frequency region. To enhance the calculation efficiency, a spatial subsampling strategy is proposed. Practical testing shows that subsampling reduces calculation time exponentially and preserves retrieval accuracy and spatial resolution. The proposed method, of which the unique ability is compensating the tilt-shifting error and fringe blur caused by vibration, predicates an effective and low-cost solution for PSI applied in vibration.

  11. Volta potential phase plate for in-focus phase contrast transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Danev, Radostin; Buijsse, Bart; Khoshouei, Maryam; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    We describe a phase plate for transmission electron microscopy taking advantage of a hitherto-unknown phenomenon, namely a beam-induced Volta potential on the surface of a continuous thin film. The Volta potential is negative, indicating that it is not caused by beam-induced electrostatic charging. The film must be heated to ∼200 °C to prevent contamination and enable the Volta potential effect. The phase shift is created “on the fly” by the central diffraction beam eliminating the need for precise phase plate alignment. Images acquired with the Volta phase plate (VPP) show higher contrast and unlike Zernike phase plate images no fringing artifacts. Following installation into the microscope, the VPP has an initial settling time of about a week after which the phase shift behavior becomes stable. The VPP has a long service life and has been used for more than 6 mo without noticeable degradation in performance. The mechanism underlying the VPP is the same as the one responsible for the degradation over time of the performance of thin-film Zernike phase plates, but in the VPP it is used in a constructive way. The exact physics and/or chemistry behind the process causing the Volta potential are not fully understood, but experimental evidence suggests that radiation-induced surface modification combined with a chemical equilibrium between the surface and residual gases in the vacuum play an important role. PMID:25331897

  12. Responsive Image Inline Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, Ian

    2016-10-20

    RIIF is a contributed module for the Drupal php web application framework (drupal.org). It is written as a helper or sub-module of other code which is part of version 8 "core Drupal" and is intended to extend its functionality. It allows Drupal to resize images uploaded through the user-facing text editor within the Drupal GUI (a.k.a. "inline images") for various browser widths. This resizing is already done foe other images through the parent "Responsive Image" core module. This code extends that functionality to inline images.

  13. Estimation of visibility of phase contrast with extraction voltages for field emission gun electron microscopes.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xing

    2017-02-01

    Estimation was made for visibility of phase contrast with varying extraction voltages. The resulting decay rates of visibility show that images with low image contrast from cryo EM will be seriously impacted with high extraction voltages.

  14. CRITIR: model-based reconstruction for x-ray phase contrast tomography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xianghui; Mohan, Aditya; Bouman, Charles A.

    2016-10-01

    X-ray phase contrast imaging provides greater contrast compared to conventional absorption contrast imaging. It has higher sensitivity in discriminating mass density difference in a sample. Therefore phase contrast imaging has broad applications in dynamic tomography in which signal-to-noise ratio is usually traded off to the desired temporal resolution. Single-distance propagation phase contrast tomography is the most popular approach at many synchrotron facilities. The simple and flexible setup facilitates complicated in situ experiments. There are few phase retrieval algorithms available for phase-contrast image data processing. All the algorithms rely on certain models. In this talk we present a phase retrieval algorithm for phase-contrast tomography that is suitable for large propagation distance under phase-attenuation duality assumption. The validity of the algorithm is proved with both simulated and experimental data. The reconstruction results with the new algorithm show improved accuracy compared to other model based algorithms. The framework of this algorithm may be extended to the scenario in which phase-attenuation assumption is not satisfied, therefore a general model-free phase retrieval approach for single-distance phase contrast tomography.

  15. Noise properties of grating-based x-ray phase contrast computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, Thomas; Juergen Engel, Klaus; Roessl, Ewald

    2011-05-15

    Purpose: To investigate the properties of tomographic grating-based phase contrast imaging with respect to its noise power spectrum and the energy dependence of the achievable contrast to noise ratio. Methods: Tomographic simulations of an object with 11 cm diameter constituted of materials of biological interest were conducted at different energies ranging from 25 to 85 keV by using a wave propagation approach. Using a Monte Carlo simulation of the x-ray attenuation within the object, it is verified that the simulated measurement deposits the same dose within the object at each energy. Results: The noise in reconstructed phase contrast computed tomography images shows a maximum at low spatial frequencies. The contrast to noise ratio reaches a maximum around 45 keV for the simulated object. The general dependence of the contrast to noise on the energy appears to be independent of the material. Compared with reconstructed absorption contrast images, the reconstructed phase contrast images show sometimes better, sometimes worse, and sometimes similar contrast to noise, depending on the material and the energy. Conclusions: Phase contrast images provide additional information to the conventional absorption contrast images and might thus be useful for medical applications. However, the observed noise power spectrum in reconstructed phase contrast images implies that the usual trade-off between noise and resolution is less efficient for phase contrast imaging compared with absorption contrast imaging. Therefore, high-resolution imaging is a strength of phase contrast imaging, but low-resolution imaging is not. This might hamper the clinical application of the method, in cases where a low spatial resolution is sufficient for diagnosis.

  16. Phase contrast digital mammography using molybdenum x-ray: clinical implications in detectability improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Matthew T.; Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Honda, Chika; Makariou, Erini; Sisney, Gale; Pien, Edward; Ohara, Hiromu; Ishisaka, Akira; Shimada, Fumio

    2003-06-01

    We have applied phase imaging on digital mammography to investigate adequate contrast of printed images for digital phase contrast mammography using a practical molybdenum X-ray tube. Phase contrast mammography procedures were performed with defined air gap (e.g., 0.6 m) configuration using customized mammography equipment and a computed radiography (CR) system. Magnified (x2) phase contrast images acquired with 0.0875mm per pixel were mapped onto the laser imager resolution at 0.04375mm per pixel for printing life-size object on wet processing silver halide recording film. For contact mammography of screen-film system, we used MinR2000 system as a baseline method. ACR 156 phantom printed images with contrasts of 2.8, 3.7, 4.9, 5.7 and 6.7 were evaluated by five radiologists. The ACR scores for the life-size image based on the 2 times magnified phase contrast image acquired by the computed radiography were higher than the scores of MinR2000 image, when the contrast of printed images for both methods was 3.7. The ACR scores were lower in the low contrast images (i.e., 2.8) than its higher contrast counterparts (i.e., >= 3.7) for all techniques used. The detectability improvement should be due to higher spatial resolution and lower noise in the phase contrast images.

  17. Results from the first preclinical CT scanner with grating based phase contrast and a rotating gantry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, Martin; Tapfer, Arne; Velroyen, Astrid; Yaroshenko, Andre; Pauwels, Bart; Bruyndonckx, Peter; Liu, Xuan; Sasov, Alexander; Mohr, Jürgen; Walter, Marco; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2012-07-01

    After successful demonstrations of soft-tissue phase-contrast imaging with grating interferometers at synchrotron radiation sources and at laboratory based x-ray tubes, a first preclinical CT scanner with grating based phase contrast imaging modality has been constructed. The rotating gantry is equipped with a three-grating interferometer, a 50 watt tungsten anode source and a Hamamatsu flat panel detector. The total length of the interferometer is 45 cm, and the bed of the scanner is optimized for mice, with a scanning diameter of 35 mm. From one single scan both phase-contrast and standard attenuation based tomography can be attained, providing an overall gain in image contrast.

  18. Results from the first preclinical CT scanner with grating based phase contrast and a rotating gantry

    SciTech Connect

    Bech, Martin; Tapfer, Arne; Velroyen, Astrid; Yaroshenko, Andre; Pauwels, Bart; Bruyndonckx, Peter; Liu Xuan; Sasov, Alexander; Mohr, Juergen; Walter, Marco; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2012-07-31

    After successful demonstrations of soft-tissue phase-contrast imaging with grating interferometers at synchrotron radiation sources and at laboratory based x-ray tubes, a first preclinical CT scanner with grating based phase contrast imaging modality has been constructed. The rotating gantry is equipped with a three-grating interferometer, a 50 watt tungsten anode source and a Hamamatsu flat panel detector. The total length of the interferometer is 45 cm, and the bed of the scanner is optimized for mice, with a scanning diameter of 35 mm. From one single scan both phase-contrast and standard attenuation based tomography can be attained, providing an overall gain in image contrast.

  19. Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography for observing biological specimens and organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momose, Atsushi; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji

    1995-02-01

    A novel three-dimensional x-ray imaging method has been developed by combining a phase-contrast x-ray imaging technique with x-ray computed tomography. This phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography (PCX-CT) provides sectional images of organic specimens that would produce absorption-contrast x-ray CT images with little contrast. Comparing PCX-CT images of rat cerebellum and cancerous rabbit liver specimens with corresponding absorption-contrast CT images shows that PCX-CT is much more sensitive to the internal structure of organic specimens.

  20. Visualization of neurons in the brain with phase-contrast CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onodera, Hiroshi; Hoshino, Masato; Takashima, Kenta; Uesugi, Kentaro; Yagi, Naoto

    2012-07-01

    Three-dimensional structural analysis of brain is essential to understand neuronal function and brain pathology. The phase-contrast X-ray imaging technique uses an X-ray interferometer and is an extremely sensitive method to visualize structures with low X-ray absorbance. Since the phase shifts caused by light elements can be detected as interference patterns in spite of nearly zero absorption coefficients, the signal/noise ratio for the phase-contrast images of the brain is expected to be hundreds times higher than that obtained with the conventional X-ray absorption contrast method. With phase-contrast imaging technique, we could visualize brain microstructures and specific types of neurons, such as the pyramidal cells in the hippocampus. Phase-contrast CT is a promising technique for nondestructive visualization of brain and spinal cord.

  1. Phase contrast portal imaging for image-guided microbeam radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umetani, Keiji; Kondoh, Takeshi

    2014-03-01

    High-dose synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy is a unique treatment technique used to destroy tumors without severely affecting circumjacent healthy tissue. We applied a phase contrast technique to portal imaging in preclinical microbeam radiation therapy experiments. Phase contrast portal imaging is expected to enable us to obtain higherresolution X-ray images at therapeutic X-ray energies compared to conventional portal imaging. Frontal view images of a mouse head sample were acquired in propagation-based phase contrast imaging. The phase contrast images depicted edge-enhanced fine structures of the parietal bones surrounding the cerebrum. The phase contrast technique is expected to be effective in bony-landmark-based verification for image-guided radiation therapy.

  2. [Application of brilliant x-rays in mammography. Development and perspectives of phase contrast techniques].

    PubMed

    Schneider, T; Coan, P; Habs, D; Reiser, M

    2008-04-01

    The early and reliable detection of breast cancer is often difficult with conventional mammography, especially within dense breast parenchyma. An alternative approach using x-rays are phase-sensitive imaging techniques, which are able to visualize the borders of tissues with different refraction indices with very high contrast. These phase contrast imaging techniques can generate projection images with much less glandular dose than conventional mammography. Even the acquisition of phase contrast CT data sets with an acceptable exposure dose is possible. As brilliant x-ray beams are required for phase contrast imaging, which up to now were only available at synchrotron facilities, these methods were restricted to only a few laboratories. However, with the advent of newly developed high intensity lasers which are also able to produce such radiation, a widespread and affordable use of this technique seems realistic. The further development of phase contrast imaging is funded by the excellence cluster MAP of the Munich universities.

  3. Motionless electromagnetic phase stepping versus mechanical phase stepping in x-ray phase-contrast imaging with a compact source.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Katherine J; Miao, Houxun; Gomella, Andrew A; Bennett, Eric E; Foster, Barbara A; Bhandarkar, Priya; Wen, Han

    2015-04-21

    X-ray phase contrast imaging based on grating interferometers detects the refractive index distribution of an object without relying on radiation attenuation, thereby having the potential for reduced radiation absorption. These techniques belong to the broader category of optical wavefront measurement, which requires stepping the phase of the interference pattern to obtain a pixel-wise map of the phase distortion of the wavefront. While phase stepping traditionally involves mechanical scanning of a grating or mirror, we developed electromagnetic phase stepping (EPS) for imaging with compact sources to obviate the need for mechanical movement. In EPS a solenoid coil is placed outside the x-ray tube to shift its focal spot with a magnetic field, causing a relative movement between the projection of the sample and the interference pattern in the image. Here we present two embodiments of this method. We verified experimentally that electromagnetic and mechanical phase stepping give the same results and attain the same signal-to-noise ratios under the same radiation dose. We found that the relative changes of interference fringe visibility were within 3.0% when the x-ray focal spot was shifted by up to 1.0 mm in either direction. We conclude that when using x-ray tube sources, EPS is an effective means of phase stepping without the need for mechanical movement.

  4. Evaluation of edge effect due to phase contrast imaging for mammography.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Satoru; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Tohyama, Keiko; Morishita, Junji; Yamada, Katsuhiko; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2005-08-01

    It is well-known that the edge effect produced by phase contrast imaging results in the edge enhancement of x-ray images and thereby sharpens those images. It has recently been reported that phase contrast imaging using practical x-ray tubes with small focal spots has improved image sharpness as observed in the phase contrast imaging with x-ray from synchrotron radiation or micro-focus x-ray tubes. In this study, we conducted the phase contrast imaging of a plastic fiber and plant seeds using a customized mammography equipment with a 0.1 mm focal spot, and the improvement of image sharpness was evaluated in terms of spatial frequency response of the images. We observed that the image contrast of the plastic fiber was increased by edge enhancement, and, as predicted elsewhere, spectral analysis revealed that as the spatial frequencies of the x-ray images increased, so did the sharpness gained through phase contrast imaging. Thus, phase contrast imaging using a practical molybdenum anode tube with a 0.1 mm-focal spot would benefit mammography, in which the morphological detectability of small species such as microcalcifications is of great concern. And detectability of tumor-surrounded glandular tissues in dense breast would be also improved by the phase contrast imaging.

  5. Artifact characterization and reduction in scanning X-ray Zernike phase contrast microscopy.

    PubMed

    Vartiainen, Ismo; Holzner, Christian; Mohacsi, Istvan; Karvinen, Petri; Diaz, Ana; Pigino, Gaia; David, Christian

    2015-05-18

    Zernike phase contrast microscopy is a well-established method for imaging specimens with low absorption contrast. It has been successfully implemented in full-field microscopy using visible light and X-rays. In microscopy Cowley's reciprocity principle connects scanning and full-field imaging. Even though the reciprocity in Zernike phase contrast has been discussed by several authors over the past thirty years, only recently it was experimentally verified using scanning X-ray microscopy. In this paper, we investigate the image and contrast formation in scanning Zernike phase contrast microscopy with a particular and detailed focus on the origin of imaging artifacts that are typically associated with Zernike phase contrast. We demonstrate experimentally with X-rays the effect of the phase mask design on the contrast and halo artifacts and present an optimized design of the phase mask with respect to photon efficiency and artifact reduction. Similarly, due to the principle of reciprocity the observations and conclusions of this work have direct applicability to Zernike phase contrast in full-field microscopy as well.

  6. Phase-contrast tomography with low-intensity beams

    SciTech Connect

    Rehacek, J.; Hradil, Z.; Zawisky, M.; Dubus, F.; Bonse, U.

    2005-02-01

    In newly developed neutron phase tomography, wave properties of neutrons are exploited for the nondestructive testing of the internal structure of matter. We show how limitations due to small available intensities of present neutron sources can be overcome by using an advanced maximum-likelihood reconstruction algorithm. Unlike the standard filtered back-projection, the developed procedure gives reasonable results also when used on very noisy data or data consisting of only a few measured projections. This is demonstrated by means of simulations and also experimentally. The proposed method leads to considerably shorter measuring times and/or increased precision.

  7. X-ray phase contrast imaging at MAMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ghazaly, M.; Backe, H.; Lauth, W.; Kube, G.; Kunz, P.; Sharafutdinov, A.; Weber, T.

    2006-05-01

    Experiments have been performed to explore the potential of the low emittance 855MeV electron beam of the Mainz Microtron MAMI for imaging with coherent X-rays. Transition radiation from a micro-focused electron beam traversing a foil stack served as X-ray source with good transverse coherence. Refraction contrast radiographs of low absorbing materials, in particular polymer strings with diameters between 30 and 450μm, were taken with a polychromatic transition radiation X-ray source with a spectral distribution in the energy range between 8 and about 40keV. The electron beam spot size had standard deviation σh = (8.6±0.1)μm in the horizontal and σv = (7.5±0.1)μm in the vertical direction. X-ray films were used as detectors. The source-to-detector distance amounted to 11.4m. The objects were placed in a distance of up to 6m from the X-ray film. Holograms of strings were taken with a beam spot size σv = (0.50±0.05)μm in vertical direction, and a monochromatic X-ray beam of 6keV energy. A good longitudinal coherence has been obtained by the (111) reflection of a flat silicon single crystal in Bragg geometry. It has been demonstrated that a direct exposure CCD chip with a pixel size of 13×13μm^2 provides a highly efficient on-line detector. Contrast images can easily be generated with a complete elimination of all parasitic background. The on-line capability allows a minimization of the beam spot size by observing the smallest visible interference fringe spacings or the number of visible fringes. It has been demonstrated that X-ray films are also very useful detectors. The main advantage in comparison with the direct exposure CCD chip is the resolution. For the Structurix D3 (Agfa) X-ray film the standard deviation of the resolution was measured to be σf = (1.2±0.4)μm, which is about a factor of 6 better than for the direct exposure CCD chip. With the small effective X-ray spot size in vertical direction of σv = (1.2±0.3)μm and a geometrical

  8. Analyzer-based phase contrast imaging and phase retrieval using a rotating anode x-ray source

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, D. J.; Paganin, D. M.; Pavlov, K. M.; Kraeusslich, J.; Wehrhan, O.; Uschmann, I.; Foerster, E.

    2007-12-17

    We have performed an analyzer crystal based phase contrast imaging (ABI) experiment using a rotating anode x-ray source. The use of such an incoherent source demonstrates the potential of ABI as a quantitative characterization tool for the laboratory environment. A phase contrast image of a plastic phantom was recorded on high resolution x-ray film and the projected thickness was retrieved from a single image. The projected thickness recovered from the phase contrast image was shown to quantitatively agree with a reference optical microscope measurement.

  9. On measuring cell confluence in phase contrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, K. P.; Richardson, J. B.; Lam, K. P.

    2014-03-01

    A principal focus highlighting recent advances in cell based therapies concerns the development of effective treatments for osteoarthritis. Earlier clinicaltrials have shown that 80% of patients receiving mesenchymal stem cell(MSC) based treatment have improved their quality of life by alleviating pain whilst extending the life of their natural joints. The current challenge facing researchers is to identify the biological differences between the treatments that have worked and those which have shown little improvement. One possible candidate for the difference in treatment prognosis is an examination of the proliferation of the ( type) cells as they grow. To further understanding of the proliferation and differentiation of MSC, non-invasive live cell imaging techniques have been developed which capture important cell events and dynamics in cell divisions over an extended period of time. An automated image analysis procedure capable of tracking cell confluence over time has also been implemented, providing an objective and realistic estimation of cell growth within continuous live cell cultures. The proposed algorithm accounts for the halo artefacts that occur in phase microscopy. In addition to a favourable run-time performance, the method was also validated using continuous live MSC cultures, with consistent and meaningful results.

  10. 'Edge illumination' in X-ray Phase Contrast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, Peter R. T.; Ignatyev, Konstantin; Diemoz, Paul C.; Szafraniec, Magdalena B.; Hagen, Charlotte K.; Millard, Thomas P.; Zapata, Cesar E.; Speller, Robert D.; Olivo, Alessandro

    2012-07-31

    In the late '90s, the concept of 'edge illumination' was developed at ELETTRA in Italy as an alternative method to increase the phase sensitivity of an imaging system. The main idea was to be able to reproduce the fine angular selection of 'analyzer' crystals without actually using a crystal, as this would allow employing the method with divergent and polychromatic (i.e. conventional) x-ray sources. It was observed that this could be achieved by illuminating only the edges of the detector pixels, and that the method's sensitivity could be progressively increased by illuminating smaller pixel fractions closer to its physical edge. A few years later the idea was adapted for use with a conventional source by means of two sets of x-ray masks ('coded aperture' masks), which enabled obtaining the same effect for each row (or column) of pixels of an area detector illuminated by a cone beam. This article reviews the method and presents recent examples of application.

  11. Grating-based X-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Franz; Herzen, Julia; Willner, Marian; Chabior, Michael; Auweter, Sigrid; Reiser, Maximilian; Bamberg, Fabian

    2013-09-01

    In this review article we describe the development of grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging, with particular emphasis on potential biomedical applications of the technology. We review the basics of image formation in grating-based phase-contrast and dark-field radiography and present some exemplary multimodal radiography results obtained with laboratory X-ray sources. Furthermore, we discuss the theoretical concepts to extend grating-based multimodal radiography to quantitative transmission, phase-contrast, and dark-field scattering computed tomography.

  12. Quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willner, M.; Herzen, J.; Grandl, S.; Auweter, S.; Mayr, D.; Hipp, A.; Chabior, M.; Sarapata, A.; Achterhold, K.; Zanette, I.; Weitkamp, T.; Sztrókay, A.; Hellerhoff, K.; Reiser, M.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2014-04-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging has received growing interest in recent years due to its high capability in visualizing soft tissue. Breast imaging became the focus of particular attention as it is considered the most promising candidate for a first clinical application of this contrast modality. In this study, we investigate quantitative breast tissue characterization using grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) at conventional polychromatic x-ray sources. Different breast specimens have been scanned at a laboratory phase-contrast imaging setup and were correlated to histopathology. Ascertained tumor types include phylloides tumor, fibroadenoma and infiltrating lobular carcinoma. Identified tissue types comprising adipose, fibroglandular and tumor tissue have been analyzed in terms of phase-contrast Hounsfield units and are compared to high-quality, high-resolution data obtained with monochromatic synchrotron radiation, as well as calculated values based on tabulated tissue properties. The results give a good impression of the method’s prospects and limitations for potential tumor detection and the associated demands on such a phase-contrast breast CT system. Furthermore, the evaluated quantitative tissue values serve as a reference for simulations and the design of dedicated phantoms for phase-contrast mammography.

  13. A phantom study to characterize the imaging quality of a phase-contrast tomosynthesis prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Ghani, Muhammad U.; Miao, Hui; Li, Yuhua; Chen, Wei R.; Wu, Xizeng; Liu, Hong

    2013-02-01

    This research is aimed at studying the advantages of an x-ray phase-contrast tomosynthesis prototype by using phantoms. A prototype system is assembled with a micro-focus x-ray source, a rotating stage and a computed radiography detector mounted on an optical rail. A custom designed bubble wrap phantom is used in experiments. Angular projection images are acquired from -20° to +20° with 2° interval. The in-plane slices are reconstructed. The feature area on the phantom is observed. The prototype system provides an intrinsic way to investigate the potential and imaging quality of a phase-contrast tomosynthesis imaging method. As the result, phase-contrast tomosynthesis imaging method is demonstrated for its advantages in avoiding structure noise and overlapping issues by comparing the results acquired by computed radiography and phase-contrast radiography.

  14. Tomographic Hard X-ray Phase Contrast Micro- and Nano-imaging at TOMCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stampanoni, M.; Marone, F.; Modregger, P.; Pinzer, B.; Thüring, T.; Vila-Comamala, J.; David, C.; Mokso, R.

    2010-07-01

    This article illustrates the phase contrast instrumentation installed at the Tomographic Microscopy and Coherent Radiology beamline (TOMCAT) of the Swiss Light Source. Our experimental framework has been designed to extract phase information at spatial resolutions covering three orders of magnitude. For moderate (5-10 microns) resolutions we implemented a two-gratings interferometer, operated at energies between 14 and 40 keV. For high resolution (1-5 microns) we obtain phase information thanks to a modified transport of intensity approach. For very high-resolutions (0.1-0.5 microns) we developed a broadband hard X-ray full-field microscope operated in Zernike-phase contrast.

  15. Image segmentation of nanoscale Zernike phase contrast X-ray computed tomography images

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Arjun S.; Mandal, Pratiti; Zhang, Yongjie; Litster, Shawn

    2015-05-14

    Zernike phase contrast is a useful technique for nanoscale X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging of materials with a low X-ray absorption coefficient. It enhances the image contrast by phase shifting X-ray waves to create changes in amplitude. However, it creates artifacts that hinder the use of traditional image segmentation techniques. We propose an image restoration method that models the X-ray phase contrast optics and the three-dimensional image reconstruction method. We generate artifact-free images through an optimization problem that inverts this model. Though similar approaches have been used for Zernike phase contrast in visible light microscopy, this optimization employs an effective edge detection method tailored to handle Zernike phase contrast artifacts. We characterize this optics-based restoration method by removing the artifacts in and thresholding multiple Zernike phase contrast X-ray CT images to produce segmented results that are consistent with the physical specimens. We quantitatively evaluate and compare our method to other segmentation techniques to demonstrate its high accuracy.

  16. Application of phase-contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging in endoscopic aqueductoplasty.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoqiang; Zheng, Jiaping; Xiao, Qing; Liu, Yunsheng

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of phase-contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in endoscopic aqueductoplasty (EA) for patients with obstructive hydrocephalus. The clinical diagnosis of hydrocephalus caused by aqueduct obstruction in 23 patients was confirmed by phase-contrast cine MRI examination. The patients were treated with EA and MRI was repeated during the follow-up. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow velocity in the aqueduct was measured to determine whether the aqueduct was obstructed. The results of phase-contrast cine MRI examinations indicated that there was no CSF flow in the aqueduct for all patients prior to surgery. Aqueductoplasty was successfully performed in all patients. The results of phase-contrast cine MRI examinations performed a week after surgery demonstrated an average CSF flow velocity of 4.74±1.77 cm/sec. During the follow-up, intracranial hypertension recurred in two patients in whom CSF flow was not observed in the aqueduct by the phase-contrast cine MRI scan. Aqueduct re-occlusion was revealed by an endoscopic exploration. By measuring the CSF flow velocity, phase-contrast cine MRI accurately identifies aqueduct obstruction. Cine MRI is a nontraumatic, simple and reliable method for determining whether the aqueduct is successfully opened following aqueductoplasty.

  17. Sensitivity enhancement for the analysis of naproxen in tap water by solid-phase extraction coupled in-line to capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Macià, Alba; Borrull, Francesc; Calull, Marta; Benavente, Fernando; Hernández, Elena; Sanz-Nebot, Victòria; Barbosa, José; Aguilar, Carme

    2008-03-01

    SPE coupled in-line to CE, as the strategy to enhance the concentration sensitivity in CE, has been used to enrich naproxen in tap water samples. In this study, a microcartridge containing an octadecyl silica (C18) sorbent was placed near the inlet within the separation capillary column. The optimum conditions were obtained when naproxen in an acidic aqueous solution (pH 3.5) was loaded into the capillary at 930 mbar for 30 min, and 20 mM ammonium acetate in methanol/water (70:30 v/v) was used as both an elution solution and a separation BGE. Under these conditions, the sensitivity was enhanced 1820-fold with respect to normal hydrodynamic injection, and the LOD achieved was 0.2 microg/L. To show the capability of the in-line SPE-CE method, tap water samples were analysed after a pretreatment consisting in an off-line C18-SPE procedure. The recovery of this procedure was higher than 80%. Under these conditions, naproxen could be detected at a concentration of 10 ng/L; so the potential of the procedure for the sensitive analysis of this type of drugs in water samples was demonstrated. Afterwards, these results were compared with those previously obtained for naproxen in water samples using different sample stacking techniques.

  18. Evaluation of a new reconstruction algorithm for x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, Maria; Hauke, Christian; Horn, Florian; Lachner, Sebastian; Ludwig, Veronika; Pelzer, Georg; Rieger, Jens; Schuster, Max; Wandner, Johannes; Wolf, Andreas; Michel, Thilo; Anton, Gisela

    2016-04-01

    X-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging might open up entirely new opportunities in medical imaging. However, transferring the interferometer technique from laboratory setups to conventional imaging systems the necessary rigidity of the system is difficult to achieve. Therefore, vibrations or distortions of the system lead to inaccuracies within the phase-stepping procedure. Given insufficient stability of the phase-step positions, up to now, artifacts in phase-contrast images occur, which lower the image quality. This is a problem with regard to the intended use of phase-contrast imaging in clinical routine as for example tiny structures of the human anatomy cannot be observed. In this contribution we evaluate an algorithm proposed by Vargas et.al.1 and applied to X-ray imaging by Pelzer et.al. that enables us to reconstruct a differential phase-contrast image without the knowledge of the specific phase-step positions. This method was tested in comparison to the standard reconstruction by Fourier analysis. The quality of phase-contrast images remains stable, even if the phase-step positions are completely unknown and not uniformly distributed. To also achieve attenuation and dark-field images the proposed algorithm has been combined with a further algorithm of Vargas et al.3 Using this algorithm, the phase-step positions can be reconstructed. With the help of the proper phase-step positions it is possible to get information about the phase, the amplitude and the offset of the measured data. We evaluated this algorithm concerning the measurement of thick objects which show a high absorbency.

  19. Diffraction enhance x-ray imaging for quantitative phase contrast studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, A. K.; Singh, B.; Kashyap, Y. S.; Shukla, Mayank; Sarkar, P. S.; Sinha, Amar

    2016-05-01

    Conventional X-ray imaging based on absorption contrast permits limited visibility of feature having small density and thickness variations. For imaging of weakly absorbing material or materials possessing similar densities, a novel phase contrast imaging techniques called diffraction enhanced imaging has been designed and developed at imaging beamline Indus-2 RRCAT Indore. The technique provides improved visibility of the interfaces and show high contrast in the image forsmall density or thickness gradients in the bulk. This paper presents basic principle, instrumentation and analysis methods for this technique. Initial results of quantitative phase retrieval carried out on various samples have also been presented.

  20. Subnanoradian X-ray phase-contrast imaging using a far-field interferometer of nanometric phase gratings

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Han; Gomella, Andrew A.; Patel, Ajay; Lynch, Susanna K.; Morgan, Nicole Y.; Anderson, Stasia A.; Bennett, Eric E.; Xiao, Xianghui; Liu, Chian; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2013-01-01

    Hard X-ray phase-contrast imaging characterizes the electron density distribution in an object without the need for radiation absorption. The power of phase contrast to resolve subtle changes, such as those in soft tissue structures, lies in its ability to detect minute refractive bending of X-rays. Here we report a far-field, two-arm interferometer based on the new nanometric phase gratings, which can detect X-ray refraction with subnanoradian sensitivity, and at the same time overcomes the fundamental limitation of ultra-narrow bandwidths (Δλ/λ~10−4) of the current, most sensitive methods based on crystal interferometers. On a 1.5% bandwidth synchrotron source, we demonstrate clear visualization of blood vessels in unstained mouse organs in simple projection views, with over an order-of-magnitude higher phase contrast than current near-field grating interferometers. PMID:24189696

  1. Subnanoradian X-ray phase-contrast imaging using a far-field interferometer of nanometric phase gratings.

    PubMed

    Wen, Han; Gomella, Andrew A; Patel, Ajay; Lynch, Susanna K; Morgan, Nicole Y; Anderson, Stasia A; Bennett, Eric E; Xiao, Xianghui; Liu, Chian; Wolfe, Douglas E

    2013-01-01

    Hard X-ray phase-contrast imaging characterizes the electron density distribution in an object without the need for radiation absorption. The power of phase contrast to resolve subtle changes, such as those in soft tissue structures, lies in its ability to detect minute refractive bending of X-rays. Here we report a far-field, two-arm interferometer based on the new nanometric phase gratings, which can detect X-ray refraction with subnanoradian sensitivity, and at the same time overcomes the fundamental limitation of ultra-narrow bandwidths (Δλ/λ~10⁻⁴) of the current, most sensitive methods based on crystal interferometers. On a 1.5% bandwidth synchrotron source, we demonstrate clear visualization of blood vessels in unstained mouse organs in simple projection views, with over an order-of-magnitude higher phase contrast than current near-field grating interferometers.

  2. Flexible retrospective phase stepping in x-ray scatter correction and phase contrast imaging using structured illumination.

    PubMed

    Wen, Han; Miao, Houxun; Bennett, Eric E; Adamo, Nick M; Chen, Lei

    2013-01-01

    The development of phase contrast methods for diagnostic x-ray imaging is inspired by the potential of seeing the internal structures of the human body without the need to deposit any harmful radiation. An efficient class of x-ray phase contrast imaging and scatter correction methods share the idea of using structured illumination in the form of a periodic fringe pattern created with gratings or grids. They measure the scatter and distortion of the x-ray wavefront through the attenuation and deformation of the fringe pattern via a phase stepping process. Phase stepping describes image acquisition at regular phase intervals by shifting a grating in uniform steps. However, in practical conditions the actual phase intervals can vary from step to step and also spatially. Particularly with the advent of electromagnetic phase stepping without physical movement of a grating, the phase intervals are dependent upon the focal plane of interest. We describe a demodulation algorithm for phase stepping at arbitrary and position-dependent (APD) phase intervals without assuming a priori knowledge of the phase steps. The algorithm retrospectively determines the spatial distribution of the phase intervals by a Fourier transform method. With this ability, grating-based x-ray imaging becomes more adaptable and robust for broader applications.

  3. Flexible Retrospective Phase Stepping in X-Ray Scatter Correction and Phase Contrast Imaging Using Structured Illumination

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Han; Miao, Houxun; Bennett, Eric E.; Adamo, Nick M.; Chen, Lei

    2013-01-01

    The development of phase contrast methods for diagnostic x-ray imaging is inspired by the potential of seeing the internal structures of the human body without the need to deposit any harmful radiation. An efficient class of x-ray phase contrast imaging and scatter correction methods share the idea of using structured illumination in the form of a periodic fringe pattern created with gratings or grids. They measure the scatter and distortion of the x-ray wavefront through the attenuation and deformation of the fringe pattern via a phase stepping process. Phase stepping describes image acquisition at regular phase intervals by shifting a grating in uniform steps. However, in practical conditions the actual phase intervals can vary from step to step and also spatially. Particularly with the advent of electromagnetic phase stepping without physical movement of a grating, the phase intervals are dependent upon the focal plane of interest. We describe a demodulation algorithm for phase stepping at arbitrary and position-dependent (APD) phase intervals without assuming a priori knowledge of the phase steps. The algorithm retrospectively determines the spatial distribution of the phase intervals by a Fourier transform method. With this ability, grating-based x-ray imaging becomes more adaptable and robust for broader applications. PMID:24205177

  4. X-ray computed tomography of wood-adhesive bondlines: Attenuation and phase-contrast effects

    DOE PAGES

    Paris, Jesse L.; Kamke, Frederick A.; Xiao, Xianghui

    2015-07-29

    Microscale X-ray computed tomography (XCT) is discussed as a technique for identifying 3D adhesive distribution in wood-adhesive bondlines. Visualization and material segmentation of the adhesives from the surrounding cellular structures require sufficient gray-scale contrast in the reconstructed XCT data. Commercial wood-adhesive polymers have similar chemical characteristics and density to wood cell wall polymers and therefore do not provide good XCT attenuation contrast in their native form. Here, three different adhesive types, namely phenol formaldehyde, polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate, and a hybrid polyvinyl acetate, are tagged with iodine such that they yield sufficient X-ray attenuation contrast. However, phase-contrast effects at material edgesmore » complicate image quality and segmentation in XCT data reconstructed with conventional filtered backprojection absorption contrast algorithms. A quantitative phase retrieval algorithm, which isolates and removes the phase-contrast effect, was demonstrated. The paper discusses and illustrates the balance between material X-ray attenuation and phase-contrast effects in all quantitative XCT analyses of wood-adhesive bondlines.« less

  5. X-ray computed tomography of wood-adhesive bondlines: Attenuation and phase-contrast effects

    SciTech Connect

    Paris, Jesse L.; Kamke, Frederick A.; Xiao, Xianghui

    2015-07-29

    Microscale X-ray computed tomography (XCT) is discussed as a technique for identifying 3D adhesive distribution in wood-adhesive bondlines. Visualization and material segmentation of the adhesives from the surrounding cellular structures require sufficient gray-scale contrast in the reconstructed XCT data. Commercial wood-adhesive polymers have similar chemical characteristics and density to wood cell wall polymers and therefore do not provide good XCT attenuation contrast in their native form. Here, three different adhesive types, namely phenol formaldehyde, polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate, and a hybrid polyvinyl acetate, are tagged with iodine such that they yield sufficient X-ray attenuation contrast. However, phase-contrast effects at material edges complicate image quality and segmentation in XCT data reconstructed with conventional filtered backprojection absorption contrast algorithms. A quantitative phase retrieval algorithm, which isolates and removes the phase-contrast effect, was demonstrated. The paper discusses and illustrates the balance between material X-ray attenuation and phase-contrast effects in all quantitative XCT analyses of wood-adhesive bondlines.

  6. Intact Imaging of Human Heart Structure Using X-ray Phase-Contrast Tomography.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Yukihiro; Shinohara, Gen; Hoshino, Masato; Morishita, Hiroyuki; Morita, Kiyozo; Oshima, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Masashi; Yagi, Naoto; Okita, Yutaka; Tsukube, Takuro

    2017-02-01

    Structural examination of human heart specimens at the microscopic level is a prerequisite for understanding congenital heart diseases. It is desirable not to destroy or alter the properties of such specimens because of their scarcity. However, many of the currently available imaging techniques either destroy the specimen through sectioning or alter the chemical and mechanical properties of the specimen through staining and contrast agent injection. As a result, subsequent studies may not be possible. X-ray phase-contrast tomography is an imaging modality for biological soft tissues that does not destroy or alter the properties of the specimen. The feasibility of X-ray phase-contrast tomography for the structural examination of heart specimens was tested using infantile and fetal heart specimens without congenital diseases. X-ray phase-contrast tomography was carried out at the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility using the Talbot grating interferometer at the bending magnet beamline BL20B2 to visualize the structure of five non-pretreated whole heart specimens obtained by autopsy. High-resolution, three-dimensional images were obtained for all specimens. The images clearly showed the myocardial structure, coronary vessels, and conduction bundle. X-ray phase-contrast tomography allows high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging of human heart specimens. Intact imaging using X-ray phase-contrast tomography can contribute to further structural investigation of heart specimens with congenital heart diseases.

  7. Shared velocity encoding: a method to improve the temporal resolution of phase-contrast velocity measurements.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hung-Yu; Bender, Jacob A; Ding, Yu; Chung, Yiu-Cho; Hinton, Alice M; Pennell, Michael L; Whitehead, Kevin K; Raman, Subha V; Simonetti, Orlando P

    2012-09-01

    Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) is used routinely to measure fluid and tissue velocity with a variety of clinical applications. Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging methods require acquisition of additional data to enable phase difference reconstruction, making real-time imaging problematic. Shared Velocity Encoding (SVE), a method devised to improve the effective temporal resolution of phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging, was implemented in a real-time pulse sequence with segmented echo planar readout. The effect of SVE on peak velocity measurement was investigated in computer simulation, and peak velocities and total flow were measured in a flow phantom and in volunteers and compared with a conventional ECG-triggered, segmented k-space phase-contrast sequence as a reference standard. Computer simulation showed a 36% reduction in peak velocity error from 8.8 to 5.6% with SVE. A similar reduction of 40% in peak velocity error was shown in a pulsatile flow phantom. In the phantom and volunteers, volume flow did not differ significantly when measured with or without SVE. Peak velocity measurements made in the volunteers using SVE showed a higher concordance correlation (0.96) with the reference standard than non-SVE (0.87). The improvement in effective temporal resolution with SVE reconstruction has a positive impact on the precision and accuracy of real-time phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging peak velocity measurements.

  8. Design and development of a CPW-based 5-bit switched-line phase shifter using inline metal contact MEMS series switches for 17.25 GHz transmit/receive module application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Sukomal; Koul, Shiban K.

    2014-01-01

    A radio frequency micro-electro-mechanical system (RF-MEMS) phase shifter based on switchable delay line concept with maximum desirable phase shift and good reliability is presented in this paper. The phase shifter is based on the switchable reference and delay line configurations with inline metal contact series switches that employs MEMS systems based on electrostatic actuation and implemented using coplanar waveguide (CPW) configuration. Electromechanical behaviour of the MEMS switch has been extensively investigated using commercially available simulation tools and validated using system level simulation. A detailed design and performance analysis of the phase shifter has been carried out as a function of various structural parameters with reference to the gold-based surface micromachining process on alumina substrate. The mechanical, electrical, transient, intermodulation distortion (IMD) and loss performance of an MEMS switch have been experimentally investigated. The individual primary phase-bits (11.25°/22.5°/45°/90°/180°) that are fundamental building blocks of a complete 5-bit phase shifter have been designed, fabricated and experimentally characterized. Furthermore, two different 5-bit switched-line phase shifters, that lead to 25% size reduction and result in marked improvement in the reliability of the complete 5-bit phase shifter with 30 V actuation voltage, have been developed. The performance comparison between two different CPW-based switched-line phase shifters have been extensively investigated and validated. The complete 5-bit phase shifter demonstrates an average insertion loss of 5.4 dB with a return loss of better than 14 dB at 17.25 GHz. The maximum phase error of 1.3° has been obtained at 17.25 GHz from these 5-bit phase shifters.

  9. Single grating phase contrast imaging for x-ray microscopy and microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruyndonckx, P.; Sasov, A.; Pauwels, B.

    2014-09-01

    The grating based approach to phase contrast imaging is rather inefficient in the use of the available x-ray flux due to the presence of two absorption gratings and it requires longer scan times compared to conventional CT because multiple images are needed at each projection angle. To avoid these drawbacks, a proof-of-principle experiment was developed to obtain absorption, phase contrast (DPC) and dark field images (DCI) in a single exposure using only a non-absorbing phase grating, a micro-focus source in cone-beam geometry and a highresolution x-ray detector.

  10. Recent advances in synchrotron-based hard x-ray phase contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Nelson, J.; Holzner, C.; Andrews, J. C.; Pianetta, P.

    2013-12-01

    Ever since the first demonstration of phase contrast imaging (PCI) in the 1930s by Frits Zernike, people have realized the significant advantage of phase contrast over conventional absorption-based imaging in terms of sensitivity to ‘transparent’ features within specimens. Thus, x-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) holds great potential in studies of soft biological tissues, typically containing low Z elements such as C, H, O and N. Particularly when synchrotron hard x-rays are employed, the favourable brightness, energy tunability, monochromatic characteristics and penetration depth have dramatically enhanced the quality and variety of XPCI methods, which permit detection of the phase shift associated with 3D geometry of relatively large samples in a non-destructive manner. In this paper, we review recent advances in several synchrotron-based hard x-ray XPCI methods. Challenges and key factors in methodological development are discussed, and biological and medical applications are presented.

  11. Optical Fourier techniques for medical image processing and phase contrast imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yelleswarapu, Chandra S.; Kothapalli, Sri-Rajasekhar; Rao, D.V.G.L.N.

    2008-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the basics of optical Fourier techniques (OFT) and applications for medical image processing as well as phase contrast imaging of live biological specimens. Enhancement of microcalcifications in a mammogram for early diagnosis of breast cancer is the main focus. Various spatial filtering techniques such as conventional 4f filtering using a spatial mask, photoinduced polarization rotation in photosensitive materials, Fourier holography, and nonlinear transmission characteristics of optical materials are discussed for processing mammograms. We also reviewed how the intensity dependent refractive index can be exploited as a phase filter for phase contrast imaging with a coherent source. This novel approach represents a significant advance in phase contrast microscopy. PMID:18458764

  12. Refracting Roentgen's rays: Propagation-based x-ray phase contrast for biomedical imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gureyev, T. E.; Mayo, S. C.; Nesterets, Ya.; Pogany, A.; Stevenson, A. W.; Wilkins, S. W.; Myers, D. E.; Paganin, D. M.

    2009-05-15

    Absorption-contrast x-ray imaging serves to visualize the variation in x-ray attenuation within the volume of a given sample, whereas phase contrast allows one to visualize variations in x-ray refractive index. The former imaging mechanism has been well known and widely utilized since the time of Roentgen's Nobel prize winning work, whereas the latter mechanism--sought for, but not found, by Roentgen himself--has laid the foundation for a revolution in x-ray imaging which is the central topic of this review. We consider the physical imaging mechanisms underlying both absorption contrast and phase contrast, together with the associated inverse problem of how one may obtain quantitative two- or three-dimensional information regarding a sample, given one or more phase-contrast images of the same. Practical questions are considered, regarding optimized phase-contrast imaging geometries as a function of detector resolution, source size, x-ray spectrum, and dose. Experimental examples pertaining to biomedical applications are given, and prospects for the future outlined.

  13. In vitro motility of cells from human epidermoid carcinomas. A study by phase-contrast and reflection-contrast cinematography.

    PubMed

    Haemmerli, G; Sträuli, P

    1981-05-15

    The motile behavior of six cell lines derived from human squamous carcinomas (two from the larynx, four from the tongue) was studied by cinematography under phase- and reflection-contrast illumination. The recorded cell activities consist in spreading, stationary and translocation motility, and aggregate formation. Within this common pattern, quantitative modifications ("sub-pattern") are stable properties of the individual cells lines. Such modifications are particularly evident with regard to the dynamic texture of the aggregates which ranges from loose, netlike structures to compact islands with smooth borders. Accordingly, the intensity of cell traffic within and around the aggregates varies considerably. It is discussed to what extent the in vitro motility of the carcinoma cell populations reflects their behavior in the organism and thus the significance of cell movements for invasion.

  14. Breast tumor segmentation in high resolution x-ray phase contrast analyzer based computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Brun, E.; Grandl, S.; Sztrókay-Gaul, A.; Gasilov, S.; Barbone, G.; Mittone, A.; Coan, P.; Bravin, A.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Phase contrast computed tomography has emerged as an imaging method, which is able to outperform present day clinical mammography in breast tumor visualization while maintaining an equivalent average dose. To this day, no segmentation technique takes into account the specificity of the phase contrast signal. In this study, the authors propose a new mathematical framework for human-guided breast tumor segmentation. This method has been applied to high-resolution images of excised human organs, each of several gigabytes. Methods: The authors present a segmentation procedure based on the viscous watershed transform and demonstrate the efficacy of this method on analyzer based phase contrast images. The segmentation of tumors inside two full human breasts is then shown as an example of this procedure’s possible applications. Results: A correct and precise identification of the tumor boundaries was obtained and confirmed by manual contouring performed independently by four experienced radiologists. Conclusions: The authors demonstrate that applying the watershed viscous transform allows them to perform the segmentation of tumors in high-resolution x-ray analyzer based phase contrast breast computed tomography images. Combining the additional information provided by the segmentation procedure with the already high definition of morphological details and tissue boundaries offered by phase contrast imaging techniques, will represent a valuable multistep procedure to be used in future medical diagnostic applications.

  15. Phase Quantization Study of Spatial Light Modulator for Extreme High-contrast Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Jiangpei; Ren, Deqing

    2016-11-01

    Direct imaging of exoplanets by reflected starlight is extremely challenging due to the large luminosity ratio to the primary star. Wave-front control is a critical technique to attenuate the speckle noise in order to achieve an extremely high contrast. We present a phase quantization study of a spatial light modulator (SLM) for wave-front control to meet the contrast requirement of detection of a terrestrial planet in the habitable zone of a solar-type star. We perform the numerical simulation by employing the SLM with different phase accuracy and actuator numbers, which are related to the achievable contrast. We use an optimization algorithm to solve the quantization problems that is matched to the controllable phase step of the SLM. Two optical configurations are discussed with the SLM located before and after the coronagraph focal plane mask. The simulation result has constrained the specification for SLM phase accuracy in the above two optical configurations, which gives us a phase accuracy of 0.4/1000 and 1/1000 waves to achieve a contrast of 10-10. Finally, we have demonstrated that an SLM with more actuators can deliver a competitive contrast performance on the order of 10-10 in comparison to that by using a deformable mirror.

  16. Beam hardening effects in grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chabior, Michael; Donath, Tilman; David, Christian; Bunk, Oliver; Schuster, Manfred; Schroer, Christian; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: In this work, the authors investigate how beam hardening affects the image formation in x-ray phase-contrast imaging and consecutively develop a correction algorithm based on the results of the analysis. Methods: The authors' approach utilizes a recently developed x-ray imaging technique using a grating interferometer capable of visualizing the differential phase shift of a wave front traversing an object. An analytical description of beam hardening is given, highlighting differences between attenuation and phase-contrast imaging. The authors present exemplary beam hardening artifacts for a number of well-defined samples in measurements at a compact laboratory setup using a polychromatic source. Results: Despite the differences in image formation, the authors show that beam hardening leads to a similar reduction of image quality in phase-contrast imaging as in conventional attenuation-contrast imaging. Additionally, the authors demonstrate that for homogeneous objects, beam hardening artifacts can be corrected by a linearization technique, applicable to all kinds of phase-contrast methods using polychromatic sources. Conclusions: The evaluated correction algorithm is shown to yield good results for a number of simple test objects and can thus be advocated in medical imaging and nondestructive testing.

  17. Development of a prototype gantry system for preclinical x-ray phase-contrast computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Tapfer, Arne; Bech, Martin; Pauwels, Bart; Liu Xuan; Bruyndonckx, Peter; Sasov, Alexander; Kenntner, Johannes; Mohr, Juergen; Walter, Marco; Schulz, Joachim; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To explore the potential of grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging for clinical applications, a first compact gantry system was developed. It is designed such that it can be implemented into an in-vivo small-animal phase-contrast computed tomography (PC-CT) scanner. The purpose of the present study is to assess the accuracy and quantitativeness of the described gantry in both absorption and phase-contrast. Methods: A phantom, containing six chemically well-defined liquids, was constructed. A tomography scan with cone-beam reconstruction of this phantom was performed yielding the spatial distribution of the linear attenuation coefficient {mu} and decrement {delta} of the complex refractive index. Theoretical values of {mu} and {delta} were calculated for each liquid from tabulated data and compared with the experimentally measured values. Additionally, a color-fused image representation is proposed to display the complementary absorption and phase-contrast information in a single image. Results: Experimental and calculated data of the phantom agree well confirming the quantitativeness and accuracy of the reconstructed spatial distributions of {mu} and {delta}. The proposed color-fused image representation, which combines the complementary absorption and phase information, considerably helps in distinguishing the individual substances. Conclusions: The concept of grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) can be implemented into a compact, cone-beam geometry gantry setup. The authors believe that this work represents an important milestone in translating phase-contrast x-ray imaging from previous proof-of-principle experiments to first preclinical biomedical imaging applications on small-animal models.

  18. Coherent noise reduction in digital holographic phase contrast microscopy by slightly shifting object.

    PubMed

    Pan, Feng; Xiao, Wen; Liu, Shuo; Wang, FanJing; Rong, Lu; Li, Rui

    2011-02-28

    A method to reduce coherent noise in digital holographic phase contrast microscopy is proposed. By slightly shifting the specimen, a series of digital holograms with different coherent noise patterns is recorded. Each hologram is reconstructed individually, while the different phase tilts of the reconstructed complex amplitudes due to the specimen shifts are corrected in the hologram plane by using numerical parametric lens method. Afterward, the lateral displacements of the phase maps from different holograms are compensated in the image plane by using digital image registration method. Thus, all phase images have same distribution, but uncorrelated coherent noise patterns. By a proper averaging procedure, the coherent noise of phase contrast image is reduced significantly. The experimental results are given to confirm the proposed method.

  19. Interferometric hard x-ray phase contrast imaging at 204 nm grating period

    SciTech Connect

    Wen Han; Gomella, Andrew A.; Miao, Houxun; Lynch, Susanna K.; Wolfe, Douglas E.; Xiao Xianghui; Liu Chian; Morgan, Nicole

    2013-01-15

    We report on hard x-ray phase contrast imaging experiments using a grating interferometer of approximately 1/10th the grating period achieved in previous studies. We designed the gratings as a staircase array of multilayer stacks which are fabricated in a single thin film deposition process. We performed the experiments at 19 keV x-ray energy and 0.8 {mu}m pixel resolution. The small grating period resulted in clear separation of different diffraction orders and multiple images on the detector. A slitted beam was used to remove overlap of the images from the different diffraction orders. The phase contrast images showed detailed features as small as 10 {mu}m, and demonstrated the feasibility of high resolution x-ray phase contrast imaging with nanometer scale gratings.

  20. Inclusion of coherence in Monte Carlo models for simulation of x-ray phase contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Cipiccia, Silvia; Vittoria, Fabio A; Weikum, Maria; Olivo, Alessandro; Jaroszynski, Dino A

    2014-09-22

    Interest in phase contrast imaging methods based on electromagnetic wave coherence has increased significantly recently, particularly at X-ray energies. This is giving rise to a demand for effective simulation methods. Coherent imaging approaches are usually based on wave optics, which require significant computational resources, particularly for producing 2D images. Monte Carlo (MC) methods, used to track individual particles/photons for particle physics, are not considered appropriate for describing coherence effects. Previous preliminary work has evaluated the possibility of incorporating coherence in Monte Carlo codes. However, in this paper, we present the implementation of refraction in a model that is based on time of flight calculations and the Huygens-Fresnel principle, which allow reproducing the formation of phase contrast images in partially and fully coherent experimental conditions. The model is implemented in the FLUKA Monte Carlo code and X-ray phase contrast imaging simulations are compared with experiments and wave optics calculations.

  1. Efficient linear phase contrast in scanning transmission electron microscopy with matched illumination and detector interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Pierce, Jordan; Harvey, Tyler R.; Chess, Jordan; McMorran, Benjamin J.; Czarnik, Cory; Rose, Harald H.; Ercius, Peter

    2016-02-01

    The ability to image light elements in soft matter at atomic resolution enables unprecedented insight into the structure and properties of molecular heterostructures and beam-sensitive nanomaterials. In this study, we introduce a scanning transmission electron microscopy technique combining a pre-specimen phase plate designed to produce a probe with structured phase with a high-speed direct electron detector to generate nearly linear contrast images with high efficiency. We demonstrate this method by using both experiment and simulation to simultaneously image the atomic-scale structure of weakly scattering amorphous carbon and strongly scattering gold nanoparticles. Our method demonstrates strong contrast for both materials, making it a promising candidate for structural determination of heterogeneous soft/hard matter samples even at low electron doses comparable to traditional phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy. Simulated images demonstrate the extension of this technique to the challenging problem of structural determination of biological material at the surface of inorganic crystals.

  2. Color-coded LED microscopy for multi-contrast and quantitative phase-gradient imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Donghak; Ryu, Suho; Kim, Uihan; Jung, Daeseong; Joo, Chulmin

    2015-01-01

    We present a multi-contrast microscope based on color-coded illumination and computation. A programmable three-color light-emitting diode (LED) array illuminates a specimen, in which each color corresponds to a different illumination angle. A single color image sensor records light transmitted through the specimen, and images at each color channel are then separated and utilized to obtain bright-field, dark-field, and differential phase contrast (DPC) images simultaneously. Quantitative phase imaging is also achieved based on DPC images acquired with two different LED illumination patterns. The multi-contrast and quantitative phase imaging capabilities of our method are demonstrated by presenting images of various transparent biological samples. PMID:26713205

  3. Interferometric hard x-ray phase contrast imaging at 204 nm grating period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Han; Wolfe, Douglas E.; Gomella, Andrew A.; Miao, Houxun; Xiao, Xianghui; Liu, Chian; Lynch, Susanna K.; Morgan, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    We report on hard x-ray phase contrast imaging experiments using a grating interferometer of approximately 1/10th the grating period achieved in previous studies. We designed the gratings as a staircase array of multilayer stacks which are fabricated in a single thin film deposition process. We performed the experiments at 19 keV x-ray energy and 0.8 μm pixel resolution. The small grating period resulted in clear separation of different diffraction orders and multiple images on the detector. A slitted beam was used to remove overlap of the images from the different diffraction orders. The phase contrast images showed detailed features as small as 10 μm, and demonstrated the feasibility of high resolution x-ray phase contrast imaging with nanometer scale gratings.

  4. Efficient linear phase contrast in scanning transmission electron microscopy with matched illumination and detector interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Pierce, Jordan; Harvey, Tyler R.; Chess, Jordan; McMorran, Benjamin J.; Czarnik, Cory; Rose, Harald H.; Ercius, Peter

    2016-02-29

    The ability to image light elements in soft matter at atomic resolution enables unprecedented insight into the structure and properties of molecular heterostructures and beam-sensitive nanomaterials. In this study, we introduce a scanning transmission electron microscopy technique combining a pre-specimen phase plate designed to produce a probe with structured phase with a high-speed direct electron detector to generate nearly linear contrast images with high efficiency. We demonstrate this method by using both experiment and simulation to simultaneously image the atomic-scale structure of weakly scattering amorphous carbon and strongly scattering gold nanoparticles. Our method demonstrates strong contrast for both materials, making it a promising candidate for structural determination of heterogeneous soft/hard matter samples even at low electron doses comparable to traditional phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy. Ultimately, simulated images demonstrate the extension of this technique to the challenging problem of structural determination of biological material at the surface of inorganic crystals.

  5. Efficient linear phase contrast in scanning transmission electron microscopy with matched illumination and detector interferometry.

    PubMed

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Pierce, Jordan; Harvey, Tyler R; Chess, Jordan; McMorran, Benjamin J; Czarnik, Cory; Rose, Harald H; Ercius, Peter

    2016-02-29

    The ability to image light elements in soft matter at atomic resolution enables unprecedented insight into the structure and properties of molecular heterostructures and beam-sensitive nanomaterials. In this study, we introduce a scanning transmission electron microscopy technique combining a pre-specimen phase plate designed to produce a probe with structured phase with a high-speed direct electron detector to generate nearly linear contrast images with high efficiency. We demonstrate this method by using both experiment and simulation to simultaneously image the atomic-scale structure of weakly scattering amorphous carbon and strongly scattering gold nanoparticles. Our method demonstrates strong contrast for both materials, making it a promising candidate for structural determination of heterogeneous soft/hard matter samples even at low electron doses comparable to traditional phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy. Simulated images demonstrate the extension of this technique to the challenging problem of structural determination of biological material at the surface of inorganic crystals.

  6. Myelinated mouse nerves studied by X-ray phase contrast zoom tomography.

    PubMed

    Bartels, M; Krenkel, M; Cloetens, P; Möbius, W; Salditt, T

    2015-12-01

    We have used X-ray phase contrast tomography to resolve the structure of uncut, entire myelinated optic, saphenous and sciatic mouse nerves. Intrinsic electron density contrast suffices to identify axonal structures. Specific myelin labeling by an osmium tetroxide stain enables distinction between axon and surrounding myelin sheath. Utilization of spherical wave illumination enables zooming capabilities which enable imaging of entire sciatic internodes as well as identification of sub-structures such as nodes of Ranvier and Schmidt-Lanterman incisures.

  7. High speed optical phased array using high contrast grating all-pass filters.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weijian; Sun, Tianbo; Rao, Yi; Megens, Mischa; Chan, Trevor; Yoo, Byung-Wook; Horsley, David A; Wu, Ming C; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J

    2014-08-25

    We report a high speed 8x8 optical phased array using tunable 1550 nm all-pass filters with ultrathin high contrast gratings (HCGs) as the microelectromechanical-actuated top reflectors. The all-pass filter design enables a highly efficient phase tuning (1.7 π) with a small actuation voltage (10 V) and actuation displacement of the HCG (50 nm). The microelectromechanical HCG structure facilitates a high phase tuning speed >0.5 MHz. Beam steering is experimentally demonstrated with the optical phased array.

  8. Phase contrast imaging simulation and measurements using polychromatic sources with small source-object distances

    SciTech Connect

    Golosio, Bruno; Carpinelli, Massimo; Masala, Giovanni Luca; Oliva, Piernicola; Stumbo, Simone; Delogu, Pasquale; Zanette, Irene; Stefanini, Arnaldo

    2008-11-01

    Phase contrast imaging is a technique widely used in synchrotron facilities for nondestructive analysis. Such technique can also be implemented through microfocus x-ray tube systems. Recently, a relatively new type of compact, quasimonochromatic x-ray sources based on Compton backscattering has been proposed for phase contrast imaging applications. In order to plan a phase contrast imaging system setup, to evaluate the system performance and to choose the experimental parameters that optimize the image quality, it is important to have reliable software for phase contrast imaging simulation. Several software tools have been developed and tested against experimental measurements at synchrotron facilities devoted to phase contrast imaging. However, many approximations that are valid in such conditions (e.g., large source-object distance, small transverse size of the object, plane wave approximation, monochromatic beam, and Gaussian-shaped source focal spot) are not generally suitable for x-ray tubes and other compact systems. In this work we describe a general method for the simulation of phase contrast imaging using polychromatic sources based on a spherical wave description of the beam and on a double-Gaussian model of the source focal spot, we discuss the validity of some possible approximations, and we test the simulations against experimental measurements using a microfocus x-ray tube on three types of polymers (nylon, poly-ethylene-terephthalate, and poly-methyl-methacrylate) at varying source-object distance. It will be shown that, as long as all experimental conditions are described accurately in the simulations, the described method yields results that are in good agreement with experimental measurements.

  9. Simulation of single grid-based phase-contrast x-ray imaging (g-PCXI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H. W.; Lee, H. W.; Cho, H. S.; Je, U. K.; Park, C. K.; Kim, K. S.; Kim, G. A.; Park, S. Y.; Lee, D. Y.; Park, Y. O.; Woo, T. H.; Lee, S. H.; Chung, W. H.; Kim, J. W.; Kim, J. G.

    2017-04-01

    Single grid-based phase-contrast x-ray imaging (g-PCXI) technique, which was recently proposed by Wen et al. to retrieve absorption, scattering, and phase-gradient images from the raw image of the examined object, seems a practical method for phase-contrast imaging with great simplicity and minimal requirements on the setup alignment. In this work, we developed a useful simulation platform for g-PCXI and performed a simulation to demonstrate its viability. We also established a table-top setup for g-PCXI which consists of a focused-linear grid (200-lines/in strip density), an x-ray tube (100-μm focal spot size), and a flat-panel detector (48-μm pixel size) and performed a preliminary experiment with some samples to show the performance of the simulation platform. We successfully obtained phase-contrast x-ray images of much enhanced contrast from both the simulation and experiment and the simulated contract seemed similar to the experimental contrast, which shows the performance of the developed simulation platform. We expect that the simulation platform will be useful for designing an optimal g-PCXI system.

  10. Phase-contrast Hounsfield units of fixated and non-fixated soft-tissue samples

    SciTech Connect

    Willner, Marian; Fior, Gabriel; Marschner, Mathias; Birnbacher, Lorenz; Schock, Jonathan; Braun, Christian; Fingerle, Alexander A.; Noël, Peter B.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Herzen, Julia; Rozhkova, Elena A.

    2015-08-31

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging is a novel technology that achieves high soft-tissue contrast. Although its clinical impact is still under investigation, the technique may potentially improve clinical diagnostics. In conventional attenuation-based X-ray computed tomography, radiological diagnostics are quantified by Hounsfield units. Corresponding Hounsfield units for phase-contrast imaging have been recently introduced, enabling a setup-independent comparison and standardized interpretation of imaging results. Thus far, the experimental values of few tissue types have been reported; these values have been determined from fixated tissue samples. This study presents phase-contrast Hounsfield units for various types of non-fixated human soft tissues. A large variety of tissue specimens ranging from adipose, muscle and connective tissues to liver, kidney and pancreas tissues were imaged by a grating interferometer with a rotating-anode X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. In addition, we investigated the effects of formalin fixation on the quantitative phase-contrast imaging results.

  11. Phase-contrast Hounsfield units of fixated and non-fixated soft-tissue samples

    DOE PAGES

    Willner, Marian; Fior, Gabriel; Marschner, Mathias; ...

    2015-08-31

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging is a novel technology that achieves high soft-tissue contrast. Although its clinical impact is still under investigation, the technique may potentially improve clinical diagnostics. In conventional attenuation-based X-ray computed tomography, radiological diagnostics are quantified by Hounsfield units. Corresponding Hounsfield units for phase-contrast imaging have been recently introduced, enabling a setup-independent comparison and standardized interpretation of imaging results. Thus far, the experimental values of few tissue types have been reported; these values have been determined from fixated tissue samples. This study presents phase-contrast Hounsfield units for various types of non-fixated human soft tissues. A large variety of tissuemore » specimens ranging from adipose, muscle and connective tissues to liver, kidney and pancreas tissues were imaged by a grating interferometer with a rotating-anode X-ray tube and a photon-counting detector. In addition, we investigated the effects of formalin fixation on the quantitative phase-contrast imaging results.« less

  12. Dual-modality endomicroscopy with co-registered fluorescence and phase contrast

    PubMed Central

    Ba, C.; Palmiere, M.; Ritt, J.; Mertz, J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a dual-modality laser scanning endomicroscope that provides simultaneous fluorescence contrast based on confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) and phase-gradient contrast based on scanning oblique back-scattering microscopy (sOBM). The probe consists of a 2.6mm-diameter micro-objective attached to a 30,000-core flexible fiber bundle. The dual contrasts are inherently co-registered, providing complementary information on labeled and un-labeled sample structure. Proof of principle demonstrations are presented with ex-vivo mouse colon tissue. PMID:27699107

  13. A Broad-Band Phase-Contrast Wave-Front Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloemhof, Eric; Wallace, J. Kent

    2005-01-01

    A broadband phase-contrast wave-front sensor has been proposed as a real-time wave-front sensor in an adaptive-optics system. The proposed sensor would offer an alternative to the Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensors now used in high-order adaptive-optics systems of some astronomical telescopes. Broadband sensing gives higher sensitivity than does narrow-band sensing, and it appears that for a given bandwidth, the sensitivity of the proposed phase-contrast sensor could exceed that of a Shack-Hartmann sensor. Relative to a Shack-Hartmann sensor, the proposed sensor may be optically and mechanically simpler. As described below, an important element of the principle of operation of a phase-contrast wave-front sensor is the imposition of a 90deg phase shift between diffracted and undiffracted parts of the same light beam. In the proposed sensor, this phase shift would be obtained by utilizing the intrinsic 90 phase shift between the transmitted and reflected beams in an ideal (thin, symmetric) beam splitter. This phase shift can be characterized as achromatic or broadband because it is 90deg at every wavelength over a broad wavelength range.

  14. Phase-contrast enhanced mammography: A new diagnostic tool for breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhentian; Thuering, Thomas; David, Christian; Roessl, Ewald; Trippel, Mafalda; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Singer, Gad; Hohl, Michael K.; Hauser, Nik; Stampanoni, Marco

    2012-07-01

    Phase contrast and scattering-based X-ray imaging can potentially revolutionize the radiological approach to breast imaging by providing additional and complementary information to conventional, absorption-based methods. We investigated native, non-fixed whole breast samples using a grating interferometer with an X-ray tube-based configuration. Our approach simultaneously recorded absorption, differential phase contrast and small-angle scattering signals. The results show that this novel technique - combined with a dedicated image fusion algorithm - has the potential to deliver enhanced breast imaging with complementary information for an improved diagnostic process.

  15. Phase-contrast enhanced mammography: A new diagnostic tool for breast imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhentian; Thuering, Thomas; David, Christian; Roessl, Ewald; Trippel, Mafalda; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Singer, Gad; Hohl, Michael K.; Hauser, Nik; Stampanoni, Marco

    2012-07-31

    Phase contrast and scattering-based X-ray imaging can potentially revolutionize the radiological approach to breast imaging by providing additional and complementary information to conventional, absorption-based methods. We investigated native, non-fixed whole breast samples using a grating interferometer with an X-ray tube-based configuration. Our approach simultaneously recorded absorption, differential phase contrast and small-angle scattering signals. The results show that this novel technique - combined with a dedicated image fusion algorithm - has the potential to deliver enhanced breast imaging with complementary information for an improved diagnostic process.

  16. Investigation of suitable biopsy markers for grating-based phase contrast mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arboleda, C.; Wang, Z.; Forte, S.; Kubik-Huch, R. A.; Stampanoni, M.

    2017-01-01

    Phase-contrast mammography is a rising technology where, in addition to X-ray absorption, images show phase and dark-field contrast. Although the use of biopsy markers constitutes a fundamental task in breast examinations, there has not been any investigation concerning appropriate clips for this technology. We studied the suitability of three markers (Tumark, Somatex Medical Technologies; Hydromark, Mammotome; and Mammostar, Mammotome) for this modality on a laboratory source setup using a chicken breast phantom. The first two clips appeared to be innocuous, whereas Mammostar showed the potential that the non-metallic portion only could be used as a marker for this technique.

  17. Phase contrast x-ray microscopy study of rabbit primo vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M.-S.; Oh, S.-W.; Lim, J.-H.; Han, S.-W.

    2010-11-01

    The microstructural properties of the primo-vascular systems of rabbits were examined by phase contrast x-ray microscopy. The primo-vascular systems with an average diameter of 32 μm were extracted from the surfaces of the rabbit internal organs. Phase contrast x-ray imaging showed that the primo-vascular systems were tubules with random holes on their lateral surfaces. The size of the holes on the vascular surface was 2-5 μm. The holes might act as size selective channels for microcells coming in and out and assist in the unidirectional flow of the primo-vascular systems.

  18. Optimization of propagation-based x-ray phase-contrast tomography for breast cancer imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, P.; Pacile, S.; Nesterets, Y. I.; Mayo, S. C.; Dullin, C.; Dreossi, D.; Arfelli, F.; Thompson, D.; Lockie, D.; McCormack, M.; Taba, S. T.; Brun, F.; Pinamonti, M.; Nickson, C.; Hall, C.; Dimmock, M.; Zanconati, F.; Cholewa, M.; Quiney, H.; Brennan, P. C.; Tromba, G.; Gureyev, T. E.

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to optimise the experimental protocol and data analysis for in-vivo breast cancer x-ray imaging. Results are presented of the experiment at the SYRMEP beamline of Elettra Synchrotron using the propagation-based phase-contrast mammographic tomography method, which incorporates not only absorption, but also x-ray phase information. In this study the images of breast tissue samples, of a size corresponding to a full human breast, with radiologically acceptable x-ray doses were obtained, and the degree of improvement of the image quality (from the diagnostic point of view) achievable using propagation-based phase-contrast image acquisition protocols with proper incorporation of x-ray phase retrieval into the reconstruction pipeline was investigated. Parameters such as the x-ray energy, sample-to-detector distance and data processing methods were tested, evaluated and optimized with respect to the estimated diagnostic value using a mastectomy sample with a malignant lesion. The results of quantitative evaluation of images were obtained by means of radiological assessment carried out by 13 experienced specialists. A comparative analysis was performed between the x-ray and the histological images of the specimen. The results of the analysis indicate that, within the investigated range of parameters, both the objective image quality characteristics and the subjective radiological scores of propagation-based phase-contrast images of breast tissues monotonically increase with the strength of phase contrast which in turn is directly proportional to the product of the radiation wavelength and the sample-to-detector distance. The outcomes of this study serve to define the practical imaging conditions and the CT reconstruction procedures appropriate for low-dose phase-contrast mammographic imaging of live patients at specially designed synchrotron beamlines.

  19. Optimization of propagation-based x-ray phase-contrast tomography for breast cancer imaging.

    PubMed

    Baran, P; Pacile, S; Nesterets, Y I; Mayo, S C; Dullin, C; Dreossi, D; Arfelli, F; Thompson, D; Lockie, D; McCormack, M; Taba, S T; Brun, F; Pinamonti, M; Nickson, C; Hall, C; Dimmock, M; Zanconati, F; Cholewa, M; Quiney, H; Brennan, P C; Tromba, G; Gureyev, T E

    2017-03-21

    The aim of this study was to optimise the experimental protocol and data analysis for in-vivo breast cancer x-ray imaging. Results are presented of the experiment at the SYRMEP beamline of Elettra Synchrotron using the propagation-based phase-contrast mammographic tomography method, which incorporates not only absorption, but also x-ray phase information. In this study the images of breast tissue samples, of a size corresponding to a full human breast, with radiologically acceptable x-ray doses were obtained, and the degree of improvement of the image quality (from the diagnostic point of view) achievable using propagation-based phase-contrast image acquisition protocols with proper incorporation of x-ray phase retrieval into the reconstruction pipeline was investigated. Parameters such as the x-ray energy, sample-to-detector distance and data processing methods were tested, evaluated and optimized with respect to the estimated diagnostic value using a mastectomy sample with a malignant lesion. The results of quantitative evaluation of images were obtained by means of radiological assessment carried out by 13 experienced specialists. A comparative analysis was performed between the x-ray and the histological images of the specimen. The results of the analysis indicate that, within the investigated range of parameters, both the objective image quality characteristics and the subjective radiological scores of propagation-based phase-contrast images of breast tissues monotonically increase with the strength of phase contrast which in turn is directly proportional to the product of the radiation wavelength and the sample-to-detector distance. The outcomes of this study serve to define the practical imaging conditions and the CT reconstruction procedures appropriate for low-dose phase-contrast mammographic imaging of live patients at specially designed synchrotron beamlines.

  20. X-ray phase contrast tomography by tracking near field speckle

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongchang; Berujon, Sebastien; Herzen, Julia; Atwood, Robert; Laundy, David; Hipp, Alexander; Sawhney, Kawal

    2015-01-01

    X-ray imaging techniques that capture variations in the x-ray phase can yield higher contrast images with lower x-ray dose than is possible with conventional absorption radiography. However, the extraction of phase information is often more difficult than the extraction of absorption information and requires a more sophisticated experimental arrangement. We here report a method for three-dimensional (3D) X-ray phase contrast computed tomography (CT) which gives quantitative volumetric information on the real part of the refractive index. The method is based on the recently developed X-ray speckle tracking technique in which the displacement of near field speckle is tracked using a digital image correlation algorithm. In addition to differential phase contrast projection images, the method allows the dark-field images to be simultaneously extracted. After reconstruction, compared to conventional absorption CT images, the 3D phase CT images show greatly enhanced contrast. This new imaging method has advantages compared to other X-ray imaging methods in simplicity of experimental arrangement, speed of measurement and relative insensitivity to beam movements. These features make the technique an attractive candidate for material imaging such as in-vivo imaging of biological systems containing soft tissue. PMID:25735237

  1. X-ray phase contrast tomography by tracking near field speckle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongchang; Berujon, Sebastien; Herzen, Julia; Atwood, Robert; Laundy, David; Hipp, Alexander; Sawhney, Kawal

    2015-03-01

    X-ray imaging techniques that capture variations in the x-ray phase can yield higher contrast images with lower x-ray dose than is possible with conventional absorption radiography. However, the extraction of phase information is often more difficult than the extraction of absorption information and requires a more sophisticated experimental arrangement. We here report a method for three-dimensional (3D) X-ray phase contrast computed tomography (CT) which gives quantitative volumetric information on the real part of the refractive index. The method is based on the recently developed X-ray speckle tracking technique in which the displacement of near field speckle is tracked using a digital image correlation algorithm. In addition to differential phase contrast projection images, the method allows the dark-field images to be simultaneously extracted. After reconstruction, compared to conventional absorption CT images, the 3D phase CT images show greatly enhanced contrast. This new imaging method has advantages compared to other X-ray imaging methods in simplicity of experimental arrangement, speed of measurement and relative insensitivity to beam movements. These features make the technique an attractive candidate for material imaging such as in-vivo imaging of biological systems containing soft tissue.

  2. Theoretical analysis of x-ray CT phase-contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Sheng; Liu, Song; Zhang, Xuelong

    2008-12-01

    Recently phase contrast imaging has attracted much attention. An obvious advantage of using X-rays for imaging the internal structure of relatively thick samples lies in its high degree of penetration of solid objects. However, often leads to poor image contrast for soft tissue. Phase contrast imaging can be very useful in such situation, as the phase of the transmitted beam may often be more sensitive indicator of density of sample than convention contrast. On the other hand, Computed Tomography is the best technology in the aspect of X-rays detection. Using the technology, the detected object can be imaged to three-dimensional image, so as to observe the inner structure of object, and be convenient to the disease examination. If the phase contrast imaging can be used to the technology of Computed Tomography, the high resolution image can be gained. The technology will become the development orientation of medical image. The aim of this article was to apply the theory of X-rays phase contrast imaging to the traditional X-CT technique. For this purpose, the formula deduced from the imaging theory with parallel monochromatic X-rays illuminating the object based on the Fresnel-Kircohhof theory had been completed and a formula similar to that of the traditional X-CT reconstruction had been gained, which was Radon transform formula. At last, X-rays reconstruction simulation had been carried out according to the formula, and proved that the method could be used in clinical medical imaging. The method discussed in this paper had a very bright prospect for application.

  3. Experimental demonstration of passive coherent combining of fiber lasers by phase contrast filtering.

    PubMed

    Jeux, François; Desfarges-Berthelemot, Agnès; Kermène, Vincent; Barthelemy, Alain

    2012-12-17

    We report experiments on a new laser architecture involving phase contrast filtering to coherently combine an array of fiber lasers. We demonstrate that the new technique yields a more stable phase-locking than standard methods using only amplitude filtering. A spectral analysis of the output beams shows that the new scheme generates more resonant frequencies common to the coupled lasers. This property can enhance the combining efficiency when the number of lasers to be coupled is large.

  4. Terahertz in-line digital holography of human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue.

    PubMed

    Rong, Lu; Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Chen, Chunhai; Wang, Dayong; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Xun; Li, Zeyu; Huang, Haochong; Wang, Yunxin; Zhou, Zhou

    2015-02-13

    Terahertz waves provide a better contrast in imaging soft biomedical tissues than X-rays, and unlike X-rays, they cause no ionisation damage, making them a good option for biomedical imaging. Terahertz absorption imaging has conventionally been used for cancer diagnosis. However, the absorption properties of a cancerous sample are influenced by two opposing factors: an increase in absorption due to a higher degree of hydration and a decrease in absorption due to structural changes. It is therefore difficult to diagnose cancer from an absorption image. Phase imaging can thus be critical for diagnostics. We demonstrate imaging of the absorption and phase-shift distributions of 3.2 mm × 2.3 mm × 30-μm-thick human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue by continuous-wave terahertz digital in-line holography. The acquisition time of a few seconds for a single in-line hologram is much shorter than that of other terahertz diagnostic techniques, and future detectors will allow acquisition of meaningful holograms without sample dehydration. The resolution of the reconstructions was enhanced by sub-pixel shifting and extrapolation. Another advantage of this technique is its relaxed minimal sample size limitation. The fibrosis indicated in the phase distribution demonstrates the potential of terahertz holographic imaging to obtain a more objective, early diagnosis of cancer.

  5. Terahertz in-line digital holography of human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Lu; Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Chen, Chunhai; Wang, Dayong; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Xun; Li, Zeyu; Huang, Haochong; Wang, Yunxin; Zhou, Zhou

    2015-02-01

    Terahertz waves provide a better contrast in imaging soft biomedical tissues than X-rays, and unlike X-rays, they cause no ionisation damage, making them a good option for biomedical imaging. Terahertz absorption imaging has conventionally been used for cancer diagnosis. However, the absorption properties of a cancerous sample are influenced by two opposing factors: an increase in absorption due to a higher degree of hydration and a decrease in absorption due to structural changes. It is therefore difficult to diagnose cancer from an absorption image. Phase imaging can thus be critical for diagnostics. We demonstrate imaging of the absorption and phase-shift distributions of 3.2 mm × 2.3 mm × 30-μm-thick human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue by continuous-wave terahertz digital in-line holography. The acquisition time of a few seconds for a single in-line hologram is much shorter than that of other terahertz diagnostic techniques, and future detectors will allow acquisition of meaningful holograms without sample dehydration. The resolution of the reconstructions was enhanced by sub-pixel shifting and extrapolation. Another advantage of this technique is its relaxed minimal sample size limitation. The fibrosis indicated in the phase distribution demonstrates the potential of terahertz holographic imaging to obtain a more objective, early diagnosis of cancer.

  6. Terahertz in-line digital holography of human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Lu; Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Chen, Chunhai; Wang, Dayong; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Xun; Li, Zeyu; Huang, Haochong; Wang, Yunxin; Zhou, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Terahertz waves provide a better contrast in imaging soft biomedical tissues than X-rays, and unlike X-rays, they cause no ionisation damage, making them a good option for biomedical imaging. Terahertz absorption imaging has conventionally been used for cancer diagnosis. However, the absorption properties of a cancerous sample are influenced by two opposing factors: an increase in absorption due to a higher degree of hydration and a decrease in absorption due to structural changes. It is therefore difficult to diagnose cancer from an absorption image. Phase imaging can thus be critical for diagnostics. We demonstrate imaging of the absorption and phase-shift distributions of 3.2 mm × 2.3 mm × 30-μm-thick human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue by continuous-wave terahertz digital in-line holography. The acquisition time of a few seconds for a single in-line hologram is much shorter than that of other terahertz diagnostic techniques, and future detectors will allow acquisition of meaningful holograms without sample dehydration. The resolution of the reconstructions was enhanced by sub-pixel shifting and extrapolation. Another advantage of this technique is its relaxed minimal sample size limitation. The fibrosis indicated in the phase distribution demonstrates the potential of terahertz holographic imaging to obtain a more objective, early diagnosis of cancer. PMID:25676705

  7. High-Resolution Phase-Contrast Imaging of Submicron Particles in Unstained Lung Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Schittny, J. C.; Barre, S. F.; Haberthuer, D.; Mokso, R.; Tsuda, A.; Stampanoni, M.

    2011-09-09

    To access the risks and chances of deposition of submicron particles in the gas-exchange area of the lung, a precise three-dimensional (3D)-localization of the sites of deposition is essential--especially because local peaks of deposition are expected in the acinar tree and in individual alveoli. In this study we developed the workflow for such an investigation. We administered 200-nm gold particles to young adult rats by intratracheal instillation. After fixation and paraffin embedding, their lungs were imaged unstained using synchrotron radiation x-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) at the beamline TOMCAT (Swiss Light Source, Villigen, Switzerland) at sample detector distances of 2.5 mm (absorption contrast) and of 52.5 mm (phase contrast). A segmentation based on a global threshold of grey levels was successfully done on absorption-contrast images for the gold and on the phase-contrast images for the tissue. The smallest spots containing gold possessed a size of 1-2 voxels of 370-nm side length. We conclude that a combination of phase and absorption contrast SRXTM imaging is necessary to obtain the correct segmentation of both tissue and gold particles. This method will be used for the 3D localization of deposited particles in the gas-exchange area of the lung.

  8. Hard X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging for Medical Applications - Physicist's Dream or Radiologist's Mainstream?

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, S. W.; Gureyev, T. E.; Mayo, S. C.; Nesterets, Ya. I.; Pogany, A.; Stevenson, A. W.; Paganin, D. M.

    2007-03-30

    We briefly review currently practiced methods of X-ray phase contrast imaging and consider some of their relative features, especially in regard to applicability to clinical medical studies. Various related technological issues and promising future areas of development are also briefly discussed.

  9. Table-top phase-contrast imaging employing photon-counting detectors towards mammographic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palma, K. D.; Pichotka, M.; Hasn, S.; Granja, C.

    2017-02-01

    In mammography the difficult task to detect microcalcifications (≈ 100 μm) and low contrast structures in the breast has been a topic of interest from its beginnings. The possibility to improve the image quality requires the effort to employ novel X-ray imaging techniques, such as phase-contrast, and high resolution detectors. Phase-contrast techniques are promising tools for medical diagnosis because they provide additional and complementary information to traditional absorption-based X-ray imaging methods. In this work a Hamamatsu microfocus X-ray source with tungsten anode and a photon counting detector (Timepix operated in Medipix mode) was used. A significant improvement in the detection of phase-effects using Medipix detector was observed in comparison to an standard flat-panel detector. An optimization of geometrical parameters reveals the dependency on the X-ray propagation path and the small angle deviation. The quantification of these effects was achieved taking into account the image noise, contrast, spatial resolution of the phase-enhancement, absorbed dose, and energy dependence.

  10. Kupffer-phase findings of hepatic hemangiomas in contrast-enhanced ultrasound with sonazoid.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Katsutoshi; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Saito, Kazuhiro; Yoshiara, Hiroki; Imai, Yasuharu

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess quantitatively the Kupffer-phase enhancement patterns of hepatic hemangiomas in contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with Sonazoid. A total of 46 patients with 46 hepatic hemangiomas (17.1 ± 6.2 mm in diameter, 34 typical type and 12 high-flow type) underwent CEUS in the Kupffer phase. The lesion-to-liver contrast ratio in the Kupffer phase was quantitatively assessed for both types of hemangioma. Most of the hepatic hemangiomas, whether or not they were the high-flow type, were iso- to hypo-echoic relative to the surrounding liver parenchyma. The contrast ratio was -5.33 ± 6.70 dB for the high-flow hemangiomas and -4.54 ± 6.28 dB for the typical hemangiomas. There was no significant difference in contrast ratio between the two types of lesions (p = 0.73). All of the hemangiomas, whether of typical or high-flow type, are iso- to hypo-echoic relative to the surrounding liver parenchyma on Kupffer-phase imaging.

  11. Benchmarking the x-ray phase contrast imaging for ICF DT ice characterization using roughened surrogates

    SciTech Connect

    Dewald, E; Kozioziemski, B; Moody, J; Koch, J; Mapoles, E; Montesanti, R; Youngblood, K; Letts, S; Nikroo, A; Sater, J; Atherton, J

    2008-06-26

    We use x-ray phase contrast imaging to characterize the inner surface roughness of DT ice layers in capsules planned for future ignition experiments. It is therefore important to quantify how well the x-ray data correlates with the actual ice roughness. We benchmarked the accuracy of our system using surrogates with fabricated roughness characterized with high precision standard techniques. Cylindrical artifacts with azimuthally uniform sinusoidal perturbations with 100 um period and 1 um amplitude demonstrated 0.02 um accuracy limited by the resolution of the imager and the source size of our phase contrast system. Spherical surrogates with random roughness close to that required for the DT ice for a successful ignition experiment were used to correlate the actual surface roughness to that obtained from the x-ray measurements. When comparing average power spectra of individual measurements, the accuracy mode number limits of the x-ray phase contrast system benchmarked against surface characterization performed by Atomic Force Microscopy are 60 and 90 for surrogates smoother and rougher than the required roughness for the ice. These agreement mode number limits are >100 when comparing matching individual measurements. We will discuss the implications for interpreting DT ice roughness data derived from phase-contrast x-ray imaging.

  12. Requirements for dynamical differential phase contrast x-ray imaging with a laboratory source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macindoe, David; Kitchen, Marcus J.; Irvine, Sarah C.; Fouras, Andreas; Morgan, Kaye S.

    2016-12-01

    X-ray phase contrast enables weakly-attenuating structures to be imaged, with bright synchrotron sources adding the ability to capture time sequences and analyse sample dynamics. Here, we describe the translation of dynamical differential phase contrast imaging from the synchrotron to a compact x-ray source, in order to achieve this kind of time sequence imaging in the laboratory. We formulate broadly-applicable set-up guidelines for the single-grid, single-exposure imaging technique using a divergent source, exploring the experimental factors that restrict set-up size, imaging sensitivity and sample size. Experimental images are presented using the single-grid phase contrast technique with a steel attenuation grid and a liquid-metal-jet x-ray source, enabling exposure times as short as 0.5 s for dynamic imaging. Differential phase contrast images were retrieved from phantoms, incorporating noise filtering to improve the low-count images encountered when imaging dynamics using short exposures.

  13. High-Resolution and Quantitative X-Ray Phase-Contrast Tomography for Mouse Brain Research.

    PubMed

    Xi, Yan; Lin, Xiaojie; Yuan, Falei; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Zhao, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Imaging techniques for visualizing cerebral vasculature and distinguishing functional areas are essential and critical to the study of various brain diseases. In this paper, with the X-ray phase-contrast imaging technique, we proposed an experiment scheme for the ex vivo mouse brain study, achieving both high spatial resolution and improved soft-tissue contrast. This scheme includes two steps: sample preparation and volume reconstruction. In the first step, we use heparinized saline to displace the blood inside cerebral vessels and then replace it with air making air-filled mouse brain. After sample preparation, X-ray phase-contrast tomography is performed to collect the data for volume reconstruction. Here, we adopt a phase-retrieval combined filtered backprojection method to reconstruct its three-dimensional structure and redesigned the reconstruction kernel. To evaluate its performance, we carried out experiments at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The results show that the air-tissue structured cerebral vasculatures are highly visible with propagation-based phase-contrast imaging and can be clearly resolved in reconstructed cross-images. Besides, functional areas, such as the corpus callosum, corpus striatum, and nuclei, are also clearly resolved. The proposed method is comparable with hematoxylin and eosin staining method but represents the studied mouse brain in three dimensions, offering a potential powerful tool for the research of brain disorders.

  14. Contrasting Mechanical Anisotropies of the Superfluid {sup 3}He Phases in Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D. I.; Fisher, S. N.; Guenault, A. M.; Haley, R. P.; O'Sullivan, S.; Pickett, G. R.; Roberts, J.; Tsepelin, V.; Mulders, N.

    2007-02-16

    There has been much recent interest in how impurity scattering may affect the phases of the p-wave superfluid {sup 3}He. Impurities may be added to the otherwise absolutely pure superfluid by immersing it in aerogel. Some predictions suggest that impurity scattering may destroy orientational order and force all of the superfluid phases to have an isotropic superfluid density. In contrast to this, we present experimental data showing that the response of the A-like phase to superfluid flow is highly anisotropic, revealing a texture that is easily modified by flow.

  15. Quantitative measurement of ultrasound pressure field by optical phase contrast method and acoustic holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, Seiji; Yasuda, Jun; Hanayama, Hiroki; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2016-07-01

    A fast and accurate measurement of an ultrasound field with various exposure sequences is necessary to ensure the efficacy and safety of various ultrasound applications in medicine. The most common method used to measure an ultrasound pressure field, that is, hydrophone scanning, requires a long scanning time and potentially disturbs the field. This may limit the efficiency of developing applications of ultrasound. In this study, an optical phase contrast method enabling fast and noninterfering measurements is proposed. In this method, the modulated phase of light caused by the focused ultrasound pressure field is measured. Then, a computed tomography (CT) algorithm used to quantitatively reconstruct a three-dimensional (3D) pressure field is applied. For a high-intensity focused ultrasound field, a new approach that combines the optical phase contrast method and acoustic holography was attempted. First, the optical measurement of focused ultrasound was rapidly performed over the field near a transducer. Second, the nonlinear propagation of the measured ultrasound was simulated. The result of the new approach agreed well with that of the measurement using a hydrophone and was improved from that of the phase contrast method alone with phase unwrapping.

  16. Lyot-plane phase masks for improved high-contrast imaging with a vortex coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruane, G. J.; Huby, E.; Absil, O.; Mawet, D.; Delacroix, C.; Carlomagno, B.; Swartzlander, G. A.

    2015-11-01

    Context. The vortex coronagraph is an optical instrument that precisely removes on-axis starlight allowing for high contrast imaging at small angular separation from the star, a crucial capability for direct detection and characterization of exoplanets and circumstellar disks. Telescopes with aperture obstructions, such as secondary mirrors and spider support structures, require advanced coronagraph designs to provide adequate starlight suppression. Aims: We introduce a phase-only Lyot-plane optic to the vortex coronagraph, which offers improved contrast performance on telescopes with complicated apertures. Potential solutions for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) are described. Methods: Adding a Lyot-plane phase mask relocates residual starlight away from a region of the image plane, thereby reducing stellar noise and improving sensitivity to off-axis companions. The phase mask is calculated using an iterative phase retrieval algorithm. Results: Numerically, we achieve a contrast on the order of 10-6 for a companion with angular displacement as small as 4λ/D with an E-ELT type aperture. Even in the presence of aberrations, improved performance is expected compared to either a conventional vortex coronagraph or an optimized pupil plane phase element alone.

  17. Simple broadband implementation of a phase contrast wavefront sensor for adaptive optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloemhof, E. E.; Wallace, J. K.

    2004-01-01

    The most critical element of an adaptive optics system is its wavefront sensor, which must measure the closed-loop difference between the corrected wavefront and an ideal template at high speed, in real time, over a dense sampling of the pupil. Most high-order systems have used Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors, but a novel approach based on Zernike's phase contrast principle appears promising. In this paper we discuss a simple way to achromatize such a phase contrast wavefront sensor, using the pi/2 phase difference between reflected and transmitted rays in a thin, symmetric beam splitter. We further model the response at a range of wavelengths to show that the required transverse dimension of the focal-plane phase-shifting spot, nominally lambda/D, may not be very sensitive to wavelength, and so in practice additional optics to introduce wavelength-dependent transverse magnification achromatizing this spot diameter may not be required. A very simple broadband implementation of the phase contrast wavefront sensor results.

  18. Zernike Phase Contrast Electron Cryo-Tomography Applied to Marine Cyanobacteria Infected with Cyanophages

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wei; Fu, Caroline; Khant, Htet A.; Ludtke, Steven J.; Schmid, Michael F.; Chiu, Wah

    2015-01-01

    Advances in electron cryo-tomography have provided a new opportunity to visualize the internal 3D structures of a bacterium. An electron microscope equipped with Zernike phase contrast optics produces images with dramatically increased contrast compared to images obtained by conventional electron microscopy. Here we describe a protocol to apply Zernike phase plate technology for acquiring electron tomographic tilt series of cyanophage-infected cyanobacterial cells embedded in ice, without staining or chemical fixation. We detail the procedures for aligning and assessing phase plates for data collection, and methods to obtain 3D structures of cyanophage assembly intermediates in the host, by subtomogram alignment, classification and averaging. Acquiring three to four tomographic tilt series takes approximately 12 h on a JEM2200FS electron microscope. We expect this time requirement to decrease substantially as the technique matures. Time required for annotation and subtomogram averaging varies widely depending on the project goals and data volume. PMID:25321408

  19. X-ray optics for phase differential contrast: Design, optimization, simulation, fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristov, V.; Chukalina, M.; Firsov, A.; Ishikawa, T.; Kikuta, S.; Kohmura, Y.; Svintsov, A.; Zaitsev, S.

    2000-05-01

    With increasing of X-ray energy an interesting situation appears when due to different dependence of refraction and absorption on X-ray energy a sample becomes transparent but still produces refraction. So such samples become unvisible for usual absorption methods but could be analyzed with variouse phase contrast methodes. The situation becomes more actual for higher X-ray energy especially for range 20-100 keV. F. Polack and D. Joyeux described an extension of an interferential differential phase contrast to scanning X-ray microscopy. The principle is to illuminate two points of an object with coherent radiation and detect the fringe shift induced by small phase differences. Fresnel mirrors have been suggested to split a X-ray beam in two coherent ones. In this paper it is proposed instead to use bifocal (multi-focal) lenses. Design and fabrication process of the lenses are described.

  20. A continuous sampling scheme for edge illumination x-ray phase contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, C. K.; Coan, P.; Bravin, A.; Olivo, A.; Diemoz, P. C.

    2015-08-01

    We discuss an alternative acquisition scheme for edge illumination (EI) x-ray phase contrast imaging based on a continuous scan of the object and compare its performance to that of a previously used scheme, which involved scanning the object in discrete steps rather than continuously. By simulating signals for both continuous and discrete methods under realistic experimental conditions, the effect of the spatial sampling rate is analysed with respect to metrics such as image contrast and accuracy of the retrieved phase shift. Experimental results confirm the theoretical predictions. Despite being limited to a specific example, the results indicate that continuous schemes present advantageous features compared to discrete ones. Not only can they be used to speed up the acquisition but they also prove superior in terms of accurate phase retrieval. The theory and experimental results provided in this study will guide the design of future EI experiments through the implementation of optimized acquisition schemes and sampling rates.

  1. Diagnostics of 3D Scaffolds by the Method of X-Ray Phase Contrast Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al'tapova, V. R.; Khlusov, I. A.; Karpov, D. A.; Chen, F.; Baumbach, T.; Pichugin, V. F.

    2014-02-01

    Polymers are one of the most interesting classes of materials for bioengineering due to their high biocompatibility and the possibility of regulating their strength and degradation. In bioengineering, the design of a polymer scaffold determines the functional possibilities of the scaffold and its possible medical applications. Traditionally, the design of polymer scaffolds is analyzed with the help of two-dimensional visualization methods, such as optical and electron microscopy, and computer tomography. However, the x-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum is only insignificantly absorbed by polymers and soft tissue, which means that it does not support computer tomography with sufficient contrast. The present work investigates visualization with the help of an interferometer based on the Talbot effect for three-dimensional visualization of a polymer scaffold in absorption, phase, and dark-field contrasts. A comparison of images obtained by x-ray visualization with histological sections of the scaffold is made. Phase contrast has made it possible to visualize the polymer structure and growth of soft tissues in the volume of the scaffold. In the future, it will be possible to use phase contrast for three-dimensional visualization of polymer scaffolds and soft tissues in vivo as well as in vitro.

  2. High-energy x-ray grating-based phase-contrast radiography of human anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Florian; Hauke, Christian; Lachner, Sebastian; Ludwig, Veronika; Pelzer, Georg; Rieger, Jens; Schuster, Max; Seifert, Maria; Wandner, Johannes; Wolf, Andreas; Michel, Thilo; Anton, Gisela

    2016-03-01

    X-ray grating-based phase-contrast Talbot-Lau interferometry is a promising imaging technology that has the potential to raise soft tissue contrast in comparison to conventional attenuation-based imaging. Additionally, it is sensitive to attenuation, refraction and scattering of the radiation and thus provides complementary and otherwise inaccessible information due to the dark-field image, which shows the sub-pixel size granularity of the measured object. Until recent progress the method has been mainly limited to photon energies below 40 keV. Scaling the method to photon energies that are sufficient to pass large and spacious objects represents a challenging task. This is caused by increasing demands regarding the fabrication process of the gratings and the broad spectra that come along with the use of polychromatic X-ray sources operated at high acceleration voltages. We designed a setup that is capable to reach high visibilities in the range from 50 to 120 kV. Therefore, spacious and dense parts of the human body with high attenuation can be measured, such as a human knee. The authors will show investigations on the resulting attenuation, differential phase-contrast and dark-field images. The images experimentally show that X-ray grating-based phase-contrast radiography is feasible with highly absorbing parts of the human body containing massive bones.

  3. Phase contrast imaging using a micro focus x-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; Majidi, Keivan; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2014-09-01

    Phase contrast x-ray imaging, a new technique to increase the imaging contrast for the tissues with close attenuation coefficients, has been studied since mid 1990s. This technique reveals the possibility to show the clear details of the soft tissues and tumors in small scale resolution. A compact and low cost phase contrast imaging system using a conventional x-ray source is described in this paper. Using the conventional x-ray source is of great importance, because it provides the possibility to use the method in hospitals and clinical offices. Simple materials and components are used in the setup to keep the cost in a reasonable and affordable range.Tungsten Kα1 line with the photon energy 59.3 keV was used for imaging. Some of the system design details are discussed. The method that was used to stabilize the system is introduced. A chicken thigh bone tissue sample was used for imaging followed by the image quality, image acquisition time and the potential clinical application discussion. High energy x-ray beam can be used in phase contrast imaging. Therefore the radiation dose to the patients can be greatly decreased compared to the traditional x-ray radiography.

  4. Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Thomas; Bartl, Peter; Bayer, Florian; Durst, Juergen; Haas, Wilhelm; Michel, Thilo; Ritter, Andre; Anton, Gisela

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging is a fast developing new modality not only for medical imaging, but as well for other fields such as material sciences. While these many possible applications arise, the knowledge of the noise behavior is essential. Methods: In this work, the authors used a least squares fitting algorithm to calculate the noise behavior of the three quantities absorption, differential phase, and dark-field image. Further, the calculated error formula of the differential phase image was verified by measurements. Therefore, a Talbot interferometer was setup, using a microfocus x-ray tube as source and a Timepix detector for photon counting. Additionally, simulations regarding this topic were performed. Results: It turned out that the variance of the reconstructed phase is only dependent of the total number of photons used to generate the phase image and the visibility of the experimental setup. These results could be evaluated in measurements as well as in simulations. Furthermore, the correlation between absorption and dark-field image was calculated. Conclusions: These results provide the understanding of the noise characteristics of grating-based phase-contrast imaging and will help to improve image quality.

  5. Laboratory Demonstration of Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) Coronagraph with Better than 10(exp -9) Contrast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Brian; Guyon, Olivier; Kuhnert, Andreas; Niessner, Albert; Martinache, Frantz; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham

    2013-01-01

    We present coronagraphic images from the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph on NASA's High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) at the Jet Propulsion Lab, showing contrasts of 5x10(exp -1) averaged from 2-4 lambda/D, in monochromatic light at 808 nm. In parallel with the coronagraph and its deformable mirror and coronagraphic wavefront control, we also demonstrate a low-order wavefront control system, giving 100 x rms suppression of introduced tip/tilt disturbances down to residual levels of 10(exp -3) lambda/D. Current limitations, as well as broadband (10% fractional bandpass) preliminary results are discussed.

  6. Phase contrast tomography of the mouse cochlea at microfocus x-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, Matthias; Hernandez, Victor H.; Krenkel, Martin; Moser, Tobias; Salditt, Tim

    2013-08-01

    We present phase contrast x-ray tomography of functional soft tissue within the bony cochlear capsule of mice, carried out at laboratory microfocus sources with well-matched source, detector, geometry, and reconstruction algorithms at spatial resolutions down to 2 μm. Contrast, data quality and resolution enable the visualization of thin membranes and nerve fibers as well as automated segmentation of surrounding bone. By complementing synchrotron radiation imaging techniques, a broad range of biomedical applications becomes possible as demonstrated for optogenetic cochlear implant research.

  7. Phase contrast tomography of the mouse cochlea at microfocus x-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bartels, Matthias; Krenkel, Martin; Hernandez, Victor H.; Moser, Tobias; Salditt, Tim

    2013-08-19

    We present phase contrast x-ray tomography of functional soft tissue within the bony cochlear capsule of mice, carried out at laboratory microfocus sources with well-matched source, detector, geometry, and reconstruction algorithms at spatial resolutions down to 2 μm. Contrast, data quality and resolution enable the visualization of thin membranes and nerve fibers as well as automated segmentation of surrounding bone. By complementing synchrotron radiation imaging techniques, a broad range of biomedical applications becomes possible as demonstrated for optogenetic cochlear implant research.

  8. Reverse projection retrieval in edge illumination x-ray phase contrast computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Charlotte K.; Endrizzi, Marco; Diemoz, Paul C.; Olivo, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    Edge illumination (EI) x-ray phase contrast computed tomography (CT) can provide three-dimensional distributions of the real and imaginary parts of the complex refractive index (n=1-δ +\\text{i}β ) of the sample. Phase retrieval, i.e. the separation of attenuation and refraction data from projections that contain a combination of both, is a key step in the image reconstruction process. In EI-based x-ray phase contrast CT, this is conventionally performed on the basis of two projections acquired in opposite illumination configurations (i.e. with different positions of the pre-sample mask) at each CT angle. Displacing the pre-sample mask at each projection makes the scan susceptible to motor-induced misalignment and prevents a continuous sample rotation. We present an alternative method for the retrieval of attenuation and refraction data that does not require repositioning the pre-sample mask. The method is based on the reverse projection relation published by Zhu et al (2010 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 107 13576-81) for grating interferometry-based x-ray phase contrast CT. We use this relation to derive a simplified acquisition strategy that allows acquiring data with a continuous sample rotation, which can reduce scan time when combined with a fast read-out detector. Besides discussing the theory and the necessary alignment of the experimental setup, we present tomograms obtained with reverse projection retrieval and demonstrate their agreement with those obtained with the conventional EI retrieval.

  9. Laboratory-based x-ray phase-contrast tomography enables 3D virtual histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Töpperwien, Mareike; Krenkel, Martin; Quade, Felix; Salditt, Tim

    2016-09-01

    Due to the large penetration depth and small wavelength hard x-rays offer a unique potential for 3D biomedical and biological imaging, combining capabilities of high resolution and large sample volume. However, in classical absorption-based computed tomography, soft tissue only shows a weak contrast, limiting the actual resolution. With the advent of phase-contrast methods, the much stronger phase shift induced by the sample can now be exploited. For high resolution, free space propagation behind the sample is particularly well suited to make the phase shift visible. Contrast formation is based on the self-interference of the transmitted beam, resulting in object-induced intensity modulations in the detector plane. As this method requires a sufficiently high degree of spatial coherence, it was since long perceived as a synchrotron-based imaging technique. In this contribution we show that by combination of high brightness liquid-metal jet microfocus sources and suitable sample preparation techniques, as well as optimized geometry, detection and phase retrieval, excellent three-dimensional image quality can be obtained, revealing the anatomy of a cobweb spider in high detail. This opens up new opportunities for 3D virtual histology of small organisms. Importantly, the image quality is finally augmented to a level accessible to automatic 3D segmentation.

  10. A study of quantification of aortic compliance in mice using radial acquisition phase contrast MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuandong

    Spatiotemporal changes in blood flow velocity measured using Phase contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can be used to quantify Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) and Wall Shear Stress (WSS), well known indices of vessel compliance. A study was conducted to measure the PWV in the aortic arch in young healthy children using conventional phase contrast MRI and a post processing algorithm that automatically track the peak velocity in phase contrast images. It is shown that the PWV calculated using peak velocity-time data has less variability compared to that using mean velocity and flow. Conventional MR data acquisition techniques lack both the spatial and temporal resolution needed to accurately calculate PWV and WSS in in vivo studies using transgenic animal models of arterial diseases. Radial k-space acquisition can improve both spatial and temporal resolution. A major part of this thesis was devoted to developing technology for Radial Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance (RPCMR) cine imaging on a 7 Tesla Animal scanner. A pulse sequence with asymmetric radial k-space acquisition was designed and implemented. Software developed to reconstruct the RPCMR images include gridding, density compensation and centering of k-Space that corrects the image ghosting introduced by hardware response time. Image processing software was developed to automatically segment the vessel lumen and correct for phase offset due to eddy currents. Finally, in vivo and ex vivo aortic compliance measurements were conducted in a well-established mouse model for atherosclerosis: Apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-KO). Using RPCMR technique, a significantly higher PWV value as well as a higher average WSS was detected among 9 months old ApoE-KO mice compare to in wild type mice. A follow up ex-vivo test of tissue elasticity confirmed the impaired distensibility of aortic arteries among ApoE-KO mice.

  11. RESTORATION OF WEAK PHASE-CONTRAST IMAGES RECORDED WITH A HIGH DEGREE OF DEFOCUS: THE “TWIN IMAGE” PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH CTF CORRECTION

    PubMed Central

    Downing, Kenneth H.; Glaeser, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Relatively large values of objective-lens defocus must normally be used to produce detectable levels of image contrast for unstained biological specimens, which are generally weak phase objects. As a result, a subsequent restoration operation must be used to correct for oscillations in the contrast transfer function (CTF) at higher resolution. Currently used methods of CTF-correction assume the ideal case in which Friedel mates in the scattered wave have contributed pairs of Fourier components that overlap with one another in the image plane. This “ideal” situation may be only poorly satisfied, or not satisfied at all, as the particle size gets smaller, the defocus value gets larger, and the resolution gets higher. We have therefore investigated whether currently used methods of CTF correction are also effective in restoring the single-sideband image information that becomes displaced (delocalized) by half (or more) the diameter of a particle of finite size. Computer simulations are used to show that restoration either by “phase flipping” or by multiplying by the CTF recovers only about half of the delocalized information. The other half of the delocalized information goes into a doubly defocused “twin” image of the type produced during optical reconstruction of an in-line hologram. Restoration with a Wiener filter is effective in recovering the delocalized information only when the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) is orders of magnitude higher than that which exists in low-dose images of biological specimens, in which case the Wiener filter approaches division by the CTF (i.e. the formal inverse). For realistic values of the S/N, however, the “twin image” problem seen with a Wiener filter is very similar to that seen when either phase flipping or multiplying by the CTF are used for restoration. The results of these simulations suggest that CTF correction is a poor alternative to using a Zernike-type phase plate when imaging biological specimens, in

  12. Visualizing resonances in the complex plane with vibrational phase contrast coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Jurna, Martin; Garbacik, Erik T; Korterik, Jeroen P; Herek, Jennifer L; Otto, Cees; Offerhaus, Herman L

    2010-09-15

    In coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), the emitted signal carries both amplitude and phase information of the molecules in the focal volume. Most CARS experiments ignore the phase component, but its detection allows for two advantages over intensity-only CARS. First, the pure resonant response can be determined, and the nonresonant background rejected, by extracting the imaginary component of the complex response, enhancing the sensitivity of CARS measurements. Second, selectivity is increased via determination of the phase and amplitude, allowing separation of individual molecular components of a sample even when their vibrational bands overlap. Here, using vibrational phase contrast CARS (VPC-CARS), we demonstrate enhanced sensitivity in quantitative measurements of ethanol/methanol mixtures and increased selectivity in a heterogeneous mixture of plastics and water. This powerful technique opens a wide range of possibilities for studies of complicated systems where overlapping resonances limit standard methodologies.

  13. Phase contrast and DIC instrumentation and applications in cell, developmental, and marine biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundlach, Heinz

    1994-05-01

    Nomarski's differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is discussed in comparison to Zernike's phase contrast (PhC) microscopy. The possibilities and limits of both are demonstrated by various applications. The high contrast and the use of the full numerical aperture of the DIC optics makes it possible to obtain a series of 'optical sections' through rather thick living specimens (e.g. head of water flea, salivary gland of Drosophila, Xenopus nucleolus, sea urchen egg, mouse embryo). PhC and DIC optics are today available for high resolution light microscopy until N.A. 1.4 Oil as well as for long working distance (LWD) optics, mainly combined with inverted biological microscopes.

  14. Sub-diffraction phase-contrast imaging of transparent nano-objects by plasmonic lens structure.

    PubMed

    Yao, Na; Wang, Changtao; Tao, Xing; Wang, Yanqin; Zhao, Zeyu; Luo, Xiangang

    2013-04-05

    We propose a specially designed plasmonic lens structure to succeed in realizing sub-diffraction phase-contrast imaging of transparent nano-objects. The nano-objects are embedded inside the insulator layer of the metal-insulator-metal (MIM) plasmonic structure and have a small refractive index difference with respect to the transparent insulator layer. The excited surface plasmons in the MIM structure help to greatly enhance scattered light from the nano-objects and effectively suppress the transmitted illumination light. A spatial resolution of about 64 nm and a minimum distinguishable refractive index difference down to 0.05 are numerically demonstrated. For sub-diffraction phase-contrast imaging of irregular three-dimensional (3D) nanowires and nanocylinders, the optimized MIM structure shows much better performance in comparison with that of a superlens.

  15. Improved image reconstruction of low-resolution multichannel phase contrast angiography

    PubMed Central

    P. Krishnan, Akshara; Joy, Ajin; Paul, Joseph Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. In low-resolution phase contrast magnetic resonance angiography, the maximum intensity projected channel images will be blurred with consequent loss of vascular details. The channel images are enhanced using a stabilized deblurring filter, applied to each channel prior to combining the individual channel images. The stabilized deblurring is obtained by the addition of a nonlocal regularization term to the reverse heat equation, referred to as nonlocally stabilized reverse diffusion filter. Unlike reverse diffusion filter, which is highly unstable and blows up noise, nonlocal stabilization enhances intensity projected parallel images uniformly. Application to multichannel vessel enhancement is illustrated using both volunteer data and simulated multichannel angiograms. Robustness of the filter applied to volunteer datasets is shown using statistically validated improvement in flow quantification. Improved performance in terms of preserving vascular structures and phased array reconstruction in both simulated and real data is demonstrated using structureness measure and contrast ratio. PMID:26835501

  16. Boosting phase contrast with a grating Bonse–Hart interferometer of 200 nanometre grating period

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Han; Gomella, Andrew A.; Patel, Ajay; Wolfe, Douglas E.; Lynch, Susanna K.; Xiao, Xianghui; Morgan, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    We report on a grating Bonse–Hart interferometer for phase-contrast imaging with hard X-rays. The method overcomes limitations in the level of sensitivity that can be achieved with the well-known Talbot grating interferometer, and without the stringent spectral filtering at any given incident angle imposed by the classic Bonse–Hart interferometer. The device operates in the far-field regime, where an incident beam is split by a diffraction grating into two widely separated beams, which are redirected by a second diffraction grating to merge at a third grating, where they coherently interfere. The wide separation of the interfering beams results in large phase contrast, and in some cases absolute phase images are obtained. Imaging experiments were performed using diffraction gratings of 200 nm period, at 22.5 keV and 1.5% spectral bandwidth on a bending-magnetic beamline. Novel design and fabrication process were used to achieve the small grating period. Using a slitted incident beam, we acquired absolute and differential phase images of lightly absorbing samples. An advantage of this method is that it uses only phase modulating gratings, which are easier to fabricate than absorption gratings of the same periods. PMID:24470412

  17. Boosting phase contrast with a grating Bonse-Hart interferometer of 200 nanometre grating period.

    PubMed

    Wen, Han; Gomella, Andrew A; Patel, Ajay; Wolfe, Douglas E; Lynch, Susanna K; Xiao, Xianghui; Morgan, Nicole

    2014-03-06

    We report on a grating Bonse-Hart interferometer for phase-contrast imaging with hard X-rays. The method overcomes limitations in the level of sensitivity that can be achieved with the well-known Talbot grating interferometer, and without the stringent spectral filtering at any given incident angle imposed by the classic Bonse-Hart interferometer. The device operates in the far-field regime, where an incident beam is split by a diffraction grating into two widely separated beams, which are redirected by a second diffraction grating to merge at a third grating, where they coherently interfere. The wide separation of the interfering beams results in large phase contrast, and in some cases absolute phase images are obtained. Imaging experiments were performed using diffraction gratings of 200 nm period, at 22.5 keV and 1.5% spectral bandwidth on a bending-magnetic beamline. Novel design and fabrication process were used to achieve the small grating period. Using a slitted incident beam, we acquired absolute and differential phase images of lightly absorbing samples. An advantage of this method is that it uses only phase modulating gratings, which are easier to fabricate than absorption gratings of the same periods.

  18. Imaging organic and mineral phases in a biomineral using novel contrast techniques.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, E J; Shaw, J A; Macey, D J; Clode, P L

    2009-01-01

    Chitons are marine molluscs that mineralize their teeth by the process of matrix-mediated biomineralization. The teeth develop in a continuous manner forming hard minerals, including magnetite, making analysis of the matrix within these mineralized regions difficult. This article describes the use of charge contrast imaging techniques, rarely applied to biological samples, to simultaneously image the organic and mineral phases within the teeth of these animals. Resulting evidence demonstrates the power of this technique in delivering architectural information concerning both the matrix and mineral phases, without the need for removal of the hard mineralized material.

  19. Microscopy imaging and quantitative phase contrast mapping in turbid microfluidic channels by digital holography.

    PubMed

    Paturzo, Melania; Finizio, Andrea; Memmolo, Pasquale; Puglisi, Roberto; Balduzzi, Donatella; Galli, Andrea; Ferraro, Pietro

    2012-09-07

    We show that sharp imaging and quantitative phase-contrast microcopy is possible in microfluidics in flowing turbid media by digital holography. In fact, in flowing liquids with suspended colloidal particles, clear vision is hindered and cannot be recovered by any other microscopic imaging technique. On the contrary, using digital holography, clear imaging is possible thanks to the Doppler frequency shift experienced by the photons scattered by the flowing colloidal particles, which do not contribute to the interference process, i.e. the recorded hologram. The method is illustrated and imaging results are demonstrated for pure phase objects, i.e. biological cells in microfluidic channels.

  20. The phase-contrast imaging instrument at the matter in extreme conditions endstation at LCLS

    DOE PAGES

    Nagler, Bob; Schropp, Andreas; Galtier, Eric C.; ...

    2016-10-07

    Here, we describe the phase-contrast imaging instrument at the Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) endstation of the Linac Coherent Light Source. The instrument can image phenomena with a spatial resolution of a few hundreds of nanometers and at the same time reveal the atomic structure through X-ray diffraction, with a temporal resolution better than 100 fs. It was specifically designed for studies relevant to high-energy-density science and can monitor, e.g., shock fronts, phase transitions, or void collapses. This versatile instrument was commissioned last year and is now available to the MEC user community.

  1. Regularized iterative integration combined with non-linear diffusion filtering for phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Burger, Karin; Koehler, Thomas; Chabior, Michael; Allner, Sebastian; Marschner, Mathias; Fehringer, Andreas; Willner, Marian; Pfeiffer, Franz; Noël, Peter

    2014-12-29

    Phase-contrast x-ray computed tomography has a high potential to become clinically implemented because of its complementarity to conventional absorption-contrast.In this study, we investigate noise-reducing but resolution-preserving analytical reconstruction methods to improve differential phase-contrast imaging. We apply the non-linear Perona-Malik filter on phase-contrast data prior or post filtered backprojected reconstruction. Secondly, the Hilbert kernel is replaced by regularized iterative integration followed by ramp filtered backprojection as used for absorption-contrast imaging. Combining the Perona-Malik filter with this integration algorithm allows to successfully reveal relevant sample features, quantitatively confirmed by significantly increased structural similarity indices and contrast-to-noise ratios. With this concept, phase-contrast imaging can be performed at considerably lower dose.

  2. Digital inline holographic microscopy (DIHM) of weakly-scattering subjects.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Camila B; Zhang, Rongjing; Wilson, Laurence G

    2014-02-08

    Weakly-scattering objects, such as small colloidal particles and most biological cells, are frequently encountered in microscopy. Indeed, a range of techniques have been developed to better visualize these phase objects; phase contrast and DIC are among the most popular methods for enhancing contrast. However, recording position and shape in the out-of-imaging-plane direction remains challenging. This report introduces a simple experimental method to accurately determine the location and geometry of objects in three dimensions, using digital inline holographic microscopy (DIHM). Broadly speaking, the accessible sample volume is defined by the camera sensor size in the lateral direction, and the illumination coherence in the axial direction. Typical sample volumes range from 200 µm x 200 µm x 200 µm using LED illumination, to 5 mm x 5 mm x 5 mm or larger using laser illumination. This illumination light is configured so that plane waves are incident on the sample. Objects in the sample volume then scatter light, which interferes with the unscattered light to form interference patterns perpendicular to the illumination direction. This image (the hologram) contains the depth information required for three-dimensional reconstruction, and can be captured on a standard imaging device such as a CMOS or CCD camera. The Rayleigh-Sommerfeld back propagation method is employed to numerically refocus microscope images, and a simple imaging heuristic based on the Gouy phase anomaly is used to identify scattering objects within the reconstructed volume. This simple but robust method results in an unambiguous, model-free measurement of the location and shape of objects in microscopic samples.

  3. Investigating biofilm structure using x-ray microtomography and gratings-based phase contrast

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Erin A.; Xiao, Xianghui; Miller, Micah D.; Keller, Paul E.; White, Timothy A.; Marshall, Matthew J.

    2012-10-17

    Direct examination of natural and engineered environments has revealed that the majority of microorganisms in these systems live in structured communities termed biofilms. To gain a better understanding for how biofilms function and interact with their local environment, fundamental capabilities for enhanced visualization, compositional analysis, and functional characterization of biofilms are needed. For pore-scale and community-scale analysis (100’s of nm to 10’s of microns), a variety of surface tools are available. However, understanding biofilm structure in complex three-dimensional (3-D) environments is considerably more difficult. X-ray microtomography can reveal a biofilm’s internal structure, but the obtaining sufficient contrast to image low-Z biological material against a higher-Z substrate makes detecting biofilms difficult. Here we present results imaging Shewanella oneidensis biofilms on a Hollow-fiber Membrane Biofilm Reactor (HfMBR), using the x-ray microtomography system at sector 2-BM of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), at energies ranging from 13-15.4 keV and pixel sizes of 0.7 and 1.3 μm/pixel. We examine the use of osmium (Os) as a contrast agent to enhance biofilm visibility and demonstrate that staining improves imaging of hydrated biofilms. We also present results using a Talbot interferometer to provide phase and scatter contrast information in addition to absorption. Talbot interferometry allows imaging of unstained hydrated biofilms with phase contrast, while absorption contrast primarily highlights edges and scatter contrast provides little information. However, the gratings used here limit the spatial resolution to no finer than 2 μm, which hinders the ability to detect small features. Future studies at higher resolution or higher Talbot order for greater sensitivity to density variations may improve imaging.

  4. Investigating biofilm structure using x-ray microtomography and gratings-based phase contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Erin A.; Xiao, Xianghui; Miller, Micah; Keller, Paul; White, Timothy A.; Marshall, Matthew

    2012-10-01

    Direct examination of natural and engineered environments has revealed that the majority of microorganisms in these systems live in structured communities termed biofilms. To gain a better understanding for how biofilms function and interact with their local environment, fundamental capabilities for enhanced visualization, compositional analysis, and functional characterization of biofilms are needed. For pore-scale and community-scale analysis (100's of nm to 10's of microns), a variety of surface tools are available. However, understanding biofilm structure in complex three-dimensional (3-D) environments is considerably more difficult. X-ray microtomography can reveal a biofilm's internal structure, but obtaining sufficient contrast to image low atomic number (Z) biological material against a higher-Z substrate makes detecting biofilms difficult. Here we present results imaging Shewanella oneidensis biofilms on a Hollow-fiber Membrane Biofilm Reactor (HfMBR), using the x-ray microtomography system at sector 2-BM of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), at energies ranging from 12.9-15.4 keV and pixel sizes of 0.7 and 1.3 μm/pixel. We examine the use of osmium (Os) as a contrast agent to enhance biofilm visibility and demonstrate that staining improves imaging of hydrated biofilms. We also present results using a Talbot interferometer to provide phase and scatter contrast information in addition to absorption. Talbot interferometry allows imaging of unstained hydrated biofilms with phase contrast, while absorption contrast primarily highlights edges and scatter contrast provides little information. However, the gratings used here limit the spatial resolution to no finer than 2 μm, which hinders the ability to detect small features. Future studies at higher resolution or higher Talbot order for greater sensitivity to density variations may improve imaging.

  5. Optimization of MR phase-contrast-based flow velocimetry and shear stress measurements.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taeho; Seo, Ji-Hyea; Bang, Seong-Sik; Choi, Hyeon-Woo; Chang, Yongmin; Lee, Jongmin

    2010-02-01

    This study was designed to measure the pixel-by-pixel flow velocity and shear stress from phase-contrast MR images. An optimized method was suggested and the use of the method was confirmed. A self-developed, straight steady flow model system was scanned by MRI with a velocity-encoded phase-contrast sequence. In-house developed software was used for the pixel-by-pixel flow velocity and shear stress measurements and the measurements were compared with physically measured mean velocity and shear stress. A comparison between the use of the in-house velocimetry software and a commercial velocimetry system was also performed. Curved steady flow models were scanned by phase-contrast MRI. Subsequently, velocity and shear stress were measured to confirm the shifted peak flow velocity and shear stress toward the outer side of the lumen. Peak velocity and shear stress were calculated for both the inner and outer half of the lumen and were statistically compared. The mean velocity measured with the use of in-house software had a significant correlation with the physical measurements of mean velocity; in addition, the measurement was more precise compared to the commercial system (R(2) = 0.85 vs. 0.75, respectively). The calculated mean shear stress had a significant correlation with the physical measurements of mean shear stress (R(2) = 0.95). The curved flow model showed a significantly shifted peak velocity and shear stress zones toward the outside of the flow (P < 0.0001). The technique to measure pixel-by-pixel velocity and shear stress of steady flow from velocity-encoded phase-contrast MRI was optimized. This technique had a good correlation with physical measurements and was superior to a commercially available system.

  6. TV-regularized phase reconstruction in differential-interference-contrast (DIC) microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebegoldi, Simone; Bautista, Lola; Blanc-Féraud, Laure; Prato, Marco; Zanni, Luca; Plata, Arturo

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we address the problem of reconstructing the phase from color images acquired with differential-interference-contrast (DIC) microscopy. In particular, we reformulate the problem as the minimization of a least-squares fidelity function regularized with a total variation term, and we address the solution by exploiting a recently proposed inexact forward-backward approach. The effectiveness of this method is assessed on a realistic synthetic test.

  7. Whole-cell phase contrast imaging at the nanoscale using Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Michael W. M.; van Riessen, Grant A.; Abbey, Brian; Putkunz, Corey T.; Junker, Mark D.; Balaur, Eugeniu; Vine, David J.; McNulty, Ian; Chen, Bo; Arhatari, Benedicta D.; Frankland, Sarah; Nugent, Keith A.; Tilley, Leann; Peele, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    X-ray tomography can provide structural information of whole cells in close to their native state. Radiation-induced damage, however, imposes a practical limit to image resolution, and as such, a choice between damage, image contrast, and image resolution must be made. New coherent diffractive imaging techniques, such Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging (FCDI), allows quantitative phase information with exceptional dose efficiency, high contrast, and nano-scale resolution. Here we present three-dimensional quantitative images of a whole eukaryotic cell by FCDI at a spatial resolution below 70 nm with sufficient phase contrast to distinguish major cellular components. From our data, we estimate that the minimum dose required for a similar resolution is close to that predicted by the Rose criterion, considerably below accepted estimates of the maximum dose a frozen-hydrated cell can tolerate. Based on the dose efficiency, contrast, and resolution achieved, we expect this technique will find immediate applications in tomographic cellular characterisation. PMID:23887204

  8. Phase-contrast imaging in aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Krumeich, F; Müller, E; Wepf, R A

    2013-06-01

    Although the presence of phase-contrast information in bright field images recorded with a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) has been known for a long time, its systematic exploitation for the structural characterization of materials began only with the availability of aberration-corrected microscopes that allow sufficiently large illumination angles. Today, phase-contrast STEM (PC-STEM) imaging represents an increasingly important alternative to the well-established HRTEM method. In both methods, the image contrast is coherently generated and thus depends not only on illumination and collection angles but on defocus and specimen thickness as well. By PC-STEM, a projection of the crystal potential is obtained in thin areas, with the scattering sites being represented either with dark or bright contrast at two different defocus values which are both close to Gaussian defocus. This imaging behavior can be further investigated by image simulations performed with standard HRTEM simulation software based on the principle of reciprocity. As examples for the application of this method, PC-STEM results obtained on metal nanoparticles and dodecagonal quasicrystals dd-(Ta,V)₁.₆Te are discussed.

  9. Model-based pancreas segmentation in portal venous phase contrast-enhanced CT images.

    PubMed

    Hammon, Matthias; Cavallaro, Alexander; Erdt, Marius; Dankerl, Peter; Kirschner, Matthias; Drechsler, Klaus; Wesarg, Stefan; Uder, Michael; Janka, Rolf

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to automatically detect and segment the pancreas in portal venous phase contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) images. The institutional review board of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg approved this study and waived the need for informed consent. Discriminative learning is used to build a pancreas tissue classifier incorporating spatial relationships between the pancreas and surrounding organs and vessels. Furthermore, discrete cosine and wavelet transforms are used to build texture features to describe local tissue appearance. Classification is used to guide a constrained statistical shape model to fit the data. The algorithm to detect and segment the pancreas was evaluated on 40 consecutive CT data that were acquired in the portal venous contrast agent phase. Manual segmentation of the pancreas was carried out by experienced radiologists and served as reference standard. Threefold cross validation was performed. The algorithm-based detection and segmentation yielded an average surface distance of 1.7 mm and an average overlap of 61.2 % compared with the reference standard. The overall runtime of the system was 20.4 min. The presented novel approach enables automatic pancreas segmentation in portal venous phase contrast-enhanced CT images which are included in almost every clinical routine abdominal CT examination. Reliable pancreatic segmentation is crucial for computer-aided detection systems and an organ-specific decision support.

  10. A reconstruction method for cone-beam differential x-ray phase-contrast computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jian; Velroyen, Astrid; Tan, Renbo; Zhang, Junwei; Chen, Liyuan; Tapfer, Arne; Bech, Martin; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2012-09-10

    Most existing differential phase-contrast computed tomography (DPC-CT) approaches are based on three kinds of scanning geometries, described by parallel-beam, fan-beam and cone-beam. Due to the potential of compact imaging systems with magnified spatial resolution, cone-beam DPC-CT has attracted significant interest. In this paper, we report a reconstruction method based on a back-projection filtration (BPF) algorithm for cone-beam DPC-CT. Due to the differential nature of phase contrast projections, the algorithm restrains from differentiation of the projection data prior to back-projection, unlike BPF algorithms commonly used for absorption-based CT data. This work comprises a numerical study of the algorithm and its experimental verification using a dataset measured with a three-grating interferometer and a micro-focus x-ray tube source. Moreover, the numerical simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can deal with several classes of truncated cone-beam datasets. We believe that this feature is of particular interest for future medical cone-beam phase-contrast CT imaging applications.

  11. Comparison of fiber counting by TV screen and eyepieces of phase contrast microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mao, I-Fang; Yeh, Hui-Roung; Chen, Mei-Lien

    2002-01-01

    This study designed a modified light path of a phase-contrast microscope to evaluate the feasibility of fiber counting on a television screen (TVS). A comparison also was made of the fiber counts, fiber density, and precision derived from repeatedly counting fibers through eyepieces (EPs) and on a TVS connected to a phase contrast microscope. Thirty asbestos fiber samples were counted 10 times repeatedly. Ten samples were counted by viewing the same field through an EP and on a TVS alternately, whereas the other 20 samples were counted separately by using an EP and a TVS. The A rules of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 7400 method was quoted. No statistically significant difference of fiber density (p = 0.39) or fiber counts (p > 0.05) was observed between the TVS and EP methods, though TVS gave a slightly lower value than EP did. The bias of the two methods was 7.7 +/- 8.0% on an average. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for both methods were the same, 0.40, which resembled the theoretical RSD, 0.44, of NIOSH 7400. Meanwhile, the theoretical and experimental RSDs were not significantly different for either method (p > 0.05). The modified light path of a phase contrast microscope provided a compatible view with less eye strain on a TVS than a conventional EP. Moreover, operator biases and variability might be greatly reduced by training several counters simultaneously on the TVS.

  12. Efficient linear phase contrast in scanning transmission electron microscopy with matched illumination and detector interferometry

    DOE PAGES

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Pierce, Jordan; ...

    2016-02-29

    The ability to image light elements in soft matter at atomic resolution enables unprecedented insight into the structure and properties of molecular heterostructures and beam-sensitive nanomaterials. In this study, we introduce a scanning transmission electron microscopy technique combining a pre-specimen phase plate designed to produce a probe with structured phase with a high-speed direct electron detector to generate nearly linear contrast images with high efficiency. We demonstrate this method by using both experiment and simulation to simultaneously image the atomic-scale structure of weakly scattering amorphous carbon and strongly scattering gold nanoparticles. Our method demonstrates strong contrast for both materials, makingmore » it a promising candidate for structural determination of heterogeneous soft/hard matter samples even at low electron doses comparable to traditional phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy. Ultimately, simulated images demonstrate the extension of this technique to the challenging problem of structural determination of biological material at the surface of inorganic crystals.« less

  13. [Phase contrast microscopy demonstration of glomerular erythrocytes in urine: practicable in ambulatory practice?].

    PubMed

    Conzelmann, M; Conen, D; Besch, W; Dubach, U C; Thiel, G

    1988-04-16

    The use of phase-contrast microscopy in microhematuria, as proposed in 1979 by Birch and Fairley, renders morphological changes in red cells easily detectable and makes it possible to distinguish glomerular from non-glomerular bleeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the practicability of this method as a routine laboratory test in ambulatory care. 60 patients with asymptomatic microhematuria (greater than or equal to 2 erythrocytes per high power field) were followed up over a one-year period. All patients were investigated by intravenous pyelography, ultrasound of urinary tract and three cytological examinations of the urine. The description of urine samples was done with phase-contrast microscopy by a first investigator at the beginning of the study and by a second after 12.8 months, blinded to clinical results and previous examinations. In 21 patients a definitive diagnosis was possible. In 18 patients the morphologic descriptions of the two investigators correlated with the clinical results. Only in two patients with established diagnosis there were differences between the urine description of the two investigators, and in one patient the interpretations of both investigators were wrong. These incorrect descriptions concerned patients with low-grade microhematuria. Thus, phase-contrast microscopy is a practicable method for the practitioner's use as a routine laboratory investigation. In low-grade microhematuria the method seems to be of minor value.

  14. Optical phased array using single crystalline silicon high-contrast-gratings for beamsteering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Byung-Wook; Chan, Trevor; Megens, Mischa; Sun, Tianbo; Yang, Weijian; Rao, Yi; Horsley, David A.; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J.; Wu, Ming C.

    2013-03-01

    We present a single crystalline silicon optical phased array using high-contrast-gratings (HCG) for fast two dimensional beamforming and beamsteering at 0.5 MHz. Since there are various applications for beamforming and beamsteering such as 3D imaging, optical communications, and light detection and ranging (LIDAR), it is great interest to develop ultrafast optical phased arrays. However, the beamsteering speed of optical phased arrays using liquid crystal and electro-wetting are typically limited to tens of milliseconds. Optical phased arrays using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technologies can operate in the submegahertz range, but generally require metal coatings. The metal coating unfortunately cause bending of mirrors due to thermally induced stress. The novel MEMS-based optical phased array presented here consists of electrostatically driven 8 × 8 HCG pixels fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. The HCG mirror is designed to have 99.9% reflectivity at 1550 nm wavelength without any reflective coating. The size of the HCG mirror is 20 × 20 μm2 and the mass is only 140 pg, much lighter than traditional MEMS mirrors. Our 8 × 8 optical phased array has a total field of view of +/-10° × 10° and a beam width of 2°. The maximum phase shift regarding the actuation gap defined by a 2 μm buried oxide layer of a SOI wafer is 1.7π at 20 V.

  15. Phase contrast: the frontier of x-ray and electron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwu, Y.; Margaritondo, G.

    2013-12-01

    Phase contrast has been a fundamental component of microscopy since the early 1940s. In broad terms, it refers to the formation of images using not the combination of wave intensities but their amplitudes with the corresponding phase factors. The impact on visible microscopy of biological specimens has been major. This contrast mechanism is now playing an increasingly important role in other kinds of microscopy, notably those based on electrons or x-rays. It notably solves the background problem of weak absorption contrast. New breakthroughs and new techniques are continuously produced, unfortunately unknown to most of the scientists that could exploit them. The present special cluster issue of reviews was inspired by this situation. The case of x-rays is very interesting. Phase contrast requires a high degree of longitudinal and lateral coherence. But conventional x-ray sources are not coherent. The progress of synchrotron sources yielded high coherence as a key byproduct—and started a rapid expansion of phase contrast radiology. No review—or cluster of reviews—can possibly cover all the facets of the recent progress. Without trying to be absolutely comprehensive, the present special cluster issue touches a variety of issues, giving a very broad picture. Liu et al review in general terms the different phase-based hard-x-ray techniques, with an interesting variety of examples. Then, Suortti et al and Wang et al present more specialized overviews of crystal and grating based x-ray imaging techniques, very powerful in the analysis of biological specimens. Mokso et al discuss the many facets of tomography using phase effects, expanding the picture of tomographic reconstruction of the three previous reviews. Wu et al treat the rapid progress in hard-x-ray focusing and its impact on radiology and tomography for materials science and biomedical research. The next two reviews deal with special and very interesting classes of applications. Specifically, Lee et al

  16. Optimal transmit phasing on tissue background suppression in contrast harmonic imaging.

    PubMed

    Shen, Che-Chou; Hsieh, Yi-Chun

    2008-11-01

    Ultrasonic harmonic imaging provides superior image quality than linear imaging and has become an important diagnostic tool in many clinical applications. Nevertheless, the contrast-to-tissue ratio (CTR) in harmonic imaging is generally limited by tissue background signal comprising both the leakage harmonic signal and the tissue harmonic signal. Harmonic leakage generally occurs when a wideband transmit pulse is used for better axial resolution. In addition, generation of tissue harmonic signal during acoustic propagation also decreases the CTR. In this paper, suppression of tissue background signal in harmonic imaging is studied by selecting an optimal phase of the transmit signal to achieve destructive cancellation between the tissue harmonic signal and the leakage harmonic signal. With the optimal suppression phase, our results indicate that the tissue signal can be significantly reduced at second harmonic band, whereas the harmonic amplitude from contrast agents shows negligible change with the selection of transmit phase. Consequently, about 5-dB CTR improvement can be achieved from effective reduction of tissue background amplitude in optimal transmit phasing.

  17. Integral refractive index determination of living suspension cells by multifocus digital holographic phase contrast microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Björn; Kosmeier, Sebastian; Langehanenberg, Patrik; von Bally, Gert; Bredebusch, Ilona; Domschke, Wolfram; Schnekenburger, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    A method for the determination of the integral refractive index of living cells in suspension by digital holographic microscopy is described. Digital holographic phase contrast images of spherical cells in suspension are recorded, and the radius as well as the integral refractive index are determined by fitting the relation between cell thickness and phase distribution to the measured phase data. The algorithm only requires information about the refractive index of the suspension medium and the image scale of the microscope system. The specific digital holographic microscopy advantage of subsequent focus correction allows a simultaneous investigation of cells in different focus planes. Results obtained from human pancreas and liver tumor cells show that the integral cellular refractive index decreases with increasing cell radius.

  18. Increased robustness and speed in low-dose phase-contrast tomography with laboratory sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamir, Anna; Hagen, Charlotte K.; Diemoz, Paul C.; Endrizzi, Marco; Vittoria, Fabio A.; Urbani, Luca; De Coppi, Paolo; Olivo, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    In this article we discuss three different developments in Edge Illumination (EI) X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCi), all ultimately aimed at optimising EI computed tomography (CT) for use in different environments, and for different applications. For the purpose of reducing scan times, two approaches are presented; the "reverse projection" acquisition scheme which allows a continuous rotation of the sample, and the "single image" retrieval algorithm, which requires only one frame for retrieval of the projected phase map. These are expected to lead to a substantial reduction of EI CT scan times, a prospect which is likely to promote the translation of EI into several applications, including clinical. The last development presented is the "modified local" phase retrieval. This retrieval algorithm is specifically designed to accurately retrieve sample properties (absorption, refraction, scattering) in cases where high-resolution scans are required in non-ideal environments. Experimental results, using both synchrotron radiation and laboratory sources, are shown for the various approaches.

  19. Observation of a Soft Tissue by a Zernike Phase Contrast Hard X-ray Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Sadao; Namikawa, Tadahiro; Hoshino, Masato; Watanabe, Norio

    2007-01-01

    A Zernike-type phase contrast hard X-ray microscope was constructed at the Photon Factory BL3C2 (KEK). A white beam from a bending magnet was monochromatized by a silicon double crystal monochromator. Monochromatic parallel X-ray beam illuminated a sample, and transmitted and diffracted X-ray beams were imaged by a Fresnel zone plate (FZP) which had the outer zone width of 100 nm. A phase plate made of a thin aluminum foil with a pinhole was set at the back focal plane of the FZP. The phase plate modulated the diffraction beam from the FZP, whereas a direct beam passed through the pinhole. The resolution of the microscope was measured by observing a tantalum test pattern at an X-ray energy of 9 keV. A 100nm line-and-space pattern could be resolved. X-ray montage pictures of growing eggs of artemia (plankton) were obtained.

  20. Measurement of nonlinear characteristics of silver-halide holographic materials by phase-contrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banyasz, Istvan

    2003-05-01

    Lin-curves of plane-wave phase holograms recorded in Agfa-Gevaert 8E75HD emulsions were measured for the combinations of AAC developer and the R9 bleaching agent. Then each holographic grating was studied by phase-contrast microscopy, using both medium-power (40 X) and high-power immersion (100 X) objectives. Thus, besides of the Lin-curves, the modulation of the refractive index as a function of the bias exposure and the visibility of the recording interference pattern can also been determined. This latter characteristics is used in coupled wave theory to calculate the diffraction efficiency of holographic gratings, thus the measured diffraction efficiencies can be compared to those predicted by the theory. Moreover, this direct study of the phase profile of the gratings can be used for optimising processing.

  1. Phase-contrast microscopy at high x-ray energy with a laboratory setup.

    PubMed

    Endrizzi, Marco; Vittoria, Fabio A; Diemoz, Paul C; Lorenzo, Rodolfo; Speller, Robert D; Wagner, Ulrich H; Rau, Christoph; Robinson, Ian K; Olivo, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    We report on the design and realization of an x-ray imaging system for quantitative phase-contrast microscopy at high x-ray energy with laboratory-scale instrumentation. Phase and amplitude were separated quantitatively at x-ray energies up to 80 keV with micrometric spatial resolution. The accuracy of the results was tested against numerical simulations, and the spatial resolution was experimentally quantified by measuring a Siemens star phase object. This simple setup should find broad application in those areas of x-ray imaging where high energy and spatial resolution are simultaneously required and in those difficult cases where the sample contains materials with similar x-ray absorption.

  2. Observation of a Soft Tissue by a Zernike Phase Contrast Hard X-ray Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Sadao; Namikawa, Tadahiro; Hoshino, Masato; Watanabe, Norio

    2007-01-19

    A Zernike-type phase contrast hard X-ray microscope was constructed at the Photon Factory BL3C2 (KEK). A white beam from a bending magnet was monochromatized by a silicon double crystal monochromator. Monochromatic parallel X-ray beam illuminated a sample, and transmitted and diffracted X-ray beams were imaged by a Fresnel zone plate (FZP) which had the outer zone width of 100 nm. A phase plate made of a thin aluminum foil with a pinhole was set at the back focal plane of the FZP. The phase plate modulated the diffraction beam from the FZP, whereas a direct beam passed through the pinhole. The resolution of the microscope was measured by observing a tantalum test pattern at an X-ray energy of 9 keV. A 100nm line-and-space pattern could be resolved. X-ray montage pictures of growing eggs of artemia (plankton) were obtained.

  3. Contrast harmonic detection with chirp excitation in 3f0 transmit phasing.

    PubMed

    Shen, Che-Chou; Wang, Hong-Wei; Chiu, Yi-Yuan

    2008-10-01

    The method of third harmonic (3f0 transmit phasing is capable of providing effective tissue background suppression for contrast-to-tissue ratio (CTR) improvement in harmonic imaging. With the additional 3f0 transmit signal to generate both the frequency-sum and the frequency-difference components of harmonic signal, the tissue suppression is achieved when the two components are opposite in phase and mutually cancel out. One major problem in 3f0 transmit phasing is the limited signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) due to the constraint on transmit amplitude. Chirp excitation can be applied in contrast harmonic imaging to enhance the SNR with minimal destruction of the microbubbles. In this paper, the effect of chirp waveform in combination with the 3f0 transmit phasing was studied using both in-vitro experiments and simulations. Our results indicate that, though the chirp transmit pulse can increase the SNR of harmonic imaging in 3f0 transmit phasing (3 dB, p < 0.001), it suffers from degraded tissue harmonic suppression and thus provides less CTR improvement as compared to a conventional pulse. The spectral mismatch between the frequency-sum and the frequency-difference components of tissue harmonic signal is particularly evident in the off-center region of second harmonic band, leading to significant residue tissue background. Consequently, with the chirp waveform, the improvement of CTR decreases from 9.5 dB to 5.9 dB (p < 0.0006) and thus a tradeoff exists between the SNR improvement and the CTR improvement in 3f0 transmit phasing.

  4. Glancing angle Talbot-Lau grating interferometers for phase contrast imaging at high x-ray energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutman, D.; Finkenthal, M.

    2012-08-01

    A Talbot-Lau interferometer is demonstrated using micro-periodic gratings inclined at a glancing angle along the light propagation direction. Due to the increase in the effective thickness of the absorption gratings, the device enables differential phase contrast imaging at high x-ray energy, with improved fringe visibility (contrast). For instance, at 28° glancing angle, we obtain up to ˜35% overall interferometer contrast with a spectrum having ˜43 keV mean energy, suitable for medical applications. In addition, glancing angle interferometers could provide high contrast at energies above 100 keV, enabling industrial and security applications of phase contrast imaging.

  5. 4D x-ray phase contrast tomography for repeatable motion of biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Masato; Uesugi, Kentaro; Yagi, Naoto

    2016-09-01

    X-ray phase contrast tomography based on a grating interferometer was applied to fast and dynamic measurements of biological samples. To achieve this, the scanning procedure in the tomographic scan was improved. A triangle-shaped voltage signal from a waveform generator to a Piezo stage was used for the fast phase stepping in the grating interferometer. In addition, an optical fiber coupled x-ray scientific CMOS camera was used to achieve fast and highly efficient image acquisitions. These optimizations made it possible to perform an x-ray phase contrast tomographic measurement within an 8 min scan with density resolution of 2.4 mg/cm3. A maximum volume size of 13 × 13 × 6 mm3 was obtained with a single tomographic measurement with a voxel size of 6.5 μm. The scanning procedure using the triangle wave was applied to four-dimensional measurements in which highly sensitive three-dimensional x-ray imaging and a time-resolved dynamic measurement of biological samples were combined. A fresh tendon in the tail of a rat was measured under a uniaxial stretching and releasing condition. To maintain the freshness of the sample during four-dimensional phase contrast tomography, the temperature of the bathing liquid of the sample was kept below 10° using a simple cooling system. The time-resolved deformation of the tendon and each fascicle was measured with a temporal resolution of 5.7 Hz. Evaluations of cross-sectional area size, length of the axis, and mass density in the fascicle during a stretching process provided a basis for quantitative analysis of the deformation of tendon fascicle.

  6. Analyzer-based x-ray phase-contrast microscopy combining channel-cut and asymmetrically cut crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Hoennicke, M. G.; Cusatis, C.

    2007-11-15

    An analyzer-based x-ray phase-contrast microscopy (ABM) setup combining a standard analyzer-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging (ABI) setup [nondispersive 4-crystal setup (Bonse-Hart setup)] and diffraction by asymmetrically cut crystals is presented here. An attenuation-contrast microscopy setup with conventional x-ray source and asymmetrically cut crystals is first analyzed. Edge-enhanced effects attributed to phase jumps or refraction/total external reflection on the fiber borders were detected. However, the long exposure times and the possibility to achieve high contrast microscopies by using extremely low attenuation-contrast samples motivated us to assemble the ABM setup using a synchrotron source. This setup was found to be useful for low contrast attenuation samples due to the low exposure time, high contrast, and spatial resolution found. Moreover, thanks to the combination with the nondispersive ABI setup, the diffraction-enhanced x-ray imaging algorithm could be applied.

  7. High-resolution STEM imaging with a quadrant detector--conditions for differential phase contrast microscopy in the weak phase object approximation.

    PubMed

    Majert, S; Kohl, H

    2015-01-01

    Differential phase contrast is a contrast mechanism that can be utilized in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) to determine the distribution of magnetic or electric fields. In practice, several different detector geometries can be used to obtain differential phase contrast. As recent high resolution differential phase contrast experiments with the STEM are focused on ring quadrant detectors, we evaluate the contrast transfer characteristics of different quadrant detector geometries, namely two ring quadrant detectors with different inner detector angles and a conventional quadrant detector, by calculating the corresponding phase gradient transfer functions. For an ideal microscope and a weak phase object, this can be done analytically. The calculated phase gradient transfer functions indicate that the barely illuminated ring quadrant detector setup used for imaging magnetic fields in the specimen reduces the resolution limit to about 2.5Å for an aberration corrected STEM. Our results show that the resolution can be drastically improved by using a conventional quadrant detector instead.

  8. High energy x-ray phase contrast CT using glancing-angle grating interferometers

    SciTech Connect

    Sarapata, A.; Stayman, J. W.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Finkenthal, M.; Stutman, D.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: The authors present initial progress toward a clinically compatible x-ray phase contrast CT system, using glancing-angle x-ray grating interferometry to provide high contrast soft tissue images at estimated by computer simulation dose levels comparable to conventional absorption based CT. Methods: DPC-CT scans of a joint phantom and of soft tissues were performed in order to answer several important questions from a clinical setup point of view. A comparison between high and low fringe visibility systems is presented. The standard phase stepping method was compared with sliding window interlaced scanning. Using estimated dose values obtained with a Monte-Carlo code the authors studied the dependence of the phase image contrast on exposure time and dose. Results: Using a glancing angle interferometer at high x-ray energy (∼45 keV mean value) in combination with a conventional x-ray tube the authors achieved fringe visibility values of nearly 50%, never reported before. High fringe visibility is shown to be an indispensable parameter for a potential clinical scanner. Sliding window interlaced scanning proved to have higher SNRs and CNRs in a region of interest and to also be a crucial part of a low dose CT system. DPC-CT images of a soft tissue phantom at exposures in the range typical for absorption based CT of musculoskeletal extremities were obtained. Assuming a human knee as the CT target, good soft tissue phase contrast could be obtained at an estimated absorbed dose level around 8 mGy, similar to conventional CT. Conclusions: DPC-CT with glancing-angle interferometers provides improved soft tissue contrast over absorption CT even at clinically compatible dose levels (estimated by a Monte-Carlo computer simulation). Further steps in image processing, data reconstruction, and spectral matching could make the technique fully clinically compatible. Nevertheless, due to its increased scan time and complexity the technique should be thought of not as

  9. Quantitative hard x-ray phase contrast imaging of micropipes in SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, V. G.; Argunova, T. S.; Je, J. H.

    2013-12-15

    Peculiarities of quantitative hard x-ray phase contrast imaging of micropipes in SiC are discussed. The micropipe is assumed as a hollow cylinder with an elliptical cross section. The major and minor diameters can be restored using the least square fitting procedure by comparing the experimental data, i.e. the profile across the micropipe axis, with those calculated based on phase contrast theory. It is shown that one projection image gives an information which does not allow a complete determination of the elliptical cross section, if an orientation of micropipe is not known. Another problem is a weak accuracy in estimating the diameters, partly because of using pink synchrotron radiation, which is necessary because a monochromatic beam intensity is not sufficient to reveal the weak contrast from a very small object. The general problems of accuracy in estimating the two diameters using the least square procedure are discussed. Two experimental examples are considered to demonstrate small as well as modest accuracies in estimating the diameters.

  10. Quantitative X-ray phase-contrast microtomography from a compact laser-driven betatron source

    PubMed Central

    Wenz, J.; Schleede, S.; Khrennikov, K.; Bech, M.; Thibault, P.; Heigoldt, M.; Pfeiffer, F.; Karsch, S.

    2015-01-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging has recently led to a revolution in resolving power and tissue contrast in biomedical imaging, microscopy and materials science. The necessary high spatial coherence is currently provided by either large-scale synchrotron facilities with limited beamtime access or by microfocus X-ray tubes with rather limited flux. X-rays radiated by relativistic electrons driven by well-controlled high-power lasers offer a promising route to a proliferation of this powerful imaging technology. A laser-driven plasma wave accelerates and wiggles electrons, giving rise to a brilliant keV X-ray emission. This so-called betatron radiation is emitted in a collimated beam with excellent spatial coherence and remarkable spectral stability. Here we present a phase-contrast microtomogram of a biological sample using betatron X-rays. Comprehensive source characterization enables the reconstruction of absolute electron densities. Our results suggest that laser-based X-ray technology offers the potential for filling the large performance gap between synchrotron- and current X-ray tube-based sources. PMID:26189811

  11. Phase-contrast zoom tomography reveals precise locations of macrophages in mouse lungs

    PubMed Central

    Krenkel, Martin; Markus, Andrea; Bartels, Matthias; Dullin, Christian; Alves, Frauke; Salditt, Tim

    2015-01-01

    We have performed x-ray phase-contrast tomography on mouse lung tissue. Using a divergent x-ray beam generated by nanoscale focusing, we used zoom tomography to produce three-dimensional reconstructions with selectable magnification, resolution, and field of view. Thus, macroscopic tissue samples extending over several mm can be studied in sub-cellular-level structural detail. The zoom capability and, in particular, the high dose efficiency are enabled by the near-perfect exit wavefront of an optimized x-ray waveguide channel. In combination with suitable phase-retrieval algorithms, challenging radiation-sensitive and low-contrast samples can be reconstructed with minimal artefacts. The dose efficiency of the method is demonstrated by the reconstruction of living macrophages both with and without phagocytized contrast agents. We also used zoom tomography to visualize barium-labelled macrophages in the context of morphological structures in asthmatic and healthy mouse lung tissue one day after intratracheal application. The three-dimensional reconstructions showed that the macrophages predominantly localized to the alveoli, but they were also found in bronchial walls, indicating that these cells might be able to migrate from the lumen of the bronchi through the epithelium. PMID:25966338

  12. Phase-contrast zoom tomography reveals precise locations of macrophages in mouse lungs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenkel, Martin; Markus, Andrea; Bartels, Matthias; Dullin, Christian; Alves, Frauke; Salditt, Tim

    2015-05-01

    We have performed x-ray phase-contrast tomography on mouse lung tissue. Using a divergent x-ray beam generated by nanoscale focusing, we used zoom tomography to produce three-dimensional reconstructions with selectable magnification, resolution, and field of view. Thus, macroscopic tissue samples extending over several mm can be studied in sub-cellular-level structural detail. The zoom capability and, in particular, the high dose efficiency are enabled by the near-perfect exit wavefront of an optimized x-ray waveguide channel. In combination with suitable phase-retrieval algorithms, challenging radiation-sensitive and low-contrast samples can be reconstructed with minimal artefacts. The dose efficiency of the method is demonstrated by the reconstruction of living macrophages both with and without phagocytized contrast agents. We also used zoom tomography to visualize barium-labelled macrophages in the context of morphological structures in asthmatic and healthy mouse lung tissue one day after intratracheal application. The three-dimensional reconstructions showed that the macrophages predominantly localized to the alveoli, but they were also found in bronchial walls, indicating that these cells might be able to migrate from the lumen of the bronchi through the epithelium.

  13. Phase-contrast imaging using a scanning-double-grating configuration.

    PubMed

    Nesterets, Ya I; Wilkins, S W

    2008-04-14

    A new double-grating-based phase-contrast imaging technique is described. This technique differs from the conventional double-grating imaging method by the image acquisition strategy. The novelty of the proposed method is in lateral scanning of both gratings simultaneously while an image is collected. The collected image is not contaminated by a Moiré pattern and can be recorded even by using a high-spatial-resolution integrating detector (e.g. X-ray film), thus facilitating improved resolution and/or contrast in the image. A detailed theoretical analysis of image formation in the scanning-double-grating method is carried out within the rigorous wave-optical formalism. The transfer function for the scanning-double-grating imaging system is derived. An approximate geometrical-optics solution for the image intensity distribution is derived from the exact wave-optical formula using the stationary-phase approach. Based on the present formalism, the effects of finite source size on the preferred operating conditions and of polychromaticity on the image contrast and resolution are investigated.

  14. X-ray phase-contrast tomography for high-spatial-resolution zebrafish muscle imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vågberg, William; Larsson, Daniel H.; Li, Mei; Arner, Anders; Hertz, Hans M.

    2015-11-01

    Imaging of muscular structure with cellular or subcellular detail in whole-body animal models is of key importance for understanding muscular disease and assessing interventions. Classical histological methods for high-resolution imaging methods require excision, fixation and staining. Here we show that the three-dimensional muscular structure of unstained whole zebrafish can be imaged with sub-5 μm detail with X-ray phase-contrast tomography. Our method relies on a laboratory propagation-based phase-contrast system tailored for detection of low-contrast 4-6 μm subcellular myofibrils. The method is demonstrated on 20 days post fertilization zebrafish larvae and comparative histology confirms that we resolve individual myofibrils in the whole-body animal. X-ray imaging of healthy zebrafish show the expected structured muscle pattern while specimen with a dystrophin deficiency (sapje) displays an unstructured pattern, typical of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The method opens up for whole-body imaging with sub-cellular detail also of other types of soft tissue and in different animal models.

  15. Preliminary research on dual-energy X-ray phase-contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hua-Jie; Wang, Sheng-Hao; Gao, Kun; Wang, Zhi-Li; Zhang, Can; Yang, Meng; Zhang, Kai; Zhu, Pei-Ping

    2016-04-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has been widely applied to measure the bone mineral density (BMD) and soft-tissue composition of the human body. However, the use of DEXA is greatly limited for low-Z materials such as soft tissues due to their weak absorption, while X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCI) shows significantly improved contrast in comparison with the conventional standard absorption-based X-ray imaging for soft tissues. In this paper, we propose a novel X-ray phase-contrast method to measure the area density of low-Z materials, including a single-energy method and a dual-energy method. The single-energy method is for the area density calculation of one low-Z material, while the dual-energy method aims to calculate the area densities of two low-Z materials simultaneously. Comparing the experimental and simulation results with the theoretical ones, the new method proves to have the potential to replace DEXA in area density measurement. The new method sets the prerequisites for a future precise and low-dose area density calculation method for low-Z materials. Supported by Major State Basic Research Development Program (2012CB825800), Science Fund for Creative Research Groups (11321503) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11179004, 10979055, 11205189, 11205157)

  16. Phase-contrast zoom tomography reveals precise locations of macrophages in mouse lungs.

    PubMed

    Krenkel, Martin; Markus, Andrea; Bartels, Matthias; Dullin, Christian; Alves, Frauke; Salditt, Tim

    2015-05-12

    We have performed x-ray phase-contrast tomography on mouse lung tissue. Using a divergent x-ray beam generated by nanoscale focusing, we used zoom tomography to produce three-dimensional reconstructions with selectable magnification, resolution, and field of view. Thus, macroscopic tissue samples extending over several mm can be studied in sub-cellular-level structural detail. The zoom capability and, in particular, the high dose efficiency are enabled by the near-perfect exit wavefront of an optimized x-ray waveguide channel. In combination with suitable phase-retrieval algorithms, challenging radiation-sensitive and low-contrast samples can be reconstructed with minimal artefacts. The dose efficiency of the method is demonstrated by the reconstruction of living macrophages both with and without phagocytized contrast agents. We also used zoom tomography to visualize barium-labelled macrophages in the context of morphological structures in asthmatic and healthy mouse lung tissue one day after intratracheal application. The three-dimensional reconstructions showed that the macrophages predominantly localized to the alveoli, but they were also found in bronchial walls, indicating that these cells might be able to migrate from the lumen of the bronchi through the epithelium.

  17. Ultrafast x-ray phase-contrast imaging of the initial coalescence phase of two water droplets.

    SciTech Connect

    Fezzaa, K.; Wang, Y.; X-Ray Science Division

    2008-03-14

    We report an ultrafast x-ray phase-contrast imaging study of the early merging dynamics of two water drops in air. Owing to the edge-enhancement capability, the high penetrability, and the unprecedented temporal and spatial resolutions offered by this new x-ray technique, the coalescence singularity of two water drops was revisited. A finite initial contact radius was identified and the evolvement of the trapped toroidal air bubble was studied for the first time. Despite the existence of this finite initial contact radius, the subsequent meniscus radius followed power laws which agree with theoretical predictions for the inviscid regime.

  18. Penalized maximum likelihood reconstruction for x-ray differential phase-contrast tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Brendel, Bernhard; Teuffenbach, Maximilian von; Noël, Peter B.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Koehler, Thomas

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to propose a cost function with regularization to iteratively reconstruct attenuation, phase, and scatter images simultaneously from differential phase contrast (DPC) acquisitions, without the need of phase retrieval, and examine its properties. Furthermore this reconstruction method is applied to an acquisition pattern that is suitable for a DPC tomographic system with continuously rotating gantry (sliding window acquisition), overcoming the severe smearing in noniterative reconstruction. Methods: We derive a penalized maximum likelihood reconstruction algorithm to directly reconstruct attenuation, phase, and scatter image from the measured detector values of a DPC acquisition. The proposed penalty comprises, for each of the three images, an independent smoothing prior. Image quality of the proposed reconstruction is compared to images generated with FBP and iterative reconstruction after phase retrieval. Furthermore, the influence between the priors is analyzed. Finally, the proposed reconstruction algorithm is applied to experimental sliding window data acquired at a synchrotron and results are compared to reconstructions based on phase retrieval. Results: The results show that the proposed algorithm significantly increases image quality in comparison to reconstructions based on phase retrieval. No significant mutual influence between the proposed independent priors could be observed. Further it could be illustrated that the iterative reconstruction of a sliding window acquisition results in images with substantially reduced smearing artifacts. Conclusions: Although the proposed cost function is inherently nonconvex, it can be used to reconstruct images with less aliasing artifacts and less streak artifacts than reconstruction methods based on phase retrieval. Furthermore, the proposed method can be used to reconstruct images of sliding window acquisitions with negligible smearing artifacts.

  19. Quantitative X-ray phase contrast waveguide imaging of bacterial endospores1

    PubMed Central

    Wilke, R. N.; Hoppert, M.; Krenkel, M.; Bartels, M.; Salditt, T.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative waveguide-based X-ray phase contrast imaging has been carried out on the level of single, unstained, unsliced and freeze-dried bacterial cells of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus subtilis using hard X-rays of 7.9 keV photon energy. The cells have been prepared in the metabolically dormant state of an endospore. The quantitative phase maps obtained by iterative phase retrieval using a modified hybrid input–output algorithm allow for mass and mass density determinations on the level of single individual endospores but include also large field of view investigations. Additionally, a direct reconstruction based on the contrast transfer function is investigated, and the two approaches are compared. Depending on the field of view and method, a resolution down to 65 nm was achieved at a maximum applied dose of below 5 × 105 Gy. Masses in the range of about ∼110–190 (20) fg for isolated endospores have been obtained. PMID:25844079

  20. Tumors in murine brains studied by grating-based phase contrast microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Georg; Dominietto, Marco; Kovacs, Zsofia; Schmitz, Rüdiger; Hieber, Simone E.; Thalmann, Peter; Beckmann, Felix; Müller, Bert

    2014-09-01

    Angiogenesis, i.e. the formation of vessels, is one of the key processes during tumor development. The newly formed vessels transport oxygen and nutrients from the healthy tissue to the tumor and gives tumor cells the possibility to replicate. The principle of anti-angiogenic therapy is to block angiogenic process in order to stop tumor growth. The aim of the present study is the investigation of murine glioma vascular architecture at early (7 days), intermediate (10 and 15 days) and late (23 days) stage of growth by means of grating-based phase contrast microtomography. We demonstrate that this technique yields premium contrast between healthy and cancerous parts of murine brain tissues.

  1. Virtual unrolling and deciphering of Herculaneum papyri by X-ray phase-contrast tomography.

    PubMed

    Bukreeva, I; Mittone, A; Bravin, A; Festa, G; Alessandrelli, M; Coan, P; Formoso, V; Agostino, R G; Giocondo, M; Ciuchi, F; Fratini, M; Massimi, L; Lamarra, A; Andreani, C; Bartolino, R; Gigli, G; Ranocchia, G; Cedola, A

    2016-06-06

    A collection of more than 1800 carbonized papyri, discovered in the Roman 'Villa dei Papiri' at Herculaneum is the unique classical library survived from antiquity. These papyri were charred during 79 A.D. Vesuvius eruption, a circumstance which providentially preserved them until now. This magnificent collection contains an impressive amount of treatises by Greek philosophers and, especially, Philodemus of Gadara, an Epicurean thinker of 1st century BC. We read many portions of text hidden inside carbonized Herculaneum papyri using enhanced X-ray phase-contrast tomography non-destructive technique and a new set of numerical algorithms for 'virtual-unrolling'. Our success lies in revealing the largest portion of Greek text ever detected so far inside unopened scrolls, with unprecedented spatial resolution and contrast, all without damaging these precious historical manuscripts. Parts of text have been decoded and the 'voice' of the Epicurean philosopher Philodemus is brought back again after 2000 years from Herculaneum papyri.

  2. Source effects in analyzer-based X-ray phase contrast imaging with conventional sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hoennicke, M. G.; Manica, J.; Mazzaro, I.; Cusatis, C.; Huang, X.-R.

    2012-11-15

    Several recent papers have shown the implementation of analyzer based X-ray phase contrast imaging (ABI) with conventional X-ray sources. The high flux is always a requirement to make the technique useful for bio-medical applications. Here, we present and discuss three important parameters, which need to be taken into account, when searching for the high flux ABI: anisotropic magnification, double image, and source size spread due to intrinsic dispersive diffraction by asymmetrically cut crystals. These parameters, if not well optimized, may cause important features in the acquired images which can mislead the interpretation. A few ways to minimize these effects are implemented and discussed, including some experimental results.

  3. Optimization Of Phase-Contrast Enhanced X-Ray Imaging Of D-T Layers

    SciTech Connect

    Kozioziemski, B

    2005-06-17

    Phase-contrast enhanced x-ray imaging has been demonstrated for characterization of D-T layers inside of beryllium shells. These first demonstrations used both scintillator and direct-detection imaging. This memo details tradeoffs between the two methods in order to optimize the imaging. The guiding principle for optimization is to minimize the exposure time while maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio at the D-T solid-vapor interface. Direct-detection and scintillator performance are comparable when imaging the full capsule. However, a scintillator allows for higher-resolution images necessary for studying local defects in the D-T layer.

  4. Blood flow computation in phase-contrast MRI by minimal paths in anisotropic media.

    PubMed

    Schwenke, Michael; Hennemuth, Anja; Fischer, Bernd; Friman, Ola

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, anisotropic Fast Marching is employed to compute blood flow trajectories as minimal paths in 3D phase-contrast MRI images. Uncertainty in the estimated blood flow vectors is incorporated in a tensor which is used as metric for the anisotropic Fast Marching. A flow connectivity distribution is computed simultaneously to the Fast Marching. Based on the connectivity distribution the most likely flow trajectories can be identified. Results are presented for several PC MRI data sets and the capability of the method to indicate uncertainty of the flow trajectories is shown.

  5. Design of tangential viewing phase contrast imaging for turbulence measurements in JT-60SA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K.; Coda, S.; Yoshida, M.; Sasao, H.; Kawano, Y.; Imazawa, R.; Kubo, H.; Kamada, Y.

    2016-11-01

    A tangential viewing phase contrast imaging system is being designed for the JT-60SA tokamak to investigate microturbulence. In order to obtain localized information on the turbulence, a spatial-filtering technique is applied, based on magnetic shearing. The tangential viewing geometry enhances the radial localization. The probing laser beam is injected tangentially and traverses the entire plasma region including both low and high field sides. The spatial resolution for an Internal Transport Barrier discharge is estimated at 30%-70% of the minor radius at k = 5 cm-1, which is the typical expected wave number of ion scale turbulence such as ion temperature gradient/trapped electron mode.

  6. Source effects in analyzer-based X-ray phase contrast imaging with conventional sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hönnicke, M. G.; Manica, J.; Mazzaro, I.; Cusatis, C.; Huang, X.-R.

    2012-11-01

    Several recent papers have shown the implementation of analyzer based X-ray phase contrast imaging (ABI) with conventional X-ray sources. The high flux is always a requirement to make the technique useful for bio-medical applications. Here, we present and discuss three important parameters, which need to be taken into account, when searching for the high flux ABI: anisotropic magnification, double image, and source size spread due to intrinsic dispersive diffraction by asymmetrically cut crystals. These parameters, if not well optimized, may cause important features in the acquired images which can mislead the interpretation. A few ways to minimize these effects are implemented and discussed, including some experimental results.

  7. Phase-contrast tomography at the nanoscale using hard x rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stampanoni, Marco; Mokso, Rajmund; Marone, Federica; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Gorelick, Sergey; Trtik, Pavel; Jefimovs, Konstantin; David, Christian

    2010-04-01

    Synchrotron-based full-field tomographic microscopy established itself as a tool for noninvasive investigations. Many beamlines worldwide routinely achieve micrometer spatial resolution while the isotropic 100-nm barrier is reached and trespassed only by few instruments, mainly in the soft x-ray regime. We present an x-ray, full-field microscope with tomographic capabilities operating at 10 keV and with an isotropic resolution of 144 nm. Custom-designed optical components allow for ideal, aperture-matched sample illumination and very sensitive phase contrast imaging. We show here that the instrument has been successfully used for the nondestructive, volumetric investigation of single cells.

  8. Hard x-ray phase contrast imaging of black lipid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Beerlink, A.; Mell, M.; Tolkiehn, M.; Salditt, T.

    2009-11-16

    We report hard x-ray phase contrast imaging of black lipid membranes, freely suspended over a micromachined aperture in an aqueous solution. Biomolecular and organic substances can thus be probed in hydrated environments by parallel beam propagation imaging, using coherent multi-kilo-electronvolt x-ray radiation. The width of the thinning film can be resolved from analysis of the intensity fringes in the Fresnel diffraction regime down to about 200 nm. The thinning process, in which solvent is expelled from the space in between two opposing monolayers, is monitored, and the domain walls between coexisting domains of swollen and thinned membrane patches are characterized.

  9. Characterization of LiBC by phase-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Krumeich, Frank; Wörle, Michael; Reibisch, Philipp; Nesper, Reinhard

    2014-08-01

    LiBC was used as a model compound for probing the applicability of phase-contrast (PC) imaging in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) to visualize lithium distributions. In the LiBC structure, boron and carbon are arranged to hetero graphite layers between which lithium is incorporated. The crystal structure is reflected in the PC-STEM images recorded perpendicular to the layers. The experimental images and their defocus dependence match with multi-slice simulations calculated utilizing the reciprocity principle. The observation that a part of the Li positions is not occupied is likely an effect of the intense electron beam triggering Li displacement.

  10. IRRADIATION ULTRA-VIOLETTE DES ORGANITES CELLULAIRES AVEC OBSERVATION CONTINUE EN CONTRASTE DE PHASE

    PubMed Central

    Bessis, Marcel; Nomarski, Georges

    1960-01-01

    The apparatus described is designed to permit the observation of the smallest cellular components with the phase contrast microscope (which requires an objective of a high numerical aperture) while a part of the cell is irradiated by a very small spot of ultraviolet radiation. Theoretical considerations show a good distribution of the energy for a diameter of the irradiation spot as small as 0.2 microns. Indications are given about the limitations of the brightness caused by diffraction at the spot diaphragm and the energy absorption by volume-unit of the irradiated object. The practical applications of the apparatus are discussed. PMID:19866576

  11. Wavefront sensing based on phase contrast theory and coherent optical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Huang; Qi, Bian; Chenlu, Zhou; Tenghao, Li; Mali, Gong

    2016-07-01

    A novel wavefront sensing method based on phase contrast theory and coherent optical processing is proposed. The wavefront gradient field in the object plane is modulated into intensity distribution in a gang of patterns, making high-density detection available. By applying the method, we have also designed a wavefront sensor. It consists of a classical coherent optical processing system, a CCD detector array, two pieces of orthogonal composite sinusoidal gratings, and a mechanical structure that can perform real-time linear positioning. The simulation results prove and demonstrate the validity of the method and the sensor in high-precision measurement of the wavefront gradient field.

  12. Zernike-type phase contrast X-ray microscopy at 4 keV photon energy with 60 nm resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhäusler, Ulrich; Schneider, Gerd

    2004-05-01

    X-ray microscopy in the multi-keV photon energy range offers unique possibilities to study thick dense samples with high spatial resolution. When employing a high numerical aperture (N.A.) condenser zone plate sample illumination in combination with a high resolution micro zone plate objective lens, a spatial resolution of currently 60 nm is achieved. Since the absorption becomes smaller with increasing photon energy, phase contrast imaging overcomes the limitation for imaging weakly absorbing structures in amplitude contrast mode. We report here on X-ray microscopy of advanced microelectronic devices imaged in Zernike phase contrast mode. While the amplitude contrast between copper and silicon dioxide in these samples is only 7 %, negative as well as positive phase contrast were demonstrated with a contrast of 40 % and 45 %, respectively.

  13. The second-order differential phase contrast and its retrieval for imaging with x-ray Talbot interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Yi; Tang Xiangyang

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: The x-ray differential phase contrast imaging implemented with the Talbot interferometry has recently been reported to be capable of providing tomographic images corresponding to attenuation-contrast, phase-contrast, and dark-field contrast, simultaneously, from a single set of projection data. The authors believe that, along with small-angle x-ray scattering, the second-order phase derivative {Phi}{sup Double-Prime }{sub s}(x) plays a role in the generation of dark-field contrast. In this paper, the authors derive the analytic formulae to characterize the contribution made by the second-order phase derivative to the dark-field contrast (namely, second-order differential phase contrast) and validate them via computer simulation study. By proposing a practical retrieval method, the authors investigate the potential of second-order differential phase contrast imaging for extensive applications. Methods: The theoretical derivation starts at assuming that the refractive index decrement of an object can be decomposed into {delta}={delta}{sub s}+{delta}{sub f}, where {delta}{sub f} corresponds to the object's fine structures and manifests itself in the dark-field contrast via small-angle scattering. Based on the paraxial Fresnel-Kirchhoff theory, the analytic formulae to characterize the contribution made by {delta}{sub s}, which corresponds to the object's smooth structures, to the dark-field contrast are derived. Through computer simulation with specially designed numerical phantoms, an x-ray differential phase contrast imaging system implemented with the Talbot interferometry is utilized to evaluate and validate the derived formulae. The same imaging system is also utilized to evaluate and verify the capability of the proposed method to retrieve the second-order differential phase contrast for imaging, as well as its robustness over the dimension of detector cell and the number of steps in grating shifting. Results: Both analytic formulae and computer

  14. Scattering properties of normal and cancerous tissues from human stomach based on phase-contrast microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Li, Zhifang; Li, Hui

    2012-12-01

    In order to study scattering properties of normal and cancerous tissues from human stomach, we collect images for human gastric specimens by using phase-contrast microscope. The images were processed by the way of mathematics morphology. The equivalent particle size distribution of tissues can be obtained. Combining with Mie scattering theory, the scattering properties of tissues can be calculated. Assume scattering of light in biological tissue can be seen as separate scattering events by different particles, total scattering properties can be equivalent to as scattering sum of particles with different diameters. The results suggest that scattering coefficient of the cancerous tissue is significantly higher than that of normal tissue. The scattering phase function is different especially in the backscattering area. Those are significant clinical benefits to diagnosis cancerous tissue

  15. Programmable aperture microscopy: A computational method for multi-modal phase contrast and light field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Chao; Sun, Jiasong; Feng, Shijie; Zhang, Minliang; Chen, Qian

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate a simple and cost-effective programmable aperture microscope to realize multi-modal computational imaging by integrating a programmable liquid crystal display (LCD) into a conventional wide-field microscope. The LCD selectively modulates the light distribution at the rear aperture of the microscope objective, allowing numerous imaging modalities, such as bright field, dark field, differential phase contrast, quantitative phase imaging, multi-perspective imaging, and full resolution light field imaging to be achieved and switched rapidly in the same setup, without requiring specialized hardwares and any moving parts. We experimentally demonstrate the success of our method by imaging unstained cheek cells, profiling microlens array, and changing perspective views of thick biological specimens. The post-exposure refocusing of a butterfly mouthpart and RFP-labeled dicot stem cross-section is also presented to demonstrate the full resolution light field imaging capability of our system for both translucent and fluorescent specimens.

  16. Fourier domain image fusion for differential X-ray phase-contrast breast imaging.

    PubMed

    Coello, Eduardo; Sperl, Jonathan I; Bequé, Dirk; Benz, Tobias; Scherer, Kai; Herzen, Julia; Sztrókay-Gaul, Anikó; Hellerhoff, Karin; Pfeiffer, Franz; Cozzini, Cristina; Grandl, Susanne

    2017-04-01

    X-Ray Phase-Contrast (XPC) imaging is a novel technology with a great potential for applications in clinical practice, with breast imaging being of special interest. This work introduces an intuitive methodology to combine and visualize relevant diagnostic features, present in the X-ray attenuation, phase shift and scattering information retrieved in XPC imaging, using a Fourier domain fusion algorithm. The method allows to present complementary information from the three acquired signals in one single image, minimizing the noise component and maintaining visual similarity to a conventional X-ray image, but with noticeable enhancement in diagnostic features, details and resolution. Radiologists experienced in mammography applied the image fusion method to XPC measurements of mastectomy samples and evaluated the feature content of each input and the fused image. This assessment validated that the combination of all the relevant diagnostic features, contained in the XPC images, was present in the fused image as well.

  17. Context-sensitive trace inlining for Java.

    PubMed

    Häubl, Christian; Wimmer, Christian; Mössenböck, Hanspeter

    2013-12-01

    Method inlining is one of the most important optimizations in method-based just-in-time (JIT) compilers. It widens the compilation scope and therefore allows optimizing multiple methods as a whole, which increases the performance. However, if method inlining is used too frequently, the compilation time increases and too much machine code is generated. This has negative effects on the performance. Trace-based JIT compilers only compile frequently executed paths, so-called traces, instead of whole methods. This may result in faster compilation, less generated machine code, and better optimized machine code. In the previous work, we implemented a trace recording infrastructure and a trace-based compiler for [Formula: see text], by modifying the Java HotSpot VM. Based on this work, we evaluate the effect of trace inlining on the performance and the amount of generated machine code. Trace inlining has several major advantages when compared to method inlining. First, trace inlining is more selective than method inlining, because only frequently executed paths are inlined. Second, the recorded traces may capture information about virtual calls, which simplify inlining. A third advantage is that trace information is context sensitive so that different method parts can be inlined depending on the specific call site. These advantages allow more aggressive inlining while the amount of generated machine code is still reasonable. We evaluate several inlining heuristics on the benchmark suites DaCapo 9.12 Bach, SPECjbb2005, and SPECjvm2008 and show that our trace-based compiler achieves an up to 51% higher peak performance than the method-based Java HotSpot client compiler. Furthermore, we show that the large compilation scope of our trace-based compiler has a positive effect on other compiler optimizations such as constant folding or null check elimination.

  18. Interior tomography from differential phase contrast data via Hilbert transform based on spline functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qingsong; Cong, Wenxiang; Wang, Ge

    2016-10-01

    X-ray phase contrast imaging is an important mode due to its sensitivity to subtle features of soft biological tissues. Grating-based differential phase contrast (DPC) imaging is one of the most promising phase imaging techniques because it works with a normal x-ray tube of a large focal spot at a high flux rate. However, a main obstacle before this paradigm shift is the fabrication of large-area gratings of a small period and a high aspect ratio. Imaging large objects with a size-limited grating results in data truncation which is a new type of the interior problem. While the interior problem was solved for conventional x-ray CT through analytic extension, compressed sensing and iterative reconstruction, the difficulty for interior reconstruction from DPC data lies in that the implementation of the system matrix requires the differential operation on the detector array, which is often inaccurate and unstable in the case of noisy data. Here, we propose an iterative method based on spline functions. The differential data are first back-projected to the image space. Then, a system matrix is calculated whose components are the Hilbert transforms of the spline bases. The system matrix takes the whole image as an input and outputs the back-projected interior data. Prior information normally assumed for compressed sensing is enforced to iteratively solve this inverse problem. Our results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can successfully reconstruct an interior region of interest (ROI) from the differential phase data through the ROI.

  19. In-line thermoelectric module

    DOEpatents

    Pento, Robert; Marks, James E.; Staffanson, Clifford D.

    2000-01-01

    A thermoelectric module with a plurality of electricity generating units each having a first end and a second end, the units being arranged first end to second end along an in-line axis. Each unit includes first and second elements each made of a thermoelectric material, an electrically conductive hot member arranged to heat one side of the first element, and an electrically conductive cold member arranged to cool another side of the first element and to cool one side of the second element. The hot member, the first element, the cold member and the second element are supported in a fixture, are electrically connected respectively to provide an electricity generating unit, and are arranged respectively in positions along the in-line axis. The individual components of each generating unit and the respective generating units are clamped in their in-line positions by a loading bolt at one end of the fixture and a stop wall at the other end of the fixture. The hot members may have a T-shape and the cold members an hourglass shape to facilitate heat transfer. The direction of heat transfer through the hot members may be perpendicular to the direction of heat transfer through the cold members, and both of these heat transfer directions may be perpendicular to the direction of current flow through the module.

  20. Comparison of Simulated Contrast Performance of Different Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) Coronagraph Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidick, Erkin; Kern, Brian; Kuhnert, Andreas; Shaklan, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    We compare the broadband contrast performances of several Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph configurations through modeling and simulations. The basic optical design of the PIAA coronagraph is the same as NASA's High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) setup at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Using a deformable mirror and a broadband wavefront sensing and control algorithm, we create a "dark hole" in the broadband point-spread function (PSF) with an inner working angle (IWA) of 2(f lambda/D)(sub sky). We evaluate two systems in parallel. One is a perfect system having a design PIAA output amplitude and not having any wavefront error at its exit-pupil. The other is a realistic system having a design PIAA output amplitude and the measured residual wavefront error. We also investigate the effect of Lyot stops of various sizes when a postapodizer is and is not present. Our simulations show that the best 7.5%-broadband contrast value achievable with the current PIAA coronagraph is approximately 1.5x10(exp -8).

  1. Ex vivo differential phase contrast and magnetic resonance imaging for characterization of human carotid atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed

    Meletta, Romana; Borel, Nicole; Stolzmann, Paul; Astolfo, Alberto; Klohs, Jan; Stampanoni, Marco; Rudin, Markus; Schibli, Roger; Krämer, Stefanie D; Herde, Adrienne Müller

    2015-10-01

    Non-invasive detection of specific atherosclerotic plaque components related to vulnerability is of high clinical relevance to prevent cerebrovascular events. The feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for characterization of plaque components was already demonstrated. We aimed to evaluate the potential of ex vivo differential phase contrast X-ray tomography (DPC) to accurately characterize human carotid plaque components in comparison to high field multicontrast MRI and histopathology. Two human plaque segments, obtained from carotid endarterectomy, classified according to criteria of the American Heart Association as stable and unstable plaque, were examined by ex vivo DPC tomography and multicontrast MRI (T1-, T2-, and proton density-weighted imaging, magnetization transfer contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging). To identify specific plaque components, the plaques were subsequently sectioned and stained for fibrous and cellular components, smooth muscle cells, hemosiderin, and fibrin. Histological data were then matched with DPC and MR images to define signal criteria for atherosclerotic plaque components. Characteristic structures, such as the lipid and necrotic core covered by a fibrous cap, calcification and hemosiderin deposits were delineated by histology and found with excellent sensitivity, resolution and accuracy in both imaging modalities. DPC tomography was superior to MRI regarding resolution and soft tissue contrast. Ex vivo DPC tomography allowed accurate identification of structures and components of atherosclerotic plaques at different lesion stages, in good correlation with histopathological findings.

  2. Phase contrast synchrotron microtomography: improving noninvasive investigations of fossil embryos in ovo.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Vincent; Buffetaut, Eric; Maire, Eric; Adrien, Jérôme; Suteethorn, Varavudh; Tafforeau, Paul

    2012-02-01

    Fossil embryos are paramount for our understanding of the development of extinct species. However, although thousands of fossil amniote eggs are known, very few embryos in ovo have been described. First reports of fossil embryos were based on broken eggs, where the embryonic remains were already exposed, because destructive methods on complete eggs were avoided. Investigations of complete eggs therefore required nondestructive approaches, such as X-ray microtomography (μCT). However, due to the general low density contrast between fossilized bones and infilling matrix, only a few specimens have been reported using these techniques. Using propagation phase contrast X-ray synchrotron microtomography (PPC-SR-μCT), we report here the discovery of three well-preserved embryos in Early Cretaceous eggs from Thailand. By scanning these eggs using different imaging techniques, we show that vastly different interpretations can be made regarding the preservation state and/or the developmental stage of these embryos. PPC-SR-μCT also revealed differential contrast between bone categories, presumably reflecting the ossification pattern of these embryos. Applying such an approach to large-scale studies of fossil eggs could lead to more discoveries and detailed studies of fossil embryos, providing important developmental and phylogenetic information on extinct and extant amniotes.

  3. Systolically gated 3D phase contrast MRA of mesenteric arteries in suspected mesenteric ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Wasser, M.N.; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Roos, A. de

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to assess the value of MRA for detecting stenoses in the celiac (CA) and superior mesenteric (SMA) arteries in patients suspected of having chronic mesenteric ischemia, using an optimized systolically gated 3D phase contrast technique. In an initial study in 24 patients who underwent conventional angiography of the abdominal vessels for different clinical indications, a 3D phase contrast MRA technique (3D-PCA) was evaluated and optimized to image the CAs and SMAs. Subsequently, a prospective study was performed to assess the value of systolically gated 3D-PCA in evaluation of the mesenteric arteries in 10 patients with signs and symptoms of chronic mesenteric ischemia. Intraarterial digital subtraction angiography and surgical findings were used as the reference standard. In the initial study, systolic gating appeared to be essential in imaging the SMA on 3D-PCA. In 10 patients suspected of mesenteric ischemia, systolically gated 3D-PCA identified significant proximal disease in the two mesenteric vessels in 4 patients. These patients underwent successful reconstruction of their stenotic vessels. Cardiac-gated MRA may become a useful tool in selection of patients suspected of having mesenteric ischemia who may benefit from surgery. 16 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Deciphering complex, functional structures with synchrotron-based absorption and phase contrast tomographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stampanoni, M.; Reichold, J.; Weber, B.; Haberthür, D.; Schittny, J.; Eller, J.; Büchi, F. N.; Marone, F.

    2010-09-01

    Nowadays, thanks to the high brilliance available at modern, third generation synchrotron facilities and recent developments in detector technology, it is possible to record volumetric information at the micrometer scale within few minutes. High signal-to-noise ratio, quantitative information on very complex structures like the brain micro vessel architecture, lung airways or fuel cells can be obtained thanks to the combination of dedicated sample preparation protocols, in-situ acquisition schemes and cutting-edge imaging analysis instruments. In this work we report on recent experiments carried out at the TOMCAT beamline of the Swiss Light Source [1] where synchrotron-based tomographic microscopy has been successfully used to obtain fundamental information on preliminary models for cerebral fluid flow [2], to provide an accurate mesh for 3D finite-element simulation of the alveolar structure of the pulmonary acinus [3] and to investigate the complex functional mechanism of fuel cells [4]. Further, we introduce preliminary results on the combination of absorption and phase contrast microscopy for the visualization of high-Z nanoparticles in soft tissues, a fundamental information when designing modern drug delivery systems [5]. As an outlook we briefly discuss the new possibilities offered by high sensitivity, high resolution grating interferomtery as well as Zernike Phase contrast nanotomography [6].

  5. A theoretically exact reconstruction algorithm for helical cone-beam differential phase-contrast computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Sun, Yi; Zhu, Peiping

    2013-08-21

    Differential phase-contrast computed tomography (DPC-CT) reconstruction problems are usually solved by using parallel-, fan- or cone-beam algorithms. For rod-shaped objects, the x-ray beams cannot recover all the slices of the sample at the same time. Thus, if a rod-shaped sample is required to be reconstructed by the above algorithms, one should alternately perform translation and rotation on this sample, which leads to lower efficiency. The helical cone-beam CT may significantly improve scanning efficiency for rod-shaped objects over other algorithms. In this paper, we propose a theoretically exact filter-backprojection algorithm for helical cone-beam DPC-CT, which can be applied to reconstruct the refractive index decrement distribution of the samples directly from two-dimensional differential phase-contrast images. Numerical simulations are conducted to verify the proposed algorithm. Our work provides a potential solution for inspecting the rod-shaped samples using DPC-CT, which may be applicable with the evolution of DPC-CT equipments.

  6. Development of optics for x-ray phase-contrast imaging of high energy density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Stutman, D.; Finkenthal, M.; Moldovan, N.

    2010-10-15

    Phase-contrast or refraction-enhanced x-ray radiography can be useful for the diagnostic of low-Z high energy density plasmas, such as imploding inertial confinement fusion (ICF) pellets, due to its sensitivity to density gradients. To separate and quantify the absorption and refraction contributions to x-ray images, methods based on microperiodic optics, such as shearing interferometry, can be used. To enable applying such methods with the energetic x rays needed for ICF radiography, we investigate a new type of optics consisting of grazing incidence microperiodic mirrors. Using such mirrors, efficient phase-contrast imaging systems could be built for energies up to {approx}100 keV. In addition, a simple lithographic method is proposed for the production of the microperiodic x-ray mirrors based on the difference in the total reflection between a low-Z substrate and a high-Z film. Prototype mirrors fabricated with this method show promising characteristics in laboratory tests.

  7. Phase contrast X-ray synchrotron imaging: opening access to fossil inclusions in opaque amber.

    PubMed

    Lak, Malvina; Néraudeau, Didier; Nel, André; Cloetens, Peter; Perrichot, Vincent; Tafforeau, Paul

    2008-06-01

    A significant portion of Mesozoic amber is fully opaque. Biological inclusions in such amber are invisible even after polishing, leading to potential bias in paleoecological and phylogenetic studies. Until now, studies using conventional X-ray microtomography focused on translucent or semi-opaque amber. In these cases, organisms of interest were visualized prior to X-ray analyses. It was recently demonstrated that propagation phase contrast X-ray synchrotron imaging techniques are powerful tools to access invisible inclusions in fully opaque amber. Here we describe an optimized synchrotron microradiographic protocol that allowed us to investigate efficiently and rapidly large amounts of opaque amber pieces from Charentes (southwestern France). Amber pieces were imaged with microradiography after immersion in water, which optimizes the visibility of inclusions. Determination is not accurate enough to allow precise phylogenetic studies, but provides preliminary data on biodiversity and ecotypes distribution; phase contrast microtomography remains necessary for precise determination. Because the organisms are generally much smaller than the amber pieces, we optimized local microtomography by using a continuous acquisition mode (sample moving during projection integration). As tomographic investigation of all inclusions is not practical, we suggest the use of a synchrotron for a microradiographic survey of opaque amber, coupled with microtomographic investigations of the most valuable organisms.

  8. Absorption and Phase Contrast X-Ray Imaging in Paleontology Using Laboratory and Synchrotron Sources.

    PubMed

    Bidola, Pidassa; Stockmar, Marco; Achterhold, Klaus; Pfeiffer, Franz; Pacheco, Mírian L A F; Soriano, Carmen; Beckmann, Felix; Herzen, Julia

    2015-10-01

    X-ray micro-computed tomography (μCT) is commonly used for imaging of samples in biomedical or materials science research. Owing to the ability to visualize a sample in a nondestructive way, X-ray μCT is perfectly suited to inspect fossilized specimens, which are mostly unique or rare. In certain regions of the world where important sedimentation events occurred in the Precambrian geological time, several fossilized animals are studied to understand questions related to their origin, environment, and life evolution. This article demonstrates the advantages of applying absorption and phase-contrast CT on the enigmatic fossil Corumbella werneri, one of the oldest known animals capable of building hard parts, originally discovered in Corumbá (Brazil). Different tomographic setups were tested to visualize the fossilized inner structures: a commercial laboratory-based μCT device, two synchrotron-based imaging setups using conventional absorption and propagation-based phase contrast, and a commercial X-ray microscope with a lens-coupled detector system, dedicated for radiography and tomography. Based on our results we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the different imaging setups for paleontological studies.

  9. Absorption and Phase Contrast X-Ray Imaging in Paleontology Using Laboratory and Synchrotron Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bidola, Pidassa; Stockmar, Marco; Achterhold, Klaus; Pfeiffer, Franz; Pacheco, Mirian L.A.F.; Soriano, Carmen; Beckmann, Felix; Herzen, Julia

    2015-10-01

    X-ray micro-computed tomography (CT) is commonly used for imaging of samples in biomedical or materials science research. Owing to the ability to visualize a sample in a nondestructive way, X-ray CT is perfectly suited to inspect fossilized specimens, which are mostly unique or rare. In certain regions of the world where important sedimentation events occurred in the Precambrian geological time, several fossilized animals are studied to understand questions related to their origin, environment, and life evolution. This article demonstrates the advantages of applying absorption and phase-contrast CT on the enigmatic fossil Corumbella werneri, one of the oldest known animals capable of building hard parts, originally discovered in Corumba (Brazil). Different tomographic setups were tested to visualize the fossilized inner structures: a commercial laboratory-based CT device, two synchrotron-based imaging setups using conventional absorption and propagation-based phase contrast, and a commercial X-ray microscope with a lens-coupled detector system, dedicated for radiography and tomography. Based on our results we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the different imaging setups for paleontological studies.

  10. Early Tumor Development Captured Through Nondestructive, High Resolution Differential Phase Contrast X-ray Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Beheshti, A.; Pinzer, B. R.; McDonald, J. T.; Stampanoni, M.; Hlatky, L.

    2014-01-01

    Although a considerable amount is known about molecular dysregulations in later stages of tumor progression, much less is known about the regulated processes supporting initial tumor growth. Insight into such processes can provide a fuller understanding of carcinogenesis, with implications for cancer treatment and risk assessment. Work from our laboratory suggests that organized substructure emerges during tumor formation. The goal here was to examine the feasibility of using state-of-the-art differential phase contrast X-ray imaging to investigate density differentials that evolve during early tumor development. To this end the beamline for TOmographic Microscopy and Coherent rAdiology experimenTs (TOMCAT) at the Swiss Light Source was used to examine the time-dependent assembly of substructure in developing tumors. Differential phase contrast (DPC) imaging based on grating interferometry as implemented with TOMCAT, offers sensitivity to density differentials within soft tissues and a unique combination of high resolution coupled with a large field of view that permits the accommodation of larger tissue sizes (1 cm in diameter), difficult with other imaging modalities. PMID:24125488

  11. Segmentation of the Clustered Cells with Optimized Boundary Detection in Negative Phase Contrast Images.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuliang; Zhang, Zaicheng; Wang, Huimin; Bi, Shusheng

    2015-01-01

    Cell image segmentation plays a central role in numerous biology studies and clinical applications. As a result, the development of cell image segmentation algorithms with high robustness and accuracy is attracting more and more attention. In this study, an automated cell image segmentation algorithm is developed to get improved cell image segmentation with respect to cell boundary detection and segmentation of the clustered cells for all cells in the field of view in negative phase contrast images. A new method which combines the thresholding method and edge based active contour method was proposed to optimize cell boundary detection. In order to segment clustered cells, the geographic peaks of cell light intensity were utilized to detect numbers and locations of the clustered cells. In this paper, the working principles of the algorithms are described. The influence of parameters in cell boundary detection and the selection of the threshold value on the final segmentation results are investigated. At last, the proposed algorithm is applied to the negative phase contrast images from different experiments. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated. Results show that the proposed method can achieve optimized cell boundary detection and highly accurate segmentation for clustered cells.

  12. Bayesian motion recovery framework for myocardial phase-contrast velocity MRI.

    PubMed

    Huntbatch, Andrew; Lee, Su-Lin; Firmin, David; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2008-01-01

    Detailed assessment of myocardial motion provides a key indicator of ventricular function, enabling the early detection and assessment of a range of cardiac abnormalities. Existing techniques for myocardial contractility analysis are complicated by a combination of factors including resolution, acquisition time, and consistency of quantification results. Phase-contrast velocity MRI is a technique that provides instantaneous, in vivo measurement of tissue velocity on a per-voxel basis. It allows for the direct derivation of contractile indices with minimal post-processing. For this method to be clinically useful, SNR and image artifacts need to be addressed. The purpose of this paper is to present a Maximum a posteriori (MAP) restoration technique for high quality myocardial motion recovery. It employs an accurate noise modeling scheme and a generalized Gaussian Markov random field prior tailored for the myocardial morphology. The quality of the proposed method is evaluated with both simulated myocardial velocity data with known ground truth and in vivo phase-contrast MR velocity acquisitions from a group of normal subjects.

  13. The Accuracy and Precision of Flow Measurements Using Phase Contrast Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chao

    Quantitative volume flow rate measurements using the magnetic resonance imaging technique are studied in this dissertation because the volume flow rates have a special interest in the blood supply of the human body. The method of quantitative volume flow rate measurements is based on the phase contrast technique, which assumes a linear relationship between the phase and flow velocity of spins. By measuring the phase shift of nuclear spins and integrating velocity across the lumen of the vessel, we can determine the volume flow rate. The accuracy and precision of volume flow rate measurements obtained using the phase contrast technique are studied by computer simulations and experiments. The various factors studied include (1) the partial volume effect due to voxel dimensions and slice thickness relative to the vessel dimensions; (2) vessel angulation relative to the imaging plane; (3) intravoxel phase dispersion; (4) flow velocity relative to the magnitude of the flow encoding gradient. The partial volume effect is demonstrated to be the major obstacle to obtaining accurate flow measurements for both laminar and plug flow. Laminar flow can be measured more accurately than plug flow in the same condition. Both the experiment and simulation results for laminar flow show that, to obtain the accuracy of volume flow rate measurements to within 10%, at least 16 voxels are needed to cover the vessel lumen. The accuracy of flow measurements depends strongly on the relative intensity of signal from stationary tissues. A correction method is proposed to compensate for the partial volume effect. The correction method is based on a small phase shift approximation. After the correction, the errors due to the partial volume effect are compensated, allowing more accurate results to be obtained. An automatic program based on the correction method is developed and implemented on a Sun workstation. The correction method is applied to the simulation and experiment results. The

  14. In-line interferometric femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dobner, Sven; Groß, Petra; Fallnich, Carsten

    2013-06-28

    We present in-line interferometric femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering (II-FSRS), a new method to measure the spectral Raman intensity and phase over a broad spectral range, potentially in a single shot. An analytic model is developed, that excellently reproduces the measured spectra. Additionally, the performance of II-FSRS is directly compared in experiments to two established techniques, namely femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering and femtosecond Raman induced Kerr-effect spectroscopy.

  15. Temporal phase-unwrapping algorithm for dynamic interference pattern analysis in interference-contrast microscopy.

    PubMed

    van den Doel, L R; van Vliet, L J

    2001-09-01

    A temporal phase-unwrapping algorithm has been developed for the analysis of dynamic interference patterns generated with interference-contrast microscopy in micromachined picoliter vials. These vials are etched in silicon dioxide, have a typical depth of 6 mum, and are filled with a liquid sample. In this kind of microscopy, fringe patterns are observed at the air-liquid interface. These fringe patterns are caused by interference between the directly reflected part of an incident plane wave and the part of that wave that is reflected on the bottom of the vial. The optical path difference (OPD) between both parts is proportional to the distance to the reflecting bottom of the vial. Evaporation decreases the OPD at the meniscus level and causes alternating constructive and destructive interference of the incident light, resulting in an interferogram. Imaging of the space-varying OPD yields a fringe pattern in which the isophotes correspond to isoheight curves of the meniscus. When the bottom is flat, the interference pattern allows for monitoring of the meniscus as a function of time during evaporation. However, when there are objects on the bottom of the vial, the heights of these objects are observed as phase jumps in the fringes proportional to their heights. First, we present a classical electromagnetic description of interference-contrast microscopy. Second, a temporal phase-unwrapping algorithm is described that retrieves the meniscus profile from the interference pattern. Finally, this algorithm is applied to measure height differences of objects on the bottom in other micromachined vials with a precision of ~5 nm.

  16. Natural images and contrast encoding in bipolar cells in the retina of the land- and aquatic-phase tiger salamander.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Dwight A; Fahey, Patrick K; Sikora, Michael A

    2006-01-01

    Intracellular recordings were obtained from 57 cone-driven bipolar cells in the light-adapted retina of the land-phase (adult) tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum). Responses to flashes of negative and positive contrast for centered spots of optimum spatial dimensions were analyzed as a function of contrast magnitude. On average, the contrast/response curves of depolarizing and hyperpolarizing bipolar cells in the land-phase animals were remarkably similar to those of aquatic-phase animals. Thus, the primary retinal mechanisms mediating contrast coding in the outer retina are conserved as the salamander evolves from the aquatic to the land phase. To evaluate contrast encoding in the context of natural environments, the distribution of contrasts in natural images was measured for 65 scenes. The results, in general agreement with other reports, show that the vast majority of contrasts in nature are very small. The efficient coding hypothesis of Laughlin was examined by comparing the average contrast/response curves of bipolar cells with the cumulative probability distribution of contrasts in natural images. Efficient coding was found at 20 cd/m2 but at lower levels of light adaptation, the contrast/response curves were much too shallow. Further experiments show that two fundamental physiological factors-light adaptation and the nonlinear transfer across the cone-bipolar synapse are essential for the emergence of efficient contrast coding. For both land- and aquatic-based animals, the extent and symmetry of the dynamic range of the contrast/response curves of both classes of bipolar cells varied greatly from cell to cell. This apparent substrate for distributed encoding is established at the bipolar cell level, since it is not found in cones. As a result, the dynamic range of the bipolar cell population brackets the distribution of contrasts found in natural images.

  17. Optimization of propagation-based phase-contrast imaging at a laboratory setup.

    PubMed

    Bidola, Pidassa M; Zanette, Irene; Achterhold, Klaus; Holzner, Christian; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-11-16

    Single distance X-ray propagation-based phase-contrast imaging is considered as a simple method compared to those requiring additional precise instruments and sophisticated algorithms to retrieve phase images. It requires, however, a modicum of conditions within the setup which include partial coherence and small pixel size at the sample position. While these conditions are usually satisfied at synchrotron light sources, they are not always satisfied within laboratory setups. In fact, these setups are limited by the size of the polychromatic source that directly influences the partial coherence of the beam, the propagation distance and the photon flux. A prior knowledge of the sample refractive index, namely the ratio of delta (δ) and beta (β) values, are also essential for the phase retrieval but this method is powerful in the presence of noise compared to absorption-based imaging. An investigation of the feasibility and the efficient applicability of this method in a commercially available X-ray microscope is conducted in this work.

  18. Low-dose phase contrast tomography with conventional x-ray sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, C. K. Endrizzi, M.; Diemoz, P. C.; Olivo, A.; Munro, P. R. T.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: The edge illumination (EI) x-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCi) method has been recently further developed to perform tomographic and, thus, volumetric imaging. In this paper, the first tomographic EI XPCi images acquired with a conventional x-ray source at dose levels below that used for preclinical small animal imaging are presented. Methods: Two test objects, a biological sample and a custom-built phantom, were imaged with a laboratory-based EI XPCi setup in tomography mode. Tomographic maps that show the phase shift and attenuating properties of the object were reconstructed, and analyzed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and quantitative accuracy. Dose measurements using thermoluminescence devices were performed. Results: The obtained images demonstrate that phase based imaging methods can provide superior results compared to attenuation based modalities for weakly attenuating samples also in 3D. Moreover, and, most importantly, they demonstrate the feasibility of low-dose imaging. In addition, the experimental results can be considered quantitative within the constraints imposed by polychromaticity. Conclusions: The results, together with the method's dose efficiency and compatibility with conventional x-ray sources, indicate that tomographic EI XPCi can become an important tool for the routine imaging of biomedical samples.

  19. Development of a Digital Control for the Phase Contrast Imaging Alignment Feedback System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, M.; Marinoni, A.; Rost, J. C.; Davis, E. M.; Porkolab, M.

    2016-10-01

    The Phase Contrast Imaging diagnostic is an internal reference interferometer that images density fluctuations on a 32-element linear detector array. Since proper operation of the system requires accurate alignment of a CO2 laser beam on a phase plate, beam motion due to vibrations of the DIII-D vessel need to be compensated up to 1 kHz. The feedback network controlling the steering mirrors currently uses a linear analog controller, but a digital controller can provide improved stability performance and flexibility. A prototype was developed using an Arduino Due, a low-cost microcontroller, to assess performance capabilities. Digital control parameters will be developed based on the measured frequency and phase response of the physical components. Finally, testing of the digital feedback system and the required revisions will be done to achieve successful performance. This upgrade to the linear analog controller is expected to be used routinely on similar diagnostics in fusion devices, especially in view of restricted access to the machine hall. Work supported in part by the US Department of Energy under DE-FG02-94ER54235, DE-FC02-04ER54698, and the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships Program (SULI).

  20. Aortopulmonary collateral flow in cystic fibrosis assessed with phase-contrast MRI

    PubMed Central

    McPhail, Gary; VanDyke, Rhonda; Knowlton, Joshua; Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Clancy, John; Amin, Raouf

    2013-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common genetic disease in Caucasians. Chronic pulmonary disease and progressive destruction of the pulmonary parenchyma are one of the major morbidities, but the relationship between clinical severity of CF and aortopulmonary collateral blood flow has not been assessed. Objective The purpose of this study is to measure changes in aortopulmonary collateral blood flow by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children with CF across the spectrum of disease severity as measured by the forced expiratory volume in one second as percent predicted value (FEV1%). Materials and methods Sixteen patients with CF were prospectively evaluated. Eight were classified as having mild CF lung disease (FEV1 ≥80% predicted) and eight were classified as having moderate to severe CF lung disease (FEV1 <80% predicted). Seventeen age and gender matched non-CF subjects without cardiac or lung disease served as controls. Phase-contrast flow was measured at the ascending aorta, main pulmonary artery and both pulmonary arteries. Aortopulmonary collateral blood flow was calculated for each subject. The relationship between collateral flow and FEV1%P was modeled using nonparametric regression. Group differences were assessed by analysis of variance. Results Aortopulmonary collateral blood flow began to increase as FEV1%P in subjects with CF fell below 101.5% with significant further increase in the aortopulmonary collateral blood flow in the subjects with CF with moderate to severe lung disease compared to controls (0.89 vs. 0.20 L/min, (P<0.0001). Aortopulmonary collateral blood flow correlated negatively with FEV1%P (r, 0.70, P=0.0050) confirming its relationship to this established marker of disease severity. There was no statistically significant difference in results obtained from two independent observers. Conclusion These preliminary findings suggest that phase-contrast MRI can be performed reliably with consistent results and without

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Vortical Blood Flow in the Thoracic Aorta Using 4D Phase Contrast MRI

    PubMed Central

    von Spiczak, Jochen; Crelier, Gerard; Giese, Daniel; Kozerke, Sebastian; Maintz, David; Bunck, Alexander Christian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Phase contrast MRI allows for the examination of complex hemodynamics in the heart and adjacent great vessels. Vortex flow patterns seem to play an important role in certain vascular pathologies. We propose two- and three-dimensional metrics for the objective quantification of aortic vortex blood flow in 4D phase contrast MRI. Materials and Methods For two-dimensional vorticity assessment, a standardized set of 6 regions-of-interest (ROIs) was defined throughout the course of the aorta. For each ROI, a heatmap of time-resolved vorticity values ω→=∇v→ was computed. Evolution of minimum, maximum, and average values as well as opposing rotational flow components were analyzed. For three-dimensional analysis, vortex core detection was implemented combining the predictor-corrector method with λ2 correction. Strength, elongation, and radial expansion of the detected vortex core were recorded over time. All methods were applied to 4D flow MRI datasets of 9 healthy subjects, 2 patients with mildly dilated aorta, and 1 patient with aortic aneurysm. Results Vorticity quantification in the 6 standardized ROIs enabled the description of physiological vortex flow in the healthy aorta. Helical flow developed early in the ascending aorta (absolute vorticity = 166.4±86.4 s-1 at 12% of cardiac cycle) followed by maximum values in mid-systole in the aortic arch (240.1±45.2 s-1 at 16%). Strength, elongation, and radial expansion of 3D vortex cores escalated in early systole, reaching a peak in mid systole (strength = 241.2±30.7 s-1 at 17%, elongation = 65.1±34.6 mm at 18%, expansion = 80.1±48.8 mm2 at 20%), before all three parameters similarly decreased to overall low values in diastole. Flow patterns were considerably altered in patient data: Vortex flow developed late in mid/end-systole close to the aortic bulb and no physiological helix was found in the aortic arch. Conclusions We have introduced objective measures for quantification of vortical flow in

  2. Analysis of ideal observer signal detectability in phase-contrast imaging employing linear shift-invariant optical systems

    PubMed Central

    Anastasio, Mark A.; Chou, Cheng-Ying; Zysk, Adam M.; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2010-01-01

    Phase-contrast imaging methods exploit variations in an object’s refractive index distribution to permit the visualization of subtle features that may have very similar optical absorption properties. Although phase-contrast is often viewed as being desirable in many biomedical applications, its relative influence on signal detectability when both absorption- and phase-contrast are present remains relatively unexplored. In this work, we investigate the ideal Bayesian observer signal to noise ratio (SNR) in phase-contrast imaging for a signal-known-exactly/background-known exactly detection task involving a weak signal. We demonstrate that this signal detectability measure can be decomposed into three contributions that have distinct interpretations associated with the imaging physics. PMID:21119750

  3. On-chip differential interference contrast microscopy using lensless digital holography.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chulwoo; Isikman, Serhan O; Khademhosseinieh, Bahar; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2010-03-01

    We introduce the use of a birefringent crystal with lensless digital holography to create an on-chip differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope. Using an incoherent source with a large aperture, in-line holograms of micro-objects are created, which interact with a uniaxial crystal and an absorbing polarizer, encoding differential interference contrast information of the objects on the chip. Despite the fact that a unit fringe magnification and an incoherent source with a large aperture have been used, holographic digital processing of such holograms rapidly recovers the differential phase contrast image of the specimen over a large field-of-view of approximately 24 mm(2).

  4. Revealing letters in rolled Herculaneum papyri by X-ray phase-contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocella, Vito; Brun, Emmanuel; Ferrero, Claudio; Delattre, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Hundreds of papyrus rolls, buried by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD and belonging to the only library passed on from Antiquity, were discovered 260 years ago at Herculaneum. These carbonized papyri are extremely fragile and are inevitably damaged or destroyed in the process of trying to open them to read their contents. In recent years, new imaging techniques have been developed to read the texts without unwrapping the rolls. Until now, specialists have been unable to view the carbon-based ink of these papyri, even when they could penetrate the different layers of their spiral structure. Here for the first time, we show that X-ray phase-contrast tomography can reveal various letters hidden inside the precious papyri without unrolling them. This attempt opens up new opportunities to read many Herculaneum papyri, which are still rolled up, thus enhancing our knowledge of ancient Greek literature and philosophy.

  5. Revealing letters in rolled Herculaneum papyri by X-ray phase-contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Mocella, Vito; Brun, Emmanuel; Ferrero, Claudio; Delattre, Daniel

    2015-01-20

    Hundreds of papyrus rolls, buried by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD and belonging to the only library passed on from Antiquity, were discovered 260 years ago at Herculaneum. These carbonized papyri are extremely fragile and are inevitably damaged or destroyed in the process of trying to open them to read their contents. In recent years, new imaging techniques have been developed to read the texts without unwrapping the rolls. Until now, specialists have been unable to view the carbon-based ink of these papyri, even when they could penetrate the different layers of their spiral structure. Here for the first time, we show that X-ray phase-contrast tomography can reveal various letters hidden inside the precious papyri without unrolling them. This attempt opens up new opportunities to read many Herculaneum papyri, which are still rolled up, thus enhancing our knowledge of ancient Greek literature and philosophy.

  6. Big-data x-ray phase contrast imaging simulation challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, Edward S.; Dagel, Amber L.

    2015-08-01

    This position paper describes a potential implementation of a large-scale grating-based X-ray Phase Contrast Imaging System (XPCI) simulation tool along with the associated challenges in its implementation. This work proposes an implementation based off of an implementation by Peterzol et. al. where each grating is treated as an object imaged in the field-of-view. Two main challenges exist; the first, is the required sampling and information management in object space due to the micron-scale periods of each grating propagating over significant distances. The second is maintaining algorithmic numerical stability for imaging systems relevant to industrial applications. We present preliminary results for a numerical stability study using a simplified algorithm that performs Talbot imaging in a big-data context

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid flow imaging by using phase-contrast MR technique

    PubMed Central

    Battal, B; Kocaoglu, M; Bulakbasi, N; Husmen, G; Tuba Sanal, H; Tayfun, C

    2011-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces include ventricles and cerebral and spinal subarachnoid spaces. CSF motion is a combined effect of CSF production rate and superimposed cardiac pulsations. Knowledge of CSF dynamics has benefited considerably from the development of phase-contrast (PC) MRI. There are several disorders such as communicating and non-communicating hydrocephalus, Chiari malformation, syringomyelic cyst and arachnoid cyst that can change the CSF dynamics. The aims of this pictorial review are to outline the PC MRI technique, CSF physiology and cerebrospinal space anatomy, to describe a group of congenital and acquired disorders that can alter the CSF dynamics, and to assess the use of PC MRI in the assessment of various central nervous system abnormalities. PMID:21586507

  8. Phase contrast x-ray velocimetry of small animal lungs: optimising imaging rates

    PubMed Central

    Murrie, R. P.; Paganin, D. M.; Fouras, A.; Morgan, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lung diseases affect a vast portion of the world’s population. One of the key difficulties in accurately diagnosing and treating chronic lung disease is our inability to measure dynamic motion of the lungs in vivo. Phase contrast x-ray imaging (PCXI) allows us to image the lungs in high resolution by exploiting the difference in refractive indices between tissue and air. Combining PCXI with x-ray velocimetry (XV) allows us to track the local motion of the lungs, improving our ability to locate small regions of disease under natural ventilation conditions. Via simulation, we investigate the optimal imaging speed and sequence to capture lung motion in vivo in small animals using XV on both synchrotron and laboratory x-ray sources, balancing the noise inherent in a short exposure with motion blur that results from a long exposure. PMID:26819819

  9. Note: Gratings on low absorbing substrates for x-ray phase contrast imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, F. J. Schröter, T. J.; Kunka, D.; Meyer, P.; Meiser, J.; Faisal, A.; Khalil, M. I.; Mohr, J.; Birnbacher, L.; Viermetz, M.; Pfeiffer, F.; Walter, M.; Schulz, J.

    2015-12-15

    Grating based X-ray phase contrast imaging is on the verge of being applied in clinical settings. To achieve this goal, compact setups with high sensitivity and dose efficiency are necessary. Both can be increased by eliminating unwanted absorption in the beam path, which is mainly due to the grating substrates. Fabrication of gratings via deep X-ray lithography can address this issue by replacing the commonly used silicon substrate with materials with lower X-ray absorption that fulfill certain boundary conditions. Gratings were produced on both graphite and polymer substrates without compromising on structure quality. These gratings were tested in a three-grating setup with a source operated at 40 kVp and lead to an increase in the detector photon count rate of almost a factor of 4 compared to a set of gratings on silicon substrates. As the visibility was hardly affected, this corresponds to a significant increase in sensitivity and therefore dose efficiency.

  10. Hemodynamic analysis of intracranial aneurysms using phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging and computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuemei; Li, Rui; Chen, Yu; Sia, Sheau Fung; Li, Donghai; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Aihua

    2017-03-01

    Additional hemodynamic parameters are highly desirable in the clinical management of intracranial aneurysm rupture as static medical images cannot demonstrate the blood flow within aneurysms. There are two ways of obtaining the hemodynamic information—by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PCMRI) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this paper, we compared PCMRI and CFD in the analysis of a stable patient's specific aneurysm. The results showed that PCMRI and CFD are in good agreement with each other. An additional CFD study of two stable and two ruptured aneurysms revealed that ruptured aneurysms have a higher statistical average blood velocity, wall shear stress, and oscillatory shear index (OSI) within the aneurysm sac compared to those of stable aneurysms. Furthermore, for ruptured aneurysms, the OSI divides the positive and negative wall shear stress divergence at the aneurysm sac.

  11. Compact laser accelerators for X-ray phase-contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Najmudin, Z; Kneip, S; Bloom, M S; Mangles, S P D; Chekhlov, O; Dangor, A E; Döpp, A; Ertel, K; Hawkes, S J; Holloway, J; Hooker, C J; Jiang, J; Lopes, N C; Nakamura, H; Norreys, P A; Rajeev, P P; Russo, C; Streeter, M J V; Symes, D R; Wing, M

    2014-03-06

    Advances in X-ray imaging techniques have been driven by advances in novel X-ray sources. The latest fourth-generation X-ray sources can boast large photon fluxes at unprecedented brightness. However, the large size of these facilities means that these sources are not available for everyday applications. With advances in laser plasma acceleration, electron beams can now be generated at energies comparable to those used in light sources, but in university-sized laboratories. By making use of the strong transverse focusing of plasma accelerators, bright sources of betatron radiation have been produced. Here, we demonstrate phase-contrast imaging of a biological sample for the first time by radiation generated by GeV electron beams produced by a laser accelerator. The work was performed using a greater than 300 TW laser, which allowed the energy of the synchrotron source to be extended to the 10-100 keV range.

  12. Feedback control of an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate using phase-contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szigeti, S. S.; Hush, M. R.; Carvalho, A. R. R.; Hope, J. J.

    2010-10-01

    The linewidth of an atom laser is limited by density fluctuations in the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) from which the atom laser beam is outcoupled. In this paper we show that a stable spatial mode for an interacting BEC can be generated using a realistic control scheme that includes the effects of the measurement backaction. This model extends the feedback theory, based on a phase-contrast imaging setup, presented by Szigeti, Hush, Carvalho, and Hope [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.80.013614 80, 013614 (2009)]. In particular, it is applicable to a BEC with large interatomic interactions and solves the problem of inadequacy of the mean-field (coherent state) approximation by utilizing a fixed number state approximation. Our numerical analysis shows the control to be more effective for a condensate with a large nonlinearity.

  13. Measurement of depth-resolved thermal deformation distribution using phase-contrast spectral optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Dong, Bo; Bai, Yulei; Ye, Shuangli; Lei, Zhenkun; Zhou, Yanzhou

    2015-10-19

    An updated B-scan method is proposed for measuring the evolution of thermal deformation fields in polymers. In order to measure the distributions of out-of-plane deformation and normal strain field, phase-contrast spectral optical coherence tomography (PC-SOCT) was performed with the depth range and resolution of 4.3 mm and 10.7 μm, respectively, as thermal loads were applied to three different multilayer samples. The relation between temperature and material refractive index was predetermined before the measurement. After accounting for the refractive index, the thermal deformation fields in the polymer were obtained. The measured thermal expansion coefficient of silicone sealant was approximately equal to its reference value. This method allows correctly assessing the mechanical properties in semitransparent polymers.

  14. Detection of high k turbulence using two dimensional phase contrast imaging on LHD

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, C. A.; Tanaka, K.; Akiyama, T.; Kawahata, K.; Vyacheslavov, L. N.; Sanin, A.; Kharchev, N. K.; Okajima, S.

    2008-10-15

    High k turbulence, up to 30 cm{sup -1}, can be measured using the two dimensional CO2 laser phase contrast imaging system on LHD. Recent hardware improvements and experimental results are presented. Precise control over the lens positions in the detection system is necessary because of the short depth of focus for high k modes. Remote controllable motors to move optical elements were installed, which, combined with measurements of the response to ultrasound injection, allowed experimental verification and shot-to-shot adjustment of the object plane. Strong high k signals are observed within the first 100-200 ms after the initial electron cyclotron heating (ECH) breakdown, in agreement with gyrotron scattering. During later times in the discharge, the entire k spectrum shifts to lower values (although the total amplitude does not change significantly), and the weaker high k signals are obscured by leakage of low k components at low frequency, and detector noise, at high frequency.

  15. A method to implement the reservoir-wave hypothesis using phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Gray, Robert D M; Parker, Kim H; Quail, Michael A; Taylor, Andrew M; Biglino, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The reservoir-wave hypothesis states that the blood pressure waveform can be usefully divided into a "reservoir pressure" related to the global compliance and resistance of the arterial system, and an "excess pressure" that depends on local conditions. The formulation of the reservoir-wave hypothesis applied to the area waveform is shown, and the analysis is applied to area and velocity data from high-resolution phase-contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. A validation study shows the success of the principle, with the method producing largely robust and physically reasonable parameters, and the linear relationship between flow and wave pressure seen in the traditional pressure formulation is retained. The method was successfully tested on a cohort of 20 subjects (age range: 20-74 years; 17 males). This paper: •Demonstrates the feasibility of deriving reservoir data non-invasively from CMR.•Includes a validation cohort (CMR data).•Suggests clinical applications of the method.

  16. Phase Contrast X-Ray Synchrotron Microtomography for Virtual Dissection of the Head of Rhodnius prolixus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sena, G.; Almeida, A. P.; Braz, D.; Nogueira, L. P.; Colaço, M. V.; Soares, J.; Cardoso, S. C.; Garcia, E. S.; Azambuja, P.; Gonzalez, M. S.; Mohammadi, S.; Tromba, G.; Barroso, R. C.

    2014-04-01

    Phase Contrast X-Ray Synchroton Microtomography is a non-destructive technique that allows the microanatomical investigations of Rhodnius prolixus, one of the most important insect vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi. In this work complete series of virtual thin sections through the heads of selected Rhodnius prolixus were obtained. The sections of the head were important to compare the difference in use the spatial resolution of 2 μm or 4.5 μm and to see anatomical details that couldn't be seen with other technique. Three different groups of Rhodnius prolixus were used. One group was fed with defibrinated rabbit blood and after 10 days was sacrificed, other group was sacrificed 4 days after feeding and the last group remained unfed. The results show some differences for each kind of groups and for the different resolutions.

  17. Real-time measurement of alveolar size and population using phase contrast x-ray imaging

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Andrew F.T.; Buckley, Genevieve A.; Paganin, David M.; Hooper, Stuart B.; Wallace, Megan J.; Kitchen, Marcus J.

    2014-01-01

    Herein a propagation-based phase contrast x-ray imaging technique for measuring particle size and number is presented. This is achieved with an algorithm that utilizes the Fourier space signature of the speckle pattern associated with the images of particles. We validate this algorithm using soda-lime glass particles, demonstrating its effectiveness on random and non-randomly packed particles. This technique is then applied to characterise lung alveoli, which are difficult to measure dynamically in vivo with current imaging modalities due to inadequate temporal resolution and/or depth of penetration and field-of-view. We obtain an important result in that our algorithm is able to measure changes in alveolar size on the micron scale during ventilation and shows the presence of alveolar recruitment/de-recruitment in newborn rabbit kittens. This technique will be useful for ventilation management and lung diagnostic procedures. PMID:25426328

  18. Energy Dissipation at a Shock Front in Diamond: Simulation and Comparison with Phase Contrast Imaging Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckwith, Martha; Schropp, Andreas; Ping, Yuan; Swift, Damian; Collins, Gilbert

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the behavior of carbon at high pressures and temperatures is essential for predicting the structure and evolution of giant planets, such as Uranus and Neptune. Shock compression experiments on pure carbon materials, such as diamond, can provide insight into their behavior at the extreme temperatures and pressures of the giant planets. Phase contrast imaging and hydrodynamic simulations were used to examine the propagation of a shock front in diamond. As the shock front propagates through the sample, a decrease in the shock amplitude and an increase in the shock width are observed, indicating that energy dissipative processes, such as viscosity, are apparent. In addition, fractures are observed in the diamond sample behind the shock, which could also contribute to the energy dissipation at the shock front. Work at LLNL performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  19. Finite Element Modeling of the Magnetotelluric Phase Tensor Response to Evaluate Sensitivity to Lateral and Vertical Resistivity Contrasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkes, S.; McClain, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Phase tensor analysis of magnetotelluric data is a relatively new technique introduced by Caldwell et. al. (2004) and requires substantial research efforts to evaluate the capabilities of the method. We have conducted finite element (FE) modeling using the AC/DC module of Comsol Multiphysics to determine the effect of resistivity structure on the phase tensor response. Measurements are made at eleven frequencies from 10-104 Hz at points on a 5x5 grid above various simple model geometries. Phase tensor plotting methods are adapted from Booker (2013) and involve displaying data graphically as stacks of colored ellipses. This allows for interpretation across the frequency spectrum vertically as well as laterally between stations. Two types of plot are presented for each model, a "ϕmin plot" where the ellipses are colored according to the minimum principle phase and a "delta plot" where the ellipses are colored according to the difference between the principle phases (ϕmax - ϕmin), which provides a quantification of the phase anisotropy. Results suggest that the principle phases ϕmin and ϕmax are sensitive to vertical resistivity contrasts but not lateral resistivity contrasts. Conversely, delta plots reveal sensitivity to lateral resistivity contrasts but not vertical resistivity contrasts. A clear distance relationship is observed with proximity to the boundary controlling the frequency range that senses a lateral resistivity contrast. Rotation of the phase tensor ellipses and increased skew values occur in the presence of resistivity contrasts that strike nonparallel to the source field, with the effect increasing towards lower frequencies. The total phase tensor response is confirmed to be sensitive to both vertical and lateral resistivity contrasts and can be used effectively to interpret subsurface resistivity structure.

  20. Talbot phase-contrast x-ray imaging for the small joints of the hand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutman, Dan; Beck, Thomas J.; Carrino, John A.; Bingham, Clifton O.

    2011-09-01

    A high-resolution radiographic method for soft tissues in the small joints of the hand would aid in the study and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA), which often attacks these joints. Of particular interest would be imaging with <100 µm resolution the joint cartilage, whose integrity is a main indicator of disease. Differential phase-contrast (DPC) or refraction-based x-ray imaging with Talbot grating interferometers could provide such a method, since it enhances soft tissue contrast and can be implemented with conventional x-ray tubes. A numerical joint phantom was first developed to assess the angular sensitivity and spectrum needed for a hand DPC system. The model predicts that, due to quite similar refraction indexes for joint soft tissues, the refraction effects are very small, requiring high angular resolution. To compare our model to experiment we built a high-resolution bench-top interferometer using 10 µm period gratings, a W anode tube and a CCD-based detector. Imaging experiments on animal cartilage and on a human finger support the model predictions. For instance, the estimated difference between the index of refraction of cartilage and water is of only several percent at ~25 keV mean energy, comparable to that between the linear attenuation coefficients. The potential advantage of DPC imaging thus comes mainly from the edge enhancement at the soft tissue interfaces. Experiments using a cadaveric human finger are also qualitatively consistent with the joint model, showing that refraction contrast is dominated by tendon embedded in muscle, with the cartilage layer difficult to observe in our conditions. Nevertheless, the model predicts that a DPC radiographic system for the small hand joints of the hand could be feasible using a low energy quasi-monochromatic source, such as a K-edge filtered Rh or Mo tube, in conjunction with a ~2 m long 'symmetric' interferometer operated in a high Talbot order.

  1. In-line continuous sizing of biomass particles in gas-solid two-phase flow at a biomass-fired power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, L.; Yan, Y.; Sun, D.; Qian, X.; Xu, C. L.

    2014-04-01

    Gas-solid two-phase flows are widely seen in many industrial processes. A good exampleis the pneumatically conveyed pulverised fuel flow in the power generation industry. As a significant renewable fuel source, biomass has been widely adopted in electrical power generation. The particle size distribution of pneumatically conveyed biomass correlates closely with combustion efficiency and pollutant emissions and should therefore be monitored on anin-line, continuous basis. In this paper an integrated instrumentation system using both a piezoelectric sensorand anelectrostatic sensor arrayis proposed to measure the size distribution and flow velocity of biomass particles. A prototype system was tested on a 250mm bore pipe at a biomass-fired power plantand its performance has been evaluated under industrial conditions.

  2. In-situ measurements of orographic mixed-phase clouds in a High Alpine Environment using Digital in-line Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneberger, Jan; Henneberg, Olga; Lloyd, Gary; Fugal, Jacob; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    Mixed-phase Clouds (MPCs), consisting of an unstable mixture of ice particles and supercooled liquid droplets, are found in many seasons of the year over broad stretches of the earth. In particular for orographic MPCs in complex High Alpine terrains the level of understanding is low because auf their complicated structure and dynamics. In-situ measurements of MPCs at the high altitude research station Jungfraujoch (JFJ), Switzerland were taken with the digital holographic imager HOLIMO II (Henneberger et. al, 2013) during the winters of 2012 and 2013 (within the CLACE campaign). Each HOLIMO II image (the so called hologram) yields single particle information like size and shadowgraph for hundreds of particle within a well-defined sample volume (which can be up to a few hundreds). Advancements in data processing software now offer phase-resolved size distributions, concentrations, and water contents, with a sampling rate that sees variations in these parameters on a 25m length-scale in a MPC. The HOLIMO II measurements are compared to commonly used cloud instrumentation, which were simultaneously operated at the JFJ by the University of Manchester. The field data reveal the unstable co-existence of water droplets and ice crystals, i.e. the presence of an only partially-glaciated MPC maintained at the JFJ for over several hours. At the JFJ a larger frequency of intermediate glaciation conditions were found than in in-situ aircraft observations of MPCs associated with frontal systems by Korolev et al. (2003). The higher longevity of these intermediate glaciation conditions of MPCs at the JFJ suggests that higher updraft velocities, and therefore higher water-vapor supersaturations, prevent the quickly glaciation of the MPCs. The JFJ location has a steeper topography for northerly winds meaning higher updraft velocities than for southerly winds. And the measurements show more intermediate values of glaciation from the North with the higher updraft velocities than from

  3. In vivo imaging of rat cortical bone porosity by synchrotron phase contrast micro computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, I. V.; Belev, G.; Zhu, N.; Chapman, L. D.; Cooper, D. M. L.

    2015-01-01

    Cortical bone is a dynamic tissue which undergoes adaptive and pathological changes throughout life. Direct longitudinal tracking of this remodeling process holds great promise for improving our understanding of bone development, maintenance and senescence. The application of in vivo micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) has enabled longitudinal tracking of trabecular bone microarchitecture with commercially available scanners generally operating in the 10-20 µm voxel range with absorbed doses reported between 0.5 and 1 Gy. Imaging of cortical bone microarchitecture (porosity) requires higher resolution and thus in vivo imaging of these structures has not been achieved due to excessive radiation dose. In this study we tested the hypothesis that synchrotron propagation phase contrast micro-CT can enable in vivo imaging of cortical porosity in rats at doses comparable to those currently employed for trabecular bone imaging. Synchrotron imaging experiments were conducted at the Canadian Light Source using the bending magnet beamline of the BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) facility. Protocol optimization (propagation distance, projection number) was conducted ex vivo on rat (Sprague-Dawley) forelimbs with dose determined by ion chamber and lithium fluoride crystal thermoluminescent dosimeters. Comparative ex vivo imaging was performed using laboratory in vivo scanning systems, identifying a range of doses between 1.2-3.6 Gy for common protocols. A final in vivo synchrotron protocol involving a 2.5 Gy dose was implemented with live rats. The resulting images demonstrated improved delineation of cortical porosity through the improved edge enhancement effect of phase contrast, opening the door to novel experimental studies involving the longitudinal tracking of remodeling.

  4. Analyzer-based phase-contrast imaging system using a micro focus x-ray source

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Wei; Majidi, Keivan; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2014-08-15

    Here we describe a new in-laboratory analyzer based phase contrast-imaging (ABI) instrument using a conventional X-ray tube source (CXS) aimed at bio-medical imaging applications. Phase contrast-imaging allows visualization of soft tissue details usually obscured in conventional X-ray imaging. The ABI system design and major features are described in detail. The key advantage of the presented system, over the few existing CXS ABI systems, is that it does not require high precision components, i.e., CXS, X-ray detector, and electro-mechanical components. To overcome a main problem introduced by these components, identified as temperature stability, the system components are kept at a constant temperature inside of three enclosures, thus minimizing the electrical and mechanical thermal drifts. This is achieved by using thermoelectric (Peltier) cooling/heating modules that are easy to control precisely. For CXS we utilized a microfocus X-ray source with tungsten (W) anode material. In addition the proposed system eliminates tungsten's multiple spectral lines by selecting monochromator crystal size appropriately therefore eliminating need for the costly mismatched, two-crystal monochromator. The system imaging was fine-tuned for tungsten Kα{sub 1} line with the energy of 59.3 keV since it has been shown to be of great clinical significance by a number of researchers at synchrotron facilities. In this way a laboratory system that can be used for evaluating and quantifying tissue properties, initially explored at synchrotron facilities, would be of great interest to a larger research community. To demonstrate the imaging capability of our instrument we use a chicken thigh tissue sample.

  5. In vivo imaging of rat cortical bone porosity by synchrotron phase contrast micro computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Pratt, I V; Belev, G; Zhu, N; Chapman, L D; Cooper, D M L

    2015-01-07

    Cortical bone is a dynamic tissue which undergoes adaptive and pathological changes throughout life. Direct longitudinal tracking of this remodeling process holds great promise for improving our understanding of bone development, maintenance and senescence. The application of in vivo micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) has enabled longitudinal tracking of trabecular bone microarchitecture with commercially available scanners generally operating in the 10-20 µm voxel range with absorbed doses reported between 0.5 and 1 Gy. Imaging of cortical bone microarchitecture (porosity) requires higher resolution and thus in vivo imaging of these structures has not been achieved due to excessive radiation dose. In this study we tested the hypothesis that synchrotron propagation phase contrast micro-CT can enable in vivo imaging of cortical porosity in rats at doses comparable to those currently employed for trabecular bone imaging. Synchrotron imaging experiments were conducted at the Canadian Light Source using the bending magnet beamline of the BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) facility. Protocol optimization (propagation distance, projection number) was conducted ex vivo on rat (Sprague-Dawley) forelimbs with dose determined by ion chamber and lithium fluoride crystal thermoluminescent dosimeters. Comparative ex vivo imaging was performed using laboratory in vivo scanning systems, identifying a range of doses between 1.2-3.6 Gy for common protocols. A final in vivo synchrotron protocol involving a 2.5 Gy dose was implemented with live rats. The resulting images demonstrated improved delineation of cortical porosity through the improved edge enhancement effect of phase contrast, opening the door to novel experimental studies involving the longitudinal tracking of remodeling.

  6. X-ray Phase Contrast Imaging of Calcified Tissue and Biomaterial Structure in Bioreactor Engineered Tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, Alyssa A.; Larson, Jeffery C.; Garson, III, Alfred B.; Guan, Huifeng; Zhong, Zhong; Nguyen, Bao-Ngoc; Fisher, John P.; Anastasio, Mark A.; Brey, Eric M.

    2014-11-04

    Tissues engineered in bioreactor systems have been used clinically to replace damaged tissues and organs. In addition, these systems are under continued development for many tissue engineering applications. The ability to quantitatively assess material structure and tissue formation is critical for evaluating bioreactor efficacy and for preimplantation assessment of tissue quality. These techniques allow for the nondestructive and longitudinal monitoring of large engineered tissues within the bioreactor systems and will be essential for the translation of these strategies to viable clinical therapies. X-ray Phase Contrast (XPC) imaging techniques have shown tremendous promise for a number of biomedical applications owing to their ability to provide image contrast based on multiple X-ray properties, including absorption, refraction, and scatter. In this research, mesenchymal stem cell-seeded alginate hydrogels were prepared and cultured under osteogenic conditions in a perfusion bioreactor. The constructs were imaged at various time points using XPC microcomputed tomography (µCT). Imaging was performed with systems using both synchrotron- and tube-based X-ray sources. XPC µCT allowed for simultaneous three-dimensional (3D) quantification of hydrogel size and mineralization, as well as spatial information on hydrogel structure and mineralization. Samples were processed for histological evaluation and XPC showed similar features to histology and quantitative analysis consistent with the histomorphometry. Furthermore, these results provide evidence of the significant potential of techniques based on XPC for noninvasive 3D imaging engineered tissues grown in bioreactors.

  7. Single-slice reconstruction method for helical cone-beam differential phase-contrast CT.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jian; Chen, Liyuan

    2014-01-01

    X-ray phase-contrast computed tomography (PC-CT) can provide the internal structure information of biomedical specimens with high-quality cross-section images and has become an invaluable analysis tool. Here a simple and fast reconstruction algorithm is reported for helical cone-beam differential PC-CT (DPC-CT), which is called the DPC-CB-SSRB algorithm. It combines the existing CB-SSRB method of helical cone-beam absorption-contrast CT with the differential nature of DPC imaging. The reconstruction can be performed using 2D fan-beam filtered back projection algorithm with the Hilbert imaginary filter. The quality of the results for large helical pitches is surprisingly good. In particular, with this algorithm comparable quality is obtained using helical cone-beam DPC-CT data with a normalized pitch of 10 to that obtained using the traditional inter-row interpolation reconstruction with a normalized pitch of 2. This method will push the future medical helical cone-beam DPC-CT imaging applications.

  8. Cantilever energy effects on bimodal AFM: phase and amplitude contrast of multicomponent samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Ishita; Yablon, Dalia G.

    2013-11-01

    Bimodal atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a recently developed technique of dynamic AFM where a higher eigenmode of the cantilever is simultaneously excited along with the fundamental eigenmode. The effects of different operating parameters while imaging an impact copolymer blend of polypropylene (PP) and ethylene-propylene (E-P) rubber in bimodal mode are explored through experiments and numerical simulations. The higher mode amplitude and phase contrasts between the two components of the sample reverse at different points as the free amplitude of the higher eigenmode is increased. Three different regimes are identified experimentally depending on the relative contrast between the PP and the E-P rubber. It is observed that the kinetic energy and free air drive input energy of the two cantilever eigenmodes play a role in determining the regimes of operation. Numerical simulations conducted with appropriate tip-sample interaction forces support the experimental results. An understanding of these regimes and the associated cantilever dynamics will guide a rational approach towards selecting appropriate operating parameters.

  9. Cantilever energy effects on bimodal AFM: phase and amplitude contrast of multicomponent samples.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Ishita; Yablon, Dalia G

    2013-11-29

    Bimodal atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a recently developed technique of dynamic AFM where a higher eigenmode of the cantilever is simultaneously excited along with the fundamental eigenmode. The effects of different operating parameters while imaging an impact copolymer blend of polypropylene (PP) and ethylene-propylene (E-P) rubber in bimodal mode are explored through experiments and numerical simulations. The higher mode amplitude and phase contrasts between the two components of the sample reverse at different points as the free amplitude of the higher eigenmode is increased. Three different regimes are identified experimentally depending on the relative contrast between the PP and the E-P rubber. It is observed that the kinetic energy and free air drive input energy of the two cantilever eigenmodes play a role in determining the regimes of operation. Numerical simulations conducted with appropriate tip-sample interaction forces support the experimental results. An understanding of these regimes and the associated cantilever dynamics will guide a rational approach towards selecting appropriate operating parameters.

  10. Laser-wakefield accelerators for medical phase contrast imaging: Monte Carlo simulations and experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipiccia, S.; Reboredo, D.; Vittoria, Fabio A.; Welsh, G. H.; Grant, P.; Grant, D. W.; Brunetti, E.; Wiggins, S. M.; Olivo, A.; Jaroszynski, D. A.

    2015-05-01

    X-ray phase contrast imaging (X-PCi) is a very promising method of dramatically enhancing the contrast of X-ray images of microscopic weakly absorbing objects and soft tissue, which may lead to significant advancement in medical imaging with high-resolution and low-dose. The interest in X-PCi is giving rise to a demand for effective simulation methods. Monte Carlo codes have been proved a valuable tool for studying X-PCi including coherent effects. The laser-plasma wakefield accelerators (LWFA) is a very compact particle accelerator that uses plasma as an accelerating medium. Accelerating gradient in excess of 1 GV/cm can be obtained, which makes them over a thousand times more compact than conventional accelerators. LWFA are also sources of brilliant betatron radiation, which are promising for applications including medical imaging. We present a study that explores the potential of LWFA-based betatron sources for medical X-PCi and investigate its resolution limit using numerical simulations based on the FLUKA Monte Carlo code, and present preliminary experimental results.

  11. Virtual unrolling and deciphering of Herculaneum papyri by X-ray phase-contrast tomography

    PubMed Central

    Bukreeva, I.; Mittone, A.; Bravin, A.; Festa, G.; Alessandrelli, M.; Coan, P.; Formoso, V.; Agostino, R. G.; Giocondo, M.; Ciuchi, F.; Fratini, M.; Massimi, L.; Lamarra, A.; Andreani, C.; Bartolino, R.; Gigli, G.; Ranocchia, G.; Cedola, A.

    2016-01-01

    A collection of more than 1800 carbonized papyri, discovered in the Roman ‘Villa dei Papiri’ at Herculaneum is the unique classical library survived from antiquity. These papyri were charred during 79 A.D. Vesuvius eruption, a circumstance which providentially preserved them until now. This magnificent collection contains an impressive amount of treatises by Greek philosophers and, especially, Philodemus of Gadara, an Epicurean thinker of 1st century BC. We read many portions of text hidden inside carbonized Herculaneum papyri using enhanced X-ray phase-contrast tomography non-destructive technique and a new set of numerical algorithms for ‘virtual-unrolling’. Our success lies in revealing the largest portion of Greek text ever detected so far inside unopened scrolls, with unprecedented spatial resolution and contrast, all without damaging these precious historical manuscripts. Parts of text have been decoded and the ‘voice’ of the Epicurean philosopher Philodemus is brought back again after 2000 years from Herculaneum papyri. PMID:27265417

  12. X-ray Phase Contrast Allows Three Dimensional, Quantitative Imaging of Hydrogel Implants

    DOE PAGES

    Appel, Alyssa A.; Larson, Jeffrey C.; Jiang, Bin; ...

    2015-10-20

    Three dimensional imaging techniques are needed for the evaluation and assessment of biomaterials used for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Hydrogels are a particularly popular class of materials for medical applications but are difficult to image in tissue using most available imaging modalities. Imaging techniques based on X-ray Phase Contrast (XPC) have shown promise for tissue engineering applications due to their ability to provide image contrast based on multiple X-ray properties. In this manuscript we describe results using XPC to image a model hydrogel and soft tissue structure. Porous fibrin loaded poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels were synthesized and implanted inmore » a rodent subcutaneous model. Samples were explanted and imaged with an analyzer-based XPC technique and processed and stained for histology for comparison. Both hydrogel and soft tissues structures could be identified in XPC images. Structure in skeletal muscle adjacent could be visualized and invading fibrovascular tissue could be quantified. In quantitative results, there were no differences between XPC and the gold-standard histological measurements. These results provide evidence of the significant potential of techniques based on XPC for 3D imaging of hydrogel structure and local tissue response.« less

  13. X-ray Phase Contrast Allows Three Dimensional, Quantitative Imaging of Hydrogel Implants

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, Alyssa A.; Larson, Jeffrey C.; Jiang, Bin; Zhong, Zhong; Anastasio, Mark A.; Brey, Eric M.

    2015-10-20

    Three dimensional imaging techniques are needed for the evaluation and assessment of biomaterials used for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Hydrogels are a particularly popular class of materials for medical applications but are difficult to image in tissue using most available imaging modalities. Imaging techniques based on X-ray Phase Contrast (XPC) have shown promise for tissue engineering applications due to their ability to provide image contrast based on multiple X-ray properties. In this manuscript we describe results using XPC to image a model hydrogel and soft tissue structure. Porous fibrin loaded poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels were synthesized and implanted in a rodent subcutaneous model. Samples were explanted and imaged with an analyzer-based XPC technique and processed and stained for histology for comparison. Both hydrogel and soft tissues structures could be identified in XPC images. Structure in skeletal muscle adjacent could be visualized and invading fibrovascular tissue could be quantified. In quantitative results, there were no differences between XPC and the gold-standard histological measurements. These results provide evidence of the significant potential of techniques based on XPC for 3D imaging of hydrogel structure and local tissue response.

  14. Definition of contrast enhancement phases of the liver using a perfluoro-based microbubble agent, perflubutane microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Shunichi, Sasaki; Hiroko, Iijima; Fuminori, Moriyasu; Waki, Hidehiko

    2009-11-01

    To define the contrast enhancement phases in the liver with perflubutane microbubbles, the liver enhancement time-intensity curves were investigated in 14 healthy volunteers. The agent was injected intravenously as a bolus and the liver was imaged with an ultrasound scanner as long as 4h after the injection. Time-intensity curves from the hepatic artery, the intrahepatic portal vein, the hepatic vein and the parenchyma of the liver were obtained from the liver ultrasound images. The arrival of the agent in the hepatic artery, the portal vein and the hepatic vein were visually distinguishable and the mean arrival times were 19.2, 24.3 and 32.2 s after the injection, respectively. The signal intensity in these vessels increased rapidly after the arrival of the contrast and gradually reverted to baseline after the peak. In contrast, within 5 min after the injection, the intensity in the parenchyma increased and reached a plateau, which persisted for at least 2h. The contrast enhancement phases in the liver with perflubutane microbubbles could be defined as two major phases-a vascular phase, in which the vessels are enhanced between 15 s and 10 min after injection, and a Kupffer phase, in which the parenchyma is enhanced 10 min after injection. The vascular phase is divided into three subphases: the arterial phase (15 to 45 s after injection); the portal phase (45 s to 1 min after injection); and the vasculo-Kupffer phase (1 to 10 min after injection).

  15. In-line ion detector

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, R.; Kester, O.

    2008-02-15

    An in-line particle detector (IPD) uses secondary electrons for the detection of multiply charged ions with low to medium energy (10-10 keV). The ion detector does not physically intercept the ion beam line and is fully transparent to ions without applied voltages. The activation of the detector is performed by applying appropriate voltages to electrodes, which avoids any physical movement. Equipped with a channel electron multiplier, single particle counting is possible as well as measurement of currents. This detector therefore has a large dynamical range from about 10{sup -17} to 10{sup -3} A. The basic principle also allows for ion beam diagnostics.

  16. In-line ion detectora)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, R.; Kester, O.

    2008-02-01

    An in-line particle detector (IPD) uses secondary electrons for the detection of multiply charged ions with low to medium energy (10-10keV). The ion detector does not physically intercept the ion beam line and is fully transparent to ions without applied voltages. The activation of the detector is performed by applying appropriate voltages to electrodes, which avoids any physical movement. Equipped with a channel electron multiplier, single particle counting is possible as well as measurement of currents. This detector therefore has a large dynamical range from about 10-17to10-3A. The basic principle also allows for ion beam diagnostics.

  17. Design of a phase contrast imaging diagnostic for the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edlund, E. M.; Porkolab, M.; Grulke, O.; Böttger, L.-G.; Sehren, C.

    2016-10-01

    The Wendelstein 7-X stellarator at IPP Greifswald commenced operation in 2015, and while its design has been aimed at minimizing neoclassical transport, turbulent transport is expected to be strongly affected by the magnetic geometry. With this in mind, MIT and IPP-Greifswald scientists have undertaken a project to design and implement a phase contrast imaging (PCI) diagnostic to measure turbulence in W7-X in the OP1.2 operating phase starting in 2017. The principle and design aspects of the PCI method have been described in numerous past publications. In W7-X the PCI system will have two imaging systems differing only in the angle of the spatial mask that selects for magnetic pitch angle, and will produce measurements of poloidal and radial correlations. A series of remotely controllable optics will allow the beam size and image magnification to be adjustable. We expect sensitivity to fluctuations in the range of 2 kHz to approximately 2 MHz and wavenumbers in the range of 1 cm-1 to 30 cm-1 which should allow us to detect ITG, TEM and possibly ETG turbulence. The MIT portion of this project is supported by the US DOE under Grant DE-SC0014229, and the IPP part is funded under Euratom Grant agreement No 633053.

  18. Phase-contrast tomography of neuronal tissues: from laboratory- to high resolution synchrotron CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Töpperwien, Mareike; Krenkel, Martin; Müller, Kristin; Salditt, Tim

    2016-10-01

    Assessing the three-dimensional architecture of neuronal tissues with sub-cellular resolution presents a significant analytical challenge. Overcoming the limitations associated with serial slicing, phase-contrast x-ray tomography has the potential to contribute to this goal. Even compact laboratory CT at an optimized liquid-metal jet micro- focus source combined with suitable phase-retrieval algorithms and preparation protocols can yield renderings with single cell sensitivity in millimeter sized brain areas of mouse. Here, we show the capabilities of the setup by imaging a Golgi-Cox impregnated mouse brain. Towards higher resolution we extend these studies at our recently upgraded waveguide-based cone-beam holo-tomography instrument GINIX at DESY. This setup allows high resolution recordings with adjustable field of view and resolution, down to the voxel sizes in the range of a few ten nanometers. The recent results make us confident that important issues of neuronal connectivity can be addressed by these methods, and that 3D (virtual) histology with nanoscale resolution will become an attractive modality for neuroscience research.

  19. Simulation tools for analyzer-based x-ray phase contrast imaging system with a conventional x-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caudevilla, Oriol; Zhou, Wei; Stoupin, Stanislav; Verman, Boris; Brankov, J. G.

    2016-09-01

    Analyzer-based X-ray phase contrast imaging (ABI) belongs to a broader family of phase-contrast (PC) X-ray imaging modalities. Unlike the conventional X-ray radiography, which measures only X-ray absorption, in PC imaging one can also measures the X-rays deflection induced by the object refractive properties. It has been shown that refraction imaging provides better contrast when imaging the soft tissue, which is of great interest in medical imaging applications. In this paper, we introduce a simulation tool specifically designed to simulate the analyzer-based X-ray phase contrast imaging system with a conventional polychromatic X-ray source. By utilizing ray tracing and basic physical principles of diffraction theory our simulation tool can predicting the X-ray beam profile shape, the energy content, the total throughput (photon count) at the detector. In addition we can evaluate imaging system point-spread function for various system configurations.

  20. Life Cycle Leadership Theory vs. Theory on the Phases of Small Group Discussion: Comparisons, Contrasts, and Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Charles Thomas, Jr.

    The work of Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard on life-cycle leadership was compared and contrasted to three studies on group phase theories. The studies on group phases were conducted by Robert Bales and Fred Strodtbeck in 1951, Thomas Scheidel and Laura Crowell in 1964, and B. Aubrey Fisher in 1970. The two theoretical approaches were found to…

  1. Accelerated phase-contrast cine MRI using k-t SPARSE-SENSE.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daniel; Dyvorne, Hadrien A; Otazo, Ricardo; Feng, Li; Sodickson, Daniel K; Lee, Vivian S

    2012-04-01

    Phase-contrast (PC) cine MRI is a promising method for assessment of pathologic hemodynamics, including cardiovascular and hepatoportal vascular dynamics, but its low data acquisition efficiency limits the achievable spatial and temporal resolutions within clinically acceptable breath-hold durations. We propose to accelerate PC cine MRI using an approach which combines compressed sensing and parallel imaging (k-t SPARSE-SENSE). We validated the proposed 6-fold accelerated PC cine MRI against 3-fold accelerated PC cine MRI with parallel imaging (generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisitions). With the programmable flow pump, we simulated a time varying waveform emulating hepatic blood flow. Normalized root mean square error between two sets of velocity measurements was 2.59%. In multiple blood vessels of 12 control subjects, two sets of mean velocity measurements were in good agreement (mean difference = -0.29 cm/s; lower and upper 95% limits of agreement = -5.26 and 4.67 cm/s, respectively). The mean phase noise, defined as the standard deviation of the phase in a homogeneous stationary region, was significantly lower for k-t SPARSE-SENSE than for generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisitions (0.05 ± 0.01 vs. 0.19 ± 0.06 radians, respectively; P < 0.01). The proposed 6-fold accelerated PC cine MRI pulse sequence with k-t SPARSE-SENSE is a promising investigational method for rapid velocity measurement with relatively high spatial (1.7 mm × 1.7 mm) and temporal (∼35 ms) resolutions.

  2. Error analysis of cine phase contrast MRI velocity measurements used for strain calculation.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Elisabeth R; Morrow, Duane A; Felmlee, Joel P; Odegard, Gregory M; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2015-01-02

    Cine Phase Contrast (CPC) MRI offers unique insight into localized skeletal muscle behavior by providing the ability to quantify muscle strain distribution during cyclic motion. Muscle strain is obtained by temporally integrating and spatially differentiating CPC-encoded velocity. The aim of this study was to quantify CPC measurement accuracy and precision and to describe error propagation into displacement and strain. Using an MRI-compatible jig to move a B-gel phantom within a 1.5 T MRI bore, CPC-encoded velocities were collected. The three orthogonal encoding gradients (through plane, frequency, and phase) were evaluated independently in post-processing. Two systematic error types were corrected: eddy current-induced bias and calibration-type error. Measurement accuracy and precision were quantified before and after removal of systematic error. Through plane- and frequency-encoded data accuracy were within 0.4 mm/s after removal of systematic error - a 70% improvement over the raw data. Corrected phase-encoded data accuracy was within 1.3 mm/s. Measured random error was between 1 to 1.4 mm/s, which followed the theoretical prediction. Propagation of random measurement error into displacement and strain was found to depend on the number of tracked time segments, time segment duration, mesh size, and dimensional order. To verify this, theoretical predictions were compared to experimentally calculated displacement and strain error. For the parameters tested, experimental and theoretical results aligned well. Random strain error approximately halved with a two-fold mesh size increase, as predicted. Displacement and strain accuracy were within 2.6 mm and 3.3%, respectively. These results can be used to predict the accuracy and precision of displacement and strain in user-specific applications.

  3. Accelerated three-dimensional cine phase contrast imaging using randomly undersampled echo planar imaging with compressed sensing reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Basha, Tamer A; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Goddu, Beth; Berg, Sophie; Nezafat, Reza

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to implement and evaluate an accelerated three-dimensional (3D) cine phase contrast MRI sequence by combining a randomly sampled 3D k-space acquisition sequence with an echo planar imaging (EPI) readout. An accelerated 3D cine phase contrast MRI sequence was implemented by combining EPI readout with randomly undersampled 3D k-space data suitable for compressed sensing (CS) reconstruction. The undersampled data were then reconstructed using low-dimensional structural self-learning and thresholding (LOST). 3D phase contrast MRI was acquired in 11 healthy adults using an overall acceleration of 7 (EPI factor of 3 and CS rate of 3). For comparison, a single two-dimensional (2D) cine phase contrast scan was also performed with sensitivity encoding (SENSE) rate 2 and approximately at the level of the pulmonary artery bifurcation. The stroke volume and mean velocity in both the ascending and descending aorta were measured and compared between two sequences using Bland-Altman plots. An average scan time of 3 min and 30 s, corresponding to an acceleration rate of 7, was achieved for 3D cine phase contrast scan with one direction flow encoding, voxel size of 2 × 2 × 3 mm(3) , foot-head coverage of 6 cm and temporal resolution of 30 ms. The mean velocity and stroke volume in both the ascending and descending aorta were statistically equivalent between the proposed 3D sequence and the standard 2D cine phase contrast sequence. The combination of EPI with a randomly undersampled 3D k-space sampling sequence using LOST reconstruction allows a seven-fold reduction in scan time of 3D cine phase contrast MRI without compromising blood flow quantification.

  4. In-Line Thermoelectric Module

    SciTech Connect

    Pento, Robert; Marks, James E.; Staffanson, Clifford D.

    1998-07-28

    A thermoelectric module with a plurality of electricity generating units each having a first end and a second end, the units being arranged first end to second end along an-in-line axis. Each unit includes first and second elements each made of a thermoelectric material, an electrically conductive hot member arranged to heat one side of the first element, and an electrically conductive cold member arranged to cool another side of the first element and to cool one side of the second element. The hot member, the first element, the cold member and the second element are supported in a fixture, are electrically connected respectively to provide an electricity generating unit, and are arranged respectively in positions along the in-line axis. The individual components of each generating unit and the respective generating units are clamped in their in-line positions by a loading bolt at one end of the fixture and a stop wall at the other end of the fixture. The hot members may have a T-shape and the cold members an hourglass shape to facilitate heat transfer. The direction of heat transfer through the hot members may be perpendicular to the direction of heat transfer through the cold members, and both of these heat transfer directions maybe perpendicular to the direction-of current flow through the module.

  5. High speed X-ray phase contrast imaging of energetic composites under dynamic compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parab, Niranjan D.; Roberts, Zane A.; Harr, Michael H.; Mares, Jesus O.; Casey, Alex D.; Gunduz, I. Emre; Hudspeth, Matthew; Claus, Benjamin; Sun, Tao; Fezzaa, Kamel; Son, Steven F.; Chen, Weinong W.

    2016-09-01

    Fracture of crystals and frictional heating are associated with the formation of "hot spots" (localized heating) in energetic composites such as polymer bonded explosives (PBXs). Traditional high speed optical imaging methods cannot be used to study the dynamic sub-surface deformation and the fracture behavior of such materials due to their opaque nature. In this study, high speed synchrotron X-ray experiments are conducted to visualize the in situ deformation and the fracture mechanisms in PBXs composed of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) crystals and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene binder doped with iron (III) oxide. A modified Kolsky bar apparatus was used to apply controlled dynamic compression on the PBX specimens, and a high speed synchrotron X-ray phase contrast imaging (PCI) setup was used to record the in situ deformation and failure in the specimens. The experiments show that synchrotron X-ray PCI provides a sufficient contrast between the HMX crystals and the doped binder, even at ultrafast recording rates. Under dynamic compression, most of the cracking in the crystals was observed to be due to the tensile stress generated by the diametral compression applied from the contacts between the crystals. Tensile stress driven cracking was also observed for some of the crystals due to the transverse deformation of the binder and superior bonding between the crystal and the binder. The obtained results are vital to develop improved understanding and to validate the macroscopic and mesoscopic numerical models for energetic composites so that eventually hot spot formation can be predicted.

  6. Ideal-observer detectability in photon-counting differential phase-contrast imaging using a linear-systems approach

    SciTech Connect

    Fredenberg, Erik; Danielsson, Mats; Stayman, J. Webster; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Aslund, Magnus

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: To provide a cascaded-systems framework based on the noise-power spectrum (NPS), modulation transfer function (MTF), and noise-equivalent number of quanta (NEQ) for quantitative evaluation of differential phase-contrast imaging (Talbot interferometry) in relation to conventional absorption contrast under equal-dose, equal-geometry, and, to some extent, equal-photon-economy constraints. The focus is a geometry for photon-counting mammography. Methods: Phase-contrast imaging is a promising technology that may emerge as an alternative or adjunct to conventional absorption contrast. In particular, phase contrast may increase the signal-difference-to-noise ratio compared to absorption contrast because the difference in phase shift between soft-tissue structures is often substantially larger than the absorption difference. We have developed a comprehensive cascaded-systems framework to investigate Talbot interferometry, which is a technique for differential phase-contrast imaging. Analytical expressions for the MTF and NPS were derived to calculate the NEQ and a task-specific ideal-observer detectability index under assumptions of linearity and shift invariance. Talbot interferometry was compared to absorption contrast at equal dose, and using either a plane wave or a spherical wave in a conceivable mammography geometry. The impact of source size and spectrum bandwidth was included in the framework, and the trade-off with photon economy was investigated in some detail. Wave-propagation simulations were used to verify the analytical expressions and to generate example images. Results: Talbot interferometry inherently detects the differential of the phase, which led to a maximum in NEQ at high spatial frequencies, whereas the absorption-contrast NEQ decreased monotonically with frequency. Further, phase contrast detects differences in density rather than atomic number, and the optimal imaging energy was found to be a factor of 1.7 higher than for absorption

  7. Correlation between human observer performance and model observer performance in differential phase contrast CT

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ke; Garrett, John; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: With the recently expanding interest and developments in x-ray differential phase contrast CT (DPC-CT), the evaluation of its task-specific detection performance and comparison with the corresponding absorption CT under a given radiation dose constraint become increasingly important. Mathematical model observers are often used to quantify the performance of imaging systems, but their correlations with actual human observers need to be confirmed for each new imaging method. This work is an investigation of the effects of stochastic DPC-CT noise on the correlation of detection performance between model and human observers with signal-known-exactly (SKE) detection tasks.Methods: The detectabilities of different objects (five disks with different diameters and two breast lesion masses) embedded in an experimental DPC-CT noise background were assessed using both model and human observers. The detectability of the disk and lesion signals was then measured using five types of model observers including the prewhitening ideal observer, the nonprewhitening (NPW) observer, the nonprewhitening observer with eye filter and internal noise (NPWEi), the prewhitening observer with eye filter and internal noise (PWEi), and the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO). The same objects were also evaluated by four human observers using the two-alternative forced choice method. The results from the model observer experiment were quantitatively compared to the human observer results to assess the correlation between the two techniques.Results: The contrast-to-detail (CD) curve generated by the human observers for the disk-detection experiments shows that the required contrast to detect a disk is inversely proportional to the square root of the disk size. Based on the CD curves, the ideal and NPW observers tend to systematically overestimate the performance of the human observers. The NPWEi and PWEi observers did not predict human performance well either, as the slopes of their CD

  8. Phase-dependent dual-frequency contrast imaging at sub-harmonic frequency.

    PubMed

    Shen, Che-Chou; Cheng, Chih-Hao; Yeh, Chih-Kuang

    2011-02-01

    Sub-harmonic imaging techniques have been shown to provide a higher contrast-to-tissue ratio (CTR) at the cost of relatively low signal intensity from ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs). In this study, we propose a method of dual-frequency excitation to further enhance the CTR of subharmonic imaging. A dual-frequency excitation pulse is an amplitude-modulated waveform which consists of two sinusoids with frequencies of f₁ (e.g., 9 MHz) and f₂ (e.g., 6 MHz) and the resulting envelope component at (f₁ - f₂) (e.g., 3 MHz) can serve as a driving force to excite the nonlinear response of UCAs. In this study, the f₂, at twice of the resonance frequency of UCAs, is adopted to efficiently generate a sub-harmonic component at half of the f₂ frequency, and f₁ is included to enhance the high-order nonlinear response of UCAs at the sub-harmonic frequency. The second- and third-order nonlinear components resulting from the envelope component would spectrally overlap at the sub-harmonic frequency when f₁ and f₂ are properly selected. We further optimize the generation of the sub-harmonic component by tuning the phase terms between second- and third-order nonlinear components. The results show that, with dual-frequency excitation, the CTR at sub-harmonic frequency improves compared with the conventional tone-burst method. Moreover, the CTR changes periodically with the relative phase of the separate frequency component in the dual-frequency excitation, leading to a difference of as much as 9.1 dB between the maximal and minimal CTR at 300 kPa acoustic pressure. The echo produced from the envelope component appears to be specific for UCAs, and thus the proposed method has the potential to improve both SNR and CTR in sub-harmonic imaging. Nevertheless, the dual-frequency waveform may suffer from frequency-dependent attenuation that degrades the generation of the envelope component. The deviation of the microbubble's resonance characteristics from the selection of

  9. Noise texture and signal detectability in propagation-based x-ray phase-contrast tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Cheng-Ying; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: X-ray phase-contrast tomography (PCT) is a rapidly emerging imaging modality for reconstructing estimates of an object's three-dimensional x-ray refractive index distribution. Unlike conventional x-ray computed tomography methods, the statistical properties of the reconstructed images in PCT remain unexplored. The purpose of this work is to quantitatively investigate noise propagation in PCT image reconstruction. Methods: The authors derived explicit expressions for the autocovariance of the reconstructed absorption and refractive index images to characterize noise texture and understand how the noise properties are influenced by the imaging geometry. Concepts from statistical detection theory were employed to understand how the imaging geometry-dependent statistical properties affect the signal detection performance in a signal-known-exactly/background-known-exactly task. Results: The analytical formulas for the phase and absorption autocovariance functions were implemented numerically and compared to the corresponding empirical values, and excellent agreement was found. They observed that the reconstructed refractive images are highly spatially correlated, while the absorption images are not. The numerical results confirm that the strength of the covariance is scaled by the detector spacing. Signal detection studies were conducted, employing a numerical observer. The detection performance was found to monotonically increase as the detector-plane spacing was increased. Conclusions: The authors have conducted the first quantitative investigation of noise propagation in PCT image reconstruction. The reconstructed refractive images were found to be highly spatially correlated, while absorption images were not. This is due to the presence of a Fourier space singularity in the reconstruction formula for the refraction images. The statistical analysis may facilitate the use of task-based image quality measures to further develop and optimize this emerging

  10. Four-dimensional phase contrast magnetic resonance angiography: potential clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Frydrychowicz, Alex; François, Christopher J; Turski, Patrick A

    2011-10-01

    Unlike other magnetic resonance angiographic techniques, phase contrast imaging (PC-MRI) offers co-registered morphologic images and velocity data within a single acquisition. While the basic principle of PC-MRI dates back almost 3 decades, novel time-resolved three-dimensional PC-MRI (4D PC-MRI) approaches have become increasingly researched over the past years. So-called 4D PC-MRI includes three-directional velocity encoding in a three-dimensional imaging volume over time, thereby providing the opportunity to comprehensively analyze human hemodynamics in vivo. Moreover, its large volume coverage offers the option to study systemic hemodynamic effects. Additionally, this offers the possibility to re-visit flow in any location of interest without being limited to predetermined two-dimensional slices. The attention received for hemodynamic research is partially based on flow-based theories of atherogenesis and arterial remodeling. 4D PC-MRI can be used to calculate flow-related vessel wall parameters and may hence serve as a diagnostic tool in preemptive medicine. Furthermore, technical improvements including the availability of sufficient computing power, data storage capabilities, and optimized acceleration schemes for data acquisition as well as comprehensive image processing algorithms have largely facilitated recent research progresses. We will present an overview of the potential of this relatively young imaging paradigm. After acquisition and processing the data in morphological and phase difference images, various visualization strategies permit the qualitative analysis of hemodynamics. A multitude of quantitative parameters such as pulse wave velocities and estimates of wall shear stress which might serve as future biomarkers can be extracted. Thereby, exciting new opportunities for vascular imaging and diagnosis are available.

  11. Concept of contrast transfer function for edge illumination x-ray phase-contrast imaging and its comparison with the free-space propagation technique.

    PubMed

    Diemoz, Paul C; Vittoria, Fabio A; Olivo, Alessandro

    2016-05-16

    Previous studies on edge illumination (EI) X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCi) have investigated the nature and amplitude of the signal provided by this technique. However, the response of the imaging system to different object spatial frequencies was never explicitly considered and studied. This is required in order to predict the performance of a given EI setup for different classes of objects. To this scope, in the present work we derive analytical expressions for the contrast transfer function of an EI imaging system, using the approximation of near-field regime, and study its dependence upon the main experimental parameters. We then exploit these results to compare the frequency response of an EI system with respect of that of a free-space propagation XPCi one. The results achieved in this work can be useful for predicting the signals obtainable for different types of objects and also as a basis for new retrieval methods.

  12. Generalized phase contrast-enhanced diffractive coupling to light-driven microtools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villangca, Mark; Bañas, Andrew; Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2015-11-01

    We have previously demonstrated on-demand dynamic coupling to optically manipulated microtools coined as wave-guided optical waveguides using diffractive techniques on a "point and shoot" approach. These microtools are extended microstructures fabricated using two-photon photopolymerization and function as free-floating optically trapped waveguides. Dynamic coupling of focused light via these structures being moved in three-dimensional space is done holographically. However, calculating the necessary holograms is not straightforward when using counter-propagating trapping geometry. The generation of the coupling spots is done in real time following the position of each microtool with the aid of an object tracking routine. This approach allows continuous coupling of light through the microtools which can be useful in a variety of biophotonics applications. To complement the targeted-light delivery capability of the microtools, the applied spatial light modulator has been illuminated with a properly matched input beam cross section based on the generalized phase contrast method. Our results show a significant gain in the output at the tip of each microtool as measured from the fluorescence signal of the trapping medium. The ability to switch from on-demand to continuous addressing with efficient illumination leverages our microtools for potential applications in stimulation and near-field-based biophotonics on cellular scales.

  13. Using phase contrast imaging to measure the properties of shock compressed aerogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawreliak, James; Erskine, Dave; Schropp, Andres; Galtier, Eric C.; Heimann, Phil

    2017-01-01

    The Hugoniot states of low density materials, such as silica aerogel, are used in high energy density physics research because they can achieve a range of high temperature and pressure states through shock compression. The shock properties of 100mg/cc silica aerogel were studied at the Materials in Extreme Conditions end station using x-ray phase contrast imaging of spherically expanding shock waves. The shockwaves were generated by focusing a high power 532nm laser to a 50μm focal spot on a thin aluminum ablator. The shock speed was measured in separate experiments using line-VISAR measurements from the reflecting shock front. The relative timing between the x-ray probe and the optical laser pump was varied so x-ray PCI images were taken at pressures between 10GPa and 30GPa. Modeling the compression of the foam in the strong shock limit uses a Gruneisen parameter of 0.49 to fit the data rather than a value of 0.66 that would correspond to a plasma state.

  14. Visualization of through-plane blood flow measurements obtained from phase-contrast MRI.

    PubMed

    Thunberg, Per; Kähäri, Anders

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a visualization method for concurrent observation of both velocity and magnitude data obtained from through-plane velocity measurements using phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. Magnitude and velocity images were combined using an opacity transfer function (OTF) where the opacity was a function of a velocity range defined by the velocity encoding (v (enc)) parameter. Measured velocities were color-coded according to a predefined color scale and then combined into one image with the gray-scale magnitude image according to the OTF. In the combined images, simultaneous information of velocity and anatomy was presented. The proposed visualization method facilitated the understanding of how the measured blood flow was related to the underlying anatomy. Results are shown where the method is used to visualize blood flow measurements in the ascending aorta and the aortic valve. Adjustments of the OTF render possible identification of the peak velocities and their localization. Forward and backward blood flow is easily shown when applying appropriate OTF and color-coding. An advantage when using the proposed method is the ability of developing standardized protocol settings since the velocity information is quantitative and not relative as is the case for data obtained from the magnitude images. The intended application of the visualization method is the analysis of common flow studies used in the diagnosis of different cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Phase-contrast helium-3 MRI of aerosol deposition in human airways.

    PubMed

    Sarracanie, Mathieu; Grebenkov, Denis; Sandeau, Julien; Coulibaly, Soulé; Martin, Andrew R; Hill, Kyle; Pérez Sánchez, José Manuel; Fodil, Redouane; Martin, Lionel; Durand, Emmanuel; Caillibotte, Georges; Isabey, Daniel; Darrasse, Luc; Bittoun, Jacques; Maître, Xavier

    2015-02-01

    One of the key challenges in the study of health-related aerosols is predicting and monitoring sites of particle deposition in the respiratory tract. The potential health risks of ambient exposure to environmental or workplace aerosols and the beneficial effects of medical aerosols are strongly influenced by the site of aerosol deposition along the respiratory tract. Nuclear medicine is the only current modality that combines quantification and regional localization of aerosol deposition, and this technique remains limited by its spatial and temporal resolutions and by patient exposure to radiation. Recent work in MRI has shed light on techniques to quantify micro-sized magnetic particles in living bodies by the measurement of associated static magnetic field variations. With regard to lung MRI, hyperpolarized helium-3 may be used as a tracer gas to compensate for the lack of MR signal in the airways, so as to allow assessment of pulmonary function and morphology. The extrathoracic region of the human respiratory system plays a critical role in determining aerosol deposition patterns, as it acts as a filter upstream from the lungs. In the present work, aerosol deposition in a mouth-throat phantom was measured using helium-3 MRI and compared with single-photon emission computed tomography. By providing high sensitivity with high spatial and temporal resolutions, phase-contrast helium-3 MRI offers new insights for the study of particle transport and deposition.

  16. Volumetric characterization of human patellar cartilage matrix on phase contrast x-ray computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Anas Z.; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Checefsky, Walter A.; Coan, Paola; Diemoz, Paul C.; Hobbs, Susan K.; Huber, Markus B.; Wismüller, Axel

    2015-03-01

    Phase contrast X-ray computed tomography (PCI-CT) has recently emerged as a novel imaging technique that allows visualization of cartilage soft tissue, subsequent examination of chondrocyte patterns, and their correlation to osteoarthritis. Previous studies have shown that 2D texture features are effective at distinguishing between healthy and osteoarthritic regions of interest annotated in the radial zone of cartilage matrix on PCI-CT images. In this study, we further extend the texture analysis to 3D and investigate the ability of volumetric texture features at characterizing chondrocyte patterns in the cartilage matrix for purposes of classification. Here, we extracted volumetric texture features derived from Minkowski Functionals and gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) from 496 volumes of interest (VOI) annotated on PCI-CT images of human patellar cartilage specimens. The extracted features were then used in a machine-learning task involving support vector regression to classify ROIs as healthy or osteoarthritic. Classification performance was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). The best classification performance was observed with GLCM features correlation (AUC = 0.83 +/- 0.06) and homogeneity (AUC = 0.82 +/- 0.07), which significantly outperformed all Minkowski Functionals (p < 0.05). These results suggest that such quantitative analysis of chondrocyte patterns in human patellar cartilage matrix involving GLCM-derived statistical features can distinguish between healthy and osteoarthritic tissue with high accuracy.

  17. Two-dimensional phase contrast imaging for local turbulence measurements in large helical device (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, K.; Michael, C. A.; Kawahata, K.; Akiyama, T.; Tokuzawa, T.; Vyacheslavov, L. N.; Sanin, A. L.; Okajima, S.

    2008-10-15

    Two-dimensional phase contrast imaging (2D) installed on the large helical device (LHD) is a unique diagnostic for local turbulence measurements. A 10.6 {mu}m infrared CO{sub 2} laser and 6x8 channel HgCdTe 2D detector are used. The length of the scattering volume is larger than plasma size. However, the asymmetry of turbulence structure with respect to the magnetic field and magnetic shear make local turbulence measurements possible. From a 2D image of the integrated fluctuations, the spatial cross-correlation function was estimated using time domain correlation analysis, then, the integrated 2D k-spectrum is obtained using maximum entropy method. The 2D k-spectrum is converted from Cartesian coordinates to cylindrical coordinates. Finally, the angle in cylindrical coordinate is converted to flux surface labels. The fluctuation profile over almost the entire plasma diameter can be obtained at a single moment. The measurable k-region can be varied by adjusting the detection optics. Presently, k=0.1-1.0 mm{sup -1} can be measured which is expected region of ion temperature gradient modes and trapped electron mode in LHD. The spatial resolution is 10%-50% of the minor radius.

  18. X-ray micro-beam techniques and phase contrast tomography applied to biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratini, Michela; Campi, Gaetano; Bukreeva, Inna; Pelliccia, Daniele; Burghammer, Manfred; Tromba, Giuliana; Cancedda, Ranieri; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena; Cedola, Alessia

    2015-12-01

    A deeper comprehension of the biomineralization (BM) process is at the basis of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine developments. Several in-vivo and in-vitro studies were dedicated to this purpose via the application of 2D and 3D diagnostic techniques. Here, we develop a new methodology, based on different complementary experimental techniques (X-ray phase contrast tomography, micro-X-ray diffraction and micro-X-ray fluorescence scanning technique) coupled to new analytical tools. A qualitative and quantitative structural investigation, from the atomic to the micrometric length scale, is obtained for engineered bone tissues. The high spatial resolution achieved by X-ray scanning techniques allows us to monitor the bone formation at the first-formed mineral deposit at the organic-mineral interface within a porous scaffold. This work aims at providing a full comprehension of the morphology and functionality of the biomineralization process, which is of key importance for developing new drugs for preventing and healing bone diseases and for the development of bio-inspired materials.

  19. Schlieren, Phase-Contrast, and Spectroscopy Diagnostics for the LBNL HIF Plasma Channel Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce, D. M.; Niemann, C.; Fessenden, T. J.; Leemans, W.; Vandersloot, K.; Dahlbacka, G.; Yu, S. S.; Sharp, W. M.; Tauschwitz, A.

    1999-11-01

    The LBNL Plasma Channel experiment has demonstrated stable 42-cm Z-pinch discharge plasma channels with peak currents in excess of 50 kA for a 7 torr nitrogen, 30 kV discharge. These channels offer the possibility of transporting heavy-ion beams for inertial fusion. We postulate that the stability of these channels resides in the existance of a neutral-gas density depresion created by a pre-pulse discharge before the main capacitor bank discharge is created. Here, we present the results and experimental diagnostics setup used for the study of the pre-pulse and main bank channels. Observation of both the plasma and neutral gas dynamics is achieved. Schlieren, Zernike's phase-contrast, and spectroscopic techniques are used. Preliminary Schlieren results show a gas shockwave moving radially at a rate of ≈ 10^6 mm/sec as a result of the fast and localized deposited energy during the evolution of the pre-pulse channel. This data will be used to validate simulation codes (BUCKY and CYCLOPS).

  20. Muscle Velocity and Inertial Force from Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wentland, Andrew L.; McWalter, Emily J.; Pal, Saikat; Delp, Scott L.; Gold, Garry E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate velocity waveforms in muscle and to create a tool and algorithm for computing and analyzing muscle inertial forces derived from 2D phase contrast (PC) MRI. Materials and Methods PC MRI was performed in the forearm of four healthy volunteers during 1 Hz cycles of wrist flexion-extension as well as in the lower leg of six healthy volunteers during 1 Hz cycles of plantarflexion-dorsiflexion. Inertial forces (F) were derived via the equation F = ma. The mass, m, was derived by multiplying voxel volume by voxel-by-voxel estimates of density via fat-water separation techniques. Acceleration, a, was obtained via the derivative of the PC MRI velocity waveform. Results Mean velocities in the flexors of the forearm and lower leg were 1.94 ± 0.97 cm/s and 5.57 ± 2.72 cm/s, respectively, as averaged across all subjects; the inertial forces in the flexors of the forearm and lower leg were 1.9 × 10-3 ± 1.3 × 10-3 N and 1.1 × 10-2 ± 6.1 × 10-3 N, respectively, as averaged across all subjects. Conclusion PC MRI provided a promising means of computing muscle velocities and inertial forces—providing the first method for quantifying inertial forces. PMID:25425185

  1. Rule-based fuzzy vector median filters for 3D phase contrast MRI segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundareswaran, Kartik S.; Frakes, David H.; Yoganathan, Ajit P.

    2008-02-01

    Recent technological advances have contributed to the advent of phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PCMRI) as standard practice in clinical environments. In particular, decreased scan times have made using the modality more feasible. PCMRI is now a common tool for flow quantification, and for more complex vector field analyses that target the early detection of problematic flow conditions. Segmentation is one component of this type of application that can impact the accuracy of the final product dramatically. Vascular segmentation, in general, is a long-standing problem that has received significant attention. Segmentation in the context of PCMRI data, however, has been explored less and can benefit from object-based image processing techniques that incorporate fluids specific information. Here we present a fuzzy rule-based adaptive vector median filtering (FAVMF) algorithm that in combination with active contour modeling facilitates high-quality PCMRI segmentation while mitigating the effects of noise. The FAVMF technique was tested on 111 synthetically generated PC MRI slices and on 15 patients with congenital heart disease. The results were compared to other multi-dimensional filters namely the adaptive vector median filter, the adaptive vector directional filter, and the scalar low pass filter commonly used in PC MRI applications. FAVMF significantly outperformed the standard filtering methods (p < 0.0001). Two conclusions can be drawn from these results: a) Filtering should be performed after vessel segmentation of PC MRI; b) Vector based filtering methods should be used instead of scalar techniques.

  2. Large field-of-view tiled grating structures for X-ray phase-contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröter, Tobias J.; Koch, Frieder J.; Meyer, Pascal; Kunka, Danays; Meiser, Jan; Willer, Konstantin; Gromann, Lukas; De Marco, Fabio; Herzen, Julia; Noel, Peter; Yaroshenko, Andre; Hofmann, Andreas; Pfeiffer, Franz; Mohr, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    X-ray grating-based interferometry promises unique new diagnostic possibilities in medical imaging and materials analysis. To transfer this method from scientific laboratories or small-animal applications to clinical radiography applications, compact setups with a large field of view (FoV) are required. Currently the FoV is limited by the grating area, which is restricted due to the complex manufacturing process. One possibility to increase the FoV is tiling individual grating tiles to create one large area grating mounted on a carrier substrate. We investigate theoretically the accuracy needed for a tiling process in all degrees of freedom by applying a simulation approach. We show how the resulting precision requirements can be met using a custom-built frame for exact positioning. Precise alignment is achieved by comparing the fringe patterns of two neighboring grating tiles in a grating interferometer. With this method, the FoV can be extended to practically any desired length in one dimension. First results of a phase-contrast scanning setup with a full FoV of 384 mm × 24 mm show the suitability of this method.

  3. Phase-contrast X-ray microtomography links Cretaceous seeds with Gnetales and Bennettitales.

    PubMed

    Friis, Else Marie; Crane, Peter R; Pedersen, Kaj Raunsgaard; Bengtson, Stefan; Donoghue, Philip C J; Grimm, Guido W; Stampanoni, Marco

    2007-11-22

    Over the past 25 years the discovery and study of Cretaceous plant mesofossils has yielded diverse and exquisitely preserved fossil flowers that have revolutionized our knowledge of early angiosperms, but remains of other seed plants in the same mesofossil assemblages have so far received little attention. These fossils, typically only a few millimetres long, have often been charred in natural fires and preserve both three-dimensional morphology and cellular detail. Here we use phase-contrast-enhanced synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy to clarify the structure of small charcoalified gymnosperm seeds from the Early Cretaceous of Portugal and North America. The new information links these seeds to Gnetales (including Erdtmanithecales, a putatively closely related fossil group), and to Bennettitales--important extinct Mesozoic seed plants with cycad-like leaves and flower-like reproductive structures. The results suggest that the distinctive seed architecture of Gnetales, Erdtmanithecales and Bennettitales defines a clade containing these taxa. This has significant consequences for hypotheses of seed plant phylogeny by providing support for key elements of the controversial anthophyte hypothesis, which links angiosperms, Bennettitales and Gnetales.

  4. Phase-gradient contrast in thick tissue with a scanning microscope

    PubMed Central

    Mertz, J.; Gasecka, A.; Daradich, A.; Davison, I.; Coté, D.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the principle of reciprocity is valid for light traveling even through scattering or absorptive media. This principle has been used to establish an equivalence between conventional widefield microscopes and scanning microscopes. We make use of this principle to introduce a scanning version of oblique back-illumination microscopy, or sOBM. This technique provides sub-surface phase-gradient and amplitude images from unlabeled tissue, in an epi-detection geometry. That is, it may be applied to arbitrarily thick tissue. sOBM may be implemented as a simple, cost-effective add-on with any scanning microscope, requiring only the availability of an extra input channel in the microscope electronics. We demonstrate here its implementation in combination with two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy and with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy, applied to brain or spinal cord tissue imaging. In both cases, sOBM provides information on tissue morphology complementary to TPEF or CARS contrast. This information is obtained simultaneously and is automatically co-registered. Finally, we show that sOBM can be operated at video rate. PMID:24575336

  5. X-ray phase-contrast tomography with a compact laser-driven synchrotron source.

    PubMed

    Eggl, Elena; Schleede, Simone; Bech, Martin; Achterhold, Klaus; Loewen, Roderick; Ruth, Ronald D; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-05-05

    Between X-ray tubes and large-scale synchrotron sources, a large gap in performance exists with respect to the monochromaticity and brilliance of the X-ray beam. However, due to their size and cost, large-scale synchrotrons are not available for more routine applications in small and medium-sized academic or industrial laboratories. This gap could be closed by laser-driven compact synchrotron light sources (CLS), which use an infrared (IR) laser cavity in combination with a small electron storage ring. Hard X-rays are produced through the process of inverse Compton scattering upon the intersection of the electron bunch with the focused laser beam. The produced X-ray beam is intrinsically monochromatic and highly collimated. This makes a CLS well-suited for applications of more advanced--and more challenging--X-ray imaging approaches, such as X-ray multimodal tomography. Here we present, to our knowledge, the first results of a first successful demonstration experiment in which a monochromatic X-ray beam from a CLS was used for multimodal, i.e., phase-, dark-field, and attenuation-contrast, X-ray tomography. We show results from a fluid phantom with different liquids and a biomedical application example in the form of a multimodal CT scan of a small animal (mouse, ex vivo). The results highlight particularly that quantitative multimodal CT has become feasible with laser-driven CLS, and that the results outperform more conventional approaches.

  6. Study of ELM Density Turbulence using the Upgraded Phase Contrast Imaging on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rost, J. C.; Davis, E. M.; Marinoni, A.; Porkolab, M.; Burrell, K. H.

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies of the turbulent density fluctuations accompanying ELMs in mixed ELM-type discharges have exploited the expanded wavenumber range of the upgraded Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) diagnostic. The PCI data demonstrate the difference between the fluctuations generated by Type I ELMs, which are broadband in frequency and wavelength, and those generated by Type III ELMs, which are similar in amplitude but restricted to long wavelengths, suggesting that turbulence may play a significant role in Type I ELM transport. The high frequency response of PCI makes it ideal for studying the ELM-associated density fluctuations, which are observed at frequencies up to several MHz, evolve on time scales of 10s of μs, and persist after the magnetic component of the ELM has decayed away. The upgraded PCI, with independent systems for long and short wavelength detection (k < 5 cm-1 and 1 < k < 30 cm-1 respectively), demonstrated coverage of the full wavenumber range of interest. Work supported in part by the US Department of Energy under DE-FG02-94ER54235, DE-FC02-04ER54698, and DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  7. High-throughput 3D tracking of bacteria on a standard phase contrast microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taute, K. M.; Gude, S.; Tans, S. J.; Shimizu, T. S.

    2015-11-01

    Bacteria employ diverse motility patterns in traversing complex three-dimensional (3D) natural habitats. 2D microscopy misses crucial features of 3D behaviour, but the applicability of existing 3D tracking techniques is constrained by their performance or ease of use. Here we present a simple, broadly applicable, high-throughput 3D bacterial tracking method for use in standard phase contrast microscopy. Bacteria are localized at micron-scale resolution over a range of 350 × 300 × 200 μm by maximizing image cross-correlations between their observed diffraction patterns and a reference library. We demonstrate the applicability of our technique to a range of bacterial species and exploit its high throughput to expose hidden contributions of bacterial individuality to population-level variability in motile behaviour. The simplicity of this powerful new tool for bacterial motility research renders 3D tracking accessible to a wider community and paves the way for investigations of bacterial motility in complex 3D environments.

  8. DECAFLUOROBUTANE AS A PHASE-CHANGE CONTRAST AGENT FOR LOW-ENERGY EXTRAVASCULAR ULTRASONIC IMAGING

    PubMed Central

    Sheeran, Paul S.; Wong, Vincent P.; Luois, Samantha; Mcfarland, Ryan J.; Ross, William D.; Feingold, Steven; Matsunaga, Terry O.; Dayton, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Currently available microbubbles used for ultrasound imaging and therapeutics are limited to intravascular space due to their size distribution in the micron range. Phase-change contrast agents (PCCAs) have been proposed as a means to overcome this limitation, since droplets formed in the hundred nanometer size range might be able to extravasate through leaky microvasculature, after which they could be activated to form larger highly echogenic microbubbles. Existing PCCAs in the sub-micron size range require substantial acoustic energy to be vaporized, increasing the likelihood of unwanted bioeffects. Thus, there exists a need for PCCAs with reduced acoustic activation energies for use in imaging studies. In this article, it is shown that decafluorobutane, which is normally a gas at room temperature, can be incorporated into metastable liquid sub-micron droplets with appropriate encapsulation methods. The resulting droplets are activatable with substantially less energy than other favored PCCA compounds. Decafluorobutane nanodroplets may present a new means to safely extend ultrasound imaging beyond the vascular space. (E-mail: padayton@bme.unc.edu) PMID:21775049

  9. Upgraded two-dimensional phase contrast imaging system for fluctuation profile measurement on LHD

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, C. A.; Tanaka, K.; Vyacheslavov, L.; Sanin, A.; Kawahata, K.; Okajima, S.

    2006-10-15

    The two-dimensional (2D) phase contrast imaging system on LHD can measure the k spectrum of line-integrated density fluctuations (k{approx}0.2-3 mm{sup -1} and k{sub perpendicular}{rho}{sub i}{approx}0.1-1.5) with modest spatial resolution ({delta}{rho}{approx}0.1) along a line of sight passing close to the magnetic axis, sensitive to radial fluctuations in the core and poloidal fluctuations in the edge. The spatial resolution is attained using a 6x8 2D detector array taking advantage of the strong magnetic shear in LHD. The system can be configured with different magnification factors to investigate different ranges of k (in 'overview' mode from 0.2 to 0.6 mm{sup -1}, characteristic of ITG/TEM scale turbulence; and 'zoom' mode from 1 to 3 mm{sup -1}, which may access to the lower limit of the ETG range). Zoom mode additionally employs cylindrical optics to stretch the image by a factor of 4 in order to provide better spatial resolution for high k fluctuations within a narrow spatial region. The highest detected value of k in zoom mode, for which the signal-to-noise ratio is better than 1, is 2.5 mm{sup -1} (at around 1.5 MHz)

  10. Phase-contrast versus off-axis illumination: is a more complex microscope always more powerful?

    PubMed

    Hostounský, Zdenek; Pelc, Radek

    2007-06-01

    In this article, a practical demonstration suitable for any biology college classroom is presented. With the examples of a complex biological specimen (slug's radula) and a simple reference specimen (electron microscopical grid imprint in gelatin), both of which can be easily prepared, the capabilities of two imaging modes commonly used in optical microscopy are demonstrated. The results obtained under phase contrast (a rather sophisticated method, 1953 Nobel Prize to Zernike) and off-axis illumination (a very simple method) are compared. The off-axis illumination setup is capable of delivering noticeably better microscopic images of these two particular specimens, yet it can be easily assembled in a laboratory classroom. The outcome of such a demonstration is expected to be the realization on the part of the students that one needs to carefully choose the apparatus to address a given biological problem, with the "bottom line" being that a more complex one may not necessarily yield better results. An attempt to explain this "paradox" is presented, in the particular case presented here, partly from the physiology of vision perspective (the shape-from-shading problem). The overall aim of the present article is to induce in students critical thinking about the capabilities of a laboratory equipment in general and about data interpretation.

  11. Quantitative Three-Dimensional Imaging of Lipid, Protein, and Water Contents via X-Ray Phase-Contrast Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Willner, Marian; Viermetz, Manuel; Marschner, Mathias; Scherer, Kai; Braun, Christian; Fingerle, Alexander; Noël, Peter; Rummeny, Ernst; Pfeiffer, Franz; Herzen, Julia

    2016-01-01

    X-ray phase-contrast computed tomography is an emerging imaging technology with powerful capabilities for three-dimensional (3D) visualization of weakly absorbing objects such as biological soft tissues. This technique is an extension of existing X-ray applications because conventional attenuation-contrast images are simultaneously acquired. The complementary information provided by both the contrast modalities suggests that enhanced material characterization is possible when performing combined data analysis. In this study, we describe how protein, lipid, and water concentrations in each 3D voxel can be quantified by vector decomposition. Experimental results of dairy products, porcine fat and rind, and different human soft tissue types are presented. The results demonstrate the potential of phase-contrast imaging as a new analysis tool. The 3D representations of protein, lipid, and water contents open up new opportunities in the fields of biology, medicine, and food science. PMID:27003308

  12. X-ray phase contrast imaging of the breast: Analysis of tissue simulating materials

    SciTech Connect

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Karellas, Andrew

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Phase contrast imaging, particularly of the breast, is being actively investigated. The purpose of this work is to investigate the x-ray phase contrast properties of breast tissues and commonly used breast tissue substitutes or phantom materials with an aim of determining the phantom materials best representative of breast tissues. Methods: Elemental compositions of breast tissues including adipose, fibroglandular, and skin were used to determine the refractive index, n= 1 -{delta}+i {beta}. The real part of the refractive index, specifically the refractive index decrement ({delta}), over the energy range of 5-50 keV were determined using XOP software (version 2.3, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, France). Calcium oxalate and calcium hydroxyapatite were considered to represent the material compositions of microcalcifications in vivo. Nineteen tissue substitutes were considered as possible candidates to represent adipose tissue, fibroglandular tissue and skin, and four phantom materials were considered as possible candidates to represent microcalcifications. For each material, either the molecular formula, if available, or the elemental composition based on weight fraction, was used to determine {delta}. At each x-ray photon energy, the absolute percent difference in {delta} between the breast tissue and the substitute material was determined, from which three candidates were selected. From these candidate tissue substitutes, the material that minimized the absolute percent difference in linear attenuation coefficient {mu}, and hence {beta}, was considered to be best representative of that breast tissue. Results: Over the energy range of 5-50 keV, while the {delta} of CB3 and fibroglandular tissue-equivalent material were within 1% of that of fibroglandular tissue, the {mu} of fibroglandular tissue-equivalent material better approximated the fibroglandular tissue. While the {delta} of BR10 and adipose tissue-equivalent material were within 1% of

  13. X-ray phase contrast imaging of the breast: Analysis of tissue simulating materials1

    PubMed Central

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Karellas, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Phase contrast imaging, particularly of the breast, is being actively investigated. The purpose of this work is to investigate the x-ray phase contrast properties of breast tissues and commonly used breast tissue substitutes or phantom materials with an aim of determining the phantom materials best representative of breast tissues. Methods: Elemental compositions of breast tissues including adipose, fibroglandular, and skin were used to determine the refractive index, n = 1 − δ + i β. The real part of the refractive index, specifically the refractive index decrement (δ), over the energy range of 5–50 keV were determined using XOP software (version 2.3, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, France). Calcium oxalate and calcium hydroxyapatite were considered to represent the material compositions of microcalcifications in vivo. Nineteen tissue substitutes were considered as possible candidates to represent adipose tissue, fibroglandular tissue and skin, and four phantom materials were considered as possible candidates to represent microcalcifications. For each material, either the molecular formula, if available, or the elemental composition based on weight fraction, was used to determine δ. At each x-ray photon energy, the absolute percent difference in δ between the breast tissue and the substitute material was determined, from which three candidates were selected. From these candidate tissue substitutes, the material that minimized the absolute percent difference in linear attenuation coefficient μ, and hence β, was considered to be best representative of that breast tissue. Results: Over the energy range of 5–50 keV, while the δ of CB3 and fibroglandular tissue-equivalent material were within 1% of that of fibroglandular tissue, the μ of fibroglandular tissue-equivalent material better approximated the fibroglandular tissue. While the δ of BR10 and adipose tissue-equivalent material were within 1% of that of adipose tissue, the tissue

  14. Non-destructive characterisation of polymers and Al-alloys by polychromatic cone-beam phase contrast tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Kastner, Johann; Plank, Bernhard; Requena, Guillermo

    2012-02-15

    X-ray computed tomography (XCT) has become a very important tool for the non-destructive characterisation of materials. Continuous improvements in the quality and performance of X-ray tubes and detectors have led to cone-beam XCT systems that can now achieve spatial resolutions down to 1 {mu}m and even below. Since not only the amplitude but also the phase of an X-ray beam is altered while passing through an object, phase contrast effects can occur even for polychromatic sources when the spatial coherence due to a small focal spot size is high enough. This can lead to significant improvements over conventional attenuation-based X-ray computed tomography. Phase contrast can increase by edge enhancement the visibility of small structures and of features which are only slightly different in attenuation. We report on the possibilities of polychromatic cone-beam phase contrast tomography for non-destructive characterisation of materials. A carbon fibre-reinforced polymer and the Al-alloys AlMg5Si7 and AlSi18 were investigated with high resolution cone-beam X-ray computed tomography with a polychromatic tube source. Under certain conditions strong phase contrast resulting in an upward and downward overshooting of the grey values across edges was observed. The phase effects are much stronger for the polymer than for the Al-alloys. The influence on the phase contrast of the parameters, including source-detector distance, focal spot size and tube acceleration voltage is presented. Maximum phase contrast was observed for a maximum distance between the source and the detector, for a low voltage and a minimum focal spot size at the X-ray source. The detectability of the different phases is improved by the edge enhancement and the resulting improvement of sharpness. Thus, a better segmentation of the carbon fibres in the fibre-reinforced polymer and of the Mg{sub 2}Si-phase in the AlMg5Si7-alloy is achieved. Primary and eutectic Si cannot be detected by attenuation-based X

  15. Increasing the field of view of x-ray phase contrast imaging using stitched gratings on low absorbent carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiser, J.; Amberger, M.; Willner, M.; Kunka, D.; Meyer, P.; Koch, F.; Hipp, A.; Walter, M.; Pfeiffer, F.; Mohr, J.

    2014-03-01

    X-ray phase contrast imaging has become a promising biomedical imaging technique for enhancing soft-tissue contrast. In addition to an absorption contrast image it provides two more types of image, a phase contrast and a small-angle scattering contrast image recorded at the same time. In biomedical imaging their combination allows for the conventional investigation of e.g. bone fractures on the one hand and for soft-tissue investigation like cancer detection on the other hand. Among the different methods of X-ray phase contrast imaging the grating based approach, the Talbot-Lau interferometry, has the highest potential for commercial use in biomedical imaging at the moment, because commercially available X-ray sources can be used in a compact setup. In Talbot-Lau interferometers, core elements are phase and absorption gratings with challenging specifications because of their high aspect ratios (structure height over width). For the long grating lamellas structural heights of more than 100 μm together with structural width in the micron range are requested. We are developing a fabrication process based on deep x-ray lithography and electroforming (LIGA) to fabricate these challenging structures. In case of LIGA gratings the structural area is currently limited to several centimeters by several centimeters which limit the field of view in grating based X-ray phase contrast imaging. In order to increase the grating area significantly we are developing a stitching method for gratings using a 625 μm thick silicon wafer as a carrier substrate. In this work we compare the silicon carrier with an alternative one, polyimide, for patient dose reduction and for the use at lower energies in terms of transmission and image reconstruction problems.

  16. In vivo x-ray phase contrast analyzer-based imaging for longitudinal osteoarthritis studies in guinea pigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coan, Paola; Wagner, Andreas; Bravin, Alberto; Diemoz, Paul C.; Keyriläinen, Jani; Mollenhauer, Juergen

    2010-12-01

    Over the last two decades phase contrast x-ray imaging techniques have been extensively studied for applications in the biomedical field. Published results demonstrate the high capability of these imaging modalities of improving the image contrast of biological samples with respect to standard absorption-based radiography and routinely used clinical imaging techniques. A clear depiction of the anatomic structures and a more accurate disease diagnosis may be provided by using radiation doses comparable to or lower than those used in current clinical methods. In the literature many works show images of phantoms and excised biological samples proving the high sensitivity of the phase contrast imaging methods for in vitro investigations. In this scenario, the applications of the so-called analyzer-based x-ray imaging (ABI) phase contrast technique are particularly noteworthy. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo x-ray ABI phase contrast imaging for biomedical applications and in particular with respect to joint anatomic depiction and osteoarthritis detection. ABI in planar and tomographic modes was performed in vivo on articular joints of guinea pigs in order to investigate the animals with respect to osteoarthritis by using highly monochromatic x-rays of 52 keV and a low noise detector with a pixel size of 47 × 47 µm2. Images give strong evidence of the ability of ABI in depicting both anatomic structures in complex systems as living organisms and all known signs of osteoarthritis with high contrast, high spatial resolution and with an acceptable radiation dose. This paper presents the first proof of principle study of in vivo application of ABI. The technical challenges encountered when imaging an animal in vivo are discussed. This experimental study is an important step toward the study of clinical applications of phase contrast x-ray imaging techniques.

  17. Partition calculation for zero-order and conjugate image removal in digital in-line holography.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lihong; Wang, Hui; Li, Yong; Jin, Hongzhen

    2012-01-16

    Conventional digital in-line holography requires at least two phase-shifting holograms to reconstruct an original object without zero-order and conjugate image noise. We present a novel approach in which only one in-line hologram and two intensity values (namely the object wave intensity and the reference wave intensity) are required. First, by subtracting the two intensity values the zero-order diffraction can be completely eliminated. Then, an algorithm, called partition calculation, is proposed to numerically remove the conjugate image. A preliminary experimental result is given to confirm the proposed method. The method can simplify the procedure of phase-shifting digital holography and improve the practical feasibility for digital in-line holography.

  18. A grating-based single-shot x-ray phase contrast and diffraction method for in vivo imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Eric E.; Kopace, Rael; Stein, Ashley F.; Wen Han

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop a single-shot version of the grating-based phase contrast x-ray imaging method and demonstrate its capability of in vivo animal imaging. Here, the authors describe the principle and experimental results. They show the source of artifacts in the phase contrast signal and optimal designs that minimize them. They also discuss its current limitations and ways to overcome them. Methods: A single lead grid was inserted midway between an x-ray tube and an x-ray camera in the planar radiography setting. The grid acted as a transmission grating and cast periodic dark fringes on the camera. The camera had sufficient spatial resolution to resolve the fringes. Refraction and diffraction in the imaged object manifested as position shifts and amplitude attenuation of the fringes, respectively. In order to quantify these changes precisely without imposing a fixed geometric relationship between the camera pixel array and the fringes, a spatial harmonic method in the Fourier domain was developed. The level of the differential phase (refraction) contrast as a function of hardware specifications and device geometry was derived and used to guide the optimal placement of the grid and object. Both ex vivo and in vivo images of rodent extremities were collected to demonstrate the capability of the method. The exposure time using a 50 W tube was 28 s. Results: Differential phase contrast images of glass beads acquired at various grid and object positions confirmed theoretical predictions of how phase contrast and extraneous artifacts vary with the device geometry. In anesthetized rats, a single exposure yielded artifact-free images of absorption, differential phase contrast, and diffraction. Differential phase contrast was strongest at bone-soft tissue interfaces, while diffraction was strongest in bone. Conclusions: The spatial harmonic method allowed us to obtain absorption, differential phase contrast, and diffraction images, all from a

  19. Single-shot x-ray differential phase-contrast and diffraction imaging using two-dimensional transmission gratings.

    PubMed

    Wen, Harold H; Bennett, Eric E; Kopace, Rael; Stein, Ashley F; Pai, Vinay

    2010-06-15

    We describe an x-ray differential phase-contrast imaging method based on two-dimensional transmission gratings that are directly resolved by an x-ray camera. X-ray refraction and diffraction in the sample lead to variations of the positions and amplitudes of the grating fringes on the camera. These effects can be quantified through spatial harmonic analysis. The use of 2D gratings allows differential phase contrast in several directions to be obtained from a single image. When compared to previous grating-based interferometry methods, this approach obviates the need for multiple exposures and separate measurements for different directions and thereby accelerates imaging speed.

  20. Application of Fourier-wavelet regularized deconvolution for improving image quality of free space propagation x-ray phase contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhongxing; Gao, Feng; Zhao, Huijuan; Zhang, Lixin

    2012-11-21

    New x-ray phase contrast imaging techniques without using synchrotron radiation confront a common problem from the negative effects of finite source size and limited spatial resolution. These negative effects swamp the fine phase contrast fringes and make them almost undetectable. In order to alleviate this problem, deconvolution procedures should be applied to the blurred x-ray phase contrast images. In this study, three different deconvolution techniques, including Wiener filtering, Tikhonov regularization and Fourier-wavelet regularized deconvolution (ForWaRD), were applied to the simulated and experimental free space propagation x-ray phase contrast images of simple geometric phantoms. These algorithms were evaluated in terms of phase contrast improvement and signal-to-noise ratio. The results demonstrate that the ForWaRD algorithm is most appropriate for phase contrast image restoration among above-mentioned methods; it can effectively restore the lost information of phase contrast fringes while reduce the amplified noise during Fourier regularization.

  1. Effects of two different anesthetic protocols on cardiac flow measured by two dimensional phase contrast MRI

    PubMed Central

    Drees, Randi; Johnson, Rebecca A; Stepien, Rebecca L; Del Rio, Alejandro Munoz; François, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Companion animals are anesthetized or heavily sedated to comply for cardiac MRI and different anesthetic protocols are expected to have variable effects on functional parameters measured. This study compared two anesthetic protocols (Protocol A: Midazolam, fentanyl; Protocol B: Dexmedetomidine) for their effect on quantitative and qualitative analysis of blood flow through the aortic, pulmonic, mitral and tricuspid valves using 2D phase contrast (PC) MRI in dogs. Mean flow per heartbeat through the pulmonary artery (Qp) and aorta (Qs) was compared to right (RVSV) and left (LVSV) ventricular stroke volumes determined using 2D Cine balanced steady-state free precession MRI as a reference standard. Pulmonary to systemic flow ratio (Qp/Qs) was also calculated. Differences in flow and Qp/Qs values generated using 2D PC MRI were not different between the two anesthetic protocols (P=1). Mean differences between Qp and right ventricular stroke volume (RVSV) were 3.82 (95% limits of agreement: 3.62, −11.26) ml/beat and 1.9 (−7.86, 11.66) ml/beat for anesthesia protocols A and B, respectively. Mean differences between Qs and left ventricular stroke volume (LVSV) were 1.65 (−5.04, 8.34) ml/beat and 0.03 (−4.65, 4.72) ml/beat for anesthesia protocols A and B, respectively. Mild tricuspid or mitral reflux was seen in 2/10 dogs using 2D PC MRI. No aortic or pulmonic insufficiency was observed. This study provides baseline data for evaluation of cardiac blood flow using 2D PC MRI in dogs. Where as no significant difference of cardiac blood flow was found for the anesthetic protocols used, verification in clinically affected patients is desirable. PMID:25124271

  2. Triggering of leukocytes by phase contrast in imaging cytometry with scanning fluorescence microscope (SFM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocsi, József; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Marecka, Monika; Malkusch, Wolf; Tárnok, Attila

    2009-02-01

    Slide-based cytometry (SBC) leads to breakthrough in cytometry of cells in tissues, culture and suspension. Carl Zeiss Imaging Solutions' new automated SFM combines imaging with cytometry. A critical step in image analysis is selection of appropriate triggering signal to detect all objects. Without correct target cell definition analysis is hampered. DNA-staining is among the most common triggering signals. However, the majority of DNA-dyes yield massive spillover into other fluorescence channels limiting their application. By microscopy objects of >5μm diameter can be easily detected by phase-contrast signal (PCS) without any staining. Aim was to establish PCS - triggering for cell identification. Axio Imager.Z1 motorized SFM was used (high-resolution digital camera, AxioCam MRm; AxioVision software: automatic multi-channel scanning, analysis). Leukocytes were stained with FITC (CD4, CD8) and APC (CD3) labelled antibodies in combinations using whole blood method. Samples were scanned in three channels (PCS/FITC/APC). Exposition-times for PCS were set as low as possible; the detection efficiency was verified by fluorescence. CD45-stained leukocytes were counted and compared to the number of PCS detected events. Leukocyte subtyping was compared with other cytometers. In focus the PCS of cells showed ring-form that was not optimal for cell definition. Out of focus PCS allows more effective qualitative and quantitative cell analyses. PCS was an accurate triggering signal for leukocytes enabling cell counting and discrimination of leukocytes from platelets. Leukocyte subpopulation frequencies were comparable to those obtained by other cytometers. In conclusion PCS is a suitable trigger-signal not interfering with fluorescence detection.

  3. Phase unwrapping in spectral X-ray differential phase-contrast imaging with an energy-resolving photon-counting pixel detector.

    PubMed

    Epple, Franz M; Ehn, Sebastian; Thibault, Pierre; Koehler, Thomas; Potdevin, Guillaume; Herzen, Julia; Pennicard, David; Graafsma, Heinz; Noël, Peter B; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-03-01

    Grating-based differential phase-contrast imaging has proven to be feasible with conventional X-ray sources. The polychromatic spectrum generally limits the performance of the interferometer but benefit can be gained with an energy-sensitive detector. In the presented work, we employ the energy-discrimination capability to correct for phase-wrapping artefacts. We propose to use the phase shifts, which are measured in distinct energy bins, to estimate the optimal phase shift in the sense of maximum likelihood. We demonstrate that our method is able to correct for phase-wrapping artefacts, to improve the contrast-to-noise ratio and to reduce beam hardening due to the modelled energy dependency. The method is evaluated on experimental data which are measured with a laboratory Talbot-Lau interferometer equipped with a conventional polychromatic X-ray source and an energy-sensitive photon-counting pixel detector. Our work shows, that spectral imaging is an important step to move differential phase-contrast imaging closer to pre-clinical and clinical applications, where phase wrapping is particularly problematic.

  4. K-alpha x-ray source using high energy and high repetition rate laser system for phase contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serbanescu, Cristina; Fourmaux, Sylvain; Kieffer, Jean-Claude; Kincaid, Russell; Krol, Andrzej

    2009-08-01

    K-alpha x-ray sources from laser produced plasmas provide completely new possibilities for x-ray phase-contrast imaging applications. By tightly focusing intense femtosecond laser pulses onto a solid target, K-alpha x-ray pulses are generated through the interaction of energetic electrons created in the plasma with the bulk target. In this paper, we present a continuous and efficient Mo K-alpha x-ray source produced by a femtosecond laser system operating at 100 Hz repetition rate with maximum pulse energy of 110 mJ before compression. The source has x-ray conversion efficiency greater than 10-5 into K-alpha line emission. In preparation for phase contrast imaging applications, the size of the resultant K-alpha x-ray emission spot has been also characterized. The source exhibits sufficient spatial coherence to observe phase contrast. We observe a relatively small broadening of the K-alpha source size compared to the size of the laser beam itself. Detailed characterization of the source including the x-ray spectrum and the x-ray average yield along with phase contrast images of test objects will be presented.

  5. Experimental Realisation of High-sensitivity Laboratory X-ray Grating-based Phase-contrast Computed Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birnbacher, Lorenz; Willner, Marian; Velroyen, Astrid; Marschner, Mathias; Hipp, Alexander; Meiser, Jan; Koch, Frieder; Schröter, Tobias; Kunka, Danays; Mohr, Jürgen; Pfeiffer, Franz; Herzen, Julia

    2016-04-01

    The possibility to perform high-sensitivity X-ray phase-contrast imaging with laboratory grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (gbPC-CT) setups is of great interest for a broad range of high-resolution biomedical applications. However, achieving high sensitivity with laboratory gbPC-CT setups still poses a challenge because several factors such as the reduced flux, the polychromaticity of the spectrum, and the limited coherence of the X-ray source reduce the performance of laboratory gbPC-CT in comparison to gbPC-CT at synchrotron facilities. In this work, we present our laboratory X-ray Talbot-Lau interferometry setup operating at 40 kVp and describe how we achieve the high sensitivity yet unrivalled by any other laboratory X-ray phase-contrast technique. We provide the angular sensitivity expressed via the minimum resolvable refraction angle both in theory and experiment, and compare our data with other differential phase-contrast setups. Furthermore, we show that the good stability of our high-sensitivity setup allows for tomographic scans, by which even the electron density can be retrieved quantitatively as has been demonstrated in several preclinical studies.

  6. Study of objects visualization and image inversion by the phase-contrast method with linear and nonlinear filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubis, E. L.; Lozhkarev, V. V.; Stepanov, A. N.; Smirnov, A. I.; Kuzmin, I. V.; Malshakova, O. A.; Gusev, S. A.; Skorokhodov, E. V.

    2016-08-01

    The adaptive phase-contrast method with nonlinear (photothermal) and linear Zernike filters was investigated. Liquid and polymer media partially absorbing radiation served as photothermal Zernike filters. Efficient visualization and inversion of images of small-scale model objects were demonstrated experimentally. Growth-sector boundary in a nonlinear crystal was visualized.

  7. A user-friendly LabVIEW software platform for grating based X-ray phase-contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shenghao; Han, Huajie; Gao, Kun; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Can; Yang, Meng; Wu, Zhao; Wu, Ziyu

    2015-01-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging can provide greatly improved contrast over conventional absorption-based imaging for weakly absorbing samples, such as biological soft tissues and fibre composites. In this study, we introduced an easy and fast way to develop a user-friendly software platform dedicated to the new grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging setup at the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory of the University of Science and Technology of China. The control of 21 motorized stages, of a piezoelectric stage and of an X-ray tube are achieved with this software, it also covers image acquisition with a flat panel detector for automatic phase stepping scan. Moreover, a data post-processing module for signals retrieval and other custom features are in principle available. With a seamless integration of all the necessary functions in one software package, this platform greatly facilitate users' activities during experimental runs with this grating based X-ray phase contrast imaging setup.

  8. Experimental Realisation of High-sensitivity Laboratory X-ray Grating-based Phase-contrast Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Birnbacher, Lorenz; Willner, Marian; Velroyen, Astrid; Marschner, Mathias; Hipp, Alexander; Meiser, Jan; Koch, Frieder; Schröter, Tobias; Kunka, Danays; Mohr, Jürgen; Pfeiffer, Franz; Herzen, Julia

    2016-01-01

    The possibility to perform high-sensitivity X-ray phase-contrast imaging with laboratory grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (gbPC-CT) setups is of great interest for a broad range of high-resolution biomedical applications. However, achieving high sensitivity with laboratory gbPC-CT setups still poses a challenge because several factors such as the reduced flux, the polychromaticity of the spectrum, and the limited coherence of the X-ray source reduce the performance of laboratory gbPC-CT in comparison to gbPC-CT at synchrotron facilities. In this work, we present our laboratory X-ray Talbot-Lau interferometry setup operating at 40 kVp and describe how we achieve the high sensitivity yet unrivalled by any other laboratory X-ray phase-contrast technique. We provide the angular sensitivity expressed via the minimum resolvable refraction angle both in theory and experiment, and compare our data with other differential phase-contrast setups. Furthermore, we show that the good stability of our high-sensitivity setup allows for tomographic scans, by which even the electron density can be retrieved quantitatively as has been demonstrated in several preclinical studies. PMID:27040492

  9. Realistic wave-optics simulation of X-ray phase-contrast imaging at a human scale.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yongjin; Segars, W Paul; Pan, Adam; Ando, Masami; Sheppard, Colin J R; Gupta, Rajiv

    2015-07-14

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCI) can dramatically improve soft tissue contrast in X-ray medical imaging. Despite worldwide efforts to develop novel XPCI systems, a numerical framework to rigorously predict the performance of a clinical XPCI system at a human scale is not yet available. We have developed such a tool by combining a numerical anthropomorphic phantom defined with non-uniform rational B-splines (NURBS) and a wave optics-based simulator that can accurately capture the phase-contrast signal from a human-scaled numerical phantom. Using a synchrotron-based, high-performance XPCI system, we provide qualitative comparison between simulated and experimental images. Our tool can be used to simulate the performance of XPCI on various disease entities and compare proposed XPCI systems in an unbiased manner.

  10. Realistic wave-optics simulation of X-ray phase-contrast imaging at a human scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Yongjin; Segars, W. Paul; Pan, Adam; Ando, Masami; Sheppard, Colin J. R.; Gupta, Rajiv

    2015-07-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCI) can dramatically improve soft tissue contrast in X-ray medical imaging. Despite worldwide efforts to develop novel XPCI systems, a numerical framework to rigorously predict the performance of a clinical XPCI system at a human scale is not yet available. We have developed such a tool by combining a numerical anthropomorphic phantom defined with non-uniform rational B-splines (NURBS) and a wave optics-based simulator that can accurately capture the phase-contrast signal from a human-scaled numerical phantom. Using a synchrotron-based, high-performance XPCI system, we provide qualitative comparison between simulated and experimental images. Our tool can be used to simulate the performance of XPCI on various disease entities and compare proposed XPCI systems in an unbiased manner.

  11. High-resolution short-exposure small-animal laboratory x-ray phase-contrast tomography

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Daniel H.; Vågberg, William; Yaroshenko, Andre; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Hertz, Hans M.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography of small animals and their organs is an essential tool in basic and preclinical biomedical research. In both phase-contrast and absorption tomography high spatial resolution and short exposure times are of key importance. However, the observable spatial resolutions and achievable exposure times are presently limited by system parameters rather than more fundamental constraints like, e.g., dose. Here we demonstrate laboratory tomography with few-ten μm spatial resolution and few-minute exposure time at an acceptable dose for small-animal imaging, both with absorption contrast and phase contrast. The method relies on a magnifying imaging scheme in combination with a high-power small-spot liquid-metal-jet electron-impact source. The tomographic imaging is demonstrated on intact mouse, phantoms and excised lungs, both healthy and with pulmonary emphysema. PMID:27958376

  12. High-resolution short-exposure small-animal laboratory x-ray phase-contrast tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Daniel H.; Vågberg, William; Yaroshenko, Andre; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Hertz, Hans M.

    2016-12-01

    X-ray computed tomography of small animals and their organs is an essential tool in basic and preclinical biomedical research. In both phase-contrast and absorption tomography high spatial resolution and short exposure times are of key importance. However, the observable spatial resolutions and achievable exposure times are presently limited by system parameters rather than more fundamental constraints like, e.g., dose. Here we demonstrate laboratory tomography with few-ten μm spatial resolution and few-minute exposure time at an acceptable dose for small-animal imaging, both with absorption contrast and phase contrast. The method relies on a magnifying imaging scheme in combination with a high-power small-spot liquid-metal-jet electron-impact source. The tomographic imaging is demonstrated on intact mouse, phantoms and excised lungs, both healthy and with pulmonary emphysema.

  13. Quantification of signal detection performance degradation induced by phase-retrieval in propagation-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Cheng-Ying; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2016-04-01

    In propagation-based X-ray phase-contrast (PB XPC) imaging, the measured image contains a mixture of absorption- and phase-contrast. To obtain separate images of the projected absorption and phase (i.e., refractive) properties of a sample, phase retrieval methods can be employed. It has been suggested that phase-retrieval can always improve image quality in PB XPC imaging. However, when objective (task-based) measures of image quality are employed, this is not necessarily true and phase retrieval can be detrimental. In this work, signal detection theory is utilized to quantify the performance of a Hotelling observer (HO) for detecting a known signal in a known background. Two cases are considered. In the first case, the HO acts directly on the measured intensity data. In the second case, the HO acts on either the retrieved phase or absorption image. We demonstrate that the performance of the HO is superior when acting on the measured intensity data. The loss of task-specific information induced by phase-retrieval is quantified by computing the efficiency of the HO as the ratio of the test statistic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the two cases. The effect of the system geometry on this efficiency is systematically investigated. Our findings confirm that phase-retrieval can impair signal detection performance in XPC imaging.

  14. Optimisation of image reconstruction for phase-contrast x-ray Talbot-Lau imaging with regard to mechanical robustness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, M.; Kaeppler, S.; Hauke, C.; Horn, F.; Pelzer, G.; Rieger, J.; Michel, T.; Riess, C.; Anton, G.

    2016-09-01

    X-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging opens new opportunities, inter alia, in medical imaging and non-destructive testing. Because, information about the attenuation properties and about the refractive properties of an object are gained simultaneously. Talbot-Lau imaging requires the knowledge of a reference or free-field image. The long-term stability of a Talbot-Lau interferometer is related to the time span of the validity of a measured reference image. It would be desirable to keep the validity of the reference image for a day or longer to improve feasibility of Talbot-Lau imaging. However, for example thermal and other long-term external influences result in drifting effects of the phase images. Therefore, phases are shifting over time and the reference image is not valid for long-term measurements. Thus, artifacts occur in differential phase-contrast images. We developed an algorithm to determine the differential phase-contrast image with the help of just one calibration image, which is valid for a long time-period. With the help of this algorithm, called phase-plane-fit method, it is possible to save measurement-time, as it is not necessary to take a reference image for each measurement. Additionally, transferring the interferometer technique from laboratory setups to conventional imaging systems the necessary rigidity of the system is difficult to achieve. Therefore, short-term effects like vibrations or distortions of the system lead to imperfections within the phase-stepping procedure. Consequently, artifacts occur in all three image modalities (differential phase-contrast image, attenuation image and dark-field image) of Talbot-Lau imaging. This is a problem with regard to the intended use of phase-contrast imaging for example in clinical routine or non-destructive testing. In this publication an algorithm of Vargas et al is applied and complemented to correct inaccurate phase-step positions with the help of a principal component analysis (PCA

  15. X-ray microscopy using two phase contrast imaging techniques: two dimensional grating interferometry and speckle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongchang; Berujon, Sebastien; Pape, Ian; Sawhney, Kawal

    2013-10-01

    Two phase contrast imaging techniques, namely two dimensional grating interferometry and X-ray speckle tracking (XST), have been combined with the use of a Fresnel Zone Plate (FZP) for application to X-ray microscopy. Both techniques allows the phase shift introduced by a sample on a hard X-ray beam in two dimensions, to be recovered with a high sensitivity and low requirements on transverse and longitudinal coherence. Sub-micron phase imaging of carbon fibres was achieved using the two methods thanks to the high magnification ratio of the FZP. Advantages, drawbacks and differences between these two techniques for X-ray microscopy are discussed.

  16. Lensless multispectral digital in-line holographic microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryle, James P.; McDonnell, Susan; Sheridan, John T.

    2011-12-01

    An compact multispectral digital in-line holographic microscope (DIHM) is developed that emulates Gabor's original holographic principle. Using sources of varying spatial coherence (laser, LED), holographic images of objects, including optical fiber, latex microspheres, and cancer cells, are successfully captured and numerically processed. Quantitative measurement of cell locations and percentage confluence are estimated, and pseudocolor images are also presented. Phase profiles of weakly scattering cells are obtained from the DIHM and are compared to those produced by a commercially available off-axis digital holographic microscope.

  17. Lensless multispectral digital in-line holographic microscope.

    PubMed

    Ryle, James P; McDonnell, Susan; Sheridan, John T

    2011-12-01

    An compact multispectral digital in-line holographic microscope (DIHM) is developed that emulates Gabor's original holographic principle. Using sources of varying spatial coherence (laser, LED), holographic images of objects, including optical fiber, latex microspheres, and cancer cells, are successfully captured and numerically processed. Quantitative measurement of cell locations and percentage confluence are estimated, and pseudocolor images are also presented. Phase profiles of weakly scattering cells are obtained from the DIHM and are compared to those produced by a commercially available off-axis digital holographic microscope.

  18. Method of Quantifying Three Dimensional Strain Distribution in Skeletal Muscle Using Cine Phase Contrast MRI

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Elisabeth R.; Morrow, Duane A.; Felmlee, Joel P.; Murthy, Naveen S.; Kaufman, Kenton R.

    2016-01-01

    Intramuscular pressure (IMP), a correlate of muscle tension, may fill an important clinical testing void. A barrier to implementing this measure clinically is its non-uniform distribution, which is not fully understood. Pressure is generated by changes in fluid mass and volume, therefore 3D volumetric strain distribution may affect IMP distribution. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for quantifying 3D volumetric strain distribution in the human tibialis anterior (TA) during passive tension using cine Phase Contrast (CPC) MRI and to assess its accuracy and precision. Five healthy subjects each participated in three data collections. A custom MRI-compatible apparatus repeatedly rotated the subjects’ ankle between 0 and 26 degrees plantarflexion while CPC MRI data were collected. Additionally, T2-weighted images of the lower leg were collected both before and after the CPC data collection with the ankle stationary at both 0 and 26 degrees plantarflexion for TA muscle segmentation. A 3D hexahedral mesh was generated based on the TA surface before CPC data collection with the ankle at 0 degrees plantarflexion and the node trajectories were tracked using the CPC data. The volumetric strain of each element was quantified. Three tests were employed to assess the measure accuracy and precision. First, to quantify leg position drift, the TA segmentations were compared before and after CPC data collection. This error was 1.5±0.7 mm. Second, to assess the surface node trajectory accuracy, the deformed mesh surface was compared to the TA segmented at 26 degrees of ankle plantarflexion. This error was 0.6±0.2 mm. Third, the standard deviation of volumetric strain across the three data collections was calculated for each element and subject. The median between-day variability across subjects and mesh elements was 0.06 mm3/mm3 (95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.18 mm3/mm3). Overall the results demonstrated excellent accuracy and precision. PMID:26595686

  19. Measurement of cerebral blood flow using phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging and duplex ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Ayaz; Liu, Jie; Tarumi, Takashi; Lawley, Justin Stevan; Liu, Peiying; Zhu, David C; Lu, Hanzhang; Zhang, Rong

    2017-02-01

    Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) and color-coded duplex ultrasonography (CDUS) are commonly used for measuring cerebral blood flow in the internal carotid (ICA) and vertebral arteries. However, agreement between the two methods has been controversial. Recent development of high spatial and temporal resolution blood vessel wall edge-detection and wall-tracking methods with CDUS increased the accuracy and reliability of blood vessel diameter, hence cerebral blood flow measurement. The aim of this study was to compare the improved CDUS method with 3 T PC-MRI for cerebral blood flow measurements. We found that cerebral blood flow velocity measured in the ICA was lower using PC-MRI than CDUS (left ICA: PC-MRI, 18.0 ± 4.2 vs. CDUS, 25.6 ± 8.6 cm/s; right ICA: PC-MRI, 18.5 ± 4.8 vs. CDUS, 26.6 ± 6.7 cm/s, both p < 0.01). However, ICA diameters measured using PC-MRI were larger (left ICA: PC-MRI, 4.7 ± 0.50 vs. CDUS, 4.1 ± 0.46 mm; right ICA: PC-MRI, 4.5 ± 0.49 vs. CDUS, 4.0 ± 0.45 mm, both p < 0.01). Cerebral blood flow velocity measured in the left vertebral artery with PC-MRI was also lower than CDUS, but no differences in vertebral artery diameter were observed between the methods. Dynamic changes and/or intrinsic physiological fluctuations may have caused these differences in vessel diameter and velocity measurements between the methods. However, estimation of volumetric cerebral blood flow was similar and correlated between the methods despite the presence of large individual differences. These findings support the use of CDUS for cerebral blood flow measurements in the ICA and vertebral artery.

  20. Decrease of pulse-contrast in nonlinear chirped-pulse amplification systems due to high-frequency spectral phase ripples.

    PubMed

    Schimpf, Damian; Seise, Enrico; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2008-06-09

    It is analytically shown that weak initial spectral phase modulations cause a pulse-contrast degradation at the output of nonlinear chirped-pulse amplification systems. The Kerr-nonlinearity causes an energy-transfer from the main pulse to side-pulses during nonlinear amplification. The relative intensities of these side-pulses can be described in terms of Bessel-functions. It is shown that the intensities of the pulses are dependent on the magnitude of the accumulated nonlinear phase-shift (i.e., the B-integral), the depth and period of the initial spectral phase-modulation and the slope of the linear stretching chirp. The results are applicable to any type of laser amplifier that is based on the technique of chirped-pulse amplification. The analytical results presented in this paper are of particular importance for high peak-power laser applications requiring high pulse-contrasts, e.g. high field physics.

  1. Contrast and phase-shift of a trapped atom interferometer using a thermal ensemble with internal state labelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont-Nivet, M.; Westbrook, C. I.; Schwartz, S.

    2016-11-01

    We report a theoretical study of a double-well Ramsey interferometer using internal state labelling. We consider the use of a thermal ensemble of cold atoms rather than a Bose-Einstein condensate to minimise the effects of atomic interactions. To maintain a satisfactory level of coherence in this case, a high degree of symmetry is required between the two arms of the interferometer. Assuming that the splitting and recombination processes are adiabatic, we theoretically derive the phase-shift and the contrast of such an interferometer in the presence of a gravity or an acceleration field. We also consider using a ‘shortcut to adiabaticity’ protocol to speed up the splitting process and discuss how such a procedure affects the phase shift and contrast. We find that the two procedures lead to phase-shifts of the same form.

  2. Investigation of source grating stepping for differential phase-contrast cone-beam CT (DPC-CBCT) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Weixing; Yu, Yang; Ning, Ruola; Liu, Jiangkun; Conover, David

    2012-03-01

    Differential phase contrast (DPC) imaging, which utilizes phase shift information of X-ray, has the potential of dramatically increasing the contrast in biological sample imaging compared to attenuation-based method that relies on X-ray absorption information, since the X-ray phase is much more sensitive than the attenuation during transmission. In a DPC imaging system, the phase stepping method is widely used to obtain DPC images: at each angle the phase grating is shifted incrementally to produce a set of images and then the so obtained images are used to retrieve DPC image. However, DPC imaging requires a high mechanical precision to perform phase stepping, which is generally one order higher than the period of phase grating. Given that phase grating period is generally 2-4 um, the requirement of mechanical accuracy and stability are very demanding (<0.5um) and difficult to meet in a system with rotating gantry. In this paper, we present a method that is able to greatly relax the requirement of mechanical accuracy and stability by stepping the source grating rather than the analyzer grating. This method is able to increase the system's mechanical tolerance without compromising image quality and make it feasible to install the system on a rotating gantry to perform differential phase-contrast cone beam CT (DPC-CBCT). It is also able to increase the grating shifting precision and as a result improve the reconstructed image quality. Mechanical tolerance investigation and image quality investigation at different phase stepping schemes and different dose levels will be carried out on both the original modality and the new modality, the results will be evaluated and compared. We will deliberately create random mechanical errors in phase stepping and evaluate the resulting DPC images and DPC-CBCT reconstructions. The contrast, noise level and sharpness will be evaluated to assess the influence of mechanical errors. By stepping the source grating, the system is expected

  3. Zernike phase contrast cryo-electron microscopy reveals 100 kDa component in a protein complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yi-Min; Wang, Chun-Hsiung; Chang, Jen-wei; Chen, Yi-yun; Miyazaki, Naoyuki; Murata, Kazuyoshi; Nagayama, Kuniaki; Chang, Wei-Hau

    2013-12-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has become a powerful technique for obtaining near atomic structures for large protein assemblies or large virus particles, but the application to protein particles smaller than 200-300 kDa has been hampered by the feeble phase contrast obtained for such small samples and the limited number of electrons tolerated by them without incurring excessive radiation damage. By implementing a thin-film quarter-wave phase plate to a cryo-EM, Nagayama, one of the present authors, has recently restored the long-lost very low spatial frequencies, generating in-focus phase contrast superior to that of conventional defocusing phase contrast, and successfully applied the so-called Zernike phase-plate cryo-EM to target various biological samples in native state. Nevertheless, the sought-after goal of using enhanced phase contrast to reveal a native protein as small as 100 kDa waits to be realized. Here, we report a study in which 200 kV Zernike phase-plate cryo-EM with a plate cut-on periodicity of 36 nm was applied to visualize 100 kDa components of various protein complexes, including the small domains on the surface of an icosahedral particle of ˜38 nm derived from the dragon grouper nervous necrosis virus (DGNNV) and the labile sub-complex dissociated from yeast RNA polymerase III of 17 nm. In the former case, we observed a phase contrast reversal phenomenon at the centre of the icosahedral particle and traced its root cause to the near matching of the cut-on size and the particle size. In summary, our work has demonstrated that Zernike phase-plate implementation can indeed expand the size range of proteins that can be successfully investigated by cryo-EM, opening the door for countless proteins. Finally, we briefly discuss the possibility of using a transfer lens system to enlarge the cut-on periodicity without further miniaturizing the plate pinhole.

  4. Bilateral filtering using the full noise covariance matrix applied to x-ray phase-contrast computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allner, S.; Koehler, T.; Fehringer, A.; Birnbacher, L.; Willner, M.; Pfeiffer, F.; Noël, P. B.

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop an image-based de-noising algorithm that exploits complementary information and noise statistics from multi-modal images, as they emerge in x-ray tomography techniques, for instance grating-based phase-contrast CT and spectral CT. Among the noise reduction methods, image-based de-noising is one popular approach and the so-called bilateral filter is a well known algorithm for edge-preserving filtering. We developed a generalization of the bilateral filter for the case where the imaging system provides two or more perfectly aligned images. The proposed generalization is statistically motivated and takes the full second order noise statistics of these images into account. In particular, it includes a noise correlation between the images and spatial noise correlation within the same image. The novel generalized three-dimensional bilateral filter is applied to the attenuation and phase images created with filtered backprojection reconstructions from grating-based phase-contrast tomography. In comparison to established bilateral filters, we obtain improved noise reduction and at the same time a better preservation of edges in the images on the examples of a simulated soft-tissue phantom, a human cerebellum and a human artery sample. The applied full noise covariance is determined via cross-correlation of the image noise. The filter results yield an improved feature recovery based on enhanced noise suppression and edge preservation as shown here on the example of attenuation and phase images captured with grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography. This is supported by quantitative image analysis. Without being bound to phase-contrast imaging, this generalized filter is applicable to any kind of noise-afflicted image data with or without noise correlation. Therefore, it can be utilized in various imaging applications and fields.

  5. Bilateral filtering using the full noise covariance matrix applied to x-ray phase-contrast computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Allner, S; Koehler, T; Fehringer, A; Birnbacher, L; Willner, M; Pfeiffer, F; Noël, P B

    2016-05-21

    The purpose of this work is to develop an image-based de-noising algorithm that exploits complementary information and noise statistics from multi-modal images, as they emerge in x-ray tomography techniques, for instance grating-based phase-contrast CT and spectral CT. Among the noise reduction methods, image-based de-noising is one popular approach and the so-called bilateral filter is a well known algorithm for edge-preserving filtering. We developed a generalization of the bilateral filter for the case where the imaging system provides two or more perfectly aligned images. The proposed generalization is statistically motivated and takes the full second order noise statistics of these images into account. In particular, it includes a noise correlation between the images and spatial noise correlation within the same image. The novel generalized three-dimensional bilateral filter is applied to the attenuation and phase images created with filtered backprojection reconstructions from grating-based phase-contrast tomography. In comparison to established bilateral filters, we obtain improved noise reduction and at the same time a better preservation of edges in the images on the examples of a simulated soft-tissue phantom, a human cerebellum and a human artery sample. The applied full noise covariance is determined via cross-correlation of the image noise. The filter results yield an improved feature recovery based on enhanced noise suppression and edge preservation as shown here on the example of attenuation and phase images captured with grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography. This is supported by quantitative image analysis. Without being bound to phase-contrast imaging, this generalized filter is applicable to any kind of noise-afflicted image data with or without noise correlation. Therefore, it can be utilized in various imaging applications and fields.

  6. PHYSICAL EFFECTS OCCURRING DURING GENERATION AND AMPLIFICATION OF LASER RADIATION: Reversal of the contrast of optical radiation in round-trip amplifiers with a phase conjugation mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanas'ev, Anatolii A.; Samson, B. A.

    1989-02-01

    A description is given of a method for inversion of the contrast of optical radiation in a round-trip amplifier with a phase conjugation mirror and a phase nonreciprocal element. The system can be used to achieve high powers of contrast-reversed radiation because of compensation of phase distortions introduced by amplification.

  7. Single shot x-ray phase contrast imaging using a direct conversion microstrip detector with single photon sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagias, M.; Cartier, S.; Wang, Z.; Bergamaschi, A.; Dinapoli, R.; Mozzanica, A.; Schmitt, B.; Stampanoni, M.

    2016-06-01

    X-ray phase contrast imaging enables the measurement of the electron density of a sample with high sensitivity compared to the conventional absorption contrast. This is advantageous for the study of dose-sensitive samples, in particular, for biological and medical investigations. Recent developments relaxed the requirement for the beam coherence, such that conventional X-ray sources can be used for phase contrast imaging and thus clinical applications become possible. One of the prominent phase contrast imaging methods, Talbot-Lau grating interferometry, is limited by the manufacturing, alignment, and photon absorption of the analyzer grating, which is placed in the beam path in front of the detector. We propose an alternative improved method based on direct conversion charge integrating detectors, which enables a grating interferometer to be operated without an analyzer grating. Algorithms are introduced, which resolve interference fringes with a periodicity of 4.7 μm recorded with a 25 μm pitch Si microstrip detector (GOTTHARD). The feasibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated by an experiment at the TOMCAT beamline of the Swiss Light Source on a polyethylene sample.

  8. High-order myopic coronagraphic phase diversity (COFFEE) for wave-front control in high-contrast imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Paul, B; Mugnier, L M; Sauvage, J-F; Dohlen, K; Ferrari, M

    2013-12-30

    The estimation and compensation of quasi-static aberrations is mandatory to reach the ultimate performance of high-contrast imaging systems. COFFEE is a focal plane wave-front sensing method that consists in the extension of phase diversity to high-contrast imaging systems. Based on a Bayesian approach, it estimates the quasi-static aberrations from two focal plane images recorded from the scientific camera itself. In this paper, we present COFFEE's extension which allows an estimation of low and high order aberrations with nanometric precision for any coronagraphic device. The performance is evaluated by realistic simulations, performed in the SPHERE instrument framework. We develop a myopic estimation that allows us to take into account an imperfect knowledge on the used diversity phase. Lastly, we evaluate COFFEE's performance in a compensation process, to optimize the contrast on the detector, and show it allows one to reach the 10(-6) contrast required by SPHERE at a few resolution elements from the star. Notably, we present a non-linear energy minimization method which can be used to reach very high contrast levels (better than 10(7) in a SPHERE-like context).

  9. FMT-PCCT: hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography-x-ray phase-contrast CT imaging of mouse models.

    PubMed

    Mohajerani, Pouyan; Hipp, Alexander; Willner, Marian; Marschner, Mathias; Trajkovic-Arsic, Marija; Ma, Xiaopeng; Burton, Neal C; Klemm, Uwe; Radrich, Karin; Ermolayev, Vladimir; Tzoumas, Stratis; Siveke, Jens T; Bech, Martin; Pfeiffer, Franz; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2014-07-01

    The implementation of hybrid fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been shown to be a necessary development, not only for combining anatomical with functional and molecular contrast, but also for generating optical images of high accuracy. FMT affords highly sensitive 3-D imaging of fluorescence bio-distribution, but in stand-alone form it offers images of low resolution. It was shown that FMT accuracy significantly improves by considering anatomical priors from CT. Conversely, CT generally suffers from low soft tissue contrast. Therefore utilization of CT data as prior information in FMT inversion is challenging when different internal organs are not clearly differentiated. Instead, we combined herein FMT with emerging X-ray phase-contrast CT (PCCT). PCCT relies on phase shift differences in tissue to achieve soft tissue contrast superior to conventional CT. We demonstrate for the first time FMT-PCCT imaging of different animal models, where FMT and PCCT scans were performed in vivo and ex vivo, respectively. The results show that FMT-PCCT expands the potential of FMT in imaging lesions with otherwise low or no CT contrast, while retaining the cost benefits of CT and simplicity of hybrid device realizations. The results point to the most accurate FMT performance to date.

  10. Direct measurement of the refractive index profile of phase gratings, recorded in silver halide holographic materials by phase-contrast microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bányász, I.

    2003-11-01

    Plane-wave phase holograms recorded in Agfa-Gevaert 8E75HD emulsions and processed by the combination of AAC developer and the R-9 bleaching agent were studied by phase-contrast microscopy, using high-power immersion (100×) objective. Thus the modulation of the refractive index as a function of the bias exposure and the visibility of the recording interference pattern can also be determined. Measured diffraction efficiencies were compared to those predicted by coupled wave theory, using the measured refractive index modulations. Direct measurement of the phase profile of the gratings can be used for optimizing processing.

  11. High-resolution visualization of airspace structures in intact mice via synchrotron phase-contrast X-ray imaging (PCXI)

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, David W; Morgan, Kaye; Donnelley, Martin; Fouras, Andreas; Crosbie, Jeffrey; Williams, Ivan; Boucher, Richard C; Uesugi, Kentaro; Yagi, Naoto; Siu, Karen K W

    2008-01-01

    Anatomical visualization of airspace-containing organs in intact small animals has been limited by the resolution and contrast available from current imaging methods such as X-ray, micro-computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Determining structural relationships and detailed anatomy has therefore relied on suitable fixation, sectioning and histological processing. More complex and informative analyses such as orthogonal views of an organ and three-dimensional structure visualizations have required different animals and image sets, laboriously processed to gather this complementary structural information. Precise three-dimensional anatomical views have always been difficult to achieve in small animals. Here we report the ability of phase-contrast synchrotron X-ray imaging to provide detailed two- and three-dimensional visualization of airspace organ structures in intact animals. Using sub-micrometre square pixel charge-coupled device array detectors, the structure and anatomy of hard and soft tissues, and of airspaces, is readily available using phase-contrast synchrotron X-ray imaging. Moreover, software-controlled volume-reconstructions of tomographic images not only provide unsurpassed image clarity and detail, but also selectable anatomical views that cannot be obtained with established histological techniques. The morphology and structure of nasal and lung airways and the middle ear are illustrated in intact mice, using two- and three-dimensional representations. The utility of phase-contrast synchrotron X-ray imaging for non-invasively localizing objects implanted within airspaces, and the detection of gas bubbles transiting live airways, are other novel features of this visualization methodology. The coupling of phase-contrast synchrotron X-ray imaging technology with software-based reconstruction techniques holds promise for novel and high-resolution non-invasive examination of airspace anatomy in small animal models. PMID:19172736

  12. Comparison of mounting methods for the evaluation of fibers by phase contrast microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Pang, Thomas W S; Nelson, John; Andrew, Mike; Harper, Martin

    2011-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate mounting methods for fiber examination of air sample filters by phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and to evaluate differences in fiber counts that might be due to fiber movement. Acetone/triacetin (AT) with various amounts of triacetin and acetone/Euparal (AE) where the mounting medium was placed between the cleared filter wedge and the coverslip were tested as a function of time. Field sample slides collected from a taconite iron-ore processing mill, a tremolitic talc-ore processing mill, and from around a crusher in a meta-basalt stone quarry were prepared with relocatable coverslips to revisit the same field areas on the slides. For each slide, three or four field areas were randomly selected and pictures were taken every 2 weeks to determine any sign of fiber movement over time. For 11 AT slides (named as AT-3.5) prepared with 3.5 μl of the mounting medium according to the NIOSH 7400 method, no fiber movements were detected over 59 weeks. On the other hand, AT slides prepared with larger quantities (10, 15, and 20 μl) of the mounting medium (named as AT-10) and AE slides prepared with ∼10 μl mounting medium showed fiber movement from the eighth day at the earliest. Fiber movement began earlier for the slides mounted with excess triacetin than for those mounted with Euparal. The sample slide storage method, either vertically or horizontally, did not seem to accelerate fiber movement. Additionally, two other modified methods, dimethylformamide solution/Euparal (mDE) and dimethylformamide solution/triacetin (mDT), were also prepared where the mounting medium was placed between the cleared filter wedge and the glass slide. The findings of fiber movements were similar; when 3.5 μl of triacetin was used for the mDT slides, fiber movements were not detected, while fibers on slides prepared with 10 μl triacetin (mDT-10) moved around. No fiber movements were observed for the mDE slides at any time during 59 weeks. Once

  13. In-vivo dark-field and phase-contrast x-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Bech, M; Tapfer, A; Velroyen, A; Yaroshenko, A; Pauwels, B; Hostens, J; Bruyndonckx, P; Sasov, A; Pfeiffer, F

    2013-11-13

    Novel radiography approaches based on the wave nature of x-rays when propagating through matter have a great potential for improved future x-ray diagnostics in the clinics. Here, we present a significant milestone in this imaging method: in-vivo multi-contrast x-ray imaging of a mouse using a compact scanner. Of particular interest is the enhanced contrast in regions related to the respiratory system, indicating a possible application in diagnosis of lung diseases (e.g. emphysema).

  14. In-vivo dark-field and phase-contrast x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, M.; Tapfer, A.; Velroyen, A.; Yaroshenko, A.; Pauwels, B.; Hostens, J.; Bruyndonckx, P.; Sasov, A.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2013-11-01

    Novel radiography approaches based on the wave nature of x-rays when propagating through matter have a great potential for improved future x-ray diagnostics in the clinics. Here, we present a significant milestone in this imaging method: in-vivo multi-contrast x-ray imaging of a mouse using a compact scanner. Of particular interest is the enhanced contrast in regions related to the respiratory system, indicating a possible application in diagnosis of lung diseases (e.g. emphysema).

  15. Gallium-enhanced phase contrast in atom probe tomography of nanocrystalline and amorphous Al-Mn alloys.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Shiyun; Torres, Karen L; Thompson, Gregory B; Schuh, Christopher A

    2011-07-01

    Over a narrow range of composition, electrodeposited Al-Mn alloys transition from a nanocrystalline structure to an amorphous one, passing through an intermediate dual-phase nanocrystal/amorphous structure. Although the structural change is significant, the chemical difference between the phases is subtle. In this study, the solute distribution in these alloys is revealed by developing a method to enhance phase contrast in atom probe tomography (APT). Standard APT data analysis techniques show that Mn distributes uniformly in single phase (nanocrystalline or amorphous) specimens, and despite some slight deviations from randomness, standard methods reveal no convincing evidence of Mn segregation in dual-phase samples either. However, implanted Ga ions deposited during sample preparation by focused ion-beam milling are found to act as chemical markers that preferentially occupy the amorphous phase. This additional information permits more robust identification of the phases and measurement of their compositions. As a result, a weak partitioning tendency of Mn into the amorphous phase (about 2 at%) is discerned in these alloys.

  16. Towards tender X-rays with Zernike phase-contrast imaging of biological samples at 50 nm resolution.

    PubMed

    Vartiainen, Ismo; Warmer, Martin; Goeries, Dennis; Herker, Eva; Reimer, Rudolph; David, Christian; Meents, Alke

    2014-07-01

    X-ray microscopy is a commonly used method especially in material science application, where the large penetration depth of X-rays is necessary for three-dimensional structural studies of thick specimens with high-Z elements. In this paper it is shown that full-field X-ray microscopy at 6.2 keV can be utilized for imaging of biological specimens with high resolution. A full-field Zernike phase-contrast microscope based on diffractive optics is used to study lipid droplet formation in hepatoma cells. It is shown that the contrast of the images is comparable with that of electron microscopy, and even better contrast at tender X-ray energies between 2.5 keV and 4 keV is expected.

  17. Laser Light-field Fusion for Wide-field Lensfree On-chip Phase Contrast Microscopy of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Wong, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Wide-field lensfree on-chip microscopy, which leverages holography principles to capture interferometric light-field encodings without lenses, is an emerging imaging modality with widespread interest given the large field-of-view compared to lens-based techniques. In this study, we introduce the idea of laser light-field fusion for lensfree on-chip phase contrast microscopy for detecting nanoparticles, where interferometric laser light-field encodings acquired using a lensfree, on-chip setup with laser pulsations at different wavelengths are fused to produce marker-free phase contrast images of particles at the nanometer scale. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate, for the first time, a wide-field lensfree on-chip instrument successfully detecting 300 nm particles across a large field-of-view of ~30 mm2 without any specialized or intricate sample preparation, or the use of synthetic aperture- or shift-based techniques. PMID:27958348

  18. Laser Light-field Fusion for Wide-field Lensfree On-chip Phase Contrast Microscopy of Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Wong, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    Wide-field lensfree on-chip microscopy, which leverages holography principles to capture interferometric light-field encodings without lenses, is an emerging imaging modality with widespread interest given the large field-of-view compared to lens-based techniques. In this study, we introduce the idea of laser light-field fusion for lensfree on-chip phase contrast microscopy for detecting nanoparticles, where interferometric laser light-field encodings acquired using a lensfree, on-chip setup with laser pulsations at different wavelengths are fused to produce marker-free phase contrast images of particles at the nanometer scale. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate, for the first time, a wide-field lensfree on-chip instrument successfully detecting 300 nm particles across a large field-of-view of ~30 mm2 without any specialized or intricate sample preparation, or the use of synthetic aperture- or shift-based techniques.

  19. Laser Light-field Fusion for Wide-field Lensfree On-chip Phase Contrast Microscopy of Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Wong, Alexander

    2016-12-13

    Wide-field lensfree on-chip microscopy, which leverages holography principles to capture interferometric light-field encodings without lenses, is an emerging imaging modality with widespread interest given the large field-of-view compared to lens-based techniques. In this study, we introduce the idea of laser light-field fusion for lensfree on-chip phase contrast microscopy for detecting nanoparticles, where interferometric laser light-field encodings acquired using a lensfree, on-chip setup with laser pulsations at different wavelengths are fused to produce marker-free phase contrast images of particles at the nanometer scale. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate, for the first time, a wide-field lensfree on-chip instrument successfully detecting 300 nm particles across a large field-of-view of ~30 mm(2) without any specialized or intricate sample preparation, or the use of synthetic aperture- or shift-based techniques.

  20. Study of a macrodefect in a silicon carbid single crystal by means of X-ray phase contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argunova, T. S.; Kohn, V. G.; Lim, J. H.; Je, J. H.

    2016-11-01

    The morphology of a macrodefect in a single-crystal silicon carbide wafer has been investigated by the computer simulation of an experimental X-ray phase-contrast image. A micropipe, i.e., a long cavity with a small (elliptical in the general case) cross section, in a single crystal has been considered as a macrodefect. A far-field image of micropipe has been measured with the aid of synchrotron radiation without a monochromator. The parameters of micropipe elliptical cross section are determined based on one projection in two directions: parallel and perpendicular to the X-ray beam propagation direction, when scanning along the pipe axis. The results demonstrate the efficiency of the phase contrast method supplemented with computer simulation for studying such macrodefects when the defect position in the sample volume is unknown beforehand.

  1. Vessel-contrast enhancement in label-free optical coherence angiography based on phase and amplitude speckle variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, Lev A.; Demidov, Valentin; Moiseev, Alexander A.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Matveyev, Alexandr L.; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Karabut, Maria M.; Gubarkova, Ekaterina V.; Finagina, Elena S.; Sirotkina, Marina A.; Maslennikova, Anna V.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Vitkin, Alex; Zaitsev, Vladimir Y.

    2016-04-01

    Recently proposed in vivo label-free optical coherence angiography techniques based on phase and amplitude speckle variability often require additional signal pre- and post processing operations to enhance vessel-contrast. We observe here 1) contrast enhancement by optimizing the signal normalization/weighing before processing; 2) algorithm based on Kasai estimator for phase compensation between processed A-scans to reduce masking role of motion artifacts; and 3) image projection through the imaging depth for en face plotting. We demonstrate the efficiency of proposed additional algorithms as for the microcirculation imaging of hamsters cheek in vivo as for the preliminary microcirculation imaging of patients after radiotherapy. This technical framework complete in details our recent publications on M-Mode like OCT algorithms and its implementation.

  2. An efficient reconstruction algorithm for differential phase-contrast tomographic images from a limited number of views

    SciTech Connect

    Sunaguchi, Naoki; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Gupta, Rajiv; Ando, Masami

    2015-12-21

    The main focus of this paper is reconstruction of tomographic phase-contrast image from a set of projections. We propose an efficient reconstruction algorithm for differential phase-contrast computed tomography that can considerably reduce the number of projections required for reconstruction. The key result underlying this research is a projection theorem that states that the second derivative of the projection set is linearly related to the Laplacian of the tomographic image. The proposed algorithm first reconstructs the Laplacian image of the phase-shift distribution from the second-derivative of the projections using total variation regularization. The second step is to obtain the phase-shift distribution by solving a Poisson equation whose source is the Laplacian image previously reconstructed under the Dirichlet condition. We demonstrate the efficacy of this algorithm using both synthetically generated simulation data and projection data acquired experimentally at a synchrotron. The experimental phase data were acquired from a human coronary artery specimen using dark-field-imaging optics pioneered by our group. Our results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can reduce the number of projections to approximately 33% as compared with the conventional filtered backprojection method, without any detrimental effect on the image quality.

  3. Phase contrast medical imaging with compact X-ray sources at the Munich-Centre for Advance Photonics (MAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coan, P.; Gruener, F.; Glaser, C.; Schneider, T.; Bravin, A.; Reiser, M.; Habs, D.

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, the excellence cluster "Munich-Centre for Advance Photonics" (MAP) is presented. One of the aims of the project is the development of innovative X-ray-based diagnostics imaging techniques to be implemented at an ultra-compact high-energy and high-brilliance X-ray source. The basis of the project and the developments towards the clinical application of phase contrast imaging applied to mammography and cartilage studies will be presented and discussed.

  4. Monitoring Rates and Heterogeneity of High-Pressure Germination of Bacillus Spores by Phase-Contrast Microscopy of Individual Spores

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The germination of multiple individual Bacillus subtilis spores by a high pressure (HP) of 140-150 (unless noted...public release; distribution is unlimited. Monitoring Rates and Heterogeneity of High-Pressure Germination of Bacillus Spores by Phase-Contrast Microscopy...ADDRESS (ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Bacillus , spores, spore germination, high pressure, pressure

  5. Computational cell quantification in the human brain tissues based on hard x-ray phase-contrast tomograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieber, Simone E.; Bikis, Christos; Khimchenko, Anna; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Thalmann, Peter; Chicherova, Natalia; Rack, Alexander; Zdora, Marie-Christine; Zanette, Irene; Schweighauser, Gabriel; Hench, Jürgen; Müller, Bert

    2016-10-01

    Cell visualization and counting plays a crucial role in biological and medical research including the study of neurodegenerative diseases. The neuronal cell loss is typically determined to measure the extent of the disease. Its characterization is challenging because the cell density and size already differs by more than three orders of magnitude in a healthy cerebellum. Cell visualization is commonly performed by histology and fluorescence microscopy. These techniques are limited to resolve complex microstructures in the third dimension. Phase- contrast tomography has been proven to provide sufficient contrast in the three-dimensional imaging of soft tissue down to the cell level and, therefore, offers the basis for the three-dimensional segmentation. Within this context, a human cerebellum sample was embedded in paraffin and measured in local phase-contrast mode at the beamline ID19 (ESRF, Grenoble, France) and the Diamond Manchester Imaging Branchline I13-2 (Diamond Light Source, Didcot, UK). After the application of Frangi-based filtering the data showed sufficient contrast to automatically identify the Purkinje cells and to quantify their density to 177 cells per mm3 within the volume of interest. Moreover, brain layers were segmented in a region of interest based on edge detection. Subsequently performed histological analysis validated the presence of the cells, which required a mapping from the two- dimensional histological slices to the three-dimensional tomogram. The methodology can also be applied to further tissue types and shows potential for the computational tissue analysis in health and disease.

  6. Characterization of bacterial spore germination using phase-contrast and fluorescence microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingbo; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Guiwen; Yu, Jing; Setlow, Peter; Li, Yong-qing

    2011-05-01

    This protocol describes a method combining phase-contrast and fluorescence microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and optical tweezers to characterize the germination of single bacterial spores. The characterization consists of the following steps: (i) loading heat-activated dormant spores into a temperature-controlled microscope sample holder containing a germinant solution plus a nucleic acid stain; (ii) capturing a single spore with optical tweezers; (iii) simultaneously measuring phase-contrast images, Raman spectra and fluorescence images of the optically captured spore at 2- to 10-s intervals; and (iv) analyzing the acquired data for the loss of spore refractility, changes in spore-specific molecules (in particular, dipicolinic acid) and uptake of the nucleic acid stain. This information leads to precise correlations between various germination events, and takes 1-2 h to complete. The method can also be adapted to use multi-trap Raman spectroscopy or phase-contrast microscopy of spores adhered on a cover slip to simultaneously obtain germination parameters for multiple individual spores.

  7. A system for high-resolution x-ray phase-contrast imaging and tomography of biological specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poletto, Luca; Caldon, Matteo; Tondello, Giuseppe; Megighian, Aram

    2008-08-01

    A system for high-resolution X-ray diagnostics is presented. It consists of a microfocus X-ray source with spot size of 5 μm that is operated in the 10-90 kV range. The detector is a Ce:YAG crystal coupled to a CCD camera with 5μm pixel size and 1392x1040 format. The magnification of the optical coupling is chosen in the 1 to 4 range, giving a spatial resolving element of 5 to 20 μm. The sample to be acquired is mounted on a motorized rototranslation stage for the automatic acquisition of the X-tay views both for tomography and phase-contrast imaging. The sample is positioned half-way between the source and the detector. X-ray images show very high contrast due to phase effects in addition to absorption. Some images of biological specimens are presented to assess the capability of revealing very low differences in density due to the presence of phase contrast. A complete high-resolution tomography of a drosophila is presented.

  8. Three-dimensional mouse brain cytoarchitecture revealed by laboratory-based x-ray phase-contrast tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Töpperwien, Mareike; Krenkel, Martin; Vincenz, Daniel; Stöber, Franziska; Oelschlegel, Anja M.; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Salditt, Tim

    2017-02-01

    Studies of brain cytoarchitecture in mammals are routinely performed by serial sectioning of the specimen and staining of the sections. The procedure is labor-intensive and the 3D architecture can only be determined after aligning individual 2D sections, leading to a reconstructed volume with non-isotropic resolution. Propagation-based x-ray phase-contrast tomography offers a unique potential for high-resolution 3D imaging of intact biological specimen due to the high penetration depth and potential resolution. We here show that even compact laboratory CT at an optimized liquid-metal jet microfocus source combined with suitable phase-retrieval algorithms and a novel tissue preparation can provide cellular and subcellular resolution in millimeter sized samples of mouse brain. We removed water and lipids from entire mouse brains and measured the remaining dry tissue matrix in air, lowering absorption but increasing phase contrast. We present single-cell resolution images of mouse brain cytoarchitecture and show that axons can be revealed in myelinated fiber bundles. In contrast to optical 3D techniques our approach does neither require staining of cells nor tissue clearing, procedures that are increasingly difficult to apply with increasing sample and brain sizes. The approach thus opens a novel route for high-resolution high-throughput studies of brain architecture in mammals.

  9. Three-dimensional mouse brain cytoarchitecture revealed by laboratory-based x-ray phase-contrast tomography

    PubMed Central

    Töpperwien, Mareike; Krenkel, Martin; Vincenz, Daniel; Stöber, Franziska; Oelschlegel, Anja M.; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Salditt, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Studies of brain cytoarchitecture in mammals are routinely performed by serial sectioning of the specimen and staining of the sections. The procedure is labor-intensive and the 3D architecture can only be determined after aligning individual 2D sections, leading to a reconstructed volume with non-isotropic resolution. Propagation-based x-ray phase-contrast tomography offers a unique potential for high-resolution 3D imaging of intact biological specimen due to the high penetration depth and potential resolution. We here show that even compact laboratory CT at an optimized liquid-metal jet microfocus source combined with suitable phase-retrieval algorithms and a novel tissue preparation can provide cellular and subcellular resolution in millimeter sized samples of mouse brain. We removed water and lipids from entire mouse brains and measured the remaining dry tissue matrix in air, lowering absorption but increasing phase contrast. We present single-cell resolution images of mouse brain cytoarchitecture and show that axons can be revealed in myelinated fiber bundles. In contrast to optical 3D techniques our approach does neither require staining of cells nor tissue clearing, procedures that are increasingly difficult to apply with increasing sample and brain sizes. The approach thus opens a novel route for high-resolution high-throughput studies of brain architecture in mammals. PMID:28240235

  10. In-line chemical sensor deployment in a tritium plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.S.; Hope, D.T.; Torres, R.D.; Peters, B.; Tovo, L.L.

    2015-03-15

    The Savannah River Tritium Plant (TP) relies on well understood but aging sensor technology for process gas analysis. The use of alternative sensing and detection technologies for in-line and real-time analysis would aid process control and optimization. The TP upgrading follows a 2-phase projects. In the first phase, TP sensing requirements were determined by a team of process experts. Meanwhile, Savannah River National Laboratory sensor experts identified candidate technologies and related them to the TP processing requirements. The resulting road-map links the candidate technologies to actual plant needs. In the second phase an instrument demonstration station was established within a TP glove box in order to provide accurate assessments of how a candidate sensor technology would perform in a contaminated process environment.

  11. X-ray phase contrast imaging by compact Talbot-Lau interferometer with a single transmission grating.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Naoki; Fujino, Sho; Ohshima, Ken-Ichi; Harada, Jimpei; Hosoi, Takuji; Watanabe, Heiji; Shimura, Takayoshi

    2014-08-01

    We performed x-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) by Talbot-Lau interferometer using only a single transmission grating. Multiline metal targets embedded in a diamond substrate were irradiated with electrons to generate an array of x-ray lines of 1 μm width, which allowed XPCI within a 1 m source-detector distance in a configuration without a source or absorption grating. We directly resolved the self-image of the phase grating of 3 μm pitch using an x-ray image detector of 24 μm pixel size and successfully obtained absorption, differential phase, and dark-field images for 8 keV x rays.

  12. Experimental imaging research on continuous-wave terahertz in-line digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haochong; Wang, Dayong; Rong, Lu; Wang, Yunxin

    2014-09-01

    The terahertz (THz) imaging is an advanced technique on the basis of the unique characteristics of terahertz radiation. Due to its noncontact, non-invasive and high-resolution capabilities, it has already shown great application prospects in biomedical observation, sample measurement, and quality control. The continuous-wave terahertz in-line digital holography is a combination of terahertz technology and in-line digital holography of which the source is a continuous-wave terahertz laser. Over the past decade, many researchers used different terahertz sources and detectors to undertake experiments. In this paper, the pre-process of the hologram is accomplished after the holograms' recording process because of the negative pixels in the pyroelectric detector and the air vibration caused by the chopper inside the camera. To improve the quality of images, the phase retrieval algorithm is applied to eliminate the twin images. In the experiment, the pin which terahertz wave can't penetrate and the TPX slice carved letters "THz" are chosen for the samples. The amplitude and phase images of samples are obtained and the twin image and noise in the reconstructed images are suppressed. The results validate the feasibility of the terahertz in-line digital holographic imaging technique. This work also shows the terahertz in-line digital holography technique's prospects in materials science and biological samples' detection.

  13. A Universal Moiré Effect and Application in X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Houxun; Panna, Alireza; Gomella, Andrew A.; Bennett, Eric E.; Znati, Sami; Chen, Lei; Wen, Han

    2016-01-01

    A moiré pattern is created by superimposing two black-and-white or gray-scale patterns of regular geometry, such as two sets of evenly spaced lines. We observed an analogous effect between two transparent phase masks in a light beam which occurs at a distance. This phase moiré effect and the classic moiré effect are shown to be the two ends of a continuous spectrum. The phase moiré effect allows the detection of sub-resolution intensity or phase patterns with a transparent screen. When applied to x-ray imaging, it enables a polychromatic far-field interferometer (PFI) without absorption gratings. X-ray interferometry can non-invasively detect refractive index variations inside an object1–10. Current bench-top interferometers operate in the near field with limitations in sensitivity and x-ray dose efficiency2, 5, 7–10. The universal moiré effect helps overcome these limitations and obviates the need to make hard x-ray absorption gratings of sub-micron periods. PMID:27746823

  14. Matched-filtering generalized phase contrast using LCoS pico-projectors for beam-forming.

    PubMed

    Bañas, Andrew; Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2012-04-23

    We report on a new beam-forming system for generating high intensity programmable optical spikes using so-called matched-filtering Generalized Phase Contrast (mGPC) applying two consumer handheld pico-projectors. Such a system presents a low-cost alternative for optical trapping and manipulation, optical lattices and other beam-shaping applications usually implemented with high-end spatial light modulators. Portable pico-projectors based on liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) devices are used as binary phase-only spatial light modulators by carefully setting the appropriate polarization of the laser illumination. The devices are subsequently placed into the object and Fourier plane of a standard 4f-setup according to the mGPC spatial filtering configuration. Having a reconfigurable spatial phase filter, instead of a fixed and fabricated one, allows the beam shaper to adapt to different input phase patterns suited for different requirements. Despite imperfections in these consumer pico-projectors, the mGPC approach tolerates phase aberrations that would have otherwise been hard to overcome by standard phase projection.

  15. In-line powder coating of pultrusions

    SciTech Connect

    Spoo, K.; Smith, G.

    1996-11-01

    This paper discusses the pros and cons of an in-line powder coating process that applies an acrylic modified polyurethane powder to pultruded window lineals. The system applies the finish to the pultruded part downstream from the pultrusion die. Capital costs, direct costs, and mechanics of the process are discussed.

  16. Quantifying activation of perfluorocarbon-based phase-change contrast agents using simultaneous acoustic and optical observation.

    PubMed

    Li, Sinan; Lin, Shengtao; Cheng, Yi; Matsunaga, Terry O; Eckersley, Robert J; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2015-05-01

    Phase-change contrast agents in the form of nanoscale droplets can be activated into microbubbles by ultrasound, extending the contrast beyond the vasculature. This article describes simultaneous optical and acoustical measurements for quantifying the ultrasound activation of phase-change contrast agents over a range of concentrations. In experiments, decafluorobutane-based nanodroplets of different dilutions were sonicated with a high-pressure activation pulse and two low-pressure interrogation pulses immediately before and after the activation pulse. The differences between the pre- and post-interrogation signals were calculated to quantify the acoustic power scattered by the microbubbles activated over a range of droplet concentrations. Optical observation occurred simultaneously with the acoustic measurement, and the pre- and post-microscopy images were processed to generate an independent quantitative indicator of the activated microbubble concentration. Both optical and acoustic measurements revealed linear relationships to the droplet concentration at a low concentration range <10(8)/mL when measured at body temperature. Further increases in droplet concentration resulted in saturation of the acoustic interrogation signal. Compared with body temperature, room temperature was found to produce much fewer and larger bubbles after ultrasound droplet activation.

  17. Efficient phase contrast imaging in STEM using a pixelated detector. Part 1: Experimental demonstration at atomic resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Pennycook, Timothy J.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Yang, Hao; Murfitt, Matthew F.; Jones, Lewys; Nellist, Peter D.

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, we demonstrate a method to achieve high efficiency phase contrast imaging in aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with a pixelated detector. The pixelated detector is used to record the Ronchigram as a function of probe position which is then analyzed with ptychography. Ptychography has previously been used to provide super-resolution beyond the diffraction limit of the optics, alongside numerically correcting for spherical aberration. Here we rely on a hardware aberration corrector to eliminate aberrations, but use the pixelated detector data set to utilize the largest possible volume of Fourier space to create high efficiency phase contrast images. The use of ptychography to diagnose the effects of chromatic aberration is also demonstrated. In conclusion, the four dimensional dataset is used to compare different bright field detector configurations from the same scan for a sample of bilayer graphene. Our method of high efficiency ptychography produces the clearest images, while annular bright field produces almost no contrast for an in-focus aberration-corrected probe.