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Sample records for innovation performance empirical

  1. How Does the Concentration of Determinants Affect Industrial Innovation Performance? – An Empirical Analysis of 23 Chinese Industrial Sectors

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shansong; Bai, Yang; Tan, Qingmei

    2017-01-01

    The agglomeration of innovation determinants has a significant influence on the innovation performance of industries and enterprises. Such an effect has received less attention in empirical research studies. This study involves a survey of the agglomeration effect of two important innovation determinants, R&D investment and R&D personnel, and its influence on innovation performance from the perspective of the industrial level. We analysed the agglomeration features based on the panel data of 23 Chinese industrial sectors from 2001~2013. An interpretation model is proposed to examine the agglomeration effect on innovation performance for 4 industrial groups: state-owned enterprises, individual enterprises, foreign-owned enterprises and enterprises as a whole. We found two main results. First, the agglomeration of determinants has a clear positive effect on the innovation performance of all 4 groups but affects individual enterprises more significantly, followed by state-owned and foreign-owned enterprises. Second, the state-owned enterprises show a much higher concentration of R&D investment and R&D personnel than other groups. However, the induced innovation efficiency in the state-owned enterprises is worse than in the individual enterprises. The advantage of resources and capital does not translate into corresponding innovation output. The privately owned small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) show a high capability of technological innovation and mercerization but have limited innovation resources. PMID:28099452

  2. How Does the Concentration of Determinants Affect Industrial Innovation Performance? - An Empirical Analysis of 23 Chinese Industrial Sectors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shansong; Bai, Yang; Tan, Qingmei

    2017-01-01

    The agglomeration of innovation determinants has a significant influence on the innovation performance of industries and enterprises. Such an effect has received less attention in empirical research studies. This study involves a survey of the agglomeration effect of two important innovation determinants, R&D investment and R&D personnel, and its influence on innovation performance from the perspective of the industrial level. We analysed the agglomeration features based on the panel data of 23 Chinese industrial sectors from 2001~2013. An interpretation model is proposed to examine the agglomeration effect on innovation performance for 4 industrial groups: state-owned enterprises, individual enterprises, foreign-owned enterprises and enterprises as a whole. We found two main results. First, the agglomeration of determinants has a clear positive effect on the innovation performance of all 4 groups but affects individual enterprises more significantly, followed by state-owned and foreign-owned enterprises. Second, the state-owned enterprises show a much higher concentration of R&D investment and R&D personnel than other groups. However, the induced innovation efficiency in the state-owned enterprises is worse than in the individual enterprises. The advantage of resources and capital does not translate into corresponding innovation output. The privately owned small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) show a high capability of technological innovation and mercerization but have limited innovation resources.

  3. University-Industry Collaboration, Knowledge Management and Enterprise Innovation Performance: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jin; Wei, Shiyang

    2008-01-01

    This empirical study is concerned with university-industry collaboration from a knowledge management perspective. The authors introduce the concepts of "enterprise-level core elements" to define the principle status of an enterprise during university-industry collaboration, and "network embeddedness" as an indication of the…

  4. The Mediating Effect of Innovation on the Relationship between Information Technology Investments and Firm Performance: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karanja, Erastus

    2011-01-01

    The last couple of decades has witnessed a plethora of research studies addressing the cause-and-effect relationship between Information Technology (IT) investments and performance at the firm level. These studies elicited mixed results between IT investments and performance which led to various points of view from IT Scholars and Practitioners.…

  5. The Mediating Effect of Innovation on the Relationship between Information Technology Investments and Firm Performance: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karanja, Erastus

    2011-01-01

    The last couple of decades has witnessed a plethora of research studies addressing the cause-and-effect relationship between Information Technology (IT) investments and performance at the firm level. These studies elicited mixed results between IT investments and performance which led to various points of view from IT Scholars and Practitioners.…

  6. Organizational Learning, Strategic Flexibility and Business Model Innovation: An Empirical Research Based on Logistics Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yaodong; Cheng, Lin; Zhang, Jian

    Using the data of 237 Jiangsu logistics firms, this paper empirically studies the relationship among organizational learning capability, business model innovation, strategic flexibility. The results show as follows; organizational learning capability has positive impacts on business model innovation performance; strategic flexibility plays mediating roles on the relationship between organizational learning capability and business model innovation; interaction among strategic flexibility, explorative learning and exploitative learning play significant roles in radical business model innovation and incremental business model innovation.

  7. What affects the innovation performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the biotechnology industry? An empirical study on Korean biotech SMEs.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung-Nam; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2008-10-01

    Research-intensive small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) play a crucial role in the advancement of the biotechnology industry. This paper explored the impacts of internal and contextual variables on innovative activity in Korea and compared the results of this analysis with previous studies of other countries. Our analysis of 149 Korean biotech SMEs showed that the ratio of R&D expenditure to sales, the ratio of R&D employees to total employees, CEO characteristics, governmental support and international networking are positively correlated with a firm's innovation performance. The results may help decision makers to better foster SMEs in the Korean biotechnology industry.

  8. Responsible research and innovation: A manifesto for empirical ethics?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Clare

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 the Nuffield Council on Bioethics launched their report Novel Neurotechnologies: Intervening in the Brain. The report, which adopts the European Commission’s notion of Responsible Research and Innovation, puts forward a set of priorities to guide ethical research into, and the development of, new therapeutic neurotechnologies. In this paper, we critically engage with these priorities. We argue that the Nuffield Council’s priorities, and the Responsible Research and Innovation initiative as a whole, are laudable and should guide research and innovation in all areas of healthcare. However, we argue that operationalising Responsible Research and Innovation requires an in-depth understanding of the research and clinical contexts. Providing such an understanding is an important task for empirical ethics. Drawing on examples from sociology, science and technology studies, and related disciplines, we propose four avenues of social science research which can provide such an understanding. We suggest that these avenues can provide a manifesto for empirical ethics. PMID:26089743

  9. Responsible research and innovation: A manifesto for empirical ethics?

    PubMed

    Gardner, John; Williams, Clare

    2015-03-01

    In 2013 the Nuffield Council on Bioethics launched their report Novel Neurotechnologies: Intervening in the Brain. The report, which adopts the European Commission's notion of Responsible Research and Innovation, puts forward a set of priorities to guide ethical research into, and the development of, new therapeutic neurotechnologies. In this paper, we critically engage with these priorities. We argue that the Nuffield Council's priorities, and the Responsible Research and Innovation initiative as a whole, are laudable and should guide research and innovation in all areas of healthcare. However, we argue that operationalising Responsible Research and Innovation requires an in-depth understanding of the research and clinical contexts. Providing such an understanding is an important task for empirical ethics. Drawing on examples from sociology, science and technology studies, and related disciplines, we propose four avenues of social science research which can provide such an understanding. We suggest that these avenues can provide a manifesto for empirical ethics.

  10. Empirical Research on Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marker, Anthony; Huglin, Linda; Johnsen, Liz

    2006-01-01

    In 2002, James Klein published a study based on a content analysis of research articles in "PIQ" from 1997 through 2000. That study was aimed at determining how much empirical research was being reported in HPT and what the focus of that research was. Klein found that only about one third of the articles published in "PIQ" represented empirical…

  11. Empirically supported psychological treatments: the challenge of evaluating clinical innovations.

    PubMed

    Church, Dawson; Feinstein, David; Palmer-Hoffman, Julie; Stein, Phyllis K; Tranguch, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    Clear and transparent standards are required to establish whether a therapeutic method is "evidence based." Even when research demonstrates a method to be efficacious, it may not become available to patients who could benefit from it, a phenomenon known as the "translational gap." Only 30% of therapies cross the gap, and the lag between empirical validation and clinical implementation averages 17 years. To address these problems, Division 12 of the American Psychological Association published a set of standards for "empirically supported treatments" in the mid-1990s that allows the assessment of clinical modalities. This article reviews these criteria, identifies their strengths, and discusses their impact on the translational gap, using the development of a clinical innovation called Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) as a case study. Twelve specific recommendations for updates of the Division 12 criteria are made based on lessons garnered from the adoption of EFT within the clinical community. These recommendations would shorten the cycle from the research setting to clinical practice, increase transparency, incorporate recent scientific advances, and enhance the capacity for succinct comparisons among treatments.

  12. Hospital innovativeness and organizational performance: evidence from English public acute care.

    PubMed

    Salge, Torsten Oliver; Vera, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Hospitals around the world dedicate increasing attention and resources to innovation. However, surprisingly little is known about the nature of hospital innovativeness and its relationship with organizational performance. Given both the specific characteristics of the hospital sector and the rather mixed evidence from other industries, a positive innovation-performance link should not be taken for granted but requires empirical examination. The purposes of this study were to introduce a perspective of hospitals as vital generators of innovation, to unpack the concept of innovativeness, to propose a measurement model for hospital innovativeness, and to empirically investigate the innovativeness-performance relationship. We conducted a large-scale empirical study among the entire population of public hospital organizations that are part of the English National Health Service (n = 173) and analyzed the data using exploratory factor and regression analyses. Our analyses suggest a significant positive relationship between science- and practice-based innovativeness and clinical performance but provide less unambiguous support for the existence of such a relationship between innovativeness and administrative performance. In particular, we find that higher levels of innovativeness are rather associated with superior quality of care than with measurable bottom-line financial benefits. Hospitals investing in innovation-generating activities might find their efforts well rewarded in terms of tangible clinical performance improvements. However, to achieve measurable financial benefits, numerous hospitals have yet to discover and capture the commercial value of some of their innovations-a challenging task that requires a holistic innovation management and an effective network of complementary partners.

  13. The Community Innovation Process: A Conceptualization and Empirical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnew, John A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Previous research into the community innovation process has tended to emphasize either intercommunity communication or local socioeconomic and political factors. This article incorporates both sets of factors in an analysis of urban renewal, public housing, automated data processing by local municipalities, and public water fluoridation.…

  14. The Community Innovation Process: A Conceptualization and Empirical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnew, John A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Previous research into the community innovation process has tended to emphasize either intercommunity communication or local socioeconomic and political factors. This article incorporates both sets of factors in an analysis of urban renewal, public housing, automated data processing by local municipalities, and public water fluoridation.…

  15. Innovation Management and Performance Framework for Research University in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowang, Tan Owee; Long, Choi Sang; Rasli, Amran

    2015-01-01

    Institutions of Higher Learning (IHL) in Malaysia are recognized as the core of new innovation development. This paper empirically studies one of IHLs in Malaysia with the objectives to gauge the perceived important level of success factors for innovation management, and to examine the relationship between innovation management success factors…

  16. Modelling innovation performance of European regions using multi-output neural networks.

    PubMed

    Hajek, Petr; Henriques, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Regional innovation performance is an important indicator for decision-making regarding the implementation of policies intended to support innovation. However, patterns in regional innovation structures are becoming increasingly diverse, complex and nonlinear. To address these issues, this study aims to develop a model based on a multi-output neural network. Both intra- and inter-regional determinants of innovation performance are empirically investigated using data from the 4th and 5th Community Innovation Surveys of NUTS 2 (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) regions. The results suggest that specific innovation strategies must be developed based on the current state of input attributes in the region. Thus, it is possible to develop appropriate strategies and targeted interventions to improve regional innovation performance. We demonstrate that support of entrepreneurship is an effective instrument of innovation policy. We also provide empirical support that both business and government R&D activity have a sigmoidal effect, implying that the most effective R&D support should be directed to regions with below-average and average R&D activity. We further show that the multi-output neural network outperforms traditional statistical and machine learning regression models. In general, therefore, it seems that the proposed model can effectively reflect both the multiple-output nature of innovation performance and the interdependency of the output attributes.

  17. How do medical device manufacturers' websites frame the value of health innovation? An empirical ethics analysis of five Canadian innovations.

    PubMed

    Lehoux, P; Hivon, M; Williams-Jones, B; Miller, F A; Urbach, D R

    2012-02-01

    While every health care system stakeholder would seem to be concerned with obtaining the greatest value from a given technology, there is often a disconnect in the perception of value between a technology's promoters and those responsible for the ultimate decision as to whether or not to pay for it. Adopting an empirical ethics approach, this paper examines how five Canadian medical device manufacturers, via their websites, frame the corporate "value proposition" of their innovation and seek to respond to what they consider the key expectations of their customers. Our analysis shows that the manufacturers' framing strategies combine claims that relate to valuable socio-technical goals and features such as prevention, efficiency, sense of security, real-time feedback, ease of use and flexibility, all elements that likely resonate with a large spectrum of health care system stakeholders. The websites do not describe, however, how the innovations may impact health care delivery and tend to obfuscate the decisional trade-offs these innovations represent from a health care system perspective. Such framing strategies, we argue, tend to bolster physicians' and patients' expectations and provide a large set of stakeholders with powerful rhetorical tools that may influence the health policy arena. Because these strategies are difficult to counter given the paucity of evidence and its limited use in policymaking, establishing sound collective health care priorities will require solid critiques of how certain kinds of medical devices may provide a better (i.e., more valuable) response to health care needs when compared to others.

  18. Narrowing the Skills Gap for Innovation: An Empirical Study in the Hospital Sector

    PubMed Central

    Escoval, Ana

    2014-01-01

    hospital’s strategies, as well as changes in the work organization. Relevant implications for managers and policy makers can be drawn from the empirical findings of this paper, building on the current efforts from leading innovating hospitals that are already defining the future of health care. PMID:27025197

  19. Narrowing the Skills Gap for Innovation: An Empirical Study in the Hospital Sector.

    PubMed

    Dias, Casimiro; Escoval, Ana

    2014-09-23

    work organization. Relevant implications for managers and policy makers can be drawn from the empirical findings of this paper, building on the current efforts from leading innovating hospitals that are already defining the future of health care.

  20. Organisational Learning and Performance--An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jyothibabu, C.; Pradhan, Bibhuti Bhusan; Farooq, Ayesha

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the important question "how the learning entities--individual, group or organisation--are affecting organisational performance". The answer is important for promoting learning and improving performance. This empirical study in the leading power utility in India found that there is a positive relation between…

  1. Investigating the effects of ICT on innovation and performance of European hospitals: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Arvanitis, Spyros; Loukis, Euripidis N

    2016-05-01

    Hospitals are making big investments in various types of ICT, so it is important to investigate their effects on innovation and performance. This paper presents an empirical study in this direction, based on data for 743 hospitals from 18 European countries. We specified and estimated econometrically five equations: one for product innovation, one for process innovation and three equations for the three different dimensions of (ICT-enabled) hospital performance. All five equations included various ICT-related variables reflecting ICT infrastructure and a series of important ICT applications, some of them hospital-specific, and some others of general business use, and also ICT personnel (viewed as a kind of 'soft' ICT investment), while the performance equations also included the two innovation measures.

  2. Innovation in Information Technology: Theoretical and Empirical Study in SMQR Section of Export Import in Automotive Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edi Nugroho Soebandrija, Khristian; Pratama, Yogi

    2014-03-01

    This paper has the objective to provide the innovation in information technology in both theoretical and empirical study. Precisely, both aspects relate to the Shortage Mispacking Quality Report (SMQR) Claims in Export and Import in Automotive Industry. This paper discusses the major aspects of Innovation, Information Technology, Performance and Competitive Advantage. Furthermore, In the empirical study of PT. Astra Honda Motor (AHM) refers to SMQR Claims, Communication Systems, Analysis and Design Systems. Briefly both aspects of the major aspects and its empirical study are discussed in the Introduction Session. Furthermore, the more detail discussion is conducted in the related aspects in other sessions of this paper, in particular in Literature Review in term classical and updated reference of current research. The increases of SMQR claim and communication problem at PT. Astra Daihatsu Motor (PT. ADM) which still using the email cause the time of claim settlement become longer and finally it causes the rejected of SMQR claim by supplier. With presence of this problem then performed to design the integrated communication system to manage the communication process of SMQR claim between PT. ADM with supplier. The systems was analyzed and designed is expected to facilitate the claim communication process so that can be run in accordance with the procedure and fulfill the target of claim settlement time and also eliminate the difficulties and problems on the previous manual communication system with the email. The design process of the system using the approach of system development life cycle method by Kendall & Kendall (2006)which design process covers the SMQR problem communication process, judgment process by the supplier, claim process, claim payment process and claim monitoring process. After getting the appropriate system designs for managing the SMQR claim, furthermore performed the system implementation and can be seen the improvement in claim communication

  3. Innovative empirical approaches for inferring climate-warming impacts on plants in remote areas.

    PubMed

    De Frenne, Pieter

    2015-02-01

    The prediction of the effects of climate warming on plant communities across the globe has become a major focus of ecology, evolution and biodiversity conservation. However, many of the frequently used empirical approaches for inferring how warming affects vegetation have been criticized for decades. In addition, methods that require no electricity may be preferred because of constraints of active warming, e.g. in remote areas. Efforts to overcome the limitations of earlier methods are currently under development, but these approaches have yet to be systematically evaluated side by side. Here, an overview of the benefits and limitations of a selection of innovative empirical techniques to study temperature effects on plants is presented, with a focus on practicality in relatively remote areas without an electric power supply. I focus on methods for: ecosystem aboveground and belowground warming; a fuller exploitation of spatial temperature variation; and long-term monitoring of plant ecological and microevolutionary changes in response to warming. An evaluation of the described methodological set-ups in a synthetic framework along six axes (associated with the consistency of temperature differences, disturbance, costs, confounding factors, spatial scale and versatility) highlights their potential usefulness and power. Hence, further developments of new approaches to empirically assess warming effects on plants can critically stimulate progress in climate-change biology.

  4. Open Innovation at NASA: A New Business Model for Advancing Human Health and Performance Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Richard, Elizabeth E.; Keeton, Kathryn E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new business model for advancing NASA human health and performance innovations and demonstrates how open innovation shaped its development. A 45 percent research and technology development budget reduction drove formulation of a strategic plan grounded in collaboration. We describe the strategy execution, including adoption and results of open innovation initiatives, the challenges of cultural change, and the development of virtual centers and a knowledge management tool to educate and engage the workforce and promote cultural change.

  5. Innovators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEA Today, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes various innovations that have been developed to enhance education. These innovations include: helping educators help at-risk students succeed; promoting high school journalism; ensuring quality online learning experiences; developing a student performing group that uses theater to address social issues; and having students design their…

  6. Breakthrough Performance: Creating the Innovative Enterprise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Diane; Bapst, Jerry

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates a new model for innovative enterprises by reviewing the process an instruments and control systems manufacturer used to implement changes in its corporate operating philosophy. Outlines the "Quantum Model": spheres of control, influence, interest, and UNs (unknown, unpredictable, uncontrollable, uncomfortable). Discusses…

  7. Breakthrough Performance: Creating the Innovative Enterprise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Diane; Bapst, Jerry

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates a new model for innovative enterprises by reviewing the process an instruments and control systems manufacturer used to implement changes in its corporate operating philosophy. Outlines the "Quantum Model": spheres of control, influence, interest, and UNs (unknown, unpredictable, uncontrollable, uncomfortable). Discusses…

  8. Impacts of Learning Orientation on Product Innovation Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calisir, Fethi; Gumussoy, Cigdem Altin; Guzelsoy, Ezgi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aims to examine the effect of learning orientation (commitment to learning, shared vision, open-mindedness) on the product innovation performance (product innovation efficacy and efficiency) of companies in Turkey. Design/methodology/approach: A structural equation-modeling approach was applied to identify the variables…

  9. Impacts of Learning Orientation on Product Innovation Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calisir, Fethi; Gumussoy, Cigdem Altin; Guzelsoy, Ezgi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aims to examine the effect of learning orientation (commitment to learning, shared vision, open-mindedness) on the product innovation performance (product innovation efficacy and efficiency) of companies in Turkey. Design/methodology/approach: A structural equation-modeling approach was applied to identify the variables…

  10. Innovative human resource practices in U.S. hospitals: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Platonova, Elena A; Hernandez, S Robert

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary organizations increasingly recognize human resource (HR) capabilities as a source of sustained competitive advantage; about 80% of an organization's value is attributable to intangible assets, including human assets and capital. Some scholars consider effective human resource management (HRM) the single most important factor affecting organizational performance. This study examined (1) the extent to which HRM strategies were included in organizational strategic planning and (2) the association between the involvement of senior HR professionals in strategic planning and the use of innovative HR practices in U.S. hospitals employing strategic HRM theory. A survey was administered to 168 chief executive officers and HR executives from 85 hospitals during spring 2005. Binary logistic regression was conducted to determine whether HRM involvement was associated with the use of innovative HRM strategies in the hospitals. We found significant associations between HRM strategy inclusion in the strategic planning process and senior HR professionals' involvement in organizational strategic planning and in three innovative HR activities: finding talent in advance for key job openings (odds ratio [OR] = 4.61, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10-7.38), stressing organizational culture and values in the selection process (OR = 3.97, 95% CI: 1.01-3.97), and basing individual or team compensation on goal-oriented results (OR = 6.17, 95% CI: 1.17-3.37). Our data indicate that innovative HR practices were underused in some U.S. hospitals despite their potential to improve overall hospital performance. Hospitals that emphasized effective HRM were more likely to use some of the innovative HR approaches. In this article, we discuss this research and the practical implications of the findings.

  11. How Physics Teachers Approach Innovation: An Empirical Study for Reconstructing the Appropriation Path in the Case of Special Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Ambrosis, Anna; Levrini, Olivia

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns an empirical study carried out with a group of high school physics teachers engaged in the Module on relativity of a Master course on the teaching of modern physics. The study is framed within the general research issue of how to promote innovation in school via teachers' education and how to foster fruitful interactions…

  12. How Physics Teachers Approach Innovation: An Empirical Study for Reconstructing the Appropriation Path in the Case of Special Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Ambrosis, Anna; Levrini, Olivia

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns an empirical study carried out with a group of high school physics teachers engaged in the Module on relativity of a Master course on the teaching of modern physics. The study is framed within the general research issue of how to promote innovation in school via teachers' education and how to foster fruitful interactions…

  13. Predicting the performance and innovativeness of scientists and engineers.

    PubMed

    Keller, Robert T

    2012-01-01

    A study of 644 scientists and engineers from 5 corporate research and development organizations investigated hypotheses generated from an interactionist framework of 4 individual characteristics as longitudinal predictors of performance and innovativeness. An innovative orientation predicted 1-year-later and 5-years-later supervisory job performance ratings and 5-years-later counts of patents and publications. An internal locus of control predicted 5-years-later patents and publications, and self-esteem predicted performance ratings for both times and patents. Team-level nonroutine tasks moderated the individual-level relationships between an innovative orientation and performance ratings and patents such that the relationships were stronger in a nonroutine task environment. Implications for an interactionist framework of performance and innovativeness for knowledge workers are discussed.

  14. An Empirical Analysis of Human Performance and Nuclear Safety Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Joe; Larry G. Blackwood

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this analysis, which was conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), was to test whether an empirical connection exists between human performance and nuclear power plant safety culture. This was accomplished through analyzing the relationship between a measure of human performance and a plant’s Safety Conscious Work Environment (SCWE). SCWE is an important component of safety culture the NRC has developed, but it is not synonymous with it. SCWE is an environment in which employees are encouraged to raise safety concerns both to their own management and to the NRC without fear of harassment, intimidation, retaliation, or discrimination. Because the relationship between human performance and allegations is intuitively reciprocal and both relationship directions need exploration, two series of analyses were performed. First, human performance data could be indicative of safety culture, so regression analyses were performed using human performance data to predict SCWE. It also is likely that safety culture contributes to human performance issues at a plant, so a second set of regressions were performed using allegations to predict HFIS results.

  15. Organizational Learning and Innovation Performance: A Review of the Literature and the Development of a Conceptual Framework and Research Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-Lin; Ellinger, Andrea D.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework and research hypotheses based upon a thorough review of the conceptual and limited published empirical research in the organizational learning and innovation performance literatures. Hypotheses indicate the relationships between organizational learning, its antecedent, perception of…

  16. The Concept of Innovation as Perceived by Public Sector Frontline Staff--Outline of a Tripartite Empirical Model of Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegener, Charlotte; Tanggaard, Lene

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the innovation concept in two key welfare areas where the demands for innovation are substantial, namely vocational education and elder care. On the basis of ethnographic fieldwork and interviews on the collaboration between an educational institution and elder care services, the article develops a tripartite empirical…

  17. The Concept of Innovation as Perceived by Public Sector Frontline Staff--Outline of a Tripartite Empirical Model of Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegener, Charlotte; Tanggaard, Lene

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the innovation concept in two key welfare areas where the demands for innovation are substantial, namely vocational education and elder care. On the basis of ethnographic fieldwork and interviews on the collaboration between an educational institution and elder care services, the article develops a tripartite empirical…

  18. Energy performance assessment with empirical methods: application of energy signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belussi, L.; Danza, L.; Meroni, I.; Salamone, F.

    2015-03-01

    Energy efficiency and reduction of building consumption are deeply felt issues both at Italian and international level. The recent regulatory framework sets stringent limits on energy performance of buildings. Awaiting the adoption of these principles, several methods have been developed to solve the problem of energy consumption of buildings, among which the simplified energy audit is intended to identify any anomalies in the building system, to provide helpful tips for energy refurbishments and to raise end users' awareness. The Energy Signature is an operational tool of these methodologies, an evaluation method in which energy consumption is correlated with climatic variables, representing the actual energy behaviour of the building. In addition to that purpose, the Energy Signature can be used as an empirical tool to determine the real performances of the technical elements. The latter aspect is illustrated in this article.

  19. Environmental performance indicators: an empirical study of Canadian manufacturing firms.

    PubMed

    Henri, Jean-François; Journeault, Marc

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this exploratory study is to examine the importance of measurement and use of environmental performance indicators (EPIs) within manufacturing firms. Two research questions are investigated: (i) To what extent are firm characteristics associated with the importance of measurement of various categories of EPIs? (ii) To what extent are firm characteristics associated with global and specific uses of EPIs? More specifically, this paper examines four uses of EPIs (i.e. to monitor compliance, to motivate continuous improvement, to support decision making, and to provide data for external reporting) as well as four characteristics of firms, namely environmental strategy, International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 compliance, size, and ownership. This study contributes to the environmental management accounting literature by collecting and analyzing empirical evidence that provides a better understanding of the associations among firm characteristics and EPIs.

  20. A Comparative Study of the Empirical Relationship in Student Performance between Physics and Other STEM Subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Maricela

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) advocated by the National Research Council emphasize the connections among Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines. By design, NGSS is expected to replace the previous science education standards to enhance the quality of STEM education across the nation. To support this initiative, this investigation was conducted to fill a void in the research literature by developing an empirical indicator for the relationship of student performance across STEM subjects using a large-scale database from the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). In particular, an innovative approach has been taken in this study to support the canonical correlation analysis of student plausible scores between physics and other STEM subjects at different grade levels and in a cross-country context. Results from this doctoral research revealed the need to strengthen the alignment between the intended, implemented, and attained curricula to support the integration of STEM disciplines in the United States.

  1. Performance Criteria for Teachers: Design of a Model for Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Richard R.

    Educational innovation in English-as-a-second-language (ESL) should promote control of the profession by those who practice it. ESL teachers should provide the criteria by which they wish to be evaluated and by which a conscientious teacher can evaluate her own performance. The members of the Florida affiliate of Teachers of English to Speakers of…

  2. Beyond feedback control: the interactive use of performance management systems. Implications for process innovation in Italian healthcare organizations.

    PubMed

    Demartini, Chiara; Mella, Piero

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows how the use of performance management systems affects managers' perception of satisfaction, the effectiveness of the control system and the performance related to process innovation. An exploratory empirical research has been conducted on 85 managers operating in Italian healthcare organizations. Empirical findings put forward that the interactive--as opposed to diagnostic--use of performance management systems enhances managerial satisfaction with the control system and managerial perception of effectiveness. The present study then showed that it is not the control itself that is an obstacle to innovation in organizations in general (and in health organizations in particular) but the diagnostic use of the control mechanisms, which impedes the interaction between the control personnel and those subject to the control. Finally, this paper addresses managerial implications and further research avenues. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Antecedents of CIOs' Innovation Capability in Hospitals: Results of an Empirical Study.

    PubMed

    Liebe, Jan-David; Esdar, Moritz; Thye, Johannes; Hübner, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    CIOs' innovation capability is regarded as a precondition of successful HIT adoption in hospitals. Based on the data of 142 CIOs, this study aimed at identifying antecedents of perceived innovation capability. Eight features describing the status quo of the hospital IT management (e.g. use of IT governance frameworks), four features of the hospital structure (e.g. functional diversification) and four CIO characteristics (e.g. duration of employment) were tested as potential antecedents in an exploratory stepwise regression approach. Perceived innovation capability in its entirety and its three sub-dimensions served as criterion. The results show that CIOs' perceived innovation capability could be explained significantly (R2=0.34) and exclusively by facts that described the degree of formalism and structure of IT management in a hospital, e.g. intensive and formalised strategic communication, the existence of an IT strategy and the use of IT governance frameworks. Breaking down innovation capability into its constituents revealed that "innovative organisational culture" contributed to a large extent (R2=0.26) to the overall result sharing several predictors. In contrast, "intrapreneurial personality" (R2=0.11) and "openness towards users" (R2=0.18) could be predicted less well. These results hint at the relationship between working in a well-structured, formalised and strategy oriented environment and the overall feeling of being capable to promote IT innovation.

  4. How physics teachers approach innovation: An empirical study for reconstructing the appropriation path in the case of special relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ambrosis, Anna; Levrini, Olivia

    2010-07-01

    This paper concerns an empirical study carried out with a group of high school physics teachers engaged in the Module on relativity of a Master course on the teaching of modern physics. The study is framed within the general research issue of how to promote innovation in school via teachers’ education and how to foster fruitful interactions between research and school practice via the construction of networks of researchers and teachers. In the paper, the problems related to innovation are addressed by focusing on the phase during which teachers analyze an innovative teaching proposal in the perspective of designing their own paths for the class work. The proposal analyzed in this study is Taylor and Wheeler’s approach for teaching special relativity. The paper aims to show that the roots of problems known in the research literature about teachers’ difficulties in coping with innovative proposals, and usually related to the implementation process, can be found and addressed already when teachers approach the proposal and try to appropriate it. The study is heuristic and has been carried out in order to trace the “appropriation path,” followed by the group of teachers, in terms of the main steps and factors triggering the progressive evolution of teachers’ attitudes and competences.

  5. Empirical tests of performance of some M - estimators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banaś, Marek; Ligas, Marcin

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents an empirical comparison of performance of three well known M - estimators (i.e. Huber, Tukey and Hampel's M - estimators) and also some new ones. The new M - estimators were motivated by weighting functions applied in orthogonal polynomials theory, kernel density estimation as well as one derived from Wigner semicircle probability distribution. M - estimators were used to detect outlying observations in contaminated datasets. Calculations were performed using iteratively reweighted least-squares (IRLS). Since the residual variance (used in covariance matrices construction) is not a robust measure of scale the tests employed also robust measures i.e. interquartile range and normalized median absolute deviation. The methods were tested on a simple leveling network in a large number of variants showing bad and good sides of M - estimation. The new M - estimators have been equipped with theoretical tuning constants to obtain 95% efficiency with respect to the standard normal distribution. The need for data - dependent tuning constants rather than those established theoretically is also pointed out. W artykule przedstawiono empiryczne porównanie trzech dobrze znanych M - estymatorów (Huber'a, Tukey'a oraz Hampel'a) jak również kilku nowych. Nowe estymatory motywowane były funkcjami wagowymi wykorzystywanymi w teorii wielomianów ortogonalnych, estymacji jądrowej oraz jeden motywowany przez funkcję gęstości "półokręgu" Wigner'a. Każdy z estymatorów został użyty do wykrywania obserwacji odstających w skażonych zbiorach danych. Obliczenia wykonano za pomocą "reważonej" metody najmniejszych kwadratów. Ze względu na fakt, iż wariancja resztowa (używana w konstrukcji macierzy kowariancyjnych) nie jest odpornym estymatorem skali, w testach wykorzystano również odporne miary takie jak: rozstęp ćwiartkowy oraz znormalizowane odchylenie medianowe. Testy wykonano na prostej sieci niwelacyjnej w dużej ilości wariantów ukazuj

  6. Prediction of mandibular rotation: an empirical test of clinician performance.

    PubMed

    Baumrind, S; Korn, E L; West, E E

    1984-11-01

    An experiment was conducted in an attempt to determine empirically how effective a number of expert clinicians were at differentiating "backward rotators" from "forward rotators" on the basis of head-film information which might reasonably have been available to them prior to instituting treatment for the correction of Class II malocclusion. As a result of a previously reported ongoing study, pre- and posttreatment head films were available for 188 patients treated in the mixed dentition for the correction of Class II malocclusion and for 50 untreated Class II subjects. These subjects were divided into 14 groups (average size of group, 17; range, 6 to 23) solely on the basis of type of treatment and the clinician from whose clinic the records had originated. From within each group, we selected the two or three subjects who had exhibited the most extreme backward rotation and the two or three subjects who had exhibited the most extreme forward rotation of the mandible during the interval between films. The sole criterion for classification was magnitude of change in the mandibular plane angle of Downs between the pre- and posttreatment films of each patient. The resulting sample contained 32 backward-rotator subjects and 32 forward-rotator subjects. Five expert judges (mean clinical experience, 28 years) were asked to identify the backward-rotator subjects by examination of the pretreatment films. The findings may be summarized as follows: (1) No judge performed significantly better than chance. (2) There was strong evidence that the judges used a shared, though relatively ineffective, set of rules in making their discriminations between forward and backward rotators. (3) Statistical analysis of the predictive power of a set of standard cephalometric measurements which had previously been made for this set of subjects indicated that the numerical data also failed to identify potential backward rotators at a rate significantly better than chance. We infer from these

  7. Innovation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA frames innovation as critical to the protection of human health and the environment through initiatives such as sustainable practices, innovative research, prize competitions, innovation awards, partnerships, and community activities.

  8. Innovation and performance: The case of the upstream petroleum sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persaud, A. C. Jai

    This thesis investigates innovation in the upstream crude oil and natural gas sector, a strategic part of the Canadian economy and a vital industry for North American energy trade and security. Significant interest exists in understanding innovation in this sector from a private and public policy perspective. Interest in the sector has intensified recently due to concerns about world oil supply, Canada's oil sands development, and the potential that Canada may become an "energy superpower." The study examines the factors that drive companies involved in exploration, development, and production in the upstream petroleum sector to innovate and the impact of their innovation activities through major technologies on their performance. The thesis focuses on process innovation, which involves the adoption of new or significantly improved production processes, and is distinct from product innovation, which is based on the development and commercialization of a product with improved product characteristics to deliver new services to the consumer. The thesis provides a comprehensive review of the literature and develops an investigative model framework to examine the drivers of innovation and the impact of innovation on performance in the upstream petroleum sector. The research employs a survey questionnaire that was developed to obtain data and information, which was missing in the literature or not publicly available to test key relationships of innovation and performance indicators. In addition to the survey questionnaire, a number of knowledgeable experts in the industry were also interviewed. A total of 68 respondents completed the survey questionnaire, accounting for 40 percent of the firms in the industry. This percentage goes up to over 50 percent when account is taken of extremely small firms who could not fill out the survey. Further, the 68 respondents account for most of the industry revenues, production, and employment. The respondents include most of the key

  9. On the evaluation of social innovations and social enterprises: Recognizing and integrating two solitudes in the empirical knowledge base.

    PubMed

    Szijarto, Barbara; Milley, Peter; Svensson, Kate; Cousins, J Bradley

    2017-08-26

    Social innovation (SI) is billed as a new way to address complex social problems. Interest in SI has intensified rapidly in the last decade, making it an important area of practice for evaluators, but a difficult one to navigate. Learning from developments in SI and evaluation approaches applied in SI contexts is challenging because of 'fuzzy' concepts and silos of activity and knowledge within SI communities. This study presents findings from a systematic review and integration of 41 empirical studies on evaluation in SI contexts. We identify two isolated conversations: one about 'social enterprises' (SEs) and the other about non-SE 'social innovations'. These conversations diverge in key areas, including engagement with evaluation scholarship, and in the reported purposes, approaches and use of evaluation. We identified striking differences with respect to degree of interest in collaborative approaches and facilitation of evaluation use. The findings speak to trends and debates in our field, for example how evaluation might reconcile divergent information needs in multilevel, cross-sectoral collaborations and respond to fluidity and change in innovative settings. Implications for practitioners and commissioners of evaluation include how evaluation is used in different contexts and the voice of evaluators (and the evaluation profession) in these conversations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An Empirical Investigation of Smart Board Innovations in Teaching in UAE University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Qirim, Nabeel

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates Teaching Faculty's (TF) adoption and usage of the Interactive or Smart White Board Technology (SB) in UAE University (UAEU). The developed theoretical framework is based on the technological innovation theories and is made of different socio-technical factors. Using survey research targeting UAEU's TF, the research…

  11. Improving Mathematics Teacher Education in Germany: Empirical Results from a Longitudinal Evaluation of Innovative Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchholtz, Nils; Kaiser, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Innovative programs for restructuring the entry phase of mathematics teacher education programs have been implemented at various German universities within the last few years. This article reports about the design and the results of a longitudinal evaluation study of the effectiveness of two of these programs aiming to improve mathematics teacher…

  12. Improving Mathematics Teacher Education in Germany: Empirical Results from a Longitudinal Evaluation of Innovative Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchholtz, Nils; Kaiser, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Innovative programs for restructuring the entry phase of mathematics teacher education programs have been implemented at various German universities within the last few years. This article reports about the design and the results of a longitudinal evaluation study of the effectiveness of two of these programs aiming to improve mathematics teacher…

  13. An Empirical Investigation of Smart Board Innovations in Teaching in UAE University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Qirim, Nabeel

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates Teaching Faculty's (TF) adoption and usage of the Interactive or Smart White Board Technology (SB) in UAE University (UAEU). The developed theoretical framework is based on the technological innovation theories and is made of different socio-technical factors. Using survey research targeting UAEU's TF, the research…

  14. New Trends in Adult Education: Concepts and Recent Empirical Achievements. Series C: Innovations No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janne, Henri; Roggemans, Marie Laure

    The impact of the principles of lifelong education on the adult education system is the subject of this study. Efforts to co-ordinate post-school activities in several departments are discussed. The study traces the predominant patterns in the empirical development of adult education, both professional and nonprofessional, and shows the…

  15. Innovative Payment Mechanisms in Maryland Hospitals: An Empirical Analysis of Readmissions under Total Patient Revenue

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Karoline; Perman, Chad; Chen, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Background The state of Maryland implemented innovative budgeting of outpatient and inpatient services in eight rural hospitals under the Total Patient Revenue (TPR) system in July, 2010. Methods This paper uses data on Maryland discharges from the 2009-2011 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Inpatient Databases (SID). Individual inpatient discharges from eight treatment hospitals and three rural control hospitals (n=374,353) are analyzed. To get robust estimates and control for trends in the state, we also compare treatment hospitals to all hospitals in Maryland that report readmissions (n=1,997,164). Linear probability models using the difference-in-differences approach with hospital fixed effects are estimated to determine the effect of the innovative payment mechanisms on hospital readmissions, controlling for patient demographics and characteristics. Results Difference-in-differences estimates show that after implementation of TPR in the treatment hospitals, there were no statistically significant changes in the predicted probability of readmissions. Conclusions Early evidence from the TPR program shows that readmissions were not affected in the 18 months after implementation. Implications : As the health care system innovates, it is important to evaluate the success of these innovations. One of the goals of TPR was to lower readmission rates, however these rates did not show consistent downward trends after implementation. Our results suggest that payment innovations that provide financial incentives to ensure patients receive care in the most appropriate setting while maintaining quality of care may not have immediate effects on commonly used measures of hospital quality, particularly for rural hospitals that may lack coordinated care delivery infrastructure. PMID:25264518

  16. Effects of office innovation on office workers' health and performance.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Eline M; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith K

    2009-09-01

    The implementation of an innovative office concept (e.g. open-plan, flexible workplaces and a paperless office concept) on health and productivity among office workers was evaluated with questionnaires of 138 workers at baseline and 6 and 15 months afterwards. Work-related fatigue, general health, change in health status, upper extremity complaints and perceived productivity were outcomes. No short-term significant differences were found in most outcomes except for quantity of performed work (decrease from 96% to 92%, p = 0.008). In the long-term, no significant differences were found in most outcomes except for an increase in general health (p = 0.011) and a decrease in prevalences of upper extremity complaints (33% to 22%, p = 0.021). Perceived productivity increased significantly 15 months after the implementation. It is concluded that innovative office concepts had no or limited effects on work-related fatigue, health changes and productivity but some positive effects on workers' general health and upper extremity complaints in the long term. Office innovation is being administered often but up to now seldom evaluated on workers' health and productivity.

  17. The performance frontier: innovating for a sustainable strategy.

    PubMed

    Eccles, Robert G; Serafeim, George

    2013-05-01

    A mishmash of sustainability tactics does not add up to a sustainable strategy. Too often, companies launch sustainability programs with the hope that they'll be financially rewarded for doing good, even when those programs aren't relevant to their strategy and operations. They fail to understand the trade-offs between financial performance and performance on environmental, social, and governance (ESG) issues. Improving one typically comes at a cost to the other. But it doesn't have to be this way. It's possible to simultaneously boost both financial and ESG performance-if you focus strategically on issues that are the most "material" to shareholder value, and you develop major innovations in products, processes, and business models that prioritize those concerns. Maps being developed by the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board, which rank the materiality of 43 issues for 88 industries, can provide valuable guidance. And broad initiatives undertaken by three companies-Natura, Dow Chemical, and CLP Group-demonstrate the kind of innovations that will push performance into new territory. Communicating the benefits to stakeholders is also critical, which is why integrated reports, which combine financial and ESG reporting, are now gaining in popularity.

  18. Improving Institutional Performance through IT-Enabled Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, William H.

    2005-01-01

    In its report "Innovate America," the National Innovation Initiative (NII) calls for an "innovation infrastructure" as the foundation for the nation's future productivity and competitiveness. The report notes: "Innovation generates the productivity that economists estimate has accounted for half of U.S. GDP growth over the past 50 years... It's…

  19. A summary of an empirical study on innovation and discussion of implications

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, D.H.

    1983-08-01

    The results of a study of commercial idea generation and exploitation by MIT faculty will be presented. This study has attracted considerable attention from those who are interested in replicating the ''MIT - Route 128 relationship'' or the ''Stanford Silicon Valley relationship'' in other geographic areas. Some thoughts on such macro-level issues will be presented as will the implications for managements that wish to foster innovation within their companies.

  20. An Empirical Study of a Solo Performance Assessment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model of solo music performance assessment. Specifically, this study investigates the influence of technique and musical expression on perceptions of overall performance quality. The Aural Musical Performance Quality (AMPQ) measure was created to measure overall performance quality, technique,…

  1. An Empirical Study of a Solo Performance Assessment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model of solo music performance assessment. Specifically, this study investigates the influence of technique and musical expression on perceptions of overall performance quality. The Aural Musical Performance Quality (AMPQ) measure was created to measure overall performance quality, technique,…

  2. Empirical performance of the multivariate normal universal portfolio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Choon Peng; Pang, Sook Theng

    2013-09-01

    Universal portfolios generated by the multivariate normal distribution are studied with emphasis on the case where variables are dependent, namely, the covariance matrix is not diagonal. The moving-order multivariate normal universal portfolio requires very long implementation time and large computer memory in its implementation. With the objective of reducing memory and implementation time, the finite-order universal portfolio is introduced. Some stock-price data sets are selected from the local stock exchange and the finite-order universal portfolio is run on the data sets, for small finite order. Empirically, it is shown that the portfolio can outperform the moving-order Dirichlet universal portfolio of Cover and Ordentlich[2] for certain parameters in the selected data sets.

  3. Psychological Determinants of University Students' Academic Performance: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebka, Bartosz

    2014-01-01

    This study utilises an integrated conceptual model of academic performance which captures a series of psychological factors: cognitive style; self-theories such as self-esteem and self-efficacy; achievement goals such as mastery, performance, performance avoidance and work avoidance; study-processing strategies such as deep and surface learning;…

  4. Psychological Determinants of University Students' Academic Performance: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebka, Bartosz

    2014-01-01

    This study utilises an integrated conceptual model of academic performance which captures a series of psychological factors: cognitive style; self-theories such as self-esteem and self-efficacy; achievement goals such as mastery, performance, performance avoidance and work avoidance; study-processing strategies such as deep and surface learning;…

  5. The Empirical Testing of a Musical Performance Assessment Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model of aurally perceived performer-controlled musical factors that influence assessments of performance quality. Previous research studies on musical performance constructs, musical achievement, musical expression, and scale construction were examined to identify the factors that influence…

  6. The Empirical Testing of a Musical Performance Assessment Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model of aurally perceived performer-controlled musical factors that influence assessments of performance quality. Previous research studies on musical performance constructs, musical achievement, musical expression, and scale construction were examined to identify the factors that influence…

  7. An empirical performance analysis of commodity memories in commodity servers

    SciTech Connect

    Kerbyson, D. J.; Lang, M. K.; Patino, G.

    2004-01-01

    This work details a performance study of six different commodity memories in two commodity server nodes on a number of microbenchmarks, that measure low-level performance characteristics, as well as on two applications representative of the ASCI workload. Thc memories vary both in terms of performance, including latency and bandwidths, and also in terms of their physical properties and manufacturer. Two server nodes were used; one Itanium-II Madison based system, and one Xeon based system. All the memories examined can be used within both processing nodes. This allows the performance of the memories to be directly examined while keeping all other factors within a processing node the same (processor, motherboard, operating system etc.). The results of this study show that there can be a significant difference in application performance from the different memories - by as much as 20%. Thus, by choosing the most appropriate memory for a processing node at a minimal cost differential, significant improved performance may be achievable.

  8. An empirical hierarchical memory model based on hardware performance counters

    SciTech Connect

    Lubeck, O.M.; Luo, Y.; Wasserman, H.; Bassetti, F.

    1998-09-01

    In this paper, the authors characterize application performance with a memory-centric view. Using a simple strategy and performance data measured by on-chip hardware performance counters, they model the performance of a simple memory hierarchy and infer the contribution of each level in the memory system to an application`s overall cycles per instruction (cpi). They account for the overlap of processor execution with memory accesses--a key parameter not directly measurable on most systems. They infer the separate contributions of three major architecture features in the memory subsystem of the Origin 2000: cache size, outstanding loads-under-miss, and memory latency.

  9. Diamond MOSFET: An innovative layout to improve performance of ICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimenez, Salvador Pinillos

    2010-12-01

    A new planar MOSFET structure is proposed through a simple layout change, which modifies the gate geometric shape from rectangular to hexagonal in order to use the "corner effect concept" to enhance the resultant longitudinal (parallel) electric field, drift velocity of mobile carriers in the channel, drain current, transconductance, Early voltage and on-resistance in comparison to the equivalent conventional parameters. This paper is conceptual and performs a comparative analyzes between conventional and Diamond Partially-Depleted SOI nMOSFETs by 3D numerical simulations to understand the advantages and disadvantages of this innovative device compared to the conventional counterpart, keeping the same gate area, geometric factor and bias conditions. A simple analytical model for the drain current was proposed and tested for the Diamond transistor. Since we found better results of the Diamond SOI nMOSFETs we believe that, this innovative layout can be a new alternative for analog and digital integrated circuit applications for whatever area it may be needed, without any extra burden to the current technology. This layout approach can also be applied for any planar or 3D transistors technologies.

  10. Group Performance in Information Systems Project Groups: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahli, Bouchaib; Buyukkurt, Meral Demirbag

    2005-01-01

    The importance of teamwork in Information Systems Development (ISD) practice and education has been acknowledged but not studied extensively to date. This paper tests a model of how groups participating in ISD projects perform and examines the relationships between some antecedents of this performance based on group research theory well…

  11. Group Performance in Information Systems Project Groups: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahli, Bouchaib; Buyukkurt, Meral Demirbag

    2005-01-01

    The importance of teamwork in Information Systems Development (ISD) practice and education has been acknowledged but not studied extensively to date. This paper tests a model of how groups participating in ISD projects perform and examines the relationships between some antecedents of this performance based on group research theory well…

  12. Empirical Study of Training and Performance in the Marathon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slovic, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Similar systematic relationships exist between personal characteristics, training, and performance on the marathon, regardless of whether they derive from differences among individuals participating in the same run or from differences within the same person in two separate marathons. (Author)

  13. Empirical Study of Training and Performance in the Marathon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slovic, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Similar systematic relationships exist between personal characteristics, training, and performance on the marathon, regardless of whether they derive from differences among individuals participating in the same run or from differences within the same person in two separate marathons. (Author)

  14. Innovative role of statistics in acid rain performance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Warren-Hicks, W.; Etchison, T.; Lieberman, E.R.

    1995-12-31

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) of 1990 mandated that affected electric utilities reduce sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions, the primary precursors of acidic deposition, and included an innovative market-based SO{sub 2} regulatory program. A central element of the Acid Rain Program is the requirement that affected utility units install CEMS. This paper describes how the Acid Rain Regulations incorporated statistical procedures in the performance tests for continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) and how statistical analysis was used to assess the appropriateness, stringency, and potential impact of various performance tests and standards that were considered for inclusion in the Acid Rain Regulations. Described here is the statistical analysis that was used to set a relative accuracy standard, establish the calculation procedures for filling in missing data when a monitor malfunctions, and evaluate the performance tests applied to petitions for alternative monitoring systems. The paper concludes that the statistical evaluations of proposed provisions of the Acid Rain Regulations resulted in the adoption of performance tests and standards that were scientifically substantiated, workable, and effective.

  15. An Empirical Investigation of MPA Student Performance and Admissions Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragothaman, Srinivasan; Carpenter, Jon; Davies, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The quality of a Master of Professional Accountancy (MPA) program, similar to other undergraduate and graduate programs in business and other disciplines, is typically directly related to the quality of its students. While there is a considerable published scholarly work on MBA student performance, there is very little research to predict student…

  16. An Empirical Investigation of MPA Student Performance and Admissions Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragothaman, Srinivasan; Carpenter, Jon; Davies, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The quality of a Master of Professional Accountancy (MPA) program, similar to other undergraduate and graduate programs in business and other disciplines, is typically directly related to the quality of its students. While there is a considerable published scholarly work on MBA student performance, there is very little research to predict student…

  17. Diffusing Supply Chain Innovations at Hewlett-Packard Company: Applications of Performance Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargille, Brian; Branvold, Dwight

    2000-01-01

    Explains how Hewlett-Packard creates supply chain management innovations and effectively diffuses new technologies. Outlines how performance technologists help accelerate the diffusion and adoption of innovations by modifying innovations, define the client adoption path, create resources to lead clients through adoption, and improve the diffusion…

  18. Ambidextrous Leadership and Employees' Self-reported Innovative Performance: The Role of Exploration and Exploitation Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacher, Hannes; Robinson, Alecia J.; Rosing, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    The ambidexterity theory of leadership for innovation proposes that leaders' opening and closing behaviors positively predict employees' exploration and exploitation behaviors, respectively. The interaction of exploration and exploitation behaviors, in turn, is assumed to influence employee innovative performance, such that innovative performance…

  19. Diffusing Supply Chain Innovations at Hewlett-Packard Company: Applications of Performance Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargille, Brian; Branvold, Dwight

    2000-01-01

    Explains how Hewlett-Packard creates supply chain management innovations and effectively diffuses new technologies. Outlines how performance technologists help accelerate the diffusion and adoption of innovations by modifying innovations, define the client adoption path, create resources to lead clients through adoption, and improve the diffusion…

  20. Ambidextrous Leadership and Employees' Self-reported Innovative Performance: The Role of Exploration and Exploitation Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacher, Hannes; Robinson, Alecia J.; Rosing, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    The ambidexterity theory of leadership for innovation proposes that leaders' opening and closing behaviors positively predict employees' exploration and exploitation behaviors, respectively. The interaction of exploration and exploitation behaviors, in turn, is assumed to influence employee innovative performance, such that innovative performance…

  1. Does Missing Classes Decelerate Student Exam Performance Progress? Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tin-Chun

    2014-01-01

    A total of 389 business students in undergraduate introductory microeconomics classes in spring 2007, 2009, and 2011, and fall 2012 participated in an exam performance progress study. Empirical evidence suggested that missing classes decelerates and hampers high-performing students' exam performance progress. Nevertheless, the evidence does…

  2. Does Missing Classes Decelerate Student Exam Performance Progress? Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tin-Chun

    2014-01-01

    A total of 389 business students in undergraduate introductory microeconomics classes in spring 2007, 2009, and 2011, and fall 2012 participated in an exam performance progress study. Empirical evidence suggested that missing classes decelerates and hampers high-performing students' exam performance progress. Nevertheless, the evidence does…

  3. The Relationship Between of Manufacturing Flexibility, Innovation Capability, and Operational Performance in Indonesian Manufacturing SMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwanto, U. S.; Raihan

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between manufacturing flexibility competence and operational performance with technological innovation capability as mediator variables. A survey method was applied to collect data pertaining to the variables being investigated. The findings indicated that manufacturing flexibility competence is positively associated with technological innovation capability and operational performance. The findings also suggested that technological innovation capability types mediated positively to the operational performance implication of manufacturing flexibility competence. This implies that manufacturing organizations pursuing manufacturing flexibility competence need to develop technological innovation capability in obtaining a high operational performance.

  4. Innovative Teaching: An Empirical Study of Computer-Aided Instruction in Quantitative Business Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonul, Fusun F.; Solano, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate business undergraduate mathematics-based courses in a blended environment of online assignments and exams and offline lectures, and report the impact on academic performance of factors such as classroom attendance, web-based course supplements, and homework. We present results from both ordinary least squares and fixed effects,…

  5. Innovative Teaching: An Empirical Study of Computer-Aided Instruction in Quantitative Business Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonul, Fusun F.; Solano, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate business undergraduate mathematics-based courses in a blended environment of online assignments and exams and offline lectures, and report the impact on academic performance of factors such as classroom attendance, web-based course supplements, and homework. We present results from both ordinary least squares and fixed effects,…

  6. Empirical performance of the spectral independent morphological adaptive classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Joel B.; Montgomery, Christine T.; Sanderson, Richard B.; McCalmont, John F.

    2008-04-01

    Effective missile warning and countermeasures continue to be an unfulfilled goal for the Air Force including the wider military and civilian aerospace community. To make the necessary detection and jamming timeframes dictated by today's proliferated missiles and near-term upgraded threats, sensors with required sensitivity, field of regard, and spatial resolution are being pursued in conjunction with advanced processing techniques allowing for detection and discrimination beyond 10 km. The greatest driver of any missile warning system is detection and correct declaration, in which all targets need to be detected with a high confidence and with very few false alarms. Generally, imaging sensors are limited in their detection capability by the presence of heavy background clutter, sun glints, and inherent sensor noise. Many threat environments include false alarm sources like burning fuels, flares, exploding ordinance, and industrial emitters. Spectral discrimination has been shown to be one of the most effective methods of improving the performance of typical missile warning sensors, particularly for heavy clutter situations. Its utility has been demonstrated in the field and on-board multiple aircraft. Utilization of the background and clutter spectral content, coupled with additional spatial and temporal filtering techniques, have yielded robust adaptive real-time algorithms to increase signal-to-clutter ratios against point targets, and thereby to increase detection range. The algorithm outlined is the result of continued work with reported results against visible missile tactical data. The results are summarized and compared in terms of computational cost expected to be implemented on a real-time field-programmable gate array (FPGA) processor.

  7. Performance-Based Service Quality Model: An Empirical Study on Japanese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to develop and empirically test the performance-based higher education service quality model. Design/methodology/approach: The study develops 67-item instrument for measuring performance-based service quality with a particular focus on the higher education sector. Scale reliability is confirmed using the Cronbach's alpha.…

  8. Performance-Based Service Quality Model: An Empirical Study on Japanese Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to develop and empirically test the performance-based higher education service quality model. Design/methodology/approach: The study develops 67-item instrument for measuring performance-based service quality with a particular focus on the higher education sector. Scale reliability is confirmed using the Cronbach's alpha.…

  9. Improvement of hospital performance through innovation: toward the value of hospital care.

    PubMed

    Dias, Casimiro; Escoval, Ana

    2013-01-01

    The perspective of innovation as the strategic lever of organizational performance has been widespread in the hospital sector. While public value of innovation can be significant, it is not evident that innovation always ends up in higher levels of performance. Within this context, the purpose of the article was to critically analyze the relationship between innovation and performance, taking into account the specificities of the hospital sector. This article pulls together primary data on organizational flexibility, innovation, and performance from 95 hospitals in Portugal, collected through a survey, data from interviews to hospital administration boards, and a panel of 15 experts. The diversity of data sources allowed for triangulation. The article uses mixed methods to explore the relationship between innovation and performance in the hospital sector in Portugal. The relationship between innovation and performance is analyzed through cluster analysis, supplemented with content analysis of interviews and the technical nominal group. The main findings reveal that the cluster of efficient innovators has twice the level of performance than other clusters. Organizational flexibility and external cooperation are the 2 major factors explaining these differences. The article identifies various organizational strategies to use innovation in order to enhance hospital performance. Overall, it proposes the alignment of perspectives of different stakeholders on the value proposition of hospital services, the embeddedness of information loops, and continuous adjustments toward high-value services.

  10. Improvement of hospital performance through innovation: toward the value of hospital care.

    PubMed

    Dias, Casimiro; Escoval, Ana

    2013-01-01

    The perspective of innovation as the strategic lever of organizational performance has been widespread in the hospital sector. While public value of innovation can be significant, it is not evident that innovation always ends up in higher levels of performance. Within this context, the purpose of the article was to critically analyze the relationship between innovation and performance,taking into account the specificities of the hospital sector. This article pulls together primary data on organizational flexibility, innovation, and performance from 95 hospitals in Portugal,collected through a survey, data from interviews to hospital administration boards, and a panel of 15 experts. The diversity of data sources allowed for triangulation. The article uses mixed methods to explore the relationship between innovation and performance in the hospital sector in Portugal. The relationship between innovation and performance is analyzed through cluster analysis, supplemented with content analysis of interviews and the technical nominal group. The main findings reveal that the cluster of efficient innovators has twice the level of performance than other clusters. Organizational flexibility and external cooperation are the 2 major factors explaining these differences. The article identifies various organizational strategies to use innovation in order to enhance hospital performance. Overall, it proposes the alignment of perspectives of different stakeholders on the value proposition of hospital services, the embeddedness of information loops, and continuous adjustments toward high-value services.

  11. Performance of Lempel-Ziv compressors with deferred innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, Martin

    1989-01-01

    The noiseless data-compression algorithms introduced by Lempel and Ziv (LZ) parse an input data string into successive substrings each consisting of two parts: The citation, which is the longest prefix that has appeared earlier in the input, and the innovation, which is the symbol immediately following the citation. In extremal versions of the LZ algorithm the citation may have begun anywhere in the input; in incremental versions it must have begun at a previous parse position. Originally the citation and the innovation were encoded, either individually or jointly, into an output word to be transmitted or stored. Subsequently, it was speculated that the cost of this encoding may be excessively high because the innovation contributes roughly 1g(A) bits, where A is the size of the input alphabet, regardless of the compressibility of the source. To remedy this excess, it was suggested to store the parsed substring as usual, but encoding for output only the citation, leaving the innovation to be encoded as the first symbol of the next substring. Being thus included in the next substring, the innovation can participate in whatever compression that substring enjoys. This strategy is called deferred innovation. It is exemplified in the algorithm described by Welch and implemented in the C program compress that has widely displaced adaptive Huffman coding (compact) as a UNIX system utility. The excessive expansion is explained, an implicit warning is given against using the deferred innovation compressors on nearly incompressible data.

  12. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America field testing that shed light on how real-world water usage affects energy saving estimates of high-efficiency water heating systems.

  13. The Mediating Effect of Innovation between Total Quality Management (TQM) and Business Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Ang Wei; Fauzi Ahmad, Mohd; Hisyamudin Muhd Nor, Nik

    2016-11-01

    Both TQM and Innovation are the competitive key factors that intensely embedded into organizational products, service and process. In order to achieve higher business performance, organizations are needed to adopt both quality and innovation. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to identify the relationship between TQM and business performance with a mediator's effect of Innovation. After detailed review the extensive literature, a new TQM model is presented. The proposed model integrates the TQM practices and different type of innovation attempt to develop a theoretical knowledge to help academician and manufacturer to understand the relationship that design quality in product and service and engaging innovation in the activities. To this end, the SEM-PLS (Structural Equation Modelling - Partial Least Squares Structural) is used to identify and evaluate the relationship among TQM, Innovation and business performance in establishing a new TQM model.

  14. A Factor Analysis on Teamwork Performance: An Empirical Study of Inter-Instituted Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Mingchang; Chen, Ya-Hsueh

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: Inter-instituted collaboration has attracted broad attention for educational quality improvement in the last decade. The team performance of these innovative team projects received foremost attention, particularly with knowledge-sharing, emotional intelligence, and team conflicts. Purpose of Study: The purpose of the study was…

  15. Exploring the Best HRM Practices-Performance Relationship: An Empirical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theriou, George N.; Chatzoglou, Prodromos D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to empirically examine the linkages between best human resource (HRM) practices, knowledge management, organisational learning, organisational capabilities and organisational performance. The proposed framework and findings intend to add to the understanding of the specific processes that mediate between best HRM practices…

  16. An Evaluation of Empirical Bayes' Estimation of Value- Added Teacher Performance Measures. Working Paper #31. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Maxfield, Michelle; Reckase, Mark D.; Thompson, Paul; Wooldridge, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Empirical Bayes' (EB) estimation is a widely used procedure to calculate teacher value-added. It is primarily viewed as a way to make imprecise estimates more reliable. In this paper we review the theory of EB estimation and use simulated data to study its ability to properly rank teachers. We compare the performance of EB estimators with that of…

  17. Exploring the Best HRM Practices-Performance Relationship: An Empirical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theriou, George N.; Chatzoglou, Prodromos D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to empirically examine the linkages between best human resource (HRM) practices, knowledge management, organisational learning, organisational capabilities and organisational performance. The proposed framework and findings intend to add to the understanding of the specific processes that mediate between best HRM practices…

  18. An Empirical Test of Five Prominent Explanations for the Black-White Academic Performance Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates, Gary L. St. C.

    2009-01-01

    The viability of five prominent explanations for the black-white performance gap ("academic engagement," "cultural capital," "social capital," "school quality" and "biased treatment") is examined using NELS data and a LISREL model that adjusts for clustering of students within schools. Empirical models have typically assessed these factors…

  19. The relationship between corporate environmental performance and environmental disclosure: an empirical study in China.

    PubMed

    Meng, X H; Zeng, S X; Shi, Jonathan J; Qi, G Y; Zhang, Z B

    2014-12-01

    Based on a content analysis of 533 Chinese listed companies, this study examines how corporate environmental performance affects not only the level of detail of a company's environmental disclosures, but also what information is disclosed. The results show that (1) both poor and good performers have more disclosure than the median (i.e., "mixed") performers, which provides empirical evidence to support a nonlinear relationship between corporate environmental performance and environmental disclosure; (2) poor performers disclose more soft information on environmental performance than good performers, and good performers disclose more solid information; and (3) although poor performers increase disclosure after being exposed as environmental violators, they avoid disclosing negative environmental information, such as the violation and the associated penalties. This study provides additional evidence for a nonlinear relationship between environmental performance and disclosure in emerging markets, and suggests environmental disclosure may not be a valid signal to differentiate good performers from poor performers in contemporary China.

  20. Theoretical and testing performance of an innovative indirect evaporative chiller

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yi; Xie, Xiaoyun

    2010-12-15

    An indirect evaporative chiller is a device used to produce chilled water at a temperature between the wet bulb temperature and dew point of the outdoor air, which can be used in building HVAC systems. This article presents a theoretical analysis and practical performance of an innovative indirect evaporative chiller. First, the process of the indirect evaporative chiller is introduced; then, the matching characteristics of the process are presented and analyzed. It can be shown that the process that produces cold water by using dry air is a nearly-reversible process, so the ideal produced chilled water temperature of the indirect evaporative chiller can be set close to the dew point temperature of the chiller's inlet air. After the indirect evaporative chiller was designed, simulations were done to analyze the output water temperature, the cooling efficiency relative to the inlet dew point temperature, and the COP that the chiller can performance. The first installation of the indirect evaporative chiller of this kind has been run for 5 years in a building in the city of Shihezi. The tested output water temperature of the chiller is around 14-20 C, which is just in between of the outdoor wet bulb temperature and dew point. The tested COP{sub r,s} of the developed indirect evaporative chiller reaches 9.1. Compared with ordinary air conditioning systems, the indirect evaporative chiller can save more than 40% in energy consumption due to the fact that the only energy consumed is from pumps and fans. An added bonus is that the indirect evaporative chiller uses no CFCs that pollute to the aerosphere. The tested internal parameters, such as the water-air flow rate ratio and heat transfer area for each heat transfer process inside the chiller, were analyzed and compared with designed values. The tested indoor air conditions, with a room temperature of 23-27 C and relative humidity of 50-70%, proved that the developed practical indirect evaporative chiller successfully

  1. The Wreading Experiment: Performative Strategies for Teaching Women's Innovative Poetries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Emily

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an upper-level, special topics English course she designed as a "workshop" in "wreading" contemporary women's innovative poetries. She was inspired to "wreading" by Charles Bernstein's essay "Creative Wreading: A Primer," in which he offers interactive and reactive…

  2. Empirical performance of interpolation techniques in risk-neutral density (RND) estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahaludin, H.; Abdullah, M. H.

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the empirical performance of interpolation techniques in risk-neutral density (RND) estimation. Firstly, the empirical performance is evaluated by using statistical analysis based on the implied mean and the implied variance of RND. Secondly, the interpolation performance is measured based on pricing error. We propose using the leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) pricing error for interpolation selection purposes. The statistical analyses indicate that there are statistical differences between the interpolation techniques:second-order polynomial, fourth-order polynomial and smoothing spline. The results of LOOCV pricing error shows that interpolation by using fourth-order polynomial provides the best fitting to option prices in which it has the lowest value error.

  3. Science-based and practice-based innovativeness and performance of substance abuse treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Preethy; Yu, Fang; Apenteng, Bettye

    2014-01-01

    The fields of mental health and substance abuse treatment lag significantly behind other health care organizational fields in the adoption, implementation, and dissemination of evidence-based practices. Innovative organizational practices may be science based or practice based. The implementation of innovative practices requires considerable organizational resources. Whether this organizational investment actually pays off in terms of superior performance is unclear. This issue in the context of substance abuse treatment facilities (SATFs) in the United States is examined in this study. The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of the use of innovative organizational practices, both science based (psychosocial interventions) and practice based, on the organizational performance of SATFs. The study uses cross-sectional data on 13,513 SATFs in the United States, obtained from the National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services 2009 database. Multinomial logistic regression models find a positive association between the use of science-based innovations and practice-based innovations and organizational performance, that is, the provision of comprehensive (core and wraparound) services. SATFs that were located in metropolitan areas, those accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities and Joint Commission, that had a mixed (Substance Abuse and Mental Health) focus or were recipients of earmark funds also had higher organizational performance. The results signify that substance abuse facilities that are high innovators in terms of implementing science based and practice-based innovative practices have higher organizational performance. Organizations that have institutionalized these practices have invested considerable resources in innovation. The shown higher organizational performance provides justification for the organizational investment in innovation.

  4. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – HPXML: A Standardized Home Performance Data Sharing System

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This Top Innovation profile describes the Standard for Home Performance-Related Data Transfer (known as HPXML), developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, which facilitates smooth communication between program tracking systems and energy upgrade analysis software,

  5. TESTING AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN INNOVATIVE INTERNAL PIPE SEALING SYSTEM FOR WASTEWATER MAIN REHABILITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many utilities are seeking emerging and innovative rehabilitation technologies to extend the service life of their infrastructure systems. This report describes the testing and performance evaluation of an internal pipe sealing system, which provides a permanent physical seal fo...

  6. TESTING AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN INNOVATIVE INTERNAL PIPE SEALING SYSTEM FOR WASTEWATER MAIN REHABILITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many utilities are seeking emerging and innovative rehabilitation technologies to extend the service life of their infrastructure systems. This report describes the testing and performance evaluation of an internal pipe sealing system, which provides a permanent physical seal fo...

  7. Empirical Performance Model-Driven Data Layout Optimization and Library Call Selection for Tensor Contraction Expressions

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Qingda; Gao, Xiaoyang; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Baumgartner, Gerald; Ramanujam, J.; Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy

    2012-03-01

    Empirical optimizers like ATLAS have been very effective in optimizing computational kernels in libraries. The best choice of parameters such as tile size and degree of loop unrolling is determined by executing different versions of the computation. In contrast, optimizing compilers use a model-driven approach to program transformation. While the model-driven approach of optimizing compilers is generally orders of magnitude faster than ATLAS-like library generators, its effectiveness can be limited by the accuracy of the performance models used. In this paper, we describe an approach where a class of computations is modeled in terms of constituent operations that are empirically measured, thereby allowing modeling of the overall execution time. The performance model with empirically determined cost components is used to perform data layout optimization together with the selection of library calls and layout transformations in the context of the Tensor Contraction Engine, a compiler for a high-level domain-specific language for expressing computational models in quantum chemistry. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated through experimental measurements on representative computations from quantum chemistry.

  8. The dark and bright sides of self-efficacy in predicting learning, innovative and risky performances.

    PubMed

    Salanova, Marisa; Lorente, Laura; Martínez, Isabel M

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the different role that efficacy beliefs play in the prediction of learning, innovative and risky performances. We hypothesize that high levels of efficacy beliefs in learning and innovative performances have positive consequences (i.e., better academic and innovative performance, respectively), whereas in risky performances they have negative consequences (i.e., less safety performance). To achieve this objective, three studies were conducted, 1) a two-wave longitudinal field study among 527 undergraduate students (learning setting), 2) a three-wave longitudinal lab study among 165 participants performing innovative group tasks (innovative setting), and 3) a field study among 228 construction workers (risky setting). As expected, high levels of efficacy beliefs have positive or negative consequences on performance depending on the specific settings. Unexpectedly, however, we found no time x self-efficacy interaction effect over time in learning and innovative settings. Theoretical and practical implications within the social cognitive theory of A. Bandura framework are discussed.

  9. Analyzing the decentralization of health systems in developing countries: decision space, innovation and performance.

    PubMed

    Bossert, T

    1998-11-01

    Decentralization has long been advocated as a desirable process for improving health systems. Nevertheless, we still lack a sufficient analytical framework for systematically studying how decentralization can achieve this objective. We do not have adequate means of analyzing the three key elements of decentralization: (1) the amount of choice that is transferred from central institutions to institutions at the periphery of health systems, (2) what choices local officials make with their increased discretion and (3) what effect these choices have on the performance of the health system. This article proposes a framework of analysis that can be used to design and evaluate the decentralization of health systems. It starts from the assumption that decentralization is not an end in itself but rather should be designed and evaluated for its ability to achieve broader objectives of health reform: equity, efficiency, quality and financial soundness. Using a "principal agent" approach as the basic framework, but incorporating insights from public administration, local public choice and social capital approaches, the article presents a decision space approach which defines decentralization in terms of the set of functions and degrees of choice that formally are transferred to local officials. The approach also evaluates the incentives that central government can offer to local decision-makers to encourage them to achieve health objectives. It evaluates the local government characteristics that also influence decision-making and implementation at the local level. Then it determines whether local officials innovate by making choices that are different from those directed by central authorities. Finally, it evaluates whether the local choices have improved the performance of the local health system in achieving the broader health objectives. Examples from Colombia are used to illustrate the approach. The framework will be used to analyze the experience of decentralization in a

  10. Productive innovations in hospitals: an empirical research on the relation between technology and productivity in the Dutch hospital industry.

    PubMed

    Blank, Jos L T; Van Hulst, Bart L

    2009-06-01

    This paper studies the relationship between technology and productivity in Dutch hospitals. In most studies technical change is measured by a proxy, namely a time trend. In practice however, innovations slowly spread over all hospitals and so different hospitals are operating under different technologies at the same point in time. In this study we explicitly inventory specific and well-known innovations in the Dutch hospital industry in the past ten years. These innovations are aggregated into a limited number of homogenous innovation clusters, which are measured by a set of technology index numbers. The index numbers are included in the cost function specification and estimation. The results indicate that technical change is non-neutral and output- biased and that some technologies affect cost in beneficial ways.

  11. High Performance Work System, HRD Climate and Organisational Performance: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muduli, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to study the relationship between high-performance work system (HPWS) and organizational performance and to examine the role of human resource development (HRD) Climate in mediating the relationship between HPWS and the organizational performance in the context of the power sector of India. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  12. High Performance Work System, HRD Climate and Organisational Performance: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muduli, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to study the relationship between high-performance work system (HPWS) and organizational performance and to examine the role of human resource development (HRD) Climate in mediating the relationship between HPWS and the organizational performance in the context of the power sector of India. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  13. A causal model of the linkages between innovative ecological responsiveness and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Johnnie

    The purpose of this study was to examine the question "What are the organizational "antecedents" and "downstream" effects of innovative ecological responsiveness in the electric service industry?" Data were collected primarily from the chief operating, financial, and environmental/regulatory officers from 101 investor owned electric power producers across the United States. Theory from the organizational innovation literature was integrated with the organizational adaptation literature to identify the relationship between the organizational determinants of innovative adaptive responses, as well as to project the financial implications of these responses. Since innovations are a means of introducing change into organizations in order to facilitate the adaptation process, these two theoretical frameworks were found to be quite complementary. Statistical results suggest that "culture and context" matter. Managerial ideology was found to be significantly related to innovative ecological responsiveness. Regulatory uncertainty was significantly and positively related to the range of innovative responses implemented by a company. The range of innovative activities implemented by a company had a significant positive effect on financial performance. This finding suggests that firms that adopt a broad range of activities tend to perform better, indicating a possible synergistic effect in this adaptive pattern.

  14. Continuous Deep Sedation: A Proposal for Performing More Rigorous Empirical Research.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tatsuya; Imai, Kengo; Yokomichi, Naosuke; Mori, Masanori; Kizawa, Yoshiyuki; Tsuneto, Satoru

    2017-01-01

    Continuous deep sedation until death (CDS) is a type of palliative sedation therapy, and it has recently become a focus of intense debate. Marked inconsistencies in intervention procedures (i.e., what is CDS?) and unstandardized descriptions of patient backgrounds lead to difficulty in comparing the results in the literature. The primary aim of this article was to propose a conceptual framework to perform empirical studies on CDS. We propose the definition of CDS using the intervention protocol. As there are two types of CDS proposed in world-wide literature, we recommend to prepare two types of intervention protocol for CDS: "continuous deep sedation as a result of proportional sedation" (gradual CDS) and "continuous deep sedation to rapidly induce unconsciousness" (rapid CDS). In addition, we recommend that researchers characterize study patients' general condition using a validated prognostic tool, Prognosis in Palliative Care Study predictor model-A. Using this conceptual framework, we can compare the outcomes following the same exposures among homogenous patients throughout the world. This article proposes a provisional definition of two types of CDS. Defining CDS using the intervention protocol and describing patient backgrounds using validated prognostic tools enable comparisons and interpretations of empirical research about CDS. More empirical studies are urgently needed. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Impact of a Researcher’s Structural Position on Scientific Performance: An Empirical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Contandriopoulos, Damien; Duhoux, Arnaud; Perroux, Mélanie

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the nature and structure of scientific collaboration as well as the association between academic collaboration networks and scientific productivity. Based on empirical data gathered from the CVs of 73 researchers affiliated with an academic research network in Canada, this study used social network analysis (SNA) to examine the association between researchers’ structural position in the network and their scientific performance. With reference to Granovetter’s and Burt’s theories on weak ties and structural holes, we argue it is the bridging position a researcher holds in a scientific network that matters most to improve scientific performance. The results of correlation scores between network centrality and two different indicators of scientific performance indicate there is a robust association between researchers’ structural position in collaboration networks and their scientific performance. We believe this finding, and the method we have developed, could have implications for the way research networks are managed and researchers are supported. PMID:27579954

  16. The Impact of a Researcher's Structural Position on Scientific Performance: An Empirical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Contandriopoulos, Damien; Duhoux, Arnaud; Larouche, Catherine; Perroux, Mélanie

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the nature and structure of scientific collaboration as well as the association between academic collaboration networks and scientific productivity. Based on empirical data gathered from the CVs of 73 researchers affiliated with an academic research network in Canada, this study used social network analysis (SNA) to examine the association between researchers' structural position in the network and their scientific performance. With reference to Granovetter's and Burt's theories on weak ties and structural holes, we argue it is the bridging position a researcher holds in a scientific network that matters most to improve scientific performance. The results of correlation scores between network centrality and two different indicators of scientific performance indicate there is a robust association between researchers' structural position in collaboration networks and their scientific performance. We believe this finding, and the method we have developed, could have implications for the way research networks are managed and researchers are supported.

  17. A new semi-empirical approach to performance curves of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisani, L.; Murgia, G.; Valentini, M.; D'Aguanno, B.

    We derive a semi-empirical equation to describe the performance curves of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The derivation is based on the observation that the main non-linear contributions to the cell voltage deterioration of H 2/air feed cells are deriving from the cathode reactive region. To evaluate such contributions we assumed that the diffusion region of the cathode is made by a network of pores able to transport gas and liquid mixtures, while the reactive region is made by a different network of pores for gas transport in a liquid permeable matrix. The mathematical model is largely mechanistic, with most terms deriving from phenomenological mass transport and conservation equations. The only full empirical term in the performance equation is the Ohmic overpotential, which is assumed to be linear with the cell current density. The resulting equation is similar to other published performance equations but with the advantage of having coefficients with a precise physical origin, and a precise physical meaning. Our semi-empirical equation is used to fit several set of published experimental data, and the fits showed always a good agreement between the model results and the experimental data. The values of the fitting coefficients, together with their associated physical meaning, allow us to asses and quantify the phenomenology which is set on in the cathode as the cell current density is increased. More precisely, we observe the development of the flooding and of the local decrease of the oxygen concentration. Further developments of such a model for the cathode compartment of the fuel cell are discussed.

  18. Effects of the performance management information system in improving performance: an empirical study in Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yinghui; Wu, Zhengyi; Lu, Yao; Jin, Wenzhong; Dai, Xing; Bai, Jinxi

    2016-01-01

    Improving the performance of clinical departments is not only the significant content of the healthcare system reform in China, but also the essential approach to better satisfying the Chinese growing demand for medical services. Performance management is vital and meaningful to public hospitals in China. Several studies are conducted in hospital internal performance management, but almost none of them consider the effects of informational tools. Therefore, we carried out an empirical study on effects of using performance management information system in Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital. The main feature of the system is that it provides a real-time query platform for users to analyze and dynamically monitor the key performance indexes, timely detect problems and make adjustments. We collected pivotal medical data on 35 clinical departments of this hospital from January 2013 until December 2014, 1 year before and after applying the performance management information system. Comparative analysis was conducted by statistical methods. The results show that the system is beneficial to improve performance scores of clinical departments and lower the proportion of drug expenses, meanwhile, shorten the average hospitalized days and increase the bed turnover rate. That is to say, with the increasing medical services, the quality and efficiency is greatly improved. In a word, application of the performance management information system has a positive effect on improving performance of clinical departments.

  19. An empirical analysis of an innovative application for an underutilized resource: small-diameter roundwood in recreational buildings

    Treesearch

    Randall Cantrell

    2004-01-01

    Builders were surveyed to explore perceptions regarding small-diameter roundwood (SDR). The study empirically tests a model of builders’ attitudes and opinions about using SDR as a building material in recreational buildings. Findings suggest that, of the 130 builders surveyed, most are likely to use SDR in recreational buildings when it meets the following criteria: 1...

  20. Minnesota's Nursing Facility Performance-Based Incentive Payment Program: An Innovative Model for Promoting Care Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Valerie; Arling, Greg; Lewis, Teresa; Abrahamson, Kathleen A.; Mueller, Christine; Edstrom, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Minnesota's Nursing Facility Performance-Based Incentive Payment Program (PIPP) supports provider-initiated projects aimed at improving care quality and efficiency. PIPP moves beyond conventional pay for performance. It seeks to promote implementation of evidence-based practices, encourage innovation and risk taking, foster collaboration…

  1. A Model for Linking Organizational Culture and Performance. Innovative Session 6. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Cathy Bolton

    An innovative session was conducted to introduce session participants to a concept and researched model for linking organizational culture and performance. The session goals were as follows: (1) give participants a working knowledge of the link between business culture and key business performance indicators; (2) give participants a hands-on…

  2. Performing Art-Based Research: Innovation in Graduate Art Therapy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Bruce L.; Hoffman, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an innovation in art therapy research and education in which art-based performance is used to generate, embody, and creatively synthesize knowledge. An art therapy graduate student's art-based process of inquiry serves to demonstrate how art and performance may be used to identify the research question, to conduct a process…

  3. Performing Art-Based Research: Innovation in Graduate Art Therapy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Bruce L.; Hoffman, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an innovation in art therapy research and education in which art-based performance is used to generate, embody, and creatively synthesize knowledge. An art therapy graduate student's art-based process of inquiry serves to demonstrate how art and performance may be used to identify the research question, to conduct a process…

  4. Minnesota's Nursing Facility Performance-Based Incentive Payment Program: An Innovative Model for Promoting Care Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Valerie; Arling, Greg; Lewis, Teresa; Abrahamson, Kathleen A.; Mueller, Christine; Edstrom, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Minnesota's Nursing Facility Performance-Based Incentive Payment Program (PIPP) supports provider-initiated projects aimed at improving care quality and efficiency. PIPP moves beyond conventional pay for performance. It seeks to promote implementation of evidence-based practices, encourage innovation and risk taking, foster collaboration…

  5. Assessing the performance of global solar radiation empirical formulations in Kampala, Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubiru, J.; Banda, E. J. K. B.; D'Ujanga, F.; Senyonga, T.

    2007-01-01

    Solar radiation incident on the Earth’s surface is a determining factor of climate on Earth, hence having a proper solar radiation database is crucial in understanding climate processes in the Earth’s atmosphere. Solar radiation data may be used in the development of insolation maps, analysis of crop growth and in the simulation of solar systems. Unfortunately, measured solar radiation data may not be available in locations where it is most needed. An alternative to obtaining observed data is to estimate it using an appropriate solar radiation model. The purpose of this study is to assess the performance of thirteen global solar radiation empirical formulations, in Kampala, Uganda, located in an African Equatorial region. The best performing formulations were determined using the ranking method. The mean bias error, root mean square error and t-statistic value were calculated and utilized in the ranking process. Results have shown that the formulation: {bar H}/{bar H }_0 = a + b({bar S}/{bar S} _0 ) + c( {bar S } /{bar S} _0)^2 is ranked the highest and therefore is the recommended empirical equation for the estimation of the monthly mean global solar irradiation in Kampala, Uganda and in other African Equatorial locations with similar climate and terrain.

  6. NASA Human Health and Performance Center: Open Innovation Successes and Collaborative Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Richard, Elizabeth E.

    2014-01-01

    In May 2007, what was then the Space Life Sciences Directorate published the 2007 Space Life Sciences Strategy for Human Space Exploration, which resulted in the development and implementation of new business models and significant advances in external collaboration over the next five years. The strategy was updated on the basis of these accomplishments and reissued as the NASA Human Health and Performance Strategy in 2012, and continues to drive new approaches to innovation for the directorate. This short paper describes the open innovation successes and collaborative projects developed over this timeframe, including the efforts of the NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC), which was established to advance human health and performance innovations for spaceflight and societal benefit via collaboration in new markets.

  7. Building America System Research Results. Innovations for High Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-05-01

    This report provides a summary of key lessons learned from the first 10 years of the Building America program and also included a summary of the future challenges that must be met to reach the program’s long term performance goals.

  8. Education Reforms and Innovations to Improve Student Assessment Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, Wade J.

    2014-01-01

    International assessments such as the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) have exhibited United States students specifically in the fourth and eighth grades, are not performing well when compared to their international peers. Educational stakeholders including…

  9. Education Reforms and Innovations to Improve Student Assessment Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, Wade J.

    2014-01-01

    International assessments such as the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) have exhibited United States students specifically in the fourth and eighth grades, are not performing well when compared to their international peers. Educational stakeholders including…

  10. NASA Human Health and Performance Center: Open innovation successes and collaborative projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Elizabeth E.; Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2014-11-01

    In May 2007, what was then the Space Life Sciences Directorate published the 2007 Space Life Sciences Strategy for Human Space Exploration, setting the course for development and implementation of new business models and significant advances in external collaboration over the next five years. The strategy was updated on the basis of these accomplishments and reissued as the NASA Human Health and Performance Strategy in 2012, and continues to drive new approaches to innovation for the directorate. This short paper describes the successful execution of the strategy, driving organizational change through open innovation efforts and collaborative projects, including efforts of the NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC).

  11. Percentile-based Empirical Distribution Function Estimates for Performance Evaluation of Healthcare Providers

    PubMed Central

    Paddock, Susan M.; Louis, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Hierarchical models are widely-used to characterize the performance of individual healthcare providers. However, little attention has been devoted to system-wide performance evaluations, the goals of which include identifying extreme (e.g., top 10%) provider performance and developing statistical benchmarks to define high-quality care. Obtaining optimal estimates of these quantities requires estimating the empirical distribution function (EDF) of provider-specific parameters that generate the dataset under consideration. However, the difficulty of obtaining uncertainty bounds for a square-error loss minimizing EDF estimate has hindered its use in system-wide performance evaluations. We therefore develop and study a percentile-based EDF estimate for univariate provider-specific parameters. We compute order statistics of samples drawn from the posterior distribution of provider-specific parameters to obtain relevant uncertainty assessments of an EDF estimate and its features, such as thresholds and percentiles. We apply our method to data from the Medicare End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Program, a health insurance program for people with irreversible kidney failure. We highlight the risk of misclassifying providers as exceptionally good or poor performers when uncertainty in statistical benchmark estimates is ignored. Given the high stakes of performance evaluations, statistical benchmarks should be accompanied by precision estimates. PMID:21918583

  12. Percentile-based Empirical Distribution Function Estimates for Performance Evaluation of Healthcare Providers.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Susan M; Louis, Thomas A

    2011-08-01

    Hierarchical models are widely-used to characterize the performance of individual healthcare providers. However, little attention has been devoted to system-wide performance evaluations, the goals of which include identifying extreme (e.g., top 10%) provider performance and developing statistical benchmarks to define high-quality care. Obtaining optimal estimates of these quantities requires estimating the empirical distribution function (EDF) of provider-specific parameters that generate the dataset under consideration. However, the difficulty of obtaining uncertainty bounds for a square-error loss minimizing EDF estimate has hindered its use in system-wide performance evaluations. We therefore develop and study a percentile-based EDF estimate for univariate provider-specific parameters. We compute order statistics of samples drawn from the posterior distribution of provider-specific parameters to obtain relevant uncertainty assessments of an EDF estimate and its features, such as thresholds and percentiles. We apply our method to data from the Medicare End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Program, a health insurance program for people with irreversible kidney failure. We highlight the risk of misclassifying providers as exceptionally good or poor performers when uncertainty in statistical benchmark estimates is ignored. Given the high stakes of performance evaluations, statistical benchmarks should be accompanied by precision estimates.

  13. Structural Conditions for Collaboration and Learning in Innovation Networks: Using an Innovation System Performance Lens to Analyse Agricultural Knowledge Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermans, Frans; Klerkx, Laurens; Roep, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We investigate how the structural conditions of eight different European agricultural innovation systems can facilitate or hinder collaboration and social learning in multidisciplinary innovation networks. Methodology: We have adapted the Innovation System Failure Matrix to investigate the main barriers and enablers eight countries…

  14. Structural Conditions for Collaboration and Learning in Innovation Networks: Using an Innovation System Performance Lens to Analyse Agricultural Knowledge Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermans, Frans; Klerkx, Laurens; Roep, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We investigate how the structural conditions of eight different European agricultural innovation systems can facilitate or hinder collaboration and social learning in multidisciplinary innovation networks. Methodology: We have adapted the Innovation System Failure Matrix to investigate the main barriers and enablers eight countries…

  15. An empirical investigation of operator performance in cognitively demanding simulated emergencies

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.M.; Mumaw, R.J.; Lewis, P.M.

    1994-07-01

    This report documents the results of an empirical study of nuclear power plant operator performance in cognitively demanding simulated emergencies. During emergencies operators follow highly prescriptive written procedures. The objectives of the study were to understand and document what role higher-level cognitive activities such as diagnosis, or more generally `situation assessment`, play in guiding operator performance, given that operators utilize procedures in responding to the events. The study examined crew performance in variants of two emergencies: (1) an Interfacing System Loss of Coolant Accident and (2) a Loss of Heat Sink scenario. Data on operator performance were collected using training simulators at two plant sites. Up to 11 crews from each plant participated in each of two simulated emergencies for a total of 38 cases. Crew performance was videotaped and partial transcripts were produced and analyzed. The results revealed a number of instances where higher-level cognitive activities such as situation assessment and response planning enabled crews to handle aspects of the situation that were not fully addressed by the procedures. This report documents these cases and discusses their implications for the development and evaluation of training and control room aids, as well as for human reliability analyses.

  16. Uncovering curvilinear relationships between conscientiousness and job performance: how theoretically appropriate measurement makes an empirical difference.

    PubMed

    Carter, Nathan T; Dalal, Dev K; Boyce, Anthony S; O'Connell, Matthew S; Kung, Mei-Chuan; Delgado, Kristin M

    2014-07-01

    The personality trait of conscientiousness has seen considerable attention from applied psychologists due to its efficacy for predicting job performance across performance dimensions and occupations. However, recent theoretical and empirical developments have questioned the assumption that more conscientiousness always results in better job performance, suggesting a curvilinear link between the 2. Despite these developments, the results of studies directly testing the idea have been mixed. Here, we propose this link has been obscured by another pervasive assumption known as the dominance model of measurement: that higher scores on traditional personality measures always indicate higher levels of conscientiousness. Recent research suggests dominance models show inferior fit to personality test scores as compared to ideal point models that allow for curvilinear relationships between traits and scores. Using data from 2 different samples of job incumbents, we show the rank-order changes that result from using an ideal point model expose a curvilinear link between conscientiousness and job performance 100% of the time, whereas results using dominance models show mixed results, similar to the current state of the literature. Finally, with an independent cross-validation sample, we show that selection based on predicted performance using ideal point scores results in more favorable objective hiring outcomes. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  17. SMART empirical approaches for predicting field performance of PV modules from results of reliability tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardikar, Kedar Y.; Liu, Bill J. J.; Bheemreddy, Venkata

    2016-09-01

    Gaining an understanding of degradation mechanisms and their characterization are critical in developing relevant accelerated tests to ensure PV module performance warranty over a typical lifetime of 25 years. As newer technologies are adapted for PV, including new PV cell technologies, new packaging materials, and newer product designs, the availability of field data over extended periods of time for product performance assessment cannot be expected within the typical timeframe for business decisions. In this work, to enable product design decisions and product performance assessment for PV modules utilizing newer technologies, Simulation and Mechanism based Accelerated Reliability Testing (SMART) methodology and empirical approaches to predict field performance from accelerated test results are presented. The method is demonstrated for field life assessment of flexible PV modules based on degradation mechanisms observed in two accelerated tests, namely, Damp Heat and Thermal Cycling. The method is based on design of accelerated testing scheme with the intent to develop relevant acceleration factor models. The acceleration factor model is validated by extensive reliability testing under different conditions going beyond the established certification standards. Once the acceleration factor model is validated for the test matrix a modeling scheme is developed to predict field performance from results of accelerated testing for particular failure modes of interest. Further refinement of the model can continue as more field data becomes available. While the demonstration of the method in this work is for thin film flexible PV modules, the framework and methodology can be adapted to other PV products.

  18. Effects of Market, E-Marketing, and Technology Orientations on Innovativeness and Performance in Turkish Health Organizations.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Hanifi Murat; Sürer, Atilla

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of strategic orientation on innovativeness and performance in health organizations in Turkey. We hypothesize that market, e-marketing, and technology orientations positively affect innovativeness and performance. Market and technology orientations are found not have a significant effect on performance, but e-marketing orientation and innovativeness have a significant and positive effect. We also investigate indirect effects on innovativeness and performance. The analyses of direct and indirect effects are an important contribution to understanding relationships among research variables.

  19. Effects of market, e-marketing, and technology orientations on innovativeness and performance in Turkish health organizations.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Hanifi Murat; Sürer, Atilla

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of strategic orientation on innovativeness and performance in health organizations in Turkey. We test hypotheses that market, e-marketing, and technology orientations positively affect innovativeness and performance. Market and technology orientations are found not have a significant effect on performance, but e-marketing orientation and innovativeness have a significant and positive effect. We also investigate indirect effects on innovativeness and performance. The analyses of direct and indirect effects are an important contribution to understanding relationships among research variables.

  20. Empirical Performance of Cross-Validation With Oracle Methods in a Genomics Context.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Josue G; Carroll, Raymond J; Müller, Samuel; Sampson, Joshua N; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2011-11-01

    When employing model selection methods with oracle properties such as the smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD) and the Adaptive Lasso, it is typical to estimate the smoothing parameter by m-fold cross-validation, for example, m = 10. In problems where the true regression function is sparse and the signals large, such cross-validation typically works well. However, in regression modeling of genomic studies involving Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP), the true regression functions, while thought to be sparse, do not have large signals. We demonstrate empirically that in such problems, the number of selected variables using SCAD and the Adaptive Lasso, with 10-fold cross-validation, is a random variable that has considerable and surprising variation. Similar remarks apply to non-oracle methods such as the Lasso. Our study strongly questions the suitability of performing only a single run of m-fold cross-validation with any oracle method, and not just the SCAD and Adaptive Lasso.

  1. Towards high performing hospital enterprise systems: an empirical and literature based design framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos Fradinho, Jorge Miguel

    2014-05-01

    Our understanding of enterprise systems (ES) is gradually evolving towards a sense of design which leverages multidisciplinary bodies of knowledge that may bolster hybrid research designs and together further the characterisation of ES operation and performance. This article aims to contribute towards ES design theory with its hospital enterprise systems design (HESD) framework, which reflects a rich multidisciplinary literature and two in-depth hospital empirical cases from the US and UK. In doing so it leverages systems thinking principles and traditionally disparate bodies of knowledge to bolster the theoretical evolution and foundation of ES. A total of seven core ES design elements are identified and characterised with 24 main categories and 53 subcategories. In addition, it builds on recent work which suggests that hospital enterprises are comprised of multiple internal ES configurations which may generate different levels of performance. Multiple sources of evidence were collected including electronic medical records, 54 recorded interviews, observation, and internal documents. Both in-depth cases compare and contrast higher and lower performing ES configurations. Following literal replication across in-depth cases, this article concludes that hospital performance can be improved through an enriched understanding of hospital ES design.

  2. Innovation, Innovation, Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Innovation, Universities and Skills. The new title of the department offers much food for thought. The title is indeed an intriguing and important one. Bringing the idea of innovation right to the fore is, to use an overworked term, challenging. Pinning down what innovation means is not at all easy. There are three different lines of argument. The…

  3. Training, Innovation and Business Performance: An Analysis of the Business Longitudinal Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockery, A. Michael

    This paper uses the Australian Bureau of Statistics' Business Longitudinal Survey to explore relationships between training, innovation, and firm performance for Australian businesses with less than 200 employees. The longitudinal nature of the data is used to test various hypotheses about the nature of the link between training, business changes,…

  4. Training, Innovation and Business Performance: An Analysis of the Business Longitudinal Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockery, A. Michael

    This paper uses the Australian Bureau of Statistics' Business Longitudinal Survey to explore relationships between training, innovation, and firm performance for Australian businesses with less than 200 employees. The longitudinal nature of the data is used to test various hypotheses about the nature of the link between training, business changes,…

  5. Examining the Relationship between Learning Organization Characteristics and Change Adaptation, Innovation, and Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontoghiorghes, Constantine; Awbre, Susan M.; Feurig, Pamela L.

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the relationship between certain learning organization characteristics and change adaptation, innovation, and bottom-line organizational performance. The following learning organization characteristics were found to be the strongest predictors of rapid change adaptation, quick product or…

  6. Effects of Mathematics Innovation and Technology on Students Performance in Open and Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Oginni 'Niyi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of mathematics innovation and technology on students' academic performance in open and distance learning. Quasi -- experimental research design was adopted for the study. The population for the study consisted of all the 200 level primary education students at the National Open University of Nigeria (Ekiti and…

  7. Innovations in Setting Performance Standards for K-12 Test-Based Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, Kristen; Plake, Barbara S.

    2010-01-01

    Standard setting is a systematic process that uses a combination of judgmental and empirical procedures to make recommendations about where on the score continuum "cut scores" should be placed. Cut scores divide the score scale into categories consistent with the descriptions of student performance associated with multiple levels of achievement.…

  8. Analysis of geographical variations of healthcare providers performance using the empirical mode decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Michael A.; Chu, Henry

    2016-05-01

    Performance of healthcare providers such as hospitals varies from one locale to another. Our goal is to study whether there is a geographical pattern of performance using metrics reported from over 3,000 hospitals distributed across the U.S. Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is an effective analysis tool for nonlinear and non-stationary signals. It decomposes a data sequence into a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) along with a residue sequence that represents the trend. Each IMF has zero local mean and has exactly one zero crossing between any two consecutive local extrema. An IMF can be used to assess the instantaneous frequency. Reconstruction of a signal using the residue and those IMFs of the lower frequency can reveal the underlying pattern of the signal without undue influence of the higher frequency fluctuations of the data. We used a space-filling curve to turn a set of performance metrics distributed irregularly across the two-dimensional planar surface into a one-dimensional sequence. The EMD decomposed a set of hospital emergency department median waiting times into 9 IMFs along with a residue. We used the residue and the lower frequency IMFs to reconstruct a sequence with fewer fluctuations. The sequence was transformed back to a two-dimensional map to reveal the geographical variations.

  9. Building America Top Innovations 2012: High-Performance Home Cost Performance Trade-offs: Production Builders

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America research showing how some energy-efficiency measure cost increases can balance against measures that reduce up-front costs: Advanced framing cuts lumber costs, right sizing can mean downsizing the HVAC, moving HVAC into conditioned space cuts installation costs, designing on a 2-foot grid reduces materials waste, etc.

  10. LCOE reduction for parabolic trough CSP: Innovative solar receiver with improved performance at medium temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stollo, A.; Chiarappa, T.; D'Angelo, A.; Maccari, A.; Matino, F.

    2016-05-01

    Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) applications represent an effective possibility to gain energy from the Sun; however, the lasting CSP market crisis compels continuous improvements in terms of cost reduction and performance increase. Focused on parabolic trough technology, this paper describes the innovation studied and realized on solar receivers to gain optimized optical performance while increasing the production versatility, hence boosting the solar plant efficiency and finally reducing the estimated LCOE.

  11. Technology transfer from biomedical research to clinical practice: measuring innovation performance.

    PubMed

    Balas, E Andrew; Elkin, Peter L

    2013-12-01

    Studies documented 17 years of transfer time from clinical trials to practice of care. Launched in 2002, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) translational research initiative needs to develop metrics for impact assessment. A recent White House report highlighted that research and development productivity is declining as a result of increased research spending while the new drugs output is flat. The goal of this study was to develop an expanded model of research-based innovation and performance thresholds of transfer from research to practice. Models for transfer of research to practice have been collected and reviewed. Subsequently, innovation pathways have been specified based on common characteristics. An integrated, intellectual property transfer model is described. The central but often disregarded role of research innovation disclosure is highlighted. Measures of research transfer and milestones of progress have been identified based on the Association of University Technology Managers 2012 performance reports. Numeric milestones of technology transfer are recommended at threshold (top 50%), target (top 25%), and stretch goal (top 10%) performance levels. Transfer measures and corresponding target levels include research spending to disclosure (<$1.88 million), disclosure to patents (>0.81), patents to start-up (>0.1), patents to licenses (>2.25), and average per license income (>$48,000). Several limitations of measurement are described. Academic institutions should take strategic steps to bring innovation to the center of scholarly discussions. Research on research, particularly on pathways to disclosures, is needed to improve R&D productivity. Researchers should be informed about the technology transfer performance of their institution and regulations should better support innovators.

  12. Reciprocating and Screw Compressor semi-empirical models for establishing minimum energy performance standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javed, Hassan; Armstrong, Peter

    2015-08-01

    The efficiency bar for a Minimum Equipment Performance Standard (MEPS) generally aims to minimize energy consumption and life cycle cost of a given chiller type and size category serving a typical load profile. Compressor type has a significant chiller performance impact. Performance of screw and reciprocating compressors is expressed in terms of pressure ratio and speed for a given refrigerant and suction density. Isentropic efficiency for a screw compressor is strongly affected by under- and over-compression (UOC) processes. The theoretical simple physical UOC model involves a compressor-specific (but sometimes unknown) volume index parameter and the real gas properties of the refrigerant used. Isentropic efficiency is estimated by the UOC model and a bi-cubic, used to account for flow, friction and electrical losses. The unknown volume index, a smoothing parameter (to flatten the UOC model peak) and bi-cubic coefficients are identified by curve fitting to minimize an appropriate residual norm. Chiller performance maps are produced for each compressor type by selecting optimized sub-cooling and condenser fan speed options in a generic component-based chiller model. SEER is the sum of hourly load (from a typical building in the climate of interest) and specific power for the same hourly conditions. An empirical UAE cooling load model, scalable to any equipment capacity, is used to establish proposed UAE MEPS. Annual electricity use and cost, determined from SEER and annual cooling load, and chiller component cost data are used to find optimal chiller designs and perform life-cycle cost comparison between screw and reciprocating compressor-based chillers. This process may be applied to any climate/load model in order to establish optimized MEPS for any country and/or region.

  13. Hospital employment of physicians and supply chain performance: An empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Young, Gary J; Nyaga, Gilbert N; Zepeda, E David

    2016-01-01

    As hospital employment of physicians becomes increasingly common in the United States, much speculation exists as to whether this type of arrangement will promote hospital operating efficiency in such areas as supply chain management. Little empirical research has been conducted to address this question. The aim of this study was to provide an exploratory assessment of whether hospital employment of physicians is associated with better supply chain performance. Drawing from both agency and stewardship theories, we examined whether hospitals with a higher proportion of employed medical staff members have relatively better supply chain performance based on two performance measures, supply chain expenses and inventory costs. We conducted the study using a pooled, cross-sectional sample of hospitals located in California between 2007 and 2009. Key data sources were hospital annual financial reports from California's Office of Statewide Health Policy and Development and the American Hospital Association annual survey of hospitals. To examine the relationship between physician employment and supply chain performance, we specified physician employment as the proportion of total employed medical staff members as well as the proportion of employed medical staff members within key physician subgroups. We analyzed the data using generalized estimating equations. Study results generally supported our hypothesis that hospital employment of physicians is associated with better supply chain performance. Although the results of our study should be viewed as preliminary, the trend in the United States toward hospital employment of physicians may be a positive development for improved hospital operating efficiency. Hospital managers should also be attentive to training and educational resources that medical staff members may need to strengthen their role in supply chain activities.

  14. Evolution and revolution: gauging the impact of technological and technical innovation on Olympic performance.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Nigel; Pleasence, Pascoe; Nevill, Alan

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies have pointed to a plateauing of athletic performance, with the suggestion that further improvements will need to be driven by revolutions in technology or technique. In the present study, we examine post-war men's Olympic performance in jumping events (pole vault, long jump, high jump, triple jump) to determine whether performance has indeed plateaued and to present techniques, derived from models of human growth, for assessing the impact of technological and technical innovation over time (logistic and double logistic models of growth). Significantly, two of the events involve well-documented changes in technology (pole material in pole vault) or technique (the Fosbury Flop in high jump), while the other two do not. We find that in all four cases, performance appears to have plateaued and that no further "general" improvement should be expected. In the case of high jump, the double logistic model provides a convenient method for modelling and quantifying a performance intervention (in this case the Fosbury Flop). However, some shortcomings are revealed for pole vault, where evolutionary post-war improvements and innovation (fibre glass poles) were concurrent, preventing their separate identification in the model. In all four events, it is argued that further general growth in performance will indeed need to rely predominantly on technological or technical innovation.

  15. An empirical and computational method for performance evaluation of vertical axis wind energy capture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Jesse Jason

    This Dissertation presents the author's investigation and development of a systematic method for evaluating the aerodynamic performance of Vertical Axis Wind Energy Capture Systems (WECS) apart from their electrical generation capability. The current standard method for specifying a wind energy machine is to discuss its rated power in kilowatts (or megawatts when capacity exceeds 100 kW). While this holistic method is effective for comparing machines it does not reveal the essential characteristics necessary for optimization of individual machine components. The method developed herein separates the performance characteristics of the WECS from the generation characteristics and isolates them for benchmarking and optimization. In order to develop an evaluation criterion, it was essential to evaluate and benchmark the current state of the art for wind energy capture. A thorough history of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) development and technology transfer, a standardized set of VAWT terms and a complete taxonomy of WECS types are included to ensure comparisons remain appropriate and within the same class of machine. Existing analytical methods for WECS and wind energy airfoils are surveyed and appropriate methods are selected and presented for establishing lift, drag, solidity, and specific power. A novel technique is developed for more accurately calculating VAWT solidity and is presented along with the numerous historical methods for solidity calculation. Empirical methods are presented for characterizing advance ratio and aerodynamic coefficient of performance. Results show that a VAWT can be optimized aerodynamically without consideration of generator efficiency using low capital cost rapid prototyping methods and an unsophisticated open loop wind tunnel. Wind tunnel model production with a rapid prototyping machine and kilowatt scale prototyping using composite material fabrication are discussed. Fixed and mobile test tower design and instrumentation are

  16. The Role of Trait Emotional Intelligence in Academic Performance: Theoretical Overview and Empirical Update.

    PubMed

    Perera, Harsha N

    2016-01-01

    Considerable debate still exists among scholars over the role of trait emotional intelligence (TEI) in academic performance. The dominant theoretical position is that TEI should be orthogonal or only weakly related to achievement; yet, there are strong theoretical reasons to believe that TEI plays a key role in performance. The purpose of the current article is to provide (a) an overview of the possible theoretical mechanisms linking TEI with achievement and (b) an update on empirical research examining this relationship. To elucidate these theoretical mechanisms, the overview draws on multiple theories of emotion and regulation, including TEI theory, social-functional accounts of emotion, and expectancy-value and psychobiological model of emotion and regulation. Although these theoretical accounts variously emphasize different variables as focal constructs, when taken together, they provide a comprehensive picture of the possible mechanisms linking TEI with achievement. In this regard, the article redresses the problem of vaguely specified theoretical links currently hampering progress in the field. The article closes with a consideration of directions for future research.

  17. Innovation Value of Information Technology: Impact of Information Technology--Intensity on Innovation Capability and Firm Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramamani, Mahesh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Though information technology adoptions have been always referred to as innovations in firms, much of the business value literature has concentrated on the tangible and immediately measurable impacts of information technology (IT) adoptions. This study aims to explore the impact of information technology investments on the innovativeness of a…

  18. Innovation Value of Information Technology: Impact of Information Technology--Intensity on Innovation Capability and Firm Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramamani, Mahesh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Though information technology adoptions have been always referred to as innovations in firms, much of the business value literature has concentrated on the tangible and immediately measurable impacts of information technology (IT) adoptions. This study aims to explore the impact of information technology investments on the innovativeness of a…

  19. Organizational performance, Marketing strategy, and Financial strategic alignment: an empirical study on Iranian pharmaceutical firms.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh, Mehdi; Aarabi, Sied Mohammad; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

    2013-08-02

    Strategic Functional-level planning should be aligned with business level and other functional strategies of a company. It is presumed that assimilating the strategies could have positive contribution to business performance, in this regard alignment between marketing strategy and financial strategy seems to be the most important strategies being studied. An empirical work in generic pharmaceutical manufacturing companies for evaluating effect of alignment between these two functions on organizational performance was developed in this paper. All Iranian pharmaceutical generic manufactures listed in Tehran stock market have been tested for period of five years between 2006-2010 and their marketing strategies were determined by using Slater and Olson taxonomy and their financial strategies have been developed by calculating total risk and total return of sample companies for five years based on rate of risk and return in the frame of a 2 × 2 matrix. For the business performance three profitability indices including Q-Tubin (Rate of market value to net asset value), ROA (Return on Asset), ROE (Return on Equity) have been tested. For analysis, a series of one-way ANOVAs as a collection of statistical models within marketing strategies considering financial strategy as independent variable and the three performance measures as dependent variables was used. Results show strategic alignment between financial and marketing has significant impact on profitability of company resulting in arise of all three profitability indices. Q tubing's rate were 2.33,2.09,2.29,2.58 and rate of ROA were 0.21,0.194,0.25,0.22 and rate of ROE were 0.44,0.46,0.45,0.42 for matched strategy types, respectively the rates shown here are more than average meaning that specific type of marketing strategy is fitted with specific type of financial strategy. Managers should not consider decisions regarding marketing strategy independently of their financial strategy.

  20. Organizational performance, Marketing strategy, and Financial strategic alignment: an empirical study on Iranian pharmaceutical firms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Strategic Functional-level planning should be aligned with business level and other functional strategies of a company. It is presumed that assimilating the strategies could have positive contribution to business performance, in this regard alignment between marketing strategy and financial strategy seems to be the most important strategies being studied. An empirical work in generic pharmaceutical manufacturing companies for evaluating effect of alignment between these two functions on organizational performance was developed in this paper. Methods All Iranian pharmaceutical generic manufactures listed in Tehran stock market have been tested for period of five years between 2006–2010 and their marketing strategies were determined by using Slater and Olson taxonomy and their financial strategies have been developed by calculating total risk and total return of sample companies for five years based on rate of risk and return in the frame of a 2 × 2 matrix. For the business performance three profitability indices including Q-Tubin (Rate of market value to net asset value), ROA (Return on Asset), ROE (Return on Equity) have been tested. For analysis, a series of one-way ANOVAs as a collection of statistical models within marketing strategies considering financial strategy as independent variable and the three performance measures as dependent variables was used. Results Results show strategic alignment between financial and marketing has significant impact on profitability of company resulting in arise of all three profitability indices. Q tubing’s rate were 2.33,2.09,2.29,2.58 and rate of ROA were 0.21,0.194,0.25,0.22 and rate of ROE were 0.44,0.46,0.45,0.42 for matched strategy types, respectively the rates shown here are more than average meaning that specific type of marketing strategy is fitted with specific type of financial strategy. Conclusion Managers should not consider decisions regarding marketing strategy independently of their financial

  1. Sigma level performance of the innovated process in the imaging department at a Mexican health institute.

    PubMed

    García-Porres, Julieta; Ortiz-Posadas, Martha R

    2013-04-01

    The National Institute of Respiratory Diseases is a third level public hospital in Mexico City, which in 2007 acquired an RIS-PACS to be implemented at its Imaging Department (ID), with the objective to enhance its service. This department attends an average of 3,500 patients per month developing different image modalities. The objective of this work was to determine the overall sigma level performance of four processes of the ID: reception, X-ray, computed tomography, and radiologist diagnosis, considering process analysis and innovation through Six Sigma methodology, measuring the innovation effectiveness by means of indicators and learning curves. Initially, a first measurement (M 1) of the original processes was determined; once 13 innovations were implemented in a pilot program, two more measurements were done, 15 days after (M 2) and 30 days after (M 3), in order to know the impact of the innovations in the ID processes. The initial sigma level of the ID before innovations was σ 1 = 2.0, which means that there were 36 patients per day with a process defect during their stay at the ID. In the two following measurements, σ 2 = 2.2 which means that there were 28 patients per day with a process defect, and σ 3 = 2.3 with 24 patients per day with a process defect. These results demonstrate that the percentage of performance enhancement between the original process and 15 days later was 23 % and 30 days later an enhancement of 15 %. In total, an overall enhancement of 38 % was obtained at the ID of the institute.

  2. Empirical Performance of Cross-Validation With Oracle Methods in a Genomics Context

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Josue G.; Carroll, Raymond J.; Müller, Samuel; Sampson, Joshua N.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2012-01-01

    When employing model selection methods with oracle properties such as the smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD) and the Adaptive Lasso, it is typical to estimate the smoothing parameter by m-fold cross-validation, for example, m = 10. In problems where the true regression function is sparse and the signals large, such cross-validation typically works well. However, in regression modeling of genomic studies involving Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP), the true regression functions, while thought to be sparse, do not have large signals. We demonstrate empirically that in such problems, the number of selected variables using SCAD and the Adaptive Lasso, with 10-fold cross-validation, is a random variable that has considerable and surprising variation. Similar remarks apply to non-oracle methods such as the Lasso. Our study strongly questions the suitability of performing only a single run of m-fold cross-validation with any oracle method, and not just the SCAD and Adaptive Lasso. PMID:22347720

  3. More Health Expenditure, Better Economic Performance? Empirical Evidence From OECD Countries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuhmei

    2015-01-01

    Recent economic downturns have led many countries to reduce health spending dramatically, with the World Health Organization raising concerns over the effects of this, in particular among the poor and vulnerable. With the provision of appropriate health care, the population of a country could have better health, thus strengthening the nation's human capital, which could contribute to economic growth through improved productivity. How much should countries spend on health care? This study aims to estimate the optimal health care expenditure in a growing economy. Applying the experiences of countries from the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) over the period 1990 to 2009, this research introduces the method of system generalized method of moments (GMM) to derive the design of the estimators of the focal variables. Empirical evidence indicates that when the ratio of health spending to gross domestic product (GDP) is less than the optimal level of 7.55%, increases in health spending effectively lead to better economic performance. Above this, more spending does not equate to better care. The real level of health spending in OECD countries is 5.48% of GDP, with a 1.87% economic growth rate. The question which is posed by this study is a pertinent one, especially in the current context of financially constrained health systems around the world. The analytical results of this work will allow policymakers to better allocate scarce resources to achieve their macroeconomic goals. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Catalyzing healthcare transformation with digital health: Performance indicators and lessons learned from a Digital Health Innovation Group.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Jocelyn; Samagh, Sonia; Fraser, Donna; Landman, Adam B

    2017-09-25

    Despite considerable investment in digital health (DH) companies and a growing DH ecosystem, there are multiple challenges to testing and implementing innovative solutions. Health systems have recognized the potential of DH and have formed DH innovation centers. However, limited information is available on DH innovation center processes, best practices, or outcomes. This case report describes a DH innovation center process that can be replicated across health systems and defines and benchmarks process indicators to assess DH innovation center performance. The Brigham and Women's Hospital's Digital Health Innovation Group (DHIG) accelerates DH innovations from idea to pilot safely and efficiently using a structured process. Fifty-four DH innovations were accelerated by the DHIG process between July 2014 and December 2016. In order to measure effectiveness of the DHIG process, key process indicators were defined as 1) number of solutions that completed each DHIG phase and 2) length of time to complete each phase. Twenty-three DH innovations progressed to pilot stage and 13 innovations were terminated after barriers to pilot implementation were identified by the DHIG process. For 4 DH solutions that executed a pilot, the average time for innovations to proceed from DHIG intake to pilot initiation was 9 months. Overall, the DHIG is a reproducible process that addresses key roadblocks in DH innovation within health systems. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe DH innovation process indicators and results within an academic health system. Therefore, there is no published data to compare our results with the results of other DH innovation centers. Standardized data collection and indicator reporting could allow benchmark comparisons across institutions. Additional opportunities exist for the validation of DH solution effectiveness and for translational support from pilot to implementation. These are critical steps to advance DH technologies and

  5. Public Management Reform and Organizational Performance: An Empirical Assessment of the U.K. Labour Government's Public Service Improvement Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Richard M.; Boyne, George A.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first empirical assessment of the U.K. Labour government's program of public management reform. This reform program is based on rational planning, devolution and delegation, flexibility and incentives, and enhanced choice. Measures of these variables are tested against external and internal indicators of organizational performance.…

  6. The Impact of Student Composition on Schools' Value-Added Performance: A Comparison of Seven Empirical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmermans, Anneke C.; Thomas, Sally M.

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, policy makers struggle with the development of value-added indicators of school performance for educational accountability purposes and in particular with the choice whether school context measured in the form of student composition variables should be included. This study investigates differences between 7 empirical studies…

  7. The Impact of Student Composition on Schools' Value-Added Performance: A Comparison of Seven Empirical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmermans, Anneke C.; Thomas, Sally M.

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, policy makers struggle with the development of value-added indicators of school performance for educational accountability purposes and in particular with the choice whether school context measured in the form of student composition variables should be included. This study investigates differences between 7 empirical studies…

  8. Public Management Reform and Organizational Performance: An Empirical Assessment of the U.K. Labour Government's Public Service Improvement Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Richard M.; Boyne, George A.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first empirical assessment of the U.K. Labour government's program of public management reform. This reform program is based on rational planning, devolution and delegation, flexibility and incentives, and enhanced choice. Measures of these variables are tested against external and internal indicators of organizational performance.…

  9. Impact of Intellectual Capital on Organisational Performance: An Empirical Study of Companies in the Hang Seng Index (Part 1)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kin Hang

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper, which is written in two parts, is to investigate empirically if intellectual capital (IC) has an impact on the financial aspects of organisational performance as well as attempting to identify the IC components that may be the drivers for the leading financial indicators of listed companies. The study sought…

  10. Empiric validation of simulation models for estimating glucose meter performance criteria for moderate levels of glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Karon, Brad S; Boyd, James C; Klee, George G

    2013-12-01

    We used simulation modeling to relate glucose meter performance criteria to insulin dosing errors for patients on a moderate glycemic control protocol (glucose target, 110-150 mg/dL) and empirically validated assumptions from simulation models using observed glucose meter and laboratory glucose values obtained nearly simultaneously. The 25,948 glucose values from 1,513 patients on a moderate glycemic control protocol were used to represent the expected distribution of glucose values in this patient population. Simulation models were used to relate glucose meter analytical performance to insulin dosing errors assuming 10%, 15%, or 20% total allowable error (TEa). In addition, 4,017 paired glucose meter and serum laboratory glucose measurements drawn within 5 min of each other were used to generate an empiric dataset to validate simulation model assumptions relating glucose meter performance to insulin dosing errors. Large (three or more category) insulin dosing errors are predicted to occur only under the 20% TEa condition. Two category insulin dosing errors were common (6-20% of all insulin dosing decisions) when 20% TEa was assumed, but frequency decreased to only 0.2% of dosing decisions when 10% TEa was modeled. When insulin dosing error rates were measured empirically by comparing paired glucose meter and laboratory glucose values, insulin dosing error rates were very similar to those predicted for the 20% TEa condition. Both simulation models and empiric data demonstrate that glucose meters that perform at ≥20% TEa allow large insulin dosing errors during a moderate glycemic control protocol.

  11. Impact of Intellectual Capital on Organisational Performance: An Empirical Study of Companies in the Hang Seng Index (Part 2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kin Hang

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper, which is written in two parts, is to investigate empirically if intellectual capital (IC) has an impact on the financial aspects of organisational performance as well as attempting to identify the IC components that may be the drivers for the leading financial indicators of listed companies. The study sought…

  12. Impact of Intellectual Capital on Organisational Performance: An Empirical Study of Companies in the Hang Seng Index (Part 2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kin Hang

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper, which is written in two parts, is to investigate empirically if intellectual capital (IC) has an impact on the financial aspects of organisational performance as well as attempting to identify the IC components that may be the drivers for the leading financial indicators of listed companies. The study sought…

  13. Impact of Intellectual Capital on Organisational Performance: An Empirical Study of Companies in the Hang Seng Index (Part 1)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kin Hang

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper, which is written in two parts, is to investigate empirically if intellectual capital (IC) has an impact on the financial aspects of organisational performance as well as attempting to identify the IC components that may be the drivers for the leading financial indicators of listed companies. The study sought…

  14. The sustainability of new programs and innovations: a review of the empirical literature and recommendations for future research.

    PubMed

    Wiltsey Stirman, Shannon; Kimberly, John; Cook, Natasha; Calloway, Amber; Castro, Frank; Charns, Martin

    2012-03-14

    The introduction of evidence-based programs and practices into healthcare settings has been the subject of an increasing amount of research in recent years. While a number of studies have examined initial implementation efforts, less research has been conducted to determine what happens beyond that point. There is increasing recognition that the extent to which new programs are sustained is influenced by many different factors and that more needs to be known about just what these factors are and how they interact. To understand the current state of the research literature on sustainability, our team took stock of what is currently known in this area and identified areas in which further research would be particularly helpful. This paper reviews the methods that have been used, the types of outcomes that have been measured and reported, findings from studies that reported long-term implementation outcomes, and factors that have been identified as potential influences on the sustained use of new practices, programs, or interventions. We conclude with recommendations and considerations for future research. Two coders identified 125 studies on sustainability that met eligibility criteria. An initial coding scheme was developed based on constructs identified in previous literature on implementation. Additional codes were generated deductively. Related constructs among factors were identified by consensus and collapsed under the general categories. Studies that described the extent to which programs or innovations were sustained were also categorized and summarized. Although "sustainability" was the term most commonly used in the literature to refer to what happened after initial implementation, not all the studies that were reviewed actually presented working definitions of the term. Most study designs were retrospective and naturalistic. Approximately half of the studies relied on self-reports to assess sustainability or elements that influence sustainability

  15. The sustainability of new programs and innovations: a review of the empirical literature and recommendations for future research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The introduction of evidence-based programs and practices into healthcare settings has been the subject of an increasing amount of research in recent years. While a number of studies have examined initial implementation efforts, less research has been conducted to determine what happens beyond that point. There is increasing recognition that the extent to which new programs are sustained is influenced by many different factors and that more needs to be known about just what these factors are and how they interact. To understand the current state of the research literature on sustainability, our team took stock of what is currently known in this area and identified areas in which further research would be particularly helpful. This paper reviews the methods that have been used, the types of outcomes that have been measured and reported, findings from studies that reported long-term implementation outcomes, and factors that have been identified as potential influences on the sustained use of new practices, programs, or interventions. We conclude with recommendations and considerations for future research. Methods Two coders identified 125 studies on sustainability that met eligibility criteria. An initial coding scheme was developed based on constructs identified in previous literature on implementation. Additional codes were generated deductively. Related constructs among factors were identified by consensus and collapsed under the general categories. Studies that described the extent to which programs or innovations were sustained were also categorized and summarized. Results Although "sustainability" was the term most commonly used in the literature to refer to what happened after initial implementation, not all the studies that were reviewed actually presented working definitions of the term. Most study designs were retrospective and naturalistic. Approximately half of the studies relied on self-reports to assess sustainability or elements that

  16. The personality construct of hardiness, III: Relationships with repression, innovativeness, authoritarianism, and performance.

    PubMed

    Maddi, Salvatore R; Harvey, Richard H; Khoshaba, Deborah M; Lu, John L; Persico, Michele; Brow, Marnie

    2006-04-01

    Previous research has established hardiness as a dispositional factor in preserving and enhancing performance and health despite stressful circumstances. The present four studies continue this construct-validational process by (a) introducing a shortened version of the hardiness measure and (b) testing hypotheses concerning the relationship between hardiness and repressive coping, right-wing authoritarianism, innovative behavior, and billable hours (a measure of consulting effectiveness). Results of these studies suggest the adequate reliability and validity of the Personal Views Survey III-R, which is the shortened, 18-item measure of hardiness. Further, results support the hypothesis that the relationship of hardiness is negative with repressive coping and right-wing authoritarianism and positive with innovative behavior and billable hours. Hardiness also appears unrelated to socially desirable responding.

  17. Static Performance of Six Innovative Thrust Reverser Concepts for Subsonic Transport Applications: Summary of the NASA Langley Innovative Thrust Reverser Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Scott C.; Yetter, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Langley Configuration Aerodynamics Branch has conducted an experimental investigation to study the static performance of innovative thrust reverser concepts applicable to high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines. Testing was conducted on a conventional separate-flow exhaust system configuration, a conventional cascade thrust reverser configuration, and six innovative thrust reverser configurations. The innovative thrust reverser configurations consisted of a cascade thrust reverser with porous fan-duct blocker, a blockerless thrust reverser, two core-mounted target thrust reversers, a multi-door crocodile thrust reverser, and a wing-mounted thrust reverser. Each of the innovative thrust reverser concepts offer potential weight savings and/or design simplifications over a conventional cascade thrust reverser design. Testing was conducted in the Jet-Exit Test Facility at NASA Langley Research Center using a 7.9%-scale exhaust system model with a fan-to-core bypass ratio of approximately 9.0. All tests were conducted with no external flow and cold, high-pressure air was used to simulate core and fan exhaust flows. Results show that the innovative thrust reverser concepts achieved thrust reverser performance levels which, when taking into account the potential for system simplification and reduced weight, may make them competitive with, or potentially more cost effective than current state-of-the-art thrust reverser systems.

  18. Static Performance of Six Innovative Thrust Reverser Concepts for Subsonic Transport Applications: Summary of the NASA Langley Innovative Thrust Reverser Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Scott C.; Yetter, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Langley Configuration Aerodynamics Branch has conducted an experimental investigation to study the static performance of innovative thrust reverser concepts applicable to high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines. Testing was conducted on a conventional separate-flow exhaust system configuration, a conventional cascade thrust reverser configuration, and six innovative thrust reverser configurations. The innovative thrust reverser configurations consisted of a cascade thrust reverser with porous fan-duct blocker, a blockerless thrust reverser, two core-mounted target thrust reversers, a multi-door crocodile thrust reverser, and a wing-mounted thrust reverser. Each of the innovative thrust reverser concepts offer potential weight savings and/or design simplifications over a conventional cascade thrust reverser design. Testing was conducted in the Jet-Exit Test Facility at NASA Langley Research Center using a 7.9%-scale exhaust system model with a fan-to-core bypass ratio of approximately 9.0. All tests were conducted with no external flow and cold, high-pressure air was used to simulate core and fan exhaust flows. Results show that the innovative thrust reverser concepts achieved thrust reverser performance levels which, when taking into account the potential for system simplification and reduced weight, may make them competitive with, or potentially more cost effective than current state-of-the-art thrust reverser systems. All data gathered in this investigation are contained in the CD-ROM.

  19. Provider performance measures in private and public programs: achieving meaningful alignment with flexibility to innovate.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Aparna; Veselovskiy, German; McKown, Lauren

    2013-08-01

    In recent years there has been a significant expansion in the use of provider performance measures for quality improvement, payment, and public reporting. Using data from a survey of health plans, we characterize the use of such performance measures by private payers. We also compare the use of these measures among selected private and public programs. We studied twenty-three health plans with 121 million commercial enrollees--66 percent of the national commercial enrollment. The health plans reported using 546 distinct performance measures. There was much variation in the use of performance measures in both private and public payment and care delivery programs, despite common areas of focus that included cardiovascular conditions, diabetes, and preventive services. We conclude that policy makers and stakeholders who seek less variability in the use of performance measures to increase consistency should balance this goal with the need for flexibility to meet the needs of specific populations and promote innovation.

  20. Amendment and Innovative Technology Waiver for New Source Performance Standards for Kraft Pulp Mills: 1985 Final Rule (50 FR 6316)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is a copy of the Federal Register publication of the February 14, 1985 Final Rule for the Amendment and Innovative Technology Waiver for New Source Performance Standards for Kraft Pulp Mills.

  1. Changes in Anatomy Instruction and USMLE Performance: Empirical Evidence on the Absence of a Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuddy, Monica M.; Swanson, David B.; Drake, Richard L.; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy instruction has evolved over the past two decades as many medical schools have undergone various types of curricular reform. To provide empirical evidence about whether or not curricular changes impact the acquisition and retention of anatomy knowledge, this study investigated the effect of variation in gross anatomy course hours,…

  2. An Evaluation of Empirical Bayes's Estimation of Value-Added Teacher Performance Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Maxfield, Michelle; Reckase, Mark D.; Thompson, Paul N.; Wooldridge, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Empirical Bayes's (EB) estimation has become a popular procedure used to calculate teacher value added, often as a way to make imprecise estimates more reliable. In this article, we review the theory of EB estimation and use simulated and real student achievement data to study the ability of EB estimators to properly rank teachers. We compare the…

  3. Changes in Anatomy Instruction and USMLE Performance: Empirical Evidence on the Absence of a Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuddy, Monica M.; Swanson, David B.; Drake, Richard L.; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy instruction has evolved over the past two decades as many medical schools have undergone various types of curricular reform. To provide empirical evidence about whether or not curricular changes impact the acquisition and retention of anatomy knowledge, this study investigated the effect of variation in gross anatomy course hours,…

  4. An Evaluation of Empirical Bayes's Estimation of Value-Added Teacher Performance Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Maxfield, Michelle; Reckase, Mark D.; Thompson, Paul N.; Wooldridge, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Empirical Bayes's (EB) estimation has become a popular procedure used to calculate teacher value added, often as a way to make imprecise estimates more reliable. In this article, we review the theory of EB estimation and use simulated and real student achievement data to study the ability of EB estimators to properly rank teachers. We compare the…

  5. Innovative use of controlled availability fertilizers with high performance for intensive agriculture and environmental conservation.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Sadao

    2005-09-01

    A variety of slow release fertilizers, controlled release (availability) fertilizers (CAFs), and stability fertilizers have been developed in response to the serious drawbacks of the conventional fertilizers since the early 1960's. Of these fertilizers, CAFs which are coated with resin are consumed in the largest quantity in the world. Selecting CAFs with higher performance, the author will discuss about: 1) Innovation of agro-technologies for various field crops including new concepts of fertilizer application, 2) high yielding of field crops, 3) enhancing quality and safety of farm products, and 4) controlling the adverse effect of intensive agriculture on the environment.

  6. Innovative use of controlled availability fertilizers with high performance for intensive agriculture and environmental conservation.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Sadao

    2005-12-01

    A variety of slow release fertilizers, controlled release (availability) fertilizers (CAFs), and stability fertilizers have been developed in response to the serious drawbacks of the conventional fertilizers since the early 1960's. Of these fertilizers, CAFs which are coated with resin are consumed in the largest quantity in the world. Selecting CAFs with higher performance, the author will discuss about: 1) Innovation of agro-technologies for various field crops including new concepts of fertilizer application, 2) high yielding of field crops, 3) enhancing quality and safety of farm products, and 4) controlling the adverse effect of intensive agriculture on the environment.

  7. Modern Disposable Diaper Construction: Innovations in Performance Help Maintain Healthy Diapered Skin.

    PubMed

    Counts, Jennifer L; Helmes, C Tucker; Kenneally, Dianna; Otts, David R

    2014-08-01

    Disposable diapers today employ dramatically better fitting, less bulky, and more environmentally friendly features that deliver better performance and help provide protection for infant skin. Continuous innovations in technology and materials have resulted in new generations of disposable diapers that provide extended dryness and reduced leakage. Driven by studies on the skin's response to inherent influences, such as overhydration and irritation, the qualities of disposable diapers today present significant enhancements for skin health compared with earlier disposable versions and even cloth diapers. Over the years, these enhancements in disposable diapers have helped lead to a reduction in incidence and severity of diaper dermatitis.

  8. Arbitration Board Setting Reimbursement Amounts for Pharmaceutical Innovations in Germany When Price Negations between Payers and Manufacturers Fail: An Empirical Analysis of 5 Years' Experience.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Saskia; Dintsios, Charalabos-Markos

    2016-12-01

    In Germany, an arbitration board is setting reimbursement amounts for drug innovations when price negations between payers and manufacturers fail. To empirically analyze all arbitrations since the reform of Germany's Act to Reorganize the Pharmaceuticals' Market in the Statutory Health Insurance System came into effect. All available relevant documents up to January 2016 were screened and the identified contentious issues between the negotiation parties extracted. Reimbursement requests of both the negotiating parties and the arbitrations were transformed into a comparable format on the basis of defined daily doses and then contrasted among each other. In the given period, 16 arbitrations took place. The arbitration board is implementing the same criteria used in the negotiations between manufacturers and payers. Almost all arbitrations dealt with generic appropriate comparative therapies. Reimbursement amounts set by arbitration were on average 38.4% less than the mean of negotiation parties' requests (69.2% less than the manufacturers' requests). The corresponding prescription volumes were arranged rather centrally. All but one arbitration refer to a 1-year contract period. The arbitration board rarely decided on further technical contentious points. Hence, no heuristics referring to them were derivable. There is some evidence for a quasi-algorithmic approach of the arbitration board, even though it is legally determined that it has to decide while taking the peculiar conditions of each case into due consideration, including the characteristics of the respective therapeutic area. The balance of interests proved to be within a very narrow space albeit it concerns in principle discretionary decisions. Thus, the purpose of arbitration seems not to be achieved sufficiently. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. What is a new drug worth? An innovative model for performance-based pricing.

    PubMed

    Dranitsaris, G; Dorward, K; Owens, R C; Schipper, H

    2015-05-01

    This article focuses on a novel method to derive prices for new pharmaceuticals by making price a function of drug performance. We briefly review current models for determining price for a new product and discuss alternatives that have historically been favoured by various funding bodies. The progressive approach to drug pricing, proposed herein, may better address the views and concerns of multiple stakeholders in a developed healthcare system by acknowledging and incorporating input from disparate parties via comprehensive and successive negotiation stages. In proposing a valid construct for performance-based pricing, the following model seeks to achieve several crucial objectives: earlier and wider access to new treatments; improved transparency in drug pricing; multi-stakeholder involvement through phased pricing negotiations; recognition of innovative product performance and latent changes in value; an earlier and more predictable return for developers without sacrificing total return on investment (ROI); more involved and informed risk sharing by the end-user.

  10. Possibilities and Realities in Leveraging Innovative Technologies and Techniques to Meet Aggressive Remediation Timelines and Performance Goals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-30

    Innovative  Technologies & Techniques to Meet Aggressive  Remediation Timelines & Performance Goals Greg Gervais USEPA Office of  Superfund  Remediation...S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation,1200 Pennsylvania Avenue NW...MR. GREGORY GERVAIS, P.E. USEPA Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue NW 5203P Washington, DC 20460

  11. The moderating role of absorptive capacity and the differential effects of acquisitions and alliances on Big Pharma firms' innovation performance

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, K. D. S.; Pennings, H. P. G.; van den Bosch, J. F.; Commandeur, H. R.; Claassen, E.

    2017-01-01

    In the context of increased pharmaceutical innovation deficits and Big Pharma blockbusters’ patent expirations, this paper examines the moderating role of firms’ absorptive capacity in external innovation activities of Big Pharma firms. The study indicates a rising interest of Big Pharma in acquisitions of and alliances with biotechnology companies. Unfortunately, this increased interest is not reflected in the number of new drugs generated by Big Pharma. We find that acquisitions of biotech companies have negatively affected Big Pharma firms’ innovation performance on average but these acquisitions might have a positive effect at higher levels of acquiring firms’ absorptive capacity. Moreover, also acquisitions of pharma companies and alliances with biotech companies only have a positive effect on innovation performance at sufficiently high levels of absorptive capacity. The moderating role of absorptive capacity implicates that a tight integration of internal R&D efforts and (unrelated) external knowledge is crucial for harnessing complementarity effects. PMID:28231332

  12. The moderating role of absorptive capacity and the differential effects of acquisitions and alliances on Big Pharma firms' innovation performance.

    PubMed

    Fernald, K D S; Pennings, H P G; van den Bosch, J F; Commandeur, H R; Claassen, E

    2017-01-01

    In the context of increased pharmaceutical innovation deficits and Big Pharma blockbusters' patent expirations, this paper examines the moderating role of firms' absorptive capacity in external innovation activities of Big Pharma firms. The study indicates a rising interest of Big Pharma in acquisitions of and alliances with biotechnology companies. Unfortunately, this increased interest is not reflected in the number of new drugs generated by Big Pharma. We find that acquisitions of biotech companies have negatively affected Big Pharma firms' innovation performance on average but these acquisitions might have a positive effect at higher levels of acquiring firms' absorptive capacity. Moreover, also acquisitions of pharma companies and alliances with biotech companies only have a positive effect on innovation performance at sufficiently high levels of absorptive capacity. The moderating role of absorptive capacity implicates that a tight integration of internal R&D efforts and (unrelated) external knowledge is crucial for harnessing complementarity effects.

  13. National Innovation and Knowledge Performance: The Role of Higher Education Teaching and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saad, Mohammed; Guermat, Cherif; Brodie, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of the higher education system (HES) in the production of national innovation. We focus on the issue of institutional diversity of HESs and its impact on national innovation systems. We identify four key HES characteristics and hypothesize their influence on the production of national innovation. The empirical…

  14. National Innovation and Knowledge Performance: The Role of Higher Education Teaching and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saad, Mohammed; Guermat, Cherif; Brodie, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of the higher education system (HES) in the production of national innovation. We focus on the issue of institutional diversity of HESs and its impact on national innovation systems. We identify four key HES characteristics and hypothesize their influence on the production of national innovation. The empirical…

  15. Developing a Model for an Innovative Culinary Competency Curriculum and Examining Its Effects on Students' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Meng-Lei I-Chen Monica; Horng, Jeou-Shyan; Teng, Chih-Ching

    2016-01-01

    The present study designs and develops an innovative culinary competency curriculum (ICCC) model comprising seven sections: innovative culture, aesthetics, techniques, service, product, management, and creativity. The model is formulated based on culinary concept, creativity, innovation, and competency theory. The four elements of curriculum…

  16. Developing a Model for an Innovative Culinary Competency Curriculum and Examining Its Effects on Students' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Meng-Lei I-Chen Monica; Horng, Jeou-Shyan; Teng, Chih-Ching

    2016-01-01

    The present study designs and develops an innovative culinary competency curriculum (ICCC) model comprising seven sections: innovative culture, aesthetics, techniques, service, product, management, and creativity. The model is formulated based on culinary concept, creativity, innovation, and competency theory. The four elements of curriculum…

  17. Innovative two-stage mesophilic/thermophilic anaerobic degradation of sonicated sludge: performances and energy balance.

    PubMed

    Gianico, A; Braguglia, C M; Gallipoli, A; Mininni, G

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates for the first time, on laboratory scale, the possible application of an innovative enhanced stabilization process based on sequential mesophilic/thermophilic anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge, with low-energy sonication pretreatment. The first mesophilic digestion step was conducted at short hydraulic retention time (3-5 days), in order to favor volatile fatty acid production, followed by a longer thermophilic step of 10 days to enhance the bioconversion kinetics, assuring a complete pathogen removal. The high volatile solid removals, up to 55%, noticeably higher compared to the performances of a single-stage process carried out in same conditions, can guarantee the stability of the final digestate for land application. The ultrasonic pretreatment influenced significantly the fatty acid formation and composition during the first mesophilic step, improving consequently the thermophilic conversion of these compounds into methane. Methane yield from sonicated sludge digestion reached values up to 0.2 Nm(3)/kgVSfed. Positive energy balances highlighted the possible exploitation of this innovative two-stage digestion in place of conventional single-stage processes.

  18. Evaluating the predictive performance of empirical estimators of natural mortality rate using information on over 200 fish species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Then, Amy Y.; Hoenig, John M; Hall, Norman G.; Hewitt, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Many methods have been developed in the last 70 years to predict the natural mortality rate, M, of a stock based on empirical evidence from comparative life history studies. These indirect or empirical methods are used in most stock assessments to (i) obtain estimates of M in the absence of direct information, (ii) check on the reasonableness of a direct estimate of M, (iii) examine the range of plausible M estimates for the stock under consideration, and (iv) define prior distributions for Bayesian analyses. The two most cited empirical methods have appeared in the literature over 2500 times to date. Despite the importance of these methods, there is no consensus in the literature on how well these methods work in terms of prediction error or how their performance may be ranked. We evaluate estimators based on various combinations of maximum age (tmax), growth parameters, and water temperature by seeing how well they reproduce >200 independent, direct estimates of M. We use tenfold cross-validation to estimate the prediction error of the estimators and to rank their performance. With updated and carefully reviewed data, we conclude that a tmax-based estimator performs the best among all estimators evaluated. The tmax-based estimators in turn perform better than the Alverson–Carney method based on tmax and the von Bertalanffy K coefficient, Pauly's method based on growth parameters and water temperature and methods based just on K. It is possible to combine two independent methods by computing a weighted mean but the improvement over the tmax-based methods is slight. Based on cross-validation prediction error, model residual patterns, model parsimony, and biological considerations, we recommend the use of a tmax-based estimator (M=4.899t−0.916max, prediction error = 0.32) when possible and a growth-based method (M=4.118K0.73L−0.33∞ , prediction error = 0.6) otherwise.

  19. Causal Relationships among Technology Acquisition, Absorptive Capacity, and Innovation Performance: Evidence from the Pharmaceutical Industry.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jieun; Hong, Suckchul; Ohm, Jay; Yang, Taeyong

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of absorptive capacity in improving a firm's innovation performance. Specifically, we examine firm interaction with the knowledge and capabilities of outside organizations and the effect on the firm's bottom line. We use the impulse-response function of the vector auto-regressive model to gain insight into this relationship by estimating the time required for the effect of each activity level to reach outputs, the spillover effects. We apply this methodology to pharmaceutical firms, which we classify into two sub-groups--large firms and medium and small firms--based on sales. Our results show that the impact of an activity on any other activity is delayed by three years for large firms and by one to two years for small and medium firms.

  20. Causal Relationships among Technology Acquisition, Absorptive Capacity, and Innovation Performance: Evidence from the Pharmaceutical Industry

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jieun; Hong, Suckchul; Ohm, Jay; Yang, Taeyong

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of absorptive capacity in improving a firm’s innovation performance. Specifically, we examine firm interaction with the knowledge and capabilities of outside organizations and the effect on the firm’s bottom line. We use the impulse-response function of the vector auto-regressive model to gain insight into this relationship by estimating the time required for the effect of each activity level to reach outputs, the spillover effects. We apply this methodology to pharmaceutical firms, which we classify into two sub-groups – large firms and medium and small firms – based on sales. Our results show that the impact of an activity on any other activity is delayed by three years for large firms and by one to two years for small and medium firms. PMID:26181440

  1. More for less: Analysis of the performance of avian acute oral guideline OECD 223 from empirical data.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Peter J; Leopold, Annegaaike; Beavers, Joann B; Springer, Timothy A; Chapman, Peter; Maynard, Samuel K; Hubbard, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    Since the publication of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) avian acute oral guideline, OECD 223, empirical data have become available to compare the performance of OECD 223 with statistical simulations used to validate this guideline and with empirical data for US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention (USEPA OCSPP) guideline OCSPP 850.2100. Empirical studies comprised 244 for Northern bobwhite, of which 73 were dose-response tests and 171 were limit tests. Of the dose-response tests, 26 were conducted to OECD 223 (using 3-4 stages) and 33 to OCSPP 850.2100 (using the single 50-bird design). Data were collected from 5 avian testing laboratories from studies performed between 2006 and 2013. The success with which the LD50 and slope could be determined was 100% and 96% for OECD 223 (mean 26 birds per test) and 100% and 51% for OCSPP 850.2100 (mean 50 birds per test). This was consistent with the statistical simulations. Control mortality across all species and designs amounted to 0.26% (n = 2655) with only single mortalities occurring in any 1 study and <1% for any 1 species. The simulations used to validate the OECD 223 design showed that control mortality up to 1% will have no observable impact on the performance. The distribution of time to death for Northern bobwhite, zebra finch, and canary were obtained from 90, 29, and 17 studies, and mortalities appeared within 3 d for 71%, 95%, and 91% of birds tested, respectively. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:906-914. © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).

  2. Interventions (Solutions) Usage and Expertise in Performance Technology Practice: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Tiem, Darlene M.

    2004-01-01

    Performance technology (PT) is complex, drawing theory from instructional design, organizational development, communications, industrial psychology, and industrial engineering to name a few. The Standards of Performance Technology developed for the certified performance technology designation codified the processes used in the practice of…

  3. Interventions (Solutions) Usage and Expertise in Performance Technology Practice: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Tiem, Darlene M.

    2004-01-01

    Performance technology (PT) is complex, drawing theory from instructional design, organizational development, communications, industrial psychology, and industrial engineering to name a few. The Standards of Performance Technology developed for the certified performance technology designation codified the processes used in the practice of…

  4. An empirical examination of the mechanisms mediating between high-performance work systems and the performance of Japanese organizations.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Riki; Lepak, David P; Wang, Heli; Takeuchi, Kazuo

    2007-07-01

    The resource-based view of the firm and social exchange perspectives are invoked to hypothesize linkages among high-performance work systems, collective human capital, the degree of social exchange in an establishment, and establishment performance. The authors argue that high-performance work systems generate a high level of collective human capital and encourage a high degree of social exchange within an organization, and that these are positively related to the organization's overall performance. On the basis of a sample of Japanese establishments, the results provide support for the existence of these mediating mechanisms through which high-performance work systems affect overall establishment performance.

  5. An empirically derived figure of merit for the quality of overall task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemay, Moira

    1989-01-01

    The need to develop an operationally relevant figure of merit for the quality of performance of a complex system such as an aircraft cockpit stems from a hypothesized dissociation between measures of performance and those of workload. Performance can be measured in terms of time, errors, or a combination of these. In most tasks performed by expert operators, errors are relatively rare and often corrected in time to avoid consequences. Moreover, perfect performance is seldom necessary to accomplish a particular task. Moreover, how well an expert performs a complex task consisting of a series of discrete cognitive tasks superimposed on a continuous task, such as flying an aircraft, does not depend on how well each discrete task is performed, but on their smooth sequencing. This makes the amount of time spent on each subtask of paramount importance in measuring overall performance, since smooth sequencing requires a minimum amount of time spent on each task. Quality consists in getting tasks done within a crucial time interval while maintaining acceptable continuous task performance. Thus, a figure of merit for overall quality of performance should be primarily a measure of time to perform discrete subtasks combined with a measure of basic vehicle control. Thus, the proposed figure of merit requires doing a task analysis on a series of performance, or runs, of a particular task, listing each discrete task and its associated time, and calculating the mean and standard deviation of these times, along with the mean and standard deviation of tracking error for the whole task. A set of simulator data on 30 runs of a landing task was obtained and a figure of merit will be calculated for each run. The figure of merit will be compared for voice and data link, so that the impact of this technology on total crew performance (not just communication performance) can be assessed. The effect of data link communication on other cockpit tasks will also be considered.

  6. An Empirical Examination of the Mechanisms Mediating between High-Performance Work Systems and the Performance of Japanese Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Riki; Lepak, David P.; Wang, Heli; Takeuchi, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    The resource-based view of the firm and social exchange perspectives are invoked to hypothesize linkages among high-performance work systems, collective human capital, the degree of social exchange in an establishment, and establishment performance. The authors argue that high-performance work systems generate a high level of collective human…

  7. An Empirical Examination of the Mechanisms Mediating between High-Performance Work Systems and the Performance of Japanese Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Riki; Lepak, David P.; Wang, Heli; Takeuchi, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    The resource-based view of the firm and social exchange perspectives are invoked to hypothesize linkages among high-performance work systems, collective human capital, the degree of social exchange in an establishment, and establishment performance. The authors argue that high-performance work systems generate a high level of collective human…

  8. Barriers to the adoption of ergonomic innovations to control musculoskeletal disorders and improve performance.

    PubMed

    Karsh, Ben-Tzion; Newenhouse, Astrid C; Chapman, Larry J

    2013-01-01

    Despite a growing number of published articles describing studies of ergonomic interventions, little is known about the barriers potential adopters face when deciding whether or not to adopt such innovations. To this end, the purpose of this paper is to examine the barriers identified by potential adopters of ergonomic innovations and compare barriers identified by individuals not interested in adopting to those identified by individuals planning to adopt. Eight hundred forty-eight fresh market vegetable farmers were mailed surveys measuring the adoption of and barriers to the adoption of several ergonomic innovations as part of a multi-year intervention study. Barriers such as cost, lack of information, never having seen the innovation used and not being able to try out the innovation were among the barriers identified. The barriers identified were moderated by whether or not the respondents were likely to adopt. Implications for diffusing ergonomic and safety innovations are discussed.

  9. Innovative multilayer coatings for space solar physics: performances and stability over time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuppella, Paola; Corso, Alain J.; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio; Windt, David L.; Pelizzo, Maria G.

    2011-05-01

    Different solar mission are in progress and others are foreseen in the next future to study the structure and the dynamics of the Sun and its interaction with the Earth. Different instruments devoted to solar physics are required to have high reflecting MultiLayers (MLs) coatings. For example, the Multi Element Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy (METIS) coronograph will fly on board of SOLar Orbiter (SOLO) mission to perform simultaneous observation at 30.4 nm (He - II Lyman - α line), 121.6 nm (H - I Lyman - α line) and in the visible range, therefore its optics will require high performances in a wide spectral region. It should be desirable to reach higher reflectivity as well as long term stability and lifetime, then different candidate coatings will be considered. The Sounding - Rocket Coronographic Experiment (SCORE) is a prototype of METIS equipped with Mg/SiC optics and it has flown on board of a NASA sounding rocket. The Mg/SiC multilayers offer good performances in terms of reflectivity, but the long term stability and the lifetime have been preliminary investigated and there are open problems to be further studied. Besides standard Mo/Si multilayer, a possible alternative is represented by new multilayer structures based on well known Mo/Si stack in which the performances have been improved by superimposing innovative capping layers. Another alternative is represented by a recently developed multilayer based on an Ir/Si material couple. In this paper we review and compare the performances of such multilayer in all the spectral ranges of interest for SOLO.

  10. An Empirical Look at Developmental Interventions and Student Performance in the First Intermediate Accounting Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Terry J.; Foote, Rebecca A.; Phillips, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Due to concerns about student performance in Intermediate Accounting I, our Department of Accounting established an Intermediate Readiness Committee in the spring of 2006 to create a developmental program for students entering Intermediate I, with the goal of improving performance in that course. Over the next two years, the Committee established…

  11. Cognitive Load Theory: An Empirical Study of Anxiety and Task Performance in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, I-Jung; Chang, Chi-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: This study explores the relationship among three variables--cognitive load, foreign language anxiety, and task performance. Cognitive load refers to the load imposed on working memory while performing a particular task. The authors hypothesized that anxiety consumes the resources of working memory, leaving less capacity for cognitive…

  12. Empirical Model and Analysis of Mastery and Performance-Approach Goals: A Developmental Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Huy Phuong

    2010-01-01

    This study used latent growth modelling (LGM) to explore the developmental course and longitudinal relationships between achievement goals (mastery and performance-approach) and academic performance over a three-year period (four time-points of data collection). Three hundred and fifty-two university students (152 women, 200 men) who first…

  13. The Importance of Civic Responsibility in Higher Performing Middle Schools: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Kristen C.

    2011-01-01

    In this case study, a district-wide focus on the development of civic responsibility is seen as an important component in the success of higher performing middle schools. Salient features of best practice were gathered from teacher and administrator interviews and documentary evidence in 10 higher performing, yet "beating the odds" schools, and…

  14. The Importance of Civic Responsibility in Higher Performing Middle Schools: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Kristen C.

    2011-01-01

    In this case study, a district-wide focus on the development of civic responsibility is seen as an important component in the success of higher performing middle schools. Salient features of best practice were gathered from teacher and administrator interviews and documentary evidence in 10 higher performing, yet "beating the odds" schools, and…

  15. An Empirical Analysis of the Performance of Vietnamese Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Carolyn-Dung T. T.; Villano, Renato A.

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of the academic performance of higher education institutions (HEIs) in Vietnam with 50 universities and 50 colleges in 2011/12. The two-stage semiparametric data envelopment analysis is used to estimate the efficiency of HEIs and investigate the effects of various factors on their performance. The findings reveal…

  16. Performance-based management and quality of work: an empirical assessment.

    PubMed

    Falzon, Pierre; Nascimento, Adelaide; Gaudart, Corinne; Piney, Cécile; Dujarier, Marie-Anne; Germe, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    In France, in the private sector as in the public sector, performance-based management tends to become a norm. Performance-based management is supposed to improve service quality, productivity and efficiency, transparency of allotted means and achieved results, and to better focus the activity of employees and of the whole organization. This text reports a study conducted for the French Ministry of Budget by a team of researchers in ergonomics, sociology and management science, in order to assess the impact of performance-based management on employees, on teams and on work organization. About 100 interviews were conducted with employees of all categories and 6 working groups were set up in order to discuss and validate or amend our first analyses. Results concern several aspects: workload and work intensification, indicators and performance management and the transformation of jobs induced by performance management.

  17. Mixing students and performance artists to provide innovative ways of communicating scientific research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Manen, S. M.

    2007-12-01

    In May 2007 the Open University (U.K.) in conjunction with the MK (Milton Keynes) Gallery invited performance artists Noble and Silver to work with a group of students to design innovative methods of disseminating their research to a general audience. The students created a multitude of well-received live and multimedia performances based on their research. Students found they greatly benefited from the artists' and each others' different viewpoints and backgrounds, resulting in improved communication skills and varying interpretations of their own topic of interest. This work focuses on research aimed at identifying precursory activity at volcanoes using temperature, earthquake and ground movement data, to aid improvement of early warning systems. For this project an aspect of the research relevant to the public was chosen: the importance of appropriately timed warnings regarding the possibility of an eruption. If a warning is issued too early it may cause complacency and apathy towards the situation, whereas issuing a warning too late may endanger lives and property. An interactive DVD was produced which leads the user through the events preceding a volcanic eruption. The goal is to warn the public about the impending eruption at the most appropriate time. Data is presented in short film clips, after which questions are posed. Based on the player's answers the consequences or follow-up events of the choices are explored. We aim to improve and expand upon this concept in the near future, as well as making the DVD available to schools for educational purposes.

  18. Enhancing learning, innovation, adaptation, and sustainability in health care organizations: the ELIAS performance management framework.

    PubMed

    Persaud, D David

    2014-01-01

    The development of sustainable health care organizations that provide high-quality accessible care is a topic of intense interest. This article provides a practical performance management framework that can be utilized to develop sustainable health care organizations. It is a cyclical 5-step process that is premised on accountability, performance management, and learning practices that are the foundation for a continuous process of measurement, disconfirmation, contextualization, implementation, and routinization This results in the enhancement of learning, innovation, adaptation, and sustainability (ELIAS). Important considerations such as recognizing that health care organizations are complex adaptive systems and the presence of a dynamic learning culture are necessary contextual factors that maximize the effectiveness of the proposed framework. Importantly, the ELIAS framework utilizes data that are already being collected by health care organizations for accountability, improvement, evaluation, and strategic purposes. Therefore, the benefit of the framework, when used as outlined, would be to enhance the chances of health care organizations achieving the goals of ongoing adaptation and sustainability, by design, rather than by chance.

  19. Experimental analysis of the aerodynamic performance of an innovative low pressure turbine rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Infantino, Daniele; Satta, Francesca; Simoni, Daniele; Ubaldi, Marina; Zunino, Pietro; Bertini, Francesco

    2016-02-01

    In the present work the aerodynamic performances of an innovative rotor blade row have been experimentally investigated. Measurements have been carried out in a large scale low speed single stage cold flow facility at a Reynolds number typical of aeroengine cruise, under nominal and off-design conditions. The time-mean blade aerodynamic loadings have been measured at three radial positions along the blade height through a pressure transducer installed inside the hollow shaft, by delivering the signal to the stationary frame with a slip ring. The time mean aerodynamic flow fields upstream and downstream of the rotor have been measured by means of a five-hole probe to investigate the losses associated with the rotor. The investigations in the single stage research turbine allow the reproduction of both wake-boundary layer interaction as well as vortex-vortex interaction. The detail of the present results clearly highlights the strong dissipative effects induced by the blade tip vortex and by the momentum defect as well as the turbulence production, which is generated during the migration of the stator wake in the rotor passage. Phase-locked hot-wire investigations have been also performed to analyze the time-varying flow during the wake passing period. In particular the interaction between stator and rotor structures has been investigated also under off-design conditions to further explain the mechanisms contributing to the loss generation for the different conditions.

  20. An implementation of co-simulation for performance prediction of innovative integrated HVAC systems in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Trcka, Marija; Wetter, Michael; Hensen, Jan L.M.

    2010-07-01

    Integrated performance simulation of buildings and heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems can help reducing energy consumption and increasing level of occupant comfort. However, no singe building performance simulation (BPS) tool offers sufficient capabilities and flexibilities to accommodate the ever-increasing complexity and rapid innovations in building and system technologies. One way to alleviate this problem is to use co-simulation. The co-simulation approach represents a particular case of simulation scenario where at least two simulators solve coupled differential-algebraic systems of equations and exchange data that couples these equations during the time integration. This paper elaborates on issues important for co-simulation realization and discusses multiple possibilities to justify the particular approach implemented in a co-simulation prototype. The prototype is verified and validated against the results obtained from the traditional simulation approach. It is further used in a case study for the proof-of-concept, to demonstrate the applicability of the method and to highlight its benefits. Stability and accuracy of different coupling strategies are analyzed to give a guideline for the required coupling frequency. The paper concludes by defining requirements and recommendations for generic cosimulation implementations.

  1. The Practice Teaching Platform and System for Innovating Talents and Performing Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Boyu; Hao, Ziqiang

    2014-01-01

    The practice education is an important part of higher educational system and an important approach to cultivating applied innovative talents. This paper studies practice of teaching platform and practical teaching system for the research and practice based on the objective basis of applied innovative talents and the basic characteristics of the…

  2. An empirical analysis of thermal protective performance of fabrics used in protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Sumit; Song, Guowen

    2014-10-01

    Fabric-based protective clothing is widely used for occupational safety of firefighters/industrial workers. The aim of this paper is to study thermal protective performance provided by fabric systems and to propose an effective model for predicting the thermal protective performance under various thermal exposures. Different fabric systems that are commonly used to manufacture thermal protective clothing were selected. Laboratory simulations of the various thermal exposures were created to evaluate the protective performance of the selected fabric systems in terms of time required to generate second-degree burns. Through the characterization of selected fabric systems in a particular thermal exposure, various factors affecting the performances were statistically analyzed. The key factors for a particular thermal exposure were recognized based on the t-test analysis. Using these key factors, the performance predictive multiple linear regression and artificial neural network (ANN) models were developed and compared. The identified best-fit ANN models provide a basic tool to study thermal protective performance of a fabric.

  3. Determinants of marketing performance: empirical study at National Commercial Bank in Jakarta Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Limakrisna, Nandan; Yoserizal, Syahril

    2016-01-01

    Indonesian banking industry has experienced up and down as can be seen after Pakto '88, in which the number of new banks grew rapidly, but after the 1997-1998 financial crisis, a lot of banks were liquidated due to the deteriorating financial condition and violation of the precautionary principles by bank management. The purpose of this research is to determine and analyze the effects of good corporate governance, information technology, HR competencies on competitive advantage and its implication on marketing performance. The method used in this research was a descriptive survey and explanatory survey with a sample size of 320 respondents, and the data analysis methods used are structural equation modeling. Based on the results of the research, the findings obtained from good corporate governance, information technology, HR competencies have a significant effect on competitive advantage on the performance of marketing. However, when seen in part, competitive advantage has a dominant effect on marketing performance.

  4. An empirical investigation of dispositional antecedents and performance-related outcomes of credit scores.

    PubMed

    Bernerth, Jeremy B; Taylor, Shannon G; Walker, H Jack; Whitman, Daniel S

    2012-03-01

    Many organizations use credit scores as an employment screening tool, but little is known about the legitimacy of such practices. To address this important gap, the reported research conceptualized credit scores as a biographical measure of financial responsibility and investigated dispositional antecedents and performance-related outcomes. Using personality data collected from employees, objective credit scores obtained from the Fair Isaac Corporation, and performance data provided by supervisors, we found conscientiousness to be positively related and agreeableness to be negatively related to credit scores. Results also indicate significant relationships between credit scores and task performance and organizational citizenship behaviors. Credit scores did not, however, predict workplace deviance. Implications for organizations currently using or planning to use credit scores as part of the screening process are discussed.

  5. Board characteristics, governance objectives, and hospital performance: An empirical analysis of German hospitals.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Andrea; Winter, Vera; Büchner, Vera Antonia

    2017-02-02

    There is a growing need for hospital supervisory boards to support hospital management in different areas, including (financial) monitoring, resource provision, stakeholder relationships, and strategic decision-making. Little is currently known about how boards' emphases on these various governance objectives contribute to performance. Using a dominant logics perspective, this article aims to detect the governance logics that hospital boards emphasize, to determine whether there are distinct clusters of hospitals with the same sets of emphases, and to show how cluster membership relates to board characteristics and financial performance. Using factor analysis, we identify latent classes of governance objectives and use hierarchical cluster analysis to detect distinct clusters with varying emphasis on the classes. We then use multinomial regression to explore the associations between cluster membership and board characteristics (size, gender diversity, and occupational diversity) and examine the associations between clusters and financial performance using OLS regression. Classes of objectives reflecting three governance theories-agency theory, stewardship theory, and stakeholder theory-can be distinguished, and hospitals can be divided into four clusters based on their board's relative emphasis on the classes. Cluster membership is significantly associated with board characteristics. There is also a significant association between cluster membership and hospital financial performance, with two of three groups performing significantly better than the reference group. High performance in hospitals can be the result of governance logics, which, compared to simple board characteristics, are associated with better financial outcomes. Hospitals can influence the emphasis placed on different governance objectives and enhance organizational success by creating boards that are small enough to be effective yet diverse enough to profit from a wide variety of expertise and

  6. The financial performance of the health care industry: a global, regional and industry specific empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Dorfleitner, Gregor; Rößle, Felix

    2017-06-02

    This article analyzes the financial (out-) performance of all listed health care companies. The health care sector outperformed the market in the period from 2000 to June 2015. The performance was driven by companies from Americas, and Asia as well as companies from the pharmaceuticals sub-segment. Additionally, bull periods appear to be the main driver for the outperformance. Euro-based investors can expect different outcomes of their investments to those of USD investors. However, the main trends remain unchanged.

  7. A new multivariate empirical mode decomposition method for improving the performance of SSVEP-based brain-computer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Feng; Atal, Kiran; Xie, Sheng-Quan; Liu, Quan

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Accurate and efficient detection of steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) in electroencephalogram (EEG) is essential for the related brain-computer interface (BCI) applications. Approach. Although the canonical correlation analysis (CCA) has been applied extensively and successfully to SSVEP recognition, the spontaneous EEG activities and artifacts that often occur during data recording can deteriorate the recognition performance. Therefore, it is meaningful to extract a few frequency sub-bands of interest to avoid or reduce the influence of unrelated brain activity and artifacts. This paper presents an improved method to detect the frequency component associated with SSVEP using multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD) and CCA (MEMD-CCA). EEG signals from nine healthy volunteers were recorded to evaluate the performance of the proposed method for SSVEP recognition. Main results. We compared our method with CCA and temporally local multivariate synchronization index (TMSI). The results suggest that the MEMD-CCA achieved significantly higher accuracy in contrast to standard CCA and TMSI. It gave the improvements of 1.34%, 3.11%, 3.33%, 10.45%, 15.78%, 18.45%, 15.00% and 14.22% on average over CCA at time windows from 0.5 s to 5 s and 0.55%, 1.56%, 7.78%, 14.67%, 13.67%, 7.33% and 7.78% over TMSI from 0.75 s to 5 s. The method outperformed the filter-based decomposition (FB), empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and wavelet decomposition (WT) based CCA for SSVEP recognition. Significance. The results demonstrate the ability of our proposed MEMD-CCA to improve the performance of SSVEP-based BCI.

  8. Performance of the internal audit department under ERP systems: empirical evidence from Taiwanese firms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Wen-Hsien; Chen, Hui-Chiao; Chang, Jui-Chu; Leu, Jun-Der; Chao Chen, Der; Purbokusumo, Yuyun

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the performance of the internal audit department (IAD) and its contribution to a company under enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems was examined. It is anticipated that this will provide insight into the factors perceived to be crucial to a company's effectiveness. A theoretical framework was developed and tested using the sample of Taiwanese companies. Using mail survey procedures, we elicited perceptions from key internal auditors about the ERP system and auditing software, as well as their opinions concerning the IAD's effectiveness and its contribution within a company. Data were analysed using the partial least square (PLS) regression to test the hypotheses. Drawing upon a sample of Taiwanese firms, the study suggests that a firm can improve the performance of the IAD through an enterprise-wide integrated, effective ERP system and appropriate auditing software. At the same time, the performance of the IAD can also contribute significantly to the company. The results also show that investments in computer-assisted auditing techniques (CAATs) are crucial due to their tremendous effectiveness in regard to the performance of the IAD and for the contributions CAATs can make to a company.

  9. Do Learning and Study Skills Affect Academic Performance?--An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Richard; MacKewn, Angie; Moser, Ernest; VanVuren, Ken W.

    2012-01-01

    Universities and colleges are very interested in understanding the factors that influence their students' academic performance. This paper describes a study that was conducted at a mid-sized public university in the mid-south, USA, to examine this issue. In this study, the 10-scale, Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) (Weinstein et…

  10. The Empirical Relationship among Organisational Learning, Continuous Improvement and Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Hongyi; Ho, Kario; Ni, Wenbin

    2008-01-01

    There are still many questions remain unanswered about the relationship between Organisational Learning (OL) and Continuous Improvement (CI). For example, how do OL and CI contribute to business performance? Are OL and CI equal? Do OL and CI support each other? Should OL and CI be implemented separately or together? If together, how to integrate…

  11. An Empirical Investigation of Dispositional Antecedents and Performance-Related Outcomes of Credit Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernerth, Jeremy B.; Taylor, Shannon G.; Walker, H. Jack; Whitman, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Many organizations use credit scores as an employment screening tool, but little is known about the legitimacy of such practices. To address this important gap, the reported research conceptualized credit scores as a biographical measure of financial responsibility and investigated dispositional antecedents and performance-related outcomes. Using…

  12. University Students' Academic Performance: An Integrative Conceptual Framework and Empirical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenollar, Pedro; Roman, Sergio; Cuestas, Pedro J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The prediction and explanation of academic performance and the investigation of the factors relating to the academic success and persistence of students are topics of utmost importance in higher education. Aims: The main aim of the present study is to develop and test a conceptual framework in a university context, where the effects of…

  13. Measuring Organizational Learning Capability in Indian Managers and Establishing Firm Performance Linkage: An Empirical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatnagar, Jyotsna

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to measure Organizational Learning Capability (OLC) perception in the managers of public, private and multinational organizations and establish the link between OLC and firm performance. Design/methodology/approach: The data were collected from a sample of 612 managers randomly drawn from Indian industry,…

  14. The influence of system quality characteristics on health care providers' performance: Empirical evidence from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd Salleh, Mohd Idzwan; Zakaria, Nasriah; Abdullah, Rosni

    The Ministry of Health Malaysia initiated the total hospital information system (THIS) as the first national electronic health record system for use in selected public hospitals across the country. Since its implementation 15 years ago, there has been the critical requirement for a systematic evaluation to assess its effectiveness in coping with the current system, task complexity, and rapid technological changes. The study aims to assess system quality factors to predict the performance of electronic health in a single public hospital in Malaysia. Non-probability sampling was employed for data collection among selected providers in a single hospital for two months. Data cleaning and bias checking were performed before final analysis in partial least squares-structural equation modeling. Convergent and discriminant validity assessments were satisfied the required criterions in the reflective measurement model. The structural model output revealed that the proposed adequate infrastructure, system interoperability, security control, and system compatibility were the significant predictors, where system compatibility became the most critical characteristic to influence an individual health care provider's performance. The previous DeLone and McLean information system success models should be extended to incorporate these technological factors in the medical system research domain to examine the effectiveness of modern electronic health record systems. In this study, care providers' performance was expected when the system usage fits with patients' needs that eventually increased their productivity. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Empirical Relationship among Organisational Learning, Continuous Improvement and Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Hongyi; Ho, Kario; Ni, Wenbin

    2008-01-01

    There are still many questions remain unanswered about the relationship between Organisational Learning (OL) and Continuous Improvement (CI). For example, how do OL and CI contribute to business performance? Are OL and CI equal? Do OL and CI support each other? Should OL and CI be implemented separately or together? If together, how to integrate…

  16. Measuring Organizational Learning Capability in Indian Managers and Establishing Firm Performance Linkage: An Empirical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatnagar, Jyotsna

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to measure Organizational Learning Capability (OLC) perception in the managers of public, private and multinational organizations and establish the link between OLC and firm performance. Design/methodology/approach: The data were collected from a sample of 612 managers randomly drawn from Indian industry,…

  17. An Empirical Investigation of Dispositional Antecedents and Performance-Related Outcomes of Credit Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernerth, Jeremy B.; Taylor, Shannon G.; Walker, H. Jack; Whitman, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Many organizations use credit scores as an employment screening tool, but little is known about the legitimacy of such practices. To address this important gap, the reported research conceptualized credit scores as a biographical measure of financial responsibility and investigated dispositional antecedents and performance-related outcomes. Using…

  18. Macropore flow at the field scale: predictive performance of empirical models and X-ray CT analyzed macropore characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naveed, M.; Moldrup, P.; Schaap, M.; Tuller, M.; Kulkarni, R.; Vögel, H.-J.; Wollesen de Jonge, L.

    2015-11-01

    Predictions of macropore flow is important for maintaining both soil and water quality as it governs key related soil processes e.g. soil erosion and subsurface transport of pollutants. However, macropore flow currently cannot be reliably predicted at the field scale because of inherently large spatial variability. The aim of this study was to perform field scale characterization of macropore flow and investigate the predictive performance of (1) current empirical models for both water and air flow, and (2) X-ray CT derived macropore network characteristics. For this purpose, 65 cylindrical soil columns (6 cm diameter and 3.5 cm height) were extracted from the topsoil (5 to 8.5 cm depth) in a 15 m × 15 m grid from an agricultural loamy field located in Silstrup, Denmark. All soil columns were scanned with an industrial CT scanner (129 μm resolution) and later used for measurements of saturated water permeability, air permeability and gas diffusivity at -30 and -100 cm matric potentials. Distribution maps for both water and air permeabilities and gas diffusivity reflected no spatial correlation irrespective of the soil texture and organic matter maps. Empirical predictive models for both water and air permeabilities showed poor performance as they were not able to realistically capture macropore flow because of poor correlations with soil texture and bulk density. The tested empirical model predicted well gas diffusivity at -100 cm matric potential, but relatively failed at -30 cm matric potential particularly for samples with biopore flow. Image segmentation output of the four employed methods was nearly the same, and matched well with measured air-filled porosity at -30 cm matric potential. Many of the CT derived macropore network characteristics were strongly interrelated. Most of the macropore network characteristics were also strongly correlated with saturated water permeability, air permeability, and gas diffusivity. The correlations between macropore

  19. Developing Innovative Wall Systems that Improve Hygrothermal Performance of Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Tichy; Chuck Murray

    2006-05-31

    This document serves as the Topical Report documenting work completed by Washington State University (WSU) under U.S. Department of Energy Grant, Developing Innovative Wall Systems that Improve Hygrothermal Performance of Residential Buildings. This project was conducted in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and includes the participation of several industry partners including Weyerhaeuser, APA - The Engineered Wood Association, CertainTeed Corporation and Fortifiber. This document summarizes work completed by Washington State University August 2002 through June 2006. WSU's primary experimental role is the design and implementation of a field testing protocol that monitored long term changes in the hygrothermal response of wall systems. During the project period WSU constructed a test facility, developed a matrix of test wall designs, constructed and installed test walls in the test facility, installed instrumentation in the test walls and recorded data from the test wall specimens. Each year reports were published documenting the hygrothermal response of the test wall systems. Public presentation of the results was, and will continue to be, made available to the building industry at large by industry partners and the University.

  20. Developing Innovative Wall Systems that Improve Hygrothermal Performance of Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Tichy; Chuck Murray

    2003-10-01

    This document serves as the Topical Report documenting the first year of work completed by Washington State University (WSU) under US Department of Energy Grant, Developing Innovative Wall Systems that Improve Hygrothermal Performance of Residential Buildings. This project is being conducted in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and includes the participation of several industry partners including Weyerhaeuser Company, APA - The Engineered Wood Association, CertainTeed Corporation and Fortifiber. This document summarizes work completed by Washington State University August, 2002 through October, 2003. WSU's primary experimental role is the design and implementation of a field testing protocol that will monitor long term changes in the hygrothermal response of wall systems. In the first year WSU constructed a test facility, developed a matrix of test wall designs, constructed and installed test walls in the test facility, and installed instrumentation in the test walls. By the end of the contract period described in this document, WSU was recording data from the test wall specimens. The experiment described in this report will continue through December, 2005. Each year a number of reports will be published documenting the hygrothermal response of the test wall systems. Public presentation of the results will be made available to the building industry by industry partners and the University cooperators.

  1. Performance evaluation of a full-scale innovative swine waste-to-energy system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiele; Adair, Charles W; Deshusses, Marc A

    2016-09-01

    Intensive monitoring was carried out to evaluate the performance of a full-scale innovative swine waste-to-energy system at a commercial swine farm with 8640 heads of swine. Detailed mass balances over each unit of the system showed that the system, which includes a 7600m(3) anaerobic digester, a 65-kW microturbine, and a 4200m(3) aeration basin, was able to remove up to 92% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), 99% of the biological oxygen demand (BOD), 77% of the total nitrogen (TN), and 82% of the total phosphorous (TP) discharged into the system as fresh pig waste. The overall biogas yield based on the COD input was 64% of the maximum theoretical, a value that indicates that even greater environmental benefits could be obtained with process optimization. Overall, the characterization of the materials fluxes in the system provides a greater understanding of the fate of organics and nutrients in large scale animal waste management systems.

  2. HPTLC-aptastaining – Innovative protein detection system for high-performance thin-layer chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Morschheuser, Lena; Wessels, Hauke; Pille, Christina; Fischer, Judith; Hünniger, Tim; Fischer, Markus; Paschke-Kratzin, Angelika; Rohn, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    Protein analysis using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) is not commonly used but can complement traditional electrophoretic and mass spectrometric approaches in a unique way. Due to various detection protocols and possibilities for hyphenation, HPTLC protein analysis is a promising alternative for e.g., investigating posttranslational modifications. This study exemplarily focused on the investigation of lysozyme, an enzyme which is occurring in eggs and technologically added to foods and beverages such as wine. The detection of lysozyme is mandatory, as it might trigger allergenic reactions in sensitive individuals. To underline the advantages of HPTLC in protein analysis, the development of innovative, highly specific staining protocols leads to improved sensitivity for protein detection on HPTLC plates in comparison to universal protein derivatization reagents. This study aimed at developing a detection methodology for HPTLC separated proteins using aptamers. Due to their affinity and specificity towards a wide range of targets, an aptamer based staining procedure on HPTLC (HPTLC-aptastaining) will enable manifold analytical possibilities. Besides the proof of its applicability for the very first time, (i) aptamer-based staining of proteins is applicable on different stationary phase materials and (ii) furthermore, it can be used as an approach for a semi-quantitative estimation of protein concentrations. PMID:27220270

  3. HPTLC-aptastaining - Innovative protein detection system for high-performance thin-layer chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morschheuser, Lena; Wessels, Hauke; Pille, Christina; Fischer, Judith; Hünniger, Tim; Fischer, Markus; Paschke-Kratzin, Angelika; Rohn, Sascha

    2016-05-01

    Protein analysis using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) is not commonly used but can complement traditional electrophoretic and mass spectrometric approaches in a unique way. Due to various detection protocols and possibilities for hyphenation, HPTLC protein analysis is a promising alternative for e.g., investigating posttranslational modifications. This study exemplarily focused on the investigation of lysozyme, an enzyme which is occurring in eggs and technologically added to foods and beverages such as wine. The detection of lysozyme is mandatory, as it might trigger allergenic reactions in sensitive individuals. To underline the advantages of HPTLC in protein analysis, the development of innovative, highly specific staining protocols leads to improved sensitivity for protein detection on HPTLC plates in comparison to universal protein derivatization reagents. This study aimed at developing a detection methodology for HPTLC separated proteins using aptamers. Due to their affinity and specificity towards a wide range of targets, an aptamer based staining procedure on HPTLC (HPTLC-aptastaining) will enable manifold analytical possibilities. Besides the proof of its applicability for the very first time, (i) aptamer-based staining of proteins is applicable on different stationary phase materials and (ii) furthermore, it can be used as an approach for a semi-quantitative estimation of protein concentrations.

  4. Performance of an innovative two-stage process converting food waste to hydrogen and methane.

    PubMed

    Han, Sun-Kee; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2004-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of an innovative two-stage process, BIOCELL, that was developed to produce hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) from food waste on the basis of phase separation, reactor rotation mode, and sequential batch technique. The BIOCELL process consisted of four leaching-bed reactors for H2 recovery and post-treatment and a UASB reactor for CH4 recovery. The leaching-bed reactors were operated in a rotation mode with a 2-day interval between degradation stages. The sequential batch technique was useful to optimize environmental conditions during H2 fermentation. The BIOCELL process demonstrated that, at the high volatile solids (VS) loading rate of 11.9 kg/m3 x day, it could remove 72.5% of VS and convert VS(removed) to H2 (28.2%) and CH4 (69.9%) on a chemical oxygen demand (COD) basis in 8 days. H2 gas production rate was 3.63 m3/m3 x day, while CH4 gas production rate was 1.75 m3/m3 x day. The yield values of H2 and CH4 were 0.31 and 0.21 m3/kg VS(added), respectively. Moreover, the output from the post-treatment could be used as a soil amendment. The BIOCELL process proved to be stable, reliable, and effective in resource recovery as well as waste stabilization.

  5. An Analysis of the Impact of Total Quality Management on Employee Performance with mediating role of Process Innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadia Dedy, Aimie; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaleha Omain, Siti; Rahim, Kamaruzzaman Abdul; Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sulaiman, Zuraidah; Zameri Mat Saman, Muhamad

    2016-05-01

    TQM practices are important to provide customer satisfaction by improved product performance and sustained towards the organizational goal. The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between TQM practices, process innovation and employee performance. In this study, six critical success factors of TQM have been identified namely customer focus, leadership, training, teamwork, communication, and top management. Based on thorough literature review, employee performances have been measured by two constructs which are job satisfaction and workplace environment. The study used methodology of quantitative approach. The questionnaires for this study were randomly distributed to 102 employees in the selected car manufacturer companies. The respondents were choosing from management team, supervisor, technician and others worker. Results of the study support the proposed hypotheses that there are significant relationship between TQM practices, process innovation and employee performance.

  6. The Determinants of Organizational Innovation: An Interpretation and Implications for Research Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantz, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    The research reported here is focused on a specific type of change in an organization: an innovation. In an empirical analysis of research libraries, it was found that five factors had a significant impact on the innovation performance of the library. These factors relate to the strategy, organizational structure, and leadership of the research…

  7. The Determinants of Organizational Innovation: An Interpretation and Implications for Research Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantz, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    The research reported here is focused on a specific type of change in an organization: an innovation. In an empirical analysis of research libraries, it was found that five factors had a significant impact on the innovation performance of the library. These factors relate to the strategy, organizational structure, and leadership of the research…

  8. Meteorological conditions associated to high sublimation amounts in semiarid high-elevation Andes decrease the performance of empirical melt models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Alvaro; Pellicciotti, Francesca; MacDonell, Shelley; McPhee, James; Burlando, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Empirical melt (EM) models are often preferred to surface energy balance (SEB) models to calculate melt amounts of snow and ice in hydrological modelling of high-elevation catchments. The most common reasons to support this decision are that, in comparison to SEB models, EM models require lower levels of meteorological data, complexity and computational costs. However, EM models assume that melt can be characterized by means of a few index variables only, and their results strongly depend on the transferability in space and time of the calibrated empirical parameters. In addition, they are intrinsically limited in accounting for specific process components, the complexity of which cannot be easily reconciled with the empirical nature of the model. As an example of an EM model, in this study we use the Enhanced Temperature Index (ETI) model, which calculates melt amounts using air temperature and the shortwave radiation balance as index variables. We evaluate the performance of the ETI model on dry high-elevation sites where sublimation amounts - that are not explicitly accounted for the EM model - represent a relevant percentage of total ablation (1.1 to 8.7%). We analyse a data set of four Automatic Weather Stations (AWS), which were collected during the ablation season 2013-14, at elevations between 3466 and 4775 m asl, on the glaciers El Tapado, San Francisco, Bello and El Yeso, which are located in the semiarid Andes of central Chile. We complement our analysis using data from past studies in Juncal Norte Glacier (Chile) and Haut Glacier d'Arolla (Switzerland), during the ablation seasons 2008-09 and 2006, respectively. We use the results of a SEB model, applied to each study site, along the entire season, to calibrate the ETI model. The ETI model was not designed to calculate sublimation amounts, however, results show that their ability is low also to simulate melt amounts at sites where sublimation represents larger percentages of total ablation. In fact, we

  9. Do the Dynamics of Prior Information Depend on Task Context? An Analysis of Optimal Performance and an Empirical Test

    PubMed Central

    van Ravenzwaaij, Don; Mulder, Martijn J.; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2012-01-01

    In speeded two-choice tasks, optimal performance is prescribed by the drift diffusion model. In this model, prior information or advance knowledge about the correct response can manifest itself as a shift in starting point or as a shift in drift rate criterion. These two mechanisms lead to qualitatively different choice behavior. Analyses of optimal performance (i.e., Bogacz et al., 2006; Hanks et al., 2011) have suggested that bias should manifest itself in starting point when difficulty is fixed over trials, whereas bias should (additionally) manifest itself in drift rate criterion when difficulty is variable over trials. In this article, we challenge the claim that a shift in drift criterion is necessary to perform optimally in a biased decision environment with variable stimulus difficulty. This paper consists of two parts. Firstly, we demonstrate that optimal behavior for biased decision problems is prescribed by a shift in starting point, irrespective of variability in stimulus difficulty. Secondly, we present empirical data which show that decision makers do not adopt different strategies when dealing with bias in conditions of fixed or variable across-trial stimulus difficulty. We also perform a test of specific influence for drift rate variability. PMID:22615704

  10. Building America Top Innovations 2012: High-Performance Affordable Housing with Habitat for Humanity

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America support of Habitat for Humanity including researchers who wrote Habitat construction guides and teams that have worked with affiliates on numerous field projects.

  11. Building America Top Innovations 2012: High-Performance with Solar Electric Reduced Peak Demand

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America solar home research that has demonstrated the ability to reduce peak demand by 75%. Numerous field studies have monitored power production and system effectiveness.

  12. Theoretical performance assessment and empirical analysis of super-resolution under unknown affine sensor motion.

    PubMed

    Thelen, Brian J; Valenzuela, John R; LeBlanc, Joel W

    2016-04-01

    This paper deals with super-resolution (SR) processing and associated theoretical performance assessment for under-sampled video data collected from a moving imaging platform with unknown motion and assuming a relatively flat scene. This general scenario requires joint estimation of the high-resolution image and the parameters that determine a projective transform that relates the collected frames to one another. A quantitative assessment of the variance in the random error as achieved through a joint-estimation approach (e.g., SR image reconstruction and motion estimation) is carried out via the general framework of M-estimators and asymptotic statistics. This approach provides a performance measure on estimating the fine-resolution scene when there is a lack of perspective information and represents a significant advancement over previous work that considered only the more specific scenario of mis-registration. A succinct overview of the theoretical framework is presented along with some specific results on the approximate random error for the case of unknown translation and affine motions. A comparison is given between the approximated random error and that actually achieved by an M-estimator approach to the joint-estimation problem. These results provide insight on the reduction in SR reconstruction accuracy when jointly estimating unknown inter-frame affine motion.

  13. Discrete Lognormal Model as an Unbiased Quantitative Measure of Scientific Performance Based on Empirical Citation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, Joao; Zeng, Xiaohan; Amaral, Luis

    2013-03-01

    Assessing the career performance of scientists has become essential to modern science. Bibliometric indicators, like the h-index are becoming more and more decisive in evaluating grants and approving publication of articles. However, many of the more used indicators can be manipulated or falsified by publishing with very prolific researchers or self-citing papers with a certain number of citations, for instance. Accounting for these factors is possible but it introduces unwanted complexity that drives us further from the purpose of the indicator: to represent in a clear way the prestige and importance of a given scientist. Here we try to overcome this challenge. We used Thompson Reuter's Web of Science database and analyzed all the papers published until 2000 by ~1500 researchers in the top 30 departments of seven scientific fields. We find that over 97% of them have a citation distribution that is consistent with a discrete lognormal model. This suggests that our model can be used to accurately predict the performance of a researcher. Furthermore, this predictor does not depend on the individual number of publications and is not easily ``gamed'' on. The authors acknowledge support from FCT Portugal, and NSF grants

  14. The Influence of Organisational Defensive Patterns on Innovation Capacity and Learning of Information and Communication Technology: An Empirical Study in Hong Kong Transport Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2010-01-01

    Organisational defensive patterns, including skilled incompetence, organisational defensive routines and fancy footwork, are considered to be a hindrance to effective learning and innovation capacity building in all organisations. The purpose of this research is to investigate: 1) the perceptions of the influence of organisational defensive…

  15. The Influence of Organisational Defensive Patterns on Innovation Capacity and Learning of Information and Communication Technology: An Empirical Study in Hong Kong Transport Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2010-01-01

    Organisational defensive patterns, including skilled incompetence, organisational defensive routines and fancy footwork, are considered to be a hindrance to effective learning and innovation capacity building in all organisations. The purpose of this research is to investigate: 1) the perceptions of the influence of organisational defensive…

  16. An empirical research on customer satisfaction study: a consideration of different levels of performance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Yu-Che; Lu, Shu-Chiung; Hsieh, Yi-Fang; Chien, Chih-Hung; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Dong, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    Customer satisfaction is the key factor for successful and depends highly on the behaviors of frontline service providers. Customers should be managed as assets, and that customers vary in their needs, preferences, and buying behavior. This study applied the Taiwan Customer Satisfaction Index model to a tourism factory to analyze customer satisfaction and loyalty. We surveyed 242 customers served by one tourism factory organizations in Taiwan. A partial least squares was performed to analyze and test the theoretical model. The results show that perceived quality had the greatest influence on the customer satisfaction for satisfied and dissatisfied customers. In addition, in terms of customer loyalty, the customer satisfaction is more important than image for satisfied and dissatisfied customers. The contribution of this paper is to propose two satisfaction levels of CSI models for analyzing customer satisfaction and loyalty, thereby helping tourism factory managers improve customer satisfaction effectively. Compared with traditional techniques, we believe that our method is more appropriate for making decisions about allocating resources and for assisting managers in establishing appropriate priorities in customer satisfaction management.

  17. Short-term exposure to municipal wastewater influences energy, growth, and swimming performance in juvenile Empire Gudgeons (Hypseleotris compressa).

    PubMed

    Melvin, Steven D

    2016-01-01

    Effectively treating domestic wastewater is paramount for preserving the health of aquatic ecosystems. Various technologies exist for wastewater treatment, ranging from simple pond-based systems to advanced filtration, and it is important to evaluate the potential for these different options to produce water that is acceptable for discharge. Sub-lethal responses were therefore assessed in juvenile Empire Gudgeons (Hypseleotris compressa) exposed for a period of two weeks to control, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100% wastewater treated through a multi-stage constructed wetland (CW) treatment system. Effects on basic energy reserves (i.e., lipids and protein), growth and condition, and swimming performance were quantified following exposure. A significant increase in weight and condition was observed in fish exposed to 50 and 100% wastewater dilutions, whereas whole-body lipid content was significantly reduced in these treatments. Maximum swimming velocity increased in a dose-dependent manner amongst treatment groups (although not significantly), whereas angular velocity was significantly reduced in the 50 and 100% dilutions. Results demonstrate that treated domestic wastewater can influence the growth and swimming performance of fish, and that such effects may be related to alterations to primary energy stores. However, studies assessing complex wastewaters present difficulties when it comes to interpreting responses, as many possible factors can contribute towards the observed effects. Future research should address these uncertainties by exploring interaction between nutrients, basic water quality characteristics and relevant contaminant mixtures, for influencing the energetics, growth, and functional performance of aquatic animals.

  18. Measuring market performance in restructured electricity markets: An empirical analysis of the PJM energy market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Russell Jay

    2002-09-01

    performance of the PJM market finds evidence of market power, the measured markups are markedly less than estimates from prior analysis of the PJM market.

  19. Strategic environmental assessment performance factors and their interaction: An empirical study in China

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tianwei; Wang, Huizhi; Deng, Baole; Ren, Wei; Xu, He

    2016-07-15

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) has been seen as a preventive and participatory environmental management tool designed to integrate environmental protection into the decision-making process. However, the debate about SEA performance and effectiveness has increased in recent decades. Two main challenges exist in relation to this issue. The first is identifying the key influencing factors that affect SEA effectiveness, and the second is analyzing the relationship between SEA and these influencing factors. In this study, influencing factors were investigated through questionnaire surveys in the Chinese context, and then a Structural Equation Model (SEM) was developed and tested to identify potential links and causal relationships among factors. The associations between the independent factors were divided into direct and indirect causal associations. The results indicate that the decision-making process and policy context directly affect SEA implementation, while information and data sharing, public participation, expertise and SEA institutions are indirectly related with SEA. The results also suggest that a lack of cooperation between different sectors is an obstacle to the implementation of SEA. These findings could potentially contribute to the future management and implementation of SEA or enhance existing knowledge of SEA. The results show that the proposed model has a degree of feasibility and applicability. - Highlights: • Influencing factors were identified and investigated through questionnaire surveys. • Structural Equation Model (SEM) was developed and tested to identify potential links and causal relationships among factors. • Decision-making process and policy context directly affect SEA implementation. • Lack of cooperation among different sectors is an obstacle to the implementation of SEA. • The proposed model has a degree of feasibility and applicability.

  20. An innovative approach to multimedia waste reduction: Measuring performance for environmental cleanup projects

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; George, S.M.

    1993-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges we now face in environmental cleanup is measuring the progress of minimizing multimedia transfer releases and achieving waste reduction. Briefly, multimedia transfer refers to the air, land, and water where pollution is not controlled, concentrated, and moved from one medium to another. An example of multimedia transfer would be heavy metals in wastewater sludges moved from water to land disposal. Over $2 billion has been budgeted for environmental restoration site cleanups by the Department of Energy (DOE) for FY 1994. Unless we reduce the huge waste volumes projected to be generated in the near future, then we will devote more and more resources to the management and disposal of these wastes. To meet this challenge, the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge Environmental Restoration (ER) Program has explored the value of a multimedia approach by designing an innovative Pollution Prevention Life-Cycle Model. The model consists of several fundamental elements (Fig. 1) and addresses the two major objectives of data gathering and establishing performance measures. Because the majority of projects are in the remedial investigation phase, the focus is on the prevention of unnecessary generation of investigation-derived waste and multimedia transfers at the source. A state-of-the-art tool developed to support the life-cycle model for meeting these objectives is the Numerical Scoring System (NSS), which is a computerized, user-friendly data base system for information management, designed to measure the effectiveness of pollution prevention activities in each phase of the ER Program. This report contains a discussion of the development of the Pollution Prevention Life-Cycle Model and the role the NSS will play in the pollution prevention programs in the remedial investigation phase of the ER Program at facilities managed by Energy Systems for DOE.

  1. Hygienization performances of innovative sludge treatment solutions to assure safe land spreading.

    PubMed

    Levantesi, C; Beimfohr, C; Blanch, A R; Carducci, A; Gianico, A; Lucena, F; Tomei, M C; Mininni, G

    2015-05-01

    The present research aims at the evaluation of the hygienization performances of innovative sludge treatment processes applied for the separated treatment of secondary sludge. Namely, two digestion pretreatments (sonication and thermal hydrolysis) and two sequential biological processes (mesophilic/thermophilic and anaerobic/aerobic digestion) were compared to the mesophilic (MAD) and thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD). Microbial indicators (Escherichia coli, somatic coliphages and Clostridium perfringens spores) and pathogens (Salmonella and enteroviruses), which show different resistances to treatment processes, were monitored in untreated and treated sludge. Overall, microbial load in secondary sludge was shown to be similar or lower than previously reported in literature for mixed sludge. Notably, the anaerobic/aerobic digestion process increased the removal of E. coli and somatic coliphages compared to the simple MAD and always achieved the hygienization requirement (2-log-unit removal of E. coli) proposed by EU Commission in the 3rd Working Document on sludge (April 2000) for the use of treated sludges in agriculture with restriction on their application. The microbial quality limits for the unrestricted use of sludge in agriculture (no Salmonella in 50 g wet weight (WW) and E. coli <500 CFU/g) were always met when thermal digestion or pretreatment was applied; however, the required removal level (6-log-unit removal of E. coli) could not be assessed due to the low level of this microorganism in raw sludge. Observed levels of indicator removal showed a higher resistance of viral particles to thermal treatment compared with bacterial cells and confirmed the suitability of somatic coliphages as indicators in thermal treatment processes.

  2. Overall Well-Being and Supervisor Ratings of Employee Performance, Accountability, Customer Service, Innovation, Prosocial Behavior, and Self-Development.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Sears, Lindsay E; Coberley, Carter R; Pope, James E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the effects of overall well-being and well-being change on six supervisor-rated indicators of employee performance valued by organizations: overall performance, accountability, customer service, innovation, prosocial behavior, and self-development. The current study used two waves of well-being survey data collected over 2 years and supervisor performance ratings for 5691 employees. Ordinary least squares regression was conducted. Both well-being at baseline and two-year change in well-being were related to all six supervisor-rated performance dimensions, controlling for other employee characteristics. Overall well-being likely functioned as a resource enabling people to successfully perform across the specific areas highly valued by their company. Given this connection, well-being interventions could be used as a means to accomplish improved performance in dimensions that contribute to organizational performance.

  3. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Reduced Call-Backs with High-Performance Production Builders

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes ways Building America teams have helped builders cut call-backs. Harvard University study found builders who worked with Building America had a 50% drop in call-backs. One builder reported a 50-fold reduction in the incidence of pipe freezing, a 50% reduction in drywall cracking, and a 60% decline in call-backs.

  4. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Community Scale High Performance with Solar - Pulte Homes

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Pulte Homes of Tucson’s work with Building America to apply a suite of energy-efficiency measures integrated with passive solar design and solar water heating that reduced energy use more than 50% for a community of more than 1,000 homes.

  5. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Affordable High Performance in Production Homes: Artistic Homes

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Artistic Homes, a successful New Mexico production builder, who went from code-minimum to under HERS 50 standard on every home, with optional PV upgrades to HERS 35 or true net zero on every home plan offered.

  6. The Effect of Entrepreneurship Education Programmes on Satisfaction with Innovation Behaviour and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Natalia Martin; Escudero, Ana Isabel Rodriguez; Barahona, Juan Hernangomez; Leitao, Fernando Saboia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper attempts to shed light on the effect of educational programmes aimed at entrepreneurs on innovation and business success. Design/methodology/approach: We use as theoretical framework the theory of planned behaviour. We use a sample of 354 entrepreneurs from Castile and Leon, Spain. To estimate the model we use a path analysis…

  7. The Effect of Entrepreneurship Education Programmes on Satisfaction with Innovation Behaviour and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Natalia Martin; Escudero, Ana Isabel Rodriguez; Barahona, Juan Hernangomez; Leitao, Fernando Saboia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper attempts to shed light on the effect of educational programmes aimed at entrepreneurs on innovation and business success. Design/methodology/approach: We use as theoretical framework the theory of planned behaviour. We use a sample of 354 entrepreneurs from Castile and Leon, Spain. To estimate the model we use a path analysis…

  8. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – High-Performance Furnace Blowers

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    This Top Innovations profile describes Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's work with furnace blower design that led to the creation of a standard for rating blowers, credits for the use of good blowers in Federal tax credit programs and energy codes, and consideration in current federal rulemaking procedures.

  9. Innovation Learning in Comprehensive Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindfors, Eila; Hilmola, Antti

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this article is to clarify the concept of innovation and by presenting a research on the basic education outcome assessment data from an innovation learning perspective, answer to a question: Do students learn innovation in comprehensive education? The empirical information in this research is based on data collected in the national…

  10. Innovation Learning in Comprehensive Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindfors, Eila; Hilmola, Antti

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this article is to clarify the concept of innovation and by presenting a research on the basic education outcome assessment data from an innovation learning perspective, answer to a question: Do students learn innovation in comprehensive education? The empirical information in this research is based on data collected in the national…

  11. 2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit: Profiling Foro Energy: High Power Lasers - Long Distances (Performer Video)

    ScienceCinema

    None Available

    2016-07-12

    The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. A few videos were selected for showing during the Summit to attendees. These 'performer videos' highlight innovative research that is ongoing and related to the main topics of the Summit's sessions. Featured in this video from Foro Energy are Joel Moxley, Founder and CEO, Mark Zediker, Founder and CTO, and Paul Deutch, President and COO. Steven Chu, Secretary of Energy, also appears briefly in this video to praise the accomplishment of a high powered laser that can transmit that power long distances for faster and more powerful drilling of geothermal, oil, and gas wells.

  12. 2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit: Profiling Foro Energy: High Power Lasers - Long Distances (Performer Video)

    SciTech Connect

    None Available

    2012-02-28

    The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. A few videos were selected for showing during the Summit to attendees. These 'performer videos' highlight innovative research that is ongoing and related to the main topics of the Summit's sessions. Featured in this video from Foro Energy are Joel Moxley, Founder and CEO, Mark Zediker, Founder and CTO, and Paul Deutch, President and COO. Steven Chu, Secretary of Energy, also appears briefly in this video to praise the accomplishment of a high powered laser that can transmit that power long distances for faster and more powerful drilling of geothermal, oil, and gas wells.

  13. Do organizations spend wisely on employees? Effects of training and development investments on learning and innovation in organizations.

    PubMed

    Sung, Sun Young; Choi, Jin Nam

    2014-04-01

    The present study examines the effects of training and development on organizational innovation. We specifically suggest that the training and development investments of an organization affect its innovative performance by promoting various learning practices. We empirically tested our hypothesis by using time-lagged, multi-source data collected from 260 Korean companies that represent diverse industries. Our analysis showed that corporate expenditure for internal training predicts interpersonal and organizational learning practices, which, in turn, increase innovative performance. The data also revealed that the positive relationship between interpersonal and organizational learning practices and innovative performance is stronger within organizations that have stronger innovative climates. By contrast, investment in employee development through financial support for education outside an organization poses a significant negative effect on its innovative performance and no significant effect on learning practices. The present study provides a plausible explanation for a mechanism through which the investment of an organization in employees enhances its innovative performance. Copyright © 2013 The Authors.

  14. COST AND PERFORMANCE REPORT: INNOVATIVE ACOUSTIC SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR LEAK DETECTION IN CHALLENGING PIPE TYPES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-30

    ABSTRACT Reducing water loss at U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) installations is important to preserve potable water needed for essential functions and...support Federal and DoD sustainability goals. This project assessed three innovative acoustic leak detection technologies with enhanced cross- correlation ...features to detect and pinpoint leaks in challenging pipe types, as well as metallic pipes. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Leak detection; acoustic correlation

  15. Innovative technologies of waste recycling with production of high performance products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmanshin, R.; Ferenets, A. V.; Azimov, Yu I.; Galeeva, A. I.; Gilmanshina, S. I.

    2015-06-01

    The innovative ways of recycling wastes as a tool for sustainable development are presented in the article. The technology of the production of a composite material based on the rubber fiber composite waste tire industry is presented. The results of experimental use of the products in the real conditions. The comparative characteristics of the composite material rubber fiber composite are given. The production technology of construction and repairing materials on the basis of foamed glass is presented.

  16. Analysis of Technological Innovation and Environmental Performance Improvement in Aviation Sector

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joosung; Mo, Jeonghoon

    2011-01-01

    The past oil crises have caused dramatic improvements in fuel efficiency in all industrial sectors. The aviation sector—aircraft manufacturers and airlines—has also made significant efforts to improve the fuel efficiency through more advanced jet engines, high-lift wing designs, and lighter airframe materials. However, the innovations in energy-saving aircraft technologies do not coincide with the oil crisis periods. The largest improvement in aircraft fuel efficiency took place in the 1960s while the high oil prices in the 1970s and on did not induce manufacturers or airlines to achieve a faster rate of innovation. In this paper, we employ a historical analysis to examine the socio-economic reasons behind the relatively slow technological innovation in aircraft fuel efficiency over the last 40 years. Based on the industry and passenger behaviors studied and prospects for alternative fuel options, this paper offers insights for the aviation sector to shift toward more sustainable technological options in the medium term. Second-generation biofuels could be the feasible option with a meaningful reduction in aviation’s lifecycle environmental impact if they can achieve sufficient economies of scale. PMID:22016716

  17. Analysis of technological innovation and environmental performance improvement in aviation sector.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joosung; Mo, Jeonghoon

    2011-09-01

    The past oil crises have caused dramatic improvements in fuel efficiency in all industrial sectors. The aviation sector-aircraft manufacturers and airlines-has also made significant efforts to improve the fuel efficiency through more advanced jet engines, high-lift wing designs, and lighter airframe materials. However, the innovations in energy-saving aircraft technologies do not coincide with the oil crisis periods. The largest improvement in aircraft fuel efficiency took place in the 1960s while the high oil prices in the 1970s and on did not induce manufacturers or airlines to achieve a faster rate of innovation. In this paper, we employ a historical analysis to examine the socio-economic reasons behind the relatively slow technological innovation in aircraft fuel efficiency over the last 40 years. Based on the industry and passenger behaviors studied and prospects for alternative fuel options, this paper offers insights for the aviation sector to shift toward more sustainable technological options in the medium term. Second-generation biofuels could be the feasible option with a meaningful reduction in aviation's lifecycle environmental impact if they can achieve sufficient economies of scale.

  18. Bearing performance degradation assessment based on a combination of empirical mode decomposition and k-medoids clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Akhand; Upadhyay, S. H.

    2017-09-01

    Bearing is the most critical component in rotating machinery since it is more susceptible to failure. The monitoring of degradation in bearings becomes of great concern for averting the sudden machinery breakdown. In this study, a novel method for bearing performance degradation assessment (PDA) based on an amalgamation of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and k-medoids clustering is encouraged. The fault features are extracted from the bearing signals using the EMD process. The extracted features are then subjected to k-medoids based clustering for obtaining the normal state and failure state cluster centres. A confidence value (CV) curve based on dissimilarity of the test data object to the normal state is obtained and employed as the degradation indicator for assessing the health of bearings. The proposed outlook is applied on the vibration signals collected in run-to-failure tests of bearings to assess its effectiveness in bearing PDA. To validate the superiority of the suggested approach, it is compared with commonly used time-domain features RMS and kurtosis, well-known fault diagnosis method envelope analysis (EA) and existing PDA classifiers i.e. self-organizing maps (SOM) and Fuzzy c-means (FCM). The results demonstrate that the recommended method outperforms the time-domain features, SOM and FCM based PDA in detecting the early stage degradation more precisely. Moreover, EA can be used as an accompanying method to confirm the early stage defect detected by the proposed bearing PDA approach. The study shows the potential application of k-medoids clustering as an effective tool for PDA of bearings.

  19. Assessing the performance of community-available global MHD models using key system parameters and empirical relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordeev, E.; Sergeev, V.; Honkonen, I.; Kuznetsova, M.; Rastätter, L.; Palmroth, M.; Janhunen, P.; Tóth, G.; Lyon, J.; Wiltberger, M.

    2015-12-01

    Global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modeling is a powerful tool in space weather research and predictions. There are several advanced and still developing global MHD (GMHD) models that are publicly available via Community Coordinated Modeling Center's (CCMC) Run on Request system, which allows the users to simulate the magnetospheric response to different solar wind conditions including extraordinary events, like geomagnetic storms. Systematic validation of GMHD models against observations still continues to be a challenge, as well as comparative benchmarking of different models against each other. In this paper we describe and test a new approach in which (i) a set of critical large-scale system parameters is explored/tested, which are produced by (ii) specially designed set of computer runs to simulate realistic statistical distributions of critical solar wind parameters and are compared to (iii) observation-based empirical relationships for these parameters. Being tested in approximately similar conditions (similar inputs, comparable grid resolution, etc.), the four models publicly available at the CCMC predict rather well the absolute values and variations of those key parameters (magnetospheric size, magnetic field, and pressure) which are directly related to the large-scale magnetospheric equilibrium in the outer magnetosphere, for which the MHD is supposed to be a valid approach. At the same time, the models have systematic differences in other parameters, being especially different in predicting the global convection rate, total field-aligned current, and magnetic flux loading into the magnetotail after the north-south interplanetary magnetic field turning. According to validation results, none of the models emerges as an absolute leader. The new approach suggested for the evaluation of the models performance against reality may be used by model users while planning their investigations, as well as by model developers and those interesting to quantitatively

  20. Development of innovative techniques and principles that may be used as models to improve plant performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, W.W.; Burton, G.W.

    1990-09-01

    Plant breeding has made possible a large portion of the record yields of our major food crops, and can claim credit for at least half of their increased yield. It can continue to do this but the population explosion demands that it be done in less time. Innovative techniques must be developed. The purpose of this research is to develop techniques and principles of transferring germplasm from the primary, secondary, and tertiary gene pools of the wild species to cultivated species and evaluate the transferred germplasm.

  1. Double-2D: an innovative numerical procedure for the thermal performance evaluation of actively cooled components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merola, Mario

    1993-02-01

    An innovative diverter concept for a thermonuclear fusion reactor is being studied at the Institute for Advanced Materials of the Joint Research Centre of the European Communities. It is made of a single material, an ultrahigh thermal conductivity carbon fiber reinforced graphite (CFC) composite; the coolant is helium gas. When looking at the new diverter concept, it is necessary to make several numerical calculations in order to investigate the influence of the various parameters to be optimized. This paper shows a new numerical procedure which has been developed to avoid a complete 3D-calculation.

  2. A theoretical and empirical investigation into the willingness-to-pay function for new innovative drugs by Germany's health technology assessment agency (IQWiG).

    PubMed

    Gandjour, Afschin

    2013-11-01

    Under the recently enacted pharmaceutical price and reimbursement regulation in Germany, new drugs are subject to a rapid assessment to determine whether there is sufficient evidence of added clinical benefits compared with the existing standard of treatment. If such added benefits are confirmed, manufacturers and representatives of the Statutory Health Insurance (SHI) are expected to negotiate an appropriate reimbursement price. If parties fail to reach an agreement, a final decision on the reimbursement price will be made by an arbitration body. If one of the parties involved wishes so, then the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen, IQWiG) will be commissioned with a formal evaluation of costs and benefits of the product in question. IQWiG will make a recommendation for a reimbursement price based on the 'efficiency frontier' in a therapeutic area. The purpose of the assessments is to provide support for decision-making bodies that act on behalf of the SHI insurants. To determine the willingness to pay for new drugs, IQWiG uses the following decision rule: the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of a new drug compared with the next effective intervention should not be higher than that of the next effective intervention compared with its comparator. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the theoretical and empirical relationship between the willingness to pay for drugs and their health benefits. The analysis shows that across disease areas IQWiG has a curvilinear relationship between willingness to pay and health benefits. Future research may address the validity of the willingness-to-pay function from the viewpoint of the individual SHI insurants. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Effects of Active Learning Classrooms on Student Learning: A Two-Year Empirical Investigation on Student Perceptions and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Pit Ho Patrio; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies on active learning classrooms (ACLs) have demonstrated their positive influence on student learning. However, most of the research evidence is derived from a few subject-specific courses or limited student enrolment. Empirical studies on this topic involving large student populations are rare. The present work involved a large-scale…

  4. Effects of Active Learning Classrooms on Student Learning: A Two-Year Empirical Investigation on Student Perceptions and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Pit Ho Patrio; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies on active learning classrooms (ACLs) have demonstrated their positive influence on student learning. However, most of the research evidence is derived from a few subject-specific courses or limited student enrolment. Empirical studies on this topic involving large student populations are rare. The present work involved a large-scale…

  5. Explaining high and low performers in complex intervention trials: a new model based on diffusion of innovations theory.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Heather; Griffiths, Chris; Leber, Werner; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2015-05-31

    Complex intervention trials may require health care organisations to implement new service models. In a recent cluster randomised controlled trial, some participating organisations achieved high recruitment, whereas others found it difficult to assimilate the intervention and were low recruiters. We sought to explain this variation and develop a model to inform organisational participation in future complex intervention trials. The trial included 40 general practices in a London borough with high HIV prevalence. The intervention was offering a rapid HIV test as part of the New Patient Health Check. The primary outcome was mean CD4 cell count at diagnosis. The process evaluation consisted of several hundred hours of ethnographic observation, 21 semi-structured interviews and analysis of routine documents (e.g., patient leaflets, clinical protocols) and trial documents (e.g., inclusion criteria, recruitment statistics). Qualitative data were analysed thematically using--and, where necessary, extending--Greenhalgh et al.'s model of diffusion of innovations. Narrative synthesis was used to prepare case studies of four practices representing maximum variety in clinicians' interest in HIV (assessed by level of serological testing prior to the trial) and performance in the trial (high vs. low recruiters). High-recruiting practices were, in general though not invariably, also innovative practices. They were characterised by strong leadership, good managerial relations, readiness for change, a culture of staff training and available staff time ('slack resources'). Their front-line staff believed that patients might benefit from the rapid HIV test ('relative advantage'), were emotionally comfortable administering it ('compatibility'), skilled in performing it ('task issues') and made creative adaptations to embed the test in local working practices ('reinvention'). Early experience of a positive HIV test ('observability') appeared to reinforce staff commitment to recruiting

  6. A stochastic bio-economic pig farm model to assess the impact of innovations on farm performance.

    PubMed

    Ali, B M; Berentsen, P B M; Bastiaansen, J W M; Oude Lansink, A

    2017-10-12

    Recently developed innovations may improve the economic and environmental sustainability of pig production systems. Generic models are needed to assess the impact of innovations on farm performance. Here we developed a stochastic bio-economic farm model for a typical farrow-to-finish pig farm to assess the impact of innovations on private and social profits. The model accounts for emissions of greenhouse gases from feed production and manure by using the shadow price of CO2, and for stochasticity of economic and biological parameters. The model was applied to assess the impact of using locally produced alternative feed sources (i.e. co-products) in the diets of finishing pigs on private and social profits of a typical Brazilian farrow-to-finish pig farm. Three cases were defined: a reference case (with a standard corn-soybean meal-based finishing diet), a macaúba case (with a macaúba kernel cake-based finishing diet) and a co-products case (with a co-products-based finishing diet). Pigs were assumed to be fed to equal net energy intakes in the three cases. Social profits are 34% to 38% lower than private profits in the three cases. Private and social profits are about 11% and 14% higher for the macaúba case than the reference case, whereas they are 3% and 7% lower for the co-products case, respectively. Environmental costs are higher under the alternative cases than the reference case suggesting that other benefits (e.g. costs and land use) should be considered to utilize co-products. The CV of farm profits is between 75% and 87% in the three cases following from the volatility of prices over time and variations in biological parameters between fattening pigs.

  7. Is a Schools' Performance Related to Technical Change?--A Study on the Relationship between Innovations and Secondary School Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haelermans, Carla; Blank, Jos L. T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relation between innovations and productivity in Dutch secondary schools. Innovation clusters are directly included in the production model. In order to correct for differences between schools, we add school type, region and year controls. The results indicate that process innovations, teacher professionalization…

  8. Is a Schools' Performance Related to Technical Change?--A Study on the Relationship between Innovations and Secondary School Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haelermans, Carla; Blank, Jos L. T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relation between innovations and productivity in Dutch secondary schools. Innovation clusters are directly included in the production model. In order to correct for differences between schools, we add school type, region and year controls. The results indicate that process innovations, teacher professionalization…

  9. Innovation Networks to Stimulate Public and Private Sector Collaboration for Advisory Services Innovation and Coordination: The Case of Pasture Performance Issues in the New Zealand Dairy Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rijswijk, K.; Brazendale, R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: An innovation network, called the Pasture Improvement Leadership Group (PILG), was formed to improve the quality and consistency of advice provided to dairy farmers in New Zealand, after they expressed dissatisfaction with their pastures. The aim of this paper is to better understand the challenges of forming and maintaining networks to…

  10. How an Organization's Environmental Orientation Impacts Environmental Performance and Its Resultant Financial Performance through Green Computing Hiring Practices: An Empirical Investigation of the Natural Resource-Based View of the Firm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aken, Andrew Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation uses the logic embodied in Strategic Fit Theory, the Natural Resource- Based View of the Firm (NRBV), strategic human resource management, and other relevant literature streams to empirically demonstrate how the environmental orientation of a firm's strategy impacts their environmental performance and resultant financial…

  11. How an Organization's Environmental Orientation Impacts Environmental Performance and Its Resultant Financial Performance through Green Computing Hiring Practices: An Empirical Investigation of the Natural Resource-Based View of the Firm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aken, Andrew Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation uses the logic embodied in Strategic Fit Theory, the Natural Resource- Based View of the Firm (NRBV), strategic human resource management, and other relevant literature streams to empirically demonstrate how the environmental orientation of a firm's strategy impacts their environmental performance and resultant financial…

  12. An innovative fuel design concept for improved light water reactor performance and safety. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Tulenko, J.S.; Connell, R.G.

    1995-07-01

    Light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance is limited by thermal and mechanical constraints associated with the design, fabrication, and operation of fuel in a nuclear reactor. The purpose of this research was to explore a technique for extending fuel performance by thermally bonding LWR fuel with a non-alkaline liquid metal alloy. Current LWR fuel rod designs consist of enriched uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) fuel pellets enclosed in a zirconium alloy cylindrical clad. The space between the pellets and the clad is filled by an inert gas. Due to the thermal conductivity of the gas, the gas space thermally insulates the fuel pellets from the reactor coolant outside the fuel rod, elevating the fuel temperatures. Filling the gap between the fuel and clad with a high conductivity liquid metal thermally bonds the fuel to the cladding, and eliminates the large temperature change across the gap, while preserving the expansion and pellet loading capabilities. The resultant lower fuel temperature directly impacts fuel performance limit margins and also core transient performance. The application of liquid bonding techniques to LWR fuel was explored for the purposes of increasing LWR fuel performance and safety. A modified version of the ESCORE fuel performance code (ESBOND) has been developed under the program to analyze the in-reactor performance of the liquid metal bonded fuel. An assessment of the technical feasibility of this concept for LWR fuel is presented, including the results of research into materials compatibility testing and the predicted lifetime performance of Liquid Metal Bonded LWR fuel.

  13. Liveness, Mediation and Immediacy--Innovative Technology Use in Process and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Much of the discussion about the incorporation of technologies and mediatised components into performance has focused on the concept of "liveness." This often leads to competing claims about the relative power of live versus mediatised performance and is not necessarily helpful for understanding the scope of opportunities now available for drama…

  14. Liveness, Mediation and Immediacy--Innovative Technology Use in Process and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Much of the discussion about the incorporation of technologies and mediatised components into performance has focused on the concept of "liveness." This often leads to competing claims about the relative power of live versus mediatised performance and is not necessarily helpful for understanding the scope of opportunities now available for drama…

  15. Educational Innovation, Quality, and Effects: An Exploration of Innovations and Their Effects in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofman, Roelande H.; de Boom, Jan; Meeuwisse, Marieke; Hofman, W. H. Adriaan

    2013-01-01

    Despite the extensive literature on educational innovations, there is only limited empirical research available into the impact of innovations on student achievement. In this article, the following research questions will be answered: What form do innovations in secondary education take, are there types of innovative schools, and what effect do…

  16. EVALUATION AND PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF INNOVATIVE LOW-VOC CONTACT ADHESIVES IN WOOD LAMINATING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation and assessment of the perfor-mance, economics, and emission reduction potential upon application of low-volatile organic compound (VOC) waterborne contact adhesive formulations specifically ina manual laminating operation for assembling s...

  17. EVALUATION AND PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF INNOVATIVE LOW-VOC CONTACT ADHESIVES IN WOOD LAMINATING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation and assessment of the perfor-mance, economics, and emission reduction potential upon application of low-volatile organic compound (VOC) waterborne contact adhesive formulations specifically ina manual laminating operation for assembling s...

  18. Innovative Seismic Performance Enhancement Techniques for Steel Building Moment Resisting Connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Machel Leigh

    Seismic performance enhancement techniques for steel building moment connections intended for use in special moment frames are studied experimentally and through rigorous simulation modeling. The first performance enhancement technique involves reducing the strength of steel over specified regions of the beam flanges by exposing the regions to high temperatures followed by slow cooling. This technique promotes development of the beam plastic hinge away from the welded joint. The second technique involves relocation of the bolts of an 8-bolt extended end plate connection to distribute bolt forces uniformly, and thereby avoid bolt and end plate failures. The third technique involves a new shear tab design and bolt arrangement of welded unreinforced flange bolted-web (WUF-B) connections to more effectively transfer stress from the beam web to the column flange. Finally, the fourth performance enhancement technique involves stiffening the beam web within the plastic hinge region to delay the onset of local web and flange buckling resulting in the delay of strength degradation. Experimental validations of these seismic performance enhancement techniques are presented. Rigorous simulation models of the connections were developed based on an advanced non-linear kinematic hardening rule constitutive model in ANSYS Finite Element Software. The simulation results were instrumental in developing the novel ideas for enhancing seismic performance of steel building moment connections.

  19. An innovative approach combining Animal Performances, nutritional value and sensory quality of meat.

    PubMed

    Ellies-Oury, M-P; Cantalapiedra-Hijar, G; Durand, D; Gruffat, D; Listrat, A; Micol, D; Ortigues-Marty, I; Hocquette, J-F; Chavent, M; Saracco, J; Picard, B

    2016-12-01

    This work sets out a methodological approach to assess how to simultaneously control together Animal Performances, nutritional value, sensory quality of meat. Seventy-one young bulls were characterized by 97 variables. Variables of each element were arranged into either 5 homogeneous Intermediate Scores (IS) or 2 Global Indices (GI) via a clustering of variables and analysed together by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). These 3 pools of 5 IS (or 2 GI) were analysed together by PCA to established the links existing among the triptych. Classification on IS showed no opposition between Animal Performances and nutritional value of meat, as it seemed possible to identify animals with a high butcher value and intramuscular fat relatively rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Concerning GI, the classification indicated that Animal Performances were negatively correlated with sensory quality. This method appeared to be a useful contribution to the management of animal breeding for an optimal trade-off between the three elements of the triptych.

  20. Should pay-for-performance schemes be locally designed? Evidence from the Commissioning for Quality and Innovation (CQUIN) Framework.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Søren Rud; McDonald, Ruth; Sutton, Matt

    2013-10-01

    It is increasingly recognized that the design characteristics of pay-for-performance schemes are important in determining their impact. One important but under-studied design aspect is the extent to which pay-for-performance schemes reflect local priorities. The English Department of Health White Paper High Quality Care for All introduced a Commissioning for Quality and Innovation (CQUIN) Framework from April 2009, under which local commissioners and providers were required to negotiate and implement an annual pay-for-performance scheme. In 2010/2011, these schemes covered 1.5% (£ 1.0 bn) of NHS expenditure. Local design was intended to offer flexibility to local priorities and generate local enthusiasm, while retaining good design properties of focusing on outcomes and processes with a clear link to quality, using established indicators where possible, and covering three key domains of quality (safety; effectiveness; patient experience) and innovation. We assess the extent to which local design achieved these objectives. Quantitative analysis of 337 locally negotiated CQUIN schemes in 2010/2011, along with qualitative analysis of 373 meetings (comprising 800 hours of observation) and 230 formal interviews (audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim) with NHS staff in 12 case study sites. The local development process was successful in identifying variation in local needs and priorities for quality improvement but the involvement of frontline clinical staff was insufficient to generate local enthusiasm around the schemes. The schemes did not in general live up to the requirements set by the Department of Health to ensure that local schemes addressed the original objectives for the CQUIN framework. While there is clearly an important case for local strategic and clinical input into the design of pay-for-performance schemes, this should be kept separate from the technical design process, which involves defining indicators, agreeing thresholds, and setting prices. These

  1. Innovations in performance assessment: a criterion based performance assessment for advanced practice nurses using a synergistic theoretical nursing framework.

    PubMed

    Scarpa, Raymond; Connelly, Patricia E

    2011-01-01

    Health care organizations that employ advanced practice nurses are challenged to evaluate practice at this advanced level. Current evaluation methods tend to inter-mingle basic nursing competencies with competencies found in medical practice and organizational objectives that are typically derived from human resources departments. This article describes the development of a criterion-based job performance assessment for advanced nursing practice using a framework rooted in a nursing theory. A needs analysis; review of the literature, adaptation of nursing's Synergy Model, and input from various stakeholders guided the development of a generic job description. This job description progressed into a criterion-based performance assessment. Construct validity was tested using a questionnaire administered to a convenience sample of 9 practicing advanced practice nurses, 2 nurse executives, 1 PhD nurse educator, and 1 physician. Autonomy, job satisfaction, and quality improvement for advanced practice nurses are fostered by a review process that defines roles and competencies specific to advanced nursing practice. Peer review, a concept contributing to this process is explored as a means to monitor and improve practice.

  2. Improve Oral Training: The Method of Innovation Assessment on English Speaking Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li-Jyu; Chang, Hung-Fan

    2011-01-01

    The advantages of portfolios come from observing the student learning process and recording feedback. Students utilized their own learning portfolios to do learning assessment and self-correction. The research that has been done in Taiwan has shown that using a portfolio is effective in improving English speaking performances (ESP). The purpose of…

  3. How to Improve a School that Is Already High Performing: Innovation in the Field of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caridas, Evangeline; Hammer, Mark

    2006-01-01

    (Purpose) The case study's purpose was to examine Participative Management Style, high performance strategies, intangible and tangible indicators, trust and its creation of superior achievement in a school district for elementary and middle school children (Illinois). (Methodology) A collaboration effort by Superintendent, administrative staff,…

  4. Improve Oral Training: The Method of Innovation Assessment on English Speaking Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li-Jyu; Chang, Hung-Fan

    2011-01-01

    The advantages of portfolios come from observing the student learning process and recording feedback. Students utilized their own learning portfolios to do learning assessment and self-correction. The research that has been done in Taiwan has shown that using a portfolio is effective in improving English speaking performances (ESP). The purpose of…

  5. Measuring "Progress": Performativity as Both Driver and Constraint in School Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Yvette; Lewin, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe one secondary school's radical attempt to rethink the shape and purpose of education for its pupils, and its subsequent return to more traditional methods in the face of pressures of performativity and accountability. Framing our analysis within activity theory and its emphasis on contradiction as a driver for change, we…

  6. Students Successfully Grapple with Lessons of History in Innovative Group Performance Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Lynn Drew

    1992-01-01

    Describes the California Assessment Program's (CAP) group performance assessment task. Provides a sample task field test in world history, including written and culminating exercises. Suggests that such assessment exercises are popular with students and provide the teacher with an amalgam of curriculum, instruction, and assessment. (DK)

  7. Measuring "Progress": Performativity as Both Driver and Constraint in School Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Yvette; Lewin, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe one secondary school's radical attempt to rethink the shape and purpose of education for its pupils, and its subsequent return to more traditional methods in the face of pressures of performativity and accountability. Framing our analysis within activity theory and its emphasis on contradiction as a driver for change, we…

  8. Experimental Verification of an Innovative Performance-Validatio Methodology for Large Space Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    controller design can drive the closed loop sysstem unstable under worst-case thickness variations. In contrast, the MEOP design maintains excellent...advanced performance robustness analysis tools in order to reduce risk and cost for the engineering development of SDI systems. Before the development of...Systems Engineering Section of the Mechanical Systems Department. He has 14 years of experience in structural analysis, structural dynamics, design and

  9. Calibration and validation of an innovative approach for estimating general cognitive performance

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Alden L.; Jones, Richard N.; Fong, Tamara G.; Tommet, Douglas; Inouye, Sharon K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a new approach for creating a composite measure of cognitive function, we calibrated a measure of general cognitive performance from existing neuropsychological batteries. Methods We applied our approach in an epidemiologic study and scaled the composite to a nationally representative sample of older adults. Criterion validity was evaluated against standard clinical diagnoses. Convergent validity was evaluated against the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Results The general cognitive performance factor was scaled to have a mean=50 and SD=10 in a nationally representative sample of older adults. A cut-point of approximately 45, corresponding with an MMSE of 23/24, optimally discriminated participants with and without dementia (sensitivity=0.94; specificity=0.90; AUC=0.97). The general cognitive performance factor was internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha=0.91) and provided reliable measures of functional ability across a wide range of cognitive functioning. It demonstrated minimal floor and ceiling effects, which is an improvement over most individual cognitive tests. Conclusions The cognitive composite is a highly reliable measure, with minimal floor and ceiling effects. We calibrated it using a nationally representative sample of adults over age 70 in the US and established diagnostically relevant cut-points. Our methods can be used to harmonize neuropsychological test results across diverse settings and studies. PMID:24481241

  10. Innovations in athletic preparation: role of substrate availability to modify training adaptation and performance.

    PubMed

    Hawley, John A; Gibala, Martin J; Bermon, Stéphane

    2007-01-01

    World records for athletic events continue to improve and in the search for superior methods to gain a competitive edge, coaches and athletes are constantly searching for the latest "magic bullet". Although it is assumed that optimal adaptation to the demands of repeated training sessions requires a diet that can sustain muscle energy reserves, this premise does not consider the unsolved longstanding question of whether it is a lack or a surplus of a substrate that triggers the training adaptation. As such, recent scientific enquiry has re-focused attention on the role of substrate availability before, during, and after training to amplify the training adaptation. There has also been a resurgence of interest in the potential for protein ingestion to improve performance and/or promote training-induced adaptations in skeletal muscle. Altitude training (real or simulated) is now an accepted part of competition preparation for many athletic events, and such interventions attract their own nutritional issues. These and other diet-training interactions with the potential to alter training adaptation and performance are discussed.

  11. Innovation in user-centered skills and performance improvement for sustainable complex service systems.

    PubMed

    Karwowski, Waldemar; Ahram, Tareq Z

    2012-01-01

    In order to leverage individual and organizational learning and to remain competitive in current turbulent markets it is important for employees, managers, planners and leaders to perform at high levels over time. Employee competence and skills are extremely important matters in view of the general shortage of talent and the mobility of employees with talent. Two factors emerged to have the greatest impact on the competitiveness of complex service systems: improving managerial and employee's knowledge attainment for skills, and improving the training and development of the workforce. This paper introduces the knowledge-based user-centered service design approach for sustainable skill and performance improvement in education, design and modeling of the next generation of complex service systems. The rest of the paper cover topics in human factors and sustainable business process modeling for the service industry, and illustrates the user-centered service system development cycle with the integration of systems engineering concepts in service systems. A roadmap for designing service systems of the future is discussed. The framework introduced in this paper is based on key user-centered design principles and systems engineering applications to support service competitiveness.

  12. A Semi-Empirical Multi-Scale Dynamic Monte Carlo Model of Organic Photovoltaic Performance in RIR-MAPLE Bulk Heterojunction Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne; Atewologun, Ayomide

    A semi-empirical method for investigating the performance of OPVs in resonant infrared, matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) films is explored. Emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE offers a unique experimental backdrop for investigating trends through simulation and gaining a better understanding of how different thin film characteristics impact OPV device performance. A novel multi-scale formulation of the Dynamic Monte Carlo (DMC) model is developed based on observable morphology features. Specifically, using confocal microscopy, we observe the presence of micro-scale regimes of pure materials and nano-scale regions of the composite blend. This enables us to assign weighted percentages to DMC implementations on two different scales: the microscale and nanoscale regions. In addition to this, we use input simulation parameters acquired by characterization of as-deposited films. The semi-empirical multi-scale model presented serves as a unique simulation opportunity for exploring different properties of RIR-MAPLE deposited OPVs, their effects on OPV performance and potential design routes for improving device efficiencies. This work was supported, in part, by the Office of Naval Research under Grant N00014-10-1-0481 and the NSF Triangle MRSEC on Soft Matter.

  13. Cosmo-SkyMed Di Seconda Generazione Innovative Algorithms and High Performance SAR Data Processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, S.; Porfilio, M.; Valentini, G.; Serva, S.; Fiorentino, C. A. M.

    2016-08-01

    In the frame of COSMO-SkyMed di Seconda Generazione (CSG) programme, extensive research activities have been conducted on SAR data processing, with particular emphasis on high resolution processors, wide field products noise and coregistration algorithms.As regards the high resolution, it is essential to create a model for the management of all those elements that are usually considered as negligible but alter the target phase responses when it is "integrated" for several seconds. Concerning the SAR wide-field products noise removal, one of the major problems is the ability compensate all the phenomena that affect the received signal intensity. Research activities are aimed at developing adaptive- iterative techniques for the compensation of inaccuracies on the knowledge of radar antenna pointing, up to achieve compensation of the order of thousandths of degree. Moreover, several modifications of the image coregistration algortithm have been studied aimed at improving the performences and reduce the computational effort.

  14. Investigation of performances of innovative aeronautic injection systems using advanced laser diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orain, M.; Grisch, F.; Jourdanneau, E.; Rossow, B.; Guin, C.; Trétout, B.

    2011-10-01

    Simultaneous measurements of Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) kerosene and PLIF-OH have been successfully performed in a multipoint injection system for various overall equivalence ratios, air inlet temperatures between 480 and 730 K, and pressures up to 2.2 MPa. Single-shot two-dimensional (2D) maps of the spatial distribution of kerosene vapor and OH radical in the combustor have been recorded with good signal-to-noise ratio. Results show that depending on the split between the pilot and the main injectors, the flame front exhibits either a single or a double structure. Good spatial correlation between the repartition of kerosene vapor and the position of the flame front was observed; in particular, no "dark zone" is observed between the fuel and the flame front. As temperature and pressure increase, fuel evaporation improves and the spatial distribution of OH radical becomes more homogeneous in the combustor, suggesting a partially-distributed combustion.

  15. An Empirical Study of the Relationship Between Total Quality Management Activities and Business Operational Performance among Taiwan`s High-Tech Manufacturers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Yi-Chan; Hsu, Yau-Wen; Chen, Ching-Piao; Tsai, Chih-Hung

    This research studies the impact of critical success factors of Total Quality Management (TQM) activities implementation and the impact of TQM activities implementation on business operational performance. The two intermediate variables, industry group and enterprise scale are considered. Through literature review, this research developed a theoretical model of the factors influencing the relations. The empirical analysis results on Taiwan`s high-tech firms in the Hsinchu Science-Based Industrial Park show that the degree of executive involvement in TQM success factors revealed significant influence on the degree of TQM activities execution. Furthermore, the research hypothesis the degree of executive involvement in TQM activities revealed significant influence on business operational performance was statistically tested and proven in this research. The two intermediate variables, industry group and enterprise scale do not show noticeable impact on TQM activities implementation and business operational performance.

  16. Performance comparison of different thermodynamic cycles for an innovative central receiver solar power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Belmonte, Miguel A.; Sebastián, Andrés; González-Aguilar, José; Romero, Manuel

    2017-06-01

    The potential of using different thermodynamic cycles coupled to a solar tower central receiver that uses a novel heat transfer fluid is analyzed. The new fluid, named as DPS, is a dense suspension of solid particles aerated through a tubular receiver used to convert concentrated solar energy into thermal power. This novel fluid allows reaching high temperatures at the solar receiver what opens a wide range of possibilities for power cycle selection. This work has been focused into the assessment of power plant performance using conventional, but optimized cycles but also novel thermodynamic concepts. Cases studied are ranging from subcritical steam Rankine cycle; open regenerative Brayton air configurations at medium and high temperature; combined cycle; closed regenerative Brayton helium scheme and closed recompression supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle. Power cycle diagrams and working conditions for design point are compared amongst the studied cases for a common reference thermal power of 57 MWth reaching the central cavity receiver. It has been found that Brayton air cycle working at high temperature or using supercritical carbon dioxide are the most promising solutions in terms of efficiency conversion for the power block of future generation by means of concentrated solar power plants.

  17. Instructional Innovation, School Choice, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berends, Mark; Penaloza, Roberto V.; Cannata, Marisa; Goldring, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    There is limited empirical research about innovation in various types of schools of choice, although viable choice policies tend to assume clear differentiation amongst schools. Innovation can be conceptualized in many ways and takes place at multiple levels of the school organization. Schools can innovate in terms of the roles and responsibility…

  18. Education, Training, Innovation: Evidence from Transition Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akhmedjonov, Alisher R.

    2010-01-01

    Innovation is the key to productivity growth and prosperity. Most empirical cross-country analysis of the determinants of innovation focus mainly on developed countries. The objective of this study is to fill this gap in the research and analyze the determinants of innovation in transition countries of Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union.…

  19. Education, Training, Innovation: Evidence from Transition Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akhmedjonov, Alisher R.

    2010-01-01

    Innovation is the key to productivity growth and prosperity. Most empirical cross-country analysis of the determinants of innovation focus mainly on developed countries. The objective of this study is to fill this gap in the research and analyze the determinants of innovation in transition countries of Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union.…

  20. An empirical/theoretical model with dimensionless numbers to predict the performance of electrodialysis systems on the basis of operating conditions.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Leila; Ghassemi, Abbas

    2016-07-01

    Among the different technologies developed for desalination, the electrodialysis/electrodialysis reversal (ED/EDR) process is one of the most promising for treating brackish water with low salinity when there is high risk of scaling. Multiple researchers have investigated ED/EDR to optimize the process, determine the effects of operating parameters, and develop theoretical/empirical models. Previously published empirical/theoretical models have evaluated the effect of the hydraulic conditions of the ED/EDR on the limiting current density using dimensionless numbers. The reason for previous studies' emphasis on limiting current density is twofold: 1) to maximize ion removal, most ED/EDR systems are operated close to limiting current conditions if there is not a scaling potential in the concentrate chamber due to a high concentration of less-soluble salts; and 2) for modeling the ED/EDR system with dimensionless numbers, it is more accurate and convenient to use limiting current density, where the boundary layer's characteristics are known at constant electrical conditions. To improve knowledge of ED/EDR systems, ED/EDR models should be also developed for the Ohmic region, where operation reduces energy consumption, facilitates targeted ion removal, and prolongs membrane life compared to limiting current conditions. In this paper, theoretical/empirical models were developed for ED/EDR performance in a wide range of operating conditions. The presented ion removal and selectivity models were developed for the removal of monovalent ions and divalent ions utilizing the dominant dimensionless numbers obtained from laboratory scale electrodialysis experiments. At any system scale, these models can predict ED/EDR performance in terms of monovalent and divalent ion removal.

  1. Empirical mode decomposition apparatus, method and article of manufacture for analyzing biological signals and performing curve fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A computer implemented physical signal analysis method includes four basic steps and the associated presentation techniques of the results. The first step is a computer implemented Empirical Mode Decomposition that extracts a collection of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) from nonlinear, nonstationary physical signals. The decomposition is based on the direct extraction of the energy associated with various intrinsic time scales in the physical signal. Expressed in the IMF's, they have well-behaved Hilbert Transforms from which instantaneous frequencies can be calculated. The second step is the Hilbert Transform which produces a Hilbert Spectrum. Thus, the invention can localize any event on the time as well as the frequency axis. The decomposition can also be viewed as an expansion of the data in terms of the IMF's. Then, these IMF's, based on and derived from the data, can serve as the basis of that expansion. The local energy and the instantaneous frequency derived from the IMF's through the Hilbert transform give a full energy-frequency-time distribution of the data which is designated as the Hilbert Spectrum. The third step filters the physical signal by combining a subset of the IMFs. In the fourth step, a curve may be fitted to the filtered signal which may not have been possible with the original, unfiltered signal.

  2. Empirical mode decomposition apparatus, method and article of manufacture for analyzing biological signals and performing curve fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A computer implemented physical signal analysis method includes four basic steps and the associated presentation techniques of the results. The first step is a computer implemented Empirical Mode Decomposition that extracts a collection of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) from nonlinear, nonstationary physical signals. The decomposition is based on the direct extraction of the energy associated with various intrinsic time scales in the physical signal. Expressed in the IMF's, they have well-behaved Hilbert Transforms from which instantaneous frequencies can be calculated. The second step is the Hilbert Transform which produces a Hilbert Spectrum. Thus, the invention can localize any event on the time as well as the frequency axis. The decomposition can also be viewed as an expansion of the data in terms of the IMF's. Then, these IMF's, based on and derived from the data, can serve as the basis of that expansion. The local energy and the instantaneous frequency derived from the IMF's through the Hilbert transform give a full energy-frequency-time distribution of the data which is designated as the Hilbert Spectrum. The third step filters the physical signal by combining a subset of the IMFs. In the fourth step, a curve may be fitted to the filtered signal which may not have been possible with the original, unfiltered signal.

  3. Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act: Information on Planned Changes to State Performance Reporting and Related Challenges. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-16-287

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Government Accountability Office, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Enacted in 2014, the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) brought numerous changes to existing federal employment and training programs, including requiring the Department of Labor (DOL) and the Department of Education (Education) to implement a common performance accountability system across the six WIOA-designated core programs. WIOA…

  4. Hospital innovation portfolios: key determinants of size and innovativeness.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Carsten; Zippel-Schultz, Bettina; Salomo, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Health care organizations face an increasing demand for strategic change and innovation; however, there are also several barriers to innovation that impede successful implementation. We aimed to shed light on key issues of innovation management in hospitals and provide empirical evidence for controlling the size and innovativeness of a hospital's new health service and process portfolio. We show how health care managers could align the need for exploration and exploitation by applying both informal (e.g., employee encouragement) and formal (e.g., analytical orientation and reward systems) organizational mechanisms. To develop hypotheses, we integrated the innovation management literature into the hospital context. Detailed information about the innovation portfolio of 87 German hospitals was generated and combined with multirespondent survey data using ratings from management, medical, and nursing directors. Multivariate regression analysis was applied. The empirical results showed that an analytical approach increased the size of innovation portfolios. Employee encouragement amplified the degree of innovativeness of activities in the portfolio. Reward systems did not have direct effects on the composition of innovation portfolios. However, they adjusted bottom-up employee and top-down strategic initiatives to match with the existing organization, thereby decreasing the degree of innovativeness and enforcing exploitation. Hospitals should intertwine employee encouragement, analytical approaches, and formal reward systems depending on organizational goals.

  5. Can Higher Household Education Expenditure Improve the National College Entrance Exam Performance? Empirical Evidence from Jinan, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Xuehan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of household education expenditure on National College Entrance Exam (NCEE) performance in China. Using a comprehensive dataset with a sample size of 5840 students collected in Jinan, China, this study found that the average effect of household education expenditure on NCEE performance is not…

  6. Dual Standards of School Performance and Funding? Empirical Searches of School Funding Adequacy in Kentucky and Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung

    2010-01-01

    This study examines potential consequences of the discrepancies between national and state performance standards for school funding in Kentucky and Maine. Applying the successful schools observation method and cost function analysis method to integrated data-sets that match schools' eight-grade mathematics test performance measures to district…

  7. Utility-Scale Solar 2015: An Empirical Analysis of Project Cost, Performance, and Pricing Trends in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Seel, Joachim

    2016-08-17

    The utility-scale solar sector—defined here to include any ground-mounted photovoltaic (“PV”), concentrating photovoltaic (“CPV”), or concentrating solar power (“CSP”) project that is larger than 5 MWAC in capacity—has led the overall U.S. solar market in terms of installed capacity since 2012. It is expected to maintain its market-leading position for at least another five years, driven in part by December 2015’s three-year extension of the 30% federal investment tax credit (“ITC”) through 2019 (coupled with a favorable switch to a “start construction” rather than a “placed in service” eligibility requirement, and a gradual phase down of the credit to 10% by 2022). In fact, in 2016 alone, the utility-scale sector is projected to install more than twice as much new capacity as it ever has previously in a single year. This unprecedented boom makes it difficult, yet more important than ever, to stay abreast of the latest utility-scale market developments and trends. This report—the fourth edition in an ongoing annual series—is intended to help meet this need, by providing in-depth, annually updated, data-driven analysis of the utility-scale solar project fleet in the United States. Drawing on empirical project-level data from a wide range of sources, this report analyzes not just installed project costs or prices—i.e., the traditional realm of most solar economic analyses—but also operating costs, capacity factors, and power purchase agreement (“PPA”) prices from a large sample of utility-scale solar projects throughout the United States. Given its current dominance in the market, utility-scale PV also dominates much of this report, though data from CPV and CSP projects are also presented where appropriate.

  8. On the prevalence of gunshot residue in selected populations - an empirical study performed with SEM-EDX analysis.

    PubMed

    Brożek-Mucha, Zuzanna

    2014-04-01

    The study was designed to obtain a comprehensive view on the prevalence of gunshot residue and the factors influencing their dispersion. 273 specimens collected from people of various professions, representing both users and non-users of firearms, as well as from the interior of a forensic laboratory were examined for the presence of gunshot residue. In specimens taken from hands of 100 people declaring no contact with firearms only one spherical particle containing lead, antimony and barium was found. Numbers of particles found in specimens collected from hands of 50 shooters varied from zero to numbers greater than 100 and were strongly correlated with the time interval between last shooting and collecting specimens. Within the first 4h after shooting particles are being lost from the shooter's hands, and so transferred from shooters to their environment. Thus, the relatives of five hunters were examined during both the close and open hunting seasons to trace the potential secondary transfer in practice. Using the criterion of low risk of contamination with gunshot residue, i.e. 5h after last handling a gun, only few specimens were encountered among these collected from hands of firearm users that contained characteristic particles and these occurred in small numbers. Frequent shooters, e.g. shooting instructors or firearm examiners, formed a class for themselves of high risk of contamination with gunshot residue. As a result of continuous monitoring of the laboratory (55 specimens examined so far), where the examinations of gunshot residue are being carried out, it has been proved that the laboratory is free from contamination and so confirmed the usefulness of protocols worked out. The obtained information provided empirical bases to the minimisation of the risk of contamination of the evidence as well as for the evaluation of the analytical findings in the expertise on gunshot incidents.

  9. Utility-Scale Solar 2014. An Empirical Analysis of Project Cost, Performance, and Pricing Trends in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Seel, Joachim

    2015-09-01

    Other than the nine Solar Energy Generation Systems (“SEGS”) parabolic trough projects built in the 1980s, virtually no large-scale or “utility-scale” solar projects – defined here to include any groundmounted photovoltaic (“PV”), concentrating photovoltaic (“CPV”), or concentrating solar thermal power (“CSP”) project larger than 5 MWAC – existed in the United States prior to 2007. By 2012 – just five years later – utility-scale had become the largest sector of the overall PV market in the United States, a distinction that was repeated in both 2013 and 2014 and that is expected to continue for at least the next few years. Over this same short period, CSP also experienced a bit of a renaissance in the United States, with a number of large new parabolic trough and power tower systems – some including thermal storage – achieving commercial operation. With this critical mass of new utility-scale projects now online and in some cases having operated for a number of years (generating not only electricity, but also empirical data that can be mined), the rapidly growing utility-scale sector is ripe for analysis. This report, the third edition in an ongoing annual series, meets this need through in-depth, annually updated, data-driven analysis of not just installed project costs or prices – i.e., the traditional realm of solar economics analyses – but also operating costs, capacity factors, and power purchase agreement (“PPA”) prices from a large sample of utility-scale solar projects in the United States. Given its current dominance in the market, utility-scale PV also dominates much of this report, though data from CPV and CSP projects are presented where appropriate.

  10. Impact of green supply chain management practices on firms' performance: an empirical study from the perspective of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Syed Abdul Rehman; Qianli, Dong

    2017-07-01

    This article investigates the impact of five determinants of the green supply chain practices on organizational performance in the context of Pakistan manufacturing firms. A sample of 218 firms was collected from the manufacturing industry. The green supply chain practices were measured through five independent variables including green manufacturing, green purchasing, green information systems, cooperation with customers, and eco-design. By using exploratory factor and simultaneous regression analysis, the results indicate that except green purchasing, rests of the four independent variables have been found statistically significant to predict organizational performance. However, the eco-design of green practices followed by green information systems has revealed the greatest impact on organizational performance. Therefore, the managers of the manufacturing firms should not only implement eco-design in their supply chain but also concentrate on proper monitoring and implementation of green information systems to increase their firms' performance. A main contribution of this research from theoretical side is that it is possible to notice a negative effect of "green purchasing" towards organizational performance particularly in the scenario of Pakistan manufacturing industry. Another valuable result is that green purchasing is an important antecedent of firms economic performance in the US manufacturing firms (Green et al. 2012), although not significantly related to organizational performance in our study. In addition, we also discussed research limitations, areas for future research, and implications for practitioners.

  11. Career histories and managerial performance of health care chief executive officers: an empirical study in the Italian National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Mascia, Daniele; Piconi, Ilaria

    2013-01-01

    Organizational studies widely acknowledge the importance of the relationship between CEO's career histories and managerial performance. Although the health care management literature largely explores the role of CEOs, whether and how top managers' career histories affect their own performance remains still unknown in this industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the career histories of health care CEOs and to explore their impact on managerial performance. Primary data were collected from a sample of 124 CEOs leading health care organizations in the Italian National Health Service in 2008. Biographic data were accessed to gather information about relevant CEOs' demographics and their career histories. The relevance of CEOs' prior experience was considered, taking into account the prominence of health care organizations in which they passed through in their career histories. Regression analyses were employed to assess the impact of CEOs' career histories on their managerial performance. Top managers already appointed as CEOs were more likely to achieve higher levels of performance. Careers with long tenure within the National Health Service appear to increase managerial performance. Those CEOs who accumulated prior experience in a large number of health care structures and who spent time working at the most prominent hospitals were also more likely to achieve higher levels of managerial performance. In health care, a CEO's career history does impact his or her managerial performance. Specifically, patterns of career that imply higher mobility across health care organizations are important. Although interorganizational mobility is significant for CEO performance, the same does not hold for mobility across industries. These findings contribute to the current debate about the need for management renovation within health care organizations.

  12. Plastic Cubesat: An innovative and low-cost way to perform applied space research and hands-on education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piattoni, Jacopo; Candini, Gian Paolo; Pezzi, Giulio; Santoni, Fabio; Piergentili, Fabrizio

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes the design and the manufacturing of a Cubesat platform based on a plastic structure. The Cubesat structure has been realized in plastic material (ABS) using a "rapid prototyping" technique. The "rapid prototyping" technique has several advantages including fast implementation, accuracy in manufacturing small parts and low cost. Moreover, concerning the construction of a small satellite, this technique is very useful thanks to the accuracy achievable in details, which are sometimes difficult and expensive to realize with the use of tools machine. The structure must be able to withstand the launch loads. For this reason, several simulations using an FEM simulation and an intensive vibration test campaign have been performed in the system development and test phase. To demonstrate that this structure is suitable for hosting a complete satellite system, offering innovative integrated solutions, other subsystems have been developed and assembled. Despite its small size, this single unit (1U) Cubesat has a system for active attitude control, a redundant telecommunication system, a payload camera and a photovoltaic system based on high efficiency solar cells. The developed communication subsystem has small dimensions, low power consumption and low cost. An example of the innovations introduced is the antenna system, which has been manufactured inside the ABS structure. The communication protocol which has been implemented, the AX.25 protocol, is mainly used by radio amateurs. The communication system has the capability to transmit both telemetry and data from the payload, in this case a microcamera. The attitude control subsystem is based on an active magnetic system with magnetorquers for detumbling and momentum dumping and three reaction wheels for fine control. It has a total dimension of about 50×50×50 mm. A microcontroller implements the detumbling control law autonomously taking data from integrated magnetometers and executes pointing

  13. MO-G-17A-01: Innovative High-Performance PET Imaging System for Preclinical Imaging and Translational Researches

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, X; Lou, K; Deng, Z; Shao, Y

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a practical and compact preclinical PET with innovative technologies for substantially improved imaging performance required for the advanced imaging applications. Methods: Several key components of detector, readout electronics and data acquisition have been developed and evaluated for achieving leapfrogged imaging performance over a prototype animal PET we had developed. The new detector module consists of an 8×8 array of 1.5×1.5×30 mm{sup 3} LYSO scintillators with each end coupled to a latest 4×4 array of 3×3 mm{sup 2} Silicon Photomultipliers (with ∼0.2 mm insensitive gap between pixels) through a 2.0 mm thick transparent light spreader. Scintillator surface and reflector/coupling were designed and fabricated to reserve air-gap to achieve higher depth-of-interaction (DOI) resolution and other detector performance. Front-end readout electronics with upgraded 16-ch ASIC was newly developed and tested, so as the compact and high density FPGA based data acquisition and transfer system targeting 10M/s coincidence counting rate with low power consumption. The new detector module performance of energy, timing and DOI resolutions with the data acquisition system were evaluated. Initial Na-22 point source image was acquired with 2 rotating detectors to assess the system imaging capability. Results: No insensitive gaps at the detector edge and thus it is capable for tiling to a large-scale detector panel. All 64 crystals inside the detector were clearly separated from a flood-source image. Measured energy, timing, and DOI resolutions are around 17%, 2.7 ns and 1.96 mm (mean value). Point source image is acquired successfully without detector/electronics calibration and data correction. Conclusion: Newly developed advanced detector and readout electronics will be enable achieving targeted scalable and compact PET system in stationary configuration with >15% sensitivity, ∼1.3 mm uniform imaging resolution, and fast acquisition counting rate

  14. Spatial validation of large scale land surface models against monthly land surface temperature patterns using innovative performance metrics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Julian; Siemann, Amanda; Stisen, Simon; Sheffield, Justin

    2016-04-01

    Land surface models (LSMs) are a key tool to enhance process understanding and to provide predictions of the terrestrial hydrosphere and its atmospheric coupling. Distributed LSMs predict hydrological states and fluxes, such as land surface temperature (LST) or actual evapotranspiration (aET), at each grid cell. LST observations are widely available through satellite remote sensing platforms that enable comprehensive spatial validations of LSMs. In spite of the availability of LST data, most validation studies rely on simple cell to cell comparisons and thus do not regard true spatial pattern information. This study features two innovative spatial performance metrics, namely EOF- and connectivity-analysis, to validate predicted LST patterns by three LSMs (Mosaic, Noah, VIC) over the contiguous USA. The LST validation dataset is derived from global High-Resolution-Infrared-Radiometric-Sounder (HIRS) retrievals for a 30 year period. The metrics are bias insensitive, which is an important feature in order to truly validate spatial patterns. The EOF analysis evaluates the spatial variability and pattern seasonality, and attests better performance to VIC in the warm months and to Mosaic and Noah in the cold months. Further, more than 75% of the LST variability can be captured by a single pattern that is strongly driven by air temperature. The connectivity analysis assesses the homogeneity and smoothness of patterns. The LSMs are most reliable at predicting cold LST patterns in the warm months and vice versa. Lastly, the coupling between aET and LST is investigated at flux tower sites and compared against LSMs to explain the identified LST shortcomings.

  15. The empirical validation of a model for simulating the thermal and electrical performance of fuel cell micro-cogeneration devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beausoleil-Morrison, Ian

    Fuel cell micro-cogeneration is a nascent technology that can potentially reduce the energy consumption and environmental impact associated with serving building electrical and thermal demands. Accurately assessing these potential benefits and optimizing the integration of micro-cogeneration within buildings requires simulation methods that enable the integrated modelling of fuel cell micro-cogeneration devices with the thermal and electrical performance of the host building and other plant components. Such a model has recently been developed and implemented into a number of building simulation programs as part of an International Energy Agency research project. To date, the model has been calibrated (tuned) for one particular prototype 2.8 kWAC solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) micro-cogeneration device. The current paper examines the validity of this model by contrasting simulation predictions to measurements from the 2.8 kWAC prototype device. Good agreement was found in the predictions of DC power production, the rate of fuel consumption, and energy conversion efficiencies. Although there was greater deviation between simulation predictions and measurements in the predictions of useful thermal output, acceptable agreement was found within the uncertainty of the model and the measurements. It is concluded that the form of the mathematical model can accurately represents the performance of SOFC micro-cogeneration devices and that detailed performance assessments can now be performed with the calibrated model to examine the applicability of the 2.8 kWAC prototype device for supplying building electrical and thermal energy requirements.

  16. Screening Items for Bias: An Empirical Comparison of the Performance of Three Indices in Small Samples of Examinees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Parshall, Cynthia G.

    A Monte Carlo study was conducted to compare the performance of three statistical indices of test item bias in small samples of examinees. The statistical indices compared were the Delta method, the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) method, and the Standardization method. Sample sizes of 50, 100, and 200 were examined. One thousand samples of each size were…

  17. Organizational Learning, Knowledge Management Practices and Firm's Performance: An Empirical Study of a Heavy Engineering Firm in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Ajay K.; Moreno, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims at investigating the impact of organizational learning (OL) on the firm's performance and knowledge management (KM) practices in a heavy engineering organization in India. Design/Methodology/Approach: The data were collected from 205 middle and senior executives working in the project engineering management division of a…

  18. Organizational Learning, Knowledge Management Practices and Firm's Performance: An Empirical Study of a Heavy Engineering Firm in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Ajay K.; Moreno, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims at investigating the impact of organizational learning (OL) on the firm's performance and knowledge management (KM) practices in a heavy engineering organization in India. Design/Methodology/Approach: The data were collected from 205 middle and senior executives working in the project engineering management division of a…

  19. The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities III's Cognitive Performance Model: Empirical Support for Intermediate Factors within CHC Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.

    2014-01-01

    The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability Third Edition is developed using the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) measurement-theory test design as the instrument's theoretical blueprint. The instrument provides users with cognitive scores based on the Cognitive Performance Model (CPM); however, the CPM is not a part of CHC theory. Within the…

  20. Validating Craft Knowledge: An Empirical Examination of Elementary-Grade Students' Performance on an Informal Reading Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Darrell; Bloodgood, Janet W.; Perney, Jan; Frye, Elizabeth M.; Kucan, Linda; Trathen, Woodrow; Ward, Devery; Schlagal, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated children's performance on several informal reading and spelling tasks. Students (n = 274) in a rural North Carolina county were assessed across grades 2 to 6 on the following measures: isolated word recognition (timed and untimed), oral reading accuracy, reading comprehension, reading rate, and spelling.…

  1. Test Length and Cognitive Fatigue: An Empirical Examination of Effects on Performance and Test-Taker Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.; Kanfer, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Person and situational determinants of cognitive ability test performance and subjective reactions were examined in the context of tests with different time-on-task requirements. Two hundred thirty-nine first-year university students participated in a within-participant experiment, with completely counterbalanced treatment conditions and test…

  2. Physical Fitness and Academic Performance: Empirical Evidence from the National Administrative Senior High School Student Data in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Pei-An; Chang, Hung-Hao; Wang, Jiun-Hao; Wu, Min-Chen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the changes of physical fitness across the 3-year spectrum of senior high school study and academic performance measured by standardized tests in Taiwan. A unique dataset of 149 240 university-bound senior high school students from 2009 to 2011 was constructed by merging two nationwide administrative…

  3. Empirical modeling of the impact of Mollisol soils variation on performance of Cuphea: A potential oilseed crop

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Production potential of many soils is affected by low supply of nutrients due to adverse constraints or spatio-temporal variation of soil physical and chemical properties. New oilseed crops differ in their nutrient needs for maximum performance in different soils and may not be able to economically ...

  4. The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities III's Cognitive Performance Model: Empirical Support for Intermediate Factors within CHC Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.

    2014-01-01

    The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability Third Edition is developed using the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) measurement-theory test design as the instrument's theoretical blueprint. The instrument provides users with cognitive scores based on the Cognitive Performance Model (CPM); however, the CPM is not a part of CHC theory. Within the…

  5. Physical Fitness and Academic Performance: Empirical Evidence from the National Administrative Senior High School Student Data in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Pei-An; Chang, Hung-Hao; Wang, Jiun-Hao; Wu, Min-Chen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the changes of physical fitness across the 3-year spectrum of senior high school study and academic performance measured by standardized tests in Taiwan. A unique dataset of 149 240 university-bound senior high school students from 2009 to 2011 was constructed by merging two nationwide administrative…

  6. Test Length and Cognitive Fatigue: An Empirical Examination of Effects on Performance and Test-Taker Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.; Kanfer, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Person and situational determinants of cognitive ability test performance and subjective reactions were examined in the context of tests with different time-on-task requirements. Two hundred thirty-nine first-year university students participated in a within-participant experiment, with completely counterbalanced treatment conditions and test…

  7. Comparison of heat transfer performance on closed pulsating heat pipe for Fe3O4 and ɤFe2O3 for achieving an empirical correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goshayeshi, Hamid Reza; Izadi, Farhad; Bashirnezhad, Kazem

    2017-05-01

    This paper describes the effect of heat transfer coefficient in an oscillating heat pipe for Fe3O4/water and ɤ (gamma) Fe2O3/kerosene. Experimental studies were performed to investigate the thermal performance of three oscillating heat pipes operating with heating power input in a range of 0-140 W. The tested OHPs are all made from copper tubes with inner diameters (IDs) of 2, 2.5 and 3 mm with different number of turns. Two working fluids, Fe3O4/water and ɤ (gamma) Fe2O3/kerosene, were used by filling ratios of 50%, by volume. Experimental results show that thermal performance of the OHPs depends on the conjugation effects of working fluid, inner diameter, heating power input and magnetic field. The 2.5 mm ID CLOHPs had better thermal performance when charged with Fe3O4/water as compared with ɤFe2O3/kerosene. Finally, an empirical correlation based on 600 sets of available experimental data was proposed to predict the thermal performance of vertical CLOHPs for Fe3O4/water and ɤ (gamma) Fe2O3/kerosene.

  8. Environmental scanning as a moderator of strategy-performance relationships: an empirical analysis of physical therapy facilities.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mark A; Miles, Grant; McDowell, William C

    2008-05-01

    To date, strategic management research in health care is largely confined to the acute care sector of the industry. This research examines the linkages among environmental scanning, competitive strategy and performance in physical therapy facilities. Nontrivial differences between acute and subacute care firms suggest the role of environmental scanning may change in non-acute care settings. Consistent with previous research, these results indicate that the frequency of internal and external scanning is related to the strategic orientation of physical therapy facilities. Contrary to the expectations, broader scope of scanning is positively related to an increasing market-focused and increasing efficiency strategic orientation. A key objective of the research is to test the impact of strategy/scanning alignment on facility performance. These findings support predictions on the moderating role of scanning activities in the strategy-performance relationship. However, a paradoxical pattern of results has possible implications for clinician managers in subacute care settings as well as the interpretation of scanning activities.

  9. Cognitive Styles, Demographic Attributes, Task Performance and Affective Experiences: An Empirical Investigation into Astrophysics Data System (ADS) Core Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Rong

    As a primary digital library portal for astrophysics researchers, SAO/NASA ADS (Astrophysics Data System) 2.0 interface features several visualization tools such as Author Network and Metrics. This research study involves 20 ADS long term users who participated in a usability and eye tracking research session. Participants first completed a cognitive test, and then performed five tasks in ADS 2.0 where they explored its multiple visualization tools. Results show that over half of the participants were Imagers and half of the participants were Analytic. Cognitive styles were found to have significant impacts on several efficiency-based measures. Analytic-oriented participants were observed to spent shorter time on web pages and apps, made fewer web page changes than less-Analytic-driving participants in performing common tasks, whereas AI (Analytic-Imagery) participants also completed their five tasks faster than non-AI participants. Meanwhile, self-identified Imagery participants were found to be more efficient in their task completion through multiple measures including total time on task, number of mouse clicks, and number of query revisions made. Imagery scores were negatively associated with frequency of confusion and the observed counts of being surprised. Compared to those who did not claimed to be a visual person, self-identified Imagery participants were observed to have significantly less frequency in frustration and hesitation during their task performance. Both demographic variables and past user experiences were found to correlate with task performance; query revision also correlated with multiple time-based measurements. Considered as an indicator of efficiency, query revisions were found to correlate negatively with the rate of complete with ease, and positively with several time-based efficiency measures, rate of complete with some difficulty, and the frequency of frustration. These results provide rich insights into the cognitive styles of ADS' core

  10. Parametric study to determine the effect of temperature on oil solidifier performance and the development of a new empirical correlation for predicting effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Sundaravadivelu, Devi; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

    2015-06-15

    Temperature can play a significant role in the efficacy of solidifiers in removing oil slicks on water. We studied and quantified the effect of temperature on the performance of several solidifiers using 5 different types of oils under a newly developed testing protocol by conducting experiments in constant temperature rooms set at 22°C and 5°C. The results indicated that solidifier efficiency decreased substantially at the lower temperature, especially at lower application rates. The removal efficiency of the solidifier was in general directly proportional to temperature, except for the heavier oils, where removal by attachment was observed. Solidifier products with lower powder bulk density exhibited the best removal effectiveness. Analysis of experimental data yielded empirical correlations involving certain operational variables such as application rate, temperature, solidifier property (bulk density), and oil property (viscosity). Regression analysis was used to fit a mathematical model to the experimental solidifier effectiveness data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Innovation in Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Kaluzny, Arnold D.

    1974-01-01

    The arrangements comprising the health care delivery system are analyzed in terms of social organization, and selected characteristics of the system are discussed that are pertinent to the study of diffusion and adoption of various types of innovations. Research currently under way or completed is then reviewed in terms of its contribution to overall understanding of the phenomenon of innovation, on both the individual practitioner and the organizational levels. The analysis is then used to delineate problem areas needing further study. The article provides a useful context in which to consider substantive findings of future empirical research. PMID:4606674

  12. Display innovations through glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Lori L.

    2016-03-01

    Prevailing trends in thin, lightweight, high-resolution, and added functionality, such as touch sensing, continue to drive innovation in the display market. While display volumes grow, so do consumers’ need for portability, enhanced optical performance, and mechanical reliability. Technical advancements in glass design and process have enabled display innovations in these areas while supporting industry growth. Opportunities for further innovation remain open for glass manufacturers to drive new applications, enhanced functionality, and increased demand.

  13. Empirical validation of the Operative Entrustability Assessment using resident performance in autologous breast reconstruction and hand surgery.

    PubMed

    Bello, Ricardo J; Major, Melanie R; Cooney, Damon S; Rosson, Gedge D; Lifchez, Scott D; Cooney, Carisa M

    2017-02-01

    In 2013, we developed the Operative Entrustability Assessment (OEA) to facilitate evaluation and documentation of resident operative skills. This web-based tool provides real-time, transparent feedback to residents on operative performance. This study evaluated the construct validity of the OEA, assessing its association with operative time. We used simple and multiple linear regression to estimate associations between OEA scores and operative time in selected procedures performed. OEAs were completed for 93 autologous breast reconstructions and 185 hand procedures. Self-assessed OEA was associated with shorter operative time in breast (p = 0.008) and hand (p = 0.036) cases. Evaluator OEA was associated with shorter operative time in breast (p = 0.018), but not hand cases (p = 0.377). Post-graduate year was not associated. The OEA demonstrates construct validity: increasing scores are associated with shorter operative time and are better predictors of operative time than post-graduate year, making it an option for documenting competence prior to graduation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Measuring performance in off-patent drug markets: a methodological framework and empirical evidence from twelve EU Member States.

    PubMed

    Kanavos, Panos

    2014-11-01

    This paper develops a methodological framework to help evaluate the performance of generic pharmaceutical policies post-patent expiry or after loss of exclusivity in non-tendering settings, comprising five indicators (generic availability, time delay to and speed of generic entry, number of generic competitors, price developments, and generic volume share evolution) and proposes a series of metrics to evaluate performance. The paper subsequently tests this framework across twelve EU Member States (MS) by using IMS data on 101 patent expired molecules over the 1998-2010 period. Results indicate that significant variation exists in generic market entry, price competition and generic penetration across the study countries. Size of a geographical market is not a predictor of generic market entry intensity or price decline. Regardless of geographic or product market size, many off patent molecules lack generic competitors two years after loss of exclusivity. The ranges in each of the five proposed indicators suggest, first, that there are numerous factors--including institutional ones--contributing to the success of generic entry, price decline and market penetration and, second, MS should seek a combination of supply and demand-side policies in order to maximise cost-savings from generics. Overall, there seems to be considerable potential for faster generic entry, uptake and greater generic competition, particularly for molecules at the lower end of the market.

  15. Improving performance of long-term care networks at their initial stage: an empirical study of factors affecting results.

    PubMed

    Angiola, Nunzio; Bianchi, Piervito

    2016-06-10

    Until now very little research has been carried out on the performance of health and human services networks in evolution. In particular, previous studies mainly referred to "centrally governed services networks" in the US context. According to Provan and Kenis (2008), these networks are "lead organization-governed", and are different from the "participant-governed" model or the "network administrative organization (NAO)" solution. We focused our attention on the Apulia region care services networks (Italy). In the last few years, the governance of these networks has passed from the "participant-governed" model to the NAO approach. We examined how the integration mechanisms work in this type of networks, and if there were challenges to tackle in order to improve their overall performance. These networks were examined at their initial stage, exactly when their governance model moved to a more integrated solution. We collected survey data from 17 health and human services networks out of 45 (38%). The research is carried out by means of statistical methods (OLS). The analysis is cross sectional. The implementation of "rational/technocratic" factors is important but not sufficient to enhance collaboration. The integration at the "professional level" should be kept in mind. In particular, the role of network (case) managers is paramount. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The Relationship between the Learning Organization Concept and Firms' Financial Performance: An Empirical Assessment. [and] Invited Reaction: Linking Learning with Financial Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellinger, Andrea D.; Ellinger, Alexander E.; Yang, Baiyin; Howton, Shelly W.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a study of 208 manufacturing managers that found a positive correlation between the seven dimensions of learning organizations and four measures of business financial performance. "Invited Reaction" by Timothy T. Baldwin and Camden C. Danielson critiques the use of key respondent perceptions and bottom-line performance.…

  17. Comparison of performance due to guided hyperlearning, unguided hyperlearning, and conventional learning in mathematics: an empirical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathurrohman, Maman; Porter, Anne; Worthy, Annette L.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, the use of guided hyperlearning, unguided hyperlearning, and conventional learning methods in mathematics are compared. The design of the research involved a quasi-experiment with a modified single-factor multiple treatment design comparing the three learning methods, guided hyperlearning, unguided hyperlearning, and conventional learning. The participants were from three first-year university classes, numbering 115 students in total. Each group received guided, unguided, or conventional learning methods in one of the three different topics, namely number systems, functions, and graphing. The students' academic performance differed according to the type of learning. Evaluation of the three methods revealed that only guided hyperlearning and conventional learning were appropriate methods for the psychomotor aspects of drawing in the graphing topic. There was no significant difference between the methods when learning the cognitive aspects involved in the number systems topic and the functions topic.

  18. An Empirical Kaiser Criterion.

    PubMed

    Braeken, Johan; van Assen, Marcel A L M

    2016-03-31

    In exploratory factor analysis (EFA), most popular methods for dimensionality assessment such as the screeplot, the Kaiser criterion, or-the current gold standard-parallel analysis, are based on eigenvalues of the correlation matrix. To further understanding and development of factor retention methods, results on population and sample eigenvalue distributions are introduced based on random matrix theory and Monte Carlo simulations. These results are used to develop a new factor retention method, the Empirical Kaiser Criterion. The performance of the Empirical Kaiser Criterion and parallel analysis is examined in typical research settings, with multiple scales that are desired to be relatively short, but still reliable. Theoretical and simulation results illustrate that the new Empirical Kaiser Criterion performs as well as parallel analysis in typical research settings with uncorrelated scales, but much better when scales are both correlated and short. We conclude that the Empirical Kaiser Criterion is a powerful and promising factor retention method, because it is based on distribution theory of eigenvalues, shows good performance, is easily visualized and computed, and is useful for power analysis and sample size planning for EFA. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Traditional and innovative echocardiographic parameters for the analysis of right ventricular performance in comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Focardi, Marta; Cameli, Matteo; Carbone, Salvatore Francesco; Massoni, Alberto; De Vito, Raffaella; Lisi, Matteo; Mondillo, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Right ventricle fractional area change (RVFAC), tissue Doppler and M-mode measurements of tricuspid systolic motion [tricuspid Sm and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE)], and 3D echocardiography are the current non-invasive methods for the quantification of RV systolic function; RV deformation analysis by speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) has recently allowed the analysis of RV performance. Using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) as the reference standard, this study aimed at exploring the correlation between the traditional (fractional shortening, s'RV, TAPSE) and innovative (strain) echocardiographic parameters and RV ejection fraction (RVEF) measured by CMR. CMR and transthoracic echo-Doppler were performed in 63 patients referred for clinical assessment. Twenty-one presented the suspicion of myocarditis, 8 presented idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, 10 hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 10 arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD), 5 infiltrative cardiomyopathy, and 9 other reasons. RVEF was measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). RVFAC, tricuspid S', and TAPSE were calculated in all patients. RV longitudinal strain (RVLS) by STE was assessed by averaging RV free-wall segments (free-wall RVLS) and by averaging all segments (global RVLS). The ROC analysis was applied for the assessment of diagnostic accuracy. Good correlations were found for TAPSE, tricuspid S', and global RVLS with RVEF (r = 0.45, r = 0.52, and r = -0.71, respectively; P = 0.01 for all). Close correlations between free-wall RVLS and RVFAC with RVEF were found (r = -0.86 and r = 0.77, respectively; P < 0.0001 for both). Furthermore, free-wall RVLS demonstrated the highest diagnostic accuracy [area under curve (AUC) 0.92] and good sensitivity and specificity of 96 and 93%, respectively, to predict reduced RVEF <45%, using a cut-off value of less than -17.0%. In a heterogeneous group of patients referred to CMR evaluation, conventional (TAPSE, FAC, and tricuspid S

  20. Testing some major determinants for hospital innovation success.

    PubMed

    Caccia-Bava, Maria do Carmo; Guimaraes, Valerie C K; Guimaraes, Tor

    2009-01-01

    Hospitals have adopted new policies, methods and technologies to change their processes, improve services, and support other organizational changes necessary for better performance. The literature regarding the four major areas of strategic leadership, competitive intelligence, management of technology, and specific characteristics of the organization's change process propose their importance in successfully implementing organization innovation. While these factors may indeed be important to enhance hospital performance, the existing literature contains limited empirical evidence supporting their relationship to successfully implementing innovation in hospitals. This study aims to empirically test these relationships proposed in the literature by researchers in separate knowledge areas. A survey of 223 hospitals has been used to test an integrated model of these relationships. The response rate and the representativeness of the sample in terms of hospital size and geographical location were found satisfactory. The quality assurance/compliance managers for each hospital were the target respondents to questions, which require a corporate perspective while reducing the chance of bias for questions regarding top management leadership abilities. The results provide clear evidence about the importance of strategic leadership, competitive intelligence, management of technology, and specific characteristics of the hospital's change process to the hospitals success in implementing innovation. Given the importance of hospitals to change their processes, improve services, and support other organizational changes necessary for better performance, a great benefit is that the main factors for successful innovation have been brought together from scattered literature and tested among hospitals. Further, the items used for measuring the main constructs provide further insights into how hospital administrators should go about developing these areas within their organizations. This

  1. Differences in technology innovation R&D performance creation behavior between for-profit institutions and not-for-profit institutions.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungmin

    2016-01-01

    The present study compares the performance creation behavior between for-profit institutions and not-for-profit institutions within a national technology innovation research and development (R&D) program. Based on the stepwise performance creation chain structure of typical R&D logic models, a series of successive binary logistic regression models is newly proposed. Using the models, a sample of n = 2076 completed government-sponsored R&D projects was analyzed. For each institution type, its distinctive behavior is diagnosed, and relevant implications are suggested for improving the R&D performance.

  2. Can't get no satisfaction? Will pay for performance help?: toward an economic framework for understanding performance-based risk-sharing agreements for innovative medical products.

    PubMed

    Towse, Adrian; Garrison, Louis P

    2010-01-01

    This article examines performance-based risk-sharing agreements for pharmaceuticals from a theoretical economic perspective. We position these agreements as a form of coverage with evidence development. New performance-based risk sharing could produce a more efficient market equilibrium, achieved by adjustment of the price post-launch to reflect outcomes combined with a new approach to the post-launch costs of evidence collection. For this to happen, the party best able to manage or to bear specific risks must do so. Willingness to bear risk will depend not only on ability to manage it, but on the degree of risk aversion. We identify three related frameworks that provide relevant insights: value of information, real option theory and money-back guarantees. We identify four categories of risk sharing: budget impact, price discounting, outcomes uncertainty and subgroup uncertainty. We conclude that a value of information/real option framework is likely to be the most helpful approach for understanding the costs and benefits of risk sharing. There are a number of factors that are likely to be crucial in determining if performance-based or risk-sharing agreements are efficient and likely to become more important in the future: (i) the cost and practicality of post-launch evidence collection relative to pre-launch; (ii) the feasibility of coverage with evidence development without a pre-agreed contract as to how the evidence will be used to adjust price, revenues or use, in which uncertainty around the pay-off to additional research will reduce the incentive for the manufacturer to collect the information; (iii) the difficulty of writing and policing risk-sharing agreements; (iv) the degree of risk aversion (and therefore opportunity to trade) on the part of payers and manufacturers; and (v) the extent of transferability of data from one country setting to another to support coverage with evidence development in a risk-sharing framework. There is no doubt that

  3. Service innovation management practices in the telecommunications industry: what does cross country analysis reveal?

    PubMed

    Rahman, Syed Abidur; Taghizadeh, Seyedeh Khadijeh; Ramayah, T; Ahmad, Noor Hazlina

    2015-01-01

    Service innovation management practice is currently being widely scrutinized mainly in the developed countries, where it has been initiated. The current study attempts to propose a framework and empirically validate and explain the service innovation practices for successful performance in the telecommunications industry of two developing countries, Malaysia and Bangladesh. The research framework proposes relationships among organisational culture, operating core (innovation process, cross-functional organisation, and implementation of tools/technology), competition-informed pricing, and performance. A total of 176 usable data from both countries are analysed for the purpose of the research. The findings show that organisational culture tends to be more influential on innovation process and cross-functional organisation in Malaysian telecommunication industry. In contrast, implementation of tools/technology plays a more instrumental role in competition-informed pricing practices in Bangladesh. This study revealed few differences in the innovation management practices between two developing countries. The findings have strategic implications for the service sectors in both the developing countries regarding implementation of innovative enterprises, especially in Bangladesh where innovation is the basis for survival. Testing the innovation management practices in the developing countries perhaps contains uniqueness in the field of innovation management.

  4. A numerical/empirical technique for history matching and predicting cyclic steam performance in Canadian oil sands reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leshchyshyn, Theodore Henry

    correlation curves. The key reservoir property used to develop a specific curve was to vary the initial mobile water saturation. Individual pilot wells were then history-matched using these correlation curves, adjusting for thermal net pay using perforation height and a fundamentally derived "net pay factor". Operating days (injection plus production) were required to complete the history matching calculations. Subsequent cycles were then history-matched by applying an Efficiency Multiplication Factor (EMF) to the original first cycle prediction method as well as selecting the proper correlation curve for the specific cycle under analysis by using the appropriate steam injection rates and slug sizes. History matches were performed on eight PHOP wells (two back-to-back, five-spot patterns) completed in the Wabiskaw and, three single-well tests completed just below in the McMurray Formation. Predictions for the PHOP Wabiskaw Formation first cycle bitumen production averaged within 1% of the actual pilot total. Bitumen recovery from individual wells for second cycle onwards, was within 20% of actual values. For testing the correlations, matching was also performed on cyclic steam data from British Petroleum's Wolf Lake Project, the Esso Cold Lake Project, and the PCEJ Fort McMurray Pilot, a joint venture of Petro-Canada, Cities Services (Canadian Occidental), Esso, and Japan-Canada Oil Sands with reasonable results.

  5. Unintentional force changes in cyclical tasks performed by an abundant system: Empirical observations and a dynamical model.

    PubMed

    Reschechtko, Sasha; Hasanbarani, Fariba; Akulin, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L

    2017-05-14

    The study explored unintentional force changes elicited by removing visual feedback during cyclical, two-finger isometric force production tasks. Subjects performed two types of tasks at 1Hz, paced by an auditory metronome. One - Force task - required cyclical changes in total force while maintaining the sharing, defined as relative contribution of a finger to total force. The other task - Share task - required cyclical changes in sharing while keeping total force unchanged. Each trial started under full visual feedback on both force and sharing; subsequently, feedback on the variable that was instructed to stay constant was frozen, and finally feedback on the other variable was also removed. In both tasks, turning off visual feedback on total force elicited a drop in the mid-point of the force cycle and an increase in the peak-to-peak force amplitude. Turning off visual feedback on sharing led to a drift of mean share toward 50:50 across both tasks. Without visual feedback there was consistent deviation of the two force time series from the in-phase pattern (typical of the Force task) and from the out-of-phase pattern (typical of the Share task). This finding is in contrast to most earlier studies that demonstrated only two stable patterns, in-phase and out-of-phase. We interpret the results as consequences of drifts of parameters in a dynamical system leading in particular to drifts in the referent finger coordinates toward their actual coordinates. The relative phase desynchronization is caused by the right-left differences in the hypothesized drift processes, consistent with the dynamic dominance hypothesis. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Performance Evaluation of Innovative Water Main Rehabilitation Cured-In-Place Pipe Lining Product in Cleveland, OH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some utilities are seeking emerging and innovative rehabilitation technologies to extend the service life of and repair a greater portion of their infrastructure systems. However, information on new technologies is not always readily available and easy to obtain. To help provid...

  7. Performance Evaluation of Innovative Water Main Rehabilitation Cured-In-Place Pipe Lining Product in Cleveland, OH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some utilities are seeking emerging and innovative rehabilitation technologies to extend the service life of and repair a greater portion of their infrastructure systems. However, information on new technologies is not always readily available and easy to obtain. To help provid...

  8. Characterization and performance evaluation of an innovative mesoporous activated carbon used for drinking water purification in comparison with commercial carbons.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xu-Jin; Li, Wei-Guang; Wang, Guang-Zhi; Zhang, Duo-Ying; Fan, Wen-Biao; Yin, Zhao-Dong

    2015-09-01

    The preparation, characterization, and performance evaluation of an innovative mesoporous activated carbon (C-XHIT) were conducted in this study. Comparative evaluation with commercial carbons (C-PS and C-ZJ15) and long-term performance evaluation of C-XHIT were conducted in small-scale system-A (S-A) and pilot-scale system-B (S-B-1 and S-B-2 in series), respectively, for treating water from Songhua River. The cumulative uptake of micropollutants varied with KBV (water volume fed to columns divided by the mass of carbons, m(3) H2O/kg carbon) was employed in the performance evaluation. The results identified that mesoporous and microporous volumes were simultaneously well-developed in C-XHIT. Higher mesoporosity (63.94 %) and average pore width (37.91 Å) of C-XHIT ensured a higher adsorption capacity for humic acid compared to C-PS and C-ZJ15. When the KBV of S-A reached 12.58 m(3) H2O/kg carbon, cumulative uptake of organic pollutants achieved by C-XHIT increased by 32.82 and 156.29 % for DOC (QC) and 22.53 and 112.48 % for UV254 (QUV) compared to C-PS and C-ZJ15, respectively; in contrast, the adsorption capacity of NH4 (+)-N did not improve significantly. C-XHIT achieved high average removal efficiencies for DOC (77.43 ± 16.54 %) and UV254 (83.18 ± 13.88 %) in S-B over 253 days of operation (KBV = 62 m(3) H2O/kg carbon). Adsorption dominated the removal of DOC and UV254 in the initial phases of KBV (0-15 m(3) H2O/kg carbon), and simultaneous biodegradation and adsorption were identified as the mechanisms for organic pollutant uptake at KBV above 25 m(3) H2O/kg carbon. The average rates contributed by S-B-1 and S-B-2 for QC and QUV were approximately 0.75 and 0.25, respectively. Good linear and exponential correlations were observed between S-A and S-B in terms of QC and QUV obtained by C-XHIT, respectively, for the same KBV ranges, indicating a rapid and cost-saving evaluation method. The linear correlation between mesoporosity and QC

  9. Reexamining competitive priorities: Empirical study in service sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idris, Fazli; Mohammad, Jihad

    2015-02-01

    The general objective of this study is to validate the multi-level concept of competitive priorities using reflective-formative model at a higher order for service industries. An empirical study of 228 firms from 9 different service industries is conducted to answer the objective of this study. Partial least square analysis with SmartPLS 2.0 was used to perform the analysis. Finding revealed six priorities: cost, flexibility, delivery, quality talent management, quality tangibility, and innovativeness. It emerges that quality are expanded into two types; one is related to managing talent for process improvement and the second one is the physical appearance and tangibility of the service quality. This study has confirmed competitive priorities as formative second-order hierarchical latent construct by using rigorous empirical evidence. Implications, limitation and suggestion for future research are accordingly discussed in this paper.

  10. Technology Innovation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA produces innovative technologies and facilitates their creation in line with the Agency mission to create products such as the stormwater calculator, remote sensing, innovation clusters, and low-cost air sensors.

  11. Science Innovation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA provides innovative research activities that help transform the protection of human health and the environment with high-risk, high-reward Pathfinder Innovation Projects, the P3 student competition, and low-cost air monitoring.

  12. Research Innovation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA provides innovative research activities that help transform the protection of human health and the environment with high-risk, high-reward Pathfinder Innovation Projects, the P3 student competition, and low-cost air monitoring.

  13. Using Modeling and Simulation to Predict Operator Performance and Automation-Induced Complacency With Robotic Automation: A Case Study and Empirical Validation.

    PubMed

    Wickens, Christopher D; Sebok, Angelia; Li, Huiyang; Sarter, Nadine; Gacy, Andrew M

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a computational model of the automation complacency effect, as operators work on a robotic arm task, supported by three different degrees of automation. Some computational models of complacency in human-automation interaction exist, but those are formed and validated within the context of fairly simplified monitoring failures. This research extends model validation to a much more complex task, so that system designers can establish, without need for human-in-the-loop (HITL) experimentation, merits and shortcomings of different automation degrees. We developed a realistic simulation of a space-based robotic arm task that could be carried out with three different levels of trajectory visualization and execution automation support. Using this simulation, we performed HITL testing. Complacency was induced via several trials of correctly performing automation and then was assessed on trials when automation failed. Following a cognitive task analysis of the robotic arm operation, we developed a multicomponent model of the robotic operator and his or her reliance on automation, based in part on visual scanning. The comparison of model predictions with empirical results revealed that the model accurately predicted routine performance and predicted the responses to these failures after complacency developed. However, the scanning models do not account for the entire attention allocation effects of complacency. Complacency modeling can provide a useful tool for predicting the effects of different types of imperfect automation. The results from this research suggest that focus should be given to supporting situation awareness in automation development. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  14. Innovative Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsi, Louis M.; Kaebnick, Gweneth W.

    1989-01-01

    The phenomenon of innovation within the university is examined, noting the possibility of innovation as a key to college vitality. A study was conducted using a group of institutions that demonstrated recent innovative spirit. Members of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU), each has been recognized in an annual…

  15. Innovative Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsi, Louis M.; Kaebnick, Gweneth W.

    1989-01-01

    The phenomenon of innovation within the university is examined, noting the possibility of innovation as a key to college vitality. A study was conducted using a group of institutions that demonstrated recent innovative spirit. Members of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU), each has been recognized in an annual…

  16. Work(er)-Driven Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The focus on innovation as a foundational element of enhanced organisational performance has led to the promoting and valuing of greater levels of employee participation in innovation processes. An emergent concept of employee-driven innovation could be argued to have hindered understandings of the creative and transformative nature of…

  17. Innovation network

    PubMed Central

    Acemoglu, Daron; Akcigit, Ufuk; Kerr, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Technological progress builds upon itself, with the expansion of invention in one domain propelling future work in linked fields. Our analysis uses 1.8 million US patents and their citation properties to map the innovation network and its strength. Past innovation network structures are calculated using citation patterns across technology classes during 1975–1994. The interaction of this preexisting network structure with patent growth in upstream technology fields has strong predictive power on future innovation after 1995. This pattern is consistent with the idea that when there is more past upstream innovation for a particular technology class to build on, then that technology class innovates more. PMID:27681628

  18. Innovation network.

    PubMed

    Acemoglu, Daron; Akcigit, Ufuk; Kerr, William R

    2016-10-11

    Technological progress builds upon itself, with the expansion of invention in one domain propelling future work in linked fields. Our analysis uses 1.8 million US patents and their citation properties to map the innovation network and its strength. Past innovation network structures are calculated using citation patterns across technology classes during 1975-1994. The interaction of this preexisting network structure with patent growth in upstream technology fields has strong predictive power on future innovation after 1995. This pattern is consistent with the idea that when there is more past upstream innovation for a particular technology class to build on, then that technology class innovates more.

  19. WSN system design by using an innovative neural network model to perform thermals forecasting in a urban canyon scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuseppina, Nicolosi; Salvatore, Tirrito

    2015-12-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) were studied by researchers in order to manage Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) indoor systems. WSN can be useful specially to regulate indoor confort in a urban canyon scenario, where the thermal parameters vary rapidly, influenced by outdoor climate changing. This paper shows an innovative neural network approach, by using WSN data collected, in order to forecast the indoor temperature to varying the outdoor conditions based on climate parameters and boundary conditions typically of urban canyon. In this work more attention will be done to influence of traffic jam and number of vehicles in queue.

  20. Empirically Based Play Interventions for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A., Ed.; Files-Hall, Tara M., Ed.; Schaefer, Charles E., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Empirically Based Play Interventions for Children" is a compilation of innovative, well-designed play interventions, presented for the first time in one text. Play therapy is the oldest and most popular form of child therapy in clinical practice and is widely considered by practitioners to be uniquely responsive to children's developmental needs.…

  1. Empirically Based Play Interventions for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A., Ed.; Files-Hall, Tara M., Ed.; Schaefer, Charles E., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Empirically Based Play Interventions for Children" is a compilation of innovative, well-designed play interventions, presented for the first time in one text. Play therapy is the oldest and most popular form of child therapy in clinical practice and is widely considered by practitioners to be uniquely responsive to children's developmental needs.…

  2. The innovation value chain.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Morten T; Birkinshaw, Julian

    2007-06-01

    The challenges of coming up with fresh ideas and realizing profits from them are different for every company. One firm may excel at finding good ideas but may have weak systems for bringing them to market. Another organization may have a terrific process for funding and rolling out new products and services but a shortage of concepts to develop. In this article, Hansen and Birkinshaw caution executives against using the latest and greatest innovation approaches and tools without understanding the unique deficiencies in their companies' innovation systems. They offer a framework for evaluating innovation performance: the innovation value chain. It comprises the three main phases of innovation (idea generation, conversion, and diffusion) as well as the critical activities performed during those phases (looking for ideas inside your unit; looking for them in other units; looking for them externally; selecting ideas; funding them; and promoting and spreading ideas companywide). Using this framework, managers get an end-to-end view of their innovation efforts. They can pinpoint their weakest links and tailor innovation best practices appropriately to strengthen those links. Companies typically succumb to one of three broad "weakest-link" scenarios. They are idea poor, conversion poor, or diffusion poor. The article looks at the ways smart companies - including Intuit, P&G, Sara Lee, Shell, and Siemens- modify the best innovation practices and apply them to address those organizations' individual needs and flaws. The authors warn that adopting the chain-based view of innovation requires new measures of what can be delivered by each link in the chain. The approach also entails new roles for employees "external scouts" and "internal evangelists," for example. Indeed, in their search for new hires, companies should seek out those candidates who can help address particular weaknesses in the innovation value chain.

  3. Hospitals as learning organizations: fostering innovation through interactive learning.

    PubMed

    Dias, Casimiro; Escoval, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The article aims to provide an analytical understanding of hospitals as "learning organizations." It further analyzes the development of learning organizations as a way to enhance innovation and performance in the hospital sector. The article pulls together primary data on organizational flexibility, innovation, and performance from 95 administrators from hospital boards in Portugal, collected through a survey, interviews with hospital's boards, and a nominal group technique with a panel of experts on health systems. Results show that a combination of several organizational traits of the learning organization enhances its capacity for innovation development. The logistic model presented reveals that hospitals classified as "advanced learning organizations" have 5 times more chance of developing innovation than "basic learning organizations." Empirical findings further pointed out incentives, standards, and measurement requirements as key elements for integration of service delivery systems and expansion of the current capacity for structured and real-time learning in the hospital sector. The major implication arising from this study is that policy needs to combine instruments that promote innovation opportunities and incentives, with instruments stimulating the further development of the core components of learning organizations. Such a combination of policy instruments has the potential to ensure a wide external cooperation through a learning infrastructure.

  4. Education, Training, Innovation--Evidence from Transition Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akhmedjonov, Alisher

    2010-01-01

    Innovation is the key to productivity growth and prosperity. Most empirical cross-country analysis of the determinants of innovation focus mainly on developed countries. The objective of this study is to fill this gap in the research and analyze the determinants of innovation in transition countries of Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union.…

  5. Education, Training, Innovation--Evidence from Transition Economies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akhmedjonov, Alisher

    2010-01-01

    Innovation is the key to productivity growth and prosperity. Most empirical cross-country analysis of the determinants of innovation focus mainly on developed countries. The objective of this study is to fill this gap in the research and analyze the determinants of innovation in transition countries of Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union.…

  6. Design of a quality and performance improvement project for small primary care practices: reflections on the Center for Practice Innovation.

    PubMed

    Marsteller, Jill A; Woodward, Paula; Underwood, William S; Hsiao, Chun-Ju; Barr, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Small practices often lack the human, financial and technical resources to make necessary practice improvements and infrastructure investments in order to achieve sustainable change that promotes quality and efficiency. To report on an effort to assist small primary care practices in improving quality of care and efficiency of practice management to meet the needs of patients, improve physician satisfaction and enhance the ability of these small practices to survive. We report on an intervention design and the reflections of the implementers on what they learned and what went well or poorly during implementation. Results of the intervention are reported separately (in Quality in Primary Care). Thirty practices underwent the entire intervention. The practices were selected on the basis of practice size, diversity in patient factors, apparent dedication to making practice improvements and geographic location. The main components of the intervention were two site visits to the participating practices by Center for Practice Innovation (CPI); now known as the Centre for Practice Improvement and Innovation, team members. The CPI team provided ongoing advice and support in focus areas selected by practices after initial site visit and assessment. A customised session focusing on the practice report and on helping practices to think about which areas they wished to improve was more effective in engaging practices than didactic presentation. Quality and practice management improvements were observed in information posting, patient education, staff communication and patient safety practices. Having a strong physician champion and a strong office manager determined to make quality improvement changes were important elements for successful change. In addition, practices with greater stability of staff and strong finances were more likely to meet project goals. Small practices today are facing a range of important challenges. The CPI sought to provide successful guidance to

  7. Innovation @ NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the activities National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is doing to encourage innovation across the agency. All information provided is available publicly.

  8. Teams as innovative systems: multilevel motivational antecedents of innovation in R&D teams.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gilad; Farh, Jiing-Lih; Campbell-Bush, Elizabeth M; Wu, Zhiming; Wu, Xin

    2013-11-01

    Integrating theories of proactive motivation, team innovation climate, and motivation in teams, we developed and tested a multilevel model of motivators of innovative performance in teams. Analyses of multisource data from 428 members of 95 research and development (R&D) teams across 33 Chinese firms indicated that team-level support for innovation climate captured motivational mechanisms that mediated between transformational leadership and team innovative performance, whereas members' motivational states (role-breadth self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation) mediated between proactive personality and individual innovative performance. Furthermore, individual motivational states and team support for innovation climate uniquely promoted individual innovative performance, and, in turn, individual innovative performance linked team support for innovation climate to team innovative performance. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. [Innovation in research].

    PubMed

    Zárate, Eduardo

    2010-09-01

    We briefly revise the economic resources that the State allocated between the years 2000 and 2005, and their relationship with the production of research projects. In face of the few fiscal resources, innovations are proposed to the traditional research model, sustained in producing new products. Assuming it is possible to perform innovations in the process of producing a service or a product, which implies modifying the regional and national policies, driving the model proposed by P. Drucker of producing innovations with technology with T in capital letters, would on turn generate patents and social and economic profitability.

  10. Forming system of strategic innovation management at high-tech engineering enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergunova, O. T.; Lizunkov, V. G.; Malushko, E. Yu; Marchuk, V. I.; Ignatenko, A. Yu

    2017-02-01

    The article considers the processes of forming the strategic system of innovative activity management at the enterprises of a high-tech mechanical engineering complex (MEC) that are traditionally decisive in shaping the economic base of Russia. The authors proposed a method of designing a strategic system of innovative activity management at the MEC’s enterprises of the region which is based on the consideration of means and opportunities of the enterprise to implement intellectual activity. The proposed methodology and the empirical results constituted a ground for developing a system of strategic innovation management when performing the state-guaranteed order at the hi-tech MEC enterprises. Its implementation will help to reduce the level of uncertainty throughout the entire life cycle of an innovative activity product.

  11. Mapping your innovation strategy.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Scott D; Eyring, Matt; Gibson, Lib

    2006-05-01

    In the complex sport of American football, teams rely on playbooks as thick as the Manhattan phone directory. But when it comes to creating innovative growth businesses-which is at least as complicated as professional football--most companies have not developed detailed game plans. Indeed, many managers have concluded that a fog enshrouds the world of innovation, obscuring high-potential opportunities. The authors believe that companies can penetrate that fog by developing growth strategies based on disruptive innovations, as defined by Clayton Christensen. Such innovations conform to a pattern: They offer an entirely new solution; they perform adequately along traditional dimensions and much better along other dimensions that matter more to target customers; and they are not initially appealing to powerful incumbents. Companies can develop customized checklists, or playbooks, by combining this basic pattern with analysis of major innovations in their markets. The key early on is to focus not on detailed financial estimates--which will always guide companies toward the markets most hostile to disruptive innovations--but on how well the innovation fits the pattern of success. It's also crucial to encourage flexibility: Companies must be willing to kill projects that are going nowhere, exempt innovations from standard development processes, and avoid burdening project teams with extra financing, which can keep them heading in the wrong direction. Companies can create competitive advantage by becoming champions at defining the pattern of successful innovations and executing against it. But as that pattern becomes obvious--and others emerge-building a sustainable advantage on innovation competencies will again prove elusive.

  12. Monitoring the performance of innovative and traditional biocides mixed with consolidants and water-repellents for the prevention of biological growth on stone.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Daniela; Salvadori, Barbara; Galeotti, Monica

    2012-04-15

    In this study, some mixtures of consolidants or water-repellent products and biocides developed to prevent biological growth, were tested over time on three stone substrates with different bioreceptivity. The performance of both traditional (tetraethylorthosilicate, methylethoxy polysiloxane, Paraloid B72, tributyltin oxide, dibutyltin dilaurate) and innovative compounds (copper nanoparticles) was assessed using colour measurements, the water absorption by contact sponge method, and observation under stereo and optical microscopes. The application of the mixtures had also the purpose of controlling re-colonization on stone after a conservation treatment. The study site was the archaeological Area of Fiesole; the mixtures were applied in situ to sandstone, marble and plaster which had been cleaned beforehand. An innovative aspect of the study is that, by using non-invasive methods, it also permitted monitoring the mixtures' effectiveness in preventing biological growth. The monitoring results made it possible to assess the bioreceptivity of the treated stones (sandstone, marble, plaster) over a period of almost three years. The results showed that the mixtures of consolidants or water-repellent products with biocides were effective in preventing biological growth on both a substrate with low bioreceptivity like plaster and a substrate with high bioreceptivity such as marble. The innovative mixture of nano-Cu particles with a water-repellent yielded good results in terms of preventing biological colonization. Moreover, they apparently did not affect the substrates' colour. Mixtures of nano-Cu particles with a consolidant and a water-repellent hold great promise for preventing re-colonization of stone after conservation treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Managing Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    1991-01-01

    Describes one library's use of technological innovation to provide Associated Press updates over the library's 24-hour dial-up service during the Persian Gulf War. Suggests five rules for innovation: (1) develop a shared vision; (2) foster frequent, formal, and informal communication; (3) empower employees; (4) take limited risks; and (5) use, but…

  14. Evaluating the effect of innovative motivation and supervision approaches on community health worker performance and retention in Uganda and Mozambique: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Källander, Karin; Strachan, Daniel; Soremekun, Seyi; Hill, Zelee; Lingam, Raghu; Tibenderana, James; Kasteng, Frida; Vassall, Anna; Meek, Sylvia; Kirkwood, Betty

    2015-04-12

    If trained, equipped and utilised, community health workers (CHWs) delivering integrated community case management for sick children can potentially reduce child deaths by 60%. However, it is essential to maintain CHW motivation and performance. The inSCALE project aims to evaluate, using a cluster randomised controlled trial, the effect of interventions to increase CHW supervision and performance on the coverage of appropriate treatment for children with diarrhoea, pneumonia and malaria. Participatory methods were used to identify best practices and innovative solutions. Quantitative community based baseline surveys were conducted to allow restricted randomisation of clusters into intervention and control arms. Individual informed consent was obtained from all respondents. Following formative research and stakeholder consultations, two intervention packages were developed in Uganda and one in Mozambique. In Uganda, approximately 3,500 CHWs in 39 clusters were randomised into a mobile health (mHealth) arm, a participatory community engagement arm and a control arm. In Mozambique, 275 CHWs in 12 clusters were randomised into a mHealth arm and a control arm. The mHealth interventions encompass three components: 1) free phone communication between users; 2) data submission using phones with automated feedback, messages to supervisors for targeted supervision, and online data access for district statisticians; and 3) motivational messages. The community engagement arm in Uganda established village health clubs seeking to 1) improve the status and standing of CHWs, 2) increase demand for health services and 3) communicate that CHWs' work is important. Process evaluation was conducted after 10 months and end-line surveys will establish impact after 12 months in Uganda and 18 months in Mozambique. Main outcomes include proportion of sick children appropriately treated, CHW performance and motivation, and cost effectiveness of interventions. Study strengths include a user

  15. Why Is Performance on Multiple-Choice Tests and Constructed-Response Tests Not More Closely Related? Theory and an Empirical Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuechler, William L.; Simkin, Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    Both professional certification and academic tests rely heavily on multiple-choice questions, despite the widespread belief that alternate, constructed-response questions are superior measures of a test taker's understanding of the underlying material. Empirically, the search for a link between these two assessment metrics has met with limited…

  16. An Empirical Investigation of the Proposition that 'School Is Work': A Comparison of Personality-Performance Correlations in School and Work Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lounsbury, John W.; Gibson, Lucy W.; Sundstrom, Eric; Wilburn, Denise; Loveland, James M.

    2004-01-01

    An empirical test of Munson and Rubenstein's (1992) assertion that 'school is work' compared a sample of students in a high school with a sample of workers in a manufacturing plant in the same metropolitan area. Data from both samples included scores on six personality traits--Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Openness, Emotional Stability,…

  17. An Empirical Investigation of the Proposition that 'School Is Work': A Comparison of Personality-Performance Correlations in School and Work Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lounsbury, John W.; Gibson, Lucy W.; Sundstrom, Eric; Wilburn, Denise; Loveland, James M.

    2004-01-01

    An empirical test of Munson and Rubenstein's (1992) assertion that 'school is work' compared a sample of students in a high school with a sample of workers in a manufacturing plant in the same metropolitan area. Data from both samples included scores on six personality traits--Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Openness, Emotional Stability,…

  18. Preparation, Practice, and Performance: An Empirical Examination of the Impact of Standards-Based Instruction on Secondary Students' Math and Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    For almost two decades proponents of educational reform have advocated the use of standards-based education in maths and science classrooms for improving teacher practices, increasing student learning, and raising the quality of maths and science instruction. This study empirically examined the impact of specific standards-based teacher…

  19. Do organizations spend wisely on employees? Effects of training and development investments on learning and innovation in organizations

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Sun Young; Choi, Jin Nam

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of training and development on organizational innovation. We specifically suggest that the training and development investments of an organization affect its innovative performance by promoting various learning practices. We empirically tested our hypothesis by using time-lagged, multi-source data collected from 260 Korean companies that represent diverse industries. Our analysis showed that corporate expenditure for internal training predicts interpersonal and organizational learning practices, which, in turn, increase innovative performance. The data also revealed that the positive relationship between interpersonal and organizational learning practices and innovative performance is stronger within organizations that have stronger innovative climates. By contrast, investment in employee development through financial support for education outside an organization poses a significant negative effect on its innovative performance and no significant effect on learning practices. The present study provides a plausible explanation for a mechanism through which the investment of an organization in employees enhances its innovative performance. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. PMID:25598576

  20. Fifteen Years of Collaborative Innovation and Achievement: NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium 15-Year Program Performance and Results Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaaf, Michaela M. (Editor); Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Avery Shelly; Calamaio, Caprice; Carstenson, Larry; Dugan, James; Farr, Lynne; Farritor, Shane

    2003-01-01

    This 15-year evaluation serves as a summary document highlighting the numerous and complete successes of the Nebraska Space Grant Program. Innovation has been highlighted through significant new endeavors during this 5-year period, such as placement of students and faculty at NASA Centers and the expansion of NSGC Native American Outreach Programs. While the last national program evaluation resulted in Nebraska s ranking as the top Capability Enhancement Consortium, and 5th best overall, Nebraska felt there was room for significant growth and development. This has been validated through the recent competitive attainment of Designated Grant status and has allowed for the exploration of new initiatives, as well as the expansion of already successful programs. A comprehensive strategic planning effort has involved all Nebraska representative entities and has guided Nebraska Space Grant through the evaluation period, providing a basis for continual advancement. Nebraska rigorously employs evaluation techniques to ensure that stated outcomes and metrics are achieved and that weaknesses are identified and corrected. With this coordinated approach, Nebraska expects that the next 5 years will yield new opportunities for significant achievement. Nebraska Space Grant will embrace new national endeavors, including the integration of Pender Public Schools -Nebraska s NASA Explorer School, geospatial initiatives, and the National Student Satellite Program.

  1. Fifteen Years of Collaborative Innovation and Achievement: NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium 15-Year Program Performance and Results Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaaf, Michaela M. (Editor); Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Avery Shelly; Calamaio, Caprice; Carstenson, Larry; Dugan, James; Farr, Lynne; Farritor, Shane

    2003-01-01

    This 15-year evaluation serves as a summary document highlighting the numerous and complete successes of the Nebraska Space Grant Program. Innovation has been highlighted through significant new endeavors during this 5-year period, such as placement of students and faculty at NASA Centers and the expansion of NSGC Native American Outreach Programs. While the last national program evaluation resulted in Nebraska s ranking as the top Capability Enhancement Consortium, and 5th best overall, Nebraska felt there was room for significant growth and development. This has been validated through the recent competitive attainment of Designated Grant status and has allowed for the exploration of new initiatives, as well as the expansion of already successful programs. A comprehensive strategic planning effort has involved all Nebraska representative entities and has guided Nebraska Space Grant through the evaluation period, providing a basis for continual advancement. Nebraska rigorously employs evaluation techniques to ensure that stated outcomes and metrics are achieved and that weaknesses are identified and corrected. With this coordinated approach, Nebraska expects that the next 5 years will yield new opportunities for significant achievement. Nebraska Space Grant will embrace new national endeavors, including the integration of Pender Public Schools -Nebraska s NASA Explorer School, geospatial initiatives, and the National Student Satellite Program.

  2. 2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit: Profiling City University of New York (CUNY): Reinventing Batteries for Grid Storage (Performer Video)

    SciTech Connect

    None Available

    2012-02-28

    The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. A few videos were selected for showing during the Summit to attendees. These 'performer videos' highlight innovative research that is ongoing and related to the main topics of the Summit's sessions. Featured in this video are Sanjoy Banerjee, Director of CUNY Energy Institute and Dan Steingart (Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering, CUNY). The City University of New York's Energy Institute, with the help of ARPA-E funding, is creating safe, low cost, rechargeable, long lifecycle batteries that could be used as modular distributed storage for the electrical grid. The batteries could be used at the building level or the utility level to offer benefits such as capture of renewable energy, peak shaving and microgridding, for a safer, cheaper, and more secure electrical grid.

  3. 2012 ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit: Profiling City University of New York (CUNY): Reinventing Batteries for Grid Storage (Performer Video)

    ScienceCinema

    None Available

    2016-07-12

    The third annual ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit was held in Washington D.C. in February, 2012. The event brought together key players from across the energy ecosystem - researchers, entrepreneurs, investors, corporate executives, and government officials - to share ideas for developing and deploying the next generation of energy technologies. A few videos were selected for showing during the Summit to attendees. These 'performer videos' highlight innovative research that is ongoing and related to the main topics of the Summit's sessions. Featured in this video are Sanjoy Banerjee, Director of CUNY Energy Institute and Dan Steingart (Assistant Professor of Chemical Engineering, CUNY). The City University of New York's Energy Institute, with the help of ARPA-E funding, is creating safe, low cost, rechargeable, long lifecycle batteries that could be used as modular distributed storage for the electrical grid. The batteries could be used at the building level or the utility level to offer benefits such as capture of renewable energy, peak shaving and microgridding, for a safer, cheaper, and more secure electrical grid.

  4. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT XRF ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Innov-X Systems (Innov-X) XT400 series (XT400) x-ray flurescence (XRF) analyzer was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The demonstration was designed to collect reliable performance and cost data for the XT400 analyzer and seven other commercially available XRF instruments for measuring trace elements in soil and sediment. The objective of this program is to promote the acceptance and use of innovative field technologies by providing well-documented performance and cost data obtained from field demonstrations.

  5. Development of innovative techniques and principles that may be used as models to improve plant performance: Technical progress report, February 1, 1988--January 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, W.W.

    1988-09-01

    We propose to help develop innovative techniques to improve plant performance. Cytoplasms from wild Pennisetum species have been identified that affect forage yields, days to anthesis, head length, seed weight, and cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (cms). A number of new cytoplasms for cms are being identified. The A' genome from the secondary gene pool in Pennisetum is proving to be a valuable source of genes that can be rapidly used to improve cultivated pearl millet. The discovery and use of this germplasm may have a significant impact on developing pearl millet as a new drought tolerant grain crop for the US. Significant progress is being made in transferring gene(s) controlling apomixis from wild P. squamulatum to cultivated pearl millet for the purpose of producing true-breeding hybrids. 27 refs.

  6. Assessment of dynamic and long-term performance of an innovative multi-story timber building via structural monitoring and dynamic testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omenzetter, Piotr; Morris, Hugh; Worth, Margaret; Gaul, Andrew; Jager, Simon; Desgeorges, Yohann

    2012-04-01

    An innovative three-story timber building, using self-centering, post-tensioned timber shear walls as the main horizontal load resisting system and lightweight non-composite timber-concrete floors, has recently been completed in Nelson, New Zealand. It is expected to be the trailblazer for similar but taller structures to be more widely adopted. Performance based standards require an advanced understanding of building responses and in order to meet the need for in-situ performance data the building has been subjected to forced vibration testing and instrumented for continuous monitoring using a total of approximately 90 data channels to capture its dynamic and long-term responses. The first part of the paper presents a brief discussion of the existing research on the seismic performance of timber frame buildings and footfall induced floor vibrations. An outline of the building structural system, focusing on the novel design solutions, is then discussed. This is followed by the description of the monitoring system. The analysis of monitoring results starts with a discussion of the monitoring of long-term deformations. Next, the assessment of the floor vibration serviceability performance is outlined. Then, the forced vibration tests conducted on the whole building at different construction stages are reviewed. The system identification results from seismic shaking records are also discussed. Finally, updating of a finite element model of the building is conducted.

  7. Performance comparison of two Olympus InnovX handheld x-ray analyzers for feasibility of measuring arsenic in skin in vivo - Alpha and Delta models.

    PubMed

    Desouza, E D; Gherase, M R; Fleming, D E B; Chettle, D R; O'Meara, J M; McNeill, F E

    2017-05-01

    The Figure-Of-Merit (FOM) performance, a combination of detection limit and dose, is compared between two generations of handheld X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectrometers for the feasibility of in vivo XRF measurement of arsenic (As) in skin. The Olympus InnovX Delta model analyzer (40 kVp using either 37 or 17μA) was found to show improvements in Minimum Detection Limit (MDL) using arsenic As-doped skin calibration phantoms with bulk tissue backing, when compared to the first generation InnovX Alpha model (40kVp, 20μA) in 120s measurements. Differences between two different definitions of MDL are discussed. On the Delta system, an MDL of (0.462±0.002) μg/g As was found in phantoms, with a nylon backing behind to mimic bulk tissue behind skin. The equivalent and effective doses were found to be (10±2) mSv and ~7×10(-3)μSv respectively for the Alpha and (15±4) mSv and ~8×10(-3)μSv respectively for the Delta system in 120s exposures. Combining MDL and effective dose, a lower (better) FOM was found for the Delta, (1.7±0.4) ppm mSv(1/2), compared to (4.4±0.5) ppm mSv(1/2) for the Alpha model system. The Delta analyzer demonstrates improved overall system performance for a rapid 2-min measurement in As skin phantoms, such that it can be considered for use in populations exposed to arsenic.

  8. An innovative pay-for-performance (P4P) strategy for improving malaria management in rural Kenya: protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Menya, Diana; Logedi, John; Manji, Imran; Armstrong, Janice; Neelon, Brian; O'Meara, Wendy Prudhomme

    2013-05-08

    In high-resource settings, 'pay-for-performance' (P4P) programs have generated interest as a potential mechanism to improve health service delivery and accountability. However, there has been little or no experimental evidence to guide the development or assess the effectiveness of P4P incentive programs in developing countries. In the developing world, P4P programs are likely to rely, at least initially, on external funding from donors. Under these circumstances, the sustainability of such programs is in doubt and needs assessment. We describe a cluster-randomized controlled trial underway in 18 health centers in western Kenya that is testing an innovative incentive strategy to improve management of an epidemiologically and economically important problem--diagnosis and treatment of malaria. The incentive scheme in this trial promotes adherence to Ministry of Health guidelines for laboratory confirmation of malaria before treatment, a priority area for the Ministry of Health. There are three important innovations that are unique to this study among those from other resource-constrained settings: the behavior being incentivized is quality of care rather than volume of service delivery; the incentives are applied at the facility-level rather than the individual level, thus benefiting facility infrastructure and performance overall; and the incentives are designed to be budget-neutral if effective. Linking appropriate case management for malaria to financial incentives has the potential to improve patient care and reduce wastage of expensive antimalarials. In our study facilities, on average only 25% of reported malaria cases were confirmed by laboratory diagnosis prior to the intervention, and the total treatment courses of antimalarials dispensed did not correspond to the number of cases reported. This study will demonstrate whether facility rather than individual incentives are compelling enough to improve case management, and whether these incentives lead to

  9. A Historical Perspective on the Future of Innovation in Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okpych, Nathanael J.

    2017-01-01

    Changing social work from a profession with innovators to a profession that innovates will likely require an innovation movement. This article draws on lessons from a prior movement in social work to suggest implications for a future innovation movement. Empirical clinical practice (ECP), a movement in social work in the 1970-1990s, sought to…

  10. A Historical Perspective on the Future of Innovation in Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okpych, Nathanael J.

    2017-01-01

    Changing social work from a profession with innovators to a profession that innovates will likely require an innovation movement. This article draws on lessons from a prior movement in social work to suggest implications for a future innovation movement. Empirical clinical practice (ECP), a movement in social work in the 1970-1990s, sought to…

  11. Implementing hospital innovation in Taiwan: the perspectives of institutional theory and social capital.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop an innovation model for hospital organisations. For this purpose, this study explores and examines the determinants, capabilities and performance in the hospital sector. First, this discusses three categories of determinants that affect hospitals' innovative capability studies: (1) knowledge stock; (2) social ties; and (3) institutional pressures. Then, this study examines the idea of innovative hospital capabilities, defined as the ability of the hospital organisation to innovate their knowledge. Finally, the hospital evaluation rating, which identifies performance in the hospital sector, was examined. This study empirically tested the theoretical model at the organisation level. The findings suggest that a hospital's innovative capabilities are influenced by its knowledge stock, social ties, institutional pressures and the impact of hospital performance. However, in attempts to keep hospitals aligned with their highly institutionalised environments, it may prove necessary for hospital administrators to pay more attention to both existing knowledge stock and the process of innovation if the institutions are to survive. Finally, implications for theory and practitioners complete this study. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Innovation Awards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA promotes environmental stewardship by recognizing innovators in schools, communities and businesses in categories such as environmental education, green chemistry, smart growth, green power, and reducing air pollution and climate change impacts.

  13. Process innovation in high-performance systems: From polymeric composites R&D to design and build of airplane showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yi-Jui

    In the aerospace industry reducing aircraft weight is key because it increases flight performance and drives down operating costs. With fierce competition in the commercial aircraft industry, companies that focused primarily on exterior aircraft performance design issues are turning more attention to the design of aircraft interior. Simultaneously, there has been an increase in the number of new amenities offered to passengers especially in first class travel and executive jets. These new amenities present novel and challenging design parameters that include integration into existing aircraft systems without sacrificing flight performance. The objective of this study was to design a re-circulating shower system for an aircraft that weighs significantly less than pre-existing shower designs. This was accomplished by integrating processes from polymeric composite materials, water filtration, and project management. Carbon/epoxy laminates exposed to hygrothermal cycling conditions were evaluated and compared to model calculations. Novel materials and a variety of fabrication processes were developed to create new types of paper for honeycomb applications. Experiments were then performed on the properties and honeycomb processability of these new papers. Standard water quality tests were performed on samples taken from the re-circulating system to see if current regulatory standards were being met. These studies were executed and integrated with tools from project management to design a better shower system for commercial aircraft applications.

  14. Impact of technological innovation on a nursing home performance and on the medication-use process safety.

    PubMed

    Baril, Chantal; Gascon, Viviane; Brouillette, Christel

    2014-03-01

    Despite the fact that since 1985 the government of Québec increased by 5.75 % on average the amount of money spent on healthcare per year, little improvement was noted. It is obvious that an optimal use of resources is essential to reduce waiting times and provide safer and faster services to patients. The use of new technology can contribute to improve the healthcare system efficiency. Our study aims to assess the impact of a medication distribution technology on 1) the performance of a health and social services center's pharmacy, 2) the performance of one care unit in a nursing home and on 3) the medication-use process safety. To measure performance we were inspired by the Lean approach. The results show that medication distribution technology is considered as an effective way to significantly detect medication errors, to allow nurses to focus more on patients and pharmacy to react more rapidly to changes in patient medications.

  15. Innovative Research Design Exploring the Effects of Physical Activity and Genetics on Cognitive Performance in Community-Based Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Etnier, Jennifer L; Labban, Jeffrey D; Karper, William B; Wideman, Laurie; Piepmeier, Aaron T; Shih, Chia-Hao; Castellano, Michael; Williams, Lauren M; Park, Se-Yun; Henrich, Vincent C; Dudley, William N; Rulison, Kelli L

    2015-10-01

    Physical activity is predictive of better cognitive performance and lower risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) is a susceptibility gene for AD with the e4 allele being associated with a greater risk of AD. Cross-sectional and prospective research shows that physical activity is predictive of better cognitive performance for those at greater genetic risk for AD. However, the moderating role of APOE on the effects of a physical activity intervention on cognitive performance has not been examined. The purpose of this manuscript is to justify the need for such research and to describe the design, methods, and recruitment tactics used in the conductance of a study designed to provide insight as to the extent to which cognitive benefits resulting from an 8-month physical activity program are differentiated by APOE e4 status. The effectiveness of the recruitment strategies and the feasibility of recruiting APOE e4 carriers are discussed.

  16. AprenDes-PERU: Innovations in Decentralization and Active Schools. Report on Year 1. Aprendes Performance Monitoring Plan. Revision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montane, Angelica; Chesterfield, Ray

    2005-01-01

    This document summarizes the results obtained by the AprenDes project in 2004, the project's first year of implementation. It provides the principal findings on program performance from a baseline in May 2004 to the end of the school year (late October 2004). Progress on a number of project objectives related to decentralized school- and…

  17. Monitoring the Impact of Testing and Evaluation Innovations Project: State Activity and Interest Concerning Performance-Based Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing, Los Angeles, CA.

    Information was gathered about current state interest, activity, and concerns related to performance assessment for students. The Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing of the University of California (Los Angeles) conducted telephone interviews with directors of testing in each of the 50 states in the spring of 1990.…

  18. Quantifying innovation in surgery.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Mayer, Erik K; Marcus, Hani J; Cundy, Thomas P; Pratt, Philip J; Parston, Greg; Vale, Justin A; Darzi, Ara W

    2014-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the applicability of patents and publications as metrics of surgical technology and innovation; evaluate the historical relationship between patents and publications; develop a methodology that can be used to determine the rate of innovation growth in any given health care technology. The study of health care innovation represents an emerging academic field, yet it is limited by a lack of valid scientific methods for quantitative analysis. This article explores and cross-validates 2 innovation metrics using surgical technology as an exemplar. Electronic patenting databases and the MEDLINE database were searched between 1980 and 2010 for "surgeon" OR "surgical" OR "surgery." Resulting patent codes were grouped into technology clusters. Growth curves were plotted for these technology clusters to establish the rate and characteristics of growth. The initial search retrieved 52,046 patents and 1,801,075 publications. The top performing technology cluster of the last 30 years was minimally invasive surgery. Robotic surgery, surgical staplers, and image guidance were the most emergent technology clusters. When examining the growth curves for these clusters they were found to follow an S-shaped pattern of growth, with the emergent technologies lying on the exponential phases of their respective growth curves. In addition, publication and patent counts were closely correlated in areas of technology expansion. This article demonstrates the utility of publically available patent and publication data to quantify innovations within surgical technology and proposes a novel methodology for assessing and forecasting areas of technological innovation.

  19. Performance of innovative PU-foam and natural fiber-based composites for the biofiltration of a mixture of volatile organic compounds by a fungal biofilm.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Acosta, O B; Arriaga, S; Escobar-Barrios, V A; Casas-Flores, S; Almendarez-Camarillo, A

    2012-01-30

    The performance of perlite and two innovative carriers that consist of polyurethane (PU) chemically modified with starch; and polypropylene reinforced with agave fibers was evaluated in the biofiltration of a mixture of VOCs composed of hexane, toluene and methyl-ethyl-ketone. At a total organic loading rate of 145 gCm(-3)h(-1) the elimination capacities (ECs) obtained were 145, 24 and 96 gCm(-3)h(-1) for the biofilters packed with the PU, the reinforced polypropylene, and perlite, respectively. Specific maximum biodegradation rates of the mixture, in the biofilters, were 416 mgCg(protein)(-1)  h(-1) for the PU and 63 mgCg(protein)(-1) h(-1) for perlite, which confirms the highest performance of the PU-composite. 18S rDNA analysis from the PU-biofilter revealed the presence of Fusarium solani in its sexual and asexual states, respectively. The modified PU carrier significantly reduced the start-up period of the biofilter and enhanced the EC of the VOCs. Thus, this study gives new alternatives in the field of packing materials synthesis, promoting the addition of easily biodegradable sources to enhance the performance of biofilters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Law of Empires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores issues raised by empires and imperial law. The first article, "Clash of Empires: The Fight for North America," looks at the clash of empires and the fight for North America during the 18th century. The second article, "When Roman Law Ruled the Western World," examines…

  1. Performance of a Hydrogen Pulsed Electrothermal Thruster. Strategic Defense Initiative Organization Innovative Science and Technology. SBIR. Phase 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-28

    Electrothermal thrusters (e.g. arcjet , Fig. 2) also produce ions, but unlike electrostatic ion thrusters can in principle recover their ion production...Hydrogen Pulsed Electrothermal Thruster," SBIR Phase I, AFOSR Contract No. F49620-87-C-0028, 1/30/87 - 7/30/87. 46 hydrogen arcjet , but the efficiency...NO. NO. NO. IACCESSION NO. I1.- TITLE ()idude Security Calcaieon) Performance of a Hydrogen Pulsed Electrothermal Thrust er (SDI) 12- PERSONAL AUTHOR(S

  2. Innovative Research Design Exploring the Effects of Physical Activity and Genetics on Cognitive Performance in Community-Based Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Etnier, Jennifer L.; Labban, Jeffrey D.; Karper, William B.; Wideman, Laurie; Piepmeier, Aaron T.; Shih, Chia-Hao; Castellano, Michael; Williams, Lauren M.; Park, Se-Yun; Henrich, Vincent C.; Dudley, William N.; Rulison, Kelli L.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is predictive of better cognitive performance and lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) is a susceptibility gene for AD with the e4 allele being associated with a greater risk of AD. Cross-sectional and prospective research shows that physical activity is predictive of better cognitive performance for those at greater genetic risk for AD. However, the moderating role of APOE on the effects of a physical activity intervention on cognitive performance has not been examined. The purpose of this manuscript is to justify the need for such research and to describe the design, methods, and recruitment tactics used in the conductance of a study designed to provide insight as to the extent to which cognitive benefits resulting from an 8-month physical activity program are differentiated by ApoEe4 status. The effectiveness of the recruitment strategies and the feasibility of recruiting ApoE e4 carriers are discussed. PMID:25594264

  3. Performance analysis of innovative collector fields for solar-electric plants, using air as heat transfer medium

    SciTech Connect

    De Marchi Desenzani, P.; Gaia, M.

    1984-08-01

    The production of electricity by thermodynamic conversion of the heat supplied by flat plate collectors has been tried many times. The use of air as heat transfer medium could allow a dramatic simplification of the collector field and a relevant reduction of thermal inertia. The paper discusses the characteristics of a system based on air collectors and ORC engine. Both multilayer inflated plastic sheet collectors and vacuum tubes collectors are proposed as suitable solutions. The field fan power consumption is optimized jointly with the power cycle evaporator design. Both the envisaged solutions are investigated on the point of view of overall cost/performance ratio.

  4. Morphological innovation and developmental genetics

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Charles R.; Orr, H. Allen; Patel, Nipam H.

    1999-01-01

    How do the actions of individual genes contribute to the complex morphologies of animals and plants? How widespread are these genes taxonomically? How many genes are involved in the morphological differences observed between species, and can we identify them? To what extent can empirical data and theory be reconciled? We provide an overview of some recent attempts to answer these questions, answers that have taken us to the threshold of understanding the mechanistic basis and evolutionary factors that underlie morphological innovation. PMID:10468549

  5. Morphological innovation and developmental genetics.

    PubMed

    Marshall, C R; Orr, H A; Patel, N H

    1999-08-31

    How do the actions of individual genes contribute to the complex morphologies of animals and plants? How widespread are these genes taxonomically? How many genes are involved in the morphological differences observed between species, and can we identify them? To what extent can empirical data and theory be reconciled? We provide an overview of some recent attempts to answer these questions, answers that have taken us to the threshold of understanding the mechanistic basis and evolutionary factors that underlie morphological innovation.

  6. Innovation Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyka, Andreas; Scharnhorst, Andrea

    The idea for this book started when we organized a topical workshop entitled "Innovation Networks - New Approaches in Modeling and Analyzing" (held in Augsburg, Germany in October 2005), under the auspices of Exystence, a network of excellence funded in the European Union's Fifth Framework Program. Unlike other conferences on innovation and networks, however, this workshop brought together scientists from economics, sociology, communication science, science and technology studies, and physics. With this book we aim to build further on a bridge connecting the bodies of knowledge on networks in economics, the social sciences and, more recently, statistical physics.

  7. Innovations for Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFann, Howard H.; And Others

    Four papers on research and innovation in military training within the Army Training system deal with procedures for individualizing training, the Project IMPACT prototype system of computer assisted and programed instructions, student motivation and performance, and prospects for the 1970's and 1980's, and the implications of research in learning…

  8. Development of an innovative method to predict and to characterize the performances of Ti-6Al-4V LBW joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberini, Mariacira; Esposito, Sara; Reshad, Kambitz; Previtali, Barbara; Viola, Marco; Squillace, Antonino

    2016-10-01

    Every manufacturing process leaves on the surface of the piece a typical "technology signature". In particular, the laser welding leaves a feature at the edge of the weld bead called "undercut". In this work an experimental campaign has been conducted on Ti6Al4V butt joints. In particular a Central Composite Design (CCD) with the central point repeated three times has been investigated. In the CCD there are two factors (power and speed of the fiber laser) and five levels for each factor. This paper deals with the investigation about the correlation between the severity of the undercut and the process parameters of the laser welding. In particular, through the confocal microscopy, the original geometry of the joint was accurately acquired and rebuilt in order to make a FEM model and simulate the mechanical behavior using Ansys14.5. Moreover, response surfaces and level curves were carried out to understand and predict the depth and the width of the undercut starting from the power and the speed of the laser. At last a mathematic and geometry regression was performed in order to find a unique conical curve that interpolates all the different undercuts and that varies its parameters according to the process parameters. It is established that the process with higher speed minimizes and optimizes the undercut in the joints.

  9. Shift work: health, performance and safety problems, traditional countermeasures, and innovative management strategies to reduce circadian misalignment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark R; Eastman, Charmane I

    2012-01-01

    There are three mechanisms that may contribute to the health, performance, and safety problems associated with night-shift work: (1) circadian misalignment between the internal circadian clock and activities such as work, sleep, and eating, (2) chronic, partial sleep deprivation, and (3) melatonin suppression by light at night. The typical countermeasures, such as caffeine, naps, and melatonin (for its sleep-promoting effect), along with education about sleep and circadian rhythms, are the components of most fatigue risk-management plans. We contend that these, while better than nothing, are not enough because they do not address the underlying cause of the problems, which is circadian misalignment. We explain how to reset (phase-shift) the circadian clock to partially align with the night-work, day-sleep schedule, and thus reduce circadian misalignment while preserving sleep and functioning on days off. This involves controlling light and dark using outdoor light exposure, sunglasses, sleep in the dark, and a little bright light during night work. We present a diagram of a sleep-and-light schedule to reduce circadian misalignment in permanent night work, or a rotation between evenings and nights, and give practical advice on how to implement this type of plan.

  10. Shift work: health, performance and safety problems, traditional countermeasures, and innovative management strategies to reduce circadian misalignment

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Mark R; Eastman, Charmane I

    2012-01-01

    There are three mechanisms that may contribute to the health, performance, and safety problems associated with night-shift work: (1) circadian misalignment between the internal circadian clock and activities such as work, sleep, and eating, (2) chronic, partial sleep deprivation, and (3) melatonin suppression by light at night. The typical countermeasures, such as caffeine, naps, and melatonin (for its sleep-promoting effect), along with education about sleep and circadian rhythms, are the components of most fatigue risk-management plans. We contend that these, while better than nothing, are not enough because they do not address the underlying cause of the problems, which is circadian misalignment. We explain how to reset (phase-shift) the circadian clock to partially align with the night-work, day-sleep schedule, and thus reduce circadian misalignment while preserving sleep and functioning on days off. This involves controlling light and dark using outdoor light exposure, sunglasses, sleep in the dark, and a little bright light during night work. We present a diagram of a sleep-and-light schedule to reduce circadian misalignment in permanent night work, or a rotation between evenings and nights, and give practical advice on how to implement this type of plan. PMID:23620685

  11. Accelerating Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The word "innovation" seems to be in everyone's lexicon these days; it's even turning up as part of new education job titles in school districts and states. The ideas that undergird it are animating a growing movement that's spurring new policies, programs, and products that carry with them the potential to transform how students learn and how…

  12. Mathematical Innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Through Small Business Innovation Research funds from the Stennis Space Center, MathSoft, Inc., developed a system that can provide the building blocks for signal analysis and rapid prototyping. The product is the result of work to help NASA develop a complete understanding propulsion test data by using time frequency displays, automatic estimation and denoising, and data analysis plots for wavelet decomposition.

  13. Innovation Expo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-03

    Representatives from Parker Brothers, known for designing and building outrageous custom vehicles, spoke to employees at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida about their creative thinking processes. The event took place during the center's 2016 Innovation Expo. Employees also were given an up-close look at their Neutron bike, featured in the movie “Tron.”

  14. Innovation Expo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-03

    During the 2016 Innovation Expo at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, representatives from Parker Brothers, known for designing and building outrageous custom vehicles, spoke to Kennedy employees about their creative thinking processes. Employees also were given an up-close look at their Neutron bike, featured in the movie “Tron.”

  15. Accelerating Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The word "innovation" seems to be in everyone's lexicon these days; it's even turning up as part of new education job titles in school districts and states. The ideas that undergird it are animating a growing movement that's spurring new policies, programs, and products that carry with them the potential to transform how students learn and how…

  16. Membrane Innovation in Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Boschetti-de-Fierro, Adriana; Beck, Werner; Hildwein, Helmut; Krause, Bernd; Storr, Markus; Zweigart, Carina

    2017-01-01

    Despite advances in renal replacement therapy, the adequate removal of uremic toxins over a broad molecular weight range remains one of the unmet needs in hemodialysis. Therefore, membrane innovation is currently directed towards enhanced removal of uremic toxins and increased membrane permeability. This chapter presents a variety of opportunities where innovation is brought into dialysis membranes. It covers the membrane formation from solution, describing different approaches to control the phase inversion process through additives that either swell in the polymer solution or influence the pore shrinkage during the membrane drying process. Additionally, large-scale manufacturing is described, and the influence of raw materials, spinning, and drying processes on membrane selectivity are presented. Finally, new characterization methods developed for the latest innovations around the application of membranes in dialysis are discussed, which allow the membrane performance for removal of a broad range of uremic toxins and the expected albumin loss in clinical use. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of QASE RT is to enable system analysts and software engineers to evaluate performance and reliability implications of design alternatives. The program resulted from two Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects. After receiving a description of the system architecture and workload from the user, QASE RT translates the system description into simulation models and executes them. Simulation provides detailed performance evaluation. The results of the evaluations are service and response times, offered load and device utilizations and functional availability.

  18. An innovative architectural design to enhance the electrochemical performance of La2NiO4+δ cathodes for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rakesh K.; Burriel, Mónica; Dessemond, Laurent; Martin, Vincent; Bassat, Jean-Marc; Djurado, Elisabeth

    2016-06-01

    An architectural design of the cathode microstructure based on combining electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) and screen-printing (SP) techniques has demonstrated to be an innovative strategy to enhance the electrochemical properties of La2NiO4+δ (LNO) as oxygen electrode on Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ (CGO) electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells. For this purpose, the influence of the ESD process parameters on the microstructure has been systematically investigated. Electrochemical performances of four selected cathode microstructures are investigated: (i) 3-D coral nanocrystalline (average particle size ∼ 100 nm) LNO film grown by ESD; (ii) 3-D coral nanocrystalline film (average particle size ∼ 150 nm) grown by ESD with a continuous nanometric dense interface; (iii) porous screen-printed LNO film (average particle size ∼ 400 nm); and (iv) 3-D coral nanocrystalline film (average particle size ∼ 150 nm) with a continuous nanometric dense interface prepared by ESD topped by a LNO current collector prepared by SP. A significant reduction in the polarization resistance (Rpol) is obtained (0.08 Ω cm2 at 700 °C) for 3-D coral topped by the SP layer. Moreover LNO is found to be stable and compatible with CGO up to 800 °C for only 10 days duration in air, making it potentially suitable for SOFCs cathode application.

  19. The Diffusion of an Administrative Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teece, David J.

    1980-01-01

    Explains the diffusion of an innovative administrative structure (the "M-Form") by using a simple deterministic model commonly employed to represent the diffusion of technological innovations. The performance of the model suggests that additional insights from the study of technological innovation can be applied to the study of…

  20. POET: Parameterized Optimization for Empirical Tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Q; Seymour, K; You, H; Vuduc, R; Quinlan, D

    2007-01-29

    The excessive complexity of both machine architectures and applications have made it difficult for compilers to statically model and predict application behavior. This observation motivates the recent interest in performance tuning using empirical techniques. We present a new embedded scripting language, POET (Parameterized Optimization for Empirical Tuning), for parameterizing complex code transformations so that they can be empirically tuned. The POET language aims to significantly improve the generality, flexibility, and efficiency of existing empirical tuning systems. We have used the language to parameterize and to empirically tune three loop optimizations-interchange, blocking, and unrolling-for two linear algebra kernels. We show experimentally that the time required to tune these optimizations using POET, which does not require any program analysis, is significantly shorter than that when using a full compiler-based source-code optimizer which performs sophisticated program analysis and optimizations.

  1. Innovating Firms and Aggregate Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klette, Tor Jakob; Kortum, Samuel

    2004-01-01

    We develop a parsimonious model of innovation to confront firm-level evidence. It captures the dynamics of individual heterogeneous firms, describes the behavior of an industry with firm entry and exit, and delivers a general equilibrium model of technological change. While unifying the theoretical analysis of firms, industries, and the aggregate…

  2. Innovating Firms and Aggregate Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klette, Tor Jakob; Kortum, Samuel

    2004-01-01

    We develop a parsimonious model of innovation to confront firm-level evidence. It captures the dynamics of individual heterogeneous firms, describes the behavior of an industry with firm entry and exit, and delivers a general equilibrium model of technological change. While unifying the theoretical analysis of firms, industries, and the aggregate…

  3. A fast and innovative microextraction technique, μSPEed, followed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography for the analysis of phenolic compounds in teas.

    PubMed

    Porto-Figueira, Priscilla; Figueira, José A; Pereira, Jorge A M; Câmara, José S

    2015-12-11

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a promising solid phase microextraction technique, μSPEed, in the analysis of selected phenolic compounds from teas by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (μSPEed/UHPLC-PDA). The innovative μSPEed configuration uses 3-μm sorbent particles tightly packed in a disposable needle equipped with a pressure-driven valve to withdraw samples in a single direction. The system was operated by the electronic pipette eVol® and different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency, as the nature of sorbent, pH, loading and elution conditions, and solvents were optimized. The best extracting conditions were obtained by loading twice 100μL of tea samples through the PS/DVB-RP sorbent and eluting with 50μL of acidified MeOH 95%. The following chromatographic separation was carried out in an Acquity C18 BEH capillary column using a gradient of 0.1% FA and acetonitrile. The optimized μSPEed/UHPLC-PDA methodology is selective and specific and was properly validated for 8 phenolic compounds widely reported in different teas. Overall, an excellent analytical performance was obtained in the 0.2-20μg/L linear dynamic range (LDR), with very low limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs), ranging between 3.5-16.8ng/mL and 10.6-50.6ng/mL, respectively, high recoveries (89.3-103.3%), good precision (RSD<5%) and negligible matrix effect. The methodology was used to assess the target polyphenols concentration in several tea samples. Rutin and quercetin-3-glucoside were the most abundant phenolics in all tea samples analysed and, with exception of naringenin and cinnamic acid, which are present in high amounts in the investigated citric teas, remain phenolic compounds are present in trace levels.

  4. Innovation and design approaches within prospective ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Liem, André; Brangier, Eric

    2012-01-01

    In this conceptual article the topic of "Prospective Ergonomics" will be discussed within the context of innovation, design thinking and design processes & methods. Design thinking is essentially a human-centred innovation process that emphasises observation, collaboration, interpretation, visualisation of ideas, rapid concept prototyping and concurrent business analysis, which ultimately influences innovation and business strategy. The objective of this project is to develop a roadmap for innovation, involving consumers, designers and business people in an integrative process, which can be applied to product, service and business design. A theoretical structure comprising of Innovation perspectives (1), Worldviews supported by rationalist-historicist and empirical-idealistic dimensions (2) and Models of "design" reasoning (3) precedes the development and classification of existing methods as well as the introduction of new ones.

  5. Innovation through developing consumers’ community. Part I: Innovation in action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gălăţanu (Avram, E.; Avasilcăi, S.

    2015-11-01

    Technological changes and need for innovation represents the main concerns for organizational growth and profitability. However the main priority is still about achieving high performance through product development and consumers' engagement activities. As implementation of open innovation applications increased and value co — creation became well known and major process, companies were engaged into value co — innovation activities. From this point of view the need for joint efforts with consumers in product development arose. Thus the primary condition for an organization to be consumer centric is to define clear the vision and mission which reflects the common efforts for co — creation and diffusion of innovation. As Research & Development processes evolved and interest for innovative concepts and products arose, companies started to implement the specific instruments for consumers' attraction and engagement into design and product development. The digitalized innovation became the main source for establishing the direct communication with the consumers. In order to achieve organization growth, profitability and recognition, the companies should be aware of the innovation importance and the need for internal change. From this point of view, there is necessary to assess the organizational structures, to implement new policies and to establish strategic targets. Basically it is justified the need for platform occurrence and development. Based on case study of BMW Group, recognised leader in automotive industry for innovative concepts, there will be analysed main features within organizational context which promotes the innovation implementation. There will be provided the review of the BMW Group experience of innovation activities, main consumers' engagement strategies, the values which promote the consumer — centric product development, new opportunities assessment, major policies and concerns. The foreseen result is to understand how companies are

  6. A Framework for Studying Organizational Innovation in Research Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantz, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is two-fold: to propose a theoretical framework and model for studying organizational innovation in research libraries and to set forth propositions that can provide directions for future empirical studies of innovation in research libraries. Research libraries can be considered members of a class of organizations…

  7. A Framework for Studying Organizational Innovation in Research Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantz, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is two-fold: to propose a theoretical framework and model for studying organizational innovation in research libraries and to set forth propositions that can provide directions for future empirical studies of innovation in research libraries. Research libraries can be considered members of a class of organizations…

  8. Delivery Innovations.

    PubMed

    2017-03-01

    The need for innovations in care delivery is recognized by providers, payers, and patients alike. Hospitals, physicians, and other clinicians are experimenting with new models of care designed to better meet patients' needs, reduce administrative burdens, and lower costs. The Affordable Care Act placed the Medicare and Medicaid programs at the center of a national effort to experiment with delivery and payment models designed to improve care and contain costs. These public-sector efforts have often aligned with private initiatives, such as the use of reference pricing-in which an insurer will only pay for a service at the price available from the lowest-cost provider. Employers in the public and private sectors have adopted value-based insurance design, in which copayments and deductibles are calibrated to the clinical benefit obtained from different services. Patients have the most to gain-or lose-from delivery innovations. Better, more efficient care should translate into better health and lower costs, but payment models designed to encourage innovation may have the unintended effect of limiting access to care.

  9. Research on Educational Innovations. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Arthur K.

    The focus of this book is major educational innovations, that is, programs and curricula that have achieved widespread influence. It presents such fundamentals as definitions, descriptions, theoretical and empirical bases, critical analyses, and conclusions from published research. (The book discusses only published research.) Titles of the 15…

  10. Web Searching: Innovations, Challenges, and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Louise T.

    2000-01-01

    Presents an outline for a planned technical session discussing innovations in the Web, the current state of Web searching, challenges, and future directions. Highlights include search engines; an empirical comparison of Web site overview techniques; Federal statistics web sites; and an evaluation of Web search engines from the end-user's…

  11. Research on Educational Innovations. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Arthur K.

    The focus of this book is major educational innovations, that is, programs and curricula that have achieved widespread influence. It presents such fundamentals as definitions, descriptions, theoretical and empirical bases, critical analyses, and conclusions from published research. (The book discusses only published research.) Titles of the 15…

  12. The mediating effects of self-leadership on perceived entrepreneurial orientation and innovative work behavior in the banking sector.

    PubMed

    Kör, Burcu

    2016-01-01

    Innovative work behavior has been one of the essential attribute of high performing firms, and the roles of entrepreneurial orientation and self-leadership have been important for promoting innovative work behavior. This study advances research on innovative work behavior by examining the mediating role of self-leadership in the relationship between perceived entrepreneurial orientation and innovative work behavior. Structural equation modelling is employed to analyze data from a survey of 404 employees in banking sector. The results of reliability measures and confirmatory factor analysis strongly support the scale of the study. The results from an empirical survey study in the deposit banks reveal that participants' perceptions about high levels of entrepreneurial orientation have a positive impact on innovative work behavior. The results also provide support for the full mediating role of self-leadership in the relationship between participants' perceptions of entrepreneurial orientation and innovative work behavior. Additionally, this study provides some implications for practitioners in the banking sector to facilitate innovative work behavior through entrepreneurial orientation and self- leadership.

  13. Achieving Excellence: Investing in People, Knowledge and Opportunity. Canada's Innovation Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    To become one of the world's most innovative countries, Canada requires a national innovation strategy for the 21st century. It is progressing toward a more innovative economy, but lags behind many developed countries in terms of overall innovation performance. A national innovation strategy to meet Canada's innovation challenge proposes goals,…

  14. An investigation of signal performance enhancements achieved through innovative pixel design across several generations of indirect detection, active matrix, flat-panel arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Antonuk, Larry E.; Zhao Qihua; El-Mohri, Youcef; Du Hong; Wang Yi; Street, Robert A.; Ho, Jackson; Weisfield, Richard; Yao, William

    2009-07-15

    Active matrix flat-panel imager (AMFPI) technology is being employed for an increasing variety of imaging applications. An important element in the adoption of this technology has been significant ongoing improvements in optical signal collection achieved through innovations in indirect detection array pixel design. Such improvements have a particularly beneficial effect on performance in applications involving low exposures and/or high spatial frequencies, where detective quantum efficiency is strongly reduced due to the relatively high level of additive electronic noise compared to signal levels of AMFPI devices. In this article, an examination of various signal properties, as determined through measurements and calculations related to novel array designs, is reported in the context of the evolution of AMFPI pixel design. For these studies, dark, optical, and radiation signal measurements were performed on prototype imagers incorporating a variety of increasingly sophisticated array designs, with pixel pitches ranging from 75 to 127 {mu}m. For each design, detailed measurements of fundamental pixel-level properties conducted under radiographic and fluoroscopic operating conditions are reported and the results are compared. A series of 127 {mu}m pitch arrays employing discrete photodiodes culminated in a novel design providing an optical fill factor of {approx}80% (thereby assuring improved x-ray sensitivity), and demonstrating low dark current, very low charge trapping and charge release, and a large range of linear signal response. In two of the designs having 75 and 90 {mu}m pitches, a novel continuous photodiode structure was found to provide fill factors that approach the theoretical maximum of 100%. Both sets of novel designs achieved large fill factors by employing architectures in which some, or all of the photodiode structure was elevated above the plane of the pixel addressing transistor. Generally, enhancement of the fill factor in either discrete or

  15. An investigation of signal performance enhancements achieved through innovative pixel design across several generations of indirect detection, active matrix, flat-panel arrays

    PubMed Central

    Antonuk, Larry E.; Zhao, Qihua; El-Mohri, Youcef; Du, Hong; Wang, Yi; Street, Robert A.; Ho, Jackson; Weisfield, Richard; Yao, William

    2009-01-01

    Active matrix flat-panel imager (AMFPI) technology is being employed for an increasing variety of imaging applications. An important element in the adoption of this technology has been significant ongoing improvements in optical signal collection achieved through innovations in indirect detection array pixel design. Such improvements have a particularly beneficial effect on performance in applications involving low exposures and∕or high spatial frequencies, where detective quantum efficiency is strongly reduced due to the relatively high level of additive electronic noise compared to signal levels of AMFPI devices. In this article, an examination of various signal properties, as determined through measurements and calculations related to novel array designs, is reported in the context of the evolution of AMFPI pixel design. For these studies, dark, optical, and radiation signal measurements were performed on prototype imagers incorporating a variety of increasingly sophisticated array designs, with pixel pitches ranging from 75 to 127 μm. For each design, detailed measurements of fundamental pixel-level properties conducted under radiographic and fluoroscopic operating conditions are reported and the results are compared. A series of 127 μm pitch arrays employing discrete photodiodes culminated in a novel design providing an optical fill factor of ∼80% (thereby assuring improved x-ray sensitivity), and demonstrating low dark current, very low charge trapping and charge release, and a large range of linear signal response. In two of the designs having 75 and 90 μm pitches, a novel continuous photodiode structure was found to provide fill factors that approach the theoretical maximum of 100%. Both sets of novel designs achieved large fill factors by employing architectures in which some, or all of the photodiode structure was elevated above the plane of the pixel addressing transistor. Generally, enhancement of the fill factor in either discrete or continuous

  16. Spatial sensitivity analysis of simulated land-surface patterns in a catchment model using a set of innovative spatial performance metrics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, J.; Mendiguren González, G.; Mariethoz, G.; Stisen, S.

    2016-12-01

    Distributed hydrological models simulate states and fluxes of water and energy in the terrestrial hydrosphere at each cell. The predicted spatial patterns result from complex non-linear relationships and feedbacks. In order to enhance process understanding and to better incorporate satellite remote sensing data, the modelling community needs guidance regarding the extent to which forcing data and model parameters drive these patterns. This study features a comprehensive spatial sensitivity analysis of actual evapotranspiration (ET) and land-surface-temperature (LST) in a distributed model (MIKE-SHE) coupled to a land-surface model (SW-ET) at a catchment in Denmark. 22 scenarios are defined, each of them having a simplified representation of a potential driver of spatial variability. A baseline model that incorporates full spatial detail in all forcing and parameters is used to assess sensitivity. High sensitivity can be attested in scenarios where the simulated spatial patterns differ significantly from the baseline. The analysis is based on a set of innovative spatial performance metrics that enable a reliable spatial pattern comparison. Overall, LST is very sensitive to air temperature and wind speed whereas ET is rather driven by vegetation parametrization. The spatial patterns of both variables are sensitive to groundwater coupling and precipitation. Moreover, the sensitivities of most scenarios show a clear seasonality which can be explained by the physical understanding of the hydrological processes. While the applied metrics focuses on specific aspects of spatial information, they partly exhibit redundant information. Thus, a combination of metrics is the ideal approach to evaluate spatial patterns in models outputs.

  17. The Role of Empirical Research in Bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Kon, Alexander A.

    2010-01-01

    There has long been tension between bioethicists whose work focuses on classical philosophical inquiry and those who perform empirical studies on bioethical issues. While many have argued that empirical research merely illuminates current practices and cannot inform normative ethics, others assert that research-based work has significant implications for refining our ethical norms. In this essay, I present a novel construct for classifying empirical research in bioethics into four hierarchical categories: Lay of the Land, Ideal Versus Reality, Improving Care, and Changing Ethical Norms. Through explaining these four categories and providing examples of publications in each stratum, I define how empirical research informs normative ethics. I conclude by demonstrating how philosophical inquiry and empirical research can work cooperatively to further normative ethics. PMID:19998120

  18. [THE EMPIRICAL DISTINCTIVENESS OF WORK ENGAGEMENT AND WORKAHOLISM AMONG HOSPITAL NURSES IN JAPAN : THE EFFECT ON SLEEP QUALITY AND JOB PERFORMANCE].

    PubMed

    Kubota, Kazumi; Shimazu, Akihito; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Nakata, Akinori; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the distinctiveness of work engagement and workaholism by examining their relationships with sleep quality and job performance. A total of 447 nurses from 3 hospitals in Japan were surveyed using a self-administrated questionnaire including Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), the Dutch Workaholism Scale (DUWAS), questions on sleep quality (7 items) regarding (1) difficulty initiating sleep, (2) difficulty maintaining sleep, (3) early morning awakening, (4) dozing off or napping in daytime, (5) excessive daytime sleepiness at work, (6) difficulty awakening in the morning, and (7) tiredness awakening in the morning, and the World Health Organization Health Work Performance Questionnaire. The Structural Equation Modeling showed that, work engagement was positively related to sleep quality and job performance whereas workaholism negatively to sleep quality and job performance. The findings suggest that work engagement and workaholism are conceptually distinctive and that the former is positively and the latter is negatively related to well-being (i.e., good sleep quality and job performance).

  19. An Empirical Determination of Tasks Essential to Successful Performance as an All-Round Logger. Determination of a Common Core of Basic Skills in Agribusiness and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddy, Paul H.; And Others

    To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the all-round logger is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are essential for…

  20. An Empirical Determination of Tasks Essential to Successful Performance as a Soil Conservation District Aide. Determination of a Common Core of Basic Skills in Agribusiness and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddy, Paul H.; And Others

    To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the soil conservation district aide is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are…

  1. An Empirical Determination of Tasks Essential to Successful Performance as a Commercial Vegetable Producer. Determination of a Common Core of Basic Skills in Agribusiness and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, J. Rick; And Others

    To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the commercial vegetable producer is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are…

  2. An Empirical Examination of the Permanence of Performance and Response Patterns Generated by a CRM-Reading Produced by Expert Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Richard Wayne

    Stability of performance on a criterion referenced reading test was examined for 413 students in grades one through six. The test, which measures 367 behavioral reading objectives, was administered twice to each student, with an interval of at least three weeks between the first and second administrations. Three statistical indices of permanence…

  3. An Empirical Determination of Tasks Essential to Successful Performance as a Dairy Farmer. Determination of a Common Core of Basic Skills in Agribusiness and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, J. Rick; And Others

    To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the dairy farmer is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are essential for…

  4. An Empirical Determination of Tasks Essential to Successful Performance as a Swine Farmer. Determination of a Common Core of Basic Skills in Agribusiness and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, J. Rick; And Others

    To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the swine farmer is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are essential for…

  5. An Empirical Determination of Tasks Essential to Successful Performance as a Feed Salesman. Determination of a Common Core of Basic Skills in Agribusiness and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Daniel R.; And Others

    To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the feed salesman is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are essential for…

  6. An Empirical Determination of Tasks Essential to Successful Performance as a Beef Farmer. Determination of a Common Core of Basic Skills in Agribusiness and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, J. Rick; And Others

    To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the beef farmer is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are essential for…

  7. An Empirical Determination of Tasks Essential to Successful Performance as a Chemical Applicator. Determination of a Common Core of Basic Skills in Agribusiness and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Daniel R.; And Others

    To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the chemical applicator is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are essential…

  8. An Empirical Determination of Tasks Essential to Successful Performance as a Feed Mill Worker. Determination of a Common Core of Basic Skills in Agribusiness and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Daniel R.; And Others

    To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the feed mill workers is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are essential for…

  9. The Role of Self-Regulatory and Metacognitive Competence in the Motor Performance Difficulties of Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Theoretical and Empirical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokic, Claire Sangster; Whitebread, David

    2011-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) experience difficulty coping with everyday demands due to difficulties in performing motor tasks. Recently, a cognitive learning paradigm has been applied to studying the nature of the problems experienced by children with DCD, which assumes that these children have fewer cognitive and…

  10. An Empirical Determination of Tasks Essential to Successful Performance as a Dairy Plant Worker. Determination of a Common Core of Basic Skills in Agribusiness and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Daniel R.; And Others

    To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the dairy plant worker is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are essential for…

  11. An Empirical Determination of Tasks Essential to Successful Performance as an Animal Health Assistant. Determination of a Common Core of Basic Skills in Agribusiness and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Fred C.; And Others

    To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the animal health assistant is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are…

  12. The Role of Self-Regulatory and Metacognitive Competence in the Motor Performance Difficulties of Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Theoretical and Empirical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokic, Claire Sangster; Whitebread, David

    2011-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) experience difficulty coping with everyday demands due to difficulties in performing motor tasks. Recently, a cognitive learning paradigm has been applied to studying the nature of the problems experienced by children with DCD, which assumes that these children have fewer cognitive and…

  13. An Empirical Determination of Tasks Essential to Successful Performance as a Bulk Fertilizer Plant Worker. Determination of a Common Core of Basic Skills in Agribusiness and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Daniel R.; And Others

    To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the bulk fertilizer plant worker is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are…

  14. An Empirical Determination of Tasks Essential to Successful Performance as a Meat Cutter. Determination of a Common Core of Basic Skills in Agribusiness and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, J. Rick; And Others

    To improve vocational educational programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the meat cutter is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are essential for…

  15. An Empirical Examination of the Permanence of Performance and Response Patterns Generated by a CRM-Reading Produced by Expert Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Richard Wayne

    Stability of performance on a criterion referenced reading test was examined for 413 students in grades one through six. The test, which measures 367 behavioral reading objectives, was administered twice to each student, with an interval of at least three weeks between the first and second administrations. Three statistical indices of permanence…

  16. An Empirical Determination of Tasks Essential to Successful Performance as a Forage Producer. Determination of a Common Core of Basic Skills in Agribusiness and Natural Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, J. Rick; And Others

    To improve vocational education programs in agriculture, occupational information on a common core of basic skills within the occupational area of the forage producer is presented in the revised task inventory survey. The purpose of the occupational survey was to identify a common core of basic skills which are performed and are essential for…

  17. Parametric Study to Determine the Effect of Temperature on Oil Solidifier Performance and the Development of a New Empirical Correlation for Predicting Effectiveness

    EPA Science Inventory

    Temperature can play a significant role in the efficacy of solidifiers in removing oil slicks on water. We studied and quantified the effect of temperature on the performance of several solidifiers using 5 different types of oils under a newly developed testing protocol by conduc...

  18. Parametric Study to Determine the Effect of Temperature on Oil Soldifier Performance and the Development of a new Empirical Correlation for Predicting Effectiveness

    EPA Science Inventory

    Temperature can play a significant role in the efficacy of solidifiers in removing oil slicks on water. We studied and quantified the effect of temperature on the performance of several solidifiers using 5 different types of oils under a newly developed testing protocol by condu...

  19. An Empirical Study of a District Wide K-2 Performance Assessment Program: Teacher Practices, Information Gained, and Use of Assessment Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanting, Ashley

    This study used a qualitative research methodology to examine how four primary teachers used a district literacy performance assessment. Data were collected through observations, interviews, and documents. Grounded theory and NUD*IST software were used for text analysis and theory building. Findings show that a theory-grounded teacher-empowered…

  20. SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES EVALUATION ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This task seeks to identify high priority needs of the Regions and Program Offices for innovative field sampling, characterization, monitoring, and measurement technologies. When an appropriate solution to a specific problem is identified, a field demonstration is conducted to document the performance and cost of the proposed technologies. The use of field analysis almost always provides a savings in time and cost over the usual sample and ship to a conventional laboratory for analysis approach to site characterization and monitoring. With improvements in technology and appropriate quality assurance/quality control, field analysis has been shown to provide high quality data, useful for most environmental monitoring or characterization projects. An emphasis of the program is to seek out innovative solutions to existing problems and to provide the cost and performance data a user would require to make an informed decision regarding the adequacy of a technology to address a specific environmental problem. The objective of this program is to promote the acceptance and use of innovative field technologies by providing well-documented performance and cost data obtained from field demonstrations.

  1. Empirical electro-optical and x-ray performance evaluation of CMOS active pixels sensor for low dose, high resolution x-ray medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Arvanitis, C D; Bohndiek, S E; Royle, G; Blue, A; Liang, H X; Clark, A; Prydderch, M; Turchetta, R; Speller, R

    2007-12-01

    Monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensors with high performance have gained attention in the last few years in many scientific and space applications. In order to evaluate the increasing capabilities of this technology, in particular where low dose high resolution x-ray medical imaging is required, critical electro-optical and physical x-ray performance evaluation was determined. The electro-optical performance includes read noise, full well capacity, interacting quantum efficiency, and pixels cross talk. The x-ray performance, including x-ray sensitivity, modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, and detection quantum efficiency, has been evaluated in the mammographic energy range. The sensor is a 525 x 525 standard three transistor CMOS active pixel sensor array with more than 75% fill factor and 25 x 25 microm pixel pitch. Reading at 10 f/s, it is found that the sensor has 114 electrons total additive noise, 10(5) electrons full well capacity with shot noise limited operation, and 34% interacting quantum efficiency at 530 nm. Two different structured CsI:Tl phosphors with thickness 95 and 115 microm, respectively, have been optically coupled via a fiber optic plate to the array resulting in two different system configurations. The sensitivity of the two different system configurations was 43 and 47 electrons per x-ray incident on the sensor. The MTF at 10% of the two different system configurations was 9.5 and 9 cycles/mm with detective quantum efficiency of 0.45 and 0.48, respectively, close to zero frequency at approximately 0.44 microC/kg (1.72 mR) detector entrance exposure. The detector was quantum limited at low spatial frequencies and its performance was comparable with high resolution a: Si and charge coupled device based x-ray imagers. The detector also demonstrates almost an order of magnitude lower noise than active matrix flat panel imagers. The results suggest that CMOS active pixel sensors when coupled

  2. Non-Empirical Confirmation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawid, Richard

    2016-06-01

    In fundamental physics today, some theories are taken to be probably viable despite a lack of strong (or any) empirical confirmation. This situation suggests, I argue, an extension of the concept of theory confirmation that allows for confirmation by observations that are not predicted by the theory in question. "Non-empirical confirmation", as I call the latter form of confirmation, plays a more conspicuous role today than in earlier periods of physics. It has always constituted a significant albeit implicit element of the assessment of physical theory, however, that has not been adequately accounted for in canonical reconstructions of the scientific method. The talk discusses the core argumentative structure of non-empirical confirmation, analyses the concept’s reliance on the empirical testability of the theories in question and addresses some worries that have been raised in its regard.

  3. Defining Empirically Based Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah H.

    1984-01-01

    Provides a definition of empirically based practice, both conceptually and operationally. Describes a study of how research and practice were integrated in the graduate social work program at the School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago. (JAC)

  4. Defining Empirically Based Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah H.

    1984-01-01

    Provides a definition of empirically based practice, both conceptually and operationally. Describes a study of how research and practice were integrated in the graduate social work program at the School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago. (JAC)

  5. Identification of Empirical Dimensions of the Diffusion Process: Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kester, Ralph J.; Hull, William L.

    The objective of the research study was to determine if dimensions of the innovation diffusion process could be identified empirically. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 300 educational practitioners in various roles in Kansas and Ohio. The data resulting from the 82 percent response are divided into two categories. One category…

  6. To empower or not to empower your sales force? An empirical examination of the influence of leadership empowerment behavior on customer satisfaction and performance.

    PubMed

    Ahearne, Michael; Mathieu, John; Rapp, Adam

    2005-09-01

    This research focuses on the impact of leadership empowerment behavior (LEB) on customer service satisfaction and sales performance, as mediated by salespeople's self-efficacy and adaptability. Moreover, the authors propose an interactive relationship whereby LEB will be differentially effective as a function of employees' empowerment readiness. The authors' hypotheses are tested using survey data from a sample of 231 salespeople in the pharmaceutical field, along with external ratings of satisfaction from 864 customers and archival sales performance information. Results indicated that contrary to popular belief, employees with low levels of product/industry knowledge and low experience benefit the most from leadership behaviors that are empowering, whereas high-knowledge and experienced employees reap no clear benefit. The authors conclude with directions for future research and application. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. An empirical study of the performance of APMOVPE AM0 InP homojunction solar cells as a function of emitter thickness and doping, and base doping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanlass, M. W.; Gessert, T. A.; Emery, K. A.; Coutts, T. J.

    1989-01-01

    Their excellent radiation resistance and conversion efficiencies greater than 20 percent, measured under global conditions, make InP shallow-homojunction solar cells very attractive for space or terrestrial application. In addition, modeling studies show that, for optimized design, efficiencies of these devices should exceed 20 percent even under AM0 conditions. However, a systematic experimental investigation of the influence of the various cell design parameters on cell performance has not as yet been made. For the n+/p/p+ structures investigated in the previous modeling study, the design parameters include the impurity concentrations and thicknesses of the emitter and base layers. In the work reported here, researchers discuss an experimental investigation of the effects on cell performance of varying the impurity concentrations of the emitter and base and thickness of the emitter.

  8. Bayesian computation via empirical likelihood

    PubMed Central

    Mengersen, Kerrie L.; Pudlo, Pierre; Robert, Christian P.

    2013-01-01

    Approximate Bayesian computation has become an essential tool for the analysis of complex stochastic models when the likelihood function is numerically unavailable. However, the well-established statistical method of empirical likelihood provides another route to such settings that bypasses simulations from the model and the choices of the approximate Bayesian computation parameters (summary statistics, distance, tolerance), while being convergent in the number of observations. Furthermore, bypassing model simulations may lead to significant time savings in complex models, for instance those found in population genetics. The Bayesian computation with empirical likelihood algorithm we develop in this paper also provides an evaluation of its own performance through an associated effective sample size. The method is illustrated using several examples, including estimation of standard distributions, time series, and population genetics models. PMID:23297233

  9. Innovations in Vocational Education and Difficulties in Their Empirical Substantiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickolaus, Reinhold; Knoll, Bernd; Gschwendtner, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    As a consequence of findings and theses on the change in demand for qualifications, the debates on lifelong learning and a large number of articles on the theory of didactics, since the mid-1980s the concept has become established that traditional methods of teaching and learning in vocational education are dysfunctional and should be replaced or…

  10. Empirical performance of the calibrated self-controlled cohort analysis within temporal pattern discovery: lessons for developing a risk identification and analysis system.

    PubMed

    Norén, G Niklas; Bergvall, Tomas; Ryan, Patrick B; Juhlin, Kristina; Schuemie, Martijn J; Madigan, David

    2013-10-01

    Observational healthcare data offer the potential to identify adverse drug reactions that may be missed by spontaneous reporting. The self-controlled cohort analysis within the Temporal Pattern Discovery framework compares the observed-to-expected ratio of medical outcomes during post-exposure surveillance periods with those during a set of distinct pre-exposure control periods in the same patients. It utilizes an external control group to account for systematic differences between the different time periods, thus combining within- and between-patient confounder adjustment in a single measure. To evaluate the performance of the calibrated self-controlled cohort analysis within Temporal Pattern Discovery as a tool for risk identification in observational healthcare data. Different implementations of the calibrated self-controlled cohort analysis were applied to 399 drug-outcome pairs (165 positive and 234 negative test cases across 4 health outcomes of interest) in 5 real observational databases (four with administrative claims and one with electronic health records). Performance was evaluated on real data through sensitivity/specificity, the area under receiver operator characteristics curve (AUC), and bias. The calibrated self-controlled cohort analysis achieved good predictive accuracy across the outcomes and databases under study. The optimal design based on this reference set uses a 360 days surveillance period and a single control period 180 days prior to new prescriptions. It achieved an average AUC of 0.75 and AUC >0.70 in all but one scenario. A design with three separate control periods performed better for the electronic health records database and for acute renal failure across all data sets. The estimates for negative test cases were generally unbiased, but a minor negative bias of up to 0.2 on the RR-scale was observed with the configurations using multiple control periods, for acute liver injury and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The calibrated self

  11. Transformational leadership and team innovation: integrating team climate principles.

    PubMed

    Eisenbeiss, Silke A; van Knippenberg, Daan; Boerner, Sabine

    2008-11-01

    Fostering team innovation is increasingly an important leadership function. However, the empirical evidence for the role of transformational leadership in engendering team innovation is scarce and mixed. To address this issue, the authors link transformational leadership theory to principles of M. A. West's (1990) team climate theory and propose an integrated model for the relationship between transformational leadership and team innovation. This model involves support for innovation as a mediating process and climate for excellence as a moderator. Results from a study of 33 research and development teams confirmed that transformational leadership works through support for innovation, which in turn interacts with climate for excellence such that support for innovation enhances team innovation only when climate for excellence is high.

  12. [Hospital costs: results of empirical studies].

    PubMed

    Delande, G; Negre, M

    1992-01-01

    The DRG hospital payment system will be introduced in France in 1993-94 under the name of GHM ("groupes homogènes de malades"). However the method for evaluating costs is mainly based on past trends and, as a matter of fact, they exclude innovative care behavior from the doctors. Three new methods are therefore experimented: (i) standardized operation protocols; (ii) observation of consumed products and time of health personnel; (iii) observation of the costs resulting from the tariffs of the Social Security administration. The empirical studies were carried out in Montpellier and Nantes, two middle size cities of France.

  13. Mediating effect of sustainable product development on relationship between quality management practices and organizational performance: Empirical study of Malaysian automotive industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Mohd Akhir; Asaad, Mohd Norhasni; Saad, Rohaizah; Iteng, Rosman; Rahim, Mohd Kamarul Irwan Abdul

    2016-08-01

    Global competition in the automotive industry has encouraged companies to implement quality management practices in all managerial aspects to ensure customer satisfaction in products and reduce costs. Therefore, guaranteeing only product quality is insufficient without considering product sustainability, which involves economic, environment, and social elements. Companies that meet both objectives gain advantages in the modern business environment. This study addresses the issues regarding product quality and sustainability in small and medium-sized enterprises in the Malaysian automotive industry. A research was carried out in 91 SMEs automotive suppliers in throughout Malaysia. The analyzed using SPSS ver.23 has been proposed in correlation study. Specifically, this study investigates the relationship between quality management practices and organizational performance as well as the mediating effect of sustainable product development on this relationship.

  14. Innovative financing for health: what is truly innovative?

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat; Knaul, Felicia Marie; Akachi, Yoko; Frenk, Julio

    2012-12-08

    Development assistance for health has increased every year between 2000 and 2010, particularly for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria, to reach US$26·66 billion in 2010. The continued global economic crisis means that increased external financing from traditional donors is unlikely in the near term. Hence, new funding has to be sought from innovative financing sources to sustain the gains made in global health, to achieve the health Millennium Development Goals, and to address the emerging burden from non-communicable diseases. We use the value chain approach to conceptualise innovative financing. With this framework, we identify three integrated innovative financing mechanisms-GAVI, Global Fund, and UNITAID-that have reached a global scale. These three financing mechanisms have innovated along each step of the innovative finance value chain-namely resource mobilisation, pooling, channelling, resource allocation, and implementation-and integrated these steps to channel large amounts of funding rapidly to low-income and middle-income countries to address HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and vaccine-preventable diseases. However, resources mobilised from international innovative financing sources are relatively modest compared with donor assistance from traditional sources. Instead, the real innovation has been establishment of new organisational forms as integrated financing mechanisms that link elements of the financing value chain to more effectively and efficiently mobilise, pool, allocate, and channel financial resources to low-income and middle-income countries and to create incentives to improve implementation and performance of national programmes. These mechanisms provide platforms for health funding in the future, especially as efforts to grow innovative financing have faltered. The lessons learnt from these mechanisms can be used to develop and expand innovative financing from international sources to address health needs in low-income and middle

  15. Innovation in Your Community

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has many innovation programs that can help the public bring innovative solutions to their local areas by reducing waste, engaging students to contribute innovative ideas, and helping businesses implement sustainable practices.

  16. Supplement to Bibliography on the Diffusion of Innovations. Diffusion of Innovations Research Report, 6a.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett M.

    Supplementing an earlier work, this bibliography lists all new publications on diffusion of innovations (75 new nonempirical and 184 coded empirical studies) added to the Diffusion Documents Center, Michigan State University, from July 1967 to September 1968. Psychology, anthropology, agricultural economics, general economics, communication,…

  17. Empiric antibiotic treatment reduces mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock from the first hour: results from a guideline-based performance improvement program.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Ricard; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Phillips, Gary; Osborn, Tiffany M; Townsend, Sean; Dellinger, R Phillip; Artigas, Antonio; Schorr, Christa; Levy, Mitchell M

    2014-08-01

    Compelling evidence has shown that aggressive resuscitation bundles, adequate source control, appropriate antibiotic therapy, and organ support are cornerstone for the success in the treatment of patients with sepsis. Delay in the initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy has been recognized as a risk factor for mortality. To perform a retrospective analysis on the Surviving Sepsis Campaign database to evaluate the relationship between timing of antibiotic administration and mortality. Retrospective analysis of a large dataset collected prospectively for the Surviving Sepsis Campaign. One hundred sixty-five ICUs in Europe, the United States, and South America. A total of 28,150 patients with severe sepsis and septic shock, from January 2005 through February 2010, were evaluated. Antibiotic administration and hospital mortality. A total of 17,990 patients received antibiotics after sepsis identification and were included in the analysis. In-hospital mortality was 29.7% for the cohort as a whole. There was a statically significant increase in the probability of death associated with the number of hours of delay for first antibiotic administration. Hospital mortality adjusted for severity (sepsis severity score), ICU admission source (emergency department, ward, vs ICU), and geographic region increased steadily after 1 hour of time to antibiotic administration. Results were similar in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock, regardless of the number of organ failure. The results of the analysis of this large population of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock demonstrate that delay in first antibiotic administration was associated with increased in-hospital mortality. In addition, there was a linear increase in the risk of mortality for each hour delay in antibiotic administration. These results underscore the importance of early identification and treatment of septic patients in the hospital setting.

  18. Empirical and Computational Tsunami Probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geist, E. L.; Parsons, T.; ten Brink, U. S.; Lee, H. J.

    2008-12-01

    A key component in assessing the hazard posed by tsunamis is quantification of tsunami likelihood or probability. To determine tsunami probability, one needs to know the distribution of tsunami sizes and the distribution of inter-event times. Both empirical and computational methods can be used to determine these distributions. Empirical methods rely on an extensive tsunami catalog and hence, the historical data must be carefully analyzed to determine whether the catalog is complete for a given runup or wave height range. Where site-specific historical records are sparse, spatial binning techniques can be used to perform a regional, empirical analysis. Global and site-specific tsunami catalogs suggest that tsunami sizes are distributed according to a truncated or tapered power law and inter-event times are distributed according to an exponential distribution modified to account for clustering of events in time. Computational methods closely follow Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA), where size and inter-event distributions are determined for tsunami sources, rather than tsunamis themselves as with empirical analysis. In comparison to PSHA, a critical difference in the computational approach to tsunami probabilities is the need to account for far-field sources. The three basic steps in computational analysis are (1) determination of parameter space for all potential sources (earthquakes, landslides, etc.), including size and inter-event distributions; (2) calculation of wave heights or runup at coastal locations, typically performed using numerical propagation models; and (3) aggregation of probabilities from all sources and incorporation of uncertainty. It is convenient to classify two different types of uncertainty: epistemic (or knowledge-based) and aleatory (or natural variability). Correspondingly, different methods have been traditionally used to incorporate uncertainty during aggregation, including logic trees and direct integration. Critical

  19. From Training to Organizational Behavior: A Mediation Model through Absorptive and Innovative Capacities

    PubMed Central

    Yáñez-Araque, Benito; Hernández-Perlines, Felipe; Moreno-Garcia, Juan

    2017-01-01

    The training of human resources improves business performance: myth or reality? While the literature has extensively addressed this issue, the transfer that occurs from training to performance still remains unresolved. The present study suggests an empirical solution to this gap, through a multiple mediation model of dynamic capabilities. Accordingly, the study makes a major contribution to the effectiveness of an organizational-level training: the “true” relationship between training and performance is mediated by absorptive and innovative capacities. It is difficult from training to directly affect the results: it must be done through a chain of intermediate variables. Training can be argued to be indirectly related to performance, through absorptive capacity in the first place, and innovative capacity in the second, sequentially in this order (three-path mediated effect). Of all immediate relationships received by performance, its explained variance is achieved partly via absorptive capacity and partly via innovation. The direct relationship through training is not significant and only explains a small percentage of the variance in performance. These results have been corroborated by combining two methods of analysis: PLS-SEM and fsQCA, using data from an online survey. This dual methodology in the study of the same phenomenon allows overcoming the limitations of each method, which would not have been possible with a single methodological approach, and confirming the findings obtained by any of them. PMID:28966599

  20. Spectral Synthesis with Empirical Priors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodre, L., Jr.

    2017-07-01

    We have been developing a Bayesian parameter estimator which is very competitive compared with other machine learning methods, as evidenced by several experiments performed by our group (e.g., on photometric redshifts and galaxy spectral synthesis). Our approach relies on a training set, i.e., a (empirical, theoretical or mixed) data set with known parameters, and outputs the probability distribution function of a certain parameter, as well as other statistical summaries of this distribution, for all galaxies in the survey. We propose to build a large training set using theoretical libraries and use them to derive galaxy parameters from S-PLUS, J-PLUS and J-PAS observations.