Science.gov

Sample records for innovative coke oven

  1. Innovative coke-oven repair techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Emish, G.J.; Ramani, R.V.

    1995-10-01

    Certain innovative coke-oven repair techniques are reviewed that represent an engineered approach to a successful rehabilitation of all types of coke-oven batteries. These techniques have been developed during the last 10 years and experience gained on a number of repair projects has shown that these techniques operate as a cohesive and comprehensive method of end flue and through-wall repairs to gain additional years of operating life to coke-oven batteries. Extended operations approaching 10 to 15 additional years of service at lower costs than a pad-up rebuild and, while meeting the environmental emission regulations, are attainable using the techniques of: Proper tie-in joint preparation; Improved bricking up methodology; Preheating refractory during bricking up; Installation of spring-loaded bracing system; and installation of flexible coke-oven doors. Repair methods that do not incorporate the above techniques are subject to premature failure of the refractory. The old methods of wall cool down and installing refractory as if the battery was brand new are outdated technology. A technology supplier, with new techniques, can coordinate the construction contractor and the battery heating to obtain a successful coke-oven and flue or through-wall repair.

  2. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-16

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This project combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE is providing cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. This report is the third quarterly status report of the EMP. It covers the Environmental Monitoring Plan activities for the full year of 1991 from January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991, including the forth quarter. See Sections 2, 3 and 4 for status reports of the Project Installation and Commissioning, the Environmental Monitoring activities and the Compliance Monitoring results for the period. Section 5 contains a list of Compliance Reports submitted to regulatory agencies during the period. The EMP describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) document the extent of compliance of monitoring activities, i.e. those monitoring required to meet permit requirements, (2) confirm the specific impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base for the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project.

  3. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Volume 1, Public design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-24

    This Public Design Report provides, in a single document, available nonproprietary design -information for the ``Innovative Coke Oven Gas Cleaning System for Retrofit Applications`` Demonstration Project at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s Sparrows Point, Maryland coke oven by-product facilities. This project demonstrates, for the first time in the United States, the feasibility of integrating four commercially available technologies (processes) for cleaning coke oven gas. The four technologies are: Secondary Gas Cooling, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Removal, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Recovery, and Ammonia Destruction and Sulfur Recovery. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project and the role of the US Department of,Energy are briefly discussed. Actual plant capital and projected operating costs are also presented. An overview of the integration (retrofit) of the processes into the existing plant is presented and is followed by detailed non-proprietary descriptions of the four technologies and their overall effect on reducing the emissions of ammonia, sulfur, and other pollutants from coke oven gas. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions, catalyst and chemical requirements, and utility requirements are given for each unit. Plant startup provisions, environmental considerations and control monitoring, and safety considerations are also addressed for each process.

  4. Coke oven emissions

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Coke oven emissions ; CASRN NA Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  5. EXTERIOR VIEW, BEE HIVE COKE OVEN DOOR. Pratt Coal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW, BEE HIVE COKE OVEN DOOR. - Pratt Coal & Coke Company, Pratt Mines, Coke Ovens & Railroad, Bounded by First Street, Avenue G, Third Place, Birmingham Southern Railroad, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. DETAIL OF BEEHIVE COKE OVEN DOOR, LOOKING NORTH; NOTE FIREBRICK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF BEEHIVE COKE OVEN DOOR, LOOKING NORTH; NOTE FIRE-BRICK ARCH AND IRON JAMB AND SILL - Nuttallburg Mine Complex, Coke Ovens, North side of New River, 2.7 miles upstream from Fayette Landing, Lookout, Fayette County, WV

  7. Coking oven with horizontal chambers for producing coke

    SciTech Connect

    Jakobi, W.

    1984-06-26

    In a coking oven with a horizontal chamber the chamber is provided with a filling hole having a cylindrical portion with the diameter D and a reduced portion downwardly extending therefrom into the chamber over the height H. The ratio between D and H 1.5.

  8. GENERAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM BEE HIVE COKE OVEN SITE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM BEE HIVE COKE OVEN SITE. - Pratt Coal & Coke Company, Pratt Mines, Tailings Pile, Bounded by First Street, Avenue G, Third Place, Birmingham Southern Railroad, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  9. 2. Left to right: coke ovens, wharf with belt conveyor, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Left to right: coke ovens, wharf with belt conveyor, coal bunker, coke stack, brick quencher, gas holder, view framed by bracing for overhead conveyor. Looking south/southeast - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  10. VIEW OF EIGHT COKE OVENS ON EAST SIDE OF TOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EIGHT COKE OVENS ON EAST SIDE OF TOWN OF ALVERTON, CONSTRUCTED OF YELLOW REFRACTORY BRICK. "WOODLAND M2" AND "BENEZETT - Alverton Coke Works, State Route 981, Alverton, Westmoreland County, PA

  11. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF COKE WORKS LOOKING WEST, SHOWING OVENS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF COKE WORKS LOOKING WEST, SHOWING OVENS IN FOREGROUND, LARRY CAR TIPPLE TO THE RIGHT, AND COAL TIPPLE IN CENTERGROUND - Lucernemines Coke Works, 0.2 mile East of Lucerne, Lucerne Mines, Indiana County, PA

  12. GENERAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM COKE OVEN SITE, HEIGHT C. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM COKE OVEN SITE, HEIGHT C. 20 FEET. - Pratt Coal & Coke Company, Pratt Mines, Tailings Pile, Bounded by First Street, Avenue G, Third Place, Birmingham Southern Railroad, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  13. 22. VIEW OF A SINGLE BEEHIVE COKE OVEN SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW OF A SINGLE BEEHIVE COKE OVEN SHOWING THE INTERIOR STRUCTURE OF THE OVEN. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  14. 28. CROSS SECTION OF A RECTANGULAR COKE OVEN SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. CROSS SECTION OF A RECTANGULAR COKE OVEN SHOWING THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE OVEN. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  15. 19. VIEW OF THE TWO ROWS OF COKE OVENS, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF THE TWO ROWS OF COKE OVENS, LOOKING EAST. THE OVENS LIE TO THE EAST OF THE MINE BUILDINGS. BEEHIVE OVENS FORM THE ROW ON THE LEFT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THE RECTANGULAR OVENS ARE ON THE RIGHT. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  16. Development of chamber wall observation system at coke oven

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukihara, Y.; Hashimoto, K.; Hamaki, M.; Kasaoka, S.; Shirogane, T.

    1993-01-01

    The major factor determining the life of coke ovens is the degree of damage to the coking chamber wall. Repairs can be made by flame gunning if the damage is relatively light, but repair costs increase dramatically as damage becomes more serious. Depending on the case, it may be impossible to restore the oven to its original conditions. It is therefore necessary to inspect damage conditions periodically and carry out repairs systematically. In addition, obtaining a quantitative grasp of coke oven deterioration and estimating the operational burden with oven conditions also have a bearing on the service life of coke ovens. Therefore, for obtaining coke oven life of 30-35 years, it will be still more important that technique of obtaining a quantitative grasp of coke oven deterioration. Visual inspection by operators is not completely effective as a means of early discovery and diagnosis of damaged parts of the oven wall. This report describes the development of a device which solves this problem by making it possible to observe the entire coke oven wall using a diagnostic camera introduced into the oven by remote control, and a computer system for processing the photographic information thus obtained.

  17. New process to avoid emissions: Constant pressure in coke ovens

    SciTech Connect

    Giertz, J.; Huhn, F.; Hofherr, K.

    1995-12-01

    A chamber pressure regulation (PROven), especially effective in regard to emission control problems of coke ovens is introduced for the first time. Because of the partial vacuum in the collecting main system, it is possible to keep the oven`s raw gas pressure constant on a low level over the full coking time. The individual pressure control for each chamber is assured directly as a function of the oven pressure by an immersion system controlling the flow resistance of the collecting main valve. The latter is a fixed-position design (system name ``FixCup``). By doing away with the interdependence of collecting main pressure and chamber pressure, a parameter seen as a coking constant could not be made variable. This opens a new way to reduce coke oven emissions and simultaneously to prevent the ovens from damage caused by air ingress into the oven.

  18. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, October 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Kwasnoski, D.

    1993-10-22

    Work on this coke oven gas cleaning demonstration project (CCT-II) this quarter has been focused on Phase IIB tasks, and include engineering, procurement, construction, and training. Additionally, plans for changes in the operating schedule of the coke plant that affect the demonstration project are described. Engineering efforts are nearly complete. Remaining to be finalized is an assessment of electrical heat tracing/insulation needs for pipe lines, assessment of fire protection requirements, and instrument modifications. Procurement of all major equipment items is complete, except for possible additions to fire fighting capabilities. Major focus is on expediting pipe and structural steel to the project site. Civil construction is complete except for minor pads and bases as required for pipe supports, etc. Erection of the hydrogen sulfide and ammonia scrubber vessels is complete. Installation of scrubber vessel internals is underway. A subcontractor has been retained to develop a computerized program for operations and maintenance training for the coke oven gas treatment plant. Recent developments in the coke plant operating plans will result in reductions in the rate of production of coke oven gas to be processed in the demonstration project.

  19. 40 CFR 63.305 - Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative standards for coke oven... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.305 Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds. (a) The owner or operator of a new or existing coke oven...

  20. 40 CFR 63.305 - Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative standards for coke oven... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.305 Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds. (a) The owner or operator of a new or existing coke oven...

  1. [Health risk assessment of coke oven PAHs emissions].

    PubMed

    Bo, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wen, Rou; Zhao, Chun-Li; Wu, Tie; Li, Shi-Bei

    2014-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced by coke oven are with strong toxicity and carcinogenicity. Taken typical coke oven of iron and steel enterprises as the case study, the dispersion and migration of 13 kinds of PAHs emitted from coke oven were analyzed using AERMOD dispersion model, the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks at the receptors within the modeling domain were evaluated using BREEZE Risk Analyst and the Human Health Risk Assessment Protocol for Hazardous Waste Combustion (HHRAP) was followed, the health risks caused by PAHs emission from coke oven were quantitatively evaluated. The results indicated that attention should be paid to the non-carcinogenic risk of naphthalene emission (the maximum value was 0.97). The carcinogenic risks of each single pollutant were all below 1.0E-06, while the maximum value of total carcinogenic risk was 2.65E-06, which may have some influence on the health of local residents.

  2. 14. Battery of coke ovens (DX?) on right, pusher cars ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Battery of coke ovens (DX?) on right, pusher cars on right, hot gas pipes on left and overhead; pulverized coal bunker is tall, vertical structure on left. looking south - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  3. 21. VIEW OF A SINGLE BEEHIVE COKE OVEN. THE USE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW OF A SINGLE BEEHIVE COKE OVEN. THE USE OF BRICK AND STONE TO FACE THE OVEN WAS A TYPICAL CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  4. AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH BEE HIVE COKE OVENS IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING WEST, WITH BEE HIVE COKE OVENS IN FORESTED OVERGROWTH (BOTTOM LEFT), COKE TAILINGS PILE (BOTTOM RIGHT THROUGH CENTER TOP LEFT), FORMER BIRMINGHAM SOUTHERN RAILWAY SHOPS BUILDING (TOP RIGHT). CONVICT CEMETERY IS JUST WEST OF THE TAILINGS PILE (TOP LEFT IN THIS PHOTOGRAPH). - Pratt Coal & Coke Company, Pratt Mines, Convict Cemetery, Bounded by First Street, Avenue G, Third Place & Birmingham Southern Railroad, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  5. 40 CFR 63.302 - Standards for by-product coke oven batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.302 Section 63.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.302 Standards for by-product coke oven batteries... oven emissions from each affected existing by-product coke oven battery that exceed any of...

  6. 40 CFR 63.302 - Standards for by-product coke oven batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.302 Section 63.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.302 Standards for by-product coke oven batteries... oven emissions from each affected existing by-product coke oven battery that exceed any of...

  7. 40 CFR 63.302 - Standards for by-product coke oven batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.302 Section 63.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.302 Standards for by-product coke oven batteries... oven emissions from each affected existing by-product coke oven battery that exceed any of...

  8. 40 CFR 63.302 - Standards for by-product coke oven batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.302 Section 63.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.302 Standards for by-product coke oven batteries... oven emissions from each affected existing by-product coke oven battery that exceed any of...

  9. Mortality in retired coke oven plant workers.

    PubMed Central

    Chau, N; Bertrand, J P; Mur, J M; Figueredo, A; Patris, A; Moulin, J J; Pham, Q T

    1993-01-01

    A previous study on 536 retired coke oven plant workers in Lorraine Collieries (France) reported an excess of deaths from lung cancer (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) = 251) compared with the French male population. Occupational exposures during working life were retraced for each subject, but the number of deaths during the observation period (1963-82) was small, and smoking habits were known only for dead subjects. In 1988, the cohort was re-examined (182 deaths occurred between 1963 and 1987) and smoking habits were determined for all the subjects. This study confirmed the excess of lung cancer (SMR = 238, p < 0.001). It showed an excess of mortality from all causes (SMR = 141, p < 0.001), overall cancers (SMR = 133, p < 0.05), and cardiovascular diseases (SMR = 133, p < 0.05). A significant excess of deaths was found for subjects who worked near the ovens for all causes (145, p < 0.01), lung cancer (SMR = 252, p < 0.01), colon cancer (SMR = 381, p < 0.05), and cardiovascular diseases (SMR = 155, p < 0.05). A significant excess mortality was also found from all causes (176, p < 0.05) and stomach cancer (SMR = 538, p < 0.01) in subjects who worked in byproducts, from lung cancer (SMR = 433, p < 0.001) in those in the workshops, and from cirrhosis of the liver and alcoholism (SMR = 360, p < 0.01) in those underground; but, due to small numbers, these figures were not robust. An excess of mortality from all causes (SMR = 163, p<001), lung cancer (SMR = 228, p<0.05) and cardiovascular diseases (SMR = 179, p<0.01) was shown also for non-exposed or slightly exposed subjects. The fact that, on the whole, mortality of various exposed groups was similar to that of non-exposed or slightly exposed workers may be explained in part by the selection at hiring and the healthy worker effect. As an increased risk of lung cancer was noted among subjects who worked in the old generations of plant compared with the other workers (although the relative risk was not significant

  10. Eight years of operating experience of the world's largest coke oven battery at Krupp Mannesmann Steelworks

    SciTech Connect

    Beckmann, R.; Meyer, G.

    1993-01-01

    The world's largest coke oven battery at Huettenwerke Krupp Mannesmann has been in operation since December, 1984. The battery produces 1.1 million metric tons of coke per year and is comprised of 70 high capacity ovens with an effective volume of 70 m[sup 3]. Whereas the oven dimensions had nearly been built before, the chamber width of 550 mm was an innovative technological step. The CONTROLPRESS Bracing System was used to ensure the permanent stability of the refractory brickwork. All machines, including quenching car, are one-spot machines and are fully automatic. The rated capacity was reached after only eight weeks. In the following years, the average output was always between 99 and 104 % of rated capacity. Also with regard to meeting stringent environmental regulations, similar success was achieved. The good general condition of the battery and machines after eight years operating time at full capacity can largely be attributed to the high degree of preventive maintenance, the regular inspection of the bracing system by Krupp Koppers as well as the good qualification of the coking plant workforce by regular training. The widening of the oven chambers has proven to be the right decision. All difficulties that may result from the increase in oven length and height are compensated by the wider chamber. On the basis of the experience, the wider high capacity ovens can be expected to have the same service life as smaller ovens.

  11. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Quarterly environmental monitoring report No. 3, January 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-16

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), in conjunction with the Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) project at its Sparrows Point, Maryland Coke Oven Plant. This project combines several existing technologies into an integrated system for removing impurities from Coke Oven Gas (COG) to make it an acceptable fuel. DOE is providing cost-sharing under a Cooperative Agreement with BSC. This Cooperative Agreement requires BSC to develop and conduct an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for the Clean Coal Technology project and to report the status of the EMP on a quarterly basis. This report is the third quarterly status report of the EMP. It covers the Environmental Monitoring Plan activities for the full year of 1991 from January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991, including the forth quarter. See Sections 2, 3 and 4 for status reports of the Project Installation and Commissioning, the Environmental Monitoring activities and the Compliance Monitoring results for the period. Section 5 contains a list of Compliance Reports submitted to regulatory agencies during the period. The EMP describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) document the extent of compliance of monitoring activities, i.e. those monitoring required to meet permit requirements, (2) confirm the specific impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base for the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project.

  12. 40 CFR 63.303 - Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.303 Section 63.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.303 Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries... existing nonrecovery coke oven battery that exceed any of the following emission limitations...

  13. 40 CFR 63.303 - Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.303 Section 63.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.303 Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries... existing nonrecovery coke oven battery that exceed any of the following emission limitations...

  14. 40 CFR 63.303 - Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.303 Section 63.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.303 Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries... existing nonrecovery coke oven battery that exceed any of the following emission limitations...

  15. 40 CFR 63.303 - Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.303 Section 63.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.303 Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries... existing nonrecovery coke oven battery that exceed any of the following emission limitations...

  16. Pipeline charging entry into coke ovens

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.F. Jr.; Auvil, H.S.; Marting, D.G.

    1984-07-31

    A method and apparatus for conveying preheated coal particles to a coking chamber through an enclosed pipeline by means of a pressurized inert carrier gas, wherein the coal particles are charged into the top of the coking chamber through a portion of the pipeline wherein at least the end of which is disposed vertically or not more than 30/sup 0/ from vertical. The advantages of the top charging technique include one or more of the following: reduced carryover of fine coal during charging, increased density of the charge of coal to be coked, reduced weight of carrier gas per unit weight of coal, improved uniformity of coal bed level throughout the coking chamber, and reduced carbon deposits on surfaces of the chamber above the coal charge and in the gas off-takes.

  17. 29 CFR 1910.1029 - Coke oven emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... duct permanently mounted onto an oven and through which coal is charged. Green plush means coke which... including preventing green pushes; (3) Prevention of green pushes to the maximum extent possible; (4... after any green push, so as to prevent green pushes; (5) Cleaning of heating flues and related...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.1129 - Coke oven emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coke oven emissions. 1926.1129 Section 1926.1129 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1129...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.1129 - Coke oven emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coke oven emissions. 1926.1129 Section 1926.1129 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1129...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.1129 - Coke oven emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coke oven emissions. 1926.1129 Section 1926.1129 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1129...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.1129 - Coke oven emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coke oven emissions. 1926.1129 Section 1926.1129 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1129...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.1129 - Coke oven emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coke oven emissions. 1926.1129 Section 1926.1129 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1129...

  3. 29. Coke oven byproduct building "XX" with ammonia stills; powerhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Coke oven by-product building "XX" with ammonia stills; powerhouse with 8 sisters (stacks) in background; conveyor #20 (with break) on right, pulevrized coal storage bunker on left. Looking north/northwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  4. 29 CFR 1910.1029 - Coke oven emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... eight-hour period. All measurements shall determine exposure without regard to the use of respiratory... practices and respiratory protection as follows: (1) Priority of compliance methods—(i) Existing coke oven... respiratory protection which complies with the requirements of paragraph (g) of this section. (b)...

  5. 40 CFR 63.302 - Standards for by-product coke oven batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... oven emissions from each affected existing by-product coke oven battery that exceed any of the... larger size ovens, operation under negative pressure, and processes with emission points different...

  6. Method and apparatus for processing filling gas from a coke oven battery

    SciTech Connect

    Polenz, J.; Wagner, H.

    1981-08-11

    An improved coke oven battery and an improved method for production of coke and byproducts are provided. The filling gas escaping during the filling of the oven chambers with coal is initially rendered inert by admixing flue gas. Then the resulting gas mixture of filling gas and flue gas is withdrawn via a conduit fed with flushing liquor from the coke oven gas off-take main and is added to the raw coke oven gas after the coke oven gas off-take main. The tar and coal containing flushing liquor coming from the filling gas conduit is fed back to the coke oven gas off-take main after removal of the tar.

  7. 76 FR 77020 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Coke Oven...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ..., see the related notice published in the Federal Register on August 22, 2011 (76 FR 52350). Interested... Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Coke Oven Emissions ACTION... Administration (OSHA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Coke Oven Emissions,'' to...

  8. 40 CFR 63.305 - Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... operator shall not operate the exhaust system of the shed at an exhaust flow rate lower than that measured... coke oven doors equipped with sheds. (a) The owner or operator of a new or existing coke oven battery... requirements in this section. (b) To qualify for approval of an alternative standard, the owner or...

  9. The Videofil probe, a novel instrument to extend the coke oven service life

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillet, J.P.; Isler, D.

    1997-12-31

    To prolong the service life of coke oven batteries, the Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau developed the Videofil probe, a novel instrument to conduct diagnoses and to help repair operations of coke ovens. The Videofil probe is a flexible non-water-cooled endoscope which is used to locate flue wall damage and estimate its importance, to define the oven zones to repair and guide the repair work and to control the quality of the repair work and its durability.

  10. Process and apparatus for cooling coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Austermuhle, F.

    1980-12-16

    A two-stage process, and the apparatus for practicing the process, for cooling process gas are disclosed. The process gas is firstly air-cooled by convection to a temperature above the dew point of naphthalene and finally cooled to the desired discharge temperature by heat exchange with a cooling liquid. The condensed portion of the process gas resulting from the first cooling stage may be utilized to flush the gas conduits of the liquid heat exchanger of the second stage, followed by a recirculation of that condensed portion of the coke oven gas either back through the second stage or by introduction into the stream of process gas prior to its introduction into the first cooling stage.

  11. Apparatus for leveling coal in a coke oven chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Spindeler, H.; Wackerbarth, F.

    1985-01-01

    A coal-leveling apparatus includes a leveling rod supported by a pressing machine for movement through a leveling opening into a mushroom-shaped gas-collecting space to level the coal charged in the coking chamber of a coke oven. The leveling rod includes a head element that carries two support members that can move on pivot levers between an operative position wherein the support members are extended from the head element for support by upwardly-inclined wall surfaces in the mushroom-shaped gas-collecting space. In the inoperative position, the support members are retracted toward both sides of the head element. An actuating rod extends through the leveling rod to the head element. In one embodiment, the actuating rod can be moved in opposite directions of its length. An end of each of the first pivot levers is connected to the actuating rod and the opposite ends of the first levers are connected to second pivot levers. The second pivot levers are connected at one end to the head element and carry the support members. The connection between the pivot levers and the actuating rod, in one embodiment, is by a pivot connection, and in another embodiment by rollers that can move along an inclined surface on an end of the actuating rod. In a third embodiment a nut is threadedly engaged with threads on the end portion of the actuating rod to move the levers.

  12. Biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in European coke oven workers.

    PubMed

    Talaska, Glenn; Thoroman, Jeff; Schuman, Brenda; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo

    2014-12-01

    Biomonitoring is an excellent method for capturing the results of all exposures, regardless of route. Coke oven workers include certain groups that have the potential for high exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and other materials. Biomarkers of exposure to these agents include PAH metabolites as markers of internal dose and carcinogen-DNA adducts as measure of effective dose. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of these biomarkers in persons with different job duties in a modern coke oven plant. We report that the mean levels of 1-hydroxypyrene (1HP) and carcinogen DNA adducts in the exfoliated urothelial cells of coke oven workers are increased the closer a group of workers is to the ovens and highest in the top oven workers with average 1HP level of 11.6 μg/l and 22 adducts per 10(9) unadducted nucleotides. Both 1HP and carcinogen DNA adduct levels increased in supervisors, area workers, side oven workers, top and side oven workers, and top oven workers, respectively. These data are the first to demonstrate an increase in target organ genotoxicity in coke oven workers and a relationship with other biomarkers. Future studies will determine the identity of the DNA adducts, their correlation with 1HP levels and the relationship between levels in individual workers.

  13. Investigating the principles of the formation of the weight and density of coke cakes in ovens at battery No. 1-bis of the Zaporozhye Coking Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Pinchuk, S.I.; Gorbenko, V.I.; Chernyshov, Yu.A.; Shakun, G.V.

    1984-01-01

    A rather detailed explanation of the method of charging coking ovens at the Zaporozhye Coking Plant is given. The average height and density of the coke cakes produced from one battery of oven chambers with a volume of 41.6 m/sup 3/ were monitored, and automatic control using radioisotopes was employed. Extensive variation in density of coke cakes was noted, and the automatic control device makes it possible to increase the use of the effective volume of the oven chambers and should lead to development of improvements in the quality of coke obtained.

  14. 76 FR 52350 - Coke Oven Emissions Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3506 et seq.) and Secretary of Labor's Order No. 5-2010 (75 FR 55355). Signed at... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Coke Oven Emissions Standard; Extension of the Office of...) approval of the information collection requirements specified in the Standard on Coke Oven Emissions...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Operating Coke Oven Batteries as of April 1, 1992

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... April 1, 1992 A Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries Pt. 63, Subpt. L, App. A Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 63—Operating Coke Oven Batteries as of April 1, 1992 No. Plant Battery 1...

  16. Estimation of cytogenetic risk among coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Sureshkumar, Shanmugam; Balachandar, Vellingiri; Devi, Subramaniam Mohana; Arun, Meyyazhagan; Karthickkumar, Alagamuthu; Balamuralikrishnan, Balasubramanian; Sankar, Kathannan; Mustaqahamed, Shafi Ahammed Khan; Dharwadkar, Shanwaz N; Sasikala, Keshavarao; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) result from the incomplete combustion of natural or synthetic organic materials. The working environment at a coke plant can negatively affect the employed workers who were exposed to coke oven emissions containing PAHs, which formed and released into the environment by the process of pyrolysis of coke. This study aims to analyze the relationship between the exposure of PAHs and the risk of genetic damages such as chromosomal alteration (CA), micronucleus (MN), and DNA damage (PCR-RFLP) in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 27 coke oven workers and equal number of control subjects. The exposed subjects and controls were divided into two groups based on their age (group I<35 years and group II ≥35 years). The exposed subjects were further classified into two groups based on the exposure period (<12 years and ≥12 years). The frequencies of CA and MN in exposed subjects are relatively high with respect to controls. The XRCC1 399 Arg/gln polymorphism showed a substantial smaller difference in allele frequencies between exposed and control subjects. Based on present data, it was concluded that coke oven workers under risk should be monitored for adverse effects of the any long-term exposure.

  17. Biomonitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coke oven emissions and reproductive toxicity in nonsmoking workers.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Pan, Chih-Hong; Lin, Wen-Yi; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Taylor, Steven; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Zhou, Guodong; Diawara, Norou

    2013-01-15

    The objective of the cross-sectional study was to assess whether exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from coke oven emissions contributed to alteration of semen quality and sperm DNA integrity in nonsmoking workers. Nonsmoking coke oven workers from a steel plant in Taiwan served as the exposure groups (topside-oven workers for the high exposure group and side-oven workers for the low exposure group), and administrators and security personnel in the plant served as the control. An exposure assessment was conducted to determine both particulate and gaseous phase of PAH levels and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) levels. Semen quality was analyzed according to WHO guidelines. DNA fragmentation and bulky DNA adducts were measured to assess sperm DNA integrity. There was no significant difference in sperm concentrations, vitality, and DNA fragmentation between the exposed group and the control. The high exposure group experienced significantly lower percentages of normal morphology as compared with the control (p=0.0001). Bulky DNA adducts were detected in the exposed group that were significant higher than the control (p=0.04). Exposure to PAHs from coke-oven emissions could contribute to increased levels of bulky DNA adducts in sperm.

  18. Process for operating coking ovens and an oven for use in said process

    SciTech Connect

    Durselen, H.; Onnebrink, F.; Schuffler, A.

    1980-05-13

    In a coking operation where the heating medium is introduced into the furnace by way of a bottom fire box and wherein heat exchangers are provided for the waste gases, the waste gas is passed through a plurality of parallel channels serving as said heat exchangers and the useful portion of the total system available for such exchange is reduced when the coking time is increased beyond the time required at normal operation.

  19. Final environmental information volume for the coke oven gas cleaning project at the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Sparrows Point Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-24

    Bethelehem Steel Corporation (BSC) is planning to conduct a demonstration project involving an integrated system that can be retrofitted into coke oven gas handling systems to address a variety of environmental and operational factors in a more cost-effective manner. Successful application of this technology to existing US coke plants could: (1) reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, cyanide, and volatile organic compounds (including benzene) (2) reduce the cost and handling of processing feed chemicals, (3) disposal costs of nuisance by-products and (4) increase reliability and reduce operation/maintenance requirements for coke oven gas desulfurization systems. The proposed system will remove sulfur from the coke oven gas in the form of hydrogen sulfide using the ammonia indigenous to the gas as the primary reactive chemical. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide are also removed in this process. The hydrogen sulfide removed from the coke oven gas in routed to a modified Claus plant for conversion to a saleable sulfur by-product. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide will be catalytically converted to hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The tail gas from the sulfur recovery unit is recycled to the coke oven gas stream, upstream of the new gas cleaning system. The proposed demonstration project will be installed at the existing coke oven facilities at BSC's Sparrows Point Plant. This volume describes the proposed actions and the resulting environmental impacts. 21 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Air pollution from a large steel factory: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from coke-oven batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzo Liberti; Michele Notarnicola; Roberto Primerano; Paolo Zannetti

    2006-03-15

    A systematic investigation of solid and gaseous atmospheric emissions from some coke-oven batteries of one of Europe's largest integrated steel factory (Taranto, Italy) has been carried out. These emissions, predominantly diffuse, originate from oven leakages, as well as from cyclic operations of coal loading and coke unloading. In air monitoring samples, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were consistently detected at concentrations largely exceeding threshold limit values. By means of PAHs speciation profile and benzo-(a)pyrene (BaP) equivalent dispersion modeling from diffuse sources, the study indicated that serious health risks exist not only in working areas, but also in a densely populated residential district near the factory. 30 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Lymphohaematopoietic system cancer incidence in an urban area near a coke oven plant: an ecological investigation

    PubMed Central

    Parodi, S; Vercelli, M; Stella, A; Stagnaro, E; Valerio, F

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the incidence risk of lymphohaematopoietic cancers for the 1986–94 period in Cornigliano, a district of Genoa (Italy), where a coke oven is located a few hundred metres from the residential area. Methods: The whole of Genoa and one of its 25 districts (Rivarolo) were selected as controls. The trend of risk around the coke oven was evaluated via Stone's method, while the geographic pattern of such risks across the Cornigliano district was evaluated by computing full Bayes estimates of standardised incidence ratio (FBE-SIR). Results: In males, elevated relative risks (RR) were observed for all lymphohaematopoietic cancers (RR 1.7 v Rivarolo and 1.6 v Genoa), for NHL (RR 2.4 v Rivarolo and 1.7 v Genoa), and for leukaemia (RR 2.4 v Rivarolo and 1.9 v Genoa). In females, statistically non-significant RR were observed. In males no excess of risk was found close to the coke oven. In females, a rising risk for NHL was observed approaching the plant, although statistical significance was not reached, while the risk for leukaemia was not evaluable due to the small number of cases. Analysis of the geographic pattern of risk suggested the presence of a cluster of NHL in both sexes in the eastern part of the district, where a foundry had been operational until the early 1980s. A cluster of leukaemia cases was observed in males in a northern part of the area, where no major sources of benzene seemed to be present. Conclusions: The estimated risks seem to be slightly or not at all related to the distance from the coke oven. The statistically significant higher risks observed in males for NHL and leukaemia, and the clusters of leukaemia in males and of NHL in both sexes deserve further investigations in order to trace the exposures associated with such risks. PMID:12598665

  2. Cross sectional study on lung function of coke oven workers: a lung function surveillance system from 1978 to 1990

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J; Kreis, I; Griffiths, D; Darling, C

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To determine the association between lung function of coke oven workers and exposure to coke oven emissions. Methods: Lung function data and detailed work histories for workers in recovery coke ovens of a steelworks were extracted from a lung function surveillance system. Multiple regressions were employed to determine significant predictors for lung function indices. The first sets of lung function tests for 613 new starters were pooled to assess the selection bias. The last sets of lung function tests for 834 subjects with one or more year of coke oven history were pooled to assess determinants of lung function. Results: Selection bias associated with the recruitment process was not observed among the exposure groups. For subjects with a history of one or more years of coke oven work, each year of working in the most exposed "operation" position was associated with reductions in FEV1 of around 9 ml (p = 0.006, 95% CI: 3 ml to 16 ml) and in FVC of around 12 ml (p = 0.002, 95% CI: 4 ml to 19 ml). Negative effects of smoking on lung function were also observed. Conclusions: Exposure to coke oven emissions was found to be associated with lower FEV1 and FVC. Effects of work exposure on lung function are similar to those found in other studies. PMID:12468747

  3. Assessment of the effectiveness of respirator usage in coke oven workers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Tsang

    2002-01-01

    This program protection factor study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of filter cartridge respirators while coke oven workers performed their normal work. Benzene soluble fraction (BSF) of total particulate concentrations was measured inside and outside the respirators of nine coke oven workers who worked on the top of the battery of one older coke oven plant and who reported regular use of respirators. The measurements were taken for 3 consecutive days. Excluding two undetectable measurements inside the respirator, it was found that the outside respirator BSF concentrations (25 sets) ranged from 87 to 807 microg/m3, whereas the inside respirator BSF concentrations ranged from 16 to 509 microg/m3. A program protection factor (PPF) for each set of observations was calculated as the ratio of outside to inside air BSF concentrations. The mean PPF was 2.5 with a range of 1.1 to 9.6, and 12 of the 25 measurements (48%) were below 2.0. Although the workers claimed they regularly wore their respirators, the wide range and the low PPF findings suggest that worker behavior and respirator fit may influence the level of protection provided by the respirator.

  4. Genetic damage induced by organic extract of coke oven emissions on human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Qingfeng; Duan, Huawei; Wang, Yadong; Huang, Chuanfeng; Niu, Yong; Dai, Yufei; Bin, Ping; Liu, Qingjun; Chen, Wen; Ma, Junxiang; Zheng, Yuxin

    2012-08-01

    Coke oven emissions are known as human carcinogen, which is a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. In this study, we aimed to clarify the mechanism of action of coke oven emissions induced carcinogenesis and to identify biomarkers of early biological effects in a human bronchial epithelial cell line with CYP1A1 activity (HBE-CYP1A1). Particulate matter was collected in the oven area on glass filter, extracted and analyzed by GC/MS. DNA breaks and oxidative damage were evaluated by alkaline and endonucleases (FPG, hOGG1 and ENDO III)-modified comet assays. Cytotoxicity and chromosomal damage were assessed by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay. The cells were treated with organic extract of coke oven emissions (OE-COE) representing 5, 10, 20, 40μg/mL extract for 24h. We found that there was a dose-effect relationship between the OE-COE and the direct DNA damage presented by tail length, tail intensity and Olive tail moment in the comet assay. The presence of lesion-specific endonucleases in the assays increased DNA migration after OE-COE treatment when compared to those without enzymes, which indicated that OE-COE produced oxidative damage at the level of pyrimidine and purine bases. The dose-dependent increase of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds in exposed cells was significant, indicating chromosomal and genomic damage induced by OE-COE. Based on the cytotoxic biomarkers in CBMN-Cyt assay, OE-COE may inhibit nuclear division, interfere with apoptosis, or induce cell necrosis. This study indicates that OE-COE exposure can induce DNA breaks/oxidative damage and genomic instability in HBE-CYP1A1 cells. The FPG-comet assay appears more specific for detecting oxidative DNA damage induced by complex mixtures of genotoxic substances.

  5. [Aerosol size distribution of organic carbon and elemental carbon on the top of coke oven and in the plant area].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Feng; Peng, Lin; Bai, Hui-Ling; Mu, Ling; Song, Chong-Fang

    2013-08-01

    In order to investigate the characteristic of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in particles on the top of coke oven and in the plant area, the particle matter samples of five size fraction including < or = 1.4 microm, 1.4-2.1 microm, 2.1-4.2 microm, 4.2-10.2 microm and > or = 10.2 microm were collected using Staplex234 cascade impactor, and OC and EC were analyzed by Elementar Analysensysteme GmbH vario EL cube. The mass concentrations of OC and EC associated with TSP on the top of coke oven were 291.6 microg x m(-3) and 255.1 microg x m(-3), while those in the plant area were 377.8 microg x m(-3) and 151.7 microg x m(-3). The mass concentration of secondary organic carbon (SOC) in particles with size of < or = 1.4 microm was 147.3 microg x m(-3) in the plant area. The value of OC/EC in particles less than 2.1 microm was 1.3 on the top of coke oven. The mass concentration of EC in TSP in the plant area was lower than that on the top of coke oven, while the mass concentration of OC in the plant area was significantly higher than that on the top of coke oven. The mass concentrations of OC and EC associated with particles less than 10.2 microm in the plant area were far higher than those in the atmosphere of area where the coke plant is located. The OC and EC in particles, which were collected both on the top of coke oven and in the plant area, were mainly enriched in fine particles. The size distribution of OC showed a clear distinction between the coke oven top and the plant area, which revealed that OC in the plant area was more preferably enriched in fine particles than that on the top of coke oven, and the same size distribution of EC was found on the top of coke oven and in the plant area. In the plant area, the mass concentration of SOC and the contribution of SOC to OC increased with the decreasing diameter in particles with diameter of less than 10.2 microm.

  6. A mathematical model for the estimation of flue temperature in a coke oven

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, K.I.; Kim, S.Y.; Suo, J.S.; Hur, N.S.; Kang, I.S.; Lee, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    The coke plants at the Kwangyang works has adopted an Automatic Battery Control (ABC) system which consists of four main parts, battery heating control, underfiring heat and waste gas oxygen control, pushing and charging schedule and Autotherm-S that measures heating wall temperature during pushing. The measured heating wall temperature is used for calculating Mean Battery Temperature (MBT) which is average temperature of flues for a battery, but the Autotherm-S system can not provide the flue temperatures of an oven. This work attempted to develop mathematical models for the estimation of the flue temperature using the measured heating wall temperature and to examine fitness of the mathematical model for the coke plant operation by analysis of raw gas temperature at the stand pipe. Through this work it is possible to reflect heating wall temperature in calculating MBT for battery heating control without the interruption caused by a maintenance break.

  7. High-strength insulating castable used behind coke-oven buckstays and jambs

    SciTech Connect

    Sich, G. Jr. ); Gladfelder, L.A. . Iron and Steel Monolithics); Cox, F.S.

    1993-10-01

    Conventional pumpable, clay-based grouting materials used behind the armor/jamb systems were inadequate. Open brick joints caused reduced end flue temperatures which resulted in improper coking with reduced yields and coke quality, as well as difficulties in controlling door emissions. Based on criteria established by an Armco task force, a unique commercial product supplied by North American Refractories was located that had the potential of meeting these requirements. A laboratory trial casting program was undertaken by Armco that verified the potential of this castable refractory. Development programs by Armco and North American Refractories were established to optimize the properties of the refractory. Actual oven repairs have demonstrated that the castable developed meets all requirements for successful performance. These include: absence of castable failures; nonspalling; repairable through ceramic welding; and acceptable flowability.

  8. Coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant of Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, V.N.; Anikin, G.J.; Gross, M.

    1995-12-01

    Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, Russia, decided to erect a new coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant to replace the existing obsolete units and to improve the environmental conditions of the area. The paper deals with the technological concept and the design requirements. Commissioning is scheduled at the beginning of 1996. The paper describes H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} removal, sulfur recovery and ammonia destruction, primary gas cooling and electrostatic tar precipitation, and the distributed control system that will be installed.

  9. Organic extracts of coke oven emissions can induce genetic damage in metabolically competent HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Xin, Lili; Wang, Jianshu; Guo, Sifan; Wu, Yanhu; Li, Xiaohai; Deng, Huaxin; Kuang, Dan; Xiao, Wei; Wu, Tangchun; Guo, Huan

    2014-05-01

    Coke oven emissions (COEs) containing various carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent the coal-burning pollution in the air. Organic pollutants in the aerosol and particulate matter of COEs were collected from the bottom, side, and top of a coke oven. The Comet assay and cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay were conducted to analyze the genetic damage of extractable organic matter (EOM) of COEs on HepG2 cells. All the three EOMs could induce significant dose-dependent increases in Olive tail moment, tail DNA, and tail length, micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges, and nuclear buds frequencies, which were mostly positively correlated with the total PAHs concentration in each EOM. In conclusion, EOMs of COEs in the three typical working places of coke oven can induce DNA strand breaks and genomic instability in the metabolically competent HepG2 cells. The PAHs in EOMs may be important causative agents for the genotoxic effects of COEs.

  10. Method of reducing NO/sub x/ component of flue gas in heating coking ovens, and an arrangement of coking oven for carrying out the method

    SciTech Connect

    Janicka, J.; Jakobi, W.; Durselen, H.; Meyer, G.

    1987-11-03

    This patent describes a method of reducing NO/sub x/ component of flue gas produced in the flame of a coking oven of the type having vertical heating flues cooperating in pairs of flamed and non-flamed flues, the flamed heating flues including inlets for rich gas, primary air and lean gas arranged at the bottom region of the flues to provide a low level combustion stage, and further including inlets for secondary air and secondary lean gas arranged above the low level combustion stage to provide a high level combustion stage, partitions separating the flamed and non-flamed heating flues in respective pairs having a top opening for recirculating flue gas from the flamed flue to the non-flamed one, and a bottom opening for mixing a branch current of the recirculating flue gas with the supplied primary air and rich and lean gases in the flamed flue. It consists of a. adjusting the recirculation current rate, namely the volume ratio of the recirculated flue gas branch current to the flue gas current without recirculation, to amount between 20% and 50%; b. adjusting the combustion stage ratio, namely the volume ratio of the supplied primary air in the low level combustion stage to the supplied secondary in the high level combustion stage to an amount between 40% and 70%; and c. arranging the high level combustion stage between 35% and 55% of the height of the heating flues.

  11. Assessment of potential damage to DNA in urine of coke oven workers: an assay of unscheduled DNA synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Roos, F; Renier, A; Ettlinger, J; Iwatsubo, Y; Letourneux, M; Haguenoer, J M; Jaurand, M C; Pairon, J C

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A study was conducted in coke oven workers to evaluate the biological consequences of the exposure of these workers, particularly production of potential genotoxic factors. METHODS: 60 coke oven workers and 40 controls were recruited in the same iron and steel works. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was assessed by job and measurement of 1-hydroxypyrene (1OHP) in urine samples. An unscheduled DNA synthesis assay was performed on rat pleural mesothelial cells used as a test system to evaluate the effect of the workers' filtered urine on the DNA repair capacity of rat cells to determine whether DNA damaging agents are present in the urine of these workers. RESULTS: Urinary concentrations of 1OHP ranged from 0.06 to 24.2 (mean (SD) 2.1 (3.6)) mumol/mol creatinine in exposed coke oven workers, and from 0.01 to 0.9 in controls (0.12 (0.15)). These high concentrations in coke oven workers reflected recent exposure to PAHs and were in agreement with the assessment of exposure by job. No significant difference was found between coke oven workers and controls in the DNA repair level of rat cells treated with urine samples. However, the rat cell repair capacity decreased with increasing 1OHP concentrations in the exposed population (r = -0.28, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: As high concentrations of 1OHP were found in the urine of some workers, a more stringent control of exposures to PAHs in the workplace is required. Exposure to PAHs was not associated with a clear cut modification of the urinary excretion of DNA damaging factors in this test, as shown by the absence of increased unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat cells. However, impairment of some repair mechanisms by urinary constituents is suspected. PMID:9470892

  12. Microscope image processor for treatment of coke-oven ammonia liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, Minoru; Yamamoto, Masaki . Ironmaking Dept.); Maeda, Kohzoh . Process Control Dept.)

    1993-08-01

    Ammonia liquor generated in cokemaking operations is discharged from the plant after removal and decomposition of harmful substances. The volume and chemical composition of ammonia liquor varies greatly with the operating conditions of the coke oven and coal properties. These variations often cause unstable activated sludge operation, frequent bulking and other irregularities. Up to now, the activated sludge operation was mainly controlled by analyzing water quality. Recently, however, the importance of observed microorganisms in sludge such as zoogleal microorganisms (floc), filamentous microorganisms and protozoa, has been recognized. These microorganisms are normally observed manually with microscopes, but this procedure is relatively ineffective for control purposes because the measurements take too long and the results are based on qualitative judgments. To realize a quantitative measurement method for filamentous microorganisms and floc, a microscope image processor was developed jointly with Hitachi Ltd. for activated sludge control. The microscope image processor has been found to be effective in predicting bulking and evaluating bulking control techniques.

  13. Using Lymphocyte and Plasma Hsp70 as Biomarkers for Assessing Coke Oven Exposure among Steel Workers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaobo; Zheng, Jinping; Bai, Yun; Tian, Fengjie; Yuan, Jing; Sun, Jianya; Liang, Huashan; Guo, Liang; Tan, Hao; Chen, Weihong; Tanguay, Robert M.; Wu, Tangchun

    2007-01-01

    Background Hsp70, an early-response protein induced when organisms are confronted with simple or complicated environmental stresses, can act as either a cellular protector or a danger signal. Objectives The goal of this study was to evaluate levels of lymphocyte and/or plasma Hsp70 as biomarkers for assessing exposure response to complex coke oven emissions (COEs). Methods We recruited 101 coke oven workers and determined levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure, urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), genotoxic damage by comet assay and micronuclei test, and other markers of damage, including plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). These were compared to levels of lymphocyte (intra-cellular) and plasma (extracellular) Hsp70 using Western blots and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), respectively. Results We observed a COEs-related dose-dependent increase in levels of DNA damage, micronuclei rate, MDA concentration, and LDH activity. Lymphocyte Hsp70 levels increased in the intermediate-exposure group (1.39 ± 0.88) but decreased in the high-exposure group (1.10 ± 0.55), compared with the low-exposure group. In contrast, plasma Hsp70 levels progressively increased as the dose of exposure increased. Negative correlations were seen between lymphocyte Hsp70 levels and olive tail moment and LDH activity in the intermediate- and high-exposure groups. However, we observed positive correlations between plasma Hsp70 levels and LDH activity in the low and intermediate groups. Conclusions In workers exposed to COEs, high lymphocyte Hsp70 levels may provide protection and high plasma Hsp70 levels may serve as a danger marker. Larger validation studies are needed to establish the utility of Hsp70 as a response marker. PMID:18007987

  14. PAH source fingerprints for coke ovens, diesel and, gasoline engines, highway tunnels, and wood combustion emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili, Nasrin R.; Scheff, Peter A.; Holsen, Thomas M.

    To evaluate the chemical composition (source fingerprint) of the major sources of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Chicago metropolitan area, a study of major PAH sources was conducted during 1990-1992. In this study, a modified high-volume sampling method (PS-1 sampler) was employed to collect airborne PAHs in both the particulate and gas phases. Hewlett Packard 5890 gas chromatographs equipped with the flame ionization and mass spectrometer detectors (GC/FID and GC/MS) were used to analyze the samples. The sources sampled were: coke ovens, highway vehicles, heavy-duty diesel engines, gasoline engines and wood combustion. Results of this study showed that two and three ring PAHs were responsible for 98, 76, 92, 73 and 80% of the total concentration of measured 20 PAHs for coke ovens, diesel engines, highway tunnels, gasoline engines and wood combustion samples, respectively. Six ring PAHs such as indeno(1,2,3- cd)pyrene and benzo( ghi)perylene were mostly below the detection limit of this study and only detected in the highway tunnel, diesel and gasoline engine samples. The source fingerprints were obtained by averaging the ratios of individual PAH concentrations to the total concentration of categorical pollutants including: (a) total measured mass of PAHs with retention times between naphthalene and coronene, (b) the mass of the 20 PAHs measured in this study, (c) total VOCs, and (d) total PM10. Since concentrations of the above categorical pollutants were different for individual samples and different sources, the chemical composition patterns obtained for each categorical pollutant were different. The source fingerprints have been developed for use in chemical mass balance receptor modeling calculations.

  15. A new technology for producing hydrogen and adjustable ratio syngas from coke oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Jun Shen; Zhi-zhong Wang; Huai-wang Yang; Run-sheng Yao

    2007-12-15

    About 15 billion Nm{sup 3} coke oven gas (COG) is emitted into the air in Shanxi Province in China as air pollutants. It is also a waste of precious chemical resources. In this study, COG was purified respectively by four methods including refrigeration, fiberglass, silica gel, and molecular sieve. Purified COG was separated by a prism membrane into two gas products. One consists mainly of H{sub 2} ({gt}90 vol %) and the other is rich in CH{sub 4} ({gt}60 vol %) with their exact compositions to vary with the membrane separation pressure and outlet gas flow ratio. The gas rich in CH{sub 4} was partially oxidized with oxygen in a high-temperature fixed-bed quartz reactor charged with coke particles of 10 mm size. At 1200-1300{sup o}C, a CH{sub 4} conversion of {gt}99% could be obtained. The H{sub 2}/CO ratio in the synthesis product gas can be adjusted in the range 0.3-1.4, very favorable for further C1 synthesis. 10 refs., 17 figs., 1t ab.

  16. Ambient air quality and emission characteristics in and around a non-recovery type coke oven using high sulphur coal.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Jyotilima; Saikia, Prasenjit; Boruah, Ratan; Saikia, Binoy K

    2015-10-15

    The objective of this study is to determine the concentrations of gaseous species and aerosols in and around a non-recovery type coke making oven using high sulphur coals. In this paper, physico-chemical properties of the feed coal sample are reported along with the collection and measurement of the emitted gases (SO2, NO2, and NH3) and aerosol particles (PM2.5, PM10) during the coal carbonization in the oven. The coals used are from northeast India and they are high sulphur in nature. The concentrations of the gases e.g., SO2, NO2 and NH3 emitted are observed to be within the limit of National Ambient Air Quality Standard for 24h. The mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations are found to be 125.4 μg/m(3) and 48.6 μg/m(3) respectively, as measured during three days of coke oven operations. About 99% of the SO2 in flue gases is captured by using an alkali treatment during the coke oven operation. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) after Centred Log Ratio (clr) transformation is also performed to know the positive and negative correlation among the coal properties and the emission parameters.

  17. Treatment of coke-oven wastewater with the powdered activated carbon-contact stabilization activated sludge process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Suidan, M.T.; Deady, M.A.; Gee, C.S.

    1983-11-01

    The objective of the study was to determine optimum parameters for the operation of an innovative process train used in the treatment of coke-over wastewater. The treatment process train consisted of a contact-stabilization activated sludge system with powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition, followed by activated sludge nitrification, followed by denitrification in an anoxic filter. The control and operating parameters evaluated during the study were: (a) the average mixed-liquor PAC concentration maintained in the contact-stabilization system, (b) the solids retention time practiced in the contact-stabilization system, and (c) the hydraulic detention time maintained in the contact aeration tank. Three identical treatement process trains were constructed and employed in this study. The coke-oven wastewater used for this investigation was fed to the treatment units at 30% strength. The first part of the study was devoted to determining the interactions between the mixed liquor PAC concentration and the solids retention time in the contact-stabilization tanks. Results showed that optimum overall system performance is attainable when the highest sludge age (30 day) and highest mixed liquor PAC concentration were practiced. During the second phase of the study, all three systems were operated at a 30 day solids retention time while different detention times of 1, 2/3 and 1/3 day were evaluated in the contact tank. PAC addition rates were maintained at the former levels and, consequently, reduced contact times entailed higher mixed liquor carbon concentrations. Once again, the system receiving the highest PAC addition rate of PAC exhibited the best overall performance. This system exhibited no deterioration in process performance as a result of decreased contact detention time. 72 references, 41 figures, 24 tables.

  18. The association of XRCC1 haplotypes and chromosomal damage levels in peripheral blood lymphocyte among coke-oven workers

    SciTech Connect

    Shuguang Leng; Juan Cheng; Linyuan Zhang; Yong Niu; Yufei Dai; Zufei Pan; Bin Li; Fengsheng He; Yuxin Zheng

    2005-05-15

    Theoretically, a haplotype has a higher level of heterozygosity than individual single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and the association study based on the haplotype may have an increased power for detecting disease associations compared with SNP-based analysis. In this study, we investigated the effects of four haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNP) and the inferred haplotype pairs of the X-ray cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) gene on chromosome damage detected by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. The study included 141 coke-oven workers with exposure to a high level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 66 nonexposed controls. The frequencies of total MN and MNed cells were borderline associated with the Arg{sup 194}Trp polymorphism (P = 0.053 and P = 0.050, respectively) but not associated with the Arg{sup 280}His, Arg{sup 399}Gln and Gln{sup 632}Gln polymorphisms among coke-oven workers. Five haplotypes, including CGGG, TGGG, CAGG, CGAG, and CGGA, were inferred based on the four htSNPs of XRCC1 gene. The haplotype CGGG was associated with the decreased frequencies of total MN and MNed cells, and the haplotypes TGGG and CGAG were associated with the increased frequencies of total MN and MNed cells with adjustment for covariates among coke-oven workers. This study showed that the haplotypes derived from htSNPs in the XRCC1 gene were more likely than single SNPs to correlate with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced chromosome damage among coke-oven workers.

  19. Copyrolysis of coal and waste plastics under coke-oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, H.; Li, B.; Zhang, B.

    1998-12-31

    A way for increasing oil and decreasing water (IODW) in copyrolysis of coal with coke-oven gas (COG) by adding waste plastics was suggested and the effects of pressure, heating rate and final temperature on the yields of char, oil and water obtained from copyrolysis of coal and waste plastics under COG were investigated in detail. Copyrolysis of Chinese Xianfeng lignite and waste plastics under COG were carried out in a 10g fixed-bed reactor under pressures of 0.1--3MPa, heating rate from 5--25 K/min and final temperatures of 723--923K. The results indicated that by adding 5% of high-density polyethylene (HDPE), the oil yield increased 4.5% (excluding the oil yield from HDPE pyrolysis) more than that of coal pyrolysis without HDPE, and water decreased about 2.2%. The yields of increased oil and decreased water accounted for 21.2% and 13% of Xianfeng lignite pyrolysis alone, respectively. With increasing pressure and final temperature, the total conversion, oil yields and water increased in varying degrees. Decreasing heating rate is beneficial to improve oil yield and reduce water. Adding waste plastics in copyrolysis of coal with COG not only improves the economic interest but also creates a way for high effective treatment of waste plastics.

  20. Production of hydrogen from coke-oven gas by the short-cycle adsorption method

    SciTech Connect

    Podorozhanskii, M.M.; Plichko, V.S.; Shustikov, V.I.; Yavorskaya, Z.G.

    1981-01-01

    In recent years the short-cycle adsorption method has been extensively used to separate hydrogen from hydrogen-containing gases in the petrochemical and chemical industries. With regard to coke-oven gas, which contains about 60% hydrogen, this problem has been given less attention in the literature. As the adsorbent, molecular sieves obtained from carbon have been used. Investigation of the process on a pilot apparatus demonstrated the possibility of using this method to produce hydrogen at a concentration of 95 to 99%. We have obtained similar data using an IGI (Institute of Fossil Fuels) microbead adsorbent with micropore volume of about 0.35 cm/sup 3//g. As a result of the experiments, it was concluded that: (1) the short-cycle adsorption method may be used to produce technical hydrogen suitable for use in hydrorefining processes; (2) an equation was derived describing the degree of purity of the hydrogen as a function of the productivity of a unit of adsorbent volume, the quantity of blowout gases and the duration of the cycle.

  1. Anodic oxidation of coke oven wastewater: Multiparameter optimization for simultaneous removal of cyanide, COD and phenol.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan Pillai, Indu M; Gupta, Ashok K

    2016-07-01

    Anodic oxidation of industrial wastewater from a coke oven plant having cyanide including thiocyanate (280 mg L(-1)), chemical oxygen demand (COD - 1520 mg L(-1)) and phenol (900 mg L(-1)) was carried out using a novel PbO2 anode. From univariate optimization study, low NaCl concentration, acidic pH, high current density and temperature were found beneficial for the oxidation. Multivariate optimization was performed with cyanide including thiocyanate, COD and phenol removal efficiencies as a function of changes in initial pH, NaCl concentration and current density using Box-Behnken experimental design. Optimization was performed for maximizing the removal efficiencies of these three parameters simultaneously. The optimum condition was obtained as initial pH 3.95, NaCl as 1 g L(-1) and current density of 6.7 mA cm(-2), for which the predicted removal efficiencies were 99.6%, 86.7% and 99.7% for cyanide including thiocyanate, COD and phenol respectively. It was in agreement with the values obtained experimentally as 99.1%, 85.2% and 99.7% respectively for these parameters. The optimum conditions with initial pH constrained to a range of 6-8 was initial pH 6, NaCl as 1.31 g L(-1) and current density as 6.7 mA cm(-2). The predicted removal efficiencies were 99%, 86.7% and 99.6% for the three parameters. The efficiencies obtained experimentally were in agreement at 99%, 87.8% and 99.6% respectively. The cost of operation for degradation at optimum conditions was calculated as 21.4 USD m(-3).

  2. Anodic oxidation of coke oven wastewater: Multiparameter optimization for simultaneous removal of cyanide, COD and phenol.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan Pillai, Indu M; Gupta, Ashok K

    2016-07-01

    Anodic oxidation of industrial wastewater from a coke oven plant having cyanide including thiocyanate (280 mg L(-1)), chemical oxygen demand (COD - 1520 mg L(-1)) and phenol (900 mg L(-1)) was carried out using a novel PbO2 anode. From univariate optimization study, low NaCl concentration, acidic pH, high current density and temperature were found beneficial for the oxidation. Multivariate optimization was performed with cyanide including thiocyanate, COD and phenol removal efficiencies as a function of changes in initial pH, NaCl concentration and current density using Box-Behnken experimental design. Optimization was performed for maximizing the removal efficiencies of these three parameters simultaneously. The optimum condition was obtained as initial pH 3.95, NaCl as 1 g L(-1) and current density of 6.7 mA cm(-2), for which the predicted removal efficiencies were 99.6%, 86.7% and 99.7% for cyanide including thiocyanate, COD and phenol respectively. It was in agreement with the values obtained experimentally as 99.1%, 85.2% and 99.7% respectively for these parameters. The optimum conditions with initial pH constrained to a range of 6-8 was initial pH 6, NaCl as 1.31 g L(-1) and current density as 6.7 mA cm(-2). The predicted removal efficiencies were 99%, 86.7% and 99.6% for the three parameters. The efficiencies obtained experimentally were in agreement at 99%, 87.8% and 99.6% respectively. The cost of operation for degradation at optimum conditions was calculated as 21.4 USD m(-3). PMID:27039363

  3. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers relative to job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking

    SciTech Connect

    Bo Chen; Yunping Hu; Lixing Zheng; Qiangyi Wang; Yuanfen Zhou; Taiyi Jin

    2007-09-15

    1-Hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of recent exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We investigated whether urinary 1-OHP concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers (COWs) are modulated by job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking. The present cross-sectional study measured urinary 1-OHP concentrations in 197 COWs from Coking plant I and 250 COWs from Coking plant II, as well as 220 unexposed referents from Control plant I and 56 referents from Control plant II. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations (geometric mean, {mu}mol/mol creatinine) were 5.18 and 4.21 in workers from Coking plants I and II, respectively. The highest 1-OHP levels in urine were found among topside workers including lidmen, tar chasers, and whistlers. Benchmen had higher 1-OHP levels than other workers at the sideoven. Above 75% of the COWs exceeded the recommended occupational exposure limit of 2.3 {mu}mol/mol creatinine. Respirator usage and increased body mass index (BMI) slightly reduced 1-OHP levels in COWs. Cigarette smoking significantly increased urinary 1-OHP levels in unexposed referents but had no effect in COWs. Chinese COWs, especially topside workers and benchmen, are exposed to high levels of PAHs. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations appear to be modulated by respirator usage and BMI in COWs, as well as by smoking in unexposed referents.

  4. Effects of genetic polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes on cytokinesis-block micronucleus in peripheral blood lymphocyte among coke-oven workers

    SciTech Connect

    Shuguang Leng; Yufei Dai; Yong Niu; Zufei Pan; Xiaohua Li; Juan Cheng; Fengsheng He; Yuxin Zheng

    2004-10-15

    Exploring the associations between genetic polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes and susceptibility to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced chromosomal damage is of great significance for understanding PAH carcinogenesis. Cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferase, microsomal epoxide hydrolase, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase, and N-acetyltransferase are PAH-metabolizing enzymes. In this study, we genotyped for the polymorphisms of these genes and assessed their effects on cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes among 141 coke-oven workers and 66 non-coke-oven worker controls. The geometric means of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels in coke-oven workers and the controls were 12.0 and 0.7 {mu}mol/mol creatinine, respectively. The CBMN frequency (number of micronuclei per 1,000 binucleated lymphocytes) was significantly higher in coke-oven workers (9.5 {+-} 6.6) than in the controls. Among the coke-oven workers, age was positively associated with CBMN frequency; the mEH His{sup 113} variant genotype exhibited significantly lower CBMN frequency than did the Tyr{sup 113}/Tyr{sup 113} genotype; the low mEH activity phenotype exhibited a lower CBMN frequency than did the high mEH activity phenotype; the GSTP1 Val{sup 105}/Val{sup 105} genotype exhibited a higher CBMN frequency than did the GSTP1 Ile{sup 105}/Ile{sup 105} or Ile{sup 105}/Val{sup 105} genotypes; the joint effect of high mEH activity phenotype and GSTM1 null genotype on CBMN frequencies was also found. Gene-environment interactions between occupational PAH exposure and polymorphisms of mEH and/or GSTM1 were also evident. These results indicate that the mEH, GSTP1, and GSTM1 polymorphisms may play a role in sensitivity or genetic susceptibility to the genotoxic effects of PAH exposure in the coke-oven workers.

  5. Performance and microbial community analysis of the anaerobic reactor with coke oven gas biomethanation and in situ biogas upgrading.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; Xie, Li; Luo, Gang; Zhou, Qi; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-10-01

    A new method for simultaneous coke oven gas (COG) biomethanation and in situ biogas upgrading in anaerobic reactor was developed in this study. The simulated coke oven gas (SCOG) (92% H2 and 8% CO) was injected directly into the anaerobic reactor treating sewage sludge through hollow fiber membrane (HFM). With pH control at 8.0, the added H2 and CO were fully consumed and no negative effects on the anaerobic degradation of sewage sludge were observed. The maximum CH4 content in the biogas was 99%. The addition of SCOG resulted in enrichment and dominance of homoacetogenetic genus Treponema and hydrogenotrophic genus Methanoculleus in the liquid, which indicated that H2 were converted to methane by both direct (hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis) and indirect (homoacetogenesis+aceticlastic methanogenesis) pathways in the liquid. However, the aceticlasitic genus Methanosaeta was dominant for archaea in the biofilm on the HFM, which indicated indirect (homoacetogenesis+aceticlastic methanogenesis) H2 conversion pathway on the biofilm.

  6. Metabolic activation of organic extracts from diesel, coke oven, roofing tar, and cigarette smoke emissions in the Ames assay

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.; Lewtas, J.

    1985-01-01

    The role of metabolic activation in the difference between a microbial and mammalian bioassays in the ranking of genotoxic potency of several environmental emissions was investigated. Although the relative potency in the Ames assay correlated well with the relative potency in mammalian cell and mouse skin for a series of automotive emissions (diesel and gasoline), this was not the case for the coke oven, roofing tar, and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) emissions. The study examined several parameters of the metabolic activation with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 including S9 concentration and a comparison of Aroclor-1254 induced with uninduced S9 from both rat and hamster liver. The diesel-emissions sample was direct acting while the other samples required activation. The standard S9 concentration (approximately 1.25 mg protein/plate) also produced the maximum mutagenic activity. Induced S9s produced higher mutagenic activity than uninduced. The hamster S9 gave significantly higher mutagenic activies than rat S9 for the coke oven and CSC.

  7. Mortality due to respiratory cancers in the coke oven plants of the Lorraine coalmining industry (Houillères du Bassin de Lorraine).

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, J P; Chau, N; Patris, A; Mur, J M; Pham, Q T; Moulin, J J; Morviller, P; Auburtin, G; Figueredo, A; Martin, J

    1987-01-01

    The main activity of the Houillères du Bassin de Lorraine (Lorraine Collieries), employing 23,000 operatives and executives, is coalmining. The coke production is carried out by two coke oven plants with a workforce of respectively 747 and 552 workers. The coal coking process entails the emission of noxious products such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the ovens. The influence of occupational exposure on mortality due to respiratory cancers, and particularly to lung and upper respiratory and alimentary tracts cancer, was investigated among a cohort of 534 male workers from the two coke oven plants who had retired from work between 1963 and 1982. The job history of each subject has been precisely reconstructed by indicating the duration of exposure on the ovens, close to the ovens, and in maintenance occupations. The cohort mortality has been analysed according to the method of indirect standardisation with reference to the French male population and by a case-control study concerning the consumption of tobacco per cohort. The mortality due to lung cancer is 2.51 times higher than expected. This excess of mortality differs, but not significantly, between the two coke oven plants (standardised mortality ratio equals 3.05 and 1.75 respectively). It is not significantly higher among subjects exposed for more than five years, directly exposed on the ovens or working near the ovens or at maintenance occupations on the ovens (SMR = 2.78), than among those exposed for less than five years (SMR = 2.35) or those not exposed at all. Even taking into account the excess of mortality due to lung cancers in the Moselle district (1.6 time that of France), the excess of lung cancers does not seem to be explained by the regional factor, or by tobacco and alcohol consumption. Although no significant relation was offered between lung cancer and the duration of exposure to PAH, even when taking smoking habits into account, the carcinogenic role of occupational nuisances

  8. Dose-response relationships of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure and oxidative damage to DNA and lipid in coke oven workers.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Dan; Zhang, Wangzhen; Deng, Qifei; Zhang, Xiao; Huang, Kun; Guan, Lei; Hu, Die; Wu, Tangchun; Guo, Huan

    2013-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to induce reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress, but the dose-response relationships between exposure to PAHs and oxidative stress levels have not been established. In this study, we recruited 1333 male coke oven workers, monitored the levels of environmental PAHs, and measured internal PAH exposure biomarkers including 12 urinary PAH metabolites and plasma benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,t-9,c-10-tetrahydotetrol-albumin (BPDE-Alb) adducts, as well as the two oxidative biomarkers urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α (8-iso-PGF2α). We found that the total concentration of urinary PAH metabolites and plasma BPDE-Alb adducts were both significantly associated with increased 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α in both smokers and nonsmokers (all p < 0.05). This exposure-response effect was also observed for most PAH metabolites (all p(trend) < 0.01), except for 4-hydroxyphenanthrene and 8-OHdG (p(trend) = 0.108). Furthermore, it was shown that only urinary 1-hydroxypyrene has a significant positive association with both 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α after a Bonferroni correction (p < 0.005). Our results indicated that urinary ΣOH-PAHs and plasma BPDE-Alb adducts can result in significant dose-related increases in oxidative damage to DNA and lipids. Furthermore, when a multianalyte method is unavailable, our findings demonstrate that urinary 1-hydroxypyrene is a useful biomarker for evaluating total PAHs exposure and assessing oxidative damage in coke oven workers.

  9. Membrane-integrated physico-chemical treatment of coke-oven wastewater: transport modelling and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramesh; Chakrabortty, Sankha; Pal, Parimal

    2015-04-01

    A modelling and simulation study with economic evaluation was carried out for an advanced membrane-integrated hybrid treatment process that ensures reuse of water with recovery of ammoniacal nitrogen as struvite from coke-oven wastewater. Linearized transport model was developed based on extended Nernst-Plank and concentration polarization modulus equation. Effects of pH, transmembrane pressure and cross-flow rate of interest on membrane charge density, solute rejection and solvent flux were investigated. The membrane module was successful in yielding a pure water flux as high as 120 L m(-2) h(-1) removing more than 95 and 96% of the cyanide and phenol, respectively, while permeating more than 90% NH4 (+)-N at a transmembrane pressure of only 15 × 10(2) KPa and at a pH of 10 for a volumetric cross-flow rate of 800 L h(-1). The Fenton's reagents were used to degrade more than 99% of pollutants present in the concentrated stream. The developed model could successfully predict the plant performance as reflected in the very low relative error (0.01-0.12) and overall high correlation coefficient (R(2) > 0.96). Economic analysis indicated that such a membrane-integrated hybrid system could be quite promising in coke wastewater treatment at low cost i.e. $0.934/m(2) of wastewater.

  10. Membrane-integrated physico-chemical treatment of coke-oven wastewater: transport modelling and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramesh; Chakrabortty, Sankha; Pal, Parimal

    2015-04-01

    A modelling and simulation study with economic evaluation was carried out for an advanced membrane-integrated hybrid treatment process that ensures reuse of water with recovery of ammoniacal nitrogen as struvite from coke-oven wastewater. Linearized transport model was developed based on extended Nernst-Plank and concentration polarization modulus equation. Effects of pH, transmembrane pressure and cross-flow rate of interest on membrane charge density, solute rejection and solvent flux were investigated. The membrane module was successful in yielding a pure water flux as high as 120 L m(-2) h(-1) removing more than 95 and 96% of the cyanide and phenol, respectively, while permeating more than 90% NH4 (+)-N at a transmembrane pressure of only 15 × 10(2) KPa and at a pH of 10 for a volumetric cross-flow rate of 800 L h(-1). The Fenton's reagents were used to degrade more than 99% of pollutants present in the concentrated stream. The developed model could successfully predict the plant performance as reflected in the very low relative error (0.01-0.12) and overall high correlation coefficient (R(2) > 0.96). Economic analysis indicated that such a membrane-integrated hybrid system could be quite promising in coke wastewater treatment at low cost i.e. $0.934/m(2) of wastewater. PMID:25380632

  11. Methylation of CpG island of p14(ARK), p15(INK4b) and p16(INK4a) genes in coke oven workers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Li, X; Ge, L; Yang, J; Sun, J; Niu, Q

    2015-02-01

    To detect the blood genomic DNA methylation in coke oven workers and find a possible early screening index for occupational lung cancer, 74 coke oven workers as the exposed group and 47 water pump workers as the controls were surveyed, and urine samples and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected. Airborne benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) levels in workplace and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-Py) levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. DNA damage of PBMCs and the p14(ARK), p15(INK4b) and p16(INK4a) gene CpG island methylation in the promoter region were detected by comet assay and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction techniques, respectively. Results show that compared with the controls, concentration of airborne B[a]Ps was elevated in the coke plant, and urinary 1-OH-Py's level and DNA olive tail moment in comet assay were significantly increased in the coke oven workers, and p14(ARK), p15(INK4b) and p16(INK4a) gene methylation rates were also significantly increased. With the working years and urinary 1-OH-Py's level, the rates of p14(ARK) and p16(INK4a) gene methylation were significantly increased while that of p15(INK4b) gene methylation displayed no statistical change. We conclude that PBMCs' p14(ARK) and p16(INK4a) gene methylation may be used for screening and warning lung cancer in coke oven workers.

  12. DNA single strand breakage, DNA adducts, and sister chromatid exchange in lymphocytes and phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites in urine of coke oven workers.

    PubMed Central

    Popp, W; Vahrenholz, C; Schell, C; Grimmer, G; Dettbarn, G; Kraus, R; Brauksiepe, A; Schmeling, B; Gutzeit, T; von Bülow, J; Norpoth, K

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the specificity of biological monitoring variables (excretion of phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites in urine) and the usefulness of some biomarkers of effect (alkaline filter elution, 32P postlabelling assay, measurement of sister chromatid exchange) in workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). METHODS: 29 coke oven workers and a standardised control group were investigated for frequencies of DNA single strand breakage, DNA protein cross links (alkaline filter elution assay), sister chromatid exchange, and DNA adducts (32P postlabelling assay) in lymphocytes. Phenanthrene and pyrene metabolites were measured in 24 hour urine samples. 19 different PAHs (including benzo(a)pyrene, pyrene, and phenanthrene) were measured at the workplace by personal air monitoring. The GSTT1 activity in erythrocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in blood was also measured. RESULTS: Concentrations of phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene in air correlated well with the concentration of total PAHs in air; they could be used for comparisons of different workplaces if the emission compositions were known. The measurement of phenanthrene metabolites in urine proved to be a better biological monitoring variable than the measurement of 1-hydroxypyrene. Significantly more DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes of coke oven workers were found (alkaline filter elution assay); the DNA adduct rate was not significantly increased in workers, but correlated with exposure to PAHs in a semiquantitative manner. The number of sister chromatid exchanges was lower in coke oven workers but this was not significant; thus counting sister chromatid exchanges was not a good variable for biomonitoring of coke oven workers. Also, indications for immunotoxic influences (changes in lymphocyte subpopulations) were found. CONCLUSIONS: The measurement of phenanthrene metabolites in urine seems to be a better biological monitoring variable for exposure to PAHs than

  13. Production of syngas via partial oxidation and CO{sub 2} reforming of coke oven gas over a Ni catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Jianzhong Guo; Zhaoyin Hou; Jing Gao; Xiaoming Zheng

    2008-05-15

    The partial oxidation and CO{sub 2} reforming of coke oven gas (COG) to syngas was investigated on differently sized Ni catalysts in a fluidized-bed reactor. It was found that the catalytic performance of Ni depends strongly on its particle size. The small-sized Ni catalyst exhibited higher activity and higher selectivity in the partial oxidation of COG. The conversion of CH{sub 4} was kept at 80.7% at a lower temperature (750{sup o}C) and a wide space velocity (from 8000 to 80 000 h{sup -1}). CO{sub 2} reforming of COG is also an efficient route for syngas production. The H{sub 2}/CO ratio in the COG-derived syngas could be controlled by manipulating the concentration of O{sub 2} or CO{sub 2} added in the feed. The yield of produced syngas increases with an increase in temperature. 19 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Removal of phenol from coke-oven wastewater by cross-flow nanofiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramesh; Pal, Parimal

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the phenol rejection characteristics of some nanofiltration membranes during treatment of coke wastewater. Four different types of composite polyamide commercial nanofiltration membranes (Sepro, USA) were tested under different operating conditions including transmembrane pressure, pH and recovery rate. When pressure was increased from 4 to 16 bars, the percentage of rejection of phenol in the permeate increased from 72.5% to 97.7% while yielding a high flux of 118 litres per square meter per hour(LMH) at a volumetric cross flow rate of 800 litres per hour at pH 10 (in recirculation mode) in case of NF1 membrane. The effect of recovery rate on the rejection coefficient of phenol and flux was also studied in concentrated mode and found that a recovery rate of up 55% nanofiltration was successfully operated without much decline of flux and rejection coefficient. Finally, nanofiltration had great efficiency in phenol removal from industrial wastewater and was considered suitable regarding its operation.

  15. Removal of phenol from coke-oven wastewater by cross-flow nanofiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramesh; Pal, Parimal

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the phenol rejection characteristics of some nanofiltration membranes during treatment of coke wastewater. Four different types of composite polyamide commercial nanofiltration membranes (Sepro, USA) were tested under different operating conditions including transmembrane pressure, pH and recovery rate. When pressure was increased from 4 to 16 bars, the percentage of rejection of phenol in the permeate increased from 72.5% to 97.7% while yielding a high flux of 118 litres per square meter per hour(LMH) at a volumetric cross flow rate of 800 litres per hour at pH 10 (in recirculation mode) in case of NF1 membrane. The effect of recovery rate on the rejection coefficient of phenol and flux was also studied in concentrated mode and found that a recovery rate of up 55% nanofiltration was successfully operated without much decline of flux and rejection coefficient. Finally, nanofiltration had great efficiency in phenol removal from industrial wastewater and was considered suitable regarding its operation. PMID:23789574

  16. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Operating Coke Oven Batteries as of April 1, 1992

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Coke, Tarrant, AL A 5 6 2 Acme Steel, Chicago, IL 1 2 3 Armco, Inc., Middletown, OH 1 2 3 4 Armco, Inc., Ashland, KY 3 4 5 Bethlehem Steel, Bethlehem, PA A 2 3 6 Bethlehem Steel, Burns Harbor, IN 1 2 7 Bethlehem Steel, Lackawanna, NY 7 8 8 Citizens Gas, Indianapolis, IN E H 1 9 Empire Coke, Holt, AL 1 2 10...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Operating Coke Oven Batteries as of April 1, 1992

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Coke, Tarrant, AL A 5 6 2 Acme Steel, Chicago, IL 1 2 3 Armco, Inc., Middletown, OH 1 2 3 4 Armco, Inc., Ashland, KY 3 4 5 Bethlehem Steel, Bethlehem, PA A 2 3 6 Bethlehem Steel, Burns Harbor, IN 1 2 7 Bethlehem Steel, Lackawanna, NY 7 8 8 Citizens Gas, Indianapolis, IN E H 1 9 Empire Coke, Holt, AL 1 2 10...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Operating Coke Oven Batteries as of April 1, 1992

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Coke, Tarrant, AL A 5 6 2 Acme Steel, Chicago, IL 1 2 3 Armco, Inc., Middletown, OH 1 2 3 4 Armco, Inc., Ashland, KY 3 4 5 Bethlehem Steel, Bethlehem, PA A 2 3 6 Bethlehem Steel, Burns Harbor, IN 1 2 7 Bethlehem Steel, Lackawanna, NY 7 8 8 Citizens Gas, Indianapolis, IN E H 1 9 Empire Coke, Holt, AL 1 2 10...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Operating Coke Oven Batteries as of April 1, 1992

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Coke, Tarrant, AL A 5 6 2 Acme Steel, Chicago, IL 1 2 3 Armco, Inc., Middletown, OH 1 2 3 4 Armco, Inc., Ashland, KY 3 4 5 Bethlehem Steel, Bethlehem, PA A 2 3 6 Bethlehem Steel, Burns Harbor, IN 1 2 7 Bethlehem Steel, Lackawanna, NY 7 8 8 Citizens Gas, Indianapolis, IN E H 1 9 Empire Coke, Holt, AL 1 2 10...

  20. Solar oven

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, T.J.; Burns, C.L.

    1989-07-18

    This patent describes a solar oven. It comprises: an oven chamber having an open end and defining an interior cooking chamber; means providing a flat-back interior surface on the cooking chamber for absorbing sunlight and converting the absorbed sunlight into heat; an oven door hingedly mounted over the open end and movable between open and closed positions relative to the open end; means for pivotably supporting the oven chamber about a first substantially horizontal pivot axis; user-actuable latch means for selectively retaining the oven chamber in selected positions around the first horizontal axis, the user-actuable latch means including a user releasable ratchet mechanism including a plurality of ratchet teeth formed on the oven chamber and ratchet pawl pivoted to the support means in a position to engage selective ones of the ratchet teeth to retain the over chamber in selected orientations around the horizontal axis, the latch means further including means for pivoting the pawl into and out of the path of movement of the ratchet teeth to thereby achieve the selective positioning; a tray disposed within the interior cooking chamber for supporting foodstuffs during coking; pivot means for pivotally mounting the tray within the interior cooking chamber for movement around a second substantially horizontal pivot axis such that the tray can be positioned so as to maintain the foodstuffs in a substantially level position independently of the position of the oven chamber around the first pivot axis.

  1. Lymphocyte Oxidative Stress/Genotoxic Effects Are Related to Serum IgG and IgA Levels in Coke Oven Workers

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Meili; Li, Yongfei; Zheng, Aqun; Xue, Xiaochang; Chen, Lan; Kong, Yu

    2014-01-01

    We investigated oxidative stress/genotoxic effects levels, immunoglobulin levels, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels exposed in 126 coke oven workers and in 78 control subjects, and evaluated the association between oxidative stress/genotoxic effects levels and immunoglobulin levels. Significant differences were observed in biomarkers, including 1-hydroxypyrene levels, employment time, percentages of alcohol drinkers, MDA, 8-OHdG levels, CTL levels and CTM, MN, CA frequency, and IgG, IgA levels between the control and exposed groups. Slightly higher 1-OHP levels in smoking users were observed. For the dose-response relationship of IgG, IgA, IgM, and IgE by 1-OHP, each one percentage increase in urinary 1-OHP generates a 0.109%, 0.472%, 0.051%, and 0.067% decrease in control group and generates a 0.312%, 0.538%, 0.062%, and 0.071% decrease in exposed group, respectively. Except for age, alcohol and smoking status, IgM, and IgE, a significant correlation in urinary 1-OHP and other biomarkers in the total population was observed. Additionally, a significant negative correlation in genotoxic/oxidative damage biomarkers of MDA, 8-OH-dG, CTL levels, and immunoglobins of IgG and IgA levels, especially in coke oven workers, was found. These data suggest that oxidative stress/DNA damage induced by PAHs may play a role in toxic responses for PAHs in immunological functions. PMID:25136686

  2. KRESS INDIRECT DRY COOLING SYSTEM, BETHLEHEM STEEL'S COKE PLANT DEMONSTRATION AT SPARROWS POINT, MARYLAND - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES G-N

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report evaluates the Kress Indirect Dry Cooling (KIDC) process, an innovative system for handling and cooling coke produced from a slot-type by-product coke oven battery. The report is based on the test work and demonstration of the system at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Sp...

  3. KRESS INDIRECT DRY COOLING SYSTEM, BETHLEHEM STEEL'S COKE PLANT DEMONSTRATION AT SPARROWS POINT, MARYLAND - VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT AND APPENDICES A-F

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report evaluates the Kress Indirect Dry Cooling (KIDC) process, an innovative system for handling and cooling coke produced from a slot-type by-product coke oven battery. he report is based on the test work and demonstration of the system at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Spar...

  4. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in different size fractions of soil from a coke oven plant and its relationship to organic carbon content.

    PubMed

    Li, Helian; Chen, Jiajun; Wu, Wei; Piao, Xuesong

    2010-04-15

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in US EPA priority list were analyzed in the bulk and six particle size fractions of soil samples from a coke oven plant. The relationships of PAHs concentrations with total organic carbon (TOC), black carbon (BC) and other forms of organic carbon (OC) contents have been investigated. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 6.27 to 40.18 mg kg(-1) dry weight. The highest total PAH concentration occurred in the 250-500 microm size fraction. The maximum individual PAH concentration was in the 250-500 microm or 500-2000 microm size fraction. The size fractions of 125-500 microm and <50 microm have higher percentages and contributed 24.62% and 23.33% of the total PAH mass, respectively. The relative abundance of individual PAH compounds and PAH molecular indices present typical characteristic pyrogenic origin. The maximal TOC and BC contents were found in the 125-250 microm size fraction. Strong positive linear relationship between total PAH concentration and TOC or BC has been demonstrated, with a linear regression coefficient value of 0.7277 and 0.9245, respectively. The linear relationship between total PAH concentration versus OC (OC = TOC - BC) is weaker than that versus TOC or BC, with a correlation coefficient of 0.4117. It indicates that partitioned in organic matter, especially in black carbon is the dominant form of PAHs in the soil. PMID:20031305

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-associated microRNAs and their interactions with the environment: influences on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in coke oven workers.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qifei; Dai, Xiayun; Guo, Huan; Huang, Suli; Kuang, Dan; Feng, Jing; Wang, Tian; Zhang, Wangzhen; Huang, Kun; Hu, Die; Deng, Huaxin; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wu, Tangchun

    2014-04-01

    We previously identified five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) and found they were associated with chromosome damage. As oxidative damage is the common contributory cause of various PAHs-related diseases, we further investigated the influences of these miRNAs and their interactions with environmental factors on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation. We measured PAHs internal exposure biomarkers [urinary monohydroxy-PAHs (OH-PAHs) and plasma benzo[a]pyrene-r-7,t-8,t-9,c-10-tetrahydotetrol-albumin (BPDE-Alb) adducts], the expression levels of PAHs-associated plasma miRNAs (miR-24-3p, miR-27a-3p, miR-142-5p, miR-28-5p, and miR-150-5p), and urinary biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage [8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG)] and lipid peroxidation [8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α (8-iso-PGF2α)] in 365 healthy male coke oven workers. These miRNAs were associated with a dose-response increase in 8-OH-dG (β > 0), and with a dose-response decrease in 8-iso-PGF2α (β < 0), especially in workers with lower PAHs exposure levels, in nonsmokers, and in nondrinkers. These miRNAs interacted antagonistically with ΣOH-PAHs and BPDE-Alb adducts (βinteraction < 0) and synergistically with drinking status (βinteraction > 0) to influence 8-OH-dG, while they interacted synergistically with BPDE-Alb adducts (βinteraction > 0) and antagonistically with smoking status (βinteraction < 0) to influence 8-iso-PGF2α. Our results suggested that miRNAs and their interactions with environmental factors might be novel mechanisms mediating the effects of PAHs exposure on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation.

  6. The effects of heavy metals and their interactions with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the oxidative stress among coke-oven workers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian; Feng, Wei; Kuang, Dan; Deng, Qifei; Zhang, Wangzhen; Wang, Suhan; He, Meian; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wu, Tangchun; Guo, Huan

    2015-07-01

    Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are predominate toxic constituents of particulate air pollution that may be related to the increased risk of cardiopulmonary events. We aim to investigate the effects of the toxic heavy metals (arsenic, As; cadmium, Cd; chromium, Cr; nickel, Ni; and lead, Pb), and their interactions with PAHs on oxidative stress among coke-oven workers. A total of 1333 male workers were recruited in this study. We determined their urinary levels of As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, twelve PAH metabolites, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α (8-iso-PGF2α). Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze the effects of these metals and their interactions with PAHs on 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α levels. It was found that only urinary As and Ni showed marginal or significant positive linear dose-dependent effects on 8-OHdG in this study population, especially among smokers (β=0.103, P=0.073 and β=0.110, P=0.002, respectively). After stratifying all participants by the quartiles of ΣOH-PAH, all five metals showed linear association with 8-OHdG in the highest quartile subgroup (Q4) of ΣOH-PAHs. However, these five urinary metals showed significantly consistent linear associations with 8-iso-PGF2α in all subjects and each stratum. Urinary ΣOH-PAHs can significant modify the effects of heavy metals on oxidative stress, while co-exposure to both high levels of ΣOH-PAHs and heavy metals render the workers with highest 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α (all P(interaction)≤0.005). This study showed evidence on the interaction effects of heavy metals and PAHs on increasing the oxidative stress, and these results warrant further investigation in more longitudinal studies.

  7. The effects of heavy metals and their interactions with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the oxidative stress among coke-oven workers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian; Feng, Wei; Kuang, Dan; Deng, Qifei; Zhang, Wangzhen; Wang, Suhan; He, Meian; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wu, Tangchun; Guo, Huan

    2015-07-01

    Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are predominate toxic constituents of particulate air pollution that may be related to the increased risk of cardiopulmonary events. We aim to investigate the effects of the toxic heavy metals (arsenic, As; cadmium, Cd; chromium, Cr; nickel, Ni; and lead, Pb), and their interactions with PAHs on oxidative stress among coke-oven workers. A total of 1333 male workers were recruited in this study. We determined their urinary levels of As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, twelve PAH metabolites, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α (8-iso-PGF2α). Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze the effects of these metals and their interactions with PAHs on 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α levels. It was found that only urinary As and Ni showed marginal or significant positive linear dose-dependent effects on 8-OHdG in this study population, especially among smokers (β=0.103, P=0.073 and β=0.110, P=0.002, respectively). After stratifying all participants by the quartiles of ΣOH-PAH, all five metals showed linear association with 8-OHdG in the highest quartile subgroup (Q4) of ΣOH-PAHs. However, these five urinary metals showed significantly consistent linear associations with 8-iso-PGF2α in all subjects and each stratum. Urinary ΣOH-PAHs can significant modify the effects of heavy metals on oxidative stress, while co-exposure to both high levels of ΣOH-PAHs and heavy metals render the workers with highest 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α (all P(interaction)≤0.005). This study showed evidence on the interaction effects of heavy metals and PAHs on increasing the oxidative stress, and these results warrant further investigation in more longitudinal studies. PMID:25956561

  8. Association of polymorphisms in AhR, CYP1A1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genes with levels of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes among coke-oven workers

    SciTech Connect

    Yongwen Chen; Yun Bai; Jing Yuan; Weihong Chen; Jianya Sun; Hong Wang; Huashan Liang; Liang Guo; Xiaobo Yang; Hao Tan; Yougong Su; Qingyi Wei; Tangchun Wu

    2006-09-15

    Accumulating evidence has shown that both DNA damage caused by the metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and genetic polymorphisms in PAH-metabolic genes contribute to individual susceptibility to PAH-induced carcinogenesis. However, the functional relevance of genetic polymorphisms in PAH-metabolic genes in exposed individuals is still unclear. In this study of 240 coke-oven workers (the exposed group) and 123 non-coke-oven workers (the control group), we genotyped for polymorphisms in the AhR, CYP1A1, GSTM1, and GSTT1 genes by PCR methods, and determined the levels of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes using the alkaline comet assay. It was found that the ln-transformed Olive tail moment (Olive TM) values in the exposed group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Furthermore, in the exposed group, the Olive TM values in subjects with the AhR Lys{sup 554} variant genotype were higher than those with the AhR Arg{sup 554}/Arg{sup 554} genotype. Similarly, the Olive TM values in the non-coke-oven workers with the CYP1A1 MspI CC + CT genotype were lower than the values of those with the CYP1A1 MspI TT genotype. However, these differences were not evident for GSTM1 and GSTT1. These results suggested that the polymorphism of AhR might modulate the effects of PAHs in the exposed group; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which this polymorphism may have affected the levels of PAH-induced DNA damage warrant further investigation.

  9. The effects of heavy metals and their interactions with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on the oxidative stress among coke-oven workers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tian; Feng, Wei; Kuang, Dan; Deng, Qifei; Zhang, Wangzhen; Wang, Suhan; He, Meian; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wu, Tangchun; Guo, Huan

    2015-07-15

    Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are predominate toxic constituents of particulate air pollution that may be related to the increased risk of cardiopulmonary events. We aim to investigate the effects of the toxic heavy metals (arsenic, As; cadmium, Cd; chromium, Cr; nickel, Ni; and lead, Pb), and their interactions with PAHs on oxidative stress among coke-oven workers. A total of 1333 male workers were recruited in this study. We determined their urinary levels of As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, twelve PAH metabolites, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α (8-iso-PGF2α). Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze the effects of these metals and their interactions with PAHs on 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α levels. It was found that only urinary As and Ni showed marginal or significant positive linear dose-dependent effects on 8-OHdG in this study population, especially among smokers (β=0.103, P=0.073 and β=0.110, P=0.002, respectively). After stratifying all participants by the quartiles of ΣOH-PAH, all five metals showed linear association with 8-OHdG in the highest quartile subgroup (Q4) of ΣOH-PAHs. However, these five urinary metals showed significantly consistent linear associations with 8-iso-PGF2α in all subjects and each stratum. Urinary ΣOH-PAHs can significant modify the effects of heavy metals on oxidative stress, while co-exposure to both high levels of ΣOH-PAHs and heavy metals render the workers with highest 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α (all P{sub interaction}≤0.005). This study showed evidence on the interaction effects of heavy metals and PAHs on increasing the oxidative stress, and these results warrant further investigation in more longitudinal studies. - Highlights: • Heavy metals and PAHs are predominate toxic constituents of particulate matters. • Urinary As and Ni showed linear dose-dependent effects on 8-OHdG and 8-iso-PGF2α. • PAHs significant interact with toxic metal in increasing 8

  10. Bridging operational shut-downs of the ammonia washer of a plant operating according to the semi-direct technique for the removal of ammonia from coking oven gas

    SciTech Connect

    Diemer, P.

    1985-07-23

    A process and system are disclosed for the bridging of operational standstills of an ammonia washer of a plant operating according to the semi-direct technique for the removal of ammonia from coking oven gas. During the operational standstills of the ammonia washer, the ammonia is washed out from the coking oven gas in a secondary cooler constituting three parts, an upper part (Wash Stage I) provided with stripped water from an ammonia still, a middle part (wash stage II) provided with gas water, and a lower part (wash stage III) provided with circulation water. All of the waters provided for the secondary cooler are collected in its sump, and after a separation of the circulation water necessary for the Wash Stage III, it is split into two partial streams, one serving for the recovery of stripped water for Wash Stage I and which is led into an ammonia still provided only with water vapor and the other partial stream is led into an ammonia still provided with water vapor and alkali. Also disclosed is a system containing a secondary cooler defining three vertically disposed sections of metal mesh beds.

  11. Process for the elimination of waste water produced upon the desulfurization of coking oven gas by means of wash solution containing organic oxygen-carrier, with simultaneous recovery of elemental sulfur

    SciTech Connect

    Diemer, P.; Brake, W.; Dittmer, R.

    1985-04-16

    A process is disclosed for the elimination of waste water falling out with the desulfurization of coking oven gas by means of an organic oxygen carrier-containing washing solution with simultaneous recovery of elemental sulfur. The waste water is decomposed in a combustion chamber in a reducing atmosphere at temperatures between about 1000/sup 0/ and 1100/sup 0/ C. under such conditions that the mole ratio of H/sub 2/S:SO/sub 2/ in the exhaust gas of the combustion chamber amounts to at least 2:1. Sulfur falling out is separated and the sensible heat of the exhaust gas is utilized for steam generation. The cooled and desulfurized exhaust gas is added to the coking oven gas before the pre-cooling. Sulfur falling out from the washing solution in the oxidizer is separated out and lead into the combustion chamber together with the part of the washing solution discharged as waste water from the washing solution circulation. Preferred embodiments include that the sulfur loading of the waste water can amount to up to about 370 kg sulfur per m/sup 3/ waste water; having the cooling of sulfur-containing exhaust gas leaving the combustion chamber follow in a waste heat boiler and a sulfur condenser heated by pre-heated boiler feed water, from which condenser sulfur is discharged in liquid state.

  12. Alternative control techniques document: PM-10 emissions from selected processes at coke ovens and integrated iron and steel mills. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Marsosudiro, P.J.; Snow, W.S.

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to state and local air quality management agencies for determining reasonably available control technologies (RACT) and best available control technologies (BACT) that apply to PM-10 sources in the iron and steel industry. Emission sources addressed are coke pushing, coke quenching, coke sizing and screening, casthouse operations, hot metal transfer, and desulfurization. These sources were selected for analysis because they are not presently regulated under New Source Performance Standards (NSPS). Emission control system descriptions, environmental and energy impact assessments, and control cost analyses are presented. The principal emission collection devices used are the fabric filter and wet venturi scrubber.

  13. 2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF OVENS ALONG CATS RUN LOOKING NORTHEAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF OVENS ALONG CATS RUN LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING OVEN NOS. 159 (RIGHT) THROUGH 163 (LEFT) - Griffin No. 1 Coke Works, Along Cats Run, Southeast of Masontown Bourough (Nicholson Township), Masontown, Fayette County, PA

  14. Selecting the optimum coke pushing sequence

    SciTech Connect

    V.T. Krivoshein; A.V. Makarov

    2007-01-15

    The sequence of pushing coke ovens is one of the most important aspects of battery operation. The sequence must satisfy a number of technical and process conditions: (1) achieve maximum heating-wall life by avoiding destructive expansion pressure in freshly charged ovens and during pushing of the finished coke; (2) ensure uniform brickwork temperature and prevent overheating by compensating for the high thermal flux in freshly charged ovens due to accumulated heat in adjacent ovens that are in the second half of the coking cycle; (3) ensure the most favorable working conditions and safety for operating personnel; (4) provide additional opportunities for repair personnel to perform various types of work, such as replacing coke-machine rails, without interrupting coal production; (5) perform the maximum number of coke-machine operations simultaneously: pushing, charging, and cleaning doors, frames, and standpipe elbows; and (6) reduce electricity consumption by minimizing idle travel of coke machines.

  15. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF OVEN NO. 7 LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF OVEN NO. 7 LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING REFRACTORY BRICK OF ARCHED OPENING READING 'H-W 8-61 48 ARCH' (HARBISON-WALKER) - Lucernemines Coke Works, Coke Ovens, 0.5 mile East of Lucerne, adjacent, Lucerne Mines, Indiana County, PA

  16. 2. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING COKE MACHINE (CENTER), INTERMEDIATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING COKE MACHINE (CENTER), INTERMEDIATE TIPPLE (RIGHT), AND OVENS - Shoaf Mine & Coke Works, East side of Shoaf, off Township Route 472, Shoaf, Fayette County, PA

  17. Microwave Ovens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Required Reports for the Microwave Oven Manufacturers or Industry Exemption from Certain Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements for ... Microwave Ovens (PDF) (PDF - 2.5MB) FDA eSubmitter Industry Guidance - Documents of Interest Notifications to Industry (PDF ...

  18. Organic pollution removal from coke plant wastewater using coking coal.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lihui; Li, Shulei; Wang, Yongtian; Sun, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Coke plant wastewater (CPW) is an intractable chemical wastewater, and it contains many toxic pollutants. This article presents the results of research on a semi-industrial adsorption method of coking wastewater treatment. As a sorbent, the coking coal (CC) was a dozen times less expensive than active carbon. The treatment was conducted within two scenarios, as follows: (1) adsorption after biological treatment of CPW with CC at 40 g L(-1); the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was 75.66%, and the concentration was reduced from 178.99 to 43.56 mg L(-1); (2) given an adsorption by CC of 250 g L(-1) prior to the biological treatment of CPW, the eliminations of COD and phenol were 58.08% and 67.12%, respectively. The CC that adsorbed organic pollution and was returned to the coking system might have no effect on both coke oven gas and coke.

  19. Organic pollution removal from coke plant wastewater using coking coal.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lihui; Li, Shulei; Wang, Yongtian; Sun, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Coke plant wastewater (CPW) is an intractable chemical wastewater, and it contains many toxic pollutants. This article presents the results of research on a semi-industrial adsorption method of coking wastewater treatment. As a sorbent, the coking coal (CC) was a dozen times less expensive than active carbon. The treatment was conducted within two scenarios, as follows: (1) adsorption after biological treatment of CPW with CC at 40 g L(-1); the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was 75.66%, and the concentration was reduced from 178.99 to 43.56 mg L(-1); (2) given an adsorption by CC of 250 g L(-1) prior to the biological treatment of CPW, the eliminations of COD and phenol were 58.08% and 67.12%, respectively. The CC that adsorbed organic pollution and was returned to the coking system might have no effect on both coke oven gas and coke. PMID:26114284

  20. Effects of preheating and highly heat-conductive brick on coke quality

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, K.; Arima, T.

    1995-12-31

    In replacing the coke ovens available currently, the introduction of a combined technique of a preheated coal charging method (preheating temperature:175 C) and the use of highly heat-conductive brick is under examination for raising the productivity of coke ovens. With such background, a study of the effects of this combined technique on the coke quality, especially the coke size was conducted. The experimental results revealed that the primary size of coke produced by the combined technique is noticeably larger than that of the coke made from wet coal and after five revolutions of drum (equivalent to mechanical impact given at a time of dropping from coke oven chamber to wharf), the coke size reduces even compared with an ordinary coke. This may be due to the fact that the coke produced by the combined technique includes a lot of fissures inside the coke lump.

  1. Solar oven

    SciTech Connect

    Golder, J.C.

    1981-10-06

    A portable, foldable solar oven is provided wherein the basic construction material is ordinary cardboard, some surfaces of which are coated with a reflective material. The portable oven doubles as an insulated container for keeping refrigerated foodstuffs cold while being transported to a distant site for cooking.

  2. Solar oven

    SciTech Connect

    Clevett, M.L.; Clevett, M.L.

    1984-05-08

    A hemispherical oven body is formed from two concentric, spaced apart hemispherical shells having thermal insulation between and with spacing maintained by thermally insulating spacers in a triangular array. A single elongated fastener through the center point of each shell holds the shells together and provides a sighting point for aiming the oven at the sun. The shell edges at the oven face are closed by a resilient seal ring that extends above the shell edges and contacts a cover disk of glazing material. Combination hinge/handles are located at diametrically opposite sides of the cover disk, and a hinge pin on an edge of the oven body engages one of the handle/hinges. A reflector panel assembly includes a closed geometric figure formed by hinge rods connected at opposite ends to common anchors, which connect the hinge rods to the cover disk. The reflector panels pivot on the hinge rods to fold against the cover disk. A cross member formed from intersecting rods holds the reflector panels in operative position and cooperates with the fastener between the shells in providing a sighting aid for aiming the oven. A frusto-conical base supports the oven body for gimballed aiming and is sized to fit inside the oven cavity for storage.

  3. 1. GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING OVENS IN CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTH, SHOWING OVENS IN CENTER GROUND - Griffin No. 1 Coke Works, Along Cats Run, Southeast of Masontown Bourough (Nicholson Township), Masontown, Fayette County, PA

  4. 2. VIEW OF TIPPLE LOOKING WEST FROM TOP OF OVENS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF TIPPLE LOOKING WEST FROM TOP OF OVENS, SHOWING ROBINS CAR SHAKER (ON RIGHT) WHERE COAL WAS UNLOADED AND CONVEYED TO LARRY CAR TIPPLE - Lucernemines Coke Works, Larry Car Tipple, East of Lucerne, Lucerne Mines, Indiana County, PA

  5. Fly ashes from coal and petroleum coke combustion: current and innovative potential applications.

    PubMed

    González, Aixa; Navia, Rodrigo; Moreno, Natalia

    2009-12-01

    Coal fly ashes (CFA) are generated in large amounts worldwide. Current combustion technologies allow the burning of fuels with high sulfur content such as petroleum coke, generating non-CFA, such as petroleum coke fly ash (PCFA), mainly from fluidized bed combustion processes. The disposal of CFA and PCFA fly ashes can have severe impacts in the environment such as a potential groundwater contamination by the leaching of heavy metals and/or particulate matter emissions; making it necessary to treat or reuse them. At present CFA are utilized in several applications fields such as cement and concrete production, agriculture and soil stabilization. However, their reuse is restricted by the quality parameters of the end-product or requirements defined by the production process. Therefore, secondary material markets can use a limited amount of CFA, which implies the necessity of new markets for the unused CFA. Some potential future utilization options reviewed herein are zeolite synthesis and valuable metals extraction. In comparison to CFA, PCFA are characterized by a high Ca content, suggesting a possible use as neutralizers of acid wastewaters from mining operations, opening a new potential application area for PCFA that could solve contamination problems in emergent and mining countries such as Chile. However, this potential application may be limited by PCFA heavy metals leaching, mainly V and Ni, which are present in PCFA in high concentrations. PMID:19423583

  6. Fly ashes from coal and petroleum coke combustion: current and innovative potential applications.

    PubMed

    González, Aixa; Navia, Rodrigo; Moreno, Natalia

    2009-12-01

    Coal fly ashes (CFA) are generated in large amounts worldwide. Current combustion technologies allow the burning of fuels with high sulfur content such as petroleum coke, generating non-CFA, such as petroleum coke fly ash (PCFA), mainly from fluidized bed combustion processes. The disposal of CFA and PCFA fly ashes can have severe impacts in the environment such as a potential groundwater contamination by the leaching of heavy metals and/or particulate matter emissions; making it necessary to treat or reuse them. At present CFA are utilized in several applications fields such as cement and concrete production, agriculture and soil stabilization. However, their reuse is restricted by the quality parameters of the end-product or requirements defined by the production process. Therefore, secondary material markets can use a limited amount of CFA, which implies the necessity of new markets for the unused CFA. Some potential future utilization options reviewed herein are zeolite synthesis and valuable metals extraction. In comparison to CFA, PCFA are characterized by a high Ca content, suggesting a possible use as neutralizers of acid wastewaters from mining operations, opening a new potential application area for PCFA that could solve contamination problems in emergent and mining countries such as Chile. However, this potential application may be limited by PCFA heavy metals leaching, mainly V and Ni, which are present in PCFA in high concentrations.

  7. Clean Production of Coke from Carbonaceous Fines

    SciTech Connect

    Craig N. Eatough

    2004-11-16

    In order to produce steel (a necessary commodity in developed nations) using conventional technologies, you must have metallurgical coke. Current coke-making technology pyrolyzes high-quality coking coals in a slot oven, but prime coking coals are becoming more expensive and slot ovens are being shut-down because of age and environmental problems. The United States typically imports about 4 million tons of coke per year, but because of a world-wide coke scarcity, metallurgical coke costs have risen from about $77 per tonne to more than $225. This coke shortage is a long-term challenge driving up the price of steel and is forcing steel makers to search for alternatives. Combustion Resources (CR) has developed a technology to produce metallurgical coke from alternative feedstocks in an environmentally clean manner. The purpose of the current project was to refine material and process requirements in order to achieve improved economic benefits and to expand upon prior work on the proposed technology through successful prototype testing of coke products. The ultimate objective of this project is commercialization of the proposed technology. During this project period, CR developed coke from over thirty different formulations that meet the strength and reactivity requirements for use as metallurgical coke. The technology has been termed CR Clean Coke because it utilizes waste materials as feedstocks and is produced in a continuous process where pollutant emissions can be significantly reduced compared to current practice. The proposed feed material and operating costs for a CR Clean Coke plant are significantly less than conventional coke plants. Even the capital costs for the proposed coke plant are about half that of current plants. The remaining barrier for CR Clean Coke to overcome prior to commercialization is full-scale testing in a blast furnace. These tests will require a significant quantity of product (tens of thousands of tons) necessitating the construction

  8. Improvement of coke quality by utilization of hydrogenation residue

    SciTech Connect

    Meckel, J.F. ); Wairegi, T. )

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogenation residue is the product left over when petroleum residue feedstocks (or coal) are treated by, e.g. the Veba Combi Cracking (VCC) process. Many tests in semitechnical and full-sized coke ovens were carried out with hydrogenation residue (HR) as an additive in coking coal blends for the production of blast furnace coke or foundry coke. The results of the investigations reported in this paper demonstrate that HR is a very promising alternative for enlarging the coking coal basis compared to other processes or the use of other additives. The application of HR on an industrial scale did not indicate any negative impact on the handling of the hydrogenation residue or on the operation of the coke oven battery.

  9. Mortality of coke plant workers in The Netherlands.

    PubMed Central

    Swaen, G M; Slangen, J J; Volovics, A; Hayes, R B; Scheffers, T; Sturmans, F

    1991-01-01

    During the production of coke, large quantities of coke oven gas are emitted. People who work on the top or on the sides of coke ovens are exposed to this oven gas, which contains a range of carcinogenic chemicals. To investigate the cancer risks under these work conditions, a retrospective study was undertaken. In total 11,399 former workers were enrolled in the study. Of these, 5639 had worked in the coke plant for at least six months between 1945 and 1969. The other 5740 had worked in another plant during the same period and formed a non-exposed group for comparison. The study group was followed up until 1984 for mortality. The causes of death were obtained from the Central Bureau of Statistics. Among the coke oven workers significantly higher death rates were found for lung cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease. Mortality in the byproduct section was similar to that expected. Among workers in the tar distillery the rate for lung cancer was higher than expected. The risk for gastric cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease among the workers of the coke shipping department was increased but the SMRs did not reach statistical significance. No data were collected about individual smoking habits or socioeconomic state of the study subjects and the possibility that the risk found could be attributed to these factors cannot be ruled out. It has been stated by other investigators, however, that the effect of not controlling for smoking tends to be modest. PMID:1998607

  10. Cascaded coal dryer for a coking plant

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, V.; Heinz, R.; Jokisch, F.; Schmid, K.

    1984-02-07

    In a coking process, coal to be coked is preheated in a cascaded whirling bed dryer into which the coal is charged from above and exposed to an indirect heat transfer while whirling in a coal-steam mixture. Hot gas applied to the heating pipes in respective cascades of the dryer is branched off from the total amount of hot gases discharged from a dry cooler in which hot coke from the coke oven is cooled by recirculating cooler gas constituted by a partial gas stream discharged from the cascades of the dryer and reunited with the other partial stream subject to a heat exchange for generating steam. Steam from the whirling beds is discharged from the cascaded dryer, separated from the entrained dust particles, and then the excessive steam is drained in a branch conduit and the remaining steam is compressed and reintroduced into the lowermost whirling bed in the dryer.

  11. Method for drying coal and cooling coke

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, V.; Jokisch, F.; Rotthaus, H.; Schmid, K.

    1984-09-11

    In a coking process, coal to be coked is preheated in a cascaded whirling bed drier into which the coal is charged from above and exposed to an indirect heat transfer while whirling in a coal-stream mixture. Hot gas applied to the heating pipes in respective cascades of the drier is branched off from the total amount of hot gases discharged from a dry cooler in which hot coke from the coke oven is cooled by recirculating cooler gas constituted by a partial gas stream discharged from the cascades of the drier and reunited with the other partial stream subject to a heat exchange for generating steam. Steam from the whirling beds is discharged from the cascaded drier, separated from the entrained dust particles, and then the excessive steam is drained in a branch conduit and the remaining steam is compressed and reintroduced into the lowermost whirling bed in the drier.

  12. [Emission and source characterization of monoaromatic hydrocarbons from coke production].

    PubMed

    He, Qiu-Sheng; Wang, Xin-Ming; Sheng, Guo-Ying; Fu, Jia-Mo

    2005-09-01

    Monoaromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) from indigenous and industrial coking processes are studied in Shanxi province. They are sampled on the top of coke ovens and in the chimneys using stainless steel canister and determined by GC/MSD after preconcentration with liquid nitrogen. Benzene, toluene and xylene are the main components among MAHs emitted from coking processes. Benzene and the total MAHs concentrations were as high as 3421.0 microg/m3 and 4 865.9 microg/m3 in the air from indigenous coking, 548.7 microg/m3 and 1 054.8 microg/m3 in the oventop air from industrial coking, and 1 376.4 microg/m3 and 1 819.4 microg/m3 in stack gas from industrial coking, respectively. The MAHs concentrations vary greatly during the indigenous coking process, which in the prophase (from firing to 10 days) is obviously higher than in the anaphase (10 days to quenching the coke). In industrial coking the MAHs in the oventop air are highest when charging the coal and next when transferring the hot coke, but in stack gas they are highest when charging coal and lowest when transferring the coke. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in industrial coking samples show good linearity, indicating that MAHs in industrial coking might come predominantly from coal pyrolysis; but BTEX distribute dispersedly in indigenous coking samples, indicating that its emission might be affected by many factors. In all samples BTEX ratios especially high B/E ratio, is unique among MAHs sources, and might be helpful to characterize pollution from coking.

  13. Priorities in the design of chemical shops at coke plants

    SciTech Connect

    V.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; V.V. Grabko; L.A. Kazak

    2009-07-15

    Recent trends in the design of chemical equipment at coke plants are described, through the lens of experience at Giprokoks. The main priorities were to improve the removal of impurities from coke oven gas; to improve equipment design on the basis of new materials; to reduce reagent consumption; to reduce the materials and energy consumed in the construction of new equipment; and to minimize impacts on the environment and worker health. Some technological equipment is briefly characterized.

  14. Coke battery with 51-m{sup 3} furnace chambers and lateral supply of mixed gas

    SciTech Connect

    V.I. Rudyka; N.Y. Chebotarev; O.N. Surenskii; V.V. Derevich

    2009-07-15

    The basic approaches employed in the construction of coke battery 11A at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat are outlined. This battery includes 51.0-m{sup 3} furnaces and a dust-free coke-supply system designed by Giprokoks with lateral gas supply; it is heated exclusively by low-calorific mixed gas consisting of blast-furnace gas with added coke-oven gas. The 82 furnaces in the coke battery are divided into two blocks of 41. The gross coke output of the battery (6% moisture content) is 1140000 t/yr.

  15. Cyanide treatment options in coke plants

    SciTech Connect

    Minak, H.P.; Lepke, P.

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses the formation of cyanides in coke oven gas and describes and compares waste processing options. These include desulfurization by aqueous ammonia solution, desulfurization using potash solution, desulfurization in oxide boxes, decomposition of NH{sub 3} and HCN for gas scrubbing. Waste water treatment methods include chemical oxidation, precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, and biological treatment. It is concluded that biological treatment is the most economical process, safe in operation and requires a minimum of manpower.

  16. Oven ventilation system

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, D.E.

    1987-02-17

    A ventilation system is described for venting an oven with external surfaces, the oven being located within an enclosed space, the system comprising: intake means for collecting air from the external environment of the enclosed space; means for forming a sheet of the air and passing the sheet across the external surfaces of the oven; and exhaust means for exhausting the sheet of the air to the external environment of the enclosed space after the air has been passed across the external surfaces.

  17. Experience in the use of the type FEP-4M pyrometer to monitor the temperature distribution along the coke mass

    SciTech Connect

    Zernii, G.G.; Smoilovskii, N.I.; Leibovich, R.E.; Robul, L.A.; Kardashova, E.F.; Sulimova, E.I.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a photoelectric pyrometer for the temperature measurement of the coke mass in coke ovens was discussed. The use of the pyrometer to evaluate the effects of coal composition, moisture, bulk density of the charge, calorific value of the heating gas, and the uniformity of the combustion flare on the final temperature of the coke cake was also included. It was concluded that using the pyrometer made it possible to determine the coke cake heating temperature distribution by length and height, and to adopt operatinal measures in the case of a deviation in the oven heating or charging conditions.

  18. The new Kaiserstuhl coking plant: The heating system -- Design, construction and initial operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Strunk, J.

    1996-12-31

    At the end of 1992 the new coke plant Kaiserstuhl in Dortmund/Germany with presently the largest coke ovens world-wide started its production operation in close linkage to the Krupp-Hoesch Metallurgical Works after about 35 months construction time. This plant incorporating comprehensive equipment geared to improve environmental protection is also considered as the most modern coke plant of the world. The heating-system and first results of operation will be presented.

  19. Portable oven air circulator

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Jorgen A.; Nygren, Donald W.

    1983-01-01

    A portable air circulating apparatus for use in cooking ovens which is used to create air currents in the oven which transfer heat to cooking foodstuffs to promote more rapid and more uniform cooking or baking, the apparatus including a motor, fan blade and housing of metallic materials selected from a class of heat resistant materials.

  20. The release of trace elements in the process of coal coking.

    PubMed

    Konieczyński, Jan; Zajusz-Zubek, Elwira; Jabłońska, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    In order to assess the penetration of individual trace elements into the air through their release in the coal coking process, it is necessary to determine the loss of these elements by comparing their contents in the charge coal and in coke obtained. The present research covered four coke oven batteries differing in age, technology, and technical equipment. By using mercury analyzer MA-2 and the method of ICP MS As, Be, Cd, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Se, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn were determined in samples of charge coal and yielded coke. Basing on the analyses results, the release coefficients of selected elements were determined. Their values ranged from 0.5 to 94%. High volatility of cadmium, mercury, and thallium was confirmed. The tests have shown that although the results refer to the selected case studies, it may be concluded that the air purity is affected by controlled emission occurring when coke oven batteries are fired by crude coke oven gas. Fugitive emission of the trace elements investigated, occurring due to coke oven leaks and openings, is small and, is not a real threat to the environment except mercury.

  1. The Release of Trace Elements in the Process of Coal Coking

    PubMed Central

    Konieczyński, Jan; Zajusz-Zubek, Elwira; Jabłońska, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    In order to assess the penetration of individual trace elements into the air through their release in the coal coking process, it is necessary to determine the loss of these elements by comparing their contents in the charge coal and in coke obtained. The present research covered four coke oven batteries differing in age, technology, and technical equipment. By using mercury analyzer MA-2 and the method of ICP MS As, Be, Cd, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Se, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn were determined in samples of charge coal and yielded coke. Basing on the analyses results, the release coefficients of selected elements were determined. Their values ranged from 0.5 to 94%. High volatility of cadmium, mercury, and thallium was confirmed. The tests have shown that although the results refer to the selected case studies, it may be concluded that the air purity is affected by controlled emission occurring when coke oven batteries are fired by crude coke oven gas. Fugitive emission of the trace elements investigated, occurring due to coke oven leaks and openings, is small and, is not a real threat to the environment except mercury. PMID:22666104

  2. Gas treatment and by-products recovery of Thailand`s first coke plant

    SciTech Connect

    Diemer, P.E.; Seyfferth, W.

    1997-12-31

    Coke is needed in the blast furnace as the main fuel and chemical reactant and the main product of a coke plant. The second main product of the coke plant is coke oven gas. During treatment of the coke oven gas some coal chemicals like tar, ammonia, sulphur and benzole can be recovered as by-products. Since the market prices for these by-products are rather low and often erratic it does not in most cases justify the investment to recover these products. This is the reason why modern gas treatment plants only remove those impurities from the crude gas which must be removed for technical and environmental reasons. The cleaned gas, however, is a very valuable product as it replaces natural gas in steel work furnaces and can be used by other consumers. The surplus can be combusted in the boiler of a power plant. A good example for an optimal plant layout is the new coke oven facility of Thai Special Steel Industry (TSSI) in Rayong. The paper describes the TSSI`s coke oven gas treatment plant.

  3. Coke dust enhances coke plant wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Burmistrz, Piotr; Rozwadowski, Andrzej; Burmistrz, Michał; Karcz, Aleksander

    2014-12-01

    Coke plant wastewater contain many toxic pollutants. Despite physico-chemical and biological treatment this specific type of wastewater has a significant impact on environment and human health. This article presents results of research on industrial adsorptive coke plant wastewater treatment. As a sorbent the coke dust, dozen times less expensive than pulverized activated carbon, was used. Treatment was conducted in three scenarios: adsorptive after full treatment with coke dust at 15 g L(-1), biological treatment enhanced with coke dust at 0.3-0.5 g L(-1) and addition of coke dust at 0.3 g L(-1) prior to the biological treatment. The enhanced biological treatment proved the most effective. It allowed additional removal of 147-178 mg COD kg(-1) of coke dust.

  4. Development and Testing of the Advanced CHP System Utilizing the Off-Gas from the Innovative Green Coke Calcining Process in Fluidized Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Chudnovsky, Yaroslav; Kozlov, Aleksandr

    2013-08-15

    Green petroleum coke (GPC) is an oil refining byproduct that can be used directly as a solid fuel or as a feedstock for the production of calcined petroleum coke. GPC contains a high amount of volatiles and sulfur. During the calcination process, the GPC is heated to remove the volatiles and sulfur to produce purified calcined coke, which is used in the production of graphite, electrodes, metal carburizers, and other carbon products. Currently, more than 80% of calcined coke is produced in rotary kilns or rotary hearth furnaces. These technologies provide partial heat utilization of the calcined coke to increase efficiency of the calcination process, but they also share some operating disadvantages. However, coke calcination in an electrothermal fluidized bed (EFB) opens up a number of potential benefits for the production enhancement, while reducing the capital and operating costs. The increased usage of heavy crude oil in recent years has resulted in higher sulfur content in green coke produced by oil refinery process, which requires a significant increase in the calcinations temperature and in residence time. The calorific value of the process off-gas is quite substantial and can be effectively utilized as an “opportunity fuel” for combined heat and power (CHP) production to complement the energy demand. Heat recovered from the product cooling can also contribute to the overall economics of the calcination process. Preliminary estimates indicated the decrease in energy consumption by 35-50% as well as a proportional decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. As such, the efficiency improvement of the coke calcinations systems is attracting close attention of the researchers and engineers throughout the world. The developed technology is intended to accomplish the following objectives: - Reduce the energy and carbon intensity of the calcined coke production process. - Increase utilization of opportunity fuels such as industrial waste off-gas from the novel

  5. Microwave Oven Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumrall, William J.; Richardson, Denise; Yan, Yuan

    1998-01-01

    Explains a series of laboratory activities which employ a microwave oven to help students understand word problems that relate to states of matter, collect data, and calculate and compare electrical costs to heat energy costs. (DDR)

  6. Flat plate solar oven

    SciTech Connect

    Parikh, M.

    1981-01-01

    The construction of an Indian Rs. 186 (US $20.33) flat-plate solar oven is described. Detailed drawings are provided and relevant information on cooking times and temperature for different foods is given.

  7. Demountable solar oven

    SciTech Connect

    Erwin, S.F.

    1983-04-05

    A demountable solar oven includes a principal base upon which is mounted a secondary supporting base collar which contains the essential operating parts and which supports two removable arms at their base whose upper end form diametrically opposed pivots for receiving the appropriately disposed pivots of the cooking chamber. The food basket provided with similarly diametrically opposed pivots is disposed interiorly of the cooking chamber and by virtue of a weight disposed at the bottom thereof the wire basket always maintains a horizontal position irrespective of the angle of the oven itself. A transparent hemispherical cover including a shadow box indicator is disposed over the oven in the direction of the sun and a series of individual plate reflectors are hinged together by means of pins, a certain number of which pins are utilized to attach the reflectors to the oven rim. Adjustable feet are disposed at the bottom of the supporting base for adjusting the vertical position of the oven and a level indicator as well as rotationally directional indicators are provided for determining the position of the oven as desired. The disassembled parts occupy a minimum space and various of the parts can be disposed together for the disassembled unit to occupy a very small space.

  8. Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... That People Abuse » Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Listen Cocaine is a white ... Version Download "My life was built around getting cocaine and getting high." Stacey is recovering from her ...

  9. Coke workers' exposure to volatile organic compounds in northern China: a case study in Shanxi Province.

    PubMed

    He, Qiusheng; Yan, Yulong; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Wang, Yuhang

    2015-06-01

    China is the largest coke producer and exporter in the world, and it has been a major concern that large populations of coke workers are exposed to the associated air pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study aimed to preliminarily quantify the potential exposure to VOCs emitted from two representative coking plants and assess the potential health risks. Air samples from various stages of coking were collected from the topside of coke ovens and various plant areas and then analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX). The time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations were used to quantify the coke oven emission (COE). The TWA concentrations for benzene were 705.6 and 290.4 μg m(-3) in plant A and plant B, respectively, which showed a higher exposure level than those reported in other countries. COE varied on the topside of coke ovens during charging and pushing processes, from 268.3 to 1197.7 μg m(-3) in plant A and 85.4-489.7 μg m(-3) in plant B. Our results indicate that benzene exposure from the diffusion of tar distillation also exerts significant health risks and thus should also be concerned. Charging and pushing activities accounted for nearly 70 % of benzene dose at the topside, and the benzene exposure risks to the coke oven workers in China were higher than those reported by US EPA. Compared to the reported emission sources, the weight-based ratios of average benzene to toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene in different COE air samples showed unique characteristic profiles. Based on the B/T ratios from this work and from literatures on several major cities in northern China, it was evident that COE contributes significantly to the severe pollution of VOCs in the air of northern China. Future more rigorous studies are warranted to characterize VOC emission profiles in the stack gas of the coking processes in China.

  10. 29 CFR 1910.1029 - Coke oven emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... affecting occupational safety and health. (b) Definitions. For the purpose of this section: Authorized... paragraph (d)(3)(i)(A) of 29 CFR 1910.134; however, employers may use a filtering facepiece respirator only..., social security number, and job classification of the employees monitored; (b) The date(s),...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.1029 - Coke oven emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... from the pad up, after January 20, 1977. Secretary means the Secretary of Labor, U.S. Department of... roof carbon build-up prior to each charge and removal of roof carbon as necessary to provide an... push; (2) Heating of the coal charge uniformly for a sufficient period so as to obtain proper...

  12. 29 CFR 1910.1029 - Coke oven emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... from the pad up, after January 20, 1977. Secretary means the Secretary of Labor, U.S. Department of... roof carbon build-up prior to each charge and removal of roof carbon as necessary to provide an... push; (2) Heating of the coal charge uniformly for a sufficient period so as to obtain proper...

  13. Leakage of Microwave Ovens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Bushey, R.; Winn, G.

    2011-01-01

    Physics is essential for students who want to succeed in science and engineering. Excitement and interest in the content matter contribute to enhancing this success. We have developed a laboratory experiment that takes advantage of microwave ovens to demonstrate important physical concepts and increase interest in physics. This experiment…

  14. Reclamation of coking wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Mraovich, G.

    1981-04-28

    Waste products derived from coking coal, such as coal tar decanter wastes and wash oil muck, are processed to recover an oil fraction and a granular coke breeze residue. The wastes are mixed with a diluent oil, preferably having a saponification number of about 100 or more, are subjected to agitation and mixing and are thereafter filtered to produce a granular, coke breeze cake and a filtrate comprising water and oil which separate easily by decantation.

  15. Western Canadian coking coals -- Thermal rheology and coking quality

    SciTech Connect

    Leeder, W.R.; Price, J.T.; Gransden, J.F.

    1997-12-31

    Methods of predicting coke strength developed from the thermal rheological properties of Carboniferous coals frequently indicate that Cretaceous coals would not make high quality coke -- yet both types of coals produce coke suitable for the iron blast furnace. This paper will discuss the reasons why Western Canadian coals exhibit lower rheological values and how to predict the strength of coke produced from them.

  16. Physics of the Microwave Oven

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This is the first of two articles about the physics of microwave ovens. This article deals with the generation of microwaves in the oven and includes the operation of the magnetrons, waveguides and standing waves in resonant cavities. It then considers the absorption of microwaves by foods, discussing the dielectric relaxation of water,…

  17. More Experiments with Microwave Ovens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Michael; Mollmann, Klaus-Peter; Karstadt, Detlef

    2004-01-01

    Microwave ovens can be used to perform exciting demonstrations that illustrate a variety of physics topics. Experiments discussed here show superheating, visualize the inhomogeneous heating that takes place in a microwave and also show how to use a mobile phone to detect radiation leaking from the oven. Finally eggs can give some spectacular…

  18. Oven wall panel construction

    DOEpatents

    Ellison, Kenneth; Whike, Alan S.

    1980-04-22

    An oven roof or wall is formed from modular panels, each of which comprises an inner fabric and an outer fabric. Each such fabric is formed with an angle iron framework and somewhat resilient tie-bars or welded at their ends to flanges of the angle irons to maintain the inner and outer frameworks in spaced disposition while minimizing heat transfer by conduction and permitting some degree of relative movement on expansion and contraction of the module components. Suitable thermal insulation is provided within the module. Panels or skins are secured to the fabric frameworks and each such skin is secured to a framework and projects laterally so as slidingly to overlie the adjacent frame member of an adjacent panel in turn to permit relative movement during expansion and contraction.

  19. Delayed coking process

    SciTech Connect

    Dabkowski, M.J.; Malladi, M.

    1987-04-28

    This patent describes a delayed cooking process in which a heavy oil coker feedstock is heated to an elevated coking temperature in a furnace and the heated feedstock is subsequently subjected to delayed coking in a coker drum under superatmospheric pressure and the vaporous coking products are removed from the drum and passed to a coker fractionator from which a bottoms fraction is removed. The improvement comprises coking a feed without the addition of the bottoms fraction from the fractionator and adding to the feed to the coker drum a lower boiling hydrocarbon diluent having an end boiling point of not more than 450/sup 0/C, the lower boiling hydrocarbon diluent being added to the heated feedstock after the feedstock has passed through the furnace.

  20. Asphalt coking method

    SciTech Connect

    Bonilla, J.A.; Elliott, J.D.

    1987-08-11

    A process is described for treating a heavy hydrocarbon fluid containing asphaltenes comprising: contacting the heavy hydrocarbon fluid with a solvent, wherein the solvent is light naphtha, C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons, C/sub 5/ hydrocarbons, C/sub 6/ hydrocarbons, or a mixture of any of light naphtha and C/sub 4/, C/sub 5/ and C/sub 6/ hydrocarbons, to obtain an asphalt mix, containing asphalt and the solvent, and deasphalted oil mix, containing deasphalted oil and the solvent; feeding the asphalt mix to a delayed coking process to form coke, wherein the asphalt mix is heated by passing the asphalt mix through conduit means in a heater in the delayed coking process. The flow of the asphalt mix through the conduit means is assisted by vaporization in the heater of the solvent in the asphalt mix, and the asphalt mix includes sufficient solvent to provide a residence time of the asphalt mix in the heater adequate for heating the asphalt mix for coking while reducing the formation of coke in the heater; separating the solvent in the deasphalted oil mix from the deasphalted oil mix to yield deasphalted oil; and recovering the deasphalted oil, bypassing the delayed coking process.

  1. Ovenized microelectromechanical system (MEMS) resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Olsson, Roy H; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kim, Bongsang

    2014-03-11

    An ovenized micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) resonator including: a substantially thermally isolated mechanical resonator cavity; a mechanical oscillator coupled to the mechanical resonator cavity; and a heating element formed on the mechanical resonator cavity.

  2. Met coke world summit 2005

    SciTech Connect

    2005-07-01

    Papers are presented under the following session headings: industry overview and market outlook; coke in the Americas; the global coke industry; and new developments. All the papers (except one) only consist of a copy of the overheads/viewgraphs.

  3. 10 CFR 429.23 - Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave ovens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave... Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave ovens. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for... and microwave ovens; and (2) For each basic model of conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens...

  4. 10 CFR 429.23 - Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave ovens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave... Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave ovens. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for... and microwave ovens; and (2) For each basic model of conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens...

  5. 10 CFR 429.23 - Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave ovens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave... Conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens, microwave ovens. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for... and microwave ovens; and (2) For each basic model of conventional cooking tops, conventional ovens...

  6. Coking and gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Billimoria, Rustom M.; Tao, Frank F.

    1986-01-01

    An improved coking process for normally solid carbonaceous materials wherein the yield of liquid product from the coker is increased by adding ammonia or an ammonia precursor to the coker. The invention is particularly useful in a process wherein coal liquefaction bottoms are coked to produce both a liquid and a gaseous product. Broadly, ammonia or an ammonia precursor is added to the coker ranging from about 1 to about 60 weight percent based on normally solid carbonaceous material and is preferably added in an amount from about 2 to about 15 weight percent.

  7. Convection automated logic oven control

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, M.A.; Eke, K.I.

    1998-03-01

    For the past few years, there has been a greater push to bring more automation to the cooling process. There have been attempts at automated cooking using a wide range of sensors and procedures, but with limited success. The authors have the answer to the automated cooking process; this patented technology is called Convection AutoLogic (CAL). The beauty of the technology is that it requires no extra hardware for the existing oven system. They use the existing temperature probe, whether it is an RTD, thermocouple, or thermistor. This means that the manufacturer does not have to be burdened with extra costs associated with automated cooking in comparison to standard ovens. The only change to the oven is the program in the central processing unit (CPU) on the board. As for its operation, when the user places the food into the oven, he or she is required to select a category (e.g., beef, poultry, or casseroles) and then simply press the start button. The CAL program then begins its cooking program. It first looks at the ambient oven temperature to see if it is a cold, warm, or hot start. CAL stores this data and then begins to look at the food`s thermal footprint. After CAL has properly detected this thermal footprint, it can calculate the time and temperature at which the food needs to be cooked. CAL then sets up these factors for the cooking stage of the program and, when the food has finished cooking, the oven is turned off automatically. The total time for this entire process is the same as the standard cooking time the user would normally set. The CAL program can also compensate for varying line voltages and detect when the oven door is opened. With all of these varying factors being monitored, CAL can produce a perfectly cooked item with minimal user input.

  8. A wireless portable high temperature data monitor for tunnel ovens.

    PubMed

    Mayo Bayón, Ricardo; González Suárez, Víctor M; Mateos Martín, Felipe; Lopera Ronda, Juan M; Álvarez Antón, Juan C

    2014-01-01

    Tunnel ovens are widely used in the food industry to produce biscuits and pastries. In order to obtain a high quality product, it is very important to control the heat transferred to each piece of dough during baking. This paper proposes an innovative, non-distorting, low cost wireless temperature measurement system, called "eBiscuit", which, due to its size, format and location in the metal rack conveyor belt in the oven, is able to measure the temperature a real biscuit experience while baking. The temperature conditions inside the oven are over 200 °C for several minutes, which could damage the "eBiscuit" electronics. This paper compares several thermal insulating materials that can be used in order to avoid exceeding the maximum operational conditions (80 °C) in the interior of the "eBiscuit. The data registered is then transmitted to a base station where information can be processed to obtain an oven model. The experimental results with real tunnel ovens confirm its good performance, which allows detecting production anomalies early on. PMID:25120161

  9. A Wireless Portable High Temperature Data Monitor for Tunnel Ovens

    PubMed Central

    Bayón, Ricardo Mayo; González Suárez, Víctor M.; Martín, Felipe Mateos; Lopera Ronda, Juan M.; Álvarez Antón, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Tunnel ovens are widely used in the food industry to produce biscuits and pastries. In order to obtain a high quality product, it is very important to control the heat transferred to each piece of dough during baking. This paper proposes an innovative, non-distorting, low cost wireless temperature measurement system, called “eBiscuit”, which, due to its size, format and location in the metal rack conveyor belt in the oven, is able to measure the temperature a real biscuit experience while baking. The temperature conditions inside the oven are over 200 °C for several minutes, which could damage the “eBiscuit” electronics. This paper compares several thermal insulating materials that can be used in order to avoid exceeding the maximum operational conditions (80 °C) in the interior of the “eBiscuit. The data registered is then transmitted to a base station where information can be processed to obtain an oven model. The experimental results with real tunnel ovens confirm its good performance, which allows detecting production anomalies early on. PMID:25120161

  10. [Characterization of PAHs in fly ashes from coke production].

    PubMed

    Mu, Ling; Peng, Lin; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Bai, Hui-Ling; Zhang, Jian-Qiang

    2013-03-01

    In order to investigate the characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ashes from coking, PAHs in ashes from three coke production plants were analyzed with GC-MS, and the distribution characteristics of PAHs and potential toxicity risk were discussed. The sum of 16 EPA prior PAHs varied from 8.17 x 10(2) to 5.17 x 10(3) microg x g(-1). PAH contents from the coke oven (stamp charging) with the height of 3.2 m were two times higher than those from the one (top charging) with the height of 6.0 m, and PAHs in ashes from coal charging were significantly higher than those from coke pushing in the same plant. Four-ring and five-ring PAHs were the dominant species in ashes from coking and the sum of them accounted for more than 80.00% of total PAHs. Chrysene (Chr), benzo [a] anthracene (BaA) and benzo [b] fluoranthene (BbF) were abundant in all ash samples. The content of total BaP-based toxic equivalency (BaPeq) ranged from 1.64 x 10(2) to 9.57 x 10(2) microg x g(-1). From the carcinogenic point of view, besides benzo [a] pyrene (BaP), dibenz [a,h] anthracene (DbA) contributed most to the overall toxicity of PAHs, followed by BaA and BbF. BaPeq concentration from coal charging was 5.21-fold higher than that from coke pushing, indicating that different reuse ways should be considered based on their specific toxicity profiles of PAHs.

  11. High coking value pitch

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  12. Soil Delivery to Phoenix Oven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows a view from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Stereo Surface Imager's left eye after delivery of soil to the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA), taken on the 12th Martian day after landing (Sol 12, June $6, 2008).

    Soil is visible on both sides of the open doors of TEGA's #4 oven. Sensors inside the device indicate no soil passed through the screen and into the oven.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant, Poland

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Kravchenko; D.P. Yarmoshik; V.B. Kamenyuka; G.E. Kos'kova; N.I. Shkol'naya; V.V. Derevich; A.S. Grankin

    2009-07-15

    In the design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant (Poland), coking of rammed coke with a stationary system was employed for the first time. The coke batteries are grouped in blocks. Safety railings are provided on the coke and machine sides of the maintenance areas.

  14. Microwave Oven Repair. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smreker, Eugene

    This competency-based curriculum guide for teachers addresses the skills a technician will need to service microwave ovens and to provide customer relations to help retain the customer's confidence in the product and trust in the service company that performs the repair. The guide begins with a task analysis, listing 20 cognitive tasks and 5…

  15. 5 Tips for Using Your Microwave Oven Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... a microwave oven, the door should close and seal fully. Unsafe Microwave Oven Use If the fan, ... openings such as gaps in the microwave oven seals. However, FDA regulations require that microwave ovens are ...

  16. Method for calcining delayed coke

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.

    1981-02-17

    Delayed petroleum coke is calcined in an internally-fired vertical shaft kiln. A downwardly-moving bed of green coke is preheated in the top of the kiln by rising combustion gases, then heat soaked at calcining temperatures in the intermediate section of the kiln, and finally cooled by recycle gas moving upwardly from the lower part of the kiln. Partially cooled calcined coke is recovered from the bottom of the kiln.

  17. COKEMASTER: Coke plant management system

    SciTech Connect

    Johanning, J.; Reinke, M.

    1996-12-31

    To keep coke utilization in ironmaking as competitive as possible, the potential to improve the economics of coke production has to be utilized. As one measure to meet this need of its customers, Krupp Koppers has expanded its existing ECOTROL computer system for battery heating control to a comprehensive Coke Plant Management System. Increased capacity utilization, lower energy consumption, stabilization of plant operation and ease of operation are the main targets.

  18. Coke from coal and petroleum

    DOEpatents

    Wynne, Jr., Francis E.; Lopez, Jaime; Zaborowsky, Edward J.

    1981-01-01

    A carbonaceous coke is manufactured by the delayed coking of a slurry mixture of from about 10 to about 30 weight percent of caking or non-caking coal and the remainder a petroleum resid blended at below 50.degree. C.

  19. Partially Opened Oven on Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view from the Robotic Arm Camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows partial opening of doors to one of the tiny ovens of the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer.

    Each oven has a pair of spring-loaded doors. Near the center of the image, the partial opening of a pair of doors reveals screen over the opening where a soil sample will be delivered. The door to the right is fully opened and the one to the left is partially deployed. The doors are 10 centimeters (4 inches) long. The opening is 4 centimeters (1.5 inches) wide.

    Tests on the Phoenix testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson, indicate that a soil sample could be delivered into the oven through the partially opened doors. Engineers are also exploring possibilities for opening the doors more completely.This image was taken during Phoenix's eighth Martian day, or sol (June 2, 2008).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Proposal of a novel multifunctional energy system for cogeneration of coke, hydrogen, and power - article no. 052001

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, H.G.; Sun, S.; Han, W.; Gao, L.

    2009-09-15

    This paper proposes a novel multifunctional energy system (MES), which cogenerates coke, hydrogen, and power, through the use of coal and coke oven gas (COG). In this system, a new type of coke oven, firing coal instead of COG as heating resource for coking, is adopted. The COG rich in H{sub 2} is sent to a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit to separate about 80% of hydrogen first, and then the PSA purge gas is fed to a combined cycle as fuel. The new system combines the chemical processes and power generation system, along with the integration of chemical conversion and thermal energy utilization. In this manner, both the chemical energy of fuel and thermal energy can be used more effectively. With the same inputs of fuel and the same output of coking heat, the new system can produce about 65% more hydrogen than that of individual systems. As a result, the thermal efficiency of the new system is about 70%, and the exergy efficiency is about 66%. Compared with individual systems, the primary energy saving ratio can reach as high as 12.5%. Based on the graphical exergy analyses, we disclose that the integration of synthetic utilization of COG and coal plays a significant role in decreasing the exergy destruction of the MES system. The promising results obtained may lead to a clean coal technology that will utilize COG and coal more efficiently and economically.

  1. Construction of an inexpensive heat pipe oven.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, Timothy; Masters, Mark

    2008-05-01

    We present a new, low cost method of building an all copper heat-pipe oven. Copper heat pipe ovens have several advantages over more traditional stainless steel ovens. They heat up/cool down more rapidly (particularly useful in advanced undergraduate teaching laboratories), ideal for experiments involving magnetic fields, and less expensive. For our design, the most of the construction parts are available at local hardware and plumbing supply stores, and the assembly requires no machining.

  2. Radiofrequency radiation leakage from microwave ovens.

    PubMed

    Lahham, Adnan; Sharabati, Afifeh

    2013-12-01

    This work presents data on the amount of radiation leakage from 117 microwave ovens in domestic and restaurant use in the West Bank, Palestine. The study of leakage is based on the measurements of radiation emissions from the oven in real-life conditions by using a frequency selective field strength measuring system. The power density from individual ovens was measured at a distance of 1 m and at the height of centre of door screen. The tested ovens were of different types, models with operating powers between 1000 and 1600 W and ages ranging from 1 month to >20 y, including 16 ovens with unknown ages. The amount of radiation leakage at a distance of 1 m was found to vary from 0.43 to 16.4 μW cm(-2) with an average value equalling 3.64 μW cm(-2). Leakages from all tested microwave ovens except for seven ovens (∼6 % of the total) were below 10 μW cm(-2). The highest radiation leakage from any tested oven was ∼16.4 μW cm(-2), and found in two cases only. In no case did the leakage exceed the limit of 1 mW cm(-2) recommended by the ICNIRP for 2.45-GHz radiofrequency. This study confirms a linear correlation between the amount of leakage and both oven age and operating power, with a stronger dependence of leakage on age.

  3. lithium-ion battery during oven tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Peng; Sun, Yiqiong; Jiang, Fangming

    2014-10-01

    A three dimensional thermal abuse model for graphite/LiPF6/LiCoO2 batteries is established particularly for oven tests. To investigate the influence of heat release condition and oven temperature on battery thermal behaviors, we perform a series of simulations with respect to a unit cell during oven thermal abuses of various oven temperatures and under various heat release conditions. Simulation results enable detailed analyses to thermal behaviors of batteries. It is found that during oven thermal abuse processes that do not get into thermal runaway, the negative electrode is the maximum heat generation rate zone; during oven thermal abuse processes that do get into thermal runaway, the positive electrode is the maximum heat generation rate zone. The positive-solvent reaction is found to be the major heat generation source causing thermal runaway. It is also found that the heat release condition and the oven temperature are combined to dictate thermal behaviors of the battery. The critical oven temperature that causes thermal runaway rises if the heat release condition is better and the critical heat release coefficient that can effectively restrain the occurrence of thermal runaway increases with the increase of oven temperature.

  4. New coke-sorting system at OAO Koks

    SciTech Connect

    B.Kh. Bulaevskii; V.S. Shved; Yu.V. Kalimin; S.D. Filippov

    2009-05-15

    A new coke-sorting system has been introduced at OAO Koks. It differs from the existing system in that it has no bunkers for all-purpose coke but only bunkers for commercial coke. In using this system with coke from battery 4, the crushing of the coke on conveyer belts, at roller screens, and in the commercial-coke bunkers is studied. After installing braking elements in the coke path, their effectiveness in reducing coke disintegration and improving coke screening is investigated. The granulometric composition and strength of the commercial coke from coke battery 3, with the new coke-sorting system, is evaluated.

  5. Characteristics of coking coal burnout

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, M.; Bailey, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    An attempt was made to clarify the characteristics of coking coal burnout by the morphological analysis of char and fly ash samples. Laboratory-scale combustion testing, simulating an ignition process, was carried out for three kinds of coal (two coking coals and one non-coking coal for reference), and sampled chars were analyzed for size, shape and type by image analysis. The full combustion process was examined in industrial-scale combustion testing for the same kinds of coal. Char sampled at the burner outlet and fly ash at the furnace exit were also analyzed. The difference between the char type, swelling properties, agglomeration, anisotropy and carbon burnout were compared at laboratory scale and at industrial scale. As a result, it was found that coking coals produced chars with relatively thicker walls, which mainly impeded char burnout, especially for low volatile coals.

  6. Innovators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEA Today, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes various innovations that have been developed to enhance education. These innovations include: helping educators help at-risk students succeed; promoting high school journalism; ensuring quality online learning experiences; developing a student performing group that uses theater to address social issues; and having students design their…

  7. 46 CFR 148.04-15 - Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture). 148.04-15 Section 148.04-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-15 Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined...

  8. Zinc Accumulation and Behavior in Tuyere Coke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kejiang; Zhang, Jianliang; Liu, Zhengjian; Wang, Tianqiu; Ning, Xiaojun; Zhong, Jianbo; Xu, Runsheng; Wang, Guangwei; Ren, Shan; Yang, Tianjun

    2014-10-01

    A case study of zinc oxide, which represents the first report on the occurrence, crystalline features, formation mechanism, and influence of this mineral in tuyere coke, was conducted in this study. A number of zinc oxides, some of which were in hexagonal wurtzite habit, were observed to distribute mainly in coke pores, cracks, surfaces, and around coke minerals. The accumulation of zinc in tuyere coke may enhance the degradation of coke and increase the generation and accumulation of coke fine in a blast furnace, which would cause bad effect on blast furnace operation. Investigations into zinc behavior in tuyere coke can be important for further interpretations of coke degradation in the high temperature zone of a blast furnace.

  9. Effects of atamp-charging coke making on strength and high temperature thermal properties of coke.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaru; Bai, Jinfeng; Xu, Jun; Zhong, Xiangyun; Zhao, Zhenning; Liu, Hongchun

    2013-12-01

    The stamp-charging coke making process has some advantages of improving the operation environment, decreasing fugitive emission, higher gas collection efficiency as well as less environmental pollution. This article describes the different structure strength and high temperature thermal properties of 4 different types of coke manufactured using a conventional coking process and the stamp-charging coke making process. The 4 kinds of cokes were prepared from the mixture of five feed coals blended by the petrography blending method. The results showed that the structure strength indices of coke prepared using the stamp-charging coke method increase sharply. In contrast with conventional coking process, the stamp-charging process improved the coke strength after reaction but had little impact on the coke reactivity index.

  10. Use of resin-bearing wastes from coke and coal chemicals production at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine

    SciTech Connect

    Kul'kova, T.N.; Yablochkin, N.V.; Gal'chenko, A.I.; Karyakina, E.A.; Litvinova, V.A.; Gorbach, D.A.

    2007-03-15

    The coke and coal chemicals plant at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine is making trial use of a technology that recycles waste products in 'tar ponds.' Specialists from the Ekomash company have installed a recycling unit in one area of the plant's dump, the unit including an inclined conveyor with a steam heater and a receiving hopper The coal preparation shop receives the wastes in a heated bin, where a screw mixes the wastes with pail of the charge for the coking ovens. The mixture subsequently travels along a moving conveyor belt together with the rest of the charge materials. The addition of up to 2% resin-bearing waste materials to the coal charge has not had any significant effect on the strength properties of the coke.

  11. Trends in the automation of coke production

    SciTech Connect

    R.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; K.G. Lavrov

    2009-07-15

    Up-to-date mathematical methods, such as correlation analysis and expert systems, are employed in creating a model of the coking process. Automatic coking-control systems developed by Giprokoks rule out human error. At an existing coke battery, after introducing automatic control, the heating-gas consumption is reduced by {>=}5%.

  12. Bi-radiant oven: a low-energy oven system. Volume I. Development and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, D.P.; Peart, M.V.

    1980-04-01

    The Bi-Radiant Oven system has three important features which provide improved performance. First, the cavity walls are highly reflective rather than absorptive thereby allowing these surfaces to operate at cooler temperatures. Second, the heating elements, similar in construction to those in a conventional oven, but operating at much lower temperatures, provide a prescribed, balanced radiant flux to the top and bottom surfaces of the food product. And third, the baking and roasting utensil has a highly absorptive finish. Instrumentation and methods of measurements have been developed for obtaining the important oven and food parameters during baking: wall, oven air, food and element temperatures; food mass loss rate; irradiance distribution; and convection heat flux. Observations on an experimental oven are presented and discussed. Thermal models relating the irradiance distribution to oven parameters have been compared with measurements using a new heat flux gage developed for the project. Using the DOE recommended test procedures, oven efficiencies of 20 to 23% have been measured. The heating requirements have been determined for seven food types: biscuits, meat loaf, baked foods, apple crisp, cornbread, macaroni and cheese casserole, and cheese souffle. Comparison of energy use with a conventional electric oven shows that energy savings greater than 50% can be realized. Detailed energy balances have been performed on two foods - beef roasts and yellow cake. Consideration of consumer acceptability of this new oven concept have been addressed.

  13. Coke from small-diameter tubes analyzed

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, L.F.

    1988-08-29

    The mechanism for coke deposit formation and the nature of the coke itself can vary with the design of the ethylene furnace tube bank. In this article, coke deposits from furnaces with small-diameter pyrolysis tubes are examined. The samples were taken from four furnaces of identical design (Plant B). As in both the first and second installments of the series, the coke deposits were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDAX). The deposits from the small-diameter tubes are compared with the coke deposits from the furnace discussed in earlier articles. Analysis of the coke in both sets of samples are then used to offer recommendations for improved decoking procedures, operating procedures, better feed selection, and better selection of the metallurgy used in furnace tubes, to extend the operating time of the furnace tubes by reducing the amount and type of coke build up.

  14. Chemical profile and sensory properties of different foods cooked by a new radiofrequency oven.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Alberto; Di Monaco, Rossella; Cavella, Silvana; Visconti, Attilio; Karneili, Ohad; Bernhardt, Sam; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2013-08-15

    Radio frequency (RF) heating has been used for numerous applications in the food industry such as baking, thawing or pasteurisation. It reduces cooking time, and it helps to retain acceptable food colour and texture. In this paper, chemical and sensory data obtained from broccoli, potatoes, salmon and cocoa cakes cooked using an innovative RF oven were reported. The oven has an algorithm able to monitor the energy feedback from the cavity and to adjust the energy output accordingly. The different foods were cooked to the same end point and the concentration of phytochemicals, vitamins and acrylamide were assessed. Results demonstrated that RF oven preserved ascorbic acid and increased glucosinolates concentration in broccoli and it decreased the formation of acrylamide in roasted potatoes more than 50%. The total amount of vitamins B was 30% and 50% higher in RF cooked salmon than conventionally cooked salmon prepared at 55 and 75°C, respectively.

  15. 40 CFR 63.305 - Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (e.g., damper settings, fan power) and the procedures for measuring such parameters; and if...) The parameter or parameters (e.g., fan power, damper position, or other) to be monitored and recorded... (including the evacuation system) has been designed in accordance with generally accepted...

  16. 40 CFR 63.305 - Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... benzene soluble organics, benzene, toluene, and xylene emitted from the control device for the shed. The... plan submitted pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section; or (B) Measure benzene, toluene, xylene, and... to paragraph (b) of this section; and (C) Calculate the ratio (R) of benzene, toluene, and xylene...

  17. 40 CFR 63.303 - Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.303 Section 63.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES... in § 63.309(d)(1); or (ii) The owner or operator shall monitor and record, once per day for each...

  18. Beyond the Coke Ovens: Women's Literacy in Whitney Pier, Nova Scotia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozar, Seana

    2001-01-01

    In partnership with a Nova Scotia community museum, local women used folklore and culture centered on crafts, food customs, and beliefs to engage in learning. Their efforts enriched local historical knowledge as well as their own self-confidence and literacy. (SK)

  19. K2CO3 catalysis on the reactivity of top charged coke and stamp charged coke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Qing-hai; Zhang, Jian-liang; Qi, Cheng-lin; Ma, Chao; Kong, De-wen; Mao, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The catalysis of K2CO3 on the reactivity of top charged coke and stamp charged coke from Pansteel in China was studied. The coke reaction index of the stamp charged coke was 1%-2% higher than that of the top charged coke. Under the catalysis of K2CO3, the coke reaction index of both cokes approximately increased by 4%, 6%, 10% and 6% at 900, 1000, 1100 and 1200°C, respectively. The reactivity of the K-enriched stamp charged coke was 1%-2% higher than that of the K-enriched top charged coke below 1100°C. However, only negligible differences were found in the temperature zone between 1100 and 1200°C. Scanning electron microscopy images illustrated that pores in the top charged coke were smaller and equally distributed, while relatively more big pores exist non-homogenously in stamp charged coke. Due to the different processes in production, the stamp charged coke was more porous and most of the pores tended to be applanate. Cracks were observed in the microstructure of the stamp charged coke during the carbon solution reaction, implying the inferior quality of the stamp charged coke to the top charged coke at high temperature. Diffusion of K during the carbon solution reaction was studied by the energy dispersive spectrometry. It is found that K gradually spreads into the center of lumpy coke with the rising of temperature and is equally distributed on the edges of pores at 1200°C. Besides, oxidation reactions of functional groups become faster with the catalysis of K.content

  20. Effect of oven cooking method on formation of heterocyclic amines and quality characteristics of chicken patties: steam-assisted hybrid oven versus convection ovens.

    PubMed

    Isleroglu, Hilal; Kemerli, Tansel; Özdestan, Özgül; Uren, Ali; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of steam-assisted hybrid oven cooking method in comparison with convection ovens (natural and forced) on quality characteristics (color, hardness, cooking loss, soluble protein content, fat retention, and formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines) of chicken patties. The cooking experiments of chicken patties (n = 648) were conducted at oven temperatures of 180, 210, and 240°C until 3 different end point temperatures (75, 90, and 100°C) were reached. Steam-assisted hybrid oven cooking enabled faster cooking than convection ovens and resulted in chicken patties having lower a* and higher L* value, lower hardness, lower fat, and soluble protein content (P < 0.05), and higher cooking loss than convection ovens. Steam-assisted hybrid oven could reduce the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines that have mutagenic and carcinogenic effects on humans.

  1. Method and apparatus for producing active coke

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfrum, E.

    1980-12-30

    At least a portion of coke produced in a hearth-type furnace is fed into an activation reactor, and at least a portion of the waste gas from the hearth-type furnace is fed to the activation reactor to act as a heating gas and/or an activation gas for the coke feed. Hot waste gas from the activation reactor is passed to a waste-heat boiler. Active coke which has at least partially lost its adsorption capacity may be fed into the furnace in mixture with the coal or alone, or it may be fed directly into the activation reactor for re-activation of the coke.

  2. Coke cake behavior under compressive forces

    SciTech Connect

    Watakabe, S.; Takeda, T.; Itaya, H.; Suginobe, H.

    1997-12-31

    The deformation of the coke cake and load on the side wall during pushing were studied using an electric furnace equipped with a movable wall. Coke cake was found to deform in three stages under compressive forces. The coke cake was shortened in the pushing direction in the cake deformation stage, and load was generated on the side walls in the high wall load stage. Secondary cracks in the coke cake were found to prevent load transmission on the wall. The maximum load transmission rate was controlled by adjusting the maximum fluidity and mean reflectance of the blended coal.

  3. 65. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIMENITROGEN (CALCIUM CYANAMIDE) OVEN BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE LIME-NITROGEN (CALCIUM CYANAMIDE) OVEN BUILDING, LOOKING AT 2 BANKS OF OVENS. MARCH 2, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  4. 25. DETAIL OF INSCRIPTION ON BAKE OVEN WHICH READS: PREMIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. DETAIL OF INSCRIPTION ON BAKE OVEN WHICH READS: PREMIUM PATENT BAKE OVEN ROASTER BY ALFRED H. REIP NO. 337 BALT. STREET BALTIMORE - Hazelwood, 18611 Queen Anne Road, Upper Marlboro, Prince George's County, MD

  5. 24. VIEW OF COOKING FIREPLACE AND BAKE OVEN IN KITCHEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW OF COOKING FIREPLACE AND BAKE OVEN IN KITCHEN OF SOUTH (ORIGINAL) SECTION, SOUTHEAST ROOM, SOUTH WALL, WITH OVEN DOOR CLOSED - Hazelwood, 18611 Queen Anne Road, Upper Marlboro, Prince George's County, MD

  6. 23. VIEW OF COOKING FIREPLACE AND BAKE OVEN IN KITCHEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW OF COOKING FIREPLACE AND BAKE OVEN IN KITCHEN OF SOUTH (ORIGINAL) SECTION, SOUTHEAST ROOM, SOUTH WALL, WITH OVEN DOOR OPEN - Hazelwood, 18611 Queen Anne Road, Upper Marlboro, Prince George's County, MD

  7. New designs in the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems

    SciTech Connect

    A.S. Larin; V.V. Demenko; V.L. Voitanik

    2009-07-15

    In recent Giprokoks designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems, high-productivity vibrational-inertial screens have been employed. This permits single-stage screening and reduction in capital and especially operating expenditures, without loss of coke quality. In two-stage screening, >80 mm coke (for foundry needs) is additionally separated, with significant improvement in quality of the metallurgical coke (25-80 mm). New designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems employ mechanical treatment of the coke outside the furnace, which offers new scope for stabilization of coke quality and permits considerable improvement in mechanical strength and granulometric composition of the coke by mechanical crushing.

  8. Low-Cost Programmed Oven Temperature Controller.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clubine, Gerald D.

    1982-01-01

    A remote, programed oven temperature controller unit was built for about $425.00. Specifications, circuit diagrams, design details, and operations are discussed. Detailed information including complete schematics, parts list, and detailed theory of operation may be obtained by contacting the author. (Author/SK)

  9. 21 CFR 1030.10 - Microwave ovens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., including doors, door handles, latches, and control knobs. (8) Equivalent plane-wave power density means the... ohms). (c) Requirements—(1) Power density limit. The equivalent plane-wave power density existing in... to be prevented, only if a test magnet held in place on the oven by gravity or its own...

  10. 21 CFR 1030.10 - Microwave ovens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., including doors, door handles, latches, and control knobs. (8) Equivalent plane-wave power density means the... ohms). (c) Requirements—(1) Power density limit. The equivalent plane-wave power density existing in... to be prevented, only if a test magnet held in place on the oven by gravity or its own...

  11. 21 CFR 1030.10 - Microwave ovens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., including doors, door handles, latches, and control knobs. (8) Equivalent plane-wave power density means the... ohms). (c) Requirements—(1) Power density limit. The equivalent plane-wave power density existing in... to be prevented, only if a test magnet held in place on the oven by gravity or its own...

  12. 21 CFR 1030.10 - Microwave ovens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., including doors, door handles, latches, and control knobs. (8) Equivalent plane-wave power density means the... ohms). (c) Requirements—(1) Power density limit. The equivalent plane-wave power density existing in... to be prevented, only if a test magnet held in place on the oven by gravity or its own...

  13. Regeneration of coked catalysts: The effect of aging upon the characteristics of the coke deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Royo, C.; Ibarra, J.V.; Monzon, A.; Santamaria, J. . Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Tecnologias del Medio Ambiente)

    1994-11-01

    The effect of aging in nitrogen upon the regeneration characteristics of the coke deposits on chromia-alumina catalysts has been investigated. To this end, the coked catalysts have been subjected to various treatments in nitrogen, and the chemical composition and reactivity of the deposits have been investigated. The results show that the process of aging in nitrogen gives rise to significant changes in both the composition and reactivity of the coke deposits, due to the stripping of the coke fractions with a higher volatility. This obviously has important consequences upon the subsequent regeneration, which are also discussed and tested in regeneration experiments using coked catalyst of different ages.

  14. Inhalation trauma due to overheating in a microwave oven.

    PubMed Central

    Zanen, A L; Rietveld, A P

    1993-01-01

    The microwave oven is a kitchen appliance that has become increasingly popular in recent years. In some instances the temperature in the microwave oven can become exceedingly high. A case is discussed of a patient with respiratory distress after inhalation of gas from an overheated microwave oven. Images PMID:8497834

  15. The GLOBE Soil Moisture Campaign's Light Bulb Oven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, M. P.; Tietema, D.; Ferre, T. P.; Nijssen, B.; Washburne, J.

    2003-12-01

    The GLOBE Soil Moisture Campaign (SMC) (www.hwr.arizona.edu/globe/sci/SM/SMC) has developed a light bulb oven to provide a low budget, low-technology method for drying soil samples. Three different soils were used to compare the ability of the light bulb oven to dry soils against a standard laboratory convection oven. The soils were: 1) a very fine sandy loam (the "Gila" soil); 2) a silty clay (the "Pima" soil); and 3) a sandy soil (the "Sonoran" soil). A large batch of each soil was wetted uniformly in the laboratory. Twelve samples of each soil were placed in the light bulb oven and twelve samples were placed in the standard oven. The average gravimetric soil moisture of the Gila soil was 0.214 g/cm3 for both ovens; the average Pima soil moisture was 0.332 g/cm3 and 0.331 g/cm3 for the traditional and light bulb ovens, respectively; and the Sonoran soil moisture was 0.077 g/cm3 for both ovens. These results demonstrate that the low technology light-bulb oven was able to dry the soil samples as well as a standard laboratory oven, offering the ability to make gravimetric water content measurements when a relatively expensive drying oven is not available.

  16. The FlashBake oven: Lightwave oven delivers high-quality, quick cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Gregerson, J.

    1995-06-01

    The FlashBake oven is a well-publicized new electrotechnology that over 40 utilities are promoting for commercial food service applications, but is it worth its high price? E Source research shows that this $5,000 to $8,500 lightwave oven can increase sales and profitability in a number of applications, thus paying for itself within months to a year or two. The FlashBake does so by cooking foods less than two inches thick in two minutes or less, as quickly as microwave ovens do, but with quality equal to or greater than that of conventional gas and electric ovens. The FlashBake makes sense for restaurants and kiosks that offer quick-order menus, as well as for full-menu restaurants that can use the FlashBake during slow periods (instead of larger ovens) and during busy periods (for extra capacity). In these target market applications, the FlashBake is likely to use less energy due to its extremely low idle energy use. It is not well suited to banquet and institutional kitchens that require large numbers of the same item to be cooked and ready simultaneously. The FlashBake has only one tray, so cooking large volumes may take longer, require more labor, and use more energy than a conventional oven that has multiple cooking racks. Energy use is rarely a major concern of those who buy FlashBake ovens, since energy for cooking represents a small fraction of a restaurant`s overall operating costs. The main selling point of the FlashBake is menu and productivity enhancement.

  17. Determination of electrical resistivity of dry coke beds

    SciTech Connect

    Eidem, P.A.; Tangstad, M.; Bakken, J.A.

    2008-02-15

    The electrical resistivity of the coke bed is of great importance when producing FeMn, SiMn, and FeCr in a submerged arc furnace. In these processes, a coke bed is situated below and around the electrode tip and consists of metallurgical coke, slag, gas, and metal droplets. Since the basic mechanisms determining the electrical resistivity of a coke bed is not yet fully understood, this investigation is focused on the resistivity of dry coke beds consisting of different carbonaceous materials, i.e., coke beds containing no slag or metal. A method that reliably compares the electrical bulk resistivity of different metallurgical cokes at 1500{sup o} C to 1600{sup o}C is developed. The apparatus is dimensioned for industrial sized materials, and the electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, petroleum coke, and metallurgical coke has been measured. The resistivity at high temperatures of the Magnitogorsk coke, which has the highest resistivity of the metallurgical cokes investigated, is twice the resistivity of the Corus coke, which has the lowest electrical resistivity. Zdzieszowice and SSAB coke sort in between with decreasing resistivities in the respective order. The electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, and petroleum coke is generally higher than the resistivity of the metallurgical cokes, ranging from about two to about eight times the resistivity of the Corus coke at 1450{sup o}C. The general trend is that the bulk resistivity of carbon materials decreases with increasing temperature and increasing particle size.

  18. Pressure Analysis for LAVA-OVEN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cendana, Donna Q.

    2014-01-01

    The Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) and the Oxygen Volatiles Extraction Node (OVEN) are subsystems included in the Regolith Environment Science, and Oxygen Lunar Volatiles Extraction (RESOLVE) payload bound for the Moon in 2019. This Resource Prospector Mission (RPM) has the objective of landing on a shadowed region of the Moons South Pole to collect data and determine whether the resources could be effectively used for space exploration systems. The quantification of the resources will help understand if it can adequately minimize materials carried from Earth by: providing life support, propellants, construction materials or energy supply to the payload or crew. This paper outlines the procedures done for the pressure analysis of the LAVA-OVEN (LOVEN) Integration Testing. The pressure analysis quantifies how much gases and water are present in the sample tested during the Engineering Testing Unit (ETU) phase of instrument development. Ultimately the purpose of these tests is to improve the estimate of the amount of water in each Lunar sample and reduce the time necessary for this estimate. The governing principle that was used for the analysis is the Ideal Gas Law, PV=nRT where P stands for pressure, V for volume, n for number of moles, R being the gas constant and T for temperature. We also estimate the errors involved in these measured and derived quantities since a key objective of the mission is to estimate the quantity of volatiles present in the lunar samples introduced into OVEN.

  19. Transport and preparation of coke for the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Kotov, A.P.; Ulakhovich, V.A.; Solodkov, V.I.; Mishin, E.N.; Chuparev, E.F.; Veshchezerov, M.M.; Shkodkin, K.K.

    1982-01-01

    In order to develop specifications for coke qualaity for large blast furnaces and measures matching the coke quality to the blast furnace volume, a series of investigations were conducted on the change in the physical and mechanical properties of coke in the process of its transport to the blast furnace, with a comparative evalution of the individual coke fractions. It was determined that the 60-40 and 80-60 mm coke classes were most suitable for blast furnace smelting. The 40-25 mm coke fraction is inferior in its physical and mechanical properties to these classes, but preferable to the over 80 mm coke. (JMT)

  20. 16. Coke 'fines' bin at Furnace D. After delivery to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Coke 'fines' bin at Furnace D. After delivery to the trestle bins, the coke was screened and the coke 'fines' or breeze, were transported by conveyor to the coke fines bins where it was collected and leaded into dump trucks. The coke fines were then sold for fuel to a sinter plant in Lorain, Ohio. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  1. Developing an accelerated test of coking tendencies of alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Clevenger, M.D.; Bagby, M.O.; Schwab, A.W.; Goering, C.E.; Savage, L.D.

    1988-07-01

    Burning vegetable oils in direct-injected diesel engines leads to nozzle and combustion chamber coking and eventually to engine damage. Because typical durability tests to detect coking tendencies of fuels are expensive, a one-cylinder diesel engine was instrumented and automated to enable external detection of engine coking in only 5 h. The heat release pattern revealed shifts to later burning as coke accumulated in the engine, but exhaust emissions showed little correlation with coke accumulation.

  2. Heteroatom incorporated coke for electrochemical cell electrode

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Irwin Charles; Greinke, Ronald Alfred

    1997-01-01

    This invention relates to an electrode for a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) calcined coke particles: (i) that contain at least 0.5 weight percent of nitrogen heteroatoms and at least 1.0 weight percent sulfur heteroatoms, and (ii) that have an average particle size from 2 microns to 40 microns with essentially no particles being greater than 50 microns. (b) a binder This invention also relates to a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrically conductive salt, and (c) a counterelectrode.

  3. Heteroatom incorporated coke for electrochemical cell electrode

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, I.C.; Greinke, R.A.

    1997-06-17

    This invention relates to an electrode for a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) calcined coke particles: (1) that contain at least 0.5 weight percent of nitrogen heteroatoms and at least 1.0 weight percent sulfur heteroatoms, and (2) that have an average particle size from 2 microns to 40 microns with essentially no particles being greater than 50 microns and (b) a binder. This invention also relates to a coke/alkali metal electrochemical cell comprising: (a) an electrode as described above, (b) a non-aqueous electrolytic solution comprising an organic aprotic solvent and an electrically conductive salt, and (c) a counterelectrode. 5 figs.

  4. Heat treatment of exchangers to remove coke

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.D.

    1990-02-20

    This patent describes a process for preparing furfural coke for removal from metallic surfaces. It comprises: heating the furfural coke without causing an evolution of heat capable of undesirably altering metallurgical properties of the surfaces in the presence of a gas containing molecular oxygen at a sufficient temperature below 800{degrees}F (427{degrees}C) for a sufficient time to change the crush strength of the coke so as to permit removal with a water jet at a pressure of five thousand pounds per square inch.

  5. Prospects for use of lean coking coal from the Kuznetsk coalfield for coking

    SciTech Connect

    Sulimov, G.I.; Agafonov, A.A.; Ol'shanetskii, L.G.

    1983-06-01

    Coals suitable for opencast working in the southern Kuzbass form a transitional stage between low-volatile caking and lean coal and have been incorporated satisfactorily in layer coking charges together with conventional coking coal. Strength tests showed a reasonably strong metallurgical product. Two collieries in particular offered promising coals with a narrow range of vitrinite contents and varying only in rank. These have been blended with a fat coal from Pechora to produce an exceptional metallurgical coke.

  6. Comparison of two methods for determination of tomato paste solids: vacuum oven versus microwave oven.

    PubMed

    Jazaeri, Sahar; Kakuda, Yukio; Gismondi, Stephen; Wigle, Doug G

    2011-01-01

    Two analytical procedures used to determine total, soluble, and insoluble solids in tomato paste were evaluated. The microwave oven (MO) method was compared to the vacuum oven (VO) method. The VO method is tedious and measured the three solids fractions in the paste directly, while the MO method measured the total solids directly but used an equation to calculate the water-soluble and -insoluble solids. The MO method was faster and less labor-intensive, and yielded small but statistically significant higher values for total and insoluble solids and lower statistically significant values for soluble solids.

  7. New and revised standards for coke production

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Kotsyuba; M.I. Alpatov; Y.G. Shapoval

    2009-07-15

    The need for new and revised standards for coke production in Ukraine and Russia is outlined. Such standards should address improvements in plant operation, working conditions, environmental protection, energy conservation, fire and explosion safety, and economic indices.

  8. Demand for superpremium needle cokes on upswing

    SciTech Connect

    Acciarri, J.A.; Stockman, G.H. )

    1989-12-01

    The authors discuss how recent supply shortages of super-premium quality needle cokes, plus the expectation of increased shortfalls in the future, indicate that refiners should consider upgrading their operations to fill these demands. Calcined, super-premium needle cokes are currently selling for as much as $550/metric ton, fob producer, and increasing demand will continue the upward push of the past year. Needle coke, in its calcined form, is the major raw material in the manufacture of graphite electrodes. Used in steelmaking, graphite electrodes are the electrical conductors that supply the heat source, through arcing electrode column tips, to electric arc steel furnaces. Needle coke is commercially available in three grades - super premium, premium, and intermediate. Super premium is used to produce electrodes for the most severe electric arc furnace steelmaking applications, premium for electrodes destined to less severe operations, and intermediate for even less critical needs.

  9. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2003-09-26

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  10. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2004-09-26

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  11. Multiple delivery cesium oven system for negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, G.; Bhartiya, S.; Pandya, K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Singh, M. J.; Soni, J.; Gahlaut, A.; Parmar, K. G.; Chakraborty, A.

    2012-02-15

    Distribution of cesium in large negative ion beam sources to be operational in ITER, is presently based on the use of three or more cesium ovens, which operate simultaneously and are controlled remotely. However, use of multiple Cs ovens simultaneously is likely to pose difficulties in operation and maintenance of the ovens. An alternate method of Cs delivery, based on a single oven distribution system is proposed as one which could reduce the need of simultaneous operation of many ovens. A proof of principle experiment verifying the concept of a multinozzle distributor based Cs oven has been carried out at Institute for Plasma Research. It is also observed that the Cs flux is not controlled by Cs reservoir temperature after few hours of operation but by the temperature of the distributor which starts behaving as a Cs reservoir.

  12. Method of pretreating coal for coking plant

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, V.; Rotthaus, H.

    1984-03-13

    Coal is pretreated for a coking plant so that it is passed in two stages through two throughflow driers successively connected with one another, the driers are supplied with a heat carrier formed by steam superheated to a temperature between 400/sup 0/ and 600/sup 0/ C., dust is removed from the steam after passing the throughflow driers, and the steam is heated after the dust removal in a heat exchange with a circulating gas of a coke dry cooler.

  13. Special analyses reveal coke-deposit structure

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, L.F.

    1988-08-01

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDAX) have been used to obtain information that clarifies the three mechanisms of coke formation in ethylene furnaces, and to analyze the metal condition at the exit of furnace. The results can be used to examine furnace operations and develop improved ethylene plant practices. In this first of four articles on the analyses of coke and metal samples, the coking mechanisms and coke deposits in a section of tube from an actual ethylene furnace (Furnace A) from a plant on the Texas Gulf Coast are discussed. The second articles in the series will analyze the condition of the tube metal in the same furnace. To show how coke deposition and metal condition dependent on the operating parameters of an ethylene furnace, the third article in the series will show the coke deposition in a Texas Gulf Coast furnace tube (Furnace B) that operated at shorter residence time. The fourth article discusses the metal condition in that furnace. Some recommendations, based on the analyses and findings, are offered in the fourth article that could help extend the life of ethylene furnace tubes, and also improve overall ethylene plant operations.

  14. Innovation, Innovation, Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Innovation, Universities and Skills. The new title of the department offers much food for thought. The title is indeed an intriguing and important one. Bringing the idea of innovation right to the fore is, to use an overworked term, challenging. Pinning down what innovation means is not at all easy. There are three different lines of argument. The…

  15. A modified concentrating type solar oven for outdoor cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Khalifa, A.M.A.

    1983-12-01

    Solar cookers offer a partial solution to many problems for the poor developing areas of the world. In these regions energy used for cooking sometimes comprises four fifths of the total energy demand. Solar cookers are generally four catagories: direct focusing, oven, ovenfocusing and indirect types. The direct focusing types failed to boil water under windy conditions due to excessive convection losses from the bare cooking pot placed at the concentrator focus. The oven type cookers, such as Telkes oven, observe the rules of energy conservation and thus are more efficient and less affected by windy weather. However, this oven suffers from two major problems. First, tilting the oven could cause food spillage unless a hinged support is used for the pot. This adds complication to the design of Telkes oven. Second, the solar radiation is added to the pot from the top for high solar altitude angles. This leads to poor heat transfer to the food inside the pot. The advantages of concentrating and oven cookers can be obtained by widding of a point focus concentrator to a new oven type receiver. In this paper the concept and design details of such an oven are introduced. Theoretical and experimental analyses of the developed cooker are given.

  16. Giprokoks proposals for improvement in air quality at coke battery 1A of Radlin coke plant

    SciTech Connect

    T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko

    2009-07-15

    Coke battery 1A, which uses rammed batch, has gone into production at Radlin coke plant (Poland), on the basis of Giprokoks designs. Up-to-date dust-trapping methods are used for the first time within the aspiration systems in the coal-preparation shop and in improving dust collection within the production buildings.

  17. Modification of a Microwave Oven for Laboratory Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Judith; Atkinson, George F.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses use of a domestic microwave oven for drying analytical samples with time savings compared to conventional ovens, providing a solution to the problem of loss of load as samples dry. Presents a system for examining emitted gases from drying process and reports results of several test dryings. (JM)

  18. AUTOMATED MALLEABLE ANNEALING OVENS SLOWLY HEAT AND COOL CASTINGS AS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AUTOMATED MALLEABLE ANNEALING OVENS SLOWLY HEAT AND COOL CASTINGS AS THEY MOVE IN BINS ALONG TRACKS IN THE OVEN BOTTOM IN THE MALLEABLE ANNEALING BUILDING. THIS PROCESS TRANSFORMS BRITTLE WHITE IRON CASTINGS INTO SOFTER, STRONGER MALLEABLE IRON. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Malleable Annealing Building, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  19. BENDING SHOP & OVEN. United Engineering Co., Alameda, California. Plan, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BENDING SHOP & OVEN. United Engineering Co., Alameda, California. Plan, two elevations, sections, and details. Alben Froberg, Architect, Oakland, California. Sheet no. 1 of 1. Various scales. December 15, 1941. pencil on tracing paper - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Bending Shop & Oven, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  20. Development of coke strength after reaction (CSR) at Dofasco

    SciTech Connect

    T.W. Todoschuk; J.P. Price; J.F. Gransden

    2004-03-01

    In order to prevent coke degradation without detrimentally affecting blast furnace service life, Dofasco initiated a project to improve coke strength after reaction. The results of the program and Dofasco's prediction model are presented. 9 refs., 12 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. 61. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE COKE DRYER BUILDING, LOOKING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE COKE DRYER BUILDING, LOOKING AT FIRE BOXES AND SILOS FOR COKE DRYERS. APRIL 22, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  2. 23. Brick coke quencher, brick stack, metal stack to right, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Brick coke quencher, brick stack, metal stack to right, coke gas pipe to left; in background, BOF building, limestone piles, Levy's Slag Dump. Looking north/northwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  3. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING TIPPLE FOR LOADING COKED COAL INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING TIPPLE FOR LOADING COKED COAL INTO RAILROAD CARS (FRONT), COAL STORAGE BIN AND TIPPLE FOR COAL TO BE CHARGED IN FURNACES (BACK) - Alverton Coke Works, State Route 981, Alverton, Westmoreland County, PA

  4. Water plasmas for the revalorisation of heavy oils and cokes from petroleum refining.

    PubMed

    Hueso, José L; Rico, Víctor J; Cotrino, José; Jiménez-Mateos, J M; González-Elipe, Agustín R

    2009-04-01

    This work investigates the possibility of using plasmas to treat high boiling point and viscous liquids (HBPVL) and cokes resulting as secondary streams from the refining of oil. For their revalorisation, the use of microwave (MW) induced plasmas of water is proposed, as an alternative to more conventional processes (i.e., catalysis, pyrolysis, combustion, etc.). As a main result, this type of energetic cold plasma facilitates the conversion at room temperature of the heavy aromatic oils and cokes into linear hydrocarbons and synthesis gas, commonly defined as syngas (CO + H2 gas mixture). The exposure of the coke to this plasma also facilitates the removal of the sulfur present in the samples and leads to the formation on their surface of a sort of carbon fibers and rods network and new porous structures. Besides, optical emission measurements have provided direct evidence of the intermediates resulting from the fragmentation of the heavy oils and cokes during their exposure to the water plasma. Furthermore, the analysis of the mass spectra patterns suggests a major easiness to break the aromatic bonds mainly contained in the heavy oils. Therefore, an innovative method for the conversion of low value residues from oil-refining processes is addressed.

  5. Petroleum coke in the urban environment: a review of potential health effects.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Joseph A; Zhang, Kezhong; Schroeck, Nicholas J; McCoy, Benjamin; McElmurry, Shawn P

    2015-05-29

    Petroleum coke, or petcoke, is a granular coal-like industrial by-product that is separated during the refinement of heavy crude oil. Recently, the processing of material from Canadian oil sands in U.S. refineries has led to the appearance of large petcoke piles adjacent to urban communities in Detroit and Chicago. The purpose of this literature review is to assess what is known about the effects of petcoke exposure on human health. Toxicological studies in animals indicate that dermal or inhalation petcoke exposure does not lead to a significant risk for cancer development or reproductive and developmental effects. However, pulmonary inflammation was observed in long-term inhalation exposure studies. Epidemiological studies in coke oven workers have shown increased risk for cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, but these studies are confounded by multiple industrial exposures, most notably to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are generated during petcoke production. The main threat to urban populations in the vicinity of petcoke piles is most likely fugitive dust emissions in the form of fine particulate matter. More research is required to determine whether petcoke fine particulate matter causes or exacerbates disease, either alone or in conjunction with other environmental contaminants.

  6. Petroleum Coke in the Urban Environment: A Review of Potential Health Effects

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Joseph A.; Zhang, Kezhong; Schroeck, Nicholas J.; McCoy, Benjamin; McElmurry, Shawn P.

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum coke, or petcoke, is a granular coal-like industrial by-product that is separated during the refinement of heavy crude oil. Recently, the processing of material from Canadian oil sands in U.S. refineries has led to the appearance of large petcoke piles adjacent to urban communities in Detroit and Chicago. The purpose of this literature review is to assess what is known about the effects of petcoke exposure on human health. Toxicological studies in animals indicate that dermal or inhalation petcoke exposure does not lead to a significant risk for cancer development or reproductive and developmental effects. However, pulmonary inflammation was observed in long-term inhalation exposure studies. Epidemiological studies in coke oven workers have shown increased risk for cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, but these studies are confounded by multiple industrial exposures, most notably to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that are generated during petcoke production. The main threat to urban populations in the vicinity of petcoke piles is most likely fugitive dust emissions in the form of fine particulate matter. More research is required to determine whether petcoke fine particulate matter causes or exacerbates disease, either alone or in conjunction with other environmental contaminants. PMID:26035666

  7. Comparison of microwave oven and convection oven for acid hydrolysis of dietary fiber polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Li, B W

    1998-01-01

    Hydrolysis of dietary fiber polysaccharides (DFP) is an integral part of any enzymatic-chemical method for dietary fiber analysis. Residues obtained after enzyme treatments of fiber-containing foods are usually suspended in 12 M sulfuric acid and kept at or slightly above ambient temperature for at least 1 h, and then the mixtures are diluted with deionized water to a final concentration of 1 M or 2 M acid, followed by heating at 100 degrees C in a water bath or convection oven for 1 or 2 h. Under these hydrolytic conditions, some degradation of the released monosaccharides generally takes place over the duration of hydrolysis. We investigated the feasibility of using microwave energy as a heat source to reduce time and minimize degradation. Preliminary tests were done on the well-characterized soy polysaccharide Fibrim. With a microwave digestion system equipped with temperature and pressure monitors and control lines, optimum settings of power (5%, 75%), time (up to 3 min and 30 s), temperature (35 degrees-55 degrees C), and pressure (45-65 psi) were determined for different foods depending on the residue weight and volume of acid. Results were comparable for microwave oven and convection oven hydrolysis of DFP from 5 foods with good correlations for neutral sugar values; r2 = 0.997 for arabinose, 0.925 for galactose, 0.981 for glucose, 0.969 for mannose, and 0.990 for xylose.

  8. Seizures and hyponatremia after excessive intake of diet coke.

    PubMed

    Mortelmans, Luc J M; Van Loo, Michel; De Cauwer, Harald G; Merlevede, Karen

    2008-02-01

    We describe a case of epileptic seizures after a massive intake of diet coke. Apart from the hyponatremia due to water intoxication the convulsions can be potentiated by the high dose of caffeine and aspartame from the diet coke. To our knowledge this is the first report of seizures due to excessive diet coke intake.

  9. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect

    Volk Jr., Michael; Wisecarver, Keith D.; Sheppard, Charles M.

    2003-02-07

    The coking test facilities include three reactors (or cokers) and ten utilities. Experiments were conducted using the micro-coker, pilot-coker, and stirred-batch coker. Gas products were analyzed using an on-line gas chromatograph. Liquid properties were analyzed in-house using simulated distillation (HP 5880a), high temperature gas chromatography (6890a), detailed hydrocarbon analysis, and ASTM fractionation. Coke analyses as well as feedstock analyses and some additional liquid analyses (including elemental analyses) were done off-site.

  10. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver

    2005-10-01

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  11. Coking of distallate feed with added paraffin wax

    SciTech Connect

    Mimun, K.; Zaitseva, N.P.; Smidovich, E.V.

    1987-09-01

    The effects of adding paraffin wax to fluid and delayed coking distillates on the yield, microstructure, and physicochemical properties of the cokes were investigated. It was established that by adding optimal amounts of wax to a distillate feed with a high stability factor, the coke yield can be increased by 2.5 to 5.8 percent by weight. The wax should be injected into the feedstock between the furnace and chamber in delayed coking units. The addition of wax to the feed in order to increase the stability factor could be used as a method for reducing tube coking in cracking furnaces.

  12. Reducing dust emissions at OAO Alchevskkoks coke battery 10A

    SciTech Connect

    T.F. Trembach; E.N. Lanina

    2009-07-15

    Coke battery 10A with rammed batch is under construction at OAO Alchevskkoks. The design documentation developed by Giprokoks includes measures for reducing dust emissions to the atmosphere. Aspiration systems with dry dust trapping are employed in the new components of coke battery 10A and in the existing coke-sorting equipment. Two-stage purification of dusty air in cyclones and bag filters is employed for the coke-sorting equipment. This system considerably reduces coke-dust emissions to the atmosphere.

  13. RESOLVE OVEN Field Demonstration Unit for Lunar Resource Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paz, Aaron; Oryshchyn, Lara; Jensen, Scott; Sanders, Gerald B.; Lee, Kris; Reddington, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The Oxygen and Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN) is a subsystem within the Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) project. The purpose of the OVEN subsystem is to release volatiles from lunar regolith and extract oxygen by means of a hydrogen reduction reaction. The complete process includes receiving, weighing, sealing, heating, and disposing of core sample segments while transferring all gaseous contents to the Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA) subsystem. This document will discuss the design and performance of the OVEN Field Demonstration Unit (FDU), which participated in the 2012 RESOLVE field demonstration.

  14. RESIDUA UPGRADING EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT MODELS: COKE FORMATION PREDICTABILITY MAPS

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Schabron; A. Troy Pauli; Joseph F. Rovani Jr.

    2002-05-01

    The dispersed particle solution model of petroleum residua structure was used to develop predictors for pyrolytic coke formation. Coking Indexes were developed in prior years that measure how near a pyrolysis system is to coke formation during the coke formation induction period. These have been demonstrated to be universally applicable for residua regardless of the source of the material. Coking onset is coincidental with the destruction of the ordered structure and the formation of a multiphase system. The amount of coke initially formed appears to be a function of the free solvent volume of the original residua. In the current work, three-dimensional coke make predictability maps were developed at 400 C, 450 C, and 500 C (752 F, 842 F, and 932 F). These relate residence time and free solvent volume to the amount of coke formed at a particular pyrolysis temperature. Activation energies for two apparent types of zero-order coke formation reactions were estimated. The results provide a new tool for ranking residua, gauging proximity to coke formation, and predicting initial coke make tendencies.

  15. Water protection in coke-plant design

    SciTech Connect

    G.I. Alekseev

    2009-07-15

    Wastewater generation, water consumption, and water management at coke plants are considered. Measures to create runoff-free water-supply and sewer systems are discussed. Filters for water purification, corrosion inhibitors, and biocides are described. An integrated single-phase technology for the removal of phenols, thiocyanides, and ammoniacal nitrogen is outlined.

  16. 77 FR 32998 - Foundry Coke From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... The Commission instituted this review on December 1, 2011 (76 FR 74810) and determined on March 5, 2012 that it would conduct an expedited review (77 FR 15123, March 14, 2012). The Commission... COMMISSION Foundry Coke From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject...

  17. Nitrogen Chemistry and Coke Transformation of FCC Coked Catalyst during the Regeneration Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Junjun; Guan, Jianyu; Guo, Dawei; Zhang, Jiushun; France, Liam John; Wang, Lefu; Li, Xuehui

    2016-06-01

    Regeneration of the coked catalyst is an important process of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) in petroleum refining, however, this process will emit environmentally harmful gases such as nitrogen and carbon oxides. Transformation of N and C containing compounds in industrial FCC coke under thermal decomposition was investigated via TPD and TPO to examine the evolved gaseous species and TGA, NMR and XPS to analyse the residual coke fraction. Two distinct regions of gas evolution are observed during TPD for the first time, and they arise from decomposition of aliphatic carbons and aromatic carbons. Three types of N species, pyrrolic N, pyridinic N and quaternary N are identified in the FCC coke, the former one is unstable and tends to be decomposed into pyridinic and quaternary N. Mechanisms of NO, CO and CO2 evolution during TPD are proposed and lattice oxygen is suggested to be an important oxygen resource. Regeneration process indicates that coke-C tends to preferentially oxidise compared with coke-N. Hence, new technology for promoting nitrogen-containing compounds conversion will benefit the in-situ reduction of NO by CO during FCC regeneration.

  18. Nitrogen Chemistry and Coke Transformation of FCC Coked Catalyst during the Regeneration Process.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junjun; Guan, Jianyu; Guo, Dawei; Zhang, Jiushun; France, Liam John; Wang, Lefu; Li, Xuehui

    2016-06-08

    Regeneration of the coked catalyst is an important process of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) in petroleum refining, however, this process will emit environmentally harmful gases such as nitrogen and carbon oxides. Transformation of N and C containing compounds in industrial FCC coke under thermal decomposition was investigated via TPD and TPO to examine the evolved gaseous species and TGA, NMR and XPS to analyse the residual coke fraction. Two distinct regions of gas evolution are observed during TPD for the first time, and they arise from decomposition of aliphatic carbons and aromatic carbons. Three types of N species, pyrrolic N, pyridinic N and quaternary N are identified in the FCC coke, the former one is unstable and tends to be decomposed into pyridinic and quaternary N. Mechanisms of NO, CO and CO2 evolution during TPD are proposed and lattice oxygen is suggested to be an important oxygen resource. Regeneration process indicates that coke-C tends to preferentially oxidise compared with coke-N. Hence, new technology for promoting nitrogen-containing compounds conversion will benefit the in-situ reduction of NO by CO during FCC regeneration.

  19. Nitrogen Chemistry and Coke Transformation of FCC Coked Catalyst during the Regeneration Process.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junjun; Guan, Jianyu; Guo, Dawei; Zhang, Jiushun; France, Liam John; Wang, Lefu; Li, Xuehui

    2016-01-01

    Regeneration of the coked catalyst is an important process of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) in petroleum refining, however, this process will emit environmentally harmful gases such as nitrogen and carbon oxides. Transformation of N and C containing compounds in industrial FCC coke under thermal decomposition was investigated via TPD and TPO to examine the evolved gaseous species and TGA, NMR and XPS to analyse the residual coke fraction. Two distinct regions of gas evolution are observed during TPD for the first time, and they arise from decomposition of aliphatic carbons and aromatic carbons. Three types of N species, pyrrolic N, pyridinic N and quaternary N are identified in the FCC coke, the former one is unstable and tends to be decomposed into pyridinic and quaternary N. Mechanisms of NO, CO and CO2 evolution during TPD are proposed and lattice oxygen is suggested to be an important oxygen resource. Regeneration process indicates that coke-C tends to preferentially oxidise compared with coke-N. Hence, new technology for promoting nitrogen-containing compounds conversion will benefit the in-situ reduction of NO by CO during FCC regeneration. PMID:27270486

  20. Nitrogen Chemistry and Coke Transformation of FCC Coked Catalyst during the Regeneration Process

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Junjun; Guan, Jianyu; Guo, Dawei; Zhang, Jiushun; France, Liam John; Wang, Lefu; Li, Xuehui

    2016-01-01

    Regeneration of the coked catalyst is an important process of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) in petroleum refining, however, this process will emit environmentally harmful gases such as nitrogen and carbon oxides. Transformation of N and C containing compounds in industrial FCC coke under thermal decomposition was investigated via TPD and TPO to examine the evolved gaseous species and TGA, NMR and XPS to analyse the residual coke fraction. Two distinct regions of gas evolution are observed during TPD for the first time, and they arise from decomposition of aliphatic carbons and aromatic carbons. Three types of N species, pyrrolic N, pyridinic N and quaternary N are identified in the FCC coke, the former one is unstable and tends to be decomposed into pyridinic and quaternary N. Mechanisms of NO, CO and CO2 evolution during TPD are proposed and lattice oxygen is suggested to be an important oxygen resource. Regeneration process indicates that coke-C tends to preferentially oxidise compared with coke-N. Hence, new technology for promoting nitrogen-containing compounds conversion will benefit the in-situ reduction of NO by CO during FCC regeneration. PMID:27270486

  1. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Donald L. Toman; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    1999-09-01

    Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke (1, 2). Petroleum coke is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance. Petroleum coke is generally less reactive than coal; therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the combustion of petroleum coke alone. Although petroleum coke is a desirable fuel for producing relatively inexpensive electrical power, concerns about the effects of petroleum coke blending on combustion and pollution control processes exist in the coal-fired utility industry (3). The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed a 2-year technical assessment of petroleum coke as a supplemental fuel. A survey questionnaire was sent to seven electric utility companies that are currently cofiring coal and petroleum coke in an effort to solicit specific suggestions on research needs and fuel selections. An example of the letter and survey questionnaire is presented in Appendix A. Interest was expressed by most utilities in evaluating the effects of petroleum coke blending on grindability, combustion reactivity, fouling, slagging, and fly ash emissions control. Unexpectedly, concern over corrosion was not expressed by the utilities contacted. Although all seven utilities responded to the question, only two utilities, Northern States Power Company (NSP) and Ameren, sent fuels to the EERC for evaluation. Both utilities sent subbituminous coals from the Power River Basin and petroleum shot coke samples. Petroleum shot coke is produced unintentionally during operational upsets in the petroleum refining process. This report evaluates the effects of petroleum shot coke blending on grindability, fuel reactivity, fouling/slagging, and

  2. 63. Refrigerator, microwave oven, storage cabinet open, north side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. Refrigerator, microwave oven, storage cabinet open, north side - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  3. 62. Refrigerator, microwave oven, equipment storage at top, north side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. Refrigerator, microwave oven, equipment storage at top, north side - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  4. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (LN) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (L-N) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING NORTHEAST AT A C. 1932 CHICAGO PNEUMATIC COMPRESSOR. (NOT ORIGINAL LOCATION). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  5. PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE CYANAMIDE (LN) OVEN BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE CYANAMIDE (L-N) OVEN BUILDING, AMMONIA SPHERES IN FOREGROUND. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  6. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (LN) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (L-N) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING WEST AT INGERSOLL-RAND COMPRESSORS #BE565 & 564. (NOT ORIGINAL LOCATION). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  7. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (LN) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (L-N) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING NORTHWEST AT A C. 1932 CHICAGO PNEUMATIC COMPRESSOR. (NOT ORIGINAL LOCATION). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  8. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (LN) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CYANAMIDE (L-N) OVEN BUILDING LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT INGERSOLL-RAND COMPRESSORS #BE565 & 564. (NOT ORIGINAL LOCATION). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  9. 7. FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR, DETAIL OF FISH SMOKING OVEN LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR, DETAIL OF FISH SMOKING OVEN LOCATED IN NORTH END OF BUILDING, ALONG WEST WALL; LOOKING WEST - Gerber Sheet Metal Works Building, 128 Porthand Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  10. Controllable evaporation of cesium from a dispenser oven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantz, U.; Friedl, R.; Fröschle, M.

    2012-12-01

    This instrument allows controlled evaporation of the alkali metal cesium over a wide range of evaporation rates. The oven has three unique features. The first is an alkali metal reservoir that uses a dispenser as a cesium source. The heating current of the dispenser controls the evaporation rate allowing generation of an adjustable and stable flow of pure cesium. The second is a blocking valve, which is fully metallic as is the body of the oven. This construction both reduces contamination of the dispenser and enables the oven to be operated up to 300 °C, with only small temperature variations (<5 °C). By minimizing the temperature variation, the built up of the alkali metal at a cold spot is significantly hindered. The last feature is an integral surface ionization detector for measuring and controlling the evaporation rate. The dispenser oven can be easily transferred to the other alkali-metals.

  11. 36. POT IN OVEN NO. 9. MEASURING STICK IS USED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. POT IN OVEN NO. 9. MEASURING STICK IS USED TO MAKE SURE THAT POT IS ALL THE WAY IN. - Seneca Glass Company Factory, Beechurst Avenue between Sixth & Eighth Streets, Morgantown, Monongalia County, WV

  12. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance. Although the blending of petroleum coke with coal may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

  13. Microwave ovens and food safety: preparation of Not-Ready-to-Eat products in standard and smart ovens.

    PubMed

    Schiffmann, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of several Not-Ready-to-Eat (NRTE) products, beginning in 2007, has resulted in several recalls and has caused serious concerns about their safe-cooking in microwave ovens. These products are not fully-thermally processed prior to sale but depend upon the consumer to finish cooking them to the safe minimum temperatures, defined by the USDA, in order to destroy any sources of foodborne illnesses. While microwave ovens are a primary means of this finish-cooking step, they are known to cook foods unevenly in terms of temperature distribution, especially from a frozen state, and this may cause parts of the food to be below the required safe-temperature. Hence there are concerns regarding how reliably microwave ovens can provide the minimum required safe temperatures in order to avoid the possibility of foodborne illnesses. To determine this, temperature profiling tests were preformed upon three frozen NRTE entrées, heating them in eight new brand-name 1100-watt and 1200-watt microwave ovens in order to evaluate how well the minimum temperatures were reached throughout the products. By comparison, these same tests were repeated using three "smart" microwave ovens in which internal computer-control makes them user-independent. In addition, a comparison was also made of the microwave output power claimed by the manufacturers of these ovens to that determined using the IEC procedures.

  14. Regeneration performance and carbon consumption of semi-coke and activated coke for SO₂ and NO removal.

    PubMed

    Ding, Song; Li, Yuran; Zhu, Tingyu; Guo, Yangyang

    2015-08-01

    To decrease the operating cost of flue gas purification technologies based on carbon-based materials, the adsorption and regeneration performance of low-price semi-coke and activated coke were compared for SO2 and NO removal in a simulated flue gas. The functional groups of the two adsorbents before and after regeneration were characterized by a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, and were quantitatively assessed using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) coupled with FTIR and acid-base titration. The results show that semi-coke had higher adsorption capacity (16.2% for SO2 and 38.6% for NO) than activated coke because of its higher content of basic functional groups and lactones. After regeneration, the adsorption performance of semi-coke decreased because the number of active functional groups decreased and the micropores increased. Semi-coke had better regeneration performance than activated coke. Semi-coke had a larger SO2 recovery of 7.2% and smaller carbon consumption of 12% compared to activated coke. The semi-coke carbon-based adsorbent could be regenerated at lower temperatures to depress the carbon consumption, because the SO2 recovery was only reduced a small amount.

  15. Regeneration performance and carbon consumption of semi-coke and activated coke for SO₂ and NO removal.

    PubMed

    Ding, Song; Li, Yuran; Zhu, Tingyu; Guo, Yangyang

    2015-08-01

    To decrease the operating cost of flue gas purification technologies based on carbon-based materials, the adsorption and regeneration performance of low-price semi-coke and activated coke were compared for SO2 and NO removal in a simulated flue gas. The functional groups of the two adsorbents before and after regeneration were characterized by a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, and were quantitatively assessed using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) coupled with FTIR and acid-base titration. The results show that semi-coke had higher adsorption capacity (16.2% for SO2 and 38.6% for NO) than activated coke because of its higher content of basic functional groups and lactones. After regeneration, the adsorption performance of semi-coke decreased because the number of active functional groups decreased and the micropores increased. Semi-coke had better regeneration performance than activated coke. Semi-coke had a larger SO2 recovery of 7.2% and smaller carbon consumption of 12% compared to activated coke. The semi-coke carbon-based adsorbent could be regenerated at lower temperatures to depress the carbon consumption, because the SO2 recovery was only reduced a small amount. PMID:26257344

  16. Coking rates in a laboratory pyrolysis furnace: Liquid petroleum feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Leftin, H.P.; Newsome, D.S.

    1987-05-01

    Integral rates of coking for 14 feedstocks (light naphtha to vacuum gas oil) and mixtures of these were determined in a laboratory pyrolysis furnace between 815 and 943/sup 0/C and between 70 and 340 ms. These can be ranked as severe coking (S.C) and low coking (L.C.) feedstocks and are characterized by production of filamentous and amorphous (encapsulating) coke, respectively. Admixture of a L.C. feedstock in greater than a critical minimum amount of a S.C. feedstock imparts a natural inhibition on the coking rate of the S.C. feedstock, so that the coking rate of the mixture mimics that of the L.C. component.

  17. Toxicological assessment of green petroleum coke.

    PubMed

    McKee, Richard H; Herron, Deborah; Beatty, Patrick; Podhasky, Paula; Hoffman, Gary M; Swigert, James; Lee, Carol; Wong, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Green petroleum coke is primarily inorganic carbon with some entrained volatile hydrocarbon material. As part of the petroleum industry response to the high production volume challenge program, the potential for reproductive effects was assessed in a subchronic toxicity/reproductive toxicity screening test in rats (OECD 421). The repeated-dose portion of the study provided evidence for dust accumulation and inflammatory responses in rats exposed to 100 and 300 mg/m(3) but there were no effects at 30 mg/m(3). In the reproductive toxicity screen, the frequency of successful matings was reduced in the high exposure group (300 mg/m(3)) and was not significantly different from control values but was outside the historical experience of the laboratory. The postnatal observations (external macroscopic examination, body weight, and survival) did not indicate any treatment-related differences. Additional tests conducted to assess the potential hazards to aquatic (fish, invertebrates, and algae) and soil dwelling organisms (earthworms and vascular plants) showed few effects at the maximum loading rates of 1000 mg coke/L in aquatic studies and 1000 mg coke/kg soil in terrestrial studies. The only statistically significant finding was an inhibition of algal growth measured as either biomass or growth rate.

  18. Toxicological assessment of green petroleum coke.

    PubMed

    McKee, Richard H; Herron, Deborah; Beatty, Patrick; Podhasky, Paula; Hoffman, Gary M; Swigert, James; Lee, Carol; Wong, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Green petroleum coke is primarily inorganic carbon with some entrained volatile hydrocarbon material. As part of the petroleum industry response to the high production volume challenge program, the potential for reproductive effects was assessed in a subchronic toxicity/reproductive toxicity screening test in rats (OECD 421). The repeated-dose portion of the study provided evidence for dust accumulation and inflammatory responses in rats exposed to 100 and 300 mg/m(3) but there were no effects at 30 mg/m(3). In the reproductive toxicity screen, the frequency of successful matings was reduced in the high exposure group (300 mg/m(3)) and was not significantly different from control values but was outside the historical experience of the laboratory. The postnatal observations (external macroscopic examination, body weight, and survival) did not indicate any treatment-related differences. Additional tests conducted to assess the potential hazards to aquatic (fish, invertebrates, and algae) and soil dwelling organisms (earthworms and vascular plants) showed few effects at the maximum loading rates of 1000 mg coke/L in aquatic studies and 1000 mg coke/kg soil in terrestrial studies. The only statistically significant finding was an inhibition of algal growth measured as either biomass or growth rate. PMID:24179031

  19. Reducing power production costs by utilizing petroleum coke. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Galbreath, K.C.

    1998-07-01

    A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

  20. Visualization of coke state in hydraulic decoking process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qian; Tong, Xinglin; Deng, Chengwei; Zhang, Cui; Huang, Di; Chen, Liang; Xiong, Jiaguo

    2016-05-01

    The relationship model of the sound signal and the coke state can be established through multiple test and comparison of the noise signal and the coke operation. By collecting data, we summarize the main frequency power fluctuation range of the sound signal in kinds of state, and extract the nearest 5 decision results for reference. The weighted value of each result according to the update time has gradually increased. On the basis of that, we developed visualization software, real-time reflect out coke coking tower state. Animation refresh rate is second level, and the vertical height can be accurate to 0.1m.

  1. Estimation and characterization of polychlorinated naphthalene emission from coking industries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Lv, Pu; Liu, Wenbin; Wang, Chengzhi; Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Ke

    2010-11-01

    Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the coking process has been widely recognized. The formation of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) from PAHs during some thermal related processes has been confirmed in many studies. Thus, the coking process is assumed to be a potential source of PCNs. However, intensive investigations on PCN emissions during the coking process are lacking. In order to evaluate PCN emissions from the coking process, an intensive study comprising 11 typical coke plants was undertaken. PCNs were qualified and quantified by isotope dilution HRGC/HRMS techniques. The concentrations of PCNs in stack gas samples collected from the investigated coke plants were in the range of 1.6-91.8 ng Nm(-3) (0.08-4.23 pg TEQ Nm(-3)). The emission factors of PCNs were found to be in the range of 0.77-1.24 ng TEQ per ton of coke production. The estimated annual toxic emissions of PCNs from the global coking industry vary from 430 to 692 mg TEQs. Characteristics of the PCN profiles were dominated by the lower chlorinated homologues, with mono-CN being the most abundant homologue. According to the PCN distribution and correlations of PCN homologues, it was speculated that chlorination is possibly the dominant pathway of PCN formation during the coking process.

  2. Discrete transistor measuring and matching using a solid core oven.

    PubMed

    Inkinen, M; Mäkelä, K; Vuorela, T; Palovuori, K

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents transistor measurements done at a constant temperature. The aim in this research was to develop a reliable and repeatable method for measuring and searching transistor pairs with similar parameters, as in certain applications it is advantageous to use transistors from the same production batch due to the significant variability in batches from different manufacturers. Transistor manufacturing methods are well established, but due to the large variability in tolerance, not even transistors from the same manufacturing batch have identical properties. Transistors' electrical properties are also strongly temperature-dependent. Therefore, when measuring transistor properties, the temperature must be kept constant. For the measurement process, a solid-core oven providing stable temperature was implemented. In the oven, the base-to-emitter voltage (VBE) and DC-current gain (β) of 32 transistors could be measured simultaneously. The oven's temperature was controlled with a programmable thermostat, which allowed accurate constant temperature operation. The oven is formed by a large metal block with an individual chamber for each transistor to be measured. Isolation of individual transistors and the highly thermally conductive metal core structure prevent thermal coupling between transistors. The oven enables repeatable measurements, and thus measurements between different batches are comparable. In this research study, the properties of over 5000 transistors were measured and the variance of the aforementioned properties was analyzed.

  3. Alternative control technology document for bakery oven emissions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, C.W.

    1992-12-01

    The document was produced in response to a request by the baking industry for Federal guidance to assist in providing a more uniform information base for State decision-making with regard to control of bakery oven emissions. The information in the document pertains to bakeries that produce yeast-leavened bread, rolls, buns, and similar products but not crackers, sweet goods, or baked foodstuffs that are not yeast leavened. Information on the baking processes, equipment, operating parameters, potential emissions from baking, and potential emission control options are presented. Catalytic and regenerative oxidation are identified as the most appropriate existing control technologies applicable to VOC emissions from bakery ovens. Cost analyses for catalytic and regenerative oxidation are included. A predictive formula for use in estimating oven emissions has been derived from source tests done in junction with the development of the document. Its use and applicability are described.

  4. Slow cooker vs. oven preparation of meat loaves and chicken.

    PubMed

    Peters, C R; Sinwell, D D; Van Duyne, F O

    1983-10-01

    Meat loaves and chickens prepared by recommended methods for a slow electric cooker were not in the hazardous temperature zone long enough to allow appreciable growth of bacteria that might cause food-borne illness. Total plate counts were reduced to a greater extent than they were when meat loaves and chickens were prepared by conventional methods in a gas oven. Presumptive coliforms, C. perfringens, and coagulase positive staphylococci were not detected after either method of cooking. Other parameters of quality indicated that conventional methods of baking meat loaves and roasting chickens were superior to preparation in a slow electric cooker. Drip losses were significantly greater, as were total cooking losses (except for total losses for chickens in Experiment 2), when a slow electric cooker was used. All mean palatability scores except for interior color in meat loaves and tenderness in chickens were significantly higher after preparation in an oven. Significantly more thiamin was retained in oven-cooked meat loaves and chickens.

  5. Container for heat treating materials in microwave ovens

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.; Kimrey, Jr., Harold D.; Mills, James E.

    1989-01-01

    The efficiency of a microwave oven of a conventional two-source configuration and energy level is increased by providing the oven with a container for housing a refractory material to be treated. The container is formed of top and bottom walls transparent to microwaves while the sidewalls, in a circular configuration, are formed of a nonmetallic material opaque to microwave radiation reflecting the radiation penetrating the top and bottom walls radially inwardly into the center of the container wherein a casket of heat-insulating material is provided for housing the material to be heat treated. The reflection of the microwave radiation from the sidewalls increases the concentration of the microwaves upon the material being heat treated while the casket retains the heat to permit the heating of the material to a substantially higher temperature than achieveable in the oven without the container.

  6. A container for heat treating materials in microwave ovens

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Kimrey, H.D. Jr.; Mills, J.E.

    1988-01-26

    The efficiency of a microwave oven of a conventional two-source configuration and energy level is increased by providing the oven with a container for housing a refractory material to be treated. The container is formed to top and bottom walls transparent to microwaves while the sidewalls, in a circular configuration, are formed of a nonmetallic material opaque to microwave radiation for reflecting the radiation penetrating the top and bottom walls radially inwardly into the center of the container wherein a casket of heat-insulating material is provided for housing the material to be heat treated. The reflection of the microwave radiation from the sidewalls increases the concentration of the microwaves upon the material being heat treated while the concentration of the microwaves upon the material being heat treated while the casket retains the heat to permit the heating of the material to a substantially higher temperature than achievable in the oven without the container.

  7. Testing of the Burns-Milwaukee`s Sun Oven

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, T.A.

    1997-03-01

    A Burns-Milwaukee Sun Oven was tested at Sandia`s Solar Thermal Test Facility. It was instrumented with five type K thermocouples to determine warm-up rates when empty and when a pot containing two liters of water was placed inside. It reached inside air temperatures above 160{degrees}C (320{degrees}F). It heated two liters of water from room temperatures to 80{degrees}C, (175{degrees}F), in 75 minutes. Observations were also made on the cooling and reheating rates during a cloud passage. The adverse effects of wind on operation of the solar oven was also noted.

  8. Dry purification of aspirational air in coke-sorting systems with wet slaking of coke

    SciTech Connect

    T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko

    2009-07-15

    Coke transportation after wet slaking is accompanied by the release of dust in the production building and in the surrounding atmosphere. Wet methods are traditionally used to purify very humid air. Giprokoks has developed designs for highly efficient dry dust-removal methods in such conditions.

  9. Comparison of the tribological properties of fluorinated cokes and graphites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    The friction, wear, endurance life, and surface morphology of rubbed (burnished) fluorinated graphite and fluorinated coke materials were studied. Two different coke powders, a graphitic carbon powder, and a graphite powder were fluorinated and then tribologically investigated. In addition, one of the coke powders was reduced in size before fluorinating to evaluate the effect of a finer particle size on the tribological properties. For comparison, graphite and coke powders which were not fluorinated were also tribologically evaluated. Elemental analysis by emission spectroscopy was performed on each sample to determine the impurity content and X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to determine the crystallinity. Coke was found to have very little lubricating ability, but fluorinated coke did possess good lubricating properties. However, the fluorinated graphite and fluorinated graphitic carbon (which gave equivalent results) gave superior results to those obtained with the fluorinated cokes. No tribological benefit was found for using small versus a larger particle size of coke, at least when evaluated as a rubbed film.

  10. Comparison of the tribological properties of fluorinated cokes and graphites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    The friction, wear, endurance life, and surface morphology of rubbed (burnished) fluorinated graphite and fluorinated coke materials were studied. Two different coke powders, a graphitic carbon powder, and a graphite powder were fluorinated and then tribologically investigated. In addition, one of the coke powders was reduced in size before fluorinating to evaluate the effect of a finer particle size on the tribological properties. For comparison, graphite and coke powders which were not fluorinated were also tribologically evaluated. Elemental analysis by emission spectroscopy was performed on each sample to determine the impurity content and X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to determine the crystallinity. Coke was found to have very little lubricating ability, but fluorinated coke did possess good lubricating properties. However, the fluorinated graphite and fluorinated graphitic carbon (which gave equivalent results) gave superior results to those obtained with the fluorinated cokes. No tribological benefit was found for using small versus a larger particle size of coke, at least when evaluated as a rubbed film.

  11. "Fishing" of heteropolyacids into carbonaceous seine via coking.

    PubMed

    Sushkevich, Vitaly L; Ivanova, Irina I; Lancelot, Christine; Moldovan, Simona; Ersen, Ovidiu; Ordomsky, Vitaly V

    2015-12-14

    The carbon encapsulated tungstophosphoric acid was synthesized by the controlled coking during gas phase reaction of formaldehyde with isobutene. The as-made material showed unique stability toward leaching in the aqueous phase due to localization of HPA clusters inside the porous coke matrix with high activity in the esterification reaction. PMID:26451706

  12. Physicochemical characterization of coke-plant soil for the assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon availability and the feasibility of phytoremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, S.; Werner, D.; Luthy, R.G.

    2005-09-01

    Coke oven site soil was characterized to assess the particle association and availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We identified various carbonaceous materials including coal, coke, pitch, and tar decanter sludge. Most of the PAHs were associated with the polymeric matrix of tar sludge or hard pitch as discrete particles, coatings on soil mineral particles, or complex aggregates. The PAH availability from these particles was very low due to hindered diffusive release from solid tar or pitch with apparent diffusivities of 6 x 10{sup -15} for phenanthrene, 3 x 10{sup -15} for pyrene, and 1 x 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2}/s for benzo(a)pyrene. Significant concentrations of PAHs were observed in the interior of solid tar aggregates with up to 40,000 mg/kg total PAHs. The release of PAHs from the interior of such particles requires diffusion over a substantial distance, and semipermeable membrane device tests confirmed a very limited availability of PAHs. These findings explain the results from three years of phytoremediation of the site soil, for which no significant changes in the total PAH concentrations were observed in the test plot samples. The observed low bioavailability of PAHs probably inhibited PAH phytoremediation, as diffusion-limited mass transfer would limit the release of PAHs to the aqueous phase.

  13. Coke Deposition and Smoke Formation in Turbojet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, R. R.; Wear, J. D.

    1956-01-01

    In the early development of jet engines, it was occasionally found that excessive amounts of coke or other carbonaceous deposits were formed in the combustion chamber. Sometimes a considerable amount of smoke was noted in the-exhaust gases. Excessive coke deposits may adversely affect jet-engine performance in several ways. The formation of excessive amounts of coke on or just downstream of a fuel nozzle (figs. 116(a) and (b)) changes the fuel-spray pattern and possibly affects combustor life and performance. Similar effects on performance can result from the deposition of coke on primary-air entry ports (fig. 116(c)). Sea-level or altitude starting may be impaired by the deposition of coke on spark-plug electrodes (fig. 116(b)), deposits either grounding the electrodes completely or causing the spark to occur at positions other than the intended gap. For some time it was thought that large deposits of coke in turbojet combustion chambers (fig. 116(a)) might break away and damage turbine blades; however, experience has indicated that for metal blades this problem is insignificant. (Cermet turbine blades may be damaged by loose coke deposits.) Finally, the deposition of coke may cause high-temperature areas, which promote liner warping and cracking (fig. 116(d)) from excessive temperature gradients and variations in thermal-expansion rates. Smoke in the exhaust gases does not generally impair engine performance but may be undesirable from a tactical or a nuisance standpoint. Appendix B of reference 1 and references 2 to 4 present data obtained from full-scale engines operated on test stands and from flight tests that indicate some effects on performance caused by coke deposits and smoke. Some information about the mechanism of coke formation is given in reference 5 and chapter IX. The data indicate that (1) high-boiling fuel residuals and partly polymerized products may be mixed with a large amount of smoke formed in the gas phase to account for the consistency

  14. Microwave Oven Experiments with Metals and Light Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Michael; Mollmann, Klaus-Peter; Karstadt, Detlef

    2004-01-01

    "Don't put metal objects in the microwave" is common safety advice. But why? Here we describe demonstration experiments involving placing household metallic objects in a microwave oven. These allow a better understanding of the interaction of microwaves with materials. Light bulbs and discharge lamps can also be used in instructive demonstrations.

  15. Construction of an Inexpensive Copper Heat-Pipe Oven

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, T. T.; Hockensmith, W. A.; Cheviron, N.; Grieser, W.; Dill, R.; Masters, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new, low-cost method of building an all copper heat-pipe oven that increases the practicality of this device in advanced undergraduate instructional labs. The construction parts are available at local hardware and plumbing supply stores, and the assembly techniques employed are simple and require no machining. (Contains 1 footnote, 3…

  16. Direct oven-tempered hybrid composite-resin laminate veneers.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, N S

    1992-01-01

    The difficulty in achieving optimal aesthetics of the single-tooth indirect laminate veneer has prompted the author to develop a direct technique for fabricating oven-tempered hybrid composite resin veneers. These restorations exhibit excellent physical properties, marginal integrity, and aesthetics.

  17. 34. DESPATCH CORE OVENS, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM, BAKES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DESPATCH CORE OVENS, GREY IRON FOUNDRY CORE ROOM, BAKES CORES THAT ARE NOT MADE ON HEATED OR COLD BOX CORE MACHINES, TO SET BINDING AGENTS MIXED WITH THE SAND CREATING CORES HARD ENOUGH TO WITHSTAND THE FLOW OF MOLTEN IRON INSIDE A MOLD. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  18. Oven Evaporates Isopropyl Alcohol Without Risk Of Explosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Hoult, William S.

    1996-01-01

    Ordinary convection oven with capacity of 1 ft.(sup3) modified for use in drying objects washed in isopropyl alcohol. Nitrogen-purge equipment and safety interlocks added to prevent explosive ignition of flammable solvent evaporating from object to be dried.

  19. OVEN & LAVA Subsystems in the RESOLVE Payload for Resource Prospector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Captain, Janine E.

    2015-01-01

    A short briefing in Power Point of the status of the OVEN subsystem and the LAVA subsystems of the RESOLVE payload being developed under the Resource Prospector mission. The purpose of the mission is to sample and analyze volatile ices embedded in the lunar soil at the poles of the Moon and is expected to be conducted in the 2020 time frame.

  20. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2: Supporting appendices, oven study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Calculations and data regarding the development of a galley oven for use in the space shuttle are presented. Heat flow, heat transfer, and food heating characteristics are given for various oven designs. A design approach to guarantee structural reliability is also presented, in which the oven closure, door, and basic mounting points are considered.

  1. Coke formation during pyrolysis of 1,2-dichloroethane

    SciTech Connect

    Holmen, A.; Lindvag, O.A.

    1995-12-31

    Most processes involving hydrocarbons or carbon oxides at high temperatures suffer from the disadvantage of coke formation. The formation of coke deposits during pyrolysis of hydrocarbons or chlorinated hydrocarbons is of significant practical importance. Examples of such processes are the steam cracking of alkanes to produce olefins and the thermal decomposition of 1,2-dichloroethane (EDC) for the production of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). Even id the rate of coke production is low, the cumulative nature of the solid product will result in reactor fouling. The present work deals with the thermal decomposition of EDC. Coke formation has been studied on metal surfaces in a quartz tubular reactor. The rate of coke deposition was measures on metal foils hanging from one arm of a microbalance. A complete analysis of the product gas was accomplished using on-line gas chromatography. The results show that coke deposition during thermal decomposition of EDC depends on the composition of the feed as well as on the nature of the surface of the metal foil. Small amounts of other components (contamination with other chlorinated hydrocarbons as an example) may have a large influence on the rate of coke formation. The results are discussed in terms of surface composition/morphology of the metal foil and the free radical mechanism for thermal decomposition of FDC.

  2. Coke mineral transformations in the experimental blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Kelli Kazuberns; Sushil Gupta; Mihaela Grigore; David French; Richard Sakurovs; Mats Hallin; Bo Lindblom; Veena Sahajwalla

    2008-09-15

    Blast furnace efficiency may be improved by optimizing coke reactivity. Some but not all forms of mineral matter in the coke modify its reactivity, but changes in mineral matter that occur within coke while in the blast furnace have not been fully quantified. To determine changes in mineral matter forms in the blast furnace, coke samples from a dissection study in the LKAB experimental blast furnace (EBF) were characterized using SEM/EDS analysis, EPMA (microprobe), and low-temperature ashing/quantitative XRD analysis. Variations in alkali concentration, particularly potassium, dominated the compositional changes. At high concentrations of potassium, the mineral matter was largely potassium-bearing but even more potassium was diffused throughout the coke and not associated with mineral matter. There was little difference in potassium concentration between the core and surface of the coke pieces, suggesting that potassium diffused rapidly through the whole coke. Iron, calcium, silicon, and aluminum concentrations were relatively constant in comparison, although the mineralogy of all elements changed significantly with changing temperature. 23 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Research on the evolvement of morphology of coking coal during the coking process.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiangyun; Wu, Shiyong; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Zhenning; Zhang, Yaru; Bai, Jinfeng; Xu, Jun; Xi, Bai

    2013-12-01

    The evolvement of morphology and structure of the coal with different metamorphic degrees during coking process in the vertical furnace was investigated by infrared Image detector. Moreover, the temperature distribution in the radial direction and the crack formation were also studied in heating process. The results show that the amount of crack and the shrinkage level of char decrease with the coal rank rising. In addition, the initial temperature of crack formation for char increases with the coal rank rising.

  4. Variation in coke properties within the blast-furnace shop

    SciTech Connect

    E.N. Stepanov; I.I. Mel'nikov; V.P. Gridasov; A.A. Stepanova

    2009-04-15

    In active production at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (MMK), samples of melt materials were taken during shutdown and during planned repairs at furnaces 1 and 8. In particular, coke was taken from the tuyere zone at different distances from the tuyere tip. The mass of the point samples was 2-15 kg, depending on the sampling zone. The material extracted from each zone underwent magnetic separation and screening by size class. The resulting coke sample was averaged out and divided into parts: one for determining the granulometric composition and mechanical strength; and the other for technical analysis and determination of the physicochemical properties of the coke.

  5. Characteristics of laboratory-coked resid HDS catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgart, J. Wang, Y.; Ernst, W.R. )

    1990-12-01

    A sample of commercial residual oil hydrotreating catalyst with a bimodal pore structure was coked to progressively higher levels with styrene at 425{degree}C. Measurements of porosity by mercury intrusion-extrusion porosimetry, nitrogen adsorption-desorption porosimetry, and coronene diffusivity reveal the importance of the pore network to the structure of the coked catalyst. The role played by 'shielded' large pores within the structure is demonstrated. It is proposed that coking first occurs at the junctions between large, shielded pores and narrow connecting pores. The results are discussed in terms of the theoretical predictions of Mann and co-workers.

  6. Device for drying and preheating coking coal

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, V.; Durselen, H.

    1984-11-13

    In order to preserve the quality of treated coking coal, the drying and preheating operation is performed in consecutive stages. For this purpose, a set of superimposed containers is provided with vertically oriented pipes for a heating medium, the pipes in each container having separate inlets and outlets. The bottom region of each container is further provided with horizontally directed pipes having separate inlet and outlet for receiving a pressure medium which is discharged into the bottom region of each container to produce a whirling bed of the coal. In this manner, the coal is preliminarily dried in the uppermost container, then additionally dried and preheated in the intermediate container, and heated to the desired final temperature in the lowermost container.

  7. Dry-heat Depyrogenation Ovens for Pharmaceutical Compounding Facilities.

    PubMed

    Weller, Tom; Kragseth, Rolf; Dullinger, Roger; Illum, Henrik; Perry, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Sterilization kills microorganisms in compounded preparations, on the implements used to prepare them, and on the vessels that contain them, but depyrogenation incinerates the remaining debris and renders the treated tool, container, or meditation pyrogen free. Depyrogenation is thus an essential step in the preparation of sterile compounds, and the pharmacist who dispenses those formulations is directly responsible for ensuring their safety, potency, and purity. Dry heat provided by a depyrogenation oven or tunnel is the pharmaceutical gold standard for ensuring the elimination of pyrogens. In this report, we describe several depyrogenation ovens that are compliant with Current Good Manufacturing Practice standards and are appropriate for use in aseptic-compounding facilities that meet the guidelines set forth in United States Pharmacopela Chapter <797>. PMID:26714359

  8. Slow cooker vs. oven preparation of meat loaves and chicken.

    PubMed

    Peters, C R; Sinwell, D D; Van Duyne, F O

    1983-10-01

    Meat loaves and chickens prepared by recommended methods for a slow electric cooker were not in the hazardous temperature zone long enough to allow appreciable growth of bacteria that might cause food-borne illness. Total plate counts were reduced to a greater extent than they were when meat loaves and chickens were prepared by conventional methods in a gas oven. Presumptive coliforms, C. perfringens, and coagulase positive staphylococci were not detected after either method of cooking. Other parameters of quality indicated that conventional methods of baking meat loaves and roasting chickens were superior to preparation in a slow electric cooker. Drip losses were significantly greater, as were total cooking losses (except for total losses for chickens in Experiment 2), when a slow electric cooker was used. All mean palatability scores except for interior color in meat loaves and tenderness in chickens were significantly higher after preparation in an oven. Significantly more thiamin was retained in oven-cooked meat loaves and chickens. PMID:6619457

  9. Determination of optimum oven cooking procedures for lean beef products.

    PubMed

    Rodas-González, Argenis; Larsen, Ivy L; Uttaro, Bethany; Juárez, Manuel; Parslow, Joyce; Aalhus, Jennifer L

    2015-11-01

    In order to determine optimum oven cooking procedures for lean beef, the effects of searing at 232 or 260°C for 0, 10, 20 or 30 min, and roasting at 160 or 135°C on semimembranosus (SM) and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscles were evaluated. In addition, the optimum determined cooking method (oven-seared for 10 min at 232°C and roasted at 135°C) was applied to SM roasts varying in weight from 0.5 to 2.5 kg. Mainly, SM muscles seared for 0 or 10 min at 232°C followed by roast at 135°C had lower cooking loss, higher external browning color, more uniform internal color, and were more tender and flavorful (P < 0.05). Roast weights ≥1 kg had lesser cooking loss, more uniform internal color and tender compared to 0.5 kg (P < 0.05). Consequently, roasting at low temperature without searing is the recommended oven cooking procedure; with best response from muscle roast weight ≥1 kg.

  10. 71. WESTWARD VIEW OF COKE BIN INSIDE OF THE SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. WESTWARD VIEW OF COKE BIN INSIDE OF THE SOUTH STOCKHOUSE FOR DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  11. RESIDUA UPGRADING EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT MODELS: WRI COKING INDEXES

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.; Francis P. Miknis; Thomas F. Turner

    2003-06-01

    Pyrolysis experiments were conducted with three residua at 400 C (752 F) at various residence times. The wt % coke and gaseous products were measured for the product oils. The Western Research Institute (WRI) Coking Indexes were determined for the product oils. Measurements were made using techniques that might correlate with the Coking Indexes. These included spin-echo proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, heat capacity measurements at 280 C (536 F), and ultrasonic attenuation. The two immiscible liquid phases that form once coke formation begins were isolated and characterized for a Boscan residuum pyrolyzed at 400 C (752 F) for 55 minutes. These materials were analyzed for elemental composition (CHNS), porphyrins, and metals (Ni,V) content.

  12. Experimental research on quality features of metallurgical coke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrei, V.; Constantin, N.

    2015-06-01

    From all the solid fuels, the metallurgical coke is the most used in obtaining iron in the blast furnace. Together with the iron ore, manganese ore and fluxes, it constitutes the basis of raw materials and materials for elaborating pig iron. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations by the authors to determine the most important quality characteristics of some types of coke used in the blast furnace charge.

  13. Electromagnetic interference of implantable unipolar cardiac pacemakers by an induction oven.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Minoru; Hida, Mizuho; Sato, Eiji; Kokubo, Kenichi; Nie, Masaki; Kobayashi, Hirosuke

    2005-06-01

    Induction ovens have been reported to exert electromagnetic interference on implanted cardiac pacemakers. In an attempt to quantitatively investigate the electromagnetic interference caused by an induction oven on implantable unipolar cardiac pacemakers, we measured the distribution profile of the magnetic field intensity, both with and without a pan on the induction oven. We also performed the inhibition test and asynchronous test using four kinds of pacemakers housed in the standardized Irnich human body model, and measured the maximal distance from the induction oven up to which the interference occurred. In the pan-detection mode of the oven in the absence of a pan, the distribution profile of the magnetic field intensity peaked at the center of the cooking plate, and during induction heating of a pan placed on the induction oven, it was the largest at the circular top-edge of the pan. Pacemaker pulses were inhibited by the induction oven, or generated by the reversion mechanism. The maximal interference distance from the oven was 34 cm for one of the pacemakers. Thus, the safe distance from an induction oven of a patient with an implanted cardiac pacemaker is considered to be 50 cm or more. In conclusion, in the pan-detection mode of the oven in the absence of a pan, the distribution profile of the magnetic field intensity peaked at the center of the cooking plate, and during the induction heating of a pan placed on the oven, it peaked at the circular edge of the pan. The induction oven asynchronized or generated pulses in implantable unipolar cardiac pacemakers up to a maximal distance of 34 cm from the induction oven.

  14. Prediction of metallurgical coke strength from the petrographic composition of coal blends

    SciTech Connect

    Sutcu, H.; Toroglu, I.; Piskin, S.

    2009-07-01

    Turkey, especially Zonguldak on the West Coast of Black Sea region, has large reserves of bituminous coal that can be used either directly or in blends with other coals for metallurgical coke production. It is possible to predict the coking properties of these coals by petrographic analysis. In this study, semi- and non-coking coals were blended with coking bituminous coals in varying proportions and an estimation was made as to their stability factors through petrographic techniques. It was established that semi- and non-coking bituminous coals could be used in the production of metallurgical coke.

  15. Effect of different pH coking wastewater on adsorption of coking coal.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lihui; Li, Shulei; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-01-01

    H2SO4 has an effect on the sorption of organic contaminants by coking coal (CC) in wastewater. This paper focused on the effect of pH on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), phenols and ammonia. UV-vis spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectra, zeta potential and Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) analysis were investigated to characterize the changes of CC properties and coking wastewater (CW) at different pH values. The results showed that the COD and phenol removal efficiencies increased with decreasing pH value, while the ammonia removal efficiency was decreased gradually. A new transmittance band in the region of 340-600 cm(-1) was observed in UV-vis spectra of CW in acidic condition. The absolute value of the zeta potential as the solution was gradually increasing with the increasing of pH value. Surface area and total pore volume of CC which was immersed in acidic solutions measured by BET were much higher than that of raw CC. CC has a greater adsorption capacity to organic pollution in the acidic solution mainly by van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding. PMID:26877041

  16. Testing of the Sunstove Organization`s Sunstove Solar Oven

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, T.A.

    1997-03-01

    A Sunstove Organization`s Sunstove was tested at Sandia`s Solar Thermal Test Facility. It was instrumented with five type K thermocouples to determine warm-up rates when empty and when a pot containing two liters of water was placed inside. It reached inside air temperatures above 115{degrees}C (240{degrees}F). It heated two liters of water from room temperature to 80{degrees}C (175{degrees}F) in about two hours. Observations were made on the cooling and reheating rates during a cloud passage. The adverse effects of wind on the operation of the solar oven were also noted.

  17. Oxidizing Roasting Performances of Coke Fines Bearing Brazilian Specularite Pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Tiejun; Zhu, Deqing

    2016-06-01

    Oxidized pellets, consisting of Brazilian specularite fines and coke fines, were prepared by disc pelletizer using bentonite as binder. The roasting process of pellets includes preheating stage and firing stage. The compressive strength of preheated pellets and fired pellets reached the peak value at 1.5% coke fines dosage. During the initial stage of preheating, some original Fe2O3 was reduced to Fe3O4 because of partial reduction atmosphere in pellet. During the later stage of preheating and firing stage, coke fines were burnt out, and the secondary Fe2O3 (new generation Fe2O3) was generated due to the re-oxidization of Fe3O4, which improved the recrystallization of Fe2O3. Compared with the fired pellets without adding coke fines, fired pellets with 1.5% coke fines exhibited the comparable RSI (reduction swelling index) and RDI+3.15 mm (reduction degradation index), and slightly lower RI (reducibility index).

  18. 75 FR 11936 - USS Clairton Coke Works, Clairton, PA; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration USS Clairton Coke Works, Clairton, PA; Notice of Termination of... Coke Works, Clairton, Pennsylvania. The petitioner has requested that the petition be...

  19. Textural changes in metallurgical coke prepared with polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gornostayev, Stanislav S.; Heino, Jyrki J.; Kokkonen, Tommi M. T.; Makkonen, Hannu T.; Huttunen, Satu M. M.; Fabritius, Timo M. J.

    2014-10-01

    The effect of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) on the textural features of experimental coke was investigated using polarized-light optical microscopy and wavelet-based image analysis. Metallurgical coke samples were prepared in a laboratory-scale furnace with 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, 10.0%, and 12.5% HDPE by mass, and one sample was prepared by 100% coal. The amounts and distribution of textures (isotropic, mosaic and banded) and pores were obtained. The calculations reveal that the addition of HDPE results in a decrease of mosaic texture and an increase of isotropic texture. Ethylene formed from the decomposition of HDPE is considered as a probable reason for the texture modifications. The approach used in this study can be applied to indirect evaluation for the reactivity and strength of coke.

  20. Steps for green coke calcination -- Mathematical model and practical tests and experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Predel, H.

    1996-10-01

    The different steps for green coke calcination like: water evaporation, drying, VCM-evaporation, VCM burning, heating-up ramps, soaking period are calculated with a mathematical model. The results are compared with practical experiences for regular calcined coke production and with sampling programs during calcination process. The results are important for adjusting calcination conditions to achieve best calcined coke quality.

  1. Energy consumption for baking and characteristics of baked product in relation to type of oven and baking procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Nee, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Data were obtained and analyzed on 1) energy consumption when a test food was baked with four types of electric ovens (electric range oven, table model conventional oven, table model forced convection oven, and table model broiler/toaster oven) with three cooking procedures (participant's own procedure, preheated procedure, and cold start procedure); 2) patterns of energy consumption in 10-minute intervals; and 3) the characteristics of the finished food. Twenty participants from households in Columbus, Ohio, baked loaves of quick bread in a laboratory in the four types of ovens with three cooking procedures. Statistical analyses of data included analyses of variance, Tukey test, and Duncan's multiple range test. Significantly more energy was used with the participants' own procedures than with either the preheated or the cold start procedure (p < .01). There was no consistency in total energy consumption between the preheated and the cold start procedures in the four types of ovens. The electric range oven consumed significantly more energy than the other three types of ovens in the first 10-minute interval; however, the table model forced convection oven consumed significantly more energy than other ovens in the second and third 10-minute intervals. No consistent patterns were observed for volume and weight loss of breads baked with the three cooking procedures, but use of the table model forced convection oven always resulted in larger volume than with other ovens.

  2. Supercritical convection, critical heat flux, and coking characteristics of propane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousar, D. C.; Gross, R. S.; Boyd, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    The heat transfer characteristics of propane at subcritical and supercritical pressure were experimentally evaluated using electrically heated Monel K-500 tubes. A design correlation for supercritical heat transfer coefficient was established using the approach previously applied to supercritical oxygen. Flow oscillations were observed and the onset of these oscillations at supercritical pressures was correlated with wall-to-bulk temperature ratio and velocity. The critical heat flux measured at subcritical pressure was correlated with the product of velocity and subcooling. Long duration tests at fixed heat flux conditions were conducted to evaluate coking on the coolant side tube wall and coking rates comparable to RP-1 were observed.

  3. 77 FR 28805 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... test procedures for microwave ovens. 76 FR 12825. The March 2011 Interim Final Rule incorporated by... measurements and calculations in the conventional cooking products test procedure. 76 FR 72331 (Nov. 23, 2011... covered product for the DOE microwave oven test procedure. 76 FR 72332, 72336 (Nov. 23, 2011)....

  4. Temperature and weight loss profiles of model cakes baked in the microwave oven.

    PubMed

    Sumnu, G; Ndife, M K; Bayindirli, L

    1999-01-01

    Model cake systems were formulated with wheat and rice starches at hydration levels of 112.5% and 137.5% (flour weight basis) and baked in a microwave oven at power levels of 80% and 100%. Temperature profiles and weight loss profiles of the cakes baked in the microwave oven were compared with those of the cakes baked conventionally. One cake was baked at a time, and three replications of each treatment were used. Center and edge temperatures of microwave cakes increased significantly with increasing moisture content of the batter and oven power. Weight loss of the cakes was dependent on oven power, starch type and hydration levels. Cakes baked in the microwave oven had greater weight loss than the cakes baked in convection mode. Wheat starch cakes had greater volumes than rice starch cakes. Rice starch cakes were more tender than wheat starch cakes.

  5. Theoretical and experimental foundations for preparing coke for blast-furnace smelting

    SciTech Connect

    A.L. Podkorytov; A.M. Kuznetsov; E.N. Dymchenko; V.P. Padalka; S.L. Yaroshevskii; A.V. Kuzin

    2009-05-15

    This article examines the preparation of coke for blast-furnace smelting by a method that most fully meets the requirements of blast-furnace technology: screening of the -36 mm fraction, the separation of nut coke of the 15-36 mm fraction, and its charging into the furnace in a mixture with the iron-ore-bearing charge components. An analysis is made of trial use of coke of the Premium class on blast furnace No. 5 at the Enakievo Metallurgical Plant. Use of this coke makes it possible to reduce the consumption of skip coke by 3.2-4.1%.

  6. Properties of Spent Active Coke Particles Analysed via Comminution in Spouted Bed

    PubMed Central

    Buczek, Bronislaw

    2013-01-01

    Samples of active coke, fresh and spent after cleaning flue gases from communal waste incinerators, were investigated. The outer layers of both coke particles were separately removed by comminution in a spouted bed. The samples of both active cokes were analysed by means of densities, mercury porosimetry, and adsorption technique. Remaining cores were examined to determine the degree of consumption of coke by the sorption of hazardous emissions (SO2, HCl, and heavy metals) through its bed. Differences in contamination levels within the porous structure of the particles were estimated. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of commercial active coke in the cleaning of flue gases. PMID:24459454

  7. First TEGA Oven is Ready to Accept a Sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer instrument has been checked out and has been approved to accept the sample from the location informally called 'Baby Bear'. Although the doors did not fully open, tests have shown that enough sample will get in to fill the tiny oven. This image was taken on the eighth day of the Mars mission, or Sol 8 (June 2, 2008) by the Robotic Arm Camera aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Calorimetric radar absorptivity measurement using a microwave oven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.

    1999-06-01

    The measurement of the microwave absorptivity of materials typically requires expensive and arcane equipment and methods. I show that, for moderately absorbing materials (loss tangent icons/Journals/Common/delta" ALT="delta" ALIGN="TOP"/>icons/Journals/Common/simeq" ALT="simeq" ALIGN="TOP"/>0.005 or higher), useful measurements can be easily made using a thermometer and a normal domestic microwave oven: the heat absorbed for suitably designed sample size and geometry relates directly to the absorptivity. This technique, although not supremely accurate, is quick and inexpensive and may be useful for rapid investigations, educational projects and situations in which samples are awkward to handle. I show that water ice spiked with even only 0.2% ammonia is about three orders of magnitude more absorbing than is pure ice at -80 °C.

  9. Advanced oxidation processes with coke plant wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Krzywicka, A; Kwarciak-Kozłowska, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the most efficient method of coke wastewater treatment. This research examined two processes - advanced oxidation with Fenton and photo-Fenton reaction. It was observed that the use of ultraviolet radiation with Fenton process had a better result in removal of impurities.

  10. Coke resistant coating technology for applications in ethylene pyrolysis heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Alok Pratap Singh

    This dissertation begins with a description of the history of the events leading to ethylene pyrolysis tube failure. During service, hydrocarbons pass through the radiant heater coils at temperatures up to ˜ 1100 C. The catalytic activity between the feedstock and the tube wall leads to heterogeneous coke formation. The accumulation of coke, a homogeneous event, leads to localized temperature excursions, pressure variations, and potential tube plugging which all play a significant role in premature tube failure by creep and stress rupture. During normal operation, the tube metal temperature is frequently reduced to pass high pressure steam or steam air mixtures through the tubing to eliminate coke, a process know as decoking. At ˜ 1100 C, depending on the materials of construction, a variety of topologically close packed phases (eta, M 23C6, sigma, M7C3, etc.) form which can lead to premature tube failure by embrittlement during the decoke cycles. In this dissertation, two techniques are discussed which have the potential for overcoming premature tube failure: (1) upgrading the metallurgy to a material that forms a protective oxide coating at the service temperature and also shows resistance to the formation of topologically closed pack phases and (2) a novel technique which can deposit coke resisting coating on the inner diameter of pyrolysis tubing.

  11. Using the undersizes of Karaganda coals in coking charges

    SciTech Connect

    Muzychuk, V.D.; Chernyak, Yu.B.; Khegai, U.; Tyrchenkova, L.M.; Vasyuchkov, E.I.; Vlasova, Z.A.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements for coking coals have increased considerably in the Karaganda basin in connection with starting up the Vostochaya Central Concentrating Mill and coal treatment plant No. 2 of the Karaganda Metallurgical Complex, as well as in connection with the increase in the use of Karaganda coking coals which has taken place at the plants in the Ural and Ukraine regions. The problem of expanding the source of raw materials is of current interest due to the involvement of Karaganda coals with a high ash content in the charge. In this connection, undersizes of the fine classes of Karaganda coals presently used to meet energy needs are of considerable interest. This paper discusses how an undersize of types K and K2 Karaganda coals can be used in determined amounts in the coking charges of the Karaganda Metallurgical Complex. When the amount of type KZh coals in a charges is decreased (less than or equal to 50%), the percentage of coal undersizes from the Karaganda mine must be no more than 5% due to their inferior agglutinating power. When the content of type KZh coal is 55% or more, the percentage of coal undersizes from the Karaganda mine can be increased to 7%. Coal undersizes from the 50th Anniversary of the October Revolution mine possess a higher agglutinating power than those from the Karaganda mine. However, it is not advisable to feed them into a coking charge in an amount surpassing 5% at the present time due to the higher ash content.

  12. Coke Reactivity in Simulated Blast Furnace Shaft Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haapakangas, Juho; Suopajärvi, Hannu; Iljana, Mikko; Kemppainen, Antti; Mattila, Olli; Heikkinen, Eetu-Pekka; Samuelsson, Caisa; Fabritius, Timo

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that H2 and H2O are always present in the gas atmosphere of a blast furnace shaft, their role in the solution-loss reactions of coke has not been thoroughly examined. This study focuses on how H2 and H2O affect the reaction behavior and whether a strong correlation can be found between reactivity in the conditions of the CRI test (Coke Reactivity Index) and various simulated blast furnace shaft gas atmospheres. Partial replacement of CO/CO2 with H2/H2O was found to significantly increase the reactivity of all seven coke grades at 1373 K (1100 °C). H2 and H2O, however, did not have a significant effect on the threshold temperature of gasification. The reactivity increasing effect was found to be temperature dependent and clearly at its highest at 1373 K (1100 °C). Mathematical models were used to calculate activation energies for the gasification, which were notably lower for H2O gasification compared to CO2 indicating the higher reactivity of H2O. The reactivity results in gas atmospheres with CO2 as the sole gasifying component did not directly correlate with reactivity results in gases also including H2O, which suggests that the widely used CRI test is not entirely accurate for estimating coke reactivity in the blast furnace.

  13. Coke quality for blast furnaces with coal-dust fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Y.A. Zolotukhin; N.S. Andreichikov

    2009-07-01

    Recently, plans have been developed for the introduction of pulverized coal injection (PCI) at various Russian metallurgical enterprises. The main incentive for switching to PCI is the recent price rises for Russian natural gas. The paper discusses the quality of coke for PCI into blast furnaces.

  14. COKE STORAGE HOPPER LOCATED OUTSIDE THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY SHOWING LOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    COKE STORAGE HOPPER LOCATED OUTSIDE THE MALLEABLE FOUNDRY SHOWING LOADING DEVICE THAT USED A SKIP CAR TO FILL THE HOPPER FROM UNDERGROUND GRAVITY-FED STORAGE AREAS FROM INCOMING RAILROAD CARS. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. Fundamental Study on Coking Characteristics of LNG Rocket Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashino, Kazuyuki; Sugioka, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Takao; Minato, Ryojiro; Maru, Yusuke; Sasayama, Yousuke; Otsuka, Masaya; Makino, Takashi; Sakaguchi, Hiroyuki

    Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) will be used as propellant of near future space vehicles and rocket engines. Cooling characteristics of engines, especially methane thermal cracking characteristics depend on material candidate for nozzle and chamber cooling passage material temperature. This paper describes these effects on coking and sample analysis method is suggested.

  16. 30. XX byproducts building (containing coke gas compressors at north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. XX by-products building (containing coke gas compressors at north end, ammonia stills in south end), #20 coal conveyor jutting out of top on east side, continuing out west side to bunker. Looking south/southeast - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  17. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, Richard A.; Im, Chang J.; Wright, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  18. AERIAL VIEW OF SLOSS INDUSTRIES, COKE WORKS IN NORTH BIRMINGHAM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW OF SLOSS INDUSTRIES, COKE WORKS IN NORTH BIRMINGHAM, VIEW LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD BIRMINGHAM CITY CENTER (SKYSCRAPERS IN FAR DISTANCE RIGHT) AND ACROSS COLLEGEVILLE (BETHEL BAPTIST CHURCH) & NORWOOD RESIDENTIAL DISTRICTS. - Sloss Sheffield Steel & Iron Company, 3500 Thirty-fifth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  19. Thickness Optimization for Petroleum Coke in Microwave Dehydrating Based on the Analysis of Dynamic Absorption Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Xiaobiao; Chen, Junruo; Peng, Jinhui; Chen, Hua; Zhang, Weifeng; Guo, Shenghui; Chen, Guo

    2015-07-01

    An analytical approach is proposed to optimize the thickness of petroleum coke for achieving maximum microwave power absorption in microwave heating based on analysis of reflection loss (RL). The microwave RL of the petroleum coke layer was studied over the moisture content range of 1%-5% at 20 °C and the petroleum coke (10% moisture content) in the temperature range of 20 to 100 °C at 2.45 GHz. The results show that RL depends sensitively on the thickness of the petroleum coke and the absorption peak shifts towards a larger thickness as the moisture content of the petroleum coke increases. There exists a matching thickness corresponding to the maximum microwave absorption, the maximum absorbing peak decreases when the thickness of petroleum coke exceeds the matching thickness. We also show that the absorption peak is found to move towards a smaller thickness region with increasing petroleum coke temperature.

  20. Influence of heating rate on quality of needle coke in calcining

    SciTech Connect

    Akhmetov, M.M.; Karpinskaya, N.M.; Shipkov, N.N.

    1984-05-01

    This article examines the calcination of raw coke in hearth and chamber furnaces. Three coke samples with identical degrees of calcining were taken from each furnace. The heating rate was calculated from measurements of the coke temperature as it moved in the furnace under conditions of a stable and characteristic calcining regime. The coke temperature was measured by means of a chromel-alumel thermocouple. Electric resistivity and carbon and hydrogen contents are practically identical for the cokes calcined in the hearth and chamber furnaces. The difference between the quality indexes of the cokes is attributed to the difference in the heating rates. The results indicate that a major disadvantage of the hearth furnace is its high heating rate. It is suggested that the hearth furnace should not be used in calcining cokes that must meet rigid quality requirements.

  1. Building a Low Cost Solar Oven: An Opportunity to Teach Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Ana

    2014-03-01

    We suggested building a solar oven using cardboard boxes, glass wool and metal plate as part of a school project permeated by the discussion of physical concepts. The main topics addressed are from the heat and thermodynamics areas, and for these themes we followed the standard books used in high school. We can work in a practical manner with the thermometer, along with the concept of temperature, measuring the temperature of the oven when cooking. To discuss how the oven works, we introduce the concept of heat as an energy flow of a body with a higher temperature to one with lower temperature. Threads as heat capacity and specific heat of a substance are introduced, also discussing the use of glass wool, which function is to prevent heat exchange from the oven's interior with the environment. It is possible to demonstrate the three forms of heat transfer using the solar oven, and how the greenhouse effect is harnessed. One can discuss topics such as electromagnetic radiation, black-body radiation and the Stefan-Boltzmann law. We surveyed the response curve of our oven and an estimate of its total solar energy absorption efficiency. The development of this project allows a good understanding of the operation principles of a solar oven. UNIMONTES.

  2. Progressive Powder Coating: New Infrared Curing Oven at Metal Finishing Plant Increases Production by 50%

    SciTech Connect

    2003-05-01

    Progressive Powder Coating in Mentor, Ohio, is a metal finishing plant that uses a convection oven in its manufacturing process. In an effort to save energy and improve production, the company installed an infrared oven in between the powder coating booth and the convection oven on its production line. This installation allowed the plant to increase its conveyor line speed and increase production by 50 percent. In addition, the plant reduced its natural gas consumption, yielding annual energy savings of approximately $54,000. With a total project cost of $136,000, the simple payback is 2.5 years.

  3. Drying of olive pomace by a combined microwave-fan assisted convection oven.

    PubMed

    Gögüs, F; Maskan, M

    2001-04-01

    The drying rate curves in terms of moisture content versus time for olive oil pomace have been experimentally obtained using microwave and combined microwave-convection oven. The effects of microwave power (350, 490, 700 W), thickness (6, 9, 14 mm) and temperature (100, 160, 225 degrees C) have been investigated. It has been found that the effects of power output and thickness are negligible in microwave oven, whereas the drying rate increases with temperature increase in combined microwave-convection oven. The diffusion model fitted well to the drying curve of experimental data obtained for olive pomace at the studied conditions of drying.

  4. 40 CFR 63.7280 - What is the purpose of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and..., and battery stacks at coke oven batteries. This subpart also establishes requirements to...

  5. 40 CFR 63.7280 - What is the purpose of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and..., and battery stacks at coke oven batteries. This subpart also establishes requirements to...

  6. 40 CFR 63.7280 - What is the purpose of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and..., and battery stacks at coke oven batteries. This subpart also establishes requirements to...

  7. 40 CFR 63.7280 - What is the purpose of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery... battery stacks at coke oven batteries. This subpart also establishes requirements to demonstrate...

  8. 40 CFR 63.7280 - What is the purpose of this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and..., and battery stacks at coke oven batteries. This subpart also establishes requirements to...

  9. A modular phase change heat exchanger for a solar oven

    SciTech Connect

    Bushnell, D.L.; Sohi, M. )

    1992-10-01

    A modular energy storing heat exchanger designed to use pentaerythritol for thermal storage (solid-solid phase change at 182 C) is tested in an oven by circulating heat transfer oil which is electrically heated in a manner to simulate a concentrating solar collector. Three efficiencies for heating the system under controlled and measured power input are determined - the heat exchanger efficiency, the efficiency of the heater with distribution lines, and the total system efficiency. Thermal energy retention times and cooking extraction times are determined, and along with the efficiencies, are compared with the results previously reported for a nonmodular heat exchanger. The modular configuration provides a highly improved extraction rate for cooking due to its wrap-around character and its increased surface-to-volume ratio. A full scale glass model of the copper tubing of the system is described and flow observations reported demonstrating how uniformly the parallel pumping branches perform and how trapped air pockets affect pumping power. A technique for measuring pumping power is described and its application to the system is quantified to show that less than 1 watt is required to circulate the heat transfer oil even when the system includes the solar collector and its longer connecting tubes.

  10. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of bun baking process under different oven load conditions.

    PubMed

    Tank, A; Chhanwal, N; Indrani, D; Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2014-09-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to study the temperature profile of the bun during baking process. Evaporation-condensation mechanism and effect of the latent heat during phase change of water was incorporated in this model to represent actual bun baking process. Simulation results were validated with experimental measurements of bun temperature at two different positions. Baking process is completed within 20 min, after the temperature of crumb become stable at 98 °C. Further, this study was extended to investigate the effect of partially (two baking trays) loaded and fully loaded (eight baking trays) oven on temperature profile of bun. Velocity and temperature profile differs in partially loaded and fully loaded oven. Bun placed in top rack showed rapid baking while bun placed in bottom rack showed slower baking due to uneven temperature distribution in the oven. Hence, placement of bun inside the oven affects temperature of bun and consequently, the quality of the product.

  11. Analysis and numerical simulation research of the heating process in the oven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yawei; Lei, Dingyou

    2016-10-01

    How to use the oven to bake delicious food is the most concerned problem of the designers and users of the oven. For this intent, this paper analyzed the heat distribution in the oven based on the basic operation principles and proceeded the data simulation of the temperature distribution on the rack section. Constructing the differential equation model of the temperature distribution changes in the pan when the oven works based on the heat radiation and heat transmission, based on the idea of utilizing cellular automation to simulate heat transfer process, used ANSYS software to proceed the numerical simulation analysis to the rectangular, round-cornered rectangular, elliptical and circular pans and giving out the instantaneous temperature distribution of the corresponding shapes of the pans. The temperature distribution of the rectangular and circular pans proves that the product gets overcooked easily at the corners and edges of rectangular pans but not of a round pan.

  12. Risk of Burns from Eruptions of Hot Water Overheated in Microwave Ovens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products Risk of Burns from Eruptions of Hot Water Overheated in Microwave Ovens Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... What Can Consumers Do to Avoid Super-Heated Water? Follow the precautions and recommendations found in the ...

  13. 2. VIEW OF TWO ELECTRIC EARTH MOVING MACHINES WITH OVENS/STACKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF TWO ELECTRIC EARTH MOVING MACHINES WITH OVENS/STACKS IN BACKGROUND. - United Clay Products Company, New York Avenue Brickyard, 2801 New York Avenue Northeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. Reactivity of lithium intercalated into petroleum coke in carbonate electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Jean, M.; Tranchant, A.; Messina, R.

    1996-02-01

    There have been considerable efforts to develop lithium rocking chair batteries where the lithium metal anode is replaced by a nonmetal material capable of storing and exchanging large quantities of lithium ions. The results of a study of the reactivity of lithium intercalated into petroleum coke (Conoco) in a PC/EC/DMC (1/1/3 volume) mixture and LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} as the lithium salt are presented here. The authors show the loss of intercalated lithium is due to its reactivity with the electrolyte and increases quasi-linearly during 1,000 h of storage, and thereafter becomes less important as the storage time increases. The storage of passivated petroleum coke electrodes without any lithium content allowed the authors to determine the rates of the precipitation and dissolution reactions involving the passivating layer.

  15. Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer Y.

    1991-01-01

    A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

  16. Mutagenicity studies with urine concentrates from coke plant workers

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, M.; Dybing, E.

    1980-01-01

    Urine from coke plant workers, collected before and after work, were tested for the content of mutagenic substances in the Salmonella test system. Urine extracts from exposed smokers showed mutagenic activity, whereas urine from exposed nonsmokers did not. The mutagenicity of exposed smoker's urine was not significantly different from that of urine from nonexposed smokers. Mutagenicity of smokers' urine was only evident in the presence of a rat liver metabolic activation system. The addition of beta-glucuronidase did not enhance the mutagenic effect. The facts that coke plant workers are exposed to very high levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and that there is no observed enhanced mutagenicity of their urine indicate that the mutagenicity observed with urine from smokers is not due to conventional PAH.

  17. Support for batteries of coking furnaces heated from the top

    SciTech Connect

    Gelfand, J.

    1985-05-21

    A support for a battery of coking furnaces with regenerators has a plurality of waste heat passages formed beneath the regenerators and extending in a longitudinal direction of the battery, a foundation formed by a floor member and also by wall members of the waste heat passages, a further supporting plate slidingly supported on the walls and repeatedly subdivided transversely to the longitudinal direction of the battery so as to form a plurality of plate portions, and two longitudinal bars each located at a machine side and at a coke side of the battery and slidingly supported on consoles of the foundation, wherein each of the longitudinal bars engages the plate portions of the furnace supporting plate and fixes them in their positions.

  18. Acoustic emission feedback control for control of boiling in a microwave oven

    DOEpatents

    White, Terry L.

    1991-01-01

    An acoustic emission based feedback system for controlling the boiling level of a liquid medium in a microwave oven is provided. The acoustic emissions from the medium correlated with surface boiling is used to generate a feedback control signal proportional to the level of boiling of the medium. This signal is applied to a power controller to automatically and continuoulsly vary the power applied to the oven to control the boiling at a selected level.

  19. Teaching innovation.

    PubMed

    Lachman, Vicki D; Glasgow, Mary Ellen Smith; Donnelly, Gloria F

    2009-01-01

    Innovation in healthcare is essential to solve the "wicked problems" currently facing healthcare. This article focuses on nature of innovation and how it operates, how innovators think and view problems, how the theory and practice of innovation can be taught in novel ways, and how organizational cultures foster or suppress innovation. Examples of teaching strategies and nurse-driven innovation illustrate the theory and practice of innovation.

  20. New environmental concepts in the chemical and coke industries

    SciTech Connect

    A.Yu. Naletov; V.A. Naletov

    2007-05-15

    We know that environmentally pure technologies do not exist. Coke production is no exception to the rule. The article considers the logic of environmental decision making. Attention focuses on a new bank of ecologically appropriate materials whose release to the biosphere must be considered solely in quantititative terms. Qualitativily all these materials are familiar; they are assimilated by populations of microorganisms and tar thus compatible with the biosphere.

  1. Coking of JP-4 fuels in electrically heated metal tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Arthur L; Cook, William P; Hlavin, Vincent F

    1956-01-01

    A limited exploratory investigation of the rate of coking of four JP-4 fuels in electrically heated metal tubes was conducted in order to provide design information for fuel prevaporizers for turbojet-engine combustors. The fuels tested included two production and two minimum-quality JP-4 type fuels. The heating tube was operated at fuel pressures of approximately 500, 400, and 50 pounds per square inch. The operating fuel temperature was varied between approximately 600 degrees and 1200 degrees F.

  2. An Integrated Model of Coal/Coke Combustion in a Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y. S.; Guo, B. Y.; Yu, A. B.; Austin, P.; Zulli, P.

    2010-03-01

    A three-dimensional integrated mathematical model of the combustion of pulverized coal and coke is developed. The model is applied to the region of lance-blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed to simulate the operation of pulverized coal injection in an ironmaking blast furnace. The model integrates two parts: pulverized coal combustion model in the blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed and the coke combustion model in the coke bed. The model is validated against the measurements in terms of coal burnout and gas composition, respectively. The comprehensive in-furnace phenomena are simulated in the raceway and coke bed, in terms of flow, temperature, gas composition, and coal burning characteristics. In addition, underlying mechanisms for the in-furnace phenomena are analyzed. The model provides a cost-effective tool for understanding and optimizing the in-furnace flow-thermo-chemical characteristics of the PCI process in full-scale blast furnaces.

  3. The History and Future Challenges of Calcined Petroleum Coke Production and Use in Aluminum Smelting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Les

    2015-02-01

    Calcined petroleum coke is used for the production of carbon anodes in the Hall-Héroult aluminum smelting process due to a combination of low impurity levels, ready availability, and relatively low cost. This article provides a review of the history and use of calcined petroleum coke for anode production and describes the different calcining technologies used by the industry. The article discusses the impact of changes in crude oil quality and refining economics over the last 10 years as well as the impact on green petroleum coke quality and availability. The industry has adapted well to quality changes in recent times, and the blending of different quality cokes by smelters is becoming increasingly important. The world has a plentiful supply of green petroleum coke, but the next wave of aluminum smelting capacity growth will put further pressure on the supply of the higher quality cokes traditionally favored by the industry.

  4. Wet oxidation of real coke wastewater containing high thiocyanate concentration.

    PubMed

    Oulego, Paula; Collado, Sergio; Garrido, Laura; Laca, Adriana; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Coke wastewaters, in particular those with high thiocyanate concentrations, represent an important environmental problem because of their very low biodegradability. In this work, the treatment by wet oxidation of real coke wastewaters containing concentrations of thiocyanate above 17 mM has been studied in a 1-L semi-batch reactor at temperatures between 453 and 493 K, with total oxygen pressures in the range of 2.0-8.0 MPa. A positive effect of the matrix of real coke wastewater was observed, resulting in faster thiocyanate degradation than was obtained with synthetic wastewaters. Besides, the effect of oxygen concentration and temperature on thiocyanate wet oxidation was more noticeable in real effluents than in synthetic wastewaters containing only thiocyanate. It was also observed that the degree of mineralization of the matrix organic compounds was higher when the initial thiocyanate concentration increased. Taking into account the experimental data, kinetic models were obtained, and a mechanism implying free radicals was proposed for thiocyanate oxidation in the matrix considered. In all cases, sulphate, carbonates and ammonium were identified as the main reaction products of thiocyanate wet oxidation.

  5. Human health risk characterization of petroleum coke calcining facility emissions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Davinderjit; Johnson, Giffe T; Harbison, Raymond D

    2015-12-01

    Calcining processes including handling and storage of raw petroleum coke may result in Particulate Matter (PM) and gaseous emissions. Concerns have been raised over the potential association between particulate and aerosol pollution and adverse respiratory health effects including decrements in lung function. This risk characterization evaluated the exposure concentrations of ambient air pollutants including PM10 and gaseous pollutants from a petroleum coke calciner facility. The ambient air pollutant levels were collected through monitors installed at multiple locations in the vicinity of the facility. The measured and modeled particulate levels in ambient air from the calciner facility were compared to standards protective of public health. The results indicated that exposure levels were, on occasions at sites farther from the facility, higher than the public health limit of 150 μg/m(3) 24-h average for PM10. However, the carbon fraction demonstrated that the contribution from the calciner facility was de minimis. Exposure levels of the modeled SO2, CO, NOx and PM10 concentrations were also below public health air quality standards. These results demonstrate that emissions from calcining processes involving petroleum coke, at facilities that are well controlled, are below regulatory standards and are not expected to produce a public health risk.

  6. Reduction of phosphorus and alkali levels in coking coals

    SciTech Connect

    Hoare, I.C.; Waugh, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    A number of coals, though exhibiting desirable coking properties, can have undesirable levels of alkalis and phosphorus. All the phosphorus in the coal will report to the coke, eventually to the iron and thence to the steel, with adverse effects on its metallurgical properties. Alkalis have damaging effects on the blast furnace operation and can be responsible for loss of heat, loss of production, efficiency loss and reduced furnace life. Buyers of coking coal commonly specify such parameters as phosphorus in coal and alkalis in ash, with penalties and rejection over certain limits. With the introduction of new direct reduction technologies such as COREX and HISMELT, and others such as PCI, it is anticipated that coal producers will have even tighter phosphorus and alkali specifications imposed on their products. Phosphorus is predominantly inorganic in origin occurring in a wide variety of minerals in coal, but its main source is apatite. It can be found mainly in the lower density fractions of the coal and intimately bound, so that conventional physical beneficiation techniques are relatively ineffective. CSIRO has developed a cost effective, selective chemical demineralization treatment, which can be applied to the problem of high alkali, high phosphorus coals. This particular technique makes use of unrefined organic acid, which also has the advantage of being low in cost and environmentally benign. In this paper, the effectiveness of acid demineralization of a number of coals is discussed, within the context of their phosphorus and alkali distributions throughout various size/density fractions.

  7. Human health risk characterization of petroleum coke calcining facility emissions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Davinderjit; Johnson, Giffe T; Harbison, Raymond D

    2015-12-01

    Calcining processes including handling and storage of raw petroleum coke may result in Particulate Matter (PM) and gaseous emissions. Concerns have been raised over the potential association between particulate and aerosol pollution and adverse respiratory health effects including decrements in lung function. This risk characterization evaluated the exposure concentrations of ambient air pollutants including PM10 and gaseous pollutants from a petroleum coke calciner facility. The ambient air pollutant levels were collected through monitors installed at multiple locations in the vicinity of the facility. The measured and modeled particulate levels in ambient air from the calciner facility were compared to standards protective of public health. The results indicated that exposure levels were, on occasions at sites farther from the facility, higher than the public health limit of 150 μg/m(3) 24-h average for PM10. However, the carbon fraction demonstrated that the contribution from the calciner facility was de minimis. Exposure levels of the modeled SO2, CO, NOx and PM10 concentrations were also below public health air quality standards. These results demonstrate that emissions from calcining processes involving petroleum coke, at facilities that are well controlled, are below regulatory standards and are not expected to produce a public health risk. PMID:26520182

  8. Graphitization of Coke and Its Interaction with Slag in the Hearth of a Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kejiang; Zhang, Jianliang; Liu, Yanxiang; Barati, Mansoor; Liu, Zhengjian; Zhong, Jianbo; Su, Buxin; Wei, Mengfang; Wang, Guangwei; Yang, Tianjun

    2016-04-01

    Coke reaction behavior in the blast furnace hearth has yet to be fully understood due to limited access to the high temperature zone. The graphitization of coke and its interaction with slag in the hearth of blast furnace were investigated with samples obtained from the center of the deadman of a blast furnace during its overhaul period. All hearth coke samples from fines to lumps were confirmed to be highly graphitized, and the graphitization of coke in the high temperature zone was convinced to start from the coke surface and lead to the formation of coke fines. It will be essential to perform further comprehensive investigations on graphite formation and its evolution in a coke as well as its multi-effect on blast furnace performance. The porous hearth cokes were found to be filled up with final slag. Further research is required about the capability of coke to fill final slag and the attack of final slag on the hearth bottom refractories since this might be a new degradation mechanism of refractories located in the hearth bottom.

  9. CO₂ carbonation under aqueous conditions using petroleum coke combustion fly ash.

    PubMed

    González, A; Moreno, N; Navia, R

    2014-12-01

    Fly ash from petroleum coke combustion was evaluated for CO2 capture in aqueous medium. Moreover the carbonation efficiency based on different methodologies and the kinetic parameters of the process were determined. The results show that petroleum coke fly ash achieved a CO2 capture yield of 21% at the experimental conditions of 12 g L(-1), 363°K without stirring. The carbonation efficiency by petroleum coke fly ash based on reactive calcium species was within carbonation efficiencies reported by several authors. In addition, carbonation by petroleum coke fly ash follows a pseudo-second order kinetic model.

  10. Integration of stripping of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process

    DOEpatents

    DeGeorge, Charles W.

    1980-01-01

    In an integrated fluid coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a wet scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped to remove acidic gases, the stripped vapors of the stripping zone are sent to the gas cleanup stage of the gasification product gas. The improved stripping integration is particularly useful in the combination coal liquefaction process, fluid coking of bottoms of the coal liquefaction zone and gasification of the product coke.

  11. No-Oven, No-Autoclave Composite Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauscher, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Very large composite structures, such as those used in NASA's Space Launch System, push the boundaries imposed by current autoclaves. New technology is needed to maintain composite performance and free manufacturing engineers from the restraints of curing equipment size limitations. Recent efforts on a Phase II project by Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG), have advanced the technology and manufacturing readiness levels of a unique two-part epoxy resin system. Designed for room-temperature infusion of a dry carbon preform, the system includes a no-heat-added cure that delivers 350 F composite performance in a matter of hours. This no-oven, no-autoclave (NONA) composite processing eliminates part-size constraints imposed by infrastructure and lowers costs by increasing throughput and reducing capital-specific, process-flow bottlenecks. As a result of the Phase II activity, NONA materials and processes were used to make high-temperature composite tooling suitable for further production of carbon-epoxy laminates and honeycomb/ sandwich-structure composites with an aluminum core. The technology platform involves tooling design, resin infusion processing, composite part design, and resin chemistry. The various technology elements are combined to achieve a fully cured part. The individual elements are not unusual, but they are combined in such a way that enables proper management of the heat generated by the epoxy resin during cure. The result is a self-cured carbon/ epoxy composite part that is mechanically and chemically stable at temperatures up to 350 F. As a result of the successful SBIR effort, CRG has launched NONA Composites as a spinoff subsidiary. The company sells resin to end users, fabricates finished goods for customers, and sells composite tooling made with NONA materials and processes to composite manufacturers.

  12. Cooked yields, color, tenderness, and sensory traits of beef roasts cooked in an oven with steam generation versus a commercial convection oven to different endpoint temperatures.

    PubMed

    Bowers, L J; Dikeman, M E; Murray, L; Stroda, S L

    2012-10-01

    A CVap steam generation oven was compared with a Blodgett convection oven to examine effects on yields, cooked color, tenderness, and sensory traits of beef Longissimus lumborum (LL), Deep pectoralis (DP), and Biceps femoris (BF) muscles cooked to 1 of 3 temperatures (65.6, 71.1, or 76.7°C). Four roasts were cooked in the CVap for a constant time, and 2 roasts were cooked in the Blodgett until they reached target temperatures (3 replications). Cooking yields were higher (P<0.05) for BF and LL roasts in the CVap. Slice shear force (SSF) for BF roasts was lowest (P<0.05) in the CVap but lowest (P<0.05) for DP roasts in the Blodgett. No oven effect (P>0.05) was found for LL roasts. Sensory tenderness for BF roasts in the CVap was higher (P<0.05) than those in the Blodgett. Juiciness was higher (P<0.05) for LL roasts in the Blodgett. The CVap oven offers some tenderization (BF) and cooking yield advantages (BF and DP) over forced-air convection cooking.

  13. Effects of Coke Calcination Level on Pore Structure in Carbon Anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Ning; Xue, Jilai; Lang, Guanghui; Bao, Chongai; Gao, Shoulei

    2016-02-01

    Effects of coke calcination levels on pore structure of carbon anodes have been investigated. Bench anodes were prepared by 3 types of cokes with 4 calcination temperatures (800°C, 900°C, 1000°C and 1100°C). The cokes and anodes were characterized using hydrostatic method, air permeability determination, mercury porosimetry, image analysis and confocal microscopy (CSLM). The cokes with different calcination levels are almost the same in LC values (19-20 Å) and real density (1.967-1.985 g/cm3), while the anode containing coke calcined at 900°C has the lowest open porosity and air permeability. Pore size distribution (represented by Anode H sample) can be roughly divided into two ranges: small and medium pores in diameter of 10-400 μm and large pores of 400-580 μm. For the anode containing coke calcined at 800°C, a number of long, narrow pores in the pore size range of 400-580 μm are presented among cokes particles. Formation of these elongated pores may be attributed to coke shrinkages during the anode baking process, which may develop cracking in the anode under cell operations. More small or medium rounded pores with pore size range of 10-400 μm emerge in the anodes with coke calcination temperatures of 900°C, 1000°C and 1100°C, which may be generated due to release of volatiles from the carbon anode during baking. For the anode containing coke calcined at 1100°C, it is found that many rounded pores often closely surround large coke particles, which have potential to form elongated, narrow pores.

  14. Effects of Two-stage Heat Treatment on Delayed Coke and Study of Their Surface Texture Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Ui-Su; Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Seon Ho; Lee, Byung-Rok; Peck, Dong-Hyun; Jung, Doo-Hwan

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, surface texture features and chemical properties of two types of cokes, made from coal tar by either 1-stage heat treatment or 2-stage heat treatment, were researched. The relationship between surface texture characteristics and the chemical properties was identified through molecular weight distribution, insolubility of coal tar, weight loss with temperature increase, coking yield, and polarized light microscope analysis. Rapidly cleared anisotropy texture in cokes was observed in accordance with the coking temperature rise. Quinoline insolubility and toluene insolubility of coal tar increased with a corresponding increases in coking temperature. In particular, the cokes produced by the 2-stage heat treatment (2S-C) showed surface structure of needle cokes at a temperature approximately 50°C lower than the 1-stage heat treatment (1S-C). Additionally, the coking yield of 2S-C increased by approximately 14% in comparison with 1S-C.

  15. Development of a high-temperature oven for the 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnishi, J. Higurashi, Y.; Kidera, M.; Ozeki, K.; Nakagawa, T.

    2014-02-15

    We have been developing the 28 GHz ECR ion source in order to accelerate high-intensity uranium beams at the RIKEN RI-beam Factory. Although we have generated U{sup 35+} beams by the sputtering method thus far, we began developing a high-temperature oven with the aim of increasing and stabilizing the beams. Because the oven method uses UO{sub 2}, a crucible must be heated to a temperature higher than 2000 °C to supply an appropriate amount of UO{sub 2} vapor to the ECR plasma. Our high-temperature oven uses a tungsten crucible joule-heated with DC current of approximately 450 A. Its inside dimensions are ϕ11 mm × 13.5 mm. Since the crucible is placed in a magnetic field of approximately 3 T, it is subject to a magnetic force of approximately 40 N. Therefore, we used ANSYS to carefully design the crucible, which was manufactured by machining a tungsten rod. We could raise the oven up to 1900 °C in the first off-line test. Subsequently, UO{sub 2} was loaded into the crucible, and the oven was installed in the 28 GHz ECR ion source and was tested. As a result, a U{sup 35+} beam current of 150 μA was extracted successfully at a RF power of approximately 3 kW.

  16. Interfaces Between Coke, Slag, and Metal in the Tuyere Level of a Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kejiang; Zhang, Jianliang; Liu, Zhengjian; Barati, Mansoor; Zhong, Jianbo; Wei, Mengfang; Wang, Guangwei; Jiao, Kexin; Yang, Tianjun

    2015-04-01

    An in-depth understanding about the reactions in the high-temperature zone of a blast furnace is significant to optimize both the current and future blast furnace process. The interfaces between coke, slag, and metal were observed using scanning electronic microscope with samples obtained from the tuyere level of a blast furnace. Two types of slag phases were identified, one originating from coke ash and the other from the bosh slag. Slag formed by coke ash was seen to cover the coke surface, which may hinder the reaction of coke with both gas and liquid iron. The reduction of FeO from the bosh slag (originated from the primary slag) occurs in the coke/slag interface with the reduced iron forming a metal layer surrounding the coke surface. The reduction of SiO2 occurs both in and outside the coke, and the reduced silicon reacts with iron to form iron silicide if the two species come into contact. Further study is proposed based on the results of this study.

  17. 77 FR 15123 - Foundry Coke From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... its notice of institution (76 FR 74810, December 1, 2011) of the subject five-year review was adequate... COMMISSION Foundry Coke From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review AGENCY: United States...)) (the Act) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on foundry coke from...

  18. Influence of coal on coke properties and blast-furnace operation

    SciTech Connect

    G.R. Gainieva; L.D. Nikitin

    2007-07-01

    With unstable coal supplies and properties and a fluctuating content of coking coal in the batch at OAO Zapadno-Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (ZSMK) and of bituminous coal at Kuznetskaya enrichment facility, it is important to optimize the rank composition of the batch for coke production.

  19. Ground-water resources of Coke County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Clyde A.

    1973-01-01

    Coke County, located in semiarid west-central Texas, where large ranches, small farms, and oil production are the main bases of the economy, has a small supply of ground and surface water. Of the approximately 1,900 acre-feet of fresh to moderately saline ground water used in 1968, industry used 880 acre-feet, irrigation used 210 acre-feet, and domestic supply and livestock used 820 acre-feet. All of the water for municipal supply and some of the water for industry is obtained from surface-water reservoirs.

  20. 76 FR 14987 - United States v. Graftech International Ltd. and Seadrift Coke, L.P.; Public Comments and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... competitive effects of the transaction on the production and sale of petroleum needle coke used to manufacture... development, production and sale of petroleum needle coke in the United States, leading to higher prices... the goods to Europe and the USA and uses petroleum needle coke in the production. ENERGOPROM...

  1. Identification and removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in wastewater treatment processes from coke production plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanhui; Wei, Chaohai; Yan, Bo; Feng, Chunhua; Zhao, Guobao; Lin, Chong; Yuan, Mengyang; Wu, Chaofei; Ren, Yuan; Hu, Yun

    2013-09-01

    Identification and removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated at two coke plants located in Shaoguan, Guangdong Province of China. Samples of raw coking wastewaters and wastewaters from subunits of a coke production plant were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to provide a detailed chemical characterization of PAHs. The identification and characterization of PAH isomers was based on a positive match of mass spectral data of sample peaks with those for PAH isomers in mass spectra databases with electron impact ionization mass spectra and retention times of internal reference compounds. In total, 270 PAH compounds including numerous nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur heteroatomic derivatives were positively identified for the first time. Quantitative analysis of target PAHs revealed that total PAH concentrations in coking wastewaters were in the range of 98.5 ± 8.9 to 216 ± 20.2 μg/L, with 3-4-ring PAHs as dominant compounds. Calculation of daily PAH output from four plant subunits indicated that PAHs in the coking wastewater came mainly from ammonia stripping wastewater. Coking wastewater treatment processes played an important role in removing PAHs in coking wastewater, successfully removing 92 % of the target compounds. However, 69 weakly polar compounds, including PAH isomers, were still discharged in the final effluent, producing 8.8 ± 2.7 to 31.9 ± 6.8 g/day of PAHs with potential toxicity to environmental waters. The study of coking wastewater herein proposed can be used to better predict improvement of coke production facilities and treatment conditions according to the identification and removal of PAHs in the coke plant as well as to assess risks associated with continuous discharge of these contaminants to receiving waters.

  2. The effects of microwave-baking and oven-baking on thiabendazole residues in potatoes.

    PubMed

    Friar, P M; Reynolds, S L

    1991-01-01

    The effect of microwave- and oven-baking on residues of the postharvest fungicide thiabendazole (E 233) in potatoes was investigated by comparing amounts present in raw, microwave- and oven-baked tubers. The levels of residues in the whole potato tubers were based on the determination of thiabendazole in peelings and flesh of potato tubers by reversed-phase HPLC analysis with fluorescence and UV detection after extraction with dichloromethane in the presence of anhydrous sodium sulphate. Amounts of thiabendazole determined after microwave- and oven-baking showed that thiabendazole was predominantly retained in the peelings (96.3-98.8%) and not lost during the two types of processing treatments at ca. 100 degrees C. Thus residues did not migrate into the flesh of the tubers.

  3. Estimation of radiofrequency power leakage from microwave ovens for dosimetric assessment at nonionizing radiation exposure levels.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Iturri, Peio; de Miguel-Bilbao, Silvia; Aguirre, Erik; Azpilicueta, Leire; Falcone, Francisco; Ramos, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic field leakage levels of nonionizing radiation from a microwave oven have been estimated within a complex indoor scenario. By employing a hybrid simulation technique, based on coupling full wave simulation with an in-house developed deterministic 3D ray launching code, estimations of the observed electric field values can be obtained for the complete indoor scenario. The microwave oven can be modeled as a time- and frequency-dependent radiating source, in which leakage, basically from the microwave oven door, is propagated along the complete indoor scenario interacting with all of the elements present in it. This method can be of aid in order to assess the impact of such devices on expected exposure levels, allowing adequate minimization strategies such as optimal location to be applied.

  4. Estimation of Radiofrequency Power Leakage from Microwave Ovens for Dosimetric Assessment at Nonionizing Radiation Exposure Levels

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Iturri, Peio; de Miguel-Bilbao, Silvia; Aguirre, Erik; Azpilicueta, Leire; Falcone, Francisco; Ramos, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic field leakage levels of nonionizing radiation from a microwave oven have been estimated within a complex indoor scenario. By employing a hybrid simulation technique, based on coupling full wave simulation with an in-house developed deterministic 3D ray launching code, estimations of the observed electric field values can be obtained for the complete indoor scenario. The microwave oven can be modeled as a time- and frequency-dependent radiating source, in which leakage, basically from the microwave oven door, is propagated along the complete indoor scenario interacting with all of the elements present in it. This method can be of aid in order to assess the impact of such devices on expected exposure levels, allowing adequate minimization strategies such as optimal location to be applied. PMID:25705676

  5. Operational test of micro-oven for {sup 48}Ca beam

    SciTech Connect

    Ozeki, K. Kageyama, T.; Kidera, M.; Higurashi, Y.; Nakagawa, T.

    2014-02-15

    In order to supply a high-intensity and stable {sup 48}Ca beam from the RIKEN 18-GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, we are conducting operational tests of a micro-oven. A mixture of CaO and Al powders is placed into the crucible of the micro-oven and heated to produce metallic calcium by a reductive reaction. The successful production of a calcium beam was confirmed. In addition, we reduced the material consumption rate by using a so-called “hot liner,” and we enhanced the beam intensity by applying a negative voltage bias to the micro-oven, the effect of which is similar to the effect of a “biased disk.”.

  6. Survival of Salmonella species in eggs poached using a microwave oven.

    PubMed

    Bates, C J; Spencer, R C

    1995-02-01

    The use of microwave ovens is becoming increasingly popular, but there is little data on the bactericidal effect of this mode of cooking. Following a family outbreak of gastroenteritis due to Salmonella enteritidis PT4, where eggs poached in a microwave oven were the suspected source, we investigated the survival of Salmonella spp. in artificially contaminated eggs cooked in a microwave oven. The survival of six serotypes of Salmonella at various inocula were studied, after cooking the eggs using two recognized poaching methods. Salmonellae were readily recovered after cooking if the yolk was still soft, whichever serotype, inoculum or cooking method was used. The survival of organisms was related to the number of organisms present in the raw eggs. The advice regarding eating lightly cooked eggs should be the same whether microwave or more conventional cooking techniques are used. PMID:7759828

  7. Evaluation of microwave oven heating for prediction of drug-excipient compatibilities and accelerated stability studies.

    PubMed

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie V; Østergaard, Jesper; Cornett, Claus; Hansen, Steen Honoré

    2015-05-15

    Microwave ovens have been used extensively in organic synthesis in order to accelerate reaction rates. Here, a set up comprising a microwave oven combined with silicon carbide (SiC) plates for the controlled microwave heating of model formulations has been applied in order to investigate, if a microwave oven is applicable for accelerated drug stability testing. Chemical interactions were investigated in three selected model formulations of drug and excipients regarding the formation of ester and amide reaction products. In the accelerated stability studies, a design of experiments (DoE) approach was applied in order to be able to rank excipients regarding reactivity: Study A: cetirizine with PEG 400, sorbitol, glycerol and propylene glycol. Study B: 6-aminocaproic acid with citrate, acetate, tartrate and gluconate. Study C: atenolol with citric, tartaric, malic, glutaric, and sorbic acid. The model formulations were representative for oral solutions (co-solvents), parenteral solutions (buffer species) and solid dosage forms (organic acids applicable for solubility enhancement). The DoE studies showed overall that the same impurities were generated by microwave oven heating leading to temperatures between 150°C and 180°C as compared to accelerated stability studies performed at 40°C and 80°C using a conventional oven. Ranking of the reactivity of the excipients could be made in the DoE studies performed at 150-180°C, which was representative for the ranking obtained after storage at 40°C and 80°C. It was possible to reduce the time needed for drug-excipient compatibility testing of the three model formulations from weeks to less than an hour in the three case studies. The microwave oven is therefore considered to be an interesting alternative to conventional thermal techniques for the investigation of drug-excipient interactions during preformulation.

  8. Biodegradation of Fresh vs. Oven-Dried Inedible Crop Residue in a Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Kamau; Strayer, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The degradation of soluble organics and mineral recovery from fresh and oven-dried biomass were compared in an Intermediate-Scale Aerobic Bioreactor (8 L working volume) to determine if drying crop residue improves performance in a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The study was conducted in an Intermediate-Scale Aerobic Bioreactor (ISAB) CSTR with dimensions of 390 mm height x 204 mm diameter. The pH in the bioreactor was controlled at 6.0, temperature at 30 C, and aeration at 7.0 L/min. Gases monitored were CO2 evolution and dissolved oxygen. Homogeneously mixed wheat cultures, used either fresh or oven-dried biomass and were leached, then placed in the ISAB for a 4-day degradation period. Studies found that mineral recovery was greater for leached oven-dried crop residue. However, after activity by the mixed microbial communities in the ISAB CSTR, there were little notable differences in the measured mineral recovery and degradation of soluble organic compounds. Degradation of soluble organic compounds was also shown to improve for leached oven-dried crop residue, but after mixing in the CSTR the degradation of the fresh biomass seemed to be slightly greater. Time for the biomass to turn in the CSTR appeared to be one factor for the experimental differences between the fresh and oven-dried biomass. Other factors, although not as defined, were the differing physical structures in the cell walls and varying microbial components of the fresh and oven-dried treatments due to changes in chemical composition after drying of the biomass.

  9. Evaluation of microwave oven heating for prediction of drug-excipient compatibilities and accelerated stability studies.

    PubMed

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie V; Østergaard, Jesper; Cornett, Claus; Hansen, Steen Honoré

    2015-05-15

    Microwave ovens have been used extensively in organic synthesis in order to accelerate reaction rates. Here, a set up comprising a microwave oven combined with silicon carbide (SiC) plates for the controlled microwave heating of model formulations has been applied in order to investigate, if a microwave oven is applicable for accelerated drug stability testing. Chemical interactions were investigated in three selected model formulations of drug and excipients regarding the formation of ester and amide reaction products. In the accelerated stability studies, a design of experiments (DoE) approach was applied in order to be able to rank excipients regarding reactivity: Study A: cetirizine with PEG 400, sorbitol, glycerol and propylene glycol. Study B: 6-aminocaproic acid with citrate, acetate, tartrate and gluconate. Study C: atenolol with citric, tartaric, malic, glutaric, and sorbic acid. The model formulations were representative for oral solutions (co-solvents), parenteral solutions (buffer species) and solid dosage forms (organic acids applicable for solubility enhancement). The DoE studies showed overall that the same impurities were generated by microwave oven heating leading to temperatures between 150°C and 180°C as compared to accelerated stability studies performed at 40°C and 80°C using a conventional oven. Ranking of the reactivity of the excipients could be made in the DoE studies performed at 150-180°C, which was representative for the ranking obtained after storage at 40°C and 80°C. It was possible to reduce the time needed for drug-excipient compatibility testing of the three model formulations from weeks to less than an hour in the three case studies. The microwave oven is therefore considered to be an interesting alternative to conventional thermal techniques for the investigation of drug-excipient interactions during preformulation. PMID:25746946

  10. Effect of different flours on quality of legume cakes to be baked in microwave-infrared combination oven and conventional oven.

    PubMed

    Ozkahraman, Betul Canan; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the quality of legume cakes baked in microwave-infrared combination (MW-IR) oven with conventional oven. Legume cake formulations were developed by replacing 10 % wheat flour by lentil, chickpea and pea flour. As a control, wheat flour containing cakes were used. Weight loss, specific volume, texture, color, gelatinization degree, macro and micro-structure of cakes were investigated. MW-IR baked cakes had higher specific volume, weight loss and crust color change and lower hardness values than conventionally baked cakes. Larger pores were observed in MW-IR baked cakes according to scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Pea flour giving the hardest structure, lowest specific volume and gelatinization degree was determined to be the least acceptable legume flour. On the other hand, lentil and chickpea flour containing cakes had the softest structure and highest specific volume showing that lentil and chickpea flour can be used to produce functional cakes. PMID:27570282

  11. Effect of different flours on quality of legume cakes to be baked in microwave-infrared combination oven and conventional oven.

    PubMed

    Ozkahraman, Betul Canan; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the quality of legume cakes baked in microwave-infrared combination (MW-IR) oven with conventional oven. Legume cake formulations were developed by replacing 10 % wheat flour by lentil, chickpea and pea flour. As a control, wheat flour containing cakes were used. Weight loss, specific volume, texture, color, gelatinization degree, macro and micro-structure of cakes were investigated. MW-IR baked cakes had higher specific volume, weight loss and crust color change and lower hardness values than conventionally baked cakes. Larger pores were observed in MW-IR baked cakes according to scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Pea flour giving the hardest structure, lowest specific volume and gelatinization degree was determined to be the least acceptable legume flour. On the other hand, lentil and chickpea flour containing cakes had the softest structure and highest specific volume showing that lentil and chickpea flour can be used to produce functional cakes.

  12. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coke plant wastewater.

    PubMed

    Burmistrz, Piotr; Burmistrz, Michał

    2013-01-01

    The subject of examinations presented in this paper is the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) between solid and liquid phases in samples of raw wastewater and wastewater after treatment. The content of 16 PAHs according to the US EPA was determined in the samples of coke plant wastewater from the Zdzieszowice Coke Plant, Poland. The samples contained raw wastewater, wastewater after physico-chemical treatment as well as after biological treatment. The ΣPHA16 content varied between 255.050 μg L(-1) and 311.907 μg L(-1) in raw wastewater and between 0.940 and 4.465 μg L(-1) in wastewater after full treatment. Investigation of the distribution of PAHs showed that 71-84% of these compounds is adsorbed on the surface of suspended solids and 16-29% is dissolved in water. Distribution of individual PAHs and ΣPHA16 between solid phase and liquid phase was described with the use of statistically significant, linear equations. The calculated values of the partitioning coefficient Kp changed from 0.99 to 7.90 for naphthalene in samples containing mineral-organic suspension and acenaphthylene in samples with biological activated sludge, respectively.

  13. Stability of system against aggregation in coking a compounded feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Mimun, K.; Smidovich, E.V.; Zaitseva, N.P.

    1984-05-01

    This article examines a vacuum resid from West Siberian crude and a 250/sup 0/C+ fraction of pyrolysis tar. The pyrolysis tar consists of heavy aromatic hydrocarbons and asphaltenes in approximately equal amounts of 46-48%. The vacuum resid is a conventional straight-run feedstock with a predominance of light and medium aromatic hydrocarbons (37.6%) and a moderate content of asphaltenes (10.2%). The vacuum resid and the pyrolysis tar were subjected to coking in a laboratory still, being coked separately and also in blends with a paraffin wax having a density of 739 kg/m/sup 3/ at 68/sup 0/C, melting point of 54/sup 0/C, and molecular weight of 356. The stability factor was determined for each blend. It is concluded that paraffin wax, like highly aromatic additives, when it is blended with residual stocks with low contents of paraffinic/naphthenic hydrocarbons or none of these hydrocarbons at all (such stocks have a low stability factor), may increase the stability of these residual stocks against phase separation to a significant degree.

  14. Microwave sintering of sol–gel composite films using a domestic microwave oven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Makiko; Matsumoto, Makoto

    2016-07-01

    Feasibility study of sol–gel composite microwave sintering using a domestic microwave oven was carried out. Two kinds of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) powders were mixed with PZT sol–gel solution and the mixture was sprayed onto 3-mm-thick titanium substrate. The films were sintered by 700 W domestic oven for 10 min. Ultrasonic measurement was carried out in pulse–echo mode and clear multiple echoes were confirmed. It would be suitable method to fabricate high frequency broadband focused ultrasonic transducers. Further research is required to improve sintering degree.

  15. Annual book of ASTM Standards 2008. Section Five. Petroleum products, lubricants, and fossil fuels. Volume 05.06. Gaseous fuels; coal and coke

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-15

    The first part covers standards for gaseous fuels. The second part covers standards on coal and coke including the classification of coals, determination of major elements in coal ash and trace elements in coal, metallurgical properties of coal and coke, methods of analysis of coal and coke, petrogrpahic analysis of coal and coke, physical characteristics of coal, quality assurance and sampling.

  16. Annual book of ASTM Standards 2005. Section Five. Petroleum products, lubricants, and fossil fuels. Volume 05.06. Gaseous fuels; coal and coke

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-15

    The first part covers standards for gaseous fuels. The standard part covers standards on coal and coke including the classification of coals, determination of major elements in coal ash and trace elements in coal, metallurgical properties of coal and coke, methods of analysis of coal and coke, petrographic analysis of coal and coke, physical characteristics of coal, quality assurance and sampling.

  17. Understanding the bias between moisture content by oven drying and water content by Karl Fischer titration at moisture equilibrium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple causes of the difference between equilibrium moisture and water content have been found. The errors or biases were traced to the oven drying procedure to determine moisture content. The present paper explains the nature of the biases in oven drying and how it is possible to suppress one ...

  18. Reference method for total water in lint cotton by automated oven drying combined with volumetric Karl Fischer titration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a preliminary study to measure total water in lint cotton we demonstrated that volumetric Karl Fischer Titration of moisture transported by a carrier gas from an attached small oven is more accurate than standard oven drying in air. The objective of the present study was to assess the measuremen...

  19. 40 CFR 63.304 - Standards for compliance date extension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.304 Standards for compliance date extension. (a) An owner or operator of an existing coke oven battery (including a cold-idle coke oven battery), a padup rebuild, or a brownfield coke oven battery, may elect an extension of the compliance date...

  20. 40 CFR 63.304 - Standards for compliance date extension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.304 Standards for compliance date extension. (a) An owner or operator of an existing coke oven battery (including a cold-idle coke oven battery), a padup rebuild, or a brownfield coke oven battery, may elect an extension of the compliance date...

  1. 40 CFR 63.304 - Standards for compliance date extension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.304 Standards for compliance date extension. (a) An owner or operator of an existing coke oven battery (including a cold-idle coke oven battery), a padup rebuild, or a brownfield coke oven battery, may elect an extension of the compliance date...

  2. 40 CFR 63.304 - Standards for compliance date extension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.304 Standards for compliance date extension. (a) An owner or operator of an existing coke oven battery (including a cold-idle coke oven battery), a padup rebuild, or a brownfield coke oven battery, may elect an extension of the compliance date...

  3. Design of Controlled Release Non-erodible Polymeric Matrix Tablet Using Microwave Oven-assisted Sintering Technique.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dm; Patel, Bk; Patel, Ha; Patel, Cn

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of sintering condition on matrix formation and subsequent drug release from polymer matrix tablet for controlled release. The present study highlights the use of a microwave oven for the sintering process in order to achieve more uniform heat distribution with reduction in time required for sintering. We could achieve effective sintering within 8 min which is very less compared to conventional hot air oven sintering. The tablets containing the drug (propranolol hydrochloride) and sintering polymer (eudragit S-100) were prepared and kept in a microwave oven at 540 watt, 720 watt and 900 watt power for different time periods for sintering. The sintered tablets were evaluated for various tablet characteristics including dissolution study. Tablets sintered at 900 watt power for 8 min gave better dissolution profile compared to others. We conclude that microwave oven sintering is better than conventional hot air oven sintering process in preparation of controlled release tablets. PMID:21897655

  4. Preparation of modified semi-coke by microwave heating and adsorption kinetics of methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Peng, Jin-Hui; Duan, Xin-Hui; Srinivasakannan, Chandrasekar

    2013-01-01

    Preparation of modified semi-coke has been achieved, using phosphoric acid as the modifying agent, by microwave heating from virgin semi-coke. Process optimization using a Central Composite Design (CCD) design of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) technique for the preparation of modifies semi-coke is presented in this paper. The optimum conditions for producing modified semi-coke were: concentration of phosphoric acid 2.04, heating time 20 minutes and temperature 587 degrees C, with the optimum iodine of 862 mg/g and yield of 47.48%. The textural characteristics of modified semi-coke were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen adsorption isotherm. The BET surface area of modified semi-coke was estimated to be 989.60 m2/g, with the pore volume of 0.74 cm3/g and a pore diameter of 3.009 nm, with micro-pore volume contributing to 62.44%. The Methylene Blue monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be mg/g at K. The adsorption capacity of the modified semi-coke highlights its suitability for liquid phase adsorption application with a potential usage in waste water treatment.

  5. Characterization of liquids derived from laboratory coking of decant oil and co-coking of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil

    SciTech Connect

    Omer Gul; Caroline Clifford; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert

    2009-05-15

    In this study, decant oil and a blend of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil were subjected to coking and co-coking in a laboratory-scale delayed coker. Higher yields of coke and gas were obtained from co-coking than from coking. Coal addition into the feedstock resulted in lighter overhead liquid. GC/MS analyses of gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel show that co-coking of coal/decant oil gave higher quantity aromatic components than that of coking of decant oil alone. Simulated distillation gas chromatography analyses of overhead liquids and GC/MS analyses of vacuum fractions show that when coal was reacted with a decant oil, the coal constituents contributed to the distillable liquids. To address the reproducibility of the liquid products, overhead liquid samples collected at the first, third, and fifth hours of experiments of 6 h duration were evaluated using simulated distillation gas chromatography and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. NMR analyses of the liquid products showed that, even though there were slight changes in the {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C spectra, the standard deviation was low for the time-dependent samples. Simulated distillation gas chromatography showed that the yields of refinery boiling range materials (i.e., gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, and fuel oil cuts) were reproducible between runs. Fractionation of the overhead liquids into refinery boiling range materials (gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, fuel oil fractions) showed that the boiling range materials and chemical compositions of fractions were found to be reproducible. 54 refs., 17 tabs.

  6. Characterization of the origin and distribution of the minerals and phases in metallurgical cokes

    SciTech Connect

    Sushil Gupta; Maria Dubikova; David French; Veena Sahajwalla

    2007-01-15

    Three industrial metallurgical cokes were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDS). The study highlighted the difficulties and implications of identifying the inherent crystalline mineral phases in cokes using XRD such that increasing the ashing temperature led to the formation of anhydrite and destruction of metallic iron: microwave plasma ashing resulted in minimal alteration of the original coke mineralogy apart from the formation of bassanite and possibly jarosite. A preliminary scheme to characterize coke minerals is presented such that, physically, minerals can be classified as fine ({lt}50 {mu}m), coarse (50-100 {mu}m), and agglomerate ({gt}1000 {mu}m); chemically, minerals can be grouped as refractory, semirefractory, and reactive, while on the basis of distribution they can be described as discrete, disseminated, or pore inclusions. Quartz, cristobalite, mullite, and high melting point Al-silicates were found to be the predominant refractory phases while low melting point Al-silicates, e.g., containing high fluxing elements such as K, and Fe were the main semirefractory phases present in all cokes. A variety of iron containing phases including pyrrhotite, troilite, iron oxides, metallic iron, and iron silicates were also invariably present in all cokes while calcium phases were found to occur as sulfide, silicates, and phosphates. In general, iron and calcium phases can be categorized as reactive phases with few exceptions such as oldhamite (CaS). The study highlighted that most of the cokes possess a similar mineralogy, with the main distinction being in their relative abundance, particle size, and nature of distribution in the coke matrix. The study provides a basis to develop a mechanistic understanding of the influence of minerals on coke reactivity and strength at high temperatures. 41 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Investigation of the effects of heating rate on coking of shale during retorting

    SciTech Connect

    Guffey, F.D.; Hunter, D.E.

    1988-02-01

    The retorting of oil shale distributes organic carbon among three possible products: the liquid product, the noncondensible product, and the residual carbon (coke). The production of coke is detrimental because of the economic effects caused by the loss of organic carbon to this relatively intractable carbon form. Two reference oil shales, a Mahogany zone, Parachute Creek Member, Green River Formation oil shale from Colorado and a Clegg Creek Member, New Albany oil shale from Kentucky, were studied to evaluate the conditions that affect coke production during retorting. The variable that was studied in these experiments was the heating rate during retorting because heating rate has been indicated to have a direct effect on coke production (Burnham and Clarkson 1980). The six heating rates investigated covered the range from 1 to 650/degree/C/h (1.8 to 1169/degree/F/h). The data collected during these experiments were evaluated statistically in order to identify trends. The data for the eastern reference oil shale indicated a decrease in coke formation with increases in the heating rate. The liquid and noncondensible product yields both increased with increasing heating rate. The distribution of products in relation to retort heating rate follows the model suggested by Burnham and Clarkson (1980). Coke production during the retorting of western reference oil shale was found to be constant in relation to heating rate. The liquid product yield increased with increasing heating rate but the trend could not be verified at the 95% confidence level. The coke production observed in these experiments does not follow the prediction of the model. This may indicate that coke formation occurs early in the retorting process and may be limited by the availability of organic materials that form coke. 6 refs., 10 tabs.

  8. Color and chlorinated organics removal from pulp mills wastewater using activated petroleum coke.

    PubMed

    Shawwa, A R; Smith, D W; Sego, D C

    2001-03-01

    Delayed petroleum coke, a waste by-product from the oil sand industry, was utilized in the production of activated carbon. The activated carbon was then evaluated for color and chlorinated organics reduction from pulp mill wastewater. The activation of the petroleum coke was evaluated using a fixed bed reactor involving carbonization and activation steps at temperature of 850 degrees C and using steam as the activation medium. The activation results showed that the maximum surface area of the activated coke was achieved at an activation period of 4 h. The maximum surface area occurred at burnoff and water efficiency of 48.5 and 54.3%, respectively. Increasing the activation period to 6 h resulted in a decrease in the surface area. Methylene blue adsorption results indicated that the activation process was successful. Methylene blue adsorbed per 100 g of applied activated coke was 10 times higher than that adsorbed by raw petroleum coke. Adsorption equilibrium results of the bleached wastewater and the activated coke showed that significant color, COD, DOC and AOX removal (> 90%) was achieved when the activated coke dose exceeded 15,000 mg/L. Adsorption isotherms, in terms of COD, DOC, UV and color were developed based on the batch equilibrium data. Based on these isotherms, the amount of activated coke required to achieve certain removal of color and AOX can be predicted. The utilization of the petroleum coke for the production of activated carbon can provide an excellent disposal option for the oil sand industry at the same time would provide a cheap and valuable activated carbon.

  9. 40 CFR 63.7324 - What procedures must I use to demonstrate initial compliance with the opacity limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery Stacks Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.7324... of 15 percent for a by-product coke oven battery on a normal coking cycle or 20 percent for a by-product coke oven battery on batterywide extended coking, follow the test methods and procedures...

  10. 40 CFR 63.7324 - What procedures must I use to demonstrate initial compliance with the opacity limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery Stacks Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.7324... of 15 percent for a by-product coke oven battery on a normal coking cycle or 20 percent for a by-product coke oven battery on batterywide extended coking, follow the test methods and procedures...

  11. 40 CFR 63.7324 - What procedures must I use to demonstrate initial compliance with the opacity limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery Stacks Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.7324... of 15 percent for a by-product coke oven battery on a normal coking cycle or 20 percent for a by-product coke oven battery on batterywide extended coking, follow the test methods and procedures...

  12. 40 CFR 63.7324 - What procedures must I use to demonstrate initial compliance with the opacity limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery Stacks Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.7324... of 15 percent for a by-product coke oven battery on a normal coking cycle or 20 percent for a by-product coke oven battery on batterywide extended coking, follow the test methods and procedures...

  13. 40 CFR 63.7324 - What procedures must I use to demonstrate initial compliance with the opacity limits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery Stacks Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.7324... of 15 percent for a by-product coke oven battery on a normal coking cycle or 20 percent for a by-product coke oven battery on batterywide extended coking, follow the test methods and procedures...

  14. Use of a Microwave Oven. Youth Training Scheme. Core Exemplar Work Based Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Further Education Staff Coll., Blagdon (England).

    This trainer's guide is intended to assist supervisors of work-based career training projects in helping students understand the benefits, advantages, and disadvantages of a microwave oven and its use. The guide is one in a series of core curriculum modules that is intended for use in combination on- and off-the-job programs to familiarize youth…

  15. KITCHEN (NORTH WING), BRICK OVEN, WRITING ON DOOR “THE VAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    KITCHEN (NORTH WING), BRICK OVEN, WRITING ON DOOR “THE VAN HOUTEN DOOR, SIZE 12 x 28, March 26, 95 (PAT), MANUFACTURED BY DUTCHESS TOOL CO., BEACON, N.Y - Ormond Hotel, 15 East Granada, Ormond Beach, Volusia County, FL

  16. Computer-Presented Video Prompting for Teaching Microwave Oven Use to Three Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigafoos, Jeff; O'Reilly, Mark; Cannella, Helen; Upadhyaya, Megha; Edrisinha, Chaturi; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Hundley, Anna; Andrews, Alonzo; Garver, Carolyn; Young, David

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the use of a video prompting procedure for teaching three adults with developmental disabilities to make popcorn using a microwave oven. Training, using a 10-step task analysis, was conducted in the kitchen of the participant's vocational training program. During baseline, participants were instructed to make popcorn, but were given…

  17. 75 FR 42579 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens; Repeal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... first cycle of these rulemakings and issued a final rule on September 8, 1998 (63 FR 48038), in which... cost of a covered product during a representative average use cycle or period of use. Test procedures... products to measure their efficiency and energy use more accurately. 62 FR 51976. The microwave oven...

  18. 77 FR 33106 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... energy use for microwave ovens (73 FR 62134), interested parties commented that pure water has relatively... each load by 50 C. The cooking cycle energy consumption for each water load size is then weighted based... the cooking cycle energy consumption test results for each water load size. DOE noted that for the...

  19. 75 FR 42611 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... procedures for other cooking products to measure their efficiency and energy use more ] accurately. 62 FR... published on April 8, 2009 (74 FR 16040), DOE tested 32 microwave ovens, and the Association of Home... established pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). DOE is convening this public meeting...

  20. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of bun baking process under different oven load conditions.

    PubMed

    Tank, A; Chhanwal, N; Indrani, D; Anandharamakrishnan, C

    2014-09-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to study the temperature profile of the bun during baking process. Evaporation-condensation mechanism and effect of the latent heat during phase change of water was incorporated in this model to represent actual bun baking process. Simulation results were validated with experimental measurements of bun temperature at two different positions. Baking process is completed within 20 min, after the temperature of crumb become stable at 98 °C. Further, this study was extended to investigate the effect of partially (two baking trays) loaded and fully loaded (eight baking trays) oven on temperature profile of bun. Velocity and temperature profile differs in partially loaded and fully loaded oven. Bun placed in top rack showed rapid baking while bun placed in bottom rack showed slower baking due to uneven temperature distribution in the oven. Hence, placement of bun inside the oven affects temperature of bun and consequently, the quality of the product. PMID:25190860

  1. 76 FR 72332 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... Interim Final Rule) amending the test procedures for microwave ovens. 76 FR 12825. The March 2011 Interim... and energy use more accurately. 62 FR 51976. That final rule incorporated portions of IEC Standard 705... the standby or off modes. Id. \\2\\ In a final rule published on April 8, 2009 (74 FR 16040), DOE...

  2. 78 FR 4015 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... test procedures for microwave ovens. 76 FR 12825. The March 2011 Interim Final Rule incorporated by... measurements and calculations in the conventional cooking products test procedure. 76 FR 72331 (Nov. 23, 2011... over a cycle), based on displayed clock time, and DOE defined the test duration in this case. 76...

  3. 76 FR 65631 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... efficiency test procedure for microwave ovens under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). 75 FR.... 75 FR 42579, 42581. On July 22, 2010, DOE also published in the Federal Register a notice of public... energy efficiency in active (cooking) mode. 75 FR 42611. DOE held the public meeting on September...

  4. Oven receiver: An approach toward the revival of concentrating solar cookers

    SciTech Connect

    Habeebullah, M.B.; Khalifa, A.M.; Olwi, I.

    1995-04-01

    Concentrating type solar cookers are expected to demonstrate high performance because of the large collection area employed. However, the net amount of heat used is still low. This is greatly attributed to the large amount of heat losses from the bare food pots used. Introducing the oven type concept as an alternative approach for collecting the concentrated solar energy would drastically boost the overall cooker efficiency. In this work, the transient heat balance equations were developed for predicting the thermal behavior of an oven type concentrating solar cooker. This simulation was used to show theoretically the great advantage of using a glass-sided oven over the conventional bare receiver pot. The resulting mathematical model was solved using numerical integration. The transient nature of solar radiation and effects of wind speed variation were all taken into consideration. The analysis showed that the oven type receiving pot has both a higher fluid temperature and overall receiver efficiency compared to the bare receiver type, working under similar conditions. 18 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Fraction of Pt surface covered with coke following hydrogenolysis of hexane

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera-Latas, F.J.; Betta, R.A.D.; Boudart, M. )

    1992-05-01

    This paper reports that following hydrogenolysis of n-hexane on an alumina-supported platinum catalyst, the surface of the metal is covered partially with carbonaceous residues or coke. The fraction of surface platinum not covered with coke has been found to be about one half by four independent techniqu3s: titration of preadsorbed oxygen by dihydrogen, chemisorption of carbon monoxide, infrared spectroscopy of chemisorbed carbon monoxide, and hydrogenation rate of ethylene. The first of these techniques suggests itself as the simplest one for further studies of deactivation by coking of platinum catalysts.

  6. Organophosphorus compounds as coke inhibitors during naphtha pyrolysis. Effect of benzyl diethyl phosphite and triphenylphosphine sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Das, P.; Prasad, S.; Kunztu, D.

    1992-09-01

    This paper reports that significant reduction in the rate of coke formation during naphtha pyrolysis was achieved by adding benzyl diethyl phosphite or triphenylphosphine sulfide to the feed. Although the yield of carbon oxides was reduced, there was no effect of these additives on the hydrocarbon yields. Addition of these organophosphorus compounds significantly reduced the concentration of metals, such as iron, nickel, and chromium, incorporated in the coke. A previously proposed model for coke inhibition due to the formation of a passivating metal-phosphorus complex could satisfactorily correlate the data.

  7. Attempts to prevent injector coking with sunflower oil by engine modifications and fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    van der Walt, A.N.; Hugo, F.J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of injector tip temperature on coking propencity when sunflower oil is used as a fuel for direct injection engines, was tested. Partial retraction of the injector, the addition of a heat shield to the injector and cooling the injector with water was tried. Also, injector temperature was increased by reducing heat transferred to the cylinder head and preheating the sunflower oil. None of these measures could prevent coking of the injector tip. Coating the injector tip with Teflon and increasing the back leakage rate was also tried without success. Only a few of many additives tested, showed some promise of being able to prevent coking. 5 figures, 1 table.

  8. The effect of calcination conditions on the graphitizability of novel synthetic and coal-derived cokes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Barbara Ellen

    The effects of calcination heating rate and ultimate calcination temperature upon calcined coke and subsequent graphitic material microstructures were studied for materials prepared from three different precursors. The pitch precursors used were Mitsubishi AR pitch (a synthetic, 100% mesophase pitch), the NMP-extracted portion of a raw coal, and the NMP-extracted fraction of a coal liquefaction residue obtained from an HTI pilot plant. These materials were all green-coked under identical conditions. Optical microscopy confirmed that the Mitsubishi coke was very anisotropic and the HTI coke was nearly as anisotropic. The coke produced from the direct coal extract was very isotropic. Crystalline development during calcination heating was verified by high-temperature x-ray diffraction. Experiments were performed to ascertain the effects of varying calcination heating rate and ultimate temperature. It was determined that calcined coke crystallite size increased with increasing temperature for all three materials but was found to be independent of heating rate. The graphene interplanar spacing decreased with increasing temperature for the isotropic NMP-extract material but increased with increasing temperature for the anisotropic materials---Mitsubishi and HTI cokes. Graphene interplanar spacing was also found to be independent of heating rate. Calcined coke real densities were, likewise, found to be independent of heating rate. The anisotropic cokes (Mitsubishi and HTI) exhibited increasing real density with increasing calcination temperature. The NMP-extract coke increased in density up to 1050°C and then suffered a dramatic reduction in real density when heated to 1250°C. This is indicative of puffing. Since there was no corresponding disruption in the crystalline structure, the puffing phenomena was determined to be intercrystalline rather than intracrystalline. After the calcined cokes were graphitized (under identical conditions), the microstructures were re

  9. Prospects for use of lean caking coal from the Kuznetsk coalfield for coking

    SciTech Connect

    Sulimov, G.I.; Agafonov, A.A.; Ol'shanetskii, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    The coals from the Kuznetsk Coalfield were investigated under laboratory and pilot-plant conditions and compared with coals of various rank from the Anzhero Coalfield. The coals from the South of the Kuzbass have a more favorable petrographic composition than the Anzhero coals; their volatile matter depends on the rank; the caking capacity is low; the plastic layer is not measured, and the swelling index is also low. The lean coal types are coked in charges containing Kuznetsk and Pechora coal. The criterion for evaluation of the coking capacity was the coke mechanical strength indices, obtained during testing in the large grate drum. 1 figure, 4 tables.

  10. Innovative Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsi, Louis M.; Kaebnick, Gweneth W.

    1989-01-01

    The phenomenon of innovation within the university is examined, noting the possibility of innovation as a key to college vitality. A study was conducted using a group of institutions that demonstrated recent innovative spirit. Members of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU), each has been recognized in an annual…

  11. Encouraging innovation.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Anthony A

    2014-02-01

    Innovation is central to the scientific endeavor, and yet the current system of funding in the United States discourages innovation, especially in the young. Subtle alterations to the funding system, guided in part by the success of the European Research Council, could have major effects on encouraging innovation.

  12. Energy efficiency of alternative coke-free metallurgical technologies

    SciTech Connect

    V.G. Lisienko; A.V. Lapteva; A.E. Paren'kov

    2009-02-15

    Energy analysis is undertaken for the blast-furnace process, for liquid-phase processes (Corex, Hismelt, Romelt), for solid-phase pellet reduction (Midrex, HYL III, LP-V in a shaft furnace), for steel production in systems consisting of a blast furnace and a converter, a Midrex unit and an arc furnace, or a Romelt unit and an arc furnace, and for scrap processing in an arc furnace or in an LP-V shaft furnace. Three blast-furnace processes with sinter and coke are adopted as the basis of comparison, as in: the standard blast-furnace process used in Russia; the improved blast-furnace process with coal-dust injection; and the production of vanadium hot metal from vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite ore (with a subsequent duplex process, ferrovanadium production, and its use in the arc furnace).

  13. Electrical conduction phenomena in coked industrial reforming catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Daveau, S.; Bonanos, N.

    1997-02-01

    Industrial Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reforming catalysts containing up to 26 wt% of carbon have been studied by admittance spectroscopy. Spectra obtained on heating in nitrogen in the range 200--500 C displayed low frequency relaxations, which were interpreted in terms of a network of carbon islands linked by surface ionic conduction. During subsequent cooling, these features disappeared, suggesting that they were generated by dissociation of strongly bound water. Isothermal ac measurements in nitrogen showed that the conductance was determined by the carbon content. Similar measurements made in dilute oxygen showed that the conductance decreased with burn-off of carbon. Analysis of gases evolved on heating revealed aqueous and chloride species, originating from acid sites on the catalyst support. The results suggest that electrical techniques could be used to characterize coked reforming catalysts.

  14. 40 CFR 63.7281 - Am I subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery... if you own or operate a coke oven battery at a coke plant that is (or is part of) a major source...

  15. 40 CFR 63.7281 - Am I subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery... if you own or operate a coke oven battery at a coke plant that is (or is part of) a major source...

  16. 40 CFR 63.7281 - Am I subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery... if you own or operate a coke oven battery at a coke plant that is (or is part of) a major source...

  17. 40 CFR 63.7281 - Am I subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery... if you own or operate a coke oven battery at a coke plant that is (or is part of) a major source...

  18. 40 CFR 63.7281 - Am I subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery... if you own or operate a coke oven battery at a coke plant that is (or is part of) a major source...

  19. Innovation network

    PubMed Central

    Acemoglu, Daron; Akcigit, Ufuk; Kerr, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Technological progress builds upon itself, with the expansion of invention in one domain propelling future work in linked fields. Our analysis uses 1.8 million US patents and their citation properties to map the innovation network and its strength. Past innovation network structures are calculated using citation patterns across technology classes during 1975–1994. The interaction of this preexisting network structure with patent growth in upstream technology fields has strong predictive power on future innovation after 1995. This pattern is consistent with the idea that when there is more past upstream innovation for a particular technology class to build on, then that technology class innovates more. PMID:27681628

  20. Experimental study on the effects of blast-cap configurations and charge patterns on coke descending in CDQ cooling shaft

    SciTech Connect

    Y.H. Feng; X.X. Zhang; M.L. Wu

    2008-08-15

    The coke descending behavior in a CDQ cooling shaft is studied experimentally by means of a tracing method with a digital camera. For three different blast-caps, the law of coke flow is studied under five conditions of coke charge. The experimental results show that, for the sake of the uniformity of the coke burden descending, a blast-cap with elliptical cross-section is a better choice than that with circular cross-section regardless of high or low placement. A coke charge pattern with a flat top burden surface is preferable to that with peak-valley surface, a double-peak superior to a one-peak. Trajectory and average velocity distribution of coke behavior depend weakly on whether the coke is continuously fed or not as the discharging began. The blast-caps have local effects on the descending coke and hardly affect whether the cokes flow smoothly or not in the case of coke burden with enough depth.

  1. Relative rates of coke formation from hydrocarbons in steam cracking of naphtha: 3. Aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Kopinke, F. . Section of Remediation Research); Zimmermann, G. ); Reyniers, G.C.; Froment, G.F. )

    1993-11-01

    Relative rate constants of coke formation (k) from 18 aromatic hydrocarbons during steam cracking of naphtha at 810 C were determined by application of [sup 14]C-labeled compounds. Benzene is a poor coke precursor (k = 0.3), whereas polycyclic structures like acenaphthylene, anthracene, and chrysene have a high coking potential in the pyrolysis reactor (k = 4.5--6) as well as in the TLE section (k = 12--30). The relation between structure and coke formation rate of aromatic hydrocarbons can be interpreted on the basis of their reactivity in radical reactions. Constituents of the fuel fraction ([ge] C[sub 9]) derived from nonaromatic feed components are more efficient in the TLE fouling than those stemming from benzene derivatives.

  2. Guide to ASTM test methods for the analysis of coal and coke

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Kishore Nadkarni

    2008-07-01

    The guide includes brief descriptions of all 56 ASTM test methods that cover the physical, chemical, and spectroscopic analytical techniques to qualitatively and quantitatively identify over 40 chemical and physical properties of coal, coke, their products, and by-products.

  3. Study of ways of reducing coke use at non-integrated metallurgical plants

    SciTech Connect

    S.A. Feshchenko; V.I. Pleshkov; I.N. Shishchuk; A.V. Buev

    2006-03-15

    To reduce the costs of blast-furnace smelting, the Svobodnyi Sokol plant has devised a comprehensive program of organizational-technical measures that include study of ways of reducing coke consumption. To do this, the plant began operating its blast furnaces with schungite when making foundry and conversion pig irons. Using schungite in the charge employed to make foundry iron makes it possible to save a significant (10-15%) amount of coke. The value of the coefficient that characterizes the replacement of coke by schungite varies broadly and can reach 1.0 or more, depending on the grade of iron being made and the furnace operating regime. The same coefficient has a value of 0.57 kg coke/kg schungite when 12-15 kg schungite/ton pig is used to make conversion pig iron.

  4. Current developments at Giprokoks for coke-battery construction and reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    V.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; V.B. Kamenyuka; O.N. Surenskii; G.E. Kos'kova; V.V. Derevich; V.A. Gushchin

    2009-07-15

    Approaches developed at Giprokoks for coke-battery construction and reconstruction are considered. Recommendations regarding furnace construction and reconstruction are made on the basis of Ukrainian and world experience.

  5. Coke formation on HFAU and HEMT zeolites. Influence of the reaction temperature and propene pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doka Nassionou, G. A.; Magnoux, P.; Guisnet, M.

    1999-02-01

    The formation of coke from propene (Pp = 1.3 kPa and 13 kPa) was investigated on HFAU and HEMT zeolites in a microbalance for temperatures ranging from 120 °C to 450 °C. For both zeolites, the greater the propene pressure and the lower the temperature the faster the initial coke formation. However for high propene pressure, initial coke formation is faster with HEMT zeolite. This can be related to the stronger acidity of the HEMT sample. For low propene pressure and after 420 minutes of coking, a minimum in coke is observed for T = 350 ^circC, which can be related to the difference between the rate of formation and the rate of retention of coke molecules. At low temperature, due to their low volatility, oligomers are easily formed and retained in the zeolite pores. These molecules can be totally eliminated by an adequate thermal treatment in vacuum. At higher temperature, only aromatic or polyaromatic compounds which present a size larger than the pore apertures can be retained in the cavities of the zeolites. The greater the reaction time, the faster the retention. Whatever the reaction temperature, coke molecules are more homogeneously distributed in the HEMT crystallites than in those of HFAU samples. For this latter zeolite coke molecules are preferentially formed in the cavities located near the outer surface of the crystallites (shell coking). La formation de coke à partir du propène (Pp = 1,3 et 13 kPa) a été étudiée en microbalance sur zéolithes HFAU et HEMT dans une gamme de température variant de 120 à 450°C. La vitesse initiale de formation de coke dépend de la pression du propène, de la température et également de la zéolithe. Ainsi, pour une forte pression en propène, la vitesse initiale de formation de coke est toujours plus importante sur HEMT que sur HFAU. Ceci est à relier à la plus grande acidité et à la présence de sites acides plus forts sur HEMT. Après 420 minutes de réaction, et pour une faible pression en propène le

  6. Pyrolysis kinetics of coking coal mixed with biomass under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ha Myung; Seo, Myung Won; Jeong, Sang Mun; Na, Byung Ki; Yoon, Sang Jun; Lee, Jae Goo; Lee, Woon Jae

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the kinetic characteristics of coking coal mixed with biomass during pyrolysis, thermogravimetric (TG) and thermo-balance reactor (TBR) analyses were conducted under non-isothermal and isothermal condition. Yellow poplar as a biomass (B) was mixed with weak coking coal (WC) and hard coking coal (HC), respectively. The calculated activation energies of WC/B blends were higher than those of HC/B blends under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions. The coal/biomass blends show increased reactivity and decreased activation energy with increasing biomass blend ratio, regardless of the coking properties of the coal. The different char structures of the WC/B and HC/B blends were analyzed by BET and SEM.

  7. Effect of thermal treatment on coke reactivity and catalytic iron mineralogy

    SciTech Connect

    Byong-chul Kim; Sushil Gupta; David French; Richard Sakurovs; Veena Sahajwalla

    2009-07-15

    Iron minerals in coke can catalyze its gasification and may affect coke behavior in the blast furnace. The catalytic behavior of iron depends largely upon the nature of the iron-bearing minerals. To determine the mineralogical changes that iron could undergo in the blast furnace, cokes made from three coals containing iron present in different mineral forms (clays, carbonates, and pyrite) were examined. All coke samples were heat-treated in a horizontal furnace at 1373, 1573, and 1773 K and then gasified with CO{sub 2} at 1173 K in a fixed bed reactor (FBR). Coke mineralogy was characterized using quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of coke mineral matter prepared by low-temperature ashing (LTA) and field emission scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (FESEM/EDS). The mineralogy of the three cokes was most notably distinguished by differing proportions of iron-bearing phases. During heat treatment and subsequent gasification, iron-containing minerals transformed to a range of minerals but predominantly iron-silicides and iron oxides, the relative amounts of which varied with heat treatment temperature and gasification conditions. The relationship between initial apparent reaction rate and the amount of catalytic iron minerals - pyrrhotite, metallic iron, and iron oxides - was linear and independent of heat treatment temperature at total catalyst levels below 1 wt %. The study showed that the coke reactivity decreased with increasing temperature of heat treatment due to decreased levels of catalytic iron minerals (largely due to formation of iron silicides) as well as increased ordering of the carbon structure. The study also showed that the importance of catalytic mineral matter in determining reactivity declines as gasification proceeds. 37 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Effect of the hydraulic regime of dry quencher forechambers on coke quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sytenko, I.V.; Lobov, A.A.; Shreider, S.A.; Nazarov, V.V.

    1982-01-01

    A discussion of the effects of the operation of a dry quenching unit on the quality of coke produced was presented. The pressure under the forechamber arch of the quenching unit was discussed. Also, the composition of the circulation and emission gas and the quantity of emission gas were also included in the investigation. It was concluded that the operation of the dry quencher can effect the burnup and chemical and mechanical properties of the coke.

  9. Cryogenic fractionator gas as stripping gas of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process

    DOEpatents

    DeGeorge, Charles W.

    1981-01-01

    In an integrated coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped with a stripping gas to remove acidic gases, at least a portion of the stripping gas comprises a gas comprising hydrogen, nitrogen and methane separated from the coker products.

  10. Coke gasification: the influence and behavior of inherent catalytic mineral matter

    SciTech Connect

    Mihaela Grigore; Richard Sakurovs; David French; Veena Sahajwalla

    2009-04-15

    Gasification of coke contributes to its degradation in the blast furnace. In this study, the effect of gasification on the inherent catalytic minerals in cokes and their reciprocal influence on gasification are investigated. The catalytic mineral phases identified in the cokes used in this study were metallic iron, iron sulfides, and iron oxides. Metallic iron and pyrrhotite were rapidly oxidized during gasification to iron oxide. The catalysts had a strong influence on the apparent rates at the initial stages of reaction. As gasification proceeds, their effect on the reaction rate diminishes as a result of reducing the surface contact between catalyst and carbon matrix because of carbon consumption around the catalyst particles; with extended burnout the reactivity of the coke becomes increasingly dependent on surface area. The reaction rate in the initial stages was also influenced by the particle size of the catalytic minerals; for a given catalytic iron level, the cokes whose catalytic minerals were more finely dispersed had a higher apparent reaction rate than cokes containing larger catalytic particles. Iron, sodium, and potassium in the amorphous phase did not appear to affect the reaction rate. 40 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Coking suppression in solid oxide fuel cells operating on ethanol by applying pyridine as fuel additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Feng; Ran, Ran; Park, Hee Jung; Jung, Doh Won; Kwak, Chan; Shao, Zongping

    2014-11-01

    In this study, pyridine was used to suppress the coke formation in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operating on liquid fuels. Pyridine can selectively occupy acidic sites of the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst layer and solves the problem of dehydration of ethanol in principle, resulting in a significant reduction in the coke formation rate for operating on ethanol fuel. At 600 °C, by adding 12.5 vol.% pyridine into the ethanol fuel, the coke formation rate over the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst is reduced by 64% while a cell power output comparable to that operating on hydrogen is still achieved based on total potential hydrogen available from ethanol. The effective reduction of carbon deposition on the catalyst layer thus protects the anode layer from carbon deposition by strongly suppressing coke formation, especially near the anode-electrolyte interface. Pyridine is adsorbed onto the acidic sites of the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst and the adsorbed pyridine may reduce the amount of carbonium ions formed, thereby reducing coke formation. This study suggested that the addition of pyridine could suppress the coke formation in SOFCs with Ni/Al2O3 catalyst layer operated on ethanol or some other similar liquid fuels.

  12. Using High-Voltage Direct Current in Removing Coke from a Zeolite Catalyst Grain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljalal, Abdulaziz

    2009-03-01

    Zeolite catalysts are commonly used in petroleum refining processes. Over a period of time, these catalysts lose their activity due to gradual deposition of carbonaceous materials, called coke. The coked catalysts are usually reactivated by combusting the coke at elevated temperatures in presence of an oxygen-enriched gas. But the elevated temperatures cause damages to the structure of the catalyst which result in reduced activity. Normally, the catalyst is reactivated 3 or 4 times before it must be returned to the manufacturer for reclamation of the valuable platinum and/or rhenium content. This study is an attempt to come up with a new procedure to remove coke from a zeolite catalyst grain using high-voltage direct current. It is found that the process is self-terminated due to the loss of electrical conductivity of the grain. In addition, it is found that there an optimum current range for which up to 90% of the coke can be removed. Higher or lower currents result in much smaller removal of the coke.

  13. Removal of cyanide compounds from coking wastewater by ferrous sulfate: Improvement of biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xubiao; Xu, Ronghua; Wei, Chaohai; Wu, Haizhen

    2016-01-25

    The effect of ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) treatment on the removal of cyanide compounds and the improvement of biodegradability of coking wastewater were investigated by varying Fe:TCN molar ratios. Results suggested that the reaction between FeSO4 and coking wastewater was a two-step process. At the first step, i.e., 0≤Fe:TCN≤1.0, the reaction mechanisms were dominated by the precipitation of FeS, the complexation of CN(-), and the coagulation of organic compounds. The COD of coking wastewater decreased from 3748.1 mg/L to 3450.2 mg/L, but BOD5:COD (B/C) was improved from 0.30 to 0.51. At the second step, i.e., 1.0coking wastewater. Moreover, B/C decreased progressively to 0.35, which was attributed to the negative effects of excess ferrous ions on biodegradability. To improve coking wastewater's biodegradability, a minimum ferrous dosage is required to complete the first step reaction. However, the optimum ferrous dosage should be determined to control a safe residual TCN in coking wastewater for the further biological treatment.

  14. Assessment of heating rate and non-uniform heating in domestic microwave ovens.

    PubMed

    Pitchai, Krishnamoorthy; Birla, Sohan L; Jones, David; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan

    2012-01-01

    Due to the inherent nature of standing wave patterns of microwaves inside a domestic microwave oven cavity and varying dielectric properties of different food components, microwave heating produces non-uniform distribution of energy inside the food. Non-uniform heating is a major food safety concern in not-ready-to-eat (NRTE) microwaveable foods. In this study, we present a method for assessing heating rate and non-uniform heating in domestic microwave ovens. In this study a custom designed container was used to assess heating rate and non-uniform heating of a range of microwave ovens using a hedgehog of 30 T-type thermocouples. The mean and standard deviation of heating rate along the radial distance and sector of the container were measured and analyzed. The effect of the location of rings and sectors was analyzed using ANOVA to identify the best location for placing food on the turntable. The study suggested that the best location to place food in a microwave oven is not at the center but near the edge of the turntable assuming uniform heating is desired. The effect of rated power and cavity size on heating rate and non-uniform heating was also studied for a range of microwave ovens. As the rated power and cavity size increases, heating rate increases while non-uniform heating decreases. Sectors in the container also influenced heating rate (p < 0.0001), even though it did not have clear trend on heating rate. In general, sectors close to the magnetron tend to heat slightly faster than sectors away from the magnetron. However, the variation in heating rate among sectors was only 2 degrees C/min and considered not practically important. Overall heating performance such as mean heating rate and non-uniform heating did not significantly vary between the two replications that were performed 4 h apart. However, microwave ovens were inconsistent in producing the same heating patterns between the two replications that were performed 4 h apart.

  15. Evaluation of fly ash from co-combustion of coal and petroleum coke for use in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A.N.; Thomas, M.D.A.

    2007-01-15

    An investigation of fly ash (FA) produced from various blends of coal and petroleum coke (pet coke) fired at Belledune Generating Station, New Brunswick, Canada, was conducted to establish its performance relative to FA derived from coal-only combustion and its compliance with CSA A3000. The FA samples were beneficiated by an electrostatic separation process to produce samples for testing with a range of loss-on-ignition (LOI) values. The results of these studies indicate that the combustion of pet coke results in very little inorganic residue (for example, typically less than 0.5% ash) and the main impact on FA resulting from the co-combustion of coal and up to 25% pet coke is an increase in the unburned carbon content and LOI values. The testing of FA after beneficiation indicates that FA produced from fuels with up to 25% pet coke performs as good as FA produced from the same coal without pet coke.

  16. Novel carbon-rich additives preparation by degradative solvent extraction of biomass wastes for coke-making.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xianqing; Li, Xian; Xiao, Li; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Tong, Shan; Wu, Chao; Ashida, Ryuichi; Liu, Wenqiang; Miura, Kouichi; Yao, Hong

    2016-05-01

    In this work, two extracts (Soluble and Deposit) were produced by degradative solvent extraction of biomass wastes from 250 to 350°C. The feasibilities of using Soluble and Deposit as additives for coke-making were investigated for the first time. The Soluble and Deposit, having significantly higher carbon content, lower oxygen content and extremely lower ash content than raw biomasses. All Solubles and most of Deposits can melt completely at the temperature ranged from 80 to 120°C and 140 to 180°C, respectively. The additions of Soluble or Deposit into the coke-making coal significantly improved their thermoplastic properties with as high as 9°C increase of the plastic range. Furthermore, the addition of Deposit or Soluble also markedly enhanced the coke quality through increasing coke strength after reaction (CSR) and reducing coke reactivity index (CRI). Therefore, the Soluble and Deposit were proved to be good additives for coke-making.

  17. The reaction of coke specimens in an environment where both the temperature and the gas composition are time dependent

    SciTech Connect

    Aderibigbe, D.A.; Szekely, J.

    1982-09-01

    The purpose of this communication is to comment on the appropriateness of the currently employed testing procedures for evaluating the performance of coke in the iron blast furnace. It points out that while the ultimate test of coke quality is its actual performance in the real operating blast furnaces, it is clearly desirable to devise tests that enable one to predict how a given type of coke would behave without resorting to expensive, large scale trials, performed under industrial conditions. It suggests that the way in which metallurgical coke reacts in the iron blast furnace may depend quite critically on its previous history (in terms of the temperature and gas composition to which the particle was exposed). The ''intrinsic reactivity'' of a given coke sample may vary quite markedly with furnace operation and that the currently employed simple coke reactivity tests are unlikely to provide information on this type of behavior.

  18. Innovation @ NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the activities National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is doing to encourage innovation across the agency. All information provided is available publicly.

  19. Evaluation of Oven-Cured Solid Carbon/epoxy Composites with Various Porosity Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, M. A.

    2009-03-01

    Cirrus has developed a strong core competency fabricating composite components using oven cure vacuum bag technology. When using this process, porosity levels must be carefully managed and effects of porosity well understood. Excessive porosity negatively affects material performance and reduces the effectiveness of the ultrasonic NDI method. This paper will present material characterization results from carbon/epoxy composite panels produced with various levels of porosity. Panels were inspected using two different ultrasonic methods. Panels were destructively tested to correlate static mechanical and physical properties to ultrasonic absorption coefficients. The goal of this work is to characterize material behavior to allow ultrasonic inspection in a manufacturing environment on vacuum bag oven-cured parts where porosity may be a factor.

  20. 3D modelling of coupled mass and heat transfer of a convection-oven roasting process.

    PubMed

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Gernaey, Krist V; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2013-04-01

    A 3D mathematical model of coupled heat and mass transfer describing oven roasting of meat has been developed from first principles. The proposed mechanism for the mass transfer of water is modified and based on a critical literature review of the effect of heat on meat. The model equations are based on a conservation of mass and energy, coupled through Darcy's equations of porous media - the water flow is mainly pressure-driven. The developed model together with theoretical and experimental assessments were used to explain the heat and water transport and the effect of the change in microstructure (permeability, water binding capacity and elastic modulus) that occur during the meat roasting process. The developed coupled partial differential equations were solved by using COMSOL Multiphysics®3.5 and state variables are predicted as functions of both position and time. The proposed mechanism was partially validated by experiments in a convection oven where temperatures were measured online.

  1. EVALUATION OF OVEN-CURED, SOLID CARBON/EPOXY COMPOSITES WITH VARIOUS POROSITY LEVELS

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M. A.

    2009-03-03

    Cirrus has developed a strong core competency fabricating composite components using oven cure vacuum bag technology. When using this process, porosity levels must be carefully managed and effects of porosity well understood. Excessive porosity negatively affects material performance and reduces the effectiveness of the ultrasonic NDI method. This paper will present material characterization results from carbon/epoxy composite panels produced with various levels of porosity. Panels were inspected using two different ultrasonic methods. Panels were destructively tested to correlate static mechanical and physical properties to ultrasonic absorption coefficients. The goal of this work is to characterize material behavior to allow ultrasonic inspection in a manufacturing environment on vacuum bag oven-cured parts where porosity may be a factor.

  2. Measurements of Sc I gf-values. [absorption spectroscopy using heat pipe oven

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, W. H.; Reeves, E. M.; Tomkins, F. S.

    1976-01-01

    Absolute gf-values were obtained for 98 transitions in neutral scandium by the hook method using an inductively coupled heat-pipe oven. Of the 98 lines, 51 are classified, 33 are unclassified lines that occur in pairs with the lower energy level identified, and 14 are unclassified but are believed to originate from one of the two lower levels of the ground state. The results are compared with semiempirical and other measurement results in the literature.

  3. Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Oven-dried Switchgrass Germplasms for Bioethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioethanol production potential of three oven-dried switchgrass germplasms (St6-1, St6- 3E and St6-3F) containing 26.65 to 29.28% glucan, 17.92 to 19.37% xylan, and 17.74 to 19.23% lignin (dry matter basis) was investigated. Evaluation of the effect of three acid concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% w/...

  4. Evaluation of thermal treatment markers in wheat flour-derived products cooked in conventional and in low-emissivity ovens.

    PubMed

    Bignardi, Chiara; Cavazza, Antonella; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Corradini, Claudio; Massini, Roberto

    2013-10-15

    Different markers for the assessment of thermal treatment entity of food products were investigated on a model bread prepared from wheat flour. Samples were submitted to different cooking procedures by combining three different times and temperatures, and employing two different ovens: a low-emissivity oven and a conventional one. The cook value index was calculated for each sample to evaluate the entity of the thermal treatment. Furosine, maltose:maltulose ratio, colour indexes (L, a, b) have been evaluated in all samples. Furosine has been quantified by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry, maltose:maltulose ratio was determined by HPAEC-PAD, colour indexes were measured by spectrophotometer method. Values for weight loss during cooking and surface temperature have also been monitored. A statistical analysis showed good correlation between the cook value index and all the parameters evaluated. Low emissivity oven shown higher performances and lower energy consumption than conventional oven.

  5. Evaluation of thermal treatment markers in wheat flour-derived products cooked in conventional and in low-emissivity ovens.

    PubMed

    Bignardi, Chiara; Cavazza, Antonella; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Corradini, Claudio; Massini, Roberto

    2013-10-15

    Different markers for the assessment of thermal treatment entity of food products were investigated on a model bread prepared from wheat flour. Samples were submitted to different cooking procedures by combining three different times and temperatures, and employing two different ovens: a low-emissivity oven and a conventional one. The cook value index was calculated for each sample to evaluate the entity of the thermal treatment. Furosine, maltose:maltulose ratio, colour indexes (L, a, b) have been evaluated in all samples. Furosine has been quantified by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry, maltose:maltulose ratio was determined by HPAEC-PAD, colour indexes were measured by spectrophotometer method. Values for weight loss during cooking and surface temperature have also been monitored. A statistical analysis showed good correlation between the cook value index and all the parameters evaluated. Low emissivity oven shown higher performances and lower energy consumption than conventional oven. PMID:23692762

  6. Effectiveness of oxygen barrier oven bags in low temperature cooking on reduction of warmed-over flavor in beef roasts.

    PubMed

    Lepper-Blilie, A N; Berg, E P; Buchanan, D S; Keller, W L; Maddock-Carlin, K R; Berg, P T

    2014-03-01

    A 3×3×2 factorial was utilized to determine if roast size (small, medium, large), cooking method (open-pan, oven bag, vacuum bag), and heating process (fresh, reheated) prevented warmed-over flavor (WOF) in beef clod roasts. Fresh vacuum bag and reheated open-pan roasts had higher cardboardy flavor scores compared with fresh open-pan roast scores. Reheated roasts in oven and vacuum bags did not differ from fresh roasts for cardboardy flavor. Brothy and fat intensity were increased in reheated roasts in oven and vacuum bags compared with fresh roasts in oven and vacuum bags. Differences in TBARS were found in the interaction of heating process and roast size with the fresh and reheated large, and reheated medium roasts having the lowest values. Based on TBARS data, to prevent WOF in reheated beef roasts, a larger size roast in a cooking bag is the most effective method.

  7. The Evolution of Structural Order as a Measure of Thermal History of Coke in the Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundgren, Maria; Khanna, Rita; Ökvist, Lena Sundqvist; Sahajwalla, Veena; Björkman, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Investigations were carried out on cokes heat treated in the laboratory and on cokes extracted from the experimental blast furnace (EBF) raceway and hearth. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were performed to investigate changes in structural order ( L c), chemical transformations in coke ash along with comparative thermodynamic equilibrium studies and the influence of melt. Three data processing approaches were used to compute L c values as a function of temperature and time and linear correlations were established between L c and heat treatment temperatures during laboratory investigations. These were used to estimate temperatures experienced by coke in various regions of EBF and estimated raceway temperatures were seen to follow the profile of combustion peak. The MgAl2O4 spinel was observed in coke submerged in slag during laboratory studies and in cokes found further into the raceway. Coke in contact with hot metal showed XRD peaks corresponding to presence of Fe3Si. The intensity of SiO2 peak in coke ash was seen to decrease with increasing temperature and disappeared at around 1770 K (1500 °C) due to the formation of SiC. This study has shown that the evolution of structural order and chemical transformations in coke could be used to estimate its thermal history in blast furnaces.

  8. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator -- Part I. Design and fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Baker, Michael S.; Clews, Peggy J.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the design and fabrication of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). This paper begins by describing the limits on oscillator frequency stability imposed by the thermal drift and electronic properties (Q, resistance) of both the resonant tank circuit and feedback electronics required to form an electronic oscillator. An OCMO is presented that takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. This was achieved by developing a processing technique where both silicon-on-insulator complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry and piezoelectric aluminum nitride, AlN, micromechanical resonators are placed on a suspended platform within a standard CMOS integrated circuit. Operation at microscale sizes achieves high thermal resistances (~10 °C/mW), and hence thermal stabilization of the oscillators at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art ovenized crystal oscillators, OCXO. This constant resistance feedback circuit is presented that incorporates on platform resistive heaters and temperature sensors to both measure and stabilize the platform temperature. Moreover, the limits on temperature stability of the OCMO platform and oscillator frequency imposed by the gain of the constant resistance feedback loop, placement of the heater and temperature sensing resistors, as well as platform radiative and convective heat losses are investigated.

  9. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator -- Part I. Design and fabrication

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Baker, Michael S.; Clews, Peggy J.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the design and fabrication of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). This paper begins by describing the limits on oscillator frequency stability imposed by the thermal drift and electronic properties (Q, resistance) of both the resonant tank circuit and feedback electronics required to form an electronic oscillator. An OCMO is presented that takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. This was achieved by developing a processing technique where both silicon-on-insulator complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuitrymore » and piezoelectric aluminum nitride, AlN, micromechanical resonators are placed on a suspended platform within a standard CMOS integrated circuit. Operation at microscale sizes achieves high thermal resistances (~10 °C/mW), and hence thermal stabilization of the oscillators at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art ovenized crystal oscillators, OCXO. This constant resistance feedback circuit is presented that incorporates on platform resistive heaters and temperature sensors to both measure and stabilize the platform temperature. Moreover, the limits on temperature stability of the OCMO platform and oscillator frequency imposed by the gain of the constant resistance feedback loop, placement of the heater and temperature sensing resistors, as well as platform radiative and convective heat losses are investigated.« less

  10. Extrapolative Capability of Two Models That Estimating Soil Water Retention Curve between Saturation and Oven Dryness

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Sen; Ren, Tusheng; Lu, Yili; Meng, Ping; Sun, Shiyou

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimation of soil water retention curve (SWRC) at the dry region is required to describe the relation between soil water content and matric suction from saturation to oven dryness. In this study, the extrapolative capability of two models for predicting the complete SWRC from limited ranges of soil water retention data was evaluated. When the model parameters were obtained from SWRC data in the 0–1500 kPa range, the FX model (Fredlund and Xing, 1994) estimations agreed well with measurements from saturation to oven dryness with RMSEs less than 0.01. The GG model (Groenevelt and Grant, 2004) produced larger errors at the dry region, with significantly larger RMSEs and MEs than the FX model. Further evaluations indicated that when SWRC measurements in the 0–100 kPa suction range was applied for model establishment, the FX model was capable of producing acceptable SWRCs across the entire water content range. For a higher accuracy, the FX model requires soil water retention data at least in the 0- to 300-kPa range to extend the SWRC to oven dryness. Comparing with the Khlosi et al. (2006) model, which requires measurements in the 0–500 kPa range to reproduce the complete SWRCs, the FX model has the advantage of requiring less SWRC measurements. Thus the FX modeling approach has the potential to eliminate the processes for measuring soil water retention in the dry range. PMID:25464503

  11. [Efficacy of the pasteur oven as sterilization equipment in dental offices].

    PubMed

    Tavares, Solange do Socorro Fonseca; de Sousa, Joaquim Tomé; Tipple, Anaclara Ferreira Veiga; e Souza, Adenícia Custódia Silva; Pimenta, Fabiana Cristina; Anders, Patricia Staciarini

    2008-03-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the efficacy of the use of the Pasteur oven as sterilization equipment in dental offices through biological monitoring. For this assessment were taken into account how adequately the material is loaded into the equipment; time/temperature used; and preventive maintenance of the oven. The data were collected in 101 dental offices in the Central District of GoiPnia, in the State of Goiás, through observation, interviews and performance of tests with biological indicator. The results showed a lack of standardization of some of the procedures recommended by the Ministry of Health for sterilization of items in the oven, and positive results of the biological test in 46 (45.5%) of the tested cycles. The intervening factors with most significance regarding sterilization problems were: absence of an accessory thermometer to control the cycles' temperature and non-observance of the time/temperature relations recommended for the sterilization cycle through dry heat. PMID:18450161

  12. Electroanalytical determination of cadmium and lead in deciduous teeth after microwave oven digestion.

    PubMed

    Bayo, J; Moreno-Grau, S; Martínez, M J; Moreno, J; Angosto, J M; Moreno-Clavel, J; Guillén Pérez, J J; García Marcos, L

    2001-01-01

    A method using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry after microwave oven digestion was developed for the simultaneous determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in the deciduous teeth of children. Each tooth was weighed; deposited in a 120 mL capped Teflon vessel with 5 mL 65% nitric acid, Suprapur analytical grade; and digested in a 2-step microwave oven for 15 min. The detection limits for Cd(II) and Pb(II) in the final solution were 0.078 and 0.323 microg/L, and the quantitation limits 0.394 and 1.613 microg/L, respectively, with a linearity range of 2 microg/L for Cd(II) and 23.3 microg/L for Pb(II). The sensitivity was 2.51 nA/microg-L and 1.37 nA/microg-L, for Cd(II) and Pb(II). The main advantages of this technique are a complete and satisfactory dissolution of the tooth material with the proposed microwave oven digestion procedure, without sample pretreatments, such as drying, ashing, or powdering. The voltammetric procedure proved to be well designed because of significant goodness of fit to a linear model, and the accuracy of the method was established as compared with standard reference material. The methodology has enabled us to study Cd(II) and Pb(II) in 371 deciduous teeth from school children in Cartagena, Spain.

  13. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator – Part II. Characterization and measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the measurement and characterization of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). The OCMO takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both aluminum nitride (AlN) micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. Operation at microscale sizes allows implementation of high thermal resistance platform supports that enable thermal stabilization at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art oven controlled crystal oscillators. A prototype OCMO has been demonstrated with a measured temperature stability of -1.2 ppb/°C, over the commercial temperature range while using tens of milliwatts of supply power and with a volume of 2.3 mm3 (not including the printed circuit board-based thermal control loop). Additionally, due to its small thermal time constant, the thermal compensation loop can maintain stability during fast thermal transients (>10 °C/min). This new technology has resulted in a new paradigm in terms of power, size, and warm up time for high thermal stability oscillators.

  14. A fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator – Part II. Characterization and measurement

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2015-06-24

    Our paper reports the measurement and characterization of a fully integrated oven controlled microelectromechanical oscillator (OCMO). The OCMO takes advantage of high thermal isolation and monolithic integration of both aluminum nitride (AlN) micromechanical resonators and electronic circuitry to thermally stabilize or ovenize all the components that comprise an oscillator. Operation at microscale sizes allows implementation of high thermal resistance platform supports that enable thermal stabilization at very low-power levels when compared with the state-of-the-art oven controlled crystal oscillators. A prototype OCMO has been demonstrated with a measured temperature stability of -1.2 ppb/°C, over the commercial temperature range while using tensmore » of milliwatts of supply power and with a volume of 2.3 mm3 (not including the printed circuit board-based thermal control loop). Additionally, due to its small thermal time constant, the thermal compensation loop can maintain stability during fast thermal transients (>10 °C/min). This new technology has resulted in a new paradigm in terms of power, size, and warm up time for high thermal stability oscillators.« less

  15. Managing Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    1991-01-01

    Describes one library's use of technological innovation to provide Associated Press updates over the library's 24-hour dial-up service during the Persian Gulf War. Suggests five rules for innovation: (1) develop a shared vision; (2) foster frequent, formal, and informal communication; (3) empower employees; (4) take limited risks; and (5) use, but…

  16. Characterization of tuyere-level core-drill coke samples from blast furnace operation

    SciTech Connect

    S. Dong; N. Paterson; S.G. Kazarian; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti

    2007-12-15

    A suite of tuyere-level coke samples have been withdrawn from a working blast furnace during coal injection, using the core-drilling technique. The samples have been characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-RS), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) extracts of the cokes sampled from the 'bosh', the rear of the 'bird's nest', and the 'dead man' zones were found by SEC to contain heavy soot-like materials (ca. 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} apparent mass units). In contrast, NMP extracts of cokes taken from the raceway and the front of the 'bird's nest' only contained a small amount of material of relatively lower apparent molecular mass (up to ca. 10{sup 5} u). Since the feed coke contained no materials extractable by the present method, the soot-like materials are thought to have formed during the reactions of volatile matter released from the injectant coal, probably via dehydrogenation and repolymerization of the tars. The Raman spectra of the NMP-extracted core-drilled coke samples showed variations reflecting their temperature histories. Area ratios of D-band to G-band decreased as the exposure temperature increased, while intensity ratios of D to G band and those of 2D to G bands increased with temperature. The graphitic (G), defect (D), and random (R) fractions of the carbon structure of the cokes were also derived from the Raman spectra. The R fractions decreased with increasing temperature, whereas G fractions increased, while the D fractions showed a more complex variation with temperature. These data appear to give clues regarding the graphitization mechanism of tuyere-level cokes in the blast furnace. 41 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Experimental study on preheated combustion of pulverized semi-coke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yao; Zhu, Jianguo; Lu, Qinggang; Zhou, Zuxu

    2015-06-01

    In a test rig, pulverized semi-coke was preheated to 850oC in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) and then combusted at 1100oC in a down-fired combustor (DFC). Experiments were conducted to reveal the effects of three secondary air nozzle cases (co-axial jet, top circular jet and wall circular jet) on the NO emission. The results show that the optimized secondary air nozzle can reduce NO emission. O2 concentration profile is the major factor affecting NO generation and emission, which is led by the secondary air nozzle. The lower O2 concentration led to the generation of lower initial NO. The NO emission at the exit of the DFC was reduced from 189 to 92 mg/m3 (@ 6% O2) with the decrease of initial generation. The peak of NO at 100 mm below the nozzle should be attributed to the oxidization of NH3 in the syngas, rather than the oxidization of fuel-N in the char. The low and well-distributed O2 concentration contributes to the reduction of initial NO, which helps to reduce the NO emission. The combustion efficiencies of the cases of the co-axial jet, the top circular jet, and the wall circular jet are 97.88%, 98.94% and 98.74%, respectively.

  18. Primary silver extraction with a high sulphur activated petroleum coke.

    PubMed

    Schouwenaars, R; Durán Moreno, A; Ramírez Zamora, R M

    2004-01-01

    An extended study was performed to determine the mechanisms that are responsible for the significant silver extraction capacity of activated carbons prepared from a high-sulphur petroleum coke that is available as a waste material from Mexican petroleum refineries. Earlier studies had shown the feasibility of the production of these adsorbents but indicated that the mechanisms of metal adsorption in the present carbons are significantly different from what is classically accepted for commercial carbons. Therefore, selective titration, IR-spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy of carbons were combined with adsorption experiments and the determination of electrochemical parameters of mixtures of carbon-AgNO3 solution to explain the fundamental reasons for the performance of the obtained carbons. This allowed us to determine the identity of the surface functional groups and to distinguish the effect of different activation processes. The experiments permitted us to explain why these activated carbons, which have a low specific area and lack classical surface functional groups, show such a high silver adsorption capacity.

  19. From the experience of plant innovators

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Eight different innovations used in various plants to improve safety or efficiency of operations are described. These include the following : 1) an electrical signalling system to monitor the level of condensate in the primary gas-cooling devices, 2) an ignition device on each collector to prevent the occurrence of a fire on the pipes over the benzene section of the recovery house, 3) a modification in the design of the shaft that fastens the end rollers on the door cleaning devices, 4) an improved method for cleaning tank wagons to remove residues of the production of tar-treatment workshops to reduce the expenditure of manual labor, 5) a change in design of a vacuum pump, 6) use of the old frames of the Du25 valve at the Kirvoi Rog Coking Plant to prepare the sprayers to dephenolizing scrubbers, 7) coating the steel parts of the ventilation pump absorption system with a layer of glass cloth on cement consisting of liquid glass, diabase powder, and luosilicate of sodium to insure protection from corrosion by H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ vapors, and 8) installation of a dephlegmator in recovery house no. 2 of the Kommunarsk Coking Plant. In most cases the economic advantage of the device is noted.

  20. Comparison between UV and VUV photolysis for the pre- and post-treatment of coking wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xing, Rui; Zheng, Zhongyuan; Wen, Donghui

    2015-03-01

    In this study, ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis were investigated for the pre-treatment and post-treatment of coking wastewater. First, 6-fold diluted raw coking wastewater was irradiated by UV and VUV. It was found that 15.9%-35.4% total organic carbon (TOC) was removed after 24 hr irradiation. The irradiated effluent could be degraded by the acclimated activated sludge. Even though the VUV photolysis removed more chemical oxygen demand (COD) than UV, the UV-irradiated effluent demonstrated better biodegradability. After 4 hr UV irradiation, the biological oxygen demand BOD5/COD ratio of irradiated coking wastewater increased from 0.163 to 0.224, and its toxicity decreased to the greatest extent. Second, the biologically treated coking wastewater was irradiated by UV and VUV. Both of them were able to remove 37%-47% TOC within 8 hr irradiation. Compared to UV, VUV photolysis could significantly improve the transparency of the bio-treated effluent. VUV also reduced 7% more ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N), 17% more nitrite nitrogen (NO2--N), and 18% more total nitrogen (TN) than UV, producing 35% less nitrite nitrogen (NO3--N) as a result. In conclusion, UV irradiation was better in improving the biodegradability of coking wastewater, while VUV was more effective at photolyzing the residual organic compounds and inorganic N-species in the bio-treated effluent.

  1. Highly coke-resistant ni nanoparticle catalysts with minimal sintering in dry reforming of methane.

    PubMed

    Han, Joung Woo; Kim, Chanyeon; Park, Jun Seong; Lee, Hyunjoo

    2014-02-01

    Nickel catalysts are typically used for hydrogen production by reforming reactions. Reforming methane with carbon dioxide, called dry reforming of methane (DRM), is a good way to produce hydrogen or syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) from two notable greenhouse gases. However, Ni catalysts used for DRM suffer from severe coke deposition. It has been known that small Ni nanoparticles are advantageous to reduce coke formation, but the high reaction temperature of DRM (800 °C) inevitably induces aggregation of the nanoparticles, leading to severe coke formation and degraded activity. Here, we develop highly coke-resistant Ni catalysts by immobilizing premade Ni nanoparticles of 5.2 nm in size onto functionalized silica supports, and then coating the Ni/SiO2 catalyst with silica overlayers. The silica overlayers enable the transfer of reactants and products while preventing aggregation of the Ni nanoparticles. The silica-coated Ni catalysts operate stably for 170 h without any degradation in activity. No carbon deposition was observed by temperature programmed oxidation (TPO), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy. The Ni catalysts without silica coating show severe sintering after DRM reaction, and the formation of filamentous carbon was observed. The coke-resistant Ni catalyst is potentially useful in various hydrocarbon transformations.

  2. Post oxygen treatment characteristics of coke as an anode material for Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Park, Min-Sik; Jo, Yong Nam; Yu, Ji-Sang; Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Young-Jun

    2013-05-01

    The effect of a oxygen treatment on the electrochemical characteristics of a soft carbon anode material for Li-ion batteries was investigated. After a coke carbonization process at 1000 degrees C in an argon atmosphere, the samples were treated under a flow of oxygen gas to obtain a mild oxidation effect. After this oxygen treatment, the coke samples exhibited an improved initial coulombic efficiency and cycle performance as compared to the carbonized sample. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that the carbonized cokes consisted of disordered and nanosized graphene layers and the surface of the modified carbon was significantly changed after the treatment. The chemical state of the cokes was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The enhanced electrochemical properties of the surface modified cokes could be attributed to the mild oxidation effect induced by the oxygen treatment. The mild oxidation process could have led to the elimination of surface imperfections and the reinforcement of a solid electrolyte interphase film, which resulted in the improved electrochemical characteristics.

  3. Coke formation and carbon atom economy of methanol-to-olefins reaction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yingxu; Yuan, Cuiyu; Li, Jinzhe; Xu, Shutao; Zhou, You; Chen, Jingrun; Wang, Quanyi; Xu, Lei; Qi, Yue; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Zhongmin

    2012-05-01

    The methanol-to-olefins (MTO) process is becoming the most important non-petrochemical route for the production of light olefins from coal or natural gas. Maximizing the generation of the target products, ethene and propene, and minimizing the production of byproducts and coke, are major considerations in the efficient utilization of the carbon resource of methanol. In the present work, the heterogeneous catalytic conversion of methanol was evaluated by performing simultaneous measurements of the volatile products generated in the gas phase and the confined coke deposition in the catalyst phase. Real-time and complete reaction profiles were plotted to allow the comparison of carbon atom economy of methanol conversion over the catalyst SAPO-34 at varied reaction temperatures. The difference in carbon atom economy was closely related with the coke formation in the SAPO-34 catalyst. The confined coke compounds were determined. A new type of confined organics was found, and these accounted for the quick deactivation and low carbon atom economy under low-reaction-temperature conditions. Based on the carbon atom economy evaluation and coke species determination, optimized operating conditions for the MTO process are suggested; these conditions guarantee high conversion efficiency of methanol.

  4. Commercial cokes and graphites as anode materials for lithium - ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    Derwin, D J; Kinoshita, K; Tran, T D; Zaleski, P

    2000-10-26

    Several types of carbonaceous materials from Superior Graphite Co. were investigated for lithium ion intercalation. These commercially available cokes, graphitized cokes and graphites have a wide range of physical and chemical properties. The coke materials were investigated in propylene carbonate based electrolytes and the graphitic materials were studied in ethylene carbonate/dimethyl solutions to prevent exfoliation. The reversible capacities of disordered cokes are below 230 mAh/g and those for many highly ordered synthetic (artificial) and natural graphites approached 372 mAh/g (LiC{sub 6}). The irreversible capacity losses vary between 15 to as much as 200% of reversible capacities for various types of carbon. Heat treated cokes with the average particle size of 10 microns showed marked improvements in reversible capacity for lithium intercalation. The electrochemical characteristics are correlated with data obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and BET surface area analysis. The electrochemical performance, availability, cost and manufacturability of these commercial carbons will be discussed.

  5. Colour change of soft denture liners after storage in coffee and coke.

    PubMed

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Zuccolotti, Bruna Carolina Rossatti; Moreno, Amália; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Dekon, Stefan Fiuza de Carvalho

    2011-06-01

    This study was to evaluate the colour change of soft denture liners after thermocycling and storage in coffee and coke. Four liners, two silicone-based (Sofreliner S and Reline GS) and two acrylic resin-based (Soft Confort and Dentuflex), were evaluated in this study. Ten samples were obtained for each group. After 2000 cycles of thermocycling with baths of 5°C and 55°C, five samples were stored in coffee and the remaining samples in coke. The colour alteration was evaluated in a reflection spectrophotometer before and after thermocycling, and after 1, 3, 24, 48 and 96h of storage in coffee and coke. Data were submitted to anova and Tukey's HSD test (α=0.05). Thermocycling and storage period represented a higher statistically significant influence for the resin liners than for the silicone materials. Coke did not influence the colour stability of the materials during storage. However, the coffee solution generated statistically significant colour alteration in the material Soft Confort. In the comparison between the coffee and coke solutions, there was no statistically significant difference for colour alteration only for the material Dentuflex. The silicone liners presented better colour stability following thermocycling and storage independent of the solution. The coffee solution was a statistically significant factor for colour alteration of the material Soft Confort.

  6. Preliminary Study of Thermal Treatment of Coke Wastewater Sludge Using Plasma Torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingshu; Li, Shengli; Sun, Demao; Liu, Xin; Feng, Qiubao

    2016-10-01

    Thermal plasma was applied for the treatment of coke wastewater sludge derived from the steel industry in order to investigate the feasibility of the safe treatment and energy recovery of the sludge. A 30 kW plasma torch system was applied to study the vitrification and gas production of coke wastewater sludge. Toxicity leaching results indicated that the sludge treated via the thermal plasma process converted into a vitrified slag which resisted the leaching of heavy metals. CO2 was utilized as working gas to study the production and heat energy of the syngas. The heating value of the gas products by thermal plasma achieved 8.43 kJ/L, indicating the further utilization of the gas products. Considering the utilization of the syngas and recovery heat from the gas products, the estimated treatment cost of coke wastewater sludge via plasma torch was about 0.98 CNY/kg sludge in the experiment. By preliminary economic analysis, the dehydration cost takes an important part of the total sludge treatment cost. The treatment cost of the coke wastewater sludge with 50 wt.% moisture was calculated to be about 1.45 CNY/kg sludge dry basis. The treatment cost of the coke wastewater sludge could be effectively controlled by decreasing the water content of the sludge. These findings suggest that an economic dewatering pretreatment method could be combined to cut the total treatment cost in an actual treatment process.

  7. Colour change of soft denture liners after storage in coffee and coke.

    PubMed

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Zuccolotti, Bruna Carolina Rossatti; Moreno, Amália; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Dekon, Stefan Fiuza de Carvalho

    2011-06-01

    This study was to evaluate the colour change of soft denture liners after thermocycling and storage in coffee and coke. Four liners, two silicone-based (Sofreliner S and Reline GS) and two acrylic resin-based (Soft Confort and Dentuflex), were evaluated in this study. Ten samples were obtained for each group. After 2000 cycles of thermocycling with baths of 5°C and 55°C, five samples were stored in coffee and the remaining samples in coke. The colour alteration was evaluated in a reflection spectrophotometer before and after thermocycling, and after 1, 3, 24, 48 and 96h of storage in coffee and coke. Data were submitted to anova and Tukey's HSD test (α=0.05). Thermocycling and storage period represented a higher statistically significant influence for the resin liners than for the silicone materials. Coke did not influence the colour stability of the materials during storage. However, the coffee solution generated statistically significant colour alteration in the material Soft Confort. In the comparison between the coffee and coke solutions, there was no statistically significant difference for colour alteration only for the material Dentuflex. The silicone liners presented better colour stability following thermocycling and storage independent of the solution. The coffee solution was a statistically significant factor for colour alteration of the material Soft Confort. PMID:20082643

  8. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coking wastewater by a bipolar three-dimensional electrode reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunhui; Lin, Hui; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Wenwen

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical oxidation is a promising technology for the treatment ofbio-refractory wastewater. In this research, advanced treatment of coking wastewater which had previously undergone A/O (anaerobic-aerobic biological) treatment was investigated over Ti/RuO2 x IrO2 anode, stainless steel cathode and coke powder particle electrodes which were packed into the electrodes in a bipolar three-dimensional electrode reactor (BTDR). The results showed that the removal efficiency of COD and ammonia nitrogen increased with applied current density. The main influencing factors of BTDR were evaluated by an orthogonal test, including reaction time, plate distance, current density, plate amounts and aeration flow rate. With reaction time of 60 min, plate distance of 1.0 cm, current density of 20 mA/cm2 and plate amounts of four pairs, most of the contaminants in coking wastewater can be remediated by BTDR, which can then meet the discharge limit for coking wastewater in China. For organic pollutants, 12 kinds of organic pollutants can be completely removed, and the removal efficiencies of 11 kinds of organic pollutants are between 13.3 and 70.3% by advanced treatment with BTDR. We conclude that there is great potential for BTDR in engineering applications as a final treatment for coking wastewater. PMID:24350493

  9. 76 FR 59681 - Middletown Coke Company, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Middletown Coke Company, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Middletown Coke Company, LLC's application for market-based...

  10. 41 CFR 101-26.4904-416 - DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. 101-26.4904-416 Section 101-26.4904-416 Public Contracts and... DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. Note: The form illustrated in §...

  11. 41 CFR 101-26.4904-416 - DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. 101-26.4904-416 Section 101-26.4904-416 Public Contracts and... DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. Note: The form illustrated in §...

  12. 41 CFR 101-26.4904-416 - DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. 101-26.4904-416 Section 101-26.4904-416 Public Contracts and... DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. Note: The form illustrated in §...

  13. 41 CFR 101-26.4904-416 - DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. 101-26.4904-416 Section 101-26.4904-416 Public Contracts and... DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. Note: The form illustrated in §...

  14. 41 CFR 101-26.4904-416 - DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. 101-26.4904-416 Section 101-26.4904-416 Public Contracts and... DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. Note: The form illustrated in §...

  15. Coking phenomena in the pyrolysis of ethylene dichloride into vinyl chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Sotowa, Chiaki; Korai, Yozo; Mochida, Isao

    1995-12-31

    Pyrolysis of ethylene dichloride (EDC) into vinyl chloride (VCM) which is the monomer for polyvinyl chloride, one of the most popular polymers, has been established commercially for quite a time. The process around 500{degrees}C has been proved to give VCM of high purity at very high selectivity about 99% and a reasonable conversion about 50%. However, the coking is a major problem in the long run, requiring decoking treatment every two months. The present paper describes features of carbons produced in the pyrolysis process. Coke of respective features was found in the reactor, the transfer line, the heat exchanger and the rapid quencher. Typical pyrolytic carbon, anisotropic coke produced in the liquid phase, isotropic carbon was produced on the reactor wall as low as 500{degrees}C. The mechanisms for their formation are discussed.

  16. Health status among urban residents living in proximity to petroleum coke storage: a first examination.

    PubMed

    Hendryx, Michael; Entwhistle, Jennifer; Kenny, Emily; Illyn, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We conducted an in-person survey in neighborhoods in south Chicago to examine whether residence near outdoor petroleum coke storage piles was associated with poorer health status and illness symptoms. A total of 223 adults (≥18) completed the surveys in English or Spanish, including 136 from a neighborhood exposed to the petroleum coke and 87 from a nearby comparison neighborhood. Exposure was defined based on prevailing winds and distance. We conducted a propensity score regression analysis, and found that residents in the exposed neighborhood were significantly more likely to report poor self-rated health, more unhealthy physical and mental health days, more illness symptoms including in particular respiratory and neurological symptoms, and worse perceived environmental conditions. The survey is limited by the small sample and the self-report nature of the data, but provides initial quantitative evidence that residence near outdoor petroleum coke storage piles may pose a public health risk.

  17. Kinetic study of the catalytic carbonization of coal tar pitch-petroleum coke mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, J.; Oeye, H.A.; Soerlie, M.

    1996-10-01

    The rate of carbonization has important impacts on the energy consumption and the productivity in baking process of reduction anodes. In the present work the carbonization of coal tar pitch-petroleum coke mixtures with catalysts, such as S, AlCl{sub 3}, AlF{sub 3}, and Fe{sub 2}Cp{sub 2}(CO){sub 4}, was investigated by thermogravimetry (TG) and kinetic analysis of the data. It was found that the pyrolysis temperature for non-coking volatiles decreased with catalysts, and that the coke yield of pitch binder increased. Almost all the sulfur and most of the iron from the additives can be removed during heat treatment, while the remaining aluminum in the residues may not be harmful.

  18. Effect and mechanism of coking residual ammonia water treating by flue gas.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Z J; Yin, G J; Yang, L Q; Wang, W; Cheng, D D

    2001-04-01

    The treatment of coking residual ammonia water has been a big difficult problem at home and abroad, and there is no breakthrough research achievement in the past. The invention patent "The method of treating all coking wastewater or treating coking residual ammonia water by flue gas" has been successfully used in Huaian Steel Works for high concentration and organic industry wastewater treatment. Not only can it realize the wastewater zero discharge, but also the wastewater treatment has an effect of de-sulfur and de-nitrogen for flue gas. So that the flue gas exhaust can meet the requirement of emission standard. The mass transfer and heat transfer, fly ash absorption and coagulation, acid and alkali neutralization reaction, catalysis oxidation and reduction reaction in flue gas would be the major factors.

  19. Health status among urban residents living in proximity to petroleum coke storage: a first examination.

    PubMed

    Hendryx, Michael; Entwhistle, Jennifer; Kenny, Emily; Illyn, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We conducted an in-person survey in neighborhoods in south Chicago to examine whether residence near outdoor petroleum coke storage piles was associated with poorer health status and illness symptoms. A total of 223 adults (≥18) completed the surveys in English or Spanish, including 136 from a neighborhood exposed to the petroleum coke and 87 from a nearby comparison neighborhood. Exposure was defined based on prevailing winds and distance. We conducted a propensity score regression analysis, and found that residents in the exposed neighborhood were significantly more likely to report poor self-rated health, more unhealthy physical and mental health days, more illness symptoms including in particular respiratory and neurological symptoms, and worse perceived environmental conditions. The survey is limited by the small sample and the self-report nature of the data, but provides initial quantitative evidence that residence near outdoor petroleum coke storage piles may pose a public health risk. PMID:27267489

  20. Mechanism of physical transformations of mineral matter in the blast furnace coke with reference to its reactivity and strength

    SciTech Connect

    Stanislav S. Gornostayev; Jouko J. Haerkki

    2006-12-15

    Examinations of polished and dry cut sections of feed and tuyere coke revealed some possible mechanisms for the physical influence of mineral compounds on the reactivity and strength of coke. It was observed that rounded particles of mineral phases that are exposed to the pore walls and surface of coke at high temperature create an inorganic cover, thus reducing the surface available for gas-solid reactions. The particles of mineral matter that have a low melting point and viscosity can affect the coke at earlier stages in the blast furnace process, acting in the upper parts of the blast furnace (BF). The temperature-driven redistribution of mineral phases within the coke matrix probably leads to the creation of weak spots and in general to anisotropy in its properties, thus reducing its strength. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.