Science.gov

Sample records for innovative promising approach

  1. Education and Community Support for Homeless Children and Youth: Profiles of 15 Innovative and Promising Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeldin, Shepherd; Bogart, Joanne

    This report profiles 15 programs that are providing education and support services to homeless students. These programs have been selected from over 40 nominations from state homeless coordinators and from national organizations concerned with services to the homeless. The profiled programs were selected on the basis of innovative educational…

  2. Cost calculator methods for estimating casework time in child welfare services: A promising approach for use in implementation of evidence-based practices and other service innovations.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Lisa; Landsverk, John; Ward, Harriet; Rolls-Reutz, Jennifer; Saldana, Lisa; Wulczyn, Fred; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2014-04-01

    Estimating costs in child welfare services is critical as new service models are incorporated into routine practice. This paper describes a unit costing estimation system developed in England (cost calculator) together with a pilot test of its utility in the United States where unit costs are routinely available for health services but not for child welfare services. The cost calculator approach uses a unified conceptual model that focuses on eight core child welfare processes. Comparison of these core processes in England and in four counties in the United States suggests that the underlying child welfare processes generated from England were perceived as very similar by child welfare staff in California county systems with some exceptions in the review and legal processes. Overall, the adaptation of the cost calculator for use in the United States child welfare systems appears promising. The paper also compares the cost calculator approach to the workload approach widely used in the United States and concludes that there are distinct differences between the two approaches with some possible advantages to the use of the cost calculator approach, especially in the use of this method for estimating child welfare costs in relation to the incorporation of evidence-based interventions into routine practice.

  3. Innovative approaches to recurrent training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noon, H.; Murphy, M.

    1984-01-01

    Innovative approaches to recurrent training for regional airline aircrews are explored. Guidelines for recurrent training programs which include in corporation of cockpit resource management are discussed. B.W.

  4. Promising Afterschool Practices: A Showcase of Innovative, Creative and Successful Afterschool Programs. Fourth Annual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute on Out-of-School Time, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A "Promising Practice" is a system, process, or activity in a program that works and leads to good results. It is something that would work in other programs, if only they were aware about it. "Promising Practices" capture some of the most innovative, creative and successful ways that programs serve youth. This publication…

  5. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  6. Innovative approach towards understanding optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Amit; Bharadwaj, Sadashiv Raj; Kumar, Raj; Shudhanshu, Avinash Kumar; Verma, Deepak Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been a decline in the students’ interest towards Science and Optics. Use of technology in the form of various types of sensors and data acquisition systems has come as a saviour. Till date, manual routine tools and techniques are used to perform various experimental procedures in most of the science/optics laboratories in our country. The manual tools are cumbersome whereas the automated ones are costly. It does not enthuse young researchers towards the science laboratories. There is a need to develop applications which can be easily integrated, tailored at school and undergraduate level laboratories and are economical at the same time. Equipments with advanced technologies are available but they are uneconomical and have complicated working principle with a black box approach. The present work describes development of portable tools and applications which are user-friendly. This is being implemented using open-source physical computing platform based on a simple low cost microcontroller board and a development environment for writing software. The present paper reports the development of an automated spectrometer, an instrument used in almost all optics experiments at undergraduate level, and students’ response to this innovation. These tools will inspire young researchers towards science and facilitate development of advance low cost equipments making life easier for Indian as well as developing nations.

  7. Blended Learning: An Innovative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalima; Dangwal, Kiran Lata

    2017-01-01

    Blended learning is an innovative concept that embraces the advantages of both traditional teaching in the classroom and ICT supported learning including both offline learning and online learning. It has scope for collaborative learning; constructive learning and computer assisted learning (CAI). Blended learning needs rigorous efforts, right…

  8. Affect Labeling: A Promising New Approach for Mitigating PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-12

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a severe disorder that may develop after a person is exposed to one or more...Promising New Approach for Mitigating PTSD Report Title Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a severe disorder that may develop after a person is...3 1.1 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is Widespread and Costly; Additional Effective

  9. Contextualized Teaching & Learning: A Promising Approach for Basic Skills Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Elaine DeLott; Hope, Laura; Karandjeff, Kelley

    2009-01-01

    Contextualized teaching and learning (CTL), or the concept of relating subject matter content to meaningful situations that are relevant to students' lives, offers one promising approach to helping students learn more effectively. This brief offers instructors, college leaders, policy makers and funders a high-level summary of the CTL…

  10. Innovative Approaches to Teaching Technical Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeford, Tracy, Ed.; Kitalong, Karla Saari, Ed.; Selfe, Dickie, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "Innovative Approaches to Teaching Technical Communication" offers a variety of activities, projects, and approaches to energize pedagogy in technical communication and to provide a constructive critique of current practice. A practical collection, the approaches recommended here are readily adaptable to a range of technological and institutional…

  11. Beyond the Yellow Bus: Promising Practices for Maximizing Access to Opportunity through Innovations in Student Transportation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jeffrey M.; Makarewicz, Carrie; Miller, Ruth; Ehrman, Julia; McKoy, Deborah L.

    2014-01-01

    Access to safe, affordable, and convenient transportation shapes the 'geography of opportunity' for many children and youth. This study looks at how ?localities acrossthe country are implementing new and innovative alternative approaches to student transportation that expand regionaltransportation access for K-12 students, improve…

  12. Innovative Approaches to Career Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Andrew R.

    A key part of a broad-based approach to career education in Australian schools is vocational/career guidance. Various vocational guidance programs have been developed for specific groups in Australian society, including work experience, caravans, and micrographics technology for the handicapped; pre-employment courses and a family education center…

  13. Promise Without Presence: A New Approach To US Global Commitments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-11

    Power Politics ( New  York, NY: Norton, W. W. &  Company , 2003), and Barry R Posen, Restraint: A  New  Foundation for U.S. Grand Strategy (United States...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY PROMISE WITHOUT PRESENCE: A NEW APPROACH TO US GLOBAL COMMITMENTS by Michael A. Nelson, Jr., Lt Col...interests. This sustained global presence, however, places US forces at deep risk and fails to meet US strategy. America jeopardizes more by

  14. Training Package Implementation: Innovative and Flexible Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Dave; Blom, Kaaren

    The implementation of training packages (TPs) in Australian workplaces was examined through case studies of the use of TPs in nontraditional trade areas by six innovative registered training organizations (RTOs) across Australia. The study focused on the extent to which new and flexible approaches to learning, training delivery, and assessment…

  15. A Promising Partnership: Uncovering the Middle Ground between Social Innovation and Social Work: Response to Dr. Marilyn L. Flynn's Remarks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sensoy Bahar, Ozge

    2017-01-01

    This response article discusses opportunities to bridge social work and social innovation as a promising partnership to address the issues impacting vulnerable populations across the global context. It starts by revisiting the conceptualization of innovation in social work and continues by considering factors that contribute to the growing…

  16. A Promising Partnership: Uncovering the Middle Ground between Social Innovation and Social Work: Response to Dr. Marilyn L. Flynn's Remarks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sensoy Bahar, Ozge

    2017-01-01

    This response article discusses opportunities to bridge social work and social innovation as a promising partnership to address the issues impacting vulnerable populations across the global context. It starts by revisiting the conceptualization of innovation in social work and continues by considering factors that contribute to the growing…

  17. Getting from Procedures and Approach to Innovation in Grantsmanship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Nancy B.

    2013-01-01

    Call it innovation, creativity, imagination, cutting edge, paradigm shift, or any other term for new information, an assessment of innovation may now impact the final decision on awarding grants to investigators. What exactly is innovation and how does the reviewer perceive innovation in the research approach? Procedures, the approach, and…

  18. [Nanotechnology offers a promising therapeutic approach for hypertension treatment].

    PubMed

    Martín Giménez, V M; Kassuha, D; Manucha, W

    Hypertension is a medical condition considered one of the most important public health problems in developed countries, affecting around one billion people. Therefore, the study of its mechanisms, development and treatment is a priority. Of particular interest are the multiple contributing factors, and efforts by experts to fully understand it are also important. However, studies are currently insufficient and consequently, attention is focused on the exploration of new therapeutic approaches. This raises a growing interest in nanotechnology given the ability of certain structures to mimic the behavior of extracellular matrices. This opens a promising field in the treatment of diseases such as hypertension, where it stands to tissue engineering and its potential applications incorporating concepts such as controlled release drug, reduced side effects and receptor activation locally. Copyright © 2016 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Nanomedical science and laser-driven particle acceleration: promising approaches in the prethermal regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauduel, Y. A.

    2017-05-01

    A major challenge of spatio-temporal radiation biomedicine concerns the understanding of biophysical events triggered by an initial energy deposition inside confined ionization tracks. This contribution deals with an interdisciplinary approach that concerns cutting-edge advances in real-time radiation events, considering the potentialities of innovating strategies based on ultrafast laser science, from femtosecond photon sources to advanced techniques of ultrafast TW laser-plasma accelerator. Recent advances of powerful TW laser sources ( 1019 W cm-2) and laser-plasma interactions providing ultra-short relativistic particle beams in the energy domain 5-200 MeV open promising opportunities for the development of high energy radiation femtochemistry (HERF) in the prethermal regime of secondary low-energy electrons and for the real-time imaging of radiation-induced biomolecular alterations at the nanoscopic scale. New developments would permit to correlate early radiation events triggered by ultrashort radiation sources with a molecular approach of Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE). These emerging research developments are crucial to understand simultaneously, at the sub-picosecond and nanometric scales, the early consequences of ultra-short-pulsed radiation on biomolecular environments or integrated biological entities. This innovating approach would be applied to biomedical relevant concepts such as the emerging domain of real-time nanodosimetry for targeted pro-drug activation and pulsed radio-chimiotherapy of cancers.

  20. Astronomical Beliefs in Medieval Georgia: Innovative Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauter, Jefferson; Orchiston, W.; Stephenson, F.

    2014-01-01

    Written sources from medieval Georgia show, among other things, how astronomical ideas were adapted on the periphery of the Byzantine and Islamic worlds. In this paper, we investigate a number of Georgian beliefs about the heavens from a calendrical work and a celestial prognostication text, but also from less expected sources including the medieval life of a saint and an epic poem. For the most part, these sources were derived from Byzantine or Persian models. We show the extent to which the sources nevertheless conform to a specifically Georgian view of the cosmos. We argue that, in so doing, medieval Georgian authors employed several innovative approaches hitherto unnoticed by modern scholars.

  1. Innovative visualization and segmentation approaches for telemedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, D.; Roehrig, Hans; Borders, Marisa H.; Fitzpatrick, Kimberly A.; Roveda, Janet

    2014-09-01

    In health care applications, we obtain, manage, store and communicate using high quality, large volume of image data through integrated devices. In this paper we propose several promising methods that can assist physicians in image data process and communication. We design a new semi-automated segmentation approach for radiological images, such as CT and MRI to clearly identify the areas of interest. This approach combines the advantages from both the region-based method and boundary-based methods. It has three key steps compose: coarse segmentation by using fuzzy affinity and homogeneity operator, image division and reclassification using the Voronoi Diagram, and refining boundary lines using the level set model.

  2. Innovative approaches to inertial confinement fusion reactors: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bourque, R.F.; Schultz, K.R.

    1986-11-01

    Three areas of innovative approaches to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor design are given. First, issues pertaining to the Cascade reactor concept are discussed. Then, several innovative concepts are presented which attempt to directly recover the blast energy from a fusion target. Finally, the Turbostar concept for direct recovery of that energy is evaluated. The Cascade issues discussed are combustion of the carbon granules in the event of air ingress, the use of alternate granule materials, and the effect of changes in carbon flow on details of the heat exchanger. Carbon combustion turns out to be a minor problem. Four ICF innovative concepts were considered: a turbine with ablating surfaces, a liquid piston system, a wave generator, and a resonating pump. In the final analysis, none show any real promise. The Turbostar concept of direct recovery is a very interesting idea and appeared technically viable. However, it shows no efficiency gain or any decrease in capital cost compared to reactors with conventional thermal conversion systems. Attempts to improve it by placing a close-in lithium sphere around the target to increase gas generation increased efficiency only slightly. It is concluded that these direct conversion techniques require thermalization of the x-ray and debris energy, and are Carnot limited. They therefore offer no advantage over existing and proposed methods of thermal energy conversion or direct electrical conversion.

  3. Promises to Practice: Learning a PROactive Approach to Ethical Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambery, Mary Elizabeth; Steinbrunner, Ruth K.

    2007-01-01

    Learning to be PROactive, as the title of this article suggests, means Pooling one's knowledge, Reflecting respect, and Opening oneself to action. It recognizes early childhood educators' promises to their field of practice, based on widely held beliefs and principles. Educators can apply professional ethics to everyday problem solving and their…

  4. The "HUG": an innovative approach to pediatric nursing care.

    PubMed

    Tedder, Jan; Register, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    The HUG (Help, Understanding, and Guidance for Young Families) is an innovative approach to pediatric nursing care developed by the authors and designed to support parents in optimizing the health and well-being of their children. Research evidence suggests that there is a gap between what the pediatric world promises and what it delivers and between what parents want from their providers and what they actually get. The HUG is intended to distill aspects of the literature into accessible, memorable, and practical strategies that pediatric nurses at all levels and in varied settings can use. Three HUG strategies are Start Here, Not There; See, Then Share; and Gaze, Then Engage. Nurses' use of the HUG is aimed at helping nurses enhance their relationships with parents, helping parents feel heard and attended to, encouraging parents to share what worries them most, and increasing nurses' job satisfaction.

  5. Phage display as a promising approach for vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Aghebati-Maleki, Leili; Bakhshinejad, Babak; Baradaran, Behzad; Motallebnezhad, Morteza; Aghebati-Maleki, Ali; Nickho, Hamid; Yousefi, Mehdi; Majidi, Jafar

    2016-09-29

    Bacteriophages are specific antagonists to bacterial hosts. These viral entities have attracted growing interest as optimal vaccine delivery vehicles. Phages are well-matched for vaccine design due to being highly stable under harsh environmental conditions, simple and inexpensive large scale production, and potent adjuvant capacities. Phage vaccines have efficient immunostimulatory effects and present a high safety profile because these viruses have made a constant relationship with the mammalian body during a long-standing evolutionary period. The birth of phage display technology has been a turning point in the development of phage-based vaccines. Phage display vaccines are made by expressing multiple copies of an antigen on the surface of immunogenic phage particles, thereby eliciting a powerful and effective immune response. Also, the ability to produce combinatorial peptide libraries with a highly diverse pool of randomized ligands has transformed phage display into a straightforward, versatile and high throughput screening methodology for the identification of potential vaccine candidates against different diseases in particular microbial infections. These libraries can be conveniently screened through an affinity selection-based strategy called biopanning against a wide variety of targets for the selection of mimotopes with high antigenicity and immunogenicity. Also, they can be panned against the antiserum of convalescent individuals to recognize novel peptidomimetics of pathogen-related epitopes. Phage display has represented enormous promise for finding new strategies of vaccine discovery and production and current breakthroughs promise a brilliant future for the development of different phage-based vaccine platforms.

  6. Participant Observation: A Promising Research Approach for Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Martin; Bogdan, Robert

    1974-01-01

    Symbolic interaction is a useful perspective, a viable theoretical approach to getting at answers to many important questions related to educational technology. Participant observation is a useful methodology for rooting answers out of the research setting. (Author)

  7. Gene therapy: a promising approach to treating spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, Pádraig J; Iremonger, Kayleigh; Karyka, Evangelia; Herranz-Martín, Saúl; Shum, Ka-To; Tam, Janice Kal Van; Azzouz, Mimoun

    2014-07-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a severe autosomal recessive disease caused by a genetic defect in the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, which encodes SMN, a protein widely expressed in all eukaryotic cells. Depletion of the SMN protein causes muscle weakness and progressive loss of movement in SMA patients. The field of gene therapy has made major advances over the past decade, and gene delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) by in vivo or ex vivo techniques is a rapidly emerging field in neuroscience. Despite Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis being among the most common neurodegenerative diseases in humans and attractive targets for treatment development, their multifactorial origin and complicated genetics make them less amenable to gene therapy. Monogenic disorders resulting from modifications in a single gene, such as SMA, prove more favorable and have been at the fore of this evolution of potential gene therapies, and results to date have been promising at least. With the estimated number of monogenic diseases standing in the thousands, elucidating a therapeutic target for one could have major implications for many more. Recent progress has brought about the commercialization of the first gene therapies for diseases, such as pancreatitis in the form of Glybera, with the potential for other monogenic disease therapies to follow suit. While much research has been carried out, there are many limiting factors that can halt or impede translation of therapies from the bench to the clinic. This review will look at both recent advances and encountered impediments in terms of SMA and endeavor to highlight the promising results that may be applicable to various associated diseases and also discuss the potential to overcome present limitations.

  8. Discovery of Novel Insulin Sensitizers: Promising Approaches and Targets

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yadan; Ma, Haiming; Zhu, Dasheng; Zhao, Guowei; Wang, Lili

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance is the undisputed root cause of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is currently an unmet demand for safe and effective insulin sensitizers, owing to the restricted prescription or removal from market of certain approved insulin sensitizers, such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs), because of safety concerns. Effective insulin sensitizers without TZD-like side effects will therefore be invaluable to diabetic patients. The specific focus on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ- (PPARγ-) based agents in the past decades may have impeded the search for novel and safer insulin sensitizers. This review discusses possible directions and promising strategies for future research and development of novel insulin sensitizers and describes the potential targets of these agents. Direct PPARγ agonists, selective PPARγ modulators (sPPARγMs), PPARγ-sparing compounds (including ligands of the mitochondrial target of TZDs), agents that target the downstream effectors of PPARγ, along with agents, such as heat shock protein (HSP) inducers, 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activators, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) selective inhibitors, biguanides, and chloroquines, which may be safer than traditional TZDs, have been described. This minireview thus aims to provide fresh perspectives for the development of a new generation of safe insulin sensitizers. PMID:28659972

  9. Lidocaine Infusion: A Promising Therapeutic Approach for Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kandil, Enas; Melikman, Emily; Adinoff, Bryon

    2017-01-01

    Opioid abuse is a national epidemic in the United States, where it is estimated that a prescription drug overdose death occurs every 19 minutes. While opioids are highly effective in acute and subacute pain control, their use for treatment of chronic pain is controversial. Chronic opioids use is associated with tolerance, dependency, hyperalgesia. Although there are new strategies and practice guidelines to reduce opioid dependence and opioid prescription drug overdose, there has been little focus on development of opioid-sparing therapeutic approaches. Lidocaine infusion has been shown to be successful in controlling pain where other agents have failed. The opioid sparing properties of lidocaine infusion added to its analgesic and antihyperalgesic properties make lidocaine infusion a viable option for pain control in opioid dependent patients. In this review, we provide an overview of the opioid abuse epidemic, and we outline current evidence supporting the potential use of lidocaine infusion as an adjuvant therapeutic approach for management of chronic pain. PMID:28239510

  10. The promise of acceptance as an NGO security management approach.

    PubMed

    Fast, Larissa; Freeman, Faith; O'Neill, Michael; Rowley, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    This paper explores three questions related to acceptance as a security management approach. Acceptance draws upon relationships with community members, authorities, belligerents and other stakeholders to provide consent for the presence and activities of a non-governmental organisation (NGO), thereby reducing threats from these actors. Little is documented about how NGOs gain and maintain acceptance, how they assess and monitor the presence and degree of acceptance, or how they determine whether acceptance is effective in a particular context. Based on field research conducted in April 2011 in Kenya, South Sudan and Uganda, we address each of these three issues and argue that acceptance must be actively sought as both a programme and a security management strategy. In the paper we delineate elements common to all three contexts as well as missed opportunities, which identify areas that NGOs can and should address as part of an acceptance approach. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.

  11. Omics approaches in food safety: fulfilling the promise?

    PubMed Central

    Bergholz, Teresa M.; Moreno Switt, Andrea I.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics are rapidly transforming our approaches to detection, prevention and treatment of foodborne pathogens. Microbial genome sequencing in particular has evolved from a research tool into an approach that can be used to characterize foodborne pathogen isolates as part of routine surveillance systems. Genome sequencing efforts will not only improve outbreak detection and source tracking, but will also create large amounts of foodborne pathogen genome sequence data, which will be available for data mining efforts that could facilitate better source attribution and provide new insights into foodborne pathogen biology and transmission. While practical uses and application of metagenomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics data and associated tools are less prominent, these tools are also starting to yield practical food safety solutions. PMID:24572764

  12. A two-incision approach: promises and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Aaron G

    2005-09-01

    Is this an optimal procedure? Clearly, it is not for every patient, but it does serve patients who can benefit from rapid recovery as well as those patients truly interested in minimizing their down time. It also is clearly not for the occasional total hip surgeon. It is a technique that brings to the patient the maximum potential for speed of recovery. However, it is important to stress again that the surgical approach is just one factor facilitating the recovery curve. While the benefits are real, their importance must be weighed by both surgeon and patient relative to the risks. The risks are not insignificant, but generally decrease with time and experience. As opposed to several smaller incision modifications of routine approaches to THA, the two-incision approach does require a separate and distinctively different skill set, including alternative methods to make up for the lack of standard visualization and careful attention to details such as incision placement and location of the starting point in the intramedullary canal. However, in the rest of the medical world, that is what minimally invasive surgery is about.

  13. Splinting of Longitudinal Fracture: An Innovative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Rashmi; Chowdhary, Priyanka; Gurtu, Anuraag; Mehrotra, Nakul; Kishore, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    Trauma may result in craze lines on the enamel surface, one or more fractured cusps of posterior teeth, cracked tooth syndrome, splitting of posterior teeth, and vertical fracture of root. Out of these, management of some fractures is of great challenge and such teeth are generally recommended for extraction. Literature search reveals attempts to manage such fractures by full cast crown, orthodontic wires, and so forth, in which consideration was given to extracoronal splinting only. However, due to advancement in materials and technologies, intracoronal splinting can be achieved as well. In this case report, longitudinal fractures in tooth #27, tooth #37, and tooth #46 had occurred. In #27, fracture line was running mesiodistally involving the pulpal floor resulting in a split tooth. In teeth 37 and 46, fractures of the mesiobuccal cusp and mesiolingual cusp were observed, respectively. They were restored with cast gold inlay and full cast crown, respectively. Longitudinal fracture of 27 was treated with an innovative approach using intracanal reinforced composite with Ribbond, external reinforcement with an orthodontic band, and full cast metal crown to splint the split tooth. PMID:27247808

  14. Splinting of Longitudinal Fracture: An Innovative Approach.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Rashmi; Chowdhary, Priyanka; Gurtu, Anuraag; Mehrotra, Nakul; Kishore, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    Trauma may result in craze lines on the enamel surface, one or more fractured cusps of posterior teeth, cracked tooth syndrome, splitting of posterior teeth, and vertical fracture of root. Out of these, management of some fractures is of great challenge and such teeth are generally recommended for extraction. Literature search reveals attempts to manage such fractures by full cast crown, orthodontic wires, and so forth, in which consideration was given to extracoronal splinting only. However, due to advancement in materials and technologies, intracoronal splinting can be achieved as well. In this case report, longitudinal fractures in tooth #27, tooth #37, and tooth #46 had occurred. In #27, fracture line was running mesiodistally involving the pulpal floor resulting in a split tooth. In teeth 37 and 46, fractures of the mesiobuccal cusp and mesiolingual cusp were observed, respectively. They were restored with cast gold inlay and full cast crown, respectively. Longitudinal fracture of 27 was treated with an innovative approach using intracanal reinforced composite with Ribbond, external reinforcement with an orthodontic band, and full cast metal crown to splint the split tooth.

  15. Conceptualising Educational Changes: A Social Innovation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loogma, Krista; Tafel-Viia, Külliki; Ümarik, Meril

    2013-01-01

    The intention of the authors in this article is to contribute to the discussion concerning educational change by implementing the concept of social innovation. We argue that the application of the concept of social innovation makes it possible to better understand the process of implementation as well as sustainability and the social impact of…

  16. Conceptualising Educational Changes: A Social Innovation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loogma, Krista; Tafel-Viia, Külliki; Ümarik, Meril

    2013-01-01

    The intention of the authors in this article is to contribute to the discussion concerning educational change by implementing the concept of social innovation. We argue that the application of the concept of social innovation makes it possible to better understand the process of implementation as well as sustainability and the social impact of…

  17. Innovation and design approaches within prospective ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Liem, André; Brangier, Eric

    2012-01-01

    In this conceptual article the topic of "Prospective Ergonomics" will be discussed within the context of innovation, design thinking and design processes & methods. Design thinking is essentially a human-centred innovation process that emphasises observation, collaboration, interpretation, visualisation of ideas, rapid concept prototyping and concurrent business analysis, which ultimately influences innovation and business strategy. The objective of this project is to develop a roadmap for innovation, involving consumers, designers and business people in an integrative process, which can be applied to product, service and business design. A theoretical structure comprising of Innovation perspectives (1), Worldviews supported by rationalist-historicist and empirical-idealistic dimensions (2) and Models of "design" reasoning (3) precedes the development and classification of existing methods as well as the introduction of new ones.

  18. Which new approaches to tackling neglected tropical diseases show promise?

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Jerry M; Dharamsi, Shafik; Wasan, Kishor M; Yassi, Annalee; Singer, Burton; Hotez, Peter J; Hanson, Christy; Bundy, Donald A P

    2010-05-18

    This PLoS Medicine Debate examines the different approaches that can be taken to tackle neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Some commentators, like Jerry Spiegel and colleagues from the University of British Columbia, feel there has been too much focus on the biomedical mechanisms and drug development for NTDs, at the expense of attention to the social determinants of disease. Burton Singer argues that this represents another example of the inappropriate "overmedicalization" of contemporary tropical disease control. Peter Hotez and colleagues, in contrast, argue that the best return on investment will continue to be mass drug administration for NTDs.

  19. Quantitative systems pharmacology: a promising approach for translational pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Gadkar, K; Kirouac, D; Parrott, N; Ramanujan, S

    Biopharmaceutical companies have increasingly been exploring Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP) as a potential avenue to address current challenges in drug development. In this paper, we discuss the application of QSP modeling approaches to address challenges in the translational of preclinical findings to the clinic, a high risk area of drug development. Three cases have been highlighted with QSP models utilized to inform different questions in translational pharmacology. In the first, a mechanism based asthma model is used to evaluate efficacy and inform biomarker strategy for a novel bispecific antibody. In the second case study, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway signaling model is used to make translational predictions on clinical response and evaluate novel combination therapies. In the third case study, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model it used to guide administration of oseltamivir in pediatric patients.

  20. Immunotherapy: A promising approach to reverse sepsis-induced immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Patil, Naeem K; Bohannon, Julia K; Sherwood, Edward R

    2016-09-01

    Sepsis is defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by dysregulated host responses to infection (Third International Consensus definition for Sepsis and septic shock). Despite decades of research, sepsis remains the leading cause of death in intensive care units. More than 40 clinical trials, most of which have targeted the sepsis-associated pro-inflammatory response, have failed. Thus, antibiotics and fluid resuscitation remain the mainstays of supportive care and there is intense need to discover and develop novel, targeted therapies to treat sepsis. Both pre-clinical and clinical studies over the past decade demonstrate unequivocally that sepsis not only causes hyper-inflammation, but also leads to simultaneous adaptive immune system dysfunction and impaired antimicrobial immunity. Evidences for immunosuppression include immune cell depletion (T cells most affected), compromised T cell effector functions, T cell exhaustion, impaired antigen presentation, increased susceptibility to opportunistic nosocomial infections, dysregulated cytokine secretion, and reactivation of latent viruses. Therefore, targeting immunosuppression provides a logical approach to treat protracted sepsis. Numerous pre-clinical studies using immunomodulatory agents such as interleukin-7, anti-programmed cell death 1 antibody (anti-PD-1), anti-programmed cell death 1 ligand antibody (anti-PD-L1), and others have demonstrated reversal of T cell dysfunction and improved survival. Therefore, identifying immunosuppressed patients with the help of specific biomarkers and administering specific immunomodulators holds significant potential for sepsis therapy in the future. This review focusses on T cell dysfunction during sepsis and discusses the potential immunotherapeutic agents to boost T cell function during sepsis and improve host resistance to infection.

  1. Beyond the Yellow Bus: Promising Practices for Maximizing Access to Opportunity through Innovations in Student Transportation. Policy Brief 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Cities & Schools, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Access to safe, affordable, and convenient transportation shapes the "geography of opportunity" for many children and youth. This study looks at how ?localities across the country are implementing new and innovative alternative approaches to student transportation that expand regional transportation access for K-12 students, improve…

  2. Innovating With Rehabilitation Technology in the Real World: Promises, Potentials, and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Chua, Karen Sui Geok; Kuah, Christopher Wee Keong

    2017-10-01

    In this article, we discuss robotic-assisted therapy as an emerging and significant field of clinical rehabilitation and its value proposition for innovating rehabilitation clinical practice. Attempts to achieve integration among clinicians' practices and bioengineers' machines often generate new challenges and controversies. To date, the literature is indicative of a sizeable number and variety of robotic devices in the field of clinical rehabilitation, some are commercially available; however, large-scale clinical outcomes are less positive than expected. The following main themes related to integrating rehabilitation technology in real-world clinical practice will be discussed: the application of current evidence-based practice and knowledge in relation to treatment in the rehabilitation clinic, perspectives from rehabilitation professionals using robotic-aided therapy with regard to challenges, and strategies for problem solving. Lastly, we present innovation philosophies with regard to sustainability of clinical rehabilitation technologies.

  3. Biobanks in Oral Health: Promises and Implications of Post-Neoliberal Science and Innovation.

    PubMed

    Birch, Kean; Dove, Edward S; Chiappetta, Margaret; Gürsoy, Ulvi K

    2016-01-01

    While biobanks are established explicitly as scientific infrastructures, they are de facto political-economic ones too. Many biobanks, particularly population-based biobanks, are framed under the rubric of the bio-economy as national political-economic assets that benefit domestic business, while national populations are framed as a natural resource whose genomics, proteomics, and related biological material and national health data can be exploited. We outline how many biobanks epitomize this 'neoliberal' form of science and innovation in which research is driven by market priorities (e.g., profit, shareholder value) underpinned by state or government policies. As both scientific and political-economic infrastructures, biobanks end up entangled in an array of problems associated with market-driven science and innovation. These include: profit trumping other considerations; rentiership trumping entrepreneurship; and applied research trumping basic research. As a result, there has been a push behind new forms of 'post-neoliberal' science and innovation strategies based on principles of openness and collaboration, especially in relation to biobanks. The proliferation of biobanks and the putative transition in both scientific practice and political economy from neoliberalism to post-neoliberalism demands fresh social scientific analyses, particularly as biobanks become further established in fields such as oral health and personalized dentistry. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first analysis of biobanks with a view to what we can anticipate from biobanks and distributed post-genomics global science in the current era of oral health biomarkers.

  4. Biobanks in Oral Health: Promises and Implications of Post-Neoliberal Science and Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Dove, Edward S.; Chiappetta, Margaret; Gürsoy, Ulvi K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract While biobanks are established explicitly as scientific infrastructures, they are de facto political-economic ones too. Many biobanks, particularly population-based biobanks, are framed under the rubric of the bio-economy as national political-economic assets that benefit domestic business, while national populations are framed as a natural resource whose genomics, proteomics, and related biological material and national health data can be exploited. We outline how many biobanks epitomize this ‘neoliberal’ form of science and innovation in which research is driven by market priorities (e.g., profit, shareholder value) underpinned by state or government policies. As both scientific and political-economic infrastructures, biobanks end up entangled in an array of problems associated with market-driven science and innovation. These include: profit trumping other considerations; rentiership trumping entrepreneurship; and applied research trumping basic research. As a result, there has been a push behind new forms of ‘post-neoliberal’ science and innovation strategies based on principles of openness and collaboration, especially in relation to biobanks. The proliferation of biobanks and the putative transition in both scientific practice and political economy from neoliberalism to post-neoliberalism demands fresh social scientific analyses, particularly as biobanks become further established in fields such as oral health and personalized dentistry. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first analysis of biobanks with a view to what we can anticipate from biobanks and distributed post-genomics global science in the current era of oral health biomarkers. PMID:26584410

  5. Contexts for Promise: Noteworthy Practices and Innovations in the Identification of Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Carolyn M., Ed.; And Others

    This monograph contains 11 papers describing model projects that address the identification of gifted students. An introduction by Carolyn M. Callahan and Carol A. Tomlinson identifies commonalities and themes in the promising practices highlighted in the papers. The papers include: (1) "Project STREAM: Support, Training and Resources for…

  6. Contexts for Promise: Noteworthy Practices and Innovations in the Identification of Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Carolyn M., Ed.; And Others

    This monograph contains 11 papers describing model projects that address the identification of gifted students. An introduction by Carolyn M. Callahan and Carol A. Tomlinson identifies commonalities and themes in the promising practices highlighted in the papers. The papers include: (1) "Project STREAM: Support, Training and Resources for…

  7. Innovative Phase Change Approach for Significant Energy Savings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    FINAL REPORT Innovative Phase Change Approach for Significant Energy Savings ESTCP Project EW-201138 SEPTEMBER 2016 Dr. Aly H Shaaban Applied...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W912HQ-11-C-0011 Innovative Phase Change Approach for Significant Energy Savings 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...The HECU integrated heat exchangers filled with Phase Change Material (PCM) into a facility’s air conditioning system. The PCM acts as a thermal

  8. [Nurse-led in Primary Health Care setting: a well-timed and promising organizational innovation].

    PubMed

    Torres-Ricarte, Marc; Crusat-Abelló, Ernest; Peñuelas-Rodríguez, Silvia; Zabaleta-del-Olmo, Edurne

    2015-01-01

    At present, the severe economic crisis along with the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases is leading to different countries to consider updating their Primary Health Care (PHC) services in order to make them more efficient and reduce health inequalities. To that end, various initiatives are being carried out, such as the provision of Nurse-led services and interventions. The purpose of this article is to present the available knowledge, controversies and opportunities for Nurse-led initiatives in the setting of PHC. Nurse- led interventions or health services in PHC have proven to be equal or more effective than usual care in disease prevention, the routine follow-up of patients with chronic conditions, and first contact care for people with minor illness. However, as there are only a few health economic evaluation studies published their efficiency is still potential. In conclusion, the Nurse-led care could be an innovative organizational initiative with the potential to provide an adequate response to the contemporary health needs of the population, as well as an opportunity for the nursing profession and for PHC and health systems in general.

  9. Innovative surgical approaches for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Memeo, Riccardo; de'Angelis, Nicola; de Blasi, Vito; Cherkaoui, Zineb; Brunetti, Oronzo; Longo, Vito; Piardi, Tullio; Sommacale, Daniele; Marescaux, Jacques; Mutter, Didier; Pessaux, Patrick

    2016-05-08

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, with an increasing diffusion in Europe and the United States. The management of such a cancer is continuously progressing and the objective of this paper is to evaluate innovation in the surgical treatment of HCC. In this review, we will analyze the modern concept of preoperative management, the role of laparoscopic and robotic surgery, the intrao-perative use of three dimensional models and augme-nted reality, as well as the potential application of fluore-scence.

  10. Innovative surgical approaches for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Memeo, Riccardo; de’Angelis, Nicola; de Blasi, Vito; Cherkaoui, Zineb; Brunetti, Oronzo; Longo, Vito; Piardi, Tullio; Sommacale, Daniele; Marescaux, Jacques; Mutter, Didier; Pessaux, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, with an increasing diffusion in Europe and the United States. The management of such a cancer is continuously progressing and the objective of this paper is to evaluate innovation in the surgical treatment of HCC. In this review, we will analyze the modern concept of preoperative management, the role of laparoscopic and robotic surgery, the intrao-perative use of three dimensional models and augme-nted reality, as well as the potential application of fluore-scence. PMID:27168871

  11. Barriers and Promising Approaches to Workforce and Youth Development for Young Offenders. Policy Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David; Maxwell, Sarah; DeJesus, Edward; Schiraldi, Vincent

    This publication is part of a toolkit that examines systemic barriers to achieving economic self-sufficiency for court-involved youth. It highlights 19 exemplary policy initiatives that fall into the following five categories: innovative approaches, new ways to allocate funds and develop resources, ways to promote collaboration among various…

  12. Biomimetic remineralization of human dentin using promising innovative calcium-silicate hybrid "smart" materials.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna; Taddei, Paola; Siboni, Francesco; Modena, Enrico; De Stefano, Elettra Dorigo; Prati, Carlo

    2011-11-01

    the experimental materials showed the appearance of carbonated apatite (IR bands at about 1400, 1020, 600 cm(-1)). EDX compositional depth profile through the fractured demineralized dentin slices showed the reappearance of Ca and P peaks (remineralization of dentin surface) to 30-50 μm depth. The ion-leachable experimental composites remineralized the human apatite-depleted dentin. Ion release promotes the formation of a bone-like carbonated-apatite on demineralized dentin within 7 days of immersion in DPBS. The use of bioactive "smart" composites containing reactive calcium-silicate Portland-derived mineral powder as tailored filler may be an innovative method for the biomimetic remineralization of apatite-depleted dentin surfaces and to prevent the demineralization of hypomineralized/carious dentin, with potentially great advantage in clinical applications. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Innovative approaches for complex penile urethral strictures

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Jordan; Tausch, Timothy J.; Simhan, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Urethral strictures are a common urologic disease that arises from varied etiologies. These strictures range in severity from simple, short lesions to complex, long defects. Likewise, the management approach varies based on the complexity of the lesion. We reviewed the literature of urethral stricture disease and its management. In particular we have focused on complex strictures of the male penile urethra. Often these cases cannot be managed with traditional reconstructive techniques and require newer approaches. Furthermore tissue engineered graft materials provide a possible tissue source for future reconstructive endeavors. PMID:26816766

  14. An innovations approach to decoupling of multibody dynamics and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of hinged multibody dynamics is solved using an extension of the innovations approach of linear filtering and prediction theory to the problem of mechanical system modeling and control. This approach has been used quite effectively to diagonalize the equations for filtering and prediction for linear state space systems. It has similar advantages in the study of dynamics and control of multibody systems. The innovations approach advanced here consists of expressing the equations of motion in terms of two closely related processes: (1) the innovations process e, a sequence of moments, obtained from the applied moments T by means of a spatially recursive Kalman filter that goes from the tip of the manipulator to its base; (2) a residual process, a sequence of velocities, obtained from the joint-angle velocities by means of an outward smoothing operations. The innovations e and the applied moments T are related by means of the relationships e = (I - L)T and T = (I + K)e. The operation (I - L) is a causal lower triangular matrix which is generated by a spatially recursive Kalman filter and the corresponding discrete-step Riccati equation. Hence, the innovations and the applied moments can be obtained from each other by means of a causal operation which is itself casually invertible.

  15. Innovative Approaches to Health Occupations Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurney, Elizabeth, Comp.; Kintgen, Jean, Comp.

    To improve communications between health occupations educators and health professionals about developments in health occupations education, a compilation of 21 approaches used in health occupations education is presented. Outlines of the 21 different courses are presented, grouped in eight areas: (1) career mobility--modified LPN program for…

  16. An Innovative Approach to Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Labor Relations.

    This document describes the Technology Training Program (TTP) designed as an approach to human resource development. Objectives of the program include: (1) increasing the supply of technicians and paraprofessionals in energy and energy-related fields; (2) providing laboratory or industrial-based training experiences; (3) sharing TTP instructional…

  17. An Innovative Approach to Faculty Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana, Heather; Havens, Brandy; Hochanadel, Cathy; Phillips, JoDee

    2010-01-01

    As online education has grown rapidly, colleges and universities have developed various approaches to effectively evaluating and coaching faculty. Faculty performance is central to student success and faculty need feedback that is consistent, constructive and illustrative. Through the use of screen recording technology, academic department chairs…

  18. Capturing the moment: innovative approaches to daily alcohol assessment.

    PubMed

    Neal, Dan J; Fromme, Kim; Boca, Frances K; Parks, Kathleen A; King, Linda P; Pardi, Ann M; Collins, R Lorraine; Muraven, Mark; Vetter, Charlene; Corbin, William R

    2006-02-01

    This article is a summary of a symposium presented at the 2005 Research Society on Alcoholism annual conference organized by Dan J. Neal and chaired by William R. Corbin. Event-level data, wherein each "event" (e.g., day) is captured as its own data point, capture the complex patterns of drinking and other high-risk behaviors in ways that the typical aggregate approach cannot. Because of their richness, methodologies that incorporate event-level data are becoming more common in alcohol research. At least 3 distinct forms of event-level data can be gathered: retrospective data (those collected on a single occasion, using memory aids to help each participant reconstruct all drinking events over a specific period of time), daily monitoring data (reporting on all events for that day), and momentary assessment (those recorded immediately following a drinking event or in response to a prompt from researchers). The goal of this symposium was to address many issues associated with event-level methodology, as well as demonstrate projects that are currently implementing such innovative data collection. The 4 presentations included in this symposium were "Realizing the Promise and Avoiding the Pitfalls of Retrospective Daily Estimation Assessments of Alcohol Use" by Frances K. Del Boca; "Using Interactive Voice Response Technology to Assess the Alcohol-Victimization Link" by Kathleen Parks, Linda King, and Ann Pardi; "Methodological Issues in Using Personal Data Assistants to Self-monitor Alcohol Consumption" by R. Lorraine Collins, Mark Muraven, and Charlene Vetter; and "Collecting Event-level Data Using the World Wide Web" by Dan J. Neal and Kim Fromme.

  19. Innovative Approaches to Reading & Writing Instruction. Anthology #46

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poedjosoedarmo, Gloria, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The 18 papers in this anthology have been grouped into four sections, arranged partially by topic. These papers have been selected to represent the ideas and views put forward at the 2004 RELC International Seminar on "Innovative Approaches to Reading & Writing Instruction" held April 19-21, 2004. Of the 18 papers contained in…

  20. An Innovative Interdisciplinary Approach to Providing Internships for College Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The undergraduate Business and Human Development (HD) Departments at California State University San Marcos (CSUSM), are collaborating in an innovative interdisciplinary approach to supporting internships with local businesses in order to provide college seniors with experiences in the area of career development known as the "Senior…

  1. Innovative Approaches to Reading & Writing Instruction. Anthology #46

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poedjosoedarmo, Gloria, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The 18 papers in this anthology have been grouped into four sections, arranged partially by topic. These papers have been selected to represent the ideas and views put forward at the 2004 RELC International Seminar on "Innovative Approaches to Reading & Writing Instruction" held April 19-21, 2004. Of the 18 papers contained in…

  2. Shared medical appointments: An innovative approach to patient care.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Cora A

    2015-09-13

    This article provides an overview of shared medical appointments, an innovative approach to managing patients with chronic conditions. The Diabetes Shared Medical Appointment of the Veterans Affairs Loma Linda Healthcare System, conducted by an interprofessional team and led by a nurse practitioner, is described.

  3. Peer-Reviewed Reports of Innovative Approaches in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, M. Brownell, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Presents 73 summaries of innovative approaches in medical education covering such topics as professionalism, culture and diversity, preclinical education, clinical education, evidence-based medicine, education in the community, longitudinal ambulatory care experiences, applications of computer technology, residents as teachers, graduate medical…

  4. An Innovative Multimedia Approach to Laboratory Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, M. B.; Constant, K. P.

    1996-01-01

    A new approach for teaching safe laboratory practices has been developed for materials science laboratories at Iowa State university. Students are required to complete a computerized safety tutorial and pass an exam before working in the laboratory. The safety tutorial includes sections on chemical, electrical, radiation, and high temperature safety. The tutorial makes use of a variety of interactions, including 'assembly' interactions where a student is asked to drag and drop items with the mouse (either labels or pictures) to an appropriate place on the screen (sometimes in a specific order). This is extremely useful for demonstrating safe lab practices and disaster scenarios. Built into the software is a record tracking scheme so that a professor can access a file that records which students have completed the tutorial and their scores on the exam. This paper will describe the development and assessment of the safety tutorials.

  5. An Innovative Multimedia Approach to Laboratory Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, M. B.; Constant, K. P.

    1996-01-01

    A new approach for teaching safe laboratory practices has been developed for materials science laboratories at Iowa State university. Students are required to complete a computerized safety tutorial and pass an exam before working in the laboratory. The safety tutorial includes sections on chemical, electrical, radiation, and high temperature safety. The tutorial makes use of a variety of interactions, including 'assembly' interactions where a student is asked to drag and drop items with the mouse (either labels or pictures) to an appropriate place on the screen (sometimes in a specific order). This is extremely useful for demonstrating safe lab practices and disaster scenarios. Built into the software is a record tracking scheme so that a professor can access a file that records which students have completed the tutorial and their scores on the exam. This paper will describe the development and assessment of the safety tutorials.

  6. E-Education Applications: Human Factors and Innovative Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaoui, Claude, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "E-Education Applications: Human Factors and Innovative Approaches" enforces the need to take multi-disciplinary and/or inter-disciplinary approaches, when solutions for e-education (or online-, e-learning) are introduced. By focusing on the issues that have impact on the usability of e-learning, the book specifically fills-in a gap in this area,…

  7. E-Education Applications: Human Factors and Innovative Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaoui, Claude, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "E-Education Applications: Human Factors and Innovative Approaches" enforces the need to take multi-disciplinary and/or inter-disciplinary approaches, when solutions for e-education (or online-, e-learning) are introduced. By focusing on the issues that have impact on the usability of e-learning, the book specifically fills-in a gap in this area,…

  8. Identifying technology innovations for marginalized smallholders-A conceptual approach.

    PubMed

    Malek, Mohammad Abdul; Gatzweiler, Franz W; Von Braun, Joachim

    2017-05-01

    This paper adds a contribution in the existing literature in terms of theoretical and conceptual background for the identification of idle potentials of marginal rural areas and people by means of technological and institutional innovations. The approach follows ex-ante assessment for identifying suitable technology and institutional innovations for marginalized smallholders in marginal areas-divided into three main parts (mapping, surveying and evaluating) and several steps. Finally, it contributes to the inclusion of marginalized smallholders by an improved way of understanding the interactions between technology needs, farming systems, ecological resources and poverty characteristics in the different segments of the poor, and to link these insights with productivity enhancing technologies.

  9. Innovative approaches to noninvasive bone densitometry

    SciTech Connect

    Sartoris, D.J.; Resnick, D. )

    1990-01-01

    In conclusion, this review has endeavored to familiarize the practicing radiologist with some of the newer approaches to noninvasive bone densitometry that are currently being explored as potential improvements over existing techniques. Three-dimensional volumetric CT is a practical means of measuring bone density in the proximal femur, owing to the widespread availability of the necessary scanning equipment, and affords enhanced prediction of biomechanical parameters in the spine and hip, but suffers from limitations similar to those of conventional quantitative CT. Dual-energy projection radiography offers significant potential advantages over dual-photon absorptiometry from the standpoint of precision, radiation dose, image quality, and examination time, but remains to be thoroughly tested. Compton scattering appears to be a viable alternative to single-photon absorptiometry for bone density determinations in the peripheral skeleton. Neutron and proton activation analysis are unlikely to achieve widespread application, owing to their cyclotron-dependent nature, although the former will probably remain the optimal means for determining total body calcium. Experience with scanning-slit fluorography and magnetic resonance as applied to noninvasive bone densitometry is currently too limited to permit prediction of their ultimate role in this respect. As a final point, it should be noted that major incentives for mobilization of bone densitometric equipment currently exist: on Earth, as a means of facilitating patient access and saving money via joint ventures, and in space for monitoring the adverse effects of weightlessness on skeletal mass and the ability to function following return to a gravity environment.25 references.

  10. Social media targeting of health messages. A promising approach for research and practice.

    PubMed

    Betsch, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    In their contribution, Remschmidt and colleagues (1) put forward an innovative approach for recruiting female, German study participants from diverse social and ethnical backgrounds to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding HPV vaccination. The approach involves placing advertisements on the social media platform Facebook that specify tags for not only the sought after socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender) but also self-relevant aspects of the target group. These tags determine which Facebook users will see the ad. By sequentially adjusting the tags, the researchers were able to recruit different sub-populations, resulting in a final sample similar to a representative German sample for a particular age group.

  11. Creating an enabling environment for adolescent sexual and reproductive health: a framework and promising approaches.

    PubMed

    Svanemyr, Joar; Amin, Avni; Robles, Omar J; Greene, Margaret E

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a conceptual framework and points out the key elements for creating enabling environments for adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH). An ecological framework is applied to organize the key elements of enabling environments for ASRH. At the individual level, strategies that are being implemented and seem promising are those that empower girls, build their individual assets, and create safe spaces. At the relationship level, strategies that are being implemented and seem promising include efforts to build parental support and communication as well as peer support networks. At the community level, strategies to engage men and boys and the wider community to transform gender and other social norms are being tested and may hold promise. Finally, at the broadest societal level, efforts to promote laws and policies that protect and promote human rights and address societal awareness about ASRH issues, including through mass media approaches, need to be considered.

  12. Sustainable Financing of Innovative Therapies: A Review of Approaches.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Aidan

    2016-10-01

    The process of innovation is inherently complex, and it occurs within an even more complex institutional environment characterized by incomplete information, market power, and externalities. There are therefore different competing approaches to supporting and financing innovation in medical technologies, which bring their own advantages and disadvantages. This article reviews value- and cost-based pricing, as well direct government funding, and cross-cutting institutional structures. It argues that performance-based risk-sharing agreements are likely to have little effect on the sustainability of financing; that there is a role for cost-based pricing models in some situations; and that the push towards longer exclusivity periods is likely contrary to the interests of industry.

  13. Course Management Systems and Blended Learning: An Innovative Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Amy Y.; Chou, David C.

    2011-01-01

    This article utilizes Rogers' innovation-decision process model (2003) and Beckman and Berry's innovation process model (2007) to create an innovative learning map that illustrates three learning methods (i.e., face-to-face learning, online learning, and blended learning) in two types of innovation (i.e., incremental innovation and radical…

  14. Course Management Systems and Blended Learning: An Innovative Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Amy Y.; Chou, David C.

    2011-01-01

    This article utilizes Rogers' innovation-decision process model (2003) and Beckman and Berry's innovation process model (2007) to create an innovative learning map that illustrates three learning methods (i.e., face-to-face learning, online learning, and blended learning) in two types of innovation (i.e., incremental innovation and radical…

  15. Virtual Reality as Innovative Approach to the Interior Designing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaleja, Pavol; Kozlovská, Mária

    2017-06-01

    We can observe significant potential of information and communication technologies (ICT) in interior designing field, by development of software and hardware virtual reality tools. Using ICT tools offer realistic perception of proposal in its initial idea (the study). A group of real-time visualization, supported by hardware tools like Oculus Rift HTC Vive, provides free walkthrough and movement in virtual interior with the possibility of virtual designing. By improving of ICT software tools for designing in virtual reality we can achieve still more realistic virtual environment. The contribution presented proposal of an innovative approach of interior designing in virtual reality, using the latest software and hardware ICT virtual reality technologies

  16. Induced pluripotent stem cell: A headway in reprogramming with promising approach in regenerative biology.

    PubMed

    Rawat, N; Singh, M K

    2017-06-01

    Since the embryonic stem cells have knocked the doorsteps, they have proved themselves in the field of science, research, and medicines, but the hovered restrictions confine their application in human welfare. Alternate approaches used to reprogram the cells to the pluripotent state were not up to par, but the innovation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) paved a new hope for the researchers. Soon after the discovery, iPSCs technology is undergoing renaissance day by day, i.e., from the use of genetic material to recombinant proteins and now only chemicals are employed to convert somatic cells to iPSCs. Thus, this technique is moving straightforward and productive at an astonishing pace. Here, we provide a brief introduction to iPSCs, the mechanism and methods for their generation, their prevailing and prospective applications and the future opportunities that can be expected from them.

  17. Induced pluripotent stem cell: A headway in reprogramming with promising approach in regenerative biology

    PubMed Central

    Rawat, N.; Singh, M. K.

    2017-01-01

    Since the embryonic stem cells have knocked the doorsteps, they have proved themselves in the field of science, research, and medicines, but the hovered restrictions confine their application in human welfare. Alternate approaches used to reprogram the cells to the pluripotent state were not up to par, but the innovation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) paved a new hope for the researchers. Soon after the discovery, iPSCs technology is undergoing renaissance day by day, i.e., from the use of genetic material to recombinant proteins and now only chemicals are employed to convert somatic cells to iPSCs. Thus, this technique is moving straightforward and productive at an astonishing pace. Here, we provide a brief introduction to iPSCs, the mechanism and methods for their generation, their prevailing and prospective applications and the future opportunities that can be expected from them. PMID:28717316

  18. Innovation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA frames innovation as critical to the protection of human health and the environment through initiatives such as sustainable practices, innovative research, prize competitions, innovation awards, partnerships, and community activities.

  19. Molecular Farming in Artemisia annua, a Promising Approach to Improve Anti-malarial Drug Production

    PubMed Central

    Pulice, Giuseppe; Pelaz, Soraya; Matías-Hernández, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a parasite infection affecting millions of people worldwide. Even though progress has been made in prevention and treatment of the disease; an estimated 214 million cases of malaria occurred in 2015, resulting in 438,000 estimated deaths; most of them occurring in Africa among children under the age of five. This article aims to review the epidemiology, future risk factors and current treatments of malaria, with particular focus on the promising potential of molecular farming that uses metabolic engineering in plants as an effective anti-malarial solution. Malaria represents an example of how a health problem may, on one hand, influence the proper development of a country, due to its burden of the disease. On the other hand, it constitutes an opportunity for lucrative business of diverse stakeholders. In contrast, plant biofarming is proposed here as a sustainable, promising, alternative for the production, not only of natural herbal repellents for malaria prevention but also for the production of sustainable anti-malarial drugs, like artemisinin (AN), used for primary parasite infection treatments. AN, a sesquiterpene lactone, is a natural anti-malarial compound that can be found in Artemisia annua. However, the low concentration of AN in the plant makes this molecule relatively expensive and difficult to produce in order to meet the current worldwide demand of Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs), especially for economically disadvantaged people in developing countries. The biosynthetic pathway of AN, a process that takes place only in glandular secretory trichomes of A. annua, is relatively well elucidated. Significant efforts have been made using plant genetic engineering to increase production of this compound. These include diverse genetic manipulation approaches, such as studies on diverse transcription factors which have been shown to regulate the AN genetic pathway and other biological processes. Results look promising; however, further

  20. Combination of conspicuity improved synthetic mammograms and digital breast tomosynthesis: a promising approach for mass detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong Tae; Kim, Dae Hoe; Ro, Yong Man

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a novel mass detection framework that utilizes the information from synthetic mammograms has been developed for detecting masses in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In clinical study, it is demonstrated that the combination of DBT and full field digital mammography (FFDM) increases the reader performance. To reduce the radiation dose in this approach, synthetic mammogram has been developed in previous researches and it is demonstrated that synthetic mammogram can alternate the FFDM when it is used with DBT. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of the combined approach of DBT and synthetic mammogram in point of computer-aided detection (CAD). As a synthetic mammogram, two-dimensional image was generated by adopting conspicuous voxels of three-dimensional DBT volume in our study. The mass likelihood scores estimated for each mass candidates in synthetic mammogram and DBT are merged to differentiate masses and false positives (FPs) in combined approach. We compared the performance of detecting masses in the proposed combined approach and DBT alone. A clinical data set of 196 DBT volumes was used to evaluate the different detection schemes. The combined approach achieved sensitivity of 80% and 89% with 1.16 and 2.37 FPs per DBT volume. The DBT alone approach achieved same sensitivities with 1.61 and 3.46 FPs per DBT volume. Experimental results show that statistically significant improvement (p = 0.002) is achieved in combined approach compared to DBT alone. These results imply that the information fusion of synthetic mammogram and DBT is a promising approach to detect masses in DBT.

  1. Approaches to anti-aging intervention: the promises and the uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Yu, B P

    1999-11-01

    Humans have long sought the elixir to long life. Today, although advances in our understanding of the aging process have given gerontologists new insights in potential anti-aging interventions, public demand for these interventions is outpacing our current knowledge. My presentation begins with a brief historical background that outlines some of the past and present approaches to anti-aging interventions. Using the dietary restriction paradigm as a prototype, discussions center on a three-pathway model that provides the bases to design effective interventions: (1) retardation of biological aging, (2) suppression of age-related disease, and (3) modulation of cross talk between (1) and (2). One other concept useful for discussion in relation to interventions is the enhancement of an organism's resistance to deter vulnerability to aging and disease. These models are best used to explain the efficacy of currently popular interventions such as antioxidant supplementation and hormone therapies. This presentation further highlights the promises that antioxidant supplements hold in warding off oxidative damage as well as their inherent problems and biological limitations. Also discussed here are the promises and uncertainties of anti-aging interventions by genetic manipulation, as seen in animal model studies, and prophylactic treatments targeted against disease, such as hormonal approaches using estrogen and DHEA, as well as other intervening measures.

  2. 20 Years of hypertension research using genetically modified animals: no clinically promising approaches in sight.

    PubMed

    Stingl, Lavinia; Völkel, Manfred; Lindl, Toni

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of essential or primary hypertension is increasing, especially in the northern hemisphere, but although the disease displays clear symptoms, its aetiology appears very complex, and thus no causal treatment is available yet. In the 1990's, genetically modified animals (GMO) were considered to be the key to solving this problem of high complexity. However, until now, although a few approaches have shown that old, well-known drugs have a positive effect (decrease of blood pressure) on such animal models of hypertension, no approach has appeared in the literature of this area of research which might indicate a direct connection between GMO and a therapeutic strategy to treat or prevent this type of hypertension in humans. Instead, criticism of the GMO approach has accumulated in the last years, arguing that it is misleading as this disease does not have a monogenic cause and so complementary regulatory mechanisms could prevent the true identification of the function of the modified genes. Furthermore, the technology is best developed in mice, whose physiology of blood pressure is different from that of humans. Because of species specificity, it is not easy to extrapolate the results from animal models of hypertension to human hypertension. Also, in the years 2000 to 2004 a reorientation of the technology and the aims of this kind of research took place. Therefore, although these approaches are without exception deemed "very promising" in the literature, it cannot be expected that research on GMO will make any contribution to a new therapeutic strategy in the near future.

  3. Mindfulness practice: A promising approach to reducing the effects of clinician implicit bias on patients.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Diana J; Beach, Mary Catherine; Saha, Somnath

    2017-02-01

    Like the population at large, health care providers hold implicit racial and ethnic biases that may contribute to health care disparities. Little progress has been made in identifying and implementing effective strategies to address these normal but potentially harmful unconscious cognitive processes. We propose that meditation training designed to increase healthcare providers' mindfulness skills is a promising and potentially sustainable way to address this problem. Emerging evidence suggests that mindfulness practice can reduce the provider contribution to healthcare disparities through several mechanisms including: reducing the likelihood that implicit biases will be activated in the mind, increasing providers' awareness of and ability to control responses to implicit biases once activated, increasing self-compassion and compassion toward patients, and reducing internal sources of cognitive load (e.g., stress, burnout, and compassion fatigue). Mindfulness training may also have advantages over current approaches to addressing implicit bias because it focuses on the development of skills through practice, promotes a nonjudgmental approach, can circumvent resistance some providers feel when directly confronted with evidence of racism, and constitutes a holistic approach to promoting providers' well-being. We close with suggestions for how a mindfulness approach can be practically implemented and identify potential challenges and research gaps to be addressed.

  4. Industry-academic partnerships: an approach to accelerate innovation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jennwood; Pickett, Timothy; Langell, Ashley; Trane, Ashley; Charlesworth, Brian; Loken, Kris; Lombardo, Sarah; Langell, John T

    2016-09-01

    Biotechnology companies are process-driven organizations and often struggle with their ability to innovate. Universities, on the other hand, thrive on discovery and variation as a source of innovation. As such, properly structured academic-industry partnerships in medical technology development may enhance and accelerate innovation. Through joint industry-academic efforts, our objective was to develop a technology aimed at global cervical cancer prevention. Our Center for Medical Innovation assembled a multidisciplinary team of students, surgical residents, and clinical faculty to enter in the University of Utah's annual Bench-to-Bedside competition. Bench-to-Bedside is a university program centered on medical innovation. Teams are given access to university resources and are provided $500.00 for prototype development. Participation by team members are on a volunteer basis. Our industry partner presented the validated need and business mentorship. The team studied the therapeutic landscape, environmental constraints, and used simulation to understand human factors design and usage requirements. A physical device was manufactured by first creating a digital image (SOLIDWORKS 3D CAD). Then, using a 3-dimensional printer (Stratasys Objet30 Prime 3D printer), the image was translated into a physical object. Tissue burn depth analysis was performed on raw chicken breasts warmed to room temperature. Varying combinations of time and temperature were tested, and burn depth and diameter were measured 30 min after each trial. An arithmetic mean was calculated for each corresponding time and temperature combination. User comprehension of operation and sterilization was tested via a participant validation study. Clinical obstetricians and gynecologists were given explicit instructions on usage details and then asked to operate the device. Participant behaviors and questions were recorded. Our efforts resulted in a functional battery-powered hand-held thermocoagulation

  5. Participatory methodologies in research with children: creative and innovative approaches.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Viviane Ribeiro; Coimbra, Valéria Cristina Christello; Cardoso, Clarissa de Souza; Oliveira, Naiana Alves; Vieira, Ana Cláudia Garcia; Nobre, Márcia de Oliveira; Nino, Magda Eliete Lamas

    2017-05-18

    To describe the use of participatory methodologies in research with children. Experience report with a qualitative approach, conducted with children between six and eleven years of age, from a municipal school in Pelotas and in the Psychosocial Children and Youth Care Center, in São Lourenço do Sul, both municipalities of the Rio Grande do Sul State. Data collection was based on records made in field and observation diaries, held from April to July 2016. The report pointed out that the Photovoice promoted motivation in the group, in addition to increasing the self-esteem and self-confidence of children. The Five Field Map made it possible to help children express feelings through the game. Photovoice and the Five Field Map are seen as tools that enable new methodological approaches in research with children, facilitating the construction of the proposed activities aimed at innovative and creative research processes in health/nursing.

  6. An innovative approach to capability-based emergency operations planning.

    PubMed

    Keim, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the innovative use information technology for assisting disaster planners with an easily-accessible method for writing and improving evidence-based emergency operations plans. This process is used to identify all key objectives of the emergency response according to capabilities of the institution, community or society. The approach then uses a standardized, objective-based format, along with a consensus-based method for drafting capability-based operational-level plans. This information is then integrated within a relational database to allow for ease of access and enhanced functionality to search, sort and filter and emergency operations plan according to user need and technological capacity. This integrated approach is offered as an effective option for integrating best practices of planning with the efficiency, scalability and flexibility of modern information and communication technology.

  7. An innovative approach to capability-based emergency operations planning

    PubMed Central

    Keim, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the innovative use information technology for assisting disaster planners with an easily-accessible method for writing and improving evidence-based emergency operations plans. This process is used to identify all key objectives of the emergency response according to capabilities of the institution, community or society. The approach then uses a standardized, objective-based format, along with a consensus-based method for drafting capability-based operational-level plans. This information is then integrated within a relational database to allow for ease of access and enhanced functionality to search, sort and filter and emergency operations plan according to user need and technological capacity. This integrated approach is offered as an effective option for integrating best practices of planning with the efficiency, scalability and flexibility of modern information and communication technology. PMID:28228987

  8. Spinning the Innovation and Entrepreneurship Mindset: A Modern Physics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roughani, Bahram

    2010-04-01

    Topics in Modern Physics course from relativity to quantum mechanics were examined in the context of innovation as part of the recent Kettering University program on ``Entrepreneurship Across Curriculum-EAC.'' The main goals were (a) to introduce innovation and entrepreneurship without eliminating any topics from this course, (b) to use EAC as a vehicle for intentional education that produces graduates with innovative mindsets, (c) to enrich the students learning experience aligned with the desired educational outcomes, and (d) to highlight the impact of scientific innovation in the society, while encouraging students to re-think how entrepreneurship mindset could maximize their impact in the society through innovation. Ideas such as principles behind innovation and innovative ideas, disciplines of innovations, formation of innovation teams, and effective methods for analyzing innovative value propositions were introduced in this course. Most of the implementation were achieved through out of class activities, and communicated through in class presentations, papers or weekly laboratory reports.

  9. An innovative approach to treating combat veterans with PTSD at risk for suicide.

    PubMed

    Hendin, Herbert

    2014-10-01

    Suicide rates among military personnel had a significant drop in 2013, but there is no evidence of a drop among veterans. The problem of suicide among combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains a source of concern. The Department of Defense and the Department of Veterans Affairs are now calling for innovative treatment approaches to the problem. A short-term psychodynamic therapy presented here may be able to fill that need by dissipating the guilt from veterans' combat-related actions that leads to suicidal behavior. The treatment showed promise of success with veterans of the war in Vietnam. Preliminary work with combat veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan indicates that it may be equally successful in treating them. Basic aspects of the psychodynamic approach could be incorporated into current therapies and should improve their ability to treat veterans with PTSD at risk for suicide.

  10. Chelation technology: a promising green approach for resource management and waste minimization.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Garima; Pant, K K; Nigam, K D P

    2015-01-01

    Green chemical engineering recognises the concept of developing innovative environmentally benign technologies to protect human health and ecosystems. In order to explore this concept for minimizing industrial waste and for reducing the environmental impact of hazardous chemicals, new greener approaches need to be adopted for the extraction of heavy metals from industrial waste. In this review, a range of conventional processes and new green approaches employed for metal extraction are discussed in brief. Chelation technology, a modern research trend, has shown its potential to develop sustainable technology for metal extraction from various metal-contaminated sites. However, the interaction mechanism of ligands with metals and the ecotoxicological risk associated with the increased bioavailability of heavy metals due to the formation of metal-chelant complexes is still not sufficiently explicated in the literature. Therefore, a need was felt to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of all aspects associated with chelation technology to promote this process as a green chemical engineering approach. This article elucidates the mechanism and thermodynamics associated with metal-ligand complexation in order to have a better understanding of the metal extraction process. The effects of various process parameters on the formation and stability of complexes have been elaborately discussed with respect to optimizing the chelation efficiency. The non-biodegradable attribute of ligands is another important aspect which is currently of concern. Therefore, biotechnological approaches and computational tools have been assessed in this review to illustrate the possibility of ligand degradation, which will help the readers to look for new environmentally safe mobilizing agents. In addition, emerging trends and opportunities in the field of chelation technology have been summarized and the diverse applicability of chelation technology in metal extraction from

  11. Promises and pitfalls of quantitative structure-activity relationship approaches for predicting metabolism and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Zvinavashe, Elton; Murk, Albertinka J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2008-12-01

    The description of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models has been a topic for scientific research for more than 40 years and a topic within the regulatory framework for more than 20 years. At present, efforts on QSAR development are increasing because of their promise for supporting reduction, refinement, and/or replacement of animal toxicity experiments. However, their acceptance in risk assessment seems to require a more standardized and scientific underpinning of QSAR technology to avoid possible pitfalls. For this reason, guidelines for QSAR model development recently proposed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) [Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (2007) Guidance document on the validation of (quantitative) structure-activity relationships [(Q)SAR] models. OECD Environment Health and Safety Publications: Series on Testing and Assessment No. 69, Paris] are expected to help increase the acceptability of QSAR models for regulatory purposes. The guidelines recommend that QSAR models should be associated with (i) a defined end point, (ii) an unambiguous algorithm, (iii) a defined domain of applicability, (iv) appropriate measures of goodness-of-fit, robustness, and predictivity, and (v) a mechanistic interpretation, if possible [Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (2007) Guidance document on the validation of (quantitative) structure-activity relationships [(Q)SAR] models. The present perspective provides an overview of these guidelines for QSAR model development and their rationale, as well as the promises and pitfalls of using QSAR approaches and these guidelines for predicting metabolism and toxicity of new and existing chemicals.

  12. A Visual Arts Education pedagogical approach for enhancing quality of life for persons with dementia (innovative practice).

    PubMed

    Tietyen, Ann C; Richards, Allan G

    2017-01-01

    A new and innovative pedagogical approach that administers hands-on visual arts activities to persons with dementia based on the field of Visual Arts Education is reported in this paper. The aims of this approach are to enhance cognition and improve quality of life. These aims were explored in a small qualitative study with eight individuals with moderate dementia, and the results are published as a thesis. In this paper, we summarize and report the results of this small qualitative study and expand upon the rationale for the Visual Arts Education pedagogical approach that has shown promise for enhancing cognitive processes and improving quality of life for persons with dementia.

  13. Paclitaxel-Coated Balloons: Review of a Promising Interventional Approach to Preventing Restenosis in Femoropopliteal Arteries.

    PubMed

    Teleb, Mohamed; Wardi, Miraie; Gosavi, Sucheta; Said, Sarmad; Mukherjee, Debabrata

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD), a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, is characterized by intermittent claudication and is associated with chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. The goal of treatment is to address the underlying cause and to modify risk factors. Although medical management is the first-line treatment of PAD, some individuals may have severe symptoms and require revascularization with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with or without stent placement or surgery. Interventional approaches may, however, be associated with high prevalence of restenosis and subsequent complications such as critical limb ischemia and amputation. Drug-eluting balloons (DEBs) are a new interventional technology with the primary goal of preventing restenosis. We review the clinical trials and studies that assessed the efficacy and safety profile of DEB and will focus on the restenosis rate in femoropopliteal arteries including target lesion revascularization (TLR) and late lumen lesion (LLL) using different modalities of intervention such as stents and DEB. Average data collected from the trials reported included restenosis rate of 25%, 0.3 mm LLL, and 14% reduction in TLR with DEB versus uncoated balloons. Below the knee (BTK) only intervention studies were excluded from this review as endovascular approach is usually reserved for critical limb ischemia for BTK disease. Interventional approach to treat PAD with DEB appears to be a promising technology. Additional larger studies are needed to further define safety, efficacy, and longer term outcome with this novel technology.

  14. Paclitaxel-Coated Balloons: Review of a Promising Interventional Approach to Preventing Restenosis in Femoropopliteal Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Teleb, Mohamed; Wardi, Miraie; Gosavi, Sucheta; Said, Sarmad; Mukherjee, Debabrata

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD), a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, is characterized by intermittent claudication and is associated with chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. The goal of treatment is to address the underlying cause and to modify risk factors. Although medical management is the first-line treatment of PAD, some individuals may have severe symptoms and require revascularization with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with or without stent placement or surgery. Interventional approaches may, however, be associated with high prevalence of restenosis and subsequent complications such as critical limb ischemia and amputation. Drug-eluting balloons (DEBs) are a new interventional technology with the primary goal of preventing restenosis. We review the clinical trials and studies that assessed the efficacy and safety profile of DEB and will focus on the restenosis rate in femoropopliteal arteries including target lesion revascularization (TLR) and late lumen lesion (LLL) using different modalities of intervention such as stents and DEB. Average data collected from the trials reported included restenosis rate of 25%, 0.3 mm LLL, and 14% reduction in TLR with DEB versus uncoated balloons. Below the knee (BTK) only intervention studies were excluded from this review as endovascular approach is usually reserved for critical limb ischemia for BTK disease. Interventional approach to treat PAD with DEB appears to be a promising technology. Additional larger studies are needed to further define safety, efficacy, and longer term outcome with this novel technology. PMID:27231422

  15. PNAUM: integrated approach to Pharmaceutical Services, Science, Technology and Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Costa, Karen Sarmento; do Nascimento, José Miguel; Soeiro, Orlando Mário; Mengue, Sotero Serrate; da Motta, Márcia Luz; de Carvalho, Antônio Carlos Campos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper describes the development process of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM – National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines) based on an integrated approach to pharmaceutical services, science, technology and innovation. It starts by contextualizing health and development in Brazil and features elements of the National Policy for Science, Technology and Innovation in Health in Brazil and the National Policy for Pharmaceutical Services. On presenting pharmaceutical policy guidelines, it stresses the lack of nationwide data. This survey, commissioned by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, has two components: household survey and evaluation of pharmaceutical services in primary care. The findings point to perspectives that represent, besides the enhancement of public policy for pharmaceutical services and public health, results of government action aimed at developing the economic and industrial health care complex to improve the health conditions of the Brazilian population. PMID:27982379

  16. Innovative approaches to clinical development and trial design.

    PubMed

    Orloff, John J; Stanski, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Pharmaceutical innovation is increasingly risky, costly and at times inefficient, which has led to a decline in industry productivity. Despite the increased investment in R&D by the industry, the number of new molecular entities achieving marketing authorization is not increasing. Novel approaches to clinical development and trial design could have a key role in overcoming some of these challenges by improving efficiency and reducing attrition rates. The effectiveness of clinical development can be improved by adopting a more integrated model that increases flexibility and maximizes the use of accumulated knowledge. Central to this model of drug development are novel tools, including modelling and simulation, Bayesian methodologies, and adaptive designs, such as seamless adaptive designs and sample-size re-estimation methods. Applications of these methodologies to early- and late-stage drug development are described with some specific examples, along with advantages, challenges, and barriers to implementation. Because they are so flexible, these new trial designs require significant statistical analyses, simulations and logistical considerations to verify their operating characteristics, and therefore tend to require more time for the planning and protocol development phase. Greater awareness of the distinct advantages of innovative designs by regulators and sponsors are crucial to increasing the adoption of these modern tools.

  17. Modeling polymer electrolyte fuel cells: an innovative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggio, G.; Recupero, V.; Pino, L.

    In this paper, a mathematical simulation model is proposed to describe the water transport in proton conductive membranes, used in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). The model, which includes the calculation of electrochemical parameters of a PEFC, represents a quite innovative approach. In fact, it is based on the use of original mathematical relationships taking into account diffusional and ohmic overpotentials for electrode flooding and membrane dehydration problems. The calculated performance of polymer fuel cells using a Nafion 117 membrane clearly demonstrates the model validation (±3% variation with respect to experimental data). Besides, analysis of model results allows a useful comparison of two different membranes (Nafion 117, Dow) in order to define the best membrane/electrode assembly.

  18. RNA Interference (RNAi) Induced Gene Silencing: A Promising Approach of Hi-Tech Plant Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Younis, Adnan; Siddique, Muhammad Irfan; Kim, Chang-Kil; Lim, Ki-Byung

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising gene regulatory approach in functional genomics that has significant impact on crop improvement which permits down-regulation in gene expression with greater precise manner without affecting the expression of other genes. RNAi mechanism is expedited by small molecules of interfering RNA to suppress a gene of interest effectively. RNAi has also been exploited in plants for resistance against pathogens, insect/pest, nematodes, and virus that cause significant economic losses. Keeping beside the significance in the genome integrity maintenance as well as growth and development, RNAi induced gene syntheses are vital in plant stress management. Modifying the genes by the interference of small RNAs is one of the ways through which plants react to the environmental stresses. Hence, investigating the role of small RNAs in regulating gene expression assists the researchers to explore the potentiality of small RNAs in abiotic and biotic stress management. This novel approach opens new avenues for crop improvement by developing disease resistant, abiotic or biotic stress tolerant, and high yielding elite varieties. PMID:25332689

  19. Polymer brush: a promising grafting approach to scaffolds for tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woonjung; Jung, Jongjin

    2016-01-01

    Polymer brush is a soft material unit tethered covalently on the surface of scaffolds. It can induce functional and structural modification of a substrate’s properties. Such surface coating approach has attracted special attentions in the fields of stem cell biology, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine due to facile fabrication, usability of various polymers, extracellular matrix (ECM)-like structural features, and in vivo stability. Here, we summarized polymer brush-based grafting approaches comparing self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-based coating method, in addition to physico-chemical characterization techniques for surfaces such as wettability, stiffness/elasticity, roughness, and chemical composition that can affect cell adhesion, differentiation, and proliferation. We also reviewed recent advancements in cell biological applications of polymer brushes by focusing on stem cell differentiation and 3D supports/implants for tissue formation. Understanding cell behaviors on polymer brushes in the scale of nanometer length can contribute to systematic understandings of cellular responses at the interface of polymers and scaffolds and their simultaneous effects on cell behaviors for promising platform designs. PMID:27697112

  20. Communication of Innovations; A Cross-Cultural Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett M.; Shoemaker, F. Floyd

    How do innovations (defined as idea, products, and practices perceived as new by an individual) diffuse to members of a social system? The authors answer this and other questions about the character of innovators, the rate of adoption of ideas, and the decision-making process in 103 generalizations about diffusion of innovation. These propositions…

  1. Communication of Innovations; A Cross-Cultural Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett M.; Shoemaker, F. Floyd

    How do innovations (defined as idea, products, and practices perceived as new by an individual) diffuse to members of a social system? The authors answer this and other questions about the character of innovators, the rate of adoption of ideas, and the decision-making process in 103 generalizations about diffusion of innovation. These propositions…

  2. Treatment of recalcitrant warts with intralesional measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine: a promising approach.

    PubMed

    Nofal, Ahmad; Nofal, Eman; Yosef, Ayman; Nofal, Hager

    2015-06-01

    Recalcitrant warts represent a frustrating challenge for both patients and physicians. Although many destructive and immunotherapeutic modalities are available for the treatment of warts, an ideal, universally effective approach has not been explored to date. Recently, intralesional antigen immunotherapy has shown promising efficacy in the treatment of warts. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intralesional measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine in the treatment of recalcitrant warts. The study included 70 adult patients with multiple recalcitrant extragenital warts of different sizes and durations, with or without distant warts. They were directly injected, without a pre-sensitization skin test, with 0.3 intralesional MMR vaccine into the largest wart at 2-week intervals until complete clearance or for a maximum of five treatments. Follow-up was made every month for six months to detect any recurrence. Sixty-five patients, 35 men and 30 women, completed the study, and five patients discontinued for various reasons. Complete clearance of the lesions was observed in 41 patients (63%), partial response in 15 patients (23%), and no response in nine patients (14%). Complete response was demonstrated in 74.5% of those presenting with distant warts. Side effects were mild and insignificant in the form of pain during injection, itching, erythema, and edema at the site of injection and flu-like symptoms. Recurrence was detected in two patients only. Intralesional immunotherapy by MMR vaccine is a promising, effective, and safe treatment modality for recalcitrant warts. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  3. An innovative approach to the topical treatment of acne.

    PubMed

    Sparavigna, Adele; Tenconi, Beatrice; De Ponti, Ileana; La Penna, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Acne is characterized by primary lesions on the face, chest, and back, and by a variety of other signs and symptoms. In particular, acne inflammatory lesions result from Propionibacterium acnes colonization and are of particular relevance as they can cause permanent scarring. Acne also causes significant psychological morbidity in affected patients. Products currently available for the treatment of acne include systemic and topical treatments. As these products can cause severe side effects, new, innovative therapies are needed. Farmaka Acne Cream (FAC) is a novel, film-forming cream developed to treat mild and moderate acne. In vitro studies have demonstrated that FAC is as effective as 5% benzoyl peroxide in inhibiting growth of P. acnes. In 32 subjects with mild or moderate acne, FAC reduced all the major signs and symptoms of the disease. These included itching, erythema, and scaling, as well as reductions in the numbers of papules, pustules, and open and closed comedones. Acne severity improved in 38% of subjects, while none worsened. FAC was found to be effective in controlling sebum secretion, and was non-comedogenic. Most subjects (90%) reported tolerability as good or very good, while clinical efficacy and cosmetic acceptability were judged as good. For assessment of contact sensitization and photosensitization, FAC was applied daily to the backs of 29 subjects in two symmetric areas for 10 days. Using a solar stimulator, one minimal erythema dose was delivered to one side of the back from days 11 to 13. The four different subareas of treated/untreated and irradiated/nonirradiated and combinations thereof were compared. No cases of contact sensitization or photosensitization were observed, and FAC is considered safe for use in intense sunlight. In vitro and in vivo studies provide evidence for the safety and clinical benefits of FAC, a promising candidate for the treatment of mild and moderate acne.

  4. An innovative approach to the topical treatment of acne

    PubMed Central

    Sparavigna, Adele; Tenconi, Beatrice; De Ponti, Ileana; La Penna, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Acne is characterized by primary lesions on the face, chest, and back, and by a variety of other signs and symptoms. In particular, acne inflammatory lesions result from Propionibacterium acnes colonization and are of particular relevance as they can cause permanent scarring. Acne also causes significant psychological morbidity in affected patients. Products currently available for the treatment of acne include systemic and topical treatments. As these products can cause severe side effects, new, innovative therapies are needed. Farmaka Acne Cream (FAC) is a novel, film-forming cream developed to treat mild and moderate acne. In vitro studies have demonstrated that FAC is as effective as 5% benzoyl peroxide in inhibiting growth of P. acnes. In 32 subjects with mild or moderate acne, FAC reduced all the major signs and symptoms of the disease. These included itching, erythema, and scaling, as well as reductions in the numbers of papules, pustules, and open and closed comedones. Acne severity improved in 38% of subjects, while none worsened. FAC was found to be effective in controlling sebum secretion, and was non-comedogenic. Most subjects (90%) reported tolerability as good or very good, while clinical efficacy and cosmetic acceptability were judged as good. For assessment of contact sensitization and photosensitization, FAC was applied daily to the backs of 29 subjects in two symmetric areas for 10 days. Using a solar stimulator, one minimal erythema dose was delivered to one side of the back from days 11 to 13. The four different subareas of treated/untreated and irradiated/nonirradiated and combinations thereof were compared. No cases of contact sensitization or photosensitization were observed, and FAC is considered safe for use in intense sunlight. In vitro and in vivo studies provide evidence for the safety and clinical benefits of FAC, a promising candidate for the treatment of mild and moderate acne. PMID:25914552

  5. Acupuncture Points Stimulation for Meniere's Disease/Syndrome: A Promising Therapeutic Approach

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiaojun; Jiang, Liyuan; Peng, Tianqiang; Xia, Meixia

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study aims to explore evidence for acupuncture points stimulation (APS) in treatment of Meniere's disease (MD). Method. A literature search was conducted in seven databases including EMBASE, Medline, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CBM, CNKI, and WangFang database and the data analysis was performed by using the RevMan version 5.3. Results. 12 RCTs with 993 participants were acquired after the search. The quality of most eligible studies was very low which limited the value of the meta-analysis. Compared with western medicine comprehensive treatment (WMCT), the APS alone or in combination with WMCT had a significant positive effect in controlling vertigo; however, the result was negative in hearing improvement and DHI. No adverse events were reported in the studies. Conclusion. The APS might be a promising therapeutic approach for MD. However, the currently available evidence is insufficient to make a definitive conclusion for the poor quality of included studies. More high-quality researches with larger sample size are urgently needed to assess the effectiveness and safety. PMID:27547229

  6. A promising approach to conductive patterns with high efficiency for flexible electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Yan-Long; Yang, Zhen-Guo; Li, Zhi-Dong

    2011-06-01

    A promising approach for conductive patterns with high efficiency for flexible electronics was developed by direct-writing, silver(I) solution (silver nitrate, acetate silver, etc.) with no solid particles as a conductive ink, conductive pen as a writing implement, and polyimide (PI) film as a substrate. The physical properties of the conductive ink were investigated by a dynamic contact angle system, ubbelohde viscometer and surface tension instrument. Conductive properties of silver ink film were investigated by 4-point probe, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and surface profilometer. It is demonstrated how the design of solvent composition in conductive ink affects surface morphology, and conductivity of silver ink films. It can be obtained that conductive patterns drawn on PI substrate not only have good mechanical/electrical fatigue properties, but also have low resistivity. Especially, when the sintering condition is 200 °C for 60 min, the resistivity can be down to 6.6 μΩ cm, 4.25 times the silver bulk resistivity.

  7. Research Ethics Education in the STEM Disciplines: The Promises and Challenges of a Gaming Approach.

    PubMed

    Briggle, Adam; Holbrook, J Britt; Oppong, Joseph; Hoffmann, Joesph; Larsen, Elizabeth K; Pluscht, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    While education in ethics and the responsible conduct of research (RCR) is widely acknowledged as an essential component of graduate education, particularly in the STEM disciplines (science, technology, engineering, and math), little consensus exists on how best to accomplish this goal. Recent years have witnessed a turn toward the use of games in this context. Drawing from two NSF-funded grants (one completed and one on-going), this paper takes a critical look at the use of games in ethics and RCR education. It does so by: (a) setting the development of research and engineering ethics games in wider historical and theoretical contexts, which highlights their promise to solve important pedagogical problems; (b) reporting on some initial results from our own efforts to develop a game; and (c) reflecting on the challenges that arise in using games for ethics education. In our discussion of the challenges, we draw out lessons to improve this nascent approach to ethics education in the STEM disciplines .

  8. Deductive genomics: a functional approach to identify innovative drug targets in the post-genome era.

    PubMed

    Stumm, Gabriele; Russ, Andreas; Nehls, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The sequencing of the human genome has generated a drug discovery process that is based on sequence analysis and hypothesis-driven (inductive) prediction of gene function. This approach, which we term inductive genomics, is currently dominating the efforts of the pharmaceutical industry to identify new drug targets. According to recent studies, this sequence-driven discovery process is paradoxically increasing the average cost of drug development, thus falling short of the promise of the Human Genome Project to simplify the creation of much needed novel therapeutics. In the early stages of discovery, the flurry of new gene sequences makes it difficult to pick and prioritize the most promising product candidates for product development, as with existing technologies important decisions have to be based on circumstantial evidence that does not strongly predict therapeutic potential. This is because the physiological function of a potential target cannot be predicted by gene sequence analysis and in vitro technologies alone. In contrast, deductive genomics, or large-scale forward genetics, bridges the gap between sequence and function by providing a function-driven in vivo screen of a highly orthologous mammalian model genome for medically relevant physiological functions and drug targets. This approach allows drug discovery to move beyond the focus on sequence-driven identification of new members of classical drug-able protein families towards the biology-driven identification of innovative targets and biological pathways.

  9. Innovative approaches to regenerate teeth by tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Steindorff, Marina M; Lehl, Helena; Winkel, Andreas; Stiesch, Meike

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, scientists in almost every medical sector moved the focus to tissue transplantation and stem cell-based therapies for organ and tissue regeneration. In dentistry, it is of great interest in this regard to restore natural teeth with the help of stem cell-based regeneration of soft tissues and hard tooth structures. Many studies have been published in which structures resembling teeth were constructed using stem cells. In most of these studies, carrier materials (scaffolds) were used, which were colonized with cells and then implanted into an animal. Apart from this, scaffold-free approaches based on cell aggregation have also been published. Although animal studies on tooth regeneration have been very promising, much more research is needed until this can be applied in human.

  10. Defining Innovation: Using Soft Systems Methodology to Approach the Complexity of Innovation in Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Glenda

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores what educational technologists in one South African Institution consider innovation to be. Ten educational technologists in various faculties across the university were interviewed and asked to define and answer questions about innovation. Their answers were coded and the results of the overlaps in coding have been assimilated…

  11. 77 FR 40866 - Applications for New Awards; Innovative Approaches to Literacy Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... the literacy skills of children and students by one or more of the following-- (i) promoting early... Applications for New Awards; Innovative Approaches to Literacy Program AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice. Overview Information: Innovative Approaches to...

  12. Targeted gene repair: the ups and downs of a promising gene therapy approach.

    PubMed

    de Semir, David; Aran, Josep M

    2006-08-01

    As a novel form of molecular medicine based on direct actions over the genes, targeted gene repair has raised consideration recently above classical gene therapy strategies based on genetic augmentation or complementation. Targeted gene repair relies on the local induction of the cell's endogenous DNA repair mechanisms to attain a therapeutic gene conversion event within the genome of the diseased cell. Successful repair has been achieved both in vitro and in vivo with a variety of corrective molecules ranging from oligonucleotides (chimeraplasts, modified single-stranded oligonucleotides, triplex-forming oligonucleotides), to small DNA fragments (small fragment homologous replacement (SFHR)), and even viral vectors (AAV-based). However, controversy on the consistency and lack of reproducibility of early experiments regarding frequencies and persistence of targeted gene repair, particularly for chimeraplasty, has flecked the field. Nevertheless, several hurdles such as inefficient nuclear uptake of the corrective molecules, and misleading assessment of targeted repair frequencies have been identified and are being addressed. One of the key bottlenecks for exploiting the overall potential of the different targeted gene repair modalities is the lack of a detailed knowledge of their mechanisms of action at the molecular level. Several studies are now focusing on the assessment of the specific repair pathway(s) involved (homologous recombination, mismatch repair, etc.), devising additional strategies to increase their activity (using chemotherapeutic drugs, chimeric nucleases, etc.), and assessing the influence of the cell cycle in the regulation of the repair process. Until therapeutic correction frequencies for single gene disorders are reached both in cellular and animal models, precision and undesired side effects of this promising gene therapy approach will not be thoroughly evaluated.

  13. SPICE SDM: Innovative Approaches for Linear Motion and Heat Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Relecom, Ken; Larcheveque, Cyril; Constant, Joël; Autissier, Nordahl; Pornin, Arnaud; Martini, Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    The SPICE Door Mechanism (SDM) is foreseen to be flown on Solar Orbiter, to close the SPICE instrument aperture and shield it from the solar flux and from contamination. The environment it is exposed to is particularly extreme, as the Solar Orbiter mission will reach a distance of 0.28 AU (41’887’403.8 km) to the Sun, and the SPICE instrument will be looking directly at it. Because of its position at the far end of a cantilevered structure, the SDM is also exposed to amplified launch loads and must remain very light and compact. The cleanliness constraints are also very tight, as the mechanism is positioned directly at the aperture of the SPICE spectrometer.To tackle these issues, two novelties were introduced on the SPICE Door Mechanism:- A specifically engineered reflective coating toprotect the Aluminium door from the heat generatedby the solar flux- The use of miniature profile rail type linearbearings to support the door during launch andallow its motion during the missionThis paper details the design and verification approach applied for these two innovations and for the mechanism as a whole, as well as the results and findings from the testing carried out on the Bread Board, Qualification and Flight models.

  14. Restoring sexual function in prostate cancer patients: an innovative approach.

    PubMed

    Gray, Ross E; Klotz, Laurence H

    2004-06-01

    It has been extremely difficult for men with prostate cancer to obtain reasonable estimates of the likelihood of remaining potent after first line therapy, partly because of differences in defining potency. If, as in more recent studies, the definition requires that men are usually (not just occasionally) able to get and sustain an erection, then the picture is not encouraging. Additional strategies are needed to help men sustain sexual activity. In this paper we draw on the experiences of a rather remarkable prostate cancer patient to help consider the possibilities for a different kind of intervention for men with ED--use of a strap-on dildo (an external prosthetic penis fastened by a harness around the hips). The dildo is a simple and inexpensive strategy for dealing with impotence and in certain circumstances it can work better than more established medical treatments for ED. Use of a dildo potentially removes the fear of erectile failure, allows for increased stimulation of the glans, facilitates full-body contact between partners, and offers potential satisfaction to one's partner. Urologists (and other health professionals) are encouraged to explore dildos as an option during discussions with patients about sexual rehabilitation. The potential benefits are discussed of specialty sexuality clinics that facilitate introduction of innovative approaches like dildos.

  15. Glass recycling in cement production--an innovative approach.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guohua; Lee, Harry; Young, King Lun; Yue, Po Lock; Wong, Adolf; Tao, Thomas; Choi, Ka Keung

    2002-01-01

    An innovative approach of using waste glass in cement production was proposed and tested in a laboratory and cement production plant. The laboratory characterization of 32 types of glass show that the chemical composition of glass does not vary significantly with its color or origin but depends on its application. The alkali content of glass, a major concern for cement production varies from 0 to 22%. For the glass bottles mainly found in Hong Kong waste glasses, the alkali content (Na2O) ranges from 10 to 19% with an average around 15%. There is no significant change of the SO2 content in the gas exhaust of the rotary kiln when about 1.8 t/h of glass bottles were loaded along with the 280-290 t/h raw materials. The content of NOx, mainly depends on the temperature of the kiln, does not show significant change either. The SO3 content of the clinker is comparable with that obtained without the loading of glass. The alkaline content shows a slight increase but still within three times the standard deviation obtained from the statistical data of the past year. The detailed analysis of the quality of the cement product shows that there is not any significant impact of glass for the feeding rate tested.

  16. Synergism in education: An innovative approach to practice teaching supervision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mereni, Joseph Ibewuike

    1985-12-01

    The problem of effective teacher education is central to the pressing needs of Nigerian education at all levels. Scholars have identified many of them, including the general problems relating to the supervision, guidance, and evaluation of student-practice teaching. The purpose of this essay is briefly to describe an innovative approach undertaken by the Imo State School Board (Nigeria), in collaboration with the Ministry of Education, to resolve some of the problems identified. The underlying assumption is that the student teachers' internship is best conducted with closer collaboration, supervision, and guidance of the teachers. The study employed a theoretical framework synergism in education which integrated earlier studies by both American and Nigerian scholars. The concept of synergism has been defined as the combined healthy action of all `elements' of a system. Application of the theory showed how the State Ministry of Education, the State School Board, the Teacher Training Colleges and the Nigeria Union of Teachers of Imo State collectively resolved in 1980 the problems of inadequate supervisory personnel, high cost of student-teaching internship, and poor student assessment and evaluation. With the synergetic supervisory process, the functions of planning, changing, and decision-making about instructional improvement are shared, with a certain degree of power equalization, among the student teachers, supervisors, co-operating teachers, and the school executives.

  17. An innovative approach to teaching bioethics in management of healthcare.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrova-Yankulovska, Silviya

    2016-03-01

    Bioethical courses were introduced in the curricula in medical universities in Bulgaria in 1990s. In the beginning, the courses were mainly theoretical, and systematic case analyses and discussions of movies were introduced later on. The benefits of using films to teach ethics have been previously analyzed in the literature; however, to our knowledge such studies in Bulgaria are yet lacking. The aim of this study was to survey the opinions of students and analyze the results from the application of movies in bioethics teaching in a medical university in the north of Bulgaria. A survey was carried out among 92 students in the management of healthcare. Two movies were used, and separate protocols for film discussion were developed. The study was conducted anonymously and with students' free informed consent. The students distinguished in total 21 different dilemmas and concepts in the first movie. The ethical dilemmas were classified into five groups: general ethical issues, deontological issues, special ethical issues, principles of bioethics, and theories of ethics. The second movie focused students' attention on the issues of death and dying. In total, 18 elements of palliative care were described by the students. The range of different categories was a positive indicator of an increased ethical sensitivity. The students evaluated the movies' discussions as a generally positive educational approach. They perceived the experience as contributing to their better understanding of bioethical issues. The innovative approach was well accepted by the students. The introduction of movies in the courses of bioethics had the potential to provide vivid illustrations of bioethical issues and to contribute to the exploration of specific theses and arguments. The presentation and discussion should be preceded by accumulation of theoretical knowledge. The future of effective bioethics education lays in the interactive involvement of students. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. A new approach to comparing problem solving, flexibility and innovation

    PubMed Central

    Auersperg, Alice M.I.; Gajdon, Gyula K.; von Bayern, Auguste M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Comparative cognition aims at unfolding the cognitive processes underlying animal behavior and their evolution, and is concerned with testing hypotheses about the evolution of the brain and intelligence in general. It is a developing field still challenged by conceptual and methodological issues. Systematic cross-species comparisons of cognitive abilities, taking both phylogeny and ecology into account are still scarce. One major reason for this is that it is very hard to find universally applicable paradigms that can be used to investigate the same cognitive ability or ‘general intelligence’ in several species. Many comparative paradigms have not paid sufficient attention to interspecific differences in anatomical, behavioral and perceptual features, besides psychological variables such as motivation, attentiveness or neophobia, thus potentially producing misrepresentative results. A new stance for future comparative research may be to establish behavioral and psychological profiles prior or alongside to comparing specific cognitive skills across species. Potentially revealing profiles could be obtained from examining species differences in how novel experimental (extractive foraging) tasks are explored and approached, how solutions are discovered and which ones are preferred, how flexibly multiple solutions are used and how much individual variation occurs, before proceeding to more detailed tests. Such new comparative approach is the Multi-Access-Box. It presents the animal with a novel problem that can be solved in several ways thus offering the possibility to examine species differences in all the above, and extract behavioral and perceptual determinants of their performance. Simultaneously, it is a suitable paradigm to collect comparative data about flexibility, innovativeness and problem solving ability, i.e., theoretical covariates of ‘general intelligence’, in a standardized manner. PMID:22808317

  19. PNAUM: integrated approach to Pharmaceutical Services, Science, Technology and Innovation.

    PubMed

    Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Costa, Karen Sarmento; Nascimento, José Miguel do; Soeiro, Orlando Mário; Mengue, Sotero Serrate; Motta, Márcia Luz da; Carvalho, Antônio Carlos Campos de

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes the development process of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines) based on an integrated approach to pharmaceutical services, science, technology and innovation. It starts by contextualizing health and development in Brazil and features elements of the National Policy for Science, Technology and Innovation in Health in Brazil and the National Policy for Pharmaceutical Services. On presenting pharmaceutical policy guidelines, it stresses the lack of nationwide data. This survey, commissioned by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, has two components: household survey and evaluation of pharmaceutical services in primary care. The findings point to perspectives that represent, besides the enhancement of public policy for pharmaceutical services and public health, results of government action aimed at developing the economic and industrial health care complex to improve the health conditions of the Brazilian population. RESUMO O artigo apresenta o processo de construção da Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamento a partir de uma concepção integradora da Assistência Farmacêutica, Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação. Inicia-se contextualizando a saúde e o desenvolvimento no País e apresenta elementos da Política Nacional de Ciência Tecnologia e Inovação em Saúde no Brasil e da Política Nacional de Assistência Farmacêutica. Ao apresentar as diretrizes das Políticas Farmacêuticas, destaca-se a carência de dados de abrangência nacional. A presente pesquisa, encomendada pelo Ministério da Saúde, foi estruturada em dois componentes: inquérito domiciliar e avaliação dos serviços de assistência farmacêutica na atenção básica. As perspectivas dos resultados representam, além do incremento das políticas públicas farmacêuticas e de saúde p

  20. Innovators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEA Today, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes various innovations that have been developed to enhance education. These innovations include: helping educators help at-risk students succeed; promoting high school journalism; ensuring quality online learning experiences; developing a student performing group that uses theater to address social issues; and having students design their…

  1. INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    North Carolina Central University (NCCU) recently began an innovative human exposure research program in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory in Research Triangle Park, NC. In this project, researchers will examine ...

  2. INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    North Carolina Central University (NCCU) recently began an innovative human exposure research program in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory in Research Triangle Park, NC. In this project, researchers will examine ...

  3. Innovative design approaches for large wind turbine blades : final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-05-01

    The goal of the Blade System Design Study (BSDS) was investigation and evaluation of design and manufacturing issues for wind turbine blades in the one to ten megawatt size range. A series of analysis tasks were completed in support of the design effort. We began with a parametric scaling study to assess blade structure using current technology. This was followed by an economic study of the cost to manufacture, transport and install large blades. Subsequently we identified several innovative design approaches that showed potential for overcoming fundamental physical and manufacturing constraints. The final stage of the project was used to develop several preliminary 50m blade designs. The key design impacts identified in this study are: (1) blade cross-sections, (2) alternative materials, (3) IEC design class, and (4) root attachment. The results show that thick blade cross-sections can provide a large reduction in blade weight, while maintaining high aerodynamic performance. Increasing blade thickness for inboard sections is a key method for improving structural efficiency and reducing blade weight. Carbon/glass hybrid blades were found to provide good improvements in blade weight, stiffness, and deflection when used in the main structural elements of the blade. The addition of carbon resulted in modest cost increases and provided significant benefits, particularly with respect to deflection. The change in design loads between IEC classes is quite significant. Optimized blades should be designed for each IEC design class. A significant portion of blade weight is related to the root buildup and metal hardware for typical root attachment designs. The results show that increasing the number of blade fasteners has a positive effect on total weight, because it reduces the required root laminate thickness.

  4. Technology Transfer: A Think Tank Approach to Managing Innovation in the Public Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    to managing change imposed by Naval procedural require- and managing innovative people . ments and directives. Topics discussed My thought evolution was...Technology Transfer: A Think Tank Approach to Managing Innovation in the Public Sector within the Forest Service with food for the concept " people in an...acquisition contracts with- Bechtel Corporation for his skill in out exceeding budget, for his efficient managing innovative people and managing

  5. Cancer drug discovery: recent innovative approaches to tumor modeling.

    PubMed

    Lovitt, Carrie J; Shelper, Todd B; Avery, Vicky M

    2016-09-01

    Cell culture models have been at the heart of anti-cancer drug discovery programs for over half a century. Advancements in cell culture techniques have seen the rapid evolution of more complex in vitro cell culture models investigated for use in drug discovery. Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture research has become a strong focal point, as this technique permits the recapitulation of the tumor microenvironment. Biologically relevant 3D cellular models have demonstrated significant promise in advancing cancer drug discovery, and will continue to play an increasing role in the future. In this review, recent advances in 3D cell culture techniques and their application in tumor modeling and anti-cancer drug discovery programs are discussed. The topics include selection of cancer cells, 3D cell culture assays (associated endpoint measurements and analysis), 3D microfluidic systems and 3D bio-printing. Although advanced cancer cell culture models and techniques are becoming commonplace in many research groups, the use of these approaches has yet to be fully embraced in anti-cancer drug applications. Furthermore, limitations associated with analyzing information-rich biological data remain unaddressed.

  6. Varying goals and approaches of innovation centers in academic health systems: a semistructured qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Speck, Rebecca M; Weisberg, Robert W; Fleisher, Lee A

    2015-08-01

    The medical community has seen a high level of interest in innovation over recent years. In response, health systems and medical centers have established innovation offices or centers, but their processes and practices for fostering innovation are not well understood. This information could help leaders in the medical community discern and develop criteria for assessing the tools and approaches most effective in fostering innovation. The authors outlined a framework for examining factors involved when health systems attempt to foster innovation, and used the framework to design a semistructured qualitative interview study to collect information in 2012 and 2013 about how a purposive sample of three health systems have implemented strategies for fostering and supporting innovation. All interview sites carried out some form of in-house innovation strategy, and experienced institution-level barriers to innovation. A common barrier was having the right resources and infrastructure to support the transition from prototype and pilot to operations. All sites had funding support from senior leadership, but success metrics took different forms. This study demonstrated the usefulness of the framework for conceptualizing innovation in medicine and suggests the potential of collecting data to support the assessment of innovation programs. In the three centers studied, the authors found a range of strategies employed to foster innovation and a range of criteria used to assess success of the program. Further study should examine a larger sample of institutions and be carried out over a longer time frame to allow for assessment of success.

  7. The Promise and Limitations of Reading Instruction in the Mainstream: The Need for a Multilevel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dion, Eric; Morgan, Paul L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how increasingly intensive, multilevel interventions can be used to ensure the increase in number of children who learn to read. We first review the promise and limitations of empirically validated best practices for mainstream classrooms. We then discuss results from a recent multilevel intervention…

  8. Family-Based Treatment for Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa: A Promising Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grange, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Despite the fact that anorexia nervosa is a debilitating disorder with serious psychological and medical sequelae, few psychological treatments have been studied. Of these, interventions that involve the parents of the adolescent have proved to be most promising. This is especially true for those cases with a short duration of illness (less than 3…

  9. Promising Approaches to Engaging Families and Building Strengths in Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Salamone, Frank J.; Brooks, Jennifer L.; Colby, Sarah A.

    2004-01-01

    In order to improve post-discharge outcomes for children, it has been proposed that residential treatment centers place a greater emphasis on engaging families and building on strengths of the youths in treatment. This review presents the theoretical and empirical support for several promising strategies for engaging families, such as behavioral…

  10. Family-Based Treatment for Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa: A Promising Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grange, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Despite the fact that anorexia nervosa is a debilitating disorder with serious psychological and medical sequelae, few psychological treatments have been studied. Of these, interventions that involve the parents of the adolescent have proved to be most promising. This is especially true for those cases with a short duration of illness (less than 3…

  11. Innovative Approaches for Urban Watershed Wet-Weather Flow Management and Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    The “Innovative Approaches for Urban Watershed Wet-Weather Flow Management and Control: State of the Technology” project investigated a range of innovative technology and management strategies emerging outside the normal realm of business within the continental United States, fo...

  12. Innovative Approaches for Urban Watershed Wet-Weather Flow Management and Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    The “Innovative Approaches for Urban Watershed Wet-Weather Flow Management and Control: State of the Technology” project investigated a range of innovative technology and management strategies emerging outside the normal realm of business within the continental United States, fo...

  13. New Ways To Buy: School Districts Explore Innovative Approaches to Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Tak Cheung

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 145 schools found that all had experimented with innovative purchasing approaches. Many used electronic methods, such as credit-card, fast-track requisition (most popular), bidding and purchasing, and data interchange. Results suggest that nonelectronic innovations (just-in-time, cooperative, direct, and consortium leverage purchasing)…

  14. Personal Leadership in Practice: A Critical Approach to Instructional Design Innovation Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbaugh, Marcia L.

    2013-01-01

    An argument is made in this article for a link between leadership and innovation, when innovation is an outcome of the work approaches and practices that underpin an educational technologist's academic course designs. The practice of instructional design (ID) is continually being challenged to rethink its conceptualization of academic course…

  15. 77 FR 43277 - Applications for New Awards; Innovative Approaches to Literacy Program (CFDA 84.215G); Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... Applications for New Awards; Innovative Approaches to Literacy Program (CFDA 84.215G); Correction AGENCY... applications for new awards using fiscal year (FY) 2012 funds for the Innovative Approaches to Literacy Program... be able to make timely grant awards for the Innovative Approaches to Literacy Program for FY 2012. We...

  16. [Health care innovation from a territorial perspective: a call for a new approach].

    PubMed

    Costa, Laís Silveira; Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Maldonado, José

    2012-12-01

    Innovation plays an increasingly important role in health care, partly because it is responsible for a significant share of national investment in research and development, and partly because of its industrial and service provision base, which provides a conduit to future technology. The relationship between health care and development is also strengthened as a result of the leading role of health care in generating innovation. Nevertheless, Brazil's health care production base is persistently weak, hindering both universal provision of health care services and international competitiveness. This article, based on the theoretical framework of Political Economy and innovation systems, has sought to identify variables in subnational contexts that influence the dynamic of innovation generation in health care. To this end, the theoretical approach used lies on the assumption that innovation is a contextualized social process and that the production base in healthcare will remain weak if new variables involved in the dynamic of innovation are not taken into account.

  17. Innovative Approaches to Curriculum Design in the Study Abroad Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Deborah J., Ed.

    Recommendations for designing a study abroad curriculum are offered to program directors, teachers, and study abroad leaders. The 13 essays and their authors are: "Study Abroad and the Liberal Arts: The Canon in Disarray" (Michael Kline); "Preparing for Study Abroad: Innovative and Traditional Library Resources" (Carolyn…

  18. I-WALK: An Innovative Approach to Community Walkability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeger, Christopher J.; Lillehoj, Catherine J.; Jensen, Alan D.; Wilson, Suzy; Levinson, Lydia R.

    2014-01-01

    One way of combating rising obesity rates and decreasing physical activity levels among children is to promote active transportation to and from schools. The award-winning I-WALK program provides a comprehensive framework for addressing community walkability and related infrastructure. The program uses a unique and innovative methodology that…

  19. A Systemic Approach to Creating and Implementing Curricular Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Carol D.; Acker-Hocevar, Michele; Laible, Julie C.

    This study examined university curricular reform, explaining how teacher education programs must create innovative curricular redesign to promote the development of students' critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making skills. The study highlighted a school of education in the process of curriculum redesign, using observation,…

  20. Innovative Approaches to Curriculum Design in the Study Abroad Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Deborah J., Ed.

    Recommendations for designing a study abroad curriculum are offered to program directors, teachers, and study abroad leaders. The 13 essays and their authors are: "Study Abroad and the Liberal Arts: The Canon in Disarray" (Michael Kline); "Preparing for Study Abroad: Innovative and Traditional Library Resources" (Carolyn…

  1. I-WALK: An Innovative Approach to Community Walkability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeger, Christopher J.; Lillehoj, Catherine J.; Jensen, Alan D.; Wilson, Suzy; Levinson, Lydia R.

    2014-01-01

    One way of combating rising obesity rates and decreasing physical activity levels among children is to promote active transportation to and from schools. The award-winning I-WALK program provides a comprehensive framework for addressing community walkability and related infrastructure. The program uses a unique and innovative methodology that…

  2. Innovative approaches for improving maternal and newborn health--A landscape analysis.

    PubMed

    Lunze, Karsten; Higgins-Steele, Ariel; Simen-Kapeu, Aline; Vesel, Linda; Kim, Julia; Dickson, Kim

    2015-12-17

    Essential interventions can improve maternal and newborn health (MNH) outcomes in low- and middle-income countries, but their implementation has been challenging. Innovative MNH approaches have the potential to accelerate progress and to lead to better health outcomes for women and newborns, but their added value to health systems remains incompletely understood. This study's aim was to analyze the landscape of innovative MNH approaches and related published evidence. Systematic literature review and descriptive analysis based on the MNH continuum of care framework and the World Health Organization health system building blocks, analyzing the range and nature of currently published MNH approaches that are considered innovative. We used 11 databases (MedLine, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane, Popline, BLDS, ELDIS, 3ie, CAB direct, WHO Global Health Library and WHOLIS) as data source and extracted data according to our study protocol. Most innovative approaches in MNH are iterations of existing interventions, modified for contexts in which they had not been applied previously. Many aim at the direct organization and delivery of maternal and newborn health services or are primarily health workforce interventions. Innovative approaches also include health technologies, interventions based on community ownership and participation, and novel models of financing and policy making. Rigorous randomized trials to assess innovative MNH approaches are rare; most evaluations are smaller pilot studies. Few studies assessed intervention effects on health outcomes or focused on equity in health care delivery. Future implementation and evaluation efforts need to assess innovations' effects on health outcomes and provide evidence on potential for scale-up, considering cost, feasibility, appropriateness, and acceptability. Measuring equity is an important aspect to identify and target population groups at risk of service inequity. Innovative MNH interventions will need innovative

  3. Investigating healthcare IT innovations: a "conceptual blending" approach.

    PubMed

    Cranfield, Steven; Hendy, Jane; Reeves, Barnaby; Hutchings, Andrew; Collin, Simon; Fulop, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to better understand how and why adoption and implementation of healthcare IT innovations occur. The authors examine two IT applications, computerised physician order entry (CPOE) and picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) at the meso and micro levels, within the context of the National Programme for IT in the English National Health Service (NHS). To analyse these multi-level dynamics, the authors blend Rogers' diffusion of innovations theory (DoIT) with Webster's sociological critique of technological innovation in medicine and healthcare systems to illuminate a wider range of interacting factors. Qualitative data collected between 2004 and 2006 uses semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 72 stakeholders across four English NHS hospital trusts. Overall, PACS was more successfully implemented (fully or partially in three out of four trusts) than CPOE (implemented in one trust only). Factors such as perceived benefit to users and attributes of the application - in particular speed, ease of use, reliability and flexibility and levels of readiness - were highly relevant but their influence was modulated through interaction with complex structural and relational issues. Results reveal that combining contextual system level theories with DoIT increases understanding of real-life processes underpinning implementation of IT innovations within healthcare. They also highlight important drivers affecting success of implementation, including socio-political factors, the social body of practice and degree of "co-construction" between designers and end-users. The originality of the study partly rests on its methodological innovativeness and its value on critical insights afforded into understanding complex IT implementation programmes.

  4. Probabilistic seasonal Forecasts to deterministic Farm Leve Decisions: Innovative Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change and vulnerability are major challenges in ensuring household food security. Climate information services have the potential to cushion rural households from extreme climate risks. However, most the probabilistic nature of climate information products is not easily understood by majority of smallholder farmers. Despite the probabilistic nature, climate information have proved to be a valuable climate risk adaptation strategy at the farm level. This calls for innovative ways to help farmers understand and apply climate information services to inform their farm level decisions. The study endeavored to co-design and test appropriate innovation systems for climate information services uptake and scale up necessary for achieving climate risk development. In addition it also determined the conditions necessary to support the effective performance of the proposed innovation system. Data and information sources included systematic literature review, secondary sources, government statistics, focused group discussions, household surveys and semi-structured interviews. Data wasanalyzed using both quantitative and qualitative data analysis techniques. Quantitative data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Qualitative data was analyzed using qualitative techniques, which involved establishing the categories and themes, relationships/patterns and conclusions in line with the study objectives. Sustainable livelihood, reduced household poverty and climate change resilience were the impact that resulted from the study.

  5. Overview of retinal differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells: A promising approach for retinal cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Hossein; Amirpour, Noushin; Razavi, Shahnaz; Esfandiari, Ebrahim; Zavar, Reihaneh

    2017-03-01

    Retinal disease caused by retinal cell apoptosis leads to irreversible vision loss. Stem cell investigation efforts have been made to solve and cure retinal disorders. There are several sources of stem cells which have been used in these experiments. Numerous studies demonstrated that transplanted stem cells can migrate into and integrate in different layers of retina. Among these, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were considered a promising source for cell therapy. Here, we review the literature assessing the potential of MSCs to differentiate into retinal cells in vivo and in vitro as well as their clinical application. However, more investigation is required to define the protocols that optimize stem cell differentiation and their functional integration in the retina.

  6. Neuraminidase inhibitor R-125489 - A promising drug for treating influenza virus: Steered molecular dynamics approach

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, Binh Khanh; Li, Mai Suan

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We study binding affinity of R-125489 and its prodrug CS-8958 to neuraminidase of pathogenic influenza viruses by molecular dynamics simulations. {yields} It is shown that, in agreement with experiments, R-125489 binds to neuraminidase more tightly than CS-8958. {yields} We predict that R-125489 can be used to treat not only wild-type but also tamiflu-resistant N294S, H274Y variants of A/H5N1 virus. {yields} The high correlation between theoretical and experimental data implies that SMD is a very promising tool for drug design. -- Abstract: Two neuraminidase inhibitors, oseltamivir and zanamivir, are important drug treatments for influenza. Oseltamivir-resistant mutants of the influenza virus A/H1N1 and A/H5N1 have emerged, necessitating the development of new long-acting antiviral agents. One such agent is a new neuraminidase inhibitor R-125489 and its prodrug CS-8958. An atomic level understanding of the nature of this antiviral agents binding is still missing. We address this gap in our knowledge by applying steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations to different subtypes of seasonal and highly pathogenic influenza viruses. We show that, in agreement with experiments, R-125489 binds to neuraminidase more tightly than CS-8958. Based on results obtained by SMD and the molecular mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann surface area method, we predict that R-125489 can be used to treat not only wild-type but also tamiflu-resistant N294S, H274Y variants of A/H5N1 virus as its binding affinity does not vary much across these systems. The high correlation level between theoretically determined rupture forces and experimental data on binding energies for the large number of systems studied here implies that SMD is a promising tool for drug design.

  7. Thin-dielectric-layer engineering for 3D nanostructure integration using an innovative planarization approach.

    PubMed

    Guerfi, Y; Doucet, J B; Larrieu, G

    2015-10-23

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures are emerging as promising building blocks for a large spectrum of applications. One critical issue in integration regards mastering the thin, flat, and chemically stable insulating layer that must be implemented on the nanostructure network in order to build striking nano-architectures. In this letter, we report an innovative method for nanoscale planarization on 3D nanostructures by using hydrogen silesquioxane as a spin-on-glass (SOG) dielectric material. To decouple the thickness of the final layer from the height of the nanostructure, we propose to embed the nanowire network in the insulator layer by exploiting the planarizing properties of the SOG approach. To achieve the desired dielectric thickness, the structure is chemically etched back with a highly diluted solution to control the etch rate precisely. The roughness of the top surface was less than 2 nm. There were no surface defects and the planarity was excellent, even in the vicinity of the nanowires. This newly developed process was used to realize a multilevel stack architecture with sub-deca-nanometer-range layer thickness.

  8. Eco-innovative design approach: Integrating quality and environmental aspects in prioritizing and solving engineering problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakroun, Mahmoud; Gogu, Grigore; Pacaud, Thomas; Thirion, François

    2014-09-01

    This study proposes an eco-innovative design process taking into consideration quality and environmental aspects in prioritizing and solving technical engineering problems. This approach provides a synergy between the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the nonquality matrix, the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ), morphological analysis and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). In the sequence of these tools, LCA assesses the environmental impacts generated by the system. Then, for a better consideration of environmental aspects, a new tool is developed, the non-quality matrix, which defines the problem to be solved first from an environmental point of view. The TRIZ method allows the generation of new concepts and contradiction resolution. Then, the morphological analysis offers the possibility of extending the search space of solutions in a design problem in a systematic way. Finally, the AHP identifies the promising solution(s) by providing a clear logic for the choice made. Their usefulness has been demonstrated through their application to a case study involving a centrifugal spreader with spinning discs.

  9. Thin-dielectric-layer engineering for 3D nanostructure integration using an innovative planarization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerfi, Y.; Doucet, J. B.; Larrieu, G.

    2015-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures are emerging as promising building blocks for a large spectrum of applications. One critical issue in integration regards mastering the thin, flat, and chemically stable insulating layer that must be implemented on the nanostructure network in order to build striking nano-architectures. In this letter, we report an innovative method for nanoscale planarization on 3D nanostructures by using hydrogen silesquioxane as a spin-on-glass (SOG) dielectric material. To decouple the thickness of the final layer from the height of the nanostructure, we propose to embed the nanowire network in the insulator layer by exploiting the planarizing properties of the SOG approach. To achieve the desired dielectric thickness, the structure is chemically etched back with a highly diluted solution to control the etch rate precisely. The roughness of the top surface was less than 2 nm. There were no surface defects and the planarity was excellent, even in the vicinity of the nanowires. This newly developed process was used to realize a multilevel stack architecture with sub-deca-nanometer-range layer thickness.

  10. Reducing Drug Use in America: A Perspective, A Strategy, and Some Promising Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.

    After a brief overview of the size and nature of illicit drug use observed among American adolescents and young adults over the past 20 years, this paper argues that the nation's reliance on supply reduction as its primary strategy for controlling drug abuse has been unsuccessful. Of the two approaches to demand reduction--coercive techniques…

  11. The Promise of Dynamic Systems Approaches for an Integrated Account of Human Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Marc D.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that dynamic systems approaches may provide an explanatory framework based on general scientific principles for developmental psychology, using principles of self-organization to explain how novel forms emerge without predetermination and become increasingly complex with development. Contends that self-organization provides a single…

  12. The promise of the state space approach to time series analysis for nursing research.

    PubMed

    Levy, Janet A; Elser, Heather E; Knobel, Robin B

    2012-01-01

    Nursing research, particularly related to physiological development, often depends on the collection of time series data. The state space approach to time series analysis has great potential to answer exploratory questions relevant to physiological development but has not been used extensively in nursing. The aim of the study was to introduce the state space approach to time series analysis and demonstrate potential applicability to neonatal monitoring and physiology. We present a set of univariate state space models; each one describing a process that generates a variable of interest over time. Each model is presented algebraically and a realization of the process is presented graphically from simulated data. This is followed by a discussion of how the model has been or may be used in two nursing projects on neonatal physiological development. The defining feature of the state space approach is the decomposition of the series into components that are functions of time; specifically, slowly varying level, faster varying periodic, and irregular components. State space models potentially simulate developmental processes where a phenomenon emerges and disappears before stabilizing, where the periodic component may become more regular with time, or where the developmental trajectory of a phenomenon is irregular. The ultimate contribution of this approach to nursing science will require close collaboration and cross-disciplinary education between nurses and statisticians.

  13. Progressive Mastery through Deliberate Practice: A Promising Approach for Improving Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panero, Nell Scharff

    2016-01-01

    This study is an analysis of the curriculum used to teach writing at one US high school in which outcomes for students were extremely strong. The study surfaces what was different in the approach used from what is typically understood and promoted as best practice in the teaching of writing. It does so in order to surface what elements of writing…

  14. A Phenomenological Approach to Experiences with Technology: Current State, Promise, and Future Directions for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cilesiz, Sebnem

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I conceptualize experiences with technology as an object of study for educational technology research and propose phenomenology as a highly suitable method for studying this construct. I begin by reviewing existing research focusing on the construct of experiences with technology and the approaches utilized for its study. To augment…

  15. Promise for Enhancing Children's Reading Attitudes through Peer Reading: A Mixed Method Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Youngju

    2014-01-01

    Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) was implemented for supplementary reading classes in a Korean elementary school. The treatment group children were exposed to PALS during 20 min sessions, 4 times a week, for 8 weeks. The impacts of PALS were investigated in 3 aspects using a mixed-methods approach: improvement in reading attitudes, reading…

  16. Progressive Mastery through Deliberate Practice: A Promising Approach for Improving Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panero, Nell Scharff

    2016-01-01

    This study is an analysis of the curriculum used to teach writing at one US high school in which outcomes for students were extremely strong. The study surfaces what was different in the approach used from what is typically understood and promoted as best practice in the teaching of writing. It does so in order to surface what elements of writing…

  17. A New Look at Multiple Goal Pursuit: The Promise of a Person-Centered Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormington, Stephanie Virgine; Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The current study reviewed and synthesized studies employing a person-centered approach to studying achievement goals. Towards this end, a common labeling scheme was developed for goal profiles. Ten profile types were identified across studies and compared via meta-analytic techniques in terms of academic motivation, social/emotional well-being,…

  18. A Promising Approach to Addressing America's Biggest Challenges. Needle-Moving Community Collaboratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolin, Michele; Schmitz, Paul; Seldon, Willa

    2012-01-01

    Communities face powerful challenges--a high-school dropout epidemic, youth unemployment, teen pregnancy--that require powerful solutions. In a climate of increasingly constrained resources, those solutions must help communities to achieve more with less. A new kind of community collaborative--an approach that aspires to significant,…

  19. Promise for Enhancing Children's Reading Attitudes through Peer Reading: A Mixed Method Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Youngju

    2014-01-01

    Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) was implemented for supplementary reading classes in a Korean elementary school. The treatment group children were exposed to PALS during 20 min sessions, 4 times a week, for 8 weeks. The impacts of PALS were investigated in 3 aspects using a mixed-methods approach: improvement in reading attitudes, reading…

  20. Microalgal biofactories: a promising approach towards sustainable omega-3 fatty acid production.

    PubMed

    Adarme-Vega, T Catalina; Lim, David K Y; Timmins, Matthew; Vernen, Felicitas; Li, Yan; Schenk, Peer M

    2012-07-25

    Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) provide significant health benefits and this has led to an increased consumption as dietary supplements. Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA are found in animals, transgenic plants, fungi and many microorganisms but are typically extracted from fatty fish, putting additional pressures on global fish stocks. As primary producers, many marine microalgae are rich in EPA (C20:5) and DHA (C22:6) and present a promising source of omega-3 fatty acids. Several heterotrophic microalgae have been used as biofactories for omega-3 fatty acids commercially, but a strong interest in autotrophic microalgae has emerged in recent years as microalgae are being developed as biofuel crops. This paper provides an overview of microalgal biotechnology and production platforms for the development of omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. It refers to implications in current biotechnological uses of microalgae as aquaculture feed and future biofuel crops and explores potential applications of metabolic engineering and selective breeding to accumulate large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids in autotrophic microalgae.

  1. Treatment of recalcitrant warts with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin: a promising new approach.

    PubMed

    Nofal, Ahmad; Yosef, Ayman; Salah, Eman

    2013-01-01

    Recalcitrant warts represent a therapeutic challenge for both patients and physicians. Recently, intralesional immunotherapy by different antigens has been proved effective in the treatment of different types of warts. We describe a case of a 48-year-old male who presented with troublesome huge common wart on the left little toe of 5 years duration and not responding to many lines of therapy. Nearby and distant common and plantar warts have also been observed. Intralesional Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine was injected into the huge wart of the little toe at 2-week intervals for five sessions. Follow-up was made every month for 6 months. A gradual decrease in the size of the injected wart was observed until reaching complete clearance by the end of the fifth session. Untreated nearby common and distant warts disappeared completely by the end of the third session. BCG injection was associated with erythema and edema with or without pustules, at the site of injection. A flu-like illness that rapidly subsided within 3 days was also observed with each injection. No recurrence was observed after the 6-month follow-up period. Intralesional immunotherapy with BCG vaccine seems to be a promising effective and safe treatment modality for recalcitrant warts.

  2. Combination of acamprosate and baclofen as a promising therapeutic approach for Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Hajj, Rodolphe; Milet, Aude; Toulorge, Damien; Cholet, Nathalie; Laffaire, Julien; Foucquier, Julie; Robelet, Sandra; Mitry, Richard; Guedj, Mickael; Nabirotchkin, Serguei; Chumakov, Ilya; Cohen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterised by the loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons but which involves the loss of additional neurotransmitter pathways. Mono- or polytherapeutic interventions in PD patients have declining efficacy long-term and no influence on disease progression. The systematic analysis of available genetic and functional data as well as the substantial overlap between Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and PD features led us to repurpose and explore the effectiveness of a combination therapy (ABC) with two drugs – acamprosate and baclofen – that was already effective in AD animal models, for the treatment of PD. We showed in vitro that ABC strongly and synergistically protected neuronal cells from oxidative stress in the oxygen and glucose deprivation model, as well as dopaminergic neurons from cell death in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model. Furthermore, we showed that ABC normalised altered motor symptoms in vivo in 6-OHDA-treated rats, acting by protecting dopaminergic cell bodies and their striatal terminals. Interestingly, ABC also restored a normal behaviour pattern in lesioned rats suggesting a symptomatic effect, and did not negatively interact with L-dopa. Our results demonstrate the potential value of combining repurposed drugs as a promising new strategy to treat this debilitating disease. PMID:26542636

  3. A multidisciplinary combinatorial approach for tuning promising hydrogen storage materials towards automotive applications.

    PubMed

    Amieiro-Fonseca, A; Ellis, S R; Nuttall, C J; Hayden, B E; Guerin, S; Purdy, G; Soulié, J P; Callear, S K; Culligan, S D; David, W I F; Edwards, P P; Jones, M O; Johnson, S R; Pohl, A H

    2011-01-01

    HyStorM is a multidisciplinary hydrogen-storage project aiming to synthesise and tune materials hydrogen storage properties for automotive applications. Firstly, unique high-throughput combinatorial thin-film technologies are used to screen materials' hydrogen storage properties. Then promising thin-film candidate compositions are synthesised and examined in the bulk. In this paper, we report on our results within the ternary compositions Mg-Ti-B and Ca-Ti-B. Primary screening of the Mg-Ti-B ternary identified a high capacity hotspot corresponding to Mg0.36Ti0.06B0.58, with 10.6 wt% H2 capacity. Partial reversibility has been observed for this material in the thin-film. Bulk Ti-doped Mg(BH4)2 composites show rehydrogenation to MgH2 under the conditions used. The synthesised thin-film Ca-Ti-B ternary showed only low hydrogen storage capacities. In the bulk, Ti-doping experiments on Ca(BH4)2 demonstrated reversible storage capacities up to 5.9 wt% H2. Further characterisation experiments are required to decipher the role of the Ti-dopant in these systems in both films and in the bulk.

  4. Marine phospholipids--a promising new dietary approach to tumor-associated weight loss.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lenka A; Pletschen, Lars; Arends, Jann; Unger, Clemens; Massing, Ulrich

    2010-02-01

    Advanced tumor disease very often evokes excessive loss of body weight. Among others, fish oil or marine fatty acid ethyl esters were investigated for treatment of cancer cachexia with controversial results. In this study, a new formulation of marine fatty acids was investigated, the marine phospholipids, with more than 50% of phospholipid-bound fatty acids being eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Thirty-one tumor patients with various tumor entities suffering from weight loss were asked to take marine phospholipids (1.5 g/day) as softgel capsules for a period of 6 weeks. Compliance, body weight, appetite, and quality of life as well as the fatty acid profile in plasma and blood cells were monitored; 17 patients could be analyzed. Marine phospholipids were very well accepted; low-dose supplementation resulted in a significant increase of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid in plasma phospholipids; therefore, significantly reducing the n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio. A stabilization of body weight was achieved (median weight change of +0.6% after 6 weeks), while appetite and quality of life improved. These promising first results encourage further investigation of marine phospholipids in cancer care.

  5. Microalgal biofactories: a promising approach towards sustainable omega-3 fatty acid production

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) provide significant health benefits and this has led to an increased consumption as dietary supplements. Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA are found in animals, transgenic plants, fungi and many microorganisms but are typically extracted from fatty fish, putting additional pressures on global fish stocks. As primary producers, many marine microalgae are rich in EPA (C20:5) and DHA (C22:6) and present a promising source of omega-3 fatty acids. Several heterotrophic microalgae have been used as biofactories for omega-3 fatty acids commercially, but a strong interest in autotrophic microalgae has emerged in recent years as microalgae are being developed as biofuel crops. This paper provides an overview of microalgal biotechnology and production platforms for the development of omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. It refers to implications in current biotechnological uses of microalgae as aquaculture feed and future biofuel crops and explores potential applications of metabolic engineering and selective breeding to accumulate large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids in autotrophic microalgae. PMID:22830315

  6. Combination of acamprosate and baclofen as a promising therapeutic approach for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hajj, Rodolphe; Milet, Aude; Toulorge, Damien; Cholet, Nathalie; Laffaire, Julien; Foucquier, Julie; Robelet, Sandra; Mitry, Richard; Guedj, Mickael; Nabirotchkin, Serguei; Chumakov, Ilya; Cohen, Daniel

    2015-11-06

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterised by the loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons but which involves the loss of additional neurotransmitter pathways. Mono- or polytherapeutic interventions in PD patients have declining efficacy long-term and no influence on disease progression. The systematic analysis of available genetic and functional data as well as the substantial overlap between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and PD features led us to repurpose and explore the effectiveness of a combination therapy (ABC) with two drugs - acamprosate and baclofen - that was already effective in AD animal models, for the treatment of PD. We showed in vitro that ABC strongly and synergistically protected neuronal cells from oxidative stress in the oxygen and glucose deprivation model, as well as dopaminergic neurons from cell death in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model. Furthermore, we showed that ABC normalised altered motor symptoms in vivo in 6-OHDA-treated rats, acting by protecting dopaminergic cell bodies and their striatal terminals. Interestingly, ABC also restored a normal behaviour pattern in lesioned rats suggesting a symptomatic effect, and did not negatively interact with L-dopa. Our results demonstrate the potential value of combining repurposed drugs as a promising new strategy to treat this debilitating disease.

  7. shRNA-armed conditionally replicative adenoviruses: a promising approach for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Ding, Meng; Xu, Kai; Mao, Lijun; Zheng, Junian

    2016-01-01

    The small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been employed to knockdown the expression of cancer-associated genes and shown some promise in cancer therapy. However, synthetic siRNA duplexes or plasmid mediated delivery of siRNAs have several problems, such as short half-life, low transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity associated with transfection. Conditionally replicating adenovirus (CRAds) as the delivery vector for short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) could overcome these limitations and have shown augmented anti-tumor effects in experimental studies and preclinical trials. In this review, we summarize recent progress in the development of CRAds-shRNA for cancer treatment. Combination of CRAds-shRNA with chemotherapeutics, radiation, dendritic cells, monoclonal antibodies and small-molecule inhibitors will be necessary to eradicate cancer cells and cancer stem cells and achieve superior outcomes. The use of CRAd platform for efficient delivery of shRNAs and foreign genes will open a new avenue for cancer therapy. PMID:26980708

  8. The promise of translational and personalised approaches for paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea: an 'Omics' perspective.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hui-Leng; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Gozal, David

    2014-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) can result in significant morbidities including the cardiovascular, metabolic and neurocognitive systems. These effects are purportedly mediated via activation of inflammatory cascades and the induction of oxidative stress, ultimately resulting in cellular injury and dysfunction. While great advances have been made in sleep medicine research in the past decades, there are still wide gaps in our knowledge concerning the exact underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of OSA and consequences. Without resolving these issues, the reasons why patients with a similar severity of OSA can have markedly different clinical presentation and end-organ morbidity, that is, phenotype, will continue to remain elusive. This review aims to highlight the recent exciting discoveries in genotype-phenotype interactions, epigenetics, genomics and proteomics related to OSA. Just as PCR revolutionised the field of genetics, the potential power of 'Omics' promises to transform the field of sleep medicine, and provide critical insights into the downstream pathological cascades inherent to OSA, thereby enabling personalised diagnosis and management for this highly prevalent sleep disorder.

  9. Comprehensive Analysis Competence and Innovative Approaches for Sustainable Chemical Production.

    PubMed

    Appel, Joerg; Colombo, Corrado; Dätwyler, Urs; Chen, Yun; Kerimoglu, Nimet

    2016-01-01

    Humanity currently sees itself facing enormous economic, ecological, and social challenges. Sustainable products and production in specialty chemistry are an important strategic element to address these megatrends. In addition to that, digitalization and global connectivity will create new opportunities for the industry. One aspect is examined in this paper, which shows the development of comprehensive analysis of production networks for a more sustainable production in which the need for innovative solutions arises. Examples from data analysis, advanced process control and automated performance monitoring are shown. These efforts have significant impact on improved yields, reduced energy and water consumption, and better product performance in the application of the products.

  10. Comprehensive Analysis Competence and Innovative Approaches for Sustainable Chemical Production.

    PubMed

    Appel, Joerg; Colombo, Corrado; Dtwyler, Urs; Chen, Yun; Kerimoglu, Nimet

    2016-09-01

    Humanity currently sees itself facing enormous economic, ecological, and social challenges. Sustainable products and production in specialty chemistry are an important strategic element to address these megatrends. In addition to that, digitalization and global connectivity will create new opportunities for the industry. One aspect is examined in this paper, which shows the development of comprehensive analysis of production networks for a more sustainable production in which the need for innovative solutions arises. Examples from data analysis, advanced process control and automated performance monitoring are shown. These efforts have significant impact on improved yields, reduced energy and water consumption, and better product performance in the application of the products.

  11. Soccer and sexual health education: a promising approach for reducing adolescent births in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Kathryn C; Lewis, Judy; Gebrian, Bette; Theall, Katherine

    2015-05-01

    To explore the effect of an innovative, integrative program in female sexual reproductive health (SRH) and soccer (or fútbol, in Haitian Creole) in rural Haiti by measuring the rate of births among program participants 15-19 years old and their nonparticipant peers. A retrospective cohort study using 2006-2009 data from the computerized data-tracking system of the Haitian Health Foundation (HHF), a U.S.-based nongovernmental organization serving urban and rural populations in Haiti, was used to assess births among girls 15-19 years old who participated in HHF's GenNext program, a combination education-soccer program for youth, based on SRH classes HHF nurses and community workers had been conducting in Haiti for mothers, fathers, and youth; girl-centered health screenings; and an all-female summer soccer league, during 2006-2009 (n = 4 251). Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were carried out to assess differences in the rate of births among program participants according to their level of participation (SRH component only ("EDU") versus both the SRH and soccer components ("SO") compared to their village peers who did not participate. Hazard ratios (HRs) of birth rates were estimated using Cox regression analysis of childbearing data for the three different groups. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, only the girls in the "EDU" group had significantly fewer births than the nonparticipants after adjusting for confounders (odds ratio = 0.535; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.304, 0.940). The Cox regression analysis demonstrated that those in the EDU group (HR = 0.893; 95% CI = 0.802, 0.994) and to a greater degree those in the SO group (HR = 0.631; 95% CI = 0.558, 0.714) were significantly protected against childbearing between the ages of 15 and 19 years. HHF's GenNext program demonstrates the effectiveness of utilizing nurse educators, community mobilization, and youth participation in sports, education, and structured youth groups to

  12. Catalysts as Sensors—A Promising Novel Approach in Automotive Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment

    PubMed Central

    Moos, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Sensors that detect directly and in situ the status of automotive exhaust gas catalysts by monitoring the electrical properties of the catalyst coating itself are overviewed. Examples included in this review are the in-situ determination of the electrical impedance of three-way catalysts based on ceria-zirconia solutions and of lean NOx traps of earth-alkaline based coatings, as well as approaches to determine the ammonia loading in Fe-SCR-zeolites with electrical ac measurements. Even more sophisticated approaches based on interactions with electromagnetic waves are also reviewed. For that purpose, metallic stick-like antennas are inserted into the exhaust pipe. The catalyst properties are measured in a contactless manner, directly indicating the catalyst status. The radio frequency probes gauge the oxygen loading degree of three-way catalysts, the NOx-loading of lean NOx traps, and the soot loading of Diesel particulate filters. PMID:22163575

  13. Novel Functional Genomics Approaches: A Promising Future in the Combat Against Plant Viruses.

    PubMed

    Fondong, Vincent N; Nagalakshmi, Ugrappa; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P

    2016-10-01

    Advances in functional genomics and genome editing approaches have provided new opportunities and potential to accelerate plant virus control efforts through modification of host and viral genomes in a precise and predictable manner. Here, we discuss application of RNA-based technologies, including artificial micro RNA, transacting small interfering RNA, and Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-associated protein 9), which are currently being successfully deployed in generating virus-resistant plants. We further discuss the reverse genetics approach, targeting induced local lesions in genomes (TILLING) and its variant, known as EcoTILLING, that are used in the identification of plant virus recessive resistance gene alleles. In addition to describing specific applications of these technologies in plant virus control, this review discusses their advantages and limitations.

  14. Catalysts as sensors--a promising novel approach in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment.

    PubMed

    Moos, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Sensors that detect directly and in situ the status of automotive exhaust gas catalysts by monitoring the electrical properties of the catalyst coating itself are overviewed. Examples included in this review are the in-situ determination of the electrical impedance of three-way catalysts based on ceria-zirconia solutions and of lean NO(x) traps of earth-alkaline based coatings, as well as approaches to determine the ammonia loading in Fe-SCR-zeolites with electrical ac measurements. Even more sophisticated approaches based on interactions with electromagnetic waves are also reviewed. For that purpose, metallic stick-like antennas are inserted into the exhaust pipe. The catalyst properties are measured in a contactless manner, directly indicating the catalyst status. The radio frequency probes gauge the oxygen loading degree of three-way catalysts, the NO(x)-loading of lean NO(x) traps, and the soot loading of Diesel particulate filters.

  15. International AIDS Society conference update. Compound targeting Rev protein promising. Orphaned approach still looking for home.

    PubMed

    2005-09-01

    While clinicians and HIV/AIDS patients anxiously watch the trend of the virus developing resistance to multiple antiretroviral therapies, the question remains whether new drug research will continue to save the day. Some suggest there will need to be multiple new classes of antiretroviral drugs developed in order to stretch further the life span of longtime HIV patients. One potential new class would target the Rev protein, an approach that has received very little attention from the research and pharmaceutical communities.

  16. Evaluation of promising technologies for soil salinity amelioration in Timpaki (Crete): a participatory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagea, I. S.; Daliakopoulos, I. N.; Tsanis, I. K.; Schwilch, G.

    2016-02-01

    Soil salinity management can be complex, expensive, and time demanding, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Besides taking no action, possible management strategies include amelioration and adaptation measures. Here we apply the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT) framework for the systematic analysis and evaluation and selection of soil salinisation amelioration technologies in close collaboration with stakeholders. The participatory approach is applied in the RECARE (Preventing and Remediating degradation of soils in Europe through Land Care) project case study of Timpaki, a semi-arid region in south-central Crete (Greece) where the main land use is horticulture in greenhouses irrigated by groundwater. Excessive groundwater abstractions have resulted in a drop of the groundwater level in the coastal part of the aquifer, thus leading to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinisation. The documented technologies are evaluated for their impacts on ecosystem services, cost, and input requirements using a participatory approach and field evaluations. Results show that technologies which promote maintaining existing crop types while enhancing productivity and decreasing soil salinity are preferred by the stakeholders. The evaluation concludes that rainwater harvesting is the optimal solution for direct soil salinity mitigation, as it addresses a wider range of ecosystem and human well-being benefits. Nevertheless, this merit is offset by poor financial motivation making agronomic measures more attractive to users.

  17. Ramipril and haloperidol as promising approaches in managing rheumatoid arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Fahmy Wahba, Mariam Gamal; Shehata Messiha, Basim Anwar; Abo-Saif, Ali Ahmed

    2015-10-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a challenging autoimmune disorder, whose treatments usually cause severe gastrointestinal, renal and other complications. We aimed to evaluate the beneficial anti-arthritic effects of an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, ramipril and a dopamine receptor blocker, haloperidol, on Complete Freund's Adjuvant-induced RA in adult female albino rats. Rats were allocated into a normal control group, an arthritis control group, two reference treatment groups receiving dexamethasone (1.5 mg/kg/day) and methotrexate (1 mg/kg/day), and two treatment groups receiving ramipril (0.9 mg/kg/day) and haloperidol (1 mg/kg/day). Serum rheumatoid factor, matrix metalloprotinease-3 (MMP-3) and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein as specific rheumatoid biomarkers, serum immunoglobulin G and antinuclear antibody as immunological biomarkers, serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) as immunomodulatory cytokines, serum myeloperoxidase and C-reactive protein as inflammatory biomarkers, as well as malondialdehyde and glutathione reduced (GSH) as oxidative stress biomarkers were assessed. A histopathological study on joints and spleens was performed to support the results of biochemical estimations. Ramipril administration significantly corrected all the measured biomarkers, being restored back to normal levels except for MMP-3, TNF-α and IL-10. Haloperidol administration restored all the measured biomarkers back to normal levels except for TNF-α, IL-10 and GSH. In conclusion, ACE inhibitors represented by ramipril and dopamine receptor blockers represented by haloperidol may represent new promising protective strategies against RA, at least owing to their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials.

  18. Biomimetic modification of polyurethane-based nanofibrous vascular grafts: A promising approach towards stable endothelial lining.

    PubMed

    Davoudi, Parivash; Assadpour, Shiva; Derakhshan, Mohammad Ali; Ai, Jafar; Solouk, Atefeh; Ghanbari, Hossein

    2017-11-01

    The emerging demand for small caliber vascular grafts to replace damaged vessels has attracted research attention. However, there is no perfect replacement in clinical use yet, mainly due to low patency rate of synthetic small caliber grafts. The main pathology behind low patency rate include thrombosis and graft/vessel hemodynamic mismatch, leading to intimal hyperplasia. Rapid in-situ endothelialization of vascular grafts is considered as one of the best strategies to overcome these complications. In the present study, Heparin and VEGF were immobilized via self-polymerization and deposition of polydopamine (PDA) on polyurethane (PU) nanofibrous scaffolds to improve endothelialization. Polyurethane nanofibrous scaffold (PUNF) that mimics vascular extracellular matrix (ECM) was chosen owing to its biocompatibility, biodegradability. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), water contact angle (CA) measurement and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the surface, and tensile test was used to analyze mechanical properties before and after surface modification of the scaffolds. It was found that tensile strength and young's modulus were significantly increased after PDA coating on PUNF membranes. The hemocompatibility tests revealed that surface heparinization significantly inhibited the adhesion of platelet on the scaffolds. Immobilization of VEGF on the scaffolds significantly enhanced the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) through enhanced cells adhesion and improved cell-scaffold interactions. The results suggest that dual-factor immobilization resulted in not only confluent monolayer of endothelial cells but also conferred excellent antithrombotic properties to the surface. This method of surface modification (immobilization of Heparin, VEGF by PDA layer) is suggested as a promising modification technique to increase hemocompatibility of small-diameter vascular grafts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A systematic approach for introducing innovative product design in courses with engineering and nonengineering students.

    PubMed

    Patterson, P E

    2007-01-01

    In our new global economy, biomedical product development teams need to be even more innovative in an environment constrained by fewer resources with less time from concept to market. Teams are often comprised of individuals spread around the world. To simulate this setting, we revised an existing course to incorporate teams of on-campus and distance students, with each team including both engineers and other specialties. Through interactive lectures and projects, we presented a systematic approach to innovation that should be useful to engineers and non-engineers alike. Students found the course challenging and exciting, displaying an improved ability to work in distributed teams and in developing innovative design solutions.

  20. An approach for evaluating the integrity of fuel applied in Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakae, Nobuo; Ozawa, Takayuki; Ohta, Hirokazu; Ogata, Takanari; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    One of the important issues in the study of Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems is evaluating the integrity of fuel applied in Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems. An approach for evaluating the integrity of the fuel is discussed here based on the procedure currently used in the integrity evaluation of fast reactor fuel. The fuel failure modes determining fuel life time were reviewed and fuel integrity was analyzed and compared with the failure criteria.

  1. Recombination of protein fragments: a promising approach toward engineering proteins with novel nanomechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Balamurali, M M; Sharma, Deepak; Chang, Anderson; Khor, Dingyue; Chu, Ricky; Li, Hongbin

    2008-10-01

    Combining single molecule atomic force microscopy (AFM) and protein engineering techniques, here we demonstrate that we can use recombination-based techniques to engineer novel elastomeric proteins by recombining protein fragments from structurally homologous parent proteins. Using I27 and I32 domains from the muscle protein titin as parent template proteins, we systematically shuffled the secondary structural elements of the two parent proteins and engineered 13 hybrid daughter proteins. Although I27 and I32 are highly homologous, and homology modeling predicted that the hybrid daughter proteins fold into structures that are similar to that of parent protein, we found that only eight of the 13 daughter proteins showed beta-sheet dominated structures that are similar to parent proteins, and the other five recombined proteins showed signatures of the formation of significant alpha-helical or random coil-like structure. Single molecule AFM revealed that six recombined daughter proteins are mechanically stable and exhibit mechanical properties that are different from the parent proteins. In contrast, another four of the hybrid proteins were found to be mechanically labile and unfold at forces that are lower than the approximately 20 pN, as we could not detect any unfolding force peaks. The last three hybrid proteins showed interesting duality in their mechanical unfolding behaviors. These results demonstrate the great potential of using recombination-based approaches to engineer novel elastomeric protein domains of diverse mechanical properties. Moreover, our results also revealed the challenges and complexity of developing a recombination-based approach into a laboratory-based directed evolution approach to engineer novel elastomeric proteins.

  2. Innovative Research-Based Approaches to Learning and Teaching. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 79

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Broek, Gesa Sonja Elsa

    2012-01-01

    Building on an earlier 2008 summary prepared for OECD by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter, this paper by Gesa S. E. van den Broek provides a more extensive discussion of approaches described as "research based innovation." "Fostering Communities of Learning" is a constructivist approach in which teachers help students discover important…

  3. "GARDEN OF CHILDHOOD" as an Innovative Approach to Training and Education of Children at Preschool Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alekseeva, Larisa; Shkolyar, Luidmila; Savenkova, Luibov

    2016-01-01

    The authors reveal an innovative approach to training and education of preschool children. This approach is called "GARDEN OF CHILDHOOD". It is based on the idea that the development of the preschool child's personality should be joyous and free "cultural self-creation" in terms of the collective co-creation, where adults and…

  4. Kind discipline: Developing a conceptual model of a promising school discipline approach.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Jennifer L; Walsh, Michele E; de Blois, Madeleine; Maré, Jeannette; Carvajal, Scott C

    2017-02-06

    This formative evaluation develops a novel conceptual model for a discipline approach fostering intrinsic motivation and positive relationships in schools. We used concept mapping to elicit and integrate perspectives on kind discipline from teachers, administrators, and other school staff. Three core themes describing kind discipline emerged from 11 identified clusters: (1) proactively developing a positive school climate, (2) responding to conflict with empathy, accountability, and skill, and (3) supporting staff skills in understanding and sharing expectations. We mapped the identified components of kind discipline onto a social ecological model and found that kind discipline encompasses all levels of that model including the individual, relational, environmental/structural, and even community levels. This contrasts with the dominant individual-behavioral discipline approaches that focus on fewer levels and may not lead to sustained student and staff motivation. The findings illustrate the importance of setting and communicating clear expectations and the need for them to be collaboratively developed. Products of the analysis and synthesis reported here are operationalized materials for teachers grounded in a "be kind" culture code for classrooms.

  5. Pharmacological inhibition of FAAH activity in rodents: A promising pharmacological approach for psychological-cardiac comorbidity?

    PubMed

    Carnevali, Luca; Rivara, Silvia; Nalivaiko, Eugene; Thayer, Julian F; Vacondio, Federica; Mor, Marco; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Numerous studies have documented a link between psychological disorders and cardiac disease. Yet, no systematic attempts have been made to develop pharmacological approaches for mood and anxiety disorders that could also be beneficial for cardiac health. The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the regulation of stress, emotional behavior and cardiovascular function. General preclinical findings indicate that the endocannabinoid anandamide modulates physiological and behavioral stress responses and may also protect the heart from arrhythmias. Moreover, recent experimental studies suggest that pharmacological enhancement of anandamide signaling via inhibition of its degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) exerts anxiolytic- and antidepressive-like effects and improves cardiac autonomic function and the electrical stability of the myocardium in rodent models that reproduce aspects of human psychological/cardiac comorbidity. Here we summarize and discuss such experimental findings, which might guide future preclinical studies towards a systematic evaluation of the therapeutic potential of pharmacological approaches that target FAAH activity for the treatment of the comorbidity between psychological disorders and cardiac disease.

  6. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors: a promising new therapeutic approach for the management of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Carolyn F; Holst, Jens J

    2006-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 is an insulinotropic hormone with antidiabetic potential due to its spectrum of effects, which include glucose-dependent stimulation of insulin and inhibition of glucagon secretion, tropic effects on the pancreatic beta-cells, inhibition of gastric emptying and the reduction of appetite. Glucagon-like peptide-1 is, however, extremely rapidly inactivated by the serine peptidase, dipeptidyl peptidase IV, so that the native peptide is not useful clinically. A new approach to utilise the beneficial effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 in the treatment of type 2 diabetes has been the development of orally active dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that this approach is effective in enhancing endogenous levels of glucagon-like peptide-1, resulting in improved glucose tolerance in glucose-intolerant and diabetic animal models. In recent studies of 3-12 months duration in patients with type 2 diabetes, dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors have proved efficacious, both as monotherapy and when given in combination with metformin. Fasting and postprandial glucose concentrations were reduced, leading to reductions in glycosylated haemoglobin levels, while beta-cell function was preserved. Current information suggests dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors are body weight neutral and are well tolerated. A number of dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors are now in the late stages of clinical development. These have different properties, in terms of their duration of action and anticipated dosing frequency, but data from protracted dosing studies is presently not available to allow comparison of their clinical efficacy.

  7. Innovative approaches to avoid electric shaving-induced skin irritation.

    PubMed

    Rietzler, M; Maurer, M; Siebenhaar, F; Angelino, S; Handt, J; Burghardt, R; Smetana, H

    2016-06-01

    Globally, millions of men regularly remove their facial hair using an electric shaver. Over the course of several decades, the concept of an electric shaver has evolved from a relatively simple hand-powered apparatus to a technologically advanced device designed to provide the user with an optimum shaving experience. This requires a careful balance between robust removal of hair and skin comfort. By incorporating advanced scientific measurement and imaging technology into clinical testing, insights are being gained into skin comfort issues associated with hair removal practices. This study describes new research insights that have guided the development of electric shaving technology. These innovative features are designed to maximize hair removal and minimize the impact on skin health, thus enabling new levels of shaving efficacy and comfort to be attained. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  8. The snake geothermal drilling project. Innovative approaches to geothermal exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Shervais, John W.; Evans, James P.; Liberty, Lee M.; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Blackwell, David D.

    2014-02-21

    The goal of our project was to test innovative technologies using existing and new data, and to ground-truth these technologies using slim-hole core technology. The slim-hole core allowed us to understand subsurface stratigraphy and alteration in detail, and to correlate lithologies observed in core with surface based geophysical studies. Compiled data included geologic maps, volcanic vent distribution, structural maps, existing well logs and temperature gradient logs, groundwater temperatures, and geophysical surveys (resistivity, magnetics, gravity). New data included high-resolution gravity and magnetic surveys, high-resolution seismic surveys, three slimhole test wells, borehole wireline logs, lithology logs, water chemistry, alteration mineralogy, fracture distribution, and new thermal gradient measurements.

  9. Innovative approaches to estimate individual usual dietary intake in large-scale epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Johanna; Nöthlings, Ute

    2017-02-06

    Valid estimation of usual dietary intake in epidemiological studies is a topic of present interest. The aim of the present paper is to review recent literature on innovative approaches focussing on: (1) the requirements to assess usual intake and (2) the application in large-scale settings. Recently, a number of technology-based self-administered tools have been developed, including short-term instruments such as web-based 24-h recalls, mobile food records or simple closed-ended questionnaires that assess the food intake of the previous 24 h. Due to their advantages in terms of feasibility and cost-effectiveness these tools may be superior to conventional assessment methods in large-scale settings. New statistical methods have been developed to combine dietary information from repeated 24-h dietary recalls and FFQ. Conceptually, these statistical methods presume that the usual food intake of a subject equals the probability of consuming a food on a given day, multiplied by the average amount of intake of that food on a typical consumption day. Repeated 24-h recalls from the same individual provide information on consumption probability and amount. In addition, the FFQ can add information on intake frequency of rarely consumed foods. It has been suggested that this combined approach may provide high-quality dietary information. A promising direction for estimation of usual intake in large-scale settings is the integration of both statistical methods and new technologies. Studies are warranted to assess the validity of estimated usual intake in comparison with biomarkers.

  10. Transatlantic Innovations: a new approach to international ideas and technology.

    PubMed

    Evans, Gregory R D; Blondeel, Phillip; Marchac, Daniel; Kinney, Brian; Cunningham, Bruce; Neuhann-Lorenz, Constance

    2010-07-01

    In April of this past year, Transatlantic Innovations brought a variety of organizations and industry together for an international exchange of ideas, new technology, and current trends in plastic surgery. The meeting was highly interactive and included audience response devices. The focus was on 10 major areas: (1) new surgical techniques; (2) composite allografts versus conventional techniques, facing the future; (3) interspecialty collaboration versus competition; (4) the business of plastic surgery, best practices; (5) the image of the plastic surgeon, branding yourself; (6) medical tourism; (7) publicity; (8) the regulation of innovation, U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency perspective; (9) the future of plastic surgery, cutting edge technologies; and (10) applications and controversies in fat grafting. The meeting concluded with the 8th International Committee for Quality Assurance, Medical Technologies and Devices in Plastic Surgery Consensus Conference with the development of a consensus statement. Through an interactive audience response system, additional questions and attitudes were asked of the audience and, in real time, international differences were identified, which led to further discussions from panelists. Responses were identified in three major groups: European Union, North America, and the Rest of the World. Responses and data are included in this article. The meeting brought participants, industry, regulators, and educators from both sides of the Atlantic. The interaction of these groups in these outlined topics brought a unique perspective to the meeting and, in the end, volumes of data. We have more in common than we believe. It is our anticipation that as we as plastic surgeons move forward, we can use these interactions to help our own practices but more specifically the specialty as a whole.

  11. Stygoregions – a promising approach to a bioregional classification of groundwater systems

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Heide; Griebler, Christian; Berkhoff, Sven; Matzke, Dirk; Fuchs, Andreas; Hahn, Hans Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Linked to diverse biological processes, groundwater ecosystems deliver essential services to mankind, the most important of which is the provision of drinking water. In contrast to surface waters, ecological aspects of groundwater systems are ignored by the current European Union and national legislation. Groundwater management and protection measures refer exclusively to its good physicochemical and quantitative status. Current initiatives in developing ecologically sound integrative assessment schemes by taking groundwater fauna into account depend on the initial classification of subsurface bioregions. In a large scale survey, the regional and biogeographical distribution patterns of groundwater dwelling invertebrates were examined for many parts of Germany. Following an exploratory approach, our results underline that the distribution patterns of invertebrates in groundwater are not in accordance with any existing bioregional classification system established for surface habitats. In consequence, we propose to develope a new classification scheme for groundwater ecosystems based on stygoregions. PMID:22993698

  12. Promising approaches to the purification of soils and groundwater from hydrocarbons (A Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.; Trofimov, S. Ya.; Shoba, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    Soils and waters are affected by oil spills in the course of oil production and hydrocarbon leakages because of the corrosion of underground reservoirs, as well as the filtration of hydrocarbons from the tailing ponds formed during the extraction of oil from oil sands. The conventional technology for the withdrawal of contaminated water and its purification on the surface is low-efficient and expensive. New approaches are proposed for the in situ purification of soils and groundwater. To accelerate the oxidation, active substances atypical for the supergenesis zone are used: peroxides of metals and hydrogen. The efficiency of hydrogen peroxide significantly increases when the oxidation is catalyzed by Fe2+ or Fe3+ (Fenton reaction). The effects of Fe(III), sulfates, and carbon dioxide as electron acceptors are studied under anaerobic conditions (with oxygen deficit).

  13. Understanding diseases by mouse click: the promise and potential of computational approaches in Systems Biology.

    PubMed

    Klauschen, F; Angermann, B R; Meier-Schellersheim, M

    2007-09-01

    Computational modelling approaches can nowadays build large-scale simulations of cellular behaviour based on data describing detailed molecular level interactions, thus performing the space- and time-scale integrations that would be impossible just by intuition. Recent progress in the development of both experimental methods and computational tools has provided the means to generate the necessary quantitative data and has made computational methods accessible even to non-theorists, thereby removing a major hurdle that has in the past made many experimentalists hesitate to invest serious effort in formulating quantitative models. We describe how computational biology differs from classical bioinformatics, how it emerged from mathematical biology and elucidate the role it plays for the integration of traditionally separated areas of biomedical research within the larger framework of Systems Biology.

  14. Understanding diseases by mouse click: the promise and potential of computational approaches in Systems Biology

    PubMed Central

    Klauschen, F; Angermann, B R; Meier-Schellersheim, M

    2007-01-01

    Computational modelling approaches can nowadays build large-scale simulations of cellular behaviour based on data describing detailed molecular level interactions, thus performing the space- and time-scale integrations that would be impossible just by intuition. Recent progress in the development of both experimental methods and computational tools has provided the means to generate the necessary quantitative data and has made computational methods accessible even to non-theorists, thereby removing a major hurdle that has in the past made many experimentalists hesitate to invest serious effort in formulating quantitative models. We describe how computational biology differs from classical bioinformatics, how it emerged from mathematical biology and elucidate the role it plays for the integration of traditionally separated areas of biomedical research within the larger framework of Systems Biology. PMID:17666096

  15. Promising ethical arguments for product differentiation in the organic food sector. A mixed methods research approach.

    PubMed

    Zander, Katrin; Stolz, Hanna; Hamm, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    Ethical consumerism is a growing trend worldwide. Ethical consumers' expectations are increasing and neither the Fairtrade nor the organic farming concept covers all the ethical concerns of consumers. Against this background the aim of this research is to elicit consumers' preferences regarding organic food with additional ethical attributes and their relevance at the market place. A mixed methods research approach was applied by combining an Information Display Matrix, Focus Group Discussions and Choice Experiments in five European countries. According to the results of the Information Display Matrix, 'higher animal welfare', 'local production' and 'fair producer prices' were preferred in all countries. These three attributes were discussed with Focus Groups in depth, using rather emotive ways of labelling. While the ranking of the attributes was the same, the emotive way of communicating these attributes was, for the most part, disliked by participants. The same attributes were then used in Choice Experiments, but with completely revised communication arguments. According to the results of the Focus Groups, the arguments were presented in a factual manner, using short and concise statements. In this research step, consumers in all countries except Austria gave priority to 'local production'. 'Higher animal welfare' and 'fair producer prices' turned out to be relevant for buying decisions only in Germany and Switzerland. According to our results, there is substantial potential for product differentiation in the organic sector through making use of production standards that exceed existing minimum regulations. The combination of different research methods in a mixed methods approach proved to be very helpful. The results of earlier research steps provided the basis from which to learn - findings could be applied in subsequent steps, and used to adjust and deepen the research design. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Supporting Instructors in Innovation: A Three-Component Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margaryan, Anoush

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to advance an approach to supporting instructors in adopting new models of teaching, particularly when new technology is involved. The approach comprises three components: conceptual principles underpinning new learning models; process by which instructors are supported in understanding and applying principles; and a…

  17. An Innovative Approach to Integrated Training for Smallholder Dairying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chagunda, Mizeck Gift Gibson; Munthali, David Pusi; Gondwe, Timothy N.; Wood, Bethan; Roberts, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper assesses an integrated approach in smallholder dairy training through a partnership between Malawi and Scotland. Design/ methodology/ approach: Acute staff shortages and inadequate expertise hamper progress in Malawi's smallholder dairy production despite its potential to substantially contribute to sustainable household…

  18. An Innovative Approach to Integrated Training for Smallholder Dairying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chagunda, Mizeck Gift Gibson; Munthali, David Pusi; Gondwe, Timothy N.; Wood, Bethan; Roberts, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper assesses an integrated approach in smallholder dairy training through a partnership between Malawi and Scotland. Design/ methodology/ approach: Acute staff shortages and inadequate expertise hamper progress in Malawi's smallholder dairy production despite its potential to substantially contribute to sustainable household…

  19. PESEK Lecture: Promising New Approaches in the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Frank

    2002-01-01

    New insights into the possible nature of extraterrestrial intelligent transmissions, coupled to increased financial support for such research and new, powerful, and affordable instrumental capabilities, have encouraged several new approaches to SETI. Perhaps most dramatic has been the recognition that detectable optical and infrared signals, long shunned as implausible, are plausible after all. This is the consequence of the development of high power pulsed lasers which, in the right circumstances, can produce signals detectable easily with rather inexpensive equipment. This has led to the rapid development of several optical SETI programs that exploit nanosecond response photodetectors and the statistics of photon arrivals to achieve truly remarkable sensitivities for optical signals of short time duration. The usually vexed choice of specific electromagnetic frequencies to observe is not a problem in these systems. They are inexpensive, and extremely robust, being immune to the problems from, for example, defects in the optics of the telescopes used, partial obscuration due to clouds, and telescope pointing errors. They can utilize crude "light buckets" such as are built to observe cosmic ray Cerenkov radiation. They can be used in a shared mode with conventional astronomical observations. In the radio domain, the most powerful advance has been the availability and funds to build a dedicated telescope for use in SETI, the Allan Array Telescope. This telescope, scheduled to go into operation in 2005, will use a new approach to building large collecting areas, the computer-based interconnection of a large number of small antennas of the order of 6-meters in diameter to achieve a collecting area of one hectare. Not only will this be a very inexpensive telescope of great sensitivity, but also it will allow the formation of a large number of telescope beams simultaneously, greatly speeding up the speed of SETI searches. On a longer time scale, a goal of SETI designers

  20. Effective targeting of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) for treating oral cancer: a promising approach.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Flávia Andressa Pidone; Noguti, Juliana; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2014-04-01

    Oral cancer is a serious problem growing in incidence in many parts of the world; it is considered the sixth most common cancer and despite sophisticated surgical and radiotherapeutic modalities, oral squamous cell carcinoma, which represents 90% of oral cancers, is characterized by poor prognosis and a low survival rate. The Epidermal growth factor receptor family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) comprises of four distinct receptors: the EGFR (also known as ErbB-1/HER1), ErbB-2 (neu, HER2), ErbB-3 (HER3) and ErbB-4 (HER4). Several studies have been published on the role of EGFR in the pathogenesis of oral carcinoma. The aim of the present review is to describe the role of EGFR pathway in oral cancer with special focus on its role during the carcinogenesis process as a result of therapeutic approaches of EGFR in oral cancer. The EGFR is a 170-kDa cell-surface protein involved in many biological processes, such as proliferation, migration, DNA synthesis and adhesion. Overexpression of EGFR results in a poor prognosis in oral cancer and its activation is associated with the malignant phenotype, inhibition of apoptosis and increased metastatic potential. EGFR variations and mutations have been correlated with tumor formation, and possibly alter the therapeutic efficacy of EGFR inhibitors.

  1. Is systems biology a promising approach to resolve controversies in cancer research?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century cancer research has reached an impasse similar to that experienced in developmental biology in the first decades of the 20th century when conflicting results and interpretations co-existed for a long time until these differences were resolved and contradictions were eliminated. In cancer research, instead of this healthy "weeding-out" process, there have been attempts to reach a premature synthesis, while no hypothesis is being rejected. Systems Biology could help cancer research to overcome this stalemate by resolving contradictions and identifying spurious data. First, in silico experiments should allow cancer researchers to be bold and a priori reject sets of data and hypotheses in order to gain a deeper understanding of how each dataset and each hypothesis contributes to the overall picture. In turn, this process should generate novel hypotheses and rules, which could be explored using these in silico approaches. These activities are significantly less costly and much faster than "wet-experiments". Consequently, Systems Biology could be advantageously used both as a heuristic tool to guide "wet-experiments" and to refine hypotheses and test predictions. PMID:22449120

  2. Gene Therapy: A Promising Approach for Neuroprotection in Parkinson’s Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, Pamela; Schneider, Bernard L.

    2016-01-01

    With the development of effective systems for gene delivery to the central nervous system (CNS), gene therapy has become a therapeutic option for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Gene therapies that are the most advanced in the clinic have been designed to more effectively compensate for the lack of dopamine signaling in the basal ganglia and rescue the cardinal motor symptoms of PD. However, it remains essential to devise novel therapies to prevent neurodegeneration and disease progression. Since gene therapy has been initially proposed for the delivery of neurotrophins to support the survival and function of dopaminergic neurons, our understanding of PD etiology has changed dramatically. Genes implicated in familial forms of the disease and genetic risk factors associated with sporadic PD have been identified. The spreading of the α-synuclein pathology, as well as perturbations of the lysosomal and mitochondrial activities, appear to play critical roles in the pathogenesis. These findings provide novel targets for gene therapy against PD, but at the same time underline the complexity of this chronic disease. Here we review and discuss the successes and limitations of gene therapy approaches, which have been proposed to provide neuroprotection in PD. PMID:28066194

  3. Mixed double-embryo transfer: A promising approach for patients with repeated implantation failure

    PubMed Central

    Stamenov, Georgi Stamenov; Parvanov, Dimitar Angelov

    2017-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of frozen mixed double-embryo transfer (MDET; the simultaneous transfer of day 3 and day 5 embryos) in comparison with frozen blastocyst double-embryo transfer (BDET; transfer of two day 5 blastocysts) in patients with repeated implantation failure (RIF). Methods A total of 104 women with RIF who underwent frozen MDET (n=48) or BDET (n=56) with excellent-quality embryos were included in this retrospective analysis. All frozen embryo transfers were performed in natural cycles. The main outcome measures were the implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, multiple pregnancy rate, and miscarriage rate. These measures were compared between the patients who underwent MDET or BDET using the chi-square test or the Fisher exact test, as appropriate. Results The implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were significantly higher in patients who underwent MDET than in those who underwent BDET (60.4% vs. 39.3%, p=0.03 and 52.1% vs. 30.4%, p=0.05, respectively). A significantly lower miscarriage rate was observed in the MDET group (6.9% vs. 10.7%, p=0.05). In addition, the multiple pregnancy rate was slightly, but not significantly, higher in the MDET group (27.1% vs. 25.0%). Conclusion MDET was found to be significantly superior to double blastocyst transfer. It could be regarded as an appropriate approach to improve in vitro fertilization success rates in RIF patients. PMID:28795050

  4. Mixed double-embryo transfer: A promising approach for patients with repeated implantation failure.

    PubMed

    Stamenov, Georgi Stamenov; Parvanov, Dimitar Angelov; Chaushev, Todor Angelov

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of frozen mixed double-embryo transfer (MDET; the simultaneous transfer of day 3 and day 5 embryos) in comparison with frozen blastocyst double-embryo transfer (BDET; transfer of two day 5 blastocysts) in patients with repeated implantation failure (RIF). A total of 104 women with RIF who underwent frozen MDET (n=48) or BDET (n=56) with excellent-quality embryos were included in this retrospective analysis. All frozen embryo transfers were performed in natural cycles. The main outcome measures were the implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, multiple pregnancy rate, and miscarriage rate. These measures were compared between the patients who underwent MDET or BDET using the chi-square test or the Fisher exact test, as appropriate. The implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were significantly higher in patients who underwent MDET than in those who underwent BDET (60.4% vs. 39.3%, p=0.03 and 52.1% vs. 30.4%, p=0.05, respectively). A significantly lower miscarriage rate was observed in the MDET group (6.9% vs. 10.7%, p=0.05). In addition, the multiple pregnancy rate was slightly, but not significantly, higher in the MDET group (27.1% vs. 25.0%). MDET was found to be significantly superior to double blastocyst transfer. It could be regarded as an appropriate approach to improve in vitro fertilization success rates in RIF patients.

  5. Promise and problems with supply chain management approaches to health care purchasing.

    PubMed

    Ford, Eric W; Scanlon, Dennis P

    2007-01-01

    Double-digit health care inflation, coupled with widespread reports of poor care quality and deadly medical errors, has caused private sector employers to reevaluate their health benefits purchasing strategies, with a focus on supply chain management approaches. In other industries, this strategy has proven to be an effective method for simultaneously reducing costs and increasing quality. This article describes four current applications of supply chain management network methodologies to health care systems and identifies potential ways to improve purchasers' return on investment. In particular, information exchanges, purchase decision, and payment agreement components of integrated supply chains are described. First, visual depictions of the health care supply chain are developed from a purchaser's perspective. Next, five nationwide programs designed to realign incentives and rewards across the health care supply chain are described. Although several nationwide efforts are gaining traction in the marketplace, at this time, no cost reduction and quality improvement program initiative appears to systematically align the entire health care supply chain from providers to purchasers, raising doubt about the ability of supply chain management network techniques to significantly impact the health care marketplace in the short run. Current individual efforts to coordinate the health care supply chain do not act on all of the actors necessary to improve outcomes, promote safety, and control costs. Nevertheless, there are indications that several of the individual efforts are coming together. If national efforts touching on all critical elements can coordinate with purchasers, then the health care supply chain's performance may improve significantly.

  6. MBR technology: a promising approach for the (pre-)treatment of hospital wastewater.

    PubMed

    Beier, S; Cramer, C; Mauer, C; Köster, S; Schröder, H Fr; Pinnekamp, J

    2012-01-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is a very reliable and extensively tested solution for biological wastewater treatment. Nowadays, separate treatment of highly polluted wastewater streams especially from hospitals and other health care facilities is currently under investigation worldwide. In this context, the MBR technology will play a decisive role because an effluent widely cleaned up from solids and nutrients is absolutely mandatory for a subsequent further elimination of organic trace pollutants. Taking hospital wastewater as an example, the aim of this study was to investigate to what extent MBR technology is an adequate 'pre-treatment' solution for further elimination of trace pollutants. Therefore, we investigated - within a 2-year period - the performance of a full-scale hospital wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) equipped with a MBR by referring to conventional chemical and microbiological standard parameters. Furthermore, we measured the energy consumption and tested different operating conditions. According to our findings the MBR treatment of the hospital wastewater was highly efficient in terms of the removal of solids and nutrients. Finally, we did not observe any major adverse effects on the operation and performance of the MBR system which potentially could derive from the composition of the hospital wastewater. In total, the present study proved that MBR technology is a very efficient and reliable treatment approach for the treatment of highly polluted wastewater from hospitals and can be recommended as a suitable pre-treatment solution for further trace pollutant removal.

  7. Mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants represent a promising approach for prevention of cisplatin-induced nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Horváth, Béla; Zsengellér, Zsuzsanna; Zielonka, Jacek; Tanchian, Galin; Holovac, Eileen; Kechrid, Malek; Patel, Vivek; Stillman, Isaac E.; Parikh, Samir M.; Joseph, Joy; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Pacher, Pál

    2011-01-01

    Cisplatin is a widely used anti-neoplastic agent; however, its major limitation is the development of dose-dependent nephrotoxicity whose precise mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we show that mitochondrial dysfunction is not only a feature of cisplatin nephrotoxicity, but that targeted delivery of superoxide dismutase mimetics to mitochondria largely prevents the renal effects of cisplatin. Cisplatin induced renal oxidative stress, deterioration of mitochondrial structure and function, an intense inflammatory response, histopathological injury, and renal dysfunction. A single systemic dose of mitochondrially-targeted antioxidants, MitoQ or Mito-CP, dose-dependently prevented cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction. Mito-CP also prevented mitochondrial injury and dysfunction, renal inflammation, and tubular injury and apoptosis. Despite being broadly renoprotective against cisplatin, Mito-CP did not diminish cisplatin’s anti-neoplastic effect in a human bladder cancer cell line. Our results highlight the central role of mitochondrially generated oxidants in the pathogenesis of cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Since similar compounds appear to be safe in humans, mitochondrially-targeted antioxidants may represent a novel therapeutic approach against cisplatin nephrotoxicity. PMID:22120494

  8. The promise of immunotherapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: combinatorial immunotherapy approaches

    PubMed Central

    Economopoulou, Panagiota; Kotsantis, Ioannis; Psyrri, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    The immune system plays a fundamental role in preventing cancer development by recognising and eliminating tumour cells. The recent success in the field of immunotherapy has confirmed the potential to exploit the immune response as a cancer treatment. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a malignancy characterized by dismal prognosis and high mortality rate; low survival outcomes in combination with significant toxicity of current treatment strategies highlight the necessity for novel therapeutic modalities. HNSCC is a favourable disease for immunotherapy, as immune escape plays a key role in tumour initiation and progression. T-cell checkpoint inhibitors targeting programmed cell death protein-1 have emerged as novel immunotherapy agents showing remarkable efficacy in HNSCC. However, only a minority of patients derive benefit for single-agent immunotherapies. In this regard, combinatorial immunotherapy approaches represent an alternative strategy that might increase the number of patients who respond to immunotherapy. Focusing on HNSCC, this review will summarise novel combinations of immune checkpoint blockade with other immunotherapy treatment modalities. PMID:28848660

  9. Helping public sector health systems innovate: the strategic approach to strengthening reproductive health policies and programs.

    PubMed

    Fajans, Peter; Simmons, Ruth; Ghiron, Laura

    2006-03-01

    Public sector health systems that provide services to poor and marginalized populations in developing countries face great challenges. Change associated with health sector reform and structural adjustment often leaves these already-strained institutions with fewer resources and insufficient capacity to relieve health burdens. The Strategic Approach to Strengthening Reproductive Health Policies and Programs is a methodological innovation developed by the World Health Organization and its partners to help countries identify and prioritize their reproductive health service needs, test appropriate interventions, and scale up successful innovations to a subnational or national level. The participatory, interdisciplinary, and country-owned process can set in motion much-needed change. We describe key features of this approach, provide illustrations from country experiences, and use insights from the diffusion of innovation literature to explain the approach's dissemination and sustainability.

  10. Phytoremediation--a novel and promising approach for environmental clean-up.

    PubMed

    Suresh, B; Ravishankar, G A

    2004-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an eco friendly approach for remediation of contaminated soil and water using plants. Phytoremediation is comprised of two components, one by the root colonizing microbes and the other by plants themselves, which degrade the toxic compounds to further non-toxic metabolites. Various compounds, viz. organic compounds, xenobiotics, pesticides and heavy metals, are among the contaminants that can be effectively remediated by plants. Plant cell cultures, hairy roots and algae have been studied for their ability to degrade a number of contaminants. They exhibit various enzymatic activities for degradation of xenobiotics, viz. dehalogenation, denitrification leading to breakdown of complex compounds to simple and non-toxic products. Plants and algae also have the ability to hyper accumulate various heavy metals by the action of phytochelatins and metallothioneins forming complexes with heavy metals and translocate them into vacuoles. Molecular cloning and expression of heavy metal accumulator genes and xenobiotic degrading enzyme coding genes resulted in enhanced remediation rates, which will be helpful in making the process for large-scale application to remediate vast areas of contaminated soils. A few companies worldwide are also working on this aspect of bioremediation, mainly by transgenic plants to replace expensive physical or chemical remediation techniques. Selection and testing multiple hyperaccumulator plants, protein engineering ofphytochelatin and membrane transporter genes and their expression would enhance the rate of phytoremediation, making this process a successful one for bioremediation of environmental contamination. Recent years have seen major investments in the R&D, which have also resulted in competition of filing patents by several companies for economic gains. The details of science & technology related to phytoremediation have been discussed with a focus on future trends and prospects of global relevance.

  11. The Roving Inservice--An Innovative Approach to Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesher, Delores C.; Bomberger, Audrey S.

    1983-01-01

    The roving inservice is an approach to continuing education which enables the program to be located in multiple nursing units simultaneously for the convenience of the nurses and without an instructor. (SSH)

  12. An Innovative Approach to Sex Education in Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaisdell, Nancy L.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews a rural Washington State teacher's experience in approaching the sensitive topic of sex education. Includes advice on dealing with opposing parents, church, and school officials. The reported lesson considered the biology and reproduction of a pet boa constrictor. (TES)

  13. An Innovative Approach to Sex Education in Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaisdell, Nancy L.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews a rural Washington State teacher's experience in approaching the sensitive topic of sex education. Includes advice on dealing with opposing parents, church, and school officials. The reported lesson considered the biology and reproduction of a pet boa constrictor. (TES)

  14. Implementing and Evaluating an Innovative Approach to Simulation Training Acquisitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    busi- ness model, compares it with other approaches for buying simulations and simulation training, reviews economic theories relevant to the model, and...Points in Common with Other Approaches but Also Some Distinctive Characteristics ........................... 53 Contents vii CHAPTER FOUR The Economic ...Appropriate? .................... 65 4.3. Summary of Key Findings from Economic Theory .............. 72 xiii Summary In the wake of the failure of the Joint

  15. Innovation in urban agriculture: Evaluation data of a participatory approach (ROIR).

    PubMed

    Zoll, Felix; Specht, Kathrin; Siebert, Rosemarie

    2016-06-01

    The data in this article represent an evaluation of a participatory process called Regional Open Innovation Roadmapping (ROIR). The approach aims at the promotion of regional development. In this case, it was carried out to develop a specific innovation in the field of 'Zero-acreage farming' (ZFarming), which is a building-related subtype of urban agriculture. For the evaluation of the process, an online survey was sent to the 58 participants of the ROIR on March 4, 2014. The survey ended on April 8, 2014, and a response rate of 53.54% resulted in a sample size of 31 respondents. The survey was divided into seven different blocks. We analyzed the ROIR process׳s contribution to knowledge generation, the establishment of networks among the participants, the implementation of new projects related to ZFarming, and the increase of acceptance of ZFarming and the selected ZFarming innovation. Furthermore, other remarks, and personal information were collected. Hence, the objective of the survey was to assess whether ROIR is a useful tool to promote the aforementioned innovation drivers, and thereby, the selected innovation, which was developed throughout the process. The data were used in the research article "Application and evaluation of a participatory "open innovation" approach (ROIR): the case of introducing zero-acreage farming in Berlin" (Specht et al., 2016) [1].

  16. Anti-ischaemic efficacy of L-propionylcarnitine--a promising novel metabolic approach to ischaemia?

    PubMed

    Bartels, G L; Remme, W J; Holwerda, K J; Kruijssen, D A

    1996-03-01

    -propionylcarnitine, this novel metabolic approach to ischaemia warrants further development.

  17. Innovative Approach for Developing Spacecraft Interior Acoustic Requirement Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, S. Reynold; Dandaroy, Indranil; Allen, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) is an American spacecraft for carrying four astronauts during deep space missions. This paper describes an innovative application of Power Injection Method (PIM) for allocating Orion cabin continuous noise Sound Pressure Level (SPL) limits to the sound power level (PWL) limits of major noise sources in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) during all mission phases. PIM is simulated using both Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) and Hybrid Statistical Energy Analysis-Finite Element (SEA-FE) models of the Orion MPCV to obtain the transfer matrix from the PWL of the noise sources to the acoustic energies of the receivers, i.e., the cavities associated with the cabin habitable volume. The goal of the allocation strategy is to control the total energy of cabin habitable volume for maintaining the required SPL limits. Simulations are used to demonstrate that applying the allocated PWLs to the noise sources in the models indeed reproduces the SPL limits in the habitable volume. The effects of Noise Control Treatment (NCT) on allocated noise source PWLs are investigated. The measurement of source PWLs of involved fan and pump development units are also discussed as it is related to some case-specific details of the allocation strategy discussed here.

  18. [Prostaglandin E₂: innovative approaches for tissue engineering of articular cartilage].

    PubMed

    Brochhausen-Delius, C

    2014-11-01

    Chronic diseases, traumatic tissue defects and tumor resections lead to irreversible loss of tissue which are usually treated by reconstructive techniques or prostheses. Tissue engineering represents a change of paradigm from the structural replacement of damaged tissue to genuine regeneration of organ-specific tissue with reconstruction of function. Therefore, autologous cells, biomaterials and growth factors are used to achieve this goal. Tissue engineering of articular cartilage is used in this article as an example of the successful identification of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as a growth factor during endochondral ossification. In addition PGE2 could be shown to be beneficial for a rapid phenotypical redifferentiation and synthesis of collagen II in human articular chondrocytes. Based on these findings the development of a combined construct of an oriented scaffold and release system is demonstrated. The innovative characterization of these cell-seeded constructs by the use of synchrotron microcomputed tomography (μCT) permits non-destructive analysis even down to the cellular level. Our results indicate new requirements for the pathological anatomical diagnosis with a view to long-term effects of tissue engineering constructs, the biocompatibility of biodegradable biomaterials and even more important the regenerative potential of different lesions, with prediction of the outcome of tissue engineering-based strategies for individual patients.

  19. Oil immobilization program at Sellafield: an innovative approach

    SciTech Connect

    Cassidy, Helen

    2007-07-01

    Non-standard wastes - those defined as being both hazardous waste under the United Kingdom Hazardous Waste Regulations 2005 and radioactive under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993 - pose particular, unique challenges for radioactive waste management organizations. Treatment and disposal routes for such wastes are limited, in some cases non existent, and generally not cost effective. A non-standard waste of particular concern in the United Kingdom, and indeed on the Sellafield site, is that of radiologically contaminated waste oil. The optioning process for treatment of bulk contaminated waste oil on the Sellafield site has assessed a range of options including incineration, chemical decontamination, physical decontamination and immobilization. Immobilization has proved to be a potentially useful option for oil waste streams that fail to meet waste acceptance criteria for incineration facilities. Experimental development work has been undertaken at Sellafield during 2006 to test the suitability of an innovative technology for the solidification of waste oil with a cross section of waste streams from the site. These trials have demonstrated that this polymer system is able to successfully immobilize a range of aged, chemically and physically diverse contaminated oil waste streams and thus provide a potential solution to the disposal problem posed by this waste stream. (author)

  20. Anxiety and diabetes: Innovative approaches to management in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Tapp, Hazel

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chief concern for patients, healthcare providers, and health care systems in America, and around the globe. Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus exhibit clinical and subclinical symptoms of anxiety more frequently than people without diabetes. Anxiety is traditionally associated with poor metabolic outcomes and increased medical complications among those with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Collaborative care models have been utilized in the multidisciplinary treatment of mental health problems and chronic disease, and have demonstrated success in managing the pathology of depression which often accompanies diabetes. However, no specific treatment model has been published that links the treatment of anxiety to the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Given the success of collaborative care models in treating depression associated with diabetes, and anxiety unrelated to chronic disease, it is possible that the collaborative care treatment of primary care patients who suffer from both anxiety and diabetes could be met with the same success. The key issue is determining how to implement and sustain these models in practice. This review summarizes the proposed link between anxiety and diabetes, and offers an innovative and evidence-based collaborative care model for anxiety and diabetes in primary care. PMID:27390262

  1. A Systems Approach to Healthcare Innovation Using the MIT Hacking Medicine Model.

    PubMed

    Gubin, Tatyana A; Iyer, Hari P; Liew, Shirlene N; Sarma, Aartik; Revelos, Alex; Ribas, João; Movassaghi, Babak; Chu, Zen M; Khalid, Ayesha N; Majmudar, Maulik D; Lee, Christopher Xiang

    2017-07-26

    MIT Hacking Medicine is a student, academic, and community-led organization that uses systems-oriented "healthcare hacking" to address challenges around innovation in healthcare. The group has organized more than 80 events around the world that attract participants with diverse backgrounds. These participants are trained to address clinical needs from the perspective of multiple stakeholders and emphasize utility and implementation viability of proposed solutions. We describe the MIT Hacking Medicine model as a potential method to integrate collaboration and training in rapid innovation techniques into academic medical centers. Built upon a systems approach to healthcare innovation, the time-compressed but expertly guided nature of the events could enable more widely accessible preliminary training in systems-level innovation methodology, as well as creating a structured opportunity for interdisciplinary congregation and collaboration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Promising approaches to circumvent the blood-brain barrier: progress, pitfalls and clinical prospects in brain cancer

    PubMed Central

    Papademetriou, Iason T; Porter, Tyrone

    2015-01-01

    Brain drug delivery is a major challenge for therapy of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Biochemical modifications of drugs or drug nanocarriers, methods of local delivery, and blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption with focused ultrasound and microbubbles are promising approaches which enhance transport or bypass the BBB. These approaches are discussed in the context of brain cancer as an example in CNS drug development. Targeting to receptors enabling transport across the BBB offers noninvasive delivery of small molecule and biological cancer therapeutics. Local delivery methods enable high dose delivery while avoiding systemic exposure. BBB disruption with focused ultrasound and microbubbles offers local and noninvasive treatment. Clinical trials show the prospects of these technologies and point to challenges for the future. PMID:26488496

  3. Delivering beneficial impacts in Assistive Technology: Improving government's approach to innovation.

    PubMed

    Lane, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Society typically relies on the industrial sector to supply product and service innovations through the free market system. In some areas of free market failure deemed important to society - such as Assistive Technology - governments intervene by applying alternative innovation systems. This paper contends that governments consistently and inappropriately support an exploratory grant approach led by academia which generates knowledge in conceptual and prototype states, and instead should shift to a procurement contract approach led by industry which designs, tests and deploys commercial products and services.

  4. Methods for flexible sample-size design in clinical trials: Likelihood, weighted, dual test, and promising zone approaches.

    PubMed

    Shih, Weichung Joe; Li, Gang; Wang, Yining

    2016-03-01

    Sample size plays a crucial role in clinical trials. Flexible sample-size designs, as part of the more general category of adaptive designs that utilize interim data, have been a popular topic in recent years. In this paper, we give a comparative review of four related methods for such a design. The likelihood method uses the likelihood ratio test with an adjusted critical value. The weighted method adjusts the test statistic with given weights rather than the critical value. The dual test method requires both the likelihood ratio statistic and the weighted statistic to be greater than the unadjusted critical value. The promising zone approach uses the likelihood ratio statistic with the unadjusted value and other constraints. All four methods preserve the type-I error rate. In this paper we explore their properties and compare their relationships and merits. We show that the sample size rules for the dual test are in conflict with the rules of the promising zone approach. We delineate what is necessary to specify in the study protocol to ensure the validity of the statistical procedure and what can be kept implicit in the protocol so that more flexibility can be attained for confirmatory phase III trials in meeting regulatory requirements. We also prove that under mild conditions, the likelihood ratio test still preserves the type-I error rate when the actual sample size is larger than the re-calculated one.

  5. Innovative regulatory approach for synthetic-based muds.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-10-22

    The oil and gas industry has historically used water-based muds (WBMs) and oil-based muds (OBMs) in offshore drilling operations. WBMs are less expensive and are widely used. Both the WBMs and the associated drill cuttings maybe discharged from the platform to the sea provided that U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) discharge limitations are met. In some wells, however, difficult drilling conditions may force a switch from a WBM to an OBM. Neither the OBM nor the associated drill cuttings may be discharged. The OBM is hauled to shore, where it is processed for reuse, while the associated cuttings are injected in a disposal well at the platform or hauled to shore to a disposal facility. Both of these options are expensive. Synthetic-based muds (SBMs) are drilling fluids that use synthetic organic chemicals as base fluids. SBMs were developed to replace OBMs in difficult drilling situations. SBMs are more expensive than OBMs; however, they have superior environmental properties that may permit the cuttings to be discharged on-site. Like OBMs, SBMs are hauled ashore for processing and reuse after the well is drilled. The existing national effluent limitations guidelines (ELGs) for the offshore industry do not include requirements for SBM-cuttings since SBMs were not commonly in use at the time the ELGs were adopted. In late 1997, EPA announced that it would modify the offshore ELGs to include requirements for discharges of cuttings drilled with SBMs. For the first time in the history of the ELG program, EPA is following an innovative presumptive rulemaking process that will lead to development of draft regulations in one year rather than the 4- to 6-year period usually needed. With direction from the federal government to stakeholders concerning information needs for the regulatory development the industry has established several working groups to collect new scientific information on SBMs. This paper describes the presumptive rulemaking process and summarizes

  6. [Medical doctors driving technological innovation: questions about and innovation management approaches to incentive structures for lead users].

    PubMed

    Bohnet-Joschko, Sabine; Kientzler, Fionn

    2010-01-01

    Management science defines user-generated innovations as open innovation and lead user innovation. The medical technology industry finds user-generated innovations profitable and even indispensable. Innovative medical doctors as lead users need medical technology innovations in order to improve patient care. Their motivation to innovate is mostly intrinsic. But innovations may also involve extrinsic motivators such as gain in reputation or monetary incentives. Medical doctors' innovative activities often take place in hospitals and are thus embedded into the hospital's organisational setting. Hospitals find it difficult to gain short-term profits from in-house generated innovations and sometimes hesitate to support them. Strategic investment in medical doctors' innovative activities may be profitable for hospitals in the long run if innovations provide first-mover competitive advantages. Industry co-operations with innovative medical doctors offer chances but also bear potential risks. Innovative ideas generated by expert users may result in even higher complexity of medical devices; this could cause mistakes when applied by less specialised users and thus affect patient safety. Innovations that yield benefits for patients, medical doctors, hospitals and the medical technology industry can be advanced by offering adequate support for knowledge transfer and co-operation models.

  7. Containing Attrition in School-Based Research: An Innovative Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellickson, Phyllis L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    An approach for tracking a mobile group of 1,045 junior high school transfers and minimizing attrition in a longitudinal study of adolescent behavior was studied. Students were tracked through the home or directly through the new school. The new school strategy was very effective and greatly improved tracking. (SLD)

  8. Teacher Training Resource Handbook: Innovative Approach to Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namathaka, Lester; Kalulu, Master; Malisawa, Andrew; Mhoni, Sophie; Kabuwe, Enock; Kasitomu, Helix; Mhura, Hastings; Namachapa, Arton

    This manual provides a tool for training community-based primary school teachers with a focus on a child-centered approach. There are 34 sections: (1) "Who an Affective Teacher Is"; (2) "How Children Learn"; (3) "Schemes of Work" and "Records of Work"; (4) "The Lesson"; (5) "Lesson Plan";…

  9. Innovative Approaches in Early Childhood Education. Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khullar, Mala; Menon, Shyam

    The Bodh approach to primary education in India focuses on community and parental involvement, including home visits by teachers, training of community women to be para-teachers for preschools, and parent-teacher meetings. The curriculum is activity-oriented, incorporates a flexible age/grade matrix, and includes culturally relevant experiences.…

  10. Project Group Work: An Innovative Approach to Counseling in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piechowski, Philip A., Ed.; Ciha, Thomas E., Ed.

    This monograph begins with an overview of Project Group Work, a school counseling approach designed to enhance services to at-risk students and to further develop the skills of school social workers, psychologists, and other school personnel through the use of group counseling in the schools. It contains seven chapters. "Types of School Based…

  11. Plenary lecture: innovative modeling approaches applicable to risk assessments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proper identification of safe and unsafe food at the processing plant is important for maximizing the public health benefit of food by ensuring both its consumption and safety. Risk assessment is a holistic approach to food safety that consists of four steps: 1) hazard identification; 2) exposure a...

  12. Walking the Labyrinth: An Innovative Approach to Counseling Center Outreach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigard, Michelle F.

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the use of the labyrinth as one systemic approach counseling centers can use when conducting outreach targeting the college community. The author discusses the labyrinth's history and its recent resurgence in professional settings, summarizes the principles of walking the labyrinth, illustrates its introduction on one…

  13. Intensifying the microencapsulation process: ultrasonic atomization as an innovative approach.

    PubMed

    Dalmoro, Annalisa; Barba, Anna Angela; Lamberti, Gaetano; d'Amore, Matteo

    2012-04-01

    In this review, new approaches to the microencapsulation processes, widely used in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical products, are discussed focusing the attention on the emerging ultrasonic atomization technique. Fundamentals and novel aspects are presented, and advantages of ultrasonic atomization in terms of intensification and low energy requests are emphasized. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Innovative approaches to the hormonal treatment of advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Trachtenberg, J

    1997-01-01

    Androgen ablation therapy is the treatment of choice for the palliation of patients with advanced prostate cancer. In addition to palliation, maximal androgen ablation (MAA), with a combination of medical or surgical castration and an antiandrogen, has been shown to increase the survival of patients with metastatic prostate cancer in at least three large well-conducted trials. A subgroup analysis of these trials has suggested that patients, particularly those with low volumes of metastatic disease, fared much better when treated with MAA than with castration alone. This observation has prompted many clinicians to begin androgen ablation earlier in men with advanced but not necessarily metastatic prostate cancer, thus exposing them to prolonged periods of androgen ablation and its side effects. These include impotence, loss of libido, loss of muscle mass, malaise, and psychological disturbances. In order to offer the putative advantages of early hormone therapy but to mitigate its side effects a number of innovative methods of androgen ablation are under investigation. These include 'sequential androgen blockade' and 'intermittent androgen suppression'. Sequential androgen blockade uses a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor to reduce the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone in conjunction with an antiandrogen or androgen-receptor blocker to prevent residual androgen from reaching the androgen receptor. Circulating testosterone levels are not reduced thus minimizing side effects. Intermittent androgen suppression uses combined therapy to rapidly reduce serum testosterone and induce tumor regression. From time to time treatment is stopped and androgen concentrations rise. This method reduces the total time of exposure to castrate levels of androgen and, although prostate-specific antigen levels rise during the second phase of therapy suggesting tumor growth, proponents of this cycling method suggest that this should prolong the time to androgen independence of

  15. Helping Public Sector Health Systems Innovate: The Strategic Approach to Strengthening Reproductive Health Policies and Programs

    PubMed Central

    Fajans, Peter; Simmons, Ruth; Ghiron, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Public sector health systems that provide services to poor and marginalized populations in developing countries face great challenges. Change associated with health sector reform and structural adjustment often leaves these already-strained institutions with fewer resources and insufficient capacity to relieve health burdens. The Strategic Approach to Strengthening Reproductive Health Policies and Programs is a methodological innovation developed by the World Health Organization and its partners to help countries identify and prioritize their reproductive health service needs, test appropriate interventions, and scale up successful innovations to a subnational or national level. The participatory, interdisciplinary, and country-owned process can set in motion much-needed change. We describe key features of this approach, provide illustrations from country experiences, and use insights from the diffusion of innovation literature to explain the approach’s dissemination and sustainability. PMID:16449594

  16. Innovative Approach to Validation of Ultraviolet (UV) Reactors ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Slide presentation at Conference: ASCE 7th Civil Engineering Conference in the Asian Region. USEPA in partnership with the Cadmus Group, Carollo Engineers, and other State & Industry collaborators, are evaluating new approaches for validating UV reactors to meet groundwater & surface water pathogen inactivation including viruses for low-pressure and medium-pressure UV systems. Evaluation objectives of the study: Practical approach for validating LP and MP UV reactors for virus & cryptosporidium inactivation using various test microbes, i.e., MS2, B. pumilus, AD2, T1; Apply UV dose algorithms based on theory vs empirical that predict log-I and RED as a function of the UV sensitivity of the microbe (combined variable criteria), flow, lamp-sensor output, DL-ASCFs, w/wo UVT; Assess capabilities of test microbe for predicting target pathogen, assess credibility with second test microbe vs bracketing; Evaluate UV lamp sensor technology that accounts for germicidal contributions of low-and high-wavelength UV light within MP reactors; Address approaches for propagating and assaying AD2, B. pumilus, MS2, and methods for determining low and high wavelength ASCFs using collimated beam LP & MP UV lamps; Determine & apply low and high wavelength ASCFs to predict cryptosporidium and adenovirus credit using MS2, or B. pumilus, T1 test data; Simplify Validation-Factor (VF) analysis of uncertainties/biases; Develop recommendations document from recent lessons learned applicabl

  17. An innovative approach of risk planning for space programs.

    PubMed

    Ray, P

    2000-07-01

    According to the current rule-based risk management approach at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the effort is directed to contain all identified risks of a program. The identification of hazards and mitigation effort proceeds along with the development of the system hardware, till all the tradable resources for a program is exhausted. In this process, no conscious effort is made to evaluate risks and associated cost, and the final design is likely to have undesirable residual risks. This approach also results in allocating a significant amount of resources to gain only marginal mitigation of hazard and leave some undesirable hazards in the system due to the budget limitation. The approach in the proposed knowledge-based risk planning system makes a conscious attempt to trade risk with other resources, e.g., schedule, cost, reliability, performance, and others in a judicious and cost-effective way. A knowledge of the feasible option sets requiring high incremental cost for a marginal gain in hazard reduction helps the management to make decision for residual risk that falls within an acceptable range for an option set.

  18. A chemical genetics approach for specific differentiation of stem cells to somatic cells: a new promising therapeutical approach.

    PubMed

    Sachinidis, Agapios; Sotiriadou, Isaia; Seelig, Bianca; Berkessel, Albrecht; Hescheler, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Cell replacement therapy of severe degenerative diseases such as diabetes, myocardial infarction and Parkinson's disease through transplantation of somatic cells generated from embryonic stem (ES) cells is currently receiving considerable attention for the therapeutic applications. ES cells harvested from the inner cell mass (ICM) of the early embryo, can proliferate indefinitely in vitro while retaining the ability to differentiate into all somatic cells thereby providing an unlimited renewable source of somatic cells. In this context, identifying soluble factors, in particular chemically synthesized small molecules, and signal cascades involved in specific differentiation processes toward a defined tissue specific cell type are crucial for optimizing the generation of somatic cells in vitro for therapeutic approaches. However, experimental models are required allowing rapid and "easy-to-handle" parallel screening of chemical libraries to achieve this goal. Recently, the forward chemical genetic screening strategy has been postulated to screen small molecules in cellular systems for a specific desired phenotypic effect. The current review is focused on the progress of ES cell research in the context of the chemical genetics to identify small molecules promoting specific differentiation of ES cells to desired cell phenotype. Chemical genetics in the context of the cell ES-based cell replacement therapy remains a challenge for the near future for several scientific fields including chemistry, molecular biology, medicinal physics and robotic technologies.

  19. Massive Transfusion Protocol Simulation: An Innovative Approach to Team Training.

    PubMed

    Langston, Allison; Downing, Dayna; Packard, Jennifer; Kopulos, Marion; Burcie, Shelley; Martin, Kay; Lewis, Brennan

    2017-06-01

    At a 72-bed pediatric facility, a multidisciplinary team approach was used to prepare for the expansion of services for patients requiring spinal fusion. This preparation included emergency response requiring massive transfusion, necessitating the need for a Massive Transfusion Protocol (MTP) process to be in place. Such instances are low volume/high risk, creating difficulty for staff to gain and maintain proficiency with the equipment and processes related to the MTP in a secure environment. The purpose of this article is to highlight the preparation and education put into place before receiving the first pediatric patient for spinal fusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Developing Critical Understanding in HRM Students: Using Innovative Teaching Methods to Encourage Deep Approaches to Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Michael J. R.; Reddy, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on developing critical understanding in human resource management (HRM) students in Aston Business School, UK. The paper reveals that innovative teaching methods encourage deep approaches to study, an indicator of students reaching their own understanding of material and ideas. This improves student employability…

  1. Where's the evidence? An innovative approach to teaching staff about evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Janice M; Heitschmidt, Mary; Joyce, Mary Beth; Staneva, Ilianna; Zemansky, Peggy; Francisco, Mary Ann; Powell, Barbara; Kennedy, Terri; Kranzer, Susan French

    2006-01-01

    Preparing nurses to incorporate research and evidence-based findings into nursing practice is important to meet the needs of patients and their families in today's healthcare arena. This article highlights the use of a mock trial as an innovative approach to educating staff nurses on evidence-based practice and identifies future implications for educating staff nurses on incorporating evidence into nursing practice.

  2. Innovative Approach for Development of Drinking Water Research Data in the EPA Treatability Database

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, funding for development of the TDB has been limited due to Federal budget constraints. As a result, EPA adopted an innovative approach to continue the development of new contaminants and maintenance of treatability information on over 60 existing drinking water ...

  3. Innovative Approach to the Organization of Future Social Workers' Practical Training: Foreign Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polishchuk, Vira; Slozanska, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Innovative approaches to practical training of future social workers in higher educational establishments have been defined. Peculiarities of foreign experience of social workers' practical training in higher educational establishments have been analyzed. Experience of organizing practice for bachelor students studying at "Social Work"…

  4. Lilead Fellows Program: An Innovative Approach to Professional Development for School Library Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodama, Christie; DiScala, Jeffrey; Weeks, Ann Carlson; Barlow, Diane L.; Jacobs, Leah; Hall, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the Lilead Fellows Program, funded by a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS). This innovative approach to professional development (PD) is for school district library supervisors. It is based upon widely accepted principles of quality PD, and is in its second year of operation with an…

  5. Innovative Approach for Development of Drinking Water Research Data in the EPA Treatability Database

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, funding for development of the TDB has been limited due to Federal budget constraints. As a result, EPA adopted an innovative approach to continue the development of new contaminants and maintenance of treatability information on over 60 existing drinking water ...

  6. Breaking Barriers and Building Bridges through Networks: An Innovative Educational Approach for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalifa, Marwa A.; Sandholz, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, innovation in education is highly perceived as an effectual approach to promote awareness for sustainability. International organizations interested in education, research and training support projects seeking modernization of Higher Education (HE) and put much emphasis on developing new curricula, teaching methods or materials to…

  7. Learning Biology through Innovative Curricula: A Comparison of Game- and Nongame-Based Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Troy D.; Romine, William L.; Menon, Deepika; Ferdig, Richard E.; Annetta, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    This study explored student learning in the context of innovative biotechnology curricula and the effects of gaming as a central element of the learning experience. The quasi-experimentally designed study compared learning outcomes between two curricular approaches: One built around a computer-based game, and the other built around a narrative…

  8. Proposing a New Framework and an Innovative Approach to Teaching Reengineering and ERP Implementation Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellerin, Robert; Hadaya, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Recognizing the need to teach ERP implementation and business process reengineering (BPR) concepts simultaneously, as well as the pedagogical limitations of the case teaching method and simulation tools, the objective of this study is to propose a new framework and an innovative teaching approach to improve the ERP training experience for IS…

  9. Developing Critical Understanding in HRM Students: Using Innovative Teaching Methods to Encourage Deep Approaches to Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Michael J. R.; Reddy, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on developing critical understanding in human resource management (HRM) students in Aston Business School, UK. The paper reveals that innovative teaching methods encourage deep approaches to study, an indicator of students reaching their own understanding of material and ideas. This improves student employability…

  10. Competency-Based Education Programs in Texas: An Innovative Approach to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Davis, Van L.; Miller, Trey

    2015-01-01

    Higher-education institutions in Texas are increasingly exploring innovative approaches to structuring and delivering degree programs. Several institutions have developed competency-based degree programs, which aim to offer new pathways for students to obtain postsecondary credentials and to reduce higher-education costs for students by focusing…

  11. Educational Leadership Preparation: Innovation and Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Ed.D. and Graduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean-Marie, Gaetane, Ed.; Normore, Anthony H., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book explores the efficacy of innovative and interdisciplinary approaches to educational leadership preparation implemented at universities across the United States that serve K-12 populations in urban, rural, and suburban contexts. This collection of chapters draws from seminal and contemporary literature on preparation programs, the…

  12. Learning Biology through Innovative Curricula: A Comparison of Game- and Nongame-Based Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Troy D.; Romine, William L.; Menon, Deepika; Ferdig, Richard E.; Annetta, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    This study explored student learning in the context of innovative biotechnology curricula and the effects of gaming as a central element of the learning experience. The quasi-experimentally designed study compared learning outcomes between two curricular approaches: One built around a computer-based game, and the other built around a narrative…

  13. Proposing a New Framework and an Innovative Approach to Teaching Reengineering and ERP Implementation Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellerin, Robert; Hadaya, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Recognizing the need to teach ERP implementation and business process reengineering (BPR) concepts simultaneously, as well as the pedagogical limitations of the case teaching method and simulation tools, the objective of this study is to propose a new framework and an innovative teaching approach to improve the ERP training experience for IS…

  14. The Baby TALK Model: An Innovative Approach to Identifying High-Risk Children and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villalpando, Aimee Hilado; Leow, Christine; Hornstein, John

    2012-01-01

    This research report examines the Baby TALK model, an innovative early childhood intervention approach used to identify, recruit, and serve young children who are at-risk for developmental delays, mental health needs, and/or school failure, and their families. The report begins with a description of the model. This description is followed by an…

  15. A Review of Community Extension Approaches to Innovation for Improved Livelihoods in Ghana, Uganda and Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellard, Kate; Rafanomezana, Jenny; Nyirenda, Mahara; Okotel, Misaki; Subbey, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Farmer-to-farmer extension offers a potentially low-cost and wide-reach alternative in supporting agricultural innovation. Various approaches are being promoted but information on their impact and sustainability is sparse. This study examines experiences of Self Help Africa and partners in Ghana, Uganda and Malawi. It asks: What is good…

  16. Canadian Wildland Fire Strategy: A vision for an innovative and integrated approach to managing the risks

    Treesearch

    Canadian Wildland Fire Strategy Project Management Team

    2006-01-01

    The Canadian Wildland Fire Strategy (CWFS) provides a vision for a new, innovative, and integrated approach to wildland fire management in Canada. It was developed under the auspices of the Canadian Council of Forest Ministers and seeks to balance the social, ecological, and economic aspects of wildland fire through a risk management framework that emphasizes hazard...

  17. A Diffusion of Innovations Approach to Gerontological Curriculum Enrichment: Institutionalizing and Sustaining Curricular Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Lorraine T.; Murty, Susan A.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a gerontological enrichment model for institutionalizing and sustaining curricular change utilizing Rogers' (1995, 2003) diffusion of innovations approach to organizational change. The goal of the project, funded by the John A. Hartford Foundation, is to transform the social work curriculum at a major state university so…

  18. A Review of Community Extension Approaches to Innovation for Improved Livelihoods in Ghana, Uganda and Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellard, Kate; Rafanomezana, Jenny; Nyirenda, Mahara; Okotel, Misaki; Subbey, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Farmer-to-farmer extension offers a potentially low-cost and wide-reach alternative in supporting agricultural innovation. Various approaches are being promoted but information on their impact and sustainability is sparse. This study examines experiences of Self Help Africa and partners in Ghana, Uganda and Malawi. It asks: What is good…

  19. Educational Leadership Preparation: Innovation and Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Ed.D. and Graduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean-Marie, Gaetane, Ed.; Normore, Anthony H., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book explores the efficacy of innovative and interdisciplinary approaches to educational leadership preparation implemented at universities across the United States that serve K-12 populations in urban, rural, and suburban contexts. This collection of chapters draws from seminal and contemporary literature on preparation programs, the…

  20. Lilead Fellows Program: An Innovative Approach to Professional Development for School Library Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodama, Christie; DiScala, Jeffrey; Weeks, Ann Carlson; Barlow, Diane L.; Jacobs, Leah; Hall, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the Lilead Fellows Program, funded by a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS). This innovative approach to professional development (PD) is for school district library supervisors. It is based upon widely accepted principles of quality PD, and is in its second year of operation with an…

  1. Innovation in urban agriculture: Evaluation data of a participatory approach (ROIR)

    PubMed Central

    Zoll, Felix; Specht, Kathrin; Siebert, Rosemarie

    2016-01-01

    The data in this article represent an evaluation of a participatory process called Regional Open Innovation Roadmapping (ROIR). The approach aims at the promotion of regional development. In this case, it was carried out to develop a specific innovation in the field of ‘Zero-acreage farming’ (ZFarming), which is a building-related subtype of urban agriculture. For the evaluation of the process, an online survey was sent to the 58 participants of the ROIR on March 4, 2014. The survey ended on April 8, 2014, and a response rate of 53.54% resulted in a sample size of 31 respondents. The survey was divided into seven different blocks. We analyzed the ROIR process׳s contribution to knowledge generation, the establishment of networks among the participants, the implementation of new projects related to ZFarming, and the increase of acceptance of ZFarming and the selected ZFarming innovation. Furthermore, other remarks, and personal information were collected. Hence, the objective of the survey was to assess whether ROIR is a useful tool to promote the aforementioned innovation drivers, and thereby, the selected innovation, which was developed throughout the process. The data were used in the research article “Application and evaluation of a participatory “open innovation” approach (ROIR): the case of introducing zero-acreage farming in Berlin” (Specht et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27182542

  2. Evaluation of an Innovative Approach to Validation of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    UV disinfection is an effective process for inactivating many microbial pathogens found in source waters with the potential as stand-alone treatment or in combination with other disinfectants. For surface and groundwater sourced drinking water applications, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) provided guidance on the validation of UV reactors nearly a decade ago. The focus of the guidance was primarily for inactivation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Over the last ten years many lessons have been learned, validation practices have been modified, new science issues discovered, and changes in operation & monitoring of UV systems need to be addressed. Also, there remains no standard approach for validating UV reactors to meet a 4-log (99.99%) inactivation of viruses. USEPA in partnership with the Cadmus Group, Carollo Engineers, and other State & Industry collaborators, are evaluating new approaches for validating UV reactors to meet groundwater & surface water pathogen inactivation including viruses for low-pressure and medium-pressure UV systems. A particular challenge for medium-pressure UV is the monitoring of low-wavelength germicidal contributions for appropriate crediting of disinfection under varying reactor conditions of quartz sleeve fouling, lamp aging, and changes in UV absorbance of the water over time. In the current effort, bench and full-scale studies are being conducted on a low pressure (LP) UV reactor and a medium pressure (MP) UV re

  3. Optimizing algal cultivation & productivity : an innovative, multidiscipline, and multiscale approach.

    SciTech Connect

    Murton, Jaclyn K.; Hanson, David T.; Turner, Tom; Powell, Amy Jo; James, Scott Carlton; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Scholle, Steven; August, Andrew; Dwyer, Brian P.; Ruffing, Anne; Jones, Howland D. T.; Ricken, James Bryce; Reichardt, Thomas A.

    2010-04-01

    Progress in algal biofuels has been limited by significant knowledge gaps in algal biology, particularly as they relate to scale-up. To address this we are investigating how culture composition dynamics (light as well as biotic and abiotic stressors) describe key biochemical indicators of algal health: growth rate, photosynthetic electron transport, and lipid production. Our approach combines traditional algal physiology with genomics, bioanalytical spectroscopy, chemical imaging, remote sensing, and computational modeling to provide an improved fundamental understanding of algal cell biology across multiple cultures scales. This work spans investigations from the single-cell level to ensemble measurements of algal cell cultures at the laboratory benchtop to large greenhouse scale (175 gal). We will discuss the advantages of this novel, multidisciplinary strategy and emphasize the importance of developing an integrated toolkit to provide sensitive, selective methods for detecting early fluctuations in algal health, productivity, and population diversity. Progress in several areas will be summarized including identification of spectroscopic signatures for algal culture composition, stress level, and lipid production enabled by non-invasive spectroscopic monitoring of the photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments at the single-cell and bulk-culture scales. Early experiments compare and contrast the well-studied green algae chlamydomonas with two potential production strains of microalgae, nannochloropsis and dunnaliella, under optimal and stressed conditions. This integrated approach has the potential for broad impact on algal biofuels and bioenergy and several of these opportunities will be discussed.

  4. Nonionic Surfactant Vesicles in Ocular Delivery: Innovative Approaches and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Ranjan Ku.; Biswas, Nikhil; Guha, Arijit; Sahoo, Nityananda

    2014-01-01

    With the recent advancement in the field of ocular therapy, drug delivery approaches have been elevated to a new concept in terms of nonionic surfactant vesicles (NSVs), that is, the ability to deliver the therapeutic agent to a patient in a staggered profile. However the major drawbacks of the conventional drug delivery system like lacking of permeability through ocular barrier and poor bioavailability of water soluble drugs have been overcome by the emergence of NSVs. The drug loaded NSVs (DNSVs) can be fabricated by simple and cost-effective techniques with improved physical stability and enhance bioavailability without blurring the vision. The increasing research interest surrounding this delivery system has widened the areas of pharmaceutics in particular with many more subdisciplines expected to coexist in the near future. This review gives a comprehensive emphasis on NSVs considerations, formulation approaches, physicochemical properties, fabrication techniques, and therapeutic significances of NSVs in the field of ocular delivery and also addresses the future development of modified NSVs. PMID:24995280

  5. From didactic teaching to participatory learning. An innovative approach.

    PubMed

    Mathabathe, Nkhensani C; Rudolph, Michael J; Ogunbodede, Eyitope O; Smuts, Bridget

    2004-03-01

    A course in Public Oral Health is currently offered by the Division of Public Oral Health (POH) to students in their final (6th year) of study for the degree of Bachelor of Dental Science. A fundamental aspect of this project was to shift the teaching methods from didactic to a participatory, student-centred approach, based on current local and international trends in medical, dental and general education. In 1999 the course covering core Public Health topics was presented over a period of 20 weeks to 49 students who were divided into three groups. Staff members were trained in participatory, student-centred teaching methods. An evaluation of students and staff was conducted at the end of the course. Results show that students were satisfied with the teaching methods employed and commended the Division on the organisation of the course. Students were unhappy with the amount of reading required in preparation for weekly seminars. They felt that the course was inappropriately positioned in their final year of study, due to pressure of achieving quotas for the clinical courses. Nevertheless, the main objectives of the Public Oral Health course were achieved through the adoption of a participatory, student-centred teaching approach.

  6. Some Innovative Approaches for Public Health and Epidemiology Informatics.

    PubMed

    Toubiana, L; Griffon, N

    2016-11-10

    Summarize excellent current research published in 2015 in the field of Public Health and Epidemiology Informatics. The complete 2015 literature concerning public health and epidemiology informatics has been searched in PubMed and Web of Science, and the returned references were reviewed by the two section editors to select 14 candidate best papers. These papers were then peer-reviewed by external reviewers to allow the editorial team an enlightened selection of the best papers. Among the 1,272 references retrieved from PubMed and Web of Science, three were finally selected as best papers. The first one presents a language agnostic approach for epidemic event detection in news articles. The second paper describes a system using big health data gathered by a statewide system to forecast emergency department visits. The last paper proposes a rather original approach that uses machine learning to solve the old issue of outbreak detection and prediction. The increasing availability of data, now directly from health systems, will probably lead to a boom in public health surveillance systems and in large-scale epidemiologic studies.

  7. The promise of recombinant BMP ligands and other approaches targeting BMPR-II in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ormiston, Mark L.; Upton, Paul D.; Li, Wei; Morrell, Nicholas W.

    2015-01-01

    Human genetic discoveries offer a powerful method to implicate pathways of major importance to disease pathobiology and hence provide targets for pharmacological intervention. The genetics of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) strongly implicates loss-of-function of the bone morphogenetic protein type II receptor (BMPR-II) signalling pathway and moreover implicates the endothelial cell as a central cell type involved in disease initiation. We and others have described several approaches to restore BMPR-II function in genetic and non-genetic forms of PAH. Of these, supplementation of endothelial BMP9/10 signalling with exogenous recombinant ligand has been shown to hold considerable promise as a novel large molecule biopharmaceutical therapy. Here, we describe the mechanism of action and discuss potential additional effects of BMP ligand therapy. PMID:26779522

  8. An innovative approach to joining metals to ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Guha, S.; Loutfy, R.; Withers, J.

    1994-12-31

    In contrast to most conventional approaches in modeling metal-ceramic couples, in the present investigation, the elastic behavior of the ceramic was modeled with a limit defined by the Drucker-Prager model. The resulting model affords excellent qualitative and quantitative ability to predict cracking in the ceramic component, if any, during the post-brazing cool-down stage. Several plane-stress geometries were investigated, and the numerical predictions compared with experimental results. In each and every case, the model successfully predicted cracking in the ceramic component, as well as predicted the crack initiation site which compared favorably with experimental observations. This model was successfully utilized in the design of a crack-free joint between Ceralloy 147-3 Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and 1040 Steel without using soft metals as interlayers.

  9. Innovative biological approaches for monitoring and improving water quality

    PubMed Central

    Aracic, Sanja; Manna, Sam; Petrovski, Steve; Wiltshire, Jennifer L.; Mann, Gülay; Franks, Ashley E.

    2015-01-01

    Water quality is largely influenced by the abundance and diversity of indigenous microbes present within an aquatic environment. Physical, chemical and biological contaminants from anthropogenic activities can accumulate in aquatic systems causing detrimental ecological consequences. Approaches exploiting microbial processes are now being utilized for the detection, and removal or reduction of contaminants. Contaminants can be identified and quantified in situ using microbial whole-cell biosensors, negating the need for water samples to be tested off-site. Similarly, the innate biodegradative processes can be enhanced through manipulation of the composition and/or function of the indigenous microbial communities present within the contaminated environments. Biological contaminants, such as detrimental/pathogenic bacteria, can be specifically targeted and reduced in number using bacteriophages. This mini-review discusses the potential application of whole-cell microbial biosensors for the detection of contaminants, the exploitation of microbial biodegradative processes for environmental restoration and the manipulation of microbial communities using phages. PMID:26322034

  10. Innovative approaches to bipolar disorder and its treatment

    PubMed Central

    Cipriani, Andrea; Harmer, Catherine J.; Nobre, Anna C.; Saunders, Kate; Goodwin, Guy M.; Geddes, John R.

    2016-01-01

    All psychiatric disorders have suffered from a dearth of truly novel pharmacological interventions. In bipolar disorder, lithium remains a mainstay of treatment, six decades since its effects were serendipitously discovered. The lack of progress reflects several factors, including ignorance of the disorder's pathophysiology and the complexities of the clinical phenotype. After reviewing the current status, we discuss some ways forward. First, we highlight the need for a richer characterization of the clinical profile, facilitated by novel devices and new forms of data capture and analysis; such data are already promoting a reevaluation of the phenotype, with an emphasis on mood instability rather than on discrete clinical episodes. Second, experimental medicine can provide early indications of target engagement and therapeutic response, reducing the time, cost, and risk involved in evaluating potential mood stabilizers. Third, genomic data can inform target identification and validation, such as the increasing evidence for involvement of calcium channel genes in bipolar disorder. Finally, new methods and models relevant to bipolar disorder, including stem cells and genetically modified mice, are being used to study key pathways and drug effects. A combination of these approaches has real potential to break the impasse and deliver genuinely new treatments. PMID:27111134

  11. An innovative approach to reducing medical care utilization and expenditures.

    PubMed

    Orme-Johnson, D W; Herron, R E

    1997-01-01

    In a retrospective study, we assessed the impact on medical utilization and expenditures of a multicomponent prevention program, the Maharishi Vedic Approach to Health (MVAH). We compared archival data from Blue Cross/Blue Shield Iowa for MVAH (n = 693) with statewide norms for 1985 through 1995 (n = 600,000) and with a demographically matched control group (n = 4,148) for 1990, 1991, 1994, and 1995. We found that the 4-year total medical expenditures per person in the MVAH group were 59% and 57% lower than those in the norm and control groups, respectively; the 11-year mean was 63% lower than the norm. The MVAH group had lower utilization and expenditures across all age groups and for all disease categories. Hospital admission rates in the control group were 11.4 times higher than those in the MVAH group for cardiovascular disease, 3.3 times higher for cancer, and 6.7 times higher for mental health and substance abuse. The greatest savings were seen among MVAH patients older than age 45, who had 88% fewer total patients days compared with control patients. Our results confirm previous research supporting the effectiveness of MVAH for preventing disease. Our evaluation suggests that MVAH can be safely used as a cost-effective treatment regimen in the managed care setting.

  12. Knowledge Discovery/A Collaborative Approach, an Innovative Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, Mary A.

    2009-01-01

    Collaboration between Medical Informatics and Healthcare Systems (MIHCS) at NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC) and the Texas Medical Center (TMC) Library was established to investigate technologies for facilitating knowledge discovery across multiple life sciences research disciplines in multiple repositories. After reviewing 14 potential Enterprise Search System (ESS) solutions, Collexis was determined to best meet the expressed needs. A three month pilot evaluation of Collexis produced positive reports from multiple scientists across 12 research disciplines. The joint venture and a pilot-phased approach achieved the desired results without the high cost of purchasing software, hardware or additional resources to conduct the task. Medical research is highly compartmentalized by discipline, e.g. cardiology, immunology, neurology. The medical research community at large, as well as at JSC, recognizes the need for cross-referencing relevant information to generate best evidence. Cross-discipline collaboration at JSC is specifically required to close knowledge gaps affecting space exploration. To facilitate knowledge discovery across these communities, MIHCS combined expertise with the TMC library and found Collexis to best fit the needs of our researchers including:

  13. An innovative approach to research and development: the CEFRIEL experience.

    PubMed

    Castelli, A; Colombo, C; Decina, M; Frumento, E

    2001-01-01

    CEFRIEL (Centre for Research and Training in Information Technology) is a non-profit organization that represents a point of contact among University, Technological Companies and Public Government. Since its foundation in 1988 its goal has been related to the education and the research in Information and Communication Technology (ICT). CEFRIEL constitutes itself in seven areas embracing all the aspects of ICT, from hardware design to software engineering. The enormous number of trained specialized technicians represents the most important result of the Centre: more than 500 specialists and about 100 researchers for the ICT sector. In 1998 CEFRIEL created a new area, the Information and communication TEchnology for Medicine area (ITEM), as the result of the previous positive experiences in the healthcare field. In the last two years the results obtained by the ITEM area show that CEFRIEL's approach could be profitable also in the healthcare sector. These activities represent a natural outlet for the expertise and skills collected and enrich the contents of the training courses through continuous reference to the realities of the Industry and the Service sector.

  14. Lean Production as an Innovative Approach to Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spišáková, Marcela; Kozlovská, Mária

    2013-06-01

    Lean production presents a new approach to the construction management which has enabled enterprises to attain very high levels of efficiency, competitiveness and flexibility in production systems. Nowadays, a number of industrial processes are managed in accordance with these advanced management principles [1]. The principles of lean production are applied within the integrated design and delivery solutions (IDDS) and prefabricated construction. IDDS uses collaborative work processes and enhanced skills, with integrated data, information, and knowledge management to minimize structural and process inefficiencies and to enhance the value delivered during design, build, and operation, and across projects. Prefabrication presents a one of opportunities for construction methods, which allows the compliance with principles of sustainable design, provides the potential benefits such as faster construction, fewer housing defects, reduction in energy use and waste and elimination of environmental and safety risks. This paper presents the lean production within the IDDS and its potential in the modern prefabrication. There is created a field providing of benefits of lean production in construction industry.

  15. Promoting Healthy Outcomes Among Youth with Multiple Risks: Innovative Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Mark T.; Lippold, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent behavior problems such as substance use, antisocial behavior problems, and mental health problems have extremely high social costs and lead to overburdened mental health and juvenile justice systems in the United States and Europe. The prevalence of these problems is substantial, and at-risk youth often present with a combination of concerns. An understanding of risk and protective factors at multiple levels, including the child, family, peer, school, and community, has influenced intervention development. At the individual and family levels, the most effective and cost-effective programs work intensively with youth and their families or use individual and group cognitive-behavioral approaches. However, there is a paucity of careful studies of effective policies and programs in the juvenile justice system. Research is needed that focuses on adoption, financing, implementation, and sustainable use of evidence-based programs in public service systems. In addition, the field needs to understand better for whom current programs are most effective to create the next generation of more effective and efficient programs. PMID:23297659

  16. Innovative approaches to promote a culturally competent, diverse health care workforce in an institution serving Hispanic students.

    PubMed

    Ghaddar, Suad; Ronnau, John; Saladin, Shawn P; Martínez, Glenn

    2013-12-01

    The underrepresentation of minorities among health care providers and researchers is often considered one of the contributing factors to health disparities in these populations. Recent demographic shifts and the higher proportion of minorities anticipated among the newly insured under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act make the need for a more diverse and culturally competent health care workforce an urgent national priority.The authors describe current and future strategies that have been developed at the College of Health Sciences and Human Services at the University of Texas-Pan American (an institution with 89% Hispanic students in 2012) to prepare a culturally competent and ethnically diverse health care workforce that can meet the needs of a diverse population, especially in the college's own community. The college graduates approximately 650 students annually for careers in nursing, physician assistant studies, occupational therapy, pharmacy, rehabilitation services, clinical laboratory sciences, dietetics, and social work. The college's approach centers on enriching student education with research, service, and community-based experiences within a social-determinants-of-health framework. The approach is promoted through an interdisciplinary health disparities research center, multiple venues for community-based service learning, and an innovative approach to improve cultural and linguistic competence. Although the different components of the college's approach are at different developmental stages and will benefit from more formal evaluations, the college's overall vision has several strengths that promise to serve as a model for future academic health initiatives.

  17. The transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from unconventional sources: an innovative approach to multiple sclerosis therapy.

    PubMed

    Giacoppo, Sabrina; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2017-03-25

    In recent years, in the effort to find a potential innovative therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS), researchers focused on transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) due to their well-recognized ability to suppress inflammatory/autoimmune responses and exert neuroregenerative properties. MSCs are a heterogeneous subset of pluripotent non-hematopoietic stromal cells that can be isolated from many different adult tissues, characterized by the capability to differentiate into various cell lineages, and to translocate into damaged areas, providing immunomodulatory effects. To date, several encouraging results were obtained mainly from the use of MSCs derived from the bone marrow (BM-MSCs) in experimental models of MS as well as in clinical trials. However, their use in clinic is limited due to the invasive collecting procedure and the low yield of viable stem cells. Consequently, these restrictions have prompted researchers to look for alternative tissue sources for stem cells such as adipose tissue, fetal annexes, and dental tissues that could represent a novel therapeutic option for MS treatment. Here, we provide an overview of the current knowledge about the most explored BM-MSCs in MS treatment in experimental and clinical studies. Moreover, we propose that unconventional sources of stem cells, which show characteristics similar to that of BM-MSCs, and being less invasive for removal, could be considered an excellent alternative to BM-MSCs and thus could be a promising innovative approach for MS treatment.

  18. Innovative and successful approaches to improving care transitions from hospital to home.

    PubMed

    Labson, Margherita C

    2015-02-01

    Effective transitions to home care have been identified as among the factors leading to reducing hospital readmissions within 30 days of discharge and improvements on various other quality measures. Innovative applications of published evidence-based models and best practices designed to improve care transitions have been implemented in various settings across the country in an effort to enhance quality performance. For this article, The Joint Commission collected a series of case examples to examine how evidence-based innovations in care transitions are reducing readmissions and improving other quality outcomes. The organizations providing the case examples were interviewed and asked to provide performance data demonstrating quality improvement, as well as information about their care processes and data-gathering techniques. Their innovative approaches are reducing hospital readmissions; improving patient safety, satisfaction, and engagement; and contributing to other positive outcomes.

  19. Innovative and Successful Approaches to Improving Care Transitions From Hospital to Home

    PubMed Central

    Labson, Margherita C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Effective transitions to home care have been identified as among the factors leading to reducing hospital readmissions within 30 days of discharge and improvements on various other quality measures. Innovative applications of published evidence-based models and best practices designed to improve care transitions have been implemented in various settings across the country in an effort to enhance quality performance. For this article, The Joint Commission collected a series of case examples to examine how evidence-based innovations in care transitions are reducing readmissions and improving other quality outcomes. The organizations providing the case examples were interviewed and asked to provide performance data demonstrating quality improvement, as well as information about their care processes and data-gathering techniques. Their innovative approaches are reducing hospital readmissions; improving patient safety, satisfaction, and engagement; and contributing to other positive outcomes. PMID:25654457

  20. A promising approach to iPSC-based cell therapy for diabetic wound treatment: direct lineage reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuang; Li, Qin

    2014-08-05

    Successful reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has ushered in a new era of regenerative medicine. Several studies on iPSCs have corroborated their immense promise and potential for use in cell therapy and disease modeling. However, several shortcomings need to be overcome before they can be used in clinical therapy. Investigation of iPSC fate and physiology in vivo and ultimately, the feasibility of their application in cell transplantation therapy, requires more in-depth studies in living subjects. One recently established alternative approach to reprogramming involves the direct conversion of a terminally differentiated somatic cell of one type into another, without dedifferentiating into a pluripotent state. This direct lineage reprogramming strategy is significantly faster, has the potential to generate an enriched population of a specific subtype of cells, and hence, has wide implications in regenerative cell therapy. Here, we review recent advances in iPSC technology and summarize the research on the generation of patient-specific induced cell types using direct lineage conversion. Specifically, we focus on the scope of application of this approach in autologous cell replacement therapy for diabetic wound treatment.

  1. Examining the articulation of innovativeness in co-creative firms: a neural network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Tollo, Giacomo; Tanev, Stoyan

    2010-10-01

    Value co-creation is an emerging marketing and innovation paradigm describing a broader opening of the firm to its customers by providing them with the opportunity to become active participants in the design and development of personalized products, services and experiences. The aim of the present contribution is to provide preliminary results from a research project focusing on the relationship between value co-creation and the perception of innovation in technology-driven firms. The data was collected in a previous study using web search techniques and factor analysis to identify the key co-creation components and the frequency of firms' online comments about their new products, processes and services. The present work focuses on using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach to understand if the extent of value co-creation activities can be thought of as an indicator of the perception of innovation. The preliminary simulation results indicate the existence of such relationship. The ANN approach does not suggest a specific model but the relationship that was found out between the forecasted values of the perception of innovation and its actual values clearly points in this direction.

  2. Examining the articulation of innovativeness in co-creative firms: a neural network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Tollo, Giacomo; Tanev, Stoyan

    2011-03-01

    Value co-creation is an emerging marketing and innovation paradigm describing a broader opening of the firm to its customers by providing them with the opportunity to become active participants in the design and development of personalized products, services and experiences. The aim of the present contribution is to provide preliminary results from a research project focusing on the relationship between value co-creation and the perception of innovation in technology-driven firms. The data was collected in a previous study using web search techniques and factor analysis to identify the key co-creation components and the frequency of firms' online comments about their new products, processes and services. The present work focuses on using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach to understand if the extent of value co-creation activities can be thought of as an indicator of the perception of innovation. The preliminary simulation results indicate the existence of such relationship. The ANN approach does not suggest a specific model but the relationship that was found out between the forecasted values of the perception of innovation and its actual values clearly points in this direction.

  3. Innovative approaches to water and wastewater treatment developed at CSIRO, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Priestley, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    The CSIRO Division of Chemicals and Polymers in Melbourne, Australia, has a program of research targeted at the development of innovative approaches to water and wastewater treatment. The research covers both biological and physicochemical approaches and has resulted in a number of different approaches to wastewater treatment, one of which is described in this paper. The particular work described involves an accelerated coagulation/flocculation process based on the use of fine magnetic particles, which has been applied to both water and wastewater treatment. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Innovation, Innovation, Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Innovation, Universities and Skills. The new title of the department offers much food for thought. The title is indeed an intriguing and important one. Bringing the idea of innovation right to the fore is, to use an overworked term, challenging. Pinning down what innovation means is not at all easy. There are three different lines of argument. The…

  5. Teacher Leadership as a Key to Education Innovation. Action Steps and Promising Strategies for State, District, and University Officials. Policy-to-Practice Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Teacher leadership can improve teacher retention, strengthen the teaching profession, build the capacity of school leaders, and facilitate innovative advances to the structure of school staffing. Therefore, many states are beginning to formalize teacher-leadership options, and this expanded career continuum is expected to facilitate improved…

  6. A promising approach of reject water treatment using a tidal flow constructed wetland system employing alum sludge as main substrate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Zhao, Y Q; Wang, S P; Guo, X C; Ren, Y X; Wang, L; Wang, X C

    2011-01-01

    This study examined a novel reuse of alum sludge, an inescapable by-product of drinking water treatment process when aluminium salt is added as a coagulant, as the main medium in a laboratory-scale multi-stage constructed wetland (CW) system for reject water treatment. Such reject water is a main concern in municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP) for increasing the organic and nutrient loading. A 'tidal flow' strategy was employed to enhance the wetland aeration to stimulate organic matters (OM) and ammoniacal-nitrogen (N) oxidation while the 'step feed' operation was adopted to supply the necessary amount of carbon source for denitrification. The results reveal that alum sludge acting as P adsorbent can secure the P removal. Meanwhile, high removals of N and OM can also be obtained due to the active bacteria growth on the alum sludge surface. The results show that average removal efficiencies of 65.4 +/- 12.3% for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 67.8 +/- 9.2% for five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), 33.6 +/- 17.0% for N and 99.5 +/- 0.49% for P can be achieved over a period of 190 days. This indicates that novel reuse of alum sludge as medium in CW system can provide a promising approach for reject water treatment. Therefore, it will significantly reduce the amount of pollutant feedback through reject water recycling in a MWWTP.

  7. A promising approach for the recovery of high value-added metals from spent lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Juntao; Zhang, Jialiang; Li, Hongxu; Chen, Yongqiang; Wang, Chengyan

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the paper is to present a promising approach for recycling high value-added metals from the cathode materials of spent LIBs. The synthesis process of NCM cathode material enlightened us to apply reduction roasting to break LiNixCoyMnzO2 into simple compounds or metals. Accordingly, the effect of several factors such as temperature, carbon dosage and roasting time is assessed on the leaching efficiency of valuable metals. The roasted products are analyzed by XRD and SEM-EDS, and the results show that the cathode material after reduction roasting is primarily transformed into Li2CO3, Ni, Co and MnO. However, the solubility of Li2CO3 is relatively low, so carbonated water leaching is used to treat the roasted products. Then the filtrate is evaporated for the preparation of pure Li2CO3, and residue is leached to recycle other metals with H2SO4. The results indicate that, after roasted at 650 °C for 3 h with 19.9% carbon dosage, 84.7% Li is preferentially recovered via carbonated water leaching, and more than 99% Ni, Co and Mn are recycled via acid leaching without adding reductant. Finally, the products of Li2CO3, NiSO4, CoSO4 and MnSO4 are obtained. The process have great potential for industrial-scale recycling from spent LIBs.

  8. A Promising Approach to Integrally Evaluate the Disease Outcome of Cerebral Ischemic Rats Based on Multiple-Biomarker Crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yixuan; Wei, Chunxiang; Zhu, Tao; Wang, Haidong; He, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The study was designed to evaluate the disease outcome based on multiple biomarkers related to cerebral ischemia. Methods Rats were randomly divided into sham, permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, and edaravone-treated groups. Cerebral ischemia was induced by permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery in rats. To form a simplified crosstalk network, the related multiple biomarkers were chosen as S100β, HIF-1α, IL-1β, PGI2, TXA2, and GSH-Px. The levels or activities of these biomarkers in plasma were detected before and after ischemia. Concurrently, neurological deficit scores and cerebral infarct volumes were assessed. Based on a mathematic model, network balance maps and three integral disruption parameters (k, φ, and u) of the simplified crosstalk network were achieved. Results The levels or activities of the related biomarkers and neurological deficit scores were significantly impacted by cerebral ischemia. The balance maps intuitively displayed the network disruption, and the integral disruption parameters quantitatively depicted the disruption state of the simplified network after cerebral ischemia. The integral disruption parameter u values correlated significantly with neurological deficit scores and infarct volumes. Conclusion Our results indicate that the approach based on crosstalk network may provide a new promising way to integrally evaluate the outcome of cerebral ischemia. PMID:28630527

  9. Gaussian process: a promising approach for the modeling and prediction of Peptide binding affinity to MHC proteins.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yanrong; Chen, Xiaolin; Feng, Ming; Wang, Qiang; Zhou, Peng

    2011-07-01

    On the basis of Bayesian probabilistic inference, Gaussian process (GP) is a powerful machine learning method for nonlinear classification and regression, but has only very limited applications in the new areas of computational vaccinology and immunoinformatics. In the current work, we present a paradigmatic study of using GP regression technique to quantitatively model and predict the binding affinities of over 7000 immunodominant peptide epitopes to six types of human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins. In this procedure, the sequence patterns of diverse peptides are characterized quantitatively and the resulting variables are then correlated with the experimentally measured affinities between different MHC and their peptide ligands, by using a linearity- and nonlinearity-hybrid GP approach. We also make systematical comparisons between the GP and two sophisticated modeling methods as partial least square (PLS) regression and support vector machine (SVM) with respect to their fitting ability, predictive power and generalization capability. The results suggest that GP could be a new and effective tool for the modeling and prediction of MHC-peptide interactions and would be promising in the field of computer-aided vaccine design (CAVD).

  10. A novel and promising therapeutic approach for NSCLC: recombinant human arginase alone or combined with autophagy inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Shen, Weitao; Zhang, Xuyao; Fu, Xiang; Fan, Jiajun; Luan, Jingyun; Cao, Zhonglian; Yang, Ping; Xu, Zhongyuan; Ju, Dianwen

    2017-03-30

    Recombinant human arginase (rhArg), an enzyme capable of depleting arginine, has been shown to be an effective therapeutic approach for various cancers. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), a histological subtype of pulmonary carcinoma, has a high rate of morbidity and mortality in the world. Thus, the need for novel and more effective treatment is urgent. In this study, it is the first time to report that rhArg could induce significant cytotoxicity and caspase-dependent apoptosis in NSCLC cells. Subsequently, our research revealed that rhArg dramatically stimulated autophagic response in NSCLC cells, which was proved by the formation and accumulation of autophagosomes and the conversion of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) from LC3-I to LC3-II. Furthermore, blocking autophagy by chloroquine or LY294002 remarkably enhanced rhArg-induced cytotoxicity and caspase-dependent apoptosis, suggesting that autophagy acted a cytoprotective role in rhArg-treated NSCLC cells. Further experiments showed that two signaling pathways including the Akt/mTOR and extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway, and mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were involved in rhArg-induced autophagy and apoptosis. Meanwhile, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a common antioxidant, was employed to scavenge ROS, and we detected that it could significantly block rhArg-induced autophagy and cytotoxicity, indicating that ROS played a vital role in arginine degradation therapy. Besides, xenograft experiment showed that combination with autophagy inhibitor potentiated the anti-tumor efficacy of rhArg in vivo. Therefore, these results provided a novel prospect and viewpoint that autophagy acted a cytoprotective role in rhArg-treated NSCLC cells, and treatment with rhArg alone or combined with autophagy inhibitor could be a novel and promising therapeutic approach for NSCLC in vivo and in vitro.

  11. Recent advances in innovative therapeutic approaches for Duchenne muscular dystrophy: from discovery to clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu-Motohashi, Yuko; Miyatake, Shouta; Komaki, Hirofumi; Takeda, Shin’ichi; Aoki, Yoshitsugu

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked progressive degenerative muscle disorder caused by the absence of dystrophin. There is no curative therapy, although innovative therapeutic approaches have been aggressively investigated over recent years. Currently, the international clinical trial registry platform for this disease has been constructed and clinical trials for innovative therapeutic approaches are underway. Among these, exon skipping and read-through of nonsense mutations are in the most advanced stages, with exon skipping theoretically applicable to a larger number of patients. To date, exon skipping that targets exons 51, 44, 45, and 53 is being globally investigated including in USA, EU, and Japan. The latest announcement from Japan was made, demonstrating successful dystrophin production in muscles of patients with DMD after treating with exon 53 skipping antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs). However, the innovative therapeutic approaches have demonstrated limited efficacy. To address this issue in exon skipping, studies to unveil the mechanism underlying gymnotic delivery of ASO uptake in living cells have been conducted in an effort to improve in vivo delivery. Further, establishing the infrastructures to integrate multi-institutional clinical trials are needed to facilitate the development of successful therapies for DMD, which ultimately is applicable to other myopathies and neurodegenerative diseases, including spinal muscular atrophy and motor neuron diseases. PMID:27398133

  12. Recent advances in innovative therapeutic approaches for Duchenne muscular dystrophy: from discovery to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Shimizu-Motohashi, Yuko; Miyatake, Shouta; Komaki, Hirofumi; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Aoki, Yoshitsugu

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked progressive degenerative muscle disorder caused by the absence of dystrophin. There is no curative therapy, although innovative therapeutic approaches have been aggressively investigated over recent years. Currently, the international clinical trial registry platform for this disease has been constructed and clinical trials for innovative therapeutic approaches are underway. Among these, exon skipping and read-through of nonsense mutations are in the most advanced stages, with exon skipping theoretically applicable to a larger number of patients. To date, exon skipping that targets exons 51, 44, 45, and 53 is being globally investigated including in USA, EU, and Japan. The latest announcement from Japan was made, demonstrating successful dystrophin production in muscles of patients with DMD after treating with exon 53 skipping antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs). However, the innovative therapeutic approaches have demonstrated limited efficacy. To address this issue in exon skipping, studies to unveil the mechanism underlying gymnotic delivery of ASO uptake in living cells have been conducted in an effort to improve in vivo delivery. Further, establishing the infrastructures to integrate multi-institutional clinical trials are needed to facilitate the development of successful therapies for DMD, which ultimately is applicable to other myopathies and neurodegenerative diseases, including spinal muscular atrophy and motor neuron diseases.

  13. Keeping Promises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Gregory A.

    2005-01-01

    Commitments are between people, not schedules. Project management as practiced today creates a "commitment-free zone," because it assumes that people will commit to centrally managed schedules without providing a mechanism to ensure their work can be done. So they give it their best, but something always seems to come up ..."I tried, but you know how it is." This form of project management does not provide a mechanism to ensure that what should be done, can in fact be done at the required moment. Too often, promises reliable promise. made in coordination meetings are conditional and unreliable. It has been my experience that at times trust can be low and hard to build in this environment. The absence of reliable promises explains why on well-run projects, people are often only completing 30-50 percent of the deliverables they d promised for the week. We all know what a promise is; we have plenty of experience making them and receiving them from others. So what s the problem? The sad fact is that the project environment-like many other work environments- is often so filled with systemic dishonesty, that we don t expect promises that are reliable. Project managers excel when they manage their projects as networks of commitments and help their people learn to elicit and make reliable promises.

  14. Boosting Post-Secondary and Career Success: A Two-Generation Approach for the Promise Neighborhood. Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbert, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    The Cleveland Central Promise Neighborhood (CCPN) initiative brings together Central neighborhood residents, community stakeholders and partners to create the kind of community where every child can have career and college success. Helping children achieve a bright future filled with opportunity is the cornerstone of the Promise Initiative. The…

  15. Boosting Post-Secondary and Career Success: A Two-Generation Approach for the Promise Neighborhood. Education. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbert, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    The Cleveland Central Promise Neighborhood (CCPN) initiative brings together Central neighborhood residents, community stakeholders and partners to create the kind of community where every child can have career and college success. Helping children achieve a bright future filled with opportunity is the cornerstone of the Promise Initiative. The…

  16. Decreasing nitrate-N loads to coastal ecosystems with innovative drainage management strategies in agricultural landscapes: An experimental approach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Controlled drainage in agricultural ditches contributes to a drainage management strategy with potential environmental and production benefits. Innovative drainage strategies including spatially orientated low-grade weirs show promise to significantly improve nutrient (e.g. nitrate-N) reductions by...

  17. Combining flow cytometry and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing: a promising approach for drinking water monitoring and characterization.

    PubMed

    Prest, E I; El-Chakhtoura, J; Hammes, F; Saikaly, P E; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2014-10-15

    The combination of flow cytometry (FCM) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing data was investigated for the purpose of monitoring and characterizing microbial changes in drinking water distribution systems. High frequency sampling (5 min intervals for 1 h) was performed at the outlet of a treatment plant and at one location in the full-scale distribution network. In total, 52 bulk water samples were analysed with FCM, pyrosequencing and conventional methods (adenosine-triphosphate, ATP; heterotrophic plate count, HPC). FCM and pyrosequencing results individually showed that changes in the microbial community occurred in the water distribution system, which was not detected with conventional monitoring. FCM data showed an increase in the total bacterial cell concentrations (from 345 ± 15 × 10(3) to 425 ± 35 × 10(3) cells mL(-1)) and in the percentage of intact bacterial cells (from 39 ± 3.5% to 53 ± 4.4%) during water distribution. This shift was also observed in the FCM fluorescence fingerprints, which are characteristic of each water sample. A similar shift was detected in the microbial community composition as characterized with pyrosequencing, showing that FCM and genetic fingerprints are congruent. FCM and pyrosequencing data were subsequently combined for the calculation of cell concentration changes for each bacterial phylum. The results revealed an increase in cell concentrations of specific bacterial phyla (e.g., Proteobacteria), along with a decrease in other phyla (e.g., Actinobacteria), which could not be concluded from the two methods individually. The combination of FCM and pyrosequencing methods is a promising approach for future drinking water quality monitoring and for advanced studies on drinking water distribution pipeline ecology.

  18. New Approaches to Improving College Access, Persistence, and Success: Three Exemplary Postsecondary Opportunity Programs. A Report from the Wisconsin Center for the Advancement of Postsecondary Education (WISCAPE) and the MHEC Promising Practices Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaade, Elizabeth Stransky; Connery, J. Edward; McCready, Bo

    2010-01-01

    This is the second in an occasional series called "Promising Practices: What Works in the Midwest." The series was launched to showcase innovative initiatives and effective ways to address common challenges and unique opportunities in higher education. Promising practices enable educators and policymakers to compare and benchmark…

  19. FIDELIS--innovative approaches to increasing global case detection of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rusen, I D; Enarson, Donald A

    2006-01-01

    Tuberculosis was declared a global public health emergency in 1993. In 2003, only 45% of the world's estimated new smear-positive tuberculosis cases were detected-well below the 70% global case detection target set by the World Health Organization. The FIDELIS (Fund for Innovative DOTS Expansion Through Local Initiatives to Stop TB) initiative is a new global disease control initiative that has been developed to rapidly assess and implement innovative approaches to increase tuberculosis case detection. To date, 32 projects have been approved-covering approximately 378 million people in 13 countries-24 (75%) of which are in the world's 6 highest-burden countries. A wide range of target populations and interventions have been incorporated into successful FIDELIS projects. The FIDELIS initiative may serve as a model to discover best practices to address other urgent global public health problems.

  20. FIDELIS—Innovative Approaches to Increasing Global Case Detection of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Rusen, I. D.; Enarson, Donald A.

    2006-01-01

    Tuberculosis was declared a global public health emergency in 1993. In 2003, only 45% of the world’s estimated new smear-positive tuberculosis cases were detected—well below the 70% global case detection target set by the World Health Organization. The FIDELIS (Fund for Innovative DOTS Expansion Through Local Initiatives to Stop TB) initiative is a new global disease control initiative that has been developed to rapidly assess and implement innovative approaches to increase tuberculosis case detection. To date, 32 projects have been approved—covering approximately 378 million people in 13 countries—24 (75%) of which are in the world’s 6 highest-burden countries. A wide range of target populations and interventions have been incorporated into successful FIDELIS projects. The FIDELIS initiative may serve as a model to discover best practices to address other urgent global public health problems. PMID:16317206

  1. A Systems Biology Approach to Infectious Disease Research: Innovating the Pathogen-Host Research Paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Aderem, Alan; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles; Galagan, James; Kaiser, Shari; Korth, Marcus J.; Law, G. L.; McDermott, Jason E.; Proll, Sean; Rosenberger, Carrie; Schoolnik, Gary; Katze, Michael G.

    2011-02-01

    The 20th century was marked by extraordinary advances in our understanding of microbes and infectious disease, but pandemics remain, food and water borne illnesses are frequent, multi-drug resistant microbes are on the rise, and the needed drugs and vaccines have not been developed. The scientific approaches of the past—including the intense focus on individual genes and proteins typical of molecular biology—have not been sufficient to address these challenges. The first decade of the 21st century has seen remarkable innovations in technology and computational methods. These new tools provide nearly comprehensive views of complex biological systems and can provide a correspondingly deeper understanding of pathogen-host interactions. To take full advantage of these innovations, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recently initiated the Systems Biology Program for Infectious Disease Research. As participants of the Systems Biology Program we think that the time is at hand to redefine the pathogen-host research paradigm.

  2. An innovative approach to health promotion experiences in community health nursing: a university collaborative partnership.

    PubMed

    Carter, Melondie R; Kelly, Rebecca K; Montgomery, Michele; Cheshire, Michelle

    2013-02-01

    The number of nurses working in community-based practices with a population focus is increasing rapidly, whereas the rate of employment for nurses in hospitals is expected to grow more slowly. The shift in health care toward primary health care and health promotion requires nurse educators to ensure that students learn to practice in collaborative partnerships in community settings. This article describes an innovative collaborative partnership with the Capstone College of Nursing and the Office of Health Promotion and Wellness at The University of Alabama. Through this partnership, community health nursing students provide health promotion for university employees in the University's wellness program. The program provides nursing students with a unique opportunity for interprofessional collaboration while improving their clinical and communication skills. This innovative collaborative approach serves as a useful model for nursing faculty members when delivering community health instruction.

  3. A Systems Biology Approach to Infectious Disease Research: Innovating the Pathogen-Host Research Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Aderem, Alan; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles; Galagan, James; Kaiser, Shari; Korth, Marcus J.; Law, G. Lynn; McDermott, Jason G.; Proll, Sean C.; Rosenberger, Carrie; Schoolnik, Gary; Katze, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    The twentieth century was marked by extraordinary advances in our understanding of microbes and infectious disease, but pandemics remain, food and waterborne illnesses are frequent, multidrug-resistant microbes are on the rise, and the needed drugs and vaccines have not been developed. The scientific approaches of the past—including the intense focus on individual genes and proteins typical of molecular biology—have not been sufficient to address these challenges. The first decade of the twenty-first century has seen remarkable innovations in technology and computational methods. These new tools provide nearly comprehensive views of complex biological systems and can provide a correspondingly deeper understanding of pathogen-host interactions. To take full advantage of these innovations, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recently initiated the Systems Biology Program for Infectious Disease Research. As participants of the Systems Biology Program, we think that the time is at hand to redefine the pathogen-host research paradigm. PMID:21285433

  4. Community-based approaches and partnerships: innovations in health-service delivery in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    El Arifeen, Shams; Christou, Aliki; Reichenbach, Laura; Osman, Ferdous Arfina; Azad, Kishwar; Islam, Khaled Shamsul; Ahmed, Faruque; Perry, Henry B; Peters, David H

    2013-12-14

    In Bangladesh, rapid advancements in coverage of many health interventions have coincided with impressive reductions in fertility and rates of maternal, infant, and childhood mortality. These advances, which have taken place despite such challenges as widespread poverty, political instability, and frequent natural disasters, warrant careful analysis of Bangladesh's approach to health-service delivery in the past four decades. With reference to success stories, we explore strategies in health-service delivery that have maximised reach and improved health outcomes. We identify three distinctive features that have enabled Bangladesh to improve health-service coverage and health outcomes: (1) experimentation with, and widespread application of, large-scale community-based approaches, especially investment in community health workers using a doorstep delivery approach; (2) experimentation with informal and contractual partnership arrangements that capitalise on the ability of non-governmental organisations to generate community trust, reach the most deprived populations, and address service gaps; and (3) rapid adoption of context-specific innovative technologies and policies that identify country-specific systems and mechanisms. Continued development of innovative, community-based strategies of health-service delivery, and adaptation of new technologies, are needed to address neglected and emerging health challenges, such as increasing access to skilled birth attendance, improvement of coverage of antenatal care and of nutritional status, the effects of climate change, and chronic disease. Past experience should guide future efforts to address rising public health concerns for Bangladesh and other underdeveloped countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. BIM-Based E-Procurement: An Innovative Approach to Construction E-Procurement

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative approach to e-procurement in construction, which uses building information models (BIM) to support the construction procurement process. The result is an integrated and electronic instrument connected to a rich knowledge base capable of advanced operations and able to strengthen transaction relationships and collaboration throughout the supply chain. The BIM-based e-procurement prototype has been developed using distinct existing electronic solutions and an IFC server and was tested in a pilot case study, which supported further discussions of the results of the research. PMID:26090518

  6. BIM-Based E-Procurement: An Innovative Approach to Construction E-Procurement.

    PubMed

    Aguiar Costa, António; Grilo, António

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative approach to e-procurement in construction, which uses building information models (BIM) to support the construction procurement process. The result is an integrated and electronic instrument connected to a rich knowledge base capable of advanced operations and able to strengthen transaction relationships and collaboration throughout the supply chain. The BIM-based e-procurement prototype has been developed using distinct existing electronic solutions and an IFC server and was tested in a pilot case study, which supported further discussions of the results of the research.

  7. Training care teams of children with autism spectrum disorders in positive behaviour support: an innovative approach.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Shawn; Lynch, Shane L; Litman, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    As part of a team, the authors developed a workshop to help parents and teams address the behavioural needs of children with autism using a positive behaviour support (PBS) approach. Teams received comprehensive training in PBS and completed weekly homework assignments. Measures of participant satisfaction, parent satisfaction and efficacy and child behaviour suggested this training as an effective intervention for these teams. Participants reported improvements and the effective implementation of strategies after involvement in the workshops. This innovative model suggests potential for teams struggling with communication challenges in addressing problem behaviours in children with autism.

  8. Innovative approach for the electrochemical detection of non-electroactive organophosphorus pesticides using oxime as electroactive probe.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing; Hou, Juying; Jiang, Jianxia; Ai, Shiyun

    2015-07-23

    An innovative approach for sensitive and simple electrochemical detection of non-electroactive organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was described in this report. The novel strategy emphasized the fabrication of an oxime-based sensor via attaching pralidoxime (PAM) on graphene quantum dots (GQDs) modified glassy carbon electrode. The introduction of GQDs significantly increased the effective electrode area, and then enlarged the immobilization quantity of PAM. Thus, the oxidation current of PAM was obviously increased. Relying on the nucleophilic substitution reaction between oxime and OPs, fenthion was detected using PAM as the electroactive probe. Under optimum conditions, the difference of oxidation current of PAM was proportional to fenthion concentration over the range from 1.0×10(-11)M to 5.0×10(-7)M with a detection limit of 6.8×10(-12)M (S/N=3). Moreover, the favorable detection performance in water and soil samples heralded the promising applications in on-site OPs detection.

  9. Quality Ratings and Improvement Systems in Early Childhood Education: Promising Approaches for Pennsylvania. A PACER Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Della; Englander, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Policymakers are recognizing that Pennsylvania has fallen behind in providing equitable access to high quality early childhood education. Governor Tom Wolf ran on a campaign promise of universal pre-k access and proposed an unprecedented budget increase for early childhood programs in 2016. In Philadelphia, Mayor Jim Kenney has made pre-k a…

  10. Infusing BSCS 5E Instructional Model with Multimedia: A Promising Approach to Develop 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senan, Divya C.

    2013-01-01

    The full promise of class room learning is dependent on its ability to incorporate 21st century skills in its instructional design, delivery and implementation. In this increasingly competitive global economy, it is not enough for students to acquire subject-level mastery alone. Skills like creative thinking, problem-solving, communication and…

  11. Starting with Students: Notable Programs, Promising Approaches, and Other Improvement Efforts in American Postsecondary Education. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Clifford; Reuben, Elaine

    Sixty-six descriptions of notable programs and promising practices related to specific problems, practices, and goals in American postsecondary education are presented in this study, a continuation of Volume I. The programs are the result of searches made by the staff of the National Commission on Excellence in Education, although neither the…

  12. Innovative laser based approaches to laryngeal cancer: what an engineer and physicist need to know

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, James A.

    2008-02-01

    Innovative laser-based approaches to laryngeal cancer include the clinical applications of two new technologies, photoangiolysis using a 532nm wavelength pulsed-KTP laser and fiber-based cutting using a 2μm wavelength thulium laser. Photoangiolysis is well-suited for treatment of minimally invasive glottic cancer and allows maximum preservation of phonatory surfaces needed for optimal voicing. The thulium laser offers an alternative to the carbon dioxide laser as an endolaryngeal cutting tool due to its enhanced hemostatic properties and fiber-based delivery. Clinical examples of pulsed-KTP laser involution of early glottic cancer will be presented in order to highlight the concept of targeting tumor angiogenesis in treating laryngeal cancer. The surgical experience using the thulium laser for complex endoscopic endolaryngeal excisions of large laryngeal cancers is presented to demonstrate the expanded clinical applications of endolaryngeal cutting offered by this laser. The laryngeal tissue effects of various laser power and pulse width (PW) settings, mode of delivery, active cooling to reduce thermal trauma, and wavelength selection have been extensively studied for the KTP and thulium lasers in both ex-vivo and live-perfusing models. The results from these studies, included herein, determine the clinical efficacy and safety of these innovative laser-based approaches to laryngeal cancer.

  13. A Case Study of the Fidelity Approach in an Educational Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weedall, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Organizational innovation is a difficult process. Most innovations fail. If an innovation fails there is a high probability the organization will be fractured. It is easy to break apart an organization. It is much more difficult to build it back up. This is a case study of an innovation in a branch of a large private English language school in…

  14. A Case Study of the Fidelity Approach in an Educational Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weedall, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Organizational innovation is a difficult process. Most innovations fail. If an innovation fails there is a high probability the organization will be fractured. It is easy to break apart an organization. It is much more difficult to build it back up. This is a case study of an innovation in a branch of a large private English language school in…

  15. A Study of Difficulties and Approaches for Innovative Talents Training of Public Administration Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Yanhan; Wu, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The innovation is the soul of one nation making progresses. To build an innovative country, we need to train more innovative talents who is capable of public administration. The innovative talents training of public administration undergraduate faces a lot of problems, such as the influences of traditional culture, the constraint of education…

  16. Innovative approaches to training and qualifying plant personnel at GPU Nuclear

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, R.P.

    1994-12-31

    For the past 10 yr, technical training programs at GPU Nuclear (GPUN) have been highly successful in the training and qualifying of nuclear station personnel at its Oyster Creek and Three Mile Island sites. The programs have received accreditation by the National Academy for Nuclear Training and have successfully reviewed and approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, American Nuclear Insurers, and various internal oversight groups. Over the past several years, the training and education department at GPUN has attempted to make learning more interesting and meaningful through a series of innovative approaches. Student feedback has been very positive. Plant management has seen an increase in productivity as key learning tasks are reinforced. Failure rates are dwindling, and retention rates appear to be improving. Equally important, instructors are becoming more and more comfortable with these approaches and the increased quality in classroom and laboratory training.

  17. Propagation of New Innovations: An Approach to Classify Human Behavior and Movement from Available Social Network Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahmud, Faisal; Samiul, Hasan

    2010-01-01

    It is interesting to observe new innovations, products, or ideas propagating into the society. One important factor of this propagation is the role of individual's social network; while another factor is individual's activities. In this paper, an approach will be made to analyze the propagation of different ideas in a popular social network. Individuals' responses to different activities in the network will be analyzed. The properties of network will also be investigated for successful propagation of innovations.

  18. Teaching Note--Incorporating Social Innovation Content into Macro Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Cosner Berzin, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The practice of social innovation offers promising approaches for addressing social issues. Although many social innovation strategies are congruent with macro social work theory and practice, some of the insights and tactics that have emerged in the social innovation field have the potential to strengthen current macro practice. Based on our…

  19. Teaching Note--Incorporating Social Innovation Content into Macro Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Cosner Berzin, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The practice of social innovation offers promising approaches for addressing social issues. Although many social innovation strategies are congruent with macro social work theory and practice, some of the insights and tactics that have emerged in the social innovation field have the potential to strengthen current macro practice. Based on our…

  20. Human-Centered Design as an Approach for Place-Based Innovation in Public Health: A Case Study from Oakland, California.

    PubMed

    Vechakul, Jessica; Shrimali, Bina Patel; Sandhu, Jaspal S

    2015-12-01

    This case study provides a high-level overview of the human-centered design (HCD) or "design thinking" process and its relevance to public health. The Best Babies Zone (BBZ) initiative is a multi-year project aimed at reducing inequities in infant mortality rates. In 2012, BBZ launched pilot programs in three US cities: Cincinnati, Ohio; New Orleans, Louisiana; and Oakland, California. The Alameda County Public Health Department (ACPHD), the lead for the Oakland BBZ site, identified HCD as a promising approach for addressing the social and economic conditions that are important drivers of health inequities. HCD is a process for creating innovative products, services, and strategies that prioritizes the needs of the intended population. ACPHD partnered with the Gobee Group (a social innovation design consultancy) to develop the Design Sprint. The Design Sprint was a 12-week pilot in which 14 professionals from nine organizations used the HCD process to develop concepts for stimulating a vibrant local economy in the Oakland Best Babies Zone. Thirty- to sixty-minute semi-structured interviews were conducted with all 14 individuals involved in the Design Sprint. With the exception of one interview, the interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and inductively coded to identify themes. Our experience suggests that HCD can: enhance community engagement; expedite the timeframe for challenge identification, program design, and implementation; and create innovative programs that address complex challenges.

  1. An innovative approach for very large landslide dynamic and hydrogeological triggering study by inverse modeling (Grand Ilet landslide, Reunion Island)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belle, P.; Aunay, B.; Join, J.-L.; Bernardie, S.

    2012-04-01

    Landslide control mechanisms study and displacements modeling interest the scientific community since several decades, with a common objective: landslides prediction for humans and infrastructures protection. However many data acquisition, like pore water pressure or mechanical properties, are necessary for determinist model construction. It could be extremely complex for very large landslides in extreme climatic conditions. An innovative modeling method is proposed for very large landslide functioning characterization using the primary data rainfall and displacement. Here we study two very large landslides (≈ 450 Mm3) in a humid tropical climate (Salazie cirque, Reunion Island). We use an inverse modeling tool basing on a global approach, with Gaussian-exponential transfer functions. Transfer functions between the rainfall input signal and the velocity output signal (permanent GPS daily data)are determinated. Because of the gap displacement data, the hydrologic cycles 2010 and 2011 is selected for the calibration of transfer functions. Afterwards, we model the landslide velocity from rainfall signal since 2004 to 2011. In the case of Grand Ilet landslide, we study relations between transfer functions characteristics and the coupling between the displacements and the hydrogeological functioning. For cumulated displacements, final difference between simulations and observations for 7 years modeling is smaller than 5 %. Seasonal landslides velocity variations are accurately modeled during a period of 7 years. Bimodal transfer functions, with dissociation between rapid and slow impulse responses, are particularly effective for reproducing the recorded displacements. In particular, rapid response permits to model velocity increases after cyclonic events. In case of Grand Ilet landslide, transfer functions characteristics are strongly correlated with the landslide aquifer functioning. Indeed, influence times of rapid and slow responses are reliable with a double

  2. Healthcare students as innovative partners in the development of future healthcare services: An action research approach.

    PubMed

    Norbye, Bente

    2016-11-01

    Health care systems in Norway and the western world have experienced extensive changes due to patients living longer with complex conditions that require coordinated care. A Norwegian healthcare reform has led to significant restructuring in service delivery as a devolution of services to municipalities. Partners from three rural healthcare services, students from four professional programmes, and one lecturer from each of the professional programmes used a collaborative approach to obtain new knowledge through interprofessional practice. Using an action research design, the research group facilitated democratic processes through dialogues with healthcare services and students. The design is visualised as a cyclical process in which each cycle contributes to improvements, innovations, and increased understanding. A total of 32 students and 3 supervisors were interviewed before and after the clinical practice experiences. Fieldwork was conducted during three clinical periods. Interprofessional student groups formed small healthcare teams and assessed patients with chronic and long-term conditions. Students prepared and negotiated patient follow-up. The teams' responsibilities led to reflective practices that enhanced their professional knowledge. The teams achieved a new understanding of patient situations, which influenced "second opinions" for patients with complex conditions and led to innovative practices. The change in perception of patient needs led to a changed professional approach. The students' perceptions changed as they learned from and about each other and in collaboration with the health service; this led to more coordinated care of patients with complex conditions. Interprofessional learning in community settings provided a platform to improve both healthcare education and rural healthcare services. This research contributes to knowledge of how students' placement in interprofessional teams can enhance students learning from, with and about each other

  3. Robotic surgery: disruptive innovation or unfulfilled promise? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the first 30 years.

    PubMed

    Tan, Alan; Ashrafian, Hutan; Scott, Alasdair J; Mason, Sam E; Harling, Leanne; Athanasiou, Thanos; Darzi, Ara

    2016-10-01

    guide surgical decision making regarding the precise clinical targets of this innovation in the next generation of its use.

  4. Boron containing magnetic nanoparticles for neutron capture therapy--an innovative approach for specifically targeting tumors.

    PubMed

    Tietze, Rainer; Unterweger, Harald; Dürr, Stephan; Lyer, Stefan; Canella, Lea; Kudejova, Petra; Wagner, Franz M; Petry, Winfried; Taccardi, Nicola; Alexiou, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    The selective delivery of (10)B into the tumor tissue remains to be further improved for successful and reliable Boron Neutron Capture Therapy applications. Magnetic Drug Targeting using intraarterially administered superparamagnetic nanoparticles and external magnetic fields already exhibited convincing results in terms of highly efficient and selective drug deposition. Using the same technique for the targeted (10)B delivery is a promising new approach. Here, systematic irradiation experiments of phantom cubes containing different concentrations of boron and nanoparticles as well as varying three-dimensional arrangements have been performed.

  5. Innovative regulatory approaches to reduce sodium consumption: could a cap-and-trade system work?

    PubMed

    Forshee, Richard A

    2008-05-01

    Many regulatory and professional organizations are calling for strict new regulations to reduce sodium consumption on a population basis. New regulations on sodium may have significant public health and economic impacts. This article explores five regulatory options to reduce sodium consumption: 1) maintaining the status quo, 2) improving risk communication and information, 3) revoking generally regarded as safe status of sodium and regulating its use in food products, 4) establishing a sodium tax, and 5) establishing a market-based, cap-and-trade system for sodium that builds on similar approaches in environmental regulatory policy. Cap-and-trade may be a promising regulatory option for sodium and other ingredients.

  6. Innovative Hypofractionated Stereotactic Regimen Achieves Excellent Local Control with No Radiation Necrosis: Promising Results in the Management of Patients with Small Recurrent Inoperable GBM

    PubMed Central

    Pannullo, Susan C.; Minkowitz, Shlomo; Taube, Shoshana; Chang, Jenghwa; Parashar, Bhupesh; Christos, Paul; Wernicke, A.Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Management of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains a challenge. Several institutions reported that a single fraction of ≥ 20 Gy for small tumor burden results in excellent local control; however, this is at the expense of a high incidence of radiation necrosis (RN). Therefore, we developed a hypofractionation pattern of 33 Gy/3 fractions, which is a radiobiological equivalent of 20 Gy, with the aim to lower the incidence of RN. We reviewed records of 21 patients with recurrent GBM treated with hypofractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (HFSRT) to their 22 respective lesions. Sixty Gy fractioned external beam radiotherapy was performed as first-line treatment. Median time from primary irradiation to HFSRT was 9.6 months (range: 3.1 – 68.1 months). In HFSRT, a median dose of 33 Gy in 11 Gy fractions was delivered to the 80% isodose line that encompassed the target volume. The median tumor volume was 1.07 cm3 (range: 0.11 – 16.64 cm3). The median follow-up time after HFSRT was 9.3 months (range: 1.7 – 33.6 months). Twenty-one of 23 lesions treated (91.3%) achieved local control while 2/23 (8.7%) progressed. Median time to progression outside of the treated site was 5.2 months (range: 2.2 – 9.6 months). Progression was treated with salvage chemotherapy. Five of 21 patients (23.8%) were alive at the end of this follow-up; two patients remain disease-free. The remaining 16/21 patients (76.2%) died of disease. Treatment was well tolerated by all patients with no acute CTC/RTOG > Grade 2. There was 0% incidence of RN. A prospective trial will be underway to validate these promising results. PMID:27096136

  7. New approaches of organizing care and work: giving way to participation, mobilization, and innovation.

    PubMed

    Viens, Chantal; Lavoie-Tremblay, Mélanie; Leclerc, Martine Mayrand; Brabant, Louise Hamelin

    2005-01-01

    Quebec's health network has undertaken large-scale organizational changes to ensure the continuity, accessibility, and quality of health care and services for the population. This article describes the optimal approach for making changes to the organization of care and work for patients, health care workers, and organizations. This participative action research was carried out by means of interviews and document analysis. One hundred participants were involved, describing a total of 34 projects for significant organizational change. Results include an optimal approach broken down into 4 phases, each of which includes steps, facilitating factors, and potential difficulties. The phases of this approach are: (1) sharing the vision, mission, and values of the organization and identifying the purpose and need underlying the change; (2) building alliances and validating the involvement of the various players; (3) conceptualizing and planning the project; and (4) implementing changes and continuing evaluation. It is possible to rise to the challenge of finding new approaches to organize care and work by giving way to participation, mobilization, and innovation.

  8. A Promising Approach to Provide Appropriate Colon Target Drug Delivery Systems of Vancomycin HCL: Pharmaceutical and Microbiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Elkhodairy, Kadria A.; Afifi, Samar A.; Zakaria, Azza S.

    2014-01-01

    Vancomycin HCl was prepared as orally administered colon target drug delivery tablets for systemic therapy. Tablet matrices containing 10–60% of tablet weight of guar gum (F1–F6) were prepared by direct compression and subjected to in vitro release studies to explore their sustained release in the colon. Various synthetic and natural polymers were incorporated to F6 to modify the drug release rate. Different 15 matrix tablet formulations (F6–F20) were enteric coated with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose phthalate. F6, F13 and F20 showed promising sustained release results having median dissolution time (MDT) values: 8.25, 7.97, and 7.64, respectively. Microbiological assay was performed to test the efficacy of F6, F13, and F20 to inhibit clinical Staphylococcus aureus (SA) isolates. Bactericidal activity of F6 was reached after 2, 4, and 24 hours of incubation against MSSA 18, MRSA 29, and MRSA 11 strains, respectively, while it was reached within 6–8 hours in case of F13, and F20 against all strains tested. F13 enhanced log microbial reduction by 1.74, 0.65 and 2.4 CFU/mL compared to F6 while it was 1, 2.57 and 1.57 compared to F20 against MSSA18, MRSA11 and MRSA29, respectively. Vancomycin HCl tablets displayed a promising sustained release in vitro and microbiological inhibitory action on all isolates tested. PMID:24551841

  9. An innovative approach to molecularly imprinted capillaries for polar templates by grafting polymerization.

    PubMed

    Giovannoli, Cristina; Passini, Cinzia; Baravalle, Patrizia; Anfossi, Laura; Giraudi, Gianfranco; Baggiani, Claudio

    2012-06-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers have been successfully used as selective stationary phases in capillary electrophoresis. Notwithstanding, this technique suffers from several drawbacks as the loss of molecular recognition properties in aqueous media and the lack of feasibility for imprinted systems directed towards highly polar templates soluble in aqueous environments only. Thus, the preparation of imprinted polymers for highly polar, water-soluble analytes, represents a challenge. In this work, we present an innovative approach to overcome these drawbacks. It is based on a surface molecular imprinting technique that uses preformed macromonomers as both functional recognition elements and cross-linking agents. A poly-2-hydroxyethyl-co-methacrylic acid linear polymer was grafted from the surface of silica capillaries. The grafted polymer was exhaustively esterified with methacrylic anhydride to obtain polyethylendimethacrylate-co-methacrylic acid linear chains. Then, as a proof of concept, an adequate amount of a very polar template like penicillin V was added in a hydro-organic mixture, and a thin layer of imprinted polymer was obtained by cross-linking the polymer linear chains. The binding behaviour of the imprinted and non-imprinted capillaries was evaluated in different separation conditions in order to assess the presence of template selectivity and molecular recognition effects. The experimental results clearly show that this innovative kind of imprinted material can be easily obtained in very polar polymerization environments and that it is characterized by enhanced molecular recognition properties in aqueous buffers and good selectivity towards the template and strictly related molecules.

  10. State strategies of governance in biomedical innovation: aligning conceptual approaches for understanding 'Rising Powers' in the global context

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background 'Innovation' has become a policy focus in its own right in many states as they compete to position themselves in the emerging knowledge economies. Innovation in biomedicine is a global enterprise in which 'Rising Power' states figure prominently, and which undoubtedly will re-shape health systems and health economies globally. Scientific and technological innovation processes and policies raise difficult issues in the domains of science/technology, civil society, and the economic and healthcare marketplace. The production of knowledge in these fields is complex, uncertain, inter-disciplinary and inter-institutional, and subject to a continuing political struggle for advantage. As part of this struggle, a wide variety of issues - regulation, intellectual property, ethics, scientific boundaries, healthcare market formation - are raised and policy agendas negotiated. Methods A range of social science disciplines and approaches have conceptualised such innovation processes. Against a background of concepts such as the competition state and the developmental state, and national innovation systems, we give an overview of a range of approaches that have potential for advancing understanding of governance of global life science and biomedical innovation, with special reference to the 'Rising Powers', in order to examine convergences and divergences between them. Conceptual approaches that we focus on include those drawn from political science/political economy, sociology of technology; Innovation Studies and Science & Technology Studies. The paper is part of a project supported by the UK ESRC's Rising Powers programme. Results We show convergences and complementarities between the approaches discussed, and argue that the role of the national state itself has become relatively neglected in much of the relevant theorising. Conclusions We conclude that an approach is required that enables innovation and governance to be seen as 'co-producing' each other in a multi

  11. Navigating the Future of Cardiovascular Drug Development-Leveraging Novel Approaches to Drive Innovation and Drug Discovery: Summary of Findings from the Novel Cardiovascular Therapeutics Conference.

    PubMed

    Povsic, Thomas J; Scott, Rob; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Blaustein, Robert; Edelberg, Jay M; Lefkowitz, Martin P; Solomon, Scott D; Fox, Jonathan C; Healy, Kevin E; Khakoo, Aarif Y; Losordo, Douglas W; Malik, Fady I; Monia, Brett P; Montgomery, Rusty L; Riesmeyer, Jeffrey; Schwartz, Gregory G; Zelenkofske, Steven L; Wu, Joseph C; Wasserman, Scott M; Roe, Matthew T

    2017-07-22

    The need for novel approaches to cardiovascular drug development served as the impetus to convene an open meeting of experts from the pharmaceutical industry and academia to assess the challenges and develop solutions for drug discovery in cardiovascular disease. The Novel Cardiovascular Therapeutics Summit first reviewed recent examples of ongoing or recently completed programs translating basic science observations to targeted drug development, highlighting successes (protein convertase sutilisin/kexin type 9 [PCSK9] and neprilysin inhibition) and targets still under evaluation (cholesteryl ester transfer protein [CETP] inhibition), with the hope of gleaning key lessons to successful drug development in the current era. Participants then reviewed the use of innovative approaches being explored to facilitate rapid and more cost-efficient evaluations of drug candidates in a short timeframe. We summarize observations gleaned from this summit and offer insight into future cardiovascular drug development. The rapid development in genetic and high-throughput drug evaluation technologies, coupled with new approaches to rapidly evaluate potential cardiovascular therapies with in vitro techniques, offer opportunities to identify new drug targets for cardiovascular disease, study new therapies with better efficiency and higher throughput in the preclinical setting, and more rapidly bring the most promising therapies to human testing. However, there must be a critical interface between industry and academia to guide the future of cardiovascular drug development. The shared interest among academic institutions and pharmaceutical companies in developing promising therapies to address unmet clinical needs for patients with cardiovascular disease underlies and guides innovation and discovery platforms that are significantly altering the landscape of cardiovascular drug development.

  12. Grants4Targets - an innovative approach to translate ideas from basic research into novel drugs.

    PubMed

    Lessl, Monika; Schoepe, Stefanie; Sommer, Anette; Schneider, Martin; Asadullah, Khusru

    2011-04-01

    Collaborations between industry and academia are steadily gaining importance. To combine expertises Bayer Healthcare has set up a novel open innovation approach called Grants4Targets. Ideas on novel drug targets can easily be submitted to http://www.grants4targets.com. After a review process, grants are provided to perform focused experiments to further validate the proposed targets. In addition to financial support specific know-how on target validation and drug discovery is provided. Experienced scientists are nominated as project partners and, depending on the project, tools or specific models are provided. Around 280 applications have been received and 41 projects granted. According to our experience, this type of bridging fund combined with joint efforts provides a valuable tool to foster drug discovery collaborations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Innovative Approaches to Hypertension Control in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Vedanthan, Rajesh; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Herasme, Omarys I; Joshi, Rohina; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Thrift, Amanda G; Webster, Jacqui; Webster, Ruth; Yeates, Karen; Gyamfi, Joyce; Ieremia, Merina; Johnson, Claire; Kamano, Jemima H; Lazo-Porras, Maria; Limbani, Felix; Liu, Peter; McCready, Tara; Miranda, J Jaime; Mohan, Sailesh; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; Oldenburg, Brian; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Owolabi, Mayowa; Peiris, David; Ponce-Lucero, Vilarmina; Praveen, Devarsetty; Pillay, Arti; Schwalm, Jon-David; Tobe, Sheldon W; Trieu, Kathy; Yusoff, Khalid; Fuster, Valentin

    2017-02-01

    Elevated blood pressure, a major risk factor for ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and stroke, is the leading global risk for mortality. Treatment and control rates are very low in low- and middle-income countries. There is an urgent need to address this problem. The Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases sponsored research projects focus on controlling hypertension, including community engagement, salt reduction, salt substitution, task redistribution, mHealth, and fixed-dose combination therapies. This paper reviews the rationale for each approach and summarizes the experience of some of the research teams. The studies demonstrate innovative and practical methods for improving hypertension control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Innovative Approach to the Accumulation of Rubrosterone by Fermentation of Asparagus filicinus with Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Cai, Le; Dong, Jian-Wei; Xing, Yun; Duan, Wei-He; Zhou, Hao; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2015-07-29

    Rubrosterone, possessing various remarkable bioactivities, is an insect-molting C19-steroid. However, only very small amounts are available for biological tests due to its limited content from plant sources. Fungi of genus Fusarium have been reported to have the ability to convert C27-steroids into C19-steroids. In this study, Asparagus filicinus, containing a high content of 20-hydroxyecdysone, was utilized to accumulate rubrosterone through solid fermentation by Fusarium oxysporum. The results showed that F. oxysporum had the ability to facilitate the complete biotransformation of 20-hydroxyecdysone to rubrosterone by solid-state fermentation. The present method could be an innovative and efficient approach to accumulate rubrosterone with an outstanding conversion ratio.

  15. Bridging the gap: innovative approaches to continuing education in rural, remote, and isolated first nation communities.

    PubMed

    Scott, Tracy; Menzies, Cynthia; Chenard, Glen; Spence, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Access to education, communication, and support is essential for achieving and maintaining a skilled healthcare workforce. Delivering affordable and accessible continuing education for healthcare providers in rural, remote, and isolated First Nation communities is challenging due to barriers such as geography, isolation, costs, and staff shortages. The innovative use of technology, such as on-line courses and webinars, will be presented as a highly effective approach to increase access to continuing education for healthcare providers in these settings. A case study will be presented demonstrating how a national, not-for-profit health care organization has partnered with healthcare providers in these communities to support care at the local level through various technology-based knowledge exchange activities.

  16. Strategies and Innovative Approaches for the Future of Space Weather Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeksema, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    The real and potential impacts of space weather have been well documented, yet neither the required research and operations programs, nor the data, modeling and analysis infrastructure necessary to develop and sustain a reliable space weather forecasting capability for a society are in place. The recently published decadal survey "Solar and Space Physics: A Science for a Technological Society" presents a vision for the coming decade and calls for a renewed national commitment to a comprehensive program in space weather and climatology. New resources are imperative. Particularly in the current fiscal environment, implementing a responsible strategy to address these needs will require broad participation across agencies and innovative approaches to make the most of existing resources, capitalize on current knowledge, span gaps in capabilities and observations, and focus resources on overcoming immediate roadblocks.

  17. Innovative Environments In Health Care: Where And How New Approaches To Care Are Succeeding.

    PubMed

    Bates, David W; Sheikh, Aziz; Asch, David A

    2017-03-01

    Organizations seeking to create innovative environments in health care need to pay attention to a number of factors. These include making available sufficient resources, notably money and physical space, but also coordination and consultation regarding intellectual property and licensing; enabling access to engineers, software developers, and behavioral scientists; making providers and patients available to innovators; having a sufficiently long-term view; and insulating the innovation group from operational demands. If there is a single essential key to success, it is making innovation a strategic priority. Academic health systems are enormous generators of innovation in the form of generalizable research in biomedical sciences. Typically, much of that innovation is externally supported, and little is directed to improving care processes internally. In industries other than health care, organizations invest their own funds in research and development to promote innovation, and this investment is seen as a metric for a firm's commitment to its future. Increased investment in care-process innovation is long overdue.

  18. GPR119 agonists: a promising approach for T2DM treatment? A SWOT analysis of GPR119.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Uk

    2013-12-01

    Ever since its advent as a promising therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), G-protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) has received much interest from the pharmaceutical industry. This interest peaked in June 2010, when Sanofi-Aventis agreed to pay Metabolex (Cymabay Therapeutics) US$375 million for MBX-2982, which was a representative orally active GPR119 agonist. However, Sanofi-Aventis opted to terminate the deal in May 2011 and another leading GPR119 agonist, GSK1292263, had a loss of efficacy during its clinical trial. In this review, I discuss the pros and cons of GPR119 through a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis and propose development strategies for the eventual success of a GPR119 agonist development program. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Resourcefulness training intervention: a promising approach to improve mental health of mothers with technology-dependent children.

    PubMed

    Toly, Valerie Boebel; Musil, Carol M; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2014-02-01

    The population of children dependent on medical technology such as mechanical ventilation, feeding tubes, and supplemental oxygen continues to grow in the United States. These children are frequently cared for by their mothers at home following hospital discharge. Research indicates that these mothers are at high risk for negative mental health outcomes that affect both caregiver and care recipient. The purpose of this randomized controlled pilot trial was to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of resourcefulness training (RT), a cognitive-behavioral intervention, among mothers of technology-dependent children. RT was found to be a feasible and acceptable intervention with this population during the 6 week study. The effect size in this pilot study demonstrates initial efficacy and indicates areas for strengthening the intervention protocol. RT is a promising intervention that can be employed by pediatric nurses to assist mothers in the home management of technology-dependent children.

  20. Curcumin and Resveratrol as Promising Natural Remedies with Nanomedicine Approach for the Effective Treatment of Triple Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shindikar, Amol; Singh, Akshita; Nobre, Malcolm; Kirolikar, Saurabh

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have made considerable progress in last few decades in understanding mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of breast cancer, its phenotypes, its molecular and genetic changes, its physiology, and its prognosis. This has allowed us to identify specific targets and design appropriate chemical entities for effective treatment of most breast cancer phenotypes, resulting in increased patient survivability. Unfortunately, these strategies have been largely ineffective in the treatment of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Hormonal receptors lacking render the conventional breast cancer drugs redundant, forcing scientists to identify novel targets for treatment of TNBC. Two natural compounds, curcumin and resveratrol, have been widely reported to have anticancer properties. In vitro and in vivo studies show promising results, though their effectiveness in clinical settings has been less than satisfactory, owing to their feeble pharmacokinetics. Here we discuss these naturally occurring compounds, their mechanism as anticancer agents, their shortcomings in translational research, and possible methodology to improve their pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics with advanced drug delivery systems.

  1. Curcumin and Resveratrol as Promising Natural Remedies with Nanomedicine Approach for the Effective Treatment of Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shindikar, Amol; Singh, Akshita; Nobre, Malcolm; Kirolikar, Saurabh

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have made considerable progress in last few decades in understanding mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of breast cancer, its phenotypes, its molecular and genetic changes, its physiology, and its prognosis. This has allowed us to identify specific targets and design appropriate chemical entities for effective treatment of most breast cancer phenotypes, resulting in increased patient survivability. Unfortunately, these strategies have been largely ineffective in the treatment of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Hormonal receptors lacking render the conventional breast cancer drugs redundant, forcing scientists to identify novel targets for treatment of TNBC. Two natural compounds, curcumin and resveratrol, have been widely reported to have anticancer properties. In vitro and in vivo studies show promising results, though their effectiveness in clinical settings has been less than satisfactory, owing to their feeble pharmacokinetics. Here we discuss these naturally occurring compounds, their mechanism as anticancer agents, their shortcomings in translational research, and possible methodology to improve their pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics with advanced drug delivery systems. PMID:27242900

  2. Space Culture: Innovative Cultural Approaches To Public Engagement With Astronomy, Space Science And Astronautics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malina, Roger F.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years a number of cultural organizations have established ongoing programs of public engagement with astronomy, space science and astronautics. Many involve elements of citizen science initiatives, artists’ residencies in scientific laboratories and agencies, art and science festivals, and social network projects as well as more traditional exhibition venues. Recognizing these programs several agencies and organizations have established mechanisms for facilitating public engagement with astronomy and space science through cultural activities. The International Astronautics Federation has established an Technical Activities Committee for the Cultural Utilization of Space. Over the past year the NSF and NEA have organized disciplinary workshops to develop recommendations relating to art-science interaction and community building efforts. Rationales for encouraging public engagement via cultural projects range from theory of creativity, innovation and invention to cultural appropriation in the context of `socially robust science’ as advocated by Helga Nowotny of the European Research Council. Public engagement with science, as opposed to science education and outreach initiatives, require different approaches. Just as organizations have employed education professionals to lead education activities, so they must employ cultural professionals if they wish to develop public engagement projects via arts and culture. One outcome of the NSF and NEA workshops has been development of a rationale for converting STEM to STEAM by including the arts in STEM methodologies, particularly for K-12 where students can access science via arts and cultural contexts. Often these require new kinds of informal education approaches that exploit locative media, gaming platforms, artists projects and citizen science. Incorporating astronomy and space science content in art and cultural projects requires new skills in `cultural translation’ and `trans-mediation’ and new kinds

  3. Who's adopting the smarter lunchroom approach? Individual characteristics of innovative food service directors.

    PubMed

    Gabrielyan, Gnel; Hanks, Drew S; Hoy, Kathryn; Just, David R; Wansink, Brian

    2017-02-01

    School cafeterias and, subsequently, food service directors (FSDs) play a vital role in feeding children in the U.S. This study investigates which FSDs with different characteristics and organizational affiliations are most willing to embrace and implement new programs in their cafeterias. In 2014 we surveyed a representative sample of 8143 school FSDs across the U.S. regarding their knowledge and use of innovative methods that encourage children to select healthy food options. Nearly all of the surveyed FSDs (93%) are aware of behavioral strategies to promote healthier eating in school lunchrooms, and nearly 93% report having made at least one change in their lunchroom. Male FSDs are more likely to be aware of new programs, though they are less likely to adopt them relative to female FSDs. In addition, membership in a professional organization increases awareness as well as the number of changes made by 0.14 (p<0.01). Finally, 22% of all respondents say they know about the Smarter Lunchrooms approach, a set of research-based lunchroom behavioral strategies that positively influence children to select healthy foods. The findings highlight the importance of participation in professional associations which provide career-building activities for school FSDs increasing awareness and adoption of innovative approaches to motivate children to eat the nutritious foods. Given these findings, there is reason for policy makers and school districts to consider allocating funds to encourage FSDs to engage more fully in professional association meetings and activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Vestibular Extension along with Frenectomy in Management of Localized Gingival Recession in Pediatric Patient: A New Innovative Surgical Approach.

    PubMed

    Jingarwar, Mahesh; Pathak, Anuradha; Bajwa, Navroop Kaur; Kalaskar, Ritesh

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports case of pediatric localized gingival recession (LGR) in mandibular anterior region which was treated by using new innovative surgical approach, i.e. combination of frenectomy and vestibular extension. These interceptive surgeries not only gained sufficient width of attached gingival but also lower the attachment of labial frenum. How to cite this article: Jingarwar M, Pathak A, Bajwa NK, Kalaskar R. Vestibular Extension along with Frenectomy in Management of Localized Gingival Recession in Pediatric Patient: A New Innovative Surgical Approach. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):224-226.

  5. Vestibular Extension along with Frenectomy in Management of Localized Gingival Recession in Pediatric Patient: A New Innovative Surgical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Anuradha; Bajwa, Navroop Kaur; Kalaskar, Ritesh

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper reports case of pediatric localized gingival recession (LGR) in mandibular anterior region which was treated by using new innovative surgical approach, i.e. combination of frenectomy and vestibular extension. These interceptive surgeries not only gained sufficient width of attached gingival but also lower the attachment of labial frenum. How to cite this article: Jingarwar M, Pathak A, Bajwa NK, Kalaskar R. Vestibular Extension along with Frenectomy in Management of Localized Gingival Recession in Pediatric Patient: A New Innovative Surgical Approach. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):224-226. PMID:26604542

  6. Innovative empirical approaches for inferring climate-warming impacts on plants in remote areas.

    PubMed

    De Frenne, Pieter

    2015-02-01

    The prediction of the effects of climate warming on plant communities across the globe has become a major focus of ecology, evolution and biodiversity conservation. However, many of the frequently used empirical approaches for inferring how warming affects vegetation have been criticized for decades. In addition, methods that require no electricity may be preferred because of constraints of active warming, e.g. in remote areas. Efforts to overcome the limitations of earlier methods are currently under development, but these approaches have yet to be systematically evaluated side by side. Here, an overview of the benefits and limitations of a selection of innovative empirical techniques to study temperature effects on plants is presented, with a focus on practicality in relatively remote areas without an electric power supply. I focus on methods for: ecosystem aboveground and belowground warming; a fuller exploitation of spatial temperature variation; and long-term monitoring of plant ecological and microevolutionary changes in response to warming. An evaluation of the described methodological set-ups in a synthetic framework along six axes (associated with the consistency of temperature differences, disturbance, costs, confounding factors, spatial scale and versatility) highlights their potential usefulness and power. Hence, further developments of new approaches to empirically assess warming effects on plants can critically stimulate progress in climate-change biology.

  7. Innovative User Defined Density Profile Approach To FSW Of Aluminium Foam

    SciTech Connect

    Contorno, Dorotea; Fratini, Livan; Filice, Luigino; Gagliardi, Francesco; Umbrello, Domenico; Shivpuri, Rajiv

    2007-04-07

    Metallic foams are one of the most exciting materials in the world of mechanical industry due to their reduced mass and the good mechanical, thermal and acoustic characteristics. Consequently, their application, is increasing day by day even with the important drawbacks that reduce their suitability and diffusion such as high manufacturing cost and difficulty in processing. An innovative approach is outlined in this paper that enables the production of complex shapes taking advantage of deformation processing and friction stir welding (FSW). The aim is to create customized tailored manufactured parts. The cellular construction of foams makes this approach rather challenging as the cell walls are extremely thin and deform unpredictably especially in the presence of rotating and moving hard tool. In this paper, an integrated approach to overcome some of the above challenges is proposed. The initial density is modified by using simple deformation processes, in order to obtained the desired 'crushed density', customized for the intended application. Then, the panels are joined to specially designed solid blocks by using FSW process with a proper set-up. Finally, the obtained specimens are evaluated for mechanical performance and the quality of the joint.

  8. The ecosystem approach to health is a promising strategy in international development: lessons from Japan and Laos.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Takashi; Mallee, Hein; Tomokawa, Sachi; Moji, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Jun

    2015-02-16

    An ecological perspective was prominently present in the health promotion movement in the 1980s, but this seems to have faded. The burden of disease the developing world is facing cannot be addressed solely by reductionist approaches. Holistic approaches are called for that recognize the fundamentally interdependent nature of health and other societal, developmental, and ecosystem related factors in human communities. An ecosystem approach to human health (ecohealth) provides a good starting point to explore these interdependencies. Development assistance is often based on the assumption that developed countries can serve as models for developing ones. Japan has provided lavish assistance to Laos for example, much of it going to the development of transport networks. However, there is little sign that there is an awareness of the potentially negative environmental and health impacts of this assistance. We argue that the health consequences of environmental degradation are not always understood, and that developing countries need to consider these issues. The ecohealth approach is useful when exploring this issue. We highlight three implications of the ecohealth approach: (1) The WHO definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being emphasized that health is more than the absence of disease. However, because this approach may involve an unattainable goal, we suggest that health should be defined in the ecosystem context, and the goal should be to attain acceptable and sustainable levels of health through enabling people to realize decent livelihoods, and to pursue their life purpose; (2) The increasing interconnectedness of ecosystems in a globalizing world requires an ethical approach that considers human responsibility for the global biosphere. Here, ecohealth could be a countervailing force to our excessive concentration on economy and technology; and (3) If ecohealth is to become a positive agent of change in the global health

  9. NASA's Public Participation Universe: Why and How the U.S. Space Agency Is Democratizing Its Approaches to Innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaminski, Amy; Buquo, Lynn; Roman, Monsi; Beck, Beth; Thaller, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes NASA's increasing effort to invite greater public participation in its techno scientific work through open innovation methodologies. First we examine why NASA has expanded its use of these approaches, noting the roles of an intertwined set of forcing functions including budget constraints, the availability of technological resources, and committed individuals. Next we outline the strategies the agency has invoked to engage the public in research, technology development, and other activities to advance and shape NASA's mission. As we show, promoting greater public involvement has entailed facilitating the NASA workforce's familiarity with open innovation approaches as well as developing projects and creating outreach strategies appropriate to the envisioned participant base. We then discuss the wide variety of outcomes NASA's open innovation initiatives have yielded in support of NASA research and development objectives as well as benefits to participants and others. We conclude with a discussion of the remaining barriers to the use of open innovation techniques as a standard practice and the strategies in work to overcome those barriers so the full potential of a democratized approach to innovation can be realized.

  10. Antimicrobial Peptides Derived from Fusion Peptides of Influenza A Viruses, a Promising Approach to Designing Potent Antimicrobial Agents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyu; Zhong, Wenjing; Lin, Dongguo; Xia, Fan; Wu, Wenjiao; Zhang, Heyuan; Lv, Lin; Liu, Shuwen; He, Jian

    2015-10-01

    The emergence and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens have spurred the urgent need to develop novel antimicrobial agents with different mode of action. In this respect, we turned several fusogenic peptides (FPs) derived from the hemagglutinin glycoproteins (HAs) of IAV into potent antibacterials by replacing the negatively or neutrally charged residues of FPs with positively charged lysines. Their antibacterial activities were evaluated by testing the MICs against a panel of bacterial strains including S. aureus, S. mutans, P. aeruginosa, and E. coli. The results showed that peptides HA-FP-1, HA-FP-2-1, and HA-FP-3-1 were effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with MICs ranging from 1.9 to 16.0 μm, while the toxicities toward mammalian cells were low. In addition, the mode of action and the secondary structure of these peptides were also discussed. These data not only provide several potent peptides displaying promising potential in development as broad antimicrobial agents, but also present a useful strategy in designing new antimicrobial agents.

  11. An overview of three promising mechanical, optical, and biochemical engineering approaches to improve selective photothermolysis of refractory port wine stains.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Guillermo; Choi, Bernard; Broekgaarden, Mans; Yang, Owen; Yang, Bruce; Ghasri, Pedram; Chen, Jennifer K; Bezemer, Rick; Nelson, J Stuart; van Drooge, Anne Margreet; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Kelly, Kristen M; Heger, Michal

    2012-02-01

    During the last three decades, several laser systems, ancillary technologies, and treatment modalities have been developed for the treatment of port wine stains (PWSs). However, approximately half of the PWS patient population responds suboptimally to laser treatment. Consequently, novel treatment modalities and therapeutic techniques/strategies are required to improve PWS treatment efficacy. This overview therefore focuses on three distinct experimental approaches for the optimization of PWS laser treatment. The approaches are addressed from the perspective of mechanical engineering (the use of local hypobaric pressure to induce vasodilation in the laser-irradiated dermal microcirculation), optical engineering (laser-speckle imaging of post-treatment flow in laser-treated PWS skin), and biochemical engineering (light- and heat-activatable liposomal drug delivery systems to enhance the extent of post-irradiation vascular occlusion).

  12. Multitargeted Low-Dose GLAD Combination Chemoprevention: A Novel and Promising Approach to Combat Colon Carcinogenesis12

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Altaf; Janakiram, Naveena B; Brewer, Misty; Vedala, Krishna; Steele, Vernon E; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2013-01-01

    Preclinical studies have shown that gefitinib, licofelone, atorvastatin, and α-difluoromethylornithine (GLAD) are promising colon cancer chemopreventive agents. Because low-dose combination regimens can offer potential additive or synergistic effects without toxicity, GLAD combination was tested for toxicity and chemopreventive efficacy for suppression of intestinal tumorigenesis in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC)Min/+ mice. Six-week-old wild-type and APCMin/+ mice were fed modified American Institute of Nutrition 76A diets with or without GLAD (25 + 50 + 50 + 500 ppm) for 14 weeks. Dietary GLAD caused no signs of toxicity based on organ pathology and liver enzyme profiles. GLAD feeding strongly inhibited (80–83%, P < .0001) total intestinal tumor multiplicity and size in APCMin/+ mice (means ± SEM tumors for control vs GLAD were 67.1 ± 5.4 vs 11.3 ± 1.1 in males and 72.3 ± 8.9 vs 14.5 ± 2.8 in females). Mice fed GLAD had >95% fewer polyps with sizes of >2 mm compared with control mice and showed 75% and 85% inhibition of colonic tumors in males and females, respectively. Molecular analyses of polyps suggested that GLAD exerts efficacy by inhibiting cell proliferation, inducing apoptosis, decreasing β-catenin and caveolin-1 levels, increasing caspase-3 cleavage and p21, and modulating expression profile of inflammatory cytokines. These observations demonstrate that GLAD, a novel cocktail of chemopreventive agents at very low doses, suppresses intestinal tumorigenesis in APCMin/+ mice with no toxicity. This novel strategy to prevent colorectal cancer is an important step in developing agents with high efficacy without unwanted side effects. PMID:23633920

  13. The food multimix concept: new innovative approach to meeting nutritional challenges in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Zotor, F B; Amuna, P

    2008-02-01

    Food insecurity, chronic hunger, starvation and malnutrition continue to affect millions of individuals throughout the developing world, especially Sub-Saharan Africa. Various initiatives by African governments and International Agencies such as the UN, the industrial nations, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the World Trade Organisation to boost economic development, have failed to provide the much-needed solution to these challenges. The impact of these economic shifts and the failures of structural adjustment programmes on the nutritional well-being and health of the most vulnerable members of poor communities cannot be over-emphasised. The use of ad hoc measures as an adjunct to community-based rural integrated projects have provided little success and will be unsustainable unless they are linked to harnessing available local resources. The present paper therefore focuses on exploring alternative ways of harnessing the scant agricultural resources by employing a scientific approach to food-related problem-solving. The food multimix (FMM) concept offers a scientific contribution alongside other attempts currently in use by the World Food Programme, WHO and FAO to meet the food insecurity challenges that confront most of the developing world in the twenty-first century. It is an innovative approach that makes better use of traditional food sources as a tool for meeting community nutritional needs. The FMM concept employs a food-based approach using traditional methods of food preparation and locally-available, cheap and affordable staples (fruits, pulses, vegetables and legumes) in the formulation of nutrient-enriched multimixes. Developed recipes can provide > or =40% of the daily nutritional requirements of vulnerable groups, including patients with HIV/AIDS and children undergoing nutrition rehabilitation. The FMM approach can also be used as a medium- to long-term adjunct to community-based rural integration projects aimed at health

  14. Innovative approaches to cervical cancer screening for sex trade workers: an international scoping review.

    PubMed

    Thulien, Naomi S

    2014-03-01

    Female sex trade workers are among those at highest risk for developing and dying of cervical cancer, and yet many-particularly the most marginalized-are less likely than other women to be screened. This review summarizes global findings on innovative approaches to cervical cancer screening for female sex trade workers, highlights current gaps in the delivery of cervical cancer screening for female sex trade workers globally, and suggests areas for future research and policy development. A scoping review of peer-reviewed publications and grey literature was conducted. Medline (OVID), PubMed, EMBASE, and SCOPUS were searched for relevant studies written in English. There were no limitations placed on dates. Grey literature was identified by hand searching and through discussion with health care providers and community outreach workers currently working with sex trade workers. Twenty-five articles were deemed suitable for review. Articles detailing innovative ways for female sex trade workers to access cervical cancer screening were included. Articles about screening for sexually transmitted infections were also included if the findings could be generalized to screening for cervical cancer. Articles limited to exploring risk factors, knowledge, awareness, education, prevalence, and incidence of cervical cancer among sex trade workers were excluded from the review. Successful screening initiatives identified in the studies reviewed had unconventional hours of operation, understood the difference between street-based and venue-based sex trade workers, and/or used peers for outreach. Two significant gaps in health care service delivery were highlighted in this review: the limited use of unorthodox hours and the nearly exclusive practice of providing sexually transmitted infection screening for female sex trade workers without cervical cancer screening. In addition, although street-based (as opposed to venue-based) sex trade workers are likely at higher risk for

  15. Next-generation systematics: An innovative approach to resolve the structure of complex prokaryotic taxa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangal, Vartul; Goodfellow, Michael; Jones, Amanda L.; Schwalbe, Edward C.; Blom, Jochen; Hoskisson, Paul A.; Sutcliffe, Iain C.

    2016-12-01

    Prokaryotic systematics provides the fundamental framework for microbiological research but remains a discipline that relies on a labour- and time-intensive polyphasic taxonomic approach, including DNA-DNA hybridization, variation in 16S rRNA gene sequence and phenotypic characteristics. These techniques suffer from poor resolution in distinguishing between closely related species and often result in misclassification and misidentification of strains. Moreover, guidelines are unclear for the delineation of bacterial genera. Here, we have applied an innovative phylogenetic and taxogenomic approach to a heterogeneous actinobacterial taxon, Rhodococcus, to identify boundaries for intrageneric and supraspecific classification. Seven species-groups were identified within the genus Rhodococcus that are as distantly related to one another as they are to representatives of other mycolic acid containing actinobacteria and can thus be equated with the rank of genus. It was also evident that strains assigned to rhodococcal species-groups are underspeciated with many misclassified using conventional taxonomic criteria. The phylogenetic and taxogenomic methods used in this study provide data of theoretical value for the circumscription of generic and species boundaries and are also of practical significance as they provide a robust basis for the classification and identification of rhodococci of agricultural, industrial and medical/veterinary significance.

  16. Innovative Approach for Identifying Root Causes of Glass Defects in Sterile Drug Product Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Eberle, Lukas; Svensson, Alexander; Graser, Andreas; Luemkemann, Joerg; Sugiyama, Hirokazu; Schmidt, Rainer; Hungerbuehler, Konrad

    2017-03-14

    In sterile drug product manufacturing, scratched and broken glass containers (i.e., vials) cause product losses, glass particles, equipment contamination and additional cleaning efforts. However, mechanical resistance and exposure of vials to mechanical stress are not sufficiently understood, and no systematic approach for reducing glass-related losses is established. Manufacturers may tackle glass-related losses more rationally if (i) frequencies for inflicting disqualifying damages to drug product containers are known for given forces, (ii) actual exposure in industrial filling lines is quantified and (iii) process enhancements are derived based on collected information. In this work, an innovative approach for exploiting these opportunities, identifying glass defect root causes and reducing glass defects is provided. Devices for quantifying (i) damaging frequencies and (ii) actual exposure are presented and then applied in an industrial case study on sterile drug product manufacturing; finally, (iii) process enhancements are derived and implemented. In the case study, frequencies for scratching vials at given forces as well as breaking forces have been determined. Peak exposure in the investigated filling line was detected at 6 Newton. As a result of the case study, key machine parts were identified and adjusted.

  17. Optimising outpatient efficiency - development of an innovative 'Did Not Attend' management approach.

    PubMed

    Boland, Billy; Burnett, Frances

    2014-08-01

    To examine non-attendance [or Did Not Attend (DNA)] rates in a community mental health follow-up outpatient clinic and evaluate a pragmatic initiative to reduce non-attendance. Clinical audit of attendance across two community psychiatry outpatient clinics was used to establish DNA rates at baseline. Both clinics sought to reduce the DNA rate and were made aware of the outcome of the first cycle of audit. Clinic A (intervention clinic) introduced an innovative new management approach aimed at reducing DNAs, whilst Clinic B (control clinic) introduced no further systematic measures. The clinics were then re-audited to establish the impact of the changes. We found that the introduction of the new management approach in Clinic A was associated with reduced numbers of service users failing to attend for a clinic appointment (n = 1134, relative risk 0.59, 95% Confidence Interval (C.I.) 0.44-0.77, NNT = 12). No such difference was identified in Clinic B. Intervention to reduce the DNA rate is realistically achievable with minimal effort and modest additional cost. The actions required of clinicians are practicable, and can have a direct impact without large-scale organisational change.

  18. An Innovative Technique for Pancreatic Head Resection: The "Uncinate First" Approach.

    PubMed

    Hackert, Thilo; Büchler, Marcus W

    2011-12-01

    The resection in partial pancreatico-duodenectomy as the standard treatment for malignancies of the pancreatic head is commonly performed starting from the hepatoduodenal ligament after division of the bile duct, stomach, or proximal duodenum and pancreatic body. The "Uncinate First" approach is a technical modification with a retrograde dissection of the pancreatic head as a novel surgical procedure. Caudo-cranial resection of the pancreatic head is characterized by starting with the uncinate process after division and mobilization of the first jejunal loop. Transection of the upper gastrointestinal structures (bile duct, stomach or duodenum and pancreas) is performed at the end of the resection. The retrograde Uncinate First technique offers a comfortable and innovative approach for partial pancreatico-duodenectomy. The superior mesenteric artery as well as the portal and superior mesenteric vein can be very accurately dissected and controlled during the resection phase associated with potentially less blood loss and a more radical resection along the medial margin, which is often the site of R1 resections. Future studies are required to evaluate this procedure regarding operative parameters and postoperative outcome compared with the standard resection.

  19. Next-generation systematics: An innovative approach to resolve the structure of complex prokaryotic taxa

    PubMed Central

    Sangal, Vartul; Goodfellow, Michael; Jones, Amanda L.; Schwalbe, Edward C.; Blom, Jochen; Hoskisson, Paul A.; Sutcliffe, Iain C.

    2016-01-01

    Prokaryotic systematics provides the fundamental framework for microbiological research but remains a discipline that relies on a labour- and time-intensive polyphasic taxonomic approach, including DNA-DNA hybridization, variation in 16S rRNA gene sequence and phenotypic characteristics. These techniques suffer from poor resolution in distinguishing between closely related species and often result in misclassification and misidentification of strains. Moreover, guidelines are unclear for the delineation of bacterial genera. Here, we have applied an innovative phylogenetic and taxogenomic approach to a heterogeneous actinobacterial taxon, Rhodococcus, to identify boundaries for intrageneric and supraspecific classification. Seven species-groups were identified within the genus Rhodococcus that are as distantly related to one another as they are to representatives of other mycolic acid containing actinobacteria and can thus be equated with the rank of genus. It was also evident that strains assigned to rhodococcal species-groups are underspeciated with many misclassified using conventional taxonomic criteria. The phylogenetic and taxogenomic methods used in this study provide data of theoretical value for the circumscription of generic and species boundaries and are also of practical significance as they provide a robust basis for the classification and identification of rhodococci of agricultural, industrial and medical/veterinary significance. PMID:27924912

  20. Impact of Innovative Approaches in Teaching-Learning of Science on Rural Students at Middle School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koul, Anjni

    2014-01-01

    The National Curriculum Framework-2005 (NCF-2005) recommends that learning of children has to shift away from methods encouraging rote memory. This is possible only if children get an opportunity to explore the surroundings themselves. In this paper the researcher shares her experiences in the use of various innovative approaches in…

  1. Impact of Innovative Approaches in Teaching-Learning of Science on Rural Students at Middle School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koul, Anjni

    2014-01-01

    The National Curriculum Framework-2005 (NCF-2005) recommends that learning of children has to shift away from methods encouraging rote memory. This is possible only if children get an opportunity to explore the surroundings themselves. In this paper the researcher shares her experiences in the use of various innovative approaches in…

  2. Reinventing the Reel: An Innovative Approach to Resident Skill-Building in Motivational Interviewing for Brief Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bonnie; Clark, Denice Crowe; Seale, J. Paul; Shellenberger, Sylvia; Lyme, Alan; Johnson, J. Aaron; Chhabria, Aruna

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the skills of primary care residents in addressing substance misuse, residency screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) programs increasingly offer motivational interviewing (MI) training, but seldom include feedback and coaching. This innovative 2-round "Virginia Reel" approach, supplementing 3 hours of basic MI…

  3. Reinventing the Reel: An Innovative Approach to Resident Skill-Building in Motivational Interviewing for Brief Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bonnie; Clark, Denice Crowe; Seale, J. Paul; Shellenberger, Sylvia; Lyme, Alan; Johnson, J. Aaron; Chhabria, Aruna

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the skills of primary care residents in addressing substance misuse, residency screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) programs increasingly offer motivational interviewing (MI) training, but seldom include feedback and coaching. This innovative 2-round "Virginia Reel" approach, supplementing 3 hours of basic MI…

  4. An Innovative Approach on Holistic Analysis of Interview Data: The Case of Iowa State University's Simultaneous Renewal of Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özkan, Betul C.; Davis, Niki; Johnson, Natalie

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we discuss the use of generative evaluation as an innovative approach in the analysis of qualitative interview data for evaluating simultaneous renewal of Iowa State University's PT3 grant. Goodlad's (1994) simultaneous renewal framework forms the basis of our argument. We focused on the CREATER+ model designed to explain the…

  5. Wisconsin Inventor & Entrepreneur Clubs: Investment in an Innovative Approach to Entrepreneurship. Rural Research Report. Volume 20, Issue 1, Winter 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Research on entrepreneurship in rural areas has increasingly stressed the importance of a supportive environment and social networks in enhancing innovation. This report examines a novel approach to promoting entrepreneurship using regional Inventor & Entrepreneur (I&E) Clubs. A telephone survey of 21 I&E Clubs was completed to collect…

  6. Adopting an International Innovation for Teacher Professional Development: State and District Approaches to Lesson Study in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiba, Motoko; Wilkinson, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The state of Florida has taken an unprecedented approach to teacher professional development in its Race to the Top (RTTT) Program application by proposing to promote an international innovation that originates in Japan, "lesson study," as a statewide teacher professional development model. Since winning the US$700 million RTTT funding…

  7. Adopting an International Innovation for Teacher Professional Development: State and District Approaches to Lesson Study in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiba, Motoko; Wilkinson, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The state of Florida has taken an unprecedented approach to teacher professional development in its Race to the Top (RTTT) Program application by proposing to promote an international innovation that originates in Japan, "lesson study," as a statewide teacher professional development model. Since winning the US$700 million RTTT funding…

  8. Current advances in the development of natural meniscus scaffolds: innovative approaches to decellularization and recellularization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yunbin; Chen, Jiaxin; Zhang, Zeng; Lou, Kangliang; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Shengyu; Ni, Jinhu; Liu, Wenyue; Fan, Shunwu; Lin, Xianfeng

    2017-03-31

    The increasing rate of injuries to the meniscus indicates the urgent need to develop effective repair strategies. Irreparably damaged menisci can be replaced and meniscus allografts represent the treatment of choice; however, they have several limitations, including availability and compatibility. Another approach is the use of artificial implants but their chondroprotective activities are still not proved clinically. In this situation, tissue engineering offers alternative natural decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds, which have shown biomechanical properties comparable to those of native menisci and are characterized by low immunogenicity and promising regenerative potential. In this article, we present an overview of meniscus decellularization methods and discuss their relative merits. In addition, we comparatively evaluate cell types used to repopulate decellularized scaffolds and analyze the biocompatibility of the existing experimental models. At present, acellular ECM hydrogels, as well as slices and powders, have been explored, which seems to be promising for partial meniscus regeneration. However, their inferior biomechanical properties (compressive and tensile stiffness) compared to natural menisci should be improved. Although an optimal decellularized meniscus scaffold still needs to be developed and thoroughly validated for its regenerative potential in vivo, we believe that decellularized ECM scaffolds are the future biomaterials for successful structural and functional replacement of menisci.

  9. Lipid-based systems as a promising approach for enhancing the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Cerpnjak, Katja; Zvonar, Alenka; Gašperlin, Mirjana; Vrečer, Franc

    2013-12-01

    Low oral bioavailability as a consequence of low water solubility of drugs is a growing challenge to the development of new pharmaceutical products. One of the most popular approaches of oral bioavailability and solubility enhancement is the utilization of lipid-based drug delivery systems. Their use in product development is growing due to the versatility of pharmaceutical lipid excipients and drug formulations, and their compatibility with liquid, semi-solid, and solid dosage forms. Lipid formulations, such as self-emulsifying (SEDDS), self-microemulsifying SMEDDS) and self- -nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) were explored in many studies as an efficient approach for improving the bioavailability and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs. One of the greatest advantages of incorporating poorly soluble drugs into such formulations is their spontaneous emulsification and formation of an emulsion, microemulsion or nanoemulsion in aqueous media. This review article focuses on the following topics. First, it presents a classification overview of lipid-based drug delivery systems and mechanisms involved in improving the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Second, the article reviews components of lipid-based drug delivery systems for oral use with their characteristics. Third, it brings a detailed description of SEDDS, SMEDDS and SNEDDS, which are very often misused in literature, with special emphasis on the comparison between microemulsions and nanoemulsions.

  10. Nanomedicine as a promising approach for the treatment and diagnosis of brain diseases: the example of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Andrieux, K; Couvreur, P

    2013-07-01

    Targeting of the central nervous system (CNS) in order to treat disorders is actually challenging due to the necessity to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB). This review aims to show how nanomedicine can propose new approach for the treatment and the diagnosis of CNS diseases focusing on Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is a neurodegenerative disorder prevalent in the senile population. It is characterized by severe neuronal loss and proliferation of plaques composed of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) and Tau protein deposites. An imbalance between production and clearance leading to the aggregation of Aβ peptides especially in neurotoxic forms, may be the initiating factor in AD. The absence of an effective therapeutic approach nowadays could be, in part, due to the bad knowledge of AD physiopathology and the lack of early diagnosis. Many drawbacks such as poor bioavailability or limited BBB arising of tested molecules in the current or new therapeutic strategies explain their failure but can be resolved by the use of nanotechnology. Examples of recently published works using nanoparticles for improving diagnosis and therapy of AD are presented. Ideal nanocarriers for this aim must be able to pass through the BBB and to interact with an AD marker as soluble extracellular Aβ forms which are known as the most toxic ones. These first results, even if many ones were obtained in vitro, brought to light the potential of nanoparticles for this challenging issue.

  11. Innovative immune-based therapeutic approaches for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Eldor, Roy; Cohen, Irun R; Raz, Itamar

    2005-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease caused by a culmination of noxious processes of autoimmunity composed of various components of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Current treatment of type 1 diabetes focuses on restraining the endocrine disease without affecting the autoimmune process that underlies it. Prevention of this disease requires immune modulation and early intervention. New therapeutic approaches can be classified on the basis of the immunological arm targeted, that is, T-cell immune modulation (using cytokines, anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies, and peptide MHC class II dimers), innate immune system modulation (using alpha-galactosylceramide or peptide 277), or specific antigen vaccination (glutamic acid decarboxylase and insulin). Here we review the most promising therapies developed based on these targets and emphasize those that have reached human phase clinical investigation.

  12. Innovative Dental Stem Cell-Based Research Approaches: The Future of Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Mitsiadis, Thimios A.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, the dental field has benefited from recent findings in stem cell biology and tissue engineering that led to the elaboration of novel ideas and concepts for the regeneration of dental tissues or entire new teeth. In particular, stem cell-based regenerative approaches are extremely promising since they aim at the full restoration of lost or damaged tissues, ensuring thus their functionality. These therapeutic approaches are already applied with success in clinics for the regeneration of other organs and consist of manipulation of stem cells and their administration to patients. Stem cells have the potential to self-renew and to give rise to a variety of cell types that ensure tissue repair and regeneration throughout life. During the last decades, several adult stem cell populations have been isolated from dental and periodontal tissues, characterized, and tested for their potential applications in regenerative dentistry. Here we briefly present the various stem cell-based treatment approaches and strategies that could be translated in dental practice and revolutionize dentistry. PMID:27648076

  13. Community directed approach beyond ivermectin in Tanzania: a promising mechanism for the delivery of complex health interventions.

    PubMed

    Mutalemwa, P; Kisinza, W N; Kisoka, W J; Kilima, S; Njau, J; Tenu, F; Nkya, T; Magesa, S M

    2009-07-01

    The Community Directed Intervention (CDI) is currently used for Ivermectin distribution for the treatment of onchocerciasis in Africa. This study was carried out to determine the extent to which the CDI process can be used for the delivery of other health interventions with different degrees of complexity. The study was conducted in five districts of Kilosa, Muheza, Lushoto, Korogwe and Ulanga in Tanzania and involved communities, health facility and district healthcare providers. Implementation of CDI across these health interventions involved addressing six major processes, namely, stakeholder processes, health system dynamics, engaging communities, empowering communities, engaging CDI implementers and broader system effects. Community and health systems changes were triggered, such that the inherent value of community involvement and empowerment could be internalized by communities and health workers, leading to a more receptive health system. The CDI process was accepted at the community levels as many were willing and ready to adopt the approach. Health workers at community levels were readily available and supportive of the process. Additionally, noted were the verified willingness and ability of community implementers to deliver multiple interventions; confirmed efficiency of CDI leading to cost savings at health systems level; increasing interest of the health system in CDI; interest of health workers in the process of integrated planning. However, there were factors that may have a negative influence on the CDI process. Drug and supply policy for CDI process was lacking at the national and district levels and the presence of parallel community-based programmes that provide financial incentives for community members to run them discouraged Community-directed distributors who in most cases are volunteers. In conclusion, the results have clearly and evidently demonstrated the potential of CDI approach for effectively and efficiently control of other diseases

  14. An innovative multimodality approach for sentinel node mapping and biopsy in head and neck malignancies.

    PubMed

    Borbón-Arce, M; Brouwer, O R; van den Berg, N S; Mathéron, H; Klop, W M C; Balm, A J M; van Leeuwen, F W B; Valdés-Olmos, R A

    2014-01-01

    Recent innovations such as preoperative SPECT/CT, intraoperative imaging using portable devices and a hybrid tracer were evaluated in a multimodality approach for sentinel node (SN) mapping and biopsy in head and neck malignancies. The evaluation included 25 consecutive patients with head and neck malignancies (16 melanomas and 9 oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas). Patients were peritumorally injected with the hybrid tracer ICG-(99m)Tc-nanocolloid. SNs were initially identified with lymphoscintigraphy followed by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT/CT) 2 hours after tracer administration. During surgery a portable gamma camera in combination with a near-infrared fluorescence camera was used in addition to a handheld gamma ray detection probe to locate the SNs. In all patients the use of conventional lymphoscintigraphy, SPECT/CT and the additional help of the portable gamma camera in one case were able to depict a total of 67 SNs (55 of them visualized on planar images, 11 additional on SPECT/CT and 1 additional with the portable gamma camera). A total of 67 of the preoperatively defined SNs together with 22 additional SNs were removed intraoperatively; 12 out of the 22 additional SNs found during operation were located in the vicinity of the injection site in anatomical areas such as the periauricular or submental regions. The other 10 additional SNs were found by radioguided post-resection control of the excision SN site. In the present series 26% additional SNs were found using the multimodal approach, that incorporates SPECT/CT and intraoperative imaging to the conventional procedure. This approach appears to be useful in malignancies located close to the area of lymphatic drainage such as the periauricular area and the oral cavity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  15. Temporary left ventricular assist device through an axillary access is a promising approach to improve outcomes in refractory cardiogenic shock patients.

    PubMed

    Doersch, Karen M; Tong, Carl W; Gongora, Enrique; Konda, Subbareddy; Sareyyupoglu, Basar

    2015-01-01

    Cardiogenic shock (CS) causes significant morbidity and mortality and such patients can deteriorate rapidly. Temporary left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are a promising approach to manage these patients. The following is a case series in which patients stabilized with a temporary LVAD for CS improvement were analyzed retrospectively. Between June 2011 and January 2014, 15 patients received temporary devices through an axillary approach (mean age: 53 ± 15, 93% male). Mean survival time was 317.8 ± 359.5 days (range: 6-936 days). During support there were no major bleeding events, infectious complications at the axillary access site, upper extremity edema, or emboli. The most of the patients recovered from CS (93%) were mobilized (67%) and were extubated (73%) while on temporary device support. Median times to extubation, intensive care unit discharge, and discontinuation of inotropic medications were: 1.63, 18, and 15 days, respectively. Four patients recovered to no device support and five received a long-term LVAD, all of whom remain alive. Therefore, implantation of a temporary LVAD through an axillary approach is a promising therapy for improving outcomes in patients needing mechanical circulatory support as a bridge to recovery or a definitive LVAD.

  16. In Progress: Reports of New Approaches in Medical Education. Annual, Peer-Reviewed Collection of Reports on Innovative Approaches to Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, M. Brownell, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Provides summary reports of 81 innovative approaches to medical education in the areas of program management and assessment, admission and student-support programs, computer applications, preclinical and clinical course integration, development of professional skills and values, introduction to clinical medicine, community-based experiences,…

  17. Mirror neural training induced by virtual reality in brain-computer interfaces may provide a promising approach for the autism therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huaping; Sun, Yaoru; Zeng, Jinhua; Sun, Hongyu

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the dysfunction of the human mirror neuron system (hMNS) plays an important role in the autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this work, we propose a novel training program from our interdisciplinary research to improve mirror neuron functions of autistic individuals by using a BCI system with virtual reality technology. It is a promising approach for the autism to learn and develop social communications in a VR environment. A test method for this hypothesis is also provided. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A nanomedicine-promising approach to provide an appropriate colon-targeted drug delivery system for 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sima; Kotla, Niranjan G; Tomar, Sonia; Maddiboyina, Balaji; Webster, Thomas J; Sharma, Dinesh; Sunnapu, Omprakash

    2015-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery plays a significant role in disease treatment associated with the colon, affording therapeutic responses for a prolonged period of time with low side effects. Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in both men and women with an estimated 102,480 cases of colon cancer and 40,340 cases of rectal cancer in 2013 as reported by the American Cancer Society. In the present investigation, we developed an improved oral delivery system for existing anticancer drugs meant for colon cancer via prebiotic and probiotic approaches. The system comprises three components, namely, nanoparticles of drug coated with natural materials such as guar gum, xanthan gum (that serve as prebiotics), and probiotics. The natural gums play a dual role of protecting the drug in the gastric as well as intestinal conditions to allow its release only in the colon. In vitro results obtained from these experiments indicated the successful targeted delivery of 5-fluorouracil to the colon. Electron microscopy results demonstrated that the prepared nanoparticles were spherical in shape and 200 nm in size. The in vitro release data indicated that the maximum release occurs at pH 7.2 and 7.4 with 93% of the drug released in the presence of 4% (w/v) of rat cecal content. In vivo results conclude a practical mechanism to maintain the integrity and intactness of the intestinal/colonic microflora, in the face of a "chemical attack" by oral colon-targeted drug delivery for colon cancer treatment.

  19. Production of multifunctional chimaeric enzymes in plants: a promising approach for degrading plant cell wall from within.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhanmin; Yuan, Ling

    2010-04-01

    Multifunctional chimaeric hydrolases can be created by covalently linking heterologous catalytic and functional domains in a single polypeptide. Previously, we have generated a number of chimaeric lignocellulosic hydrolases that contain two to five modules [Biotechnol Bioeng (2009) 102: 1045; Appl Environ Microbiol (2009) 75: 1754]. These chimaeras closely resemble the parental enzymes in kinetics and other enzymatic properties, and some exhibit improved synergy in degrading natural substrates when compared to mixtures of parental enzymes. In addition to the applications in fermentative enzyme production, the chimaeric genes can be used in the construction of a single plant transformation binary vector carrying several genes that encode a complete set of lignocellulosic hydrolase activities. The advantages of this approach include ease in vector construction and transformation, as well as downstream plant analysis and breeding. The hydrolases sequestered in biomass feedstock can potentially assist enzymatic pretreatment and sugar conversion. Here, we report the gene expression and functional characterization of a chimaeric hemicellulase in transgenic tobacco plants. T1 transgenic plants produced up to 19-mg active enzymes per gram of total-soluble leaf proteins. The results demonstrate the feasibility of producing multifunctional lignocellulosic hydrolases in plants. Key considerations in the design, construction and plant expression of the chimaeric genes are discussed.

  20. A brief review of clinical trials involving manipulation of invariant NKT cells as a promising approach in future cancer therapies.

    PubMed

    Waldowska, Małgorzata; Bojarska-Junak, Agnieszka; Roliński, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    In the recent years researchers have put a lot of emphasis on the possible immunotherapeutic strategies able to target tumors. Many studies have proven that the key role in recognition and eradication of cancer cells, both for mice and humans, is being conducted by the invariant natural killer T-cells (NKT). This small subpopulation of lymphocytes can kill other cells, either directly or indirectly, through the natural killer cells' (NK) activation. They can also swiftly release cytokines, causing the involvement of elements of the innate and acquired immune system. With the discovery of α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) - the first known agonist for iNKT cells - and its later subsequent analogs, it became possible to effectively stimulate iNKT cells, hence to keep control over the tumor progression. This article refers to the current knowledge concerning iNKT cells and the most important aspects of their antitumor activity. It also highlights the clinical trials that aim at increasing the amount of iNKT cells in general and in the microenvironment of the tumor. For sure, the iNKT-based immunotherapeutic approach holds a great potential and is highly probable to become a part of the cancer immunotherapy in the future.

  1. Promising approaches of computer-supported dietary assessment and management-Current research status and available applications.

    PubMed

    Arens-Volland, Andreas G; Spassova, Lübomira; Bohn, Torsten

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this review was to analyze computer-based tools for dietary management (including web-based and mobile devices) from both scientific and applied perspectives, presenting advantages and disadvantages as well as the state of validation. For this cross-sectional analysis, scientific results from 41 articles retrieved via a medline search as well as 29 applications from online markets were identified and analyzed. Results show that many approaches computerize well-established existing nutritional concepts for dietary assessment, e.g., food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) or dietary recalls (DR). Both food records and barcode scanning are less prominent in research but are frequently offered by commercial applications. Integration with a personal health record (PHR) or a health care workflow is suggested in the literature but is rarely found in mobile applications. It is expected that employing food records for dietary assessment in research settings will be increasingly used when simpler interfaces, e.g., barcode scanning techniques, and comprehensive food databases are applied, which can also support user adherence to dietary interventions and follow-up phases of nutritional studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Digital adaptive coronagraphy using SLMs: promising prospects of a novel approach, including high-contrast imaging of multiple stars systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Jonas; Patapis, Polychronis

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a new technological framework for high-contrast coronagraphy, namely digital adaptive coronagraphy (DAC) using spatial light modulators (SLMs), taking advantage of recent advances in this technology. We present proof-of-principle experimental results in the visible, using a transmissive twisted nematic liquid crystal SLM display to show that SLMs can be successfully implemented as focal-plane phase-mask coronagraphs (4QPM, 8OPM,...), and that the technology is essentially in place to address realistic instrumental configurations. We explore a specific application where SLM-based adaptive coronagraphy might be particularly competitive, which is direct imaging of multiple stars systems, by simultaneously nulling multiple point sources in the field. Using a simple approach to compute a brightness-weighted synthetized coronagraphic phase map, we show that in the case of binaries the contrast gain over using a regular phase map can exceed 4 stellar magnitudes for a 1:1 binaries down to separation as close as 1 λ/D. Thanks to video-rate update frequency of the SLM, the technique is in principle compatible with sky rotation in the case of altitude-azimuth telescope mounts, and can address multiple target configurations with no actual mechanical or hardware change.

  3. Autologous bone marrow stromal cells are promising candidates for cell therapy approaches to treat bone degeneration in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Lebouvier, Angélique; Poignard, Alexandre; Coquelin-Salsac, Laura; Léotot, Julie; Homma, Yasuhiro; Jullien, Nicolas; Bierling, Philippe; Galactéros, Frédéric; Hernigou, Philippe; Chevallier, Nathalie; Rouard, Hélène

    2015-11-01

    Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a frequent complication in adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). To delay hip arthroplasty, core decompression combined with concentrated total bone marrow (BM) treatment is currently performed in the early stages of the osteonecrosis. Cell therapy efficacy depends on the quantity of implanted BM stromal cells. For this reason, expanded bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells) can be used to improve osteonecrosis treatment in SCD patients. In this study, we quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated the function of BMSCs isolated from a large number of SCD patients with osteonecrosis (SCD-ON) compared with control groups (patients with osteonecrosis not related to SCD (ON) and normal donors (N)). BM total nuclear cells and colony-forming efficiency values (CFE) were significantly higher in SCD-ON patients than in age and sex-matched controls. The BMSCs from SCD-ON patients were similar to BMSCs from the control groups in terms of their phenotypic and functional properties. SCD-ON patients have a higher frequency of BMSCs that retain their bone regeneration potential. Our findings suggest that BMSCs isolated from SCD-ON patients can be used clinically in cell therapy approaches. This work provides important preclinical data that is necessary for the clinical application of expanded BMSCs in advanced therapies and medical products.

  4. Parametric imaging: a promising approach for the evaluation of dynamic PET-18F-FDG studies - the DKFZ experience.

    PubMed

    Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia; Pan, Leyun; Strauss, Ludwig G

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic positron emission studies (dPET) with fluorine-18-fluoro-deoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) were performed in oncologic patients. The primary aim was to evaluate the impact of parametric imaging and assess its feasibility with regard to diagnostics and treatment management. Parametric PET images based on different algorithms have been calculated. Regression-based images, influx images according to Patlak, two-tissue compartment images as well as non-compartmental approaches, based on the fractal dimension, principal component images, and similarity mapping have been used. Our results showed that the use of parametric images is helpful to visualize quantitative parameters of the tracer kinetics and adds a new dimension to the existing conventional PET or PET/computerized tomography (CT) images. Especially, non-compartment models are computationally fast and can be applied in daily routine to gain more detailed information about the distribution of a tracer over time and space. In conclusion, it is our opinion that parametric images will gain increasing importance and find their way into clinical routine due to the improvement of the technical equipment, like computer power, faster data acquisition by new generations of PET/CT scanners and more sophisticated software for data evaluation.

  5. A nanomedicine-promising approach to provide an appropriate colon-targeted drug delivery system for 5-fluorouracil

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sima; Kotla, Niranjan G; Tomar, Sonia; Maddiboyina, Balaji; Webster, Thomas J; Sharma, Dinesh; Sunnapu, Omprakash

    2015-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery plays a significant role in disease treatment associated with the colon, affording therapeutic responses for a prolonged period of time with low side effects. Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in both men and women with an estimated 102,480 cases of colon cancer and 40,340 cases of rectal cancer in 2013 as reported by the American Cancer Society. In the present investigation, we developed an improved oral delivery system for existing anticancer drugs meant for colon cancer via prebiotic and probiotic approaches. The system comprises three components, namely, nanoparticles of drug coated with natural materials such as guar gum, xanthan gum (that serve as prebiotics), and probiotics. The natural gums play a dual role of protecting the drug in the gastric as well as intestinal conditions to allow its release only in the colon. In vitro results obtained from these experiments indicated the successful targeted delivery of 5-fluorouracil to the colon. Electron microscopy results demonstrated that the prepared nanoparticles were spherical in shape and 200 nm in size. The in vitro release data indicated that the maximum release occurs at pH 7.2 and 7.4 with 93% of the drug released in the presence of 4% (w/v) of rat cecal content. In vivo results conclude a practical mechanism to maintain the integrity and intactness of the intestinal/colonic microflora, in the face of a “chemical attack” by oral colon-targeted drug delivery for colon cancer treatment. PMID:26648721

  6. Using the social entrepreneurship approach to generate innovative and sustainable malaria diagnosis interventions in Tanzania: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There have been a number of interventions to date aimed at improving malaria diagnostic accuracy in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, limited success is often reported for a number of reasons, especially in rural settings. This paper seeks to provide a framework for applied research aimed to improve malaria diagnosis using a combination of the established methods, participatory action research and social entrepreneurship. Methods This case study introduces the idea of using the social entrepreneurship approach (SEA) to create innovative and sustainable applied health research outcomes. The following key elements define the SEA: (1) identifying a locally relevant research topic and plan, (2) recognizing the importance of international multi-disciplinary teams and the incorporation of local knowledge, (3) engaging in a process of continuous innovation, adaptation and learning, (4) remaining motivated and determined to achieve sustainable long-term research outcomes and, (5) sharing and transferring ownership of the project with the international and local partner. Evaluation The SEA approach has a strong emphasis on innovation lead by local stakeholders. In this case, innovation resulted in a unique holistic research program aimed at understanding patient, laboratory and physician influences on accurate diagnosis of malaria. An evaluation of milestones for each SEA element revealed that the success of one element is intricately related to the success of other elements. Conclusions The SEA will provide an additional framework for researchers and local stakeholders that promotes innovation and adaptability. This approach will facilitate the development of new ideas, strategies and approaches to understand how health issues, such as malaria, affect vulnerable communities. PMID:20128922

  7. Using the social entrepreneurship approach to generate innovative and sustainable malaria diagnosis interventions in Tanzania: a case study.

    PubMed

    Allen, Lisa K; Hetherington, Erin; Manyama, Mange; Hatfield, Jennifer M; van Marle, Guido

    2010-02-03

    There have been a number of interventions to date aimed at improving malaria diagnostic accuracy in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, limited success is often reported for a number of reasons, especially in rural settings. This paper seeks to provide a framework for applied research aimed to improve malaria diagnosis using a combination of the established methods, participatory action research and social entrepreneurship. This case study introduces the idea of using the social entrepreneurship approach (SEA) to create innovative and sustainable applied health research outcomes. The following key elements define the SEA: (1) identifying a locally relevant research topic and plan, (2) recognizing the importance of international multi-disciplinary teams and the incorporation of local knowledge, (3) engaging in a process of continuous innovation, adaptation and learning, (4) remaining motivated and determined to achieve sustainable long-term research outcomes and, (5) sharing and transferring ownership of the project with the international and local partner. The SEA approach has a strong emphasis on innovation lead by local stakeholders. In this case, innovation resulted in a unique holistic research program aimed at understanding patient, laboratory and physician influences on accurate diagnosis of malaria. An evaluation of milestones for each SEA element revealed that the success of one element is intricately related to the success of other elements. The SEA will provide an additional framework for researchers and local stakeholders that promotes innovation and adaptability. This approach will facilitate the development of new ideas, strategies and approaches to understand how health issues, such as malaria, affect vulnerable communities.

  8. An innovative numerical approach to resolve the pulse wave velocity in a healthy thoracic aorta model.

    PubMed

    Yang, An-Shik; Wen, Chih-Yung; Tseng, Li-Yu; Chiang, Chih-Chieh; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac; Yu, Hsi-Yu

    2014-04-01

    Aortic dissection and atherosclerosis are highly fatal diseases. The development of both diseases is closely associated with highly complex haemodynamics. Thus, in predicting the onset of cardiac disease, it is desirable to obtain a detailed understanding of the flowfield characteristics in the human cardiovascular circulatory system. Accordingly, in this study, a numerical model of a normal human thoracic aorta is constructed using the geometry information obtained from a phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) technique. The interaction between the blood flow and the vessel wall dynamics is then investigated using a coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis. The simulations focus specifically on the flowfield characteristics and pulse wave velocity (PWV) of the blood flow. Instead of using a conventional PC-MRI method to measure PWV, we present an innovative application of using the FSI approach to numerically resolve PWV for the assessment of wall compliance in a thoracic aorta model. The estimated PWV for a normal thoracic aorta agrees well with the results obtained via PC-MRI measurement. In addition, simulations which consider the FSI effect yield a lower predicted value of the wall shear stress at certain locations in the cardiac cycle than models which assume a rigid vessel wall. Consequently, the model provides a suitable basis for the future development of more sophisticated methods capable of performing the computer-aided analysis of aortic blood flows.

  9. Innovative approach for the valorization of useful metals from waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soare, V.; Burada, M.; Dumitrescu, D. V.; Constantin, I.; Soare, V.; Popescu, A.-M. J.; Carcea, I.

    2016-08-01

    Waste electric and electronic equipment are an important secondary source of rare and precious metals and their processing through ecological technologies constitutes a major concern in the European Union and significantly contributes to the reduction of environmental pollution and to the preservation of valuable resources of nonferrous metals. The paper presents an innovative approach for the complex valorization of useful metals contained in WEEE. The method consists in the melting of WEEE in a furnace in a microwave field at temperatures of 1000 ÷1200°C, for the complete separation of the metallic fraction from the organic components. The gases resulting from the melting process were also treated/neutralized in a microwave environment and the obtained metallic bulk (multi-component alloy) was processed through combined hydrometallurgical and electrochemical methods. The major elements in the metallic bulk (Cu, Sn, Zn, Pb) were separated/recovered by anodic dissolution, respectively by leaching in nitric acid followed by cementation using various agents, or by electrodeposition. Depending on the electrochemical parameters, cathodic deposits consisting of Cu, with a purity higher than 99.9%, or of Cu-Sn and Cu-Sn-Zn alloys were obtained. Silver was valorized by leaching/precipitation with NaCl and the gold concentrated in the anodic slime will be recovered by thiourea extraction. The experiments performed demonstrate the possibility of ecological and efficient processing of WEEE in a microwave field and the recovery of nonferrous and precious metals through combined hydrometallurgical and electrochemical methods.

  10. Principal components analysis: an innovative approach to establish interferences in ochratoxin A detection.

    PubMed

    Kupski, L; Badiale-Furlong, E

    2015-06-15

    This work aimed to establish an innovative approach to evaluate the effect of cereals composition on ochratoxin A extraction by multivariate analysis. Principal components analysis was applied to identify the effect of major matrix components on the recovery of ochratoxin A by QuEChERS method using HPTLC and HPLC, and to validate the method for ochratoxin A determination in wheat flour by HPLC. The matrices rice bran, wheat bran and wheat flour were characterized for their physical and chemical attributes. The ochratoxin A recovery in these matrices was highly influenced (R=0.99) by the sugar content of the matrix, while the lipids content showed a minor interference (R=0.29). From these data, the QuEChERS method was standardized for extracting ochratoxin A from flour using 1% ACN:water (2:1) as extraction solvent and dried magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride as salts. The recovery values ranged from 97.6% to 105%. The validated method was applied to evaluate natural occurrence of ochratoxin A in 20 wheat flour samples, which were contaminated with ochratoxin A levels in the range of 0.22-0.85 μg kg(-1).

  11. [The construction of collective portfolios in traditional curriculums: an innovative approach in teaching-learning].

    PubMed

    Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre; Silva, Luciana Saraiva da; Lopes, Lílian Lelis; Gomes, Karine de Oliveira; Cotta, Fernanda Mitre; Lugarinho, Regina; Mitre, Sandra Minardi

    2012-03-01

    Education to promote health has traditionally been based on knowledge transmission methodologies. However, the current scenario calls for the training of professionals with a critical-reflective profile, who are able to work in teams. We present the report of an innovative experience using the construction of collective portfolios as instruments of learning, changing attitudes and training of undergraduates, in a traditional subject-based curriculum structure context. It is a descriptive exploratory study, with a qualitative-quantitative approach, based on analysis of collective portfolios (n=9), built by Health Policy students, together with an open questionnaire to students who attended the course (n=58) and also the staging of focus groups (n=3). The use of collective portfolios mobilized students in critical and reflective thinking on Brazilian health policy - the Unified Health System - broadening the concept on the health-disease process and practices related to health services, prioritizing teamwork and the active search for knowledge building, stressing the exercise of otherness, resilience and empowerment.

  12. [A couple-based approach: An innovative effort to tackle HIV infection among Latino gay men.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Omar; Wu, Elwin; Sandfort, Theo; Shultz, Andrew Z; Capote, Jonathan; Chávez, Silvia; Moya, Eva; Dodge, Brian; Morales, Gabriel; Porras, Antonio; Ovejero, Hugo

    2014-01-30

    The HIV epidemic is a serious and pervasive health issue in the Latino community. While prevention efforts have helped maintain stability in the overall number of infections among Latinos for more than a decade, this population continues to be affected by HIV at high levels. In particular, Predominantly Spanish-speaking Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately impacted by HIV. Several factors contribute to the HIV epidemic among Predominantly Spanish-speaking Latino MSM including substance use; intimate partner violence; the presence of certain STIs; same-sex relationship dynamics; avoidance of seeking testing counseling and treatment out of fear of discrimination and immigration status; and poverty, migration patterns, and language barriers. In particular, epidemiological behavioral research has identified how relationship dynamics in male couples are associated with sexual risk behavior. Consequently, further research is needed to identify and deliver interventions geared toward couple-based risk reduction among men in same-sex relationships. This paper describes the potential significance that innovative couple-based approaches can have on reducing HIV and AIDS cases among Predominantly Spanish-speaking Latino MSM and their same-sex partners.

  13. A New Approach for Analysing National Innovation Systems in Emerging and Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidel, Uwe; Muller, Lysann; Meier zu Kocker, Gerd; Filho, Guajarino de Araujo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a tool for the indicator-based analysis of national innovation systems (ANIS). ANIS identifies the economic strengths and weaknesses of a country-wide, regional or local system and includes a comprehensive examination and evaluation of the status of existing innovation systems. The use of a particular form of expert interviews…

  14. Competency-Based Faculty Development in Community-Engaged Scholarship: A Diffusion of Innovation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Catherine; Doherty, William J.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Cook, Nancy; Dubrow, Gail; Mendenhall, Tai J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors utilized interviews, competency surveys, and document review to evaluate the effectiveness of a one-year, cohort-based faculty development pilot program, grounded in diffusion of innovations theory, and aimed at increasing competencies in community engagement and community-engaged scholarship. Five innovator participants designed the…

  15. A New Approach for Analysing National Innovation Systems in Emerging and Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidel, Uwe; Muller, Lysann; Meier zu Kocker, Gerd; Filho, Guajarino de Araujo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a tool for the indicator-based analysis of national innovation systems (ANIS). ANIS identifies the economic strengths and weaknesses of a country-wide, regional or local system and includes a comprehensive examination and evaluation of the status of existing innovation systems. The use of a particular form of expert interviews…

  16. The Search for next Practice: A UK Approach to Innovation in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, the Labor Government in the UK established an Innovation Unit, within government, to support practitioner-led innovation in schools. Two considerations led to this action. First, there was an increasing sense that amidst the plethora of national strategies and change programs, an important element was in danger of being lost: the…

  17. Better Movers and Thinkers (BMT): An Exploratory Study of an Innovative Approach to Physical Education.

    PubMed

    Dalziell, Andrew; Boyle, James; Mutrie, Nanette

    2015-11-01

    Recent research has confirmed a positive relationship between levels of physical activity and academic achievement. Some of these studies have been informed by neurological models of Executive Functioning (EF). There is a general consensus within the literature that the three core EF skills are; working memory, inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility. The development of these core EF skills has been linked with learning and academic achievement and is an essential component in the delivery of PE using a new and innovative approach called 'Better Movers and Thinkers (BMT).' A mixed methods design was used to investigate the effectiveness and feasibility of a 16-week intervention programme using BMT where 46 children were tested on two separate occasions for coordination and balance control, academic skills, working memory and non-verbal reasoning skills. One school acted as the control condition (21 students, aged 9 - 10 years) and another school acted as the intervention condition (25 students, aged 9 - 10 years). Quantitative data revealed an effect between pre and post-test conditions in the areas of phonological skills (p = .042), segmentation skills (p = .014) and working memory (p = .040) in favour of the intervention condition. Further analysis identified a gender-interaction with male students in the intervention condition making significant gains in phonological skills (p = .005) segmentation skills (p = .014) and spelling (p = .007) compared to boys in the control condition. Analysis of qualitative data from a sample of students from the intervention condition and their class teacher indicated good acceptability of BMT as an alternative approach to PE.

  18. Better Movers and Thinkers (BMT): An Exploratory Study of an Innovative Approach to Physical Education

    PubMed Central

    Dalziell, Andrew; Boyle, James; Mutrie, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has confirmed a positive relationship between levels of physical activity and academic achievement. Some of these studies have been informed by neurological models of Executive Functioning (EF). There is a general consensus within the literature that the three core EF skills are; working memory, inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility. The development of these core EF skills has been linked with learning and academic achievement and is an essential component in the delivery of PE using a new and innovative approach called ‘Better Movers and Thinkers (BMT).’ A mixed methods design was used to investigate the effectiveness and feasibility of a 16-week intervention programme using BMT where 46 children were tested on two separate occasions for coordination and balance control, academic skills, working memory and non-verbal reasoning skills. One school acted as the control condition (21 students, aged 9 – 10 years) and another school acted as the intervention condition (25 students, aged 9 – 10 years). Quantitative data revealed an effect between pre and post-test conditions in the areas of phonological skills (p = .042), segmentation skills (p = .014) and working memory (p = .040) in favour of the intervention condition. Further analysis identified a gender-interaction with male students in the intervention condition making significant gains in phonological skills (p = .005) segmentation skills (p = .014) and spelling (p = .007) compared to boys in the control condition. Analysis of qualitative data from a sample of students from the intervention condition and their class teacher indicated good acceptability of BMT as an alternative approach to PE. PMID:27247688

  19. Storylines of research in diffusion of innovation: a meta-narrative approach to systematic review.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Robert, Glenn; Macfarlane, Fraser; Bate, Paul; Kyriakidou, Olympia; Peacock, Richard

    2005-07-01

    Producing literature reviews of complex evidence for policymaking questions is a challenging methodological area. There are several established and emerging approaches to such reviews, but unanswered questions remain, especially around how to begin to make sense of large data sets drawn from heterogeneous sources. Drawing on Kuhn's notion of scientific paradigms, we developed a new method-meta-narrative review-for sorting and interpreting the 1024 sources identified in our exploratory searches. We took as our initial unit of analysis the unfolding 'storyline' of a research tradition over time. We mapped these storylines by using both electronic and manual tracking to trace the influence of seminal theoretical and empirical work on subsequent research within a tradition. We then drew variously on the different storylines to build up a rich picture of our field of study. We identified 13 key meta-narratives from literatures as disparate as rural sociology, clinical epidemiology, marketing and organisational studies. Researchers in different traditions had conceptualised, explained and investigated diffusion of innovations differently and had used different criteria for judging the quality of empirical work. Moreover, they told very different over-arching stories of the progress of their research. Within each tradition, accounts of research depicted human characters emplotted in a story of (in the early stages) pioneering endeavour and (later) systematic puzzle-solving, variously embellished with scientific dramas, surprises and 'twists in the plot'. By first separating out, and then drawing together, these different meta-narratives, we produced a synthesis that embraced the many complexities and ambiguities of 'diffusion of innovations' in an organisational setting. We were able to make sense of seemingly contradictory data by systematically exposing and exploring tensions between research paradigms as set out in their over-arching storylines. In some traditions

  20. Special funding schemes for innovative medical devices in French hospitals: the pros and cons of two different approaches.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Nicolas; van den Brink, Hélène

    2014-07-01

    Financing innovative medical devices is an important challenge for national health policy makers, and a crucial issue for hospitals. However, when innovative medical devices are launched on the European market there is generally little clinical evidence regarding both efficacy and safety, both because of the flaws in the European system for regulating such devices, and because they are at an early stage of development. To manage the uncertainty surrounding the reimbursement of innovation, several European countries have set up temporary funding schemes to generate evidence about the effectiveness of devices. This article explores two different French approaches to funding innovative in-hospital devices and collecting supplementary data: the coverage with evidence development (CED) scheme introduced under Article L. 165-1-1 of the French Social Security Code; and national programs for hospital-based research. We discuss pros and cons of both approaches in the light of CED policies in Germany and the UK. The CED policies for devices share common limitations. Thus, transparency of CED processes should be enhanced and decisions need to be made in a timely way. Finally, we think that closer collaboration between manufacturers, health authorities and hospitals is essential to make CED policies more operational.

  1. How physics teachers approach innovation: An empirical study for reconstructing the appropriation path in the case of special relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ambrosis, Anna; Levrini, Olivia

    2010-07-01

    This paper concerns an empirical study carried out with a group of high school physics teachers engaged in the Module on relativity of a Master course on the teaching of modern physics. The study is framed within the general research issue of how to promote innovation in school via teachers’ education and how to foster fruitful interactions between research and school practice via the construction of networks of researchers and teachers. In the paper, the problems related to innovation are addressed by focusing on the phase during which teachers analyze an innovative teaching proposal in the perspective of designing their own paths for the class work. The proposal analyzed in this study is Taylor and Wheeler’s approach for teaching special relativity. The paper aims to show that the roots of problems known in the research literature about teachers’ difficulties in coping with innovative proposals, and usually related to the implementation process, can be found and addressed already when teachers approach the proposal and try to appropriate it. The study is heuristic and has been carried out in order to trace the “appropriation path,” followed by the group of teachers, in terms of the main steps and factors triggering the progressive evolution of teachers’ attitudes and competences.

  2. Teaching undergraduate nursing research: a comparison of traditional and innovative approaches for success with millennial learners.

    PubMed

    McCurry, Mary K; Martins, Diane C

    2010-05-01

    Historically, nursing students have questioned the value of a nursing research course and have not appreciated the research-practice link. These are important concerns in light of the increasing emphasis on evidence-based nursing practice. The purpose of this study was to develop innovative strategies for teaching undergraduate nursing research that engage millennial learners and emphasize the relationship between evidence-based practice and clinical outcomes. Innovative assignments were developed that included interactive learning, group work, and practical applications preferred by these learners. Using a Likert scale, students' perceived effectiveness of innovative assignments and more traditional assignments were compared. Results indicated a preference for active learning assignments, reading quizzes, clinical nurse researcher presentations, and collaboration with clinical course assignments. By combining traditional assignments with innovative strategies and nursing practice applications, millennial learners were engaged and able to clearly articulate the value of the research-practice link vital to evidence-based nursing practice.

  3. Psychological contract breaches, organizational commitment, and innovation-related behaviors: a latent growth modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Ng, Thomas W H; Feldman, Daniel C; Lam, Simon S K

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the relationships among psychological contract breaches, organizational commitment, and innovation-related behaviors (generating, spreading, implementing innovative ideas at work) over a 6-month period. Results indicate that the effects of psychological contract breaches on employees are not static. Specifically, perceptions of psychological contract breaches strengthened over time and were associated with decreased levels of affective commitment over time. Further, increased perceptions of psychological contract breaches were associated with decreases in innovation-related behaviors. We also found evidence that organizational commitment mediates the relationship between psychological contract breaches and innovation-related behaviors. These results highlight the importance of examining the nomological network of psychological contract breaches from a change perspective.

  4. An innovative approach to multimedia waste reduction: Measuring performance for environmental cleanup projects

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; George, S.M.

    1993-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges we now face in environmental cleanup is measuring the progress of minimizing multimedia transfer releases and achieving waste reduction. Briefly, multimedia transfer refers to the air, land, and water where pollution is not controlled, concentrated, and moved from one medium to another. An example of multimedia transfer would be heavy metals in wastewater sludges moved from water to land disposal. Over $2 billion has been budgeted for environmental restoration site cleanups by the Department of Energy (DOE) for FY 1994. Unless we reduce the huge waste volumes projected to be generated in the near future, then we will devote more and more resources to the management and disposal of these wastes. To meet this challenge, the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge Environmental Restoration (ER) Program has explored the value of a multimedia approach by designing an innovative Pollution Prevention Life-Cycle Model. The model consists of several fundamental elements (Fig. 1) and addresses the two major objectives of data gathering and establishing performance measures. Because the majority of projects are in the remedial investigation phase, the focus is on the prevention of unnecessary generation of investigation-derived waste and multimedia transfers at the source. A state-of-the-art tool developed to support the life-cycle model for meeting these objectives is the Numerical Scoring System (NSS), which is a computerized, user-friendly data base system for information management, designed to measure the effectiveness of pollution prevention activities in each phase of the ER Program. This report contains a discussion of the development of the Pollution Prevention Life-Cycle Model and the role the NSS will play in the pollution prevention programs in the remedial investigation phase of the ER Program at facilities managed by Energy Systems for DOE.

  5. Innovative Approaches Using Lichen Enriched Media to Improve Isolation and Culturability of Lichen Associated Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Biosca, Elena G; Flores, Raquel; Santander, Ricardo D; Díez-Gil, José Luis; Barreno, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Lichens, self-supporting mutualistic associations between a fungal partner and one or more photosynthetic partners, also harbor non-photosynthetic bacteria. The diversity and contribution of these bacteria to the functioning of lichen symbiosis have recently begun to be studied, often by culture-independent techniques due to difficulties in their isolation and culture. However, culturing as yet unculturable lichenic bacteria is critical to unravel their potential functional roles in lichen symbiogenesis, to explore and exploit their biotechnological potential and for the description of new taxa. Our objective was to improve the recovery of lichen associated bacteria by developing novel isolation and culture approaches, initially using the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. We evaluated the effect of newly developed media enriched with novel lichen extracts, as well as the influence of thalli washing time and different disinfection and processing protocols of thalli. The developed methodology included: i) the use of lichen enriched media to mimic lichen nutrients, supplemented with the fungicide natamycin; ii) an extended washing of thalli to increase the recovery of ectolichenic bacteria, thus allowing the disinfection of thalli to be discarded, hence enhancing endolichenic bacteria recovery; and iii) the use of an antioxidant buffer to prevent or reduce oxidative stress during thalli disruption. The optimized methodology allowed significant increases in the number and diversity of culturable bacteria associated with P. furfuracea, and it was also successfully applied to the lichens Ramalina farinacea and Parmotrema pseudotinctorum. Furthermore, we provide, for the first time, data on the abundance of culturable ecto- and endolichenic bacteria that naturally colonize P. furfuracea, R. farinacea and P. pseudotinctorum, some of which were only able to grow on lichen enriched media. This innovative methodology is also applicable to other microorganisms inhabiting these

  6. The FAMULATUR PLUS as an innovative approach for teaching physical examination skills.

    PubMed

    Jerg, Achim; Öchsner, Wolfgang; Wander, Henriette; Traue, Harald C; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    The FAMULATUR PLUS is an innovative approach to teaching physical examination skills. The concept is aimed at medical students during the clinical part of their studies and includes a clinical traineeship (English for "Famulatur") extended to include various courses ("PLUS"). The courses are divided into clinical examination courses and problembased-learning (PBL) seminars. The concept's special feature is the full integration of these courses into a 30-day hospital traineeship. The aim is to facilitate the transfer of knowledge from the courses into daily practice. Each week of the FAMULATUR PLUS is structured in line with the courses and focuses on a particular part of the body (e.g., abdomen). A physical examination course under the supervision of a physician is offered at the beginning of the week. Here, medical students learn the relevant examination techniques by practicing on each other (partner exercises). Subsequently, the techniques taught are applied independently during everyday work on the ward, corrected by the supervisor, if necessary, and thereby reinforced. The final POL seminar takes place towards the end of the week. Possible differential diagnoses are developed based on a clinical case study. The goal is to check these by taking a fictitious medical history and performing a physical examination, as well as to make a preliminary diagnosis. Finally, during the PBL seminar, medical students will be shown how physical examination techniques can be efficiently applied in the diagnosis of common cardinal symptoms (e.g., abdominal pain). The initial implementation of the FAMULATUR PLUS proved the practical feasibility of the concept. In addition, the accompanying evaluation showed that the participants of the pilot project improved with regard to their practical physical examination skills.

  7. Innovative Approaches Using Lichen Enriched Media to Improve Isolation and Culturability of Lichen Associated Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Biosca, Elena G.; Flores, Raquel; Santander, Ricardo D.; Díez-Gil, José Luis; Barreno, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Lichens, self-supporting mutualistic associations between a fungal partner and one or more photosynthetic partners, also harbor non-photosynthetic bacteria. The diversity and contribution of these bacteria to the functioning of lichen symbiosis have recently begun to be studied, often by culture-independent techniques due to difficulties in their isolation and culture. However, culturing as yet unculturable lichenic bacteria is critical to unravel their potential functional roles in lichen symbiogenesis, to explore and exploit their biotechnological potential and for the description of new taxa. Our objective was to improve the recovery of lichen associated bacteria by developing novel isolation and culture approaches, initially using the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. We evaluated the effect of newly developed media enriched with novel lichen extracts, as well as the influence of thalli washing time and different disinfection and processing protocols of thalli. The developed methodology included: i) the use of lichen enriched media to mimic lichen nutrients, supplemented with the fungicide natamycin; ii) an extended washing of thalli to increase the recovery of ectolichenic bacteria, thus allowing the disinfection of thalli to be discarded, hence enhancing endolichenic bacteria recovery; and iii) the use of an antioxidant buffer to prevent or reduce oxidative stress during thalli disruption. The optimized methodology allowed significant increases in the number and diversity of culturable bacteria associated with P. furfuracea, and it was also successfully applied to the lichens Ramalina farinacea and Parmotrema pseudotinctorum. Furthermore, we provide, for the first time, data on the abundance of culturable ecto- and endolichenic bacteria that naturally colonize P. furfuracea, R. farinacea and P. pseudotinctorum, some of which were only able to grow on lichen enriched media. This innovative methodology is also applicable to other microorganisms inhabiting these

  8. An Innovative Approach to Data Access for a Diverse Group of Atmospheric Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchey, N. A.; Hunt, L.; Watkinson, T.; Walter, R. J.; Protack, S.; Davis, J.; Welch, C.; Hansen, E.; Kahn, R.; Bothwell, G.; Doudian, E.; Thaller, T.; Smyth, M.; Gaitley, B.; Averill, C.; Knighton, S.; Kalashnikova, O.; Danielson, E.

    2004-12-01

    NASA Langley Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (ASDC) and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) teams collaborated to provide special data products and images in a new and innovative approach for the United Arab Emirates Unified Aerosol Experiment (UAE2) field campaign. UAE2 focused on the coastal and desert areas of the United Arab Emirates region to gain insight on the properties and concentrations of aerosols and to understand how these aerosols might affect climate change. Over 20 international research organizations participated in the field campaign which occurred August through October 2004. Aerosol and meteorological measurements were provided by a network of instruments on land, buoys and ships, by airborne in situ and remote instruments, and by satellite retrievals. MISR's role in UAE2 was to provide satellite retrievals of aerosols, cloud and surface properties and imagery as quickly as possible after data acquisition. The diverse group of participants created unique opportunities for ASDC and MISR to develop special data products and images in multiple formats that were easily accessible by all participants. Planning and testing of processes proved invaluable for smoothing the logistics of the ASDC-MISR team who reside on opposite coasts of the United States, ASDC in Hampton, VA, and MISR at the Jet Propulsion Lab in Pasadena, CA. Examples of the data products, images and access methods as well as the data flow will be presented. Additional information about ASDC and MISR is available from the following web sites, http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov and http://www-misr.jpl.nasa.gov/.

  9. Innovative Approaches to Development and Ground Testing of Advanced Bimodal Space Power and Propulsion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Thomas Johnathan; Noble, Cheryl Ann; Noble, C.; Martinell, John Stephen; Borowski, S.

    2000-07-01

    The last major development effort for nuclear power and propulsion systems ended in 1993. Currently, there is not an initiative at either the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that requires the development of new nuclear power and propulsion systems. Studies continue to show nuclear technology as a strong technical candidate to lead the way toward human exploration of adjacent planets or provide power for deep space missions, particularly a 15,000 lbf bimodal nuclear system with 115 kW power capability. The development of nuclear technology for space applications would require technology development in some areas and a major flight qualification program. The last major ground test facility considered for nuclear propulsion qualification was the U.S. Air Force/DOE Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project. Seven years have passed since that effort, and the questions remain the same, how to qualify nuclear power and propulsion systems for future space flight. It can be reasonable assumed that much of the nuclear testing required to qualify a nuclear system for space application will be performed at DOE facilities as demonstrated by the Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor Experiment (NERVA) and Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) programs. The nuclear infrastructure to support testing in this country is aging and getting smaller, though facilities still exist to support many of the technology development needs. By renewing efforts, an innovative approach to qualifying these systems through the use of existing facilities either in the U.S. (DOE's Advance Test Reactor, High Flux Irradiation Facility and the Contained Test Facility) or overseas should be possible.

  10. Innovation Approaches to Development and Ground Testing of Advanced Bimodal Space Power and Propulsion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, T.; Noble, C.; Martinell, J.; Borowski, S.

    2000-07-14

    The last major development effort for nuclear power and propulsion systems ended in 1993. Currently, there is not an initiative at either the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that requires the development of new nuclear power and propulsion systems. Studies continue to show nuclear technology as a strong technical candidate to lead the way toward human exploration of adjacent planets or provide power for deep space missions, particularly a 15,000 lbf bimodal nuclear system with 115 kW power capability. The development of nuclear technology for space applications would require technology development in some areas and a major flight qualification program. The last major ground test facility considered for nuclear propulsion qualification was the U.S. Air Force/DOE Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project. Seven years have passed since that effort, and the questions remain the same, how to qualify nuclear power and propulsion systems for future space flight. It can be reasonably assumed that much of the nuclear testing required to qualify a nuclear system for space application will be performed at DOE facilities as demonstrated by the Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor Experiment (NERVA) and Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) programs. The nuclear infrastructure to support testing in this country is aging and getting smaller, though facilities still exist to support many of the technology development needs. By renewing efforts, an innovative approach to qualifying these systems through the use of existing facilities either in the U.S. (DOE's Advance Test Reactor, High Flux Irradiation Facility and the Contained Test Facility) or overseas should be possible.

  11. Innovative approach for recycling phosphorous from agro-wastewaters using water treatment residuals (WTR).

    PubMed

    Zohar, Iris; Ippolito, James A; Massey, Michael S; Litaor, Iggy M

    2017-02-01

    Phosphorus capture from polluting streams and its re-use using industrial byproducts has the potential to also reduce environmental threats. An innovative approach was developed for P removal from soil leachate and dairy wastewater using Al-based water treatment residuals (Al-WTR) to create an organic-Al-WTR composite (Al/O-WTR), potentially capable of serving as a P fertilizer source. Al-WTR was mixed with either soil leachate, or with dairy wastewater, both of which contained elevated P concentrations (e.g., 7.6-43.5 mg SRP L(-1)). The Al-WTR removed ∼95% inorganic P, above 80% organic P, and over 60% dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the waste streams. P removal was correlated with P concentration in the waste streams and was consistent with an increase in Al/O-WTR P content as determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and surface analysis using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Organic C was a major constituent in the original Al-WTR (31.4%) and increased by 1% in the Al/O-WTRs. Organic C accumulation on particles surfaces possibly enhanced weak P bonding. Desorption experiments indicated an initial and substantial P release (30 mg SRP kg(-1) Al/O-WTR), followed by relatively constant low P solubility (ca. 10 mg kg(-1)). Organic C was continuously released to the solution (over 8000 mg kg(-1)), concomitantly with Ca and other electrolytes, possibly indicating dissolution from inner pores, accounting for the highly porous nature of the Al-WTR, evident by SEM images. The potential of P-loading on Al/O-WTR to promote P recycling should be further studied.

  12. The Public Health Reach of High Fluoride Vehicles: Examples of Innovative Approaches.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Marisol; Wolff, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Fluorides and sealants have been shown to reduce caries in populations, making fluoride interventions a large part of the dental public health effort. Although public health programs have traditionally focused on fluoride vehicles delivering less than 1,000 ppm of fluoride, more recent efforts have shifted toward the use of high fluoride vehicles such as varnishes and prescription toothpastes. In the USA, states are developing innovative strategies to increase access to dental services by using primary care medical providers to deliver early preventive services as part of well-child care visits. Currently, Medicaid programs in 43 states reimburse medical providers for preventive services including varnish application. Still, there is uncertainty about the cost-effectiveness of such interventions. In many resource-strained environments, with shortages of dental health care providers, lack of fluoridated water and lower dental awareness, it is necessary to develop sustainable programs utilizing already established programs, like primary school education, where caries prevention may be set as a priority. Dental caries among the elderly is an ongoing complex problem. The 5,000-ppm F toothpaste may be a reasonable approach for developing public health programs where root caries control is the main concern. Fluoride varnish and high concentration fluoride toothpaste are attractive because they can easily be incorporated into well-child visits and community-based geriatric programs. Additional research on the effectiveness and costs associated with population-based programs of this nature for high risk groups is needed, especially in areas where a community-based fluoride delivery program is not available. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. An Innovative Approach for Decreasing Fall Trauma Admissions from Geriatric Living Facilities: Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Evans, Tracy; Gross, Brian; Rittenhouse, Katelyn; Harnish, Carissa; Vellucci, Ashley; Bupp, Katherine; Horst, Michael; Miller, Jo Ann; Baier, Ron; Chandler, Roxanne; Rogers, Frederick B

    2015-12-01

    Geriatric living facilities have been associated with a high rate of falls. We sought to develop an innovative intervention approach targeting geriatric living facilities that would reduce geriatric fall admissions to our Level II trauma center. In 2011, a Trauma Prevention Taskforce visited 5 of 28 local geriatric living facilities to present a fall prevention protocol composed of three sections: fall education, risk factor identification, and fall prevention strategies. To determine the impact of the intervention, the trauma registry was queried for all geriatric fall admissions attributed to patients living at local geriatric living facilities. The fall admission rate (total fall admissions/total beds) of the pre-intervention period (2010-2011) was compared with that of the postintervention period (2012-2013) at the 5 intervention and 23 control facilities. A P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. From 2010 to 2013, there were 487 fall admissions attributed to local geriatric living facilities (intervention: 179 fall admissions; control: 308 fall admissions). The unadjusted fall rate decreased at intervention facilities from 8.9 fall admissions/bed pre-intervention to 8.1 fall admissions/bed postintervention, whereas fall admission rates increased at control sites from 5.9 to 7.7 fall admissions/bed during the same period [control/intervention odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.32, 1.05-1.67; period OR, 95%CI = 1.55, 1.18-2.04, P = 0.002; interaction of control/intervention group and period OR 95% CI = 0.68, 0.46-1.00, P = 0.047]. An aggressive intervention program targeting high-risk geriatric living facilities resulted in a statistically significant decrease in geriatric fall admissions to our Level II trauma center.

  14. An innovative approach to undergraduate climate change education: Sustainability in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Z. P.

    2009-04-01

    Climate change and climate science are a core component of environment-related degree programmes, but there are many programmes, for example business studies, that have clear linkages to climate change and sustainability issues which often have no or limited coverage of the subject. Although an in-depth coverage of climate science is not directly applicable to all programmes of study, the subject of climate change is of great relevance to all of society. Graduates from the higher education system are often viewed as society's ‘future leaders', hence it can be argued that it is important that all graduates are conversant in the issues of climate change and strategies for moving towards a sustainable future. Rather than an in depth understanding of climate science it may be more important that a wider range of students are educated in strategies for positive action. One aspect of climate change education that may be missing, including in programmes where climate change is a core topic, is practical strategies, skills and knowledge for reducing our impact on the climate system. This presentation outlines an innovative approach to undergraduate climate change education which focuses on the strategies for moving towards sustainability, but which is supported by climate science understanding taught within this context. Students gain knowledge and understanding of the motivations and strategies for businesses to improve their environmental performance, and develop skills in identifying areas of environmental improvement and recommending actions for change. These skills will allow students to drive positive change in their future careers. Such courses are relevant to students of all disciplines and can give the opportunity to students for whom climate change education is not a core part of their programme, to gain greater understanding of the issues and an awareness of practical changes that can be made at all levels to move towards a more sustainable society.

  15. The FAMULATUR PLUS as an innovative approach for teaching physical examination skills

    PubMed Central

    Jerg, Achim; Öchsner, Wolfgang; Wander, Henriette; Traue, Harald C.; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    The FAMULATUR PLUS is an innovative approach to teaching physical examination skills. The concept is aimed at medical students during the clinical part of their studies and includes a clinical traineeship (English for “Famulatur”) extended to include various courses (“PLUS”). The courses are divided into clinical examination courses and problembased-learning (PBL) seminars. The concept’s special feature is the full integration of these courses into a 30-day hospital traineeship. The aim is to facilitate the transfer of knowledge from the courses into daily practice. Each week of the FAMULATUR PLUS is structured in line with the courses and focuses on a particular part of the body (e.g., abdomen). A physical examination course under the supervision of a physician is offered at the beginning of the week. Here, medical students learn the relevant examination techniques by practicing on each other (partner exercises). Subsequently, the techniques taught are applied independently during everyday work on the ward, corrected by the supervisor, if necessary, and thereby reinforced. The final POL seminar takes place towards the end of the week. Possible differential diagnoses are developed based on a clinical case study. The goal is to check these by taking a fictitious medical history and performing a physical examination, as well as to make a preliminary diagnosis. Finally, during the PBL seminar, medical students will be shown how physical examination techniques can be efficiently applied in the diagnosis of common cardinal symptoms (e.g., abdominal pain). The initial implementation of the FAMULATUR PLUS proved the practical feasibility of the concept. In addition, the accompanying evaluation showed that the participants of the pilot project improved with regard to their practical physical examination skills. PMID:26958652

  16. Combustion synthesis of reactive nickel-aluminum particles as an innovative approach for thermal joining applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, S.; Theodossiadis, G. D.; Zaeh, M. F.

    2017-03-01

    Reactive systems, which are widely used in combustion synthesis, represent a promising solution for challenging joining tasks. They are able to undergo a self-sustaining, highly exothermic reaction when exposed to an external energy source. Reactive foils are the only systems that are currently commercially available. However, their industrial use is limited due to the brittle nature of the material and the restriction to planar geometries. Reactive particles represent a more flexible format, but are currently not commercially available. Therefore, a two-step electroless plating process has been developed to synthesize nickel-aluminum core-shell structures. These structures function as microreactors, which provide the energy for the thermal joining process. Ignition tests with electromagnetic waves were performed in order to investigate the overall reactivity. Energy input and particle size significantly influence the activation and the reaction behavior of the core-shell structures. Furthermore, a general approach to use reactive particles as a heat source in joining applications is proposed.

  17. Lactobacillus plantarum with broad antifungal activity: A promising approach to increase safety and shelf-life of cereal-based products.

    PubMed

    Russo, Pasquale; Arena, Mattia Pia; Fiocco, Daniela; Capozzi, Vittorio; Drider, Djamel; Spano, Giuseppe

    2016-05-06

    Cereal-based fermented products are worldwide diffused staple food resources and cereal-based beverages represent a promising innovative field in the food market. Contamination and development of spoilage filamentous fungi can result in loss of cereal-based food products and it is a critical safety concern due to their potential ability to produce mycotoxins. Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) have been proposed as green strategy for the control of the moulds in the food industry due to their ability to produce antifungal metabolites. In this work, eighty-eight Lactobacillus plantarum strains were screened for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium culmorum, Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Cladosporium spp. The overlayed method was used for a preliminary discrimination of the strains as no, mild and strong inhibitors. L. plantarum isolates that displayed broad antifungal spectrum activity were further screened based on the antifungal properties of their cell-free supernatant (CFS). CFSs from L. plantarum UFG 108 and L. plantarum UFG 121, in reason of their antifungal potential, were characterized and analyzed by HPLC. Results indicated that lactic acid was produced at high concentration during the growth phase, suggesting that this metabolic aptitude, associated with the low pH, contributed to explain the highlighted antifungal phenotype. Production of phenyllactic acid was also observed. Finally, a new oat-based beverage was obtained by fermentation with the strongest antifungal strain L. plantarum UFG 121. This product was submitted or not to a thermal stabilization and artificially contaminated with F. culmorum. Samples containing L. plantarum UFG 121 showed the best biopreservative effects, since that no differences were observed in terms of some qualitative features between not or contaminated samples with F. culmorum. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, the suitability of LAB

  18. An innovative approach to supplying an environment for the integration and test of the Space Station distributed avionics systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Thomas; Scheffer, Terrance; Small, L. R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative approach to supplying an environment for the integration and testing of the Space Station distributed avionics systems. The environment's relationship to the process flow of the Space Station verification from systems development to on-orbit verification is presented. This paper also describes the uses of the environment's hardware implementation called Data Management System (DMS) kits. The way in which this environment allows system developers to independently verify their system's performance, fault detection, and recovery capability is explained.

  19. Remediation of Groundwater Contaminated with Organics and Radionuclides - An Innovative Approach Eases Traditional Hurdles

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.; Case, N.; Coltman, K.

    2003-02-25

    Traditional approaches to the remediation of contaminated groundwater, such as pump-and-treat, have been used for many years for the treatment of groundwater contaminated with various organics. However the treatment of groundwater contaminated with organics and radionuclides has been considerably more challenging. Safety and Ecology Corporation (SEC) was recently faced with these challenges while designing a remediation system for the remediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater and soil at the RMI Extrusion Plant in Ashtabula, OH. Under contract with RMI Environmental Services (RMIES), SEC teamed with Regenesis, Inc. to design, implement, and execute a bioremediation system to remove TCE and associated organics from groundwater and soil that was also contaminated with uranium and technetium. The SEC-Regenesis system involved the injection of Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC), a natural attenuation accelerant that has been patented, designed, and produced by Regenesis, to stimulate the reductive dechlorination and remediation of chlorinated organics in subsurface environments. The compound was injected using direct-push Geoprobe rods over a specially designed grid system through the zone of contaminated groundwater. The innovative approach eliminated the need to extract contaminated groundwater and bypassed the restrictive limitations listed above. The system has been in operation for roughly six months and has begun to show considerable success at dechlorinating and remediating the TCE plume and in reducing the radionuclides into insoluble precipitants. The paper will provide an overview of the design, installation, and initial operation phase of the project, focusing on how traditional design challenges of remediating radiologically contaminated groundwater were overcome. The following topics will be specifically covered: a description of the mechanics of the HRC technology; an assessment of the applicability of the HRC technology to contaminated groundwater plumes

  20. Single event and TREE latchup mitigation for a star tracker sensor: An innovative approach to system level latchup mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimbrough, J. R.; Colella, N. J.; Davis, R. W.; Bruener, D. B.; Coakley, P. G.; Lutjens, S. W.; Mallon, C. E.

    1994-08-01

    Electronic packages designed for spacecraft should be fault-tolerant and operate without ground control intervention through extremes in the space radiation environment. If designed for military use, the electronics must survive and function in a nuclear radiation environment. This paper presents an innovative 'blink' approach rather than the typical 'operate through' approach to achieve system level latchup mitigation on a prototype star tracker camera. Included are circuit designs, flash x-ray test data, and heavy ion data demonstrating latchup mitigation protecting micro-electronics from current latchup and burnout due to Single Event Latchup (SEL) and Transient Radiation Effects on Electronics (TREE).

  1. Single event and TREE latchup mitigation for a star tracker sensor: An innovative approach to system level latchup mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Kimbrough, J.R.; Colella, N.J.; Davis, R.W.; Bruener, D.B.; Coakley, P.G.; Lutjens, S.W.; Mallon, C.E.

    1994-08-01

    Electronic packages designed for spacecraft should be fault-tolerant and operate without ground control intervention through extremes in the space radiation environment. If designed for military use, the electronics must survive and function in a nuclear radiation environment. This paper presents an innovative ``blink`` approach rather than the typical ``operate through`` approach to achieve system level latchup mitigation on a prototype star tracker camera. Included are circuit designs, flash x-ray test data, and heavy ion data demonstrating latchup mitigation protecting micro-electronics from current latchup and burnout due to Single Event Latchup (SEL) and Transient Radiation Effects on Electronics (TREE).

  2. Where to Go from Here? An Exploratory Meta-Analysis of the Most Promising Approaches to Depression Prevention Programs for Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hetrick, Sarah E.; Cox, Georgina R.; Merry, Sally N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the overall effect of individual depression prevention programs on future likelihood of depressive disorder and reduction in depressive symptoms. In addition, we have investigated whether Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), Interpersonal Therapy (IPT) and other therapeutic techniques may modify this effectiveness. Methods: This study is based on and includes the trial data from meta-analyses conducted in the Cochrane systematic review of depression prevention programs for children and adolescents by Merry et al. (2011). All trials were published or unpublished English language randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or cluster RCTs of any psychological or educational intervention compared to no intervention to prevent depression in children and adolescents aged 5–19 years. Results: There is some evidence that the therapeutic approach used in prevention programs modifies the overall effect. CBT is the most studied type of intervention for depression prevention, and there is some evidence of its effectiveness in reducing the risk of developing a depressive disorder, particularly in targeted populations. Fewer studies employed IPT, however this approach appears promising. To our knowledge, this is the first study to have explored how differences in the approach taken in the prevention programs modify the overall treatment effects of prevention programs for children and adolescents. Conclusions: More research is needed to identify the specific components of CBT that are most effective or indeed if there are other approaches that are more effective in reducing the risk of future depressive episodes. It is imperative that prevention programs are suitable for large scale roll-out, and that emerging popular modes of delivery, such as online dissemination continue to be rigorously tested. PMID:25941844

  3. Identification of Leishmania infantum chagasi proteins in urine of patients with visceral leishmaniasis: a promising antigen discovery approach of vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Kashino, S S; Abeijon, C; Qin, L; Kanunfre, K A; Kubrusly, F S; Silva, F O; Costa, D L; Campos, D; Costa, C H N; Raw, I; Campos-Neto, A

    2012-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious lethal parasitic disease caused by Leishmania donovani in Asia and by Leishmania infantum chagasi in southern Europe and South America. VL is endemic in 47 countries with an annual incidence estimated to be 500,000 cases. This high incidence is due in part to the lack of an efficacious vaccine. Here, we introduce an innovative approach to directly identify parasite vaccine candidate antigens that are abundantly produced in vivo in humans with VL. We combined RP-HPLC and mass spectrometry and categorized three L. infantum chagasi proteins, presumably produced in spleen, liver and bone marrow lesions and excreted in the patients' urine. Specifically, these proteins were the following: Li-isd1 (XP_001467866.1), Li-txn1 (XP_001466642.1) and Li-ntf2 (XP_001463738.1). Initial vaccine validation studies were performed with the rLi-ntf2 protein produced in Escherichia coli mixed with the adjuvant BpMPLA-SE. This formulation stimulated potent Th1 response in BALB/c mice. Compared to control animals, mice immunized with Li-ntf2+ BpMPLA-SE had a marked parasite burden reduction in spleens at 40 days post-challenge with virulent L. infantum chagasi. These results strongly support the proposed antigen discovery strategy of vaccine candidates to VL and opens novel possibilities for vaccine development to other serious infectious diseases.

  4. Innovative moments in grief therapy: the meaning reconstruction approach and the processes of self-narrative transformation.

    PubMed

    Alves, Daniela; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Baptista, João; Ribeiro, Eugénia; Sousa, Inês; Gonçalves, Miguel M

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have proposed that self-narrative transformation occurs through the elaboration of "Innovative Moments" (IMs), which are alternative experiences to the problematic self-narrative. This study aimed to analyze the emergence of IMs among 6 complicated grief women undergoing grief therapy according to the meaning reconstruction approach and to examine associations of IMs to the severity of grief symptomatology, assessed by the "Inventory of Complicated Grief." Eighty-three sessions were analyzed using the "Innovative Moments Coding System" (IMCS). A generalized linear model analysis (GLM) showed a significant association between the emergence of IMs and the interaction between time and symptomatic improvement, indicating a higher rate of IM production over time in cases with better clinical outcomes. These results reinforce IMs' relevance in studying narrative change among cases with distinct clinical progressions.

  5. Innovation in Services: A Lancastrian Approach to the Field of E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivdas, P. Avinash; Sivakumar, Soumya

    2016-01-01

    Innovation in services is one of the prime drivers of several economies. There are various schools of thought that have emerged over the past few decades in this area. The present paper focuses on the evolution of the "synthesis" school of thought. It contributes to literature by extending the framework proposed by Lancaster ("The…

  6. An Innovative Approach toward a Comprehensive Distance Education Framework for a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aktaruzzaman, Md; Plunkett, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on part of a study conducted to collate the policies and practices of two successful distance education providers of the developed world with those of a provider in Bangladesh in order to inform a culturally appropriate distance education framework for a developing country. This article also describes an innovative theoretical…

  7. Innovative Approaches for Urban Watershed Management Wet-Weather Flow Management and Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this project was to identify innovative strategies for managing the effects of wet-weather flow (WWF) control and failing infrastructure in an urban setting. The intent was to establish areas where external information can benefit US Environmental Protec...

  8. Innovation in Services: A Lancastrian Approach to the Field of E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivdas, P. Avinash; Sivakumar, Soumya

    2016-01-01

    Innovation in services is one of the prime drivers of several economies. There are various schools of thought that have emerged over the past few decades in this area. The present paper focuses on the evolution of the "synthesis" school of thought. It contributes to literature by extending the framework proposed by Lancaster ("The…

  9. Innovative Approaches Address Aging and Mental Health Needs in LGBTQ Communities.

    PubMed

    Hoy-Ellis, Charles P; Ator, Michael; Kerr, Christopher; Milford, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    LGBTQ older adults have higher levels of psychological distress as compared to older adults in general. They also experience multiple barriers to accessing equitable, culturally competent mental health and aging services because of their distinct histories and particular social contexts. This article discusses this lack of access to services, and highlights an innovative way mental health services are being delivered in LGBTQ communities.

  10. Innovative Approaches for Urban Watershed Management Wet-Weather Flow Management and Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this project was to identify innovative strategies for managing the effects of wet-weather flow (WWF) control and failing infrastructure in an urban setting. The intent was to establish areas where external information can benefit US Environmental Protec...

  11. Innovative Approaches in Rural Education. Rural Information Center Publication Series, No. 54. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Kenneth T., III, Comp.; Tuthill, Shirley J., Comp.

    As telecommunications advance at a rapid pace, rural public school systems must take advantage of new teaching methodologies and tools such as distance learning, experiential education, and computer networking. This publication provides access to the current literature on innovative educational strategies to increase learning success with…

  12. Climate Masters of Nebraska: An Innovative Action-Based Approach for Climate Change Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathak, Tapan B.; Bernadt, Tonya; Umphlett, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Climate Masters of Nebraska is an innovative educational program that strategically trains community volunteers about climate change science and corresponding ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in an interactive and action-based teaching environment. As a result of the program, 91% of participants indicated that they made informed changes in…

  13. INNOVATIVE PRACTICES FOR TREATING WASTE STREAMS CONTAINING HEAVY METALS: A WASTE MINIMIZATION APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Innovative practices for treating waste streams containing heavy metals often involve technologies or systems that either reduce the amount of waste generated or recover reusable resources. With the land disposal of metal treatment residuals becoming less of an accepted waste man...

  14. INNOVATIVE PRACTICES FOR TREATING WASTE STREAMS CONTAINING HEAVY METALS: A WASTE MINIMIZATION APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Innovative practices for treating waste streams containing heavy metals often involve technologies or systems that either reduce the amount of waste generated or recover reusable resources. With the land disposal of metal treatment residuals becoming less of an accepted waste man...

  15. Innovative Approaches to Preventing Child Abuse: Volunteers in Action. Prevention Focus Working Paper 015.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, Chicago, IL.

    Collected in this working paper are summary descriptions of 17 innovative community action programs designed to prevent child abuse. These programs were developed by individuals, community groups, hospitals, and/or state chapters of the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, as well as by other groups and organizations. Located in…

  16. Early Childhood Reform: Innovative Approaches to Cultural and Racial Diversity among Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Carol Brunson

    Noting that the cultural and racial make-up of the American family population has changed, this paper characterizes the early childhood community's responses to diversity among families on the basis of position statements, program policies, and innovative local initiatives. The paper argues that to assure equitable treatment of culturally diverse…

  17. The Implementation of Inmate Mentor Programs in the Correctional Treatment System as an Innovative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jana; McClure, Scott; Koutsenok, Igor; Lord, Scot

    2008-01-01

    In October 2006, the California Men's Colony (CMC) in San Luis Obispo, faced with staff recruitment and retention difficulties, took an innovative step to utilize long-term sentenced inmates as peer mentors and primary counselors to lead their prison-based therapeutic community (TC) program. The program was designed, developed, and implemented…

  18. Innovative Approaches to Preventing Child Abuse: Volunteers in Action. Prevention Focus Working Paper 015.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, Chicago, IL.

    Collected in this working paper are summary descriptions of 17 innovative community action programs designed to prevent child abuse. These programs were developed by individuals, community groups, hospitals, and/or state chapters of the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, as well as by other groups and organizations. Located in…

  19. Climate Masters of Nebraska: An Innovative Action-Based Approach for Climate Change Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathak, Tapan B.; Bernadt, Tonya; Umphlett, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Climate Masters of Nebraska is an innovative educational program that strategically trains community volunteers about climate change science and corresponding ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in an interactive and action-based teaching environment. As a result of the program, 91% of participants indicated that they made informed changes in…

  20. The Implementation of Inmate Mentor Programs in the Correctional Treatment System as an Innovative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jana; McClure, Scott; Koutsenok, Igor; Lord, Scot

    2008-01-01

    In October 2006, the California Men's Colony (CMC) in San Luis Obispo, faced with staff recruitment and retention difficulties, took an innovative step to utilize long-term sentenced inmates as peer mentors and primary counselors to lead their prison-based therapeutic community (TC) program. The program was designed, developed, and implemented…

  1. Opportunities to Personalize Teacher Learning: Innovative Approaches to Bridge Evaluation and Professional Development for Continuous Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassner, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to consider ways to integrating teacher evaluation and professional development--specifically, to explore innovative ways to harness feedback from teacher evaluations for the creation of personalized professional learning for teachers. This study was commissioned by the planning council members of the Metropolitan…

  2. An Innovative Approach toward a Comprehensive Distance Education Framework for a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aktaruzzaman, Md; Plunkett, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on part of a study conducted to collate the policies and practices of two successful distance education providers of the developed world with those of a provider in Bangladesh in order to inform a culturally appropriate distance education framework for a developing country. This article also describes an innovative theoretical…

  3. Occupying the Principal Position: Examining Relationships between Transformational Leadership, Social Network Position, and Schools' Innovative Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Daly, Alan J.; Sleegers, Peter J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the world, educational policy makers, practitioners, and scholars have acknowledged the importance of principal leadership in the generation and implementation of innovations. In many studies, transformational leadership has emerged as a promising approach in response to increasing demands to develop and implement innovations in…

  4. Occupying the Principal Position: Examining Relationships between Transformational Leadership, Social Network Position, and Schools' Innovative Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Daly, Alan J.; Sleegers, Peter J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the world, educational policy makers, practitioners, and scholars have acknowledged the importance of principal leadership in the generation and implementation of innovations. In many studies, transformational leadership has emerged as a promising approach in response to increasing demands to develop and implement innovations in…

  5. The promise and peril of healthcare forecasting.

    PubMed

    Wharam, J Frank; Weiner, Jonathan P

    2012-03-01

    Health plans and physician groups increasingly use sophisticated tools to predict individual patient outcomes. Such analytics will accelerate as US medicine enters the digital age. Promising applications of forecasting include better targeting of disease management as well as innovative patient care approaches such as personalized health insurance and clinical decision support systems. In addition, stakeholders will use predictions to advance their organizational agendas, and unintended consequences could arise. Forecasting-based interventions might have uncertain effectiveness, focus on cost savings rather than long-term health, or specifically exclude disadvantaged populations. Policy makers, health plans, and method developers should adopt strategies that address these concerns in order to maximize the benefit of healthcare forecasting on the long-term health of patients.

  6. A Systems Approach to Identifying and Managing Opportunities and Constraints to Delivering Innovation Policy for Agriculture: An Analysis of the Australian Cooperative Research Centres (CRC) Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandall, Jean; Cooksey, Ray; Wright, Vic

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we outline an analytical approach to identifying points in the policy process where management intervention to adjust organizational design could enhance delivery of innovation policy over time. We illustrate this approach using an example from native vegetation policy in the state of Victoria, Australia. We then use this approach to…

  7. A Systems Approach to Identifying and Managing Opportunities and Constraints to Delivering Innovation Policy for Agriculture: An Analysis of the Australian Cooperative Research Centres (CRC) Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandall, Jean; Cooksey, Ray; Wright, Vic

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we outline an analytical approach to identifying points in the policy process where management intervention to adjust organizational design could enhance delivery of innovation policy over time. We illustrate this approach using an example from native vegetation policy in the state of Victoria, Australia. We then use this approach to…

  8. Final Report for Harvesting a New Wind Crop: Innovative Economic Approaches for Rural America

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Innis; Randy Udall; Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2005-09-30

    Final Report for ''Harvesting a New Wind Crop: Innovative Economic Approaches for Rural America'': This project, ''Harvesting a New Wind Crop'', helped stimulate wind development by rural electric cooperatives and municipal utilities in Colorado. To date most of the wind power development in the United States has been driven by large investor-owned utilities serving major metropolitan areas. To meet the 5% by 2020 goal of the Wind Powering America program the 2,000 municipal and 900 rural electric cooperatives in the country must get involved in wind power development. Public power typically serves rural and suburban areas and can play a role in revitalizing communities by tapping into the economic development potential of wind power. One barrier to the involvement of public power in wind development has been the perception that wind power is more expensive than other generation sources. This project focused on two ways to reduce the costs of wind power to make it more attractive to public power entities. The first way was to develop a revenue stream from the sale of green tags. By selling green tags to entities that voluntarily support wind power, rural coops and munis can effectively reduce their cost of wind power. Western Resource Advocates (WRA) and the Community Office for Resource Efficiency (CORE) worked with Lamar Light and Power and Arkansas River Power Authority to develop a strategy to use green tags to help finance their wind project. These utilities are now selling their green tags to Community Energy, Inc., an independent for-profit marketer who in turn sells the tags to consumers around Colorado. The Lamar tags allow the University of Colorado-Boulder, the City of Boulder, NREL and other businesses to support wind power development and make the claim that they are ''wind-powered''. This urban-rural partnership is an important development for the state of Colorado's rural communities get the economic benefits of wind power and urban businesses are

  9. Innovative Approaches Address Aging and Mental Health Needs in LGBTQ Communities

    PubMed Central

    Hoy-Ellis, Charles P.; Ator, Michael; Kerr, Christopher; Milford, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    LGBTQ older adults have higher levels of psychological distress as compared to older adults in general. They also experience multiple barriers to accessing equitable, culturally competent mental health and aging services because of their distinct histories and particular social contexts. This article discusses this lack of access to services, and highlights an innovative way mental health services are being delivered in LGBTQ communities. PMID:28366982

  10. Rehabilitation of gingival architecture by a conservative method: An innovative approach

    PubMed Central

    Parolia, Abhishek; Thomas, Manuel S; Kundabala, M; Shetty, Neeta; Gautam, Suman; Kumar, Senthil

    2008-01-01

    Periodontal attachment loss in the maxillary anterior region can often lead to esthetic and functional clinical problems. Lifelong motivation is essential to the supportive therapy for these patients, and the maintenance of good esthetics, combined with conducive to maintaining long term dental and professional health. This paper aims to demonstrate an innovative treatment option for dealing with aesthetic challenges posed by a number of patients who have undergone initial cause related therapy for aggressive periodontitis. PMID:20142901

  11. A New Order of Things: Hap Arnold’s Approach to Airpower Innovation 1907-1938

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    Morrow Board, the Rogers Subcommittee, the Menoher Board, the Federal Aviation Commission and numerous Navy General Board hearings dealing with civil...know Glenn Curtiss, Elmer Sperry , Henry Ford, Donald Douglas, and other aviation innovators.95 His personal relationship with major actors in the...D. Eisenhower and the Command and General Staff School. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Command and General Staff College Press, 1990. Burlingame, Roger

  12. An innovative approach for rubber dam isolation of root end tip: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Sunandan; Kumar, Tarun; Mittal, Shifali; Sharma, Jyotika

    2015-01-01

    The success of an apicoectomy with a retrofilling is dependent upon obtaining an acceptable apical seal. The placement of the variously approved retrograde materials requires adequate access, visibility, lighting, and a sterile dry environment. There are instances, however, in which it is difficult to use the rubber dam. One such instance is during retrograde filling. This case report highlights an innovative technique for rubber dam isolation of root end retrograde filling. PMID:26069419

  13. Patient education workshop on CD-ROM: an innovative approach for staff education.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jackie A; Lombardo, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an innovative patient education workshop on CD-ROM for use by staff educators and patient education coordinators. The CD-ROM allows nurses to gain an in-depth understanding of patient education practice. With the interactive, computerized format, nurses can complete the workshop on their computers and at their convenience. The CD-ROM format uses streaming video clips, audio, thought questions, case studies, and interactive practice activities to enhance learning.

  14. The BOS-X approach: achieving drastic cost reduction in CPV through holistic power plant level innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesniak, A.; Garboushian, V.

    2012-10-01

    In 2011, the Amonix Advanced Technology Group was awarded DOE SunShot funding in the amount of 4.5M to design a new Balance of System (BOS) architecture utilizing Amonix MegaModules™ focused on reaching the SunShot goal of 0.06-$0.08/kWhr LCOE. The project proposal presented a comprehensive re-evaluation of the cost components of a utility scale CPV plant and identified critical areas of focus where innovation is needed to achieve cost reduction. As the world's premier manufacturer and most experienced installer of CPV power plants, Amonix is uniquely qualified to lead a rethinking of BOS architecture for CPV. The presentation will focus on the structure of the BOS-X approach, which looks for the next wave of cost reduction in CPV through evaluation of non-module subsystems and the interaction between subsystems during the lifecycle of a solar power plant. Innovation around nonmodule components is minimal to date because CPV companies are just now getting enough practice through completion of large projects to create ideas and tests on how to improve baseline designs and processes. As CPV companies increase their installed capacity, they can utilize an approach similar to the methodology of BOS-X to increase the competitiveness of their product. Through partnership with DOE, this holistic approach is expected to define a path for CPV well aligned with the goals of the SunShot Initiative.

  15. Synergistic Effects of Metals in a Promising Ru(II) -Pt(II) Assembly for a Combined Anticancer Approach: Theoretical Exploration of the Photophysical Properties.

    PubMed

    Alberto, Marta E; Russo, Nino; Adamo, Carlo

    2016-06-27

    Ru(II) -Pt(II) complexes are a class of bioactive molecules of interest as anticancer agents that combine a light-absorbing chromophore with a cisplatin-like unit. The results of a DFT and TDDFT investigation of a Ru(II) complex and its conjugate with a cis-PtCl2 moiety reveal that a synergistic effect of the metals makes the assembly a promising multitarget anticancer drug. Inspection of type I and type II photoreactions and spin-orbit coupling computations reveals that the cis-PtCl2 moiety improves the photophysical properties of the Ru(II) chromophore, ensuring efficient singlet oxygen generation and making the assembly suitable for photodynamic therapy. At the same time, the Ru(II) chromophore promotes a new alternative activation mechanism of the Pt(II) ligand via a triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer ((3) MLCT) state, before reaching the biological target. The importance of the supramolecular architecture is accurately derived, opening interesting new perspectives on the use of bimetallic Ru(II) -Pt(II) assemblies in a combined anticancer approach. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Innovative approaches to exoplanet detection and characterization: Notes from the Nov 10-13 Keck Institute for Space Studies workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Eliot; Traub, Wesley; Unwin, Stephen; Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2010-05-01

    A four-day workshop was convened on November 10-13, 2009 by the Keck Institute for Space Studies and JPL to consider innovative approaches to detecting and characterizing exoplanets and planetary systems. The program and many of the presentations can be found online: . We present some of the observational strategies discussed in this workshop and summarize some of the issues associated with them. In particular, we will highlight some of the advantages and shortcomings of suborbital and orbital (e.g., ESPA rings) observing platforms in the context of exoplanet detection and characterization.

  17. An international partnership approach to clean energy technology innovation: Carbon capture and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoliang

    Is a global research partnership effective in developing, deploying, and diffusing clean energy technologies? Drawing on and extending innovation system studies, this doctoral dissertation elaborates an analytical model for a global technology learning system; examines the rationales, mechanisms, and effectiveness of the United States-- China Clean Energy Research Center Advanced Coal Technology Consortium (CERC-ACTC); and analyzes government's role in developing and implementing carbon capture and storage technologies in the United States (U.S.) and China. Studies have shown that successful technology innovation leads to economic prosperity and national competence, and prove that technology innovation does not happen in isolation but rather within interactive systems among stakeholders. However, the innovation process itself remains unclear, particularly with regard to interactive learning among and between major institutional actors, including technology developers, regulators, and financial organizations. This study seeks to advance scholarship on the interactive learning from the angle of global interactive learning. This dissertation research project seeks, as well, to inform policy-makers of how to strengthen international collaboration in clean energy technology development. The U.S.--China CERC-ACTC announced by Presidents Obama and Hu in 2009, provided a unique opportunity to close this scholarly gap. ACTC aimed to "advance the coal technology needed to safely, effectively, and efficiently utilize coal resources including the ability to capture, store, and utilize the emissions from coal use in both nations " through the joint research and development by U.S. and Chinese scientists and engineers. This dissertation project included one-year field research in the two countries, with in-depth interviews of key stakeholders, a survey of Consortium participants, analysis of available data, and site visits to collaborative research projects from 2013-2014. This

  18. Community organizing and community health: piloting an innovative approach to community engagement applied to an early intervention project in south London.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Matthew; Moore, Imogen; Ferreira, Ana; Day, Crispin; Bolton, Derek

    2016-03-01

    The importance of community engagement in health is widely recognized, and key themes in UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) recommendations for enhancing community engagement are co-production and community control. This study reports an innovative approach to community engagement using the community-organizing methodology, applied in an intervention of social support to increase social capital, reduce stress and improve well-being in mothers who were pregnant and/or with infants aged 0-2 years. Professional community organizers in Citizens-UK worked with local member civic institutions in south London to facilitate social support to a group of 15 new mothers. Acceptability of the programme, adherence to principles of co-production and community control, and changes in the outcomes of interest were assessed quantitatively in a quasi-experimental design. The programme was found to be feasible and acceptable to participating mothers, and perceived by them to involve co-production and community control. There were no detected changes in subjective well-being, but there were important reductions in distress on a standard self-report measure (GHQ-12). There were increases in social capital of a circumscribed kind associated with the project. Community organizing provides a promising model and method of facilitating community engagement in health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  19. Community organizing and community health: piloting an innovative approach to community engagement applied to an early intervention project in south London

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Matthew; Moore, Imogen; Ferreira, Ana; Day, Crispin; Bolton, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Background The importance of community engagement in health is widely recognized, and key themes in UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) recommendations for enhancing community engagement are co-production and community control. This study reports an innovative approach to community engagement using the community-organizing methodology, applied in an intervention of social support to increase social capital, reduce stress and improve well-being in mothers who were pregnant and/or with infants aged 0–2 years. Methods Professional community organizers in Citizens-UK worked with local member civic institutions in south London to facilitate social support to a group of 15 new mothers. Acceptability of the programme, adherence to principles of co-production and community control, and changes in the outcomes of interest were assessed quantitatively in a quasi-experimental design. Results The programme was found to be feasible and acceptable to participating mothers, and perceived by them to involve co-production and community control. There were no detected changes in subjective well-being, but there were important reductions in distress on a standard self-report measure (GHQ-12). There were increases in social capital of a circumscribed kind associated with the project. Conclusions Community organizing provides a promising model and method of facilitating community engagement in health. PMID:25724610

  20. Promises, promises for neuroscience and law.

    PubMed

    Buckholtz, Joshua W; Faigman, David L

    2014-09-22

    Stunning technical advances in the ability to image the human brain have provoked excited speculation about the application of neuroscience to other fields. The 'promise' of neuroscience for law has been touted with particular enthusiasm. Here, we contend that this promise elides fundamental conceptual issues that limit the usefulness of neuroscience for law. Recommendations for overcoming these challenges are offered.

  1. Unicystic Ameloblastoma of Mandible Treated with an Innovative Approach: A Clinical Case Report.

    PubMed

    Babu, Narendra; Charles, Nsc; Rai, Raj; Mathur, Smita; Runwal, Sameer Hemant

    2015-07-01

    Ameloblastoma is a true benign neoplasm with its origin from remnants of odontogenic epithelium. Unicystic ameloblastoma presents as a cystic lesion which clinically, radiographically, and macroscopically mimics a mandibular cyst, but microscopically exhibits ameloblastic epithelium lining part of the cyst cavity, with or without intraluminal growth and tumour infiltration into the fibrous connective tissue wall. An important and perplexing aspect associated with ameloblastoma is its management. We hereby present a case of unicystic ameloblastoma in a 63-year-old female and report an innovative technique of treating the case with split iliac crest graft.

  2. The road ahead: comprehensive and innovative approaches for improving safety and preventing child maltreatment fatalities.

    PubMed

    Chahine, Zeinab; Sanders, David

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a high-level overview of the complex issues, opportunities, and challenges involved in improving child safety and preventing child maltreatment fatalities. It emphasizes that improving measurement and classification is critical to understanding and preventing child maltreatment fatalities. It also stresses the need to reframe child maltreatment interventions from a public health perspective. The article draws on the lessons learned from state-of-the-art safety engineering innovations, research, and other expert recommendations presented in this special issue that can inform future policy and practice direction in this important area.

  3. Innovative approaches to using new media and technology in health promotion for adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Hyden, Christel; Cohall, Alwyn

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade, new technology and media have changed the way we communicate, access information, and share content with one another. Most 12- to 17-year-olds now own cell phones, and most adolescents and young adults spend several hours per day on computers and cell phones. The American Academy of Pediatrics now encourages all pediatricians to increase their knowledge of new media and technology. This article details technology access among adolescents and young adults, highlights several current and potential innovative applications for new technology and social networking in health promotion, and discusses issues to consider as practitioners move toward integrating new media into clinical and health education settings.

  4. Taming Healthcare Costs: Promise and Pitfalls for Women's Health

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, Amy; MacKenzie, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Abstract When it comes to healthcare, women are often the primary decision makers for their families. Therefore, focusing on women and their health needs can have a profound effect on health reform efforts to control costs and improve quality for all segments of the population. The promise and pitfalls of cost containment reform in Massachusetts can serve as an informative case study for policymakers at the local, state, and federal levels as they attempt to reduce costs while maintaining quality of care. Massachusetts cost containment law, Chapter 224, seeks to control the healthcare cost growth through innovative approaches to increase efficiency and transparency including the adoption of new delivery system models, investments in wellness and prevention programs, and implementation of standard quality and evaluation measures. In this paper, we outline four approaches to delivering on the promise of cost containment reform to maximize women's access to comprehensive, quality healthcare while avoiding the pitfalls of cost containment's adverse impact on women's health. PMID:26488183

  5. Improving Student Outcomes: Promising Practices and Programs for 1999-2000. A Directory of Innovative Approaches for Providing Transition Services for Youth with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Paula D.; Hood, Lisa K.

    This directory profiles 20 programs that promote post-school outcomes for students with disabilities through inclusive school-to-work systems. Three criteria were used to select the programs: (1) the nomination featured a program or practices that provide transition- or school-to-work-related services or instruction to students with disabilities,…

  6. Determining accessibility to dermatologists and teledermatology locations in Kentucky: demonstration of an innovative geographic information systems approach.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Gary William; Buker, Carol Marie

    2010-01-01

    Teledermatology provides a partial solution to the problem of accessibility to dermatology services in underserved areas, yet methodologies to determine the locations and geographic dimensions of these areas and the locational efficiency of remote teledermatology sites have been found wanting. This article illustrates an innovative Geographic Information Systems approach using dermatologists' addresses, U.S. Census population data, and the Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing System. Travel-time-based service areas were calculated and mapped for each dermatologist in the state of Kentucky and for possible locations of several remote teledermatology sites. Populations within the current and possible remote service areas were determined. These populations and associated maps permit assessment of the locational efficiency of the current distribution of dermatologists, location of underserved areas, and the potential contribution of proposed hypothetical teledermatology sites. This approach is a valuable and practical tool for evaluating access to current distributions of dermatologists as well as planning for and implementing teledermatology.

  7. The Promise and Potential Pitfalls of a "Learning-Centered" Approach to Creative Social Inquiry: Lessons Learned from an Undergraduate Seminar on Authoritarianism through Literature and Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junisbai, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Political science faculty have access to a wealth of innovative pedagogies thanks to a comprehensive literature on teaching and learning in the discipline and related fields. Yet, from among the hundreds of documented possibilities, how does one go about deciding which to incorporate into a given course? Few articles have much to say in response…

  8. Assessing social preparedness for antiretroviral therapy in a generalized AIDS epidemic: a diffusion of innovations approach.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Shannon K; Kelly, Kevin J; Potgieter, François E; Moon, Martha W

    2009-02-01

    Researchers conducted focus groups in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa concerning AIDS and treatment options. Constituent groups included adults aged 25-45, HIV/AIDS caregivers, HIV-positive adults, nurses, rural elders, teenagers, and traditional healers. This pilot work aimed to gather early evidence on perceptions about the government's rollout of antiretroviral treatment (ART), identify potential barriers to success, and inform a subsequent pilot survey. Diffusion of innovations theory was used to interpret the data and helped identify potential obstacles to the ART rollout. AIDS stigma and a weakened healthcare system were negatively impacting the program. There was a lack of accurate knowledge about HIV/AIDS and antiretroviral treatment, with wide disparities among groups. Many people were not convinced that antiretroviral treatment is superior to other treatments, and a few people were afraid it was poisonous. There was no evidence that people were aware of the long-term difficulties of adherence to the regimen.

  9. Innovative Approaches in Chronic Disease Management: Health Literacy Solutions and Opportunities for Research Validation.

    PubMed

    Villaire, Michael; Gonzalez, Diana Peña; Johnson, Kirby L

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses the need for innovative health literacy solutions to combat extensive chronic disease prevalence and costs. The authors explore the intersection of chronic disease management and health literacy. They provide specific examples of successful health literacy interventions for managing several highly prevalent chronic diseases. This is followed by suggestions on pairing research and practice to support effective disease management programs. In addition, the authors discuss strategies for collection and dissemination of knowledge gained from collaborations between researchers and practitioners. They identify current challenges specific to disseminating information from the health literacy field and offer potential solutions. The chapter concludes with a brief look at future directions and organizational opportunities to integrate health literacy practices to address the need for effective chronic disease management.

  10. Give Them The HUG: An Innovative Approach to Helping Parents Understand the Language of Their Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Tedder, Janice Lee

    2008-01-01

    Research suggests, and perinatal educators experience, that misunderstanding newborn behavior can undermine a new parent's confidence, decrease breastfeeding success, interfere with bonding, and even contribute to neglect and abuse. This article examines current literature and focuses on three skills parents need in order to become confident and effective mothers and fathers: understanding a newborn's state, reading an infant's cues, and appreciating a baby's capabilities. Using language that is family-friendly, concise, and clear, this article describes an innovative program, called “The HUG,” which provides this information and gives perinatal educators new skills and techniques for explaining newborn behavior to parents in order to help parents understand, enjoy, and attach to their baby. PMID:19252684

  11. The women in emergency medicine mentoring program: an innovative approach to mentoring.

    PubMed

    Welch, Julie L; Jimenez, Heather L; Walthall, Jennifer; Allen, Sheryl E

    2012-09-01

    Women in medicine report many gender-specific barriers to their career success and satisfaction, including a lack of mentors and role models. The literature calls for innovative strategies to enhance mentorship for women in medicine. To describe the content, perceived value, and ongoing achievements of a mentoring program for women in emergency medicine. The program offered mentoring for female faculty and residents in an academic emergency medicine department. Volunteers participated in group mentoring sessions using a mosaic of vertical and peer mentoring. Sessions focused on topics specific to women in medicine. An anonymous, electronic survey was sent to women who participated during 2004-2010 to assess the perceived value of the program and to collect qualitative feedback. Preliminary achievements fulfilling the program's goals were tracked. A total of 46 women (64%) completed the survey. The results showed a positive perceived value of the program (average, 4.65 on a 5-point Likert scale) in providing mentors and role models (4.41), in offering a supportive environment (4.39), in providing discussions pertinent to both personal (4.22) and professional development (4.22), while expanding networking opportunities (4.07). Notable achievements included work on the creation of a family leave policy, establishing lactation space, collaboration on projects, awards, and academic advancement. This innovative model for mentoring women is perceived as a valuable asset to the academic department and residency. It offers the unique combination of expanding a female mentor pool by recruiting alumni and using a mosaic of vertical and peer mentoring.

  12. An innovative approach to prepare hypericin molecularly imprinted pearls using a "phyto-template".

    PubMed

    Florea, Ana-Mihaela; Iordache, Tanța-Verona; Branger, Catherine; Ghiurea, Marius; Avramescu, Sorin; Hubca, Gheorghe; Sârbu, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an innovative method that uses hypericin "phyto-template" molecules is being applied herein for the first time to produce molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) pearls able to selectively retain hypericin from Hypericum Perforatum L primary extracts. For this purpose, the wet phase inversion method was preferred for preparing the hypericin-MIP pearls for several reasons referring to economical benefits but also due to the fact that hypericin "phyto-template" molecules can be generated along with the phase inversion of the copolymer. Practically, the precursor poly(acrylonitrile-co-methacrylic acid) solution was mixed with a purified and concentrated naphtodianthrone phyto-extract (consisting only of hypericin and pseudo-hypericin). In the subsequent phase inversion step hypericin was trapped in the copolymer droplets, as a result to its poor solubility in the inversion water bath, and further served as "phyto-template" in the imprinting step. This in situ repartition of hypericin and pseudo-hypericin was sustained by HPLC-DAD chromatograms which recorded only the presence of hypericin during the extraction stage of imprinted pearls. Batch rebinding measurements, all together, validated the efficiency of this innovative imprinting procedure. The hypericin rebinding of imprinted pearls was quantitative (up to 318 µg/L) and approximately 5 times more specific relative to the blank pearls. Competitive re-binding revealed a more selective behaviour of imprinted pearls for hypericin when the up-take was measured against pseudohypericin (selectivity coefficient above 4.50). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Women in Emergency Medicine Mentoring Program: An Innovative Approach to Mentoring

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Julie L.; Jimenez, Heather L.; Walthall, Jennifer; Allen, Sheryl E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Women in medicine report many gender-specific barriers to their career success and satisfaction, including a lack of mentors and role models. The literature calls for innovative strategies to enhance mentorship for women in medicine. Objective To describe the content, perceived value, and ongoing achievements of a mentoring program for women in emergency medicine. Methods The program offered mentoring for female faculty and residents in an academic emergency medicine department. Volunteers participated in group mentoring sessions using a mosaic of vertical and peer mentoring. Sessions focused on topics specific to women in medicine. An anonymous, electronic survey was sent to women who participated during 2004–2010 to assess the perceived value of the program and to collect qualitative feedback. Preliminary achievements fulfilling the program's goals were tracked. Results A total of 46 women (64%) completed the survey. The results showed a positive perceived value of the program (average, 4.65 on a 5-point Likert scale) in providing mentors and role models (4.41), in offering a supportive environment (4.39), in providing discussions pertinent to both personal (4.22) and professional development (4.22), while expanding networking opportunities (4.07). Notable achievements included work on the creation of a family leave policy, establishing lactation space, collaboration on projects, awards, and academic advancement. Conclusion This innovative model for mentoring women is perceived as a valuable asset to the academic department and residency. It offers the unique combination of expanding a female mentor pool by recruiting alumni and using a mosaic of vertical and peer mentoring. PMID:23997883

  14. An Innovative Approach to the Comparison of Qualifications in Europe: The Regional Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Jean

    1995-01-01

    The Welsh approach to comparing educational standards and occupational qualifications is described. The approach identifies a core of occupational competencies and skills underlying training and employment in the field of electrical and electronic engineering, particularly in the motor industry. Origins, economic and educational context, and…

  15. Bringing Reggio Emilia Home: An Innovative Approach to Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadwell, Louise Boyd

    This book is a collection of stories describing the Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood education, based on the author's internship in the Italian preschools and a 4-year adaptation effort in one American school. The book's prologue describes the author's work before using the Reggio Emilia approach, the history of Reggio Emilia, the…

  16. The Farmer Life School: experience from an innovative approach to HIV education among farmers in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Swaans, K; Broerse, J E W; Salomon, M; Mudhara, M; Mweli, M; Bunders, J F G

    2008-07-01

    The Farmer Life School (FLS) is an innovative approach to integrating HIV education into life skills and technical training for farmers. This study aims to gain insight into the strengths and weaknesses of this relatively new approach, through the implementation of an adapted version in South Africa. The results are presented of a pilot with three groups of community gardeners, predominantly women, attending weekly sessions. Impact was assessed in terms of three key elements: participation, learning, and empowerment. Data were collected through extensive session reports, follow-up interviews, and reflection exercises with facilitators and participating groups and individuals. The results suggest that a group-based discovery learning approach such as the FLS has great potential to improve food security and wellbeing, while allowing participants to explore issues around HIV/AIDS. However, the analysis also shows that HIV/AIDS-related illness and death, and the factors that drive the epidemic and its impact, undermine farmers' ability to participate, the safety and trust required for learning, and the empowerment process. Participatory approaches such as the FLS require a thorough understanding of and adaptation to the context.

  17. Could the FDA-approved anti-HIV PR inhibitors be promising anticancer agents? An answer from enhanced docking approach and molecular dynamics analyses.

    PubMed

    Arodola, Olayide A; Soliman, Mahmoud E S

    2015-01-01

    Based on experimental data, the anticancer activity of nelfinavir (NFV), a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI), was reported. Nevertheless, the mechanism of action of NFV is yet to be verified. It was hypothesized that the anticancer activity of NFV is due to its inhibitory effect on heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a promising target for anticancer therapy. Such findings prompted us to investigate the potential anticancer activity of all other FDA-approved HIV-1 PIs against human Hsp90. To accomplish this, "loop docking" - an enhanced in-house developed molecular docking approach - followed by molecular dynamic simulations and postdynamic analyses were performed to elaborate on the binding mechanism and relative binding affinities of nine FDA-approved HIV-1 PIs against human Hsp90. Due to the lack of the X-ray crystal structure of human Hsp90, homology modeling was performed to create its 3D structure for subsequent simulations. Results showed that NFV has better binding affinity (ΔG =-9.2 kcal/mol) when compared with other PIs: this is in a reasonable accordance with the experimental data (IC50 3.1 μM). Indinavir, saquinavir, and ritonavir have close binding affinity to NFV (ΔG =-9.0, -8.6, and -8.5 kcal/mol, respectively). Per-residue interaction energy decomposition analysis showed that hydrophobic interaction (most importantly with Val534 and Met602) played the most predominant role in drug binding. To further validate the docking outcome, 5 ns molecular dynamic simulations were performed in order to assess the stability of the docked complexes. To our knowledge, this is the first account of detailed computational investigations aimed to investigate the potential anticancer activity and the binding mechanism of the FDA-approved HIV PIs binding to human Hsp90. Information gained from this study should also provide a route map toward the design, optimization, and further experimental investigation of potential

  18. Could the FDA-approved anti-HIV PR inhibitors be promising anticancer agents? An answer from enhanced docking approach and molecular dynamics analyses

    PubMed Central

    Arodola, Olayide A; Soliman, Mahmoud ES

    2015-01-01

    Based on experimental data, the anticancer activity of nelfinavir (NFV), a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI), was reported. Nevertheless, the mechanism of action of NFV is yet to be verified. It was hypothesized that the anticancer activity of NFV is due to its inhibitory effect on heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a promising target for anticancer therapy. Such findings prompted us to investigate the potential anticancer activity of all other FDA-approved HIV-1 PIs against human Hsp90. To accomplish this, “loop docking” – an enhanced in-house developed molecular docking approach – followed by molecular dynamic simulations and postdynamic analyses were performed to elaborate on the binding mechanism and relative binding affinities of nine FDA-approved HIV-1 PIs against human Hsp90. Due to the lack of the X-ray crystal structure of human Hsp90, homology modeling was performed to create its 3D structure for subsequent simulations. Results showed that NFV has better binding affinity (ΔG =−9.2 kcal/mol) when compared with other PIs: this is in a reasonable accordance with the experimental data (IC50 3.1 μM). Indinavir, saquinavir, and ritonavir have close binding affinity to NFV (ΔG =−9.0, −8.6, and −8.5 kcal/mol, respectively). Per-residue interaction energy decomposition analysis showed that hydrophobic interaction (most importantly with Val534 and Met602) played the most predominant role in drug binding. To further validate the docking outcome, 5 ns molecular dynamic simulations were performed in order to assess the stability of the docked complexes. To our knowledge, this is the first account of detailed computational investigations aimed to investigate the potential anticancer activity and the binding mechanism of the FDA-approved HIV PIs binding to human Hsp90. Information gained from this study should also provide a route map toward the design, optimization, and further experimental investigation of

  19. Innovative Approach to Validation of Ultraviolet (UV) Reactors for Disinfection in Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Slide presentation at Conference: ASCE 7th Civil Engineering Conference in the Asian Region. USEPA in partnership with the Cadmus Group, Carollo Engineers, and other State & Industry collaborators, are evaluating new approaches for validating UV reactors to meet groundwater & sur...

  20. Rubbertown Next Generation Emission Measurement Demonstration Project Provides Innovative Approaches to Protecting Air Quality

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the Louisville Metro Air Pollution Control District (LMAPCD) are working together on a research project to demonstrate NGEM approaches near facilities in the Rubbertown industrial area of Louisville, KY.

  1. An Innovative Educational Approach for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laster, M. E.; Rousseau, J. J.; Mapp, D. C.

    2006-05-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Educational Partnership Program (EPP) educational approach is effective in increasing the number of underrepresented students in NOAA mission related sciences. Initiated in 2001, the EPP educational approach has resulted in increased numbers of trained and graduated students. As result of the EPP educational approach, a student pipeline has developed from high to graduate school. The approach suggests the need for STEM-related programs that target students at the K-12, higher education, and post-doctorate levels and include a combination of applied research, experiential learning, and curriculum development. The data is a result of tracking EPP science, technology, engineering, and mathematics students for five years.

  2. Innovative Approach to Validation of Ultraviolet (UV) Reactors for Disinfection in Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Slide presentation at Conference: ASCE 7th Civil Engineering Conference in the Asian Region. USEPA in partnership with the Cadmus Group, Carollo Engineers, and other State & Industry collaborators, are evaluating new approaches for validating UV reactors to meet groundwater & sur...

  3. Evolution of an innovative approach to the delivery of in-person training in the responsible conduct of research

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Karen L.; Yasko, Laurel; Green, Michael; Alexander, Jane; Ryan, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) Center is an innovative, workshop-based approach to research ethics education at the University of Pittsburgh. A flexibly scheduled program of workshops combines the benefits of traditional case based discussion and in person instruction with greater accessibility and a broader disciplinary reach. Essential features of the program include a rotating schedule of independent workshops with separate registration, expert speakers, and a dedicated program director position. At an institutional level, this novel response to NIH-mandated training requirements increases access to a wide range of interactive RCR training programs and promotes interdisciplinary conversations on research ethics that involves investigators, trainees, and the research community at large. PMID:24842250

  4. 3β-Methoxy-pregnenolone (MAP4343) as an innovative therapeutic approach for depressive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Massimiliano; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that the pathogenesis of depressive disorders (DDs) is associated with neuronal abnormalities in brain microtubule function, including changes in α-tubulin isoforms. Currently available antidepressant drugs may act by rescuing these alterations, but only after long-term treatment explaining their delayed therapeutic efficacy. The microtubule associated protein type-2 (MAP-2) modulates neuronal microtubule dynamics. Our hypothesis is that MAP-2 represents an innovative target for the treatment of DDs. The synthetic pregnenolone-derivative MAP4343 (3β-methoxy-pregnenolone) binds MAP-2 in vitro and increases its ability to stimulate tubulin assembly. Here, we show that MAP4343 has antidepressant efficacy in rats and advantages compared with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine. A single injection of MAP4343 changes the expression of α-tubulin isoforms indicative of increased microtubule dynamics in the hippocampus of naïve Sprague–Dawley rats, whereas fluoxetine had no effects. MAP4343 has positive efficacy in the rat forced swimming test (FST), the most used assay to screen potential antidepressant drugs by decreasing immobility behavior. In the rat isolation-rearing model of depression, administration of MAP4343 showed more rapid and more persistent efficacy compared with fluoxetine in recovering “depressive-like” behaviors. These effects were accompanied by modifications of α-tubulin isoforms in the hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex. Our findings suggest the potential therapeutic use of MAP4343 for the treatment of DDs, based on a unique mechanism of action. PMID:22307636

  5. Innovative approach for producing injectable, biodegradable materials using chitooligosaccharides and green chemistry.

    PubMed

    Boesel, Luciano F; Reis, Rui L; Román, Julio San

    2009-03-09

    Although there are a number of injectable biomaterials currently under development, they present some drawbacks such as being based on synthetic polymers, needing toxic or aggressive synthesis procedures or using raw materials with low availability and/or high production costs. Having this in mind, a novel injectable biomaterial using chitooligosaccharides as starting materials was developed. This system uses a widely available and cheap polymer from marine biomass (chitosan), which can be turned into an injectable material by water-based and ecologically friendly reactions. Chitooligosaccharides were functionalized with methacrylic groups, to allow in situ cross-linking. The degree of substitution, as determined by (1)H NMR, varied between 5 and 50%. The system was characterized in terms of kinetics of gel formation, rheology, degradation behavior and in vitro cytotoxicity. The gelation time could be easily tailored between 1.5 and 60 min by changing the conditions of the methacrylation reaction, and the final gel presented rheological properties typical of strong gels, that is, shear stresses in the kPa range. The cross-linked gel was degradable and nontoxic, presenting indeed an interesting cytokinetic effect. Injectable materials based on chitooligosaccharides are, therefore, an innovative system combining adequate biological performance, ease of preparation, and an ecologically friendly concept of production.

  6. Innovation in ambulatory care: a collaborative approach to redesigning the health care workplace.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Paula A; Bookman, Ann; Bailyn, Lotte; Harrington, Mona; Orton, Piper

    2011-02-01

    To improve the quality of patient care and work satisfaction of the physicians and staff at an ambulatory practice that had recently started an innovative model of clinical care for women. The authors used an inclusive process, collaborative interactive action research, to engage all physicians and staff members in assessing and redesigning their work environment. Based on key barriers to working effectively and integrating work and family identified in that process, a pilot project with new work practices and structures was developed, implemented, and evaluated. The work redesign process established cross-occupational care teams in specific clinical areas. Members of the teams built skills in assessing clinical operations in their practice areas, developed new levels of collaboration, and constructed new models of distributed leadership. The majority of participants reported an improvement in how their area functioned. Integrating work and family/personal life-particularly practices around flexible work arrangements-became an issue for team discussion and solutions, not a matter of individual accommodation by managers. By engaging the workforce, collaborative interactive action research can help achieve lasting change in the health care workplace and increase physicians' and staff members' work satisfaction. This "dual agenda" may be best achieved through a collaborative process where cross-occupational teams are responsible for workflow and outcomes and where the needs of patients and providers are integrated.

  7. Building spiritual fitness in the Army: an innovative approach to a vital aspect of human development.

    PubMed

    Pargament, Kenneth I; Sweeney, Patrick J

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development of the spiritual fitness component of the Army's Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program. Spirituality is defined in the human sense as the journey people take to discover and realize their essential selves and higher order aspirations. Several theoretically and empirically based reasons are articulated for why spirituality is a necessary component of the CSF program: Human spirituality is a significant motivating force, spirituality is a vital resource for human development, and spirituality is a source of struggle that can lead to growth or decline. A conceptual model developed by Sweeney, Hannah, and Snider (2007) is used to identify several psychological structures and processes that facilitate the development of the human spirit. From this model, an educational, computer-based program has been developed to promote spiritual resilience. This program consists of three tiers: (a) building awareness of the self and the human spirit, (b) building awareness of resources to cultivate the human spirit, and (c) building awareness of the human spirit of others. Further research will be needed to evaluate the effectiveness of this innovative and potentially important program.

  8. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for acute radiation syndrome: innovative medical approaches in military medicine.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Erik B; Varney, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    After a radiological or nuclear event, acute radiation syndrome (ARS) will present complex medical challenges that could involve the treatment of hundreds to thousands of patients. Current medical doctrine is based on limited clinical data and remains inadequate. Efforts to develop medical innovations that address ARS complications are unlikely to be generated by industry because of market uncertainties specific to this type of injury. A prospective strategy could be the integration of cellular therapy to meet the medical demands of ARS. The most clinically advanced cellular therapy to date is the administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Results of currently published investigations describing MSC safety and efficacy in a variety of injury and disease models demonstrate the unique qualities of this reparative cell population in adapting to the specific requirements of the damaged tissue in which the cells integrate. This report puts forward a rationale for the further evaluation of MSC therapy to address the current unmet medical needs of ARS. We propose that the exploration of this novel therapy for the treatment of the multivariate complications of ARS could be of invaluable benefit to military medicine.

  9. A community of practice for knowledge translation trainees: an innovative approach for learning and collaboration.

    PubMed

    Urquhart, Robin; Cornelissen, Evelyn; Lal, Shalini; Colquhoun, Heather; Klein, Gail; Richmond, Sarah; Witteman, Holly O

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of researchers and trainees identify knowledge translation (KT) as their field of study or practice. Yet, KT educational and professional development opportunities and established KT networks remain relatively uncommon, making it challenging for trainees to develop the necessary skills, networks, and collaborations to optimally work in this area. The Knowledge Translation Trainee Collaborative is a trainee-initiated and trainee-led community of practice established by junior knowledge translation researchers and practitioners to: examine the diversity of knowledge translation research and practice, build networks with other knowledge translation trainees, and advance the field through knowledge generation activities. In this article, we describe how the collaborative serves as an innovative community of practice for continuing education and professional development in knowledge translation and present a logic model that provides a framework for designing an evaluation of its impact as a community of practice. The expectation is that formal and informal networking will lead to knowledge sharing and knowledge generation opportunities that improve individual members' competencies (eg, combination of skills, abilities, and knowledge) in knowledge translation research and practice and contribute to the development and advancement of the knowledge translation field.

  10. Innovation Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyka, Andreas; Scharnhorst, Andrea

    The idea for this book started when we organized a topical workshop entitled "Innovation Networks - New Approaches in Modeling and Analyzing" (held in Augsburg, Germany in October 2005), under the auspices of Exystence, a network of excellence funded in the European Union's Fifth Framework Program. Unlike other conferences on innovation and networks, however, this workshop brought together scientists from economics, sociology, communication science, science and technology studies, and physics. With this book we aim to build further on a bridge connecting the bodies of knowledge on networks in economics, the social sciences and, more recently, statistical physics.

  11. Who Are the Innovators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Banion, Terry; Weidner, Laura; Wilson, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    As we approach the second decade of the new millennium, there is a renaissance of innovation in education, a resurgence of interest and experimentation that begs for analysis and review. To that end, the League for Innovation in the Community College proposed to conduct a national study on the nature of innovation in the community college using…

  12. Refueling the U.S. Innovation Economy: Fresh Approaches to Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Education. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Robert; Mayo, Merrilea

    2010-01-01

    Innovation has powered America's economy, creating good jobs and a high standard of living. Yet, the U.S. share of innovation-based industries is in decline, jeopardizing our status as the world's innovation leader. And one reason is that the United States has been unable to produce enough of its own workers with sufficient skills in science,…

  13. Developing Mathematically Promising Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Linda Jensen, Ed.

    This book, written on the recommendation of the Task Force on Mathematically Promising Students, investigates issues involving the development of promising mathematics students. Recommendations are made concerning topics such as the definition of promising students; the identification of such students; appropriate curriculum, instruction, and…

  14. Developing Mathematically Promising Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Linda Jensen, Ed.

    This book, written on the recommendation of the Task Force on Mathematically Promising Students, investigates issues involving the development of promising mathematics students. Recommendations are made concerning topics such as the definition of promising students; the identification of such students; appropriate curriculum, instruction, and…

  15. Where are the Industrial Technologies in Energy-Economy Models? An Innovative CGE Approach for Steel Production in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, Katja; Sands, Ronald D.

    2007-07-01

    Top-down computable general equilibrium models are used extensively for analysis of energy and climate policies. Energy-intensive industries are usually represented in top-down economic models as abstract economic production functions, of the constant-elasticity-of-substitution (CES) functional form. This study explores methods for improving the realism of energy-intensive industries in top-down economic models. We replace the CES production function with a set of specific technologies and provide a comparison between the traditional production function approach in CGE models and an approach with separate technologies for making iron and steel. In particular, we investigate the response of the iron and steel sector to a set of carbon price scenarios. Our technology-based, integrated approach permits a choice between several technologies for producing iron and steel and allows for shifts in technology characteristics over time towards best practice, innovative technologies. In addition, the general equilibrium framework allows us to analyze interactions between production sectors, for example between electricity generation and iron and steel production, investigate simultaneous economy-wide reactions and capture the main driving forces of greenhouse gas emissions reductions under a climate policy.

  16. Earth System Science for Elementary Teachers: An Innovative Approach to Teacher Professional Development.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purkiss, C.

    2015-12-01

    In many professional development programs, teachers attend workshops to learn new knowledge and skills and then are expected to go back to their classrooms and implement what they learned. Often skills or an activity is learned but does not necessarily get practiced in the classroom. Very few professional development programs add direct, immediate practice with children where teachers can try out immediately the new activities or the knowledge they have just learned. In this case, the program directors wanted to see that, by having children to practice with in a non-threatening, low stakes environment, if participants would incorporate the activities and knowledge learned during the workshop into their classrooms in a more immediate way. Would immediate practice help participants internalize the new knowledge and skills and thus create a fund of knowledge that they would use immediately on their return to the classroom. As part of a grant for professional development for underserved elementary teachers on climate literacy, an innovative children's camp was added to a summer intensive workshop. Prior to the summer workshop, participants completed an eight-week online graduate level course on the basics of inquiry-based science. Participants then attended the intensive three-week workshop to gain knowledge in weather and climate and how to teach these concepts in their classrooms. The workshop was rich in materials and resources for participants. During the third week of the workshop, teachers were camp leaders to 100 elementary students in grades 3 through 5 who were participating in "Climate Camp". Various evaluation and assessments were completed during the program on all participants. Through various evaluation methods, it was found that there was a positive transfer of knowledge to the classroom.

  17. Got Milk? Got Water? Innovative Approach to Evaluating Groundwater Nitrate Nonpoint Source Pollution from Animal Farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, T.; Vanderschans, M.; Leijnse, A.; Meyer, R. D.; Mathews, M. C.

    2002-12-01

    The California dairy industry produces 20% of US milk and is the largest animal industry in the state. Many of the dairy facilities are located in low-relief valleys and basins with vulnerable groundwater resources. The continued influx of dairies into California's Central Valley has raised critical questions regarding their environmental performance, in particular with respect to groundwater quality impacts. While animal farming systems are considered among the leading sources of groundwater nitrate,little is known about the actual impact of dairy farming practices on groundwater quality in the extensive alluvial aquifers underlying the Central Valley. With our work we attempt to characterize and assess shallow groundwater underneath dairies in a relatively vulnerable hydrogeologic region and to discern the impact from various individual sources and management practices within dairies. An extensive shallow groundwater monitoring network was installed on five representative dairy operations in the northeastern San Joaquin Valley, California. The monitoring network spans all dairy management units: manure water lagoons, corrals, storage areas, and manure treated forage fields under various management practices. We recently also surveyed production well water quality. Water quality is found to be highly variable, both in time and space. We propose that a meaningful interpretation of these (nonpoint source pollution) data is only possible by explicitly considering the various scales affiliated with groundwater measurement, pollution source management, regulatory control, and beneficial use. Using statistical analysis and innovative modeling tools, we provide an interpretation of the observed data that is meaningful at the field scale (the scale unit of management decisions), the farm scale (considered to be a regulatory and planning unit), and the regional scale (considered to be a planning unit).

  18. Radiation therapy students' perceptions of their learning from participation in communication skills training: An innovative approach.

    PubMed

    Dungey, Gay M; Neser, Hazel A

    2017-06-01

    Communication skills training has been progressively integrated into the Bachelor of Radiation Therapy programme in New Zealand throughout the last 3 years. This innovative study aimed to explore students' perceptions of their learning from participation in communication skills workshops. The purpose was to expose students to a variety of common clinical situations that they could encounter as a student radiation therapist. Common scenarios from the radiation therapy setting were developed, using trained actors as a standardised patient, staff member or member of the public. Students were briefed on their scenario and then required to manage their interactions appropriate to its context. A staff member and peers observed each student's interaction via a digital screen and assessed the student's performance in six key skills. Each student was video recorded so that they could review their own interaction. Verbal and written feedback was given to each student. Students evaluated their experience using a 5-point Likert scale. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 116 of 150 students who consented to participate. Three main themes emerged from the data: the value of learning from peers; preparation for the clinical environment; and the ability to self-reflect. The quantitative data indicated that students' perceptions of the tool are positive and an effective learning experience. Students' perceptions of participation in the communication skills workshops, with the integration of trained actors, are positive and students perceive the scenarios to be helpful for their learning. Opportunities are indicated to further develop of students' ability to self-reflect. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

  19. Improving the efficiency of quantitative (1)H NMR: an innovative external standard-internal reference approach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yande; Su, Bao-Ning; Ye, Qingmei; Palaniswamy, Venkatapuram A; Bolgar, Mark S; Raglione, Thomas V

    2014-01-01

    The classical internal standard quantitative NMR (qNMR) method determines the purity of an analyte by the determination of a solution containing the analyte and a standard. Therefore, the standard must meet the requirements of chemical compatibility and lack of resonance interference with the analyte as well as a known purity. The identification of such a standard can be time consuming and must be repeated for each analyte. In contrast, the external standard qNMR method utilizes a standard with a known purity to calibrate the NMR instrument. The external standard and the analyte are measured separately, thereby eliminating the matter of chemical compatibility and resonance interference between the standard and the analyte. However, the instrumental factors, including the quality of NMR tubes, must be kept the same. Any deviations will compromise the accuracy of the results. An innovative qNMR method reported herein utilizes an internal reference substance along with an external standard to assume the role of the standard used in the traditional internal standard qNMR method. In this new method, the internal reference substance must only be chemically compatible and be free of resonance-interference with the analyte or external standard whereas the external standard must only be of a known purity. The exact purity or concentration of the internal reference substance is not required as long as the same quantity is added to the external standard and the analyte. The new method reduces the burden of searching for an appropriate standard for each analyte significantly. Therefore the efficiency of the qNMR purity assay increases while the precision of the internal standard method is retained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. System Accreditation: An Innovative Approach to Assure and Develop the Quality of Study Programmes in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Management and Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "System accreditation" is a new approach developed for German universities to conduct the mandatory accreditation of all their study programmes. A pilot project at Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz is playing an important role in paving the way for this alternative to prevailing programme accreditation. This article describes how…