Science.gov

Sample records for innovative promising approach

  1. Innovation Promises and Evidence Realities.

    PubMed

    Maschke, Karen J

    2016-09-01

    Over the past year media outlets and scientific and bioethics journals have reported about several medical and scientific innovations touted as having the potential to fundamentally change not only how diseases and disorders are diagnosed and treated but even how to alter the genomes of future generations. The purported "miracle" blood-testing technology of Theranos and the potential use of the genome editing technology CRISPR-Cas9 to modify human and nonhuman organisms reflect dramatic advances in scientific understanding about the biological mechanisms of humans and other living organisms. Yet evidence about whether these and other innovative biomedical technologies are safe and effective and lead to improved health outcomes for patients young and old is often in dispute. How to assess the safety and effectiveness of innovative biomedical technologies, who should be involved in that effort, and how to define risks and benefits of those technologies are questions at the intersection of values, interests, and politics. PMID:27649835

  2. Innovation Promises and Evidence Realities.

    PubMed

    Maschke, Karen J

    2016-09-01

    Over the past year media outlets and scientific and bioethics journals have reported about several medical and scientific innovations touted as having the potential to fundamentally change not only how diseases and disorders are diagnosed and treated but even how to alter the genomes of future generations. The purported "miracle" blood-testing technology of Theranos and the potential use of the genome editing technology CRISPR-Cas9 to modify human and nonhuman organisms reflect dramatic advances in scientific understanding about the biological mechanisms of humans and other living organisms. Yet evidence about whether these and other innovative biomedical technologies are safe and effective and lead to improved health outcomes for patients young and old is often in dispute. How to assess the safety and effectiveness of innovative biomedical technologies, who should be involved in that effort, and how to define risks and benefits of those technologies are questions at the intersection of values, interests, and politics.

  3. Innovative Trials Produce Promising Breast Cancer Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159762.html Innovative Trials Produce Promising Breast Cancer Drugs Adaptive study design allows researchers to match ... provide a fighting chance for women with advanced breast cancer. The drugs, neratinib and veliparib, both appear effective ...

  4. Reinventing Higher Education: The Promise of Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildavsky, Ben, Ed.; Kelly, Andrew P., Ed.; Carey, Kevin, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The inspiration for this timely book is the pressing need for fresh ideas and innovations in U.S. higher education. At the heart of the volume is the realization that higher education must evolve in fundamental ways if it is to respond to changing professional, economic, and technological circumstances, and if it is to successfully reach and…

  5. Cost calculator methods for estimating casework time in child welfare services: A promising approach for use in implementation of evidence-based practices and other service innovations

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Lisa; Landsverk, John; Ward, Harriet; Rolls-Reutz, Jennifer; Saldana, Lisa; Wulczyn, Fred; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Estimating costs in child welfare services is critical as new service models are incorporated into routine practice. This paper describes a unit costing estimation system developed in England (cost calculator) together with a pilot test of its utility in the United States where unit costs are routinely available for health services but not for child welfare services. The cost calculator approach uses a unified conceptual model that focuses on eight core child welfare processes. Comparison of these core processes in England and in four counties in the United States suggests that the underlying child welfare processes generated from England were perceived as very similar by child welfare staff in California county systems with some exceptions in the review and legal processes. Overall, the adaptation of the cost calculator for use in the United States child welfare systems appears promising. The paper also compares the cost calculator approach to the workload approach widely used in the United States and concludes that there are distinct differences between the two approaches with some possible advantages to the use of the cost calculator approach, especially in the use of this method for estimating child welfare costs in relation to the incorporation of evidence-based interventions into routine practice. PMID:26412917

  6. Realistic Approach to Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Garth C.

    Part of the Omaha police in-service training program was devoted to innovative approaches to solving police department problems and improving community relations. The sessions were an attempt to use the brainstorming technique to elicit new solutions to everyday problems faced by the rank-and-file members of the police department. The report…

  7. Instrumented knee joint implants: innovations and promising concepts.

    PubMed

    Torrão, João N D; Dos Santos, Marco P Soares; Ferreira, Jorge A F

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on in vivo implementations of instrumented knee implants and recent prototypes with highly innovative potential. An in-depth analysis of the evolution of these systems was conducted, including three architectures developed by two research teams for in vivo operation that were implanted in 13 patients. The specifications of their various subsystems: sensor/transducers, power management, communication and processing/control units are presented, and their features are compared. These systems were designed to measure biomechanical quantities to further assist in rehabilitation and physical therapy, to access proper implant placement and joint function and to help predicting aseptic loosening. Five prototype systems that aim to improve their operation, as well as include new abilities, are also featured. They include technology to assist proper ligament tensioning and ensure self-powering. One can conclude that the concept of instrumented active knee implant seems the most promising trend for improving the outcomes of knee replacements.

  8. Nanoparticles: a promising therapeutic approach in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Antoniades, Charalambos; Psarros, Costantinos; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Bakogiannis, Constantinos; Shirodaria, Cheerag; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2010-10-01

    Coronary atherosclerosis is the largest cause of mortality and morbidity in industrialised countries. Despite recent advances in medical therapies, the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis remain suboptimal. Atherosclerosis is considered to be a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall, involving the accumulation of macrophages and excess low density lipoproteins (LDL), the formation of foam cells which create the atheromatous plaque, resulting in stenosis, aneurysm and plaque rupture leading to acute coronary events. Every step in the atherogenesis process is a potential therapeutic target for both the prevention and regression of atherosclerosis. A novel approach is the use of nanoparticles containing drugs, providing new perspectives in targeted modification of these pathways. Nanoparticles are ultrafine particles sized between 1-100 nm. By using specific methods, nanoparticles can be filled with drugs and achieve targeted drug delivery near the diseased area. In this review article we describe the basic actions of nanoparticles, and we discuss their potential applications in atherosclerosis. We also discuss their advantages and we expose the existing toxicity issues, making it clear however, that the use of nanoparticles is one of the most promising therapeutic strategies against atherosclerosis.

  9. Immunocytokines: a promising approach to cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lode, H N; Xiang, R; Becker, J C; Gillies, S D; Reisfeld, R A

    1998-12-01

    Recombinant antibody-cytokine fusion proteins are immunocytokines that achieve high cytokine concentrations in the tumor microenvironment and thereby effectively stimulate cellular immune responses against malignancies. The activation and expansion of immune effector cells, such as CD8+ T lymphocytes, by interleukin-2 immunocytokines resulted in the eradication of established pulmonary and hepatic metastases of murine melanoma and colorectal carcinoma in syngeneic mouse models. These immunocytokines were equally effective in eliminating established bone marrow and liver metastases of murine neuroblastoma by activating natural killer cells. The effective eradication of metastases by immunocytokines resulted in significant prolongation in life span of mice over that of controls receiving equivalent mixtures of antibody and interleukin-2, which failed to reduce the growth of disseminated metastases. Proof of concept was established, indicating that immunocytokine-induced activation and expansion of immune effector cells in the tumor microenvironment can effectively eradicate established tumor metastases. This promising new approach to cancer immunotherapy may lead to clinical applications that improve treatment of cancer patients with minimal residual disease in an adjuvant setting.

  10. Innovative approaches to recurrent training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noon, H.; Murphy, M.

    1984-01-01

    Innovative approaches to recurrent training for regional airline aircrews are explored. Guidelines for recurrent training programs which include in corporation of cockpit resource management are discussed. B.W.

  11. The Application of Promising Counseling Approaches in Various Educational Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Ronald D.

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the need for aggressive innovation and to focus upon selected counseling approaches which appear to the author to have merit in meeting clients' needs. The need for different or innovative counseling is evident when one considers such problem areas as low achievement, the dropout rate, and increasing…

  12. Innovations at Miami practice show promise for treating high-risk Medicare patients.

    PubMed

    Tanio, Craig; Chen, Christopher

    2013-06-01

    Patients with five or more chronic conditions drive most Medicare costs. Our organization, ChenMed, developed a scalable primary care-led delivery model that focuses on this population while getting reimbursed through full-risk capitation by Medicare Advantage plans. ChenMed is a primary care-led group practice based in Florida that serves low-to-moderate-income elderly patients, largely through the Medicare Advantage program. Our model includes a number of innovations: a one-stop-shop approach for delivering multispecialty services in the community, smaller physician panel sizes of 350-450 patients that allow for intensive health coaching and preventive care, on-site physician pharmacy dispensing, a collaborative physician culture with peer review, and customized information technology. These innovations have improved patient medication adherence, increased the time doctors and patients spend together, and led to high rates of patient satisfaction. Additionally, our Medicare patients have substantially lower rates of hospital use than their peers in the Miami Medicare market. Creating chronic disease centers focused on seniors with multiple chronic conditions is a promising delivery system innovation with major potential to improve the cost and quality of care.

  13. Promising Afterschool Practices: A Showcase of Innovative, Creative and Successful Afterschool Programs. Fourth Annual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute on Out-of-School Time, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A "Promising Practice" is a system, process, or activity in a program that works and leads to good results. It is something that would work in other programs, if only they were aware about it. "Promising Practices" capture some of the most innovative, creative and successful ways that programs serve youth. This publication provides a selection of…

  14. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  15. Contextualized Teaching & Learning: A Promising Approach for Basic Skills Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Elaine DeLott; Hope, Laura; Karandjeff, Kelley

    2009-01-01

    Contextualized teaching and learning (CTL), or the concept of relating subject matter content to meaningful situations that are relevant to students' lives, offers one promising approach to helping students learn more effectively. This brief offers instructors, college leaders, policy makers and funders a high-level summary of the CTL…

  16. Innovative approach towards understanding optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Amit; Bharadwaj, Sadashiv Raj; Kumar, Raj; Shudhanshu, Avinash Kumar; Verma, Deepak Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, there has been a decline in the students’ interest towards Science and Optics. Use of technology in the form of various types of sensors and data acquisition systems has come as a saviour. Till date, manual routine tools and techniques are used to perform various experimental procedures in most of the science/optics laboratories in our country. The manual tools are cumbersome whereas the automated ones are costly. It does not enthuse young researchers towards the science laboratories. There is a need to develop applications which can be easily integrated, tailored at school and undergraduate level laboratories and are economical at the same time. Equipments with advanced technologies are available but they are uneconomical and have complicated working principle with a black box approach. The present work describes development of portable tools and applications which are user-friendly. This is being implemented using open-source physical computing platform based on a simple low cost microcontroller board and a development environment for writing software. The present paper reports the development of an automated spectrometer, an instrument used in almost all optics experiments at undergraduate level, and students’ response to this innovation. These tools will inspire young researchers towards science and facilitate development of advance low cost equipments making life easier for Indian as well as developing nations.

  17. Innovative Approaches to Teaching Technical Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeford, Tracy, Ed.; Kitalong, Karla Saari, Ed.; Selfe, Dickie, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "Innovative Approaches to Teaching Technical Communication" offers a variety of activities, projects, and approaches to energize pedagogy in technical communication and to provide a constructive critique of current practice. A practical collection, the approaches recommended here are readily adaptable to a range of technological and institutional…

  18. Problems and promises of innovation: why healthcare needs to rethink its love/hate relationship with the new.

    PubMed

    Dixon-Woods, Mary; Amalberti, Rene; Goodman, Steve; Bergman, Bo; Glasziou, Paul

    2011-04-01

    Innovation is often regarded as uniformly positive. This paper shows that the role of innovation in quality improvement is more complicated. The authors identify three known paradoxes of innovation in healthcare. First, some innovations diffuse rapidly, yet are of unproven value or limited value, or pose risks, while other innovations that could potentially deliver benefits to patients remain slow to achieve uptake. Second, participatory, cooperative approaches may be the best way of achieving sustainable, positive innovation, yet relying solely on such approaches may disrupt positive innovation. Third, improvement clearly depends upon change, but change always generates new challenges. Quality improvement systems may struggle to keep up with the pace of innovation, yet evaluation of innovation is often too narrowly focused for the system-wide effects of new practices or technologies to be understood. A new recognition of the problems of innovation is proposed and it is argued that new approaches to addressing them are needed.

  19. Problems and promises of innovation: why healthcare needs to rethink its love/hate relationship with the new.

    PubMed

    Dixon-Woods, Mary; Amalberti, Rene; Goodman, Steve; Bergman, Bo; Glasziou, Paul

    2011-04-01

    Innovation is often regarded as uniformly positive. This paper shows that the role of innovation in quality improvement is more complicated. The authors identify three known paradoxes of innovation in healthcare. First, some innovations diffuse rapidly, yet are of unproven value or limited value, or pose risks, while other innovations that could potentially deliver benefits to patients remain slow to achieve uptake. Second, participatory, cooperative approaches may be the best way of achieving sustainable, positive innovation, yet relying solely on such approaches may disrupt positive innovation. Third, improvement clearly depends upon change, but change always generates new challenges. Quality improvement systems may struggle to keep up with the pace of innovation, yet evaluation of innovation is often too narrowly focused for the system-wide effects of new practices or technologies to be understood. A new recognition of the problems of innovation is proposed and it is argued that new approaches to addressing them are needed. PMID:21450771

  20. Problems and promises of innovation: why healthcare needs to rethink its love/hate relationship with the new

    PubMed Central

    Amalberti, Rene; Goodman, Steve; Bergman, Bo; Glasziou, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Innovation is often regarded as uniformly positive. This paper shows that the role of innovation in quality improvement is more complicated. The authors identify three known paradoxes of innovation in healthcare. First, some innovations diffuse rapidly, yet are of unproven value or limited value, or pose risks, while other innovations that could potentially deliver benefits to patients remain slow to achieve uptake. Second, participatory, cooperative approaches may be the best way of achieving sustainable, positive innovation, yet relying solely on such approaches may disrupt positive innovation. Third, improvement clearly depends upon change, but change always generates new challenges. Quality improvement systems may struggle to keep up with the pace of innovation, yet evaluation of innovation is often too narrowly focused for the system-wide effects of new practices or technologies to be understood. A new recognition of the problems of innovation is proposed and it is argued that new approaches to addressing them are needed. PMID:21450771

  1. Beyond the Yellow Bus: Promising Practices for Maximizing Access to Opportunity through Innovations in Student Transportation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Jeffrey M.; Makarewicz, Carrie; Miller, Ruth; Ehrman, Julia; McKoy, Deborah L.

    2014-01-01

    Access to safe, affordable, and convenient transportation shapes the 'geography of opportunity' for many children and youth. This study looks at how ?localities acrossthe country are implementing new and innovative alternative approaches to student transportation that expand regionaltransportation access for K-12 students, improve…

  2. Intranasal glucagon: a promising approach for treatment of severe hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Pontiroli, Antonio E

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of diabetic complications is mainly obtained through optimal control of blood glucose levels. With hypoglycemic drugs like beta-cell stimulating drugs and especially insulin, the limit to treatment is represented by hypoglycemia, a life-threatening occurrence that is dangerous itself and can induce fear of other episodes. Glucagon, injected subcutaneously (SC) or intramuscularly (IM), is the treatment of choice for severe hypoglycemia outside of the hospital setting. However, due to practical aspects such as preparation of solutions for administration and injection by untrained persons, there are obstacles to its routine use. This review focuses on the current status of alternative routes of administration of peptide hormones, and in particular the intranasal (IN) route of glucagon, as a promising approach for the treatment of severe hypoglycemia. PMID:25385946

  3. Innovative Approaches to Career Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Andrew R.

    A key part of a broad-based approach to career education in Australian schools is vocational/career guidance. Various vocational guidance programs have been developed for specific groups in Australian society, including work experience, caravans, and micrographics technology for the handicapped; pre-employment courses and a family education center…

  4. Training Package Implementation: Innovative and Flexible Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Dave; Blom, Kaaren

    The implementation of training packages (TPs) in Australian workplaces was examined through case studies of the use of TPs in nontraditional trade areas by six innovative registered training organizations (RTOs) across Australia. The study focused on the extent to which new and flexible approaches to learning, training delivery, and assessment…

  5. Getting from Procedures and Approach to Innovation in Grantsmanship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Nancy B.

    2013-01-01

    Call it innovation, creativity, imagination, cutting edge, paradigm shift, or any other term for new information, an assessment of innovation may now impact the final decision on awarding grants to investigators. What exactly is innovation and how does the reviewer perceive innovation in the research approach? Procedures, the approach, and…

  6. Promises to Practice: Learning a PROactive Approach to Ethical Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambery, Mary Elizabeth; Steinbrunner, Ruth K.

    2007-01-01

    Learning to be PROactive, as the title of this article suggests, means Pooling one's knowledge, Reflecting respect, and Opening oneself to action. It recognizes early childhood educators' promises to their field of practice, based on widely held beliefs and principles. Educators can apply professional ethics to everyday problem solving and their…

  7. Bladder cancer: innovative approaches beyond the diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Piergentili, R; Carradori, S; Gulia, C; De Monte, C; Cristini, C; Grande, P; Santini, E; Gentile, V; Di Pierro, G B

    2014-01-01

    Bladder carcinoma (BC) is the most common urinary malignant tumor. In the light of the unsuccessful current therapies and their side effects, new pharmacological strategies are needed. In addition to the well known therapeutic possibilities described in the first section, we focused our attention on very recent and innovative tools to approach this target (new drug candidates from epigenetic modulators to endothelin receptor inhibitors, improved technological formulations, active principles from plants, and dietary components). Then, in the last paragraph, we analyzed the etiology of recurrent BC, with particular attention to cellular microenvironment. In fact, the incidence of recurrence is up to 90%, and 25% of tumours show progression towards invasiveness.

  8. Gene therapy: a promising approach to treating spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, Pádraig J; Iremonger, Kayleigh; Karyka, Evangelia; Herranz-Martín, Saúl; Shum, Ka-To; Tam, Janice Kal Van; Azzouz, Mimoun

    2014-07-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a severe autosomal recessive disease caused by a genetic defect in the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene, which encodes SMN, a protein widely expressed in all eukaryotic cells. Depletion of the SMN protein causes muscle weakness and progressive loss of movement in SMA patients. The field of gene therapy has made major advances over the past decade, and gene delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) by in vivo or ex vivo techniques is a rapidly emerging field in neuroscience. Despite Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis being among the most common neurodegenerative diseases in humans and attractive targets for treatment development, their multifactorial origin and complicated genetics make them less amenable to gene therapy. Monogenic disorders resulting from modifications in a single gene, such as SMA, prove more favorable and have been at the fore of this evolution of potential gene therapies, and results to date have been promising at least. With the estimated number of monogenic diseases standing in the thousands, elucidating a therapeutic target for one could have major implications for many more. Recent progress has brought about the commercialization of the first gene therapies for diseases, such as pancreatitis in the form of Glybera, with the potential for other monogenic disease therapies to follow suit. While much research has been carried out, there are many limiting factors that can halt or impede translation of therapies from the bench to the clinic. This review will look at both recent advances and encountered impediments in terms of SMA and endeavor to highlight the promising results that may be applicable to various associated diseases and also discuss the potential to overcome present limitations. PMID:24845847

  9. Treating hemoglobinopathies using gene-correction approaches: promises and challenges.

    PubMed

    Cottle, Renee N; Lee, Ciaran M; Bao, Gang

    2016-09-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are genetic disorders caused by aberrant hemoglobin expression or structure changes, resulting in severe mortality and health disparities worldwide. Sickle cell disease (SCD) and β-thalassemia, the most common forms of hemoglobinopathies, are typically treated using transfusions and pharmacological agents. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only curative therapy, but has limited clinical applicability. Although gene therapy approaches have been proposed based on the insertion and forced expression of wild-type or anti-sickling β-globin variants, safety concerns may impede their clinical application. A novel curative approach is nuclease-based gene correction, which involves the application of precision genome-editing tools to correct the disease-causing mutation. This review describes the development and potential application of gene therapy and precision genome-editing approaches for treating SCD and β-thalassemia. The opportunities and challenges in advancing a curative therapy for hemoglobinopathies are also discussed. PMID:27314256

  10. Innovative approaches to inertial confinement fusion reactors: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bourque, R.F.; Schultz, K.R.

    1986-11-01

    Three areas of innovative approaches to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor design are given. First, issues pertaining to the Cascade reactor concept are discussed. Then, several innovative concepts are presented which attempt to directly recover the blast energy from a fusion target. Finally, the Turbostar concept for direct recovery of that energy is evaluated. The Cascade issues discussed are combustion of the carbon granules in the event of air ingress, the use of alternate granule materials, and the effect of changes in carbon flow on details of the heat exchanger. Carbon combustion turns out to be a minor problem. Four ICF innovative concepts were considered: a turbine with ablating surfaces, a liquid piston system, a wave generator, and a resonating pump. In the final analysis, none show any real promise. The Turbostar concept of direct recovery is a very interesting idea and appeared technically viable. However, it shows no efficiency gain or any decrease in capital cost compared to reactors with conventional thermal conversion systems. Attempts to improve it by placing a close-in lithium sphere around the target to increase gas generation increased efficiency only slightly. It is concluded that these direct conversion techniques require thermalization of the x-ray and debris energy, and are Carnot limited. They therefore offer no advantage over existing and proposed methods of thermal energy conversion or direct electrical conversion.

  11. Omics approaches in food safety: fulfilling the promise?

    PubMed Central

    Bergholz, Teresa M.; Moreno Switt, Andrea I.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics are rapidly transforming our approaches to detection, prevention and treatment of foodborne pathogens. Microbial genome sequencing in particular has evolved from a research tool into an approach that can be used to characterize foodborne pathogen isolates as part of routine surveillance systems. Genome sequencing efforts will not only improve outbreak detection and source tracking, but will also create large amounts of foodborne pathogen genome sequence data, which will be available for data mining efforts that could facilitate better source attribution and provide new insights into foodborne pathogen biology and transmission. While practical uses and application of metagenomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics data and associated tools are less prominent, these tools are also starting to yield practical food safety solutions. PMID:24572764

  12. Omics approaches in food safety: fulfilling the promise?

    PubMed

    Bergholz, Teresa M; Moreno Switt, Andrea I; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics are rapidly transforming our approaches to the detection, prevention, and treatment of foodborne pathogens. Microbial genome sequencing in particular has evolved from a research tool into an approach that can be used to characterize foodborne pathogen isolates as part of routine surveillance systems. Genome sequencing efforts will not only improve outbreak detection and source tracking, but will also create large amounts of foodborne pathogen genome sequence data, which will be available for data-mining efforts that could facilitate better source attribution and provide new insights into foodborne pathogen biology and transmission. Although practical uses and application of metagenomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics data and associated tools are less prominent, these tools are also starting to yield practical food safety solutions.

  13. Viral proteomics: a promising approach for understanding JC virus tropism.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Veerasamy; Major, Eugene O

    2006-10-01

    The human polyomavirus JC virus (JCV) is responsible for the CNS demyelination observed in cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The JCV regulatory region (promoter) is a hypervariable, noncoding, nucleotide sequence positioned between the early and late protein-coding regions in the viral genome. Selective binding of cellular transcription factors to this promoter region participates in the control of viral tropism. Hence, further study of these proteins might provide new insights into JCV tropism and associated pathogenesis. This review gives an overview of viral proteomics - the study of all proteins expressed from the viral gene transcripts, and all the cellular proteins that play a role in JCV tropism. It also describes a new biochemical approach for studying relevant JCV promoter-binding proteins, which is an anchored-JCV transcriptional promoter (ATP) assay. An ATP assay utilizes the product of PCR-amplified JCV promoter sequences coupled with Sepharose beads in order to capture and isolate cellular nuclear proteins with specific promoter-binding affinity for analysis. Proteins that bind to JCV-ATPs can be eluted and subjected to proteomic analysis. Insights from this approach may improve the understanding of viral and cellular parameters that control JCV tropism.

  14. Catalytic bioscavengers in nerve agent poisoning: A promising approach?

    PubMed

    Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Wille, Timo

    2016-02-26

    The repeated use of the nerve agent sarin against civilians in Syria in 2013 emphasizes the continuing threat by chemical warfare agents. Multiple studies demonstrated a limited efficacy of standard atropine-oxime treatment in nerve agent poisoning and called for the development of alternative and more effective treatment strategies. A novel approach is the use of stoichiometric or catalytic bioscavengers for detoxification of nerve agents in the systemic circulation prior to distribution into target tissues. Recent progress in the design of enzyme mutants with reversed stereo selectivity resulting in improved catalytic activity and their use in in vivo studies supports the concept of catalytic bioscavengers. Yet, further research is necessary to improve the catalytic activity, substrate spectrum and in vivo biological stability of enzyme mutants. The pros and cons of catalytic bioscavengers will be discussed in detail and future requirements for the development of catalytic bioscavengers will be proposed.

  15. New pharmacological approaches for cystic fibrosis: promises, progress, pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Bell, Scott C; De Boeck, Kris; Amaral, Margarida D

    2015-01-01

    With the discovery of the CFTR gene in 1989, the search for therapies to improve the basic defects of cystic fibrosis (CF) commenced. Pharmacological manipulation provides the opportunity to enhance CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein synthesis and/or function. CFTR modulators include potentiators to improve channel gating (class III mutations), correctors to improve abnormal CFTR protein folding and trafficking (class II mutations) and stop codon mutation read-through drugs relevant for patients with premature stop codons (most class I mutations). After several successful clinical trials the potentiator, ivacaftor, is now licenced for use in adults and children (>six years), with CF bearing the class III G551D mutation and FDA licence was recently expanded to include 8 additional class III mutations. Alternative approaches for class I and class II mutations are currently being studied. Combination drug treatment with correctors and potentiators appears to be required to restore CFTR function of F508del, the most common CFTR mutation. Alternative therapies such as gene therapy and pharmacological modulation of other ion channels may be advantageous because they are mutation-class independent, however progress is less well advanced. Clinical trials for CFTR modulators have been enthusiastically embraced by patients with CF and health care providers. Whilst novel trial end-points are being evaluated allowing CFTR modulators to be efficiently tested, many challenges related to the complexity of CFTR and the biology of the epithelium still need to be overcome.

  16. Immunotherapy: A promising approach to reverse sepsis-induced immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Patil, Naeem K; Bohannon, Julia K; Sherwood, Edward R

    2016-09-01

    Sepsis is defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by dysregulated host responses to infection (Third International Consensus definition for Sepsis and septic shock). Despite decades of research, sepsis remains the leading cause of death in intensive care units. More than 40 clinical trials, most of which have targeted the sepsis-associated pro-inflammatory response, have failed. Thus, antibiotics and fluid resuscitation remain the mainstays of supportive care and there is intense need to discover and develop novel, targeted therapies to treat sepsis. Both pre-clinical and clinical studies over the past decade demonstrate unequivocally that sepsis not only causes hyper-inflammation, but also leads to simultaneous adaptive immune system dysfunction and impaired antimicrobial immunity. Evidences for immunosuppression include immune cell depletion (T cells most affected), compromised T cell effector functions, T cell exhaustion, impaired antigen presentation, increased susceptibility to opportunistic nosocomial infections, dysregulated cytokine secretion, and reactivation of latent viruses. Therefore, targeting immunosuppression provides a logical approach to treat protracted sepsis. Numerous pre-clinical studies using immunomodulatory agents such as interleukin-7, anti-programmed cell death 1 antibody (anti-PD-1), anti-programmed cell death 1 ligand antibody (anti-PD-L1), and others have demonstrated reversal of T cell dysfunction and improved survival. Therefore, identifying immunosuppressed patients with the help of specific biomarkers and administering specific immunomodulators holds significant potential for sepsis therapy in the future. This review focusses on T cell dysfunction during sepsis and discusses the potential immunotherapeutic agents to boost T cell function during sepsis and improve host resistance to infection. PMID:27468649

  17. Splinting of Longitudinal Fracture: An Innovative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Rashmi; Chowdhary, Priyanka; Gurtu, Anuraag; Mehrotra, Nakul; Kishore, Abhinav

    2016-01-01

    Trauma may result in craze lines on the enamel surface, one or more fractured cusps of posterior teeth, cracked tooth syndrome, splitting of posterior teeth, and vertical fracture of root. Out of these, management of some fractures is of great challenge and such teeth are generally recommended for extraction. Literature search reveals attempts to manage such fractures by full cast crown, orthodontic wires, and so forth, in which consideration was given to extracoronal splinting only. However, due to advancement in materials and technologies, intracoronal splinting can be achieved as well. In this case report, longitudinal fractures in tooth #27, tooth #37, and tooth #46 had occurred. In #27, fracture line was running mesiodistally involving the pulpal floor resulting in a split tooth. In teeth 37 and 46, fractures of the mesiobuccal cusp and mesiolingual cusp were observed, respectively. They were restored with cast gold inlay and full cast crown, respectively. Longitudinal fracture of 27 was treated with an innovative approach using intracanal reinforced composite with Ribbond, external reinforcement with an orthodontic band, and full cast metal crown to splint the split tooth. PMID:27247808

  18. Conceptualising Educational Changes: A Social Innovation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loogma, Krista; Tafel-Viia, Külliki; Ümarik, Meril

    2013-01-01

    The intention of the authors in this article is to contribute to the discussion concerning educational change by implementing the concept of social innovation. We argue that the application of the concept of social innovation makes it possible to better understand the process of implementation as well as sustainability and the social impact of…

  19. Innovation and design approaches within prospective ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Liem, André; Brangier, Eric

    2012-01-01

    In this conceptual article the topic of "Prospective Ergonomics" will be discussed within the context of innovation, design thinking and design processes & methods. Design thinking is essentially a human-centred innovation process that emphasises observation, collaboration, interpretation, visualisation of ideas, rapid concept prototyping and concurrent business analysis, which ultimately influences innovation and business strategy. The objective of this project is to develop a roadmap for innovation, involving consumers, designers and business people in an integrative process, which can be applied to product, service and business design. A theoretical structure comprising of Innovation perspectives (1), Worldviews supported by rationalist-historicist and empirical-idealistic dimensions (2) and Models of "design" reasoning (3) precedes the development and classification of existing methods as well as the introduction of new ones.

  20. Innovation and design approaches within prospective ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Liem, André; Brangier, Eric

    2012-01-01

    In this conceptual article the topic of "Prospective Ergonomics" will be discussed within the context of innovation, design thinking and design processes & methods. Design thinking is essentially a human-centred innovation process that emphasises observation, collaboration, interpretation, visualisation of ideas, rapid concept prototyping and concurrent business analysis, which ultimately influences innovation and business strategy. The objective of this project is to develop a roadmap for innovation, involving consumers, designers and business people in an integrative process, which can be applied to product, service and business design. A theoretical structure comprising of Innovation perspectives (1), Worldviews supported by rationalist-historicist and empirical-idealistic dimensions (2) and Models of "design" reasoning (3) precedes the development and classification of existing methods as well as the introduction of new ones. PMID:22317532

  1. Beyond the Yellow Bus: Promising Practices for Maximizing Access to Opportunity through Innovations in Student Transportation. Policy Brief 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Cities & Schools, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Access to safe, affordable, and convenient transportation shapes the "geography of opportunity" for many children and youth. This study looks at how ?localities across the country are implementing new and innovative alternative approaches to student transportation that expand regional transportation access for K-12 students, improve…

  2. Biobanks in Oral Health: Promises and Implications of Post-Neoliberal Science and Innovation.

    PubMed

    Birch, Kean; Dove, Edward S; Chiappetta, Margaret; Gürsoy, Ulvi K

    2016-01-01

    While biobanks are established explicitly as scientific infrastructures, they are de facto political-economic ones too. Many biobanks, particularly population-based biobanks, are framed under the rubric of the bio-economy as national political-economic assets that benefit domestic business, while national populations are framed as a natural resource whose genomics, proteomics, and related biological material and national health data can be exploited. We outline how many biobanks epitomize this 'neoliberal' form of science and innovation in which research is driven by market priorities (e.g., profit, shareholder value) underpinned by state or government policies. As both scientific and political-economic infrastructures, biobanks end up entangled in an array of problems associated with market-driven science and innovation. These include: profit trumping other considerations; rentiership trumping entrepreneurship; and applied research trumping basic research. As a result, there has been a push behind new forms of 'post-neoliberal' science and innovation strategies based on principles of openness and collaboration, especially in relation to biobanks. The proliferation of biobanks and the putative transition in both scientific practice and political economy from neoliberalism to post-neoliberalism demands fresh social scientific analyses, particularly as biobanks become further established in fields such as oral health and personalized dentistry. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first analysis of biobanks with a view to what we can anticipate from biobanks and distributed post-genomics global science in the current era of oral health biomarkers. PMID:26584410

  3. Biobanks in Oral Health: Promises and Implications of Post-Neoliberal Science and Innovation.

    PubMed

    Birch, Kean; Dove, Edward S; Chiappetta, Margaret; Gürsoy, Ulvi K

    2016-01-01

    While biobanks are established explicitly as scientific infrastructures, they are de facto political-economic ones too. Many biobanks, particularly population-based biobanks, are framed under the rubric of the bio-economy as national political-economic assets that benefit domestic business, while national populations are framed as a natural resource whose genomics, proteomics, and related biological material and national health data can be exploited. We outline how many biobanks epitomize this 'neoliberal' form of science and innovation in which research is driven by market priorities (e.g., profit, shareholder value) underpinned by state or government policies. As both scientific and political-economic infrastructures, biobanks end up entangled in an array of problems associated with market-driven science and innovation. These include: profit trumping other considerations; rentiership trumping entrepreneurship; and applied research trumping basic research. As a result, there has been a push behind new forms of 'post-neoliberal' science and innovation strategies based on principles of openness and collaboration, especially in relation to biobanks. The proliferation of biobanks and the putative transition in both scientific practice and political economy from neoliberalism to post-neoliberalism demands fresh social scientific analyses, particularly as biobanks become further established in fields such as oral health and personalized dentistry. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first analysis of biobanks with a view to what we can anticipate from biobanks and distributed post-genomics global science in the current era of oral health biomarkers.

  4. Contexts for Promise: Noteworthy Practices and Innovations in the Identification of Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Carolyn M., Ed.; And Others

    This monograph contains 11 papers describing model projects that address the identification of gifted students. An introduction by Carolyn M. Callahan and Carol A. Tomlinson identifies commonalities and themes in the promising practices highlighted in the papers. The papers include: (1) "Project STREAM: Support, Training and Resources for…

  5. A Review of Some Promising Approaches To Understanding and Improving Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsome, George L., III

    2000-01-01

    Examines the thinking and reasoning skills today's students need, reviewing promising approaches to understanding and improving these skills offered by cognitive psychologists and philosophers, evaluating the contributions of each approach, and suggesting how explanations offered by cognitive psychologists and criteria for evaluating students'…

  6. Barriers and Promising Approaches to Workforce and Youth Development for Young Offenders. Policy Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David; Maxwell, Sarah; DeJesus, Edward; Schiraldi, Vincent

    This publication is part of a toolkit that examines systemic barriers to achieving economic self-sufficiency for court-involved youth. It highlights 19 exemplary policy initiatives that fall into the following five categories: innovative approaches, new ways to allocate funds and develop resources, ways to promote collaboration among various…

  7. Innovative approaches in the embryonic stem cell test (EST).

    PubMed

    Theunissen, Peter T; Piersma, Aldert H

    2012-01-01

    The embryonic stem cell test (EST) is a high-throughput in vitro screening assay for developmental toxicity free of animal use. The EST uses the ability of murine embryonic stem cells to differentiate into the mesodermal cardiac lineage in combination with two cytotoxicity test systems. Validation of the EST showed that the test system is very promising as an alternative method to animal testing, however to optimize predictability and increase knowledge on the applicability domain of the EST, improvements to the method were proposed and studied. In this review we discuss the first definition of the EST followed by the innovative approaches which have been proposed to increase the predictivity of the EST, including implementation of molecular endpoints in the EST, such as omics technologies and the addition of alternative differentiation models to the testing paradigm, such as neural and osteoblast differentiation and the use of human stem cells. These efforts to improve the EST increase the value of embryonic stem cells used as in vitro systems to predict developmental toxicity.

  8. [Nurse-led in Primary Health Care setting: a well-timed and promising organizational innovation].

    PubMed

    Torres-Ricarte, Marc; Crusat-Abelló, Ernest; Peñuelas-Rodríguez, Silvia; Zabaleta-del-Olmo, Edurne

    2015-01-01

    At present, the severe economic crisis along with the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases is leading to different countries to consider updating their Primary Health Care (PHC) services in order to make them more efficient and reduce health inequalities. To that end, various initiatives are being carried out, such as the provision of Nurse-led services and interventions. The purpose of this article is to present the available knowledge, controversies and opportunities for Nurse-led initiatives in the setting of PHC. Nurse- led interventions or health services in PHC have proven to be equal or more effective than usual care in disease prevention, the routine follow-up of patients with chronic conditions, and first contact care for people with minor illness. However, as there are only a few health economic evaluation studies published their efficiency is still potential. In conclusion, the Nurse-led care could be an innovative organizational initiative with the potential to provide an adequate response to the contemporary health needs of the population, as well as an opportunity for the nursing profession and for PHC and health systems in general.

  9. Innovative surgical approaches for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Memeo, Riccardo; de’Angelis, Nicola; de Blasi, Vito; Cherkaoui, Zineb; Brunetti, Oronzo; Longo, Vito; Piardi, Tullio; Sommacale, Daniele; Marescaux, Jacques; Mutter, Didier; Pessaux, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, with an increasing diffusion in Europe and the United States. The management of such a cancer is continuously progressing and the objective of this paper is to evaluate innovation in the surgical treatment of HCC. In this review, we will analyze the modern concept of preoperative management, the role of laparoscopic and robotic surgery, the intrao-perative use of three dimensional models and augme-nted reality, as well as the potential application of fluore-scence. PMID:27168871

  10. Case Studies and Promising Approaches. Vocational Education Equity Study. Final Report: Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Jeanette D.; And Others

    Information on programs and activities which have been developed to reduce sex inequities in vocational education is provided. The document is organized into two sections: section 1 contains case studies of twelve programs selected from a nationwide search, and section 2 contains brief descriptions of twelve promising approaches to reducing sex…

  11. An Innovative Approach to Orientation at One Comprehensive Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opitz, Armand M.

    Several innovative approaches to the orientation course that have been tested in a community college are described. These approaches emphasize the areas of orientation of special importance in the community college: adjustment to the freedoms and responsibilities of being a college student, development of communication skills and relationships…

  12. The Teacher Advisor Program: An Innovative Approach to School Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrick, Robert D.; And Others

    The Teacher Advisor Program (TAP) is an innovative developmental approach to counseling that directly involves teachers as advisors to 18 to 20 students, with whom they meet both individually and in group sessions. An introductory chapter that cites the need for a developmental approach to counseling in contemporary schools and the potential role…

  13. Social media targeting of health messages. A promising approach for research and practice.

    PubMed

    Betsch, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    In their contribution, Remschmidt and colleagues (1) put forward an innovative approach for recruiting female, German study participants from diverse social and ethnical backgrounds to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding HPV vaccination. The approach involves placing advertisements on the social media platform Facebook that specify tags for not only the sought after socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender) but also self-relevant aspects of the target group. These tags determine which Facebook users will see the ad. By sequentially adjusting the tags, the researchers were able to recruit different sub-populations, resulting in a final sample similar to a representative German sample for a particular age group. PMID:25483481

  14. Social media targeting of health messages. A promising approach for research and practice.

    PubMed

    Betsch, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    In their contribution, Remschmidt and colleagues (1) put forward an innovative approach for recruiting female, German study participants from diverse social and ethnical backgrounds to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding HPV vaccination. The approach involves placing advertisements on the social media platform Facebook that specify tags for not only the sought after socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender) but also self-relevant aspects of the target group. These tags determine which Facebook users will see the ad. By sequentially adjusting the tags, the researchers were able to recruit different sub-populations, resulting in a final sample similar to a representative German sample for a particular age group.

  15. Creating an enabling environment for adolescent sexual and reproductive health: a framework and promising approaches.

    PubMed

    Svanemyr, Joar; Amin, Avni; Robles, Omar J; Greene, Margaret E

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a conceptual framework and points out the key elements for creating enabling environments for adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH). An ecological framework is applied to organize the key elements of enabling environments for ASRH. At the individual level, strategies that are being implemented and seem promising are those that empower girls, build their individual assets, and create safe spaces. At the relationship level, strategies that are being implemented and seem promising include efforts to build parental support and communication as well as peer support networks. At the community level, strategies to engage men and boys and the wider community to transform gender and other social norms are being tested and may hold promise. Finally, at the broadest societal level, efforts to promote laws and policies that protect and promote human rights and address societal awareness about ASRH issues, including through mass media approaches, need to be considered.

  16. Creating an enabling environment for adolescent sexual and reproductive health: a framework and promising approaches.

    PubMed

    Svanemyr, Joar; Amin, Avni; Robles, Omar J; Greene, Margaret E

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a conceptual framework and points out the key elements for creating enabling environments for adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH). An ecological framework is applied to organize the key elements of enabling environments for ASRH. At the individual level, strategies that are being implemented and seem promising are those that empower girls, build their individual assets, and create safe spaces. At the relationship level, strategies that are being implemented and seem promising include efforts to build parental support and communication as well as peer support networks. At the community level, strategies to engage men and boys and the wider community to transform gender and other social norms are being tested and may hold promise. Finally, at the broadest societal level, efforts to promote laws and policies that protect and promote human rights and address societal awareness about ASRH issues, including through mass media approaches, need to be considered. PMID:25528980

  17. An Innovative Approach to Faculty Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana, Heather; Havens, Brandy; Hochanadel, Cathy; Phillips, JoDee

    2010-01-01

    As online education has grown rapidly, colleges and universities have developed various approaches to effectively evaluating and coaching faculty. Faculty performance is central to student success and faculty need feedback that is consistent, constructive and illustrative. Through the use of screen recording technology, academic department chairs…

  18. Innovative Approaches to Health Occupations Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurney, Elizabeth, Comp.; Kintgen, Jean, Comp.

    To improve communications between health occupations educators and health professionals about developments in health occupations education, a compilation of 21 approaches used in health occupations education is presented. Outlines of the 21 different courses are presented, grouped in eight areas: (1) career mobility--modified LPN program for…

  19. Peer-Reviewed Reports of Innovative Approaches in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, M. Brownell, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Presents 73 summaries of innovative approaches in medical education covering such topics as professionalism, culture and diversity, preclinical education, clinical education, evidence-based medicine, education in the community, longitudinal ambulatory care experiences, applications of computer technology, residents as teachers, graduate medical…

  20. Innovative Approaches to Reading & Writing Instruction. Anthology #46

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poedjosoedarmo, Gloria, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The 18 papers in this anthology have been grouped into four sections, arranged partially by topic. These papers have been selected to represent the ideas and views put forward at the 2004 RELC International Seminar on "Innovative Approaches to Reading & Writing Instruction" held April 19-21, 2004. Of the 18 papers contained in this volume, some…

  1. An Innovative Interdisciplinary Approach to Providing Internships for College Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The undergraduate Business and Human Development (HD) Departments at California State University San Marcos (CSUSM), are collaborating in an innovative interdisciplinary approach to supporting internships with local businesses in order to provide college seniors with experiences in the area of career development known as the "Senior…

  2. An Innovative Multimedia Approach to Laboratory Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, M. B.; Constant, K. P.

    1996-01-01

    A new approach for teaching safe laboratory practices has been developed for materials science laboratories at Iowa State university. Students are required to complete a computerized safety tutorial and pass an exam before working in the laboratory. The safety tutorial includes sections on chemical, electrical, radiation, and high temperature safety. The tutorial makes use of a variety of interactions, including 'assembly' interactions where a student is asked to drag and drop items with the mouse (either labels or pictures) to an appropriate place on the screen (sometimes in a specific order). This is extremely useful for demonstrating safe lab practices and disaster scenarios. Built into the software is a record tracking scheme so that a professor can access a file that records which students have completed the tutorial and their scores on the exam. This paper will describe the development and assessment of the safety tutorials.

  3. E-Education Applications: Human Factors and Innovative Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaoui, Claude, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "E-Education Applications: Human Factors and Innovative Approaches" enforces the need to take multi-disciplinary and/or inter-disciplinary approaches, when solutions for e-education (or online-, e-learning) are introduced. By focusing on the issues that have impact on the usability of e-learning, the book specifically fills-in a gap in this area,…

  4. Innovative approaches to noninvasive bone densitometry

    SciTech Connect

    Sartoris, D.J.; Resnick, D. )

    1990-01-01

    In conclusion, this review has endeavored to familiarize the practicing radiologist with some of the newer approaches to noninvasive bone densitometry that are currently being explored as potential improvements over existing techniques. Three-dimensional volumetric CT is a practical means of measuring bone density in the proximal femur, owing to the widespread availability of the necessary scanning equipment, and affords enhanced prediction of biomechanical parameters in the spine and hip, but suffers from limitations similar to those of conventional quantitative CT. Dual-energy projection radiography offers significant potential advantages over dual-photon absorptiometry from the standpoint of precision, radiation dose, image quality, and examination time, but remains to be thoroughly tested. Compton scattering appears to be a viable alternative to single-photon absorptiometry for bone density determinations in the peripheral skeleton. Neutron and proton activation analysis are unlikely to achieve widespread application, owing to their cyclotron-dependent nature, although the former will probably remain the optimal means for determining total body calcium. Experience with scanning-slit fluorography and magnetic resonance as applied to noninvasive bone densitometry is currently too limited to permit prediction of their ultimate role in this respect. As a final point, it should be noted that major incentives for mobilization of bone densitometric equipment currently exist: on Earth, as a means of facilitating patient access and saving money via joint ventures, and in space for monitoring the adverse effects of weightlessness on skeletal mass and the ability to function following return to a gravity environment.25 references.

  5. Molecular Farming in Artemisia annua, a Promising Approach to Improve Anti-malarial Drug Production

    PubMed Central

    Pulice, Giuseppe; Pelaz, Soraya; Matías-Hernández, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a parasite infection affecting millions of people worldwide. Even though progress has been made in prevention and treatment of the disease; an estimated 214 million cases of malaria occurred in 2015, resulting in 438,000 estimated deaths; most of them occurring in Africa among children under the age of five. This article aims to review the epidemiology, future risk factors and current treatments of malaria, with particular focus on the promising potential of molecular farming that uses metabolic engineering in plants as an effective anti-malarial solution. Malaria represents an example of how a health problem may, on one hand, influence the proper development of a country, due to its burden of the disease. On the other hand, it constitutes an opportunity for lucrative business of diverse stakeholders. In contrast, plant biofarming is proposed here as a sustainable, promising, alternative for the production, not only of natural herbal repellents for malaria prevention but also for the production of sustainable anti-malarial drugs, like artemisinin (AN), used for primary parasite infection treatments. AN, a sesquiterpene lactone, is a natural anti-malarial compound that can be found in Artemisia annua. However, the low concentration of AN in the plant makes this molecule relatively expensive and difficult to produce in order to meet the current worldwide demand of Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs), especially for economically disadvantaged people in developing countries. The biosynthetic pathway of AN, a process that takes place only in glandular secretory trichomes of A. annua, is relatively well elucidated. Significant efforts have been made using plant genetic engineering to increase production of this compound. These include diverse genetic manipulation approaches, such as studies on diverse transcription factors which have been shown to regulate the AN genetic pathway and other biological processes. Results look promising; however, further

  6. Molecular Farming in Artemisia annua, a Promising Approach to Improve Anti-malarial Drug Production.

    PubMed

    Pulice, Giuseppe; Pelaz, Soraya; Matías-Hernández, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a parasite infection affecting millions of people worldwide. Even though progress has been made in prevention and treatment of the disease; an estimated 214 million cases of malaria occurred in 2015, resulting in 438,000 estimated deaths; most of them occurring in Africa among children under the age of five. This article aims to review the epidemiology, future risk factors and current treatments of malaria, with particular focus on the promising potential of molecular farming that uses metabolic engineering in plants as an effective anti-malarial solution. Malaria represents an example of how a health problem may, on one hand, influence the proper development of a country, due to its burden of the disease. On the other hand, it constitutes an opportunity for lucrative business of diverse stakeholders. In contrast, plant biofarming is proposed here as a sustainable, promising, alternative for the production, not only of natural herbal repellents for malaria prevention but also for the production of sustainable anti-malarial drugs, like artemisinin (AN), used for primary parasite infection treatments. AN, a sesquiterpene lactone, is a natural anti-malarial compound that can be found in Artemisia annua. However, the low concentration of AN in the plant makes this molecule relatively expensive and difficult to produce in order to meet the current worldwide demand of Artemisinin Combination Therapies (ACTs), especially for economically disadvantaged people in developing countries. The biosynthetic pathway of AN, a process that takes place only in glandular secretory trichomes of A. annua, is relatively well elucidated. Significant efforts have been made using plant genetic engineering to increase production of this compound. These include diverse genetic manipulation approaches, such as studies on diverse transcription factors which have been shown to regulate the AN genetic pathway and other biological processes. Results look promising; however, further

  7. Combination of conspicuity improved synthetic mammograms and digital breast tomosynthesis: a promising approach for mass detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seong Tae; Kim, Dae Hoe; Ro, Yong Man

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a novel mass detection framework that utilizes the information from synthetic mammograms has been developed for detecting masses in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In clinical study, it is demonstrated that the combination of DBT and full field digital mammography (FFDM) increases the reader performance. To reduce the radiation dose in this approach, synthetic mammogram has been developed in previous researches and it is demonstrated that synthetic mammogram can alternate the FFDM when it is used with DBT. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of the combined approach of DBT and synthetic mammogram in point of computer-aided detection (CAD). As a synthetic mammogram, two-dimensional image was generated by adopting conspicuous voxels of three-dimensional DBT volume in our study. The mass likelihood scores estimated for each mass candidates in synthetic mammogram and DBT are merged to differentiate masses and false positives (FPs) in combined approach. We compared the performance of detecting masses in the proposed combined approach and DBT alone. A clinical data set of 196 DBT volumes was used to evaluate the different detection schemes. The combined approach achieved sensitivity of 80% and 89% with 1.16 and 2.37 FPs per DBT volume. The DBT alone approach achieved same sensitivities with 1.61 and 3.46 FPs per DBT volume. Experimental results show that statistically significant improvement (p = 0.002) is achieved in combined approach compared to DBT alone. These results imply that the information fusion of synthetic mammogram and DBT is a promising approach to detect masses in DBT.

  8. 20 Years of hypertension research using genetically modified animals: no clinically promising approaches in sight.

    PubMed

    Stingl, Lavinia; Völkel, Manfred; Lindl, Toni

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of essential or primary hypertension is increasing, especially in the northern hemisphere, but although the disease displays clear symptoms, its aetiology appears very complex, and thus no causal treatment is available yet. In the 1990's, genetically modified animals (GMO) were considered to be the key to solving this problem of high complexity. However, until now, although a few approaches have shown that old, well-known drugs have a positive effect (decrease of blood pressure) on such animal models of hypertension, no approach has appeared in the literature of this area of research which might indicate a direct connection between GMO and a therapeutic strategy to treat or prevent this type of hypertension in humans. Instead, criticism of the GMO approach has accumulated in the last years, arguing that it is misleading as this disease does not have a monogenic cause and so complementary regulatory mechanisms could prevent the true identification of the function of the modified genes. Furthermore, the technology is best developed in mice, whose physiology of blood pressure is different from that of humans. Because of species specificity, it is not easy to extrapolate the results from animal models of hypertension to human hypertension. Also, in the years 2000 to 2004 a reorientation of the technology and the aims of this kind of research took place. Therefore, although these approaches are without exception deemed "very promising" in the literature, it cannot be expected that research on GMO will make any contribution to a new therapeutic strategy in the near future.

  9. Extravascular use of drug-eluting beads: A promising approach in compartment-based tumor therapy

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Simon; Lewis, Andrew L; Löhr, J-Matthias; Keese, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Intraperitoneal carcinomatosis (PC) may occur with several tumor entities. The prognosis of patients suffering from PC is usually poor. Present treatment depends on the cancer entity and includes systemic chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy and surgical resection. Only few patients may also benefit from hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy with a complete tumor remission. These therapies are often accompanied by severe systemic side-effects. One approach to reduce side effects is to target chemotherapeutic agents to the tumor with carrier devices. Promising experimental results have been achieved using drug-eluting beads (DEBs). A series of in vitro and in vitro experiments has been conducted to determine the suitability of their extravascular use. These encapsulation devices were able to harbor CYP2B1 producing cells and to shield them from the hosts immune system when injected intratumorally. In this way ifosfamide - which is transformed into its active metabolites by CYP2B1 - could be successfully targeted into pancreatic tumor growths. Furthermore DEBs can be used to target chemotherapeutics into the abdominal cavity for treatment of PC. If CYP2B1 producing cells are proven to be save for usage in man and if local toxic effects of chemotherapeutics can be controlled, DEBs will become promising tools in compartment-based anticancer treatment. PMID:24282349

  10. Chelation technology: a promising green approach for resource management and waste minimization.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Garima; Pant, K K; Nigam, K D P

    2015-01-01

    Green chemical engineering recognises the concept of developing innovative environmentally benign technologies to protect human health and ecosystems. In order to explore this concept for minimizing industrial waste and for reducing the environmental impact of hazardous chemicals, new greener approaches need to be adopted for the extraction of heavy metals from industrial waste. In this review, a range of conventional processes and new green approaches employed for metal extraction are discussed in brief. Chelation technology, a modern research trend, has shown its potential to develop sustainable technology for metal extraction from various metal-contaminated sites. However, the interaction mechanism of ligands with metals and the ecotoxicological risk associated with the increased bioavailability of heavy metals due to the formation of metal-chelant complexes is still not sufficiently explicated in the literature. Therefore, a need was felt to provide a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of all aspects associated with chelation technology to promote this process as a green chemical engineering approach. This article elucidates the mechanism and thermodynamics associated with metal-ligand complexation in order to have a better understanding of the metal extraction process. The effects of various process parameters on the formation and stability of complexes have been elaborately discussed with respect to optimizing the chelation efficiency. The non-biodegradable attribute of ligands is another important aspect which is currently of concern. Therefore, biotechnological approaches and computational tools have been assessed in this review to illustrate the possibility of ligand degradation, which will help the readers to look for new environmentally safe mobilizing agents. In addition, emerging trends and opportunities in the field of chelation technology have been summarized and the diverse applicability of chelation technology in metal extraction from

  11. Paclitaxel-Coated Balloons: Review of a Promising Interventional Approach to Preventing Restenosis in Femoropopliteal Arteries.

    PubMed

    Teleb, Mohamed; Wardi, Miraie; Gosavi, Sucheta; Said, Sarmad; Mukherjee, Debabrata

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD), a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, is characterized by intermittent claudication and is associated with chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. The goal of treatment is to address the underlying cause and to modify risk factors. Although medical management is the first-line treatment of PAD, some individuals may have severe symptoms and require revascularization with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with or without stent placement or surgery. Interventional approaches may, however, be associated with high prevalence of restenosis and subsequent complications such as critical limb ischemia and amputation. Drug-eluting balloons (DEBs) are a new interventional technology with the primary goal of preventing restenosis. We review the clinical trials and studies that assessed the efficacy and safety profile of DEB and will focus on the restenosis rate in femoropopliteal arteries including target lesion revascularization (TLR) and late lumen lesion (LLL) using different modalities of intervention such as stents and DEB. Average data collected from the trials reported included restenosis rate of 25%, 0.3 mm LLL, and 14% reduction in TLR with DEB versus uncoated balloons. Below the knee (BTK) only intervention studies were excluded from this review as endovascular approach is usually reserved for critical limb ischemia for BTK disease. Interventional approach to treat PAD with DEB appears to be a promising technology. Additional larger studies are needed to further define safety, efficacy, and longer term outcome with this novel technology.

  12. Sustainable Financing of Innovative Therapies: A Review of Approaches.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Aidan

    2016-10-01

    The process of innovation is inherently complex, and it occurs within an even more complex institutional environment characterized by incomplete information, market power, and externalities. There are therefore different competing approaches to supporting and financing innovation in medical technologies, which bring their own advantages and disadvantages. This article reviews value- and cost-based pricing, as well direct government funding, and cross-cutting institutional structures. It argues that performance-based risk-sharing agreements are likely to have little effect on the sustainability of financing; that there is a role for cost-based pricing models in some situations; and that the push towards longer exclusivity periods is likely contrary to the interests of industry. PMID:27251182

  13. Sustainable Financing of Innovative Therapies: A Review of Approaches.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Aidan

    2016-10-01

    The process of innovation is inherently complex, and it occurs within an even more complex institutional environment characterized by incomplete information, market power, and externalities. There are therefore different competing approaches to supporting and financing innovation in medical technologies, which bring their own advantages and disadvantages. This article reviews value- and cost-based pricing, as well direct government funding, and cross-cutting institutional structures. It argues that performance-based risk-sharing agreements are likely to have little effect on the sustainability of financing; that there is a role for cost-based pricing models in some situations; and that the push towards longer exclusivity periods is likely contrary to the interests of industry.

  14. Course Management Systems and Blended Learning: An Innovative Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Amy Y.; Chou, David C.

    2011-01-01

    This article utilizes Rogers' innovation-decision process model (2003) and Beckman and Berry's innovation process model (2007) to create an innovative learning map that illustrates three learning methods (i.e., face-to-face learning, online learning, and blended learning) in two types of innovation (i.e., incremental innovation and radical…

  15. An innovative approach to treating combat veterans with PTSD at risk for suicide.

    PubMed

    Hendin, Herbert

    2014-10-01

    Suicide rates among military personnel had a significant drop in 2013, but there is no evidence of a drop among veterans. The problem of suicide among combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains a source of concern. The Department of Defense and the Department of Veterans Affairs are now calling for innovative treatment approaches to the problem. A short-term psychodynamic therapy presented here may be able to fill that need by dissipating the guilt from veterans' combat-related actions that leads to suicidal behavior. The treatment showed promise of success with veterans of the war in Vietnam. Preliminary work with combat veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan indicates that it may be equally successful in treating them. Basic aspects of the psychodynamic approach could be incorporated into current therapies and should improve their ability to treat veterans with PTSD at risk for suicide. PMID:25306917

  16. Acupuncture Points Stimulation for Meniere's Disease/Syndrome: A Promising Therapeutic Approach

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiaojun; Jiang, Liyuan; Peng, Tianqiang; Xia, Meixia

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study aims to explore evidence for acupuncture points stimulation (APS) in treatment of Meniere's disease (MD). Method. A literature search was conducted in seven databases including EMBASE, Medline, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CBM, CNKI, and WangFang database and the data analysis was performed by using the RevMan version 5.3. Results. 12 RCTs with 993 participants were acquired after the search. The quality of most eligible studies was very low which limited the value of the meta-analysis. Compared with western medicine comprehensive treatment (WMCT), the APS alone or in combination with WMCT had a significant positive effect in controlling vertigo; however, the result was negative in hearing improvement and DHI. No adverse events were reported in the studies. Conclusion. The APS might be a promising therapeutic approach for MD. However, the currently available evidence is insufficient to make a definitive conclusion for the poor quality of included studies. More high-quality researches with larger sample size are urgently needed to assess the effectiveness and safety. PMID:27547229

  17. A promising approach to conductive patterns with high efficiency for flexible electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Yan-Long; Yang, Zhen-Guo; Li, Zhi-Dong

    2011-06-01

    A promising approach for conductive patterns with high efficiency for flexible electronics was developed by direct-writing, silver(I) solution (silver nitrate, acetate silver, etc.) with no solid particles as a conductive ink, conductive pen as a writing implement, and polyimide (PI) film as a substrate. The physical properties of the conductive ink were investigated by a dynamic contact angle system, ubbelohde viscometer and surface tension instrument. Conductive properties of silver ink film were investigated by 4-point probe, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and surface profilometer. It is demonstrated how the design of solvent composition in conductive ink affects surface morphology, and conductivity of silver ink films. It can be obtained that conductive patterns drawn on PI substrate not only have good mechanical/electrical fatigue properties, but also have low resistivity. Especially, when the sintering condition is 200 °C for 60 min, the resistivity can be down to 6.6 μΩ cm, 4.25 times the silver bulk resistivity.

  18. Research Ethics Education in the STEM Disciplines: The Promises and Challenges of a Gaming Approach.

    PubMed

    Briggle, Adam; Holbrook, J Britt; Oppong, Joseph; Hoffmann, Joesph; Larsen, Elizabeth K; Pluscht, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    While education in ethics and the responsible conduct of research (RCR) is widely acknowledged as an essential component of graduate education, particularly in the STEM disciplines (science, technology, engineering, and math), little consensus exists on how best to accomplish this goal. Recent years have witnessed a turn toward the use of games in this context. Drawing from two NSF-funded grants (one completed and one on-going), this paper takes a critical look at the use of games in ethics and RCR education. It does so by: (a) setting the development of research and engineering ethics games in wider historical and theoretical contexts, which highlights their promise to solve important pedagogical problems; (b) reporting on some initial results from our own efforts to develop a game; and (c) reflecting on the challenges that arise in using games for ethics education. In our discussion of the challenges, we draw out lessons to improve this nascent approach to ethics education in the STEM disciplines .

  19. A New Insight of Herbal Promises Against Ocular Disorders: An Occuloinformatics Approach.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Prachi; Tiwari, Anshul

    2016-01-01

    Ocular biology is a prominent area of research and advancement, as eyes are the most precious for us to see this beautiful world. Though we have overcome many ocular problems, but still challenges, no doubt exist in the path of the journey. Many ocular disorders still either have surgery or symptomatic drugs as a treatment. If we could get a better preventive way or single drug with many and more potential effects, will definitely be a boon for our society. Keeping the way we tried to focus on the impending effects of phytochemicals on some important ocular disorders. Our study promised with virtual screening based on important insilico protocols that can be a landmark for better futuristic approach towards novel drug development. As a selection Eales' Disease, Diabetic Retinopathy, Uveitis, Age related Macular Disorder, CRVO were taken. Causative Protein identification is the basic of study and further advance Insilico approaches were based on this target in respective disorders. Retinol Binding protein-3 and Retinal S antigen protein in case of Eales, Erythropoietin in the case of Diabetic Retinopathy, Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein-2 in case of Uveitis, Hemicentin-1 in case of Age related Macular Disorder, Coagulation Factor-V in case of CRVO were identified. Insilico characterization, Secondary and Tertiary structure prediction makes the study more prominent towards virtual screening. Virtual Screening was based on the parameters of docking, which reflects the potentiality of Ginkgolide, D-pinitol, Gugglesterones, Berberine and Curcumin herbal molecules against above mentioned ocular disorders respectively. Study signifies about the spectacular vision of herbal uses just to limit the vast side effects of synthetic chemicals used as ocular drugs. PMID:26286213

  20. Spinning the Innovation and Entrepreneurship Mindset: A Modern Physics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roughani, Bahram

    2010-04-01

    Topics in Modern Physics course from relativity to quantum mechanics were examined in the context of innovation as part of the recent Kettering University program on ``Entrepreneurship Across Curriculum-EAC.'' The main goals were (a) to introduce innovation and entrepreneurship without eliminating any topics from this course, (b) to use EAC as a vehicle for intentional education that produces graduates with innovative mindsets, (c) to enrich the students learning experience aligned with the desired educational outcomes, and (d) to highlight the impact of scientific innovation in the society, while encouraging students to re-think how entrepreneurship mindset could maximize their impact in the society through innovation. Ideas such as principles behind innovation and innovative ideas, disciplines of innovations, formation of innovation teams, and effective methods for analyzing innovative value propositions were introduced in this course. Most of the implementation were achieved through out of class activities, and communicated through in class presentations, papers or weekly laboratory reports.

  1. The insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 is a promising target for novel treatment approaches in neuroendocrine gastrointestinal tumours.

    PubMed

    Höpfner, Michael; Baradari, Viola; Huether, Alexander; Schöfl, Christof; Scherübl, Hans

    2006-03-01

    Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours (NET) represent a heterogeneous tumour entity. The anti-neoplastic therapy of advanced NET disease is still unsatisfactory and innovative therapeutic approaches are needed. As NET frequently express insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their receptors (IGFR), known to promote survival, oncogenic transformation, tumour growth and spreading, the inhibition of the IGF/IGF-receptor system may offer possibilities for novel targeted treatment strategies of NET. Here, we studied the anti-neoplastic effects of an inhibition of the IGF-I receptor (IGF-1R) signalling in NET cells by the novel IGF-1R tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitor NVP-AEW541, whose anti-neoplastic potency has not yet been tested in NET disease. Using two human NET cell lines with different growth characteristics, we demonstrated that NVP-AEW541 dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of NET cells by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Anti-neoplastic effects of NVP-AEW541 were also detected in primary cultures of human neuroendocrine gastrointestinal tumours. Apoptosis was characterized by activation of the apoptotic key enzyme, caspase-3, as well as by detection of changes in the expression of the pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins, BAX and Bcl-2, after NVP-AEW541 treatment. Cell cycle was arrested at the G1/S checkpoint. The anti-neoplastic effects of NVP-AEW541 involved the inactivation of ERK1/2. Induction of immediate cytotoxicity did not account for the anti-neoplastic effects of NVP-AEW541, as shown by measurement of lactate dehydrogenase release. Moreover, additive anti-neoplastic effects were observed when NVP-AEW541 was combined with cytostatics such as doxorubicin or the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor, fluvastatin. This is the first report on the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by the IGF-1R-TK inhibitor, NVP-AEW541, in NET cells. The inhibition of the IGF/IGFR system appears to be a promising novel approach

  2. Communication of Innovations; A Cross-Cultural Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Everett M.; Shoemaker, F. Floyd

    How do innovations (defined as idea, products, and practices perceived as new by an individual) diffuse to members of a social system? The authors answer this and other questions about the character of innovators, the rate of adoption of ideas, and the decision-making process in 103 generalizations about diffusion of innovation. These propositions…

  3. Family-Based Treatment for Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa: A Promising Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grange, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Despite the fact that anorexia nervosa is a debilitating disorder with serious psychological and medical sequelae, few psychological treatments have been studied. Of these, interventions that involve the parents of the adolescent have proved to be most promising. This is especially true for those cases with a short duration of illness (less than 3…

  4. The Promise Clinic: a service learning approach to increasing access to health care.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Manuel; Tan-Billet, Jennifer; Babineau, John; Jimenez, Jennifer Endres; Billet, Todd; Flash, Charlene; Levin, Steven; West, Bernadette; Tallia, Alfred

    2008-08-01

    The goal of the Promise Clinic (a project of an academic medical center and a local social services group) is to increase access to primary care for an underserved population while addressing deficiencies in medical education. Students manage common primary care problems, creating access for this mostly uninsured population.

  5. Innovative approaches of clinical photodynamic therapy combined with immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zheng

    2006-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved new treatment modality. It has been used for treatment of non-malignant and malignant diseases. Over the last decade its clinical application has gained increasing acceptance around the world after regulatory approvals. PDT offers various treatment options in cancer management and has been used primarily for localized superficial or endoluminal malignant and premalignant conditions. Recently, its application has also been expanded to solid tumors. However, its efficacy for the treatment of malignant tumors remains debatable and its acceptance still variable. Pre-clinical studies demonstrate that, in addition to the direct local cytotoxicity, PDT can induce host immune responses, which may further enhance the therapeutic effects on primary tumor as well as metastasis. Therefore, PDT-induced antitumor immune response might play an important role in successful control of malignant diseases. Furthermore, the antitumor efficacy of PDT might also be enhanced through an effective immunoadjuvant to further expand its usefulness for a possible control of distant metastases. Recent clinical data also indicate that improved clinical outcomes are seen in the combination of PDT and immunomodulation therapy for non-malignant disease. This review will summarize recent progress in developing innovative approaches of PDT combined with immunotherapy for non-malignant and malignant diseases.

  6. Synergism in education: An innovative approach to practice teaching supervision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mereni, Joseph Ibewuike

    1985-12-01

    The problem of effective teacher education is central to the pressing needs of Nigerian education at all levels. Scholars have identified many of them, including the general problems relating to the supervision, guidance, and evaluation of student-practice teaching. The purpose of this essay is briefly to describe an innovative approach undertaken by the Imo State School Board (Nigeria), in collaboration with the Ministry of Education, to resolve some of the problems identified. The underlying assumption is that the student teachers' internship is best conducted with closer collaboration, supervision, and guidance of the teachers. The study employed a theoretical framework synergism in education which integrated earlier studies by both American and Nigerian scholars. The concept of synergism has been defined as the combined healthy action of all `elements' of a system. Application of the theory showed how the State Ministry of Education, the State School Board, the Teacher Training Colleges and the Nigeria Union of Teachers of Imo State collectively resolved in 1980 the problems of inadequate supervisory personnel, high cost of student-teaching internship, and poor student assessment and evaluation. With the synergetic supervisory process, the functions of planning, changing, and decision-making about instructional improvement are shared, with a certain degree of power equalization, among the student teachers, supervisors, co-operating teachers, and the school executives.

  7. Defining Innovation: Using Soft Systems Methodology to Approach the Complexity of Innovation in Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Glenda

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores what educational technologists in one South African Institution consider innovation to be. Ten educational technologists in various faculties across the university were interviewed and asked to define and answer questions about innovation. Their answers were coded and the results of the overlaps in coding have been assimilated…

  8. An ECD Approach to Designing for Reusability in Innovative Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, David M.; Bauer, Malcolm; Mislevy, Robert J.; Behrens, John T.

    The current pace of technological advance has provided an unprecedented opportunity to use innovative simulated tasks in computerized assessment. A primary challenge for the successful use of innovation in assessment rests with the application of sound principles of design to produce a valid assessment. An additional challenge is to maximize the…

  9. Cathepsin K inhibitors: a novel target but promising approach in the treatment of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Helali, Asadul Mazid; Iti, Farhana Matin; Mohamed, Isa Naina

    2013-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a pathologic process characterized by low bone mass with skeletal fragility and an increased risk of fracture. It occurs due to an imbalance between bone resorption and formation. Although current antiresorptive therapy halts bone loss, it does not cure the condition as it also inhibits bone formation. Recent preclinical and clinical trials suggest that the inhibition of resorption by cathepsin K inhibitors increases bone formation. Cathepsin K is a papainlike cysteine protease with high potent collagenase activity and predominantly expressed in osteoclasts. While allowing demineralization, cathepsin K inhibitors suppress the degradation of type I collagen (the major organic matrix of bone) and thus enhancing bone formation. Many of these inhibitors have passed preclinical studies and are presently in clinical trials at different stages of advancement. This review explores the promising role of cathepsin K as a novel antiresorptive for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  10. Innovative design approaches for large wind turbine blades : final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-05-01

    The goal of the Blade System Design Study (BSDS) was investigation and evaluation of design and manufacturing issues for wind turbine blades in the one to ten megawatt size range. A series of analysis tasks were completed in support of the design effort. We began with a parametric scaling study to assess blade structure using current technology. This was followed by an economic study of the cost to manufacture, transport and install large blades. Subsequently we identified several innovative design approaches that showed potential for overcoming fundamental physical and manufacturing constraints. The final stage of the project was used to develop several preliminary 50m blade designs. The key design impacts identified in this study are: (1) blade cross-sections, (2) alternative materials, (3) IEC design class, and (4) root attachment. The results show that thick blade cross-sections can provide a large reduction in blade weight, while maintaining high aerodynamic performance. Increasing blade thickness for inboard sections is a key method for improving structural efficiency and reducing blade weight. Carbon/glass hybrid blades were found to provide good improvements in blade weight, stiffness, and deflection when used in the main structural elements of the blade. The addition of carbon resulted in modest cost increases and provided significant benefits, particularly with respect to deflection. The change in design loads between IEC classes is quite significant. Optimized blades should be designed for each IEC design class. A significant portion of blade weight is related to the root buildup and metal hardware for typical root attachment designs. The results show that increasing the number of blade fasteners has a positive effect on total weight, because it reduces the required root laminate thickness.

  11. Neuraminidase inhibitor R-125489 - A promising drug for treating influenza virus: Steered molecular dynamics approach

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, Binh Khanh; Li, Mai Suan

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We study binding affinity of R-125489 and its prodrug CS-8958 to neuraminidase of pathogenic influenza viruses by molecular dynamics simulations. {yields} It is shown that, in agreement with experiments, R-125489 binds to neuraminidase more tightly than CS-8958. {yields} We predict that R-125489 can be used to treat not only wild-type but also tamiflu-resistant N294S, H274Y variants of A/H5N1 virus. {yields} The high correlation between theoretical and experimental data implies that SMD is a very promising tool for drug design. -- Abstract: Two neuraminidase inhibitors, oseltamivir and zanamivir, are important drug treatments for influenza. Oseltamivir-resistant mutants of the influenza virus A/H1N1 and A/H5N1 have emerged, necessitating the development of new long-acting antiviral agents. One such agent is a new neuraminidase inhibitor R-125489 and its prodrug CS-8958. An atomic level understanding of the nature of this antiviral agents binding is still missing. We address this gap in our knowledge by applying steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations to different subtypes of seasonal and highly pathogenic influenza viruses. We show that, in agreement with experiments, R-125489 binds to neuraminidase more tightly than CS-8958. Based on results obtained by SMD and the molecular mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann surface area method, we predict that R-125489 can be used to treat not only wild-type but also tamiflu-resistant N294S, H274Y variants of A/H5N1 virus as its binding affinity does not vary much across these systems. The high correlation level between theoretically determined rupture forces and experimental data on binding energies for the large number of systems studied here implies that SMD is a promising tool for drug design.

  12. INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    North Carolina Central University (NCCU) recently began an innovative human exposure research program in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory in Research Triangle Park, NC. In this project, researchers will examine ...

  13. Promise for Enhancing Children's Reading Attitudes through Peer Reading: A Mixed Method Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Youngju

    2014-01-01

    Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) was implemented for supplementary reading classes in a Korean elementary school. The treatment group children were exposed to PALS during 20 min sessions, 4 times a week, for 8 weeks. The impacts of PALS were investigated in 3 aspects using a mixed-methods approach: improvement in reading attitudes, reading…

  14. A Promising Approach to Addressing America's Biggest Challenges. Needle-Moving Community Collaboratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolin, Michele; Schmitz, Paul; Seldon, Willa

    2012-01-01

    Communities face powerful challenges--a high-school dropout epidemic, youth unemployment, teen pregnancy--that require powerful solutions. In a climate of increasingly constrained resources, those solutions must help communities to achieve more with less. A new kind of community collaborative--an approach that aspires to significant,…

  15. Reducing Drug Use in America: A Perspective, A Strategy, and Some Promising Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.

    After a brief overview of the size and nature of illicit drug use observed among American adolescents and young adults over the past 20 years, this paper argues that the nation's reliance on supply reduction as its primary strategy for controlling drug abuse has been unsuccessful. Of the two approaches to demand reduction--coercive techniques…

  16. The Promise of Dynamic Systems Approaches for an Integrated Account of Human Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Marc D.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that dynamic systems approaches may provide an explanatory framework based on general scientific principles for developmental psychology, using principles of self-organization to explain how novel forms emerge without predetermination and become increasingly complex with development. Contends that self-organization provides a single…

  17. The Promise of a Community-Based, Participatory Approach to Service-Learning in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinkler, Alan; Tinkler, Barri; Gerstl-Pepin, Cynthia; Mugisha, Vincent M.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on how one teacher education program utilized a Learn and Serve America grant to embed service-learning experiences into its practices. Included are narrative reflections on how the program faculty developed a community-based, participatory approach to service-learning in order to act as a responsive partner to the needs of…

  18. Microalgal biofactories: a promising approach towards sustainable omega-3 fatty acid production

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) provide significant health benefits and this has led to an increased consumption as dietary supplements. Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA are found in animals, transgenic plants, fungi and many microorganisms but are typically extracted from fatty fish, putting additional pressures on global fish stocks. As primary producers, many marine microalgae are rich in EPA (C20:5) and DHA (C22:6) and present a promising source of omega-3 fatty acids. Several heterotrophic microalgae have been used as biofactories for omega-3 fatty acids commercially, but a strong interest in autotrophic microalgae has emerged in recent years as microalgae are being developed as biofuel crops. This paper provides an overview of microalgal biotechnology and production platforms for the development of omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. It refers to implications in current biotechnological uses of microalgae as aquaculture feed and future biofuel crops and explores potential applications of metabolic engineering and selective breeding to accumulate large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids in autotrophic microalgae. PMID:22830315

  19. shRNA-armed conditionally replicative adenoviruses: a promising approach for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Ding, Meng; Xu, Kai; Mao, Lijun; Zheng, Junian

    2016-01-01

    The small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been employed to knockdown the expression of cancer-associated genes and shown some promise in cancer therapy. However, synthetic siRNA duplexes or plasmid mediated delivery of siRNAs have several problems, such as short half-life, low transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity associated with transfection. Conditionally replicating adenovirus (CRAds) as the delivery vector for short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) could overcome these limitations and have shown augmented anti-tumor effects in experimental studies and preclinical trials. In this review, we summarize recent progress in the development of CRAds-shRNA for cancer treatment. Combination of CRAds-shRNA with chemotherapeutics, radiation, dendritic cells, monoclonal antibodies and small-molecule inhibitors will be necessary to eradicate cancer cells and cancer stem cells and achieve superior outcomes. The use of CRAd platform for efficient delivery of shRNAs and foreign genes will open a new avenue for cancer therapy. PMID:26980708

  20. Combination of acamprosate and baclofen as a promising therapeutic approach for Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Hajj, Rodolphe; Milet, Aude; Toulorge, Damien; Cholet, Nathalie; Laffaire, Julien; Foucquier, Julie; Robelet, Sandra; Mitry, Richard; Guedj, Mickael; Nabirotchkin, Serguei; Chumakov, Ilya; Cohen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterised by the loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons but which involves the loss of additional neurotransmitter pathways. Mono- or polytherapeutic interventions in PD patients have declining efficacy long-term and no influence on disease progression. The systematic analysis of available genetic and functional data as well as the substantial overlap between Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and PD features led us to repurpose and explore the effectiveness of a combination therapy (ABC) with two drugs – acamprosate and baclofen – that was already effective in AD animal models, for the treatment of PD. We showed in vitro that ABC strongly and synergistically protected neuronal cells from oxidative stress in the oxygen and glucose deprivation model, as well as dopaminergic neurons from cell death in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model. Furthermore, we showed that ABC normalised altered motor symptoms in vivo in 6-OHDA-treated rats, acting by protecting dopaminergic cell bodies and their striatal terminals. Interestingly, ABC also restored a normal behaviour pattern in lesioned rats suggesting a symptomatic effect, and did not negatively interact with L-dopa. Our results demonstrate the potential value of combining repurposed drugs as a promising new strategy to treat this debilitating disease. PMID:26542636

  1. The promise of translational and personalised approaches for paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea: an 'Omics' perspective.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hui-Leng; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Gozal, David

    2014-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) can result in significant morbidities including the cardiovascular, metabolic and neurocognitive systems. These effects are purportedly mediated via activation of inflammatory cascades and the induction of oxidative stress, ultimately resulting in cellular injury and dysfunction. While great advances have been made in sleep medicine research in the past decades, there are still wide gaps in our knowledge concerning the exact underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of OSA and consequences. Without resolving these issues, the reasons why patients with a similar severity of OSA can have markedly different clinical presentation and end-organ morbidity, that is, phenotype, will continue to remain elusive. This review aims to highlight the recent exciting discoveries in genotype-phenotype interactions, epigenetics, genomics and proteomics related to OSA. Just as PCR revolutionised the field of genetics, the potential power of 'Omics' promises to transform the field of sleep medicine, and provide critical insights into the downstream pathological cascades inherent to OSA, thereby enabling personalised diagnosis and management for this highly prevalent sleep disorder.

  2. A multidisciplinary combinatorial approach for tuning promising hydrogen storage materials towards automotive applications.

    PubMed

    Amieiro-Fonseca, A; Ellis, S R; Nuttall, C J; Hayden, B E; Guerin, S; Purdy, G; Soulié, J P; Callear, S K; Culligan, S D; David, W I F; Edwards, P P; Jones, M O; Johnson, S R; Pohl, A H

    2011-01-01

    HyStorM is a multidisciplinary hydrogen-storage project aiming to synthesise and tune materials hydrogen storage properties for automotive applications. Firstly, unique high-throughput combinatorial thin-film technologies are used to screen materials' hydrogen storage properties. Then promising thin-film candidate compositions are synthesised and examined in the bulk. In this paper, we report on our results within the ternary compositions Mg-Ti-B and Ca-Ti-B. Primary screening of the Mg-Ti-B ternary identified a high capacity hotspot corresponding to Mg0.36Ti0.06B0.58, with 10.6 wt% H2 capacity. Partial reversibility has been observed for this material in the thin-film. Bulk Ti-doped Mg(BH4)2 composites show rehydrogenation to MgH2 under the conditions used. The synthesised thin-film Ca-Ti-B ternary showed only low hydrogen storage capacities. In the bulk, Ti-doping experiments on Ca(BH4)2 demonstrated reversible storage capacities up to 5.9 wt% H2. Further characterisation experiments are required to decipher the role of the Ti-dopant in these systems in both films and in the bulk.

  3. Personal Leadership in Practice: A Critical Approach to Instructional Design Innovation Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbaugh, Marcia L.

    2013-01-01

    An argument is made in this article for a link between leadership and innovation, when innovation is an outcome of the work approaches and practices that underpin an educational technologist's academic course designs. The practice of instructional design (ID) is continually being challenged to rethink its conceptualization of academic course…

  4. New Ways To Buy: School Districts Explore Innovative Approaches to Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Tak Cheung

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 145 schools found that all had experimented with innovative purchasing approaches. Many used electronic methods, such as credit-card, fast-track requisition (most popular), bidding and purchasing, and data interchange. Results suggest that nonelectronic innovations (just-in-time, cooperative, direct, and consortium leverage purchasing)…

  5. Innovative Approaches for Urban Watershed Wet-Weather Flow Management and Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    The “Innovative Approaches for Urban Watershed Wet-Weather Flow Management and Control: State of the Technology” project investigated a range of innovative technology and management strategies emerging outside the normal realm of business within the continental United States, fo...

  6. Catalysts as sensors--a promising novel approach in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment.

    PubMed

    Moos, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Sensors that detect directly and in situ the status of automotive exhaust gas catalysts by monitoring the electrical properties of the catalyst coating itself are overviewed. Examples included in this review are the in-situ determination of the electrical impedance of three-way catalysts based on ceria-zirconia solutions and of lean NO(x) traps of earth-alkaline based coatings, as well as approaches to determine the ammonia loading in Fe-SCR-zeolites with electrical ac measurements. Even more sophisticated approaches based on interactions with electromagnetic waves are also reviewed. For that purpose, metallic stick-like antennas are inserted into the exhaust pipe. The catalyst properties are measured in a contactless manner, directly indicating the catalyst status. The radio frequency probes gauge the oxygen loading degree of three-way catalysts, the NO(x)-loading of lean NO(x) traps, and the soot loading of Diesel particulate filters. PMID:22163575

  7. Community-based participatory research: understanding a promising approach to addressing knowledge gaps in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Riffin, Catherine; Kenien, Cara; Ghesquiere, Angela; Dorime, Ashley; Villanueva, Carolina; Gardner, Daniel; Callahan, Jean; Capezuti, Elizabeth; Reid, M Carrington

    2016-07-01

    Concern over the need for effective and accessible healthcare for individuals with advanced chronic illness has drawn attention to the significant gaps in our knowledge of palliative medicine. To advance our understanding of this field, community-based participatory research (CBPR) is proposed as a tool for future research initiatives. This paper offers a rationale for how CBPR may be employed to address specific gaps in palliative care research. Several examples where this approach has been used previously are described, and potential obstacles to implementing this research method are delineated. Despite challenges to incorporating CBPR to palliative care research, this approach holds substantial potential to advance our current understanding of the field and promote sensitivity for future programs, practices and policies. PMID:27481321

  8. Catalysts as Sensors—A Promising Novel Approach in Automotive Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment

    PubMed Central

    Moos, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Sensors that detect directly and in situ the status of automotive exhaust gas catalysts by monitoring the electrical properties of the catalyst coating itself are overviewed. Examples included in this review are the in-situ determination of the electrical impedance of three-way catalysts based on ceria-zirconia solutions and of lean NOx traps of earth-alkaline based coatings, as well as approaches to determine the ammonia loading in Fe-SCR-zeolites with electrical ac measurements. Even more sophisticated approaches based on interactions with electromagnetic waves are also reviewed. For that purpose, metallic stick-like antennas are inserted into the exhaust pipe. The catalyst properties are measured in a contactless manner, directly indicating the catalyst status. The radio frequency probes gauge the oxygen loading degree of three-way catalysts, the NOx-loading of lean NOx traps, and the soot loading of Diesel particulate filters. PMID:22163575

  9. Catalysts as sensors--a promising novel approach in automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment.

    PubMed

    Moos, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Sensors that detect directly and in situ the status of automotive exhaust gas catalysts by monitoring the electrical properties of the catalyst coating itself are overviewed. Examples included in this review are the in-situ determination of the electrical impedance of three-way catalysts based on ceria-zirconia solutions and of lean NO(x) traps of earth-alkaline based coatings, as well as approaches to determine the ammonia loading in Fe-SCR-zeolites with electrical ac measurements. Even more sophisticated approaches based on interactions with electromagnetic waves are also reviewed. For that purpose, metallic stick-like antennas are inserted into the exhaust pipe. The catalyst properties are measured in a contactless manner, directly indicating the catalyst status. The radio frequency probes gauge the oxygen loading degree of three-way catalysts, the NO(x)-loading of lean NO(x) traps, and the soot loading of Diesel particulate filters.

  10. Evaluation of promising technologies for soil salinity amelioration in Timpaki (Crete): a participatory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagea, I. S.; Daliakopoulos, I. N.; Tsanis, I. K.; Schwilch, G.

    2016-02-01

    Soil salinity management can be complex, expensive, and time demanding, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Besides taking no action, possible management strategies include amelioration and adaptation measures. Here we apply the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT) framework for the systematic analysis and evaluation and selection of soil salinisation amelioration technologies in close collaboration with stakeholders. The participatory approach is applied in the RECARE (Preventing and Remediating degradation of soils in Europe through Land Care) project case study of Timpaki, a semi-arid region in south-central Crete (Greece) where the main land use is horticulture in greenhouses irrigated by groundwater. Excessive groundwater abstractions have resulted in a drop of the groundwater level in the coastal part of the aquifer, thus leading to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinisation. The documented technologies are evaluated for their impacts on ecosystem services, cost, and input requirements using a participatory approach and field evaluations. Results show that technologies which promote maintaining existing crop types while enhancing productivity and decreasing soil salinity are preferred by the stakeholders. The evaluation concludes that rainwater harvesting is the optimal solution for direct soil salinity mitigation, as it addresses a wider range of ecosystem and human well-being benefits. Nevertheless, this merit is offset by poor financial motivation making agronomic measures more attractive to users.

  11. Ramipril and haloperidol as promising approaches in managing rheumatoid arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Fahmy Wahba, Mariam Gamal; Shehata Messiha, Basim Anwar; Abo-Saif, Ali Ahmed

    2015-10-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a challenging autoimmune disorder, whose treatments usually cause severe gastrointestinal, renal and other complications. We aimed to evaluate the beneficial anti-arthritic effects of an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, ramipril and a dopamine receptor blocker, haloperidol, on Complete Freund's Adjuvant-induced RA in adult female albino rats. Rats were allocated into a normal control group, an arthritis control group, two reference treatment groups receiving dexamethasone (1.5 mg/kg/day) and methotrexate (1 mg/kg/day), and two treatment groups receiving ramipril (0.9 mg/kg/day) and haloperidol (1 mg/kg/day). Serum rheumatoid factor, matrix metalloprotinease-3 (MMP-3) and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein as specific rheumatoid biomarkers, serum immunoglobulin G and antinuclear antibody as immunological biomarkers, serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) as immunomodulatory cytokines, serum myeloperoxidase and C-reactive protein as inflammatory biomarkers, as well as malondialdehyde and glutathione reduced (GSH) as oxidative stress biomarkers were assessed. A histopathological study on joints and spleens was performed to support the results of biochemical estimations. Ramipril administration significantly corrected all the measured biomarkers, being restored back to normal levels except for MMP-3, TNF-α and IL-10. Haloperidol administration restored all the measured biomarkers back to normal levels except for TNF-α, IL-10 and GSH. In conclusion, ACE inhibitors represented by ramipril and dopamine receptor blockers represented by haloperidol may represent new promising protective strategies against RA, at least owing to their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials.

  12. Research methodology: an innovative approach to a venerable course.

    PubMed

    Morrel-Samuels, Palmer; Zimmerman, Marc

    2010-12-01

    This paper outlines a number of innovations that we have recently implemented in the Research Methodology Course at the University of Michigan's School of Public Health. Consistent with the goals of evidence-based medicine, evidence-based public health, intrinsic motivation, and phase 4 (T4) translational research, we have placed the emphasis on enhancing the students' desire to learn-and more specifically on their desire to learn rigorous methods for conducting useful research that delivers practical benefits in a straightforward manner. A dozen innovations, along with some preliminary outcomes, are outlined in detail.

  13. High-power-density approaches to magnetic fusion energy: Problems and promise of compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactors (CRFPR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagenson, R. L.; Krakowski, R. A.; Dreicer, H.

    If the cost assumptions upon which the positive assessment of conventional large superconducting fusion reactors are based proves optimistic, approaches that promise considerably increased system power density and reduced mass utilization are required. These more compact reactor embodiments generally must operate with reduced shield thickness and resistive magnets. Because of the unique magnetic topology associated with the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP), the compact reactor embodiment of this approach is particularly attractive from the view point of low field resistive coils operating with Ohmic losses that are small relative to the fusion power. The RFP, one example of a high power density (HPD) approach to magnetic fusion energy. A comprehensive system model is described and applied to select a unique, cost optimized design point that is used for a subsequent conceptual engineering design of the Compact RFP Reactor.

  14. [Health care innovation from a territorial perspective: a call for a new approach].

    PubMed

    Costa, Laís Silveira; Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Maldonado, José

    2012-12-01

    Innovation plays an increasingly important role in health care, partly because it is responsible for a significant share of national investment in research and development, and partly because of its industrial and service provision base, which provides a conduit to future technology. The relationship between health care and development is also strengthened as a result of the leading role of health care in generating innovation. Nevertheless, Brazil's health care production base is persistently weak, hindering both universal provision of health care services and international competitiveness. This article, based on the theoretical framework of Political Economy and innovation systems, has sought to identify variables in subnational contexts that influence the dynamic of innovation generation in health care. To this end, the theoretical approach used lies on the assumption that innovation is a contextualized social process and that the production base in healthcare will remain weak if new variables involved in the dynamic of innovation are not taken into account.

  15. Innovators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEA Today, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes various innovations that have been developed to enhance education. These innovations include: helping educators help at-risk students succeed; promoting high school journalism; ensuring quality online learning experiences; developing a student performing group that uses theater to address social issues; and having students design their…

  16. An Innovative Approach To Teaching High School Students about Indoor Air Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Catherine M.; Bloomfield, Molly M.; Harding, Anna K.; Sherburne, Holly

    1999-01-01

    Describes an innovative approach used to help high school students develop critical thinking and real-world problem-solving skills while learning about indoor air quality. (Contains 13 references.) (Author/WRM)

  17. Promising approaches to the purification of soils and groundwater from hydrocarbons (A Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.; Trofimov, S. Ya.; Shoba, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    Soils and waters are affected by oil spills in the course of oil production and hydrocarbon leakages because of the corrosion of underground reservoirs, as well as the filtration of hydrocarbons from the tailing ponds formed during the extraction of oil from oil sands. The conventional technology for the withdrawal of contaminated water and its purification on the surface is low-efficient and expensive. New approaches are proposed for the in situ purification of soils and groundwater. To accelerate the oxidation, active substances atypical for the supergenesis zone are used: peroxides of metals and hydrogen. The efficiency of hydrogen peroxide significantly increases when the oxidation is catalyzed by Fe2+ or Fe3+ (Fenton reaction). The effects of Fe(III), sulfates, and carbon dioxide as electron acceptors are studied under anaerobic conditions (with oxygen deficit).

  18. Stygoregions – a promising approach to a bioregional classification of groundwater systems

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Heide; Griebler, Christian; Berkhoff, Sven; Matzke, Dirk; Fuchs, Andreas; Hahn, Hans Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Linked to diverse biological processes, groundwater ecosystems deliver essential services to mankind, the most important of which is the provision of drinking water. In contrast to surface waters, ecological aspects of groundwater systems are ignored by the current European Union and national legislation. Groundwater management and protection measures refer exclusively to its good physicochemical and quantitative status. Current initiatives in developing ecologically sound integrative assessment schemes by taking groundwater fauna into account depend on the initial classification of subsurface bioregions. In a large scale survey, the regional and biogeographical distribution patterns of groundwater dwelling invertebrates were examined for many parts of Germany. Following an exploratory approach, our results underline that the distribution patterns of invertebrates in groundwater are not in accordance with any existing bioregional classification system established for surface habitats. In consequence, we propose to develope a new classification scheme for groundwater ecosystems based on stygoregions. PMID:22993698

  19. Stygoregions--a promising approach to a bioregional classification of groundwater systems.

    PubMed

    Stein, Heide; Griebler, Christian; Berkhoff, Sven; Matzke, Dirk; Fuchs, Andreas; Hahn, Hans Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Linked to diverse biological processes, groundwater ecosystems deliver essential services to mankind, the most important of which is the provision of drinking water. In contrast to surface waters, ecological aspects of groundwater systems are ignored by the current European Union and national legislation. Groundwater management and protection measures refer exclusively to its good physicochemical and quantitative status. Current initiatives in developing ecologically sound integrative assessment schemes by taking groundwater fauna into account depend on the initial classification of subsurface bioregions. In a large scale survey, the regional and biogeographical distribution patterns of groundwater dwelling invertebrates were examined for many parts of Germany. Following an exploratory approach, our results underline that the distribution patterns of invertebrates in groundwater are not in accordance with any existing bioregional classification system established for surface habitats. In consequence, we propose to develope a new classification scheme for groundwater ecosystems based on stygoregions.

  20. I-WALK: An Innovative Approach to Community Walkability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeger, Christopher J.; Lillehoj, Catherine J.; Jensen, Alan D.; Wilson, Suzy; Levinson, Lydia R.

    2014-01-01

    One way of combating rising obesity rates and decreasing physical activity levels among children is to promote active transportation to and from schools. The award-winning I-WALK program provides a comprehensive framework for addressing community walkability and related infrastructure. The program uses a unique and innovative methodology that…

  1. Partners in School Innovation: An Unusual Approach to Change Facilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grose, Kim

    This paper describes the work of an unusual kind of change facilitator lacking formal authority or educational expertise. Founded in 1993, Partners in School Innovation is a nonprofit organization that supports whole-school change efforts in schools serving low-income communities across the San Francisco Bay Area. It commits to 3- or 5-year…

  2. Promising ethical arguments for product differentiation in the organic food sector. A mixed methods research approach.

    PubMed

    Zander, Katrin; Stolz, Hanna; Hamm, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    Ethical consumerism is a growing trend worldwide. Ethical consumers' expectations are increasing and neither the Fairtrade nor the organic farming concept covers all the ethical concerns of consumers. Against this background the aim of this research is to elicit consumers' preferences regarding organic food with additional ethical attributes and their relevance at the market place. A mixed methods research approach was applied by combining an Information Display Matrix, Focus Group Discussions and Choice Experiments in five European countries. According to the results of the Information Display Matrix, 'higher animal welfare', 'local production' and 'fair producer prices' were preferred in all countries. These three attributes were discussed with Focus Groups in depth, using rather emotive ways of labelling. While the ranking of the attributes was the same, the emotive way of communicating these attributes was, for the most part, disliked by participants. The same attributes were then used in Choice Experiments, but with completely revised communication arguments. According to the results of the Focus Groups, the arguments were presented in a factual manner, using short and concise statements. In this research step, consumers in all countries except Austria gave priority to 'local production'. 'Higher animal welfare' and 'fair producer prices' turned out to be relevant for buying decisions only in Germany and Switzerland. According to our results, there is substantial potential for product differentiation in the organic sector through making use of production standards that exceed existing minimum regulations. The combination of different research methods in a mixed methods approach proved to be very helpful. The results of earlier research steps provided the basis from which to learn - findings could be applied in subsequent steps, and used to adjust and deepen the research design.

  3. Promising ethical arguments for product differentiation in the organic food sector. A mixed methods research approach.

    PubMed

    Zander, Katrin; Stolz, Hanna; Hamm, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    Ethical consumerism is a growing trend worldwide. Ethical consumers' expectations are increasing and neither the Fairtrade nor the organic farming concept covers all the ethical concerns of consumers. Against this background the aim of this research is to elicit consumers' preferences regarding organic food with additional ethical attributes and their relevance at the market place. A mixed methods research approach was applied by combining an Information Display Matrix, Focus Group Discussions and Choice Experiments in five European countries. According to the results of the Information Display Matrix, 'higher animal welfare', 'local production' and 'fair producer prices' were preferred in all countries. These three attributes were discussed with Focus Groups in depth, using rather emotive ways of labelling. While the ranking of the attributes was the same, the emotive way of communicating these attributes was, for the most part, disliked by participants. The same attributes were then used in Choice Experiments, but with completely revised communication arguments. According to the results of the Focus Groups, the arguments were presented in a factual manner, using short and concise statements. In this research step, consumers in all countries except Austria gave priority to 'local production'. 'Higher animal welfare' and 'fair producer prices' turned out to be relevant for buying decisions only in Germany and Switzerland. According to our results, there is substantial potential for product differentiation in the organic sector through making use of production standards that exceed existing minimum regulations. The combination of different research methods in a mixed methods approach proved to be very helpful. The results of earlier research steps provided the basis from which to learn - findings could be applied in subsequent steps, and used to adjust and deepen the research design. PMID:23207189

  4. PESEK Lecture: Promising New Approaches in the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Frank

    2002-01-01

    New insights into the possible nature of extraterrestrial intelligent transmissions, coupled to increased financial support for such research and new, powerful, and affordable instrumental capabilities, have encouraged several new approaches to SETI. Perhaps most dramatic has been the recognition that detectable optical and infrared signals, long shunned as implausible, are plausible after all. This is the consequence of the development of high power pulsed lasers which, in the right circumstances, can produce signals detectable easily with rather inexpensive equipment. This has led to the rapid development of several optical SETI programs that exploit nanosecond response photodetectors and the statistics of photon arrivals to achieve truly remarkable sensitivities for optical signals of short time duration. The usually vexed choice of specific electromagnetic frequencies to observe is not a problem in these systems. They are inexpensive, and extremely robust, being immune to the problems from, for example, defects in the optics of the telescopes used, partial obscuration due to clouds, and telescope pointing errors. They can utilize crude "light buckets" such as are built to observe cosmic ray Cerenkov radiation. They can be used in a shared mode with conventional astronomical observations. In the radio domain, the most powerful advance has been the availability and funds to build a dedicated telescope for use in SETI, the Allan Array Telescope. This telescope, scheduled to go into operation in 2005, will use a new approach to building large collecting areas, the computer-based interconnection of a large number of small antennas of the order of 6-meters in diameter to achieve a collecting area of one hectare. Not only will this be a very inexpensive telescope of great sensitivity, but also it will allow the formation of a large number of telescope beams simultaneously, greatly speeding up the speed of SETI searches. On a longer time scale, a goal of SETI designers

  5. Is systems biology a promising approach to resolve controversies in cancer research?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century cancer research has reached an impasse similar to that experienced in developmental biology in the first decades of the 20th century when conflicting results and interpretations co-existed for a long time until these differences were resolved and contradictions were eliminated. In cancer research, instead of this healthy "weeding-out" process, there have been attempts to reach a premature synthesis, while no hypothesis is being rejected. Systems Biology could help cancer research to overcome this stalemate by resolving contradictions and identifying spurious data. First, in silico experiments should allow cancer researchers to be bold and a priori reject sets of data and hypotheses in order to gain a deeper understanding of how each dataset and each hypothesis contributes to the overall picture. In turn, this process should generate novel hypotheses and rules, which could be explored using these in silico approaches. These activities are significantly less costly and much faster than "wet-experiments". Consequently, Systems Biology could be advantageously used both as a heuristic tool to guide "wet-experiments" and to refine hypotheses and test predictions. PMID:22449120

  6. Heterologous virus-induced gene silencing as a promising approach in plant functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Hosseini Tafreshi, Seied Ali; Shariati, Mansour; Mofid, Mohammad Reza; Khayam Nekui, Mojtaba; Esmaeili, Abolghasem

    2012-03-01

    VIGS (virus induced gene silencing) is considered as a powerful genomics tool for characterizing the function of genes in a few closely related plant species. The investigations have been carried out mainly in order to test if a pre-existing VIGS vector can serve as an efficient tool for gene silencing in a diverse array of plant species. Another route of investigation has been the constructing of new viral vectors to act in their hosts. Our approach was the creation of a heterologous system in which silencing of endogenous genes was achieved by sequences isolated from evolutionary remote species. In this study, we showed that a TRV-based vector cloned with sequences from a gymnosperm, Taxus baccata L. silenced the endogenous phytoene desaturase in an angiosperm, N. benthamiana. Our results showed that inserts of between 390 and 724 bp isolated from a conserved fragment of the Taxus PDS led to silencing of its homolog in tobacco. The real time analysis indicated that the expression of PDS was reduced 2.1- to 4.0-fold in pTRV-TbPDS infected plants compared with buffer treated plants. Once the best insert is identified and the conditions are optimized for heterologous silencing by pTRV-TbPDS in tobacco, then we can test if TRV can serve as an efficient silencing vector in Taxus. This strategy could also be used to silence a diverse array of genes from a wide range of species which have no VIGS protocol. The results also showed that plants silenced heterologously by the VIGS system a minimally affected with respect to plant growth which may be ideal for studying the genes that their complete loss of function may lead to decrease of plant growth or plant death. PMID:21655951

  7. Probabilistic seasonal Forecasts to deterministic Farm Leve Decisions: Innovative Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, M. W.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change and vulnerability are major challenges in ensuring household food security. Climate information services have the potential to cushion rural households from extreme climate risks. However, most the probabilistic nature of climate information products is not easily understood by majority of smallholder farmers. Despite the probabilistic nature, climate information have proved to be a valuable climate risk adaptation strategy at the farm level. This calls for innovative ways to help farmers understand and apply climate information services to inform their farm level decisions. The study endeavored to co-design and test appropriate innovation systems for climate information services uptake and scale up necessary for achieving climate risk development. In addition it also determined the conditions necessary to support the effective performance of the proposed innovation system. Data and information sources included systematic literature review, secondary sources, government statistics, focused group discussions, household surveys and semi-structured interviews. Data wasanalyzed using both quantitative and qualitative data analysis techniques. Quantitative data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Qualitative data was analyzed using qualitative techniques, which involved establishing the categories and themes, relationships/patterns and conclusions in line with the study objectives. Sustainable livelihood, reduced household poverty and climate change resilience were the impact that resulted from the study.

  8. Eco-innovative design approach: Integrating quality and environmental aspects in prioritizing and solving engineering problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakroun, Mahmoud; Gogu, Grigore; Pacaud, Thomas; Thirion, François

    2014-09-01

    This study proposes an eco-innovative design process taking into consideration quality and environmental aspects in prioritizing and solving technical engineering problems. This approach provides a synergy between the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the nonquality matrix, the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ), morphological analysis and the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). In the sequence of these tools, LCA assesses the environmental impacts generated by the system. Then, for a better consideration of environmental aspects, a new tool is developed, the non-quality matrix, which defines the problem to be solved first from an environmental point of view. The TRIZ method allows the generation of new concepts and contradiction resolution. Then, the morphological analysis offers the possibility of extending the search space of solutions in a design problem in a systematic way. Finally, the AHP identifies the promising solution(s) by providing a clear logic for the choice made. Their usefulness has been demonstrated through their application to a case study involving a centrifugal spreader with spinning discs.

  9. Thin-dielectric-layer engineering for 3D nanostructure integration using an innovative planarization approach.

    PubMed

    Guerfi, Y; Doucet, J B; Larrieu, G

    2015-10-23

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures are emerging as promising building blocks for a large spectrum of applications. One critical issue in integration regards mastering the thin, flat, and chemically stable insulating layer that must be implemented on the nanostructure network in order to build striking nano-architectures. In this letter, we report an innovative method for nanoscale planarization on 3D nanostructures by using hydrogen silesquioxane as a spin-on-glass (SOG) dielectric material. To decouple the thickness of the final layer from the height of the nanostructure, we propose to embed the nanowire network in the insulator layer by exploiting the planarizing properties of the SOG approach. To achieve the desired dielectric thickness, the structure is chemically etched back with a highly diluted solution to control the etch rate precisely. The roughness of the top surface was less than 2 nm. There were no surface defects and the planarity was excellent, even in the vicinity of the nanowires. This newly developed process was used to realize a multilevel stack architecture with sub-deca-nanometer-range layer thickness.

  10. Thin-dielectric-layer engineering for 3D nanostructure integration using an innovative planarization approach.

    PubMed

    Guerfi, Y; Doucet, J B; Larrieu, G

    2015-10-23

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures are emerging as promising building blocks for a large spectrum of applications. One critical issue in integration regards mastering the thin, flat, and chemically stable insulating layer that must be implemented on the nanostructure network in order to build striking nano-architectures. In this letter, we report an innovative method for nanoscale planarization on 3D nanostructures by using hydrogen silesquioxane as a spin-on-glass (SOG) dielectric material. To decouple the thickness of the final layer from the height of the nanostructure, we propose to embed the nanowire network in the insulator layer by exploiting the planarizing properties of the SOG approach. To achieve the desired dielectric thickness, the structure is chemically etched back with a highly diluted solution to control the etch rate precisely. The roughness of the top surface was less than 2 nm. There were no surface defects and the planarity was excellent, even in the vicinity of the nanowires. This newly developed process was used to realize a multilevel stack architecture with sub-deca-nanometer-range layer thickness. PMID:26422697

  11. Thin-dielectric-layer engineering for 3D nanostructure integration using an innovative planarization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerfi, Y.; Doucet, J. B.; Larrieu, G.

    2015-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures are emerging as promising building blocks for a large spectrum of applications. One critical issue in integration regards mastering the thin, flat, and chemically stable insulating layer that must be implemented on the nanostructure network in order to build striking nano-architectures. In this letter, we report an innovative method for nanoscale planarization on 3D nanostructures by using hydrogen silesquioxane as a spin-on-glass (SOG) dielectric material. To decouple the thickness of the final layer from the height of the nanostructure, we propose to embed the nanowire network in the insulator layer by exploiting the planarizing properties of the SOG approach. To achieve the desired dielectric thickness, the structure is chemically etched back with a highly diluted solution to control the etch rate precisely. The roughness of the top surface was less than 2 nm. There were no surface defects and the planarity was excellent, even in the vicinity of the nanowires. This newly developed process was used to realize a multilevel stack architecture with sub-deca-nanometer-range layer thickness.

  12. High-power-density approaches to magnetic fusion energy: Problems and promise of compact reversed-field pinch reactors (CRFPR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagenson, Randy L.; Krakowski, Robert A.; Dreicer, Harry

    1983-03-01

    If the costing assumptions upon which the positive assessment of conventional large superconducting fusion reactors are based proves overly optimistic, approaches that promise considerably increased system power density and reduced mass utilization will be required. These more compact reactor embodiments generally must operate with reduced shield thickness and resistive magnets. Because of the unique magnetic topology associated with the Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP), the compact reactor embodiment for this approach is particularly attractive from the viewpoint of low-field resistive coils operating with ohmic losses that can be made small relative to the fusion power. The RFP, therefore, is used as one example of a high-power-density (HPD) approach to magnetic fusion energy. A comprehensive system model is described and applied to select a unique, cost-optimized design point that will be used for a subsequent conceptual engineering design of the compact RFP Reactor (CRFPR). This cost-optimized CRFPR design serves as an example of a HPD fusion reactor that would operate with system power densities and mass utilizations that are comparable to fission power plants, these measures of system performance being an order of magnitude more favorable than the conventional approaches to magnetic fusion energy (MFE).

  13. Comprehensive Analysis Competence and Innovative Approaches for Sustainable Chemical Production.

    PubMed

    Appel, Joerg; Colombo, Corrado; Dätwyler, Urs; Chen, Yun; Kerimoglu, Nimet

    2016-01-01

    Humanity currently sees itself facing enormous economic, ecological, and social challenges. Sustainable products and production in specialty chemistry are an important strategic element to address these megatrends. In addition to that, digitalization and global connectivity will create new opportunities for the industry. One aspect is examined in this paper, which shows the development of comprehensive analysis of production networks for a more sustainable production in which the need for innovative solutions arises. Examples from data analysis, advanced process control and automated performance monitoring are shown. These efforts have significant impact on improved yields, reduced energy and water consumption, and better product performance in the application of the products.

  14. Comprehensive Analysis Competence and Innovative Approaches for Sustainable Chemical Production.

    PubMed

    Appel, Joerg; Colombo, Corrado; Dätwyler, Urs; Chen, Yun; Kerimoglu, Nimet

    2016-01-01

    Humanity currently sees itself facing enormous economic, ecological, and social challenges. Sustainable products and production in specialty chemistry are an important strategic element to address these megatrends. In addition to that, digitalization and global connectivity will create new opportunities for the industry. One aspect is examined in this paper, which shows the development of comprehensive analysis of production networks for a more sustainable production in which the need for innovative solutions arises. Examples from data analysis, advanced process control and automated performance monitoring are shown. These efforts have significant impact on improved yields, reduced energy and water consumption, and better product performance in the application of the products. PMID:27646543

  15. A chemical genetics approach for specific differentiation of stem cells to somatic cells: a new promising therapeutical approach.

    PubMed

    Sachinidis, Agapios; Sotiriadou, Isaia; Seelig, Bianca; Berkessel, Albrecht; Hescheler, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Cell replacement therapy of severe degenerative diseases such as diabetes, myocardial infarction and Parkinson's disease through transplantation of somatic cells generated from embryonic stem (ES) cells is currently receiving considerable attention for the therapeutic applications. ES cells harvested from the inner cell mass (ICM) of the early embryo, can proliferate indefinitely in vitro while retaining the ability to differentiate into all somatic cells thereby providing an unlimited renewable source of somatic cells. In this context, identifying soluble factors, in particular chemically synthesized small molecules, and signal cascades involved in specific differentiation processes toward a defined tissue specific cell type are crucial for optimizing the generation of somatic cells in vitro for therapeutic approaches. However, experimental models are required allowing rapid and "easy-to-handle" parallel screening of chemical libraries to achieve this goal. Recently, the forward chemical genetic screening strategy has been postulated to screen small molecules in cellular systems for a specific desired phenotypic effect. The current review is focused on the progress of ES cell research in the context of the chemical genetics to identify small molecules promoting specific differentiation of ES cells to desired cell phenotype. Chemical genetics in the context of the cell ES-based cell replacement therapy remains a challenge for the near future for several scientific fields including chemistry, molecular biology, medicinal physics and robotic technologies.

  16. Sources of Scientific Innovation: A Meta-Analytic Approach (Commentary on Simonton, 2009).

    PubMed

    Sulloway, Frank J

    2009-09-01

    Innovations in science can be divided into at least four major types: radical revolutions (such as Copernican and Darwinian theory), technical revolutions (led by scientists such as Newton, Lavoisier, and Einstein), controversial innovations (for example, Semmelweis's theory of puerperal fever), and conservative innovations (eugenics and various vitalistic doctrines). Biographical predictors of support for scientific innovations are distinctly different depending on the type of innovation, as are the predictors of who initially engineers such innovations. A meta-analytic approach assessing each new scientific theory according to its salient features (including epistemological, ideological, and technical attributes) is required to make sense out of the varied predisposing factors associated with the origins of these innovations. These predisposing factors are not neatly classifiable in terms of Simonton's (2009, this issue) hierarchical model of domain-specific dispositions, although this model is applicable under some conditions. Instead, the principal sources of scientific achievement are largely a product of person-by-situation interaction effects that are dictated by the nature of the particular innovation. PMID:26162216

  17. Sources of Scientific Innovation: A Meta-Analytic Approach (Commentary on Simonton, 2009).

    PubMed

    Sulloway, Frank J

    2009-09-01

    Innovations in science can be divided into at least four major types: radical revolutions (such as Copernican and Darwinian theory), technical revolutions (led by scientists such as Newton, Lavoisier, and Einstein), controversial innovations (for example, Semmelweis's theory of puerperal fever), and conservative innovations (eugenics and various vitalistic doctrines). Biographical predictors of support for scientific innovations are distinctly different depending on the type of innovation, as are the predictors of who initially engineers such innovations. A meta-analytic approach assessing each new scientific theory according to its salient features (including epistemological, ideological, and technical attributes) is required to make sense out of the varied predisposing factors associated with the origins of these innovations. These predisposing factors are not neatly classifiable in terms of Simonton's (2009, this issue) hierarchical model of domain-specific dispositions, although this model is applicable under some conditions. Instead, the principal sources of scientific achievement are largely a product of person-by-situation interaction effects that are dictated by the nature of the particular innovation.

  18. A systematic approach for introducing innovative product design in courses with engineering and nonengineering students.

    PubMed

    Patterson, P E

    2007-01-01

    In our new global economy, biomedical product development teams need to be even more innovative in an environment constrained by fewer resources with less time from concept to market. Teams are often comprised of individuals spread around the world. To simulate this setting, we revised an existing course to incorporate teams of on-campus and distance students, with each team including both engineers and other specialties. Through interactive lectures and projects, we presented a systematic approach to innovation that should be useful to engineers and non-engineers alike. Students found the course challenging and exciting, displaying an improved ability to work in distributed teams and in developing innovative design solutions.

  19. Innovative Research-Based Approaches to Learning and Teaching. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 79

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Broek, Gesa Sonja Elsa

    2012-01-01

    Building on an earlier 2008 summary prepared for OECD by Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter, this paper by Gesa S. E. van den Broek provides a more extensive discussion of approaches described as "research based innovation." "Fostering Communities of Learning" is a constructivist approach in which teachers help students discover important…

  20. 77 FR 40866 - Applications for New Awards; Innovative Approaches to Literacy Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... Applications for New Awards; Innovative Approaches to Literacy Program AGENCY: Office of Elementary and... Literacy (IAL) Program; Notice inviting applications for new awards for fiscal year (FY) 2012. Catalog of... Approaches to Literacy (IAL) program supports high-quality programs designed to develop and improve...

  1. "GARDEN OF CHILDHOOD" as an Innovative Approach to Training and Education of Children at Preschool Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alekseeva, Larisa; Shkolyar, Luidmila; Savenkova, Luibov

    2016-01-01

    The authors reveal an innovative approach to training and education of preschool children. This approach is called "GARDEN OF CHILDHOOD". It is based on the idea that the development of the preschool child's personality should be joyous and free "cultural self-creation" in terms of the collective co-creation, where adults and…

  2. The promise of recombinant BMP ligands and other approaches targeting BMPR-II in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ormiston, Mark L.; Upton, Paul D.; Li, Wei; Morrell, Nicholas W.

    2015-01-01

    Human genetic discoveries offer a powerful method to implicate pathways of major importance to disease pathobiology and hence provide targets for pharmacological intervention. The genetics of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) strongly implicates loss-of-function of the bone morphogenetic protein type II receptor (BMPR-II) signalling pathway and moreover implicates the endothelial cell as a central cell type involved in disease initiation. We and others have described several approaches to restore BMPR-II function in genetic and non-genetic forms of PAH. Of these, supplementation of endothelial BMP9/10 signalling with exogenous recombinant ligand has been shown to hold considerable promise as a novel large molecule biopharmaceutical therapy. Here, we describe the mechanism of action and discuss potential additional effects of BMP ligand therapy. PMID:26779522

  3. Nab-paclitaxel and trastuzumab combination: a promising approach for neoadjuvant treatment in HER2-positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ricciardi, Giuseppina Rosaria Rita; Franchina, Tindara; Russo, Alessandro; Schifano, Silvia; Ferraro, Giuseppa; Adamo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Neoadjuvant therapy is a well-established approach for the treatment of locally advanced or inflammatory breast cancer (BC) and has been increasingly used in recent years not only as a management strategy but also as a research tool. Recently, nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel)/trastuzumab combinations have been associated with promising activity in different clinical settings. In the present case, we report a complete pathological response after neoadjuvant treatment with the trastuzumab/nab-paclitaxel combination in a locally advanced human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive BC patient, with a good toxicity profile. This combination may represent a valid therapeutic option in the neoadjuvant therapy for HER2-positive locally advanced BC. PMID:27499629

  4. Promising developments in neuropsychological approaches for the detection of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease: a selective review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recently published guidelines suggest that the most opportune time to treat individuals with Alzheimer’s disease is during the preclinical phase of the disease. This is a phase when individuals are defined as clinically normal but exhibit evidence of amyloidosis, neurodegeneration and subtle cognitive/behavioral decline. While our standard cognitive tests are useful for detecting cognitive decline at the stage of mild cognitive impairment, they were not designed for detecting the subtle cognitive variations associated with this biomarker stage of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease. However, neuropsychologists are attempting to meet this challenge by designing newer cognitive measures and questionnaires derived from translational efforts in neuroimaging, cognitive neuroscience and clinical/experimental neuropsychology. This review is a selective summary of several novel, potentially promising, approaches that are being explored for detecting early cognitive evidence of preclinical Alzheimer’s disease in presymptomatic individuals. PMID:24257331

  5. An innovative approach to Class II preparation and restoration.

    PubMed

    Haase, S L

    1998-01-01

    When patients exhibit Class II defects requiring restoration, the treatment modality and respective preparation requirements may present challenges to the clinician. Aesthetics, chairside time, and expense become factors for the consideration of both dentist and patient. However, a new sonically driven system for the preparation and restoration of proximal defects was recently introduced (SONICSYS, Ivoclar Vivadent, Amherst, NY). This system, composed of diamond-coated tips and prefabricated ceramic inserts, promises to enable clinicians to efficiently, confidently, and expertly prepare and restore Class II defects in a timely, consistent, and cost-efficient manner. This article describes the components of the system and demonstrates its utilization in a case report.

  6. The snake geothermal drilling project. Innovative approaches to geothermal exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Shervais, John W.; Evans, James P.; Liberty, Lee M.; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Blackwell, David D.

    2014-02-21

    The goal of our project was to test innovative technologies using existing and new data, and to ground-truth these technologies using slim-hole core technology. The slim-hole core allowed us to understand subsurface stratigraphy and alteration in detail, and to correlate lithologies observed in core with surface based geophysical studies. Compiled data included geologic maps, volcanic vent distribution, structural maps, existing well logs and temperature gradient logs, groundwater temperatures, and geophysical surveys (resistivity, magnetics, gravity). New data included high-resolution gravity and magnetic surveys, high-resolution seismic surveys, three slimhole test wells, borehole wireline logs, lithology logs, water chemistry, alteration mineralogy, fracture distribution, and new thermal gradient measurements.

  7. Supporting Instructors in Innovation: A Three-Component Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margaryan, Anoush

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to advance an approach to supporting instructors in adopting new models of teaching, particularly when new technology is involved. The approach comprises three components: conceptual principles underpinning new learning models; process by which instructors are supported in understanding and applying principles; and a…

  8. An Innovative Approach to Integrated Training for Smallholder Dairying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chagunda, Mizeck Gift Gibson; Munthali, David Pusi; Gondwe, Timothy N.; Wood, Bethan; Roberts, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper assesses an integrated approach in smallholder dairy training through a partnership between Malawi and Scotland. Design/ methodology/ approach: Acute staff shortages and inadequate expertise hamper progress in Malawi's smallholder dairy production despite its potential to substantially contribute to sustainable household…

  9. Chemical recycling of plastics--an innovative approach

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.J.; Tatsumoto, K.; Czernik, S.; Chum, H.L.

    1993-12-31

    Conditions for the production of monomers and high-value chemicals from mixtures of waste plastics have been identified by the use of controlled, catalytic and thermal processes. Feedstock presorting and product purification are minimized by controlling reaction conditions. Target waste streams are from (1) plastics manufacturing, both commodity plastics and high-value blends: (2) consumer-product manufacturing, where a single material can contain a larger number of components; and (3) post-consumer sources, which include household waste and autoshredder residue. Examples of the most promising applications to date are the recovery of caprolactam from waste in the manufacture of nylon 6 carpet, the recovery of diamine derivatives of isocyanates from waste polyurethanes, and the recovery of dimethylterephthalate from wastes containing poly(ethyleneterephthalate). Small scale engineering and pyrolysis/molecular beam mass spectrometry information are used along with technoeconomic assessment for the selection of the most promising products/streams. A market analysis of waste supplies and end-products completes the strategy adopted for the development of this technology with industry.

  10. A Design Approach for an Innovative LED Surgical Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadrath, Stefan; Morgenbrod, Nico

    2014-12-01

    We will present a design approach for a surgical light consisting of a central high-power LED module and a metal-free TIR reflector. The reflector's surface is designed as a grooved surface providing two TIR reflections.

  11. An Innovative Approach to Sex Education in Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaisdell, Nancy L.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews a rural Washington State teacher's experience in approaching the sensitive topic of sex education. Includes advice on dealing with opposing parents, church, and school officials. The reported lesson considered the biology and reproduction of a pet boa constrictor. (TES)

  12. The Roving Inservice--An Innovative Approach to Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesher, Delores C.; Bomberger, Audrey S.

    1983-01-01

    The roving inservice is an approach to continuing education which enables the program to be located in multiple nursing units simultaneously for the convenience of the nurses and without an instructor. (SSH)

  13. Innovative Approach for Developing Spacecraft Interior Acoustic Requirement Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, S. Reynold; Dandaroy, Indranil; Allen, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) is an American spacecraft for carrying four astronauts during deep space missions. This paper describes an innovative application of Power Injection Method (PIM) for allocating Orion cabin continuous noise Sound Pressure Level (SPL) limits to the sound power level (PWL) limits of major noise sources in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) during all mission phases. PIM is simulated using both Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) and Hybrid Statistical Energy Analysis-Finite Element (SEA-FE) models of the Orion MPCV to obtain the transfer matrix from the PWL of the noise sources to the acoustic energies of the receivers, i.e., the cavities associated with the cabin habitable volume. The goal of the allocation strategy is to control the total energy of cabin habitable volume for maintaining the required SPL limits. Simulations are used to demonstrate that applying the allocated PWLs to the noise sources in the models indeed reproduces the SPL limits in the habitable volume. The effects of Noise Control Treatment (NCT) on allocated noise source PWLs are investigated. The measurement of source PWLs of involved fan and pump development units are also discussed as it is related to some case-specific details of the allocation strategy discussed here.

  14. Anxiety and diabetes: Innovative approaches to management in primary care.

    PubMed

    Bickett, Allison; Tapp, Hazel

    2016-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chief concern for patients, healthcare providers, and health care systems in America, and around the globe. Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus exhibit clinical and subclinical symptoms of anxiety more frequently than people without diabetes. Anxiety is traditionally associated with poor metabolic outcomes and increased medical complications among those with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Collaborative care models have been utilized in the multidisciplinary treatment of mental health problems and chronic disease, and have demonstrated success in managing the pathology of depression which often accompanies diabetes. However, no specific treatment model has been published that links the treatment of anxiety to the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Given the success of collaborative care models in treating depression associated with diabetes, and anxiety unrelated to chronic disease, it is possible that the collaborative care treatment of primary care patients who suffer from both anxiety and diabetes could be met with the same success. The key issue is determining how to implement and sustain these models in practice. This review summarizes the proposed link between anxiety and diabetes, and offers an innovative and evidence-based collaborative care model for anxiety and diabetes in primary care. PMID:27390262

  15. Oil immobilization program at Sellafield: an innovative approach

    SciTech Connect

    Cassidy, Helen

    2007-07-01

    Non-standard wastes - those defined as being both hazardous waste under the United Kingdom Hazardous Waste Regulations 2005 and radioactive under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993 - pose particular, unique challenges for radioactive waste management organizations. Treatment and disposal routes for such wastes are limited, in some cases non existent, and generally not cost effective. A non-standard waste of particular concern in the United Kingdom, and indeed on the Sellafield site, is that of radiologically contaminated waste oil. The optioning process for treatment of bulk contaminated waste oil on the Sellafield site has assessed a range of options including incineration, chemical decontamination, physical decontamination and immobilization. Immobilization has proved to be a potentially useful option for oil waste streams that fail to meet waste acceptance criteria for incineration facilities. Experimental development work has been undertaken at Sellafield during 2006 to test the suitability of an innovative technology for the solidification of waste oil with a cross section of waste streams from the site. These trials have demonstrated that this polymer system is able to successfully immobilize a range of aged, chemically and physically diverse contaminated oil waste streams and thus provide a potential solution to the disposal problem posed by this waste stream. (author)

  16. Innovation in urban agriculture: Evaluation data of a participatory approach (ROIR).

    PubMed

    Zoll, Felix; Specht, Kathrin; Siebert, Rosemarie

    2016-06-01

    The data in this article represent an evaluation of a participatory process called Regional Open Innovation Roadmapping (ROIR). The approach aims at the promotion of regional development. In this case, it was carried out to develop a specific innovation in the field of 'Zero-acreage farming' (ZFarming), which is a building-related subtype of urban agriculture. For the evaluation of the process, an online survey was sent to the 58 participants of the ROIR on March 4, 2014. The survey ended on April 8, 2014, and a response rate of 53.54% resulted in a sample size of 31 respondents. The survey was divided into seven different blocks. We analyzed the ROIR process׳s contribution to knowledge generation, the establishment of networks among the participants, the implementation of new projects related to ZFarming, and the increase of acceptance of ZFarming and the selected ZFarming innovation. Furthermore, other remarks, and personal information were collected. Hence, the objective of the survey was to assess whether ROIR is a useful tool to promote the aforementioned innovation drivers, and thereby, the selected innovation, which was developed throughout the process. The data were used in the research article "Application and evaluation of a participatory "open innovation" approach (ROIR): the case of introducing zero-acreage farming in Berlin" (Specht et al., 2016) [1].

  17. Innovation in urban agriculture: Evaluation data of a participatory approach (ROIR).

    PubMed

    Zoll, Felix; Specht, Kathrin; Siebert, Rosemarie

    2016-06-01

    The data in this article represent an evaluation of a participatory process called Regional Open Innovation Roadmapping (ROIR). The approach aims at the promotion of regional development. In this case, it was carried out to develop a specific innovation in the field of 'Zero-acreage farming' (ZFarming), which is a building-related subtype of urban agriculture. For the evaluation of the process, an online survey was sent to the 58 participants of the ROIR on March 4, 2014. The survey ended on April 8, 2014, and a response rate of 53.54% resulted in a sample size of 31 respondents. The survey was divided into seven different blocks. We analyzed the ROIR process׳s contribution to knowledge generation, the establishment of networks among the participants, the implementation of new projects related to ZFarming, and the increase of acceptance of ZFarming and the selected ZFarming innovation. Furthermore, other remarks, and personal information were collected. Hence, the objective of the survey was to assess whether ROIR is a useful tool to promote the aforementioned innovation drivers, and thereby, the selected innovation, which was developed throughout the process. The data were used in the research article "Application and evaluation of a participatory "open innovation" approach (ROIR): the case of introducing zero-acreage farming in Berlin" (Specht et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27182542

  18. Plenary lecture: innovative modeling approaches applicable to risk assessments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper identification of safe and unsafe food at the processing plant is important for maximizing the public health benefit of food by ensuring both its consumption and safety. Risk assessment is a holistic approach to food safety that consists of four steps: 1) hazard identification; 2) exposure a...

  19. Innovative United Kingdom Approaches To Measuring Service Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkworth, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Reports on approaches to measuring the service quality of academic libraries in the United Kingdom. Discusses the role of government and the national background of quality measurement; measurement frameworks; better use of statistics; benchmarking; measuring user satisfaction; and possible future development. (Author/LRW)

  20. Innovative regulatory approach for synthetic-based muds.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-10-22

    The oil and gas industry has historically used water-based muds (WBMs) and oil-based muds (OBMs) in offshore drilling operations. WBMs are less expensive and are widely used. Both the WBMs and the associated drill cuttings maybe discharged from the platform to the sea provided that U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) discharge limitations are met. In some wells, however, difficult drilling conditions may force a switch from a WBM to an OBM. Neither the OBM nor the associated drill cuttings may be discharged. The OBM is hauled to shore, where it is processed for reuse, while the associated cuttings are injected in a disposal well at the platform or hauled to shore to a disposal facility. Both of these options are expensive. Synthetic-based muds (SBMs) are drilling fluids that use synthetic organic chemicals as base fluids. SBMs were developed to replace OBMs in difficult drilling situations. SBMs are more expensive than OBMs; however, they have superior environmental properties that may permit the cuttings to be discharged on-site. Like OBMs, SBMs are hauled ashore for processing and reuse after the well is drilled. The existing national effluent limitations guidelines (ELGs) for the offshore industry do not include requirements for SBM-cuttings since SBMs were not commonly in use at the time the ELGs were adopted. In late 1997, EPA announced that it would modify the offshore ELGs to include requirements for discharges of cuttings drilled with SBMs. For the first time in the history of the ELG program, EPA is following an innovative presumptive rulemaking process that will lead to development of draft regulations in one year rather than the 4- to 6-year period usually needed. With direction from the federal government to stakeholders concerning information needs for the regulatory development the industry has established several working groups to collect new scientific information on SBMs. This paper describes the presumptive rulemaking process and summarizes

  1. An innovative approach of risk planning for space programs.

    PubMed

    Ray, P

    2000-07-01

    According to the current rule-based risk management approach at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the effort is directed to contain all identified risks of a program. The identification of hazards and mitigation effort proceeds along with the development of the system hardware, till all the tradable resources for a program is exhausted. In this process, no conscious effort is made to evaluate risks and associated cost, and the final design is likely to have undesirable residual risks. This approach also results in allocating a significant amount of resources to gain only marginal mitigation of hazard and leave some undesirable hazards in the system due to the budget limitation. The approach in the proposed knowledge-based risk planning system makes a conscious attempt to trade risk with other resources, e.g., schedule, cost, reliability, performance, and others in a judicious and cost-effective way. A knowledge of the feasible option sets requiring high incremental cost for a marginal gain in hazard reduction helps the management to make decision for residual risk that falls within an acceptable range for an option set.

  2. [Medical doctors driving technological innovation: questions about and innovation management approaches to incentive structures for lead users].

    PubMed

    Bohnet-Joschko, Sabine; Kientzler, Fionn

    2010-01-01

    Management science defines user-generated innovations as open innovation and lead user innovation. The medical technology industry finds user-generated innovations profitable and even indispensable. Innovative medical doctors as lead users need medical technology innovations in order to improve patient care. Their motivation to innovate is mostly intrinsic. But innovations may also involve extrinsic motivators such as gain in reputation or monetary incentives. Medical doctors' innovative activities often take place in hospitals and are thus embedded into the hospital's organisational setting. Hospitals find it difficult to gain short-term profits from in-house generated innovations and sometimes hesitate to support them. Strategic investment in medical doctors' innovative activities may be profitable for hospitals in the long run if innovations provide first-mover competitive advantages. Industry co-operations with innovative medical doctors offer chances but also bear potential risks. Innovative ideas generated by expert users may result in even higher complexity of medical devices; this could cause mistakes when applied by less specialised users and thus affect patient safety. Innovations that yield benefits for patients, medical doctors, hospitals and the medical technology industry can be advanced by offering adequate support for knowledge transfer and co-operation models.

  3. A Quality by design (QbD) approach on starch-based nanocapsules: A promising platform for topical drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Marto, J; Gouveia, L F; Gonçalves, L M; Gaspar, D P; Pinto, P; Carvalho, F A; Oliveira, E; Ribeiro, H M; Almeida, A J

    2016-07-01

    Exploring novel applications for approved excipients with a history of safe use in therapeutics is a smart strategy to obtain improved pharmaceutical products. The present study aimed at developing a novel starch-based nanoparticulate carrier system (StNC) for topical delivery of lipophilic bioactive molecules. The role of the different factors that affect the particle size distribution and zeta potential of StNC prepared by the emulsification-solvent evaporation method was assessed using a quality by design approach. An optimal formulation was selected and fully characterized in terms of molecular interactions (DSC and FTIR), morphology (TEM and AFM), as well as in vitro and in vivo biological properties, including biological sensitivity/irritation studies performed in human volunteers. Results show the surfactant and lipid contents play a major role in StNC particle size distribution. In addition, all tested formulations presented a zeta potential of ca. +33.6±6.7 mV, indicating a good physical stability, while revealing an excellent compromise between stability, safety and cosmeticity, evidencing that StNC are suitable nanocarriers for topical use. Finally, the design planning methodology has clearly shown its usefulness for optimizing the formulation, being also crucial for the understanding of StNC formation process. The StNC proved to be a promising formulation strategy and a potential nanocarrier for topical lipophilic bioactive molecules. PMID:27003468

  4. Optimizing algal cultivation & productivity : an innovative, multidiscipline, and multiscale approach.

    SciTech Connect

    Murton, Jaclyn K.; Hanson, David T.; Turner, Tom; Powell, Amy Jo; James, Scott Carlton; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Scholle, Steven; August, Andrew; Dwyer, Brian P.; Ruffing, Anne; Jones, Howland D. T.; Ricken, James Bryce; Reichardt, Thomas A.

    2010-04-01

    Progress in algal biofuels has been limited by significant knowledge gaps in algal biology, particularly as they relate to scale-up. To address this we are investigating how culture composition dynamics (light as well as biotic and abiotic stressors) describe key biochemical indicators of algal health: growth rate, photosynthetic electron transport, and lipid production. Our approach combines traditional algal physiology with genomics, bioanalytical spectroscopy, chemical imaging, remote sensing, and computational modeling to provide an improved fundamental understanding of algal cell biology across multiple cultures scales. This work spans investigations from the single-cell level to ensemble measurements of algal cell cultures at the laboratory benchtop to large greenhouse scale (175 gal). We will discuss the advantages of this novel, multidisciplinary strategy and emphasize the importance of developing an integrated toolkit to provide sensitive, selective methods for detecting early fluctuations in algal health, productivity, and population diversity. Progress in several areas will be summarized including identification of spectroscopic signatures for algal culture composition, stress level, and lipid production enabled by non-invasive spectroscopic monitoring of the photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments at the single-cell and bulk-culture scales. Early experiments compare and contrast the well-studied green algae chlamydomonas with two potential production strains of microalgae, nannochloropsis and dunnaliella, under optimal and stressed conditions. This integrated approach has the potential for broad impact on algal biofuels and bioenergy and several of these opportunities will be discussed.

  5. Proposing a New Framework and an Innovative Approach to Teaching Reengineering and ERP Implementation Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellerin, Robert; Hadaya, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Recognizing the need to teach ERP implementation and business process reengineering (BPR) concepts simultaneously, as well as the pedagogical limitations of the case teaching method and simulation tools, the objective of this study is to propose a new framework and an innovative teaching approach to improve the ERP training experience for IS…

  6. Lilead Fellows Program: An Innovative Approach to Professional Development for School Library Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodama, Christie; DiScala, Jeffrey; Weeks, Ann Carlson; Barlow, Diane L.; Jacobs, Leah; Hall, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the Lilead Fellows Program, funded by a grant from the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS). This innovative approach to professional development (PD) is for school district library supervisors. It is based upon widely accepted principles of quality PD, and is in its second year of operation with an…

  7. Where's the evidence? An innovative approach to teaching staff about evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Janice M; Heitschmidt, Mary; Joyce, Mary Beth; Staneva, Ilianna; Zemansky, Peggy; Francisco, Mary Ann; Powell, Barbara; Kennedy, Terri; Kranzer, Susan French

    2006-01-01

    Preparing nurses to incorporate research and evidence-based findings into nursing practice is important to meet the needs of patients and their families in today's healthcare arena. This article highlights the use of a mock trial as an innovative approach to educating staff nurses on evidence-based practice and identifies future implications for educating staff nurses on incorporating evidence into nursing practice.

  8. Teaching and Learning Conceptions in Engineering Education: An Innovative Approach on Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Mario Neto; Goncalves, Maria Do Carmo Narciso Silva; Cunha, Flavio Macedo

    2003-01-01

    A worldwide problem in Engineering education is the high rates of students' failure and drop out particularly at the beginning of the course. This is related to the process by which students learn Mathematics. An innovative methodology of teaching calculus was developed and it is presented in this paper. The approach, based on both course…

  9. A Review of Community Extension Approaches to Innovation for Improved Livelihoods in Ghana, Uganda and Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellard, Kate; Rafanomezana, Jenny; Nyirenda, Mahara; Okotel, Misaki; Subbey, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Farmer-to-farmer extension offers a potentially low-cost and wide-reach alternative in supporting agricultural innovation. Various approaches are being promoted but information on their impact and sustainability is sparse. This study examines experiences of Self Help Africa and partners in Ghana, Uganda and Malawi. It asks: What is good…

  10. Innovative Approach for Development of Drinking Water Research Data in the EPA Treatability Database

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, funding for development of the TDB has been limited due to Federal budget constraints. As a result, EPA adopted an innovative approach to continue the development of new contaminants and maintenance of treatability information on over 60 existing drinking water ...

  11. Breaking Barriers and Building Bridges through Networks: An Innovative Educational Approach for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalifa, Marwa A.; Sandholz, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, innovation in education is highly perceived as an effectual approach to promote awareness for sustainability. International organizations interested in education, research and training support projects seeking modernization of Higher Education (HE) and put much emphasis on developing new curricula, teaching methods or materials to…

  12. Learning Biology through Innovative Curricula: A Comparison of Game- and Nongame-Based Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Troy D.; Romine, William L.; Menon, Deepika; Ferdig, Richard E.; Annetta, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    This study explored student learning in the context of innovative biotechnology curricula and the effects of gaming as a central element of the learning experience. The quasi-experimentally designed study compared learning outcomes between two curricular approaches: One built around a computer-based game, and the other built around a narrative…

  13. A Diffusion of Innovations Approach to Gerontological Curriculum Enrichment: Institutionalizing and Sustaining Curricular Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Lorraine T.; Murty, Susan A.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a gerontological enrichment model for institutionalizing and sustaining curricular change utilizing Rogers' (1995, 2003) diffusion of innovations approach to organizational change. The goal of the project, funded by the John A. Hartford Foundation, is to transform the social work curriculum at a major state university so…

  14. Educational Leadership Preparation: Innovation and Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Ed.D. and Graduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean-Marie, Gaetane, Ed.; Normore, Anthony H., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This book explores the efficacy of innovative and interdisciplinary approaches to educational leadership preparation implemented at universities across the United States that serve K-12 populations in urban, rural, and suburban contexts. This collection of chapters draws from seminal and contemporary literature on preparation programs, the…

  15. The Baby TALK Model: An Innovative Approach to Identifying High-Risk Children and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villalpando, Aimee Hilado; Leow, Christine; Hornstein, John

    2012-01-01

    This research report examines the Baby TALK model, an innovative early childhood intervention approach used to identify, recruit, and serve young children who are at-risk for developmental delays, mental health needs, and/or school failure, and their families. The report begins with a description of the model. This description is followed by an…

  16. Innovation in urban agriculture: Evaluation data of a participatory approach (ROIR)

    PubMed Central

    Zoll, Felix; Specht, Kathrin; Siebert, Rosemarie

    2016-01-01

    The data in this article represent an evaluation of a participatory process called Regional Open Innovation Roadmapping (ROIR). The approach aims at the promotion of regional development. In this case, it was carried out to develop a specific innovation in the field of ‘Zero-acreage farming’ (ZFarming), which is a building-related subtype of urban agriculture. For the evaluation of the process, an online survey was sent to the 58 participants of the ROIR on March 4, 2014. The survey ended on April 8, 2014, and a response rate of 53.54% resulted in a sample size of 31 respondents. The survey was divided into seven different blocks. We analyzed the ROIR process׳s contribution to knowledge generation, the establishment of networks among the participants, the implementation of new projects related to ZFarming, and the increase of acceptance of ZFarming and the selected ZFarming innovation. Furthermore, other remarks, and personal information were collected. Hence, the objective of the survey was to assess whether ROIR is a useful tool to promote the aforementioned innovation drivers, and thereby, the selected innovation, which was developed throughout the process. The data were used in the research article “Application and evaluation of a participatory “open innovation” approach (ROIR): the case of introducing zero-acreage farming in Berlin” (Specht et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27182542

  17. Innovative biological approaches for monitoring and improving water quality

    PubMed Central

    Aracic, Sanja; Manna, Sam; Petrovski, Steve; Wiltshire, Jennifer L.; Mann, Gülay; Franks, Ashley E.

    2015-01-01

    Water quality is largely influenced by the abundance and diversity of indigenous microbes present within an aquatic environment. Physical, chemical and biological contaminants from anthropogenic activities can accumulate in aquatic systems causing detrimental ecological consequences. Approaches exploiting microbial processes are now being utilized for the detection, and removal or reduction of contaminants. Contaminants can be identified and quantified in situ using microbial whole-cell biosensors, negating the need for water samples to be tested off-site. Similarly, the innate biodegradative processes can be enhanced through manipulation of the composition and/or function of the indigenous microbial communities present within the contaminated environments. Biological contaminants, such as detrimental/pathogenic bacteria, can be specifically targeted and reduced in number using bacteriophages. This mini-review discusses the potential application of whole-cell microbial biosensors for the detection of contaminants, the exploitation of microbial biodegradative processes for environmental restoration and the manipulation of microbial communities using phages. PMID:26322034

  18. Innovative approaches to promote a culturally competent, diverse health care workforce in an institution serving Hispanic students.

    PubMed

    Ghaddar, Suad; Ronnau, John; Saladin, Shawn P; Martínez, Glenn

    2013-12-01

    The underrepresentation of minorities among health care providers and researchers is often considered one of the contributing factors to health disparities in these populations. Recent demographic shifts and the higher proportion of minorities anticipated among the newly insured under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act make the need for a more diverse and culturally competent health care workforce an urgent national priority.The authors describe current and future strategies that have been developed at the College of Health Sciences and Human Services at the University of Texas-Pan American (an institution with 89% Hispanic students in 2012) to prepare a culturally competent and ethnically diverse health care workforce that can meet the needs of a diverse population, especially in the college's own community. The college graduates approximately 650 students annually for careers in nursing, physician assistant studies, occupational therapy, pharmacy, rehabilitation services, clinical laboratory sciences, dietetics, and social work. The college's approach centers on enriching student education with research, service, and community-based experiences within a social-determinants-of-health framework. The approach is promoted through an interdisciplinary health disparities research center, multiple venues for community-based service learning, and an innovative approach to improve cultural and linguistic competence. Although the different components of the college's approach are at different developmental stages and will benefit from more formal evaluations, the college's overall vision has several strengths that promise to serve as a model for future academic health initiatives.

  19. Effective cleanup at LLNL. Innovative technologies and approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Lamarre, A.; Angleberger, K.; Brown, M. G.

    1998-11-12

    At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Livermore Site Superfund Site, ground water restoration efforts have been ongoing since 1989. Based on plans committed to by DOE in the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Site in 1992, ground water cleanup was predicted to take 61 years. What began as conventional pump and treat has evolved into an effective Engineered Plume Collapse strategy that employs a well-stocked tool box of remediation technologies, processes, and methodologies. This "tool box" approach has proven effective in solving the vexing problem of restoring the chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC) contaminated aquifers beneath the site. The Engineered Plume Collapse strategy has been used to hydraulically control the plumes on the western and southern boundaries of the site, doubled the pounds of CVOC removed from the subsurface compared to predictions in the ROD plans, and "collapsed" offsite plumes. The three major components of the Engineered Plume Collapse strategy are: (1) collection and use of historical and current chemical and hydrogeologic data to accurately identify areas of contamination in the subsurface and guide decisions about on-going remediation needs, (2) design, construction and operation of small, portable, and inexpensive ground water treatment units to implement pump and treat and collapse contaminant plumes back to their source areas, and (3) effective use of more energetic contaminant mass removal technologies in source areas, such as chemical oxidation, reductive dehalogenation, steam stripping, and electro-osmosis.

  20. Promoting Healthy Outcomes Among Youth with Multiple Risks: Innovative Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Mark T.; Lippold, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent behavior problems such as substance use, antisocial behavior problems, and mental health problems have extremely high social costs and lead to overburdened mental health and juvenile justice systems in the United States and Europe. The prevalence of these problems is substantial, and at-risk youth often present with a combination of concerns. An understanding of risk and protective factors at multiple levels, including the child, family, peer, school, and community, has influenced intervention development. At the individual and family levels, the most effective and cost-effective programs work intensively with youth and their families or use individual and group cognitive-behavioral approaches. However, there is a paucity of careful studies of effective policies and programs in the juvenile justice system. Research is needed that focuses on adoption, financing, implementation, and sustainable use of evidence-based programs in public service systems. In addition, the field needs to understand better for whom current programs are most effective to create the next generation of more effective and efficient programs. PMID:23297659

  1. An innovative approach to reducing medical care utilization and expenditures.

    PubMed

    Orme-Johnson, D W; Herron, R E

    1997-01-01

    In a retrospective study, we assessed the impact on medical utilization and expenditures of a multicomponent prevention program, the Maharishi Vedic Approach to Health (MVAH). We compared archival data from Blue Cross/Blue Shield Iowa for MVAH (n = 693) with statewide norms for 1985 through 1995 (n = 600,000) and with a demographically matched control group (n = 4,148) for 1990, 1991, 1994, and 1995. We found that the 4-year total medical expenditures per person in the MVAH group were 59% and 57% lower than those in the norm and control groups, respectively; the 11-year mean was 63% lower than the norm. The MVAH group had lower utilization and expenditures across all age groups and for all disease categories. Hospital admission rates in the control group were 11.4 times higher than those in the MVAH group for cardiovascular disease, 3.3 times higher for cancer, and 6.7 times higher for mental health and substance abuse. The greatest savings were seen among MVAH patients older than age 45, who had 88% fewer total patients days compared with control patients. Our results confirm previous research supporting the effectiveness of MVAH for preventing disease. Our evaluation suggests that MVAH can be safely used as a cost-effective treatment regimen in the managed care setting.

  2. Promoting healthy outcomes among youth with multiple risks: innovative approaches.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Mark T; Lippold, Melissa A

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent behavior problems such as substance use, antisocial behavior problems, and mental health problems have extremely high social costs and lead to overburdened mental health and juvenile justice systems in the United States and Europe. The prevalence of these problems is substantial, and at-risk youth often present with a combination of concerns. An understanding of risk and protective factors at multiple levels, including the child, family, peer, school, and community, has influenced intervention development. At the individual and family levels, the most effective and cost-effective programs work intensively with youth and their families or use individual and group cognitive-behavioral approaches. However, there is a paucity of careful studies of effective policies and programs in the juvenile justice system. Research is needed that focuses on adoption, financing, implementation, and sustainable use of evidence-based programs in public service systems. In addition, the field needs to understand better for whom current programs are most effective to create the next generation of more effective and efficient programs.

  3. Mixed microprocessor-random logic approach for innovative pacing systems.

    PubMed

    Gaggini, G; Garberoglio, B; Silvestri, L

    1992-11-01

    Modern pacing systems are becoming more and more sophisticated. Conversion of the information supplied by a sensor into suitable parameters for a rate controlling algorithm and the management of complex timing are common tasks for an integrated circuit (IC) in cardiac pacing. An effective solution consists of using a microprocessor to implement algorithms and pacing modes in a flexible way. The key point of using the same hardware resources for different tasks on a time sharing basis allows the design of a less complex IC when compared to a random logic structure with the same performances. The major design problems in a full microprocessor solution are its relatively low operating speed due to the low frequency clock necessary for low current drain, and the sequential structure of the machine itself. This can lead to unacceptable timing inaccuracy in all situations requiring the management of complex decision trees. In order to take full benefit from the advantages of a microprocessor structure without these drawbacks, a mixed microprocessor-random logic approach has been investigated. This architecture uses a microprocessor core to perform all high level nonreal-time operations (setup of the pacing cycle, data reduction and processing, data integrity checks) while a set of random logic peripherals is used for all critical timing aspects.

  4. Knowledge Discovery/A Collaborative Approach, an Innovative Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, Mary A.

    2009-01-01

    Collaboration between Medical Informatics and Healthcare Systems (MIHCS) at NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC) and the Texas Medical Center (TMC) Library was established to investigate technologies for facilitating knowledge discovery across multiple life sciences research disciplines in multiple repositories. After reviewing 14 potential Enterprise Search System (ESS) solutions, Collexis was determined to best meet the expressed needs. A three month pilot evaluation of Collexis produced positive reports from multiple scientists across 12 research disciplines. The joint venture and a pilot-phased approach achieved the desired results without the high cost of purchasing software, hardware or additional resources to conduct the task. Medical research is highly compartmentalized by discipline, e.g. cardiology, immunology, neurology. The medical research community at large, as well as at JSC, recognizes the need for cross-referencing relevant information to generate best evidence. Cross-discipline collaboration at JSC is specifically required to close knowledge gaps affecting space exploration. To facilitate knowledge discovery across these communities, MIHCS combined expertise with the TMC library and found Collexis to best fit the needs of our researchers including:

  5. Innovative approaches to bipolar disorder and its treatment

    PubMed Central

    Cipriani, Andrea; Harmer, Catherine J.; Nobre, Anna C.; Saunders, Kate; Goodwin, Guy M.; Geddes, John R.

    2016-01-01

    All psychiatric disorders have suffered from a dearth of truly novel pharmacological interventions. In bipolar disorder, lithium remains a mainstay of treatment, six decades since its effects were serendipitously discovered. The lack of progress reflects several factors, including ignorance of the disorder's pathophysiology and the complexities of the clinical phenotype. After reviewing the current status, we discuss some ways forward. First, we highlight the need for a richer characterization of the clinical profile, facilitated by novel devices and new forms of data capture and analysis; such data are already promoting a reevaluation of the phenotype, with an emphasis on mood instability rather than on discrete clinical episodes. Second, experimental medicine can provide early indications of target engagement and therapeutic response, reducing the time, cost, and risk involved in evaluating potential mood stabilizers. Third, genomic data can inform target identification and validation, such as the increasing evidence for involvement of calcium channel genes in bipolar disorder. Finally, new methods and models relevant to bipolar disorder, including stem cells and genetically modified mice, are being used to study key pathways and drug effects. A combination of these approaches has real potential to break the impasse and deliver genuinely new treatments. PMID:27111134

  6. Lean Production as an Innovative Approach to Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spišáková, Marcela; Kozlovská, Mária

    2013-06-01

    Lean production presents a new approach to the construction management which has enabled enterprises to attain very high levels of efficiency, competitiveness and flexibility in production systems. Nowadays, a number of industrial processes are managed in accordance with these advanced management principles [1]. The principles of lean production are applied within the integrated design and delivery solutions (IDDS) and prefabricated construction. IDDS uses collaborative work processes and enhanced skills, with integrated data, information, and knowledge management to minimize structural and process inefficiencies and to enhance the value delivered during design, build, and operation, and across projects. Prefabrication presents a one of opportunities for construction methods, which allows the compliance with principles of sustainable design, provides the potential benefits such as faster construction, fewer housing defects, reduction in energy use and waste and elimination of environmental and safety risks. This paper presents the lean production within the IDDS and its potential in the modern prefabrication. There is created a field providing of benefits of lean production in construction industry.

  7. 77 FR 43277 - Applications for New Awards; Innovative Approaches to Literacy Program (CFDA 84.215G); Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    .... SUMMARY: On July 11, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 40866) a notice inviting applications for new awards using fiscal year (FY) 2012 funds for the Innovative Approaches to Literacy Program... Applications for New Awards; Innovative Approaches to Literacy Program (CFDA 84.215G); Correction...

  8. Keeping Promises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Gregory A.

    2005-01-01

    Commitments are between people, not schedules. Project management as practiced today creates a "commitment-free zone," because it assumes that people will commit to centrally managed schedules without providing a mechanism to ensure their work can be done. So they give it their best, but something always seems to come up ..."I tried, but you know how it is." This form of project management does not provide a mechanism to ensure that what should be done, can in fact be done at the required moment. Too often, promises reliable promise. made in coordination meetings are conditional and unreliable. It has been my experience that at times trust can be low and hard to build in this environment. The absence of reliable promises explains why on well-run projects, people are often only completing 30-50 percent of the deliverables they d promised for the week. We all know what a promise is; we have plenty of experience making them and receiving them from others. So what s the problem? The sad fact is that the project environment-like many other work environments- is often so filled with systemic dishonesty, that we don t expect promises that are reliable. Project managers excel when they manage their projects as networks of commitments and help their people learn to elicit and make reliable promises.

  9. Combining flow cytometry and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing: a promising approach for drinking water monitoring and characterization.

    PubMed

    Prest, E I; El-Chakhtoura, J; Hammes, F; Saikaly, P E; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2014-10-15

    The combination of flow cytometry (FCM) and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing data was investigated for the purpose of monitoring and characterizing microbial changes in drinking water distribution systems. High frequency sampling (5 min intervals for 1 h) was performed at the outlet of a treatment plant and at one location in the full-scale distribution network. In total, 52 bulk water samples were analysed with FCM, pyrosequencing and conventional methods (adenosine-triphosphate, ATP; heterotrophic plate count, HPC). FCM and pyrosequencing results individually showed that changes in the microbial community occurred in the water distribution system, which was not detected with conventional monitoring. FCM data showed an increase in the total bacterial cell concentrations (from 345 ± 15 × 10(3) to 425 ± 35 × 10(3) cells mL(-1)) and in the percentage of intact bacterial cells (from 39 ± 3.5% to 53 ± 4.4%) during water distribution. This shift was also observed in the FCM fluorescence fingerprints, which are characteristic of each water sample. A similar shift was detected in the microbial community composition as characterized with pyrosequencing, showing that FCM and genetic fingerprints are congruent. FCM and pyrosequencing data were subsequently combined for the calculation of cell concentration changes for each bacterial phylum. The results revealed an increase in cell concentrations of specific bacterial phyla (e.g., Proteobacteria), along with a decrease in other phyla (e.g., Actinobacteria), which could not be concluded from the two methods individually. The combination of FCM and pyrosequencing methods is a promising approach for future drinking water quality monitoring and for advanced studies on drinking water distribution pipeline ecology.

  10. In situ pressurized biphase acid hydrolysis, a promising approach to produce bioactive diosgenin from the tubers of Dioscorea Zingiberensis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huan; Yin, Hua-wu; Wang, Xue-wei; Li, Zi-hao; Shen, Yu-ping; Jia, Xiao-bin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The tubers of Dioscorea zingiberensis, is the most favorable plant material for the production of diosgenin, an important bioactive steroidal sapogenin and requisite precursor of cortin, contraceptive and sex hormone, which is the only desired product after steroidal saponins from the tubers are hydrolyzed. Objective: A novel technology, in situ pressurized biphase acid hydrolysis was constructed for the first time to simplify extraction process, increase extraction yield and decrease the consumption of mineral acids. Materials and Methods: The method developed in this study has been optimized and verified through orthogonal design for experiments, in which the effect and their significance of four factors including molarity of acid, temperature, extraction duration and sample quantity have been investigated. Then, the comparison was conducted among the newly developed method and other reported methods. The diosgenin was also isolated by column chromatography, followed by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis for structural confirmation. Results: It was found that temperature is the factor of the most influence and the highest extraction yield at 2.21% has been achieved while the hydrolysis was performed at 140°C for 1.5 h in 0.20M H2SO4 solution with petroleum ether under an uncontrolled pressurized condition. And, compared to the others, the increment in the extraction yield of new method was 20.8 ~ 74.0%, and the consumption of H2SO4 was reduced by 17 times at most. Conclusion: This method is a much cleaner and more efficient approach for extraction of diosgenin from the tubers, and is promising to be applied in pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26246743

  11. A systematic approach for introducing innovative product design in courses with engineering and nonengineering students.

    PubMed

    Patterson, P E

    2007-01-01

    In our new global economy, biomedical product development teams need to be even more innovative in an environment constrained by fewer resources with less time from concept to market. Teams are often comprised of individuals spread around the world. To simulate this setting, we revised an existing course to incorporate teams of on-campus and distance students, with each team including both engineers and other specialties. Through interactive lectures and projects, we presented a systematic approach to innovation that should be useful to engineers and non-engineers alike. Students found the course challenging and exciting, displaying an improved ability to work in distributed teams and in developing innovative design solutions. PMID:17487063

  12. Innovative approaches to water and wastewater treatment developed at CSIRO, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Priestley, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    The CSIRO Division of Chemicals and Polymers in Melbourne, Australia, has a program of research targeted at the development of innovative approaches to water and wastewater treatment. The research covers both biological and physicochemical approaches and has resulted in a number of different approaches to wastewater treatment, one of which is described in this paper. The particular work described involves an accelerated coagulation/flocculation process based on the use of fine magnetic particles, which has been applied to both water and wastewater treatment. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Examining the articulation of innovativeness in co-creative firms: a neural network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Tollo, Giacomo; Tanev, Stoyan

    2011-03-01

    Value co-creation is an emerging marketing and innovation paradigm describing a broader opening of the firm to its customers by providing them with the opportunity to become active participants in the design and development of personalized products, services and experiences. The aim of the present contribution is to provide preliminary results from a research project focusing on the relationship between value co-creation and the perception of innovation in technology-driven firms. The data was collected in a previous study using web search techniques and factor analysis to identify the key co-creation components and the frequency of firms' online comments about their new products, processes and services. The present work focuses on using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach to understand if the extent of value co-creation activities can be thought of as an indicator of the perception of innovation. The preliminary simulation results indicate the existence of such relationship. The ANN approach does not suggest a specific model but the relationship that was found out between the forecasted values of the perception of innovation and its actual values clearly points in this direction.

  14. Examining the articulation of innovativeness in co-creative firms: a neural network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Tollo, Giacomo; Tanev, Stoyan

    2010-10-01

    Value co-creation is an emerging marketing and innovation paradigm describing a broader opening of the firm to its customers by providing them with the opportunity to become active participants in the design and development of personalized products, services and experiences. The aim of the present contribution is to provide preliminary results from a research project focusing on the relationship between value co-creation and the perception of innovation in technology-driven firms. The data was collected in a previous study using web search techniques and factor analysis to identify the key co-creation components and the frequency of firms' online comments about their new products, processes and services. The present work focuses on using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach to understand if the extent of value co-creation activities can be thought of as an indicator of the perception of innovation. The preliminary simulation results indicate the existence of such relationship. The ANN approach does not suggest a specific model but the relationship that was found out between the forecasted values of the perception of innovation and its actual values clearly points in this direction.

  15. Improving psychotherapy for anorexia nervosa: Introduction to the special section on innovative treatment approaches.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Brenner, Heather

    2016-06-01

    The available forms of psychotherapy for anorexia nervosa (AN) are helpful to many patients; however, a substantial proportion of adults with AN continues to show persistent symptoms and medical risks following treatment. Clinical investigators are therefore developing innovative adjunctive treatments for adults, to augment treatment effects. The 3 cases in this special section each demonstrate a creative, potent adjunctive treatment approach: Exposure and Response Prevention, Cognitive Remediation Therapy, and Unified Couples Therapy. In addition to demonstrating the treatment and response, the authors also discuss the important opportunities and struggles associated with the experience of providing each treatment for AN. Because adults with AN are often very attached to symptoms, and afraid of change, it is crucial to develop a basis for the therapeutic alliance and motivation to change. In these detailed, vivid, evidence-based case examples, the authors demonstrate highly distinct, innovative approaches to these issues. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Magnetic separation-based blood purification: a promising new approach for the removal of disease-causing compounds?

    PubMed

    Herrmann, I K; Schlegel, A A; Graf, R; Stark, W J; Beck-Schimmer, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies report promising results regarding extracorporeal magnetic separation-based blood purification for the rapid and selective removal of disease-causing compounds from whole blood. High molecular weight compounds, bacteria and cells can be eliminated from blood within minutes, hence offering novel treatment strategies for the management of intoxications and blood stream infections. However, risks associated with incomplete particle separation and the biological consequences of particles entering circulation remain largely unclear. This article discusses the promising future of magnetic separation-based purification while keeping important safety considerations in mind. PMID:26253109

  17. Magnetic separation-based blood purification: a promising new approach for the removal of disease-causing compounds?

    PubMed

    Herrmann, I K; Schlegel, A A; Graf, R; Stark, W J; Beck-Schimmer, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies report promising results regarding extracorporeal magnetic separation-based blood purification for the rapid and selective removal of disease-causing compounds from whole blood. High molecular weight compounds, bacteria and cells can be eliminated from blood within minutes, hence offering novel treatment strategies for the management of intoxications and blood stream infections. However, risks associated with incomplete particle separation and the biological consequences of particles entering circulation remain largely unclear. This article discusses the promising future of magnetic separation-based purification while keeping important safety considerations in mind.

  18. Recent advances in innovative therapeutic approaches for Duchenne muscular dystrophy: from discovery to clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu-Motohashi, Yuko; Miyatake, Shouta; Komaki, Hirofumi; Takeda, Shin’ichi; Aoki, Yoshitsugu

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked progressive degenerative muscle disorder caused by the absence of dystrophin. There is no curative therapy, although innovative therapeutic approaches have been aggressively investigated over recent years. Currently, the international clinical trial registry platform for this disease has been constructed and clinical trials for innovative therapeutic approaches are underway. Among these, exon skipping and read-through of nonsense mutations are in the most advanced stages, with exon skipping theoretically applicable to a larger number of patients. To date, exon skipping that targets exons 51, 44, 45, and 53 is being globally investigated including in USA, EU, and Japan. The latest announcement from Japan was made, demonstrating successful dystrophin production in muscles of patients with DMD after treating with exon 53 skipping antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs). However, the innovative therapeutic approaches have demonstrated limited efficacy. To address this issue in exon skipping, studies to unveil the mechanism underlying gymnotic delivery of ASO uptake in living cells have been conducted in an effort to improve in vivo delivery. Further, establishing the infrastructures to integrate multi-institutional clinical trials are needed to facilitate the development of successful therapies for DMD, which ultimately is applicable to other myopathies and neurodegenerative diseases, including spinal muscular atrophy and motor neuron diseases. PMID:27398133

  19. Recent advances in innovative therapeutic approaches for Duchenne muscular dystrophy: from discovery to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Shimizu-Motohashi, Yuko; Miyatake, Shouta; Komaki, Hirofumi; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Aoki, Yoshitsugu

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked progressive degenerative muscle disorder caused by the absence of dystrophin. There is no curative therapy, although innovative therapeutic approaches have been aggressively investigated over recent years. Currently, the international clinical trial registry platform for this disease has been constructed and clinical trials for innovative therapeutic approaches are underway. Among these, exon skipping and read-through of nonsense mutations are in the most advanced stages, with exon skipping theoretically applicable to a larger number of patients. To date, exon skipping that targets exons 51, 44, 45, and 53 is being globally investigated including in USA, EU, and Japan. The latest announcement from Japan was made, demonstrating successful dystrophin production in muscles of patients with DMD after treating with exon 53 skipping antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs). However, the innovative therapeutic approaches have demonstrated limited efficacy. To address this issue in exon skipping, studies to unveil the mechanism underlying gymnotic delivery of ASO uptake in living cells have been conducted in an effort to improve in vivo delivery. Further, establishing the infrastructures to integrate multi-institutional clinical trials are needed to facilitate the development of successful therapies for DMD, which ultimately is applicable to other myopathies and neurodegenerative diseases, including spinal muscular atrophy and motor neuron diseases.

  20. Infusing BSCS 5E Instructional Model with Multimedia: A Promising Approach to Develop 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senan, Divya C.

    2013-01-01

    The full promise of class room learning is dependent on its ability to incorporate 21st century skills in its instructional design, delivery and implementation. In this increasingly competitive global economy, it is not enough for students to acquire subject-level mastery alone. Skills like creative thinking, problem-solving, communication and…

  1. Moving Innovations into Treatment: A Stage-based Approach to Program Change

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, D. Dwayne; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2007-01-01

    Treatment programs are expected to change their clients. To adopt evidence-based practices to improve their therapeutic effectiveness in dealing with drug-related problems of clients, they also are expected to change themselves. The process of innovation adoption and implementation is the focus of studies included in this special journal issue. Collectively, this volume examines staff perceptions of program needs, organizational readiness for change (based on pressures, resources, staff attributes, and organizational climate), quality of workshop training, subsequent utilization of training materials, and client self-report of treatment engagement. Approximately 800 treatment programs nationwide contributed data for these studies. A standardized assessment of organizational functioning captured attributes that describe environments, settings, and staffs, and the findings are interpreted in the context of a stage-based approach to program changes. A conceptual model is used to help organize and summarize longitudinal results within the organizational context and according to implementation influences related to qualities of the innovations. PMID:17434704

  2. Innovative approaches to interprofessional care at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Driessen, Julia; Bellon, Johanna E; Stevans, Joel; James, A Everette; Minnier, Tami; Reynolds, Benjamin R; Zhang, Yuting

    2015-01-01

    The enactment of the Affordable Care Act expands coverage to millions of uninsured Americans and creates a new workforce landscape. Interprofessional Collaborative Practice (ICP) is no longer a choice but a necessity. In this paper, we describe four innovative approaches to interprofessional practice at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. These models demonstrate innovative applications of ICP to inpatient and outpatient care, relying on non-physician providers, training programs, and technology to deliver more appropriate care to specific patient groups. We also discuss the ongoing evaluation plans to assess the effects of these interprofessional practices on patient health, quality of care, and healthcare costs. We conclude that successful implementation of interprofessional teams involves more than just a reassignment of tasks, but also depends on structuring the environment and workflow in a way that facilitates team-based care.

  3. A Systems Biology Approach to Infectious Disease Research: Innovating the Pathogen-Host Research Paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Aderem, Alan; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles; Galagan, James; Kaiser, Shari; Korth, Marcus J.; Law, G. L.; McDermott, Jason E.; Proll, Sean; Rosenberger, Carrie; Schoolnik, Gary; Katze, Michael G.

    2011-02-01

    The 20th century was marked by extraordinary advances in our understanding of microbes and infectious disease, but pandemics remain, food and water borne illnesses are frequent, multi-drug resistant microbes are on the rise, and the needed drugs and vaccines have not been developed. The scientific approaches of the past—including the intense focus on individual genes and proteins typical of molecular biology—have not been sufficient to address these challenges. The first decade of the 21st century has seen remarkable innovations in technology and computational methods. These new tools provide nearly comprehensive views of complex biological systems and can provide a correspondingly deeper understanding of pathogen-host interactions. To take full advantage of these innovations, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recently initiated the Systems Biology Program for Infectious Disease Research. As participants of the Systems Biology Program we think that the time is at hand to redefine the pathogen-host research paradigm.

  4. Innovation, Innovation, Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Innovation, Universities and Skills. The new title of the department offers much food for thought. The title is indeed an intriguing and important one. Bringing the idea of innovation right to the fore is, to use an overworked term, challenging. Pinning down what innovation means is not at all easy. There are three different lines of argument. The…

  5. Community-based approaches and partnerships: innovations in health-service delivery in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    El Arifeen, Shams; Christou, Aliki; Reichenbach, Laura; Osman, Ferdous Arfina; Azad, Kishwar; Islam, Khaled Shamsul; Ahmed, Faruque; Perry, Henry B; Peters, David H

    2013-12-14

    In Bangladesh, rapid advancements in coverage of many health interventions have coincided with impressive reductions in fertility and rates of maternal, infant, and childhood mortality. These advances, which have taken place despite such challenges as widespread poverty, political instability, and frequent natural disasters, warrant careful analysis of Bangladesh's approach to health-service delivery in the past four decades. With reference to success stories, we explore strategies in health-service delivery that have maximised reach and improved health outcomes. We identify three distinctive features that have enabled Bangladesh to improve health-service coverage and health outcomes: (1) experimentation with, and widespread application of, large-scale community-based approaches, especially investment in community health workers using a doorstep delivery approach; (2) experimentation with informal and contractual partnership arrangements that capitalise on the ability of non-governmental organisations to generate community trust, reach the most deprived populations, and address service gaps; and (3) rapid adoption of context-specific innovative technologies and policies that identify country-specific systems and mechanisms. Continued development of innovative, community-based strategies of health-service delivery, and adaptation of new technologies, are needed to address neglected and emerging health challenges, such as increasing access to skilled birth attendance, improvement of coverage of antenatal care and of nutritional status, the effects of climate change, and chronic disease. Past experience should guide future efforts to address rising public health concerns for Bangladesh and other underdeveloped countries.

  6. BIM-Based E-Procurement: An Innovative Approach to Construction E-Procurement.

    PubMed

    Aguiar Costa, António; Grilo, António

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative approach to e-procurement in construction, which uses building information models (BIM) to support the construction procurement process. The result is an integrated and electronic instrument connected to a rich knowledge base capable of advanced operations and able to strengthen transaction relationships and collaboration throughout the supply chain. The BIM-based e-procurement prototype has been developed using distinct existing electronic solutions and an IFC server and was tested in a pilot case study, which supported further discussions of the results of the research. PMID:26090518

  7. BIM-Based E-Procurement: An Innovative Approach to Construction E-Procurement

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative approach to e-procurement in construction, which uses building information models (BIM) to support the construction procurement process. The result is an integrated and electronic instrument connected to a rich knowledge base capable of advanced operations and able to strengthen transaction relationships and collaboration throughout the supply chain. The BIM-based e-procurement prototype has been developed using distinct existing electronic solutions and an IFC server and was tested in a pilot case study, which supported further discussions of the results of the research. PMID:26090518

  8. BIM-Based E-Procurement: An Innovative Approach to Construction E-Procurement.

    PubMed

    Aguiar Costa, António; Grilo, António

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative approach to e-procurement in construction, which uses building information models (BIM) to support the construction procurement process. The result is an integrated and electronic instrument connected to a rich knowledge base capable of advanced operations and able to strengthen transaction relationships and collaboration throughout the supply chain. The BIM-based e-procurement prototype has been developed using distinct existing electronic solutions and an IFC server and was tested in a pilot case study, which supported further discussions of the results of the research.

  9. GPR119 agonists: a promising approach for T2DM treatment? A SWOT analysis of GPR119.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Uk

    2013-12-01

    Ever since its advent as a promising therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), G-protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) has received much interest from the pharmaceutical industry. This interest peaked in June 2010, when Sanofi-Aventis agreed to pay Metabolex (Cymabay Therapeutics) US$375 million for MBX-2982, which was a representative orally active GPR119 agonist. However, Sanofi-Aventis opted to terminate the deal in May 2011 and another leading GPR119 agonist, GSK1292263, had a loss of efficacy during its clinical trial. In this review, I discuss the pros and cons of GPR119 through a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis and propose development strategies for the eventual success of a GPR119 agonist development program. PMID:24060477

  10. Curcumin and Resveratrol as Promising Natural Remedies with Nanomedicine Approach for the Effective Treatment of Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shindikar, Amol; Singh, Akshita; Nobre, Malcolm; Kirolikar, Saurabh

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have made considerable progress in last few decades in understanding mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of breast cancer, its phenotypes, its molecular and genetic changes, its physiology, and its prognosis. This has allowed us to identify specific targets and design appropriate chemical entities for effective treatment of most breast cancer phenotypes, resulting in increased patient survivability. Unfortunately, these strategies have been largely ineffective in the treatment of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Hormonal receptors lacking render the conventional breast cancer drugs redundant, forcing scientists to identify novel targets for treatment of TNBC. Two natural compounds, curcumin and resveratrol, have been widely reported to have anticancer properties. In vitro and in vivo studies show promising results, though their effectiveness in clinical settings has been less than satisfactory, owing to their feeble pharmacokinetics. Here we discuss these naturally occurring compounds, their mechanism as anticancer agents, their shortcomings in translational research, and possible methodology to improve their pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics with advanced drug delivery systems. PMID:27242900

  11. GPR119 agonists: a promising approach for T2DM treatment? A SWOT analysis of GPR119.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Uk

    2013-12-01

    Ever since its advent as a promising therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), G-protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) has received much interest from the pharmaceutical industry. This interest peaked in June 2010, when Sanofi-Aventis agreed to pay Metabolex (Cymabay Therapeutics) US$375 million for MBX-2982, which was a representative orally active GPR119 agonist. However, Sanofi-Aventis opted to terminate the deal in May 2011 and another leading GPR119 agonist, GSK1292263, had a loss of efficacy during its clinical trial. In this review, I discuss the pros and cons of GPR119 through a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis and propose development strategies for the eventual success of a GPR119 agonist development program.

  12. LLRW disposal facility siting approaches: Connecticut`s innovative volunteer approach

    SciTech Connect

    Forcella, D.; Gingerich, R.E.; Holeman, G.R.

    1994-12-31

    The Connecticut Hazardous Waste Management Service (CHWMS) has embarked on a volunteer approach to siting a LLRW disposal facility in Connecticut. This effort comes after an unsuccessful effort to site a facility using a step-wise, criteria-based site screening process that was a classic example of the decide/announce/defend approach. While some of the specific features of the CHWMS` volunteer process reflect the unique challenge presented by the state`s physical characteristics, political structure and recent unsuccessful siting experience, the basic elements of the process are applicable to siting LLRW disposal facilities in many parts of the United States. The CHWMS` volunteer process is structured to reduce the {open_quotes}outrage{close_quotes} dimension of two of the variables that affect the public`s perception of risk. The two variables are the degree to which the risk is taken on voluntarily (voluntary risks are accepted more readily than those that are imposed) and the amount of control one has over the risk (risks under individual control are accepted more readily than those under government control). In the volunteer process, the CHWMS will only consider sites that have been been voluntarily offered by the community in which they are located and the CHWMS will share control over the development and operation of the facility with the community. In addition to these elements which have broad applicability, the CHWMS has tailored the volunteer approach to take advantage of the unique opportunities made possible by the earlier statewide site screening process. Specifically, the approach presents a {open_quotes}win-win{close_quotes} situation for elected officials in many communities if they decide to participate in the process.

  13. Innovative approaches to training and qualifying plant personnel at GPU Nuclear

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, R.P.

    1994-12-31

    For the past 10 yr, technical training programs at GPU Nuclear (GPUN) have been highly successful in the training and qualifying of nuclear station personnel at its Oyster Creek and Three Mile Island sites. The programs have received accreditation by the National Academy for Nuclear Training and have successfully reviewed and approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, American Nuclear Insurers, and various internal oversight groups. Over the past several years, the training and education department at GPUN has attempted to make learning more interesting and meaningful through a series of innovative approaches. Student feedback has been very positive. Plant management has seen an increase in productivity as key learning tasks are reinforced. Failure rates are dwindling, and retention rates appear to be improving. Equally important, instructors are becoming more and more comfortable with these approaches and the increased quality in classroom and laboratory training.

  14. A Study of Difficulties and Approaches for Innovative Talents Training of Public Administration Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Yanhan; Wu, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The innovation is the soul of one nation making progresses. To build an innovative country, we need to train more innovative talents who is capable of public administration. The innovative talents training of public administration undergraduate faces a lot of problems, such as the influences of traditional culture, the constraint of education…

  15. A Case Study of the Fidelity Approach in an Educational Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weedall, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Organizational innovation is a difficult process. Most innovations fail. If an innovation fails there is a high probability the organization will be fractured. It is easy to break apart an organization. It is much more difficult to build it back up. This is a case study of an innovation in a branch of a large private English language school in…

  16. D4-4: Shared Medical Appointments: A Promising Innovation to Improve Patient-Physician Relationship and Ease Primary Care Shortage

    PubMed Central

    Stults, Cheryl; McCuistion, Mary; Frosch, Dominick; Hung, Dorothy; Tai-Seale, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Shared medical appointments (SMAs) or group visits have been touted as a primary care system change to overcome the challenges of short visits, underused self-management education, and to relieve physician shortage. However, few studies have examined SMAs from the patient’s perspective. Using data collected through focus groups, we present the thoughts and experiences of patients participating in SMAs. Methods We conducted five focus groups with participants who had attended SMAs at a large, non-profit, multispecialty group practice in northern California which serves four counties and more than 700,000 patients. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed, and thematically coded according to study aims. Transcripts were coded at the paragraph level. Disagreements in coding were discussed until consensus was reached. Results Similar themes emerged across the focus groups. Patients expressed many benefits to SMAs including enhanced learning by being able to cover more information than what would be provided in a traditional visit, increased motivation for health behavior change, and were able to connect with others in a similar situation. Patients also felt that the SMA altered their relationship with their physician. Patients now saw the more “human” side to their physician which placed them at ease for future visits. Overall, the power dynamic between patient and physician was lessened as the patient now viewed themselves as being able to impart information to the physician. Conclusions Given the upcoming Affordable Care Act and existing primary care shortage, SMAs provide a way for patients to improve access, relationships with physicians, and an increased knowledge of health, but also to help ease patient load for physicians. Thus, SMAs are an innovative form of delivery that can improve efficiencies and better use the scare resource of primary care physicians.

  17. Pharmacological Targeting SHP-1-STAT3 Signaling Is a Promising Therapeutic Approach for the Treatment of Colorectal Cancer12

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Li-Ching; Teng, Hao-Wei; Shiau, Chung-Wai; Tai, Wei-Tien; Hung, Man-Hsin; Yang, Shung-Haur; Jiang, Jeng-Kai; Chen, Kuen-Feng

    2015-01-01

    STAT3 activation is associated with poor prognosis in human colorectal cancer (CRC). Our previous data demonstrated that regorafenib (Stivarga) is a pharmacological agonist of SH2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) that enhances SHP-1 activity and induces apoptosis by targeting STAT3 signals in CRC. This study aimed to find a therapeutic drug that is more effective than regorafenib for CRC treatment. Here, we showed that SC-43 was more effective than regorafenib at inducing apoptosis in vitro and suppressing tumorigenesis in vivo. SC-43 significantly increased SHP-1 activity, downregulated p-STAT3Tyr705 level, and induced apoptosis in CRC cells. An SHP-1 inhibitor or knockdown of SHP-1 by siRNA both significantly rescued the SC-43–induced apoptosis and decreased p-STAT3Tyr705 level. Conversely, SHP-1 overexpression increased the effects of SC-43 on apoptosis and p-STAT3Tyr705 level. These data suggest that SC-43–induced apoptosis mediated through the loss of p-STAT3Tyr705 was dependent on SHP-1 function. Importantly, SC-43–enhanced SHP-1 activity was because of the docking potential of SC-43, which relieved the autoinhibited N-SH2 domain of SHP-1 and inhibited p-STAT3Tyr705 signals. Importantly, we observed that a significant negative correlation existed between SHP-1 and p-STAT3Tyr705expression in CRC patients (P = .038). Patients with strong SHP-1 and weak p-STAT3Tyr705 expression had significantly higher overall survival compared with patients with weak SHP-1 and strong p-STAT3Tyr705 expression (P = .029). In conclusion, SHP-1 is suitable to be a useful prognostic marker and a pharmacological target for CRC treatment. Targeting SHP-1-STAT3 signaling by SC-43 may serve as a promising pharmacotherapy for CRC. PMID:26476076

  18. Propagation of New Innovations: An Approach to Classify Human Behavior and Movement from Available Social Network Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahmud, Faisal; Samiul, Hasan

    2010-01-01

    It is interesting to observe new innovations, products, or ideas propagating into the society. One important factor of this propagation is the role of individual's social network; while another factor is individual's activities. In this paper, an approach will be made to analyze the propagation of different ideas in a popular social network. Individuals' responses to different activities in the network will be analyzed. The properties of network will also be investigated for successful propagation of innovations.

  19. Gels from mixed ligand silver(I) carboxylates: a promising approach for gel formation utilizing surface modifications.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sungho; Kwon, Won Jong; Piao, Longhai; Kim, Sang-Ho

    2007-07-31

    Mixtures of Ag(hexanoate) and Ag(palmitate) give thermoreversible gels at very low concentration in toluene. The framework of the gel is composed of the branched nanosized fibers, contrary to the microsized wire precipitates of silver(I) carboxylates. The randomness of mixed-ligand silver(I) carboxylate polymeric chains hinders the crystallization process, resulting in very thin fibrils. This may be a new approach to design and control the properties of materials, which do not have properties involving gels or nanostructures in a conventional process. PMID:17602577

  20. Lipid-based systems as a promising approach for enhancing the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Cerpnjak, Katja; Zvonar, Alenka; Gašperlin, Mirjana; Vrečer, Franc

    2013-12-01

    Low oral bioavailability as a consequence of low water solubility of drugs is a growing challenge to the development of new pharmaceutical products. One of the most popular approaches of oral bioavailability and solubility enhancement is the utilization of lipid-based drug delivery systems. Their use in product development is growing due to the versatility of pharmaceutical lipid excipients and drug formulations, and their compatibility with liquid, semi-solid, and solid dosage forms. Lipid formulations, such as self-emulsifying (SEDDS), self-microemulsifying SMEDDS) and self- -nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) were explored in many studies as an efficient approach for improving the bioavailability and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs. One of the greatest advantages of incorporating poorly soluble drugs into such formulations is their spontaneous emulsification and formation of an emulsion, microemulsion or nanoemulsion in aqueous media. This review article focuses on the following topics. First, it presents a classification overview of lipid-based drug delivery systems and mechanisms involved in improving the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Second, the article reviews components of lipid-based drug delivery systems for oral use with their characteristics. Third, it brings a detailed description of SEDDS, SMEDDS and SNEDDS, which are very often misused in literature, with special emphasis on the comparison between microemulsions and nanoemulsions. PMID:24451070

  1. Teaching Note--Incorporating Social Innovation Content into Macro Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Cosner Berzin, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The practice of social innovation offers promising approaches for addressing social issues. Although many social innovation strategies are congruent with macro social work theory and practice, some of the insights and tactics that have emerged in the social innovation field have the potential to strengthen current macro practice. Based on our…

  2. E-Cigarette as a Harm Reduction Approach among Tobacco Smoking Khat Chewers: A Promising Bullet of Multiple Gains.

    PubMed

    Kassim, Saba; Farsalinos, Konstantinos E

    2016-02-01

    Khat chewing/use, a green leaf with amphetamine-like effects is socially integrated in the Middle East and Africa. Khat chewing is often associated with tobacco smoking and occurs in closed places, such as a family home setting where the smoke-free laws cannot be implemented. Tobacco cigarette smoking among khat chewers is a significant concern, but there is also second-hand exposure to smoke at home or in places where khat users gather. Evidence suggests that e-cigarettes represent a significantly less harmful form of nicotine intake. Evaluating the effects of e-cigarettes among khat chewers could be important in understanding the impact of e-cigarettes as a harm reduction approach, with the potential to reduce the health risk associated with smoking.

  3. E-Cigarette as a Harm Reduction Approach among Tobacco Smoking Khat Chewers: A Promising Bullet of Multiple Gains.

    PubMed

    Kassim, Saba; Farsalinos, Konstantinos E

    2016-02-01

    Khat chewing/use, a green leaf with amphetamine-like effects is socially integrated in the Middle East and Africa. Khat chewing is often associated with tobacco smoking and occurs in closed places, such as a family home setting where the smoke-free laws cannot be implemented. Tobacco cigarette smoking among khat chewers is a significant concern, but there is also second-hand exposure to smoke at home or in places where khat users gather. Evidence suggests that e-cigarettes represent a significantly less harmful form of nicotine intake. Evaluating the effects of e-cigarettes among khat chewers could be important in understanding the impact of e-cigarettes as a harm reduction approach, with the potential to reduce the health risk associated with smoking. PMID:26907315

  4. Community directed approach beyond ivermectin in Tanzania: a promising mechanism for the delivery of complex health interventions.

    PubMed

    Mutalemwa, P; Kisinza, W N; Kisoka, W J; Kilima, S; Njau, J; Tenu, F; Nkya, T; Magesa, S M

    2009-07-01

    The Community Directed Intervention (CDI) is currently used for Ivermectin distribution for the treatment of onchocerciasis in Africa. This study was carried out to determine the extent to which the CDI process can be used for the delivery of other health interventions with different degrees of complexity. The study was conducted in five districts of Kilosa, Muheza, Lushoto, Korogwe and Ulanga in Tanzania and involved communities, health facility and district healthcare providers. Implementation of CDI across these health interventions involved addressing six major processes, namely, stakeholder processes, health system dynamics, engaging communities, empowering communities, engaging CDI implementers and broader system effects. Community and health systems changes were triggered, such that the inherent value of community involvement and empowerment could be internalized by communities and health workers, leading to a more receptive health system. The CDI process was accepted at the community levels as many were willing and ready to adopt the approach. Health workers at community levels were readily available and supportive of the process. Additionally, noted were the verified willingness and ability of community implementers to deliver multiple interventions; confirmed efficiency of CDI leading to cost savings at health systems level; increasing interest of the health system in CDI; interest of health workers in the process of integrated planning. However, there were factors that may have a negative influence on the CDI process. Drug and supply policy for CDI process was lacking at the national and district levels and the presence of parallel community-based programmes that provide financial incentives for community members to run them discouraged Community-directed distributors who in most cases are volunteers. In conclusion, the results have clearly and evidently demonstrated the potential of CDI approach for effectively and efficiently control of other diseases

  5. Autologous bone marrow stromal cells are promising candidates for cell therapy approaches to treat bone degeneration in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Lebouvier, Angélique; Poignard, Alexandre; Coquelin-Salsac, Laura; Léotot, Julie; Homma, Yasuhiro; Jullien, Nicolas; Bierling, Philippe; Galactéros, Frédéric; Hernigou, Philippe; Chevallier, Nathalie; Rouard, Hélène

    2015-11-01

    Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a frequent complication in adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). To delay hip arthroplasty, core decompression combined with concentrated total bone marrow (BM) treatment is currently performed in the early stages of the osteonecrosis. Cell therapy efficacy depends on the quantity of implanted BM stromal cells. For this reason, expanded bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells) can be used to improve osteonecrosis treatment in SCD patients. In this study, we quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated the function of BMSCs isolated from a large number of SCD patients with osteonecrosis (SCD-ON) compared with control groups (patients with osteonecrosis not related to SCD (ON) and normal donors (N)). BM total nuclear cells and colony-forming efficiency values (CFE) were significantly higher in SCD-ON patients than in age and sex-matched controls. The BMSCs from SCD-ON patients were similar to BMSCs from the control groups in terms of their phenotypic and functional properties. SCD-ON patients have a higher frequency of BMSCs that retain their bone regeneration potential. Our findings suggest that BMSCs isolated from SCD-ON patients can be used clinically in cell therapy approaches. This work provides important preclinical data that is necessary for the clinical application of expanded BMSCs in advanced therapies and medical products. PMID:26492634

  6. Autologous bone marrow stromal cells are promising candidates for cell therapy approaches to treat bone degeneration in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Lebouvier, Angélique; Poignard, Alexandre; Coquelin-Salsac, Laura; Léotot, Julie; Homma, Yasuhiro; Jullien, Nicolas; Bierling, Philippe; Galactéros, Frédéric; Hernigou, Philippe; Chevallier, Nathalie; Rouard, Hélène

    2015-11-01

    Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a frequent complication in adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). To delay hip arthroplasty, core decompression combined with concentrated total bone marrow (BM) treatment is currently performed in the early stages of the osteonecrosis. Cell therapy efficacy depends on the quantity of implanted BM stromal cells. For this reason, expanded bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells) can be used to improve osteonecrosis treatment in SCD patients. In this study, we quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated the function of BMSCs isolated from a large number of SCD patients with osteonecrosis (SCD-ON) compared with control groups (patients with osteonecrosis not related to SCD (ON) and normal donors (N)). BM total nuclear cells and colony-forming efficiency values (CFE) were significantly higher in SCD-ON patients than in age and sex-matched controls. The BMSCs from SCD-ON patients were similar to BMSCs from the control groups in terms of their phenotypic and functional properties. SCD-ON patients have a higher frequency of BMSCs that retain their bone regeneration potential. Our findings suggest that BMSCs isolated from SCD-ON patients can be used clinically in cell therapy approaches. This work provides important preclinical data that is necessary for the clinical application of expanded BMSCs in advanced therapies and medical products.

  7. State strategies of governance in biomedical innovation: aligning conceptual approaches for understanding 'Rising Powers' in the global context

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background 'Innovation' has become a policy focus in its own right in many states as they compete to position themselves in the emerging knowledge economies. Innovation in biomedicine is a global enterprise in which 'Rising Power' states figure prominently, and which undoubtedly will re-shape health systems and health economies globally. Scientific and technological innovation processes and policies raise difficult issues in the domains of science/technology, civil society, and the economic and healthcare marketplace. The production of knowledge in these fields is complex, uncertain, inter-disciplinary and inter-institutional, and subject to a continuing political struggle for advantage. As part of this struggle, a wide variety of issues - regulation, intellectual property, ethics, scientific boundaries, healthcare market formation - are raised and policy agendas negotiated. Methods A range of social science disciplines and approaches have conceptualised such innovation processes. Against a background of concepts such as the competition state and the developmental state, and national innovation systems, we give an overview of a range of approaches that have potential for advancing understanding of governance of global life science and biomedical innovation, with special reference to the 'Rising Powers', in order to examine convergences and divergences between them. Conceptual approaches that we focus on include those drawn from political science/political economy, sociology of technology; Innovation Studies and Science & Technology Studies. The paper is part of a project supported by the UK ESRC's Rising Powers programme. Results We show convergences and complementarities between the approaches discussed, and argue that the role of the national state itself has become relatively neglected in much of the relevant theorising. Conclusions We conclude that an approach is required that enables innovation and governance to be seen as 'co-producing' each other in a multi

  8. Innovative Approach to the Accumulation of Rubrosterone by Fermentation of Asparagus filicinus with Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Cai, Le; Dong, Jian-Wei; Xing, Yun; Duan, Wei-He; Zhou, Hao; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2015-07-29

    Rubrosterone, possessing various remarkable bioactivities, is an insect-molting C19-steroid. However, only very small amounts are available for biological tests due to its limited content from plant sources. Fungi of genus Fusarium have been reported to have the ability to convert C27-steroids into C19-steroids. In this study, Asparagus filicinus, containing a high content of 20-hydroxyecdysone, was utilized to accumulate rubrosterone through solid fermentation by Fusarium oxysporum. The results showed that F. oxysporum had the ability to facilitate the complete biotransformation of 20-hydroxyecdysone to rubrosterone by solid-state fermentation. The present method could be an innovative and efficient approach to accumulate rubrosterone with an outstanding conversion ratio. PMID:26145461

  9. Strategies and Innovative Approaches for the Future of Space Weather Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeksema, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    The real and potential impacts of space weather have been well documented, yet neither the required research and operations programs, nor the data, modeling and analysis infrastructure necessary to develop and sustain a reliable space weather forecasting capability for a society are in place. The recently published decadal survey "Solar and Space Physics: A Science for a Technological Society" presents a vision for the coming decade and calls for a renewed national commitment to a comprehensive program in space weather and climatology. New resources are imperative. Particularly in the current fiscal environment, implementing a responsible strategy to address these needs will require broad participation across agencies and innovative approaches to make the most of existing resources, capitalize on current knowledge, span gaps in capabilities and observations, and focus resources on overcoming immediate roadblocks.

  10. Innovative Approach to the Accumulation of Rubrosterone by Fermentation of Asparagus filicinus with Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Cai, Le; Dong, Jian-Wei; Xing, Yun; Duan, Wei-He; Zhou, Hao; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2015-07-29

    Rubrosterone, possessing various remarkable bioactivities, is an insect-molting C19-steroid. However, only very small amounts are available for biological tests due to its limited content from plant sources. Fungi of genus Fusarium have been reported to have the ability to convert C27-steroids into C19-steroids. In this study, Asparagus filicinus, containing a high content of 20-hydroxyecdysone, was utilized to accumulate rubrosterone through solid fermentation by Fusarium oxysporum. The results showed that F. oxysporum had the ability to facilitate the complete biotransformation of 20-hydroxyecdysone to rubrosterone by solid-state fermentation. The present method could be an innovative and efficient approach to accumulate rubrosterone with an outstanding conversion ratio.

  11. The student health collaboration: an innovative approach to enhancing communication and improving student health.

    PubMed

    Guilday, Patricia

    2014-09-01

    Students, families, school staff and school nurses all benefit from successful community partnerships. School nurses requested improved communication with local clinicians and access to the health information of their students. School nurses were not routinely recognized as part of the care team and therefore were not able to access protected health information found in the medical record, which would improve health outcomes for their students. With a goal of improving student health outcomes, a local pediatric health care delivery system partnered with school nurses to share student health information. School nurses were included as part of the health care team, with access to electronic health records. This is an innovative coordinated care team approach with parents, nurses, and community clinicians able to communicate, plan, intervene, and evaluate student health.

  12. Grants4Targets - an innovative approach to translate ideas from basic research into novel drugs.

    PubMed

    Lessl, Monika; Schoepe, Stefanie; Sommer, Anette; Schneider, Martin; Asadullah, Khusru

    2011-04-01

    Collaborations between industry and academia are steadily gaining importance. To combine expertises Bayer Healthcare has set up a novel open innovation approach called Grants4Targets. Ideas on novel drug targets can easily be submitted to http://www.grants4targets.com. After a review process, grants are provided to perform focused experiments to further validate the proposed targets. In addition to financial support specific know-how on target validation and drug discovery is provided. Experienced scientists are nominated as project partners and, depending on the project, tools or specific models are provided. Around 280 applications have been received and 41 projects granted. According to our experience, this type of bridging fund combined with joint efforts provides a valuable tool to foster drug discovery collaborations.

  13. A nanomedicine-promising approach to provide an appropriate colon-targeted drug delivery system for 5-fluorouracil

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sima; Kotla, Niranjan G; Tomar, Sonia; Maddiboyina, Balaji; Webster, Thomas J; Sharma, Dinesh; Sunnapu, Omprakash

    2015-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery plays a significant role in disease treatment associated with the colon, affording therapeutic responses for a prolonged period of time with low side effects. Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in both men and women with an estimated 102,480 cases of colon cancer and 40,340 cases of rectal cancer in 2013 as reported by the American Cancer Society. In the present investigation, we developed an improved oral delivery system for existing anticancer drugs meant for colon cancer via prebiotic and probiotic approaches. The system comprises three components, namely, nanoparticles of drug coated with natural materials such as guar gum, xanthan gum (that serve as prebiotics), and probiotics. The natural gums play a dual role of protecting the drug in the gastric as well as intestinal conditions to allow its release only in the colon. In vitro results obtained from these experiments indicated the successful targeted delivery of 5-fluorouracil to the colon. Electron microscopy results demonstrated that the prepared nanoparticles were spherical in shape and 200 nm in size. The in vitro release data indicated that the maximum release occurs at pH 7.2 and 7.4 with 93% of the drug released in the presence of 4% (w/v) of rat cecal content. In vivo results conclude a practical mechanism to maintain the integrity and intactness of the intestinal/colonic microflora, in the face of a “chemical attack” by oral colon-targeted drug delivery for colon cancer treatment. PMID:26648721

  14. A nanomedicine-promising approach to provide an appropriate colon-targeted drug delivery system for 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sima; Kotla, Niranjan G; Tomar, Sonia; Maddiboyina, Balaji; Webster, Thomas J; Sharma, Dinesh; Sunnapu, Omprakash

    2015-01-01

    Targeted drug delivery plays a significant role in disease treatment associated with the colon, affording therapeutic responses for a prolonged period of time with low side effects. Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in both men and women with an estimated 102,480 cases of colon cancer and 40,340 cases of rectal cancer in 2013 as reported by the American Cancer Society. In the present investigation, we developed an improved oral delivery system for existing anticancer drugs meant for colon cancer via prebiotic and probiotic approaches. The system comprises three components, namely, nanoparticles of drug coated with natural materials such as guar gum, xanthan gum (that serve as prebiotics), and probiotics. The natural gums play a dual role of protecting the drug in the gastric as well as intestinal conditions to allow its release only in the colon. In vitro results obtained from these experiments indicated the successful targeted delivery of 5-fluorouracil to the colon. Electron microscopy results demonstrated that the prepared nanoparticles were spherical in shape and 200 nm in size. The in vitro release data indicated that the maximum release occurs at pH 7.2 and 7.4 with 93% of the drug released in the presence of 4% (w/v) of rat cecal content. In vivo results conclude a practical mechanism to maintain the integrity and intactness of the intestinal/colonic microflora, in the face of a "chemical attack" by oral colon-targeted drug delivery for colon cancer treatment. PMID:26648721

  15. Space Culture: Innovative Cultural Approaches To Public Engagement With Astronomy, Space Science And Astronautics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malina, Roger F.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years a number of cultural organizations have established ongoing programs of public engagement with astronomy, space science and astronautics. Many involve elements of citizen science initiatives, artists’ residencies in scientific laboratories and agencies, art and science festivals, and social network projects as well as more traditional exhibition venues. Recognizing these programs several agencies and organizations have established mechanisms for facilitating public engagement with astronomy and space science through cultural activities. The International Astronautics Federation has established an Technical Activities Committee for the Cultural Utilization of Space. Over the past year the NSF and NEA have organized disciplinary workshops to develop recommendations relating to art-science interaction and community building efforts. Rationales for encouraging public engagement via cultural projects range from theory of creativity, innovation and invention to cultural appropriation in the context of `socially robust science’ as advocated by Helga Nowotny of the European Research Council. Public engagement with science, as opposed to science education and outreach initiatives, require different approaches. Just as organizations have employed education professionals to lead education activities, so they must employ cultural professionals if they wish to develop public engagement projects via arts and culture. One outcome of the NSF and NEA workshops has been development of a rationale for converting STEM to STEAM by including the arts in STEM methodologies, particularly for K-12 where students can access science via arts and cultural contexts. Often these require new kinds of informal education approaches that exploit locative media, gaming platforms, artists projects and citizen science. Incorporating astronomy and space science content in art and cultural projects requires new skills in `cultural translation’ and `trans-mediation’ and new kinds

  16. Innovative User Defined Density Profile Approach To FSW Of Aluminium Foam

    SciTech Connect

    Contorno, Dorotea; Fratini, Livan; Filice, Luigino; Gagliardi, Francesco; Umbrello, Domenico; Shivpuri, Rajiv

    2007-04-07

    Metallic foams are one of the most exciting materials in the world of mechanical industry due to their reduced mass and the good mechanical, thermal and acoustic characteristics. Consequently, their application, is increasing day by day even with the important drawbacks that reduce their suitability and diffusion such as high manufacturing cost and difficulty in processing. An innovative approach is outlined in this paper that enables the production of complex shapes taking advantage of deformation processing and friction stir welding (FSW). The aim is to create customized tailored manufactured parts. The cellular construction of foams makes this approach rather challenging as the cell walls are extremely thin and deform unpredictably especially in the presence of rotating and moving hard tool. In this paper, an integrated approach to overcome some of the above challenges is proposed. The initial density is modified by using simple deformation processes, in order to obtained the desired 'crushed density', customized for the intended application. Then, the panels are joined to specially designed solid blocks by using FSW process with a proper set-up. Finally, the obtained specimens are evaluated for mechanical performance and the quality of the joint.

  17. Innovative empirical approaches for inferring climate-warming impacts on plants in remote areas.

    PubMed

    De Frenne, Pieter

    2015-02-01

    The prediction of the effects of climate warming on plant communities across the globe has become a major focus of ecology, evolution and biodiversity conservation. However, many of the frequently used empirical approaches for inferring how warming affects vegetation have been criticized for decades. In addition, methods that require no electricity may be preferred because of constraints of active warming, e.g. in remote areas. Efforts to overcome the limitations of earlier methods are currently under development, but these approaches have yet to be systematically evaluated side by side. Here, an overview of the benefits and limitations of a selection of innovative empirical techniques to study temperature effects on plants is presented, with a focus on practicality in relatively remote areas without an electric power supply. I focus on methods for: ecosystem aboveground and belowground warming; a fuller exploitation of spatial temperature variation; and long-term monitoring of plant ecological and microevolutionary changes in response to warming. An evaluation of the described methodological set-ups in a synthetic framework along six axes (associated with the consistency of temperature differences, disturbance, costs, confounding factors, spatial scale and versatility) highlights their potential usefulness and power. Hence, further developments of new approaches to empirically assess warming effects on plants can critically stimulate progress in climate-change biology.

  18. Teaching Public Health Networks in England: an innovative approach to building public health capacity and capability.

    PubMed

    Orme, J; Pilkington, P; Gray, S; Rao, M

    2009-12-01

    This paper examines the development and achievements of the Teaching Public Health Networks (TPHNs) in England; an initiative that aimed to catalyse collaborative working between the public health workforce and further and higher education, to enhance public health knowledge in the wider workforce with a view to enhancing capacity to tackle inequalities and meeting public health targets. This paper highlights activities under three outcomes: mobilizing resources, people, money and materials; building capacity through training and infrastructure development; and raising public and political awareness. The TPHN approach is shown to have led to innovative developments in public health education and training, including engagement with professionals that have not previously had exposure to public health. This paper aims to disseminate the learning from this complex public health initiative, now in its third year of development, and to share examples of good practice. It is hoped that other countries can use the TPHN approach as a model to address the various common and country-specific challenges in public health workforce development.

  19. Innovative Dental Stem Cell-Based Research Approaches: The Future of Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Mitsiadis, Thimios A.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, the dental field has benefited from recent findings in stem cell biology and tissue engineering that led to the elaboration of novel ideas and concepts for the regeneration of dental tissues or entire new teeth. In particular, stem cell-based regenerative approaches are extremely promising since they aim at the full restoration of lost or damaged tissues, ensuring thus their functionality. These therapeutic approaches are already applied with success in clinics for the regeneration of other organs and consist of manipulation of stem cells and their administration to patients. Stem cells have the potential to self-renew and to give rise to a variety of cell types that ensure tissue repair and regeneration throughout life. During the last decades, several adult stem cell populations have been isolated from dental and periodontal tissues, characterized, and tested for their potential applications in regenerative dentistry. Here we briefly present the various stem cell-based treatment approaches and strategies that could be translated in dental practice and revolutionize dentistry.

  20. Innovative Dental Stem Cell-Based Research Approaches: The Future of Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Miran, Shayee; Mitsiadis, Thimios A; Pagella, Pierfrancesco

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, the dental field has benefited from recent findings in stem cell biology and tissue engineering that led to the elaboration of novel ideas and concepts for the regeneration of dental tissues or entire new teeth. In particular, stem cell-based regenerative approaches are extremely promising since they aim at the full restoration of lost or damaged tissues, ensuring thus their functionality. These therapeutic approaches are already applied with success in clinics for the regeneration of other organs and consist of manipulation of stem cells and their administration to patients. Stem cells have the potential to self-renew and to give rise to a variety of cell types that ensure tissue repair and regeneration throughout life. During the last decades, several adult stem cell populations have been isolated from dental and periodontal tissues, characterized, and tested for their potential applications in regenerative dentistry. Here we briefly present the various stem cell-based treatment approaches and strategies that could be translated in dental practice and revolutionize dentistry. PMID:27648076

  1. Innovative Dental Stem Cell-Based Research Approaches: The Future of Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Mitsiadis, Thimios A.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, the dental field has benefited from recent findings in stem cell biology and tissue engineering that led to the elaboration of novel ideas and concepts for the regeneration of dental tissues or entire new teeth. In particular, stem cell-based regenerative approaches are extremely promising since they aim at the full restoration of lost or damaged tissues, ensuring thus their functionality. These therapeutic approaches are already applied with success in clinics for the regeneration of other organs and consist of manipulation of stem cells and their administration to patients. Stem cells have the potential to self-renew and to give rise to a variety of cell types that ensure tissue repair and regeneration throughout life. During the last decades, several adult stem cell populations have been isolated from dental and periodontal tissues, characterized, and tested for their potential applications in regenerative dentistry. Here we briefly present the various stem cell-based treatment approaches and strategies that could be translated in dental practice and revolutionize dentistry. PMID:27648076

  2. Adopting an International Innovation for Teacher Professional Development: State and District Approaches to Lesson Study in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiba, Motoko; Wilkinson, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The state of Florida has taken an unprecedented approach to teacher professional development in its Race to the Top (RTTT) Program application by proposing to promote an international innovation that originates in Japan, "lesson study," as a statewide teacher professional development model. Since winning the US$700 million RTTT funding…

  3. Reinventing the Reel: An Innovative Approach to Resident Skill-Building in Motivational Interviewing for Brief Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bonnie; Clark, Denice Crowe; Seale, J. Paul; Shellenberger, Sylvia; Lyme, Alan; Johnson, J. Aaron; Chhabria, Aruna

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the skills of primary care residents in addressing substance misuse, residency screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) programs increasingly offer motivational interviewing (MI) training, but seldom include feedback and coaching. This innovative 2-round "Virginia Reel" approach, supplementing 3 hours of basic MI…

  4. Impact of Innovative Approaches in Teaching-Learning of Science on Rural Students at Middle School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koul, Anjni

    2014-01-01

    The National Curriculum Framework-2005 (NCF-2005) recommends that learning of children has to shift away from methods encouraging rote memory. This is possible only if children get an opportunity to explore the surroundings themselves. In this paper the researcher shares her experiences in the use of various innovative approaches in…

  5. An Innovative Approach on Holistic Analysis of Interview Data: The Case of Iowa State University's Simultaneous Renewal of Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özkan, Betul C.; Davis, Niki; Johnson, Natalie

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we discuss the use of generative evaluation as an innovative approach in the analysis of qualitative interview data for evaluating simultaneous renewal of Iowa State University's PT3 grant. Goodlad's (1994) simultaneous renewal framework forms the basis of our argument. We focused on the CREATER+ model designed to explain the…

  6. Wisconsin Inventor & Entrepreneur Clubs: Investment in an Innovative Approach to Entrepreneurship. Rural Research Report. Volume 20, Issue 1, Winter 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Research on entrepreneurship in rural areas has increasingly stressed the importance of a supportive environment and social networks in enhancing innovation. This report examines a novel approach to promoting entrepreneurship using regional Inventor & Entrepreneur (I&E) Clubs. A telephone survey of 21 I&E Clubs was completed to collect information…

  7. Innovative approaches to optimizing the delivery of vancomycin in individual patients.

    PubMed

    Pai, Manjunath P; Neely, Michael; Rodvold, Keith A; Lodise, Thomas P

    2014-11-20

    The delivery of personalized antimicrobial therapy is a critical component in the treatment of patients with invasive infections. Vancomycin, the drug of choice for infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, requires the use of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) for delivery of optimal therapy. Current guidance on vancomycin TDM includes the measurement of a trough concentration as a surrogate for achieving an AUC to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by broth microdilution (AUC/MICBMD) ratio≥400. Although trough-only monitoring has been widely integrated into clinical practice, there is a high degree of inter-individual variability between a measured trough concentration and the actual AUC value. The therapeutic discordance between AUC and trough may lead to suboptimal outcomes among patients with infections due to less susceptible pathogens or unnecessarily increase the probability of acute kidney injury (AKI) in others. Given the potentially narrow vancomycin AUC range for optimal effect and minimal AKI, clinicians need a "real-time" system to predict accurately the AUC with limited pharmacokinetic (PK) sampling. This article reviews two innovative approaches for calculating the vancomycin AUC in clinical practice based on one or two drug concentrations. One such approach involves the use of Bayesian computer software programs to estimate the "true" vancomycin AUC value with minimal PK sampling and provide AUC-guided dosing recommendations at the bedside. An alternative involves use of two concentrations (peak and trough) and simple analytic equations to estimate AUC values. Both approaches provide considerable improvements over the current trough-only concentration monitoring method.

  8. Innovative approach for the valorization of useful metals from waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soare, V.; Burada, M.; Dumitrescu, D. V.; Constantin, I.; Soare, V.; Popescu, A.-M. J.; Carcea, I.

    2016-08-01

    Waste electric and electronic equipment are an important secondary source of rare and precious metals and their processing through ecological technologies constitutes a major concern in the European Union and significantly contributes to the reduction of environmental pollution and to the preservation of valuable resources of nonferrous metals. The paper presents an innovative approach for the complex valorization of useful metals contained in WEEE. The method consists in the melting of WEEE in a furnace in a microwave field at temperatures of 1000 ÷1200°C, for the complete separation of the metallic fraction from the organic components. The gases resulting from the melting process were also treated/neutralized in a microwave environment and the obtained metallic bulk (multi-component alloy) was processed through combined hydrometallurgical and electrochemical methods. The major elements in the metallic bulk (Cu, Sn, Zn, Pb) were separated/recovered by anodic dissolution, respectively by leaching in nitric acid followed by cementation using various agents, or by electrodeposition. Depending on the electrochemical parameters, cathodic deposits consisting of Cu, with a purity higher than 99.9%, or of Cu-Sn and Cu-Sn-Zn alloys were obtained. Silver was valorized by leaching/precipitation with NaCl and the gold concentrated in the anodic slime will be recovered by thiourea extraction. The experiments performed demonstrate the possibility of ecological and efficient processing of WEEE in a microwave field and the recovery of nonferrous and precious metals through combined hydrometallurgical and electrochemical methods.

  9. Using the social entrepreneurship approach to generate innovative and sustainable malaria diagnosis interventions in Tanzania: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There have been a number of interventions to date aimed at improving malaria diagnostic accuracy in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, limited success is often reported for a number of reasons, especially in rural settings. This paper seeks to provide a framework for applied research aimed to improve malaria diagnosis using a combination of the established methods, participatory action research and social entrepreneurship. Methods This case study introduces the idea of using the social entrepreneurship approach (SEA) to create innovative and sustainable applied health research outcomes. The following key elements define the SEA: (1) identifying a locally relevant research topic and plan, (2) recognizing the importance of international multi-disciplinary teams and the incorporation of local knowledge, (3) engaging in a process of continuous innovation, adaptation and learning, (4) remaining motivated and determined to achieve sustainable long-term research outcomes and, (5) sharing and transferring ownership of the project with the international and local partner. Evaluation The SEA approach has a strong emphasis on innovation lead by local stakeholders. In this case, innovation resulted in a unique holistic research program aimed at understanding patient, laboratory and physician influences on accurate diagnosis of malaria. An evaluation of milestones for each SEA element revealed that the success of one element is intricately related to the success of other elements. Conclusions The SEA will provide an additional framework for researchers and local stakeholders that promotes innovation and adaptability. This approach will facilitate the development of new ideas, strategies and approaches to understand how health issues, such as malaria, affect vulnerable communities. PMID:20128922

  10. Better Movers and Thinkers (BMT): An Exploratory Study of an Innovative Approach to Physical Education.

    PubMed

    Dalziell, Andrew; Boyle, James; Mutrie, Nanette

    2015-11-01

    Recent research has confirmed a positive relationship between levels of physical activity and academic achievement. Some of these studies have been informed by neurological models of Executive Functioning (EF). There is a general consensus within the literature that the three core EF skills are; working memory, inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility. The development of these core EF skills has been linked with learning and academic achievement and is an essential component in the delivery of PE using a new and innovative approach called 'Better Movers and Thinkers (BMT).' A mixed methods design was used to investigate the effectiveness and feasibility of a 16-week intervention programme using BMT where 46 children were tested on two separate occasions for coordination and balance control, academic skills, working memory and non-verbal reasoning skills. One school acted as the control condition (21 students, aged 9 - 10 years) and another school acted as the intervention condition (25 students, aged 9 - 10 years). Quantitative data revealed an effect between pre and post-test conditions in the areas of phonological skills (p = .042), segmentation skills (p = .014) and working memory (p = .040) in favour of the intervention condition. Further analysis identified a gender-interaction with male students in the intervention condition making significant gains in phonological skills (p = .005) segmentation skills (p = .014) and spelling (p = .007) compared to boys in the control condition. Analysis of qualitative data from a sample of students from the intervention condition and their class teacher indicated good acceptability of BMT as an alternative approach to PE.

  11. Better Movers and Thinkers (BMT): An Exploratory Study of an Innovative Approach to Physical Education

    PubMed Central

    Dalziell, Andrew; Boyle, James; Mutrie, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has confirmed a positive relationship between levels of physical activity and academic achievement. Some of these studies have been informed by neurological models of Executive Functioning (EF). There is a general consensus within the literature that the three core EF skills are; working memory, inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility. The development of these core EF skills has been linked with learning and academic achievement and is an essential component in the delivery of PE using a new and innovative approach called ‘Better Movers and Thinkers (BMT).’ A mixed methods design was used to investigate the effectiveness and feasibility of a 16-week intervention programme using BMT where 46 children were tested on two separate occasions for coordination and balance control, academic skills, working memory and non-verbal reasoning skills. One school acted as the control condition (21 students, aged 9 – 10 years) and another school acted as the intervention condition (25 students, aged 9 – 10 years). Quantitative data revealed an effect between pre and post-test conditions in the areas of phonological skills (p = .042), segmentation skills (p = .014) and working memory (p = .040) in favour of the intervention condition. Further analysis identified a gender-interaction with male students in the intervention condition making significant gains in phonological skills (p = .005) segmentation skills (p = .014) and spelling (p = .007) compared to boys in the control condition. Analysis of qualitative data from a sample of students from the intervention condition and their class teacher indicated good acceptability of BMT as an alternative approach to PE. PMID:27247688

  12. Where to Go from Here? An Exploratory Meta-Analysis of the Most Promising Approaches to Depression Prevention Programs for Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hetrick, Sarah E.; Cox, Georgina R.; Merry, Sally N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the overall effect of individual depression prevention programs on future likelihood of depressive disorder and reduction in depressive symptoms. In addition, we have investigated whether Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), Interpersonal Therapy (IPT) and other therapeutic techniques may modify this effectiveness. Methods: This study is based on and includes the trial data from meta-analyses conducted in the Cochrane systematic review of depression prevention programs for children and adolescents by Merry et al. (2011). All trials were published or unpublished English language randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or cluster RCTs of any psychological or educational intervention compared to no intervention to prevent depression in children and adolescents aged 5–19 years. Results: There is some evidence that the therapeutic approach used in prevention programs modifies the overall effect. CBT is the most studied type of intervention for depression prevention, and there is some evidence of its effectiveness in reducing the risk of developing a depressive disorder, particularly in targeted populations. Fewer studies employed IPT, however this approach appears promising. To our knowledge, this is the first study to have explored how differences in the approach taken in the prevention programs modify the overall treatment effects of prevention programs for children and adolescents. Conclusions: More research is needed to identify the specific components of CBT that are most effective or indeed if there are other approaches that are more effective in reducing the risk of future depressive episodes. It is imperative that prevention programs are suitable for large scale roll-out, and that emerging popular modes of delivery, such as online dissemination continue to be rigorously tested. PMID:25941844

  13. Competency-Based Faculty Development in Community-Engaged Scholarship: A Diffusion of Innovation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Catherine; Doherty, William J.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Cook, Nancy; Dubrow, Gail; Mendenhall, Tai J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors utilized interviews, competency surveys, and document review to evaluate the effectiveness of a one-year, cohort-based faculty development pilot program, grounded in diffusion of innovations theory, and aimed at increasing competencies in community engagement and community-engaged scholarship. Five innovator participants designed the…

  14. The Search for next Practice: A UK Approach to Innovation in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, the Labor Government in the UK established an Innovation Unit, within government, to support practitioner-led innovation in schools. Two considerations led to this action. First, there was an increasing sense that amidst the plethora of national strategies and change programs, an important element was in danger of being lost: the…

  15. A New Approach for Analysing National Innovation Systems in Emerging and Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidel, Uwe; Muller, Lysann; Meier zu Kocker, Gerd; Filho, Guajarino de Araujo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a tool for the indicator-based analysis of national innovation systems (ANIS). ANIS identifies the economic strengths and weaknesses of a country-wide, regional or local system and includes a comprehensive examination and evaluation of the status of existing innovation systems. The use of a particular form of expert interviews…

  16. Storylines of research in diffusion of innovation: a meta-narrative approach to systematic review.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Robert, Glenn; Macfarlane, Fraser; Bate, Paul; Kyriakidou, Olympia; Peacock, Richard

    2005-07-01

    Producing literature reviews of complex evidence for policymaking questions is a challenging methodological area. There are several established and emerging approaches to such reviews, but unanswered questions remain, especially around how to begin to make sense of large data sets drawn from heterogeneous sources. Drawing on Kuhn's notion of scientific paradigms, we developed a new method-meta-narrative review-for sorting and interpreting the 1024 sources identified in our exploratory searches. We took as our initial unit of analysis the unfolding 'storyline' of a research tradition over time. We mapped these storylines by using both electronic and manual tracking to trace the influence of seminal theoretical and empirical work on subsequent research within a tradition. We then drew variously on the different storylines to build up a rich picture of our field of study. We identified 13 key meta-narratives from literatures as disparate as rural sociology, clinical epidemiology, marketing and organisational studies. Researchers in different traditions had conceptualised, explained and investigated diffusion of innovations differently and had used different criteria for judging the quality of empirical work. Moreover, they told very different over-arching stories of the progress of their research. Within each tradition, accounts of research depicted human characters emplotted in a story of (in the early stages) pioneering endeavour and (later) systematic puzzle-solving, variously embellished with scientific dramas, surprises and 'twists in the plot'. By first separating out, and then drawing together, these different meta-narratives, we produced a synthesis that embraced the many complexities and ambiguities of 'diffusion of innovations' in an organisational setting. We were able to make sense of seemingly contradictory data by systematically exposing and exploring tensions between research paradigms as set out in their over-arching storylines. In some traditions

  17. Identification of Leishmania infantum chagasi proteins in urine of patients with visceral leishmaniasis: a promising antigen discovery approach of vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Kashino, S S; Abeijon, C; Qin, L; Kanunfre, K A; Kubrusly, F S; Silva, F O; Costa, D L; Campos, D; Costa, C H N; Raw, I; Campos-Neto, A

    2012-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious lethal parasitic disease caused by Leishmania donovani in Asia and by Leishmania infantum chagasi in southern Europe and South America. VL is endemic in 47 countries with an annual incidence estimated to be 500,000 cases. This high incidence is due in part to the lack of an efficacious vaccine. Here, we introduce an innovative approach to directly identify parasite vaccine candidate antigens that are abundantly produced in vivo in humans with VL. We combined RP-HPLC and mass spectrometry and categorized three L. infantum chagasi proteins, presumably produced in spleen, liver and bone marrow lesions and excreted in the patients' urine. Specifically, these proteins were the following: Li-isd1 (XP_001467866.1), Li-txn1 (XP_001466642.1) and Li-ntf2 (XP_001463738.1). Initial vaccine validation studies were performed with the rLi-ntf2 protein produced in Escherichia coli mixed with the adjuvant BpMPLA-SE. This formulation stimulated potent Th1 response in BALB/c mice. Compared to control animals, mice immunized with Li-ntf2+ BpMPLA-SE had a marked parasite burden reduction in spleens at 40 days post-challenge with virulent L. infantum chagasi. These results strongly support the proposed antigen discovery strategy of vaccine candidates to VL and opens novel possibilities for vaccine development to other serious infectious diseases.

  18. How physics teachers approach innovation: An empirical study for reconstructing the appropriation path in the case of special relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ambrosis, Anna; Levrini, Olivia

    2010-07-01

    This paper concerns an empirical study carried out with a group of high school physics teachers engaged in the Module on relativity of a Master course on the teaching of modern physics. The study is framed within the general research issue of how to promote innovation in school via teachers’ education and how to foster fruitful interactions between research and school practice via the construction of networks of researchers and teachers. In the paper, the problems related to innovation are addressed by focusing on the phase during which teachers analyze an innovative teaching proposal in the perspective of designing their own paths for the class work. The proposal analyzed in this study is Taylor and Wheeler’s approach for teaching special relativity. The paper aims to show that the roots of problems known in the research literature about teachers’ difficulties in coping with innovative proposals, and usually related to the implementation process, can be found and addressed already when teachers approach the proposal and try to appropriate it. The study is heuristic and has been carried out in order to trace the “appropriation path,” followed by the group of teachers, in terms of the main steps and factors triggering the progressive evolution of teachers’ attitudes and competences.

  19. An Innovative Approach for the Calculation of Exposure Point Concentrations for Large Areas of Surface Radionuclide Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Winchester Chromec, F.; Myers, Jeffrey C.

    2008-01-15

    The Department of Energy Rocky Flats site was designated as a wildlife refuge by the Rocky Flats National Wildlife Refuge Act of 2001. Rocky Flats was considered to be one of the most highly contaminated radiological sites in the country. Some portions of the site have low-level radionuclide contamination in surface soils. A site-wide risk and dose assessment to evaluate threats to human health and the environment were performed, so that the site could be released for this land use. The aggressive accelerated action program combined with defensible and innovative risk assessment methods resulted in there being no radionuclides of concern in the final comprehensive risk assessment (DOE 2006). An innovative approach for delineating functional exposure areas and area-weighted exposure point concentration-activities (EPCs) was negotiated with the regulatory agencies in Colorado. This procedure leads to realistic estimates of risk and dose to workers and visitors. This innovative approach to the calculation of EPCs was negotiated with both State and Federal regulators. The value of developing and maintaining good working relationships with regulators responsible for a site can not be overestimated. The building of trust and confidence among responsible parties and regulators is essential for the development and implementation of innovative methods and technologies.

  20. Special funding schemes for innovative medical devices in French hospitals: the pros and cons of two different approaches.

    PubMed

    Martelli, Nicolas; van den Brink, Hélène

    2014-07-01

    Financing innovative medical devices is an important challenge for national health policy makers, and a crucial issue for hospitals. However, when innovative medical devices are launched on the European market there is generally little clinical evidence regarding both efficacy and safety, both because of the flaws in the European system for regulating such devices, and because they are at an early stage of development. To manage the uncertainty surrounding the reimbursement of innovation, several European countries have set up temporary funding schemes to generate evidence about the effectiveness of devices. This article explores two different French approaches to funding innovative in-hospital devices and collecting supplementary data: the coverage with evidence development (CED) scheme introduced under Article L. 165-1-1 of the French Social Security Code; and national programs for hospital-based research. We discuss pros and cons of both approaches in the light of CED policies in Germany and the UK. The CED policies for devices share common limitations. Thus, transparency of CED processes should be enhanced and decisions need to be made in a timely way. Finally, we think that closer collaboration between manufacturers, health authorities and hospitals is essential to make CED policies more operational.

  1. Innovative Disulfide Esters of Dithiocarbamic Acid as Women-Controlled Contraceptive Microbicides: A Bioisosterism Approach.

    PubMed

    Mandalapu, Dhanaraju; Lal, Nand; Kumar, Lokesh; Kushwaha, Bhavana; Gupta, Sonal; Kumar, Lalit; Bala, Veenu; Yadav, Santosh K; Singh, Pratiksha; Singh, Nidhi; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Sankhwar, Satya N; Shukla, Praveen K; Siddiqi, Imran; Gupta, Gopal; Sharma, Vishnu L

    2015-10-01

    In an ongoing effort to discover an effective, topical, dual-function, non-surfactant contraceptive vaginal microbicide, a novel series of 2,2'-disulfanediylbis(3-(substituted-1-yl)propane-2,1-diyl) disubstituted-1-carbodithioates were designed by using a bioisosterism approach. Thirty-three compounds were synthesized, and interestingly, most demonstrated multiple activities: they were found to be spermicidal at a minimal effective concentration of 1-0.001 %, trichomonacidal against drug-susceptible and resistant Trichomonas strains at minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges of 10.81-377.64 and 10.81-754.14 μM, respectively, and fungicidal at MIC 7.93-86.50 μM. These compounds were also found to be non-cytotoxic to human cervical (HeLa) epithelial cells and vaginal microflora (Lactobacilli) in vitro. The most promising compound, 2,2'-disulfanediylbis(3-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)propane-2,1-diyl)dipyrrolidine-1-carbodithioate (5), exhibited spermicidal activity 15-fold higher than that of the marketed spermicide Nonoxynol-9 (N-9) and also demonstrated microbicidal potency. To identify common structural features required for spermicidal activity, a 3D-QSAR analysis was carried out, as well as in vivo efficacy studies and fluorescent labeling studies to determine the biological targets of compound 5.

  2. Innovative Disulfide Esters of Dithiocarbamic Acid as Women-Controlled Contraceptive Microbicides: A Bioisosterism Approach.

    PubMed

    Mandalapu, Dhanaraju; Lal, Nand; Kumar, Lokesh; Kushwaha, Bhavana; Gupta, Sonal; Kumar, Lalit; Bala, Veenu; Yadav, Santosh K; Singh, Pratiksha; Singh, Nidhi; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Sankhwar, Satya N; Shukla, Praveen K; Siddiqi, Imran; Gupta, Gopal; Sharma, Vishnu L

    2015-10-01

    In an ongoing effort to discover an effective, topical, dual-function, non-surfactant contraceptive vaginal microbicide, a novel series of 2,2'-disulfanediylbis(3-(substituted-1-yl)propane-2,1-diyl) disubstituted-1-carbodithioates were designed by using a bioisosterism approach. Thirty-three compounds were synthesized, and interestingly, most demonstrated multiple activities: they were found to be spermicidal at a minimal effective concentration of 1-0.001 %, trichomonacidal against drug-susceptible and resistant Trichomonas strains at minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges of 10.81-377.64 and 10.81-754.14 μM, respectively, and fungicidal at MIC 7.93-86.50 μM. These compounds were also found to be non-cytotoxic to human cervical (HeLa) epithelial cells and vaginal microflora (Lactobacilli) in vitro. The most promising compound, 2,2'-disulfanediylbis(3-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)propane-2,1-diyl)dipyrrolidine-1-carbodithioate (5), exhibited spermicidal activity 15-fold higher than that of the marketed spermicide Nonoxynol-9 (N-9) and also demonstrated microbicidal potency. To identify common structural features required for spermicidal activity, a 3D-QSAR analysis was carried out, as well as in vivo efficacy studies and fluorescent labeling studies to determine the biological targets of compound 5. PMID:26337025

  3. Current standards and new innovative approaches for treatment of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Thierry; Bachet, Jean-Baptiste; Ayav, Ahmet; Huguet, Florence; Lambert, Aurélien; Caramella, Caroline; Maréchal, Raphaël; Van Laethem, Jean-Luc; Ducreux, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma remains a devastating disease with a 5-year survival rate not exceeding 6%. Treatment of this disease remains a major challenge. This article reviews the state-of-the-art in the management of this disease and the new innovative approaches that may help to accelerate progress in treating its victims. After careful pre-therapeutic evaluation, only 15-20% of patients diagnosed with a pancreatic cancer (PC) are eligible for upfront radical surgery. After R0 or R1 resection in such patients, evidence suggests a significantly positive impact on survival of adjuvant chemotherapy comprising 6 months of gemcitabine or fluorouracil/folinic acid. Delayed adjuvant chemoradiation is considered as an option in cases of positive margins. Borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) is defined as a tumour involving the mesenteric vasculature to a limited extend. Resection of these tumours is technically feasible, yet runs the high risk of a R1 resection. Neoadjuvant treatment probably offers the best chance of achieving successful R0 resection and long-term survival, but the best treatment options should be determined in prospective randomised studies. Gemcitabine has for 15 years been the only validated therapy for advanced PC. Following decades of negative phase III studies, increasing evidence now suggests that further significant improvements to overall survival can be achieved via either Folfirinox or gemcitabine + nab-paclitaxel regimens. Progress in systemic therapy may improve the chances of resection in borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) or locally advanced PC. This requires first enhancing knowledge of the genetic events driving carcinogenesis, which may then be translated into clinical studies. PMID:26851397

  4. Current standards and new innovative approaches for treatment of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Thierry; Bachet, Jean-Baptiste; Ayav, Ahmet; Huguet, Florence; Lambert, Aurélien; Caramella, Caroline; Maréchal, Raphaël; Van Laethem, Jean-Luc; Ducreux, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma remains a devastating disease with a 5-year survival rate not exceeding 6%. Treatment of this disease remains a major challenge. This article reviews the state-of-the-art in the management of this disease and the new innovative approaches that may help to accelerate progress in treating its victims. After careful pre-therapeutic evaluation, only 15-20% of patients diagnosed with a pancreatic cancer (PC) are eligible for upfront radical surgery. After R0 or R1 resection in such patients, evidence suggests a significantly positive impact on survival of adjuvant chemotherapy comprising 6 months of gemcitabine or fluorouracil/folinic acid. Delayed adjuvant chemoradiation is considered as an option in cases of positive margins. Borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) is defined as a tumour involving the mesenteric vasculature to a limited extend. Resection of these tumours is technically feasible, yet runs the high risk of a R1 resection. Neoadjuvant treatment probably offers the best chance of achieving successful R0 resection and long-term survival, but the best treatment options should be determined in prospective randomised studies. Gemcitabine has for 15 years been the only validated therapy for advanced PC. Following decades of negative phase III studies, increasing evidence now suggests that further significant improvements to overall survival can be achieved via either Folfirinox or gemcitabine + nab-paclitaxel regimens. Progress in systemic therapy may improve the chances of resection in borderline resectable pancreatic cancer (BRPC) or locally advanced PC. This requires first enhancing knowledge of the genetic events driving carcinogenesis, which may then be translated into clinical studies.

  5. An innovative approach to multimedia waste reduction: Measuring performance for environmental cleanup projects

    SciTech Connect

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; George, S.M. )

    1993-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges we now face in environmental cleanup is measuring the progress of minimizing multimedia transfer releases and achieving waste reduction. Briefly, multimedia transfer refers to the air, land, and water where pollution is not controlled, concentrated, and moved from one medium to another. An example of multimedia transfer would be heavy metals in wastewater sludges moved from water to land disposal. Over $2 billion has been budgeted for environmental restoration site cleanups by the Department of Energy (DOE) for FY 1994. Unless we reduce the huge waste volumes projected to be generated in the near future, then we will devote more and more resources to the management and disposal of these wastes. To meet this challenge, the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge Environmental Restoration (ER) Program has explored the value of a multimedia approach by designing an innovative Pollution Prevention Life-Cycle Model. The model consists of several fundamental elements (Fig. 1) and addresses the two major objectives of data gathering and establishing performance measures. Because the majority of projects are in the remedial investigation phase, the focus is on the prevention of unnecessary generation of investigation-derived waste and multimedia transfers at the source. A state-of-the-art tool developed to support the life-cycle model for meeting these objectives is the Numerical Scoring System (NSS), which is a computerized, user-friendly data base system for information management, designed to measure the effectiveness of pollution prevention activities in each phase of the ER Program. This report contains a discussion of the development of the Pollution Prevention Life-Cycle Model and the role the NSS will play in the pollution prevention programs in the remedial investigation phase of the ER Program at facilities managed by Energy Systems for DOE.

  6. The Public Health Reach of High Fluoride Vehicles: Examples of Innovative Approaches.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Marisol; Wolff, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Fluorides and sealants have been shown to reduce caries in populations, making fluoride interventions a large part of the dental public health effort. Although public health programs have traditionally focused on fluoride vehicles delivering less than 1,000 ppm of fluoride, more recent efforts have shifted toward the use of high fluoride vehicles such as varnishes and prescription toothpastes. In the USA, states are developing innovative strategies to increase access to dental services by using primary care medical providers to deliver early preventive services as part of well-child care visits. Currently, Medicaid programs in 43 states reimburse medical providers for preventive services including varnish application. Still, there is uncertainty about the cost-effectiveness of such interventions. In many resource-strained environments, with shortages of dental health care providers, lack of fluoridated water and lower dental awareness, it is necessary to develop sustainable programs utilizing already established programs, like primary school education, where caries prevention may be set as a priority. Dental caries among the elderly is an ongoing complex problem. The 5,000-ppm F toothpaste may be a reasonable approach for developing public health programs where root caries control is the main concern. Fluoride varnish and high concentration fluoride toothpaste are attractive because they can easily be incorporated into well-child visits and community-based geriatric programs. Additional research on the effectiveness and costs associated with population-based programs of this nature for high risk groups is needed, especially in areas where a community-based fluoride delivery program is not available.

  7. Innovative Approaches Using Lichen Enriched Media to Improve Isolation and Culturability of Lichen Associated Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Biosca, Elena G.; Flores, Raquel; Santander, Ricardo D.; Díez-Gil, José Luis; Barreno, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Lichens, self-supporting mutualistic associations between a fungal partner and one or more photosynthetic partners, also harbor non-photosynthetic bacteria. The diversity and contribution of these bacteria to the functioning of lichen symbiosis have recently begun to be studied, often by culture-independent techniques due to difficulties in their isolation and culture. However, culturing as yet unculturable lichenic bacteria is critical to unravel their potential functional roles in lichen symbiogenesis, to explore and exploit their biotechnological potential and for the description of new taxa. Our objective was to improve the recovery of lichen associated bacteria by developing novel isolation and culture approaches, initially using the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. We evaluated the effect of newly developed media enriched with novel lichen extracts, as well as the influence of thalli washing time and different disinfection and processing protocols of thalli. The developed methodology included: i) the use of lichen enriched media to mimic lichen nutrients, supplemented with the fungicide natamycin; ii) an extended washing of thalli to increase the recovery of ectolichenic bacteria, thus allowing the disinfection of thalli to be discarded, hence enhancing endolichenic bacteria recovery; and iii) the use of an antioxidant buffer to prevent or reduce oxidative stress during thalli disruption. The optimized methodology allowed significant increases in the number and diversity of culturable bacteria associated with P. furfuracea, and it was also successfully applied to the lichens Ramalina farinacea and Parmotrema pseudotinctorum. Furthermore, we provide, for the first time, data on the abundance of culturable ecto- and endolichenic bacteria that naturally colonize P. furfuracea, R. farinacea and P. pseudotinctorum, some of which were only able to grow on lichen enriched media. This innovative methodology is also applicable to other microorganisms inhabiting these

  8. Innovation Approaches to Development and Ground Testing of Advanced Bimodal Space Power and Propulsion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, T.; Noble, C.; Martinell, J.; Borowski, S.

    2000-07-14

    The last major development effort for nuclear power and propulsion systems ended in 1993. Currently, there is not an initiative at either the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that requires the development of new nuclear power and propulsion systems. Studies continue to show nuclear technology as a strong technical candidate to lead the way toward human exploration of adjacent planets or provide power for deep space missions, particularly a 15,000 lbf bimodal nuclear system with 115 kW power capability. The development of nuclear technology for space applications would require technology development in some areas and a major flight qualification program. The last major ground test facility considered for nuclear propulsion qualification was the U.S. Air Force/DOE Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project. Seven years have passed since that effort, and the questions remain the same, how to qualify nuclear power and propulsion systems for future space flight. It can be reasonably assumed that much of the nuclear testing required to qualify a nuclear system for space application will be performed at DOE facilities as demonstrated by the Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor Experiment (NERVA) and Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) programs. The nuclear infrastructure to support testing in this country is aging and getting smaller, though facilities still exist to support many of the technology development needs. By renewing efforts, an innovative approach to qualifying these systems through the use of existing facilities either in the U.S. (DOE's Advance Test Reactor, High Flux Irradiation Facility and the Contained Test Facility) or overseas should be possible.

  9. Innovative Approaches to Development and Ground Testing of Advanced Bimodal Space Power and Propulsion Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Thomas Johnathan; Noble, Cheryl Ann; Noble, C.; Martinell, John Stephen; Borowski, S.

    2000-07-01

    The last major development effort for nuclear power and propulsion systems ended in 1993. Currently, there is not an initiative at either the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that requires the development of new nuclear power and propulsion systems. Studies continue to show nuclear technology as a strong technical candidate to lead the way toward human exploration of adjacent planets or provide power for deep space missions, particularly a 15,000 lbf bimodal nuclear system with 115 kW power capability. The development of nuclear technology for space applications would require technology development in some areas and a major flight qualification program. The last major ground test facility considered for nuclear propulsion qualification was the U.S. Air Force/DOE Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project. Seven years have passed since that effort, and the questions remain the same, how to qualify nuclear power and propulsion systems for future space flight. It can be reasonable assumed that much of the nuclear testing required to qualify a nuclear system for space application will be performed at DOE facilities as demonstrated by the Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor Experiment (NERVA) and Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) programs. The nuclear infrastructure to support testing in this country is aging and getting smaller, though facilities still exist to support many of the technology development needs. By renewing efforts, an innovative approach to qualifying these systems through the use of existing facilities either in the U.S. (DOE's Advance Test Reactor, High Flux Irradiation Facility and the Contained Test Facility) or overseas should be possible.

  10. The FAMULATUR PLUS as an innovative approach for teaching physical examination skills.

    PubMed

    Jerg, Achim; Öchsner, Wolfgang; Wander, Henriette; Traue, Harald C; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    The FAMULATUR PLUS is an innovative approach to teaching physical examination skills. The concept is aimed at medical students during the clinical part of their studies and includes a clinical traineeship (English for "Famulatur") extended to include various courses ("PLUS"). The courses are divided into clinical examination courses and problembased-learning (PBL) seminars. The concept's special feature is the full integration of these courses into a 30-day hospital traineeship. The aim is to facilitate the transfer of knowledge from the courses into daily practice. Each week of the FAMULATUR PLUS is structured in line with the courses and focuses on a particular part of the body (e.g., abdomen). A physical examination course under the supervision of a physician is offered at the beginning of the week. Here, medical students learn the relevant examination techniques by practicing on each other (partner exercises). Subsequently, the techniques taught are applied independently during everyday work on the ward, corrected by the supervisor, if necessary, and thereby reinforced. The final POL seminar takes place towards the end of the week. Possible differential diagnoses are developed based on a clinical case study. The goal is to check these by taking a fictitious medical history and performing a physical examination, as well as to make a preliminary diagnosis. Finally, during the PBL seminar, medical students will be shown how physical examination techniques can be efficiently applied in the diagnosis of common cardinal symptoms (e.g., abdominal pain). The initial implementation of the FAMULATUR PLUS proved the practical feasibility of the concept. In addition, the accompanying evaluation showed that the participants of the pilot project improved with regard to their practical physical examination skills. PMID:26958652

  11. The Public Health Reach of High Fluoride Vehicles: Examples of Innovative Approaches.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Marisol; Wolff, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Fluorides and sealants have been shown to reduce caries in populations, making fluoride interventions a large part of the dental public health effort. Although public health programs have traditionally focused on fluoride vehicles delivering less than 1,000 ppm of fluoride, more recent efforts have shifted toward the use of high fluoride vehicles such as varnishes and prescription toothpastes. In the USA, states are developing innovative strategies to increase access to dental services by using primary care medical providers to deliver early preventive services as part of well-child care visits. Currently, Medicaid programs in 43 states reimburse medical providers for preventive services including varnish application. Still, there is uncertainty about the cost-effectiveness of such interventions. In many resource-strained environments, with shortages of dental health care providers, lack of fluoridated water and lower dental awareness, it is necessary to develop sustainable programs utilizing already established programs, like primary school education, where caries prevention may be set as a priority. Dental caries among the elderly is an ongoing complex problem. The 5,000-ppm F toothpaste may be a reasonable approach for developing public health programs where root caries control is the main concern. Fluoride varnish and high concentration fluoride toothpaste are attractive because they can easily be incorporated into well-child visits and community-based geriatric programs. Additional research on the effectiveness and costs associated with population-based programs of this nature for high risk groups is needed, especially in areas where a community-based fluoride delivery program is not available. PMID:27099929

  12. An innovative approach to undergraduate climate change education: Sustainability in the workplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Z. P.

    2009-04-01

    Climate change and climate science are a core component of environment-related degree programmes, but there are many programmes, for example business studies, that have clear linkages to climate change and sustainability issues which often have no or limited coverage of the subject. Although an in-depth coverage of climate science is not directly applicable to all programmes of study, the subject of climate change is of great relevance to all of society. Graduates from the higher education system are often viewed as society's ‘future leaders', hence it can be argued that it is important that all graduates are conversant in the issues of climate change and strategies for moving towards a sustainable future. Rather than an in depth understanding of climate science it may be more important that a wider range of students are educated in strategies for positive action. One aspect of climate change education that may be missing, including in programmes where climate change is a core topic, is practical strategies, skills and knowledge for reducing our impact on the climate system. This presentation outlines an innovative approach to undergraduate climate change education which focuses on the strategies for moving towards sustainability, but which is supported by climate science understanding taught within this context. Students gain knowledge and understanding of the motivations and strategies for businesses to improve their environmental performance, and develop skills in identifying areas of environmental improvement and recommending actions for change. These skills will allow students to drive positive change in their future careers. Such courses are relevant to students of all disciplines and can give the opportunity to students for whom climate change education is not a core part of their programme, to gain greater understanding of the issues and an awareness of practical changes that can be made at all levels to move towards a more sustainable society.

  13. Innovative Approaches Using Lichen Enriched Media to Improve Isolation and Culturability of Lichen Associated Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Biosca, Elena G; Flores, Raquel; Santander, Ricardo D; Díez-Gil, José Luis; Barreno, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Lichens, self-supporting mutualistic associations between a fungal partner and one or more photosynthetic partners, also harbor non-photosynthetic bacteria. The diversity and contribution of these bacteria to the functioning of lichen symbiosis have recently begun to be studied, often by culture-independent techniques due to difficulties in their isolation and culture. However, culturing as yet unculturable lichenic bacteria is critical to unravel their potential functional roles in lichen symbiogenesis, to explore and exploit their biotechnological potential and for the description of new taxa. Our objective was to improve the recovery of lichen associated bacteria by developing novel isolation and culture approaches, initially using the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. We evaluated the effect of newly developed media enriched with novel lichen extracts, as well as the influence of thalli washing time and different disinfection and processing protocols of thalli. The developed methodology included: i) the use of lichen enriched media to mimic lichen nutrients, supplemented with the fungicide natamycin; ii) an extended washing of thalli to increase the recovery of ectolichenic bacteria, thus allowing the disinfection of thalli to be discarded, hence enhancing endolichenic bacteria recovery; and iii) the use of an antioxidant buffer to prevent or reduce oxidative stress during thalli disruption. The optimized methodology allowed significant increases in the number and diversity of culturable bacteria associated with P. furfuracea, and it was also successfully applied to the lichens Ramalina farinacea and Parmotrema pseudotinctorum. Furthermore, we provide, for the first time, data on the abundance of culturable ecto- and endolichenic bacteria that naturally colonize P. furfuracea, R. farinacea and P. pseudotinctorum, some of which were only able to grow on lichen enriched media. This innovative methodology is also applicable to other microorganisms inhabiting these

  14. An innovative educational approach to professional development of medical laboratory scientists in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Magowe, Mabel KM; Ledikwe, Jenny H; Kasvosve, Ishmael; Martin, Robert; Thankane, Kabo; Semo, Bazghina-werq

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To address the shortage of laboratory scientists in Botswana, an innovative, one-year academic bridging program was initiated at the University of Botswana, to advance diploma-holding laboratory technicians towards becoming laboratory scientists holding Bachelor’s degrees. An evaluation was conducted, which described the outcomes of the program and the lessons learned from this novel approach to meeting human resource needs. Methods This was a cross-sectional, mixed-methods evaluation. Qualitative interviews were conducted with graduates of the Bachelor of Science (BSc) Medical Laboratory Sciences (MLS) bridging program, along with the graduates’ current supervisors, and key informants who were involved in program development or implementation. The quantitative data collected included a written questionnaire, completed by program graduates, with a retrospective pre-test/post-test survey of graduates’ confidence, in terms of key laboratory competencies. Results The BSc MLS bridging program produced thirty-three laboratory scientists over 3 years. There was a significant increase in confidence among graduates, for specified competencies, after the program (P<0.05). Graduates reported acquiring new skills and, often, accepting new responsibilities at their former workplace, particularly in relationship to leadership and management. Five graduates enrolled in advanced degree programs. Most graduates assumed increased responsibility. However, only two graduates were promoted after completing the training program. The lessons learned include: the importance of stakeholder involvement, the need for data to identify local needs, financial sustainability, catering for the needs of adult learners, and ensuring a technically challenging work environment, conducive to the application of skills learned during training. Conclusion A strong public health and clinical laboratory system is essential for the rapid detection and control of emerging health threats, and

  15. Innovative Approaches Using Lichen Enriched Media to Improve Isolation and Culturability of Lichen Associated Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Biosca, Elena G; Flores, Raquel; Santander, Ricardo D; Díez-Gil, José Luis; Barreno, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Lichens, self-supporting mutualistic associations between a fungal partner and one or more photosynthetic partners, also harbor non-photosynthetic bacteria. The diversity and contribution of these bacteria to the functioning of lichen symbiosis have recently begun to be studied, often by culture-independent techniques due to difficulties in their isolation and culture. However, culturing as yet unculturable lichenic bacteria is critical to unravel their potential functional roles in lichen symbiogenesis, to explore and exploit their biotechnological potential and for the description of new taxa. Our objective was to improve the recovery of lichen associated bacteria by developing novel isolation and culture approaches, initially using the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. We evaluated the effect of newly developed media enriched with novel lichen extracts, as well as the influence of thalli washing time and different disinfection and processing protocols of thalli. The developed methodology included: i) the use of lichen enriched media to mimic lichen nutrients, supplemented with the fungicide natamycin; ii) an extended washing of thalli to increase the recovery of ectolichenic bacteria, thus allowing the disinfection of thalli to be discarded, hence enhancing endolichenic bacteria recovery; and iii) the use of an antioxidant buffer to prevent or reduce oxidative stress during thalli disruption. The optimized methodology allowed significant increases in the number and diversity of culturable bacteria associated with P. furfuracea, and it was also successfully applied to the lichens Ramalina farinacea and Parmotrema pseudotinctorum. Furthermore, we provide, for the first time, data on the abundance of culturable ecto- and endolichenic bacteria that naturally colonize P. furfuracea, R. farinacea and P. pseudotinctorum, some of which were only able to grow on lichen enriched media. This innovative methodology is also applicable to other microorganisms inhabiting these

  16. The FAMULATUR PLUS as an innovative approach for teaching physical examination skills.

    PubMed

    Jerg, Achim; Öchsner, Wolfgang; Wander, Henriette; Traue, Harald C; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    The FAMULATUR PLUS is an innovative approach to teaching physical examination skills. The concept is aimed at medical students during the clinical part of their studies and includes a clinical traineeship (English for "Famulatur") extended to include various courses ("PLUS"). The courses are divided into clinical examination courses and problembased-learning (PBL) seminars. The concept's special feature is the full integration of these courses into a 30-day hospital traineeship. The aim is to facilitate the transfer of knowledge from the courses into daily practice. Each week of the FAMULATUR PLUS is structured in line with the courses and focuses on a particular part of the body (e.g., abdomen). A physical examination course under the supervision of a physician is offered at the beginning of the week. Here, medical students learn the relevant examination techniques by practicing on each other (partner exercises). Subsequently, the techniques taught are applied independently during everyday work on the ward, corrected by the supervisor, if necessary, and thereby reinforced. The final POL seminar takes place towards the end of the week. Possible differential diagnoses are developed based on a clinical case study. The goal is to check these by taking a fictitious medical history and performing a physical examination, as well as to make a preliminary diagnosis. Finally, during the PBL seminar, medical students will be shown how physical examination techniques can be efficiently applied in the diagnosis of common cardinal symptoms (e.g., abdominal pain). The initial implementation of the FAMULATUR PLUS proved the practical feasibility of the concept. In addition, the accompanying evaluation showed that the participants of the pilot project improved with regard to their practical physical examination skills.

  17. An innovative approach to supplying an environment for the integration and test of the Space Station distributed avionics systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Thomas; Scheffer, Terrance; Small, L. R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative approach to supplying an environment for the integration and testing of the Space Station distributed avionics systems. The environment's relationship to the process flow of the Space Station verification from systems development to on-orbit verification is presented. This paper also describes the uses of the environment's hardware implementation called Data Management System (DMS) kits. The way in which this environment allows system developers to independently verify their system's performance, fault detection, and recovery capability is explained.

  18. Remediation of Groundwater Contaminated with Organics and Radionuclides - An Innovative Approach Eases Traditional Hurdles

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.; Case, N.; Coltman, K.

    2003-02-25

    Traditional approaches to the remediation of contaminated groundwater, such as pump-and-treat, have been used for many years for the treatment of groundwater contaminated with various organics. However the treatment of groundwater contaminated with organics and radionuclides has been considerably more challenging. Safety and Ecology Corporation (SEC) was recently faced with these challenges while designing a remediation system for the remediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater and soil at the RMI Extrusion Plant in Ashtabula, OH. Under contract with RMI Environmental Services (RMIES), SEC teamed with Regenesis, Inc. to design, implement, and execute a bioremediation system to remove TCE and associated organics from groundwater and soil that was also contaminated with uranium and technetium. The SEC-Regenesis system involved the injection of Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC), a natural attenuation accelerant that has been patented, designed, and produced by Regenesis, to stimulate the reductive dechlorination and remediation of chlorinated organics in subsurface environments. The compound was injected using direct-push Geoprobe rods over a specially designed grid system through the zone of contaminated groundwater. The innovative approach eliminated the need to extract contaminated groundwater and bypassed the restrictive limitations listed above. The system has been in operation for roughly six months and has begun to show considerable success at dechlorinating and remediating the TCE plume and in reducing the radionuclides into insoluble precipitants. The paper will provide an overview of the design, installation, and initial operation phase of the project, focusing on how traditional design challenges of remediating radiologically contaminated groundwater were overcome. The following topics will be specifically covered: a description of the mechanics of the HRC technology; an assessment of the applicability of the HRC technology to contaminated groundwater plumes

  19. The promise and peril of healthcare forecasting.

    PubMed

    Wharam, J Frank; Weiner, Jonathan P

    2012-03-01

    Health plans and physician groups increasingly use sophisticated tools to predict individual patient outcomes. Such analytics will accelerate as US medicine enters the digital age. Promising applications of forecasting include better targeting of disease management as well as innovative patient care approaches such as personalized health insurance and clinical decision support systems. In addition, stakeholders will use predictions to advance their organizational agendas, and unintended consequences could arise. Forecasting-based interventions might have uncertain effectiveness, focus on cost savings rather than long-term health, or specifically exclude disadvantaged populations. Policy makers, health plans, and method developers should adopt strategies that address these concerns in order to maximize the benefit of healthcare forecasting on the long-term health of patients.

  20. Single event and TREE latchup mitigation for a star tracker sensor: An innovative approach to system level latchup mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Kimbrough, J.R.; Colella, N.J.; Davis, R.W.; Bruener, D.B.; Coakley, P.G.; Lutjens, S.W.; Mallon, C.E.

    1994-08-01

    Electronic packages designed for spacecraft should be fault-tolerant and operate without ground control intervention through extremes in the space radiation environment. If designed for military use, the electronics must survive and function in a nuclear radiation environment. This paper presents an innovative ``blink`` approach rather than the typical ``operate through`` approach to achieve system level latchup mitigation on a prototype star tracker camera. Included are circuit designs, flash x-ray test data, and heavy ion data demonstrating latchup mitigation protecting micro-electronics from current latchup and burnout due to Single Event Latchup (SEL) and Transient Radiation Effects on Electronics (TREE).

  1. [Health technology assessment: a multidisciplinary approach for selecting innovations in the health service].

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Maria Caterina

    2013-01-01

    Technological evolution and the increasing requests of a more qualified health care have challenged politicians to evaluate the economical sustainability of proposed innovations. The objective of government health policies is to guarantee real advances in the quality of care to all citizens. Since 1965, independent research centers have analyzed this issue for the US Congress. In 1973, Congress endorsed the establishment of an Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) to discover the best strategies for evaluating such advances. OTA have proposed the following criteria to identify possible beneficial innovations to be introduced into routine health care: effectiveness, safeness, worth, costs, cost-effectiveness ratio and cost patient-benefit ratio. This review analyzes in detail the pathway that each medical innovation follows in order to identify which technological evolutions might prove to be truly beneficial and sustainable for the community. PMID:23832477

  2. Promises, promises for neuroscience and law.

    PubMed

    Buckholtz, Joshua W; Faigman, David L

    2014-09-22

    Stunning technical advances in the ability to image the human brain have provoked excited speculation about the application of neuroscience to other fields. The 'promise' of neuroscience for law has been touted with particular enthusiasm. Here, we contend that this promise elides fundamental conceptual issues that limit the usefulness of neuroscience for law. Recommendations for overcoming these challenges are offered.

  3. Innovative Approaches to Preventing Child Abuse: Volunteers in Action. Prevention Focus Working Paper 015.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, Chicago, IL.

    Collected in this working paper are summary descriptions of 17 innovative community action programs designed to prevent child abuse. These programs were developed by individuals, community groups, hospitals, and/or state chapters of the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, as well as by other groups and organizations. Located in…

  4. Innovation in Services: A Lancastrian Approach to the Field of E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivdas, P. Avinash; Sivakumar, Soumya

    2016-01-01

    Innovation in services is one of the prime drivers of several economies. There are various schools of thought that have emerged over the past few decades in this area. The present paper focuses on the evolution of the "synthesis" school of thought. It contributes to literature by extending the framework proposed by Lancaster ("The…

  5. Early Childhood Reform: Innovative Approaches to Cultural and Racial Diversity among Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Carol Brunson

    Noting that the cultural and racial make-up of the American family population has changed, this paper characterizes the early childhood community's responses to diversity among families on the basis of position statements, program policies, and innovative local initiatives. The paper argues that to assure equitable treatment of culturally diverse…

  6. Opportunities to Personalize Teacher Learning: Innovative Approaches to Bridge Evaluation and Professional Development for Continuous Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassner, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to consider ways to integrating teacher evaluation and professional development--specifically, to explore innovative ways to harness feedback from teacher evaluations for the creation of personalized professional learning for teachers. This study was commissioned by the planning council members of the Metropolitan…

  7. Innovative Nontraditional Approaches to the Support of Research Activities in Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menaker, Lewis

    1983-01-01

    Alternative sources and innovative programs are suggested to improve or maintain adequate research support, including hard funding in the institution's operating budget, private gifts, Biomedical Research Support Grants from the National Institutes of Health, and applied research supported by industrial clients. (MSE)

  8. Climate Masters of Nebraska: An Innovative Action-Based Approach for Climate Change Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathak, Tapan B.; Bernadt, Tonya; Umphlett, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Climate Masters of Nebraska is an innovative educational program that strategically trains community volunteers about climate change science and corresponding ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in an interactive and action-based teaching environment. As a result of the program, 91% of participants indicated that they made informed changes in…

  9. INNOVATIVE PRACTICES FOR TREATING WASTE STREAMS CONTAINING HEAVY METALS: A WASTE MINIMIZATION APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Innovative practices for treating waste streams containing heavy metals often involve technologies or systems that either reduce the amount of waste generated or recover reusable resources. With the land disposal of metal treatment residuals becoming less of an accepted waste man...

  10. Organizational Responses to Scarcity: Exploring the Obstacles to Innovative Approaches to Retrenchment in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whetten, David A.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews theoretical and empirical information on organizational retrenchment and educational administrators' responses to the current decline in education. Argues that administrators must (1) adopt a more open and political administrative orientation to benefit from necessary retrenchments, (2) spur innovation, and (3) improve organizational…

  11. Innovative Approaches to Meeting Entrepreneurial Informational Needs: SBA Enters the XXI Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, George T.; Fernald, Lloyd W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This article points out the critical importance of up-to-date information for small business entrepreneurs and describes two innovative initiatives of the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA): the national electronic bulletin board system called "SBA On-Line" and Business Information Centers in field locations. (JDD)

  12. The Implementation of Inmate Mentor Programs in the Correctional Treatment System as an Innovative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jana; McClure, Scott; Koutsenok, Igor; Lord, Scot

    2008-01-01

    In October 2006, the California Men's Colony (CMC) in San Luis Obispo, faced with staff recruitment and retention difficulties, took an innovative step to utilize long-term sentenced inmates as peer mentors and primary counselors to lead their prison-based therapeutic community (TC) program. The program was designed, developed, and implemented…

  13. Student Peer Teaching: An Innovative Approach to Instruction in Science and Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswamy, Shri; Harris, Ilene; Tschirner, Ulrike

    2001-01-01

    Reports the results of a pilot study in a senior paper science and engineering class of an innovative instructional method designed to foster student problem solving and in-depth learning of material, namely student peer teaching. Reviews literature focusing on active learning methods and describes the method for student peer teaching. (Author/SAH)

  14. Fostering Student Adjustment to Medical School: Evaluation of One Innovative Curricular Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Kay S.

    This study evaluated an innovative curriculum for first-year medical students which was designed to render the undergraduate curriculum more humanistic in socializing students into medicine. The Personal, Professional, and Leadership (PPL) development program provides guided, semi-structured opportunities to create "communities of learning" by…

  15. Innovative Approaches for Urban Watershed Management Wet-Weather Flow Management and Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this project was to identify innovative strategies for managing the effects of wet-weather flow (WWF) control and failing infrastructure in an urban setting. The intent was to establish areas where external information can benefit US Environmental Protec...

  16. A Systems Approach to Identifying and Managing Opportunities and Constraints to Delivering Innovation Policy for Agriculture: An Analysis of the Australian Cooperative Research Centres (CRC) Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandall, Jean; Cooksey, Ray; Wright, Vic

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we outline an analytical approach to identifying points in the policy process where management intervention to adjust organizational design could enhance delivery of innovation policy over time. We illustrate this approach using an example from native vegetation policy in the state of Victoria, Australia. We then use this approach to…

  17. Occupying the Principal Position: Examining Relationships between Transformational Leadership, Social Network Position, and Schools' Innovative Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Daly, Alan J.; Sleegers, Peter J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the world, educational policy makers, practitioners, and scholars have acknowledged the importance of principal leadership in the generation and implementation of innovations. In many studies, transformational leadership has emerged as a promising approach in response to increasing demands to develop and implement innovations in…

  18. The Promise and Potential Pitfalls of a "Learning-Centered" Approach to Creative Social Inquiry: Lessons Learned from an Undergraduate Seminar on Authoritarianism through Literature and Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junisbai, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Political science faculty have access to a wealth of innovative pedagogies thanks to a comprehensive literature on teaching and learning in the discipline and related fields. Yet, from among the hundreds of documented possibilities, how does one go about deciding which to incorporate into a given course? Few articles have much to say in response…

  19. Final Report for Harvesting a New Wind Crop: Innovative Economic Approaches for Rural America

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Innis; Randy Udall; Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2005-09-30

    Final Report for ''Harvesting a New Wind Crop: Innovative Economic Approaches for Rural America'': This project, ''Harvesting a New Wind Crop'', helped stimulate wind development by rural electric cooperatives and municipal utilities in Colorado. To date most of the wind power development in the United States has been driven by large investor-owned utilities serving major metropolitan areas. To meet the 5% by 2020 goal of the Wind Powering America program the 2,000 municipal and 900 rural electric cooperatives in the country must get involved in wind power development. Public power typically serves rural and suburban areas and can play a role in revitalizing communities by tapping into the economic development potential of wind power. One barrier to the involvement of public power in wind development has been the perception that wind power is more expensive than other generation sources. This project focused on two ways to reduce the costs of wind power to make it more attractive to public power entities. The first way was to develop a revenue stream from the sale of green tags. By selling green tags to entities that voluntarily support wind power, rural coops and munis can effectively reduce their cost of wind power. Western Resource Advocates (WRA) and the Community Office for Resource Efficiency (CORE) worked with Lamar Light and Power and Arkansas River Power Authority to develop a strategy to use green tags to help finance their wind project. These utilities are now selling their green tags to Community Energy, Inc., an independent for-profit marketer who in turn sells the tags to consumers around Colorado. The Lamar tags allow the University of Colorado-Boulder, the City of Boulder, NREL and other businesses to support wind power development and make the claim that they are ''wind-powered''. This urban-rural partnership is an important development for the state of Colorado's rural communities get the economic benefits of wind power and urban businesses are

  20. An Innovative Approach to Resident Scheduling: Use of a Point-Based System to Account for Resident Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Robert Tao-Ping; Tamhane, Shrikant; Zhang, Manling; Fisher, Lori-Ann; Yoon, Jenni; Sehgal, Sameep; Lumbres, Madel; Han, Ma Ai Thanda; Win, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    Background The scheduling of residents for rotation assignments and on-call responsibilities is a time-consuming process that challenges the resources of residency programs. Assignment of schedules is traditionally done by chief residents or program administration with variable input from the residents involved. Intervention We introduced an innovative point-based scheduling system to increase transparency in the scheduling process, foster a sense of fairness and equality in scheduling, and increase resident ownership for making judicious scheduling choices. Methods We devised a point-based system in which each resident in our 40-member program was allocated an equal number of points. The residents assigned these points to their preferred choices of rotations. Residents were then surveyed anonymously on their perceptions of this new scheduling system and were asked to compare it with their traditional scheduling system. Results The schedule was successfully implemented, and it allowed residents to express their scheduling preferences using an innovative point-based approach. Residents were generally satisfied with the new system, would recommend it to other programs, and perceived a greater sense of involvement. However, resident satisfaction with the new system was not significantly greater compared with the previous approach to scheduling (P = .20). Chief residents expressed satisfaction with the new scheduling model. Conclusions Residents were equally satisfied with the traditional preference-based scheduling approach and the new point-based system. Chief residents' feedback on the new system reflected reduced stress and time commitment in the new point-based system. PMID:26457154

  1. The BOS-X approach: achieving drastic cost reduction in CPV through holistic power plant level innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesniak, A.; Garboushian, V.

    2012-10-01

    In 2011, the Amonix Advanced Technology Group was awarded DOE SunShot funding in the amount of 4.5M to design a new Balance of System (BOS) architecture utilizing Amonix MegaModules™ focused on reaching the SunShot goal of 0.06-$0.08/kWhr LCOE. The project proposal presented a comprehensive re-evaluation of the cost components of a utility scale CPV plant and identified critical areas of focus where innovation is needed to achieve cost reduction. As the world's premier manufacturer and most experienced installer of CPV power plants, Amonix is uniquely qualified to lead a rethinking of BOS architecture for CPV. The presentation will focus on the structure of the BOS-X approach, which looks for the next wave of cost reduction in CPV through evaluation of non-module subsystems and the interaction between subsystems during the lifecycle of a solar power plant. Innovation around nonmodule components is minimal to date because CPV companies are just now getting enough practice through completion of large projects to create ideas and tests on how to improve baseline designs and processes. As CPV companies increase their installed capacity, they can utilize an approach similar to the methodology of BOS-X to increase the competitiveness of their product. Through partnership with DOE, this holistic approach is expected to define a path for CPV well aligned with the goals of the SunShot Initiative.

  2. Innovative Approaches to Radiation Treatment for Mycosis Fungoides in the Setting of Collagen Vascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Terezakis, Stephanie A.; Bohle, George C.; Lo, Ying-Chun; Berry, Sean L.; Yahalom, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Patients with connective tissue disorders are clinically challenging for radiation oncologists as these patients may be at increased risk for radiation-related skin toxicity. A clinical dilemma presents itself in a patient with lupus who presents with confluent skin lesions from mycosis fungoides requiring radiotherapy. In this report, we discuss an innovative technique used to develop an immobilization device that also effectively functioned as a uniform bolus with distinct dosimetric advantages to the use of a facial moulage. PMID:26413361

  3. An innovative approach for rubber dam isolation of root end tip: A case report.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Sunandan; Kumar, Tarun; Mittal, Shifali; Sharma, Jyotika

    2015-01-01

    The success of an apicoectomy with a retrofilling is dependent upon obtaining an acceptable apical seal. The placement of the variously approved retrograde materials requires adequate access, visibility, lighting, and a sterile dry environment. There are instances, however, in which it is difficult to use the rubber dam. One such instance is during retrograde filling. This case report highlights an innovative technique for rubber dam isolation of root end retrograde filling.

  4. An innovative approach for rubber dam isolation of root end tip: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Sunandan; Kumar, Tarun; Mittal, Shifali; Sharma, Jyotika

    2015-01-01

    The success of an apicoectomy with a retrofilling is dependent upon obtaining an acceptable apical seal. The placement of the variously approved retrograde materials requires adequate access, visibility, lighting, and a sterile dry environment. There are instances, however, in which it is difficult to use the rubber dam. One such instance is during retrograde filling. This case report highlights an innovative technique for rubber dam isolation of root end retrograde filling. PMID:26069419

  5. An innovative approach for rubber dam isolation of root end tip: A case report.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Sunandan; Kumar, Tarun; Mittal, Shifali; Sharma, Jyotika

    2015-01-01

    The success of an apicoectomy with a retrofilling is dependent upon obtaining an acceptable apical seal. The placement of the variously approved retrograde materials requires adequate access, visibility, lighting, and a sterile dry environment. There are instances, however, in which it is difficult to use the rubber dam. One such instance is during retrograde filling. This case report highlights an innovative technique for rubber dam isolation of root end retrograde filling. PMID:26069419

  6. Innovative Approaches to Radiation Treatment for Mycosis Fungoides in the Setting of Collagen Vascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Terezakis, Stephanie A; Bohle, George C; Lo, Ying-Chun; Berry, Sean L; Yahalom, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Patients with connective tissue disorders are clinically challenging for radiation oncologists as these patients may be at increased risk for radiation-related skin toxicity. A clinical dilemma presents itself in a patient with lupus who presents with confluent skin lesions from mycosis fungoides requiring radiotherapy. In this report, we discuss an innovative technique used to develop an immobilization device that also effectively functioned as a uniform bolus with distinct dosimetric advantages to the use of a facial moulage. PMID:26413361

  7. Could the FDA-approved anti-HIV PR inhibitors be promising anticancer agents? An answer from enhanced docking approach and molecular dynamics analyses.

    PubMed

    Arodola, Olayide A; Soliman, Mahmoud E S

    2015-01-01

    Based on experimental data, the anticancer activity of nelfinavir (NFV), a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI), was reported. Nevertheless, the mechanism of action of NFV is yet to be verified. It was hypothesized that the anticancer activity of NFV is due to its inhibitory effect on heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a promising target for anticancer therapy. Such findings prompted us to investigate the potential anticancer activity of all other FDA-approved HIV-1 PIs against human Hsp90. To accomplish this, "loop docking" - an enhanced in-house developed molecular docking approach - followed by molecular dynamic simulations and postdynamic analyses were performed to elaborate on the binding mechanism and relative binding affinities of nine FDA-approved HIV-1 PIs against human Hsp90. Due to the lack of the X-ray crystal structure of human Hsp90, homology modeling was performed to create its 3D structure for subsequent simulations. Results showed that NFV has better binding affinity (ΔG =-9.2 kcal/mol) when compared with other PIs: this is in a reasonable accordance with the experimental data (IC50 3.1 μM). Indinavir, saquinavir, and ritonavir have close binding affinity to NFV (ΔG =-9.0, -8.6, and -8.5 kcal/mol, respectively). Per-residue interaction energy decomposition analysis showed that hydrophobic interaction (most importantly with Val534 and Met602) played the most predominant role in drug binding. To further validate the docking outcome, 5 ns molecular dynamic simulations were performed in order to assess the stability of the docked complexes. To our knowledge, this is the first account of detailed computational investigations aimed to investigate the potential anticancer activity and the binding mechanism of the FDA-approved HIV PIs binding to human Hsp90. Information gained from this study should also provide a route map toward the design, optimization, and further experimental investigation of potential

  8. Could the FDA-approved anti-HIV PR inhibitors be promising anticancer agents? An answer from enhanced docking approach and molecular dynamics analyses

    PubMed Central

    Arodola, Olayide A; Soliman, Mahmoud ES

    2015-01-01

    Based on experimental data, the anticancer activity of nelfinavir (NFV), a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI), was reported. Nevertheless, the mechanism of action of NFV is yet to be verified. It was hypothesized that the anticancer activity of NFV is due to its inhibitory effect on heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a promising target for anticancer therapy. Such findings prompted us to investigate the potential anticancer activity of all other FDA-approved HIV-1 PIs against human Hsp90. To accomplish this, “loop docking” – an enhanced in-house developed molecular docking approach – followed by molecular dynamic simulations and postdynamic analyses were performed to elaborate on the binding mechanism and relative binding affinities of nine FDA-approved HIV-1 PIs against human Hsp90. Due to the lack of the X-ray crystal structure of human Hsp90, homology modeling was performed to create its 3D structure for subsequent simulations. Results showed that NFV has better binding affinity (ΔG =−9.2 kcal/mol) when compared with other PIs: this is in a reasonable accordance with the experimental data (IC50 3.1 μM). Indinavir, saquinavir, and ritonavir have close binding affinity to NFV (ΔG =−9.0, −8.6, and −8.5 kcal/mol, respectively). Per-residue interaction energy decomposition analysis showed that hydrophobic interaction (most importantly with Val534 and Met602) played the most predominant role in drug binding. To further validate the docking outcome, 5 ns molecular dynamic simulations were performed in order to assess the stability of the docked complexes. To our knowledge, this is the first account of detailed computational investigations aimed to investigate the potential anticancer activity and the binding mechanism of the FDA-approved HIV PIs binding to human Hsp90. Information gained from this study should also provide a route map toward the design, optimization, and further experimental investigation of

  9. Could the FDA-approved anti-HIV PR inhibitors be promising anticancer agents? An answer from enhanced docking approach and molecular dynamics analyses.

    PubMed

    Arodola, Olayide A; Soliman, Mahmoud E S

    2015-01-01

    Based on experimental data, the anticancer activity of nelfinavir (NFV), a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI), was reported. Nevertheless, the mechanism of action of NFV is yet to be verified. It was hypothesized that the anticancer activity of NFV is due to its inhibitory effect on heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a promising target for anticancer therapy. Such findings prompted us to investigate the potential anticancer activity of all other FDA-approved HIV-1 PIs against human Hsp90. To accomplish this, "loop docking" - an enhanced in-house developed molecular docking approach - followed by molecular dynamic simulations and postdynamic analyses were performed to elaborate on the binding mechanism and relative binding affinities of nine FDA-approved HIV-1 PIs against human Hsp90. Due to the lack of the X-ray crystal structure of human Hsp90, homology modeling was performed to create its 3D structure for subsequent simulations. Results showed that NFV has better binding affinity (ΔG =-9.2 kcal/mol) when compared with other PIs: this is in a reasonable accordance with the experimental data (IC50 3.1 μM). Indinavir, saquinavir, and ritonavir have close binding affinity to NFV (ΔG =-9.0, -8.6, and -8.5 kcal/mol, respectively). Per-residue interaction energy decomposition analysis showed that hydrophobic interaction (most importantly with Val534 and Met602) played the most predominant role in drug binding. To further validate the docking outcome, 5 ns molecular dynamic simulations were performed in order to assess the stability of the docked complexes. To our knowledge, this is the first account of detailed computational investigations aimed to investigate the potential anticancer activity and the binding mechanism of the FDA-approved HIV PIs binding to human Hsp90. Information gained from this study should also provide a route map toward the design, optimization, and further experimental investigation of potential

  10. Community organizing and community health: piloting an innovative approach to community engagement applied to an early intervention project in south London

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Matthew; Moore, Imogen; Ferreira, Ana; Day, Crispin; Bolton, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Background The importance of community engagement in health is widely recognized, and key themes in UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) recommendations for enhancing community engagement are co-production and community control. This study reports an innovative approach to community engagement using the community-organizing methodology, applied in an intervention of social support to increase social capital, reduce stress and improve well-being in mothers who were pregnant and/or with infants aged 0–2 years. Methods Professional community organizers in Citizens-UK worked with local member civic institutions in south London to facilitate social support to a group of 15 new mothers. Acceptability of the programme, adherence to principles of co-production and community control, and changes in the outcomes of interest were assessed quantitatively in a quasi-experimental design. Results The programme was found to be feasible and acceptable to participating mothers, and perceived by them to involve co-production and community control. There were no detected changes in subjective well-being, but there were important reductions in distress on a standard self-report measure (GHQ-12). There were increases in social capital of a circumscribed kind associated with the project. Conclusions Community organizing provides a promising model and method of facilitating community engagement in health. PMID:25724610

  11. An international partnership approach to clean energy technology innovation: Carbon capture and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoliang

    Is a global research partnership effective in developing, deploying, and diffusing clean energy technologies? Drawing on and extending innovation system studies, this doctoral dissertation elaborates an analytical model for a global technology learning system; examines the rationales, mechanisms, and effectiveness of the United States-- China Clean Energy Research Center Advanced Coal Technology Consortium (CERC-ACTC); and analyzes government's role in developing and implementing carbon capture and storage technologies in the United States (U.S.) and China. Studies have shown that successful technology innovation leads to economic prosperity and national competence, and prove that technology innovation does not happen in isolation but rather within interactive systems among stakeholders. However, the innovation process itself remains unclear, particularly with regard to interactive learning among and between major institutional actors, including technology developers, regulators, and financial organizations. This study seeks to advance scholarship on the interactive learning from the angle of global interactive learning. This dissertation research project seeks, as well, to inform policy-makers of how to strengthen international collaboration in clean energy technology development. The U.S.--China CERC-ACTC announced by Presidents Obama and Hu in 2009, provided a unique opportunity to close this scholarly gap. ACTC aimed to "advance the coal technology needed to safely, effectively, and efficiently utilize coal resources including the ability to capture, store, and utilize the emissions from coal use in both nations " through the joint research and development by U.S. and Chinese scientists and engineers. This dissertation project included one-year field research in the two countries, with in-depth interviews of key stakeholders, a survey of Consortium participants, analysis of available data, and site visits to collaborative research projects from 2013-2014. This

  12. The Systems Approach: An Innovative Model for Improving the Delivery of Inservice Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Gay; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an effective systems approach for conducting physical therapy inservice training. The approach requires that the problem area be selected by staff consensus, and consists of eight elements such as "prioritizing needs" and "constructing performance measures." The approach is applied to planning and administering therapeutic…

  13. The road ahead: comprehensive and innovative approaches for improving safety and preventing child maltreatment fatalities.

    PubMed

    Chahine, Zeinab; Sanders, David

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a high-level overview of the complex issues, opportunities, and challenges involved in improving child safety and preventing child maltreatment fatalities. It emphasizes that improving measurement and classification is critical to understanding and preventing child maltreatment fatalities. It also stresses the need to reframe child maltreatment interventions from a public health perspective. The article draws on the lessons learned from state-of-the-art safety engineering innovations, research, and other expert recommendations presented in this special issue that can inform future policy and practice direction in this important area.

  14. Unicystic Ameloblastoma of Mandible Treated with an Innovative Approach: A Clinical Case Report.

    PubMed

    Babu, Narendra; Charles, Nsc; Rai, Raj; Mathur, Smita; Runwal, Sameer Hemant

    2015-07-01

    Ameloblastoma is a true benign neoplasm with its origin from remnants of odontogenic epithelium. Unicystic ameloblastoma presents as a cystic lesion which clinically, radiographically, and macroscopically mimics a mandibular cyst, but microscopically exhibits ameloblastic epithelium lining part of the cyst cavity, with or without intraluminal growth and tumour infiltration into the fibrous connective tissue wall. An important and perplexing aspect associated with ameloblastoma is its management. We hereby present a case of unicystic ameloblastoma in a 63-year-old female and report an innovative technique of treating the case with split iliac crest graft.

  15. Unicystic Ameloblastoma of Mandible Treated with an Innovative Approach: A Clinical Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Charles, NSC; Rai, Raj; Mathur, Smita; Runwal, Sameer Hemant

    2015-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is a true benign neoplasm with its origin from remnants of odontogenic epithelium. Unicystic ameloblastoma presents as a cystic lesion which clinically, radiographically, and macroscopically mimics a mandibular cyst, but microscopically exhibits ameloblastic epithelium lining part of the cyst cavity, with or without intraluminal growth and tumour infiltration into the fibrous connective tissue wall. An important and perplexing aspect associated with ameloblastoma is its management. We hereby present a case of unicystic ameloblastoma in a 63-year-old female and report an innovative technique of treating the case with split iliac crest graft. PMID:26393220

  16. Innovative approaches to using new media and technology in health promotion for adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Hyden, Christel; Cohall, Alwyn

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade, new technology and media have changed the way we communicate, access information, and share content with one another. Most 12- to 17-year-olds now own cell phones, and most adolescents and young adults spend several hours per day on computers and cell phones. The American Academy of Pediatrics now encourages all pediatricians to increase their knowledge of new media and technology. This article details technology access among adolescents and young adults, highlights several current and potential innovative applications for new technology and social networking in health promotion, and discusses issues to consider as practitioners move toward integrating new media into clinical and health education settings.

  17. Innovative approaches to using new media and technology in health promotion for adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Hyden, Christel; Cohall, Alwyn

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade, new technology and media have changed the way we communicate, access information, and share content with one another. Most 12- to 17-year-olds now own cell phones, and most adolescents and young adults spend several hours per day on computers and cell phones. The American Academy of Pediatrics now encourages all pediatricians to increase their knowledge of new media and technology. This article details technology access among adolescents and young adults, highlights several current and potential innovative applications for new technology and social networking in health promotion, and discusses issues to consider as practitioners move toward integrating new media into clinical and health education settings. PMID:22423462

  18. Determining accessibility to dermatologists and teledermatology locations in Kentucky: demonstration of an innovative geographic information systems approach.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Gary William; Buker, Carol Marie

    2010-01-01

    Teledermatology provides a partial solution to the problem of accessibility to dermatology services in underserved areas, yet methodologies to determine the locations and geographic dimensions of these areas and the locational efficiency of remote teledermatology sites have been found wanting. This article illustrates an innovative Geographic Information Systems approach using dermatologists' addresses, U.S. Census population data, and the Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing System. Travel-time-based service areas were calculated and mapped for each dermatologist in the state of Kentucky and for possible locations of several remote teledermatology sites. Populations within the current and possible remote service areas were determined. These populations and associated maps permit assessment of the locational efficiency of the current distribution of dermatologists, location of underserved areas, and the potential contribution of proposed hypothetical teledermatology sites. This approach is a valuable and practical tool for evaluating access to current distributions of dermatologists as well as planning for and implementing teledermatology.

  19. Developing Mathematically Promising Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Linda Jensen, Ed.

    This book, written on the recommendation of the Task Force on Mathematically Promising Students, investigates issues involving the development of promising mathematics students. Recommendations are made concerning topics such as the definition of promising students; the identification of such students; appropriate curriculum, instruction, and…

  20. The Cooperative Care model: an innovative approach to deliver blood and marrow stem cell transplant care.

    PubMed

    Schmit-Pokorny, Kim; Franco, Theresa; Frappier, Bettina; Vyhlidal, Ruth Caddy

    2003-01-01

    Competition among healthcare institutions, the need to improve outcomes, and the desire to decrease costs have motivated blood and marrow stem cell transplant centers to develop innovative care models. In an effort to meet these challenges, a major midwestern medical center adapted the transplant process to the outpatient setting. This transition created greater educational and care demands for patients and families. To address these demands and provide improved accommodations and amenities for patients and families, the center adopted an innovative model of care, Cooperative Care, for transplant recipients. Cooperative Care embraces patients and families as key members of the healthcare team. A family member serves as a primary caregiver for the patient during the acute inpatient phase of the transplant. Care becomes more personal and individualized, cost is reduced, the rate of rehospitalization potentially is decreased, and patients ultimately become more confident and competent in caring for themselves. The healthcare team shifted its care philosophy to incorporate a care partner, increase patient control and independence, and create greater emphasis on education. Outcomes, including patient satisfaction, have demonstrated success and motivated expansion of this model to other patient populations.

  1. An innovative approach to prepare hypericin molecularly imprinted pearls using a "phyto-template".

    PubMed

    Florea, Ana-Mihaela; Iordache, Tanța-Verona; Branger, Catherine; Ghiurea, Marius; Avramescu, Sorin; Hubca, Gheorghe; Sârbu, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an innovative method that uses hypericin "phyto-template" molecules is being applied herein for the first time to produce molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) pearls able to selectively retain hypericin from Hypericum Perforatum L primary extracts. For this purpose, the wet phase inversion method was preferred for preparing the hypericin-MIP pearls for several reasons referring to economical benefits but also due to the fact that hypericin "phyto-template" molecules can be generated along with the phase inversion of the copolymer. Practically, the precursor poly(acrylonitrile-co-methacrylic acid) solution was mixed with a purified and concentrated naphtodianthrone phyto-extract (consisting only of hypericin and pseudo-hypericin). In the subsequent phase inversion step hypericin was trapped in the copolymer droplets, as a result to its poor solubility in the inversion water bath, and further served as "phyto-template" in the imprinting step. This in situ repartition of hypericin and pseudo-hypericin was sustained by HPLC-DAD chromatograms which recorded only the presence of hypericin during the extraction stage of imprinted pearls. Batch rebinding measurements, all together, validated the efficiency of this innovative imprinting procedure. The hypericin rebinding of imprinted pearls was quantitative (up to 318 µg/L) and approximately 5 times more specific relative to the blank pearls. Competitive re-binding revealed a more selective behaviour of imprinted pearls for hypericin when the up-take was measured against pseudohypericin (selectivity coefficient above 4.50).

  2. Innovative approach to providing 24/7 palliative care for children.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Linda; Lynn, Deborah

    2014-07-01

    This study outlines an innovative, English hospice-based service that provides 24/7 care for children with life-limiting conditions and their families. Operational objectives were: symptom management; open access to families and professionals; choice in place of care and of death; and collaboration to develop shared pathways and management plans. Service standards were audited through questionnaires completed by professionals and families. Findings demonstrated that the nursing team filled a critical gap and met its pre-set standards. Keys to success were: having the right level and mix of specialist and advanced skills; funded on-call arrangements; anticipatory planning; symptom management plans; and clinical supervision. Further recommendations were to develop a multi-agency workforce strategy, and to increase capacity in the children's sector to undertake academic research measuring the impacts of interventions.

  3. Innovative learning approaches in an established medical school: the experience at JUST in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Beni Hani, I; Al Saudi, K; Alkafagel, A

    2003-01-01

    The Faculty ot Medicine at Jordan University of Science and Technology was established in 1986. Innovative changes were introduced to the traditional subject-based, hospital-oriented curriculum in 1999, the objectives of which were to integrate student learning, emphasize student-centred learning, develop training in a community setting, and introduce elective learning packages. To evaluate the integrated learning in the new curriculum, we assessed the validity and reliability of students' scores. The scores for the integrated 'modules' were compared with those in general subjects studied in the traditional way. Our study showed that results of tests taken on the new 'modules' are both valid and reliable measures of students' performance. PMID:16450541

  4. The Women in Emergency Medicine Mentoring Program: An Innovative Approach to Mentoring

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Julie L.; Jimenez, Heather L.; Walthall, Jennifer; Allen, Sheryl E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Women in medicine report many gender-specific barriers to their career success and satisfaction, including a lack of mentors and role models. The literature calls for innovative strategies to enhance mentorship for women in medicine. Objective To describe the content, perceived value, and ongoing achievements of a mentoring program for women in emergency medicine. Methods The program offered mentoring for female faculty and residents in an academic emergency medicine department. Volunteers participated in group mentoring sessions using a mosaic of vertical and peer mentoring. Sessions focused on topics specific to women in medicine. An anonymous, electronic survey was sent to women who participated during 2004–2010 to assess the perceived value of the program and to collect qualitative feedback. Preliminary achievements fulfilling the program's goals were tracked. Results A total of 46 women (64%) completed the survey. The results showed a positive perceived value of the program (average, 4.65 on a 5-point Likert scale) in providing mentors and role models (4.41), in offering a supportive environment (4.39), in providing discussions pertinent to both personal (4.22) and professional development (4.22), while expanding networking opportunities (4.07). Notable achievements included work on the creation of a family leave policy, establishing lactation space, collaboration on projects, awards, and academic advancement. Conclusion This innovative model for mentoring women is perceived as a valuable asset to the academic department and residency. It offers the unique combination of expanding a female mentor pool by recruiting alumni and using a mosaic of vertical and peer mentoring. PMID:23997883

  5. Innovative Approach to Validation of Ultraviolet (UV) Reactors for Disinfection in Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Slide presentation at Conference: ASCE 7th Civil Engineering Conference in the Asian Region. USEPA in partnership with the Cadmus Group, Carollo Engineers, and other State & Industry collaborators, are evaluating new approaches for validating UV reactors to meet groundwater &...

  6. Innovative approach for producing injectable, biodegradable materials using chitooligosaccharides and green chemistry.

    PubMed

    Boesel, Luciano F; Reis, Rui L; Román, Julio San

    2009-03-01

    Although there are a number of injectable biomaterials currently under development, they present some drawbacks such as being based on synthetic polymers, needing toxic or aggressive synthesis procedures or using raw materials with low availability and/or high production costs. Having this in mind, a novel injectable biomaterial using chitooligosaccharides as starting materials was developed. This system uses a widely available and cheap polymer from marine biomass (chitosan), which can be turned into an injectable material by water-based and ecologically friendly reactions. Chitooligosaccharides were functionalized with methacrylic groups, to allow in situ cross-linking. The degree of substitution, as determined by (1)H NMR, varied between 5 and 50%. The system was characterized in terms of kinetics of gel formation, rheology, degradation behavior and in vitro cytotoxicity. The gelation time could be easily tailored between 1.5 and 60 min by changing the conditions of the methacrylation reaction, and the final gel presented rheological properties typical of strong gels, that is, shear stresses in the kPa range. The cross-linked gel was degradable and nontoxic, presenting indeed an interesting cytokinetic effect. Injectable materials based on chitooligosaccharides are, therefore, an innovative system combining adequate biological performance, ease of preparation, and an ecologically friendly concept of production. PMID:19182891

  7. A community of practice for knowledge translation trainees: an innovative approach for learning and collaboration.

    PubMed

    Urquhart, Robin; Cornelissen, Evelyn; Lal, Shalini; Colquhoun, Heather; Klein, Gail; Richmond, Sarah; Witteman, Holly O

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of researchers and trainees identify knowledge translation (KT) as their field of study or practice. Yet, KT educational and professional development opportunities and established KT networks remain relatively uncommon, making it challenging for trainees to develop the necessary skills, networks, and collaborations to optimally work in this area. The Knowledge Translation Trainee Collaborative is a trainee-initiated and trainee-led community of practice established by junior knowledge translation researchers and practitioners to: examine the diversity of knowledge translation research and practice, build networks with other knowledge translation trainees, and advance the field through knowledge generation activities. In this article, we describe how the collaborative serves as an innovative community of practice for continuing education and professional development in knowledge translation and present a logic model that provides a framework for designing an evaluation of its impact as a community of practice. The expectation is that formal and informal networking will lead to knowledge sharing and knowledge generation opportunities that improve individual members' competencies (eg, combination of skills, abilities, and knowledge) in knowledge translation research and practice and contribute to the development and advancement of the knowledge translation field.

  8. Innovative approach for producing injectable, biodegradable materials using chitooligosaccharides and green chemistry.

    PubMed

    Boesel, Luciano F; Reis, Rui L; Román, Julio San

    2009-03-01

    Although there are a number of injectable biomaterials currently under development, they present some drawbacks such as being based on synthetic polymers, needing toxic or aggressive synthesis procedures or using raw materials with low availability and/or high production costs. Having this in mind, a novel injectable biomaterial using chitooligosaccharides as starting materials was developed. This system uses a widely available and cheap polymer from marine biomass (chitosan), which can be turned into an injectable material by water-based and ecologically friendly reactions. Chitooligosaccharides were functionalized with methacrylic groups, to allow in situ cross-linking. The degree of substitution, as determined by (1)H NMR, varied between 5 and 50%. The system was characterized in terms of kinetics of gel formation, rheology, degradation behavior and in vitro cytotoxicity. The gelation time could be easily tailored between 1.5 and 60 min by changing the conditions of the methacrylation reaction, and the final gel presented rheological properties typical of strong gels, that is, shear stresses in the kPa range. The cross-linked gel was degradable and nontoxic, presenting indeed an interesting cytokinetic effect. Injectable materials based on chitooligosaccharides are, therefore, an innovative system combining adequate biological performance, ease of preparation, and an ecologically friendly concept of production.

  9. Innovative approach for prevention and treatment of post subarachnoid hemorrhage vasospasm: A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Venkataramana, Neelam K; Rao, Shailesh A V; Naik, Arun L; Shetty, Kishore; Murthy, Paparaja; Bansal, Abhilash; Panotopoulos, Christos

    2012-04-01

    More than one third of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) develop clinically significant vasospasm, as a leading morbidity and mortality factor for these patients. It is widely accepted that a) Degradation products of blood are the causative factors of vasospasm b) The amount of subarachnoid blood seen on admission CT is correlated to the risk of vasospasm c) Reducing the subarachnoid clot burden at the time of surgery reduces the risk of vasospasm. But there is no existing method to clear the blood from subarachnoid spaces satisfactorily. We have evaluated safety and feasibility of fluid exchange catheter system in SAH, to achieve this goal. We were successful in clearing cisternal blood in three patients with aneurysmal rupture with fluid exchange catheter system. Baseline CT scan of brain was performed immediately after the surgery and then at the end of irrigation. The amount of subarachnoid blood was evaluated. This innovative, fluid exchange catheter system infuses and aspirates micro volumes of drug solution in a cyclic mode, ensuring isobaric exchange of fluids. The result is good clearance of blood in subarachnoid spaces were seen in all the patients. Also, significant improvement in neurological deficits secondary to vasospasm was seen. We conclude that the fluid exchange catheter system is safe and adoptable in neurosurgical practice. PMID:22870156

  10. Delivering care to oncology patients in the community: an innovative integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Hanan, Terry; Mullen, Louise; Laffoy, Marie; O'Toole, Eve; Richmond, Janice; Wynne, Mary

    2014-08-01

    A community oncology nursing programme was developed in Ireland between the hospital and community health services for patients receiving systemic cancer therapy, in response to a service need. A robust evaluation of the pilot programme was undertaken, which found that defined clinical procedures traditionally undertaken in hospitals were safely undertaken in the patient's home with no adverse effects. There was a dramatic decrease in hospital attendances for these defined clinical procedures, and hospital capacity was consequently freed up. Patients valued having aspects of their care delivered at home and reported that it improved their quality of life, including reduced hospital visits and travel time. Community nurses expanded their scope of practice and became partners with oncology day-ward nurses in caring for these patients. Community nurses developed the competence and confidence to safely deliver cancer care in the community. This initiative shows that defined elements of acute cancer care can be safely delivered in the community so long as the training and support are provided. The findings and recommendations of the evaluation resulted in university accreditation and approval for national roll-out of the programme. Integration of services between primary and secondary care is a key priority. This innovative programme is a good example of shared integrated care that benefits both patients and health-care providers. PMID:25089749

  11. Where are the Industrial Technologies in Energy-Economy Models? An Innovative CGE Approach for Steel Production in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, Katja; Sands, Ronald D.

    2007-07-01

    Top-down computable general equilibrium models are used extensively for analysis of energy and climate policies. Energy-intensive industries are usually represented in top-down economic models as abstract economic production functions, of the constant-elasticity-of-substitution (CES) functional form. This study explores methods for improving the realism of energy-intensive industries in top-down economic models. We replace the CES production function with a set of specific technologies and provide a comparison between the traditional production function approach in CGE models and an approach with separate technologies for making iron and steel. In particular, we investigate the response of the iron and steel sector to a set of carbon price scenarios. Our technology-based, integrated approach permits a choice between several technologies for producing iron and steel and allows for shifts in technology characteristics over time towards best practice, innovative technologies. In addition, the general equilibrium framework allows us to analyze interactions between production sectors, for example between electricity generation and iron and steel production, investigate simultaneous economy-wide reactions and capture the main driving forces of greenhouse gas emissions reductions under a climate policy.

  12. The Kalamazoo Promise Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.; Lachowska, Marta

    2014-01-01

    This study takes advantage of the unexpected announcement of the Kalamazoo Promise to study its effects on student achievement and behavior in high school. The Kalamazoo Promise provides college scholarships to graduates of Kalamazoo Public Schools (KPS), a midsized urban school district in Michigan that is racially and economically diverse.…

  13. Keeping the Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whissemore, Tabitha

    2016-01-01

    Since its launch in September 2015, Heads Up America has collected information on nearly 125 promise programs across the country, many of which were instituted long before President Barack Obama announced the America's College Promise (ACP) plan in 2015. At least 27 new free community college programs have launched in states, communities, and at…

  14. Refueling the U.S. Innovation Economy: Fresh Approaches to Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Education. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Robert; Mayo, Merrilea

    2010-01-01

    Innovation has powered America's economy, creating good jobs and a high standard of living. Yet, the U.S. share of innovation-based industries is in decline, jeopardizing our status as the world's innovation leader. And one reason is that the United States has been unable to produce enough of its own workers with sufficient skills in science,…

  15. High Tech, High Touch: An Innovative Approach to Professional Development for CDA Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Linda C.; Rudick, Sherrie; South, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    As barriers to online learning, such as lack of access to high-speed Internet connections, disappear, online learning opportunities are likely to become more and more available to early childhood educators. The eCDA program provides an individualized approach to training and support for earning the Child Development Associate (CDA) Credential,…

  16. Innovative compliance and enforcement approaches in Minnesota`s air program

    SciTech Connect

    Biewen, T.; Lockwood, B.; Giddings, S.

    1997-12-31

    As the universe of sources subject to air regulations continues to expand, traditional compliance and enforcement approaches that evaluate compliance status and address noncompliance one source at-a-time, are becoming less useful. In addition, increasing complexity of state and federal air regulations are a drain on resources as regulatory agencies try to manage Title V Permitting, new NESHAPS standards for hazardous air pollutants and new monitoring requirements associated with Title V Permits. In order to keep pace, regulatory agencies can use alternative approaches to compliance and enforcement that maximize resources while improving rates of compliance with state and federal air requirements. This paper discusses approaches used by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency that are designed to improve compliance rates using non-conventional compliance and enforcement techniques. Approaches discussed include sector based initiatives, compliance assistance activities, and initiatives that encourage companies to conduct compliance self-assessments. Specific initiatives that have been used in 1996 and that are ongoing in 1997 are presented, including the purpose and outcome of these efforts.

  17. From Tootsie Rolls to Broken Bones: An Innovative Approach for Active Learning in Mechanics of Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsey, Julie; Talley, Austin; White, Christina; Jensen, Dan; Wood, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    Active learning enhances engineering education. This paper presents rationale, curriculum supplements, and an approach to active learning that may be seamlessly incorporated into a traditional lecture-based engineering class. A framework of educational theory that structures the active learning experiences and includes consideration of learning…

  18. A Mindtool-Based Collaborative Learning Approach to Enhancing Students' Innovative Performance in Management Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chih-Hsiang; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Kuo, Fan-Ray; Huang, Iwen

    2013-01-01

    Educators have indicated that creative teaching is the most important educational activity; nevertheless, most existing education systems fail to engage students in effective creative tasks. To address this issue, this study proposes a mind map based collaborative learning approach for supporting creative learning activities and enhancing…

  19. District-Level Perspective on Innovative Approaches in Performance Appraisal: Integration and Refinement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Patrick

    The Dade County (Florida) Public School System is replacing its Teacher Assessment and Development System (TADS), initiated in 1982, with systems that draw on recent research, link teaching skills to school improvement, and recognize and reward advanced pedagogy. The comprehensive approach will integrate subordinate and peer assessment through a…

  20. Technology and Innovation Management Learning in the Knowledge Economy. A Techno-Managerial Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liyanage, Shantha; Poon, Patrick S.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the epistemological, pedagogical, and organizational factors that have an impact on the design, development, and implementation of technology management learning programs. Argues that effective management learning needs a techno-managerial approach that combines management theories with technology management practice. (Contains 80…

  1. Gateway to Business: An Innovative Approach to Integrating Writing into the First-Year Business Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Pamela L.; Bobrowski, Paula E.; Spector, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    Reforms in higher education are appearing in the new guidelines that are being developed for general education curriculums across the country. Constituents leading education reform have suggested that writing be integrated across the curriculum and embedded within several discipline-based courses. Advocates of this approach require that schools…

  2. Implementing Innovative Feedback Approaches in English as a Foreign Language Contexts through University-School Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Icy

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a university-school collaboration project that investigates six English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' attempts to change conventional feedback approaches in three secondary schools of Hong Kong, indicating the benefits university-school collaboration can reap for both teacher educators and school teachers.

  3. New School Management Approaches: What Works in Innovation in Education. Education and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Throughout Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries, school systems and individual schools are experimenting with new approaches to management that seek to run schools in ways that are right for the 21st century. Those who manage these schools must take responsibility for an arduous task due to the complexity…

  4. Innovative through-silicon-via formation approach for wafer-level packaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chao Wei; Tsu Young, Hong; Li, Kuan Ming

    2012-04-01

    Through-silicon via (TSV) is an emerging technology for three-dimensional integrated circuit, system-in-packaging and wafer-level packaging applications. Among several available TSV formation methods, Bosch deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) is widely used because it enables the fabrication of TSVs with almost any diameter, from the submicrometer level to hundreds of micrometers. However, the high cost of Bosch DRIE makes it uneconomical for industrial production. We present a novel wafer-level TSV formation approach that is effective and cost-efficient. The proposed method integrates a diode-pumped solid-state ultraviolet nanosecond pulsed laser and rapid wet chemical etching. The former is effective in drilling through 400 µm thick silicon wafers and the latter is used for removing the unwanted heat-affected zone, recast layer and debris left after drilling. Experimental results demonstrate that the combined approach effectively eliminates the unwanted material formed by nanosecond laser pulses. Furthermore, this approach has a significant cost advantage over Bosch DRIE. In summary, the proposed approach affords superior TSV quality, higher TSV throughput and lower cost of process ownership than Bosch DRIE. These advantages could provide the necessary impetus for rapid commercialization of the several high-density fabrication methodologies that depend on TSVs.

  5. Improving the efficiency of quantitative (1)H NMR: an innovative external standard-internal reference approach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yande; Su, Bao-Ning; Ye, Qingmei; Palaniswamy, Venkatapuram A; Bolgar, Mark S; Raglione, Thomas V

    2014-01-01

    The classical internal standard quantitative NMR (qNMR) method determines the purity of an analyte by the determination of a solution containing the analyte and a standard. Therefore, the standard must meet the requirements of chemical compatibility and lack of resonance interference with the analyte as well as a known purity. The identification of such a standard can be time consuming and must be repeated for each analyte. In contrast, the external standard qNMR method utilizes a standard with a known purity to calibrate the NMR instrument. The external standard and the analyte are measured separately, thereby eliminating the matter of chemical compatibility and resonance interference between the standard and the analyte. However, the instrumental factors, including the quality of NMR tubes, must be kept the same. Any deviations will compromise the accuracy of the results. An innovative qNMR method reported herein utilizes an internal reference substance along with an external standard to assume the role of the standard used in the traditional internal standard qNMR method. In this new method, the internal reference substance must only be chemically compatible and be free of resonance-interference with the analyte or external standard whereas the external standard must only be of a known purity. The exact purity or concentration of the internal reference substance is not required as long as the same quantity is added to the external standard and the analyte. The new method reduces the burden of searching for an appropriate standard for each analyte significantly. Therefore the efficiency of the qNMR purity assay increases while the precision of the internal standard method is retained. PMID:24013124

  6. Earth System Science for Elementary Teachers: An Innovative Approach to Teacher Professional Development.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purkiss, C.

    2015-12-01

    In many professional development programs, teachers attend workshops to learn new knowledge and skills and then are expected to go back to their classrooms and implement what they learned. Often skills or an activity is learned but does not necessarily get practiced in the classroom. Very few professional development programs add direct, immediate practice with children where teachers can try out immediately the new activities or the knowledge they have just learned. In this case, the program directors wanted to see that, by having children to practice with in a non-threatening, low stakes environment, if participants would incorporate the activities and knowledge learned during the workshop into their classrooms in a more immediate way. Would immediate practice help participants internalize the new knowledge and skills and thus create a fund of knowledge that they would use immediately on their return to the classroom. As part of a grant for professional development for underserved elementary teachers on climate literacy, an innovative children's camp was added to a summer intensive workshop. Prior to the summer workshop, participants completed an eight-week online graduate level course on the basics of inquiry-based science. Participants then attended the intensive three-week workshop to gain knowledge in weather and climate and how to teach these concepts in their classrooms. The workshop was rich in materials and resources for participants. During the third week of the workshop, teachers were camp leaders to 100 elementary students in grades 3 through 5 who were participating in "Climate Camp". Various evaluation and assessments were completed during the program on all participants. Through various evaluation methods, it was found that there was a positive transfer of knowledge to the classroom.

  7. Technological Innovations for High-Throughput Approaches to In Vitro Allergy Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Wuenschmann, Sabina; King, Eva; Pomés, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Allergy diagnostics is being transformed by the advent of in vitro IgE testing using purified allergen molecules, combined with multiplex technology and biosensors, to deliver discriminating, sensitive, and high-throughput molecular diagnostics at the point of care. Essential elements of IgE molecular diagnostics are purified natural or recombinant allergens with defined purity and IgE reactivity, planar or bead-based multiplex systems to enable IgE to multiple allergens to be measured simultaneously, and, most recently, nanotechnology-based biosensors that facilitate rapid reaction rates and delivery of test results via mobile devices. Molecular diagnostics relies on measurement of IgE to purified allergens, the “active ingredients” of allergenic extracts. Typically, this involves measuring IgE to multiple allergens which is facilitated by multiplex technology and biosensors. The technology differentiates between clinically significant cross-reactive allergens (which could not be deduced by conventional IgE assays using allergenic extracts) and provides better diagnostic outcomes. Purified allergens are manufactured under good laboratory practice and validated using protein chemistry, mass spectrometry, and IgE antibody binding. Recently, multiple allergens (from dog) were expressed as a single molecule with high diagnostic efficacy. Challenges faced by molecular allergy diagnostic companies include generation of large panels of purified allergens with known diagnostic efficacy, access to flexible and robust array or sensor technology, and, importantly, access to well-defined serum panels form allergic patients for product development and validation. Innovations in IgE molecular diagnostics are rapidly being brought to market and will strengthen allergy testing at the point of care. PMID:26143391

  8. Got Milk? Got Water? Innovative Approach to Evaluating Groundwater Nitrate Nonpoint Source Pollution from Animal Farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, T.; Vanderschans, M.; Leijnse, A.; Meyer, R. D.; Mathews, M. C.

    2002-12-01

    The California dairy industry produces 20% of US milk and is the largest animal industry in the state. Many of the dairy facilities are located in low-relief valleys and basins with vulnerable groundwater resources. The continued influx of dairies into California's Central Valley has raised critical questions regarding their environmental performance, in particular with respect to groundwater quality impacts. While animal farming systems are considered among the leading sources of groundwater nitrate,little is known about the actual impact of dairy farming practices on groundwater quality in the extensive alluvial aquifers underlying the Central Valley. With our work we attempt to characterize and assess shallow groundwater underneath dairies in a relatively vulnerable hydrogeologic region and to discern the impact from various individual sources and management practices within dairies. An extensive shallow groundwater monitoring network was installed on five representative dairy operations in the northeastern San Joaquin Valley, California. The monitoring network spans all dairy management units: manure water lagoons, corrals, storage areas, and manure treated forage fields under various management practices. We recently also surveyed production well water quality. Water quality is found to be highly variable, both in time and space. We propose that a meaningful interpretation of these (nonpoint source pollution) data is only possible by explicitly considering the various scales affiliated with groundwater measurement, pollution source management, regulatory control, and beneficial use. Using statistical analysis and innovative modeling tools, we provide an interpretation of the observed data that is meaningful at the field scale (the scale unit of management decisions), the farm scale (considered to be a regulatory and planning unit), and the regional scale (considered to be a planning unit).

  9. Innovative Meta-Heuristic Approach Application for Parameter Estimation of Probability Distribution Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T. S.; Yoon, S.; Jeong, C.

    2012-12-01

    The primary purpose of frequency analysis in hydrology is to estimate the magnitude of an event with a given frequency of occurrence. The precision of frequency analysis depends on the selection of an appropriate probability distribution model (PDM) and parameter estimation techniques. A number of PDMs have been developed to describe the probability distribution of the hydrological variables. For each of the developed PDMs, estimated parameters are provided based on alternative estimation techniques, such as the method of moments (MOM), probability weighted moments (PWM), linear function of ranked observations (L-moments), and maximum likelihood (ML). Generally, the results using ML are more reliable than the other methods. However, the ML technique is more laborious than the other methods because an iterative numerical solution, such as the Newton-Raphson method, must be used for the parameter estimation of PDMs. In the meantime, meta-heuristic approaches have been developed to solve various engineering optimization problems (e.g., linear and stochastic, dynamic, nonlinear). These approaches include genetic algorithms, ant colony optimization, simulated annealing, tabu searches, and evolutionary computation methods. Meta-heuristic approaches use a stochastic random search instead of a gradient search so that intricate derivative information is unnecessary. Therefore, the meta-heuristic approaches have been shown to be a useful strategy to solve optimization problems in hydrology. A number of studies focus on using meta-heuristic approaches for estimation of hydrological variables with parameter estimation of PDMs. Applied meta-heuristic approaches offer reliable solutions but use more computation time than derivative-based methods. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to enhance the meta-heuristic approach for the parameter estimation of PDMs by using a recently developed algorithm known as a harmony search (HS). The performance of the HS is compared to the

  10. Nanobiotechnologic approach to a promising vaccine prototype for immunisation against leishmaniasis: a fast and effective method to incorporate GPI-anchored proteins of Leishmania amazonensis into liposomes.

    PubMed

    Colhone, Marcelle Carolina; Silva-Jardim, Izaltina; Stabeli, Rodrigo Guerino; Ciancaglini, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes are known to be a potent adjuvant for a wide range of antigens, as well as appropriate antigen carriers for antibody generation response in vivo. In addition, liposomes are effective vehicles for peptides and proteins, thus enhancing their immunogenicity. Considering these properties of liposomes and the antigenicity of the Leishmania membrane proteins, we evaluated if liposomes carrying glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins of Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes could induce protective immunity in BALB/c mice. To assay protective immunity, BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with liposomes, GPI-protein extract (EPSGPI) as well as with the proteoliposomes carrying GPI-proteins. Mice inoculated with EPSGPI and total protein present in constitutive proteoliposomes displayed a post-infection protection of about 70% and 90%, respectively. The liposomes are able to work as adjuvant in the EPSGPI protection. These systems seem to be a promising vaccine prototype for immunisation against leishmaniasis.

  11. An innovative and integrated approach based on DNA walking to identify unauthorised GMOs.

    PubMed

    Fraiture, Marie-Alice; Herman, Philippe; Taverniers, Isabel; De Loose, Marc; Deforce, Dieter; Roosens, Nancy H

    2014-03-15

    In the coming years, the frequency of unauthorised genetically modified organisms (GMOs) being present in the European food and feed chain will increase significantly. Therefore, we have developed a strategy to identify unauthorised GMOs containing a pCAMBIA family vector, frequently present in transgenic plants. This integrated approach is performed in two successive steps on Bt rice grains. First, the potential presence of unauthorised GMOs is assessed by the qPCR SYBR®Green technology targeting the terminator 35S pCAMBIA element. Second, its presence is confirmed via the characterisation of the junction between the transgenic cassette and the rice genome. To this end, a DNA walking strategy is applied using a first reverse primer followed by two semi-nested PCR rounds using primers that are each time nested to the previous reverse primer. This approach allows to rapidly identify the transgene flanking region and can easily be implemented by the enforcement laboratories. PMID:24206686

  12. An innovative approach for distributed and integrated resources planning for the Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornstein, Rhoda S.; Shinkle, Gerald L.; Weiler, Jerry D.; Willoughby, John K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a planning approach to the Space Station Freedom program which takes into account the widely distributed nature of that program. The program management structure is organized into three major levels: a strategic level, a tactical level, and an execution level. For each level, resource availabilities are determined, the resources are distributed, schedules are built independently within the resource limits, the schedules are integrated into a single schedule, and conflicts are resolved by negotiating requirements and/or relaxing contraints. This approach distributes resources to multiple planning entities in such a way that when the multiple plans are collected, they fit together with minimal modification. The up-front distribution is planned in such a way and to a sufficient degree that a fit is virtually assured.

  13. An innovative and integrated approach based on DNA walking to identify unauthorised GMOs.

    PubMed

    Fraiture, Marie-Alice; Herman, Philippe; Taverniers, Isabel; De Loose, Marc; Deforce, Dieter; Roosens, Nancy H

    2014-03-15

    In the coming years, the frequency of unauthorised genetically modified organisms (GMOs) being present in the European food and feed chain will increase significantly. Therefore, we have developed a strategy to identify unauthorised GMOs containing a pCAMBIA family vector, frequently present in transgenic plants. This integrated approach is performed in two successive steps on Bt rice grains. First, the potential presence of unauthorised GMOs is assessed by the qPCR SYBR®Green technology targeting the terminator 35S pCAMBIA element. Second, its presence is confirmed via the characterisation of the junction between the transgenic cassette and the rice genome. To this end, a DNA walking strategy is applied using a first reverse primer followed by two semi-nested PCR rounds using primers that are each time nested to the previous reverse primer. This approach allows to rapidly identify the transgene flanking region and can easily be implemented by the enforcement laboratories.

  14. An innovative nursing approach to caring for an obstetric patient with rape trauma syndrome.

    PubMed

    Parker, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Rape trauma syndrome (RTS) is a posttraumatic stress disorder that can be triggered by routine procedures experienced during childbirth. An explanation of the signs and symptoms of RTS is provided, including how to avoid retraumatization during intrapartum care. A case report is presented from a provider perspective to illustrate the seriousness of this disorder and the importance of delivering respectful care. A new approach to obstetric routines is warranted to avoid further traumatizing the woman with RTS. PMID:25870039

  15. An innovative nursing approach to caring for an obstetric patient with rape trauma syndrome.

    PubMed

    Parker, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Rape trauma syndrome (RTS) is a posttraumatic stress disorder that can be triggered by routine procedures experienced during childbirth. An explanation of the signs and symptoms of RTS is provided, including how to avoid retraumatization during intrapartum care. A case report is presented from a provider perspective to illustrate the seriousness of this disorder and the importance of delivering respectful care. A new approach to obstetric routines is warranted to avoid further traumatizing the woman with RTS.

  16. An innovative approach to targeting pain in older people in the acute care setting.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Caroline

    2010-06-01

    This paper reports the findings of an exploratory pilot study which used mixed methods to determine (a) the feasibility of the study design for a larger multi site project and (b) whether a pain education promotion approach, termed 'Targeting Pain', using a multidisciplinary educational campaign and promotional media such as staff badges and ward signage, improves the detection and management of pain in older people in an acute care setting. Pre and post evaluation surveys and interviews were used to evaluate the approach. Findings showed an increase in pain assessment and documentation of pain by nursing staff, as well as an increase in the prescription of oral analgesics. However, the study indicated that the uptake regarding pain management from the education campaign was different between professional groups. Although there was a positive response by patients and staff to the use of staff badges, the ward signage failed to attract attention. The mixed methods approach used highlighted several areas that need to be improved for the next phase of the study.

  17. Depth-discrete Geochemical Profiling in Groundwater Using an Innovative In Situ Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levison, J.; MacDonald, G.

    2014-12-01

    The presence of nitrate in groundwater is often associated with agricultural activity. Leaching below the root zone to aquifers from agricultural areas is a critical problem in many jurisdictions where concentrations are above drinking water guidelines. Traditionally, nitrate and other water quality parameters are collected using purge and sample techniques. Often this "snapshot" data both disrupts the natural subsurface flow system and is not detailed enough to determine critical water quality or quantity conditions. In this study, depth-discrete, continuous and in situ monitoring techniques are developed. While nitrate is the focus, parameters including temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), turbidity, redox potential (ORP) and electrical conductivity (EC), are also monitored. Research sites examine a range of hydrogeological conditions from supply wells located in shallow, unconfined sandy aquifers (Norfolk County, Ontario, Canada) to fractured sedimentary bedrock aquifers (Guelph, Ontario) impacted by agricultural activity. The innovative groundwater quality sampling method uses the Submersible Ultraviolet Nitrate Analyzer (SUNATM) as well as the robust YSI EXO2 Water Quality SondeTM. Depth-discrete well profiling is used to evaluate vertical stratification of nitrate and field parameters along the entire borehole with a focus on the screened interval. The high resolution datasets show zones of changing water quality corresponding to different formations. In open bedrock boreholes in Guelph, distinct intervals were identified at different depths for pH, EC, DO and ORP. In the shallower wells in Norfolk County, increases in DO and EC along the screened interval suggest the presence of fresh groundwater representative of the aquifer, with potential implications for in situ long-term monitoring of groundwater parameters. Detailed profiles of DO and ORP at both sites can be combined with nitrate profile data to determine potential zones of denitrification. Water

  18. Critical incident technique: an innovative participatory approach to examine and document racial disparities in breast cancer healthcare services.

    PubMed

    Yonas, Michael A; Aronson, Robert; Schaal, Jennifer; Eng, Eugenia; Hardy, Christina; Jones, Nora

    2013-10-01

    Disproportionate and persistent inequities in quality of healthcare have been observed among persons of color in the United States. To understand and ultimately eliminate such inequities, several public health institutions have issued calls for innovative methods and approaches that examine determinants from the social, organizational and public policy contexts to inform the design of systems change interventions. The authors, including academic and community research partners in a community-based participatory research (CBPR) study, reflected together on the use and value of the critical incident technique (CIT) for exploring racial disparities in healthcare for women with breast cancer. Academic and community partners used initial large group discussion involving a large partnership of 35 academic and community researchers guided by principles of CBPR, followed by the efforts of a smaller interdisciplinary manuscript team of academic and community researchers to reflect, document summarize and translate this participatory research process, lessons learned and value added from using the CIT with principles of CBPR and Undoing Racism. The finding of this article is a discussion of the process, strengths and challenges of utilizing CIT with CBPR. The participation of community members at all levels of the research process including development, collection of the data and analysis of the data was enhanced by the CIT process. As the field of CBPR continues to mature, innovative processes which combine the expertise of community and academic partners can enhance the success of such partnerships. This report contributes to existing literature by illustrating a unique and participatory research application of CIT with principles of CBPR and Undoing Racism. Findings highlight the collaborative process used to identify and implement this novel method and the adaptability of this technique in the interdisciplinary exploration of system-level changes to understand and

  19. Critical incident technique: an innovative participatory approach to examine and document racial disparities in breast cancer healthcare services

    PubMed Central

    Yonas, Michael A.; Aronson, Robert; Schaal, Jennifer; Eng, Eugenia; Hardy, Christina; Jones, Nora

    2013-01-01

    Disproportionate and persistent inequities in quality of healthcare have been observed among persons of color in the United States. To understand and ultimately eliminate such inequities, several public health institutions have issued calls for innovative methods and approaches that examine determinants from the social, organizational and public policy contexts to inform the design of systems change interventions. The authors, including academic and community research partners in a community-based participatory research (CBPR) study, reflected together on the use and value of the critical incident technique (CIT) for exploring racial disparities in healthcare for women with breast cancer. Academic and community partners used initial large group discussion involving a large partnership of 35 academic and community researchers guided by principles of CBPR, followed by the efforts of a smaller interdisciplinary manuscript team of academic and community researchers to reflect, document summarize and translate this participatory research process, lessons learned and value added from using the CIT with principles of CBPR and Undoing Racism. The finding of this article is a discussion of the process, strengths and challenges of utilizing CIT with CBPR. The participation of community members at all levels of the research process including development, collection of the data and analysis of the data was enhanced by the CIT process. As the field of CBPR continues to mature, innovative processes which combine the expertise of community and academic partners can enhance the success of such partnerships. This report contributes to existing literature by illustrating a unique and participatory research application of CIT with principles of CBPR and Undoing Racism. Findings highlight the collaborative process used to identify and implement this novel method and the adaptability of this technique in the interdisciplinary exploration of system-level changes to understand and

  20. Tag team simulation: An innovative approach for promoting active engagement of participants and observers during group simulations.

    PubMed

    Levett-Jones, Tracy; Andersen, Patrea; Reid-Searl, Kerry; Guinea, Stephen; McAllister, Margaret; Lapkin, Samuel; Palmer, Lorinda; Niddrie, Marian

    2015-09-01

    Active participation in immersive simulation experiences can result in technical and non-technical skill enhancement. However, when simulations are conducted in large groups, maintaining the interest of observers so that they do not disengage from the learning experience can be challenging. We implemented Tag Team Simulation with the aim of ensuring that both participants and observers had active and integral roles in the simulation. In this paper we outline the features of this innovative approach and provide an example of its application to a pain simulation. Evaluation was conducted using the Satisfaction with Simulation Experience Scale. A total of 444 year nursing students participated from a population of 536 (response rate 83%). Cronbach's alpha for the Scale was .94 indicating high internal consistency. The mean satisfaction score for participants was 4.63 compared to 4.56 for observers. An independent sample t test revealed no significant difference between these scores (t (300) = -1.414, p = 0.16). Tag team simulation is an effective approach for ensuring observers' and participants' active involvement during group-based simulations and one that is highly regarded by students. It has the potential for broad applicability across a range of leaning domains both within and beyond nursing. PMID:25936431

  1. Reinventing the reel: an innovative approach to resident skill-building in motivational interviewing for brief intervention.

    PubMed

    Cole, Bonnie; Clark, Denice Crowe; Seale, J Paul; Shellenberger, Sylvia; Lyme, Alan; Johnson, J Aaron; Chhabria, Aruna

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the skills of primary care residents in addressing substance misuse, residency screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) programs increasingly offer motivational interviewing (MI) training, but seldom include feedback and coaching. This innovative 2-round "Virginia Reel" approach, supplementing 3 hours of basic MI instruction, was designed to teach and coach residents to use MI while providing ongoing medical care. SBIRT/MI-competent facilitators served as both trainers and actors at 8 carefully sequenced Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) stations, providing instruction, role-play practice, and feedback on 17 microskills in 2 successive clinical "visits"/rounds addressing alcohol misuse and diabetes management. Evaluation included OSCE checklists, overall competency assessments, and responses to open-ended questions. Three residents showed improvement between rounds. Resident evaluations were strongly positive, identifying practice of MI skills and receipt of coaching and feedback from MI experts as particularly valuable. Further study is needed to confirm effectiveness of the approach and explore the impact of fewer OSCE stations of longer duration.

  2. Modeling Semantic Emotion Space Using a 3D Hypercube-Projection: An Innovative Analytical Approach for the Psychology of Emotions.

    PubMed

    Trnka, Radek; Lačev, Alek; Balcar, Karel; Kuška, Martin; Tavel, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The widely accepted two-dimensional circumplex model of emotions posits that most instances of human emotional experience can be understood within the two general dimensions of valence and activation. Currently, this model is facing some criticism, because complex emotions in particular are hard to define within only these two general dimensions. The present theory-driven study introduces an innovative analytical approach working in a way other than the conventional, two-dimensional paradigm. The main goal was to map and project semantic emotion space in terms of mutual positions of various emotion prototypical categories. Participants (N = 187; 54.5% females) judged 16 discrete emotions in terms of valence, intensity, controllability and utility. The results revealed that these four dimensional input measures were uncorrelated. This implies that valence, intensity, controllability and utility represented clearly different qualities of discrete emotions in the judgments of the participants. Based on this data, we constructed a 3D hypercube-projection and compared it with various two-dimensional projections. This contrasting enabled us to detect several sources of bias when working with the traditional, two-dimensional analytical approach. Contrasting two-dimensional and three-dimensional projections revealed that the 2D models provided biased insights about how emotions are conceptually related to one another along multiple dimensions. The results of the present study point out the reductionist nature of the two-dimensional paradigm in the psychological theory of emotions and challenge the widely accepted circumplex model.

  3. Curriculum information models in health professions education in Australia: an innovative approach to efficient curriculum design, development, and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2012-03-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a significant increase in attention to the overall accountability of higher education in Australia, and this is expected to continue. Increased accountability has led to the need for more explicitly documented curricula. The curricula from ten health-related disciplines developed over the last five years in Australia were the basis of this study. Curriculum information modeling is an approach that allows for the dynamic nature of curricula since elements and their linkages can be moved about and reconnected into meaningful patterns. In addition, the models give disciplines and institutions the ability to effectively monitor curricula and draw comparisons in a more unified manner. Curriculum information models are an efficient innovation in the design and management of curricula in higher education and particularly in the health care disciplines. They rest on the principles of reusable elements and linkages independent of content that were first used in the design, construction, and maintenance of buildings. The translation of this approach to the higher education sector provides a higher level of interoperability of resources and a clearer pathway for content design within a curriculum.

  4. An innovative approach to predict technology evolution for the desoldering of printed circuit boards: A perspective from China and America.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Zhao, Wu; Wang, Jie; Chen, Ling; Luo, Chun-Jing

    2016-06-01

    The printed circuit boards basis of electronic equipment have seen a rapid growth in recent years and played a significant role in modern life. Nowadays, the fact that electronic devices upgrade quickly necessitates a proper management of waste printed circuit boards. Non-destructive desoldering of waste printed circuit boards becomes the first and the most crucial step towards recycling electronic components. Owing to the diversity of materials and components, the separation process is difficult, which results in complex and expensive recovery of precious materials and electronic components from waste printed circuit boards. To cope with this problem, we proposed an innovative approach integrating Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) evolution theory and technology maturity mapping system to forecast the evolution trends of desoldering technology of waste printed circuit boards. This approach can be applied to analyse the technology evolution, as well as desoldering technology evolution, then research and development strategy and evolution laws can be recommended. As an example, the maturity of desoldering technology is analysed with a technology maturity mapping system model. What is more, desoldering methods in different stages are analysed and compared. According to the analysis, the technological evolution trends are predicted to be 'the law of energy conductivity' and 'increasing the degree of idealisation'. And the potential technology and evolutionary state of waste printed circuit boards are predicted, offering reference for future waste printed circuit boards recycling. PMID:27067430

  5. Modeling Semantic Emotion Space Using a 3D Hypercube-Projection: An Innovative Analytical Approach for the Psychology of Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Trnka, Radek; Lačev, Alek; Balcar, Karel; Kuška, Martin; Tavel, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The widely accepted two-dimensional circumplex model of emotions posits that most instances of human emotional experience can be understood within the two general dimensions of valence and activation. Currently, this model is facing some criticism, because complex emotions in particular are hard to define within only these two general dimensions. The present theory-driven study introduces an innovative analytical approach working in a way other than the conventional, two-dimensional paradigm. The main goal was to map and project semantic emotion space in terms of mutual positions of various emotion prototypical categories. Participants (N = 187; 54.5% females) judged 16 discrete emotions in terms of valence, intensity, controllability and utility. The results revealed that these four dimensional input measures were uncorrelated. This implies that valence, intensity, controllability and utility represented clearly different qualities of discrete emotions in the judgments of the participants. Based on this data, we constructed a 3D hypercube-projection and compared it with various two-dimensional projections. This contrasting enabled us to detect several sources of bias when working with the traditional, two-dimensional analytical approach. Contrasting two-dimensional and three-dimensional projections revealed that the 2D models provided biased insights about how emotions are conceptually related to one another along multiple dimensions. The results of the present study point out the reductionist nature of the two-dimensional paradigm in the psychological theory of emotions and challenge the widely accepted circumplex model. PMID:27148130

  6. An innovative approach to predict technology evolution for the desoldering of printed circuit boards: A perspective from China and America.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Zhao, Wu; Wang, Jie; Chen, Ling; Luo, Chun-Jing

    2016-06-01

    The printed circuit boards basis of electronic equipment have seen a rapid growth in recent years and played a significant role in modern life. Nowadays, the fact that electronic devices upgrade quickly necessitates a proper management of waste printed circuit boards. Non-destructive desoldering of waste printed circuit boards becomes the first and the most crucial step towards recycling electronic components. Owing to the diversity of materials and components, the separation process is difficult, which results in complex and expensive recovery of precious materials and electronic components from waste printed circuit boards. To cope with this problem, we proposed an innovative approach integrating Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) evolution theory and technology maturity mapping system to forecast the evolution trends of desoldering technology of waste printed circuit boards. This approach can be applied to analyse the technology evolution, as well as desoldering technology evolution, then research and development strategy and evolution laws can be recommended. As an example, the maturity of desoldering technology is analysed with a technology maturity mapping system model. What is more, desoldering methods in different stages are analysed and compared. According to the analysis, the technological evolution trends are predicted to be 'the law of energy conductivity' and 'increasing the degree of idealisation'. And the potential technology and evolutionary state of waste printed circuit boards are predicted, offering reference for future waste printed circuit boards recycling.

  7. Opinion paper on innovative approach of biomarkers for infectious diseases and sepsis management in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Di Somma, Salvatore; Magrini, Laura; Travaglino, Francesco; Lalle, Irene; Fiotti, Nicola; Cervellin, Grianfranco; Avanzi, Gian Carlo; Lupia, Enrico; Maisel, Alan; Hein, Frauke; Wagner, Florian; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2013-06-01

    Sepsis is a leading healthcare problem, accounting for the vast majority of fatal events in critically ill patients. Beyond early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, this condition requires a multifaceted approach for monitoring the severity, the potential organ failure as well as the risk of death. Monitoring of the efficacy of treatment is also a major issue in the emergency department (ED). The assessment of critically ill conditions and the prognosis of patients with sepsis is currently based on some scoring systems, which are, however, inefficient to provide definite clues about organ failure and prognosis in general. The discretionary and appropriate use of some selected biomarkers such as procalcitonin, inducible protein 10 (IP10), Group IV phospholipase A2 type II (PLA2 II), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), natriuretic peptides, mature adrenomedullin (ADM), mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM), copeptin, thrombopoietin, Mer receptor and even red blood cell distribution width (RDW) represent thereby an appealing perspective in the diagnosis and management of patients with sepsis. Nevertheless, at the moment, it is not still clear if it is better to use a multimarkers approach or if a single, most appropriate, biomarker exists. This collective opinion paper is aimed at providing an overview about the potential clinical usefulness of some innovative biomarkers of sepsis in its diagnosis and prognosis, but also in the treatment management of the disease. This manuscript represents a synopsis of the lectures of Third Italian GREAT Network Congress, that was hold in Rome, 15-19 October 2012.

  8. Innovative Approaches to Space-Based Manufacturing and Rapid Prototyping of Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Charles S.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to deploy large habitable structures, construct, and service exploration vehicles in low earth orbit will be an enabling capability for continued human exploration of the solar system. It is evident that advanced manufacturing methods to fabricate replacement parts and re-utilize launch vehicle structural mass by converting it to different uses will be necessary to minimize costs and allow flexibility to remote crews engaged in space travel. Recent conceptual developments and the combination of inter-related approaches to low-cost manufacturing of composite materials and structures are described in context leading to the possibility of on-orbit and space-based manufacturing.

  9. [Radiotherapy after testicular-sparing surgery for bilateral or monorchide testicular tumours: an innovative approach].

    PubMed

    Sargos, P; Ferretti, L; Henriques de Figueiredo, B; Cornelis, F; Belhomme, S; Dallaudière, B; Richaud, P

    2013-01-01

    Testicular-sparing surgery may avoid definitive testosterone supplementation and preserve fertility in selected cases of men presenting with bilateral testicular tumours or in case of monorchidia. Testicular-sparing surgery may enable the conservation of both endocrine function and spermatogenesis in selected young men in order to preserve natural fatherhood, avoid definitive androgen replacement therapy and probably improve quality of life by reducing psychosexual consequences of anorchia. The tumorectomy must be followed by an external irradiation of the remaining testicle to eradicate testicular intratubular neoplasia revealed in 82% of cases after per-surgery biopsy. This approach concerns some rare indications. Dose level and technical consideration are still debated. PMID:23810303

  10. Innovative Approaches to Remote Sensing in NASA's Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peri, Frank; Volz, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Earth Venture class (EV) of mission are competitively selected, Principal Investigator (PI) led, relatively low cost and narrowly focused in scientific scope. Investigations address a full spectrum of earth science objectives, including studies of the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, polar ice regions, and solid Earth. EV has three program elements: EV-Suborbital (EVS) are suborbital/airborne investigations; EV-Mission (EVM) element comprises small complete spaceborne missions; and EV-Instrument (EVI) element develops spaceborne instruments for flight as missions-of-opportunity (MoO). To ensure the success of EV, the management approach of each element is tailored according to the specific needs of the element.

  11. A Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling Approach to Predicting Flow in Ungauged Basins

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent innovative approaches to identifying and applying regression-based relationships between land use patterns (such as increasing impervious surface area and decreasing vegetative cover) and rainfall-runoff model parameters represent novel and promising improvements to predic...

  12. Progress and promise.

    PubMed

    Kamphaus, Randy W

    2012-12-01

    This editorial introduces the current issue of the journal School Psychology Quarterly (SPQ).There has been an impressive and promising progress of school psychology science has been reflected in every issue of SPQ, including the current one.

  13. PROMISE. Beyond frontiers.

    PubMed

    Ray, Manaan Kar; Rae, Sarah; Agius, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The concepts underlying the PROMISE initiative are described. This initiative to implement more humane healthcare is now developing from a local initiativein Cambridge to a global movement. PMID:26417826

  14. Innovative Approach to Preparing Radial Artery Cocktails in Response to Manufacturer Shortages of Nitroglycerin and Verapamil

    PubMed Central

    Parbhoo, Rupal K.; Wetz, Karen; Tschampel, Marva; Pompili, Vincent; Schenko, Elena; Mavko, Lou

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Transradial access has gained popularity over transfemoral access for cardiac catheterization, because of the decreased risk of bleeding, time to ambulation, and length of stay leading to improved patient satisfaction. One disadvantage of the radial artery approach is vasospasm, which can be prevented with the administration of verapamil and nitroglycerin in a pre- and postradial cocktail. Unfortunately, there have been manufacturer shortages for both of these medications. Methods: The utilization of radial artery cocktails and other nitroglycerin compounding practices were evaluated in response to cost containment and waste reduction initiatives and to medication shortages. Results: A modified process for supplying verapamil and nitroglycerin for the transradial approach via separate syringes enabled physicians to have quick access to the medications and to customize the cocktail based on the patient’s needs. This process also decreased costs and minimized wastage. The change in practice decreased waste from 44% for preradial cocktail syringes and 66% for postradial cocktail syringes to 8.7%. Discussion: This process for supplying the medications necessary to perform a radial artery catheterization and intracoronary nitroglycerin has allowed for conservation of commercial product supply. PMID:25477581

  15. Adipose tissue engineering: state of the art, recent advances and innovative approaches.

    PubMed

    Tanzi, Maria Cristina; Farè, Silvia

    2009-09-01

    Adipose tissue is a highly specialized connective tissue found either in white or brown forms, the white form being the most abundant in adult humans. Loss or damage of white adipose tissue due to aging or pathological conditions needs reconstructive approaches. To date, two main strategies are being investigated for generating functional adipose tissue: autologous tissue/cell transplantation and adipose tissue engineering. Free-fat transplantation rarely achieves sufficient tissue augmentation owing to delayed neovascularization, with subsequent cell necrosis and graft volume shrinkage. Tissue engineering approaches represent, instead, a more suitable alternative for adipose tissue regeneration; they can be performed either with in situ or de novo adipogenesis. In situ adipogenesis or transplantation of encapsulated cells can be useful in healing small-volume defects, whereas restoration of large defects, where vascularization and a rapid volumetric gain are strict requirements, needs de novo strategies with 3D scaffold/filling matrix combinations. For adipose tissue engineering, the use of adult mesenchymal stem cells (both adipose- and bone marrow-derived stem cells) or of preadipocytes is preferred to the use of mature adipocytes, which have low expandability and poor ability for volume retention. This review intends to assemble and describe recent work on this topic, critically presenting successes obtained and drawbacks faced to date.

  16. Reaching and educating the global tobacco control community: innovative approaches to tobacco control training.

    PubMed

    Stillman, Frances; Wipfli, Heather; Samet, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    To slow and end the growing global burden of tobacco-related death and disease, schools of public health need to provide tobacco control education and training for public health professionals generally, and for the next generation of tobacco control professionals in low- and middle-income countries specifically. As the tobacco epidemic continues to grow, there is an increasing need for training to develop the research and intervention skills required to stem the epidemic and reduce the inevitable burden of disease and death. A wide range of educational approaches has been developed to increase tobacco control educational capacity in high-, middle-, and low-income countries, including traditional on-site classes, on-line courses, open source courseware, summer school programs, and training workshops. This article provides a perspective on the education and training needs of tobacco control researchers around the world and reviews the strengths and weaknesses of education and training approaches currently being used in tobacco control by schools of public health. In each case, we draw on the experience of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in educating national and international audiences in tobacco control. PMID:16972505

  17. The Future of Schools from a European Union Perspective: Selecting, Analyzing and Disseminating the Most Innovative Approaches towards the School of Tomorrow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Henrik; Hall, Scott

    2005-01-01

    What can we learn from European Union (EU) school projects about future learning approaches? The EU has invested massively in information and communication technologies (ICT) projects promoting innovative use of new technologies in school settings. The aim of the project "School Foresight", with partners in Bulgaria, Estonia, Greece, Romania, the…

  18. Innovation Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyka, Andreas; Scharnhorst, Andrea

    The idea for this book started when we organized a topical workshop entitled "Innovation Networks - New Approaches in Modeling and Analyzing" (held in Augsburg, Germany in October 2005), under the auspices of Exystence, a network of excellence funded in the European Union's Fifth Framework Program. Unlike other conferences on innovation and networks, however, this workshop brought together scientists from economics, sociology, communication science, science and technology studies, and physics. With this book we aim to build further on a bridge connecting the bodies of knowledge on networks in economics, the social sciences and, more recently, statistical physics.

  19. Who Are the Innovators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Banion, Terry; Weidner, Laura; Wilson, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    As we approach the second decade of the new millennium, there is a renaissance of innovation in education, a resurgence of interest and experimentation that begs for analysis and review. To that end, the League for Innovation in the Community College proposed to conduct a national study on the nature of innovation in the community college using…

  20. An innovative multi-source approach for environmental monitoring of landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzo, Ciro; Mei, Alessandro; Paciucci, Lucia; Bassani, Cristiana

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the application of downscaling approach, based on the products obtained by remote sensing and in situ survey, for the geo-environmental analysis of landfill site, located in the San Giovanni in Fiore Municipalty (CS) in the Southern Italy (Calabria District). The aim of the study focused on the optimization of techniques for the monitoring of landfill area by optical remote sensing, which represents a crucial issue since usual investigation methods are expensive and time-consuming. This approach integrated data with different spectral and spatial resolutions extracting parameters descriptive of superficial condition. The use of remote sensing provided a synoptic perspective considering time and spatial ranges which were useful for the monitoring of different environmental matrices and the assessment of biogas and leachate migration. Indeed the multispectral data of Worldview 2 (2012) and Pléiades (2014 and 2015) operating in the range from visible to near-infrared, were adopted for the retrieval of indices descriptive of the vegetation and soil targets with high spatial resolution. The orthophoto dataset integrated the temporal analysis not covered by spectral imagery showing a general increasing of land consumption and highlighting area with no or senescent vegetation cover. These evidences, due to the intensive human activities and to geological, hydraulic and land cover conditions, provided the general setting of the area and its evolution identifying ongoing processes in the study area. The Multispectral Infrared and Visible Imaging Spectrometer (MIVIS) airborne sensor extended the remote sensing analysis up to the thermal domain highlighting superficial anomalies of landfill capping linked to local phenomena such as biogas migration or local humidity into the ground. The dataset of products obtained by remote sensing data processing was validated by in situ analysis. The evidences of ground anomalies were collected by field surveys and

  1. Molecular nanoshearing: an innovative approach to shear off molecules with AC-induced nanoscopic fluid flow.

    PubMed

    Shiddiky, Muhammad J A; Vaidyanathan, Ramanathan; Rauf, Sakandar; Tay, Zhikai; Trau, Matt

    2014-01-16

    Early diagnosis of disease requires highly specific measurement of molecular biomarkers from femto to pico-molar concentrations in complex biological (e.g., serum, blood, etc.) samples to provide clinically useful information. While reaching this detection limit is challenging in itself, these samples contain numerous other non-target molecules, most of which have a tendency to adhere to solid surfaces via nonspecific interactions. Herein, we present an entirely new methodology to physically displace nonspecifically bound molecules from solid surfaces by utilizing a newly discovered "tuneable force", induced by an applied alternating electric field, which occurs within few nanometers of an electrode surface. This methodology thus offers a unique ability to shear-off loosely bound molecules from the solid/liquid interface. Via this approach, we achieved a 5-fold reduction in nonspecific adsorption of non-target protein molecules and a 1000-fold enhancement for the specific capture of HER2 protein in human serum.

  2. Preventive study in subjects at risk of fatal familial insomnia: Innovative approach to rare diseases

    PubMed Central

    Forloni, Gianluigi; Tettamanti, Mauro; Lucca, Ugo; Albanese, Yasmin; Quaglio, Elena; Chiesa, Roberto; Erbetta, Alessandra; Villani, Flavio; Redaelli, Veronica; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Artuso, Vladimiro; Roiter, Ignazio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The text describes a preventive clinical trial with drug treatment in a very rare neurodegenerative disease (Fatal familial Insomnia, FFI) designed with the help of individuals at genetic risk of developing the disease, asymptomatic carriers, who have agreed to be exposed over a 10-year period to doxycycline, an antibiotic with anti-prion activity. At least 10 carriers of the FFI mutation over 42 y old will be treated with doxycycline (100 mg/die) and the incidence of the disease will be compared to that of an historical dataset. For ethical reasons a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was not feasible, however the study design and the statistical analysis ensure the scientific value of the results. This approach might represent an important breakthrough in terms of potential therapy and knowledge of rare diseases that could give some hopes to these neglected patients. PMID:25996399

  3. Innovative bioinformatic approaches for developing peptide-based vaccines against hypervariable viruses.

    PubMed

    Sirskyj, Danylo; Diaz-Mitoma, Francisco; Golshani, Ashkan; Kumar, Ashok; Azizi, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The application of the fields of pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics to vaccine design has been recently labeled 'vaccinomics'. This newly named area of vaccine research, heavily intertwined with bioinformatics, seems to be leading the charge in developing novel vaccines for currently unmet medical needs against hypervariable viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C and emerging avian and swine influenza. Some of the more recent bioinformatic approaches in the area of vaccine research include the use of epitope determination and prediction algorithms for exploring the use of peptide epitopes as vaccine immunogens. This paper briefly discusses and explores some current uses of bioinformatics in vaccine design toward the pursuit of peptide vaccines for hypervariable viruses. The various informatics and vaccine design strategies attempted by other groups toward hypervariable viruses will also be briefly examined, along with the strategy used by our group in the design and synthesis of peptide immunogens for candidate HIV and influenza vaccines.

  4. Preventive study in subjects at risk of fatal familial insomnia: Innovative approach to rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Forloni, Gianluigi; Tettamanti, Mauro; Lucca, Ugo; Albanese, Yasmin; Quaglio, Elena; Chiesa, Roberto; Erbetta, Alessandra; Villani, Flavio; Redaelli, Veronica; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Artuso, Vladimiro; Roiter, Ignazio

    2015-01-01

    The text describes a preventive clinical trial with drug treatment in a very rare neurodegenerative disease (Fatal familial Insomnia, FFI) designed with the help of individuals at genetic risk of developing the disease, asymptomatic carriers, who have agreed to be exposed over a 10-year period to doxycycline, an antibiotic with anti-prion activity. At least 10 carriers of the FFI mutation over 42 y old will be treated with doxycycline (100 mg/die) and the incidence of the disease will be compared to that of an historical dataset. For ethical reasons a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was not feasible, however the study design and the statistical analysis ensure the scientific value of the results. This approach might represent an important breakthrough in terms of potential therapy and knowledge of rare diseases that could give some hopes to these neglected patients.

  5. Innovative techniques, sensors, and approaches for imaging biofilms at different scales.

    PubMed

    Neu, Thomas R; Lawrence, John R

    2015-04-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy has become a standard technique for the investigation of hydrated interfacial microbial communities at the microscale. Multiphoton and spinning-disk microscopes provide new options for in situ imaging. Progress has been made in imaging structural aspects as well as interactions and processes. Advanced fluorescence techniques such as lifetime imaging and correlation spectroscopy are also available. Newly developed target-specific probes allow investigation of new aspects of microbial communities. Several new laser-based techniques are available including nanoscopy and mesoscale techniques. Nanoscopy techniques offer access to unprecedented resolution of hydrated microbiological samples at the scale of fluorescent gene products and macromolecules. Mesoscale approaches are important to address larger features and statistical issues of microbiological samples. This review presents the state of the art in situ biofilm imaging and assesses the pros and cons of laser-based imaging techniques in combination with a variety of sensor types at different scales.

  6. Molecular Nanoshearing: An Innovative Approach to Shear off Molecules with AC-Induced Nanoscopic Fluid Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiddiky, Muhammad J. A.; Vaidyanathan, Ramanathan; Rauf, Sakandar; Tay, Zhikai; Trau, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis of disease requires highly specific measurement of molecular biomarkers from femto to pico-molar concentrations in complex biological (e.g., serum, blood, etc.) samples to provide clinically useful information. While reaching this detection limit is challenging in itself, these samples contain numerous other non-target molecules, most of which have a tendency to adhere to solid surfaces via nonspecific interactions. Herein, we present an entirely new methodology to physically displace nonspecifically bound molecules from solid surfaces by utilizing a newly discovered ``tuneable force'', induced by an applied alternating electric field, which occurs within few nanometers of an electrode surface. This methodology thus offers a unique ability to shear-off loosely bound molecules from the solid/liquid interface. Via this approach, we achieved a 5-fold reduction in nonspecific adsorption of non-target protein molecules and a 1000-fold enhancement for the specific capture of HER2 protein in human serum.

  7. An innovative approach combining Animal Performances, nutritional value and sensory quality of meat.

    PubMed

    Ellies-Oury, M-P; Cantalapiedra-Hijar, G; Durand, D; Gruffat, D; Listrat, A; Micol, D; Ortigues-Marty, I; Hocquette, J-F; Chavent, M; Saracco, J; Picard, B

    2016-12-01

    This work sets out a methodological approach to assess how to simultaneously control together Animal Performances, nutritional value, sensory quality of meat. Seventy-one young bulls were characterized by 97 variables. Variables of each element were arranged into either 5 homogeneous Intermediate Scores (IS) or 2 Global Indices (GI) via a clustering of variables and analysed together by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). These 3 pools of 5 IS (or 2 GI) were analysed together by PCA to established the links existing among the triptych. Classification on IS showed no opposition between Animal Performances and nutritional value of meat, as it seemed possible to identify animals with a high butcher value and intramuscular fat relatively rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Concerning GI, the classification indicated that Animal Performances were negatively correlated with sensory quality. This method appeared to be a useful contribution to the management of animal breeding for an optimal trade-off between the three elements of the triptych.

  8. A mathematical simulation approach to testing innovative models of dental education.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Marc; Kruger, Estie

    2010-03-01

    A combination of the increasing costs associated with providing a complex clinical program and an ever-reducing education-based income finds dental schools throughout Australia continuing to face serious financial risk. Even more important is the growing workforce crisis in academic staffing faced in almost all dental schools as the impact of the widening gap between private practice incomes and academic remuneration takes effect. This study developed a model of core variables and their relationship that was then transformed into a mathematical simulation tool that can be applied to test various scenarios and variable changes. The simulation model was tested against a theoretical dental education arrangement and found that this arrangement was a commercially viable pathway for new providers to enter the dental education market. This type of mathematical simulation approach is an important technique for analysis of the complex financial and operational management of modern dental schools. PMID:20203326

  9. An innovative approach combining Animal Performances, nutritional value and sensory quality of meat.

    PubMed

    Ellies-Oury, M-P; Cantalapiedra-Hijar, G; Durand, D; Gruffat, D; Listrat, A; Micol, D; Ortigues-Marty, I; Hocquette, J-F; Chavent, M; Saracco, J; Picard, B

    2016-12-01

    This work sets out a methodological approach to assess how to simultaneously control together Animal Performances, nutritional value, sensory quality of meat. Seventy-one young bulls were characterized by 97 variables. Variables of each element were arranged into either 5 homogeneous Intermediate Scores (IS) or 2 Global Indices (GI) via a clustering of variables and analysed together by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). These 3 pools of 5 IS (or 2 GI) were analysed together by PCA to established the links existing among the triptych. Classification on IS showed no opposition between Animal Performances and nutritional value of meat, as it seemed possible to identify animals with a high butcher value and intramuscular fat relatively rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Concerning GI, the classification indicated that Animal Performances were negatively correlated with sensory quality. This method appeared to be a useful contribution to the management of animal breeding for an optimal trade-off between the three elements of the triptych. PMID:27560645

  10. Tele-cytology: An innovative approach for cervical cancer screening in resource-poor settings.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sandeep; Badaya, Sorabh

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma cervix remains a leading cause of cancer mortality among women in countries lacking any screening program. The existing screening policy and approach via conventional cytology centered mainly in Tertiary Care Center, is totally unaffordable to Indian women, especially in the remote areas. This suggests the need of depolarizing the resources via generating the near real time modalities which could be used at the door step of the needy ones. For any screening modality to be effective it should be adequately sensitive, specific, reproducible, cheap, simple, affordable, and the most important is should be real time to ensure wide coverage and curtail loss to follow-up. Incorporating telecytology as a screening tool could make the dream come true. Telecytology is the interpretation of cytology material at a distance using digital images. Use of mobile telecytology unit housed in a van carrying satellite equipment and the automated image capturing systems is the central theme behind this idea. The imaging equipment would be carrying out the imaging of Papanicolaou smears prepared at the screening site and sending the images to the central laboratories situated at some tertiary care level. This concept could overcome the hindrance of trained cytology infrastructure in the resource poor settings and could provide an efficient and economical way of screening patients. There is possibility that the designed approach may not detect the entire women positive for the disease but if the desired objective was to diagnose as many cases as possible in resource poor setting, then this process offers an advantage over no screening at all. PMID:27461597

  11. Exploring Innovative Approaches and Patient-Centered Outcomes from Positive Outliers in Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Mona; Marshall, Gareth; Goldman, Roberta; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Horan, Christine M; Koziol, Renata; Marshall, Richard; Sequist, Thomas D; Taveras, Elsie M

    2015-01-01

    Objective New approaches for obesity prevention and management can be gleaned from 'positive outliers', i.e., individuals who have succeeded in changing health behaviors and reducing their body mass index (BMI) in the context of adverse built and social environments. We explored perspectives and strategies of parents of positive outlier children living in high risk neighborhoods. Methods We collected up to five years of height/weight data from the electronic health records of 22,443 Massachusetts children, ages 6-12 years, seen for well-child care. We identified children with any history of BMI ≥95th percentile (n=4007) and generated a BMI z-score slope for each child using a linear mixed effects model. We recruited parents for focus groups from the sub-sample of children with negative slopes who also lived in zip codes where >15% of children were obese. We analyzed focus group transcripts using an immersion/crystallization approach. Results We reached thematic saturation after 5 focus groups with 41 parents. Commonly cited outcomes that mattered most to parents and motivated change were child inactivity, above-average clothing sizes, exercise intolerance, and negative peer interactions; few reported BMI as a motivator. Convergent strategies among positive outlier families were family-level changes, parent modeling, consistency, household rules/limits, and creativity in overcoming resistance. Parents voiced preferences for obesity interventions that include tailored education and support that extend outside clinical settings and are delivered by both health care professionals and successful peers. Conclusions Successful strategies learned from positive outlier families can be generalized and tested to accelerate progress in reducing childhood obesity. PMID:25439163

  12. An innovative approach to the development of a portable unit for analytical flame characterization in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubinskiy, Mark A.; Kamal, Mohammed M.; Misra, Prabhaker

    1995-01-01

    The availability of manned laboratory facilities in space offers wonderful opportunities and challenges in microgravity combustion science and technology. In turn, the fundamentals of microgravity combustion science can be studied via spectroscopic characterization of free radicals generated in flames. The laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique is a noninvasive method of considerable utility in combustion physics and chemistry suitable for monitoring not only specific species and their kinetics, but it is also important for imaging of flames. This makes LIF one of the most important tools for microgravity combustion science. Flame characterization under microgravity conditions using LIF is expected to be more informative than other methods aimed at searching for effects like pumping phenomenon that can be modeled via ground level experiments. A primary goal of our work consisted in working out an innovative approach to devising an LIF-based analytical unit suitable for in-space flame characterization. It was decided to follow two approaches in tandem: (1) use the existing laboratory (non-portable) equipment and determine the optimal set of parameters for flames that can be used as analytical criteria for flame characterization under microgravity conditions; and (2) use state-of-the-art developments in laser technology and concentrate some effort in devising a layout for the portable analytical equipment. This paper presents an up-to-date summary of the results of our experiments aimed at the creation of the portable device for combustion studies in a microgravity environment, which is based on a portable UV tunable solid-state laser for excitation of free radicals normally present in flames in detectable amounts. A systematic approach has allowed us to make a convenient choice of species under investigation, as well as the proper tunable laser system, and also enabled us to carry out LIF experiments on free radicals using a solid-state laser tunable in the UV.

  13. Experimental study of wood downdraft gasification for an improved producer gas quality through an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach.

    PubMed

    Jaojaruek, Kitipong; Jarungthammachote, Sompop; Gratuito, Maria Kathrina B; Wongsuwan, Hataitep; Homhual, Suwan

    2011-04-01

    This study conducted experiments on three different downdraft gasification approaches: single stage, conventional two-stage, and an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach. The innovative two-stage approach has two nozzle locations, one for air supply at combustion zone and the other located at the pyrolysis zone for supplying the premixed gas (air and producer gas). The producer gas is partially bypassed to mix with air and supplied to burn at the pyrolysis zone. The result shows that producer gas quality generated by the innovative two-stage approach improved as compared to conventional two-stage. The higher heating value (HHV) increased from 5.4 to 6.5 MJ/Nm(3). Tar content in producer gas reduced to less than 45 mg/Nm(3). With this approach, gas can be fed directly to an internal combustion engine. Furthermore, the gasification thermal efficiency also improved by approximately 14%. The approach gave double benefits on gas qualities and energy savings. PMID:21292477

  14. Experimental study of wood downdraft gasification for an improved producer gas quality through an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach.

    PubMed

    Jaojaruek, Kitipong; Jarungthammachote, Sompop; Gratuito, Maria Kathrina B; Wongsuwan, Hataitep; Homhual, Suwan

    2011-04-01

    This study conducted experiments on three different downdraft gasification approaches: single stage, conventional two-stage, and an innovative two-stage air and premixed air/gas supply approach. The innovative two-stage approach has two nozzle locations, one for air supply at combustion zone and the other located at the pyrolysis zone for supplying the premixed gas (air and producer gas). The producer gas is partially bypassed to mix with air and supplied to burn at the pyrolysis zone. The result shows that producer gas quality generated by the innovative two-stage approach improved as compared to conventional two-stage. The higher heating value (HHV) increased from 5.4 to 6.5 MJ/Nm(3). Tar content in producer gas reduced to less than 45 mg/Nm(3). With this approach, gas can be fed directly to an internal combustion engine. Furthermore, the gasification thermal efficiency also improved by approximately 14%. The approach gave double benefits on gas qualities and energy savings.

  15. Innovative Approach Enabled the Retirement of TDRS-1 Compliant with NASA Orbital Debris Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaleski, Ronald; Mirczak, Walter; Staich, Stephen; Caverly, Richard; Smith, Eric; Teti, Nicholas; Vaught, W. Lynn; Olney, Dave

    2011-01-01

    The first Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-1) was deactivated on June 27th 2010 following more than 26 years of operation. The end-of-mission (EOM) operations were developed to address the stringent requirements of NPR 8715.6: NASA Procedural Requirements for Limiting Orbital Debris, which consists of three key items: 1) removal from the geosynchronous arc; 2) depletion of the remaining propellant; and 3) passivation of all sources of energy storage or generation [1]. The EOM approach minimized risks while accomplishing these goals. Raising TDRS-1 over 350 km above geosynchronous was accomplished via proven station change operations. Depleting propellant was the most challenging task, requiring over 20 hours of thruster on-time accumulated within schedule, orbit, and spacecraft subsystem constraints. The attitude configuration and operational procedures, including the unique final passivation method, were thoroughly analyzed and simulated prior to the start of operations. The complete EOM campaign lasted 21 days. The TDRS-1 EOM campaign demonstrated that pre-NPR 8715.6 satellite designs can be made to comply and that lessons learned could be applied to other satellite designs. The significant TDRS-1 effort demonstrates a commitment by NASA to responsible orbital debris management in compliance with international standards.

  16. Predicting Themomechanical Responses of Polymer Thin Films and Nanocomposites via an Innovative Coarse-grained Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Wenjie; Hsu, David; Keten, Sinan

    Understanding and predicting the thermomechanical responses of nanoscale polymer systems are very challenging as their responses are greatly influenced by many factors, such as interfacial energy, filler volume fraction and molecule weight, giving rise to the presence of nanoscale interface and free surface. To overcome these issues, here we employ a novel atomistically informed coarse-grained computational technique, called thermomechanically consistent coarse graining (TCCG), to investigate how the nanoscale interface and free surface influence the elastic modulus (E) and glass transition temperature (Tg) of polymer films and nanocomposites. By performing tensile tests and nanoindentation simulations, we are able to predict the size dependent elastic properties of polymer films and quantify the length scale of the local mechanical interphase. Finally, taking cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) and poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposites as a relevant model system, we present a multi-scale framework built upon our CG approach to allow the prediction of Tg of nanocomposite as a function of interfacial energy and filler volume fractions by drawing the analogy between thin film and nanocomposites. Our established multi-scale framework is validated by recent experiments and breaks new ground in predicting, without any empirical parameters, key structure-property relationships for polymer nanomaterials.

  17. Innovative Approach to Establish Root Causes for Cracking in Aggressive Reactor Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Thomas, Larry E.; Vetrano, John S.; Simonen, Edward P.

    2003-10-31

    The research focuses on the high-resolution characterization of degradation microstructures and microchemistries in specimens tested under controlled conditions for the environment and for the material where in-service complexities can be minimized. Thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of crack-tip processes is employed to analyze corrosion-induced structures and gain insights into degradation mechanisms. Novel mechanistic ''fingerprinting'' of crack-tip structures is used to isolate causes of environmental cracking in tandem with quantitative measurements of crack growth. Sample preparation methods and advanced analytical techniques are used to characterize corrosion/oxidation reactions and crack-tip structures at near atomic dimensions in order to gain insight into fundamental environmental cracking mechanisms. Reactions at buried interfaces, not accessible by conventional approaches, are being systematically interrogated. Crack-growth experiments in high-temperature water environments are evaluating and isolating the effects of material condition (matrix strength, grain boundary composition and precipitation) on stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The fundamental understanding of crack advance mechanisms will establish the basis to design new corrosion-resistant alloys for current light-water reactors and advanced reactor systems.

  18. PancreApp: An Innovative Approach to Computational Individualization of Nutritional Therapy in Chronic Gastrointestinal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Stawiski, Konrad; Strzałka, Alicja; Puła, Anna; Bijakowski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Medical nutrition therapy has a pivotal role in the management of chronic gastrointestinal disorders, like chronic pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel diseases (Leśniowski-Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis) or irritable bowel syndrome. The aim of this study is to develop, deploy and evaluate an interactive application for Windows and Android operating systems, which could serve as a digital diet diary and as an analysis and a prediction tool both for the patient and the doctor. The software is gathering details about patients' diet and associated fettle in order to estimate fettle change after future meals, specifically for an individual patient. In this paper we have described the process of idea development and application design, feasibility assessment using a phone survey, a preliminary evaluation on 6 healthy individuals and early results of a clinical trial, which is still an ongoing study. Results suggest that applied approximative approach (Shepard's method of 6-dimensional metric interpolation) has a potential to predict the fettle accurately; as shown in leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV). PMID:26262064

  19. The Promise of Multi-Omics and Clinical Data Integration to Identify and Target Personalized Healthcare Approaches in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Higdon, Roger; Earl, Rachel K.; Stanberry, Larissa; Hudac, Caitlin M.; Montague, Elizabeth; Stewart, Elizabeth; Janko, Imre; Choiniere, John; Broomall, William; Kolker, Natali

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Complex diseases are caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, creating a difficult challenge for diagnosis and defining subtypes. This review article describes how distinct disease subtypes can be identified through integration and analysis of clinical and multi-omics data. A broad shift toward molecular subtyping of disease using genetic and omics data has yielded successful results in cancer and other complex diseases. To determine molecular subtypes, patients are first classified by applying clustering methods to different types of omics data, then these results are integrated with clinical data to characterize distinct disease subtypes. An example of this molecular-data-first approach is in research on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), a spectrum of social communication disorders marked by tremendous etiological and phenotypic heterogeneity. In the case of ASD, omics data such as exome sequences and gene and protein expression data are combined with clinical data such as psychometric testing and imaging to enable subtype identification. Novel ASD subtypes have been proposed, such as CHD8, using this molecular subtyping approach. Broader use of molecular subtyping in complex disease research is impeded by data heterogeneity, diversity of standards, and ineffective analysis tools. The future of molecular subtyping for ASD and other complex diseases calls for an integrated resource to identify disease mechanisms, classify new patients, and inform effective treatment options. This in turn will empower and accelerate precision medicine and personalized healthcare. PMID:25831060

  20. Promises and challenges in solid-state lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Fred

    2010-03-01

    Lighting technologies based on semiconductor light-emitting diodes (LEDs) offer unprecedented promises that include three major benefits: (i) Gigantic energy savings enabled by efficient conversion of electrical energy to optical energy; (ii) Substantial positive contributions to sustainability through reduced emissions of global-warming gases, acid-rain gases, and toxic substances such as mercury; and (iii) The creation of new paradigms in lighting driven by the unique controllability of solid-state lighting sources. Due to the powerful nature of these benefits, the transition from conventional lighting sources to solid-state lighting is virtually assured. This presentation will illustrate the new world of lighting and illustrate the pervasive changes to be expected in lighting, displays, communications, and biotechnology. The presentation will also address the formidable challenges that must be addressed to continue the further advancement of solid-state lighting technology. These challenges offer opportunities for research and innovation. Specific challenges include light management, carrier transport, and optical design. We will present some innovative approaches in order to solve known technical challenges faced by solid-state lighting. These approaches include the demonstration and use of new optical thin-film materials with a continuously tunable refractive index. These approaches also include the use of polarization-matched structures that reduce the polarization fields in GaInN LEDs and the hotly debated efficiency droop, that is, the decreasing LED efficiency at high currents.

  1. Immersive virtual reality and environmental noise assessment: An innovative audio–visual approach

    SciTech Connect

    Ruotolo, Francesco; Maffei, Luigi; Di Gabriele, Maria; Iachini, Tina; Masullo, Massimiliano; Ruggiero, Gennaro; Senese, Vincenzo Paolo

    2013-07-15

    Several international studies have shown that traffic noise has a negative impact on people's health and that people's annoyance does not depend only on noise energetic levels, but rather on multi-perceptual factors. The combination of virtual reality technology and audio rendering techniques allow us to experiment a new approach for environmental noise assessment that can help to investigate in advance the potential negative effects of noise associated with a specific project and that in turn can help designers to make educated decisions. In the present study, the audio–visual impact of a new motorway project on people has been assessed by means of immersive virtual reality technology. In particular, participants were exposed to 3D reconstructions of an actual landscape without the projected motorway (ante operam condition), and of the same landscape with the projected motorway (post operam condition). Furthermore, individuals' reactions to noise were assessed by means of objective cognitive measures (short term verbal memory and executive functions) and subjective evaluations (noise and visual annoyance). Overall, the results showed that the introduction of a projected motorway in the environment can have immediate detrimental effects of people's well-being depending on the distance from the noise source. In particular, noise due to the new infrastructure seems to exert a negative influence on short term verbal memory and to increase both visual and noise annoyance. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. -- Highlights: ► Impact of traffic noise on people's well-being depends on multi-perceptual factors. ► A multisensory virtual reality technology is used to simulate a projected motorway. ► Effects on short-term memory and auditory and visual subjective annoyance were found. ► The closer the distance from the motorway the stronger was the effect. ► Multisensory virtual reality methodologies can be used to study

  2. The Italian Spacegate: Study and innovative approaches to future generation transportation based on High Altitude Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, Francesco; Bellomo, Alessandro; Bolle, Andrea; Vittori, Roberto

    2014-08-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the pre-feasibility studies carried out in 2012 on the concept of sub orbital and hypersonic, high altitude flight in support of future generation transportation. Currently, while the High Altitude Flight is mostly instrumental to touristic purposes and emphasizes the so called Spaceports as futuristic, customers-luring airports featured with all the support services, the “Spacegate” concept deals with scheduled traveling in the upper part of the atmosphere between two points over the Earth surface, with significant reduction of the transfer time. The first part of the paper provides a theoretical approach to the matter, by proposing an “operational” mapping of the atmosphere as well as of the different kinds of flight occurring at High Altitude. The second part of the paper addresses the problem of the limited human capability of maintaining an active control of the vehicle during the re-entry phase and introduces the “Spacegate” concept as the conical portion of the atmosphere above the landing site, whose surface delimits the spiral-descending trajectories that the pilot can travel for a safe re-entry. This paper further outlines the results of the preliminary definition of top level operational requirements and derived architecture functional modules in support to the “Spacegate” implementation. Special attention was given to the favorable geographic and climatic conditions of Italy that make this Country suitable enough for future experimental sub orbital flights and related operations. An initial analysis was performed on the regulatory backbone that has to be built to properly operate High Altitude Flight vehicles in Italy according to the concept of an Italian “Spacegate”. A Preliminary Master Plan/Road Map for the “Spacegate” has been laid out, with special emphasis to selected near term activities and support infrastructures necessary to be carried out to better refine the study in preparation

  3. Chromatographic fingerprinting: An innovative approach for food 'identitation' and food authentication - A tutorial.

    PubMed

    Cuadros-Rodríguez, Luis; Ruiz-Samblás, Cristina; Valverde-Som, Lucia; Pérez-Castaño, Estefanía; González-Casado, Antonio

    2016-02-25

    Fingerprinting methods describe a variety of analytical methods that provide analytical signals related to the composition of foodstuffs in a non-selective way such as by collecting a spectrum or a chromatogram. Mathematical processing of the information in such fingerprints may allow the characterisation and/or authentication of foodstuffs. In this context, the particular meaning of 'fingerprinting', in conjunction with 'profiling', is different from the original meanings used in metabolomics. This fact has produced some confusion with the use of these terms in analytical papers. Researchers coming from the metabolomic field could use 'profiling' or 'fingerprinting' on a different way to researchers who are devoted to food science. The arrival of an eclectic discipline, named 'foodomics' has not been enough to allay this terminological problem, since the authors keep on using the terms with both meanings. Thus, a first goal of this tutorial is to clarify the difference between both terms. In addition, the chemical approaches for food authentication, i.e., chemical markers, component profiling and instrumental fingerprinting, have been described. A new term, designated as 'food identitation', has been introduced in order to complete the life cycle of the chemical-based food authentication process. Chromatographic fingerprinting has been explained in detail and some strategies which could be applied has been clarified and discussed. Particularly, the strategies for chromatographic signals acquisition and chromatographic data handling are unified in a single framework. Finally, an overview about the applications of chromatographic (GC and LC) fingerprints in food authentication using different chemometric techniques has been included.

  4. The "Oil-Spill Snorkel": an innovative bioelectrochemical approach to accelerate hydrocarbons biodegradation in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Cruz Viggi, Carolina; Presta, Enrica; Bellagamba, Marco; Kaciulis, Saulius; Balijepalli, Santosh K; Zanaroli, Giulio; Petrangeli Papini, Marco; Rossetti, Simona; Aulenta, Federico

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the proof-of-concept of the "Oil-Spill Snorkel": a novel bioelectrochemical approach to stimulate the oxidative biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments. The "Oil-Spill Snorkel" consists of a single conductive material (the snorkel) positioned suitably to create an electrochemical connection between the anoxic zone (the contaminated sediment) and the oxic zone (the overlying O2-containing water). The segment of the electrode buried within the sediment plays a role of anode, accepting electrons deriving from the oxidation of contaminants. Electrons flow through the snorkel up to the part exposed to the aerobic environment (the cathode), where they reduce oxygen to form water. Here we report the results of lab-scale microcosms setup with marine sediments and spiked with crude oil. Microcosms containing one or three graphite snorkels and controls (snorkel-free and autoclaved) were monitored for over 400 days. Collectively, the results of this study confirmed that the snorkels accelerate oxidative reactions taking place within the sediment, as documented by a significant 1.7-fold increase (p = 0.023, two-tailed t-test) in the cumulative oxygen uptake and 1.4-fold increase (p = 0.040) in the cumulative CO2 evolution in the microcosms containing three snorkels compared to snorkel-free controls. Accordingly, the initial rate of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) degradation was also substantially enhanced. Indeed, while after 200 days of incubation a negligible degradation of TPH was noticed in snorkel-free controls, a significant reduction of 12 ± 1% (p = 0.004) and 21 ± 1% (p = 0.001) was observed in microcosms containing one and three snorkels, respectively. Although, the "Oil-Spill Snorkel" potentially represents a groundbreaking alternative to more expensive remediation options, further research efforts are needed to clarify factors and conditions affecting the snorkel-driven biodegradation processes and to identify suitable

  5. IITET and shadow TT: an innovative approach to training at the point of need

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Andrew; Lopez, Favio; Dirkse, James; Anderson, Darran; Berglie, Stephen; May, Christopher; Harkrider, Susan

    2014-06-01

    The Image Intensification and Thermal Equipment Training (IITET) project is a joint effort between Night Vision and Electronics Sensors Directorate (NVESD) Modeling and Simulation Division (MSD) and the Army Research Institute (ARI) Fort Benning Research Unit. The IITET effort develops a reusable and extensible training architecture that supports the Army Learning Model and trains Manned-Unmanned Teaming (MUM-T) concepts to Shadow Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) payload operators. The training challenge of MUM-T during aviation operations is that UAS payload operators traditionally learn few of the scout-reconnaissance skills and coordination appropriate to MUM-T at the schoolhouse. The IITET effort leveraged the simulation experience and capabilities at NVESD and ARI's research to develop a novel payload operator training approach consistent with the Army Learning Model. Based on the training and system requirements, the team researched and identified candidate capabilities in several distinct technology areas. The training capability will support a variety of training missions as well as a full campaign. Data from these missions will be captured in a fully integrated AAR capability, which will provide objective feedback to the user in near-real-time. IITET will be delivered via a combination of browser and video streaming technologies, eliminating the requirement for a client download and reducing user computer system requirements. The result is a novel UAS Payload Operator training capability, nested within an architecture capable of supporting a wide variety of training needs for air and ground tactical platforms and sensors, and potentially several other areas requiring vignette-based serious games training.

  6. Promising More Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    When NASA needed a real-time, online database system capable of tracking documentation changes in its propulsion test facilities, engineers at Stennis Space Center joined with ECT International, of Brookfield, Wisconsin, to create a solution. Through NASA's Dual-Use Program, ECT developed Exdata, a software program that works within the company's existing Promise software. Exdata not only satisfied NASA s requirements, but also expanded ECT s commercial product line. Promise, ECT s primary product, is an intelligent software program with specialized functions for designing and documenting electrical control systems. An addon to AutoCAD software, Promis e generates control system schematics, panel layouts, bills of material, wire lists, and terminal plans. The drawing functions include symbol libraries, macros, and automatic line breaking. Primary Promise customers include manufacturing companies, utilities, and other organizations with complex processes to control.

  7. Structural characterization of low level degradants in aztreonam injection and an innovative approach to aid HPLC method validation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qingmei; Ding, Wei; Rinaldi, Frank; Huang, Yande; Miller, Scott A; Bolgar, Mark

    2016-05-30

    Three new degradants have been identified from drug product and active pharmaceutical ingredient stability samples of aztreonam, a marketed synthetic monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic. The degradants were detected following the implementation of a new, more selective HPLC method for the determination of impurities and degradants. The new method was developed in response to changes in the regulatory requirement for mature products. Two of the new unknown Degradants (I and II) were observed in chromatograms from stability samples of aztreonam injection. The third new Degradant (III) was observed during a stability study of the aztreonam active pharmaceutical ingredient. These degradants were structurally characterized. A small amount (ca. 1-3mg) of each degradant was isolated via preparative HPLC for structure elucidation using accurate MS, one and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. The small amount of each NMR sample was then reused as a standard for HPLC purity/impurity method validation. Their exact concentrations were determined using quantitative NMR which enabled the execution of the quantitative elements of the HPLC method validation. This innovative approach eliminated the need to isolate or synthesize larger quantities of markers for HPLC/UV method validation, thus saving significant time and reducing costs. PMID:26991056

  8. Integrated approaches to restore gullies in land prone to soil piping: innovations from the drylands of northern Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankl, Amaury; Deckers, Jozef; Moulaert, Lys; Van Damme, Alexander; Haile, Mitiku; Poesen, Jean; Nyssen, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Multiple on-site and off-site effects of gully erosion threaten sustainable development, which is especially evident in dryland environments. To control soil erosion by gullying, various soil and water conservation measures have been developed, of which check dams are the most common. Where soil piping occurs, soil and water conservation measures have limited effect on gully stabilization, and check dams easily collapse. Therefore, new integrated approaches are needed to control gully erosion induced by soil piping. Here, a subsurface geomembrane dam is proposed as an innovative measure to reduce subsurface flow in soil pipes near gullies. Application of such a dam in Northern Ethiopia, resulted in a decrease of gully erosion rates in Vertisols, and a rising water table in the intergully areas near the gully channel. The consequence of this effect for agriculture near gully channels is the reduction of soil desiccation and hence, increased crop yields in the intergully areas near the gully channels. With the gully filling and stabilizing, runoff water could be diverted into adjacent land, offering additional benefits to the local communities. Here, the runoff diversion was done into a vegetation protection site, in order to enhances biomass production, especially tree growth. Moreover, a water collection pound was created to make water available in the prolonged dry season. These interventions support additional economical activities such as beekeeping and the establishment of a tree nursery. With the multiple on-site and off-site benefits of the integrated approach, local communities have a better guarantee of investment return and livelihood improvement, increasing their support to gully rehabilitation schemes. Keywords: Crop, Subsurface dam, Soil and water conservation, Tree growth, Vertisol, Dryland.

  9. Controlled downregulation of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor provides a promising approach for the treatment of obesity and obesity-derived type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dai; Dopart, Rachel; Kendall, Debra A

    2016-01-01

    Increased activity of the endocannabinoid system has emerged as a pathogenic factor in visceral obesity, which is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The endocannabinoid system is composed of at least two Gprotein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1), and the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2). Downregulation of CB1 activity in rodents and humans has proven efficacious to reduce food intake, abdominal adiposity, fasting glucose levels, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Unfortunately, downregulation of CB1 activity by universally active CB1 inverse agonists has been found to elicit psychiatric side effects, which led to the termination of using globally active CB1 inverse agonists to treat diet-induced obesity. Interestingly, preclinical studies have shown that downregulation of CB1 activity by CB1 neutral antagonists or peripherally restricted CB1 inverse agonists provided similar anorectic effects and metabolic benefits without psychiatric side effects seen in globally active CB1 inverse agonists. Furthermore, downregulation of CB1 activity may ease endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial stress which are contributors to obesity-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. This suggests new approaches for cannabinoid-based therapy in the management of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes.

  10. Development of surface modified biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles to deliver GSE24.2 peptide to cells: a promising approach for the treatment of defective telomerase disorders.

    PubMed

    Egusquiaguirre, Susana P; Manguán-García, Cristina; Pintado-Berninches, Laura; Iarriccio, Laura; Carbajo, Daniel; Albericio, Fernando; Royo, Miriam; Pedraz, José Luís; Hernández, Rosa M; Perona, Rosario; Igartua, Manuela

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a novel strategy to deliver intracellularly the peptide GSE24.2 for the treatment of Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) and other defective telomerase disorders. For this purpose, biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA NPs) or poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-poly ethylene glycol (PLGA-PEG NPs) attached to either polycations or cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) were prepared in order to increase their cellular uptake. The particles exhibited an adequate size and zeta potential, with good peptide loading and a biphasic pattern obtained in the in vitro release assay, showing an initial burst release and a later sustained release. GSE24.2 structural integrity after encapsulation was assessed using SDS-PAGE, revealing an unaltered peptide after the NPs elaboration. According to the cytotoxicity results, cell viability was not affected by uncoated polymeric NPs, but the incorporation of surface modifiers slightly decreased the viability of cells. The intracellular uptake exhibited a remarkable improvement of the internalization, when the NPs were conjugated to the CPPs. Finally, the bioactivity, addressed by measuring DNA damage rescue and telomerase reactivation, showed that some formulations had the lowest cytotoxicity and highest biological activity. These results proved that GSE24.2-loaded NPs could be delivered to cells, and therefore, become an effective approach for the treatment of DC and other defective telomerase syndromes. PMID:25660910

  11. Markovian chemicals "in silico" design (MARCH-INSIDE), a promising approach for computer-aided molecular design I: discovery of anticancer compounds.

    PubMed

    Gonzáles-Díaz, Humberto; Gia, Ornella; Uriarte, Eugenio; Hernádez, Ivan; Ramos, Ronal; Chaviano, Mayrelis; Seijo, Santiago; Castillo, Juan A; Morales, Lázaro; Santana, Lourdes; Akpaloo, Delali; Molina, Enrique; Cruz, Maikel; Torres, Luis A; Cabrera, Miguel A

    2003-12-01

    A simple stochastic approach, designed to model the movement of electrons throughout chemical bonds, is introduced. This model makes use of a Markov matrix to codify useful structural information in QSAR. The self-return probabilities of this matrix throughout time ((SR)pi(k)) are then used as molecular descriptors. Firstly, a calculation of (SR)pi(k) is made for a large series of anticancer and non-anticancer chemicals. Then, k-Means Cluster Analysis allows us to split the data series into clusters and ensure a representative design of training and predicting series. Next, we develop a classification function through Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). This QSAR discriminates between anticancer compounds and non-active compounds with a correct global classification of 90.5% in the training series. The model also correctly classified 86.07% of the compounds in the predicting series. This classification function is then used to perform a virtual screening of a combinatorial library of coumarins. In this connection, the biological assay of some furocoumarins, selected by virtual screening using the present model, gives good results. In particular, a tetracyclic derivative of 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) has an IC50 against HL-60 tumoral line around 6 to 10 times lower than those for 8-MOP and 5-MOP (reference drugs), respectively. Finally, application of Iso-contribution Zone Analysis (IZA) provides structural interpretation of the biological activity predicted with this QSAR. PMID:13680309

  12. The Promise of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for Black Men Who Have Sex with Men: An Ecological Approach to Attitudes, Beliefs, and Barriers.

    PubMed

    Philbin, Morgan M; Parker, Caroline M; Parker, Richard G; Wilson, Patrick A; Garcia, Jonathan; Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2016-06-01

    Research has demonstrated the clinical effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention, but little is known about how factors at the individual-, interpersonal-, community-, and structural levels impact PrEP use for black men who have sex with men (BMSM). We advance existing work by examining how all levels of the ecological framework must be addressed for PrEP to be successfully implemented as an effective HIV prevention approach. We interviewed 31 BMSM three times each and 17 community stakeholders once each; interviews were taped, transcribed, and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Factors that influence how BMSM experienced PrEP emerged across all levels of the ecological framework: At the individual level, respondents were wary of giving medication to healthy people and of the potential side-effects. At the interpersonal level, BMSM believed that PrEP use would discourage condom use and that PrEP should only be one option for HIV prevention, not the main option. At the community level, men described not trusting the pharmaceutical industry and described PrEP as an option for others, not for themselves. At the structural level, BMSM talked about HIV and sexuality-related stigmas and how they must overcome those before PrEP engagement. BMSM are a key population in the US National HIV/AIDS Strategy, yet few individuals believe that PrEP would be personally helpful. Our research indicates the urgent need to raise awareness and address structural stigma and policies that could be substantial barriers to the scale-up and implementation of PrEP-related services. PMID:27220036

  13. Configuration Studies of Personal Air Vehicles. Personal Air Vehicle and Flying Jeep Concepts: A Commentary on Promising Approaches or What Goes Around Comes Around (About Every Twenty Years)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David W.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA/Langley Personal Air Vehicle (PAV) Exploration (PAVE) and the DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) Dual Air/Road Transportation System (DARTS) projects were established to investigate the feasibility of creating vehicles which could replace, or at the very least augment, personal ground and air transportation schemes. This overall goal implies integrating several technology areas with practical everyday transportation requirements to design a class of vehicles which will achieve the following goals: (1) Vertical, Extremely Short, or Short Takeoff and Landing (VTOL, ESTOL, STOL) capability; (2) Operation at block speeds markedly faster than current combinations of land and air transportation, particularly in critical market areas; (3) Unit cost comparable to current luxury cars and small general aviation aircraft; (4) Excellent reliability; (5) Excellent safety; (6) Ability to integrate with existing land and air transportation systems. The conclusions of these configuration studies are summarized as follows: (1) Creation of the five assigned configurations prompted added explorations, some of which were dead-ends; (2) Some components could be common to all configurations such as avionics and dual-mode suspension schemes; (3) Single-Mode PAVs can be created by removing dual-mode-specific items; (4) Aviation history provided some intriguing starting points, as in what goes around comes around; (5) CTOL (Conventional Take-off and Landing) and STOL dual-mode PAVs look feasible with single-mode PAVs being simplifications of the dual-mode approach; (6) VTOL PAVs will require development; (7) More exotic collapsing mechanisms mechanisms need development; (8) As a teaching tool, PAVs are not yet a well-enough bounded design problem.

  14. Innovative Regulatory and Technical Approaches for the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers' Linde FUSRAP Site Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, J. T.; Coutts, P. W.; Franz, J.; Boyle, J. D.; Rogers, B. C.

    2002-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) created the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) in 1974 to identify, investigate, and cleanup or control radiological contamination at sites used by the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) from the 1940s through the 1960s. The USDOE had identified 46 sites in the program and finished remediation at 24 of the smaller ones before the end of 1997. With the passage of the Energy and Water Resources Appropriation Act of 1998 the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) was designated by Congress with responsibility to manage and execute the FUSRAP. The Linde Site located in Tonawanda, New York was operated by the MED from 1942-1946 to extract uranium from several high-grade ores. This natural uranium was subsequently enriched in U-235 elsewhere in the United States and ultimately used to produce energy or weapons. Though in the process of reviewing alternative disposal options by 1995, the USDOE had operated FUSRAP with a strategy requiring virtually all materials remediated be disposed of at only one Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensed facility. The change in management of the FUSRAP in 1997 allowed the disposal policy of low levels of radioactively contaminated materials found at the remaining sites to be reexamined. This paper presents some of the innovative regulatory and technical approaches employed at the Linde Site that are resulting in project cost savings while meeting applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements as well as fulfilling commitments made to the local community.

  15. Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine: an innovative approach to medical education and the training of physician investigators.

    PubMed

    Fishleder, Andrew J; Henson, Lindsey C; Hull, Alan L

    2007-04-01

    Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine (CCLCM) is an innovative, five-year medical education track within Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine (Case) with a focused mission to attract and educate a limited number of highly qualified persons who seek to become physician investigators. CCLCM curriculum governance, faculty appointments and promotions, and admissions committees are integrated with respective Case committees. The CCLCM curriculum is based on faculty-defined professional attributes that graduates are expected to develop. These attributes were used to create curricular and assessment principles that guided the development of an integrated basic science, clinical science, and research curriculum, conducted in an active learning environment. An organ-system approach is used to solidify an understanding of basic science discipline threads in the context of relevant clinical problems presented in PBL and case-based discussion formats. Clinical skills are introduced in the first year as part of the two-year longitudinal experience with a family practice or internal medicine physician. The research program provides all students with opportunities to learn and experience basic and translational research and clinical research before selecting a research topic for their 12- to 15-month master-level thesis project. All Case students participate in required and elective clinical curriculum after the second year, but CCLCM students return to the Cleveland Clinic on selected Friday afternoons for program-specific research and professionalism-learning activities. A unique portfolio-based assessment system is used to assess student achievements in nine competency areas, seven of which reflect the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies.

  16. AIDS/HIV crisis in developing countries: the need for greater understanding and innovative health promotion approaches.

    PubMed

    Livingston, I L

    1992-09-01

    Epidemiologic data on morbidity and mortality have shown that the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS/HIV) epidemic is relatively widespread in the developing countries of the world, especially in the already economically deprived regions of Sub-Saharan Africa. Africa is estimated to have approximately 5 million seropositive individuals, and by the year 2000, this number is expected to include 10 million HIV-infected children. Improved control over this epidemic can only come through a greater understanding of the specifics of the disease and, eventually, the introduction of more effective and innovative health promotion campaigns targeted at medical personnel, traditional healers, families, and persons with AIDS. Comprehensive health promotion campaigns, carefully using mass media strategies in addition to more community-based programs, all operating under "decentralized" AIDS control programs, are reasoned to be the most efficacious approach that African and other developing countries can use to successfully contain the AIDS/HIV epidemic. Given the reality of the following factors: Pattern II (ie, transmission of AIDS via heterosexual sexual activity) is the main mode of HIV transmission in Africa, the traditional dominant roles males have in sexual relations, and the positive relationship between sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS, health promotion campaigns must focus specifically on addressing at-risk culturally related sexual values and behaviors in African communities. Failure to address these and other related factors will certainly lead to an escalation of the AIDS/HIV epidemic in Africa and, therefore, concomitant devastation in the human and societal realms of the region. PMID:1404473

  17. Maternal morbidity and near miss associated with maternal age: the innovative approach of the 2006 Brazilian demographic health survey

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Fernando César; Costa, Maria Laura; Cecatti, Jose Guilherme; e Silva, João Luiz Pinto; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of potentially life-threatening maternal conditions and near miss in Brazil according to maternal age. METHODS: A secondary analysis of the 2006 Brazilian demographic health survey database using a validated questionnaire to evaluate maternal morbidity with a focus on age extremes. The study included 5,025 women with at least 1 live birth in the 5-year reference period preceding their interviews. Three age range periods were used: 15-19 years (younger age), 20-34 years (control), and 35-49 years (advanced maternal age). According to a pragmatic definition, any woman reporting eclampsia, hysterectomy, blood transfusion, or admission to the intensive care unit during her pregnancy/childbirth was considered a near-miss case. The associations between age and severe maternal morbidity were further assessed. RESULTS: For the 6,833 reported pregnancies, 73.7% of the women were 20-34 years old, 17.9% were of advanced maternal age, and only 8.4% were of younger age. More than 22% of the women had at least one of the complications appraised, and blood transfusion, which was more prevalent among the controls, was the only variable with a significant difference among the age groups. The overall rate of maternal near miss was 21.1 per 1000 live births. There was a trend of higher maternal near miss with increasing age. The only significant risk factor identified for maternal near miss was a lower literacy level among older women. CONCLUSIONS: There is a trend towards worse results with increasing age. The investigation of the determinants of maternal near miss at the community level using an innovative approach through a demographic health survey is an example suggested for under-resourced settings. PMID:23917654

  18. Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine: an innovative approach to medical education and the training of physician investigators.

    PubMed

    Fishleder, Andrew J; Henson, Lindsey C; Hull, Alan L

    2007-04-01

    Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine (CCLCM) is an innovative, five-year medical education track within Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine (Case) with a focused mission to attract and educate a limited number of highly qualified persons who seek to become physician investigators. CCLCM curriculum governance, faculty appointments and promotions, and admissions committees are integrated with respective Case committees. The CCLCM curriculum is based on faculty-defined professional attributes that graduates are expected to develop. These attributes were used to create curricular and assessment principles that guided the development of an integrated basic science, clinical science, and research curriculum, conducted in an active learning environment. An organ-system approach is used to solidify an understanding of basic science discipline threads in the context of relevant clinical problems presented in PBL and case-based discussion formats. Clinical skills are introduced in the first year as part of the two-year longitudinal experience with a family practice or internal medicine physician. The research program provides all students with opportunities to learn and experience basic and translational research and clinical research before selecting a research topic for their 12- to 15-month master-level thesis project. All Case students participate in required and elective clinical curriculum after the second year, but CCLCM students return to the Cleveland Clinic on selected Friday afternoons for program-specific research and professionalism-learning activities. A unique portfolio-based assessment system is used to assess student achievements in nine competency areas, seven of which reflect the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies. PMID:17414197

  19. [An innovative approach combining human and animal vaccination campaigns in nomadic settings of Chad: experiences and costs].

    PubMed

    Bechir, M; Schelling, E; Wyss, K; Daugla, D M; Daoud, S; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe a network of public health care workers, veterinarians and nomadic pastoralists that was set up in Chad to increase vaccination coverage to nomadic children and women who had rarely been vaccinated before. The objectives of the project were to provide human vaccination in conjunction with existing veterinary services, to evaluate the feasibility and limitations of such campaigns, to determine what other services could be provided concurrently, and to estimate the savings for public health care cases in comparison with carrying out vaccination separately. In a series of 12 vaccination campaigns in the Chari-Baguirmi and Kanem districts, more than 2100 children, 2100 women and 52000 cattle were fully immunized. These results confirmed the feasibility of joint campaigns in nomadic settings and provided important experience for improving organization. Information-Education-Communication (IEC) campaigns adapted to the realities of the pastoral setting were an important factor in mobilizing nomadic pastoralists for attendance at vaccination clinics. The savings in logistics costs (i.e., personnel, transportation and cold chain costs excluding vaccine costs) was 15% in Gredaya where 3 out of 6 campaigns were carried out together with veterinarians and 4% in Chaddra/Am Dobak where only 1 out of 6 campaigns was carried out in conjunction with veterinarians. The cost per fully immunized child (FIC) was considerably higher in Chaddra/Am Dobak than Gredaya (EUR 29.2 vs. EUR 11.5). The joint vaccination campaign approach is innovative, appreciated by nomadic pastoralists and less expensive than separate vaccination. By using the mobility of veterinarians in remote zones far from health care facilities, vaccination can be provided to nomadic children and women in countries with limited resources.

  20. Targeted photodynamic therapy--a promising strategy of tumor treatment.

    PubMed

    Bugaj, Andrzej M

    2011-07-01

    Targeted therapy is a new promising therapeutic strategy, created to overcome growing problems of contemporary medicine, such as drug toxicity and drug resistance. An emerging modality of this approach is targeted photodynamic therapy (TPDT) with the main aim of improving delivery of photosensitizer to cancer tissue and at the same time enhancing specificity and efficiency of PDT. Depending on the mechanism of targeting, we can divide the strategies of TPDT into "passive", "active" and "activatable", where in the latter case the photosensitizer is activated only in the target tissue. In this review, contemporary strategies of TPDT are described, including new innovative concepts, such as targeting assisted by peptides and aptamers, multifunctional nanoplatforms with navigation by magnetic field or "photodynamic molecular beacons" activatable by enzymes and nucleic acid. The imperative of introducing a new paradigm of PDT, focused on the concepts of heterogeneity and dynamic state of tumor, is also called for. PMID:21547329

  1. In Progress: Reports of New Approaches in Medical Education. Peer-Reviewed Collection of Reports on Innovative Approaches to Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, M. Brownell, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    Presents 24 articles describing innovative efforts in medical education in the areas of faculty development; developing skills as residents; and culture, ethics, spirituality, complementary, and alternative medicine. Each report includes an objective, description, discussion, and contact information for inquiries. (EV)

  2. Attributes of innovations and approaches to scalability – lessons from a national program to extend the scope of practice of health professionals

    PubMed Central

    Masso, Malcolm; Thompson, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The context for the paper was the evaluation of a national program in Australia to investigate extended scopes of practice for health professionals (paramedics, physiotherapists, and nurses). The design of the evaluation involved a mixed-methods approach with multiple data sources. Four multidisciplinary models of extended scope of practice were tested over an 18-month period, involving 26 organizations, 224 health professionals, and 36 implementation sites. The evaluation focused on what could be learned to inform scaling up the extended scopes of practice on a national scale. The evaluation findings were used to develop a conceptual framework for use by clinicians, managers, and policy makers to determine appropriate strategies for scaling up effective innovations. Development of the framework was informed by the literature on the diffusion of innovations, particularly an understanding that certain attributes of innovations influence adoption. The framework recognizes the role played by three groups of stakeholders: evidence producers, evidence influencers, and evidence adopters. The use of the framework is illustrated with four case studies from the evaluation. The findings demonstrate how the scaling up of innovations can be influenced by three quite distinct approaches – letting adoption take place in an uncontrolled, unplanned, way; actively helping the process of adoption; or taking deliberate steps to ensure that adoption takes place. Development of the conceptual framework resulted in two sets of questions to guide decisions about scalability, one for those considering whether to adopt the innovation (evidence adopters), and the other for those trying to decide on the optimal strategy for dissemination (evidence influencers).

  3. Attributes of innovations and approaches to scalability - lessons from a national program to extend the scope of practice of health professionals.

    PubMed

    Masso, Malcolm; Thompson, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The context for the paper was the evaluation of a national program in Australia to investigate extended scopes of practice for health professionals (paramedics, physiotherapists, and nurses). The design of the evaluation involved a mixed-methods approach with multiple data sources. Four multidisciplinary models of extended scope of practice were tested over an 18-month period, involving 26 organizations, 224 health professionals, and 36 implementation sites. The evaluation focused on what could be learned to inform scaling up the extended scopes of practice on a national scale. The evaluation findings were used to develop a conceptual framework for use by clinicians, managers, and policy makers to determine appropriate strategies for scaling up effective innovations. Development of the framework was informed by the literature on the diffusion of innovations, particularly an understanding that certain attributes of innovations influence adoption. The framework recognizes the role played by three groups of stakeholders: evidence producers, evidence influencers, and evidence adopters. The use of the framework is illustrated with four case studies from the evaluation. The findings demonstrate how the scaling up of innovations can be influenced by three quite distinct approaches - letting adoption take place in an uncontrolled, unplanned, way; actively helping the process of adoption; or taking deliberate steps to ensure that adoption takes place. Development of the conceptual framework resulted in two sets of questions to guide decisions about scalability, one for those considering whether to adopt the innovation (evidence adopters), and the other for those trying to decide on the optimal strategy for dissemination (evidence influencers). PMID:27616889

  4. Attributes of innovations and approaches to scalability – lessons from a national program to extend the scope of practice of health professionals

    PubMed Central

    Masso, Malcolm; Thompson, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The context for the paper was the evaluation of a national program in Australia to investigate extended scopes of practice for health professionals (paramedics, physiotherapists, and nurses). The design of the evaluation involved a mixed-methods approach with multiple data sources. Four multidisciplinary models of extended scope of practice were tested over an 18-month period, involving 26 organizations, 224 health professionals, and 36 implementation sites. The evaluation focused on what could be learned to inform scaling up the extended scopes of practice on a national scale. The evaluation findings were used to develop a conceptual framework for use by clinicians, managers, and policy makers to determine appropriate strategies for scaling up effective innovations. Development of the framework was informed by the literature on the diffusion of innovations, particularly an understanding that certain attributes of innovations influence adoption. The framework recognizes the role played by three groups of stakeholders: evidence producers, evidence influencers, and evidence adopters. The use of the framework is illustrated with four case studies from the evaluation. The findings demonstrate how the scaling up of innovations can be influenced by three quite distinct approaches – letting adoption take place in an uncontrolled, unplanned, way; actively helping the process of adoption; or taking deliberate steps to ensure that adoption takes place. Development of the conceptual framework resulted in two sets of questions to guide decisions about scalability, one for those considering whether to adopt the innovation (evidence adopters), and the other for those trying to decide on the optimal strategy for dissemination (evidence influencers). PMID:27616889

  5. Innovation Process Design: A Change Management and Innovation Dimension Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peisl, Thomas; Reger, Veronika; Schmied, Juergen

    The authors propose an innovative approach to the management of innovation integrating business, process, and maturity dimensions. Core element of the concept is the adaptation of ISO/IEC 15504 to the innovation process including 14 innovation drivers. Two managerial models are applied to conceptualize and visualize the respective innovation strategies, the Balanced Scorecard and a Barriers in Change Processes Model. An illustrative case study shows a practical implementation process.

  6. Adaptive management: Promises and pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLain, Rebecca J.; Lee, Robert G.

    1996-07-01

    Proponents of the scientific adaptive management approach argue that it increases knowledge acquisition rates, enhances information flow among policy actors, and provides opportunities for creating shared understandings. However, evidence from efforts to implement the approach in New Brunswick, British Columbia, Canada, and the Columbia River Basin indicates that these promises have not been met. The data show that scientific adaptive management relies excessively on the use of linear systems models, discounts nonscientific forms of knowledge, and pays inadequate attention to policy processes that promote the development of shared understandings among diverse stakeholders. To be effective, new adaptive management efforts will need to incorporate knowledge from multiple sources, make use of multiple systems models, and support new forms of cooperation among stakeholders.

  7. Teaching innovation.

    PubMed

    Lachman, Vicki D; Glasgow, Mary Ellen Smith; Donnelly, Gloria F

    2009-01-01

    Innovation in healthcare is essential to solve the "wicked problems" currently facing healthcare. This article focuses on nature of innovation and how it operates, how innovators think and view problems, how the theory and practice of innovation can be taught in novel ways, and how organizational cultures foster or suppress innovation. Examples of teaching strategies and nurse-driven innovation illustrate the theory and practice of innovation.

  8. Identifying Consumer’s Needs of Health Information Technology through an Innovative Participatory Design Approach among English- and Spanish-speaking Urban Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, B.; Yen, P.; Velez, O.; Nobile-Hernandez, D.; Tiase, V.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives We describe an innovative community-centered participatory design approach, Consumer-centered Participatory Design (C2PD), and the results of applying C2PD to design and develop a web-based fall prevention system. Methods We conducted focus groups and design sessions with English- and Spanish-speaking community-dwelling older adults. Focus group data were summarized and used to inform the context of the design sessions. Descriptive content analysis methods were used to develop categorical descriptions of design session informant’s needs related to information technology. Results The C2PD approach enabled the assessment and identification of informant’s needs of health information technology (HIT) that informed the development of a falls prevention system. We learned that our informants needed a system that provides variation in functions/content; differentiates between actionable/non-actionable information/structures; and contains sensory cues that support wide-ranging and complex tasks in a varied, simple, and clear interface to facilitate self-management. Conclusions The C2PD approach provides community-based organizations, academic researchers, and commercial entities with a systematic theoretically informed approach to develop HIT innovations. Our community-centered participatory design approach focuses on consumer’s technology needs while taking into account core public health functions. PMID:25589909

  9. Innovative approach for increasing physical activity among breast cancer survivors: protocol for Project MOVE, a quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Sabiston, Catherine M; Clark, Marianne I; Bottorff, Joan L; Toxopeus, Renee; Campbell, Kristin L; Eves, Neil D; Ellard, Susan L; Gotay, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is a cost-effective and non-pharmaceutical strategy that can help mitigate the physical and psychological health challenges associated with breast cancer survivorship. However, up to 70% of women breast cancer survivors are not meeting minimum recommended physical activity guidelines. Project MOVE is an innovative approach to increase physical activity among breast cancer survivors through the use of Action Grants, a combination of microgrants (small amounts of money awarded to groups of individuals to support a physical activity initiative) and financial incentives. The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale and protocol of Project MOVE. Method and analysis A quasi-experimental pre–post design will be used. Twelve groups of 8–12 adult women who are breast cancer survivors (N=132) were recruited for the study via face-to-face meetings with breast cancer-related stakeholders, local print and radio media, social media, and pamphlets and posters at community organisations and medical clinics. Each group submitted a microgrant application outlining their proposed physical activity initiative. Successful applicants were determined by a grant review panel and informed of a financial incentive on meeting their physical activity goals. An evaluation of feasibility will be guided by the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance (RE-AIM) framework and assessed through focus groups, interviews and project-related reports. Physical activity will be assessed through accelerometry and by self-report. Quality of life, motivation to exercise and social connection will also be assessed through self-report. Assessments will occur at baseline, 6 months and 1 year. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the University of British Columbia's Behavioural Research Ethics Board (#H14-02502) and has been funded by the Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute (project number #702913). Study findings

  10. Credible threats and promises.

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I

    2002-01-01

    We consider various implications of information about the other player in two-player evolutionary games. A simple model of desertion shows that information about the partner's behaviour can be disadvantageous, and highlights the idea of credible threats. We then discuss the general issue of whether the partner can convince the focal player that it will behave in a specific way, i.e. whether the focal player can make credible threats or promises. We show that when desertion decisions depend on reserves, a player can manipulate its reserves so as to create a credible threat of desertion. We then extend previous work on the evolution of trust and commitment, discussing conditions under which it is advantageous to assume that a partner will behave in a certain way even though it is not in its best interest. PMID:12495517

  11. Innovative Approaches To Educating Medical Students for Practice in a Changing Health Care Environment: The National UME-21 Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowitz, Howard K.; Babbott, David; Bastacky, Stanford; Pascoe, John M.; Patel, Kavita K.; Pye, Karen L.; Rodak, John, Jr.; Veit, Kenneth J.; Wood, Douglas L.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the major curriculum changes that have been implemented through Undergraduate Medical Education for the 21st Century (UME-21), a 3-year national demonstration project to encourage innovation in medical education. Discusses challenges that occurred in carrying out those changes, and outlines the strategies for evaluating the project. (EV)

  12. How Physics Teachers Approach Innovation: An Empirical Study for Reconstructing the Appropriation Path in the Case of Special Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Ambrosis, Anna; Levrini, Olivia

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns an empirical study carried out with a group of high school physics teachers engaged in the Module on relativity of a Master course on the teaching of modern physics. The study is framed within the general research issue of how to promote innovation in school via teachers' education and how to foster fruitful interactions…

  13. Assessment Innovation and Student Experience: A New Assessment Challenge and Call for a Multi-Perspective Approach to Assessment Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevitt, Sheena

    2015-01-01

    The impact of innovative assessment on student experience in higher education is a neglected research topic. This represents an important gap in the literature-given debate around the marketisation of higher education, international focus on student satisfaction measurement tools and political calls to put students at the heart of higher education…

  14. Innovative Approaches for Urban Watershed Wet-Weather Flow Management and Control: State of Technology Review Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents initial efforts to identify innovative strategies for managing the effects of wet-weather flow in an urban setting. It served as a communication tool and a starting point for discussion with experts. As such, the document is a compilation of literature rev...

  15. Towards a Better Conceptual Framework for Innovation Processes in Agriculture and Rural Development: From Linear Models to Systemic Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knickel, Karlheinz; Brunori, Gianluca; Rand, Sigrid; Proost, Jet

    2009-01-01

    The role of farming previously dedicated mainly to food production changed with an increasing recognition of the multifunctionality of agriculture and rural areas. It seems obvious to expect that farmers and rural actors adapt themselves to these new conditions, which are innovative and redefine their job. In many regions farmers can increase…

  16. The Psychology School Mental Health Initiative: An Innovative Approach to the Delivery of School-Based Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Golden M.; Lean, Debra; Sweet, Susan D.; Moraes, Sabrina C.; Nelson, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that schools have, by default, become the primary mental health system for students in Canada. The goal of the present study was to design, implement, and evaluate the Psychology School Mental Health Initiative (PSMHI). The PSMHI is an innovative attempt to increase the capacity of school-based psychology staff to deliver…

  17. Handbook on Innovations in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Marilyn, Ed.; Redding, Sam, Ed.; Twyman, Janet, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The "Handbook on Innovations in Learning" focuses on innovations--both methodological and technological--in teaching and learning that promise to surpass standard practice in achieving learning outcomes for students. The experts who have written chapters in this Handbook first identify the underlying principles of learning and then…

  18. Innovations and controversies in the monitoring of pediatric patients in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Bliss, David

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, the number of monitoring options for ICU clinicians has continued to proliferate, but there has been limited information regarding their value in shortening length of stay, averting complications including death, or improving functional outcomes. However, innovative new approaches hold the promise of integrating data sets to help clinicians avert complications and to detect evolving organ dysfunction earlier. PMID:25639808

  19. "Smart Pills" Promising, Problematic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    An explosion in the variety and availability of cognitive-enhancing drugs, from prescriptions like Ritalin to commercial drinks like NeuroFuel, raises concerns for scientists and educators alike--not just over the potential for abuse, but also over what educators and researchers consider, and how they approach, normal achievement. Evidence is…

  20. The promise of psychiatric pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians already face "personalized" medicine every day while experiencing the great variation in toxicities and drug efficacy among individual patients. Pharmacogenetics studies are the platform for discovering the DNA determinants of variability in drug response and tolerability. Research now focuses on the genome after its beginning with analyses of single genes. Therapeutic outcomes from several psychotropic drugs have been weakly linked to specific genetic variants without independent replication. Drug side effects show stronger associations to genetic variants, including human leukocyte antigen loci with carbamazepine-induced dermatologic outcome and MC4R with atypical antipsychotic weight gain. Clinical implementation has proven challenging, with barriers including a lack of replicable prospective evidence for clinical utility required for altering medical care. More recent studies show promising approaches for reducing these barriers to routine incorporation of pharmacogenetics data into clinical care.

  1. Unlocking the promise of oncolytic virotherapy in glioma: combination with chemotherapy to enhance efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Drew A; Young, Jacob S; Kanojia, Deepak; Kim, Julius W; Polster, Sean P; Murphy, Jason P; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2015-01-01

    Malignant glioma is a relentless burden to both patients and clinicians, and calls for innovation to overcome the limitations in current management. Glioma therapy using viruses has been investigated to accentuate the nature of a virus, killing a host tumor cell during its replication. As virus mediated approaches progress with promising therapeutic advantages, combination therapy with chemotherapy and oncolytic viruses has emerged as a more synergistic and possibly efficacious therapy. Here, we will review malignant glioma as well as prior experience with oncolytic viruses, chemotherapy and combination of the two, examining how the combination can be optimized in the future. PMID:25996044

  2. An improved approach to measuring drug innovation finds steady rates of first-in-class pharmaceuticals, 1987-2011.

    PubMed

    Lanthier, Michael; Miller, Kathleen L; Nardinelli, Clark; Woodcock, Janet

    2013-08-01

    For more than a decade, industry analysts and policy makers have raised concerns about declining pharmaceutical innovation, citing declining numbers of new molecular entities (NMEs) approved in the United States each year. Yet there is little consensus on whether this is the best measure of "innovation." We examined NME approvals during 1987-2011 and propose the three distinct subcategories of NMEs--first-in-class, advance-in-class, and addition-to-class--to provide more nuanced and informative insights into underlying trends. We found that trends in NME approvals were largely driven by addition-to-class, or "me too," drug approvals, while first-in-class approvals remained fairly steady over the study period. Moreover, the higher proportion of first-in-class drug approvals over the most recent decade is an encouraging sign of the health of the industry as a whole.

  3. Closing the achievement gap through modification of neurocognitive and neuroendocrine function: results from a cluster randomized controlled trial of an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C Cybele

    2014-01-01

    Effective early education is essential for academic achievement and positive life outcomes, particularly for children in poverty. Advances in neuroscience suggest that a focus on self-regulation in education can enhance children's engagement in learning and establish beneficial academic trajectories in the early elementary grades. Here, we experimentally evaluate an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten that embeds support for self-regulation, particularly executive functions, into literacy, mathematics, and science learning activities. Results from a cluster randomized controlled trial involving 29 schools, 79 classrooms, and 759 children indicated positive effects on executive functions, reasoning ability, the control of attention, and levels of salivary cortisol and alpha amylase. Results also demonstrated improvements in reading, vocabulary, and mathematics at the end of kindergarten that increased into the first grade. A number of effects were specific to high-poverty schools, suggesting that a focus on executive functions and associated aspects of self-regulation in early elementary education holds promise for closing the achievement gap. PMID:25389751

  4. Closing the Achievement Gap through Modification of Neurocognitive and Neuroendocrine Function: Results from a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Approach to the Education of Children in Kindergarten

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C. Cybele

    2014-01-01

    Effective early education is essential for academic achievement and positive life outcomes, particularly for children in poverty. Advances in neuroscience suggest that a focus on self-regulation in education can enhance children’s engagement in learning and establish beneficial academic trajectories in the early elementary grades. Here, we experimentally evaluate an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten that embeds support for self-regulation, particularly executive functions, into literacy, mathematics, and science learning activities. Results from a cluster randomized controlled trial involving 29 schools, 79 classrooms, and 759 children indicated positive effects on executive functions, reasoning ability, the control of attention, and levels of salivary cortisol and alpha amylase. Results also demonstrated improvements in reading, vocabulary, and mathematics at the end of kindergarten that increased into the first grade. A number of effects were specific to high-poverty schools, suggesting that a focus on executive functions and associated aspects of self-regulation in early elementary education holds promise for closing the achievement gap. PMID:25389751

  5. Closing the achievement gap through modification of neurocognitive and neuroendocrine function: results from a cluster randomized controlled trial of an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C Cybele

    2014-01-01

    Effective early education is essential for academic achievement and positive life outcomes, particularly for children in poverty. Advances in neuroscience suggest that a focus on self-regulation in education can enhance children's engagement in learning and establish beneficial academic trajectories in the early elementary grades. Here, we experimentally evaluate an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten that embeds support for self-regulation, particularly executive functions, into literacy, mathematics, and science learning activities. Results from a cluster randomized controlled trial involving 29 schools, 79 classrooms, and 759 children indicated positive effects on executive functions, reasoning ability, the control of attention, and levels of salivary cortisol and alpha amylase. Results also demonstrated improvements in reading, vocabulary, and mathematics at the end of kindergarten that increased into the first grade. A number of effects were specific to high-poverty schools, suggesting that a focus on executive functions and associated aspects of self-regulation in early elementary education holds promise for closing the achievement gap.

  6. [Volon A shake mix--a promising innovation].

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, W

    1983-11-01

    Clinical testing of Volon A shake lotion (containing zinc oxide and corticosteroids) showed good results especially with regard to acute dermatoses and, as a surprise, in patients suffering from gram-negative infections of the feet.

  7. Online Video Conferencing: A Promising Innovation in Interprofessional Education.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Mary V; Bennett, Darcy N

    2016-01-01

    This pilot project demonstrated using online video conferencing with students from eight disciplines for providing care of a rural elder with multiple chronic conditions. Eighty-three students participated in 12 video case conferences, each led by a nurse-practitioner student. All students were given information on care of elders and the core competencies for interprofessional practice. Nurse-practitioner students were given information and practice on running a team meeting. A survey evaluated the activity in terms of interprofessional competency attainment in four domains (IPEC) by using data aggregated from 14 Likert scale questions. Participants (n=81, 98% response) rated the value of this activity highly (>60% strongly agreed and >25% agreed) across all four competency domains. Differences between disciplines were not found. Open-ended questions confirmed that the students valued the activity but also conveyed a desire for more in-person interprofessional activities to be included in their education.

  8. Online Video Conferencing: A Promising Innovation in Interprofessional Education.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Mary V; Bennett, Darcy N

    2016-01-01

    This pilot project demonstrated using online video conferencing with students from eight disciplines for providing care of a rural elder with multiple chronic conditions. Eighty-three students participated in 12 video case conferences, each led by a nurse-practitioner student. All students were given information on care of elders and the core competencies for interprofessional practice. Nurse-practitioner students were given information and practice on running a team meeting. A survey evaluated the activity in terms of interprofessional competency attainment in four domains (IPEC) by using data aggregated from 14 Likert scale questions. Participants (n=81, 98% response) rated the value of this activity highly (>60% strongly agreed and >25% agreed) across all four competency domains. Differences between disciplines were not found. Open-ended questions confirmed that the students valued the activity but also conveyed a desire for more in-person interprofessional activities to be included in their education. PMID:27585621

  9. Patient cost-sharing innovations: promises and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Trude, Sally; Grossman, Joy M

    2004-01-01

    Over the next decade, health plans and employers will refine patient cost sharing to encourage workers to seek more cost-effective care, according to a panel of market and health policy experts at a Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) conference. Instead of using a single, large deductible, employers and health plans will likely vary patient cost sharing by choice of provider, site and type of service, so patients choosing less effective care options pay more. Employers also will try to limit financial hardships for low-income workers by, for example, varying cost sharing based on workers' income. However, significant obstacles could hinder the effectiveness of emerging cost-sharing strategies, including inadequate information on quality of care and provider resistance. PMID:14976991

  10. Developing Communities of Innovation by Identifying Innovation Champions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coakes, Elayne; Smith, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose that a form of communities of practice (CoP), a community of innovation (CoInv), is the best support for sustainable innovation. It aims to outline a method for identifying champions of innovation in organisation. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on extant research to argue that…

  11. The Education Innovator. Volume VII, No. 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Doug, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Department of Education's online newsletter "The Education Innovator" is to promote innovative practices in education; to offer features on promising programs and practices; to provide information on innovative research, schools, policies, and trends; and to keep readers informed of key Department priorities and activities.…

  12. The Education Innovator. Volume VII, No. 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweitzer, Sherry, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Department of Education's online newsletter "The Education Innovator" is to promote innovative practices in education; to offer features on promising programs and practices; to provide information on innovative research, schools, policies, and trends; and to keep readers informed of key Department priorities and activities.…

  13. The Education Innovator. Volume VII, No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweitzer, Sherry, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Department of Education's online newsletter "The Education Innovator" is to promote innovative practices in education; to offer features on promising programs and practices; to provide information on innovative research, schools, policies, and trends; and to keep readers informed of key Department priorities and activities.…

  14. The Education Innovator. Volume IX, No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Doug, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Department of Education's online newsletter "The Education Innovator" is to promote innovative practices in education; to offer features on promising programs and practices; to provide information on innovative research, schools, policies, and trends; and to keep readers informed of key Department priorities and activities.…

  15. Innovation in obsessive compulsive disorder: A commentary.

    PubMed

    Clark, David A

    2015-12-01

    As noted in this commentary, the research in this special issue presents several conceptual and methodological innovations that advance out understanding of obsessions and compulsions. The issue spans a broad range of topics from basic psychological processes such as selfhood themes, perceptions of internal states, and preference for visual symmetry to new insights into compulsions and other forms of neutralization to promising treatment approaches for special OCD symptom presentations. The implications of this research for understanding vulnerability to OCD and the role of compulsions are discussed and three methodological challenges are highlighted that require further attention by OCD researchers.

  16. MHealth: promise and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Levin, David

    2012-01-01

    Mobile healthcare presents many opportunities to improve the value of healthcare for providers, patients, and payers. It will play a critical role in the move from volume- to value-based care and in enhancing patient engagement and empowerment. Developments in the broader consumer market portend and drive the eventual adoption and impact of mHealth. Substantial barriers exist and must be addressed, including device management, privacy and security, data quality, workflow integration, interface design, and overall resistance to change in healthcare. Organizations would be wise to pay close attention to this rapidly developing area. However, they should resist the temptation to "just do something" and instead adopt a strategic approach that includes carefully determining the value proposition of each opportunity and embracing full life-cycle management. PMID:23330301

  17. Application of the Price-Volume Approach in Cases of Innovative Drugs Where Value-Based Pricing is Inadequate: Description of Real Experiences in Italy.

    PubMed

    Messori, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Several cases of expensive drugs designed for large patient populations (e.g. sofosbuvir) have raised a complex question in terms of drug pricing. Even assuming value-based pricing, the treatment with these drugs of all eligible patients would have an immense budgetary impact, which is unsustainable also for the richest countries. This raises the need to reduce the prices of these agents in comparison with those suggested by the value-based approach and to devise new pricing methods that can achieve this goal. The present study discusses in detail the following two methods: (i) The approach based on setting nation-wide budget thresholds for individual innovative agents in which a fixed proportion of the historical pharmaceutical expenditure represents the maximum budget attributable to an innovative treatment; (ii) The approach based on nation-wide price-volume agreements in which drug prices are progressively reduced as more patients receive the treatment. The first approach has been developed in the USA by the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review and has been applied to PCSK9 inhibitors (alirocumab and evolocumab). The second approach has been designed for the Italian market and has found a systematic application to manage the price of ranibizumab, sofosbuvir, and PCSK9 inhibitors. While, in the past, price-volume agreements have been applied only on an empirical basis (i.e. in the absence of any quantitative theoretical rule), more recently some explicit mathematical models have been described. The performance of these models is now being evaluated on the basis of the real-world experiences conducted in some European countries, especially Italy. PMID:27216427

  18. Integrating a palliative approach in a transcatheter heart valve program: bridging innovations in the management of severe aortic stenosis and best end-of-life practice.

    PubMed

    Lauck, Sandra; Garland, Ella; Achtem, Leslie; Forman, Jacqueline; Baumbusch, Jennifer; Boone, Robert; Cheung, Anson; Ye, Jian; Wood, David A; Webb, John G

    2014-04-01

    Severe aortic stenosis (AS) is the most prevalent structural heart disease and affects primarily older adults in their last decade of life. If the risk for surgery is high, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is the treatment of choice for many patients with suitable anatomy who are likely to derive significant benefit from this innovative and minimally invasive approach. In a large transcatheter heart valve (THV) centre that offers TAVI as one of the treatment options, of 565 consecutive referrals for the assessment of eligibility for TAVI over 18 months, 78 (14%) were deemed unsuitable candidates for TAVI or higher risk surgery by the interdisciplinary Heart Team because of their advanced disease, excessive frailty or comorbid burden. Concerns were raised for patients for whom TAVI is not an option. The integration of a palliative approach in a THV program offers opportunities to adopt best end-of-life practices while promoting innovative approaches for treatment. An integrated palliative approach to care focuses on meeting a patient's full range of physical, psychosocial and spiritual needs at all stages of a life-limiting illness, and is well suited for the severe AS and TAVI population. A series of interventions that reflect best practices and current evidence were adopted in collaboration with the Palliative Care Team and are currently under evaluation in a large TAVI centre. Changes include the introduction of a palliative approach in patient assessment and education, the measurement of symptoms, improved clarity about responsibility for communication and follow-up, and triggering referrals to palliative care services.

  19. Application of the Price-Volume Approach in Cases of Innovative Drugs Where Value-Based Pricing is Inadequate: Description of Real Experiences in Italy.

    PubMed

    Messori, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Several cases of expensive drugs designed for large patient populations (e.g. sofosbuvir) have raised a complex question in terms of drug pricing. Even assuming value-based pricing, the treatment with these drugs of all eligible patients would have an immense budgetary impact, which is unsustainable also for the richest countries. This raises the need to reduce the prices of these agents in comparison with those suggested by the value-based approach and to devise new pricing methods that can achieve this goal. The present study discusses in detail the following two methods: (i) The approach based on setting nation-wide budget thresholds for individual innovative agents in which a fixed proportion of the historical pharmaceutical expenditure represents the maximum budget attributable to an innovative treatment; (ii) The approach based on nation-wide price-volume agreements in which drug prices are progressively reduced as more patients receive the treatment. The first approach has been developed in the USA by the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review and has been applied to PCSK9 inhibitors (alirocumab and evolocumab). The second approach has been designed for the Italian market and has found a systematic application to manage the price of ranibizumab, sofosbuvir, and PCSK9 inhibitors. While, in the past, price-volume agreements have been applied only on an empirical basis (i.e. in the absence of any quantitative theoretical rule), more recently some explicit mathematical models have been described. The performance of these models is now being evaluated on the basis of the real-world experiences conducted in some European countries, especially Italy.

  20. Promising therapeutic targets in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Matthay, Katherine K; George, Rani E; Yu, Alice L

    2012-05-15

    Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor in children, is derived from neural crest cells. Nearly half of patients present with metastatic disease and have a 5-year event-free survival of <50%. New approaches with targeted therapy may improve efficacy without increased toxicity. In this review we evaluate 3 promising targeted therapies: (i) (131)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a radiopharmaceutical that is taken up by human norepinephrine transporter (hNET), which is expressed in 90% of neuroblastomas; (ii) immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies targeting the GD2 ganglioside, which is expressed on 98% of neuroblastoma cells; and (iii) inhibitors of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), a tyrosine kinase that is mutated or amplified in ~10% of neuroblastomas and expressed on the surface of most neuroblastoma cells. Early-phase trials have confirmed the activity of (131)I-MIBG in relapsed neuroblastoma, with response rates of ~30%, but the technical aspects of administering large amounts of radioactivity in young children and limited access to this agent have hindered its incorporation into treatment of newly diagnosed patients. Anti-GD2 antibodies have also shown activity in relapsed disease, and a recent phase III randomized trial showed a significant improvement in event-free survival for patients receiving chimeric anti-GD2 (ch14.18) combined with cytokines and isotretinoin after myeloablative consolidation therapy. A recently approved small-molecule inhibitor of ALK has shown promising preclinical activity for neuroblastoma and is currently in phase I and II trials. This is the first agent directed to a specific mutation in neuroblastoma, and marks a new step toward personalized therapy for neuroblastoma. Further clinical development of targeted treatments offers new hope for children with neuroblastoma.

  1. Promising therapeutic targets in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Matthay, Katherine K.; George, Rani E.; Yu, Alice L.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, the most common extra- cranial solid tumor in children, is derived from neural crest cells. Nearly half of patients present with metastatic disease, and have 5-year EFS of less than 50%. New approaches with targeted therapy may improve efficacy without increased toxicity. The current review will evaluate three promising targeted therapies, including 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a radiopharmaceutical taken up by the human norepinephrine transporter expressed in 90% of neuroblastomas, immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies targeting the GD2 ganglioside, expressed on 98% of neuroblastoma cells, and inhibitors of ALK, a tyrosine kinase which is mutated or amplified in approximately 10% of neuroblastoma and expressed on the surface of most neuroblastoma cells. Early phase trials have confirmed the activity of 131I-MIBG in relapsed neuroblastoma, with response rates of about 30%, but the technical aspects of administration of large amounts of radioactivity in young children and the limited access have hindered incorporation into treatment of newly diagnosed patients. Anti-GD2 antibodies have also demonstrated activity in relapsed disease, and a recent phase III randomized trial showed a significant improvement in event-free survival for patients receiving chimeric anti-GD2 (ch14.18) combined with cytokines and isotretinoin after myeloablative consolidation therapy. A recently approved small molecule inhibitor of ALK has promising pre-clinical activity for neuroblastoma, and is currently in phase I and II trials. This is the first agent directed to a specific mutation in neuroblastoma, and marks a new step toward personalized therapy for neuroblastoma. Further clinical development of targeted treatments offers new hope for children with neuroblastoma. PMID:22589483

  2. An innovative approach to develop highly performant chalcogenide glasses and glass-ceramics transparent in the infrared range.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Mathieu; Delaizir, Gaëlle; Monnier, Judith; Godart, Claude; Ma, Hong-Li; Zhang, Xiang-Hua; Calvez, Laurent

    2011-11-01

    An innovative way to produce chalcogenide glasses and glass-ceramics for infrared devices is reported. This new method of synthesis at low temperature combining ball-milling and sintering by SPS (Spark Plasma Sintering) is a technological breakthrough to produce efficient infrared chalcogenide glasses and glass-ceramics. This technique will offer the possibility to strongly decrease the cost of infrared devices and to produce new chalcogenide glasses. It will also permit to increase the potential of some glass compositions by allowing their shaping at desired dimensions.

  3. Children's Specialized Hospital and GetWellNetwork Collaborate to Improve Patient Education and Outcomes Using an Innovative Approach.

    PubMed

    Kompany, Laura; Luis, Kiersten; Manganaro, Julie; Motacki, Kathleen; Mustacchio, Elaine; Provenzano, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Patient education in a pediatric setting is unique. There are different patient ages, degrees of learning, and diagnoses to take into account when educating children and their families. A new and innovative trend in practice called Interactive Patient Care (IPC) integrates technology into care processes to advance pediatric nursing education and patient and family satisfaction. Children's Specialized Hospital is the first pediatric rehabilitation hospital to develop and implement this type of program using an IPC platform from the GetWellNetwork. With the implementation of the GetWellNetwork, Children's Specialized Hospital has achieved positive results in patient satisfaction, health care utilization, quality, and safety measures. PMID:27254981

  4. Combining history of medicine and library instruction: an innovative approach to teaching database searching to medical students.

    PubMed

    Timm, Donna F; Jones, Dee; Woodson, Deidra; Cyrus, John W

    2012-01-01

    Library faculty members at the Health Sciences Library at the LSU Health Shreveport campus offer a database searching class for third-year medical students during their surgery rotation. For a number of years, students completed "ten-minute clinical challenges," but the instructors decided to replace the clinical challenges with innovative exercises using The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus to emphasize concepts learned. The Surgical Papyrus is an online resource that is part of the National Library of Medicine's "Turning the Pages" digital initiative. In addition, vintage surgical instruments and historic books are displayed in the classroom to enhance the learning experience.

  5. Combining history of medicine and library instruction: an innovative approach to teaching database searching to medical students.

    PubMed

    Timm, Donna F; Jones, Dee; Woodson, Deidra; Cyrus, John W

    2012-01-01

    Library faculty members at the Health Sciences Library at the LSU Health Shreveport campus offer a database searching class for third-year medical students during their surgery rotation. For a number of years, students completed "ten-minute clinical challenges," but the instructors decided to replace the clinical challenges with innovative exercises using The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus to emphasize concepts learned. The Surgical Papyrus is an online resource that is part of the National Library of Medicine's "Turning the Pages" digital initiative. In addition, vintage surgical instruments and historic books are displayed in the classroom to enhance the learning experience. PMID:22853300

  6. A molecular mechanism for the origin of a key evolutionary innovation, the bird beak and palate, revealed by an integrative approach to major transitions in vertebrate history.

    PubMed

    Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S; Morris, Zachary S; Sefton, Elizabeth M; Tok, Atalay; Tokita, Masayoshi; Namkoong, Bumjin; Camacho, Jasmin; Burnham, David A; Abzhanov, Arhat

    2015-07-01

    The avian beak is a key evolutionary innovation whose flexibility has permitted birds to diversify into a range of disparate ecological niches. We approached the problem of the mechanism behind this innovation using an approach bridging paleontology, comparative anatomy, and experimental developmental biology. First, we used fossil and extant data to show the beak is distinctive in consisting of fused premaxillae that are geometrically distinct from those of ancestral archosaurs. To elucidate underlying developmental mechanisms, we examined candidate gene expression domains in the embryonic face: the earlier frontonasal ectodermal zone (FEZ) and the later midfacial WNT-responsive region, in birds and several reptiles. This permitted the identification of an autapomorphic median gene expression region in Aves. To test the mechanism, we used inhibitors of both pathways to replicate in chicken the ancestral amniote expression. Altering the FEZ altered later WNT responsiveness to the ancestral pattern. Skeletal phenotypes from both types of experiments had premaxillae that clustered geometrically with ancestral fossil forms instead of beaked birds. The palatal region was also altered to a more ancestral phenotype. This is consistent with the fossil record and with the tight functional association of avian premaxillae and palate in forming a kinetic beak.

  7. Sonodynamic treatment as an innovative bimodal anticancer approach: shock wave-mediated tumor growth inhibition in a syngeneic breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Foglietta, Federica; Canaparo, Roberto; Francovich, Andrea; Arena, Francesca; Civera, Stefania; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Frairia, Roberto; Serpe, Loredana

    2015-10-01

    Despite the great advances in fighting cancer, many therapies still have serious side effects, thus urging the development of highly selective and safe treatments with a wide range of applicability. Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) is an innovative bimodal anticancer approach in which two normally non-toxic components -- one chemical, a sonosensitizer, and one physical, ultrasound -- selectively combine to cause oxidative damage and subsequent cancer cell death. In this study, we investigate the anticancer effect of SDT using shock waves (SWs) to activate protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) cytotoxicity on a Mat B-III syngeneic rat breast cancer model. The SDT-treated group saw a significant decrease (p<0.001) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tumor size measurements 72 hours after treatment with PpIX precursor 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and SWs. This occurred together with significant increase (p<0.01) in apparent diffusion coefficients between pre- and post-treatment MR tumor maps and strong increase in necrotic and apoptotic histological features 72 hours post-treatment. Moreover, significant HIF1A mRNA expression up-regulation was observed along with the prominent selective cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and increased autophagy related protein LC3A/B expression in SDT-treated tumors, as compared to untreated tumors 72 hours post-treatment. Thus, the anticancer effect of SDT can be boosted by SWs, making them a valid technology for furthering investigations into this innovative anticancer approach. PMID:26562473

  8. Exploring the spatially varying innovation capacity of the US counties in the framework of Griliches' knowledge production function: a mixed GWR approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Dongwoo; Dall'erba, Sandy

    2016-04-01

    Griliches' knowledge production function has been increasingly adopted at the regional level where location-specific conditions drive the spatial differences in knowledge creation dynamics. However, the large majority of such studies rely on a traditional regression approach that assumes spatially homogenous marginal effects of knowledge input factors. This paper extends the authors' previous work (Kang and Dall'erba in Int Reg Sci Rev, 2015. doi: 10.1177/0160017615572888) to investigate the spatial heterogeneity in the marginal effects by using nonparametric local modeling approaches such as geographically weighted regression (GWR) and mixed GWR with two distinct samples of the US Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) and non-MSA counties. The results indicate a high degree of spatial heterogeneity in the marginal effects of the knowledge input variables, more specifically for the local and distant spillovers of private knowledge measured across MSA counties. On the other hand, local academic knowledge spillovers are found to display spatially homogenous elasticities in both MSA and non-MSA counties. Our results highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each county's innovation capacity and suggest policy implications for regional innovation strategies.

  9. Inline roasting hyphenated with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as an innovative approach for assessment of cocoa fermentation quality and aroma formation potential.

    PubMed

    Van Durme, Jim; Ingels, Isabel; De Winne, Ann

    2016-08-15

    Today, the cocoa industry is in great need of faster and robust analytical techniques to objectively assess incoming cocoa quality. In this work, inline roasting hyphenated with a cooled injection system coupled to a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (ILR-CIS-GC-MS) has been explored for the first time to assess fermentation quality and/or overall aroma formation potential of cocoa. This innovative approach resulted in the in-situ formation of relevant cocoa aroma compounds. After comparison with data obtained by headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME-GC-MS) on conventional roasted cocoa beans, ILR-CIS-GC-MS data on unroasted cocoa beans showed similar formation trends of important cocoa aroma markers as a function of fermentation quality. The latter approach only requires small aliquots of unroasted cocoa beans, can be automatated, requires no sample preparation, needs relatively short analytical times (<1h) and is highly reproducible. PMID:27006215

  10. Behavioural activation: history, evidence and promise.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Jonathan W; Puspitasari, Ajeng J; Santos, Maria M; Nagy, Gabriela A

    2012-05-01

    Behavioural activation holds promise to reduce the global burden of depression as a treatment approach that is effective, easy to teach, scalable and acceptable to providers and patients across settings and cultures. This editorial reviews the history of behavioural activation, what it is, current evidence for its use and future directions.

  11. The Promises of Moral Foundations Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musschenga, Bert

    2013-01-01

    In this article I examine whether Moral Foundations Theory can fulfil the promises that Haidt claims for the theory: that it will help in developing new approaches to moral education and to the moral conflicts that divide our diverse society. I argue that, first, the model that Haidt suggests for understanding the plurality of moralities--a shared…

  12. INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO COMPLYING WITH VERY LOW NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM (NPDES) PERMIT LIMITS FOR METALS

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, B

    2009-06-26

    The NPDES permit issued to the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 2003 contained very low metals limits for several outfalls. Copper, lead and zinc limits were as low as seven micrograms per liter (7 ug/l), 1 ug/l, and 100 ug/l, respectively. The permit contained compliance schedules that provided SRS with only three to five years to select and implement projects that would enable outfall compliance. Discharges from a few outfalls were eliminated or routed into other locations relatively inexpensively. However, some outfall problems were much more difficult to correct. SRS personnel implemented several innovative projects in order to meet compliance schedule deadlines as inexpensively as possible. These innovations included (1) connecting several outfall discharges to the site's Central Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Facility (CSWTF), (2) constructing a treatment wetlands and completing a water-effects ratio (WER) on its effluent, (3) installing a stannous chloride feed system to remove mercury in an existing air stripper, and (4) constructing a humic acid feed system to increase effluent dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and take advantage of biotic ligand modeling to raise effluent limits.

  13. A Novel Approach for Engaging Academia in Collaborative Projects with NASA through the X-Hab Academic Innovation Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Tracy R.; Gattuso, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    The X-Hab Academic Innovation Challenge, currently in its sixth year of execution, provides university students with the opportunity to be on the forefront of innovation. The X-Hab Challenge, for short, is designed to engage and retain students in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM). NASA identifies necessary technologies and studies for deep space missions and invites universities from around the country to develop concepts, prototypes, and lessons learned that will help shape future space missions and awards seed funds to design and produce functional products of interest as proposed by university teams according to their interests and expertise. Universities propose on a variety of projects suggested by NASA and are then judged on technical merit, academic integration, leveraged funding, and outreach. The universities assemble a multi-discipline team of students and advisors that invest months working together, developing concepts, and frequently producing working prototypes. Not only are students able to gain quality experience, working real world problems that have the possibility to be implemented, but they work closely with subject matter experts from NASA who guide them through an official engineering development process.

  14. A Novel Approach for Engaging Academia in Collaborative Projects with NASA through the X-Hab Academic Innovation Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Tracy R.; Gattuso, Kelly J.

    2015-01-01

    The X-Hab Academic Innovation Challenge, currently in its sixth year of execution, provides university students with the opportunity to be on the forefront of innovation. The X-Hab Challenge, for short, is designed to engage and retain students in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM). NASA identifies necessary technologies and studies for deep space missions and invites universities from around the country to develop concepts, prototypes, and lessons learned that will help shape future space missions and awards seed funds to design and produce functional products of interest as proposed by university teams according to their interests and expertise. Universities propose on a variety of projects suggested by NASA and are then judged on technical merit, academic integration, leveraged funding, and outreach. The universities assemble a multi-discipline team of students and advisors that invest months working together, developing concepts, and frequently producing working prototypes. Not only are students able to gain quality experience, working real world problems that have the possibility of be implemented, but they work closely with subject matter experts from NASA who guide them through an official engineering development process.

  15. Innovative approaches for effective selection of lipase-producing microorganisms as whole cell catalysts for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Ciudad, Gustavo; Reyes, Isaac; Azócar, Laura; Briones, Reinaldo; Jorquera, Milko; Wick, Lukas Y; Navia, Rodrigo

    2011-07-01

    The high cost of commercial lipases limits their industrial application in the production of biodiesel or fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). This disadvantage has encouraged the search for lipase-producing microorganisms (LPMs) as potential whole cell catalysts for FAME production. The aim of this study, therefore, was to evaluate innovative procedures for easy selection and testing of LPMs as a low-cost whole cell catalyst, based on catalytic performance, methanol tolerance and physico-chemical cell surface properties. The latter (in particular the cell surface hydrophobicity and charge) were analyzed because of their crucial role in microbial adhesion to surfaces and the concomitant increase in cell immobilization and bioavailability of hydrophobic substrates. Biocatalysis experiments performed in the presence of nutrient, rapeseed oil and methanol were an effective tool for studying and identifying, in just two experiments, the capacity of different LPMs as biocatalysts in organic media, as well as the methanol tolerance of the cell and the lipase. This indicates the potential for using live microorganisms for FAME production. Another finding was that the inhibitory effect of methanol is more significant for lipase activity than LPM growth, indicating that the way in which alcohol is supplied to the reaction is a crucial step in FAME production by biocatalysts. According to these results, the application of these innovative assessments should simplify the search for new strains which are able to effectively catalyze the FAME production process.

  16. The Kalamazoo Promise: A New Twist on Tuition Guarantees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daun-Barnett, Nathan J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, Kalamazoo, Michigan launched a bold and innovative economic development strategy, The Kalamazoo Promise (KP), which guarantees tuition to every high school graduate in the district. Since KP inception, high school enrollments are up and college attendance has increased, creating national attention. This paper analyzes the benefits and…

  17. Promises of Money Meant to Heighten Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Does motivating students to study harder with the promise of cash sound like innovation--or bribery? That's a question educators and researchers have been debating, amid concerns that money-for-achievement programs actually decrease students' intrinsic motivation to learn and send mixed messages about studying. But the idea is catching on, with…

  18. A remote-controlled adaptive medchem lab: an innovative approach to enable drug discovery in the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Alexander G; Masquelin, Thierry; Hemmerle, Horst

    2013-09-01

    This article describes our experiences in creating a fully integrated, globally accessible, automated chemical synthesis laboratory. The goal of the project was to establish a fully integrated automated synthesis solution that was initially focused on minimizing the burden of repetitive, routine, rules-based operations that characterize more established chemistry workflows. The architecture was crafted to allow for the expansion of synthetic capabilities while also providing for a flexible interface that permits the synthesis objective to be introduced and manipulated as needed under the judicious direction of a remote user in real-time. This innovative central synthesis suite is herein described along with some case studies to illustrate the impact such a system is having in expanding drug discovery capabilities.

  19. INNOVATIVE APPROACH FOR MEASURING AMMONIA AND METHANE FLUXES FROM A HOG FARM USING OPEN-PATH FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a new approach to quantify emissions from area air pollution sources. The approach combines path-integrated concentration data acquired with any path-integrated optical remote sensing (PI-ORS) technique and computed tomography (CT) technique. In this study, an...

  20. Reversed field pinch: Progress and promise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprott, J. C.

    1985-05-01

    The Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) is a fusion reactor concept which, like the tokamak, confines the reacting plasma by the magnetic field produced in part by electrical currents flowing in the toroidally-confined plasma. Unlike the tokamak, the RFP requires very little externally-applied magnetic field, and thus offers the promise of a compact reactor with high power density which can be ohmically heated to ignition using non-superconducting magnet coils. Recent progress worldwide in RFP performance and physics understanding offers the promise of a new generation of devices which approach reactor conditions.

  1. An innovative approach for characteristic analysis and state-of-health diagnosis for a Li-ion cell based on the discrete wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jonghoon; Cho, B. H.

    2014-08-01

    This paper introduces an innovative approach to analyze electrochemical characteristics and state-of-health (SOH) diagnosis of a Li-ion cell based on the discrete wavelet transform (DWT). In this approach, the DWT has been applied as a powerful tool in the analysis of the discharging/charging voltage signal (DCVS) with non-stationary and transient phenomena for a Li-ion cell. Specifically, DWT-based multi-resolution analysis (MRA) is used for extracting information on the electrochemical characteristics in both time and frequency domain simultaneously. Through using the MRA with implementation of the wavelet decomposition, the information on the electrochemical characteristics of a Li-ion cell can be extracted from the DCVS over a wide frequency range. Wavelet decomposition based on the selection of the order 3 Daubechies wavelet (dB3) and scale 5 as the best wavelet function and the optimal decomposition scale is implemented. In particular, this present approach develops these investigations one step further by showing low and high frequency components (approximation component An and detail component Dn, respectively) extracted from variable Li-ion cells with different electrochemical characteristics caused by aging effect. Experimental results show the clearness of the DWT-based approach for the reliable diagnosis of the SOH for a Li-ion cell.

  2. SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION PROGRAM TECHNOLOGY PROFILES: SIXTH EDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program evaluates new and promising treatment and monitoring and measurement technologies for cleanup of hazardous waste sites. The program was created to encourage the development and routine use of innovative treatment techn...

  3. The SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION program - Technology Profiles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program was created to evaluate new and promising treatment technologies for cleanup at hazardous waste sites. The mission of the SITE program is to encourage the development and routine use of innovative treatment technologie...

  4. SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION PROGRAM - TECHNOLOGY PROFILES - SEVENTH EDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program evaluates new and promising treatment and monitoring and measurement technologies for cleanup of hazardous waste sites. The program was created to encourage the development and routine use of innovative treatment techn...

  5. SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION PROGRAM - TECHNOLOGY PROFILES 4th Edition

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program evaluates new and promising treatment technologies for cleanup of hazardous waste sites. The program was created to encourage the development and routine use of innovative treatment technologies. As a result, the SI...

  6. The innovation value chain.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Morten T; Birkinshaw, Julian

    2007-06-01

    The challenges of coming up with fresh ideas and realizing profits from them are different for every company. One firm may excel at finding good ideas but may have weak systems for bringing them to market. Another organization may have a terrific process for funding and rolling out new products and services but a shortage of concepts to develop. In this article, Hansen and Birkinshaw caution executives against using the latest and greatest innovation approaches and tools without understanding the unique deficiencies in their companies' innovation systems. They offer a framework for evaluating innovation performance: the innovation value chain. It comprises the three main phases of innovation (idea generation, conversion, and diffusion) as well as the critical activities performed during those phases (looking for ideas inside your unit; looking for them in other units; looking for them externally; selecting ideas; funding them; and promoting and spreading ideas companywide). Using this framework, managers get an end-to-end view of their innovation efforts. They can pinpoint their weakest links and tailor innovation best practices appropriately to strengthen those links. Companies typically succumb to one of three broad "weakest-link" scenarios. They are idea poor, conversion poor, or diffusion poor. The article looks at the ways smart companies - including Intuit, P&G, Sara Lee, Shell, and Siemens- modify the best innovation practices and apply them to address those organizations' individual needs and flaws. The authors warn that adopting the chain-based view of innovation requires new measures of what can be delivered by each link in the chain. The approach also entails new roles for employees "external scouts" and "internal evangelists," for example. Indeed, in their search for new hires, companies should seek out those candidates who can help address particular weaknesses in the innovation value chain. PMID:17580654

  7. The innovation value chain.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Morten T; Birkinshaw, Julian

    2007-06-01

    The challenges of coming up with fresh ideas and realizing profits from them are different for every company. One firm may excel at finding good ideas but may have weak systems for bringing them to market. Another organization may have a terrific process for funding and rolling out new products and services but a shortage of concepts to develop. In this article, Hansen and Birkinshaw caution executives against using the latest and greatest innovation approaches and tools without understanding the unique deficiencies in their companies' innovation systems. They offer a framework for evaluating innovation performance: the innovation value chain. It comprises the three main phases of innovation (idea generation, conversion, and diffusion) as well as the critical activities performed during those phases (looking for ideas inside your unit; looking for them in other units; looking for them externally; selecting ideas; funding them; and promoting and spreading ideas companywide). Using this framework, managers get an end-to-end view of their innovation efforts. They can pinpoint their weakest links and tailor innovation best practices appropriately to strengthen those links. Companies typically succumb to one of three broad "weakest-link" scenarios. They are idea poor, conversion poor, or diffusion poor. The article looks at the ways smart companies - including Intuit, P&G, Sara Lee, Shell, and Siemens- modify the best innovation practices and apply them to address those organizations' individual needs and flaws. The authors warn that adopting the chain-based view of innovation requires new measures of what can be delivered by each link in the chain. The approach also entails new roles for employees "external scouts" and "internal evangelists," for example. Indeed, in their search for new hires, companies should seek out those candidates who can help address particular weaknesses in the innovation value chain.

  8. Innovating for cash.

    PubMed

    Andrew, James P; Sirkin, Harold L

    2003-09-01

    Despite companies' almost fanatical worship of innovation, most new products don't generate money. That's because executives don't realize that the approach they take to commercializing a new product is as important as the innovation itself. Different approaches can generate very different levels of profit. Companies tend to favor one of three different innovation approaches, each with its own investment profile, profitability pattern, risk profile, and skill requirements. Most organizations are instinctively integrators: They manage all the steps needed to take a product to market themselves. Organizations can also choose to be orchestrators: They focus on some parts of the commercialization process and depend on partners to manage the rest. And finally, companies can be licensers: They sell or license a new product or idea to another organization that handles the commercialization process. Different innovations require different approaches. Selecting the most suitable approach, the authors' research found, often yields two or three times the profits of the least optimal approach. Yet companies tend to rely only on the mode most familiar to them. Executives would do better to take several different factors into account before deciding which tack to take, including the industry they're trying to enter, the specific characteristics of the innovation, and the risks involved in taking the product to market. By doing so, companies can match the approach to the opportunity and reap the maximum profit. Choosing the wrong approach, like Polaroid did, for example, can lead to the failure of both the product and the company. Optimizing their approaches, as Whirlpool has done, helps ensure that companies' innovations make money. PMID:12964395

  9. Innovative Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsi, Louis M.; Kaebnick, Gweneth W.

    1989-01-01

    The phenomenon of innovation within the university is examined, noting the possibility of innovation as a key to college vitality. A study was conducted using a group of institutions that demonstrated recent innovative spirit. Members of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU), each has been recognized in an annual…

  10. Encouraging innovation.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Anthony A

    2014-02-01

    Innovation is central to the scientific endeavor, and yet the current system of funding in the United States discourages innovation, especially in the young. Subtle alterations to the funding system, guided in part by the success of the European Research Council, could have major effects on encouraging innovation.

  11. Evaluation of an innovative approach based on prototype engineered wetland to control and manage boron (B) mine effluent pollution.

    PubMed

    Türker, Onur Can; Türe, Cengiz; Böcük, Harun; Yakar, Anıl; Chen, Yi

    2016-10-01

    A major environmental problem associated with boron (B) mining in many parts of the world is B pollution, which can become a point source of B mine effluent pollution to aquatic habitats. In this study, a cost-effective, environment-friendly, and sustainable prototype engineered wetland was evaluated and tested to prevent B mine effluent from spilling into adjoining waterways in the largest B reserve in the world. According to the results, average B concentrations in mine effluent significantly decreased from 17.5 to 5.7 mg l(-1) after passing through the prototype with a hydraulic retention time of 14 days. The results of the present experiment, in which different doses of B had been introduced into the prototype, also demonstrated that Typha latifolia (selected as donor species in the prototype) showed a good resistance to alterations against B mine effluent loading rates. Moreover, we found that soil enzymes activities gradually decreased with increasing B dosages during the experiment. Boron mass balance model further showed that 60 % of total B was stored in the filtration media, and only 7 % of B was removed by plant uptake. Consequently, we suggested that application of the prototype in the vicinity of mining site may potentially become an innovative model and integral part of the overall landscape plan of B mine reserve areas worldwide. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27364490

  12. Enabling Europe to innovate.

    PubMed

    Dearing, Andrew

    2007-01-19

    As activities that relate to innovation become increasingly global and open and so draw the private and public sectors into complex networks of partnerships, these activities also tend to concentrate where the ecosystem is most supportive. European public policy, which in recent years has emphasized the importance of research and development (R&D) in achieving competitive knowledge-based societies, is shifting toward approaches that address the broader qualities required of favorable ecosystems for innovation in a global economy, thereby incorporating the roles of market demand, public procurement, and regulation, as well as science, education, and industrial R&D, as part of determining effective innovation policies.

  13. Enabling Europe to innovate.

    PubMed

    Dearing, Andrew

    2007-01-19

    As activities that relate to innovation become increasingly global and open and so draw the private and public sectors into complex networks of partnerships, these activities also tend to concentrate where the ecosystem is most supportive. European public policy, which in recent years has emphasized the importance of research and development (R&D) in achieving competitive knowledge-based societies, is shifting toward approaches that address the broader qualities required of favorable ecosystems for innovation in a global economy, thereby incorporating the roles of market demand, public procurement, and regulation, as well as science, education, and industrial R&D, as part of determining effective innovation policies. PMID:17234939

  14. Innovation network

    PubMed Central

    Acemoglu, Daron; Akcigit, Ufuk; Kerr, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Technological progress builds upon itself, with the expansion of invention in one domain propelling future work in linked fields. Our analysis uses 1.8 million US patents and their citation properties to map the innovation network and its strength. Past innovation network structures are calculated using citation patterns across technology classes during 1975–1994. The interaction of this preexisting network structure with patent growth in upstream technology fields has strong predictive power on future innovation after 1995. This pattern is consistent with the idea that when there is more past upstream innovation for a particular technology class to build on, then that technology class innovates more. PMID:27681628

  15. Peratrial Device Closure of a Congenital Coronary Artery Fistula through a Right Parasternal Approach: Innovative Use of Available Technology.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yanting; Hongxin, Li; Wenbin, Guo; Zhang, Haizhou; Zou, Chengwei

    2016-02-16

    Current treatments for congenital coronary artery fistulas (CAFs) include surgical obliteration and transcatheter occlusion. However, surgical techniques involve significant trauma. Transcatheter occlusion is performed under fluoroscopy and angiography, in which radiation injury is inevitable. We present a patient, with a CAF from the left coronary artery to the right atrium, who underwent peratrial device closure of the CAF with a right parasternal approach under transesophageal echocardiography guidance. Complete occlusion was achieved by a symmetric ventricular septal occluder. We suggest that peratrial device closure of a congenital coronary artery fistula through a right parasternal approach may be a safe and effective option.

  16. Teaching Innovation Through Undergraduate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenberger, John R.

    2012-02-01

    A three-year investigation into the use of ongoing research programs to incubate innovative behavior among undergraduates is underway. Inspired by the 2005 report, Rising Above the Gathering Storm, this investigation embraces the claim that more innovation in the US should help arrest the current slippage in US competitiveness. Believing that the development of approaches to teach innovation is timely, physicists at Lawrence University are employing a five-step strategy that spans ten summer weeks to boost innovative attitudes and behavior among physics majors. We are also attempting to inculcate fifteen character traits associated with successful innovators. Recent progress in this investigation will be discussed.

  17. Mechanisms of Innovation Diffusion under Information Abundance and Information Scarcity--On the Contribution of Social Networks in Group vs. Individual Extension Approaches in Semi-Arid Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darr, Dietrich; Pretzsch, Jurgen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of innovation diffusion under group-oriented and individual-oriented extension. Current theoretical notions of innovation diffusion in social networks shall be briefly reviewed, and the concepts of "search" and "innovation" vis-a-vis "transfer" and "imitation" mechanisms (Hansen,…

  18. Nostalgia, Transition and the School: An Innovative Approach of Using Photographic Images as a Visual Method in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shohel, M. Mahruf C.

    2012-01-01

    The context of the study reported in this paper is the difficulties of transition from nonformal primary schools to formal secondary schools in Bangladesh. The difficulties affecting a smooth school transition relate not only to the making of new relationships and adapting to new norms in a new environment, but also to a very different approach to…

  19. DAHITI - An Innovative Approach for Estimating Water Level Time Series over Inland Water using Multi-Mission Satellite Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwatke, Christian; Dettmering, Denise

    2016-04-01

    Satellite altimetry has been designed for sea level monitoring over open ocean areas. However, for some years, this technology has also been used to retrieve water levels from lakes, reservoirs, rivers, wetlands and in general any inland water body. In this contribution, a new approach for the estimation of inland water level time series is presented. The method is the basis for the computation of time series of rivers and lakes available through the web service 'Database for Hydrological Time Series over Inland Water' (DAHITI). It is based on an extended outlier rejection and a Kalman filter approach incorporating cross-calibrated multi-mission altimeter data from Envisat, ERS-2, Jason-1, Jason-2, Topex/Poseidon, and SARAL/AltiKa, including their uncertainties. The new approach yields RMS differences with respect to in situ data between 4 cm and 36 cm for lakes and 8 cm and 114 cm for rivers, respectively. Within this presentation, the new approach will be introduced and examples for water level time series for a variety of lakes and rivers will be shown featuring different characteristics such as shape, lake extent, river width, and data coverage. A comprehensive validation is performed by comparisons with in situ gauge data and results from external inland altimeter databases.

  20. Exploring Leadership as a Phenomenon in an Educational Leadership Paper: An Innovative Pedagogical Approach Opens the Unexpected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, David; Morrison, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Neoliberal ideologies influence both the content and pedagogical approach of educational leadership programmes. This article proposes an alternate pedagogy, one which privileges the experiential nature of the leadership and challenges students to critique prevailing ideologies within education. The authors describe the reshaping of a compulsory,…