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Sample records for inoperability input-output model

  1. International trade inoperability input-output model (IT-IIM): theory and application.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jeesang; Santos, Joost R; Haimes, Yacov Y

    2009-01-01

    The inoperability input-output model (IIM) has been used for analyzing disruptions due to man-made or natural disasters that can adversely affect the operation of economic systems or critical infrastructures. Taking economic perturbation for each sector as inputs, the IIM provides the degree of economic production impacts on all industry sectors as the outputs for the model. The current version of the IIM does not provide a separate analysis for the international trade component of the inoperability. If an important port of entry (e.g., Port of Los Angeles) is disrupted, then international trade inoperability becomes a highly relevant subject for analysis. To complement the current IIM, this article develops the International Trade-IIM (IT-IIM). The IT-IIM investigates the resulting international trade inoperability for all industry sectors resulting from disruptions to a major port of entry. Similar to traditional IIM analysis, the inoperability metrics that the IT-IIM provides can be used to prioritize economic sectors based on the losses they could potentially incur. The IT-IIM is used to analyze two types of direct perturbations: (1) the reduced capacity of ports of entry, including harbors and airports (e.g., a shutdown of any port of entry); and (2) restrictions on commercial goods that foreign countries trade with the base nation (e.g., embargo).

  2. On the local sensitivity analysis of the inoperability input-output model.

    PubMed

    Percoco, Marco

    2011-07-01

    Natural and man-made disasters are currently a source of major concern for contemporary societies. In order to understand their economic impacts, the inoperability input-output model has recently gained recognition among scholars. In a recent paper, Percoco (2006) has proposed an extension of the model to map the technologically most important sectors through so-called fields of influence. In the present note we aim to show that this importance measure also has a clear connection with local sensitivity analysis theory. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Modeling the demand reduction input-output (I-O) inoperability due to terrorism of interconnected infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Santos, Joost R; Haimes, Yacov Y

    2004-12-01

    Interdependency analysis in the context of this article is a process of assessing and managing risks inherent in a system of interconnected entities (e.g., infrastructures or industry sectors). Invoking the principles of input-output (I-O) and decomposition analysis, the article offers a framework for describing how terrorism-induced perturbations can propagate due to interconnectedness. Data published by the Bureau of Economic Analysis Division of the U.S. Department of Commerce is utilized to present applications to serve as test beds for the proposed framework. Specifically, a case study estimating the economic impact of airline demand perturbations to national-level U.S. sectors is made possible using I-O matrices. A ranking of the affected sectors according to their vulnerability to perturbations originating from a primary sector (e.g., air transportation) can serve as important input to risk management. For example, limited resources can be prioritized for the "top-n" sectors that are perceived to suffer the greatest economic losses due to terrorism. In addition, regional decomposition via location quotients enables the analysis of local-level terrorism events. The Regional I-O Multiplier System II (RIMS II) Division of the U.S. Department of Commerce is the agency responsible for releasing the regional multipliers for various geographical resolutions (economic areas, states, and counties). A regional-level case study demonstrates a process of estimating the economic impact of transportation-related scenarios on industry sectors within Economic Area 010 (the New York metropolitan region and vicinities).

  4. Space market model space industry input-output model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgin, Robert F.; Marchesini, Roberto

    1987-01-01

    The goal of the Space Market Model (SMM) is to develop an information resource for the space industry. The SMM is intended to contain information appropriate for decision making in the space industry. The objectives of the SMM are to: (1) assemble information related to the development of the space business; (2) construct an adequate description of the emerging space market; (3) disseminate the information on the space market to forecasts and planners in government agencies and private corporations; and (4) provide timely analyses and forecasts of critical elements of the space market. An Input-Output model of market activity is proposed which are capable of transforming raw data into useful information for decision makers and policy makers dealing with the space sector.

  5. Input-output analysis of mathematical models of ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Antonios, M.N.

    1982-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient conditions for the convergence of the solutions of linear and nonlinear time varying compartmental models described by systems of differential equations are reviewed. For continuous and discrete models, the concept of environ analysis is extended to advanced linear systems and for the first time to systems with time varying coefficient matrices A(t) and (A(t))/sup T/. Output and input environ partitioning flow and storage matrices for a two trophic level aquatic system are derived in the form of integral equations. As a step towards the important goal of controlling the eutrophication phenomenon, two phytoplankton population models in natural waters are presented. In the first model, a non-linear function general enough to include the effects of feeding saturation intraspecific consumer interference, and eutrophication phenomenon is used to present the transfer of material or energy from phytoplankton to zooplankton populations. The model using this grazing rate function is subjected to equilibrium and stability analysis to ascertain its mathematical implications. It is shown that, for a certain range of one of the parameters in this function all equilibrium points of the system become stable even with nutrient enrichment. In the second model, dynamics of both nitrogen and phosphorus cycles are combined. The influence of direct human control added to different aquatic models is studied in detail. Optimal control theory is used to obtain optimal strategies for the control of these models with several cost functions. It is found that the control program in each problem depends on the model considered and on the function to be optimized.

  6. Input-output model for MACCS nuclear accident impacts estimation¹

    SciTech Connect

    Outkin, Alexander V.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Vargas, Vanessa N

    2015-01-27

    Since the original economic model for MACCS was developed, better quality economic data (as well as the tools to gather and process it) and better computational capabilities have become available. The update of the economic impacts component of the MACCS legacy model will provide improved estimates of business disruptions through the use of Input-Output based economic impact estimation. This paper presents an updated MACCS model, bases on Input-Output methodology, in which economic impacts are calculated using the Regional Economic Accounting analysis tool (REAcct) created at Sandia National Laboratories. This new GDP-based model allows quick and consistent estimation of gross domestic product (GDP) losses due to nuclear power plant accidents. This paper outlines the steps taken to combine the REAcct Input-Output-based model with the MACCS code, describes the GDP loss calculation, and discusses the parameters and modeling assumptions necessary for the estimation of long-term effects of nuclear power plant accidents.

  7. Explicit least squares system parameter identification for exact differential input/output models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    The equation error for a class of systems modeled by input/output differential operator equations has the potential to be integrated exactly, given the input/output data on a finite time interval, thereby opening up the possibility of using an explicit least squares estimation technique for system parameter identification. The paper delineates the class of models for which this is possible and shows how the explicit least squares cost function can be obtained in a way that obviates dealing with unknown initial and boundary conditions. The approach is illustrated by two examples: a second order chemical kinetics model and a third order system of Lorenz equations.

  8. Explicit least squares system parameter identification for exact differential input/output models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    The equation error for a class of systems modeled by input/output differential operator equations has the potential to be integrated exactly, given the input/output data on a finite time interval, thereby opening up the possibility of using an explicit least squares estimation technique for system parameter identification. The paper delineates the class of models for which this is possible and shows how the explicit least squares cost function can be obtained in a way that obviates dealing with unknown initial and boundary conditions. The approach is illustrated by two examples: a second order chemical kinetics model and a third order system of Lorenz equations.

  9. Methods to Register Models and Input/Output Parameters for Integrated Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Droppo, James G.; Whelan, Gene; Tryby, Michael E.; Pelton, Mitchell A.; Taira, Randal Y.; Dorow, Kevin E.

    2010-07-10

    Significant resources can be required when constructing integrated modeling systems. In a typical application, components (e.g., models and databases) created by different developers are assimilated, requiring the framework’s functionality to bridge the gap between the user’s knowledge of the components being linked. The framework, therefore, needs the capability to assimilate a wide range of model-specific input/output requirements as well as their associated assumptions and constraints. The process of assimilating such disparate components into an integrated modeling framework varies in complexity and difficulty. Several factors influence the relative ease of assimilating components, including, but not limited to, familiarity with the components being assimilated, familiarity with the framework and its tools that support the assimilation process, level of documentation associated with the components and the framework, and design structure of the components and framework. This initial effort reviews different approaches for assimilating models and their model-specific input/output requirements: 1) modifying component models to directly communicate with the framework (i.e., through an Application Programming Interface), 2) developing model-specific external wrappers such that no component model modifications are required, 3) using parsing tools to visually map pre-existing input/output files, and 4) describing and linking models as dynamic link libraries. Most of these approaches are illustrated using the widely distributed modeling system called Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES). The review concludes that each has its strengths and weakness, the factors that determine which approaches work best in a given application.

  10. Identification of Multivariate Time Series and Multivariate Input-Output Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, David M.; Wood, Eric F.

    1982-08-01

    The problem of linear model structure identification for multivariate time series or multiple input-output models is presented and solved. The identification is obtained using canonical correlations to determine model order. The equivalence between state-space model structure and multivariate autoregressive moving average with exogenous inputs (ARMAX) models is presented. The class of models open to analysis includes rainfall-runoff models, multivariate streamflow models, and time invariant state-space models used in Kaiman filtering. Examples include a rainfall-runoff model using three precipitation inputs, a four-site monthly streamflow model, and a four-season streamflow model.

  11. Input-output modeling for urban energy consumption in Beijing: dynamics and comparison.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lixiao; Hu, Qiuhong; Zhang, Fan

    2014-01-01

    Input-output analysis has been proven to be a powerful instrument for estimating embodied (direct plus indirect) energy usage through economic sectors. Using 9 economic input-output tables of years 1987, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2007, this paper analyzes energy flows for the entire city of Beijing and its 30 economic sectors, respectively. Results show that the embodied energy consumption of Beijing increased from 38.85 million tonnes of coal equivalent (Mtce) to 206.2 Mtce over the past twenty years of rapid urbanization; the share of indirect energy consumption in total energy consumption increased from 48% to 76%, suggesting the transition of Beijing from a production-based and manufacturing-dominated economy to a consumption-based and service-dominated economy. Real estate development has shown to be a major driving factor of the growth in indirect energy consumption. The boom and bust of construction activities have been strongly correlated with the increase and decrease of system-side indirect energy consumption. Traditional heavy industries remain the most energy-intensive sectors in the economy. However, the transportation and service sectors have contributed most to the rapid increase in overall energy consumption. The analyses in this paper demonstrate that a system-wide approach such as that based on input-output model can be a useful tool for robust energy policy making.

  12. Input-Output Modeling for Urban Energy Consumption in Beijing: Dynamics and Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lixiao; Hu, Qiuhong; Zhang, Fan

    2014-01-01

    Input-output analysis has been proven to be a powerful instrument for estimating embodied (direct plus indirect) energy usage through economic sectors. Using 9 economic input-output tables of years 1987, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2007, this paper analyzes energy flows for the entire city of Beijing and its 30 economic sectors, respectively. Results show that the embodied energy consumption of Beijing increased from 38.85 million tonnes of coal equivalent (Mtce) to 206.2 Mtce over the past twenty years of rapid urbanization; the share of indirect energy consumption in total energy consumption increased from 48% to 76%, suggesting the transition of Beijing from a production-based and manufacturing-dominated economy to a consumption-based and service-dominated economy. Real estate development has shown to be a major driving factor of the growth in indirect energy consumption. The boom and bust of construction activities have been strongly correlated with the increase and decrease of system-side indirect energy consumption. Traditional heavy industries remain the most energy-intensive sectors in the economy. However, the transportation and service sectors have contributed most to the rapid increase in overall energy consumption. The analyses in this paper demonstrate that a system-wide approach such as that based on input-output model can be a useful tool for robust energy policy making. PMID:24595199

  13. Design of vaccination and fumigation on Host-Vector Model by input-output linearization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugraha, Edwin Setiawan; Naiborhu, Janson; Nuraini, Nuning

    2017-03-01

    Here, we analyze the Host-Vector Model and proposed design of vaccination and fumigation to control infectious population by using feedback control especially input-output liniearization method. Host population is divided into three compartments: susceptible, infectious and recovery. Whereas the vector population is divided into two compartment such as susceptible and infectious. In this system, vaccination and fumigation treat as input factors and infectious population as output result. The objective of design is to stabilize of the output asymptotically tend to zero. We also present the examples to illustrate the design model.

  14. Alternative to Ritt's pseudodivision for finding the input-output equations of multi-output models.

    PubMed

    Meshkat, Nicolette; Anderson, Chris; DiStefano, Joseph J

    2012-09-01

    Differential algebra approaches to structural identifiability analysis of a dynamic system model in many instances heavily depend upon Ritt's pseudodivision at an early step in analysis. The pseudodivision algorithm is used to find the characteristic set, of which a subset, the input-output equations, is used for identifiability analysis. A simpler algorithm is proposed for this step, using Gröbner Bases, along with a proof of the method that includes a reduced upper bound on derivative requirements. Efficacy of the new algorithm is illustrated with several biosystem model examples.

  15. Linear spectral mixture analysis with the Open Leontief Input-Output Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lijiang, Zhu

    2014-03-01

    Commonly, it requires two constraints imposed on the linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA). One constraint is the abundance of sum-to-one, which requires the abundance fractions of materials presented in an image pixel to be one and is easy to deal with. The other constraint is that any abundance fractions are always nonnegative and difficult to solve with analytical solution. Most of approaches that provide the solution for the latter problem of LSMA use an optimization or maximization procedure. The results of solution resort to optimization strategies. The Leontief input-output model, of which parameters are very similar to LSMA, is represented by a linear system of equations and the system has a unique nonnegative solution. In this paper, we considered how to determine the parameters of LSMA model, and based on the open Leontief input-output model, we presented a fully constrained linear spectral (FCLS) mixture analysis method for estimating material abundance in spectral mixture pixel. The new FCLS method can not only make the abundance fractions of materials be nonnegative, but also keep them less than one, that always obtained by normalizing procedure in other methods. We also examine a number of approaches, previous FCLS and non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) spectral un-mixing, closely related. A series of computer simulations are conducted to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method in material quantification.

  16. Multiregional input-output model for the evaluation of Spanish water flows.

    PubMed

    Cazcarro, Ignacio; Duarte, Rosa; Sánchez Chóliz, Julio

    2013-01-01

    We construct a multiregional input-output model for Spain, in order to evaluate the pressures on the water resources, virtual water flows, and water footprints of the regions, and the water impact of trade relationships within Spain and abroad. The study is framed with those interregional input-output models constructed to study water flows and impacts of regions in China, Australia, Mexico, or the UK. To build our database, we reconcile regional IO tables, national and regional accountancy of Spain, trade and water data. Results show an important imbalance between origin of water resources and final destination, with significant water pressures in the South, Mediterranean, and some central regions. The most populated and dynamic regions of Madrid and Barcelona are important drivers of water consumption in Spain. Main virtual water exporters are the South and Central agrarian regions: Andalusia, Castile-La Mancha, Castile-Leon, Aragon, and Extremadura, while the main virtual water importers are the industrialized regions of Madrid, Basque country, and the Mediterranean coast. The paper shows the different location of direct and indirect consumers of water in Spain and how the economic trade and consumption pattern of certain areas has significant impacts on the availability of water resources in other different and often drier regions.

  17. A Water-Withdrawal Input-Output Model of the Indian Economy.

    PubMed

    Bogra, Shelly; Bakshi, Bhavik R; Mathur, Ritu

    2016-02-02

    Managing freshwater allocation for a highly populated and growing economy like India can benefit from knowledge about the effect of economic activities. This study transforms the 2003-2004 economic input-output (IO) table of India into a water withdrawal input-output model to quantify direct and indirect flows. This unique model is based on a comprehensive database compiled from diverse public sources, and estimates direct and indirect water withdrawal of all economic sectors. It distinguishes between green (rainfall), blue (surface and ground), and scarce groundwater. Results indicate that the total direct water withdrawal is nearly 3052 billion cubic meter (BCM) and 96% of this is used in agriculture sectors with the contribution of direct green water being about 1145 BCM, excluding forestry. Apart from 727 BCM direct blue water withdrawal for agricultural, other significant users include "Electricity" with 64 BCM, "Water supply" with 44 BCM and other industrial sectors with nearly 14 BCM. "Construction", "miscellaneous food products"; "Hotels and restaurants"; "Paper, paper products, and newsprint" are other significant indirect withdrawers. The net virtual water import is found to be insignificant compared to direct water used in agriculture nationally, while scarce ground water associated with crops is largely contributed by northern states.

  18. Wind Farm Flow Modeling using an Input-Output Reduced-Order Model

    SciTech Connect

    Annoni, Jennifer; Gebraad, Pieter; Seiler, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Wind turbines in a wind farm operate individually to maximize their own power regardless of the impact of aerodynamic interactions on neighboring turbines. There is the potential to increase power and reduce overall structural loads by properly coordinating turbines. To perform control design and analysis, a model needs to be of low computational cost, but retains the necessary dynamics seen in high-fidelity models. The objective of this work is to obtain a reduced-order model that represents the full-order flow computed using a high-fidelity model. A variety of methods, including proper orthogonal decomposition and dynamic mode decomposition, can be used to extract the dominant flow structures and obtain a reduced-order model. In this paper, we combine proper orthogonal decomposition with a system identification technique to produce an input-output reduced-order model. This technique is used to construct a reduced-order model of the flow within a two-turbine array computed using a large-eddy simulation.

  19. Application of a Linear Input/Output Model to Tankless Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher T.; Schoenbauer, B.

    2011-12-31

    In this study, the applicability of a linear input/output model to gas-fired, tankless water heaters has been evaluated. This simple model assumes that the relationship between input and output, averaged over both active draw and idle periods, is linear. This approach is being applied to boilers in other studies and offers the potential to make a small number of simple measurements to obtain the model parameters. These parameters can then be used to predict performance under complex load patterns. Both condensing and non-condensing water heaters have been tested under a very wide range of load conditions. It is shown that this approach can be used to reproduce performance metrics, such as the energy factor, and can be used to evaluate the impacts of alternative draw patterns and conditions.

  20. Applying Input-Output Model to Estimate Broader Economic Impact of Transportation Infrastructure Investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anas, Ridwan; Tamin, Ofyar; Wibowo, Sony S.

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the relationships between infrastructure improvement and economic growth in the surrounding region. Traditionally, microeconomic and macroeconomic analyses are the mostly used tools for analyzing the linkage between transportation sectors and economic growth but offer little clues to the mechanisms linking transport improvements and the broader economy impacts. This study will estimate the broader economic benefits of the new transportation infrastructure investment, Cipularangtollway in West Java province, Indonesia, to the region connected (Bandung district) using Input-Output model. The result show the decrease of freight transportation costs by at 17 % and the increase of 1.2 % of Bandung District's GDP after the operation of Cipularangtollway.

  1. Transport coefficient computation based on input/output reduced order models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, Joshua L.

    The guiding purpose of this thesis is to address the optimal material design problem when the material description is a molecular dynamics model. The end goal is to obtain a simplified and fast model that captures the property of interest such that it can be used in controller design and optimization. The approach is to examine model reduction analysis and methods to capture a specific property of interest, in this case viscosity, or more generally complex modulus or complex viscosity. This property and other transport coefficients are defined by a input/output relationship and this motivates model reduction techniques that are tailored to preserve input/output behavior. In particular Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) based methods are investigated. First simulation methods are identified that are amenable to systems theory analysis. For viscosity, these models are of the Gosling and Lees-Edwards type. They are high order nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) that employ Periodic Boundary Conditions. Properties can be calculated from the state trajectories of these ODEs. In this research local linear approximations are rigorously derived and special attention is given to potentials that are evaluated with Periodic Boundary Conditions (PBC). For the Gosling description LTI models are developed from state trajectories but are found to have limited success in capturing the system property, even though it is shown that full order LTI models can be well approximated by reduced order LTI models. For the Lees-Edwards SLLOD type model nonlinear ODEs will be approximated by a Linear Time Varying (LTV) model about some nominal trajectory and both balanced truncation and Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) will be used to assess the plausibility of reduced order models to this system description. An immediate application of the derived LTV models is Quasilinearization or Waveform Relaxation. Quasilinearization is a Newton's method applied to the ODE operator

  2. Regional disaster impact analysis: comparing Input-Output and Computable General Equilibrium models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koks, E. E.; Carrera, L.; Jonkeren, O.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Husby, T. G.; Thissen, M.; Standardi, G.; Mysiak, J.

    2015-11-01

    A large variety of models has been developed to assess the economic losses of disasters, of which the most common ones are Input-Output (IO) and Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) models. In addition, an increasing numbers of scholars has developed hybrid approaches; one that combines both or either of them in combination with non-economic methods. While both IO and CGE models are widely used, they are mainly compared on theoretical grounds. Few studies have compared disaster impacts of different model types in a systematic way and for the same geographical area, using similar input data. Such a comparison is valuable from both a scientific and policy perspective as the magnitude and the spatial distribution of the estimated losses are likely to vary with the chosen modelling approach (IO, CGE, or hybrid). Hence, regional disaster impact loss estimates resulting from a range of models facilitates better decisions and policy making. Therefore, in this study we analyze one specific case study, using three regional models: two hybrid IO models and a regionally calibrated version of a global CGE model. The case study concerns two flood scenarios in the Po-river basin in Italy. Modelling results indicate that the difference in estimated total (national) economic losses and the regional distribution of those losses may vary by up to a factor of seven between the three models, depending on the type of recovery path. Total economic impact, comprising all Italian regions, is negative in all models though.

  3. Regional disaster impact analysis: comparing input-output and computable general equilibrium models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koks, Elco E.; Carrera, Lorenzo; Jonkeren, Olaf; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.; Husby, Trond G.; Thissen, Mark; Standardi, Gabriele; Mysiak, Jaroslav

    2016-08-01

    A variety of models have been applied to assess the economic losses of disasters, of which the most common ones are input-output (IO) and computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. In addition, an increasing number of scholars have developed hybrid approaches: one that combines both or either of them in combination with noneconomic methods. While both IO and CGE models are widely used, they are mainly compared on theoretical grounds. Few studies have compared disaster impacts of different model types in a systematic way and for the same geographical area, using similar input data. Such a comparison is valuable from both a scientific and policy perspective as the magnitude and the spatial distribution of the estimated losses are born likely to vary with the chosen modelling approach (IO, CGE, or hybrid). Hence, regional disaster impact loss estimates resulting from a range of models facilitate better decisions and policy making. Therefore, this study analyses the economic consequences for a specific case study, using three regional disaster impact models: two hybrid IO models and a CGE model. The case study concerns two flood scenarios in the Po River basin in Italy. Modelling results indicate that the difference in estimated total (national) economic losses and the regional distribution of those losses may vary by up to a factor of 7 between the three models, depending on the type of recovery path. Total economic impact, comprising all Italian regions, is negative in all models though.

  4. A mixed-unit input-output model for environmental life-cycle assessment and material flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Troy; Hendrickson, Chris; Higgins, Cortney; Matthews, H Scott; Suh, Sangwon

    2007-02-01

    Materials flow analysis models have traditionally been used to track the production, use, and consumption of materials. Economic input-output modeling has been used for environmental systems analysis, with a primary benefit being the capability to estimate direct and indirect economic and environmental impacts across the entire supply chain of production in an economy. We combine these two types of models to create a mixed-unit input-output model that is able to bettertrack economic transactions and material flows throughout the economy associated with changes in production. A 13 by 13 economic input-output direct requirements matrix developed by the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis is augmented with material flow data derived from those published by the U.S. Geological Survey in the formulation of illustrative mixed-unit input-output models for lead and cadmium. The resulting model provides the capabilities of both material flow and input-output models, with detailed material tracking through entire supply chains in response to any monetary or material demand. Examples of these models are provided along with a discussion of uncertainty and extensions to these models.

  5. Neural Systems with Numerically Matched Input-Output Statistic: Isotonic Bivariate Statistical Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Fiori, Simone

    2007-01-01

    Bivariate statistical modeling from incomplete data is a useful statistical tool that allows to discover the model underlying two data sets when the data in the two sets do not correspond in size nor in ordering. Such situation may occur when the sizes of the two data sets do not match (i.e., there are “holes” in the data) or when the data sets have been acquired independently. Also, statistical modeling is useful when the amount of available data is enough to show relevant statistical features of the phenomenon underlying the data. We propose to tackle the problem of statistical modeling via a neural (nonlinear) system that is able to match its input-output statistic to the statistic of the available data sets. A key point of the new implementation proposed here is that it is based on look-up-table (LUT) neural systems, which guarantee a computationally advantageous way of implementing neural systems. A number of numerical experiments, performed on both synthetic and real-world data sets, illustrate the features of the proposed modeling procedure. PMID:18566641

  6. Ecological input-output modeling for embodied resources and emissions in Chinese economy 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z. M.; Chen, G. Q.; Zhou, J. B.; Jiang, M. M.; Chen, B.

    2010-07-01

    For the embodiment of natural resources and environmental emissions in Chinese economy 2005, a biophysical balance modeling is carried out based on an extension of the economic input-output table into an ecological one integrating the economy with its various environmental driving forces. Included resource flows into the primary resource sectors and environmental emission flows from the primary emission sectors belong to seven categories as energy resources in terms of fossil fuels, hydropower and nuclear energy, biomass, and other sources; freshwater resources; greenhouse gas emissions in terms of CO2, CH4, and N2O; industrial wastes in terms of waste water, waste gas, and waste solid; exergy in terms of fossil fuel resources, biological resources, mineral resources, and environmental resources; solar emergy and cosmic emergy in terms of climate resources, soil, fossil fuels, and minerals. The resulted database for embodiment intensity and sectoral embodiment of natural resources and environmental emissions is of essential implications in context of systems ecology and ecological economics in general and of global climate change in particular.

  7. Technical note: Simultaneous fully dynamic characterization of multiple input-output relationships in climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravitz, Ben; MacMartin, Douglas G.; Rasch, Philip J.; Wang, Hailong

    2017-02-01

    We introduce system identification techniques to climate science wherein multiple dynamic input-output relationships can be simultaneously characterized in a single simulation. This method, involving multiple small perturbations (in space and time) of an input field while monitoring output fields to quantify responses, allows for identification of different timescales of climate response to forcing without substantially pushing the climate far away from a steady state. We use this technique to determine the steady-state responses of low cloud fraction and latent heat flux to heating perturbations over 22 regions spanning Earth's oceans. We show that the response characteristics are similar to those of step-change simulations, but in this new method the responses for 22 regions can be characterized simultaneously. Furthermore, we can estimate the timescale over which the steady-state response emerges. The proposed methodology could be useful for a wide variety of purposes in climate science, including characterization of teleconnections and uncertainty quantification to identify the effects of climate model tuning parameters.

  8. The German and Japanese health care systems: an international comparison using an input-output model.

    PubMed

    Rump, A; Schöffski, O

    2016-12-01

    The German and Japanese health care systems have common roots, but have evolved differently. Whereas the German system is often considered as expensive and poorly efficient, people in Japan are viewed as healthy and health care as comparatively cheap. In this study, we compared the quality, the effectiveness and efficiency of the German and Japanese health care systems. This study includes comparative health care data analysis. The quality and effectiveness of the German and Japanese health care systems were analyzed using an input-output model including 12 countries based on health indicators published by the OECD. Besides the invested resources, a risk-related input dimension was used for risk adjustment. The efficiency of the systems was assessed by relating the average output to the health expenses per capita. Health risks seem qualitatively different in Germany and Japan, but at the aggregate level, lifestyle does not seem to be an outstanding explanatory factor for health outcome differences between both countries. For investments in health resources, Germany is in a top position, whereas in the international comparison, the outcome is rather poor. The resources invested in Japan are also high, but slightly less than in Germany, whereas on average, the outcome is better. However, in the international comparison, resources as well as results in Japan show a very high variability. Relating the average output to the health expenses per capita indicates that on the average, the health care system in Japan is more efficient than in Germany. Germany and Japan have a quality problem with their health care systems. In Germany there is a transmission failure from structural to outcome quality that might be related to coordination problems between the outpatient and inpatient sector. Japan shows an unbalanced system that may be suspected to have a quality problem as a whole. As the development of the remuneration system including quality requirements is under the

  9. Finding identifiable parameter combinations in nonlinear ODE models and the rational reparameterization of their input-output equations.

    PubMed

    Meshkat, Nicolette; Anderson, Chris; Distefano, Joseph J

    2011-09-01

    When examining the structural identifiability properties of dynamic system models, some parameters can take on an infinite number of values and yet yield identical input-output data. These parameters and the model are then said to be unidentifiable. Finding identifiable combinations of parameters with which to reparameterize the model provides a means for quantitatively analyzing the model and computing solutions in terms of the combinations. In this paper, we revisit and explore the properties of an algorithm for finding identifiable parameter combinations using Gröbner Bases and prove useful theoretical properties of these parameter combinations. We prove a set of M algebraically independent identifiable parameter combinations can be found using this algorithm and that there exists a unique rational reparameterization of the input-output equations over these parameter combinations. We also demonstrate application of the procedure to a nonlinear biomodel.

  10. Multi-way metamodelling facilitates insight into the complex input-output maps of nonlinear dynamic models

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Statistical approaches to describing the behaviour, including the complex relationships between input parameters and model outputs, of nonlinear dynamic models (referred to as metamodelling) are gaining more and more acceptance as a means for sensitivity analysis and to reduce computational demand. Understanding such input-output maps is necessary for efficient model construction and validation. Multi-way metamodelling provides the opportunity to retain the block-wise structure of the temporal data typically generated by dynamic models throughout the analysis. Furthermore, a cluster-based approach to regional metamodelling allows description of highly nonlinear input-output relationships, revealing additional patterns of covariation. Results By presenting the N-way Hierarchical Cluster-based Partial Least Squares Regression (N-way HC-PLSR) method, we here combine multi-way analysis with regional cluster-based metamodelling, together making a powerful methodology for extensive exploration of the input-output maps of complex dynamic models. We illustrate the potential of the N-way HC-PLSR by applying it both to predict model outputs as functions of the input parameters, and in the inverse direction (predicting input parameters from the model outputs), to analyse the behaviour of a dynamic model of the mammalian circadian clock. Our results display a more complete cartography of how variation in input parameters is reflected in the temporal behaviour of multiple model outputs than has been previously reported. Conclusions Our results indicated that the N-way HC-PLSR metamodelling provides a gain in insight into which parameters that are related to a specific model output behaviour, as well as variations in the model sensitivity to certain input parameters across the model output space. Moreover, the N-way approach allows a more transparent and detailed exploration of the temporal dimension of complex dynamic models, compared to alternative 2-way methods

  11. Embodied water analysis for Hebei Province, China by input-output modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Siyuan; Han, Mengyao; Wu, Xudong; Wu, Xiaofang; Li, Zhi; Xia, Xiaohua; Ji, Xi

    2016-12-01

    With the accelerating coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, regional economic integration is recognized as a national strategy. As water scarcity places Hebei Province in a dilemma, it is of critical importance for Hebei Province to balance water resources as well as make full use of its unique advantages in the transition to sustainable development. To our knowledge, related embodied water accounting analysis has been conducted for Beijing and Tianjin, while similar works with the focus on Hebei are not found. In this paper, using the most complete and recent statistics available for Hebei Province, the embodied water use in Hebei Province is analyzed in detail. Based on input-output analysis, it presents a complete set of systems accounting framework for water resources. In addition, a database of embodied water intensity is proposed which is applicable to both intermediate inputs and final demand. The result suggests that the total amount of embodied water in final demand is 10.62 billion m3, of which the water embodied in urban household consumption accounts for more than half. As a net embodied water importer, the water embodied in the commodity trade in Hebei Province is 17.20 billion m3. The outcome of this work implies that it is particularly urgent to adjust industrial structure and trade policies for water conservation, to upgrade technology and to improve water utilization. As a result, to relieve water shortages in Hebei Province, it is of crucial importance to regulate the balance of water use within the province, thus balancing water distribution in the various industrial sectors.

  12. Modeling commuting patterns in a multi-regional input-output framework: impacts of an `urban re-centralization' scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, J.-P.; Ramos, P.; Cruz, L.; Barata, E.

    2017-04-01

    The paper suggests a modeling approach for assessing economic and social impacts of changes in urban forms and commuting patterns that extends a multi-regional input-output framework by incorporating a set of commuting-related consequences. The Lisbon Metropolitan Area case with an urban re-centralization scenario is used as an example to illustrate the relevance of this modeling approach for analyzing commuting-related changes in regional income distribution on the one side and in household consumption structures on the other.

  13. Modeling commuting patterns in a multi-regional input-output framework: impacts of an `urban re-centralization' scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, J.-P.; Ramos, P.; Cruz, L.; Barata, E.

    2017-10-01

    The paper suggests a modeling approach for assessing economic and social impacts of changes in urban forms and commuting patterns that extends a multi-regional input-output framework by incorporating a set of commuting-related consequences. The Lisbon Metropolitan Area case with an urban re-centralization scenario is used as an example to illustrate the relevance of this modeling approach for analyzing commuting-related changes in regional income distribution on the one side and in household consumption structures on the other.

  14. Methods to Register Models and Input/Output Parameters for Integrated Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant resources can be required when constructing integrated modeling systems. In a typical application, components (e.g., models and databases) created by different developers are assimilated, requiring the framework’s functionality to bridge the gap between the user’s kno...

  15. Methods to Register Models and Input/Output Parameters for Integrated Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant resources can be required when constructing integrated modeling systems. In a typical application, components (e.g., models and databases) created by different developers are assimilated, requiring the framework’s functionality to bridge the gap between the user’s kno...

  16. An Adaptive Regional Input-Output Model and its Application to the Assessment of the Economic Cost of Katrina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallegatte, S.

    2006-12-01

    Recent events, especially natural disasters, have raised concerns about the response of local economies to large exogenous shocks. Clearly, our ability to assess the total economic costs of large-scale events like the Katrina's landfall is very poor, and numerous questions needs to be investigated. Among them, the taking into account of complex interactions within the economic system --- between economic sectors or regions --- is the topic of intense research. Several studies have approached these issues using Input-Output models, which are powerful tools to assess how a shock, on one or several sectors, propagate into the economy through intermediate consumption and demand. These models, however, have two main short-comings. First, since they do not take into account productive capacity, they cannot assess the consequence of a shock on the supply-side. Second, they do not allow for flexibility in the economic system in that producers and consumers cannot respond to a lack in input. The presentation will describe an adaptive regional input-output model, which aims at answering the previous concerns through the introduction of an hybrid modelling methodology. This model takes into account economic propagations through both intermediate demands and production shortages, and also represents the response of economic agents facing production shortages. An application of this model to the evaluation of the economic cost of Katrina will be demonstrated, highlighting both modelling and data issues. Also, beyond a simple "best-guess" assessment, systematic sensitivity analyses will be presented, allowing for an evaluation of the accuracy one can expect from such a model.

  17. Input-Output Modeling and Control of the Departure Process of Congested Airports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pujet, Nicolas; Delcaire, Bertrand; Feron, Eric

    2003-01-01

    A simple queueing model of busy airport departure operations is proposed. This model is calibrated and validated using available runway configuration and traffic data. The model is then used to evaluate preliminary control schemes aimed at alleviating departure traffic congestion on the airport surface. The potential impact of these control strategies on direct operating costs, environmental costs and overall delay is quantified and discussed.

  18. Frequency dependent precompensation for dominance in a four input/output theme problem model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schafer, R. M.; Sain, M. K.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reports on additional experience in applying the CARDIAD methodology to design of dynamical input compensation to achieve column dominance for linear multivariable models of realistic turbine engine simulations. In particular, the approach has been extended to models having four inputs and four outputs, and successful compensations have been achieved with an investment of about thirty minutes desk time.

  19. USEEIO: a New and Transparent United States Environmentally Extended Input-Output Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    National-scope environmental life cycle models of goods and services may be used for many purposes, not limited to quantifying impacts of production and consumption of nations, assessing organization-wide impacts, identifying purchasing hot spots, analyzing environmental impacts ...

  20. Input/output models for general aviation piston-prop aircraft fuel economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, L. M.

    1982-01-01

    A fuel efficient cruise performance model for general aviation piston engine airplane was tested. The following equations were made: (1) for the standard atmosphere; (2) airframe-propeller-atmosphere cruise performance; and (3) naturally aspirated engine cruise performance. Adjustments are made to the compact cruise performance model as follows: corrected quantities, corrected performance plots, algebraic equations, maximize R with or without constraints, and appears suitable for airborne microprocessor implementation. The following hardwares are recommended: ignition timing regulator, fuel-air mass ration controller, microprocessor, sensors and displays.

  1. Input/output models for general aviation piston-prop aircraft fuel economy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, L. M.

    1982-01-01

    A fuel efficient cruise performance model for general aviation piston engine airplane was tested. The following equations were made: (1) for the standard atmosphere; (2) airframe-propeller-atmosphere cruise performance; and (3) naturally aspirated engine cruise performance. Adjustments are made to the compact cruise performance model as follows: corrected quantities, corrected performance plots, algebraic equations, maximize R with or without constraints, and appears suitable for airborne microprocessor implementation. The following hardwares are recommended: ignition timing regulator, fuel-air mass ration controller, microprocessor, sensors and displays.

  2. A Nitrogen Physical Input-Output Table (PIOT) Model for Illinois

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) presents an important challenge for sustainability due to its role in providing goods and services to society, since release of N beyond its intended use has many negative consequences. Several systems modeling approaches have been developed to understand the tradeof...

  3. Approximation of Quantum Stochastic Differential Equations for Input-Output Model Reduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-25

    611102 c . THIS PAGE The public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time...feedback control and quantum photonic circuit theory," H. Mabuchi, Coherent Quantum Dynamics Summer School, Okinawa, Japan, 8 May 2013 ( c ) Presentations...and modeling of networks with time delays have been discussed at length with Dr. Rad Balu and his team at ARL/Adelphi. The time delay approximation

  4. Supply Chain Vulnerability Analysis Using Scenario-Based Input-Output Modeling: Application to Port Operations.

    PubMed

    Thekdi, Shital A; Santos, Joost R

    2016-05-01

    Disruptive events such as natural disasters, loss or reduction of resources, work stoppages, and emergent conditions have potential to propagate economic losses across trade networks. In particular, disruptions to the operation of container port activity can be detrimental for international trade and commerce. Risk assessment should anticipate the impact of port operation disruptions with consideration of how priorities change due to uncertain scenarios and guide investments that are effective and feasible for implementation. Priorities for protective measures and continuity of operations planning must consider the economic impact of such disruptions across a variety of scenarios. This article introduces new performance metrics to characterize resiliency in interdependency modeling and also integrates scenario-based methods to measure economic sensitivity to sudden-onset disruptions. The methods will be demonstrated on a U.S. port responsible for handling $36.1 billion of cargo annually. The methods will be useful to port management, private industry supply chain planning, and transportation infrastructure management.

  5. A stock-flow consistent input-output model with applications to energy price shocks, interest rates, and heat emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Matthew; Hartley, Brian; Richters, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    By synthesizing stock-flow consistent models, input-output models, and aspects of ecological macroeconomics, a method is developed to simultaneously model monetary flows through the financial system, flows of produced goods and services through the real economy, and flows of physical materials through the natural environment. This paper highlights the linkages between the physical environment and the economic system by emphasizing the role of the energy industry. A conceptual model is developed in general form with an arbitrary number of sectors, while emphasizing connections with the agent-based, econophysics, and complexity economics literature. First, we use the model to challenge claims that 0% interest rates are a necessary condition for a stationary economy and conduct a stability analysis within the parameter space of interest rates and consumption parameters of an economy in stock-flow equilibrium. Second, we analyze the role of energy price shocks in contributing to recessions, incorporating several propagation and amplification mechanisms. Third, implied heat emissions from energy conversion and the effect of anthropogenic heat flux on climate change are considered in light of a minimal single-layer atmosphere climate model, although the model is only implicitly, not explicitly, linked to the economic model.

  6. An adaptive regional input-output model and its application to the assessment of the economic cost of Katrina.

    PubMed

    Hallegatte, Stéphane

    2008-06-01

    This article proposes a new modeling framework to investigate the consequences of natural disasters and the following reconstruction phase. Based on input-output tables, its originalities are (1) the taking into account of sector production capacities and of both forward and backward propagations within the economic system; and (2) the introduction of adaptive behaviors. The model is used to simulate the response of the economy of Louisiana to the landfall of Katrina. The model is found consistent with available data, and provides two important insights. First, economic processes exacerbate direct losses, and total costs are estimated at $149 billion, for direct losses equal to $107 billion. When exploring the impacts of other possible disasters, it is found that total losses due to a disaster affecting Louisiana increase nonlinearly with respect to direct losses when the latter exceed $50 billion. When direct losses exceed $200 billion, for instance, total losses are twice as large as direct losses. For risk management, therefore, direct losses are insufficient measures of disaster consequences. Second, positive and negative backward propagation mechanisms are essential for the assessment of disaster consequences, and the taking into account of production capacities is necessary to avoid overestimating the positive effects of reconstruction. A systematic sensitivity analysis shows that, among all parameters, the overproduction capacity in the construction sector and the adaptation characteristic time are the most important.

  7. Mutational Analyses of HAMP Helices Suggest a Dynamic Bundle Model of Input-Output Signaling in Chemoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qin; Ames, Peter; Parkinson, John S.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY To test the gearbox model of HAMP signaling in the E. coli serine receptor, Tsr, we generated a series of amino acid replacements at each residue of the AS1 and AS2 helices. The residues most critical for Tsr function defined hydrophobic packing faces consistent with a 4-helix bundle. Suppression patterns of helix lesions conformed to the the predicted packing layers in the bundle. Although the properties and patterns of most AS1 and AS2 lesions were consistent with both proposed gearbox structures, some mutational features specifically indicate the functional importance of an x-da bundle over an alternative a-d bundle. These genetic data suggest that HAMP signaling could simply involve changes in the stability of its x-da bundle. We propose that Tsr HAMP controls output signals by modulating destabilizing phase clashes between the AS2 helices and the adjoining kinase control helices. Our model further proposes that chemoeffectors regulate HAMP bundle stability through a control cable connection between the transmembrane segments and AS1 helices. Attractant stimuli, which cause inward piston displacements in chemoreceptors, should reduce cable tension, thereby stabilizing the HAMP bundle. This study shows how transmembrane signaling and HAMP input-output control could occur without the helix rotations central to the gearbox model. PMID:19656294

  8. Serial Input Output

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, Anthony; /SLAC

    2011-09-07

    Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each

  9. The stability of input structures in a supply-driven input-output model: A regional analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, T.

    1994-06-01

    Disruptions in the supply of strategic resources or other crucial factor inputs often present significant problems for planners and policymakers. The problem may be particularly significant at the regional level where higher levels of product specialization mean supply restrictions are more likely to affect leading regional industries. To maintain economic stability in the event of a supply restriction, regional planners may therefore need to evaluate the importance of market versus non-market systems for allocating the remaining supply of the disrupted resource to the region`s leading consuming industries. This paper reports on research that has attempted to show that large short term changes on the supply side do not lead to substantial changes in input coefficients and do not therefore mean the abandonment of the concept of the production function as has been suggested (Oosterhaven, 1988). The supply-driven model was tested for six sectors of the economy of Washington State and found to yield new input coefficients whose values were in most cases close approximations of their original values, even with substantial changes in supply. Average coefficient changes from a 50% output reduction in these six sectors were in the vast majority of cases (297 from a total of 315) less than +2.0% of their original values, excluding coefficient changes for the restricted input. Given these small changes, the most important issue for the validity of the supply-driven input-output model may therefore be the empirical question of the extent to which these coefficient changes are acceptable as being within the limits of approximation.

  10. Analysis of urban metabolic processes based on input-output method: model development and a case study for Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Hong; Chen, Bin; Zheng, Hongmei; Li, Yating

    2014-06-01

    Discovering ways in which to increase the sustainability of the metabolic processes involved in urbanization has become an urgent task for urban design and management in China. As cities are analogous to living organisms, the disorders of their metabolic processes can be regarded as the cause of "urban disease". Therefore, identification of these causes through metabolic process analysis and ecological element distribution through the urban ecosystem's compartments will be helpful. By using Beijing as an example, we have compiled monetary input-output tables from 1997, 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2007 and calculated the intensities of the embodied ecological elements to compile the corresponding implied physical input-output tables. We then divided Beijing's economy into 32 compartments and analyzed the direct and indirect ecological intensities embodied in the flows of ecological elements through urban metabolic processes. Based on the combination of input-output tables and ecological network analysis, the description of multiple ecological elements transferred among Beijing's industrial compartments and their distribution has been refined. This hybrid approach can provide a more scientific basis for management of urban resource flows. In addition, the data obtained from distribution characteristics of ecological elements may provide a basic data platform for exploring the metabolic mechanism of Beijing.

  11. Ecological network analysis of an urban metabolic system based on input-output tables: model development and case study for Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Hongmei; Fath, Brian D; Liu, Hong; Yang, Zhifeng; Liu, Gengyuan; Su, Meirong

    2014-01-15

    If cities are considered as "superorganisms", then disorders of their metabolic processes cause something analogous to an "urban disease". It is therefore helpful to identify the causes of such disorders by analyzing the inner mechanisms that control urban metabolic processes. Combining input-output analysis with ecological network analysis lets researchers study the functional relationships and hierarchy of the urban metabolic processes, thereby providing direct support for the analysis of urban disease. In this paper, using Beijing as an example, we develop a model of an urban metabolic system that accounts for the intensity of the embodied ecological elements using monetary input-output tables from 1997, 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2007, and use this data to compile the corresponding physical input-output tables. This approach described the various flows of ecological elements through urban metabolic processes and let us build an ecological network model with 32 components. Then, using two methods from ecological network analysis (flow analysis and utility analysis), we quantitatively analyzed the physical input-output relationships among urban components, determined the ecological hierarchy of the components of the metabolic system, and determined the distribution of advantage-dominated and disadvantage-dominated relationships, thereby providing scientific support to guide restructuring of the urban metabolic system in an effort to prevent or cure urban "diseases".

  12. World Input-Output Network

    PubMed Central

    Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries. PMID:26222389

  13. Comparing urban solid waste recycling from the viewpoint of urban metabolism based on physical input-output model: A case of Suzhou in China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Sai; Zhang, Tianzhu

    2012-01-01

    Investigating impacts of urban solid waste recycling on urban metabolism contributes to sustainable urban solid waste management and urban sustainability. Using a physical input-output model and scenario analysis, urban metabolism of Suzhou in 2015 is predicted and impacts of four categories of solid waste recycling on urban metabolism are illustrated: scrap tire recycling, food waste recycling, fly ash recycling and sludge recycling. Sludge recycling has positive effects on reducing all material flows. Thus, sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Moreover, technical levels of scrap tire recycling and food waste recycling should be improved to produce positive effects on reducing more material flows. Fly ash recycling for cement production has negative effects on reducing all material flows except solid wastes. Thus, other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. In addition, the utilization and treatment of secondary wastes from food waste recycling and sludge recycling should be concerned.

  14. Estimating the Fully Burdened Cost of Fuel Using an Input-Output Model - A Micro-Level Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    tool for energy calculations. Albino , Izzo, and Kuhtz (2002) attempted to create IO models that can be used to examine both a local and global supply...geographic area. Each process can be defined as a system that produces output flows in consequence of input flows” ( Albino et al., 2002, p. 119). They...chain level as well as at local level a common policy for the management of resources and wastes” ( Albino et al., 2002, p. 130). Albino

  15. Estimating the Fully Burdened Cost of Supply in a Self-Sustaining Supply Chain Using an Input-Output Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    TABLES Table 1.  The open Leontief model matrix ......................................................................11  Table 2.  Mpg and mpg ...of fuel FBCS fully burdened cost of supply M-ATV MRAP all-terrain vehicle MAS MTVR armor system MOB main operating base Mpg miles per gallon MRAP...regression lines of the tipper vehicles.) As it is shown in Table 2, it is found that the miles per gallon ( mpg ) rate of 26, 32, and 44 ton trucks

  16. Selection Input Output by Restriction Using DEA Models Based on a Fuzzy Delphi Approach and Expert Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsad, Roslah; Nasir Abdullah, Mohammad; Alias, Suriana; Isa, Zaidi

    2017-09-01

    Stock evaluation has always been an interesting problem for investors. In this paper, a comparison regarding the efficiency stocks of listed companies in Bursa Malaysia were made through the application of estimation method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). One of the interesting research subjects in DEA is the selection of appropriate input and output parameter. In this study, DEA was used to measure efficiency of stocks of listed companies in Bursa Malaysia in terms of the financial ratio to evaluate performance of stocks. Based on previous studies and Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM), the most important financial ratio was selected. The results indicated that return on equity, return on assets, net profit margin, operating profit margin, earnings per share, price to earnings and debt to equity were the most important ratios. Using expert information, all the parameter were clarified as inputs and outputs. The main objectives were to identify most critical financial ratio, clarify them based on expert information and compute the relative efficiency scores of stocks as well as rank them in the construction industry and material completely. The methods of analysis using Alirezaee and Afsharian’s model were employed in this study, where the originality of Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes (CCR) with the assumption of Constant Return to Scale (CSR) still holds. This method of ranking relative efficiency of decision making units (DMUs) was value-added by the Balance Index. The interested data was made for year 2015 and the population of the research includes accepted companies in stock markets in the construction industry and material (63 companies). According to the ranking, the proposed model can rank completely for 63 companies using selected financial ratio.

  17. Example of input-output analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The thirty sectors included in the ECASTAR energy input-output model were listed. Five of these belong to energy producing sectors, fifteen to manufacturing industries, two to residential and commercial sectors, and eight to service industries. The model is capable of tracing impacts of an action in three dimensions: dollars, BTU's of energy, and labor. Four conservation actions considered were listed and then discussed separately, dealing with the following areas: increase in fuel efficiency, reduction in fuel used by the transportation and warehousing group, manufacturing of smaller automobiles, and a communications/transportation trade-off.

  18. Comparisons of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry based on physical input-output life-cycle assessment model

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Sai; Zhang, Tianzhu; Xu Yijian

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using crop straws and wood wastes for paper production should be promoted. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bagasse and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imports of scrap paper should be encouraged. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensitivity analysis, uncertainties and policy implications are discussed. - Abstract: Waste recycling for paper production is an important component of waste management. This study constructs a physical input-output life-cycle assessment (PIO-LCA) model. The PIO-LCA model is used to investigate environmental impacts of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry: crop straws, bagasse, textile wastes and scrap paper. Crop straw recycling and wood utilization for paper production have small total intensity of environmental impacts. Moreover, environmental impacts reduction of crop straw recycling and wood utilization benefits the most from technology development. Thus, using crop straws and wood (including wood wastes) for paper production should be promoted. Technology development has small effects on environmental impacts reduction of bagasse recycling, textile waste recycling and scrap paper recycling. In addition, bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling have big total intensity of environmental impacts. Thus, the development of bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Other pathways for reusing bagasse and textile wastes should be explored and evaluated. Moreover, imports of scrap paper should be encouraged to reduce large indirect impacts of scrap paper recycling on domestic environment.

  19. A modified NARMAX model-based self-tuner with fault tolerance for unknown nonlinear stochastic hybrid systems with an input-output direct feed-through term.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jason S-H; Hsu, Wen-Teng; Lin, Long-Guei; Guo, Shu-Mei; Tann, Joseph W

    2014-01-01

    A modified nonlinear autoregressive moving average with exogenous inputs (NARMAX) model-based state-space self-tuner with fault tolerance is proposed in this paper for the unknown nonlinear stochastic hybrid system with a direct transmission matrix from input to output. Through the off-line observer/Kalman filter identification method, one has a good initial guess of modified NARMAX model to reduce the on-line system identification process time. Then, based on the modified NARMAX-based system identification, a corresponding adaptive digital control scheme is presented for the unknown continuous-time nonlinear system, with an input-output direct transmission term, which also has measurement and system noises and inaccessible system states. Besides, an effective state space self-turner with fault tolerance scheme is presented for the unknown multivariable stochastic system. A quantitative criterion is suggested by comparing the innovation process error estimated by the Kalman filter estimation algorithm, so that a weighting matrix resetting technique by adjusting and resetting the covariance matrices of parameter estimate obtained by the Kalman filter estimation algorithm is utilized to achieve the parameter estimation for faulty system recovery. Consequently, the proposed method can effectively cope with partially abrupt and/or gradual system faults and input failures by the fault detection.

  20. Comparisons of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry based on physical input-output life-cycle assessment model.

    PubMed

    Liang, Sai; Zhang, Tianzhu; Xu, Yijian

    2012-03-01

    Waste recycling for paper production is an important component of waste management. This study constructs a physical input-output life-cycle assessment (PIO-LCA) model. The PIO-LCA model is used to investigate environmental impacts of four categories of waste recycling in China's paper industry: crop straws, bagasse, textile wastes and scrap paper. Crop straw recycling and wood utilization for paper production have small total intensity of environmental impacts. Moreover, environmental impacts reduction of crop straw recycling and wood utilization benefits the most from technology development. Thus, using crop straws and wood (including wood wastes) for paper production should be promoted. Technology development has small effects on environmental impacts reduction of bagasse recycling, textile waste recycling and scrap paper recycling. In addition, bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling have big total intensity of environmental impacts. Thus, the development of bagasse recycling and textile waste recycling should be properly limited. Other pathways for reusing bagasse and textile wastes should be explored and evaluated. Moreover, imports of scrap paper should be encouraged to reduce large indirect impacts of scrap paper recycling on domestic environment.

  1. Comparing urban solid waste recycling from the viewpoint of urban metabolism based on physical input-output model: A case of Suzhou in China

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Sai; Zhang Tianzhu

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impacts of solid waste recycling on Suzhou's urban metabolism in 2015 are analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Technical levels of reusing scrap tires and food wastes should be improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary wastes from reusing food wastes and sludge should be concerned. - Abstract: Investigating impacts of urban solid waste recycling on urban metabolism contributes to sustainable urban solid waste management and urban sustainability. Using a physical input-output model and scenario analysis, urban metabolism of Suzhou in 2015 is predicted and impacts of four categories of solid waste recycling on urban metabolism are illustrated: scrap tire recycling, food waste recycling, fly ash recycling and sludge recycling. Sludge recycling has positive effects on reducing all material flows. Thus, sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Moreover, technical levels of scrap tire recycling and food waste recycling should be improved to produce positive effects on reducing more material flows. Fly ash recycling for cement production has negative effects on reducing all material flows except solid wastes. Thus, other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. In addition, the utilization and treatment of secondary wastes from food waste recycling and sludge recycling should be concerned.

  2. Interprovincial transfer of embodied energy between the Jing-Jin-Ji area and other provinces in China: A quantification using interprovincial input-output model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiming; Wu, Sanmang; Lei, Yalin; Li, Shantong

    2017-04-15

    Commodity trade between regions implies a large amount of energy transfer. As an important economic growth pole of China, the Jing-Jin-Ji area (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei) is also one of the areas with the largest energy consumption in China. Moreover, the primary energy consumer goods in this area are fossil fuels, such as coal. This has led to serious air pollution in the area. Therefore, the reduction of energy consumption under the premise of maintaining sustained economic growth is an important task of the Jing-Jin-Ji area. In this study, an interprovincial input-output model was applied to quantitatively estimate the embodied energy transfer between Jing-Jin-Ji area and other provinces in China. The results indicated that the Metal and nonmetal mineral processing industry and the Electrical, gas and water industry in the Jing-Jin-Ji area exported a large amount of embodied energy to the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta. However, the embodied energy export of the Jing-Jin-Ji area mainly exported by Hebei province. Beijing and Tianjin even have some net import of embodied energy. The embodied energy transfer between Tianjin, Hebei and other provinces was mainly driven by investment, while the main media of embodied energy transfer between Beijing and other provinces was consumption. Therefore, we suggest that the Jing-Jin-Ji area should further increase the degree of dependence on other provinces' energy-intensive products and reduce the export of energy-intensive products. In addition, there should be difference in the energy and industrial policies among Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, and the problems of high energy consumption and high proportion of heavy industry in Hebei should be first resolved.

  3. Risk-Based Input-Output Analysis of Influenza Epidemic Consequences on Interdependent Workforce Sectors

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Joost R.; May, Larissa; Haimar, Amine El

    2013-01-01

    Outbreaks of contagious diseases underscore the ever-looming threat of new epidemics. Compared to other disasters that inflict physical damage to infrastructure systems, epidemics can have more devastating and prolonged impacts on the population. This paper investigates the interdependent economic and productivity risks resulting from epidemic-induced workforce absenteeism. In particular, we develop a dynamic input-output model capable of generating sector-disaggregated economic losses based on different magnitudes of workforce disruptions. An ex post analysis of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in the National Capital Region (NCR) reveals the distribution of consequences across different economic sectors. Consequences are categorized into two metrics: (i) economic loss, which measures the magnitude of monetary losses incurred in each sector, and (ii) inoperability, which measures the normalized monetary losses incurred in each sector relative to the total economic output of that sector. For a simulated mild pandemic scenario in NCR, two distinct rankings are generated using the economic loss and inoperability metrics. Results indicate that the majority of the critical sectors ranked according to the economic loss metric comprise of sectors that contribute the most to the NCR's gross domestic product (e.g., federal government enterprises). In contrast, the majority of the critical sectors generated by the inoperability metric include sectors that are involved with epidemic management (e.g., hospitals). Hence, prioritizing sectors for recovery necessitates consideration of the balance between economic loss, inoperability, and other objectives. Although applied specifically to the NCR region, the proposed methodology can be customized for other regions. PMID:23278756

  4. Total environmental impacts of biofuels from corn stover using a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) model combining Process LCA and Economic Input-Output LCA.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changqi; Huang, Yaji; Wang, Xinye; Tai, Yang; Liu, Lingqin; Liu, Hao

    2017-08-10

    Studies on the environmental analysis of biofuels by fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing (BFPH) have so far only focused on the environmental impacts from direct emissions and included few indirect emissions. The influence of ignoring some indirect emissions on the environmental performance of BFPH has not been well investigated and hence is not really understood. In addition, in order to avoid shifting environmental problems from one media to another, a comprehensive assessment of environmental impacts caused by the processes must quantify the environmental emissions to all media (air, water, and land) in relation to each life cycle stage. A well-to-wheels assessment of the total environmental impacts resulting from direct emissions and indirect emissions of a BFPH system with corn stover is conducted using a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) model combining the economic input-output LCA and the process LCA. The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI) has been used to estimate the environmental impacts in terms of acidification, eutrophication, global climate change, ozone depletion, human health criteria, photochemical smog formation, ecotoxicity, human health cancer and human health non-cancer, caused by 1 MJ biofuel production. Taking account of all the indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the net GHG emissions (81.8 gCO2-eq /MJ) of the biofuels are still less than those of petroleum-based fuels (94 gCO2-eq /MJ). Maize production and pyrolysis and hydroprocessing make major contributions to all impact categories except the human health criteria. All impact categories resulting from indirect emissions except the eutrophication and smog air make more than 24% contribution to the total environmental impacts. Therefore, the indirect emissions are important and can't be ignored. Sensitivity analysis has shown that corn stover yield and bio-oil yield affect the total environment impacts of the biofuels more

  5. Scaling of global input-output networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Sai; Qi, Zhengling; Qu, Shen; Zhu, Ji; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Jia, Xiaoping; Xu, Ming

    2016-06-01

    Examining scaling patterns of networks can help understand how structural features relate to the behavior of the networks. Input-output networks consist of industries as nodes and inter-industrial exchanges of products as links. Previous studies consider limited measures for node strengths and link weights, and also ignore the impact of dataset choice. We consider a comprehensive set of indicators in this study that are important in economic analysis, and also examine the impact of dataset choice, by studying input-output networks in individual countries and the entire world. Results show that Burr, Log-Logistic, Log-normal, and Weibull distributions can better describe scaling patterns of global input-output networks. We also find that dataset choice has limited impacts on the observed scaling patterns. Our findings can help examine the quality of economic statistics, estimate missing data in economic statistics, and identify key nodes and links in input-output networks to support economic policymaking.

  6. Generalized Input-Output Inequality Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yingfan Zhang Qinghong

    2006-09-15

    In this paper two types of generalized Leontief input-output inequality systems are introduced. The minimax properties for a class of functions associated with the inequalities are studied. Sufficient and necessary conditions for the inequality systems to have solutions are obtained in terms of the minimax value. Stability analysis for the solution set is provided in terms of upper semi-continuity and hemi-continuity of set-valued maps.

  7. An electricity-focused economic input-output model: Life-cycle assessment and policy implications of future electricity generation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marriott, Joe

    The electricity industry is extremely important to both our economy and our environment. We would like to be able to examine the economic, environmental and policy implications of both future electricity scenarios which include advanced generation technologies such as gasified coal, and of the products and processes which will use them, along with the interaction of this industry with the rest of the economy. This work builds upon an existing economic input-output framework, by adding detail about the electricity industry, specifically by differentiating among the various functions of the sector, and the different means of generating power. The mix of electricity consumed at any stage in the life-cycle of a product, process or industrial sector has a significant effect on the associated inventory of emissions. Fossil fuel or nuclear generators, large-scale hydroelectric, and renewable options such as geothermal, wind and solar each have a unique set of issues---both in the production of electricity at the plant and throughout the supply chain. Decision makers need better information regarding the environmental and economic impact of the electricity industry, including full supply chain details---the interaction of the electricity industry with the other 500 sectors of the economy. A systematic method for creating updated state level and sector generation mixes is developed. The results show that most sector mixes are very close to the U.S. average due to geographic dispersion of industries, but that some sectors are different, and they tend to be important raw material extraction or primary manufacturing industries. We then build a flexible framework for creating new sectors, supply chains and emission factors for the generation, transmission and distribution portions of the electricity industry. We look at scenarios of the present and future, for electricity and for particular products, and develop results which show environmental impacts split up by generation

  8. Using quantum theory to simplify input-output processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Jayne; Garner, Andrew J. P.; Vedral, Vlatko; Gu, Mile

    2017-02-01

    All natural things process and transform information. They receive environmental information as input, and transform it into appropriate output responses. Much of science is dedicated to building models of such systems-algorithmic abstractions of their input-output behavior that allow us to simulate how such systems can behave in the future, conditioned on what has transpired in the past. Here, we show that classical models cannot avoid inefficiency-storing past information that is unnecessary for correct future simulation. We construct quantum models that mitigate this waste, whenever it is physically possible to do so. This suggests that the complexity of general input-output processes depends fundamentally on what sort of information theory we use to describe them.

  9. Reconstruction of Linear and Non-Linear Continuous-Time System Models from Input/output Data Using the Kernel Invariance Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BILLINGS, S. A.; LI, L. M.

    2000-06-01

    A new kernel invariance algorithm (KIA) is introduced to determine both the significant model terms and estimate the unknown parameters in non-linear continuous-time differential equation models of unknown systems

  10. General theory for multiple input-output perturbations in complex molecular systems. 1. Linear QSPR electronegativity models in physical, organic, and medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Arrasate, Sonia; Gómez-SanJuan, Asier; Sotomayor, Nuria; Lete, Esther; Besada-Porto, Lina; Ruso, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    In general perturbation methods starts with a known exact solution of a problem and add "small" variation terms in order to approach to a solution for a related problem without known exact solution. Perturbation theory has been widely used in almost all areas of science. Bhor's quantum model, Heisenberg's matrix mechanincs, Feyman diagrams, and Poincare's chaos model or "butterfly effect" in complex systems are examples of perturbation theories. On the other hand, the study of Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships (QSPR) in molecular complex systems is an ideal area for the application of perturbation theory. There are several problems with exact experimental solutions (new chemical reactions, physicochemical properties, drug activity and distribution, metabolic networks, etc.) in public databases like CHEMBL. However, in all these cases, we have an even larger list of related problems without known solutions. We need to know the change in all these properties after a perturbation of initial boundary conditions. It means, when we test large sets of similar, but different, compounds and/or chemical reactions under the slightly different conditions (temperature, time, solvents, enzymes, assays, protein targets, tissues, partition systems, organisms, etc.). However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no QSPR general-purpose perturbation theory to solve this problem. In this work, firstly we review general aspects and applications of both perturbation theory and QSPR models. Secondly, we formulate a general-purpose perturbation theory for multiple-boundary QSPR problems. Last, we develop three new QSPR-Perturbation theory models. The first model classify correctly >100,000 pairs of intra-molecular carbolithiations with 75-95% of Accuracy (Ac), Sensitivity (Sn), and Specificity (Sp). The model predicts probabilities of variations in the yield and enantiomeric excess of reactions due to at least one perturbation in boundary conditions (solvent, temperature

  11. Development of the complex general linear model in the Fourier domain: application to fMRI multiple input-output evoked responses for single subjects.

    PubMed

    Rio, Daniel E; Rawlings, Robert R; Woltz, Lawrence A; Gilman, Jodi; Hommer, Daniel W

    2013-01-01

    A linear time-invariant model based on statistical time series analysis in the Fourier domain for single subjects is further developed and applied to functional MRI (fMRI) blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) multivariate data. This methodology was originally developed to analyze multiple stimulus input evoked response BOLD data. However, to analyze clinical data generated using a repeated measures experimental design, the model has been extended to handle multivariate time series data and demonstrated on control and alcoholic subjects taken from data previously analyzed in the temporal domain. Analysis of BOLD data is typically carried out in the time domain where the data has a high temporal correlation. These analyses generally employ parametric models of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) where prewhitening of the data is attempted using autoregressive (AR) models for the noise. However, this data can be analyzed in the Fourier domain. Here, assumptions made on the noise structure are less restrictive, and hypothesis tests can be constructed based on voxel-specific nonparametric estimates of the hemodynamic transfer function (HRF in the Fourier domain). This is especially important for experimental designs involving multiple states (either stimulus or drug induced) that may alter the form of the response function.

  12. Collective input/output under memory constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yin; Chen, Yong; Zhuang, Yu; Liu, Jialin; Thakur, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    Compared with current high-performance computing (HPC) systems, exascale systems are expected to have much less memory per node, which can significantly reduce necessary collective input/output (I/O) performance. In this study, we introduce a memory-conscious collective I/O strategy that takes into account memory capacity and bandwidth constraints. The new strategy restricts aggregation data traffic within disjointed subgroups, coordinates I/O accesses in intranode and internode layers, and determines I/O aggregators at run time considering memory consumption among processes. We have prototyped the design and evaluated it with commonly used benchmarks to verify its potential. The evaluation results demonstrate that this strategy holds promise in mitigating the memory pressure, alleviating the contention for memory bandwidth, and improving the I/O performance for projected extreme-scale systems. Given the importance of supporting increasingly data-intensive workloads and projected memory constraints on increasingly larger scale HPC systems, this new memory-conscious collective I/O can have a significant positive impact on scientific discovery productivity.

  13. Correlation entropy of synaptic input-output dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleppe, Ingo C.; Robinson, Hugh P. C.

    2006-10-01

    The responses of synapses in the neocortex show highly stochastic and nonlinear behavior. The microscopic dynamics underlying this behavior, and its computational consequences during natural patterns of synaptic input, are not explained by conventional macroscopic models of deterministic ensemble mean dynamics. Here, we introduce the correlation entropy of the synaptic input-output map as a measure of synaptic reliability which explicitly includes the microscopic dynamics. Applying this to experimental data, we find that cortical synapses show a low-dimensional chaos driven by the natural input pattern.

  14. Input-output analysis of some sector actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Selected energy conservation actions previously discussed in depth but separately in the areas of the energy industry, the industry sector, the transportation sector, and the residential and commercial sector, were brought together and assessed as a group. Particular emphasis was devoted to identifying secondary or indirect impacts and multiple interactions. Preliminary results obtained from the ECASTAR energy input-output model suggest that the impacts of energy conservation actions can be grossly misrepresented if secondary impacts are not included in the assessment. A methodology which stresses the importance of secondary and multiple interactions permeates the underlying philosophy of this discussion.

  15. A note on scrap in the 1992 U.S. input-output tables

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swisko, George M.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction A key concern of industrial ecology and life cycle analysis is the disposal and recycling of scrap. One might conclude that the U.S. input-output tables are appropriate tools for analyzing scrap flows. Duchin, for instance, has suggested using input-output analysis for industrial ecology, indicating that input-output economics can trace the stocks and flows of energy and other materials from extraction through production and consumption to recycling or disposal. Lave and others use input-output tables to design life cycle assessment models for studying product design, materials use, and recycling strategies, even with the knowledge that these tables suffer from a lack of comprehensive and detailed data that may never be resolved. Although input-output tables can offer general guidance about the interdependence of economic and environmental processes, data reporting by industry and the economic concepts underlying these tables pose problems for rigorous material flow examinations. This is especially true for analyzing the output of scrap and scrap flows in the United States and estimating the amount of scrap that can be recycled. To show how data reporting has affected the values of scrap in recent input-output tables, this paper focuses on metal scrap generated in manufacturing. The paper also briefly discusses scrap that is not included in the input-output tables and some economic concepts that limit the analysis of scrap flows.

  16. The economic impacts of Lake States forestry: an input-output study.

    Treesearch

    Larry Pedersen; Daniel E. Chappelle; David C. Lothner

    1989-01-01

    The report describes 1985 and 1995 levels of forest-related economic activity in the three-state area of Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, and their impacts on other economic sectors based on a regional input-output model.

  17. Water resources and environmental input-output analysis and its key study issues: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YANG, Z.; Xu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Used to study the material and energy flow in socioeconomic system, Input-Output Analysis(IOA) had been an effective analysis tool since its appearance. The research fields of Input-Output Analysis were increasingly expanded and studied in depth with the development of fundamental theory. In this paper, starting with introduction of theory development, the water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been specifically reviewed, and two key study issues mentioned as well. Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis whose proposal and development were introduced firstly could be regard as the effective complements of traditional IOA theory. Because of the hypotheses of homogeneity, stability and proportionality, Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis always had been restricted in practical application inevitably. In the applied study aspect, with investigation of abundant literatures, research of water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been comprehensively reviewed and analyzed. The regional water resources flow between different economic sectors had been systematically analyzed and stated, and several types of environmental input-output analysis models combined with other effective analysis tools concluded. In two perspectives in terms of external and inland aspect, the development of water resources and environmental input-output analysis model had been explained, and several typical study cases in recent years listed respectively. By the aid of sufficient literature analysis, the internal development tendency and study hotspot had also been summarized. In recent years, Chinese literatures reporting water resources consumption analysis and virtue water study had occupied a large share. Water resources consumption analysis had always been the emphasis of inland water resources IOA. Virtue water study had been considered as the new hotspot of

  18. Input-output identification of controlled discrete manufacturing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada-Vargas, Ana Paula; López-Mellado, Ernesto; Lesage, Jean-Jacques

    2014-03-01

    The automated construction of discrete event models from observations of external system's behaviour is addressed. This problem, often referred to as system identification, allows obtaining models of ill-known (or even unknown) systems. In this article, an identification method for discrete event systems (DESs) controlled by a programmable logic controller is presented. The method allows processing a large quantity of observed long sequences of input/output signals generated by the controller and yields an interpreted Petri net model describing the closed-loop behaviour of the automated DESs. The proposed technique allows the identification of actual complex systems because it is sufficiently efficient and well adapted to cope with both the technological characteristics of industrial controllers and data collection requirements. Based on polynomial-time algorithms, the method is implemented as an efficient software tool which constructs and draws the model automatically; an overview of this tool is given through a case study dealing with an automated manufacturing system.

  19. Differential effects of excitatory and inhibitory plasticity on synaptically-driven neuronal Input-Output functions

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Tiago P.; Buonomano, Dean V.

    2009-01-01

    Ultimately, whether or not a neuron produces a spike determines its contribution to local computations. In response to brief stimuli the probability a neuron will fire can be described by its input-output function, which depends on the net balance and timing of excitatory and inhibitory currents. While excitatory and inhibitory synapses are plastic, most studies examine plasticity of subthreshold events. Thus, the effects of concerted regulation of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic strength on neuronal input-output functions are not well understood. Here, theoretical analyses reveal that excitatory synaptic strength controls the threshold of the neuronal input-output function, while inhibitory plasticity alters the threshold and gain. Experimentally, changes in the balance of excitation and inhibition in CA1 pyramidal neurons also altered their input-output function as predicted by the model. These results support the existence of two functional modes of plasticity that can be used to optimize information processing: threshold and gain plasticity. PMID:19285473

  20. Input-output analysis and the hospital budgeting process.

    PubMed Central

    Cleverly, W O

    1975-01-01

    Two hospitals budget systems, a conventional budget and an input-output budget, are compared to determine how they affect management decisions in pricing, output, planning, and cost control. Analysis of data from a 210-bed not-for-profit hospital indicates that adoption of the input-output budget could cause substantial changes in posted hospital rates in individual departments but probably would have no impact on hospital output determination. The input-output approach promises to be a more accurate system for cost control and planning because, unlike the conventional approach, it generates objective signals for investigating variances of expenses from budgeted levels. PMID:1205865

  1. Input/output behavior of supercomputing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Ethan L.

    1991-01-01

    The collection and analysis of supercomputer I/O traces and their use in a collection of buffering and caching simulations are described. This serves two purposes. First, it gives a model of how individual applications running on supercomputers request file system I/O, allowing system designer to optimize I/O hardware and file system algorithms to that model. Second, the buffering simulations show what resources are needed to maximize the CPU utilization of a supercomputer given a very bursty I/O request rate. By using read-ahead and write-behind in a large solid stated disk, one or two applications were sufficient to fully utilize a Cray Y-MP CPU.

  2. The UK waste input-output table: Linking waste generation to the UK economy.

    PubMed

    Salemdeeb, Ramy; Al-Tabbaa, Abir; Reynolds, Christian

    2016-10-01

    In order to achieve a circular economy, there must be a greater understanding of the links between economic activity and waste generation. This study introduces the first version of the UK waste input-output table that could be used to quantify both direct and indirect waste arisings across the supply chain. The proposed waste input-output table features 21 industrial sectors and 34 waste types and is for the 2010 time-period. Using the waste input-output table, the study results quantitatively confirm that sectors with a long supply chain (i.e. manufacturing and services sectors) have higher indirect waste generation rates compared with industrial primary sectors (e.g. mining and quarrying) and sectors with a shorter supply chain (e.g. construction). Results also reveal that the construction, mining and quarrying sectors have the highest waste generation rates, 742 and 694 tonne per £1m of final demand, respectively. Owing to the aggregated format of the first version of the waste input-output, the model does not address the relationship between waste generation and recycling activities. Therefore, an updated version of the waste input-output table is expected be developed considering this issue. Consequently, the expanded model would lead to a better understanding of waste and resource flows in the supply chain.

  3. Detection of decoupled input/output pairs in multivariable systems.

    PubMed

    Potts, Alain Segundo; Massaro, Leandro Cuenca; Garcia, Claudio

    2015-03-01

    A method is proposed to detect if there is no coupling between an input and an output in systems operating in open-loop, that is, without a supervisory controller. The proposed technique is applicable to multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems, whose intent is to detect no-model input/output (IO) combinations in a transfer matrix. Traditional approaches for selecting IO pairs are usually performed after the plant model is identified. The presented approach is applied during the pre-identification stage and is based on IO cross-correlation, signal filtering and fuzzy logic analysis. A case study involving the identification of a 7×6 simulated Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) is discussed, as well as an influence analysis of detecting no-model IO pairs in the identification process and in the performance index of a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) applied to a 2×2 simulated distillation column. Finally, the method is tested with a real dataset obtained from an FCC unit of a petrol refinery. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Linearisation via input-output injection of time delay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Ramírez, Eduardo; Moog, Claude H.; Califano, Claudia; Alejandro Márquez-Martínez, Luis

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the problem of linearisation of systems with constant commensurable delays by input-output injection using algebraic control tools based on the theory of non-commutative rings. Solutions for the problem of linearisation free of delays, and with delays of an observable nonlinear time-delay systems are presented based on the analysis of the input-output equation. These results are achieved by means of constructive algorithms that use the nth derivative of the output expressed in terms of the state-space variables instead of the explicit computation of the input-output representation of the system. Necessary and sufficient conditions are established in both cases by means of an invertible change of coordinates.

  5. Multiple input/output random vibration control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, James F.

    1988-01-01

    A multi-input/output random vibration control algorithm was developed based on system identification concepts derived from random vibration spectral analysis theory. The unique features of the algorithm are: (1) the number of input excitors and the number of output control responses need not be identical; (2) the system inverse response matrix is obtained directly from the input/output spectral matrix; and (3) the system inverse response matrix is updated every control loop cycle to accommodate system amplitude nonlinearities. A laboratory demonstration case of two imputs with three outputs is presented to demonstrate the system capabilities.

  6. Programming input-output operations in FORTRAN on magnetic tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorokov, V. N.

    1980-01-01

    The subprogram MTCFF was designed for carrying out input-output operations in FORTRAN on magnetic tape within the framework of the DOS ES EVM operation system. It is possible, by means of this subprogram, to perform any input-output operations of interest to the programmer such as recording and reading various control operations in the direct and reverse directions, even though for these purposes the facilities of the language FORTRAN itself are limited. The subprogram can also be used in programs written in other programming languages.

  7. The realization of input-output maps using bialgebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Robert; Larson, Richard G.

    1989-01-01

    The theory of bialgebras is used to prove a state space realization theorem for input/output maps of dynamical systems. This approach allows for the consideration of the classical results of Fliess and more recent results on realizations involving families of trees. Two examples of applications of the theorum are given.

  8. Advanced information processing system: Input/output network management software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagle, Gail; Alger, Linda; Kemp, Alexander

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the software requirements and specifications for the Input/Output Network Management Services for the Advanced Information Processing System. This introduction and overview section is provided to briefly outline the overall architecture and software requirements of the AIPS system before discussing the details of the design requirements and specifications of the AIPS I/O Network Management software. A brief overview of the AIPS architecture followed by a more detailed description of the network architecture.

  9. Understanding sideline jet noise using input-output analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeun, Jinah; Nichols, Joseph W.; Jovanovic, Mihailo R.

    2016-11-01

    We apply input-output analysis to high-speed turbulent jets to obtain the far-field acoustic response at different radiation angles. We consider both axisymmetric and higher azimuthal modes over a range of different frequencies to investigate the resulting noise spectra. At each frequency, singular value decomposition of the resolvent operator distinguishes between the optimal mode and several sub-optimal input-output modes by the magnitude of corresponding singular value. While both types of modes resemble wavepackets, the optimal mode associated with the largest singular value is superdirective in the peak noise radiation angle. Sub-optimal modes, in contrast, appear increasingly omnidirectional, rotating progressively to the sideline direction. Our analysis also recovers a broadening of the far-field acoustic spectra as the radiation angle increases. We show that a significant amount of the entire acoustic field can be captured by a superposition of a small number of coherent input-output modes. The LES data was produced as part of a Cascade Technologies STTR project sponsored by NAVAIR, under the supervision of Dr. John T. Spyropoulos. The LES calculations were performed at the ERDC supercomputer center.

  10. Optimizing Input/Output Using Adaptive File System Policies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madhyastha, Tara M.; Elford, Christopher L.; Reed, Daniel A.

    1996-01-01

    Parallel input/output characterization studies and experiments with flexible resource management algorithms indicate that adaptivity is crucial to file system performance. In this paper we propose an automatic technique for selecting and refining file system policies based on application access patterns and execution environment. An automatic classification framework allows the file system to select appropriate caching and pre-fetching policies, while performance sensors provide feedback used to tune policy parameters for specific system environments. To illustrate the potential performance improvements possible using adaptive file system policies, we present results from experiments involving classification-based and performance-based steering.

  11. Input-output characterization of fiber reinforced composites by P waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renneisen, John D.; Williams, James H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Input-output characterization of fiber composites is studied theoretically by tracing P waves in the media. A new path motion to aid in the tracing of P and the reflection generated SV wave paths in the continuum plate is developed. A theoretical output voltage from the receiving transducer is calculated for a tone burst. The study enhances the quantitative and qualitative understanding of the nondestructive evaluation of fiber composites which can be modeled as transversely isotropic media.

  12. Stability Test for Multivariable NCbT Using Input/Output Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yubai, Kazuhiro; Terada, Shinya; Hirai, Junji

    In model-free controller syntheses, we have no idea whether the designed controller stabilizes the resulting closed-loop system before its implementation. From the view point of safety of the experimental equipment, we should develop the stability test for model-free controller synthesis using the acquired input/output data. Karimi et al. introduced the sufficient stability condition for the closed-loop system and proposed the stability test for NCbT (Noniterative Correlation-based Tuning) for SISO systems. However, since the positions of the plant and the controller have to be swapped in NCbT, its applicability is restricted to SISO systems. This paper proposes to extend the stability test for NCbT to MIMO systems. The basic idea is to use the special reference r[i](t) and to acquire input/output data as many times as the number of plant inputs. The small-gain theorem introduces the sufficient stability condition for the closed-loop system in terms of the H∞ norm of the specific transfer function matrix, which is estimated from the acquired input/output data by the spectral analysis method. The effectiveness of the proposed stability test is confirmed by the numerical experiment for LV100 gas turbine engine model and the experiment for tension-and-speed control apparatus.

  13. Using Economic Input/Output Tables to Predict a Country’s Nuclear Status

    SciTech Connect

    Weimar, Mark R.; Daly, Don S.; Wood, Thomas W.

    2010-07-15

    Both nuclear power and nuclear weapons programs should have (related) economic signatures which are detectible at some scale. We evaluated this premise in a series of studies using national economic input/output (IO) data. Statistical discrimination models using economic IO tables predict with a high probability whether a country with an unknown predilection for nuclear weapons proliferation is in fact engaged in nuclear power development or nuclear weapons proliferation. We analyzed 93 IO tables, spanning the years 1993 to 2005 for 37 countries that are either members or associates of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The 2009 OECD input/output tables featured 48 industrial sectors based on International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) Revision 3, and described the respective economies in current country-of-origin valued currency. We converted and transformed these reported values to US 2005 dollars using appropriate exchange rates and implicit price deflators, and addressed discrepancies in reported industrial sectors across tables. We then classified countries with Random Forest using either the adjusted or industry-normalized values. Random Forest, a classification tree technique, separates and categorizes countries using a very small, select subset of the 2304 individual cells in the IO table. A nation’s efforts in nuclear power, be it for electricity or nuclear weapons, are an enterprise with a large economic footprint -- an effort so large that it should discernibly perturb coarse country-level economics data such as that found in yearly input-output economic tables. The neoclassical economic input-output model describes a country’s or region’s economy in terms of the requirements of industries to produce the current level of economic output. An IO table row shows the distribution of an industry’s output to the industrial sectors while a table column shows the input required of each industrial sector by a

  14. Input-output Gaussian channels: theory and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tufarelli, Tommaso; Retzker, Alex; Plenio, Martin B.; Serafini, Alessio

    2012-09-01

    Setting off from the classic input-output formalism, we develop a theoretical framework to characterize the Gaussian quantum channels relating the initial correlations of an open bosonic system to those of properly identified output modes. We then proceed to apply our formalism to the case of quantum harmonic oscillators, such as the motional degrees of freedom of trapped ions or nanomechanical oscillators, interacting with travelling electromagnetic modes through cavity fields and subject to external white noise. We thus determine the degree of squeezing that can be transferred from an intra-cavity oscillator to light and show that the intra-cavity squeezing can be transformed into distributed optical entanglement if one can access both output fields of a two-sided cavity.

  15. Advanced information processing system: Input/output system services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masotto, Tom; Alger, Linda

    1989-01-01

    The functional requirements and detailed specifications for the Input/Output (I/O) Systems Services of the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) are discussed. The introductory section is provided to outline the overall architecture and functional requirements of the AIPS system. Section 1.1 gives a brief overview of the AIPS architecture as well as a detailed description of the AIPS fault tolerant network architecture, while section 1.2 provides an introduction to the AIPS systems software. Sections 2 and 3 describe the functional requirements and design and detailed specifications of the I/O User Interface and Communications Management modules of the I/O System Services, respectively. Section 4 illustrates the use of the I/O System Services, while Section 5 concludes with a summary of results and suggestions for future work in this area.

  16. Fast metabolite identification with Input Output Kernel Regression

    PubMed Central

    Brouard, Céline; Shen, Huibin; Dührkop, Kai; d'Alché-Buc, Florence; Böcker, Sebastian; Rousu, Juho

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: An important problematic of metabolomics is to identify metabolites using tandem mass spectrometry data. Machine learning methods have been proposed recently to solve this problem by predicting molecular fingerprint vectors and matching these fingerprints against existing molecular structure databases. In this work we propose to address the metabolite identification problem using a structured output prediction approach. This type of approach is not limited to vector output space and can handle structured output space such as the molecule space. Results: We use the Input Output Kernel Regression method to learn the mapping between tandem mass spectra and molecular structures. The principle of this method is to encode the similarities in the input (spectra) space and the similarities in the output (molecule) space using two kernel functions. This method approximates the spectra-molecule mapping in two phases. The first phase corresponds to a regression problem from the input space to the feature space associated to the output kernel. The second phase is a preimage problem, consisting in mapping back the predicted output feature vectors to the molecule space. We show that our approach achieves state-of-the-art accuracy in metabolite identification. Moreover, our method has the advantage of decreasing the running times for the training step and the test step by several orders of magnitude over the preceding methods. Availability and implementation: Contact: celine.brouard@aalto.fi Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27307628

  17. Fluctuation-dissipation theory of input-output interindustrial relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyetomi, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Yasuhiro; Aoyama, Hideaki; Fujiwara, Yoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Souma, Wataru

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the fluctuation-dissipation theory is invoked to shed light on input-output interindustrial relations at a macroscopic level by its application to indices of industrial production (IIP) data for Japan. Statistical noise arising from finiteness of the time series data is carefully removed by making use of the random matrix theory in an eigenvalue analysis of the correlation matrix; as a result, two dominant eigenmodes are detected. Our previous study successfully used these two modes to demonstrate the existence of intrinsic business cycles. Here a correlation matrix constructed from the two modes describes genuine interindustrial correlations in a statistically meaningful way. Furthermore, it enables us to quantitatively discuss the relationship between shipments of final demand goods and production of intermediate goods in a linear response framework. We also investigate distinctive external stimuli for the Japanese economy exerted by the current global economic crisis. These stimuli are derived from residuals of moving-average fluctuations of the IIP remaining after subtracting the long-period components arising from inherent business cycles. The observation reveals that the fluctuation-dissipation theory is applicable to an economic system that is supposed to be far from physical equilibrium.

  18. Flexible Peripheral Component Interconnect Input/Output Card

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, Kirk K.; Jerry, Albert L.; Baricio, Alisha G.; Cummings, Jon K.

    2010-01-01

    The Flexible Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) Input/Output (I/O) Card is an innovative circuit board that provides functionality to interface between a variety of devices. It supports user-defined interrupts for interface synchronization, tracks system faults and failures, and includes checksum and parity evaluation of interface data. The card supports up to 16 channels of high-speed, half-duplex, low-voltage digital signaling (LVDS) serial data, and can interface combinations of serial and parallel devices. Placement of a processor within the field programmable gate array (FPGA) controls an embedded application with links to host memory over its PCI bus. The FPGA also provides protocol stacking and quick digital signal processor (DSP) functions to improve host performance. Hardware timers, counters, state machines, and other glue logic support interface communications. The Flexible PCI I/O Card provides an interface for a variety of dissimilar computer systems, featuring direct memory access functionality. The card has the following attributes: 8/16/32-bit, 33-MHz PCI r2.2 compliance, Configurable for universal 3.3V/5V interface slots, PCI interface based on PLX Technology's PCI9056 ASIC, General-use 512K 16 SDRAM memory, General-use 1M 16 Flash memory, FPGA with 3K to 56K logical cells with embedded 27K to 198K bits RAM, I/O interface: 32-channel LVDS differential transceivers configured in eight, 4-bit banks; signaling rates to 200 MHz per channel, Common SCSI-3, 68-pin interface connector.

  19. The Role of Agriculture in the Economic Development of West Virginia: An Input-Output Analysis. Miscellaneous Publication No. 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Souza, Gerard E.; And Others

    This study deals with the structural interrelationships among agricultural sub-sectors, and between the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors of the West Virginia economy. The study is intended to offer information on which to base sound economic development decisions. An input-output economic model is used in order to focus on the interaction…

  20. High Performance Input/Output Systems for High Performance Computing and Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Geoffrey C.; Ou, Chao-Wei

    1997-01-01

    The approach of this task was to apply leading parallel computing research to a number of existing techniques for assimilation, and extract parameters indicating where and how input/output limits computational performance. The following was used for detailed knowledge of the application problems: 1. Developing a parallel input/output system specifically for this application 2. Extracting the important input/output characteristics of data assimilation problems; and 3. Building these characteristics s parameters into our runtime library (Fortran D/High Performance Fortran) for parallel input/output support.

  1. Input-output characterization of an ultrasonic testing system by digital signal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karaguelle, H.; Lee, S. S.; Williams, J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The input/output characteristics of an ultrasonic testing system used for stress wave factor measurements were studied. The fundamentals of digital signal processing are summarized. The inputs and outputs are digitized and processed in a microcomputer using digital signal processing techniques. The entire ultrasonic test system, including transducers and all electronic components, is modeled as a discrete-time linear shift-invariant system. Then the impulse response and frequency response of the continuous time ultrasonic test system are estimated by interpolating the defining points in the unit sample response and frequency response of the discrete time system. It is found that the ultrasonic test system behaves as a linear phase bandpass filter. Good results were obtained for rectangular pulse inputs of various amplitudes and durations and for tone burst inputs whose center frequencies are within the passband of the test system and for single cycle inputs of various amplitudes. The input/output limits on the linearity of the system are determined.

  2. Input/Output operations for hybrid data-flow/control-flow systems

    SciTech Connect

    Evripidou, P.; Gaudiot, J.L.

    1991-12-31

    Hybrid data-flow/control-flow system combine the advantages of the data-flow model: functionality and tolerance to communication and memory latencies with the efficient instruction scheduling of the control-flow model. The absence of global state in such hybrid multiprocessors and multiprocessors in general renders the implementation of state tasks such as Input/Output operations very difficult to implement. A distributed file-pointer scheme for incorporations I/O operations onto the data-flow model has been developed. A dependency detection algorithm detects and classify cases of potential access conflicts. A conflict resolution data-flow graph is then created which at execution time safely distributes file-pointers to the I/O actors. This scheme has also been implemented on a hybrid a data-flow control-flow multiprocessor: the Decoupled Data-Driven Multiprocessor with Variable Resolution Actors.

  3. Laboratory accreditation: quality in management and analysis and the input-output control.

    PubMed

    Bunyaratvej, A

    1999-01-01

    An attempt to overcome the uncertainties and errors of all processes in clinical laboratory has been done in systematic ways. To reach the stage of laboratory accreditation, quality and standard criteria in the laboratory must be developed. Two aspects of quality are considered as management and analysis. Input-output control is proposed to handle the process from the beginning of laboratory design until post analytical phase or the control at the outcome. The model of ten Ms including model, material, machine, man, mind, money, method, mechanism, measurement and menace and one O or outcome, is elaborated to cover pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical phases. Laboratory accreditation is then an integral part of hospital accreditation with total quality management.

  4. Cascade-able spin torque logic gates with input-output isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A.

    2015-06-01

    Spin torque majority gate (STMG) is one of the promising options for beyond-complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor non-volatile logic circuits for normally-off computing. Modeling of prior schemes demonstrated logic completeness using majority operation and nonlinear transfer characteristics. However significant problems arose with cascade-ability and input output isolation manifesting as domain walls (DWs) stopping, reflecting off ends of wires or propagating back to the inputs. We introduce a new scheme to enable cascade-ability and isolation based on (a) in-plane DW automotion in interconnects, (b) exchange coupling of magnetization between two FM layers, and (c) ‘round-about’ topology for the majority gate. We performed micro-magnetic simulations that demonstrate switching operation of this STMG scheme. These circuits were verified to enable isolation of inputs from output signals and to be cascade-able without limitations.

  5. Input-output relation and energy efficiency in the neuron with different spike threshold dynamics.

    PubMed

    Yi, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Tsang, Kai-Ming; Wei, Xi-Le; Deng, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Neuron encodes and transmits information through generating sequences of output spikes, which is a high energy-consuming process. The spike is initiated when membrane depolarization reaches a threshold voltage. In many neurons, threshold is dynamic and depends on the rate of membrane depolarization (dV/dt) preceding a spike. Identifying the metabolic energy involved in neural coding and their relationship to threshold dynamic is critical to understanding neuronal function and evolution. Here, we use a modified Morris-Lecar model to investigate neuronal input-output property and energy efficiency associated with different spike threshold dynamics. We find that the neurons with dynamic threshold sensitive to dV/dt generate discontinuous frequency-current curve and type II phase response curve (PRC) through Hopf bifurcation, and weak noise could prohibit spiking when bifurcation just occurs. The threshold that is insensitive to dV/dt, instead, results in a continuous frequency-current curve, a type I PRC and a saddle-node on invariant circle bifurcation, and simultaneously weak noise cannot inhibit spiking. It is also shown that the bifurcation, frequency-current curve and PRC type associated with different threshold dynamics arise from the distinct subthreshold interactions of membrane currents. Further, we observe that the energy consumption of the neuron is related to its firing characteristics. The depolarization of spike threshold improves neuronal energy efficiency by reducing the overlap of Na(+) and K(+) currents during an action potential. The high energy efficiency is achieved at more depolarized spike threshold and high stimulus current. These results provide a fundamental biophysical connection that links spike threshold dynamics, input-output relation, energetics and spike initiation, which could contribute to uncover neural encoding mechanism.

  6. Input-output relation and energy efficiency in the neuron with different spike threshold dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Tsang, Kai-Ming; Wei, Xi-Le; Deng, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Neuron encodes and transmits information through generating sequences of output spikes, which is a high energy-consuming process. The spike is initiated when membrane depolarization reaches a threshold voltage. In many neurons, threshold is dynamic and depends on the rate of membrane depolarization (dV/dt) preceding a spike. Identifying the metabolic energy involved in neural coding and their relationship to threshold dynamic is critical to understanding neuronal function and evolution. Here, we use a modified Morris-Lecar model to investigate neuronal input-output property and energy efficiency associated with different spike threshold dynamics. We find that the neurons with dynamic threshold sensitive to dV/dt generate discontinuous frequency-current curve and type II phase response curve (PRC) through Hopf bifurcation, and weak noise could prohibit spiking when bifurcation just occurs. The threshold that is insensitive to dV/dt, instead, results in a continuous frequency-current curve, a type I PRC and a saddle-node on invariant circle bifurcation, and simultaneously weak noise cannot inhibit spiking. It is also shown that the bifurcation, frequency-current curve and PRC type associated with different threshold dynamics arise from the distinct subthreshold interactions of membrane currents. Further, we observe that the energy consumption of the neuron is related to its firing characteristics. The depolarization of spike threshold improves neuronal energy efficiency by reducing the overlap of Na+ and K+ currents during an action potential. The high energy efficiency is achieved at more depolarized spike threshold and high stimulus current. These results provide a fundamental biophysical connection that links spike threshold dynamics, input-output relation, energetics and spike initiation, which could contribute to uncover neural encoding mechanism. PMID:26074810

  7. Understanding virtual water flows: A multiregion input-output case study of Victoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenzen, Manfred

    2009-09-01

    This article explains and interprets virtual water flows from the well-established perspective of input-output analysis. Using a case study of the Australian state of Victoria, it demonstrates that input-output analysis can enumerate virtual water flows without systematic and unknown truncation errors, an issue which has been largely absent from the virtual water literature. Whereas a simplified flow analysis from a producer perspective would portray Victoria as a net virtual water importer, enumerating the water embodiments across the full supply chain using input-output analysis shows Victoria as a significant net virtual water exporter. This study has succeeded in informing government policy in Australia, which is an encouraging sign that input-output analysis will be able to contribute much value to other national and international applications.

  8. Image annotation by input-output structural grouping sparsity.

    PubMed

    Han, Yahong; Wu, Fei; Tian, Qi; Zhuang, Yueting

    2012-06-01

    Automatic image annotation (AIA) is very important to image retrieval and image understanding. Two key issues in AIA are explored in detail in this paper, i.e., structured visual feature selection and the implementation of hierarchical correlated structures among multiple tags to boost the performance of image annotation. This paper simultaneously introduces an input and output structural grouping sparsity into a regularized regression model for image annotation. For input high-dimensional heterogeneous features such as color, texture, and shape, different kinds (groups) of features have different intrinsic discriminative power for the recognition of certain concepts. The proposed structured feature selection by structural grouping sparsity can be used not only to select group-of-features but also to conduct within-group selection. Hierarchical correlations among output labels are well represented by a tree structure, and therefore, the proposed tree-structured grouping sparsity can be used to boost the performance of multitag image annotation. In order to efficiently solve the proposed regression model, we relax the solving process as a framework of the bilayer regression model for multilabel boosting by the selection of heterogeneous features with structural grouping sparsity (Bi-MtBGS). The first-layer regression is to select the discriminative features for each label. The aim of the second-layer regression is to refine the feature selection model learned from the first layer, which can be taken as a multilabel boosting process. Extensive experiments on public benchmark image data sets and real-world image data sets demonstrate that the proposed approach has better performance of multitag image annotation and leads to a quite interpretable model for image understanding.

  9. Input-output relations in biological systems: measurement, information and the Hill equation.

    PubMed

    Frank, Steven A

    2013-12-05

    Biological systems produce outputs in response to variable inputs. Input-output relations tend to follow a few regular patterns. For example, many chemical processes follow the S-shaped Hill equation relation between input concentrations and output concentrations. That Hill equation pattern contradicts the fundamental Michaelis-Menten theory of enzyme kinetics. I use the discrepancy between the expected Michaelis-Menten process of enzyme kinetics and the widely observed Hill equation pattern of biological systems to explore the general properties of biological input-output relations. I start with the various processes that could explain the discrepancy between basic chemistry and biological pattern. I then expand the analysis to consider broader aspects that shape biological input-output relations. Key aspects include the input-output processing by component subsystems and how those components combine to determine the system's overall input-output relations. That aggregate structure often imposes strong regularity on underlying disorder. Aggregation imposes order by dissipating information as it flows through the components of a system. The dissipation of information may be evaluated by the analysis of measurement and precision, explaining why certain common scaling patterns arise so frequently in input-output relations. I discuss how aggregation, measurement and scale provide a framework for understanding the relations between pattern and process. The regularity imposed by those broader structural aspects sets the contours of variation in biology. Thus, biological design will also tend to follow those contours. Natural selection may act primarily to modulate system properties within those broad constraints.

  10. Variance estimation of modal parameters from output-only and input/output subspace-based system identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellinger, Philippe; Döhler, Michael; Mevel, Laurent

    2016-09-01

    An important step in the operational modal analysis of a structure is to infer on its dynamic behavior through its modal parameters. They can be estimated by various modal identification algorithms that fit a theoretical model to measured data. When output-only data is available, i.e. measured responses of the structure, frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes can be identified assuming that ambient sources like wind or traffic excite the system sufficiently. When also input data is available, i.e. signals used to excite the structure, input/output identification algorithms are used. The use of input information usually provides better modal estimates in a desired frequency range. While the identification of the modal mass is not considered in this paper, we focus on the estimation of the frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes, relevant for example for modal analysis during in-flight monitoring of aircrafts. When identifying the modal parameters from noisy measurement data, the information on their uncertainty is most relevant. In this paper, new variance computation schemes for modal parameters are developed for four subspace algorithms, including output-only and input/output methods, as well as data-driven and covariance-driven methods. For the input/output methods, the known inputs are considered as realizations of a stochastic process. Based on Monte Carlo validations, the quality of identification, accuracy of variance estimations and sensor noise robustness are discussed. Finally these algorithms are applied on real measured data obtained during vibrations tests of an aircraft.

  11. High Performance Input/Output for Parallel Computer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ligon, W. B.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of our project is to study the I/O characteristics of parallel applications used in Earth Science data processing systems such as Regional Data Centers (RDCs) or EOSDIS. Our approach is to study the runtime behavior of typical programs and the effect of key parameters of the I/O subsystem both under simulation and with direct experimentation on parallel systems. Our three year activity has focused on two items: developing a test bed that facilitates experimentation with parallel I/O, and studying representative programs from the Earth science data processing application domain. The Parallel Virtual File System (PVFS) has been developed for use on a number of platforms including the Tiger Parallel Architecture Workbench (TPAW) simulator, The Intel Paragon, a cluster of DEC Alpha workstations, and the Beowulf system (at CESDIS). PVFS provides considerable flexibility in configuring I/O in a UNIX- like environment. Access to key performance parameters facilitates experimentation. We have studied several key applications fiom levels 1,2 and 3 of the typical RDC processing scenario including instrument calibration and navigation, image classification, and numerical modeling codes. We have also considered large-scale scientific database codes used to organize image data.

  12. Effective suppression of pneumatic vibration isolators by using input-output linearization and time delay control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Pyung-hun; Ki Han, Dong; Shin, Yun-ho; Kim, Kwang-joon

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a new state space representation of pneumatic vibration isolators (PVIs) and a design of a robust control, Time Delay Control (TDC), based on it. The new state space model, derived by using the input-output linearization method, is of the phase variable form with the air mass-flow as the control input. This model offers a framework that enables simultaneous suppression of both seismic vibration and direct disturbance (or payload disturbance) with an accelerometer only. Based on this model, TDC is designed and verified with experiments on a single chamber PVI with an accelerometer only. In the experiment, the PVI with TDC successfully suppresses seismic vibration and direct disturbance, both individually and simultaneously. Faced with seismic vibration, the transmissibility of the PVI with TDC has virtually no resonance peak at low frequency; under direct disturbance, the former achieves a 68 percent reduction in settling time of the latter. The final analysis of experimental result shows that TDC effectively estimates the modeling error along with other uncertainties and cancels them, while achieving desired closed-loop dynamics.

  13. Accounting for the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen in input-output life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shweta; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2013-08-20

    Nitrogen is indispensable for sustaining human activities through its role in the production of food, animal feed, and synthetic chemicals. This has encouraged significant anthropogenic mobilization of reactive nitrogen and its emissions into the environment resulting in severe disruption of the nitrogen cycle. This paper incorporates the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen into the 2002 input-output model of the U.S. economy. Due to the complexity of this cycle, this work proposes a unique classification of nitrogen flows to facilitate understanding of the interaction between economic activities and various flows in the nitrogen cycle. The classification scheme distinguishes between the mobilization of inert nitrogen into its reactive form, use of nitrogen in various products, and nitrogen losses to the environment. The resulting inventory and model of the US economy can help quantify the direct and indirect impacts or dependence of economic sectors on the nitrogen cycle. This paper emphasizes the need for methods to manage the N cycle that focus not just on N losses, which has been the norm until now, but also include other N flows for a more comprehensive view and balanced decisions. Insight into the N profile of various sectors of the 2002 U.S. economy is presented, and the inventory can also be used for LCA or Hybrid LCA of various products. The resulting model is incorporated in the approach of Ecologically-Based LCA and available online.

  14. Decentralized supervisory based switching control for uncertain multivariable plants with variable input-output pairing.

    PubMed

    Namaki-Shoushtari, Omid; Khaki-Sedigh, Ali

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the design of decentralized switching control for uncertain multivariable plants is considered. In the proposed strategy, the uncertainty region is divided into smaller regions with a nominal model and specific control structure. The underlying design is based on the quantitative feedback theory (QFT). It is assumed that a MIMO-QFT controller exists for robust stability and performance of the individual uncertain sets. The proposed control structure is made up by these local decentralized controllers, which commute among themselves in accordance with the decision of a high level decision maker called the supervisor. The supervisor makes the decision by comparing the local models' behaviors with the one of the plant and selects the controller corresponding to the best fitted model. A hysteresis switching logic is used to slow down the switching to guarantee the overall closed loop stability. It is shown that this strategy provides a stable and robust adaptive controller to deal with complex multivariable plants with input-output pairing changes during the plant operation, which can facilitate the development of a reconfigurable decentralized control. Also, the multirealization technique is used to implement a family of controllers to achieve bumpless transfer. Simulation results are employed to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Input-output mapping reconstruction of spike trains at dorsal horn evoked by manual acupuncture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xile; Shi, Dingtian; Yu, Haitao; Deng, Bin; Lu, Meili; Han, Chunxiao; Wang, Jiang

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a generalized linear model (GLM) is used to reconstruct mapping from acupuncture stimulation to spike trains driven by action potential data. The electrical signals are recorded in spinal dorsal horn after manual acupuncture (MA) manipulations with different frequencies being taken at the “Zusanli” point of experiment rats. Maximum-likelihood method is adopted to estimate the parameters of GLM and the quantified value of assumed model input. Through validating the accuracy of firings generated from the established GLM, it is found that the input-output mapping of spike trains evoked by acupuncture can be successfully reconstructed for different frequencies. Furthermore, via comparing the performance of several GLMs based on distinct inputs, it suggests that input with the form of half-sine with noise can well describe the generator potential induced by acupuncture mechanical action. Particularly, the comparison of reproducing the experiment spikes for five selected inputs is in accordance with the phenomenon found in Hudgkin-Huxley (H-H) model simulation, which indicates the mapping from half-sine with noise input to experiment spikes meets the real encoding scheme to some extent. These studies provide us a new insight into coding processes and information transfer of acupuncture.

  16. Enhancing e-waste estimates: improving data quality by multivariate Input-Output Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Huisman, Jaco; Stevels, Ab; Baldé, Cornelis Peter

    2013-11-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (or e-waste) is one of the fastest growing waste streams, which encompasses a wide and increasing spectrum of products. Accurate estimation of e-waste generation is difficult, mainly due to lack of high quality data referred to market and socio-economic dynamics. This paper addresses how to enhance e-waste estimates by providing techniques to increase data quality. An advanced, flexible and multivariate Input-Output Analysis (IOA) method is proposed. It links all three pillars in IOA (product sales, stock and lifespan profiles) to construct mathematical relationships between various data points. By applying this method, the data consolidation steps can generate more accurate time-series datasets from available data pool. This can consequently increase the reliability of e-waste estimates compared to the approach without data processing. A case study in the Netherlands is used to apply the advanced IOA model. As a result, for the first time ever, complete datasets of all three variables for estimating all types of e-waste have been obtained. The result of this study also demonstrates significant disparity between various estimation models, arising from the use of data under different conditions. It shows the importance of applying multivariate approach and multiple sources to improve data quality for modelling, specifically using appropriate time-varying lifespan parameters. Following the case study, a roadmap with a procedural guideline is provided to enhance e-waste estimation studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Input-output relationship in social communications characterized by spike train analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Takaaki; Takaguchi, Taro; Kobayashi, Ryota; Lambiotte, Renaud

    2016-10-01

    We study the dynamical properties of human communication through different channels, i.e., short messages, phone calls, and emails, adopting techniques from neuronal spike train analysis in order to characterize the temporal fluctuations of successive interevent times. We first measure the so-called local variation (LV) of incoming and outgoing event sequences of users and find that these in- and out-LV values are positively correlated for short messages and uncorrelated for phone calls and emails. Second, we analyze the response-time distribution after receiving a message to focus on the input-output relationship in each of these channels. We find that the time scales and amplitudes of response differ between the three channels. To understand the effects of the response-time distribution on the correlations between the LV values, we develop a point process model whose activity rate is modulated by incoming and outgoing events. Numerical simulations of the model indicate that a quick response to incoming events and a refractory effect after outgoing events are key factors to reproduce the positive LV correlations.

  18. Characterizing the Input-Output Function of the Olfactory-Limbic Pathway in the Guinea Pig.

    PubMed

    Breschi, Gian Luca; Ciliberto, Carlo; Nieus, Thierry; Rosasco, Lorenzo; Taverna, Stefano; Chiappalone, Michela; Pasquale, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the neuroscientific community is taking more and more advantage of the continuous interaction between engineers and computational neuroscientists in order to develop neuroprostheses aimed at replacing damaged brain areas with artificial devices. To this end, a technological effort is required to develop neural network models which can be fed with the recorded electrophysiological patterns to yield the correct brain stimulation to recover the desired functions. In this paper we present a machine learning approach to derive the input-output function of the olfactory-limbic pathway in the in vitro whole brain of guinea pig, less complex and more controllable than an in vivo system. We first experimentally characterized the neuronal pathway by delivering different sets of electrical stimuli from the lateral olfactory tract (LOT) and by recording the corresponding responses in the lateral entorhinal cortex (l-ERC). As a second step, we used information theory to evaluate how much information output features carry about the input. Finally we used the acquired data to learn the LOT-l-ERC "I/O function," by means of the kernel regularized least squares method, able to predict l-ERC responses on the basis of LOT stimulation features. Our modeling approach can be further exploited for brain prostheses applications.

  19. Input-output characterization of an ultrasonic testing system by digital signal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. H., Jr.; Lee, S. S.; Karagulle, H.

    1986-01-01

    Ultrasonic test system input-output characteristics were investigated by directly coupling the transmitting and receiving transducers face to face without a test specimen. Some of the fundamentals of digital signal processing were summarized. Input and output signals were digitized by using a digital oscilloscope, and the digitized data were processed in a microcomputer by using digital signal-processing techniques. The continuous-time test system was modeled as a discrete-time, linear, shift-invariant system. In estimating the unit-sample response and frequency response of the discrete-time system, it was necessary to use digital filtering to remove low-amplitude noise, which interfered with deconvolution calculations. A digital bandpass filter constructed with the assistance of a Blackman window and a rectangular time window were used. Approximations of the impulse response and the frequency response of the continuous-time test system were obtained by linearly interpolating the defining points of the unit-sample response and the frequency response of the discrete-time system. The test system behaved as a linear-phase bandpass filter in the frequency range 0.6 to 2.3 MHz. These frequencies were selected in accordance with the criterion that they were 6 dB below the maximum peak of the amplitude of the frequency response. The output of the system to various inputs was predicted and the results were compared with the corresponding measurements on the system.

  20. Economic input-output life-cycle assessment of trade between Canada and the United States.

    PubMed

    Norman, Jonathan; Charpentier, Alex D; MacLean, Heather L

    2007-03-01

    With increasing trade liberalization, attempts at accounting for environmental impacts and energy use across the manufacturing supply chain are complicated by the predominance of internationally supplied resources and products. This is particularly true for Canada and the United States, the world's largest trading partners. We use an economic input-output life-cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) technique to estimate the economy-wide energy intensity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions intensity for 45 manufacturing and resource sectors in Canada and the United States. Overall, we find that U.S. manufacturing and resource industries are about 1.15 times as energy-intensive and 1.3 times as GHG-intensive as Canadian industries, with significant sector-specific discrepancies in energy and GHG intensity. This trend is mainly due to a greater direct reliance on fossil fuels for many U.S. industries, in addition to a highly fossil-fuel based electricity mix in the U.S. To account for these differences, we develop a 76 sector binational EIO-LCA model that implicitly considers trade in goods between Canada and the U.S. Our findings show that accounting for trade can significantly alter the results of life-cycle assessment studies, particularly for many Canadian manufacturing sectors, and the production/consumption of goods in one country often exerts significant energy- and GHG-influences on the other.

  1. Cavity quantum electro-optics. II. Input-output relations between traveling optical and microwave fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Mankei

    2011-10-01

    In a previous paper [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.81.063837 81, 063837 (2010)], I proposed a quantum model of the cavity electro-optic modulator, which can coherently couple an optical cavity mode to a microwave resonator mode and enable quantum operations on the two modes, including laser cooling of the microwave resonator, electro-optic entanglement, and backaction-evading optical measurement of a microwave quadrature. In this sequel, I focus on the quantum input-output relations between traveling optical and microwave fields coupled to the cavity electro-optic modulator. With red-sideband optical pumping, the relations are shown to resemble those of a beam splitter for the traveling fields, so that in the ideal case of zero parasitic loss and critical coupling, microwave photons can be coherently up converted to “flying” optical photons with unit efficiency, and vice versa. With blue-sideband pumping, the modulator acts as a nondegenerate parametric amplifier, which can generate two-mode squeezing and hybrid entangled photon pairs at optical and microwave frequencies. These fundamental operations provide a potential bridge between circuit quantum electrodynamics and quantum optics.

  2. Cavity quantum electro-optics. II. Input-output relations between traveling optical and microwave fields

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Mankei

    2011-10-15

    In a previous paper [Phys. Rev. A 81, 063837 (2010)], I proposed a quantum model of the cavity electro-optic modulator, which can coherently couple an optical cavity mode to a microwave resonator mode and enable quantum operations on the two modes, including laser cooling of the microwave resonator, electro-optic entanglement, and backaction-evading optical measurement of a microwave quadrature. In this sequel, I focus on the quantum input-output relations between traveling optical and microwave fields coupled to the cavity electro-optic modulator. With red-sideband optical pumping, the relations are shown to resemble those of a beam splitter for the traveling fields, so that in the ideal case of zero parasitic loss and critical coupling, microwave photons can be coherently up converted to ''flying'' optical photons with unit efficiency, and vice versa. With blue-sideband pumping, the modulator acts as a nondegenerate parametric amplifier, which can generate two-mode squeezing and hybrid entangled photon pairs at optical and microwave frequencies. These fundamental operations provide a potential bridge between circuit quantum electrodynamics and quantum optics.

  3. Input-output relations in biological systems: measurement, information and the Hill equation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Biological systems produce outputs in response to variable inputs. Input-output relations tend to follow a few regular patterns. For example, many chemical processes follow the S-shaped Hill equation relation between input concentrations and output concentrations. That Hill equation pattern contradicts the fundamental Michaelis-Menten theory of enzyme kinetics. I use the discrepancy between the expected Michaelis-Menten process of enzyme kinetics and the widely observed Hill equation pattern of biological systems to explore the general properties of biological input-output relations. I start with the various processes that could explain the discrepancy between basic chemistry and biological pattern. I then expand the analysis to consider broader aspects that shape biological input-output relations. Key aspects include the input-output processing by component subsystems and how those components combine to determine the system’s overall input-output relations. That aggregate structure often imposes strong regularity on underlying disorder. Aggregation imposes order by dissipating information as it flows through the components of a system. The dissipation of information may be evaluated by the analysis of measurement and precision, explaining why certain common scaling patterns arise so frequently in input-output relations. I discuss how aggregation, measurement and scale provide a framework for understanding the relations between pattern and process. The regularity imposed by those broader structural aspects sets the contours of variation in biology. Thus, biological design will also tend to follow those contours. Natural selection may act primarily to modulate system properties within those broad constraints. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Eugene Koonin, Georg Luebeck and Sergei Maslov. PMID:24308849

  4. The spatial and temporal `cost' of volcanic eruptions: assessing economic impact, business inoperability, and spatial distribution of risk in the Auckland region, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Garry W.; Smith, Nicola J.; Kim, Joon-hwan; Cronin, Shane J.; Proctor, Jon N.

    2017-07-01

    Volcanic risk assessment has historically concentrated on quantifying the frequency, magnitude, and potential diversity of physical processes of eruptions and their consequent impacts on life and property. A realistic socio-economic assessment of volcanic impact must however take into account dynamic properties of businesses and extend beyond only measuring direct infrastructure/property loss. The inoperability input-output model, heralded as one of the 10 most important accomplishments in risk analysis over the last 30 years (Kujawaski Syst Eng. 9:281-295, 2006), has become prominent over the last decade in the economic impact assessment of business disruptions. We develop a dynamic inoperability input-output model to assess the economic impacts of a hypothetical volcanic event occurring at each of 7270 unique spatial locations throughout the Auckland Volcanic Field, New Zealand. This field of at least 53 volcanoes underlies the country's largest urban area, the Auckland region, which is home to 1.4 million people and responsible for 35.3% (NZ201481.2 billion) of the nation's GDP (Statistics New Zealand 2015). We apply volcanic event characteristics for a small-medium-scale volcanic eruption scenario and assess the economic impacts of an `average' eruption in the Auckland region. Economic losses are quantified both with, and without, business mitigation and intervention responses in place. We combine this information with a recent spatial hazard probability map (Bebbington and Cronin Bull Volcanol. 73(1):55-72, 2011) to produce novel spatial economic activity `at risk' maps. Our approach demonstrates how business inoperability losses sit alongside potential life and property damage assessment in enhancing our understanding of volcanic risk mitigation.

  5. Active structural acoustic control of helicopter interior multifrequency noise using input-output-based hybrid control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xunjun; Lu, Yang; Wang, Fengjiao

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the recent advances in reduction of multifrequency noise inside helicopter cabin using an active structural acoustic control system, which is based on active gearbox struts technical approach. To attenuate the multifrequency gearbox vibrations and resulting noise, a new scheme of discrete model predictive sliding mode control has been proposed based on controlled auto-regressive moving average model. Its implementation only needs input/output data, hence a broader frequency range of controlled system is modelled and the burden on the state observer design is released. Furthermore, a new iteration form of the algorithm is designed, improving the developing efficiency and run speed. To verify the algorithm's effectiveness and self-adaptability, experiments of real-time active control are performed on a newly developed helicopter model system. The helicopter model can generate gear meshing vibration/noise similar to a real helicopter with specially designed gearbox and active struts. The algorithm's control abilities are sufficiently checked by single-input single-output and multiple-input multiple-output experiments via different feedback strategies progressively: (1) control gear meshing noise through attenuating vibrations at the key points on the transmission path, (2) directly control the gear meshing noise in the cabin using the actuators. Results confirm that the active control system is practical for cancelling multifrequency helicopter interior noise, which also weakens the frequency-modulation of the tones. For many cases, the attenuations of the measured noise exceed the level of 15 dB, with maximum reduction reaching 31 dB. Also, the control process is demonstrated to be smoother and faster.

  6. Effects of Age of English Exposure, Current Input/Output, and Grade on Bilingual Language Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Griffin, Zenzi M.; Hixon, J. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of Age of Exposure to English (AoEE) and Current Input/Output on language performance in a cross-sectional sample of Spanish-English bilingual children. First- (N = 586) and third-graders (N = 298) who spanned a wide range of bilingual language experience participated. Parents and teachers provided information…

  7. Effects of Age of English Exposure, Current Input/Output, and Grade on Bilingual Language Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Griffin, Zenzi M.; Hixon, J. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of Age of Exposure to English (AoEE) and Current Input/Output on language performance in a cross-sectional sample of Spanish-English bilingual children. First- (N = 586) and third-graders (N = 298) who spanned a wide range of bilingual language experience participated. Parents and teachers provided information…

  8. Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment of Water Reuse Strategies in Residential Buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper evaluates the environmental sustainability and economic feasibility of four water reuse designs through economic input-output life cycle assessments (EIO-LCA) and benefit/cost analyses. The water reuse designs include: 1. Simple Greywater Reuse System for Landscape Ir...

  9. Approaches and Tools Used to Teach the Computer Input/Output Subsystem: A Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larraza-Mendiluze, Edurne; Garay-Vitoria, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    This paper surveys how the computer input/output (I/O) subsystem is taught in introductory undergraduate courses. It is important to study the educational process of the computer I/O subsystem because, in the curricula recommendations, it is considered a core topic in the area of knowledge of computer architecture and organization (CAO). It is…

  10. Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment of Water Reuse Strategies in Residential Buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper evaluates the environmental sustainability and economic feasibility of four water reuse designs through economic input-output life cycle assessments (EIO-LCA) and benefit/cost analyses. The water reuse designs include: 1. Simple Greywater Reuse System for Landscape Ir...

  11. Optimal Tracking Control of Unknown Discrete-Time Linear Systems Using Input-Output Measured Data.

    PubMed

    Kiumarsi, Bahare; Lewis, Frank L; Naghibi-Sistani, Mohammad-Bagher; Karimpour, Ali

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, an output-feedback solution to the infinite-horizon linear quadratic tracking (LQT) problem for unknown discrete-time systems is proposed. An augmented system composed of the system dynamics and the reference trajectory dynamics is constructed. The state of the augmented system is constructed from a limited number of measurements of the past input, output, and reference trajectory in the history of the augmented system. A novel Bellman equation is developed that evaluates the value function related to a fixed policy by using only the input, output, and reference trajectory data from the augmented system. By using approximate dynamic programming, a class of reinforcement learning methods, the LQT problem is solved online without requiring knowledge of the augmented system dynamics only by measuring the input, output, and reference trajectory from the augmented system. We develop both policy iteration (PI) and value iteration (VI) algorithms that converge to an optimal controller that require only measuring the input, output, and reference trajectory data. The convergence of the proposed PI and VI algorithms is shown. A simulation example is used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  12. Economics of alcohol-involved traffic crashes in the USA: an input-output analysis.

    PubMed

    Zaloshnja, Eduard; Miller, Ted R; Lawrence, Bruce A

    2016-02-01

    Preventing traffic crashes reduces crash costs paid by employers and employees. The related savings filter through the economy, impacting its performance. This study is the first to measure the impact of traffic crash reduction on a national economy. It focuses on impaired driving crashes. We analysed the impact of the almost 50% alcohol-involved driving crash rate reduction from 1984-1986 to 2010 and the impact if such crashes in 2010 had not occurred. The analysis entered published estimates of costs that employers, consumers and governments paid because of US impaired-driving crashes as production costs and demand changes in Rutgers University's input-output model of the US economy. For example, reducing medical costs paid by employers lowers the cost of labour inputs to production while reducing vehicle repairs raises demand for other goods. Running the model at current and alternative crash rates revealed the impacts of crash reductions on economic output, gross domestic product (GDP), national income and employment. Alcohol-involved crash reductions since 1984-1986 increased economic output in 2010 by an estimated $20 billion, raised GDP by $10 billion, increased US income by $6.5 billion, and created 215 000 jobs. GDP gains from alcohol-involved crash reduction contributed 5% of the $200 million compounded average annual growth in US GDP from 1985 to 2013. Eliminating remaining alcohol-involved crashes would result in similar economic gains. Alcohol-involved crashes drag down the US economy. On average, each of the 25.5 billion miles Americans drove impaired in 2010 reduced economic output by $0.80. Those losses are preventable. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Demand-driven water withdrawals by Chinese industry: a multi-regional input-output analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Chen, Z. M.; Zeng, L.; Qiao, H.; Chen, B.

    2016-03-01

    With ever increasing water demands and the continuous intensification of water scarcity arising from China's industrialization, the country is struggling to harmonize its industrial development and water supply. This paper presents a systems analysis of water withdrawals by Chinese industry and investigates demand-driven industrial water uses embodied in final demand and interregional trade based on a multi-regional input-output model. In 2007, the Electric Power, Steam, and Hot Water Production and Supply sector ranks first in direct industrial water withdrawal (DWW), and Construction has the largest embodied industrial water use (EWU). Investment, consumption, and exports contribute to 34.6%, 33.3%, and 30.6% of the national total EWU, respectively. Specifically, 58.0%, 51.1%, 48.6%, 43.3%, and 37.5% of the regional EWUs respectively in Guangdong, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, and Fujian are attributed to international exports. The total interregional import/export of embodied water is equivalent to about 40% of the national total DWW, of which 55.5% is associated with the DWWs of Electric Power, Steam, and Hot Water Production and Supply. Jiangsu is the biggest interregional exporter and deficit receiver of embodied water, in contrast to Guangdong as the biggest interregional importer and surplus receiver. Without implementing effective water-saving measures and adjusting industrial structures, the regional imbalance between water availability and water demand tends to intensify considering the water impact of domestic trade of industrial products. Steps taken to improve water use efficiency in production, and to enhance embodied water saving in consumption are both of great significance for supporting China's water policies.

  14. Global industrial impact coefficient based on random walk process and inter-country input-output table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Lizhi; Dong, Xianlei; Guan, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Input-output table is very comprehensive and detailed in describing the national economic system with lots of economic relationships, which contains supply and demand information among industrial sectors. The complex network, a theory and method for measuring the structure of complex system, can describe the structural characteristics of the internal structure of the research object by measuring the structural indicators of the social and economic system, revealing the complex relationship between the inner hierarchy and the external economic function. This paper builds up GIVCN-WIOT models based on World Input-Output Database in order to depict the topological structure of Global Value Chain (GVC), and assumes the competitive advantage of nations is equal to the overall performance of its domestic sectors' impact on the GVC. Under the perspective of econophysics, Global Industrial Impact Coefficient (GIIC) is proposed to measure the national competitiveness in gaining information superiority and intermediate interests. Analysis of GIVCN-WIOT models yields several insights including the following: (1) sectors with higher Random Walk Centrality contribute more to transmitting value streams within the global economic system; (2) Half-Value Ratio can be used to measure robustness of open-economy macroeconomics in the process of globalization; (3) the positive correlation between GIIC and GDP indicates that one country's global industrial impact could reveal its international competitive advantage.

  15. Application of a physical input-output table to evaluate the development and sustainability of continental water resources in Spain.

    PubMed

    Gascó, Gabriel; Hermosilla, Daphne; Gascó, Antonio; Naredo, José Manuel

    2005-07-01

    Continental waters are complex resources in terms of a measurable physical quantity, and measuring them requires a good knowledge of total water availability. In this research, an accounting physical input-output table (PIOT) was applied to evaluate total water resources and gross annual availabilities at each stage of the natural-artificial water cycle. These stages are considered subsystems of a continental water resource system describing water transfers for an average year within 13 administrative basins of Spain. Water transfers between various subsystems are characterized by internal flows decreasing the water resource availabilities. The PIOT analysis establishes these internal flows, and the origins and final uses of the total resources for each subsystem. The input-output balance registered an unsustainable negative net accumulation in eight water basins. The PIOT analysis also allowed the calculation of significant indicators such as water resource developments (RDI) and their sustainable use (SUI). RDI and SUI demonstrate that groundwater is a critical resource affecting the environment (e.g., wetlands in the upper Guadiana) and the water supply (e.g., irrigation in the Segura basin). The results of this model suggest that above-/below-ground hydrological links are important when decisions have to be made in order to provide a satisfactory supply of water in Spain. The model integrates the different water basins under territorial criteria, and therefore it may be useful for the Spanish National Hydrological Plan.

  16. Simultaneous material flow analysis of nickel, chromium, and molybdenum used in alloy steel by means of input-output analysis.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Ohno, Hajime; Kondo, Yasushi; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Takeda, Osamu; Miki, Takahiro; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2013-05-07

    Steel is not elemental iron but rather a group of iron-based alloys containing many elements, especially chromium, nickel, and molybdenum. Steel recycling is expected to promote efficient resource use. However, open-loop recycling of steel could result in quality loss of nickel and molybdenum and/or material loss of chromium. Knowledge about alloying element substance flow is needed to avoid such losses. Material flow analyses (MFAs) indicate the importance of steel recycling to recovery of alloying elements. Flows of nickel, chromium, and molybdenum are interconnected, but MFAs have paid little attention to the interconnected flow of materials/substances in supply chains. This study combined a waste input-output material flow model and physical unit input-output analysis to perform a simultaneous MFA for nickel, chromium, and molybdenum in the Japanese economy in 2000. Results indicated the importance of recovery of these elements in recycling policies for end-of-life (EoL) vehicles and constructions. Improvement in EoL sorting technologies and implementation of designs for recycling/disassembly at the manufacturing phase are needed. Possible solutions include development of sorting processes for steel scrap and introduction of easier methods for identifying the composition of secondary resources. Recovery of steel scrap with a high alloy content will reduce primary inputs of alloying elements and contribute to more efficient resource use.

  17. Identification of the battery state-of-health parameter from input-output pairs of time series data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yue; Chattopadhyay, Pritthi; Ray, Asok; Rahn, Christopher D.

    2015-07-01

    As a paradigm of dynamic data-driven application systems (DDDAS), this paper addresses real-time identification of the State of Health (SOH) parameter over the life span of a battery that is subjected to approximately repeated cycles of discharging/recharging current. In the proposed method, finite-length data of interest are selected via wavelet-based segmentation from the time series of synchronized input-output (i.e., current-voltage) pairs in the respective two-dimensional space. Then, symbol strings are generated by partitioning the selected segments of the input-output time series to construct a special class of probabilistic finite state automata (PFSA), called D-Markov machines. Pertinent features of the statistics of battery dynamics are extracted as the state emission matrices of these PFSA. This real-time method of SOH parameter identification relies on the divergence between extracted features. The underlying concept has been validated on (approximately periodic) experimental data, generated from a commercial-scale lead-acid battery. It is demonstrated by real-time analysis of the acquired current-voltage data on in-situ computational platforms that the proposed method is capable of distinguishing battery current-voltage dynamics at different aging stages, as an alternative to computation-intensive and electrochemistry-dependent analysis via physics-based modeling.

  18. Nonlinear input-output feature of the atom-nanowires coupling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xiuwen; Zhang, Xinqin; Xu, Jingping; Cheng, Mutian; Yang, Yaping

    2017-07-01

    We consider in this paper the input-output properties of an atom-nanowire coupling system which is composed of two individual terminated metal nanowaveguides and a two-level optical emitter. In detail, four aspects of the input-output properties are studied. First, we discuss in particular the coherent perfect absorber in the linear excitation regime and give the condition to realize it. Second, the transmittivity of the atom-nanowire system in the nonlinear regime is calculated, and a Rabi-like splitting associated with optical nonlinearity is found. Such a result is much different from the Rabi splitting in the atom-cavity system in the low excitation limit. Third, we find that the cooperation of optical nonlinearity and spatial asymmetry can generate optical nonreciprocity. Finally, a negative differential transmittivity is achieved with appropriate parameters. Our findings show promising applications in the full-optical device.

  19. Structural Decomposition Analysis of China’s Industrial Energy Consumption Based on Input-Output Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X. Y.; Zhou, J. Q.; Wang, Z.; Deng, L. C.; Hong, S.

    2017-05-01

    China is now at a stage of accelerated industrialization and urbanization, with energy-intensive industries contributing a large proportion of economic growth. In this study, we examined industrial energy consumption by decomposition analysis to describe the driving factors of energy consumption in China. Based on input-output (I-O) tables from the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) website and China’s energy use data from 1995 to 2011, we studied the sectorial changes of energy efficiency during the examined period. The results showed that all industries increased their energy efficiency. Energy consumption was decomposed into three factors by the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) method. The increase in production output was the leading factor that drives up China’s energy consumption. World Trade Organization accession and financial crises had great impact on the energy consumption. Based on these results, a series of energy policy suggestions for decision-makers has been proposed.

  20. The Use of Input-Output Control System Analysis for Sustainable Development of Multivariable Environmental Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koliopoulos, T. C.; Koliopoulou, G.

    2007-10-01

    We present an input-output solution for simulating the associated behavior and optimized physical needs of an environmental system. The simulations and numerical analysis determined the accurate boundary loads and areas that were required to interact for the proper physical operation of a complicated environmental system. A case study was conducted to simulate the optimum balance of an environmental system based on an artificial intelligent multi-interacting input-output numerical scheme. The numerical results were focused on probable further environmental management techniques, with the objective of minimizing any risks and associated environmental impact to protect the quality of public health and the environment. Our conclusions allowed us to minimize the associated risks, focusing on probable cases in an emergency to protect the surrounded anthropogenic or natural environment. Therefore, the lining magnitude could be determined for any useful associated technical works to support the environmental system under examination, taking into account its particular boundary necessities and constraints.

  1. Input-output finite-time stabilisation of nonlinear stochastic system with missing measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jun; Niu, Yugang; Jia, Tinggang

    2016-09-01

    This paper considers the problem of the input-output finite-time stabilisation for a class of nonlinear stochastic system with state-dependent noise. The phenomenon of the missing measurements may occur when state signals are transmitted via communication networks. An estimating method is proposed to compensate the lost state information. And then, a compensator-based controller is designed to ensure the input-output finite-time stochastic stability (IO-FTSS) of the closed-loop system. Some parameters-dependent sufficient conditions are derived and the corresponding solving approach is given. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the developed IO-FTSS scheme.

  2. Input/Output of ab-initio nuclear structure calculations for improved performance and portability

    SciTech Connect

    Laghave, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    Many modern scientific applications rely on highly computation intensive calculations. However, most applications do not concentrate as much on the role that input/output operations can play for improved performance and portability. Parallelizing input/output operations of large files can significantly improve the performance of parallel applications where sequential I/O is a bottleneck. A proper choice of I/O library also offers a scope for making input/output operations portable across different architectures. Thus, use of parallel I/O libraries for organizing I/O of large data files offers great scope in improving performance and portability of applications. In particular, sequential I/O has been identified as a bottleneck for the highly scalable MFDn (Many Fermion Dynamics for nuclear structure) code performing ab-initio nuclear structure calculations. We develop interfaces and parallel I/O procedures to use a well-known parallel I/O library in MFDn. As a result, we gain efficient I/O of large datasets along with their portability and ease of use in the down-stream processing. Even situations where the amount of data to be written is not huge, proper use of input/output operations can boost the performance of scientific applications. Application checkpointing offers enormous performance improvement and flexibility by doing a negligible amount of I/O to disk. Checkpointing saves and resumes application state in such a manner that in most cases the application is unaware that there has been an interruption to its execution. This helps in saving large amount of work that has been previously done and continue application execution. This small amount of I/O provides substantial time saving by offering restart/resume capability to applications. The need for checkpointing in optimization code NEWUOA has been identified and checkpoint/restart capability has been implemented in NEWUOA by using simple file I/O.

  3. Low-carbon building assessment and multi-scale input-output analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G. Q.; Chen, H.; Chen, Z. M.; Zhang, Bo; Shao, L.; Guo, S.; Zhou, S. Y.; Jiang, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Presented as a low-carbon building evaluation framework in this paper are detailed carbon emission account procedures for the life cycle of buildings in terms of nine stages as building construction, fitment, outdoor facility construction, transportation, operation, waste treatment, property management, demolition, and disposal for buildings, supported by integrated carbon intensity databases based on multi-scale input-output analysis, essential for low-carbon planning, procurement and supply chain design, and logistics management.

  4. Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog Input/Output Module Ambient Temperature Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Mark D. McKay

    2011-02-01

    Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog input/output Module Ambient Temperature Testing A series of three ambient temperature tests were conducted for the Water Power Calculator development using the INL Calibration Laboratory’s Tenney Environmental Chamber. The ambient temperature test results demonstrate that the Moore Industries Temperature Input Modules, Analog Input Module and Analog Output Module, ambient temperature response meet or exceed the manufactures specifications

  5. Greenhouse gas footprinting for small businesses--the use of input-output data.

    PubMed

    Berners-Lee, M; Howard, D C; Moss, J; Kaivanto, K; Scott, W A

    2011-02-01

    To mitigate anthropogenic climate change greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) must be reduced; their major source is man's use of energy. A key way to manage emissions is for the energy consumer to understand their impact and the consequences of changing their activities. This paper addresses the challenge of delivering relevant, practical and reliable greenhouse gas 'footprint' information for small and medium sized businesses. The tool we describe is capable of ascribing parts of the total footprint to specific actions to which the business can relate and is sensitive enough to reflect the consequences of change. It provides a comprehensive description of all emissions for each business and sets them in the context of local, national and global statistics. It includes the GHG costs of all goods and services irrespective of their origin and without double accounting. We describe the development and use of the tool, which draws upon both national input-output data and process-based life cycle analysis techniques; a hybrid model. The use of national data sets the output in context and makes the results consistent with national and global targets, while the life cycle techniques provide a means of reflecting the dynamics of actions. The model is described in some detail along with a rationale and a short discussion of validity. As the tool is designed for small commercial users, we have taken care to combine rigour with practicality; parameterising from readily available client data whilst being clear about uncertainties. As an additional incentive, we also report on the potential costs or savings of switching activities. For users to benefit from the tool, they need to understand the output and know how much confidence they should place in the results. We not only describe an application of non-parametric statistics to generate confidence intervals, but also offer users the option of and guidance on adjusting figures to examine the sensitivity of the model to its

  6. Properties of input-output Hammerstein-bilinear structure with application to an industrial air handling unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkowski, T.; Zajic, I.; Burnham, K. J.; Koszalka, L.

    2014-12-01

    When developing mathematical models, especially for control, the practical interest lies in relatively simple extensions of linear structures that offer improved modelling capabilities. In this paper a discrete-time input-output Hammerstein-bilinear structure is introduced and its properties are discussed in detail. It consists of a cascade connection of a static nonlinearity followed by a dynamic bilinear system. By combining advantages of constituent subsystems the Hammerstein-bilinear structure allows for both an input dependant dynamic behaviour (particular property of bilinear systems) and an increased flexibility of the steady-state characteristic (particular property of Hammerstein models) to be obtained simultaneously. Modelling capabilities of such structure are evaluated on an air-handling unit that is a part of an industrial heating, ventilation and air-conditioning system.

  7. H(∞) output-feedback fuzzy proportional-integral control of fully delayed input/output systems.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chian-Song; Chiang, Tung-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the output-feedback fuzzy proportional-integral (PI) controller design for uncertain nonlinear systems with both fully delayed input and output. Based on the Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model representation, the output-feedback PI control is realized via parallel distributed PI compensation and novel LMI gain design. Although the T-S fuzzy PI controller is simple, asymptotic output regulation is assured to overcome the effect of uncertainty, state delay, and full input/output delays. When considering disturbance and measurement noise, the control performance is achieved by robust gain design. Furthermore, state observers and bilinear matrix inequality conditions are removed in this paper. Finally, time-delay Chua׳s circuit system and a continuous-time stirred tank reactor are taken as applications to show the expected performance. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Combining ptychographical algorithms with the Hybrid Input-Output (HIO) algorithm.

    PubMed

    Konijnenberg, A P; Coene, W M J; Pereira, S F; Urbach, H P

    2016-12-01

    In this article we combine the well-known Ptychographical Iterative Engine (PIE) with the Hybrid Input-Output (HIO) algorithm. The important insight is that the HIO feedback function should be kept strictly separate from the reconstructed object, which is done by introducing a separate feedback function per probe position. We have also combined HIO with floating PIE (fPIE) and extended PIE (ePIE). Simulations indicate that the combined algorithm performs significantly better in many situations. Although we have limited our research to a combination with HIO, the same insight can be used to combine ptychographical algorithms with any phase retrieval algorithm that uses a feedback function.

  9. Simulation of TunneLadder Traveling-Wave Tube Input/Output Coupler Characteristics Using MAFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kory, Carol L.; Qureshi, A. Haq

    1996-01-01

    RF input/output coupler characteristics for the TunneLadder traveling-wave tube have been calculated using the three-dimensional computer code, MAFIA and compared to experimental data with good agreement. Theory behind coupling of the TunneLadder interaction circuit to input and output waveguides is presented and VSWR data is calculated for variations on principal coupler dimensions to provide insight into manufacturing tolerances necessary for acceptable performance. Accuracy of results using MAFIA demonstrates how experimental hardware testing of three-dimensional coupler designs can be reduced.

  10. Input-output analysis of high-speed turbulent jet noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeun, Jinah; Nichols, Joseph W.

    2015-11-01

    We apply input-output analysis to predict and understand the aeroacoustics of high-speed isothermal turbulent jets. We consider axisymmetric linear perturbations about Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions of ideally expanded turbulent jets with Mach numbers 0 . 6 input-output analysis also yields suboptimal modes associated with a spectrum of lesser singular values. For supersonic jets, the optimal response closely resembles a wavepacket in both the nearfield and the farfield such as those obtained by the parabolized stability equations (PSE), and this mode dominates the response. For subsonic jets, however, the singular values indicate that the contributions of suboptimal modes to noise generation are nearly equal to that of the optimal mode, explaining why PSE misses some of the farfield sound in this case. Finally, high-fidelity large eddy simulation (LES) is used to assess the prevalence of suboptimal modes in the unsteady data. By projecting LES data onto the corresponding input modes, the weighted gain of each mode is examined.

  11. Input-output analysis of high-speed axisymmetric isothermal jet noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeun, Jinah; Nichols, Joseph W.; Jovanović, Mihailo R.

    2016-04-01

    We use input-output analysis to predict and understand the aeroacoustics of high-speed isothermal turbulent jets. We consider axisymmetric linear perturbations about Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions of ideally expanded turbulent jets with jet Mach numbers 0.6 < Mj < 1.8. For each base flow, we compute the optimal harmonic forcing function and the corresponding linear response using singular value decomposition of the resolvent operator. In addition to the optimal mode, input-output analysis also yields sub-optimal modes associated with smaller singular values. For supersonic jets, the optimal response closely resembles a wavepacket in both the near-field and the far-field such as those obtained by the parabolized stability equations (PSE), and this mode dominates the response. For subsonic jets, however, the singular values indicate that the contributions of sub-optimal modes to noise generation are nearly equal to that of the optimal mode, explaining why the PSE do not fully capture the far-field sound in this case. Furthermore, high-fidelity large eddy simulation (LES) is used to assess the prevalence of sub-optimal modes in the unsteady data. By projecting LES source term data onto input modes and the LES acoustic far-field onto output modes, we demonstrate that sub-optimal modes of both types are physically relevant.

  12. Assessing contributory risk using economic input-output life-cycle analysis.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ian; Shelly, Michael; Jonmaire, Paul; Lee, Richard V; Harbison, Raymond D

    2005-04-01

    The contribution of consumer purchases of non-essential products to environmental pollution is characterized. Purchase decisions by consumers induce a complex sequence of economy-wide production interactions that influence the production and consumption of chemicals and subsequent exposure and possible public health risks. An economic input-output life-cycle analysis (EIO-LCA) was used to link resource consumption and production by manufacturers to corresponding environmental impacts. Using the US Department of Commerce's input-output tables together with the US Environmental Protection Agency's Toxics Release Inventory and AIRData databases, the economy-wide air discharges resulting from purchases of household appliances, motor homes, and games and toys were quantified. The economic and environmental impacts generated from a hypothetical 10,000 US dollar purchase for selected consumer items were estimated. The analysis shows how purchases of seemingly benign consumer products increase the output of air pollutants along the supply chain and contribute to the potential risks associated with environmental chemical exposures to both consumers and non-consumers alike.

  13. Analysis of inter-country input-output table based on citation network: How to measure the competition and collaboration between industrial sectors on the global value chain.

    PubMed

    Xing, Lizhi

    2017-01-01

    The input-output table is comprehensive and detailed in describing the national economic system with complex economic relationships, which embodies information of supply and demand among industrial sectors. This paper aims to scale the degree of competition/collaboration on the global value chain from the perspective of econophysics. Global Industrial Strongest Relevant Network models were established by extracting the strongest and most immediate industrial relevance in the global economic system with inter-country input-output tables and then transformed into Global Industrial Resource Competition Network/Global Industrial Production Collaboration Network models embodying the competitive/collaborative relationships based on bibliographic coupling/co-citation approach. Three indicators well suited for these two kinds of weighted and non-directed networks with self-loops were introduced, including unit weight for competitive/collaborative power, disparity in the weight for competitive/collaborative amplitude and weighted clustering coefficient for competitive/collaborative intensity. Finally, these models and indicators were further applied to empirically analyze the function of sectors in the latest World Input-Output Database, to reveal inter-sector competitive/collaborative status during the economic globalization.

  14. Analysis of inter-country input-output table based on citation network: How to measure the competition and collaboration between industrial sectors on the global value chain

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The input-output table is comprehensive and detailed in describing the national economic system with complex economic relationships, which embodies information of supply and demand among industrial sectors. This paper aims to scale the degree of competition/collaboration on the global value chain from the perspective of econophysics. Global Industrial Strongest Relevant Network models were established by extracting the strongest and most immediate industrial relevance in the global economic system with inter-country input-output tables and then transformed into Global Industrial Resource Competition Network/Global Industrial Production Collaboration Network models embodying the competitive/collaborative relationships based on bibliographic coupling/co-citation approach. Three indicators well suited for these two kinds of weighted and non-directed networks with self-loops were introduced, including unit weight for competitive/collaborative power, disparity in the weight for competitive/collaborative amplitude and weighted clustering coefficient for competitive/collaborative intensity. Finally, these models and indicators were further applied to empirically analyze the function of sectors in the latest World Input-Output Database, to reveal inter-sector competitive/collaborative status during the economic globalization. PMID:28873432

  15. Molecularly Defined Circuitry Reveals Input-Output Segregation in Deep Layers of the Medial Entorhinal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Sürmeli, Gülşen; Marcu, Daniel Cosmin; McClure, Christina; Garden, Derek L F; Pastoll, Hugh; Nolan, Matthew F

    2015-12-02

    Deep layers of the medial entorhinal cortex are considered to relay signals from the hippocampus to other brain structures, but pathways for routing of signals to and from the deep layers are not well established. Delineating these pathways is important for a circuit level understanding of spatial cognition and memory. We find that neurons in layers 5a and 5b have distinct molecular identities, defined by the transcription factors Etv1 and Ctip2, and divergent targets, with extensive intratelencephalic projections originating in layer 5a, but not 5b. This segregation of outputs is mirrored by the organization of glutamatergic input from stellate cells in layer 2 and from the hippocampus, with both preferentially targeting layer 5b over 5a. Our results suggest a molecular and anatomical organization of input-output computations in deep layers of the MEC, reveal precise translaminar microcircuitry, and identify molecularly defined pathways for spatial signals to influence computation in deep layers.

  16. A convenient and accurate parallel Input/Output USB device for E-Prime.

    PubMed

    Canto, Rosario; Bufalari, Ilaria; D'Ausilio, Alessandro

    2011-03-01

    Psychological and neurophysiological experiments require the accurate control of timing and synchrony for Input/Output signals. For instance, a typical Event-Related Potential (ERP) study requires an extremely accurate synchronization of stimulus delivery with recordings. This is typically done via computer software such as E-Prime, and fast communications are typically assured by the Parallel Port (PP). However, the PP is an old and disappearing technology that, for example, is no longer available on portable computers. Here we propose a convenient USB device enabling parallel I/O capabilities. We tested this device against the PP on both a desktop and a laptop machine in different stress tests. Our data demonstrate the accuracy of our system, which suggests that it may be a good substitute for the PP with E-Prime.

  17. Energy input-output analysis of herbaceous energy and short-rotation woody crop systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.G.

    1996-11-01

    Energy input-output analyses, expressed in terms of energy-profit ratios, were derived for the production of a biocrude fuel oil from switchgrass and silver maple. Each energy analysis was concerned with determining the amount of direct and embodied energy associated with crop production, transport, processing, and conversion. Direct energy inputs include energy derived from gasoline, diesel, natural gas, and/or LP-gas. Embodied energy inputs are the amount of energy allocated to the machinery, chemicals, and equipment needed to perform the various operations associated with producing, transporting, processing, and converting bioenergy crops to a useful energy source. Energy-profit ratios varied from 1.96 to 2.48 for switchgrass and were 1.46 to 1.97 when short-rotation woody crops were the feedstock.

  18. Vertex centralities in input-output networks reveal the structure of modern economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blöchl, Florian; Theis, Fabian J.; Vega-Redondo, Fernando; Fisher, Eric O.'N.

    2011-04-01

    Input-output tables describe the flows of goods and services between the sectors of an economy. These tables can be interpreted as weighted directed networks. At the usual level of aggregation, they contain nodes with strong self-loops and are almost completely connected. We derive two measures of node centrality that are well suited for such networks. Both are based on random walks and have interpretations as the propagation of supply shocks through the economy. Random walk centrality reveals the vertices most immediately affected by a shock. Counting betweenness identifies the nodes where a shock lingers longest. The two measures differ in how they treat self-loops. We apply both to data from a wide set of countries and uncover salient characteristics of the structures of these national economies. We further validate our indices by clustering according to sectors’ centralities. This analysis reveals geographical proximity and similar developmental status.

  19. Mitigating the effect of noise in the hybrid input-output method of phase retrieval.

    PubMed

    Trahan, Russell; Hyland, David

    2013-05-01

    Here a modification to the hybrid input-output (HIO) method of phase retrieval is presented which aides in mitigating the negative effects of low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Various type of interferometers measure diffraction patterns which are used to determine the Fourier transform modulus of an objective. Interferometry often suffers from very low SNRs making phase retrieval difficult because of the sensitivity of most phase retrieval algorithms to local minima. Here we analyze the effect of noise on the HIO method. The result is used as a rationale for the proposed modification to the HIO method. The algorithm presented here introduces a filtering scheme which removes much of the Fourier modulus noise. Examples are shown and the results are compared to the HIO method with and without the proposed modification. Comparisons are also made to other methods of filtering the Fourier modulus noise.

  20. Torque ripple reduction of brushless DC motor based on adaptive input-output feedback linearization.

    PubMed

    Shirvani Boroujeni, M; Markadeh, G R Arab; Soltani, J

    2017-09-01

    Torque ripple reduction of Brushless DC Motors (BLDCs) is an interesting subject in variable speed AC drives. In this paper at first, a mathematical expression for torque ripple harmonics is obtained. Then for a non-ideal BLDC motor with known harmonic contents of back-EMF, calculation of desired reference current amplitudes, which are required to eliminate some selected harmonics of torque ripple, are reviewed. In order to inject the reference harmonic currents to the motor windings, an Adaptive Input-Output Feedback Linearization (AIOFBL) control is proposed, which generates the reference voltages for three phases voltage source inverter in stationary reference frame. Experimental results are presented to show the capability and validity of the proposed control method and are compared with the vector control in Multi-Reference Frame (MRF) and Pseudo-Vector Control (P-VC) method results. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. State Space Consistency and Differentiability Conditions for a Class of Causal Dynamical Input-Output Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    U) be an input-output system. F is a causal mapping and (Y; F; U) is a causal system if and only if for all t and for all u; v 2 U such that ku vkt ...in u, then the Frechet derivative of the map S : Ut ! de�ned by S(t) = t at ut exists. Proof: Calculate u+vt (w0;1) ut (w0;1) = [LtF ((u+ v...for all u 2 U , the state trajectory t! ut is di¤erentiable. Proof: First calculate : ut+h(v0;1) ut (v0;1) = [Lt+hF (ut+h+! Rt+hv0;1) LtF (ut

  2. Computer program for single input-output, single-loop feedback systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Additional work is reported on a completely automatic computer program for the design of single input/output, single loop feedback systems with parameter uncertainly, to satisfy time domain bounds on the system response to step commands and disturbances. The inputs to the program are basically the specified time-domain response bounds, the form of the constrained plant transfer function and the ranges of the uncertain parameters of the plant. The program output consists of the transfer functions of the two free compensation networks, in the form of the coefficients of the numerator and denominator polynomials, and the data on the prescribed bounds and the extremes actually obtained for the system response to commands and disturbances.

  3. Study of double-ring slow-light gyroscope with two input-output waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Hong; Liu, Xiao-qing

    2017-10-01

    A novel structure of double-ring slow-light gyroscope with two input-output waveguides is studied. We utilize interferometric detection method, and sufficiently combine the advantages of Interferometric Fiber Optic Gyro (I-FOG) and Resonator Optic Gyro (ROG). The responses of the structure are derived and simulated. Here two experimental schemes are also proposed. By applying a square wave to the integrated phase modulator, we can make the structure work at the highest sensitivity. After applied the square wave, the system runs at linear zone, thus the angular velocity can be obtained according to the linear relationship between the phase difference and the angular velocity. The optimal parameters for the largest phase difference of light signal monitored at different output ports are investigated. Some comparisons are done in the condition of various values of transmission loss coefficients.

  4. ProMC: Input-output data format for HEP applications using varint encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekanov, S. V.; May, E.; Strand, K.; Van Gemmeren, P.

    2014-10-01

    A new data format for Monte Carlo (MC) events, or any structural data, including experimental data, is discussed. The format is designed to store data in a compact binary form using variable-size integer encoding as implemented in the Google's Protocol Buffers package. This approach is implemented in the PROMC library which produces smaller file sizes for MC records compared to the existing input-output libraries used in high-energy physics (HEP). Other important features of the proposed format are a separation of abstract data layouts from concrete programming implementations, self-description and random access. Data stored in PROMC files can be written, read and manipulated in a number of programming languages, such C++, JAVA, FORTRAN and PYTHON.

  5. Distributed input/output subsystem for traffic signal control. Final report, December 1993-May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, D.; Schwem, C.

    1995-07-01

    The `distributed input/output sybsystem` is an electrical interface between a traffic device controller, its sensors (typically loop detectors), and its actuators (typically signal lamps), Spread-spectrum signals from the controller are carried over a pair of 110VAC wires that supply power to the devices. Control modules at the actuators decode these signals and implement only the commands that are addressed to their devices. The process also works in reverse for sensors, using the same hardware elements. This interface greatly reduces the quantity of wiring installed at traffic signals and can be easily expanded to accommodate additional sensors and actuators. This can substantially reduce labor and material costs. This project demonstrated distributed control modules for several ITS applications: traffic signal lamps, ramp meters, loop detectors and variable message signs.

  6. The relation between input-output transformation and gastrointestinal nematode infections on dairy farms.

    PubMed

    van der Voort, M; Van Meensel, J; Lauwers, L; Van Huylenbroeck, G; Charlier, J

    2016-02-01

    Efficiency analysis is used for assessing links between technical efficiency (TE) of livestock farms and animal diseases. However, previous studies often do not make the link with the allocation of inputs and mainly present average effects that ignore the often huge differences among farms. In this paper, we studied the relationship between exposure to gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections, the TE and the input allocation on dairy farms. Although the traditional cost allocative efficiency (CAE) indicator adequately measures how a given input allocation differs from the cost-minimising input allocation, they do not represent the unique input allocation of farms. Similar CAE scores may be obtained for farms with different input allocations. Therefore, we propose an adjusted allocative efficiency index (AAEI) to measure the unique input allocation of farms. Combining this AAEI with the TE score allows determining the unique input-output position of each farm. The method is illustrated by estimating efficiency scores using data envelopment analysis (DEA) on a sample of 152 dairy farms in Flanders for which both accountancy and parasitic monitoring data were available. Three groups of farms with a different input-output position can be distinguished based on cluster analysis: (1) technically inefficient farms, with a relatively low use of concentrates per 100 l milk and a high exposure to infection, (2) farms with an intermediate TE, relatively high use of concentrates per 100 l milk and a low exposure to infection, (3) farms with the highest TE, relatively low roughage use per 100 l milk and a relatively high exposure to infection. Correlation analysis indicates for each group how the level of exposure to GI nematodes is associated or not with improved economic performance. The results suggest that improving both the economic performance and exposure to infection seems only of interest for highly TE farms. The findings indicate that current farm recommendations

  7. Multi-regional input-output analysis for China's regional CH4 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Jiashuo; Peng, Beihua

    2014-03-01

    China is the largest CH4 emitter in the world. Given the importance of CH4 in greenhouse gas emission inventories, the characteristics of China's CH4 emissions at different scales deserve to be fully understood. Presented in this paper is an interprovincial input-output embodiment analysis of China's regional CH4 emissions in 2007, based on the most recently available multi-regional input-output table, and relevant CH4 emissions data. The results show that the eastern, central and western areas contribute to 48.2%, 28.6%, and 23.3% of the national total embodied emissions, respectively. Guangdong has the highest level of embodied CH4 emissions among all of the 30 regions. The Agriculture sector produces the most embodied CH4 emissions in final demand, followed by the Construction, Food Production and Tobacco Processing, and Other Service Activities sectors. Significant net transfers of embodied CH4 emission flows are identified from the central and western areas to the eastern area via interregional trade. Shanxi is the largest interregional exporter of embodied CH4 emissions. In contrast, Guangdong is the largest interregional importer. Energy activities, agricultural activities, and waste management comprise 65.6%, 30.7%, and 3.7% of the total embodied CH4 emissions in interregional trade, respectively. By using consumption-based accounting principles, the emission magnitudes, per capita emissions, and emission intensities of most eastern regions increase remarkably, while those of some central and western regions decrease largely. To achieve regional CH4 emission mitigation, comprehensive mitigation measures should be designed under consideration of regional transfer of emission responsibility.

  8. A Direct Design from Input/Output Data of Fault-Tolerant Control System Based on GIMC Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuishi, Tsubasa; Yubai, Kazuhiro; Hirai, Junji

    This paper deals with a design method of fault-tolerant control system based on Generalized Internal Model Control (GIMC) structure consisting of a standard outer loop feedback controller and an extra inner loop controller. The distinguished feature of GIMC structure is that the controller design for performance and robustness may be done separately. The outer loop controller is designed for nominal performance using some controller synthesis to meet (nominal) control specification, while the inner loop controller is designed to make a trade-off between robustness and performance. This feature is suitable for fault-tolerant control. The outer loop controller is designed for fault-free case, and the inner loop controller for faulty case. In the conventional methods, the inner loop controller is designed to maximize the robust stability margin without information on fault. Therefore, the performance in the faulty case tends to become conservative. In this paper, the inner loop controller is directly designed from experimental data collected from the faulty system. Since the collected data contains information on the fault, conservativeness in the conventional methods is decreased. The inner loop controller is designed by Virtual Reference Feedback Tuning (VRFT). VRFT is a direct design method from input-output data without identifying any models. Since complexity of the controller can be specified by the designer, no complexity reduction has to be required, which becomes advantageous upon implementation. The effectiveness of the proposed design method is confirmed by an experiment.

  9. Input-output theory for waveguide QED with an ensemble of inhomogeneous atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalumière, Kevin; Sanders, Barry C.; van Loo, A. F.; Fedorov, A.; Wallraff, A.; Blais, A.

    2013-10-01

    We study the collective effects that emerge in waveguide quantum electrodynamics where several (artificial) atoms are coupled to a one-dimensional superconducting transmission line. Since single microwave photons can travel without loss for a long distance along the line, real and virtual photons emitted by one atom can be reabsorbed or scattered by a second atom. Depending on the distance between the atoms, this collective effect can lead to super- and subradiance or to a coherent exchange-type interaction between the atoms. Changing the artificial atoms transition frequencies, something which can be easily done with superconducting qubits (two levels artificial atoms), is equivalent to changing the atom-atom separation and thereby opens the possibility to study the characteristics of these collective effects. To study this waveguide quantum electrodynamics system, we extend previous work and present an effective master equation valid for an ensemble of inhomogeneous atoms driven by a coherent state. Using input-output theory, we compute analytically and numerically the elastic and inelastic scattering and show how these quantities reveal information about collective effects. These theoretical results are compatible with recent experimental results using transmon qubits coupled to a superconducting one-dimensional transmission line [van Loo (unpublished)].

  10. Input-output Transfer Function Analysis of a Photometer Circuit Based on an Operational Amplifier

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Wilmar

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an input-output transfer function analysis based on the frequency response of a photometer circuit based on operational amplifier (op amp) is carried out. Op amps are universally used in monitoring photodetectors and there are a variety of amplifier connections for this purpose. However, the electronic circuits that are usually used to carry out the signal treatment in photometer circuits introduce some limitations in the performance of the photometers that influence the selection of the op amps and other electronic devices. For example, the bandwidth, slew-rate, noise, input impedance and gain, among other characteristics of the op amp, are often the performance limiting factors of photometer circuits. For this reason, in this paper a comparative analysis between two photodiode amplifier circuits is carried out. One circuit is based on a conventional current-to-voltage converter connection and the other circuit is based on a robust current-to-voltage converter connection. The results are satisfactory and show that the photodiode amplifier performance can be improved by using robust control techniques. PMID:27879695

  11. Energy-Dominated Local Carbon Emissions in Beijing 2007: Inventory and Input-Output Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shan; Liu, J. B.; Shao, Ling; Li, J. S.; An, Y. R.

    2012-01-01

    For greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by Beijing economy 2007, a concrete emission inventory covering carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) is presented and associated with an input-output analysis to reveal the local GHG embodiment in final demand and trade without regard to imported emissions. The total direct GHG emissions amount to 1.06E + 08 t CO2-eq, of which energy-related CO2 emissions comprise 90.49%, non-energy-related CO2 emissions 6.35%, CH4 emissions 2.33%, and N2O emissions 0.83%, respectively. In terms of energy-related CO2 emissions, the largest source is coal with a percentage of 53.08%, followed by coke with 10.75% and kerosene with 8.44%. Sector 26 (Construction Industry) holds the top local emissions embodied in final demand of 1.86E + 07 t CO2-eq due to its considerable capital, followed by energy-intensive Sectors 27 (Transport and Storage) and 14 (Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals). The GHG emissions embodied in Beijing's exports are 4.90E + 07 t CO2-eq, accounting for 46.01% of the total emissions embodied in final demand. The sound scientific database totally based on local emissions is an important basis to make effective environment and energy policies for local decision makers. PMID:23193385

  12. Alternative industrial carbon emissions benchmark based on input-output analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Mengyao; Ji, Xi

    2016-12-01

    Some problems exist in the current carbon emissions benchmark setting systems. The primary consideration for industrial carbon emissions standards highly relate to direct carbon emissions (power-related emissions) and only a portion of indirect emissions are considered in the current carbon emissions accounting processes. This practice is insufficient and may cause double counting to some extent due to mixed emission sources. To better integrate and quantify direct and indirect carbon emissions, an embodied industrial carbon emissions benchmark setting method is proposed to guide the establishment of carbon emissions benchmarks based on input-output analysis. This method attempts to link direct carbon emissions with inter-industrial economic exchanges and systematically quantifies carbon emissions embodied in total product delivery chains. The purpose of this study is to design a practical new set of embodied intensity-based benchmarks for both direct and indirect carbon emissions. Beijing, at the first level of carbon emissions trading pilot schemes in China, plays a significant role in the establishment of these schemes and is chosen as an example in this study. The newly proposed method tends to relate emissions directly to each responsibility in a practical way through the measurement of complex production and supply chains and reduce carbon emissions from their original sources. This method is expected to be developed under uncertain internal and external contexts and is further expected to be generalized to guide the establishment of industrial benchmarks for carbon emissions trading schemes in China and other countries.

  13. Multi-input/output alarming system for patients with inattention caused by higher cortical function disorder.

    PubMed

    Orand, Abbas; Okamoto, Sayaka; Tomita, Yutaka; Miyasaka, Hiroyuki; Tanino, Genichi; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2013-10-12

    To apply advanced methods of communication, sensing, and instrumentation technologies to make a system that can help patients suffering from hemispatial neglect caused by higher cortical function disorder. By using several sensors and actuators, the objective was to construct a tailor-made system for each patient. The input part of the system consists of sensors, an interface and transmitters. The output part consists of a receiver, logical arithmetic, an output interface and actuators. The information from the input part is sent to the output part in a wireless manner allowing the mobility of the input and output parts. The system and its functionality were realized. Voice alarming and neck muscle stimuli were applied to two patients. We could verify the applicability of the system to remind the patients to put on their wheelchair's brake and raise its footrest before attempting to stand for transferring to their beds. The designed and constructed multi-input/output system can be used effectively to alarm the patients.

  14. Multi-input/output alarming system for patients with inattention caused by higher cortical function disorder

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To apply advanced methods of communication, sensing, and instrumentation technologies to make a system that can help patients suffering from hemispatial neglect caused by higher cortical function disorder. Method By using several sensors and actuators, the objective was to construct a tailor-made system for each patient. The input part of the system consists of sensors, an interface and transmitters. The output part consists of a receiver, logical arithmetic, an output interface and actuators. The information from the input part is sent to the output part in a wireless manner allowing the mobility of the input and output parts. Results The system and its functionality were realized. Voice alarming and neck muscle stimuli were applied to two patients. We could verify the applicability of the system to remind the patients to put on their wheelchair’s brake and raise its footrest before attempting to stand for transferring to their beds. Conclusion The designed and constructed multi-input/output system can be used effectively to alarm the patients. PMID:24119204

  15. Reciprocal changes in input-output curves of motor evoked potentials while learning motor skills.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Makoto; Kirimoto, Hikari; Onishi, Hideaki; Yamada, Sumio; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Atsuo; Yamamoto, Jun-ichi

    2012-09-14

    Reciprocal inhibition of antagonist muscles is crucial for motor skill learning in humans. However, the changes in reciprocal inhibition function during the motor learning process are unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically observe the changes in reciprocal inhibition function. We investigated the optimal coil position for simultaneously eliciting motor evoked potentials (MEPs) of reciprocal muscles, and the reciprocal changes in input-output (IO) curves during motor skill training. From ten healthy volunteers, the IO curves of MEPs were measured for the midpoint between the center of gravity (CoG) of the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) and the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) muscles, for the CoG of ECR, and for the FCR muscles using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In addition, the IO curves of the ECR and the FCR muscles were measured before and after the motor skill training of rapid wrist extension. The IO curves measured at the midpoint between the CoGs of the ECR and the FCR muscles and the CoG of each muscle were homogenous. However, after training to perform rapid wrist extension, the IO curve of the agonist (ECR) muscle was increased, while the antagonist (FCR) muscle was decreased. The present findings validate the IO curves simultaneously measured for reciprocal muscles, and suggest that motor skill training could induce reciprocal change in corticospinal excitability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Time and money: a retrospective evaluation of the inputs, outputs, efficiency, and incomes of physicians.

    PubMed

    Weeks, William B; Wallace, Amy E

    2003-04-28

    Physicians' concerns with the health care system focus on having less time with their patients and needing to work harder to maintain incomes. We sought to determine whether physicians are working longer hours and whether their incomes are declining. Using survey data, we conducted a retrospective analysis of physician inputs, outputs, efficiency, and incomes for generalists, general internists, general surgeons, pediatricians, and obstetrician-gynecologists from 1987 to 1998. Physician inputs (as measured by the average hours worked in professional activities) showed little absolute change across specialties over time. Outputs (as measured by the total number of patient visits per week) decreased between 9% and 28%, depending on the specialty. Efficiency (the proportion of time spent in direct patient care and the amount of time spent during a typical office visit) remained stable over the time examined. Consumer price index inflation-adjusted annual incomes increased considerably over the time period examined (42% for general internists, 28% for pediatricians, 13% for generalists, and 8% for general surgeons); only obstetricians-gynecologists showed a net loss of annual income when adjusting for inflation (a 6% loss). Our findings do not confirm the prevailing concern that physicians are working harder or longer or that their incomes are declining, but they offer an explanation of how physicians are maintaining incomes without increasing work inputs. There is a great deal of dissatisfaction with the health care system among physicians; exploration of perceptual reasons for that dissatisfaction may outline a course of action needed to resolve it.

  17. Estimation of Psychophysical Thresholds Based on Neural Network Analysis of DPOAE Input/Output Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghibolhosseini, Maryam; Long, Glenis

    2011-11-01

    The distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) input/output (I/O) function may provide a potential tool for evaluating cochlear compression. Hearing loss causes an increase in the level of the sound that is just audible for the person, which affects the cochlea compression and thus the dynamic range of hearing. Although the slope of the I/O function is highly variable when the total DPOAE is used, separating the nonlinear-generator component from the reflection component reduces this variability. We separated the two components using least squares fit (LSF) analysis of logarithmic sweeping tones, and confirmed that the separated generator component provides more consistent I/O functions than the total DPOAE. In this paper we estimated the slope of the I/O functions of the generator components at different sound levels using LSF analysis. An artificial neural network (ANN) was used to estimate psychophysical thresholds using the estimated slopes of the I/O functions. DPOAE I/O functions determined in this way may help to estimate hearing thresholds and cochlear health.

  18. Investigating time-efficiency of forward masking paradigms for estimating basilar membrane input-output characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Fereczkowski, Michal; Jepsen, Morten L.; Dau, Torsten; MacDonald, Ewen N.

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that pure-tone audiometry does not sufficiently describe individual hearing loss (HL) and that additional measures beyond pure-tone sensitivity might improve the diagnostics of hearing deficits. Specifically, forward masking experiments to estimate basilar-membrane (BM) input-output (I/O) function have been proposed. However, such measures are very time consuming. The present study investigated possible modifications of the temporal masking curve (TMC) paradigm to improve time and measurement efficiency. In experiment 1, estimates of knee point (KP) and compression ratio (CR) of individual BM I/Os were derived without considering the corresponding individual “off-frequency” TMC. While accurate estimation of KPs was possible, it is difficult to ensure that the tested dynamic range is sufficient. Therefore, in experiment 2, a TMC-based paradigm, referred to as the “gap method”, was tested. In contrast to the standard TMC paradigm, the maker level was kept fixed and the “gap threshold” was obtained, such that the masker just masks a low-level (12 dB sensation level) signal. It is argued that this modification allows for better control of the tested stimulus level range, which appears to be the main drawback of the conventional TMC method. The results from the present study were consistent with the literature when estimating KP levels, but showed some limitations regarding the estimation of the CR values. Perspectives and limitations of both approaches are discussed. PMID:28355275

  19. Alternative industrial carbon emissions benchmark based on input-output analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Mengyao; Ji, Xi

    2016-05-01

    Some problems exist in the current carbon emissions benchmark setting systems. The primary consideration for industrial carbon emissions standards highly relate to direct carbon emissions (power-related emissions) and only a portion of indirect emissions are considered in the current carbon emissions accounting processes. This practice is insufficient and may cause double counting to some extent due to mixed emission sources. To better integrate and quantify direct and indirect carbon emissions, an embodied industrial carbon emissions benchmark setting method is proposed to guide the establishment of carbon emissions benchmarks based on input-output analysis. This method attempts to link direct carbon emissions with inter-industrial economic exchanges and systematically quantifies carbon emissions embodied in total product delivery chains. The purpose of this study is to design a practical new set of embodied intensity-based benchmarks for both direct and indirect carbon emissions. Beijing, at the first level of carbon emissions trading pilot schemes in China, plays a significant role in the establishment of these schemes and is chosen as an example in this study. The newly proposed method tends to relate emissions directly to each responsibility in a practical way through the measurement of complex production and supply chains and reduce carbon emissions from their original sources. This method is expected to be developed under uncertain internal and external contexts and is further expected to be generalized to guide the establishment of industrial benchmarks for carbon emissions trading schemes in China and other countries.

  20. Energy-dominated local carbon emissions in Beijing 2007: inventory and input-output analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shan; Liu, J B; Shao, Ling; Li, J S; An, Y R

    2012-01-01

    For greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by Beijing economy 2007, a concrete emission inventory covering carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is presented and associated with an input-output analysis to reveal the local GHG embodiment in final demand and trade without regard to imported emissions. The total direct GHG emissions amount to 1.06E + 08 t CO(2)-eq, of which energy-related CO(2) emissions comprise 90.49%, non-energy-related CO(2) emissions 6.35%, CH(4) emissions 2.33%, and N(2)O emissions 0.83%, respectively. In terms of energy-related CO(2) emissions, the largest source is coal with a percentage of 53.08%, followed by coke with 10.75% and kerosene with 8.44%. Sector 26 (Construction Industry) holds the top local emissions embodied in final demand of 1.86E + 07 t CO(2)-eq due to its considerable capital, followed by energy-intensive Sectors 27 (Transport and Storage) and 14 (Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals). The GHG emissions embodied in Beijing's exports are 4.90E + 07 t CO(2)-eq, accounting for 46.01% of the total emissions embodied in final demand. The sound scientific database totally based on local emissions is an important basis to make effective environment and energy policies for local decision makers.

  1. An input-output procedure for calculating economy-wide economic impacts in supply chains using homeland security consequence analysis tools.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Braeton J.; Vugrin, Eric D.; Loose, Verne W.; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2010-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed several models to analyze potential consequences of homeland security incidents. Two of these models (the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center Agent-Based Laboratory for Economics, N-ABLE{trademark}, and Loki) simulate detailed facility- and product-level consequences of simulated disruptions to supply chains. Disruptions in supply chains are likely to reduce production of some commodities, which may reduce economic activity across many other types of supply chains throughout the national economy. The detailed nature of Sandia's models means that simulations are limited to specific supply chains in which detailed facility-level data has been collected, but policymakers are often concerned with the national-level economic impacts of supply-chain disruptions. A preliminary input-output methodology has been developed to estimate national-level economic impacts based upon the results of supply-chain-level simulations. This methodology overcomes two primary challenges. First, the methodology must be relatively simple to integrate successfully with existing models; it must be easily understood, easily applied to the supply-chain models without user intervention, and run quickly. The second challenge is more fundamental: the methodology must account for both upstream and downstream impacts that result from supply-chain disruptions. Input-output modeling typically estimates only upstream impacts, but shortages resulting from disruptions in many supply chains (for example, energy, communications, and chemicals) are likely to have large downstream impacts. In overcoming these challenges, the input-output methodology makes strong assumptions about technology and substitution. This paper concludes by applying the methodology to chemical supply chains.

  2. Hydro-climatic dominated on long-term input-output nutrient budget of subtropical forest ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. T.; Wang, C. P.; Huang, J. C.; Lin, T. C.

    2016-12-01

    Two-decadal budget of atmospheric deposition (input) and streamwater export (output) from 1994 to 2013 were collected in a subtropical forest at northeastern Taiwan. There were significant decline trends of summer SO42- and NO3- fluxes (June-August), but not for the winter. With the identifications of possible sources of air pollutants from atmospheric backward trajectories model and local air quality observations, the declining of sulfate and nitrate in the summer was possibly due to decreases of local emissions of SO2 and NOx. In contrast, the non-declining long-range transport of acid species might contribute a large portion of the acid deposition in the winter and led to the lack of significant declining trends of SO42- and NO3- fluxes. The results suggest that long-range transport of acidic pollutants could be a threat to forest ecosystems in the region. The two-decadal budget also revealed that both input and output of ions were positively correlated with water quantity, indicating strong hydro-climatic dominated the input-output nutrient cycling. Especially for the greater ions export via stream water during the wet summer growing season, which is noticeably contrast to the paradigm of biological control resulting in low ions export during the growing season. Our study is of significant implication under the trends of warming climate because global climate change could directly affect biogeochemical cycles particularly in the tropical/subtropical ecosystems through amplifying the seasonal precipitation.

  3. Carbon emissions and resources use by Chinese economy 2007: A 135-sector inventory and input-output embodiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G. Q.; Chen, Z. M.

    2010-11-01

    A 135-sector inventory and embodiment analysis for carbon emissions and resources use by Chinese economy 2007 is presented in this paper by an ecological input-output modeling based on the physical entry scheme. Included emissions and resources belong to six categories as: (1) greenhouse gas (GHG) in terms of CO 2, CH 4, and N 2O; (2) energy in terms of coal, crude oil, natural gas, hydropower, nuclear power, and firewood; (3) water in terms of freshwater; (4) exergy in terms of coal, crude oil, natural gas, grain, bean, tuber, cotton, peanut, rapeseed, sesame, jute, sugarcane, sugar beet, tobacco, silkworm feed, tea, fruits, vegetables, wood, bamboo, pulp, meat, egg, milk, wool, aquatic products, iron ore, copper ore, bauxite, lead ore, zinc ore, pyrite, phosphorite, gypsum, cement, nuclear fuel, and hydropower; (5) and (6) solar and cosmic emergies in terms of sunlight, wind power, deep earth heat, chemical power of rain, geopotential power of rain, chemical power of stream, geopotential power of stream, wave power, geothermal power, tide power, topsoil loss, coal, crude oil, natural gas, ferrous metal ore, non-ferrous metal ore, non-metal ore, cement, and nuclear fuel. Accounted based on the embodied intensities are carbon emissions and resources use embodied in the final use as rural consumption, urban consumption, government consumption, gross fixed capital formation, change in inventories, and export, as well as in the international trade balance. The resulted database is basic to environmental account of carbon emissions and resources use at various levels.

  4. Specific transfer entropy and other state-dependent transfer entropies for continuous-state input-output systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmon, David; Rapp, Paul E.

    2017-08-01

    Since its original formulation in 2000, transfer entropy has become an invaluable tool in the toolbox of nonlinear dynamicists working with empirical data. Transfer entropy and its generalizations provide a precise definition of uncertainty and information transfer that are central to the coupled systems studied in nonlinear science. However, a canonical definition of state-dependent transfer entropy has yet to be introduced. We introduce a candidate measure, the specific transfer entropy, and compare its properties to both total and local transfer entropy. Specific transfer entropy makes possible both state- and time-resolved analysis of the predictive impact of a candidate input system on a candidate output system. We also present principled methods for estimating total, local, and specific transfer entropies from empirical data. We demonstrate the utility of specific transfer entropy and our proposed estimation procedures with two model systems, and find that specific transfer entropy provides more, and more easily interpretable, information about an input-output system compared to currently existing methods.

  5. Demand-driven energy requirement of world economy 2007: A multi-region input-output network simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhan-Ming; Chen, G. Q.

    2013-07-01

    This study presents a network simulation of the global embodied energy flows in 2007 based on a multi-region input-output model. The world economy is portrayed as a 6384-node network and the energy interactions between any two nodes are calculated and analyzed. According to the results, about 70% of the world's direct energy input is invested in resource, heavy manufacture, and transportation sectors which provide only 30% of the embodied energy to satisfy final demand. By contrast, non-transportation services sectors contribute to 24% of the world's demand-driven energy requirement with only 6% of the direct energy input. Commodity trade is shown to be an important alternative to fuel trade in redistributing energy, as international commodity flows embody 1.74E + 20 J of energy in magnitude up to 89% of the traded fuels. China is the largest embodied energy exporter with a net export of 3.26E + 19 J, in contrast to the United States as the largest importer with a net import of 2.50E + 19 J. The recent economic fluctuations following the financial crisis accelerate the relative expansions of energy requirement by developing countries, as a consequence China will take over the place of the United States as the world's top demand-driven energy consumer in 2022 and India will become the third largest in 2015.

  6. COSTEAM expansion and improvements: design of a coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed submodel, an oil-fired submodel and input/output improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Reierson, James D.; Rosenberg, Joseph I.; Murphy, Mary B.; Lethi, Minh- Triet

    1980-10-01

    COSTEAM is an interactive computer model designed to estimate the cost of industrial steam produced by various steam plant technologies. At the end of Phase I development, the COSTEAM model included only one submodel to calculate the capital and operating costs of a conventional coal-fired boiler plant with environmental control systems. This report describes the results of Phase II development. Two new submodels are added which calculate costs for steam produced by coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed boilers and by oil-fired boilers. COSTEAM input/output capabilities are also improved.

  7. Carbon sequestration in forest soils - Results from input-output balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumme, Dr

    2009-04-01

    Input-output balances of 53 forest ecosystems were used to calculate the N-induced C-sequestration in forest soils. Input and output measurements were conducted in spruce, pine, beech and oak forests over an 8-years period. N-input ranged from 7-37 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and N-output from 0-27 kg ha-1 yr-1. N-retention in soils was estimated by subtracting N-leaching and N-increments in plants from total deposition assuming similar values for gaseous N-losses and N-fixation (Brumme & Khanna 2008). Soil N-changes ranged from -24 kg to 21 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Negative balances are explained by humus degradation in the mineral soil (n=9), positive values by N-accumulation in the forest floor (n=44). C-sequestration was calculated by corresponding C/N values in the forest floor and the top mineral soil (0-5 cm depth). C-losses from the mineral soil were lower than 290 kg ha-1 yr-1 and C-gain lower than 590 kg ha-1 yr-1. Since the C-losses from the mineral soil did not originate from N-deposition only positive values were used to calculate the N-induced C-sequestration in the forest floor. C-sequestration ranged from 1 kg to 590 ha-1 yr-1. The highest sink was observed for spruce forests (250 ha-1 yr-1, n=14), fallowed by pine (170 ha-1 yr-1, n=11), beech (137 ha-1 yr-1, n=13), and oak (94 ha-1 yr-1, n=6). The overall mean value for C-sequestration is 176 ha-1 yr-1 (sd 140 kg ha-1 yr-1). Brumme R, Khanna PK (2008) Ecological and site historical aspects of N dynamics and current N status in temperate forests. Global Change Biology 14, 125-141

  8. Syringe-Injectable Electronics with a Plug-and-Play Input/Output Interface.

    PubMed

    Schuhmann, Thomas G; Yao, Jun; Hong, Guosong; Fu, Tian-Ming; Lieber, Charles M

    2017-09-13

    Syringe-injectable mesh electronics represent a new paradigm for brain science and neural prosthetics by virtue of the stable seamless integration of the electronics with neural tissues, a consequence of the macroporous mesh electronics structure with all size features similar to or less than individual neurons and tissue-like flexibility. These same properties, however, make input/output (I/O) connection to measurement electronics challenging, and work to-date has required methods that could be difficult to implement by the life sciences community. Here we present a new syringe-injectable mesh electronics design with plug-and-play I/O interfacing that is rapid, scalable, and user-friendly to nonexperts. The basic design tapers the ultraflexible mesh electronics to a narrow stem that routes all of the device/electrode interconnects to I/O pads that are inserted into a standard zero insertion force (ZIF) connector. Studies show that the entire plug-and-play mesh electronics can be delivered through capillary needles with precise targeting using microliter-scale injection volumes similar to the standard mesh electronics design. Electrical characterization of mesh electronics containing platinum (Pt) electrodes and silicon (Si) nanowire field-effect transistors (NW-FETs) demonstrates the ability to interface arbitrary devices with a contact resistance of only 3 Ω. Finally, in vivo injection into mice required only minutes for I/O connection and yielded expected local field potential (LFP) recordings from a compact head-stage compatible with chronic studies. Our results substantially lower barriers for use by new investigators and open the door for increasingly sophisticated and multifunctional mesh electronics designs for both basic and translational studies.

  9. Syringe Injectable Electronics: Precise Targeted Delivery with Quantitative Input/Output Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Hong, Guosong; Fu, Tian-Ming; Zhou, Tao; Schuhmann, Thomas G; Huang, Jinlin; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-10-14

    Syringe-injectable mesh electronics with tissue-like mechanical properties and open macroporous structures is an emerging powerful paradigm for mapping and modulating brain activity. Indeed, the ultraflexible macroporous structure has exhibited unprecedented minimal/noninvasiveness and the promotion of attractive interactions with neurons in chronic studies. These same structural features also pose new challenges and opportunities for precise targeted delivery in specific brain regions and quantitative input/output (I/O) connectivity needed for reliable electrical measurements. Here, we describe new results that address in a flexible manner both of these points. First, we have developed a controlled injection approach that maintains the extended mesh structure during the "blind" injection process, while also achieving targeted delivery with ca. 20 μm spatial precision. Optical and microcomputed tomography results from injections into tissue-like hydrogel, ex vivo brain tissue, and in vivo brains validate our basic approach and demonstrate its generality. Second, we present a general strategy to achieve up to 100% multichannel I/O connectivity using an automated conductive ink printing methodology to connect the mesh electronics and a flexible flat cable, which serves as the standard "plug-in" interface to measurement electronics. Studies of resistance versus printed line width were used to identify optimal conditions, and moreover, frequency-dependent noise measurements show that the flexible printing process yields values comparable to commercial flip-chip bonding technology. Our results address two key challenges faced by syringe-injectable electronics and thereby pave the way for facile in vivo applications of injectable mesh electronics as a general and powerful tool for long-term mapping and modulation of brain activity in fundamental neuroscience through therapeutic biomedical studies.

  10. A network-centric input-output feedback linearization-based control strategy for unmanned systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouyoucef, K.; Khorasani, K.

    2005-05-01

    Large scale unmanned networks consisting of a number of heterogeneous nodes that may be configured in ad-hoc fashions and incorporating complicated architectures result in challenging problems for design of appropriate control and resource allocation optimization techniques. The problem is further compounded by the fact that designing appropriate network control methodologies subject to bandwidth, latencies and computational resources for these network-centric systems are highly non-trivial. In this paper, we only investigate one of a number of critical issues that are of interest in this domain, namely the problem of congestion control of a network that consists of three nodes that can be configured into different architectures. This study shows that depending on the interconnections between the network nodes the dynamics of the resulting closed-loop system can change considerably so that the unmanned system could become even unstable and unmanageable. Therefore, a robust control strategy is required to be able to cope with any configuration changes and to be able to address the resource allocation problem subject to the propagation delays and latencies. For sake of comparative evaluation, we first implement a standard PID control scheme which is shown to lack sufficient capability for achieving the desired performance requirements. Subsequently, a nonlinear control scheme is proposed to resolve the limitation of sensitivity of the closed-loop system to propagation delays. The proposed strategy is based on a well-known input-output feedback linearization approach that is shown to achieve an appreciable improvement in the performance of the closed-loop unmanned network and which is also less sensitive to the network propagation delays.

  11. Improved GRACE regional mass balance estimates of the Greenland ice sheet cross-validated with the input-output method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zheng; Schrama, Ernst J. O.; van der Wal, Wouter; van den Broeke, Michiel; Enderlin, Ellyn M.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we use satellite gravimetry data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to estimate regional mass change of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and neighboring glaciated regions using a least squares inversion approach. We also consider results from the input-output method (IOM). The IOM quantifies the difference between the mass input and output of the GrIS by studying the surface mass balance (SMB) and the ice discharge (D). We use the Regional Atmospheric Climate Model version 2.3 (RACMO2.3) to model the SMB and derive the ice discharge from 12 years of high-precision ice velocity and thickness surveys. We use a simulation model to quantify and correct for GRACE approximation errors in mass change between different subregions of the GrIS, and investigate the reliability of pre-1990s ice discharge estimates, which are based on the modeled runoff. We find that the difference between the IOM and our improved GRACE mass change estimates is reduced in terms of the long-term mass change when using a reference discharge derived from runoff estimates in several subareas. In most regions our GRACE and IOM solutions are consistent with other studies, but differences remain in the northwestern GrIS. We validate the GRACE mass balance in that region by considering several different GIA models and mass change estimates derived from data obtained by the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). We conclude that the approximated mass balance between GRACE and IOM is consistent in most GrIS regions. The difference in the northwest is likely due to underestimated uncertainties in the IOM solutions.

  12. Computer-Mediated Input, Output and Feedback in the Development of L2 Word Recognition from Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Joshua; Cheng, Junyu; O'Toole, John Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the impact of computer-mediated input, output and feedback on the development of second language (L2) word recognition from speech (WRS). A quasi-experimental pre-test/treatment/post-test research design was used involving three intact tertiary level English as a Second Language (ESL) classes. Classes were either assigned to…

  13. INPUT-OUTPUT BUDGETS OF INORGANIC NITROGEN FOR 24 FOREST WATERSHEDS IN THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Input-output budgets for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) are summarized for 24 small watersheds at 15 locations in the northeasternUnited States. The study watersheds are completely forested, free of recent physical disturbances, and span a geographical region bounded by West ...

  14. Linear system identification - The application of Lion's identification scheme to a third order system with noisy input-output measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, C. M., Jr.; Monopoli, R. V.

    1974-01-01

    A linear system identification technique developed by Lion is adapted for use on a third-order system with six unknown parameters and noisy input-output measurements. A digital computer is employed so that rapid identification takes place with only two state variable filters. Bias in the parameter estimates is partially eliminated by a signal-to-noise ratio testing procedure.

  15. Application of optimization technique to noncrystalline x-ray diffraction microscopy: Guided hybrid input-output method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Miao, Jianwei; Wang, C. W.; Lee, T. K.

    2007-08-01

    We have developed an algorithm that combines the concept of optimization with the conventional hybrid input-output (HIO) algorithm for phase retrieval of oversampled diffraction intensities. In particular, the optimization algorithm of guiding searching direction to locate the global minimum has been implemented. Compared with HIO, this guided HIO algorithm retrieves the lost phase information from diffraction intensities with much better accuracy.

  16. Ranking Hearing Aid Input-Output Functions for Understanding Low-, Conversational-, and High-Level Speech in Multitalker Babble

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, King; Killion, Mead C.; Christensen, Laurel A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the rankings of 6 input-output functions for understanding low-level, conversational, and high-level speech in multitalker babble without manipulating volume control for listeners with normal hearing, flat sensorineural hearing loss, and mildly sloping sensorineural hearing loss. Method: Peak clipping, compression limiting,…

  17. INPUT-OUTPUT BUDGETS OF INORGANIC NITROGEN FOR 24 FOREST WATERSHEDS IN THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Input-output budgets for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) are summarized for 24 small watersheds at 15 locations in the northeasternUnited States. The study watersheds are completely forested, free of recent physical disturbances, and span a geographical region bounded by West ...

  18. The Comparative Effects of Comprehensible Input, Output and Corrective Feedback on the Receptive Acquisition of L2 Vocabulary Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowbakht, Mohammad; Shahnazari, Mohammadtaghi

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the comparative effects of comprehensible input, output and corrective feedback on the receptive acquisition of L2 vocabulary items were investigated. Two groups of beginning EFL learners participated in the study. The control group received comprehensible input only, while the experimental group received input and was…

  19. Ranking Hearing Aid Input-Output Functions for Understanding Low-, Conversational-, and High-Level Speech in Multitalker Babble

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, King; Killion, Mead C.; Christensen, Laurel A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the rankings of 6 input-output functions for understanding low-level, conversational, and high-level speech in multitalker babble without manipulating volume control for listeners with normal hearing, flat sensorineural hearing loss, and mildly sloping sensorineural hearing loss. Method: Peak clipping, compression limiting,…

  20. Computer-Mediated Input, Output and Feedback in the Development of L2 Word Recognition from Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Joshua; Cheng, Junyu; O'Toole, John Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the impact of computer-mediated input, output and feedback on the development of second language (L2) word recognition from speech (WRS). A quasi-experimental pre-test/treatment/post-test research design was used involving three intact tertiary level English as a Second Language (ESL) classes. Classes were either assigned to…

  1. Input-output budgets of inorganic nitrogen for 24 forest watersheds in the northeastern United States: a review

    Treesearch

    John L. Campbell; James W. Hornbeck; Myron J. Mitchell; Mary Beth Adams; Mark S. Castro; Charles T. Driscoll; Jeffrey S. Kahl; James N. Kochenderfer; Gene E. Likens; James A. Lynch; Peter S. Murdoch; Sarah J. Nelson; James B. Shanley

    2004-01-01

    Input-output budgets for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) are summarized for 24 small watersheds at 15 locations in the northeastern United States. The study watersheds are completely forested, free of recent physical disturbances, and span a geographical region bounded by West Virginia on the south and west, and Maine on the north and east. Total N budgets are not...

  2. Estimates of embodied global energy and air-emission intensities of Japanese products for building a Japanese input-output life cycle assessment database with a global system boundary.

    PubMed

    Nansai, Keisuke; Kondo, Yasushi; Kagawa, Shigemi; Suh, Sangwon; Nakajima, Kenichi; Inaba, Rokuta; Tohno, Susumu

    2012-08-21

    To build a life cycle assessment (LCA) database of Japanese products embracing their global supply chains in a manner requiring lower time and labor burdens, this study estimates the intensity of embodied global environmental burden for commodities produced in Japan. The intensity of embodied global environmental burden is a measure of the environmental burden generated globally by unit production of the commodity and can be used as life cycle inventory data in LCA. The calculation employs an input-output LCA method with a global link input-output model that defines a global system boundary grounded in a simplified multiregional input-output framework. As results, the intensities of embodied global environmental burden for 406 Japanese commodities are determined in terms of energy consumption, greenhouse-gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, perfluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and their summation), and air-pollutant emissions (nitrogen oxide and sulfur oxide). The uncertainties in the intensities of embodied global environmental burden attributable to the simplified structure of the global link input-output model are quantified using Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, by analyzing the structure of the embodied global greenhouse-gas intensities we characterize Japanese commodities in the context of LCA embracing global supply chains.

  3. The Canadian Defence Input-Output Model DIO Version 4.41

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    other syrups 124 1080 Prepared cake and other mixes 125 1090 Dehydrated soup mixes and bases 126 1100 Roasted coffee 127 1110 Tea 128 1120 Potato...5910 Cocoa beans 702 5920 Coffee , not roasted 703 5930 Tropical fruit 704 5940 Unallocated imports and exports 705 5950 Sales of other government

  4. Utilizing Physical Input-Output Model to Inform Nitrogen related Ecosystem Services

    EPA Science Inventory

    Here we describe the development of nitrogen PIOTs for the midwestern US state of Illinois with large inputs of nitrogen from agriculture and industry. The PIOTs are used to analyze the relationship between regional economic activities and ecosystem services in order to identify...

  5. Utilizing Physical Input-Output Model to Inform Nitrogen related Ecosystem Services

    EPA Science Inventory

    Here we describe the development of nitrogen PIOTs for the midwestern US state of Illinois with large inputs of nitrogen from agriculture and industry. The PIOTs are used to analyze the relationship between regional economic activities and ecosystem services in order to identify...

  6. A Variable Input-Output Model for Inflation, Growth, and Energy for the Korean Economy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    source of energy to the coal mining industry . Its input elasticity is 0.0496, followed by the petroleum oroduc-s, 0.0102. Crude petroleum is the largest...ationary i mpacts when a wage hike is " intrcduced. The largest Irfla-ionary moact comes to k coal mining industry . A one percent 1vicrease -n wages in the...coal mining industry rs sults in a 0.9654 percent -ncrease in price levels. The inflationary impact of a one og9rcent wage hike is 0.CC5891 fcr

  7. US-CERT Control System Center Input/Output (I/O) Conceputal Design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-02-01

    This document was prepared for the US-CERT Control Systems Center of the National Cyber Security Division (NCSD) of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). DHS has been tasked under the Homeland Security Act of 2002 to coordinate the overall national effort to enhance the protection of the national critical infrastructure. Homeland Security Presidential Directive HSPD-7 directs the federal departments to identify and prioritize critical infrastructure and protect it from terrorist attack. The US-CERT National Strategy for Control Systems Security was prepared by the NCSD to address the control system security component addressed in the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace and the National Strategy for the Physical Protection of Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets. The US-CERT National Strategy for Control Systems Security identified five high-level strategic goals for improving cyber security of control systems; the I/O upgrade described in this document supports these goals. The vulnerability assessment Test Bed, located in the Information Operations Research Center (IORC) facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), consists of a cyber test facility integrated with multiple test beds that simulate the nation's critical infrastructure. The fundamental mission of the Test Bed is to provide industry owner/operators, system vendors, and multi-agency partners of the INL National Security Division a platform for vulnerability assessments of control systems. The Input/Output (I/O) upgrade to the Test Bed (see Work Package 3.1 of the FY-05 Annual Work Plan) will provide for the expansion of assessment capabilities within the IORC facility. It will also provide capabilities to connect test beds within the Test Range and other Laboratory resources. This will allow real time I/O data input and communication channels for full replications of control systems (Process Control Systems [PCS], Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems [SCADA], and components

  8. Microsimulation Model Predicts Survival Benefit of Radiofrequency Ablation and Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Versus Radiotherapy for Treating Inoperable Stage I Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tramontano, Angela C.; Cipriano, Lauren E.; Kong, Chung Yin; Shepard, Jo-Anne O.; Lanuti, Michael; Gazelle, G. Scott; McMahon, Pamela M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE A subset of patients with stage IA and IB non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is ineligible for surgical resection and undergoes radiation therapy. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and stereotactic body radiotherapy are newer potentially attractive alternative therapies. MATERIALS AND METHODS We added RFA and stereotactic body radiotherapy treatment modules to a microsimulation model that simulates lung cancer’s natural history, detection, and treatment. Natural history parameters were previously estimated via calibration against tumor registry data and cohort studies; the model was validated with screening study and cohort data. RFA model parameters were calibrated against 2-year survival from the Radiofrequency Ablation of Pulmonary Tumor Response Evaluation (RAPTURE) study, and stereotactic body radiotherapy model parameters were calibrated against 3-year survival from a phase 2 prospective trial. We simulated lifetime histories of identical patients with early-stage NSCLC who were ineligible for resection, who were treated with radiation therapy, RFA, or stereotactic body radiotherapy under a range of scenarios. From 5,000,000 simulated individuals, we selected a cohort of patients with stage I medically inoperable cancer for analysis (n = 2056 per treatment scenario). Main outcomes were life expectancy gains. RESULTS RFA or stereotactic body radiotherapy treatment in patients with peripheral stage IA or IB NSCLC who were nonoperative candidates resulted in life expectancy gains of 1.71 and 1.46 life-years, respectively, compared with universal radiation therapy. A strategy where patients with central tumors underwent stereotactic body radiotherapy and those with peripheral tumors underwent RFA resulted in a gain of 2.02 life-years compared with universal radiation therapy. Findings were robust with respect to changes in model parameters. CONCLUSION Microsimulation modeling results suggest that RFA and stereotactic body radiotherapy could provide life

  9. Atomic entanglement purification and concentration using coherent state input-output process in low-Q cavity QED regime.

    PubMed

    Cao, Cong; Wang, Chuan; He, Ling-Yan; Zhang, Ru

    2013-02-25

    We investigate an atomic entanglement purification protocol based on the coherent state input-output process by working in low-Q cavity in the atom-cavity intermediate coupling region. The information of entangled states are encoded in three-level configured single atoms confined in separated one-side optical micro-cavities. Using the coherent state input-output process, we design a two-qubit parity check module (PCM), which allows the quantum nondemolition measurement for the atomic qubits, and show its use for remote parities to distill a high-fidelity atomic entangled ensemble from an initial mixed state ensemble nonlocally. The proposed scheme can further be used for unknown atomic states entanglement concentration. Also by exploiting the PCM, we describe a modified scheme for atomic entanglement concentration by introducing ancillary single atoms. As the coherent state input-output process is robust and scalable in realistic applications, and the detection in the PCM is based on the intensity of outgoing coherent state, the present protocols may be widely used in large-scaled and solid-based quantum repeater and quantum information processing.

  10. Evaluation of input output efficiency of oil field considering undesirable output —A case study of sandstone reservoir in Xinjiang oilfield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuying; Wu, Xuquan; Li, Deshan; Xu, Yadong; Song, Shulin

    2017-06-01

    Based on the input and output data of sandstone reservoir in Xinjiang oilfield, the SBM-Undesirable model is used to study the technical efficiency of each block. Results show that: the model of SBM-undesirable to evaluate its efficiency and to avoid defects caused by traditional DEA model radial angle, improve the accuracy of the efficiency evaluation. by analyzing the projection of the oil blocks, we find that each block is in the negative external effects of input redundancy and output deficiency benefit and undesirable output, and there are greater differences in the production efficiency of each block; the way to improve the input-output efficiency of oilfield is to optimize the allocation of resources, reduce the undesirable output and increase the expected output.

  11. Mercury Inputs, Outputs, Cycling, and Ambient Concentrations under the Forest Canopy in the Adirondacks of New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, H.; Holsen, T.

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated mercury inputs, outputs, cycling, and the interactions between deposition, emissions and atmospheric conditions in the Huntington Forest of the Adirondacks, New York. Continuous speciated mercury concentrations of gaseous elemental Hg (GEM), reactive gaseous Hg (RGM), and particulate Bound Hg (PBM) were made from June 2006 to May 2007. The average concentrations of GEM, RGM, and PBM were 1.4 ± 0.4 ng m-3, 1.8 ± 2.2 pg m-3, and 3.2 ± 3.7 pg m-3, respectively. A hybrid receptor modeling technique (potential source contribution function (PSCF)) was used with the speciated Hg concentrations to identify possible Hg sources. Major Hg sources that have a potential to contribute high Hg concentrations observed in the Adirondacks were found to be Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, Kentucky, Texas, Indiana, and Missouri. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) total Hg concentration in throughfall (Dec. 2004 to Dec. 2006) (6.6 ng L-1) was higher than in precipitation (4.9 ng L-1), while the total cumulative Hg flux in throughfall (12.0 µg m-2) was similar to precipitation (11.6 µg m-2). The emission flux of GEM from the forest floor measured using a polycarbonate dynamic flux chamber (DFC) was highest in spring, and summer, and lowest in winter. The yearly estimated Hg inputs into the forest canopy include throughfall (6.5 g m-2 year-1), litterfall (18.3 g m-2 year-1), and dry deposition during leaf-off periods (0.4g m-2 year-1). The yearly estimated Hg outputs from the forest canopy include emission from the forest floor (7.0g m-2 year-1), soil water (0.6 g m-2 year-1), and Hg loss via evaporation or overland flow during snow melt (1.0 g m-2 year-1). Litterfall represented the most significant input of Hg to this forest ecosystem. Based on this mass balance, 16.6 g m-2 of Hg is accumulating in the forest floor every year.

  12. Estimation of the contribution of exports to the provincial economy: an analysis based on China's multi-regional input-output tables.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sanmang; Li, Shantong; Lei, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    This paper developed an estimation model for the contribution of exports to a country's regional economy based on the Chenery-Moses model and conducted an empirical analysis using China's multi-regional input-output tables for 1997, 2002, and 2007. The results indicated that China's national exports make significantly different contributions to the provincial economy in various regions, with the greatest contribution being observed in the eastern region and the smallest in the central region. The provinces are also subjected to significantly different export spillover effects. The boosting effect for the eastern provinces is primarily generated from local exports, whereas the western provinces primarily benefit from the export spillover effect from the eastern provinces. The eastern provinces, such as Guangdong, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, and Shanghai, are the primary sources of export spillover effects, and Guangdong is the largest source of export spillover effects for almost all of the provinces in China.

  13. An application of input-output analysis in analyzing the impacts of final demands changes on the total outputs of Japanese energy sectors: A further study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to continue the previous study which discussed the impacts of final demands changes on the total outputs of Japanese energy sectors. More specifically, this study aims to conduct a deeper analysis regarding these impacts. This study employs a demand-pull Input- Output (IO) quantity model, one of the calculation instruments in IO analysis, as a tool of analysis. This study focuses on two sectors, namely (1) petroleum refinery products, and (2) non-ferrous metals. Two conditions are considered in the analysis part, namely (1) “whole sector change”, and (2) “pure change”. The results show that in both conditions, both discussed sectors have similar patterns. The results also explain that, in both conditions, the biggest positive impact for the sector of petroleum refinery products is given by scenario 4, the modification of consumption expenditures of private.

  14. Experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS) input/output controller (IOC) application developer`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Kraimer, M.R.

    1994-05-01

    This document describes the core software that resides in an Input/Output Controller (IOC), one of the major components of EPICS. The plan of the book is: EPICS overview, IOC test facilities, general purpose features, database locking - scanning - and processing, static database access, runtime database access, database scanning, record and device support, device support library, IOC database configuration, IOC initialization, and database structures. Other than the first chapter this document describes only core IOC software. Thus it does not describe other EPICS tools such as the sequencer. It also does not describe Channel Access, a major IOC component.

  15. An input-output approach to analyze the ways to increase total output of energy sectors: The case of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the ways to increase total output of Japanese energy sectors in future time. In this study, Input-Output (IO) analysis is employed as a tool of analysis. This study focuses on petroleum refinery products and non-ferrous metals as analyzed sectors. The results show that positive impact observed in export and outside households consumption modifications while opposite impact is given by modification of import. The recommendations suggested based on these results are Japanese government should make breakthroughs so analyzed sector's export activities can increase and they have to careful in conducting import activities related to these sectors.

  16. An input-output table based analysis on the virtual water by sectors with the five northwest provinces in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chenchen; Zhan, Jinyan

    Virtual water refers to the volumes of water required to produce a commodity or service. It reflects human's actual consumption of water resources and therefore has certain significance in water resources management. Over the years, the concept of virtual water has caught the attentions of water manager and decision maker. In order to utilize this concept, the accounting and estimation of virtual water is the foundation that lies in this issue. Till now, the accounting methods mainly include the method provided by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), water footprint and input-output analysis method. In this paper, we chose Northwest China, which is a typical arid region that is facing with rapid economic development, as the study area and built an Input-Output (IO) analysis method to estimate virtual water among different industry sectors in the northwest China. The accounting and estimation results could be used to give suggestions to increase water use efficiency and promote virtual water trade in the study area. Comparison of the proposed method with other prevailing method was also analyzed. The introduced method could be utilized for accounting and estimation of virtual water by sectors, with its superiority in characterizing industrial water consumption and the accounting results could lend certain credence to the water resource management and industrial transformation for the future economic development of northwest China.

  17. Compilation and application of Japanese inventories for energy consumption and air pollutant emissions using input-output tables.

    PubMed

    Nansai, Keisuke; Moriguchi, Yuichi; Tohno, Susumu

    2003-05-01

    Preparing emission inventories is essential to the assessment and management of our environment. In this study, Japanese air pollutant emissions, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions categorized by approximately 400 sectors (as classified by Japanese input-output tables in 1995) were estimated, and the contributions of each sector to the total amounts were analyzed. The air pollutants examined were nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), and suspended particulate matter (SPM). Consumptions of about 20 fossil fuels and five other fuels were estimated according to sector. Air pollutant emission factors for stationary sources were calculated from the results of a survey on air pollution prevention in Japan. Pollutant emissions from mobile sources were estimated taking into consideration vehicle types, traveling speeds, and distances. This work also counted energy supply and emissions from seven nonfossil fuel sources, including nonthermal electric power, and CO2 emissions from limestone (for example, during cement production). The total energy consumption in 1995 was concluded to be 18.3 EJ, and the annual total emissions of CO2, NOx, SOx, and SPM were, respectively, 343 Mt-C, 3.51 Mt, 1.87 Mt, and 0.32 Mt. An input-output analysis of the emission inventories was used to calculate the amounts of energy consumption and emissions induced in each sector by the economic final demand.

  18. Optimal fixed-finite-dimensional compensator for Burgers' equation with unbounded input/output operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, John A.; Marrekchi, Hamadi

    1993-01-01

    The problem of using reduced order dynamic compensators to control a class of nonlinear parabolic distributed parameter systems was considered. Concentration was on a system with unbounded input and output operators governed by Burgers' equation. A linearized model was used to compute low-order-finite-dimensional control laws by minimizing certain energy functionals. Then these laws were applied to the nonlinear model. Standard approaches to this problem employ model/controller reduction techniques in conjunction with linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) theory. The approach used is based on the finite dimensional Bernstein/Hyland optimal projection theory which yields a fixed-finite-order controller.

  19. Economic interrelationships and impacts of the aviation/aerospace industry in the state of Florida using input-output analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whealan George, Kelly

    The study provided a detailed description of the interrelatedness of the aviation and aerospace industry with principal industries in Florida and Volusia County (VC) using Input-Output (IO) analysis. Additionally, this research provided an economic impact analysis of the creation of a university research park in Daytona Beach (DB). The economic impact measures included not only direct economic output and industry employment descriptions but also described the multiplier effects in the form of indirect and induced impacts using data for 2012. This research concluded the average labor income of the aviation and aerospace industry was higher than average labor income in Florida and VC. A substantive difference between the Florida and VC average labor income for the aviation and aerospace industry existed because VC's aerospace sector was only concentrated in the search, detection, and navigation instruments manufacturing sector. VC's transport by air sector was one-fifth the size of Florida's. Differences in the aviation and aerospace industry composition between Florida and VC are important because the economic impacts from a shock to the entire aviation and aerospace industry will be distributed differently. Since the aviation and aerospace average labor income is higher than the average labor income in Florida and VC, it would be a positive move for Florida's economy to attract and grow the aviation and aerospace industry. It would be highly unlikely that the entirety of newly created jobs would be resourced from the local population. Nonetheless, growing the aviation and aerospace industry jobs would have a positive influence on the region's economy and tax revenues. It would be a desirable course of action to spur the growth of this sector, as its direct effect would culminate with additional jobs in Florida that would bring higher wage jobs to the state. The interdependencies of the aviation and aerospace industry in Florida and VC with other industries had a

  20. Input-Output Stability Analysis with Magnetic Hysteresis Non-Linearity - A Class of Multipliers,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-08

    Circuit Theory, Vol. CT-17. that the same properties hold for yl(t). i.e.. p. 564. Nov. 1970. YI(t)ELa, is continuous, and go to zero as t--. [12] Desoer ...inductor (trans- former), but from circuit analysis point of view. zero as t . the input and output of the model replaced for N U as shown in Fig. (2...output [I. I],"Lumped- Circuit Models for Non-linearcof Industors Exhibiting Hysteresis Loop.’therefore, eEL., and el(t)- 0 as t- . imply IEEE Trans. on

  1. A controls engineering approach for analyzing airplane input-output characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbuckle, P. Douglas

    1991-01-01

    An engineering approach for analyzing airplane control and output characteristics is presented. State-space matrix equations describing the linear perturbation dynamics are transformed from physical coordinates into scaled coordinates. The scaling is accomplished by applying various transformations to the system to employ prior engineering knowledge of the airplane physics. Two different analysis techniques are then explained. Modal analysis techniques calculate the influence of each system input on each fundamental mode of motion and the distribution of each mode among the system outputs. The optimal steady state response technique computes the blending of steady state control inputs that optimize the steady state response of selected system outputs. Analysis of an example airplane model is presented to demonstrate the described engineering approach.

  2. Response of Cryolite-Based Bath to a Shift in Heat Input/output Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingjing; Taylor, Mark; Dorreen, Mark

    2016-12-01

    A technology for low amperage potline operation is now recognized as a competitive advantage for the aluminum smelting industry in order to align smelter operations with the power and aluminum price markets. This study investigates the cryolite-based bath response to heat balance shifts when the heat extraction from the bath is adjusted to different levels in a laboratory analogue. In the analogue experiments, the heat balance shift is driven by a graphite `cold finger' heat exchanger, which can control the heat extraction from the analogue, and a corresponding change in heat input from the furnace which maintains the control temperature of the lab "cell." This paper reports the first experimental results from shifting the steady state of the lab cell heat balance, and investigates the effects on the frozen ledge and bath superheat. The lab cell energy balances are compared with energy balances in a published industrial cell model.

  3. Response of Cryolite-Based Bath to a Shift in Heat Input/output Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingjing; Taylor, Mark; Dorreen, Mark

    2017-04-01

    A technology for low amperage potline operation is now recognized as a competitive advantage for the aluminum smelting industry in order to align smelter operations with the power and aluminum price markets. This study investigates the cryolite-based bath response to heat balance shifts when the heat extraction from the bath is adjusted to different levels in a laboratory analogue. In the analogue experiments, the heat balance shift is driven by a graphite `cold finger' heat exchanger, which can control the heat extraction from the analogue, and a corresponding change in heat input from the furnace which maintains the control temperature of the lab "cell." This paper reports the first experimental results from shifting the steady state of the lab cell heat balance, and investigates the effects on the frozen ledge and bath superheat. The lab cell energy balances are compared with energy balances in a published industrial cell model.

  4. Nonlinear SVM-DTC for induction motor drive using input-output feedback linearization and high order sliding mode control.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Abdelkarim; Bourek, Amor; Benakcha, Abdelhamid

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear Direct Torque Control (DTC) strategy with Space Vector Modulation (SVM) for an induction motor. A nonlinear input-output feedback linearization (IOFL) is implemented to achieve a decoupled torque and flux control and the SVM is employed to reduce high torque and flux ripples. Furthermore, the control scheme performance is improved by inserting a super twisting speed controller in the outer loop and a load torque observer to enhance the speed regulation. The combining of dual nonlinear strategies ensures a good dynamic and robustness against parameters variation and disturbance. The system stability has been analyzed using Lyapunov stability theory. The effectiveness of the control algorithm is investigated by simulation and experimental validation using Matlab/Simulink software with real-time interface based on dSpace 1104. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modified technique for differential mode delay map measurement by scanning of input/output ends of tested multimode fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdine, Anton V.; Burdin, Vladimir A.; Pashin, Stanislav S.; Praporshchikov, Denis E.; Sevruk, Nikita L.

    2016-03-01

    We present modified technique for differential mode delay map measurement. Here according to well-known methods a fast laser pulse is also launched into a tested multimode fiber (MMF) via single mode fiber (SMF), which scans core of MMF under precision offset positions. However unlike known technique formalized in ratified standards, proposed modification differs by addition scanning of the output end of tested MMF by short tail of SMF. Therefore for each radial offset position at the input/output MMF ends, the shape of pulse response of launched optical signal is recorded, that provides to get more informative differential mode delay map. This work presents some results of experimental approbation of proposed modified technique for differential mode delay map measurement.

  6. Ultrasonic input-output for transmitting and receiving longitudinal transducers coupled to same face of isotropic elastic plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. H., Jr.; Karagulle, H.; Lee, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    The quantitative understanding of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation parameters such as the stress wave factor were studied. Ultrasonic input/output characteristics for an isotropic elastic plate with transmitting and receiving longitudinal transducers coupled to the same face were analyzed. The asymptotic normal stress is calculated for an isotropic elastic half space subjected to a uniform harmonic normal stress applied to a circular region at the surface. The radiated stress waves are traced within the plate by considering wave reflections at the top and bottom faces. The output voltage amplitude of the receiving transducer is estimated by considering only longitudinal waves. Agreement is found between the output voltage wave packet amplitudes and times of arrival due to multiple reflections of the longitudinal waves.

  7. Economy-wide material input/output and dematerialization analysis of Jilin Province (China).

    PubMed

    Li, MingSheng; Zhang, HuiMin; Li, Zhi; Tong, LianJun

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, both direct material input (DMI) and domestic processed output (DPO) of Jilin Province in 1990-2006 were calculated and then based on these two indexes, a dematerialization model was established. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) both direct material input and domestic processed output increase at a steady rate during 1990-2006, with average annual growth rates of 4.19% and 2.77%, respectively. (2) The average contribution rate of material input to economic growth is 44%, indicating that the economic growth is visibly extensive. (3) During the studied period, accumulative quantity of material input dematerialization is 11,543 x 10(4) t and quantity of waste dematerialization is 5,987 x10(4) t. Moreover, dematerialization gaps are positive, suggesting that the potential of dematerialization has been well fulfilled. (4) In most years of the analyzed period, especially 2003-2006, the economic system of Jilin Province represents an unsustainable state. The accelerated economic growth relies mostly on excessive resources consumption after the Revitalization Strategy of Northeast China was launched.

  8. Estimating raw material equivalents on a macro-level: comparison of multi-regional input-output analysis and hybrid LCI-IO.

    PubMed

    Schoer, Karl; Wood, Richard; Arto, Iñaki; Weinzettel, Jan

    2013-12-17

    The mass of material consumed by a population has become a useful proxy for measuring environmental pressure. The "raw material equivalents" (RME) metric of material consumption addresses the issue of including the full supply chain (including imports) when calculating national or product level material impacts. The RME calculation suffers from data availability, however, as quantitative data on production practices along the full supply chain (in different regions) is required. Hence, the RME is currently being estimated by three main approaches: (1) assuming domestic technology in foreign economies, (2) utilizing region-specific life-cycle inventories (in a hybrid framework), and (3) utilizing multi-regional input-output (MRIO) analysis to explicitly cover all regions of the supply chain. While the first approach has been shown to give inaccurate results, this paper focuses on the benefits and costs of the latter two approaches. We analyze results from two key (MRIO and hybrid) projects modeling raw material equivalents, adjusting the models in a stepwise manner in order to quantify the effects of individual conceptual elements. We attempt to isolate the MRIO gap, which denotes the quantitative impact of calculating the RME of imports by an MRIO approach instead of the hybrid model, focusing on the RME of EU external trade imports. While, the models give quantitatively similar results, differences become more pronounced when tracking more detailed material flows. We assess the advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches and look forward to ways to further harmonize data and approaches.

  9. Breeding for resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes - the potential in low-input/output small ruminant production systems.

    PubMed

    Zvinorova, P I; Halimani, T E; Muchadeyi, F C; Matika, O; Riggio, V; Dzama, K

    2016-07-30

    The control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is mainly based on the use of drugs, grazing management, use of copper oxide wire particles and bioactive forages. Resistance to anthelmintic drugs in small ruminants is documented worldwide. Host genetic resistance to parasites, has been increasingly used as a complementary control strategy, along with the conventional intervention methods mentioned above. Genetic diversity in resistance to GIN has been well studied in experimental and commercial flocks in temperate climates and more developed economies. However, there are very few report outputs from the more extensive low-input/output smallholder systems in developing and emerging countries. Furthermore, results on quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with nematode resistance from various studies have not always been consistent, mainly due to the different nematodes studied, different host breeds, ages, climates, natural infections versus artificial challenges, infection level at sampling periods, among others. The increasing use of genetic markers (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, SNPs) in GWAS or the use of whole genome sequence data and a plethora of analytic methods offer the potential to identify loci or regions associated nematode resistance. Genomic selection as a genome-wide level method overcomes the need to identify candidate genes. Benefits in genomic selection are now being realised in dairy cattle and sheep under commercial settings in the more advanced countries. However, despite the commercial benefits of using these tools, there are practical problems associated with incorporating the use of marker-assisted selection or genomic selection in low-input/output smallholder farming systems breeding schemes. Unlike anthelmintic resistance, there is no empirical evidence suggesting that nematodes will evolve rapidly in response to resistant hosts. The strategy of nematode control has evolved to a more practical manipulation of host-parasite equilibrium

  10. Mirror-based surface optical input/output technology with precise and arbitrary coupling angle for silicon photonic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noriki, Akihiro; Amano, Takeru; Mori, Masahiko; Sakakibara, Yoichi

    2017-04-01

    Mirror-based surface optical coupling is an attractive technology for the optical input/output of Si photonics. For the practical use of the mirror-based surface optical coupling, we evaluated its coupling angle controllability. Different angular mirrors were integrated into 3 × 3-µm-square single-mode silicon oxynitride optical waveguides on Si substrates. Near- and far-field patterns of optical beams output from the mirrors were measured to evaluate the beam characteristics and coupling angles. We successfully controlled the coupling angle over a wide range of more than 20° without beam characteristic variation, and perfect vertical output, which is difficult to achieve using grating couplers, was successfully demonstrated. The coupling angle error was less than ±1°, which was sufficiently small to ignore additional coupling loss. The wavelength dependence of the coupling angle was also evaluated and found to be less than ±0.5° over wide wavelength ranges of 1.26–1.36 and 1.52–1.62 µm.

  11. Design and microwave test of an ultrawideband input/output structure for sheet beam travelling wave tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, Guoxiang; Wang, Jianxun; Liu, Guo; Yang, Liya; Luo, Yong; Wang, Shafei

    2015-06-15

    Broadband operation is of great importance for the applications of travelling wave tubes such as high-data communication and wideband radar. An input/output (I/O) structure operating with broadband property plays a significant role to achieve these applications. In this paper, a Y-type branch waveguide (YTBW) coupler and its improvements are proposed and utilized to construct an extremely wideband I/O structure to ensure the broadband operation for sheet beam travelling wave tubes (SB-TWTs). Cascaded reflection resonators are utilized to improve the isolation characteristic and transmission efficiency. Furthermore, to minimize the reflectivity of the port connected with the RF circuit, wave-absorbing material (WAM) is loaded in the resonator. Simulation results for the YTBW loaded with WAM predict an excellent performance with a 50.2% relative bandwidth for port reflectivity under −15 dB, transmission up to −1.5 dB, and meanwhile isolation under −20 dB. In addition, the coupler has a relatively compact configuration and the beam tunnel can be widened, which is beneficial for the propagation of the electrons. A Q-band YTBW loaded with two reflection resonators is fabricated and microwave tested. Vector network analyzer (VNA) measured results have an excellent agreement with our simulation, which verify our theoretical analysis and simulation calculation.

  12. Design and microwave test of an ultrawideband input/output structure for sheet beam travelling wave tubes.

    PubMed

    Shu, Guoxiang; Wang, Jianxun; Liu, Guo; Yang, Liya; Luo, Yong; Wang, Shafei

    2015-06-01

    Broadband operation is of great importance for the applications of travelling wave tubes such as high-data communication and wideband radar. An input/output (I/O) structure operating with broadband property plays a significant role to achieve these applications. In this paper, a Y-type branch waveguide (YTBW) coupler and its improvements are proposed and utilized to construct an extremely wideband I/O structure to ensure the broadband operation for sheet beam travelling wave tubes (SB-TWTs). Cascaded reflection resonators are utilized to improve the isolation characteristic and transmission efficiency. Furthermore, to minimize the reflectivity of the port connected with the RF circuit, wave-absorbing material (WAM) is loaded in the resonator. Simulation results for the YTBW loaded with WAM predict an excellent performance with a 50.2% relative bandwidth for port reflectivity under -15 dB, transmission up to -1.5 dB, and meanwhile isolation under -20 dB. In addition, the coupler has a relatively compact configuration and the beam tunnel can be widened, which is beneficial for the propagation of the electrons. A Q-band YTBW loaded with two reflection resonators is fabricated and microwave tested. Vector network analyzer (VNA) measured results have an excellent agreement with our simulation, which verify our theoretical analysis and simulation calculation.

  13. A Comprehensive Estimation of the Economic Effects of Meteorological Services Based on the Input-Output Method

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xianhua; Yang, Lingjuan; Guo, Ji; Lu, Huaguo; Chen, Yunfeng; Sun, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Concentrating on consuming coefficient, partition coefficient, and Leontief inverse matrix, relevant concepts and algorithms are developed for estimating the impact of meteorological services including the associated (indirect, complete) economic effect. Subsequently, quantitative estimations are particularly obtained for the meteorological services in Jiangxi province by utilizing the input-output method. It is found that the economic effects are noticeably rescued by the preventive strategies developed from both the meteorological information and internal relevance (interdependency) in the industrial economic system. Another finding is that the ratio range of input in the complete economic effect on meteorological services is about 1 : 108.27–1 : 183.06, remarkably different from a previous estimation based on the Delphi method (1 : 30–1 : 51). Particularly, economic effects of meteorological services are higher for nontraditional users of manufacturing, wholesale and retail trades, services sector, tourism and culture, and art and lower for traditional users of agriculture, forestry, livestock, fishery, and construction industries. PMID:24578666

  14. Changes to pollutants and carbon emission multipliers in China 2007-2012: An input-output structural decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Jing; Liang, Qiao-Mei

    2017-12-01

    This study performed an input-output structural decomposition analysis on changes in COD, ammonia nitrogen, SO2, NOx, soot and dust, industrial solid waste, and CO2 emission multipliers for 41 final products over the period 2007-2012 in China. The results show that during the examined period, emission multipliers were, in general, decreasing. The main driver of this was technical effects. The effects that made a significant contribution were concentrated in eight sectors: coal mining and washing; metals mining and quarrying; food and tobacco products; paper printing manufacturing; the chemical industry; non-metallic mineral products; metal smelting and rolling processing; and electricity, heat production, and supply. Moreover, the technical effects presented an obvious spillover. Although the contribution of the structural effects was far less than the technical ones, there were still some structural adjustments that led to significant synergistic mitigation. For example, the decrease in the direct demand of the agriculture products, electricity, and heat for food and tobacco products commonly reduced SO2, NOx, and CO2. In addition, four technical effects and most of the structural effects with high efficiency made small contributions. More than one third of the structural effects that showed obvious contributions played a positive role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A comprehensive estimation of the economic effects of meteorological services based on the input-output method.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xianhua; Wei, Guo; Yang, Lingjuan; Guo, Ji; Lu, Huaguo; Chen, Yunfeng; Sun, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Concentrating on consuming coefficient, partition coefficient, and Leontief inverse matrix, relevant concepts and algorithms are developed for estimating the impact of meteorological services including the associated (indirect, complete) economic effect. Subsequently, quantitative estimations are particularly obtained for the meteorological services in Jiangxi province by utilizing the input-output method. It is found that the economic effects are noticeably rescued by the preventive strategies developed from both the meteorological information and internal relevance (interdependency) in the industrial economic system. Another finding is that the ratio range of input in the complete economic effect on meteorological services is about 1 : 108.27-1 : 183.06, remarkably different from a previous estimation based on the Delphi method (1 : 30-1 : 51). Particularly, economic effects of meteorological services are higher for nontraditional users of manufacturing, wholesale and retail trades, services sector, tourism and culture, and art and lower for traditional users of agriculture, forestry, livestock, fishery, and construction industries.

  16. Design and microwave test of an ultrawideband input/output structure for sheet beam travelling wave tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Guoxiang; Wang, Jianxun; Liu, Guo; Yang, Liya; Luo, Yong; Wang, Shafei

    2015-06-01

    Broadband operation is of great importance for the applications of travelling wave tubes such as high-data communication and wideband radar. An input/output (I/O) structure operating with broadband property plays a significant role to achieve these applications. In this paper, a Y-type branch waveguide (YTBW) coupler and its improvements are proposed and utilized to construct an extremely wideband I/O structure to ensure the broadband operation for sheet beam travelling wave tubes (SB-TWTs). Cascaded reflection resonators are utilized to improve the isolation characteristic and transmission efficiency. Furthermore, to minimize the reflectivity of the port connected with the RF circuit, wave-absorbing material (WAM) is loaded in the resonator. Simulation results for the YTBW loaded with WAM predict an excellent performance with a 50.2% relative bandwidth for port reflectivity under -15 dB, transmission up to -1.5 dB, and meanwhile isolation under -20 dB. In addition, the coupler has a relatively compact configuration and the beam tunnel can be widened, which is beneficial for the propagation of the electrons. A Q-band YTBW loaded with two reflection resonators is fabricated and microwave tested. Vector network analyzer (VNA) measured results have an excellent agreement with our simulation, which verify our theoretical analysis and simulation calculation.

  17. Analysis of input-output characteristic and generation cost optimization using quadratic least square regression and dynamic genetic algorithm method: Case study PT.PLN PJB UP Gresik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, Dedy K.; Anggraeni, Rina

    2017-03-01

    For optimization of electricity production, especially in the thermal power plant required analysis of input-output characteristics and operated optimally. Input-output characteristics will oversee the curve and detected the plant need for maintenance or not. Input-output characteristics can be calculated by quadratic least squares regression method. Operated load properly, making electricity production corresponding maximum desired load with lowest cost. Load calculations performed by dynamic genetic algorithm method. This method is applied to data from PT. Pembangkit Jawa Bali (PJB) Unit Pembangkit Gresik in July 2015 has saving 3.162,9147 kNm3 (kilo Normal cubic meters) fuel consumption and 22,773 fuel costs compared PJB. While applied to data December 2012 has saving 16.532,2189 liters fuel consumption and 84,654.79 fuel costs compared PT. PJB.

  18. Quality- and dilution losses in the recycling of ferrous materials from end-of-life passenger cars: input-output analysis under explicit consideration of scrap quality.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shinichiro; Kondo, Yasushi; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Nakajima, Kenichi; Tasaki, Tomohiro; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2012-09-04

    Metals can in theory be infinitely recycled in a closed-loop without any degradation in quality. In reality, however, open-loop recycling is more typical for metal scrap recovered from end-of-life (EoL) products because mixing of different metal species results in scrap quality that no longer matches the originals. Further losses occur when meeting the quality requirement of the target product requires dilution of the secondary material by adding high purity materials. Standard LCA usually does not address these losses. This paper presents a novel approach to quantifying quality- and dilution losses, by means of hybrid input-output analysis. We focus on the losses associated with the recycling of ferrous materials from end-of-life vehicle (ELV) due to the mixing of copper, a typical contaminant in steel recycling. Given the quality of scrap in terms of copper density, the model determines the ratio by which scrap needs to be diluted in an electric arc furnace (EAF), and the amount of demand for EAF steel including those quantities needed for dilution. Application to a high-resolution Japanese IO table supplemented with data on ferrous materials including different grades of scrap indicates that a nationwide avoidance of these losses could result in a significant reduction of CO(2) emissions.

  19. A New Approach to Compute the Cross-Gramian Matrix and its Application in Input-Output Pairing of Linear Multivariable Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moaveni, B.; Khaki-Sedigh, A.

    In this study, a new approach to solve the Sylvester equation, AX+XA = -BC is derived. The calculated cross-Gramian matrix, which results from the Sylvester equation, proposes a new input-output pairing analysis for stable multivariable plants. This new approach is based on the cross-Gramian matrix of SISO elementary subsystems built from the original MIMO plant and the main advantage of the method is its simplicity to choose the best input-output pair, though, it considers the plant dynamic properties.

  20. Effects of intermanual transfer induced by repetitive precision grip on input-output properties of untrained contralateral limb muscles.

    PubMed

    Liang, Nan; Takahashi, Makoto; Ni, Zhen; Yahagi, Susumu; Funase, Kozo; Kato, Takashi; Kasai, Tatsuya

    2007-10-01

    Although there were many reports relating to intermanual transfer of behavioral motor tasks in humans, it is still not well-known whether the transfer phenomenon between the trained and untrained hand is accompanied by corresponding changes in motor system. In the present study we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation to investigate the practice effects of unilateral fingertip precision grip on corticospinal excitability, regarding both the trained and untrained hand muscles. The results showed that after practice fingertip grip force became steady and safety margin dramatically decreased not only in the trained hand, but also in the untrained hand. Regarding MEP and background EMG (B.EMG) activities, the regression slope of MEP/B.EMG ratio in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle became significantly steeper after practice in both hands, but in the thenar (TH) muscle there were no clear modulations. These results indicated that through practice qualitative or functional changes of corticospinal systems related to the reorganization for a fingertip precision grip prominently reflect only on FDI muscle which plays a dominant role in the task. More importantly, such effects were simultaneously seen in the untrained hand correspondent to the trained hand, i.e., changes of input-output property in M1 occur not only in the trained hand, but also in the untrained hand. Based on the present results, we suggest that training-induced neural adaptations of the central nervous system may include improvement of its predicting fingertip grip force for self-lifting of the object in the untrained hand.

  1. Influence of current input-output and age of first exposure on phonological acquisition in early bilingual Spanish-English-speaking kindergarteners.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Felter, Roxanna; Cooperson, Solaman J; Bedore, Lisa M; Peña, Elizabeth D

    2016-07-01

    Although some investigations of phonological development have found that segmental accuracy is comparable in monolingual children and their bilingual peers, there is evidence that language use affects segmental accuracy in both languages. To investigate the influence of age of first exposure to English and the amount of current input-output on phonological accuracy in English and Spanish in early bilingual Spanish-English kindergarteners. Also whether parent and teacher ratings of the children's intelligibility are correlated with phonological accuracy and the amount of experience with each language. Data for 91 kindergarteners (mean age = 5;6 years) were selected from a larger dataset focusing on Spanish-English bilingual language development. All children were from Central Texas, spoke a Mexican Spanish dialect and were learning American English. Children completed a single-word phonological assessment with separate forms for English and Spanish. The assessment was analyzed for segmental accuracy: percentage of consonants and vowels correct and percentage of early-, middle- and late-developing (EML) sounds correct were calculated. Children were more accurate on vowel production than consonant production and showed a decrease in accuracy from early to middle to late sounds. The amount of current input-output explained more of the variance in phonological accuracy than age of first English exposure. Although greater current input-output of a language was associated with greater accuracy in that language, English-dominant children were only significantly more accurate in English than Spanish on late sounds, whereas Spanish-dominant children were only significantly more accurate in Spanish than English on early sounds. Higher parent and teacher ratings of intelligibility in Spanish were correlated with greater consonant accuracy in Spanish, but the same did not hold for English. Higher intelligibility ratings in English were correlated with greater current English

  2. [Spatial temporal differentiation of product-based and consumption-based CO2 emissions and balance in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region: an economic input- output analysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Chen, Cao-cao; Pan, Tao; Liu, Chun-lan; Chen, Long; Sun, Li

    2014-09-01

    Distinguishing product-based and consumption-based CO2 emissions in the open economic region is the basis for differentiating the emission responsibility, which is attracting increasing attention of decision-makers'attention. The spatial and temporal characteristics of product-based and consumption-based CO2 emissions, as well as carbon balance, in 1997, 2002 and 2007 of JING- JIN-JI region were analyzed by the Economic Input-Output-Life Cycle Assessment model. The results revealed that both the product- based and consumption-based CO2 emissions in the region have been increased by about 4% annually. The percentage of CO2 emissions embodied in trade was 30% -83% , to which the domestic trading added the most. The territorial and consumption-based CO2 emissions in Hebei province were the predominant emission in JING-JIN-JI region, and the increasing speed and emission intensity were stronger than those of Beijing and Tianjin. JING-JIN-JI region was a net inflow region of CO2 emissions, and parts of the emission responsibility were transferred. Beijing and Tianjin were the net importers of CO2 emissions, and Hebei was a net outflow area of CO2 emissions. The key CO2 emission departments in the region were concentrated, and the similarity was great. The inter-regional mechanisms could be set up for joint prevention and control work. - Production and distribution of electricity, gas and water and smelting and pressing of metals had the highest reliability on CO2 emissions, and took on the responsibility of other departments. The EIO-LCA model could be used to analyze the product-based and consumption-based CO2 emissions, which is helpful for the delicate management of regional CO2 emissions reduction and policies making, and stimulating the reduction cooperation at regional scale.

  3. Do Women with Inoperable Breast Cancer Have a Psychological Profile?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbar, Ora; Florian, Victor

    1991-01-01

    Compared psychological variables of 30 patients with inoperable breast cancer to matched group of 30 operable breast cancer patients. Found that women with inoperable breast cancer had higher scores in denial, exhaustion, hopelessness, worthlessness, depression, somatization, hostility, and psychoticism. Profile of inoperable cancer patients did…

  4. 14 CFR 91.1115 - Inoperable instruments and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inoperable instruments and equipment. 91... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1115 Inoperable instruments and equipment. (a) No person may take off an aircraft with inoperable instruments or equipment installed unless the following...

  5. Filling the gap in Ca input-output budgets in base-poor forest ecosystems: The contribution of non-crystalline phases evidenced by stable isotopic dilution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heijden, Gregory; Legout, Arnaud; Mareschal, Louis; Ranger, Jacques; Dambrine, Etienne

    2017-07-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems, plant-available pools of magnesium and calcium are assumed to be stored in the soil as exchangeable cations adsorbed on the surface of mineral and/or organic particles. The pools of exchangeable magnesium and calcium are measured by ion-exchange soil extractions. These pools are sustained in the long term by the weathering of primary minerals in the soil and atmospheric inputs. This conceptual model is the base of input-output budgets from which soil acidification and the sustainability of soil chemical fertility is inferred. However, this model has been questioned by data from long-term forest ecosystem monitoring sites, particularly for calcium. Quantifying the contribution of atmospheric inputs, ion exchange and weathering of both primary, secondary and non-crystalline phases to tree nutrition in the short term is challenging. In this study, we developed and applied a novel isotopic dilution technique using the stable isotopes of magnesium and calcium to study the contribution of the different soil phases to soil solution chemistry in a very acidic soil. The labile pools of Mg and Ca in the soil (pools in equilibrium with the soil solution) were isotopically labeled by spraying a solution enriched in 26Mg and 44Ca on the soil. Labeled soil columns were then percolated with a dilute acid solution during a 3-month period and the isotopic dilution of the tracers was monitored in the leaching solution, in the exchangeable (2 sequential 1 mol L-1 ammonium acetate extractions) and non-crystalline (2 sequential soil digestions: oxalic acid followed by nitric acid) phases. Significant amounts of Mg and Ca isotope tracer were recovered in the non-crystalline soil phases. These phases represented from 5% to 25% and from 24% to 50%, respectively, of the Mg and Ca labile pools during the experiment. Our results show that non-crystalline phases act as both a source and a sink of calcium and magnesium in the soil, and contribute directly to soil

  6. [Development of all-in-one multi-slit equipment for measurements of the input-output characteristic of a phosphor plate].

    PubMed

    Kimoto, Natsumi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Maehata, Itsumi; Nonomiya, Izumi; Takegami, Kazuki; Konishi, Yuki; Ujita, Syohei; Fukuda, Ikuma

    2013-10-01

    An input-output characteristic curve is an essential piece of information for analyzing medical images taken using a phosphor plate. In the multi-slit method, an actuator moves shields that have numerous slits during X-ray irradiation. Numerous data can be measured by one-time irradiation, so the fading effect is negligibly small. This method was recently proposed by Takegami et al., but their equipment consisted of large multiple compositions. The aim of this study was to fabricate a new handy type equipment that combines multiple productions into one small production. In this paper, we propose an idea for downscaling the size of the equipment, and report that the same input-output characteristic is obtained using our newly proposed method.

  7. Parametric Sensitivity Analysis of a Regional Input-Output Model for Forecasting Shore-Based Navy Workload.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    ALSO USED AS WORKING ARRAY FOR SCPE C *CCMPUTATIONS * C B ASE - MCDEL SCLUTION WITH CELTA FOR PARAPETRIZATICN * C E UAL TO ZERO. C - OFIGINAL DEPAND...C CX7hNL E C C PEAC 7H E NIMIP ?F CELTA POINTS ANC THE DELTA VALUES. P EAC (NF, 201 L L 9 EAC (NF, 321) (DEL(I), I a 1, LIL) C C FPINT TAeL ES FCR...FCAt’AT (GISTATISTICS ON PARAMETRIZED ROWS WITH CELTA al, 149 IS PEFCENT.’, ///I 8C4 FCFNAT (’ISTATISTICS ON PARAVETRIZEO COLUMNS WITH CELTA ul, 14, 1

  8. Input-Output Analysis as a Tool in Assessing the Impacts of Climatic Variations on Regional Economies: with Prototype Applications to the Oklahoma Economy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooter, William S.

    Input-output analysis techniques are developed to relate climate impacts affecting specific economic sectors to overall economic impacts in a regional economy. The types of applied problems covered include: (1) Estimates of impacts from "natural" (or historical) climatic variability on the agricultural crop sector and residential consumption; (2) Estimates of likely impacts from an operational weather modification program; (3) Estimates of likely impacts from the implementation of climate-conscious irrigation scheduling strategies; (4) Estimates of likely impacts resulting from climate-conscious residential retrofitting; (5) The feasibility of instituting a statewide water transfer program, including consideration of the impact of scenarios involving climate -conscious irrigation scheduling; (6) A general consideration of using input-output techniques as an "optimal" decision -making tool for regional planners faced with coping with climate-related water shortages. The potentials of input -output analysis for dealing with such problem contexts are explored. Provisional estimates are made of the magnitude of the dollar impacts on the Oklahoma economy. Suggestions are made as how much information can be used to tailor programmatic expenditures to match expected economic gains. Finally, suggestions are made as to promising avenues for future study.

  9. Input-output method to fault detection for discrete-time fuzzy networked systems with time-varying delay and multiple packet losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shenquan; Feng, Jian; Jiang, Yulian

    2016-05-01

    The fault detection (FD) problem for discrete-time fuzzy networked systems with time-varying delay and multiple packet losses is investigated in this paper. The communication links between the plant and the FD filter (FDF) are assumed to be imperfect, and the missing probability is governed by an individual random variable satisfying a certain probabilistic distribution over the interval [0 1]. The discrete-time delayed fuzzy networked system is first transformed into the form of interconnect ion of two subsystems by applying an input-output method and a two-term approximation approach, which are employed to approximate the time-varying delay. Our attention is focused on the design of fuzzy FDF (FFDF) such that, for all data missing conditions, the overall FD dynamics are input-output stable in mean square and preserves a guaranteed performance. Sufficient conditions are first established via H∞ performance analysis for the existence of the desired FFDF; meanwhile, the corresponding solvability conditions for the desired FFDF gains are characterised in terms of the feasibility of a convex optimisation problem. Moreover, we show that the obtained criteria based on the input-output approach can also be established by applying the direct Lyapunov method to the original time-delay systems. Finally, simulation examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  10. Quantifying the total environmental impacts of an industrial symbiosis - a comparison of process-, hybrid and input-output life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Tuomas J; Pakarinen, Suvi; Sokka, Laura

    2010-06-01

    Industrial symbiosis, representing resource sharing and byproduct use among colocated firms, is a key concept of industrial ecology. Local co-operation in industrial symbioses can reduce raw material use and waste disposal, but material and energy flows extending outside symbiosis boundaries can cause considerable environmental impacts. These external impacts are often ignored in industrial symbiosis studies. In this study, we compared process, hybrid and input-output life cycle assessment (LCA) approaches in quantifying the overall environmental impacts of a forest industrial symbiosis, situated in Kymenlaakso, Finland. Conclusions from an earlier process-LCA were strengthened by the use of hybrid-LCA as local emissions were found to cause less than half of the global impacts. In some impact categories, the whole impact was caused by supply chain emissions (land use, metal depletion and ozone depletion). The cutoff in process-LCA was found to be less than 25%, except in metal depletion and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Input-output LCA approximated hybrid-LCA results well in most impact categories, but seriously underestimated land use and overestimated terrestrial ecotoxicity. Based on the results we conclude, that input-output based LCA can be used to analyze the global impacts of an industrial symbiosis, but a careful interpretation of the results is necessary in order to understand the influence of aggregation and allocation.

  11. Application of cycling index and input-output environs for interpretation of nutrient flows in mixed rice-beef production systems in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Yusuke; Oishi, Kazato; Kumagai, Hajime; Hirooka, Hiroyuki

    2009-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to apply two methods developed in ecology, the cycling index and input-output environs, to interpret nutrient flows in mixed rice-beef production systems. The cycling index (CI) was a quantitative measure of nutrient cycling. It was defined as the proportion of cycled nutrients to the total amount of nutrient flows. On the other hand, the input-output environs provide a quantitative distribution on a particular input or output. In this study, these methods were applied to the nutrient flows in the mixed rice-beef production systems in Japan. The results of CI provided information on the effects of nutrient cycling on the efficient conversion of nutrient imports to nutrient export. The results of input-output environs indicated that the indices represent indirect effects provided by the interaction between rice and beef production. In conclusion, these methods indicated new findings on nutrient utilization in the systems. The results of this study implied the further applicability of these two methods to the study of nutrient flows in mixed crop-animal production systems.

  12. Thermally-fluctuated single-flux-quantum pulse intervals reflected in input-output characteristics of a double-flux-quantum amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizugaki, Yoshinao; Urai, Yoshiaki; Shimada, Hiroshi

    2017-07-01

    A double-flux-quantum amplifier (DFQA) is a voltage multiplier of quantum accuracy, which we have employed at the final stage of a single-flux-quantum (SFQ) digital-to-analog converter (DAC). We recently found that experimental input-output (IO) characteristics of DFQAs were always slightly different from numerical results assuming ideally-periodic SFQ pulse trains. That is, experimental IO characteristics obtained using an over-biasing method were gradually deteriorated near their maximum operation voltages. Numerical simulation including the over-biasing method at a finite temperature suggested that the difference was likely to be attributed to thermally-fluctuated intervals of input SFQ pulses.

  13. [Systemic treatment of inoperable metastasized malignant melanoma].

    PubMed

    Gutzmer, R; Rauschenberg, R; Meier, F

    2016-07-01

    The medical therapy of inoperable malignant melanoma has changed dramatically over the last few years. The purpose of this article is to summarize the current state of systemic medical treatment of malignant melanoma. Clinical studies and guidelines in the therapy of malignant melanoma are reviewed. Medical therapy of inoperable melanoma changed due to developments in immunotherapies (checkpoint inhibitors) and molecular-targeted therapies (BRAF and MEK inhibitors). Checkpoint inhibitors are antibodies administered as infusions every 2-3 weeks, blocking the checkpoints PD-1 or CTLA-4, thus, preventing downregulation of the immune system. BRAF and MEK inhibitors are small molecules, they are given orally and block a certain signaling pathway in tumor cells. The activation of this pathway has to be demonstrated by molecular analysis of tumor tissue first. This strategy is currently registered for 40-50 % of melanomas harboring a BRAF V600 mutation, while the combination of a BRAF plus MEK inhibitor has been proven more efficient than a BRAF inhibitor alone. A fascinating development has started in the melanoma field due to immunotherapeutic and molecular-targeted treatment strategies. The continuation of this development needs further clinical and translational studies. This includes particular clinical studies with the new substances in the adjuvant situation, and sequences and combinations in the metastatic setting. Translational studies are needed to develop biomarkers for response and side effects.

  14. Measuring the environmental sustainability performance of global supply chains: A multi-regional input-output analysis for carbon, sulphur oxide and water footprints.

    PubMed

    Acquaye, Adolf; Feng, Kuishuang; Oppon, Eunice; Salhi, Said; Ibn-Mohammed, Taofeeq; Genovese, Andrea; Hubacek, Klaus

    2017-02-01

    Measuring the performance of environmentally sustainable supply chains instead of chain constitute has become a challenge despite the convergence of the underlining principles of sustainable supply chain management. This challenge is exacerbated by the fact that supply chains are inherently dynamic and complex and also because multiple measures can be used to characterize performances. By identifying some of the critical issues in the literature regarding performance measurements, this paper contributes to the existing body of literature by adopting an environmental performance measurement approach for economic sectors. It uses economic sectors and evaluates them on a sectoral level in specific countries as well as part of the Global Value Chain based on the established multi-regional input-output (MRIO) modeling framework. The MRIO model has been used to calculate direct and indirect (that is supply chain or upstream) environmental effects such as CO2, SO2, biodiversity, water consumption and pollution to name just a few of the applications. In this paper we use MRIO analysis to calculate emissions and resource consumption intensities and footprints, direct and indirect impacts, and net emission flows between countries. These are exemplified by using carbon emissions, sulphur oxide emissions and water use in two highly polluting industries; Electricity production and Chemical industry in 33 countries, including the EU-27, Brazil, India and China, the USA, Canada and Japan from 1995 to 2009. Some of the highlights include: On average, direct carbon emissions in the electricity sector across all 27 member states of the EU was estimated to be 1368 million tons and indirect carbon emissions to be 470.7 million tons per year representing 25.6% of the EU-27 total carbon emissions related to this sector. It was also observed that from 2004, sulphur oxide emissions intensities in electricity production in India and China have remained relatively constant at about 62.8 g

  15. Water flows in the Spanish economy: agri-food sectors, trade and households diets in an input-output framework.

    PubMed

    Cazcarro, Ignacio; Duarte, Rosa; Sánchez-Chóliz, Julio

    2012-06-19

    Seeking to advance our knowledge of water flows and footprints and the factors underlying them, we apply, on the basis of an extended 2004 Social Accounting Matrix for Spain, an open Leontief model in which households and foreign trade are the exogenous accounts. The model shows the water embodied in products bought by consumers (which we identify with the Water Footprint) and in trade (identified with virtual water trade). Activities with relevant water inflows and outflows such as the agrarian sector, textiles, and the agri-food industry are examined in detail using breakdowns of the relevant accounts. The data reflect only physical consumption, differentiating between green and blue water. The results reveal that Spain is a net importer of water. Flows are then related to key trading partners to show the large quantities involved. The focus on embodied (or virtual) water by activity is helpful to distinguish indirect from direct consumption as embodied water can be more than 300 times direct consumption in some food industry activities. Finally, a sensitivity analysis applied to changes in diets shows the possibility of reducing water uses by modifying households' behavior to encourage healthier eating.

  16. Design of a high voltage input - output ratio dc-dc converter dedicated to small power fuel cell systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béthoux, O.; Cathelin, J.

    2010-12-01

    Consuming chemical energy, fuel cells produce simultaneously heat, water and useful electrical power [J.M. Andújar, F. Segura, Renew. Sust. Energy Rev. 13, 2309 (2009)], [J. Larminie, A. Dicks, Fuel Cell Systems Explained, 2nd edn. (John Wiley & Sons, 2003)]. As a matter of fact, the voltage generated by a fuel cell strongly depends on both the load power demand and the operating conditions. Besides, as a result of many design aspects, fuel cells are low voltage and high current electric generators. On the contrary, electric loads are commonly designed for small voltage swing and a high V/I ratio in order to minimize Joule losses. Therefore, electric loads supplied by fuel cells are typically fed by means of an intermediate power voltage regulator. The specifications of such a power converter are to be able to step up the input voltage with a high ratio (a ratio of 10 is a classic situation) and also to work with an excellent efficiency (in order to minimize its size, its weight and its losses) [A. Shahin, B. Huang, J.P. Martin, S. Pierfederici, B. Davat, Energy Conv. Manag. 51, 56 (2010)]. This paper deals with the design of this essential ancillary device. It intends to bring out the best structure for fulfilling this function. Several dc-dc converters with large voltage step-up ratios are introduced. A topology based on a coupled inductor or tapped inductor is closely studied. A detailed modelling is performed with the purpose of providing designing rules. This model is validated with both simulation and implementation. The experimental prototype is based on the following specifications: the fuel cell output voltage ranges from a 50 V open-voltage to a 25 V rated voltage while the load requires a constant 250 V voltage. The studied coupled inductor converter is compared with a classic boost converter commonly used in this voltage elevating application. Even though the voltage regulator faces severe FC specifications, the measured efficiency reaches 96% at the

  17. GD-aided IOL (input-output linearisation) controller for handling affine-form nonlinear system with loose condition on relative degree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yunong; Chen, Dechao; Jin, Long; Zhang, Yinyan; Yin, Yonghua

    2016-04-01

    Input-output linearisation (IOL) may encounter a singularity problem when applied to the tracking control of affine-form nonlinear system (AFNS), which may not have a well-defined relative degree. The singularity problem has occurred in the area of control for decades. In this paper, we incorporate the gradient dynamics (GD) into IOL, which leads to the GD-aided IOL method to solve the singularity problem, with the proposition of the loose condition on relative degree. Moreover, detailed theoretical analyses on tracking-error bound and convergence performance of the corresponding GD-aided IOL controller are presented. Simulations and comparisons substantiate that the proposed GD-aided IOL method is capable of completing the tracking-control task and conquering the singularity encountered in the AFNS.

  18. Comparative performance of decoupled input-output linearizing controller and linear interpolation PID controller: enhancing biomass and ethanol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Persad, A; Chopda, V R; Rathore, A S; Gomes, J

    2013-02-01

    A decoupled input-output linearizing controller (DIOLC) was designed as an alternative advanced control strategy for controlling bioprocesses. Simulation studies of its implementation were carried out to control ethanol and biomass production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its performance was compared to that of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller with parameters tuned according to a linear schedule. The overall performance of the DIOLC was better in the test experiments requiring the controllers to respond accurately to simultaneous changes in the trajectories of the substrate and dissolved oxygen concentration. It also exhibited better performance in perturbation experiments of the most significant parameters q (S,max), q (O2,max), and k ( s ), determined through a statistical design of experiments involving 730 simulations. DIOLC exhibited a superior ability of constraining the process when implemented in extreme metabolic regimes of high oxygen demand for maximizing biomass concentration and low oxygen demand for maximizing ethanol concentration.

  19. Implementation of real-time input/output interfaces at the AMRDEC Advanced Simulation Center's hardware-in-the-loop facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Joe; Beck, David; Richard, Henri

    2005-05-01

    Hardware in the Loop (HWIL) simulations are often spread over a large area with many hardware and software components. Open and closed loop tests necessitate a flexible test environment of allocating and ordering these components. These components may be connected in a star, a ring configuration, and/or any combinations of these two configurations, with shared memory wrappers connecting some of the software components. A Resource Allocation Program (RAP) is proposed along with a device table to allocate, organize, and document the communication protocol between the software and hardware components. Communication between software components is done through a single set of input output routines using information so that software objects may be changed with hardware objects or placed on different computers with minimal code changes.

  20. Probing the input-output behavior of biochemical and genetic systems system identification methods from control theory.

    PubMed

    Ang, Jordan; Ingalls, Brian; McMillen, David

    2011-01-01

    A key aspect of the behavior of any system is the timescale on which it operates: when inputs change, do responses take milliseconds, seconds, minutes, hours, days, months? Does the system respond preferentially to inputs at certain timescales? These questions are well addressed by the methods of frequency response analysis. In this review, we introduce these methods and outline a procedure for applying this analysis directly to experimental data. This procedure, known as system identification, is a well-established tool in engineering systems and control theory and allows the construction of a predictive dynamic model of a biological system in the absence of any mechanistic details. When studying biochemical and genetic systems, the required experiments are not standard laboratory practice, but with advances in both our ability to measure system outputs (e.g., using fluorescent reporters) and our ability to generate precise inputs (with microfluidic chambers capable of changing cells' environments rapidly and under fine control), these frequency response methods are now experimentally practical for a wide range of biological systems, as evidenced by a number of successful recent applications of these techniques. We use a yeast G-protein signaling cascade as a running example, illustrating both theoretical concepts and practical considerations while keeping mathematical details to a minimum. The review aims to provide the reader with the tools required to design frequency response experiments for their own biological system and the background required to analyze and interpret the resulting data.

  1. Morphology, input-output relations and synaptic connectivity of Cajal-Retzius cells in layer 1 of the developing neocortex of CXCR4-EGFP mice.

    PubMed

    Anstötz, Max; Cosgrove, Kathleen E; Hack, Iris; Mugnaini, Enrico; Maccaferri, Gianmaria; Lübke, Joachim H R

    2014-11-01

    Layer 1 (L1) neurons, in particular Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells are among the earliest generated neurons in the neocortex. However, their role and that of L1 GABAergic interneurons in the establishment of an early cortical microcircuit are still poorly understood. Thus, the morphology of whole-cell recorded and biocytin-filled CR cells was investigated in postnatal day (P) 7-11 old CXCR4-EGFP mice where CR cells can be easily identified by their fluorescent appearance. Confocal-, light- and subsequent electron microscopy was performed to investigate their developmental regulation, morphology, synaptic input-output relationships and electrophysiological properties. CR cells reached their peak in occurrence between P4 to P7 and from thereon declined to almost complete disappearance at P14 by undergoing selective cell death through apoptosis. CR cells formed a dense and long-range horizontal network in layer 1 with a remarkable high density of synaptic boutons along their axons. They received dense GABAergic and non-GABAergic synaptic input and in turn provided synaptic output preferentially with spines or shafts of terminal tuft dendrites of pyramidal neurons. Interestingly, no dye-coupling between CR cells with other cortical neurons was observed as reported for other species, however, biocytin-labeling of individual CR cells leads to co-staining of L1 end foot astrocytes. Electrophysiologically, CR cells are characterized by a high input resistance and a characteristic firing pattern. Increasing depolarizing currents lead to action potential of decreasing amplitude and increasing half width, often terminated by a depolarization block. The presence of membrane excitability, the high density of CR cells in layer 1, their long-range horizontal axonal projection together with a high density of synaptic boutons and their synaptic input-output relationship suggest that they are an integral part of an early cortical network important not only in layer 1 but also for the

  2. Applying the input-output method to account for water footprint and virtual water trade in the Haihe River basin in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Yang, Hong; Yang, Zhifeng; Chen, Bin; Qin, Yan

    2010-12-01

    The virtual water strategy which advocates importing water intensive products and exporting products with low water intensity is gradually accepted as one of the options for solving water crisis in severely water scarce regions. However, if we count the virtual water embodied in imported products as the water saved for a region, we might overestimate the saving by including the virtual water that is later re-exported in association with the proceeded products made from the originally imported products. This problem can be avoided by accounting for the saved water through calculating water footprint (WF) in domestic final consumptive products. In this paper, an input-output analysis (IOA) based on the water footprint accounting framework is built to account for WF and virtual water trade of final consumptive products in the water stressed Haihe River basin in China for the year 1997, 2000, and 2002. The input-output transaction tables of the three years are constructed. The results show WF of 46.57, 44.52, and 42.71 billion m(3) for the three years, respectively. These volumes are higher than the water used directly in the corresponding years in the basin. A WF intensity (WFI) indicator is then used to assess if the economic activities in the basin are consistent with the virtual water strategy. The temporal change of the WFI is also decomposed by the index number analysis method. The results showed that the basin was silently importing virtual water through the trade of raw and processed food commodities under the background of the whole economic circulation.

  3. Input-output functions of the nonlinear-distortion component of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions in normal and hearing-impaired human earsa)

    PubMed Central

    Zelle, Dennis; Lorenz, Lisa; Thiericke, John P.; Gummer, Anthony W.; Dalhoff, Ernst

    2017-01-01

    Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) arise in the cochlea in response to two tones with frequencies f1 and f2 and mainly consist of two components, a nonlinear-distortion and a coherent-reflection component. Wave interference between these components limits the accuracy of DPOAEs when evaluating the function of the cochlea with conventional continuous stimulus tones. Here, DPOAE components are separated in the time domain from DPOAE signals elicited with short stimulus pulses. The extracted nonlinear-distortion components are used to derive estimated distortion-product thresholds (EDPTs) from semi-logarithmic input-output (I/O) functions for 20 normal-hearing and 21 hearing-impaired subjects. I/O functions were measured with frequency-specific stimulus levels at eight frequencies f2 = 1,…, 8 kHz (f2/f1 = 1.2). For comparison, DPOAEs were also elicited with continuous primary tones. Both acquisition paradigms yielded EDPTs, which significantly correlated with behavioral thresholds (p < 0.001) and enabled derivation of estimated hearing thresholds (EHTs) from EDPTs using a linear regression relationship. DPOAE-component separation in the time domain significantly reduced the standard deviation of EHTs compared to that derived from continuous DPOAEs (p < 0.01). In conclusion, using frequency-specific stimulus levels and DPOAE-component separation increases the reliability of DPOAE I/O functions for assessing cochlear function and estimating behavioral thresholds. PMID:28599560

  4. Distributed fault diagnosis for process and sensor faults in a class of interconnected input-output nonlinear discrete-time systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keliris, Christodoulos; Polycarpou, Marios M.; Parisini, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a distributed fault diagnosis scheme able to deal with process and sensor faults in an integrated way for a class of interconnected input-output nonlinear uncertain discrete-time systems. A robust distributed fault detection scheme is designed, where each interconnected subsystem is monitored by its respective fault detection agent, and according to the decisions of these agents, further information regarding the type of the fault can be deduced. As it is shown, a process fault occurring in one subsystem can only be detected by its corresponding detection agent whereas a sensor fault in a subsystem can be detected by either its corresponding detection agent or the detection agent of another subsystem that is affected by the subsystem where the sensor fault occurred. This discriminating factor is exploited for the derivation of a high-level isolation scheme. Moreover, process and sensor fault detectability conditions characterising quantitatively the class of detectable faults are derived. Finally, a simulation example is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed distributed fault detection scheme.

  5. Development of a pulse programmer for magnetic resonance imaging using a personal computer and a high-speed digital input-output board.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Seitaro; Kose, Katsumi; Haishi, Tomoyuki

    2012-05-01

    We have developed a pulse programmer for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a personal computer and a commercially available high-speed digital input-output board. The software for the pulse programmer was developed using C∕C++ and .NET Framework 2.0 running under the Windows 7 operating system. The pulse programmer was connected to a digital MRI transceiver using a 32-bit parallel interface, and 128-bit data (16 bits × 8 words) for the pulse sequence and the digitally detected MRI signal were transferred bi-directionally every 1 μs. The performance of the pulse programmer was evaluated using a 1.0 T permanent magnet MRI system. The acquired MR images demonstrated the usefulness of the pulse programmer. Although our pulse programmer was developed for a specially designed digital MRI transceiver, our approach can be used for any MRI system if the interface for the transceiver is properly designed. Therefore, we have concluded that our approach is promising for MRI pulse programmers.

  6. Utilizing a shallow trench isolation parasitic transistor to characterize the total ionizing dose effect of partially-depleted silicon-on-insulator input/output n-MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chao; Hu, Zhi-Yuan; Ning, Bing-Xu; Huang, Hui-Xiang; Fan, Shuang; Zhang, Zheng-Xuan; Bi, Da-Wei; En, Yun-Fei

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the effects of 60Co γ-ray irradiation on the 130 nm partially-depleted silicon-on-isolator (PDSOI) input/output (I/O) n-MOSFETs. A shallow trench isolation (STI) parasitic transistor is responsible for the observed hump in the back-gate transfer characteristic curve. The STI parasitic transistor, in which the trench oxide acts as the gate oxide, is sensitive to the radiation, and it introduces a new way to characterize the total ionizing dose (TID) responses in the STI oxide. A radiation enhanced drain induced barrier lower (DIBL) effect is observed in the STI parasitic transistor. It is manifested as the drain bias dependence of the radiation-induced off-state leakage and the increase of the DIBL parameter in the STI parasitic transistor after irradiation. Increasing the doping concentration in the whole body region or just near the STI sidewall can increase the threshold voltage of the STI parasitic transistor, and further reduce the radiation-induced off-state leakage. Moreover, we find that the radiation-induced trapped charge in the buried oxide leads to an obvious front-gate threshold voltage shift through the coupling effect. The high doping concentration in the body can effectively suppress the radiation-induced coupling effect.

  7. Reconstruction of an object from its Fourier modulus: development of the combination algorithm composed of the hybrid input-output algorithm and its converging part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takajo, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Tohru; Itoh, Katsuhiko; Fujisaki, Toshiro

    2002-10-01

    The hybrid input-output algorithm (HIO) used for phase retrieval is in many cases combined with the error-reduction algorithm (ER) to attempt to stabilize the HIO. However, in our previous paper [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2163 (1999)], it was demonstrated that this combination makes it more likely that the resultant algorithm will fall into a periodic state before reaching a solution because the values of the input object outside the support, which is imposed as the object-domain constraint, are set to be zero in the intervals in which the ER is implemented. This paper deals with this problem inherent in the combination algorithm. The converging part of the HIO (CPHIO), which is an algorithm we previously developed [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2849 (1998)], can be thought of as an extension of the ER for the case in which the input object can have nonzero values outside the support. Keeping this in mind, the algorithm is then constructed by combining the HIO with the CPHIO instead of with the ER. The computer simulation results that demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm are given.

  8. Reconstruction of an object from its Fourier modulus: development of the combination algorithm composed of the hybrid input-output algorithm and its converging part.

    PubMed

    Takajo, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Tohru; Itoh, Katsuhiko; Fujisaki, Toshiro

    2002-10-10

    The hybrid input-output algorithm (HIO) used for phase retrieval is in many cases combined with the error-reduction algorithm (ER) to attempt to stabilize the HIO. However, in our previous paper [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 2163 (1999)], it was demonstrated that this combination makes it more likely that the resultant algorithm will fall into a periodic state before reaching a solution because the values of the input object outside the support, which is imposed as the object-domain constraint, are set to be zero in the intervals in which the ER is implemented. This paper deals with this problem inherent in the combination algorithm. The converging part of the HIO (CPHIO), which is an algorithm we previously developed [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 2849 (1998)], can be thought of as an extension of the ER for the case in which the input object can have nonzero values outside the support. Keeping this in mind, the algorithm is then constructed by combining the HIO with the CPHIO instead of with the ER. The computer simulation results that demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm are given.

  9. Analysis of influence mechanism of energy-related carbon emissions in Guangdong: evidence from regional China based on the input-output and structural decomposition analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changjian; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Xinlin; Deng, Haijun

    2017-09-19

    It is important to analyze the influence mechanism of energy-related carbon emissions from a regional perspective to effectively achieve reductions in energy consumption and carbon emissions in China. Based on the "energy-economy-carbon emissions" hybrid input-output analysis framework, this study conducted structural decomposition analysis (SDA) on carbon emissions influencing factors in Guangdong Province. Systems-based examination of direct and indirect drivers for regional emission is presented. (1) Direct effects analysis of influencing factors indicated that the main driving factors of increasing carbon emissions were economic and population growth. Carbon emission intensity was the main contributing factor restraining carbon emissions growth. (2) Indirect effects analysis of influencing factors showed that international and interprovincial trades significantly affected the total carbon emissions. (3) Analysis of the effects of different final demands on the carbon emissions of industrial sector indicated that the increase in carbon emission arising from international and interprovincial trades is mainly concentrated in energy- and carbon-intensive industries. (4) Guangdong had to compromise a certain amount of carbon emissions during the development of its export-oriented economy because of industry transfer arising from the economic globalization, thereby pointing to the existence of the "carbon leakage" problem. At the same time, interprovincial export and import resulted in Guangdong transferring a part of its carbon emissions to other provinces, thereby leading to the occurrence of "carbon transfer."

  10. Development of a pulse programmer for magnetic resonance imaging using a personal computer and a high-speed digital input-output board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Seitaro; Kose, Katsumi; Haishi, Tomoyuki

    2012-05-01

    We have developed a pulse programmer for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a personal computer and a commercially available high-speed digital input-output board. The software for the pulse programmer was developed using C/C++ and .NET Framework 2.0 running under the Windows 7 operating system. The pulse programmer was connected to a digital MRI transceiver using a 32-bit parallel interface, and 128-bit data (16 bits × 8 words) for the pulse sequence and the digitally detected MRI signal were transferred bi-directionally every 1 μs. The performance of the pulse programmer was evaluated using a 1.0 T permanent magnet MRI system. The acquired MR images demonstrated the usefulness of the pulse programmer. Although our pulse programmer was developed for a specially designed digital MRI transceiver, our approach can be used for any MRI system if the interface for the transceiver is properly designed. Therefore, we have concluded that our approach is promising for MRI pulse programmers.

  11. Inventory of CO2 emissions driven by energy consumption in Hubei Province: a time-series energy input-output analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiashuo; Luo, Ran; Yang, Qing; Yang, Haiping

    2016-03-01

    Based on an input-output analysis, this paper compiles inventories of fuel-related CO2 emissions of Hubei economy in the years of 2002, 2005, and 2007. Results show that calculated total direct CO2 emissions rose from 114,462.69 kt (2002) to 196,650.31 kt (2005), reaching 210,419.93 kt in 2007, with an average 22.50% rate of increase. Raw coal was the dominant source of the direct emissions throughout the three years. The sector of Electric Power, Heat Production, and Supply was the main direct emissions contributor, with the largest intensities observed from 2002 (1192.97 g/CNY) to 2007 (1739.15 g/ CNY). From the industrial perspective, the secondary industry, which is characterized as manufacture of finished products, was still the pillar of the Hubei economy during this period concerned, contributing more than 80% of the total direct emissions. As a net exporter of embodied CO2 emissions in 2002 and 2007, Hubei reported net-exported emissions of 4109.00 kt and 17,871.77 kt respectively; however, Hubei was once a net importer of CO2 emissions in 2005 (2511.93 kt). The CO2 emissions embodied in export and fixed capital formation had the two leading fractions of emissions embodied in the final use. The corresponding countermeasures, such as promoting renewable and clean energy and properly reducing the exports of low value added and carbon-intensive products are suggestions for reducing CO2 emissions in Hubei.

  12. NMDA currents modulate the synaptic input-output functions of neurons in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Porres, Christian P; Meyer, Elisabeth M M; Grothe, Benedikt; Felmy, Felix

    2011-03-23

    Neurons in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) receive excitatory and inhibitory inputs from the superior olivary complex (SOC) and convey GABAergic inhibition to the contralateral DNLL and the inferior colliculi. Unlike the fast glycinergic inhibition in the SOC, this GABAergic inhibition outlasts auditory stimulation by tens of milliseconds. Two mechanisms have been postulated to explain this persistent inhibition. One, an "integration-based" mechanism, suggests that postsynaptic excitatory integration in DNLL neurons generates prolonged activity, and the other favors the synaptic time course of the DNLL output itself. The feasibility of the integration-based mechanism was tested in vitro in DNLL neurons of Mongolian gerbils by quantifying the cellular excitability and synaptic input-output functions (IO-Fs). All neurons were sustained firing and generated a near monotonic IO-F on current injections. From synaptic stimulations, we estimate that activation of approximately five fibers, each on average liberating ∼18 vesicles, is sufficient to trigger a single postsynaptic action potential. A strong single pulse of afferent fiber stimulation triggered multiple postsynaptic action potentials. The steepness of the synaptic IO-F was dependent on the synaptic NMDA component. The synaptic NMDA receptor current defines the slope of the synaptic IO-F by enhancing the temporal and spatial EPSP summation. Blocking this NMDA-dependent amplification during postsynaptic integration of train stimulations resulted into a ∼20% reduction of the decay time course of the GABAergic inhibition. Thus, our data show that the NMDA-dependent amplification of the postsynaptic activity contributes to the GABAergic persistent inhibition generated by DNLL neurons.

  13. Inventory of CO2 emissions driven by energy consumption in Hubei Province: a time-series energy input-output analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiashuo; Luo, Ran; Yang, Qing; Yang, Haiping

    2016-12-01

    Based on an input-output analysis, this paper compiles inventories of fuel-related CO2 emissions of Hubei economy in the years of 2002, 2005, and 2007. Results show that calculated total direct CO2 emissions rose from 114,462.69 kt (2002) to 196,650.31 kt (2005), reaching 210,419.93 kt in 2007, with an average 22.50% rate of increase. Raw coal was the dominant source of the direct emissions throughout the three years. The sector of Electric Power, Heat Production, and Supply was the main direct emissions contributor, with the largest intensities observed from 2002 (1192.97 g/CNY) to 2007 (1739.15 g/ CNY). From the industrial perspective, the secondary industry, which is characterized as manufacture of finished products, was still the pillar of the Hubei economy during this period concerned, contributing more than 80% of the total direct emissions. As a net exporter of embodied CO2 emissions in 2002 and 2007, Hubei reported net-exported emissions of 4109.00 kt and 17,871.77 kt respectively; however, Hubei was once a net importer of CO2 emissions in 2005 (2511.93 kt). The CO2 emissions embodied in export and fixed capital formation had the two leading fractions of emissions embodied in the final use. The corresponding countermeasures, such as promoting renewable and clean energy and properly reducing the exports of low value added and carbon-intensive products are suggestions for reducing CO2 emissions in Hubei.

  14. Transarterial Chemoembolization (TACE) for Inoperable Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Herber, S. Otto, G.; Schneider, J.; Manzl, N.; Kummer, I.; Kanzler, S.; Schuchmann, A.; Thies, J.; Dueber, C.; Pitton, M.

    2007-11-15

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the safety and efficacy of chemoembolization (TACE) as palliative treatment for patients with unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) and to compare the results with those in the literature. Fifteen patients with histology-proven CCA (5 men, 10 women) had received palliative treatment with TACE over a 6-year period. The treatment protocol comprised repeated TACE at a minimum of 8-week intervals. TACE was performed with a mixture of 10 ml Lipiodol and 10 mg mitomycin C injected into the tumor-supplying vessels. Follow-up investigations after 8-10 weeks comprised contrast-enhanced multislice spiral CT and laboratory control. Statistical evaluation included survival analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method. During the investigation period 58 TACEs (3.9 {+-} 3.8; 1-15) were performed in 15 patients. Mean tumor size was 10.8 {+-} 4.6 cm (range, 2.0-18.0 cm). Unifocal tumor disease was diagnosed in eight patients, and multifocal disease in seven. Mean survival was 21.1 months (95% CI, 9.4-32.5 months). At the end of the investigation period 3 patients are still alive, and 12 patients have died. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rate was 51.3%, 27.5%, and 27.5% respectively. According to RECIST criteria interim best response to therapy was stable disease in 9 of 15 patients, a partial response in 1 of 15 patients, and tumor progression in 4 of 15 patients. No deaths and no acute liver failure occurred under TACE therapy. Major complications were observed in two patients, comprising anaphylactic shock owing to contrast medium administration in one and gastric ulceration due to lipiodol displacement in the second patient. These results demonstrate that TACE is a safe procedure with a moderate number of complications for patients suffering from inoperable CCA. According to recently published data on i.v. chemotherapy we suggest that TACE might be able to prolong survival in selected patients who would succumb under

  15. Two-scale evaluation of remediation technologies for a contaminated site by applying economic input-output life cycle assessment: risk-cost, risk-energy consumption and risk-CO2 emission.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yasushi; Katayama, Arata

    2011-09-15

    A two-scale evaluation concept of remediation technologies for a contaminated site was expanded by introducing life cycle costing (LCC) and economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIO-LCA). The expanded evaluation index, the rescue number for soil (RN(SOIL)) with LCC and EIO-LCA, comprises two scales, such as risk-cost, risk-energy consumption or risk-CO(2) emission of a remediation. The effectiveness of RN(SOIL) with LCC and EIO-LCA was examined in a typical contamination and remediation scenario in which dieldrin contaminated an agricultural field. Remediation was simulated using four technologies: disposal, high temperature thermal desorption, biopile and landfarming. Energy consumption and CO(2) emission were determined from a life cycle inventory analysis using monetary-based intensity based on an input-output table. The values of RN(SOIL) based on risk-cost, risk-energy consumption and risk-CO(2) emission were calculated, and then rankings of the candidates were compiled according to RN(SOIL) values. A comparison between three rankings showed the different ranking orders. The existence of differences in ranking order indicates that the scales would not have reciprocal compatibility for two-scale evaluation and that each scale should be used independently. The RN(SOIL) with LCA will be helpful in selecting a technology, provided an appropriate scale is determined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Atomic resolution tomography reconstruction of tilt series based on a GPU accelerated hybrid input-output algorithm using polar Fourier transform.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiangwen; Gao, Wenpei; Zuo, Jian-Min; Yuan, Jiabin

    2015-02-01

    Advances in diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have greatly improved the prospect of three-dimensional (3D) structure reconstruction from two-dimensional (2D) images or diffraction patterns recorded in a tilt series at atomic resolution. Here, we report a new graphics processing unit (GPU) accelerated iterative transformation algorithm (ITA) based on polar fast Fourier transform for reconstructing 3D structure from 2D diffraction patterns. The algorithm also applies to image tilt series by calculating diffraction patterns from the recorded images using the projection-slice theorem. A gold icosahedral nanoparticle of 309 atoms is used as the model to test the feasibility, performance and robustness of the developed algorithm using simulations. Atomic resolution in 3D is achieved for the 309 atoms Au nanoparticle using 75 diffraction patterns covering 150° rotation. The capability demonstrated here provides an opportunity to uncover the 3D structure of small objects of nanometers in size by electron diffraction.

  17. Effects of Reservoir Filling on Sediment and Nutrient Removal in the Lower Susquehanna River Reservoir: An Input-Output Analysis Based on Long-Term Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, W. P.; Zhang, Q.; Hirsch, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Reduction of suspended sediment (SS), total phosphorus (TP), and total nitrogen is an important focus for Chesapeake Bay watershed management. Susquehanna River, the bay's largest tributary, has drawn attention because SS load from behind Conowingo Dam (near the river fall-line) has risen dramatically recently. To better understand these changes, we evaluated decadal-scale (1986-2013) history of concentrations and fluxes using data from sites above and below the reservoir. First, observed concentration-discharge relationships show declined SS and TP concentrations at the reservoir inlet under most discharges in recent years, but such changes have not been propagated to emerge at the outlet, implying recently diminished reservoir trapping. Second, best estimates of loadings show declined net depositions of SS and TP in recent decades, which occurred under a range of discharges, with the 75th~99.5th percentile of Conowingo discharge dominating such changes and carrying most sediment/nutrient loadings. Finally, stationary models that better accommodate effects of riverflow variability also show diminished reservoir trapping of SS and TP, which occurred under a range of flows including those well below the literature-documented scour threshold. These findings have significant implications in regard to our understanding and management of this major reservoir and illustrate the value of long-term monitoring programs.

  18. High serotonin levels during brain development alter the structural input-output connectivity of neural networks in the rat somatosensory layer IV

    PubMed Central

    Miceli, Stéphanie; Negwer, Moritz; van Eijs, Fenneke; Kalkhoven, Carla; van Lierop, Ilja; Homberg, Judith; Schubert, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Homeostatic regulation of serotonin (5-HT) concentration is critical for “normal” topographical organization and development of thalamocortical (TC) afferent circuits. Down-regulation of the serotonin transporter (SERT) and the consequent impaired reuptake of 5-HT at the synapse, results in a reduced terminal branching of developing TC afferents within the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). Despite the presence of multiple genetic models, the effect of high extracellular 5-HT levels on the structure and function of developing intracortical neural networks is far from being understood. Here, using juvenile SERT knockout (SERT−/−) rats we investigated, in vitro, the effect of increased 5-HT levels on the structural organization of (i) the TC projections of the ventroposteromedial thalamic nucleus toward S1, (ii) the general barrel-field pattern, and (iii) the electrophysiological and morphological properties of the excitatory cell population in layer IV of S1 [spiny stellate (SpSt) and pyramidal cells]. Our results confirmed previous findings that high levels of 5-HT during development lead to a reduction of the topographical precision of TCA projections toward the barrel cortex. Also, the barrel pattern was altered but not abolished in SERT−/− rats. In layer IV, both excitatory SpSt and pyramidal cells showed a significantly reduced intracolumnar organization of their axonal projections. In addition, the layer IV SpSt cells gave rise to a prominent projection toward the infragranular layer Vb. Our findings point to a structural and functional reorganization of TCAs, as well as early stage intracortical microcircuitry, following the disruption of 5-HT reuptake during critical developmental periods. The increased projection pattern of the layer IV neurons suggests that the intracortical network changes are not limited to the main entry layer IV but may also affect the subsequent stages of the canonical circuits of the barrel cortex. PMID:23761736

  19. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) in advanced inoperable bronchial carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghissi, Keyvan; Dixon, Kate; Stringer, Mark R.; Brown, Stanley B.

    1996-12-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of PDT to: Palliate symptoms, control disease and extend survival in patients with advanced inoperable cancer. Subject and Method: 55 Males and 23 females aged between 45-81 years (mean 66 years) with inoperable and advanced lung cancer with > 5O. obstructive lesions of the main, lobar or segmental bronchi. Patients had pre-treatment routine clinical radiological, functional and endoscopic assessment with proven histological diagnosis. Protocol of PDT was; Intravenous injection of 2 mg/Kg bodyweight Polyhaematoporphyrin (equivalent to Photofrin) or Photofrin followed 24-72 hours later by illumination of tumour using 630 nm light (Oxford Laser) delivered via an optical fibre with end diffuser. Treatments were carried out under general anaesthesia as a day case procedure. Patients were rebronchoscoped for debridement/retreatment 4-7 days later. Results: There was no treatment related mortality. Two patients developed mild photosensitivity reaction. All patients showed symptomatic improvement with good initial functional and radiological amelioration. Every patient responded to treatment. Seven patients had complete response and negative histology for 3-12 months. After the first treatment average Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) improvement was 0.5 litres and 0.4 litres respectively. Twenty five percent of patients (nr 19) survived more than 2 years, 10'. (nr=8) between 1-2 years and the remaining 51 patients less than a year. Conclusion: PDT should be considered as a therapeutic modality for all stages of lung cancer and is an excellent treatment modality for palliation in advanced bronchial malignancies.

  20. University Inputs, Outputs and Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickford, Michael

    1975-01-01

    Paper examines in general terms the characteristics of university inputs and outputs, brings to light some of the special features of an education "production process," and examines the role of educational technology. (Author)

  1. DNA Memory and Input/Output

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    to thank Jay McPhee and Brent Martin for the maintenance of the clusters on which MapQuant was run. Moreover, we would like to thank professors...scale analysis of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) metabolism. Genome Res 15: 820-829. Bowers, P.M., M. Pellegrini, M.J. Thompson, J. Fierro , T.O

  2. Robust Multiple-Input-Output Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Calderbank, "Fast Decoding of the Golden Code by Diophantine Approximation", in Proc. IEEE ITW, Lake Tahoe , CA. USA, 2-6 Sept 2007. 12. S. Sirianunpiboon...wireless system can cause the quality of the transmission to change. This effect is referred to as fading. Fad- ing is caused by the transmitted signal...antennas to provide good quality and large capacity to a wide range of applications requiring high data rates. In short, MIMO techniques allow higher data

  3. Input-output, expandable-parity network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckevitt, J. F., III

    1974-01-01

    Large-scale integrated circuit generates and checks parity of four eight-bit registers. In addition, circuit will indicate by output signal whether parity error exists. Circuit can also generate or check parity of words up to 32 bits. This is done by making appropriate internal wiring connections on the large-scale integrated chip.

  4. Clinical trial will investigate targeted radionuclide therapy for inoperable rare tumors | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    In an upcoming phase II clinical trial, Center for Cancer Research investigators will explore the ability of a targeted radioactive drug to treat inoperable pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma, both rare tumors.  Learn more...

  5. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for inoperable early stage lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Timmerman, Robert; Paulus, Rebecca; Galvin, James; Michalski, Jeffrey; Straube, William; Bradley, Jeffrey; Fakiris, Achilles; Bezjak, Andrea; Videtic, Gregory; Johnstone, David; Fowler, Jack; Gore, Elizabeth; Choy, Hak

    2010-03-17

    Patients with early stage but medically inoperable lung cancer have a poor rate of primary tumor control (30%-40%) and a high rate of mortality (3-year survival, 20%-35%) with current management. To evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of stereotactic body radiation therapy in a high-risk population of patients with early stage but medically inoperable lung cancer. Phase 2 North American multicenter study of patients aged 18 years or older with biopsy-proven peripheral T1-T2N0M0 non-small cell tumors (measuring <5 cm in diameter) and medical conditions precluding surgical treatment. The prescription dose was 18 Gy per fraction x 3 fractions (54 Gy total) with entire treatment lasting between 1(1/2) and 2 weeks. The study opened May 26, 2004, and closed October 13, 2006; data were analyzed through August 31, 2009. The primary end point was 2-year actuarial primary tumor control; secondary end points were disease-free survival (ie, primary tumor, involved lobe, regional, and disseminated recurrence), treatment-related toxicity, and overall survival. A total of 59 patients accrued, of which 55 were evaluable (44 patients with T1 tumors and 11 patients with T2 tumors) with a median follow-up of 34.4 months (range, 4.8-49.9 months). Only 1 patient had a primary tumor failure; the estimated 3-year primary tumor control rate was 97.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.3%-99.7%). Three patients had recurrence within the involved lobe; the 3-year primary tumor and involved lobe (local) control rate was 90.6% (95% CI, 76.0%-96.5%). Two patients experienced regional failure; the local-regional control rate was 87.2% (95% CI, 71.0%-94.7%). Eleven patients experienced disseminated recurrence; the 3-year rate of disseminated failure was 22.1% (95% CI, 12.3%-37.8%). The rates for disease-free survival and overall survival at 3 years were 48.3% (95% CI, 34.4%-60.8%) and 55.8% (95% CI, 41.6%-67.9%), respectively. The median overall survival was 48.1 months (95% CI, 29.6 months to not

  6. Site-dependent life-cycle analysis by the SAME approach: its concept usefulness, and application to the calculation of embodied impact intensity by means of an input-output analysis.

    PubMed

    Nansai, Keisuke; Moriguchi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Noriyuki

    2005-09-15

    This paper describes a practical approach to site-dependent life-cycle analysis (SDLCA) that differentiates site-dependent environmental impacts from a system's processes by considering the geographical conditions of each process. This approach converts an environmental output into its impacts by using site-dependent characterization factors (SDCFs). This approach defines an area-the Spatial Area of iMpact Equivalency (SAME)-within the boundaries of the geographical system during site-dependent life-cycle inventory (SDLCI) analysis and calculates an environmental output from a process for the SAMEs. Each SAME represents a collection of geographical areas with internally homogeneous environmental impacts and can be mapped using a geographic information system. Preparing a SDLCI and SDCFs based on SAMEs facilitates the implementation of SDLCA by permitting the use of fewer regions during SDLCI. To demonstrate application of the SAME approach, an embodied impact intensity was formulated; it quantifies the impact directly and indirectly on the basis of the unit activity of a sector by means of input-output analysis with SDCFs. The validity of using SAMEs for SDLCA is demonstrated through two case studies: one studying suspended particulate matter, and one studying benzene. In both cases, the impact intensities are calculated using the SAME approach and the results are compared with those of site-generic LCI.

  7. Boundary Condition Error for Parametric Updating of In-Operation SYSTEMS—APPLICATION to Piping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FRIKHA, S.; GAUDIN, M.; COFFIGNAL, G.

    2001-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in experimental analysis of in-operation structures where a part of the boundary conditions is poorly known. This concerns particularly the case of coupled systems where some complex physical phenomena make the behaviour of both the system and its connectivity dependent on the functioning conditions. In this context, this paper presents a new frequency approach for parametric structural updating in the vibration and acoustic fields. This methodology is developed here in the case of piping systems. It follows the boundary conditions identification method previously developed by the authors. A boundary conditions error is presented and its efficiency to translate structural parameters error is shown. Thus, the proposed approach allows performing the identification of some unknown boundary conditions and, simultaneously, updating the model of the tested structure. The pertinence of a frequency choice criteria based on the smallest singular value of the solved system during the identification of the boundary conditions is shown. It specifically allows avoiding the bands of critical frequencies. The developed updating technique is tested with two actual cases: a laboratory test case and an industrial example.

  8. Palliative Radiation Therapy for Symptomatic Control of Inoperable Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nikolaev, Anatoly; Benda, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is traditionally considered to be resistant to conventional low dose radiation therapy (RT). The emergence of image-guided stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) made it possible to deliver much higher doses of radiation. Recent clinical trials of SBRT for RCC showed improvement in local control rates and acceptable toxicity. Here we report a case of inoperable symptomatic RCC that was managed with SBRT. Strikingly, the presenting symptoms of gross hematuria and severe anemia were completely resolved following a course of SBRT. Thus, our case report highlights the potential benefit of this technique for patients with inoperable RCC.

  9. Palliative Radiation Therapy for Symptomatic Control of Inoperable Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaev, Anatoly; Benda, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is traditionally considered to be resistant to conventional low dose radiation therapy (RT). The emergence of image-guided stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) made it possible to deliver much higher doses of radiation. Recent clinical trials of SBRT for RCC showed improvement in local control rates and acceptable toxicity. Here we report a case of inoperable symptomatic RCC that was managed with SBRT. Strikingly, the presenting symptoms of gross hematuria and severe anemia were completely resolved following a course of SBRT. Thus, our case report highlights the potential benefit of this technique for patients with inoperable RCC. PMID:26793580

  10. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy for inoperable non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Bleasdale, C.; Jones, B.

    1995-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer is a major cause of mortality and significant morbidity in the UK. The majority of patients are inoperable and the optimum management of these patients requires a multidisciplinary approach involving the cooperation of respiratory physicians, thoracic surgeons and clinical oncologists (radiotherapists). Treatment techniques are constantly being refined and new approaches developed. Images Figure 2 PMID:7567729

  11. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Creates Surgery Opportunities For Inoperable Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minghao; Hou, Lingmi; Chen, Maoshan; Zhou, Yan; Liang, Yueyang; Wang, Shushu; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), the systematic chemotherapy given to patients with locally advanced and inoperable breast caner, has been proven to be of great clinical values. Many scientific reports confirmed NAC could effectively eliminate sub-clinical disseminated lesions of tumor, and improve long-term and disease-free survival rate of patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC); however, up to now, LABC is still a serious clinical issue given improved screening and early diagnosis. This study, with main focus on inoperable LABC, investigated the values of NAC in converting inoperable LABC into operable status and assessed the prognosis. Sixty-one patients with inoperable LABC were initially treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy; their local conditions were improved to operable status. Radical surgery was exerted on 49 patients. Original chemotherapy was performed after surgery, followed by local radiotherapy. And endocrine therapy was optional according to the hormone receptor status. The quality of life for most patients with skin diabrosis was obviously improved because their local conditions were under control. For all recruited cases, the survival duration and life quality were significantly improved in patients who finished both NAC and surgery compared to those who did not. Further more, this study demonstrates improved prognostic consequences. PMID:28327615

  12. Guideline for radiotherapy with curative intent in patients with early-stage medically inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Falkson, C.B.; Vella, E.T.; Yu, E.; El-Mallah, M.; Mackenzie, R.; Ellis, P.M.; Ung, Y.C.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives For this guideline, we investigated the effectiveness of radiotherapy with curative intent in medically inoperable patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc). Methods The guideline was developed by Cancer Care Ontario’s Program in Evidence-Based Care and by the Lung Cancer Disease Site Group through a systematic review of mainly retrospective studies, expert consensus, and formal internal and external reviews. Recommendations ■ Stereotactic body radiation therapy (sbrt) with curative intent is an option that should be considered for patients with early-stage, node-negative, medically inoperable nsclc. Qualifying Statements■ Because of the high dose per fraction, the planning process and treatment delivery for sbrt require the use of advanced technology to maintain an appropriate level of safety. Consistent patient positioning and 4-dimensional analysis of tumour and critical structure motion during simulation and treatment delivery are essential.■ Preliminary results for proton-beam therapy have been promising, but the technique requires further clinical study.■ Recommended fractionation schemes for sbrt should result in a biologically effective dose of 100 or greater by the linear quadric model, choosing an α/β value of 10 [bed10(LQ) ≥ 100]. Qualifying Statements■ Because of the increased risk of treatment-related adverse events associated with centrally located tumours, consideration of tumour size and proximity to critical central structures is required when determining the dose and fractionation.■ Examples of dose–fractionation schemes used in the included studies have been provided.■ Based on the current evidence and the opinion of the authors, radiation doses at bed10(LQ) greater than 146 might significantly increase toxicity and should be avoided.■ Determination of the radiation bed by the linear quadratic model has limitations for the extreme hypofractionated schemes used in sbrt. PMID:28270731

  13. Efficient gene therapy based targeting system for the treatment of inoperable tumors.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Thomas; Pikkarainen, Jere Tuomas; Samaranayake, Haritha Dhammika; Lehtolainen-Dalkilic, Pauliina; Lesch, Hanna Pirita; Airenne, Kari Juhani; Marjomäki, Varpu; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo Pasi Antero

    2012-04-01

    A considerable percentage of tumors are not amenable to surgery. We have designed a simple and powerful targeting system that offers an alternative option for the multi-component pre-targeting strategies used clinically. This targeting system can be used for any type of solid tumors independent of the tumor type, thereby omitting the need to engineer unique antibodies for each specific application or tumour type. In the present study, we show the expression of a chimeric fusion protein, which contains the low-density lipoprotein receptor transmembrane domains and avidin, after local gene transfer and its ability to bind biotinylated compounds in vivo. Semliki Forest virus and lentivirus vectors were used to express the fusion protein with a high affinity binding site for biotinylated compounds in the tumor. Three different animal models and imaging modalities were used for the demonstration of the functionality and efficacy of the targeting system in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate targeting of biotinylated compounds after local gene transfer in vivo using two different gene transfer vectors. The findings were confirmed by immunohistochemistry, single-photon emission computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The therapeutic efficacy was tested in a syngeneic rat glioma model by injecting biotinylated-(90) Yttrium into the tail vein of glioma bearing rats. The study demonstrates that animals, which were treated by using the gene therapy based targeting system, lived significantly longer than control animals. Our gene therapy based targeting system is a promising tool for the treatment of inoperable tumors and other disease conditions, as well as diagnostic imaging. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. A framework to analyze emissions implications of manufacturing shifts in the industry through integrating bottom-up energy models and economic input-output environmental life cycle assessment models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Future year emissions depend highly on the evolution of the economy, technology and current and future regulatory drivers. A scenario framework was adopted to analyze various technology development pathways and societal change while considering existing regulations and future unc...

  15. A framework to analyze emissions implications of manufacturing shifts in the industrial sector through integrating bottom-up energy models and economic input-output environmental life cycle assessment models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Future year emissions depend highly on the evolution of the economy, technology and current and future regulatory drivers. A scenario framework was adopted to analyze various technology development pathways and societal change while considering existing regulations and future unc...

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy and Radiofrequency Ablation for Medically Inoperable, Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Sher, David J.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: The standard management of medically inoperable Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) conventionally has been fractionated three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT). The relatively poor local control rate and inconvenience associated with this therapy have prompted the development of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), a technique that delivers very high doses of irradiation typically over 3 to 5 sessions. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has also been investigated as a less costly, single-day therapy that thermally ablates small, peripheral tumors. The cost-effectiveness of these three techniques has never been compared. Methods and Materials: We developed a Markov model to describe health states of 65-year-old men with medically inoperable NSCLC after treatment with 3D-CRT, SBRT, and RFA. Given their frail state, patients were assumed to receive supportive care after recurrence. Utility values, recurrence risks, and costs were adapted from the literature. Sensitivity analyses were performed to model uncertainty in these parameters. Results: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for SBRT over 3D-CRT was $6,000/quality-adjusted life-year, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for SBRT over RFA was $14,100/quality-adjusted life-year. One-way sensitivity analysis showed that the results were robust across a range of tumor sizes, patient utility values, and costs. This result was confirmed with probabilistic sensitivity analyses that varied local control rates and utilities. Conclusion: In comparison to 3D-CRT and RFA, SBRT was the most cost-effective treatment for medically inoperable NSCLC over a wide range of treatment and disease assumptions. On the basis of efficacy and cost, SBRT should be the primary treatment approach for this disease.

  17. Hyperthermia in combination with radiation therapy for treatment of advanced inoperable breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Iemwananonthachai, Nantakan; Pattaranutaporn, Pittayapoom; Chansilpa, Yaowalak; Sukkasem, Maturoth

    2003-08-01

    Twelve breast cancer patients with locally advanced inoperable lesions were studied. Six cases had received chemotherapy, 6 had not. Most of the tumors were ulcerative lesions with an average size of 11.5 cm. The patients were treated with 43 degrees C hyperthermia once or twice a week together with radiation at a dose of 20-70 Gy. Six of them were also treated with concurrent chemotherapy. Two cases responded completely (17%) and 10 cases responded partially (83%). The result indicates that the combination of hyperthermia and radiation, with or without chemotherapy, might be a good treatment option for locally advanced inoperable breast cancer, especially for patients who have had failure or contraindication to chemotherapy. It is an effective treatment for palliation of local symptoms, showing a tendency to achieve local control of large, ulcerative advanced breast lesions especially when such treatment is followed by salvage surgery.

  18. Apparatus for rendering at least a portion of a device inoperable and related methods

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, Michael A.; Steffler, Eric D.; Hartenstein, Steven D.; Wallace, Ronald S.

    2016-11-08

    Apparatus for rendering at least a portion of a device inoperable may include a containment structure having a first compartment that is configured to receive a device therein and a movable member configured to receive a cartridge having reactant material therein. The movable member is configured to be inserted into the first compartment of the containment structure and to ignite the reactant material within the cartridge. Methods of rendering at least a portion of a device inoperable may include disposing the device into the first compartment of the containment structure, inserting the movable member into the first compartment of the containment structure, igniting the reactant material in the cartridge, and expelling molten metal onto the device.

  19. Prognostic validation of the body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity (BODE) index in inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Denehy, Linda; Hornsby, Whitney E; Herndon, James E; Thomas, Samantha; Ready, Neal E; Granger, Catherine L; Valera, Lauren; Kenjale, Aarti A; Eves, Neil D; Jones, Lee W

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the prognostic utility of the body mass index, severity of airflow obstruction, measures of exertional dyspnea, and exercise capacity (BODE) index in patients with inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). One hundred consecutive patients with inoperable NSCLC and performance status 0 to 3 completed pulmonary function testing, the modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale, a 6-minute walk test, and body mass index-the multidimensional 10-point BODE index. Cox proportional models were used to estimate the risk of all-cause mortality according to the BODE index with or without adjustment for traditional prognostic factors. Median follow-up was 31.5 months; 61 deaths (61%) were reported during this period. There was a significant univariate association between the BODE index score and mortality (adjusted p(trend) = 0.027). Compared with patients with a BODE index of 0, the adjusted hazard ratio for risk of death was 1.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-2.55) for a BODE index of 1, 1.22 (95% CI, 0.45-3.25) for a BODE index of 2, and 2.44 (95% CI, 1.19-4.99) for a BODE index more than 2. The BODE index provided incremental prognostic information beyond that provided traditional markers of prognosis (adjusted p(trend) = 0.051). Every one-point increase in the BODE index, the risk of death increased by 25% (hazard ratio = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.27-4.64). The BODE index is a strong independent predictor of survival in inoperable NSCLC beyond traditional risk factors. Use of this multidimensional tool may improve risk stratification and prognostication in NSCLC.

  20. Simple Clinical Score to Predict 24-Week Survival Times in Patients with Inoperable Malignant Distal Biliary Obstruction as a Tool for Selecting Palliative Metallic or Plastic Stents.

    PubMed

    Sripongpun, Pimsiri; Attasaranya, Siriboon; Chamroonkul, Naichaya; Sookpaisal, Theerapong; Khow-Ean, Uthai; Siripun, Aroon; Kongkamol, Chanon; Piratvisuth, Teerha; Ovartlarnporn, Bancha

    2017-01-17

    Endoscopic biliary drainage (EBD) is the mainstay treatment for inoperable malignant distal biliary obstruction (MDBO). Some authorities suggest that metallic stents are more cost-effective than plastic stents in patients with expected survival of at least 6 months. However, studies attempting to define the predictive factors for such survival times are limited. This study aims to develop a scoring system for predicting a survival time of <24 weeks in these patients. Patients with MDBO from inoperable periampullary cancers who underwent EBD at Songklanagarind Hospital during 2004-2009 were retrospectively analyzed. Baseline clinical, laboratory, and imaging data were retrieved. The survival time data were retrieved from the medical records and Thailand's civil registration database. Multivariate Cox regression model coefficients were used in the development of a survival time prediction scoring system. Ninety-eight patients were included. The overall median survival was 17.6 weeks. Fifty-seven (58.1%) survived <24 weeks. By multivariate analysis, cancer type and liver metastasis were significant predictive factors. The Simple Clinical Score (SCS) was calculated from (2× liver metastasis) + (1× pancreatic cancer) - (2× ampullary cancer) - (1× cholangiocarcinoma), when 1 and 0 were used for the presence and absence of each factor, respectively. The cutoff value of the score ≥0 had a sensitivity and specificity of 0.77 and 0.63, respectively, for predicting a survival time of <24 weeks, with AUC of 0.76. The median survival of patients with SCS <0 and ≥0 was 36.6 and 13.1 weeks, respectively. The scoring system from this study may be beneficial for clinicians to select the appropriate stents in endoscopic biliary drainage in inoperable MDBO patients.

  1. Argon plasma coagulation compared with stent placement in the palliative treatment of inoperable oesophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sigounas, Dimitrios E; Krystallis, Christoforos; Couper, Graeme; Paterson-Brown, Simon; Tatsioni, Athina

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) are the main palliative modality used in inoperable oesophageal cancer. Other palliative modalities, including argon plasma coagulation (APC), have also been used. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the relative efficacy of SEMS and APC regarding the survival of patients with inoperable oesophageal cancer, not receiving chemo/radiotherapy. Methods Single centre, retrospective analysis of all patients (n = 228) with inoperable oesophageal cancer between January 2000 and July 2014, not receiving chemo-radiotherapy, treated with SEMS (n = 160) or APC (n = 68) as primary palliation modalities. Cox regression analysis was performed to identify individual factors affecting survival and Kaplan–Meier curves were created for patients treated with APC and SEMS for stage III and IV disease. Survival intervals were compared by the log-rank test. Results Type of treatment was the only statistically significant factor affecting survival, after disease stage stratification (hazard ratio (HR): 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13–1.65 of SEMS over APC, p: 0.002). Median survival for patients treated with APC and SEMS was 257 (interquartile range (IQR): 414, 124) and 151 (IQR: 241, 61) days respectively in stage III disease. It was 135 (IQR: 238, 43) and 70 (IQR: 148, 32) days respectively in stage IV disease. Both differences were statistically significant (p = 0.02 and 0.05 respectively). Conclusions APC is a promising palliation modality in inoperable oesophageal cancer, when patients are not candidates for chemo-radiotherapy. A randomized controlled trial will be needed to confirm those results. PMID:28405318

  2. Chemoembolization alone vs combined chemoembolization and hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy in inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Song; Zhang, Peng-Jun; Guo, Jian-Hai; Chen, Hui; Xu, Hai-Feng; Liu, Peng; Yang, Ren-Jie; Zhu, Xu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the efficacy and safety of chemoembolization alone or chemoembolization combined with hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC), including oxaliplatin (OXA), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and folinic acid (CF), in inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) without distant metastasis. METHODS: Eighty-four inoperable HCC patients were enrolled. Thirty-nine patients underwent chemoembolization alone, and the other 45 patients underwent chemoembolization + HAIC (OXA/5-FU/CF) treatment non-randomly. The progression free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR) and adverse reactions were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: A significant difference in the ORR was observed between the chemoembolization alone and chemoembolization + HAIC groups. There was no statistically significant difference in DCR between the two groups. The median PFS (mPFS) showed a significant difference between the two groups. For patients with BCLC stage A/B disease, with or without vessel invasion, the chemoembolization + HAIC group showed better mPFS when compared to chemoembolization alone, but no significant difference was found in patients with BCLC stage C disease. The parameter of pain (grade III-IV) in the chemoembolization + HAIC group was increased statistically. CONCLUSION: Chemoembolization combined with HAIC with OXA/5-FU/CF may be safe and more effective than chemoembolization alone for inoperable HCC patients without distant metastasis. PMID:26420971

  3. Survival and Quality of Life After Stereotactic or 3D-Conformal Radiotherapy for Inoperable Early-Stage Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Joachim; Postmus, Douwe; Ubbels, Jan F.; Wiegman, Erwin M.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate survival and local recurrence after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) or three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) administered for early-stage primary lung cancer and to investigate longitudinal changes of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) parameters after either treatment. Methods and Materials: Two prospective cohorts of inoperable patients with T1-2N0M0 primary lung tumors were analyzed. Patients received 70 Gy in 35 fractions with 3D-CRT or 60 Gy in three to eight fractions with SABR. Global quality of life (GQOL), physical functioning (PF), and patient-rated dyspnea were assessed using the respective dimensions of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Questionnaire-C30 and LC13. HRQOL was analyzed using multivariate linear mixed-effects modeling, survival and local control (LC) using the Kaplan-Meier method, Cox proportional hazards analysis, and Fine and Gray multivariate competing risk analysis as appropriate. Results: Overall survival (OS) was better after SABR compared with 3D-CRT with a HR of 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-4.8; p < 0.01). 3D-CRT conferred a subhazard ratio for LC of 5.0 (95% CI: 1.7-14.7; p < 0.01) compared with SABR. GQOL and PF were stable after SABR (p = 0.21 and p = 0.62, respectively). Dyspnea increased after SABR by 3.2 out of 100 points (95% CI: 1.0-5.3; p < 0.01), which is clinically insignificant. At 1 year, PF decreased by an excess of 8.7 out of 100 points (95% CI: 2.8-14.7; p < 0.01) after 3D-CRT compared with SABR. Conclusion: In this nonrandomized comparison of two prospective cohorts of medically inoperable patients with Stage I lung cancer, OS and LC were better after SABR. GQOL, PF, and patient-rated dyspnea were stable after SABR, whereas PF decreased after 3D-CRT approaching clinical significance already at 1 year.

  4. Simultaneous integrated boost-intensity modulated radiation therapy for inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Park, Joong-Won; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Kim, Bo Hyun; Woo, Sang Myung; Moon, Sung Ho; Kim, Sang Soo; Lee, Woo Jin; Kim, Dae Yong; Kim, Chang-Min

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of simultaneous integrated boost-intensity modulated radiation therapy (SIB-IMRT) in patients with inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A total of 53 patients with inoperable HCC underwent SIB-IMRT using two dose-fractionation schemes, depending on the proximity of gastrointestinal structures. The 41 patients in the low dose-fractionation (LD) group, with internal target volume (ITV) < 1 cm from gastrointestinal structures, received total doses of 55 and 44 Gy in 22 fractions to planning target volume 1 (PTV1) and 2 (PTV2), respectively. The 12 patients in the high dose-fractionation (HD) group, with ITV ≥ 1 cm from gastrointestinal structures, received total doses of 66 and 55 Gy in 22 fractions to the PTV1 and PTV2, respectively. Overall, treatment was well tolerated, with no grade > 3 toxicity. The LD group had larger sized tumors (median: 6 vs. 3.4 cm) and greater frequencies of vascular invasion (80.6 vs. 16.7 %) than patients in the HD group (p < 0.05 each). The median overall survival (OS) was 25.1 mKonzept ist machbar und sicheronths and the actuarial 2-year local progression-free survival (LPFS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and OS rates were 67.3, 14.7, and 54.7  %, respectively. The HD group tended to show better tumor response (100 vs. 62.2 %, p = 0.039) and 2-year LPFS (85.7 vs. 59  %, p = 0.119), RFS (38.1 vs. 7.3 %, p = 0.063), and OS (83.3 vs. 44.3 %, p = 0.037) rates than the LD group. Multivariate analysis showed that tumor response was significantly associated with OS. SIB-IMRT is feasible and safe for patients with inoperable HCC.

  5. Survival after Radiofrequency Ablation in 122 Patients with Inoperable Colorectal Lung Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Gillams, Alice; Khan, Zahid; Osborn, Peter; Lees, William

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To analyze the factors associated with favorable survival in patients with inoperable colorectal lung metastases treated with percutaneous image-guided radiofrequency ablation. Methods. Between 2002 and 2011, a total of 398 metastases were ablated in 122 patients (87 male, median age 68 years, range 29-90 years) at 256 procedures. Percutaneous CT-guided cool-tip radiofrequency ablation was performed under sedation/general anesthesia. Maximum tumor size, number of tumors ablated, number of procedures, concurrent/prior liver ablation, previous liver or lung resection, systemic chemotherapy, disease-free interval from primary resection to lung metastasis, and survival from first ablation were recorded prospectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed, and factors were compared by log rank test. Results. The initial number of metastases ablated was 2.3 (range 1-8); the total number was 3.3 (range 1-15). The maximum tumor diameter was 1.7 (range 0.5-4) cm, and the number of procedures was 2 (range 1-10). The major complication rate was 3.9 %. Overall median and 3-year survival rate were 41 months and 57 %. Survival was better in patients with smaller tumors-a median of 51 months, with 3-year survival of 64 % for tumors 2 cm or smaller versus 31 months and 44 % for tumors 2.1-4 cm (p = 0.08). The number of metastases ablated and whether the tumors were unilateral or bilateral did not affect survival. The presence of treated liver metastases, systemic chemotherapy, or prior lung resection did not affect survival. Conclusion. Three-year survival of 57 % in patients with inoperable colorectal lung metastases is better than would be expected with chemotherapy alone. Patients with inoperable but small-volume colorectal lung metastases should be referred for ablation.

  6. Long-term efficacy of bosentan in inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Post, M.C.; Plokker, H.W.M.; Kelder, J.C.; Snijder, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is associated with a poor survival. Objectives. To evaluate the long-term response to a dual endothelin receptor antagonist in patients with inoperable CTEPH. Methods. All consecutive 18 patients (mean age 63±14 years) treated with bosentan for symptomatic inoperable CTEPH were included. Efficacy was evaluated by the log value of serum levels of N-terminal-pro brain natriuretic peptide (log NTpro BNP), New York Heart Association functional class (NYHA), and the six-minute walk test (6-MWT). All follow-up data (median 31 months) were compared with baseline and divided into: short-term (<12 months), mid-term (between 12 and 24 months), and long-term follow-up (>24 months). Results. At baseline, 15 patients were in NYHA class III and three in NYHA class IV, mean log NT-pro BNP level was 7.2±1.4 log pg/ml, and mean 6-MWT distance was 404±125 m. During short-term follow-up (n=18), the NYHA class improved (p=0.001), 6-MWT distance increased by 33 m (p=0.03), and log NT-pro BNP decreased to 6.9±1.4 log pg/ml (p=0.007). During mid-term follow-up (n=17), the NYHA class improved (p<0.001), the mean 6-MWT distance increased by 41 m (p=0.01), and log NT-pro BNP was 6.9±1.4 log pg/ml (p=0.31). During late followup (n=14) the NYHA class was still improved (p=0.03), the 6-MWT distance decreased by 9 m (p=0.73), and log NT-pro BNP was 7.1±1.5 log pg/ml (p=0.91). The overall four year survival rate was 88%. Conclusion: Bosentan seems to be effective during long-term treatment in patients with inoperable CTEPH. (Neth Heart J 2009;17:329-33.19949474) PMID:19949474

  7. Image-guided high-dose-rate brachytherapy in inoperable endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Petsuksiri, J; Chansilpa, Y; Hoskin, P J

    2014-01-01

    Inoperable endometrial cancer may be treated with curative aim using radical radiotherapy alone. The radiation techniques are external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) alone, EBRT plus brachytherapy and brachytherapy alone. Recently, high-dose-rate brachytherapy has been used instead of low-dose-rate brachytherapy. Image-guided brachytherapy enables sufficient coverage of tumour and reduction of dose to the organs at risk, thus increasing the therapeutic ratio of treatment. Local control rates with three-dimensional brachytherapy appear better than with conventional techniques (about 90–100% and 70–90%, respectively). PMID:24807067

  8. Hypofractionated radiotherapy for medically inoperable stage I non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Wang, Jian-Yang; Wang, Jing-Bo; Liang, Jun; Hui, Zhou-Guang; Wang, Xiao-Zhen; Zhou, Zong-Mei; Wang, Lu-Hua

    2016-04-26

    To investigate the clinical outcomes and toxicity of hypofractionated radiotherapy for medically inoperable stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients treated with radiotherapy at a dose of 4-6 Gy per fraction using fixed-field intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) at our hospital from June 2005 to December 2013 were analyzed. The total prescription doses ranged from 50-78 Gy with 4-6 Gy per fraction. The median follow-up period was 24 months. A total of 65 patients with stage I NSCLC were analyzed, including 43 primary NSCLC patients and 22 patients with recurrent or second primary NSCLC. An objective response (complete or partial response) was achieved at six months in 84.6% of patients. The three-year local control rate was 90.8%. Kaplan-Meier estimates of local failure-free, progression-free, overall, and cancer-specific survival rates at three years were 90.3%, 64.3%, 68.9%, and 88.8%, respectively. The rate of symptomatic radiation pneumonitis was 16.9%, and no grade 4-5 toxicity was observed. Favorable local control and outcome was achieved with hypofractionated radiotherapy in patients with inoperable stage I NSCLC with acceptable toxicity. The most common schedule of 6 Gy × 12 fractions may be a promising regimen, and a prospective study is in process.

  9. Analysis to support power operation with inoperable MSSVs at Seabrook Station

    SciTech Connect

    Ladieu, A.E.; Bergeron, P.A.

    1996-11-01

    Seabrook Station Technical Specification 3.7.1.1 specifies the maximum Power Range Neutron Flux--High reactor trip setpoints with 1, 2, or 3 inoperable Main Steam Safety Valves (MSSVs). The basis for these setpoints is to ensure that the Secondary Side pressure will be limited to within 110% (1,320 psia) of its design pressure of 1,200 psia during the most severe anticipated system operational transient as required by the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The maximum required reliving capacity is associated with a postulated turbine trip coincident with an assumed loss of condenser heat sink. In 1994, Westinghouse notified its customers via a Nuclear Safety Advisory Letter that the trip setpoints supplied in the Technical Specifications (T.S.) may not comply with the basis. In response to the Westinghouse notification, Yankee Atomic Electric Company (Yankee), in cooperation with Seabrook Station engineering/licensing staff, applied safety analysis methodology to support revised Power Range Neutron Flux. High reactor trip setpoints for operation of Seabrook Station with inoperable MSSVs. The methodology was also used to demonstrate that previous power operation complied with the basis to T.S. 3.7.1.1 and to support revised MSSV setpoints. The revised setpoints allow optimal use of MSSVs to mitigate postulated overpressure transients. The methodology is demonstrated in this paper using the optimized MSSV setpoints.

  10. Balloon pulmonary angioplasty for inoperable patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: the initial German experience.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Karen M; Wiedenroth, Christoph B; Kamp, Jan-Christopher; Breithecker, Andreas; Fuge, Jan; Krombach, Gabriele A; Haas, Moritz; Hamm, Christian; Kramm, Thorsten; Guth, Stefan; Ghofrani, Hossein Ardeschir; Hinrichs, Jan B; Cebotari, Serghei; Meyer, Katrin; Hoeper, Marius M; Mayer, Eckhard; Liebetrau, Christoph; Meyer, Bernhard C

    2017-06-01

    Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) is an emerging treatment for patients with inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).We report on a prospective series of 56 consecutive patients who underwent 266 BPA interventions (median, five per patient) at two German institutions. All patients underwent a comprehensive diagnostic work-up including right heart catheterisation at baseline and 24 weeks after their last intervention.BPA resulted in improvements in WHO functional class, 6 min walk distance (mean change, +33 m), right ventricular function and haemodynamics, including a decline in mean pulmonary artery pressure by 18% and in pulmonary vascular resistance by 26%. Procedure-related adverse events occurred in 9.4% of the interventions. The most common complications were related to pulmonary vascular injury and consecutive pulmonary bleeding. Most of these events were asymptomatic and self-limiting, but one patient died from pulmonary bleeding, resulting in a mortality rate of 1.8%.BPA resulted in haemodynamic and clinical improvements but was also associated with a considerable number of complications, including one fatal pulmonary bleeding. As the effects of BPA on survival are unknown, randomised controlled outcome trials comparing BPA with approved medical therapies in patients with inoperable CTEPH are required to allow for appropriate risk-benefit assessments. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  11. Econometric models for biohydrogen development.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duu-Hwa; Lee, Duu-Jong; Veziroglu, Ayfer

    2011-09-01

    Biohydrogen is considered as an attractive clean energy source due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. Analyzing various economic scenarios can help decision makers to optimize development strategies for the biohydrogen sector. This study surveys econometric models of biohydrogen development, including input-out models, life-cycle assessment approach, computable general equilibrium models, linear programming models and impact pathway approach. Fundamentals of each model were briefly reviewed to highlight their advantages and disadvantages. The input-output model and the simplified economic input-output life-cycle assessment model proved most suitable for economic analysis of biohydrogen energy development. A sample analysis using input-output model for forecasting biohydrogen development in the United States is given. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a rotor wake/vortex model. Volume 2: User's manual for computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majjigi, R. K.; Gliebe, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    The principal objective was to establish a verified rotor wake/vortex model for specific application to fan and compressor rotor-stator interaction and resulting noise generation. A description and flow chart of the Rotor Wake/Vortex Model computer program, a listing of the program, definitions of the input/output parameters, a sample input/output case, and input files for Rotor 55, the JT15D rotor, and Rotor 67, Stage 1 are provided.

  13. A meta-analysis and systematic review: Success of endoscopic ultrasound guided biliary stenting in patients with inoperable malignant biliary strictures and a failed ERCP

    PubMed Central

    Moole, Harsha; Bechtold, Matthew L.; Forcione, David; Puli, Srinivas R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: In patients with inoperable malignant biliary strictures, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) guided biliary stenting fails in 5% to 10% patients due to difficult anatomy/inability to cannulate the papilla. Recently, endoscopic ultrasound guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) has been described. Primary outcomes were to evaluate the biliary drainage success rates with EUS and compare it to percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). Secondary outcomes were to evaluate overall procedure related complications. Methods: Study selection criteria: Studies evaluating the efficacy of EUS-BD and comparing EUS-BD versus PTBD in inoperable malignant biliary stricture patients with a failed ERCP were included in this analysis. Data collection and extraction: Articles were searched in Medline, PubMed, and Ovid journals. Two authors independently searched and extracted data. The study design was written in accordance to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. Subgroup analyses of prospective studies and EUS-BD versus PTBD were performed. Statistical method: Pooled proportions were calculated using fixed and random effects model. I2 statistic was used to assess heterogeneity among studies. Results: Initial search identified 846 reference articles, of which 124 were selected and reviewed. Sixteen studies (N = 528) that met the inclusion criteria were included in this analysis. In the pooled patient population, the percentage of patients that had a successful biliary drainage with EUS was 90.91% (95% CI = 88.10–93.38). The proportion of patients that had overall procedure related complications with EUS-PD was 16.46% (95% CI = 13.20–20.01). The pooled odds ratio for successful biliary drainage in EUS-PD versus PTBD group was 3.06 (95% CI = 1.11–8.43). The risk difference for overall procedure related complications in EUS-PD versus PTBD group was −0.21 (95% CI = −0

  14. A framework for linking cybersecurity metrics to the modeling of macroeconomic interdependencies.

    PubMed

    Santos, Joost R; Haimes, Yacov Y; Lian, Chenyang

    2007-10-01

    Hierarchical decision making is a multidimensional process involving management of multiple objectives (with associated metrics and tradeoffs in terms of costs, benefits, and risks), which span various levels of a large-scale system. The nation is a hierarchical system as it consists multiple classes of decisionmakers and stakeholders ranging from national policymakers to operators of specific critical infrastructure subsystems. Critical infrastructures (e.g., transportation, telecommunications, power, banking, etc.) are highly complex and interconnected. These interconnections take the form of flows of information, shared security, and physical flows of commodities, among others. In recent years, economic and infrastructure sectors have become increasingly dependent on networked information systems for efficient operations and timely delivery of products and services. In order to ensure the stability, sustainability, and operability of our critical economic and infrastructure sectors, it is imperative to understand their inherent physical and economic linkages, in addition to their cyber interdependencies. An interdependency model based on a transformation of the Leontief input-output (I-O) model can be used for modeling: (1) the steady-state economic effects triggered by a consumption shift in a given sector (or set of sectors); and (2) the resulting ripple effects to other sectors. The inoperability metric is calculated for each sector; this is achieved by converting the economic impact (typically in monetary units) into a percentage value relative to the size of the sector. Disruptive events such as terrorist attacks, natural disasters, and large-scale accidents have historically shown cascading effects on both consumption and production. Hence, a dynamic model extension is necessary to demonstrate the interplay between combined demand and supply effects. The result is a foundational framework for modeling cybersecurity scenarios for the oil and gas sector. A

  15. [Single-dose palliative radiotherapy in inoperable non-small-cell lung carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Scolaro, T; Bacigalupo, A; Giudici, S; Guenzi, M; Vitale, V

    1995-12-01

    The treatment of choice for advanced inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is radiation therapy. Palliative radiotherapy schedules vary considerably in different centers, but a 30-Gy dose given in ten fractions over two weeks is a typical standard schedule. Our study was aimed at investigating whether a shorter course of only one 10-Gy fraction allows good palliation in the treatment of inoperable NSCLC patients whose main symptoms are related to an intrathoracic lesion. Patients of both sexes and any age, untreated with radiotherapy, with inoperable and histologically or cytologically proved NSCLC were examined. Seventeen patients, too advanced for radical "curative" radiotherapy and whose main symptoms were related to primary intrathoracic lesions, entered the study even though they had metastases. On admission, 76% (13/17) of patients had cough 76% (13/17) dyspnea, 70.7% (12/17) chest pain and 23.6% (4/17) hemoptysis. They received a single dose of 10 Gy, delivered with an 18-Mv linear accelerator via anteroposteriorly opposing portals without spinal cord shielding. Treatment volume usually included the macroscopically detected lesion identified with a CT simulator. Palliation of symptoms was achieved in high rates of patients: 46% for cough, 69% for dyspnea, 83% for pain and 75% for hemoptysis. These results were obtained within one month of treatment. Unfortunately, palliation of symptoms did not last long, decreasing to 42% within two months of the end of treatment and to 32% at three months. Four patients were retreated, one patient three months and three patients two months after the end of radiotherapy. Ten Gy to the target volume were administered as retreatment with spinal cord shielding. Side-effects were mild: nausea in 3 patients (17%), vomiting in one patient (5%) and grade-II dysphagia in two patients were observed and classified according to WHO criteria. Pain increased 24 hours after radiotherapy in five patients. We can conclude that

  16. Clinical potential of boron neutron capture therapy for locally recurrent inoperable previously irradiated head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Lim, Diana; Quah, Daniel S C; Leech, Michelle; Marignol, Laure

    2015-12-01

    This review compares the safety and efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the treatment of previously irradiated, inoperable locoregional recurrent HNC patients and compares BNCT against the standard treatment of platinum-based chemotherapy. Our analysis of published clinical trials highlights efficacy of BNCT associated with mild side effects. However, the use of BNCT should be explored in stratified randomised trials.

  17. Effects of a spleen peptide preparation as supportive therapy in inoperable head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Borghardt, J; Rosien, B; Görtelmeyer, R; Lindemann, S; Hartleb, M; Klingmüller, M

    2000-02-01

    Patients with inoperable head and neck cancer were treated with a spleen peptide preparation (Polyerga) in a phase III randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study during chemotherapy (cisplatin/carboplatin, 5-fluorouracil) to investigate further the efficacy of this peptide preparation as supportive treatment under chemotherapy. Immunological changes as well as quality of life aspects were examined. Forty patients were included in this study. The peptide preparation had a significant stabilizing effect on the peripheral blood lymphocyte status during chemotherapy cycles (Student t-test, p = 0.05) and tended to stabilize the shift of granulocyte count (Student t-test, p = 0.18). In addition, the group receiving the verum showed a remarkable stabilization of body weight (Mann-Whitney U-test, p = 0.17) during chemotherapy treatment and the generally observed increase of fatigue-inertia during the chemotherapy cycles was significantly reduced (Student t-test, p = 0.01).

  18. Serum Bilirubin and 6-min Walk Distance as Prognostic Predictors for Inoperable Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Juan-Ni; Zhai, Zhen-Guo; Yang, Yuan-Hua; Liu, Yan; Gu, Song; Kuang, Tu-Guang; Xie, Wan-Mu; Miao, Ran; Wang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a severe clinical syndrome characterized by right cardiac failure and possibly subsequent liver dysfunction. However, whether serum markers of liver dysfunction can predict prognosis in inoperable CTEPH patients has not been determined. Our study aimed to evaluate the potential role of liver function markers (such as serum levels of transaminase, bilirubin, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase [GGT]) combined with 6-min walk test in the prediction of prognosis in patients with inoperable CTEPH. Methods: From June 2005 to May 2013, 77 consecutive patients with inoperable CTEPH without confounding co-morbidities were recruited for this prospective cohort study. Baseline clinical characteristics and 6-min walk distance (6MWD) results were collected. Serum biomarkers of liver function, including levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, GGT, uric acid, and serum bilirubin, were also determined at enrollment. All-cause mortality was recorded during the follow-up period. Results: During the follow-up, 22 patients (29%) died. Cox regression analyses demonstrated that increased serum concentration of total bilirubin (hazard ratio [HR] = 7.755, P < 0.001), elevated N-terminal of the prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (HR = 1.001, P = 0.001), decreased 6MWD (HR = 0.990, P < 0.001), increased central venous pressure (HR = 1.074, P = 0.040), and higher pulmonary vascular resistance (HR = 1.001, P = 0.018) were associated with an increased risk of mortality. Serum concentrations of total bilirubin (HR = 4.755, P = 0.007) and 6MWD (HR = 0.994, P = 0.017) were independent prognostic predictors for CTEPH patients. Patients with hyperbilirubinemia (≥23.7 μmol/L) had markedly worse survival than those with normobilirubinemia. Conclusion: Elevated serum bilirubin and decreased 6MWD are potential predictors for poor prognosis in inoperable CTEPH. PMID:26612283

  19. Voice input/output capabilities at Perception Technology Corporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferber, Leon A.

    1977-01-01

    Condensed resumes of key company personnel at the Perception Technology Corporation are presented. The staff possesses recognition, speech synthesis, speaker authentication, and language identification. Hardware and software engineers' capabilities are included.

  20. INPUT-OUTPUT RELATIONSHIPS AMONG SELECTED INTELLECTUAL INVESTMENTS IN AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CVANCARA, JOSEPH GEORGE

    DATA WERE COLLECTED ON TWO GROUPS OF FARM UNITS IN 20 MINNESOTA COMMUNITIES TO DETERMINE PRODUCTION UNIT RESPONSE TO EDUCATIONAL INVESTMENT, AND STUDY CUMULATIVE OR DIMINISHING EFFECTS ON CASH INCOME INCREASES CAUSED BY FARM MANAGEMENT INSTRUCTION OVER 3 YEARS. GROUPS WERE PAIRED ON THE BASIS OF 1962 RECORDS ACCORDING TO SIZE MEASURED IN WORK…

  1. The Input-Output Relation in Language Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bung, Klaus

    This paper is part of a series presented at the symposium on a European units/credits system for modern language learning to adults. Included are a list of 58 modules or units of study, together with some indication of real-life situations in which the skills associated with the modules could be used. These modules have to be further divided so…

  2. The application of PLC distributed input/output technology offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Glendening, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    The Programmable Logic Controller is becoming a familiar part of the Process Controls on Offshore Facilities. The current evolution of this expanding technology is Distributed I/O Blocks, and this paper is concerned with the benefits and applications this new technology brings to the Offshore Industry. The advent of the Programmable Logic Controller to the Gulf of Mexico brought greater process control flexibility to Offshore facilities. The offshore control philosophy went from independent pneumatic control of each skid unit to PLC distributed control with field panels that contained the local controls for several skid units and interfaced with control room based PLC visual display stations. The Distributed I/O Block concept allows offshore control systems to eliminate the large field interface panel, along with the associated wiring and hardware cost. This is accomplished by installing Distributed 1/0 Blocks inside the individual skid control panels and then communicating back to the control room based PLC via redundant communication cables. The control wiring between each skid control panel and the control room is now reduced to one power cable and redundant communication cables.

  3. Differences in Vocabulary Input-Output in Psychodiagnosis of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    L'Abate, Luciano

    This paper supports the hypothesis that picture vocabulary tests should not be used as interchangeable measures of intelligence for complex, lengthy intelligence tests (WISC and Stanford-Binet). In picture vocabulary tests assessing receptive functions (input), the child recognizes a word by pointing to or stating the number standing for an…

  4. Hardware efficient monitoring of input/output signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, Kevin R. (Inventor); Hall, Brendan (Inventor); Paulitsch, Michael (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A communication device comprises first and second circuits to implement a plurality of ports via which the communicative device is operable to communicate over a plurality of communication channels. For each of the plurality of ports, the communication device comprises: command hardware that includes a first transmitter to transmit data over a respective one of the plurality of channels and a first receiver to receive data from the respective one of the plurality of channels; and monitor hardware that includes a second receiver coupled to the first transmitter and a third receiver coupled to the respective one of the plurality of channels. The first circuit comprises the command hardware for a first subset of the plurality of ports. The second circuit comprises the monitor hardware for the first subset of the plurality of ports and the command hardware for a second subset of the plurality of ports.

  5. Development of Speech Input/Output Interfaces for Tactical Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    pilot’s eyes out of the cockpit and hands on the flight controls at a critical time . In summa- ry, just because a task can be performed by speech 1 /0...providing time and money are avail- able. The near term speech 1 /0 design is conceived as transcending the foregoing retrofit problems by innovative oesign...will be made in one of three ways as follows: 1 . Not recognized - at which time a speech output which says "say again," will be initiated. 2. Recognized

  6. Input, Output, and Negotiation of Meaning in Spanish Conversation Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rondon-Pari, Graziela

    2014-01-01

    This research study is based on the analysis of speech in three Spanish conversation classes. Research questions are: What is the ratio of English and Spanish spoken in class? Is classroom speech more predominant in students or the instructor? And, are teachers' beliefs in regards to the use of English and Spanish consistent with their classroom…

  7. Input, Output, and Negotiation of Meaning in Spanish Conversation Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rondon-Pari, Graziela

    2014-01-01

    This research study is based on the analysis of speech in three Spanish conversation classes. Research questions are: What is the ratio of English and Spanish spoken in class? Is classroom speech more predominant in students or the instructor? And, are teachers' beliefs in regards to the use of English and Spanish consistent with their classroom…

  8. Using voice input/output in the processing of plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, P.F.; Fullerton, R.

    1989-01-01

    A new method for weighing samples of plutonium dioxide is described. An efficient, reliable method of weighing samples and batches is important because a sample and batch may need to be weighed and treated a number of times before they are sufficiently pure for use. Accurate weighing and recording of all plutonium dioxide coming into or leaving the laboratory is also needed to satisfy accountability requirements. In the past, the necessary data were recorded by hand -- a time-consuming, error-prone procedure. This method was further complicated because plutonium cannot be handled safely outside a glovebox, and two operators were needed to record the data: one to weigh the plutonium dioxide and the other to record the weight. When vocal input to a computer is used, two operators are not needed to record data. An operator still handles the material in a glovebox, and measurement is still done within a glovebox, but with automated equipment, thus reducing the risk of radiation exposure and eliminating the need for two operators. This method allows the operator to determine from the glovebox monitor if the weights recorded are reasonable. If not, he can interrupt the procedure and reweigh the material. With computer recording of data, the chance for error is greatly reduced. All data are transmitted directly from the balance to the computer, where the result is displayed on monitors and recorded on a disk. 3 figs.

  9. Input/output properties of the lateral vestibular nucleus.

    PubMed

    Boyle, R; Bush, G; Ehsanian, R

    2004-05-01

    This article is a review of work in three species, squirrel monkey, cat, and rat studying the inputs and outputs from the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN). Different electrophysiological shock paradigms were used to determine the synaptic inputs derived from thick to thin diameter vestibular nerve afferents. Angular and linear mechanical stimulations were used to activate and study the combined and individual contribution of inner ear organs and neck afferents. The spatio-temporal properties of LVN neurons in the decerebrated rat were studied in response to dynamic acceleration inputs using sinusoidal linear translation in the horizontal head plane. Outputs were evaluated using antidromic identification techniques and identified LVN neurons were intracellularly injected with biocytin and their morphology studied.

  10. EPICS Input Output Controller (IOC) Record Reference Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.B.; Kraimer, M.R.

    1994-12-01

    This manual describes all supported EPICS record types. The first chapter gives introduction and describes the field summary table. The second chapter describes the fields in database common, i.e. the fields that are present in every record type. The third chapter describes the input and output field that are common to many record types and have the same usage wherever they are used. Following the third chapter is a separate chapter for each record type containing a description of all the fields for that record type except those in database common.

  11. Central regulation of energy balance: inputs, outputs and leptin resistance.

    PubMed

    Arch, Jonathan R S

    2005-02-01

    The regulation of energy balance is complex and, in man, imprecise. Nevertheless, in many individuals intake and expenditure are balanced with <1% error with little or no conscious effect. Essential components of such a regulatory system are signals, leptin and insulin, that reflect the size of lipid stores. Leptin receptors signal via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (as do insulin receptors) and via the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 to activate various types of neurone. Obese rodents, and possibly man, are resistant to leptin; in some cases because of genetic or perinatal programming (primary resistance), but commonly in response to high leptin levels (secondary resistance). Secondary leptin resistance may be a result of reduced transport of leptin to the brain or down-regulation of leptin signalling. Signals that reflect lipid stores form the tonic homeostatic regulatory system. They interact with episodic homeostatic signals carried by neurones, hormones and metabolites to regulate meal size and frequency. They also interact with signals related to the palatability of food, biorhythms and learning. Many neurotransmitters and hormones mediate responses to more than one input (e.g. gastric and adipocyte leptin), but are nevertheless most involved with particular inputs (e.g. leptin with adipocyte fat stores). Feeding can be divided into appetitive (preparation for feeding) and consummatory phases, which can both be further subdivided. Different sets of neurotransmitters and hormones are involved at each stage. In the long term it may be possible to customise obesity therapies according to those inputs and outputs that are most disturbed and most amenable to intervention in individual subjects.

  12. Fully Burdened Cost of Fuel Using Input-Output Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    her by my side. I love you, Elisa, and I am forever grateful God brought us together. The second person that I must thank is my beautiful son , Johnny...visit the ducks and fish so Daddy could finish his thesis. Next, I would like to thank Professors Eva Regnier and Dan Nussbaum. Through their endless...like to thank my parents for their neverending love, support, and prayer. I am very fortunate and grateful to be your son . xvi THIS PAGE

  13. Input/output properties of the lateral vestibular nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R.; Bush, G.; Ehsanian, R.

    2004-01-01

    This article is a review of work in three species, squirrel monkey, cat, and rat studying the inputs and outputs from the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN). Different electrophysiological shock paradigms were used to determine the synaptic inputs derived from thick to thin diameter vestibular nerve afferents. Angular and linear mechanical stimulations were used to activate and study the combined and individual contribution of inner ear organs and neck afferents. The spatio-temporal properties of LVN neurons in the decerebrated rat were studied in response to dynamic acceleration inputs using sinusoidal linear translation in the horizontal head plane. Outputs were evaluated using antidromic identification techniques and identified LVN neurons were intracellularly injected with biocytin and their morphology studied.

  14. Indexing Consistency: The Input/Output Function of Thesauri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Phyllis; Biever, Erik J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a study that was conducted to determine how well subject authority lists, or thesauri, control indexing vocabulary. Indexer consistency using the Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux (CAB) thesaurus was tested by comparing indexing done by CAB and by National Agricultural Library (NAL) indexers. (six references) (LRW)

  15. Input/output properties of the lateral vestibular nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, R.; Bush, G.; Ehsanian, R.

    2004-01-01

    This article is a review of work in three species, squirrel monkey, cat, and rat studying the inputs and outputs from the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN). Different electrophysiological shock paradigms were used to determine the synaptic inputs derived from thick to thin diameter vestibular nerve afferents. Angular and linear mechanical stimulations were used to activate and study the combined and individual contribution of inner ear organs and neck afferents. The spatio-temporal properties of LVN neurons in the decerebrated rat were studied in response to dynamic acceleration inputs using sinusoidal linear translation in the horizontal head plane. Outputs were evaluated using antidromic identification techniques and identified LVN neurons were intracellularly injected with biocytin and their morphology studied.

  16. INPUT-OUTPUT RELATIONSHIPS AMONG SELECTED INTELLECTUAL INVESTMENTS IN AGRICULTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CVANCARA, JOSEPH GEORGE

    DATA WERE COLLECTED ON TWO GROUPS OF FARM UNITS IN 20 MINNESOTA COMMUNITIES TO DETERMINE PRODUCTION UNIT RESPONSE TO EDUCATIONAL INVESTMENT, AND STUDY CUMULATIVE OR DIMINISHING EFFECTS ON CASH INCOME INCREASES CAUSED BY FARM MANAGEMENT INSTRUCTION OVER 3 YEARS. GROUPS WERE PAIRED ON THE BASIS OF 1962 RECORDS ACCORDING TO SIZE MEASURED IN WORK…

  17. The Desired Sensation Level Multistage Input/Output Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Scollie, Susan; Seewald, Richard; Cornelisse, Leonard; Moodie, Sheila; Bagatto, Marlene; Laurnagaray, Diana; Beaulac, Steve; Pumford, John

    2005-01-01

    The Desired Sensation Level (DSL) Method was revised to support hearing instrument fitting for infants, young children, and adults who use modern hearing instrument technologies, including multichannel compression, expansion, and multimemory capability. The aims of this revision are to maintain aspects of the previous versions of the DSL Method that have been supported by research, while extending the method to account for adult-child differences in preference and listening requirements. The goals of this version (5.0) include avoiding loudness discomfort, selecting a frequency response that meets audibility requirements, choosing compression characteristics that appropriately match technology to the user's needs, and accommodating the overall prescription to meet individual needs for use in various listening environments. This review summarizes the status of research on the use of the DSL Method with pediatric and adult populations and presents a series of revisions that have been made during the generation of DSL v5.0. This article concludes with case examples that illustrate key differences between the DSL v4.1 and DSL v5.0 prescriptions. PMID:16424945

  18. DRI Model of the U.S. Economy -- Model Documentation:

    EIA Publications

    1993-01-01

    Provides documentation on Data Resources, Inc., DRI Model of the U.S. Economy and the DRI Personal Computer Input/Output Model. It also describes the theoretical basis, structure and functions of both DRI models; and contains brief descriptions of the models and their equations.

  19. DRI Model of the U.S. Economy -- Model Documentation:

    EIA Publications

    1993-01-01

    Provides documentation on Data Resources, Inc., DRI Model of the U.S. Economy and the DRI Personal Computer Input/Output Model. It also describes the theoretical basis, structure and functions of both DRI models; and contains brief descriptions of the models and their equations.

  20. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy as Primary Treatment for Elderly Patients with Medically Inoperable Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vargo, John A.; Ferris, Robert L.; Clump, David A.; Heron, Dwight E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: With a growing elderly population, elderly patients with head and neck cancers represent an increasing challenge with limited prospective data to guide management. The complex interplay between advanced age, associated co-morbidities, and conventional local therapies, such as surgery and external beam radiotherapy ± chemotherapy, can significantly impact elderly patients’ quality of life (QoL). Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a well-established curative strategy for medical-inoperable early-stage lung cancers even in elderly populations; however, there is limited data examining SBRT as primary therapy in head and neck cancer. Material/methods: Twelve patients with medically inoperable head and neck cancer treated with SBRT ± cetuximab from 2002 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. SBRT consisted of primarily 44 Gy in five fractions delivered on alternating days over 1–2 weeks. Concurrent cetuximab was administered at a dose of 400 mg/m2 on day −7 followed by 250 mg/m2 on day 0 and +7 in n = 3 (25%). Patient-reported quality of life (PRQoL) was prospectively recorded using the previously validated University of Washington quality of life revised (UW-QoL-R). Results: Median clinical follow-up was 6 months (range: 0.5–29 months). The 1-year actuarial local progression-free survival, distant progression-free survival, progression-free survival, and overall survival for definitively treated patients were 69, 100, 69, and 64%, respectively. One patient (8%) experienced acute grade 3 dysphagia and one patient (8%) experienced late grade 3 mucositis; there were no grade 4–5 toxicities. Prospective collection of PRQoL as assessed by UW-QoL-R was preserved across domains. Conclusion: Stereotactic body radiotherapy shows encouraging survival and relatively low toxicity in elderly patients with unresectable head and neck cancer, which may provide an aggressive potentially curative local therapy while maintaining QoL. PMID

  1. Combined neutron brachytherapy with external beam radiation in patients with inoperable gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qifeng; Liu, Huiming; Jia, Xitang; Liu, Bo; Wan, Xin

    2014-01-01

    To assess the safety and feasibility of neutron brachytherapy (NBT) combined with external beam radiation (EBRT) in the treatment of patients with inoperable gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (GEJAC). From January 2001 until November 2011, 67 patients with inoperable GEJAC received EBRT combined with NBT. Radiotherapy consisted of EBRT up to a total dose of 40 to 54 Gy in 20 to 27 fractions and NBT up to 12 to 25 Gy in 3 to 5 fractions. The patients were divided into 2 total-dose groups: a low-dose group (28 patients, 52 to 57 Gy) and a high-dose group (39 patients, 58 to 69 Gy). The duration of follow-up ranged from 16 to 106 months. The median survival time for the 67 patients was 15.7 months, and the 1-, 2-, 3- and 5-year rates for overall survival (OS) were 56.7%, 37.2%, 30.8% and 12.7%, respectively. The corresponding local-regional control (LRC) rates were 72.4%, 59.1%, 51.2% and 42.0%, respectively. In univariate analysis, the 5-year OS rates were 7.1% and 16.5% for patients of the low-dose and high-dose groups, respectively (P = 0.024). The incidence of acute esophagitis (grade ≥2) was significantly higher in the high-dose group (56.4%) than the low-dose group (32.1%) (P = 0.049). No fistulas or massive bleeding were observed during treatment. Six of the 67 patients (9.0%) experienced late toxicity: fistulas developed in 3 patients and massive bleeding occurred in 3 patients. Of these 6 patients, 4 had persistent or locally recurrent tumors, and 2 displayed no evidence of tumors. Three patients each were in the low-dose and high-dose groups. The combination of EBRT and NBT was safe and effective in patients with GEJAC. The high-dose group achieved better LRC and OS but had a higher rate of acute esophagitis.

  2. Patterns of CT lung injury and toxicity after stereotactic radiotherapy delivered with helical tomotherapy in early stage medically inoperable NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Agolli, L; Portalone, L; Migliorino, M R; Lopergolo, M G; Monaco, A; Dognini, J; Pressello, M C; Bracci, S; Donato, V

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate toxicity and patterns of radiologic lung injury on CT images after hypofractionated image-guided stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) delivered with helical tomotherapy (HT) in medically early stage inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: 28 elderly patients (31 lesions) with compromised pulmonary reserve were deemed inoperable and enrolled to undergo SBRT. Patterns of lung injury based on CT appearance were assessed at baseline and during follow up. Acute (6 months or less) and late (more than 6 months) events were classified as radiation pneumonitis and radiation fibrosis (RF), respectively. Results: After a median follow-up of 12 months (range, 4–20 months), 31 and 25 lesions were examined for acute and late injuries, respectively. Among the former group, 25 (80.6%) patients showed no radiological changes. The CT appearance of RF revealed modified conventional, mass-like and scar-like patterns in three, four and three lesions, respectively. No evidence of late lung injury was demonstrated in 15 lesions. Five patients developed clinical pneumonitis (four patients, grade 2 and one patient, grade 3, respectively), and none of whom had CT findings at 3 months post-treatment. No instance of symptomatic RF was detected. The tumour response rate was 84% (complete response + partial response). Local control was 83% at 1 year. Conclusion: Our findings show that HT-SBRT can be considered an effective treatment with a mild toxicity profile in medically inoperable patients with early stage NSCLC. No specific pattern of lung injury was demonstrated. Advances in knowledge: Our study is among the few showing that HT-SBRT represents a safe and effective option in patients with early stage medically inoperable NSCLC, and that it is not associated with a specific pattern of lung injury. PMID:25645106

  3. Percutaneous microwave ablation of stage I medically inoperable non-small cell lung cancer: clinical evaluation of 47 cases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xia; Ye, Xin; Zheng, Aimin; Huang, Guanghui; Ni, Xiang; Wang, Jiao; Han, Xiaoying; Li, Wenhong; Wei, Zhigang

    2014-11-01

    To retrospectively evaluate safety and effectiveness of CT-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) in 47 patients with medically inoperable stage I peripheral non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). From February 2008 to October 2012, 47 patients with stage I medically inoperable NSCLC were treated in 47 MWA sessions. The clinical outcomes were evaluated. Complications after MWA were also summarized. At a median follow-up period of 30 months, the median time to the first recurrence was 45.5 months. The local control rates at 1, 3, 5 years after MWA were 96%, 64%, and 48%, respectively. The median cancer-specific and median overall survivals were 47.4 and 33.8 months. The overall survival rates at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years after MWA were 89%, 63%, 43%, and 16%, respectively. Tumors ≤3.5 cm were associated with better survival than were tumors >3.5 cm. The complications after MWA included pneumothorax (63.8%), hemoptysis (31.9%), pleural effusion (34%), pulmonary infection (14.9%), and bronchopleural fistula (2.1%). MWA is safe and effective for the treatment of medically inoperable stage I peripheral NSCLC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Prolonged survival in advanced thymoma: Effectiveness of sequential multiple lines of chemotherapy in an inoperable case

    PubMed Central

    BERGONZI, MANUELA; ORLANDONI, GIULIO; CORBELLA, FRANCO; GOBBI, PAOLO G.

    2011-01-01

    A standard therapeutic approach for advanced malignant thymoma has yet to be defined given the rarity of this condition. We present a patient with advanced thymoma, evaluated as inoperable at diagnosis due to multiple serosal metastases. The strong constitution and determination of the patient allowed treatment with six distinct and subsequent chemotherapy regimens, all administered on an outpatient basis. A survival of 64 months from diagnosis was achieved. A favorable clinical response was obtained after the first three treatment lines, with the disappearance of all lesions on both computed tomography and positron emission tomography (PET) images. However, this result was not confirmed by surgical exploration of the thorax, undertaken with the aim of radical excision of possible residual disease. The presence of multiple pleural nodules, not evident on the imaging techniques, prevented even limited tumor debulking. The chemotherapy lines administered following detection of the lessions, stabilized the disease for a further 2 years, while a satisfactory quality of life was maintained. Only in the last months did the tumor progress and signs of cardiotoxicity appear, with the latter constituting the eventual cause of death. This case is important since the medical literature does not indicate non-cross-resistant regimens for advanced thymoma following second-line chemotherapy, and the sequence of regimens presented in this case study may serve as a feasible outline program. Moreover, we highlight the known possibility of false-negative PET studies, which can occur despite the claimed glucose avidity of thymoma tissue. PMID:22866110

  5. WE-G-BRD-01: Diffusion Weighted MRI for Response Assessment of Inoperable Lung Tumors for Patients Undergoing SBRT Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Tyagi, N; Wengler, K; Yorke, E; Hunt, M; Deasy, J; Rimner, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate early changes in tumor Apparent Diffusion Coefficients derived from diffusion weighted (DW)-MRI of lung cancer patients undergoing SBRT, as a possible early predictor of treatment response. Methods: DW-MRI scans were performed in this prospective phase I IRB-approved study of inoperable lung tumors at various time-points during the course of SBRT treatments. Axial DW scan using multi b-values ranging from 0–1000 s/mm{sup 2} were acquired in treatment position on a 3T Philips MR scanner during simulation, one hour after the first fraction (8 Gy), after a total of 5 fractions (40 Gy) and 4 weeks after SBRT delivery. A monoexponential model based on a least square fit from all b values was performed on a pixel-by-pixel basis and ADC was calculated. GTVs drawn on 4DCT for planning were mapped on the T2w MRI (acquired at exhale) after deformable registration. These volumes were then mapped on DWI scan for ADC calculation after rigid registration between the anatomical scan and diffusion scan. T2w scan on followup time points were deformably registered to the pretreatment T2 scan. Results: The first two patients in this study were analyzed. Median ADC values were 1.48, 1.48, 1.62 and 1.83 (10{sup −3}×) mm{sup 2}/s at pretreatment, after 8 Gy, after 40 Gy and 4 weeks posttreatment for the first patient and 1.57, 1.53, 1.66 and 1.72 (10{sup −3}×) mm{sup 2}/s for the second patient. ADC increased more significantly after 4 weeks of treatment rather than immediately post treatment, implying that late ADC value may be a better predictor of tumor response for SBRT treatment. The fraction of tumor pixels at high ADC values increased at 4 weeks post treatment. Conclusion: The observed increase in ADC values before the end of radiotherapy may be a surrogate for tumor response, but further patient accrual will be necessary to determine its value.

  6. High-dose stereotactic body radiotherapy correlates increased local control and overall survival in patients with inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies using stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have reported high tumor response and local control. However, the optimal SBRT dose remains unknown, and it is still not clear whether a dose response relationship for local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) exist or not. We performed this study to determine whether a dose response relationship for LC and OS is observed in SBRT for inoperable HCC. Methods Between 2003 and 2011, 108 patients with HCC were treated with SBRT. All patients were unsuitable for surgery or local ablation and had incomplete response to transarterial chemoembolization. Eighty-two patients with a longest tumor diameter (LD) less than or equal to 7.0 cm who were treated with 3-fraction SBRT and were analyzed. This cohort comprised 74 Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) class A patients and 8 CTP class B7 patients. The median LD was 3.0 cm (range, 1.0–7.0 cm), and the median dose was 51 Gy (range, 33–60 Gy). Results LC and OS rates at 2 years after SBRT were 87% and 63%, respectively, with a median follow-up duration of 30 months for all patients. The 2-year LC/OS rates for patients treated with doses of > 54, 45–54, and < 45 Gy were 100/71, 78/64, and 64%/30%, respectively (p = .009/p < .001). Multivariate analysis revealed that the SBRT dose (p = .005) and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage (p = .015) were significant prognostic factors for OS. Correlation analysis revealed a positive linear relationship between the SBRT dose and LC (p = .006, R = .899)/OS (p = .002, R = .940) at 2 years. Based on the tumor-control probability model, a dose of 54.8 Gy provides 2-year LC with a 90% probability. Five patients experienced grade 3 or higher gastrointestinal toxicity, and 6 had deteriorating of CTP score by greater than or equal to 2 within 3 months of SBRT. Conclusions This study demonstrated a dose response relationship for LC and OS with SBRT for HCC. Higher LC rates resulting from an

  7. Percutaneous Irreversible Electroporation: Long-term survival analysis of 71 patients with inoperable malignant hepatic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Niessen, C.; Thumann, S.; Beyer, L.; Pregler, B.; Kramer, J.; Lang, S.; Teufel, A.; Jung, E. M.; Stroszczynski, C.; Wiggermann, P.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate the survival times after percutaneous irreversible electroporation (IRE) in inoperable liver tumors not amenable to thermal ablation. 71 patients (14 females, 57 males, median age 63.5 ± 10.8 years) with 103 liver tumors were treated in 83 interventions using IRE (NanoKnife® system). The median tumor short-axis diameter was 1.9 cm (minimum 0.4 cm, maximum 4.5 cm). 35 patients had primary liver tumors and 36 patients had liver metastases. The Kaplan-Meier method was employed to calculate the survival rates, and the different groups were compared using multivariate log-rank and Wilcoxon tests. The overall median survival time was 26.3 months; the median survival of patients with primary land secondary liver cancer did not significantly differ (26.8 vs. 19.9 months; p = 0.41). Patients with a tumor diameter >3 cm (p < 0.001) or more than 2 lesions (p < 0.005) died significantly earlier than patients with smaller or fewer tumors. Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and Child-Pugh class B or C cirrhosis died significantly earlier than patients with Child-Pugh class A (p < 0.05). Patients with very early stage HCC survived significantly longer than patients with early stage HCC with a median survival of 22.3 vs. 13.7 months (p < 0.05). PMID:28266600

  8. Motivation and preferences of exercise programmes in patients with inoperable metastatic lung cancer: a need assessment.

    PubMed

    Kartolo, Adi; Cheng, Susanna; Petrella, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the motivation, ability, preferences, and perceived potential facilitating factors/barriers of patients with inoperable metastatic lung cancer towards exercise programmes. This is a cross-sectional study using survey adopting the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to obtain patients' experience recruited through Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Complex. Results were expressed in percentages, P value, and Spearman's rho. Sixty patients were recruited from January 2014 to April 2014. Patients generally had a high level across TPB measures, with 63% of them indicating that they have the motivation to exercise. Significant association in relation to motivation was established on attitudes (importance, P = 0.005, rho = 0.326; helpfulness, P = 0.015, rho = 0.348; and easiness, P = 0.001, rho = 0.375) and subjective norm of close members (P = 0.0069, rho = 0.348) and healthcare professionals (P = 0.012, rho = 0.328). Being a non-smoker (P = 0.042, rho = 0.311), having a past exercise history prior to diagnosis (P = 0.000, rho = 0.563), and absence of COPD (P = 0.016, rho = -0.312) were also shown to have a significant association with motivation to exercise. Patients were motivated to participate in an exercise programme despite contrary belief; however, they might have limited ability and preferred light intensity type of exercise such as walking. Their motivation to exercise was driven by different factors when compared to other cancer patient populations. Thus, it is important for healthcare professionals to understand the factors influencing their motivation and increase their awareness (only 26% of patients indicated receiving advice regarding exercise) to better the care towards patients with metastatic lung cancer.

  9. Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) in inoperable oligometastatic disease from colorectal cancer: a safe and effective approach.

    PubMed

    Comito, Tiziana; Cozzi, Luca; Clerici, Elena; Campisi, Maria Concetta; Liardo, Rocco Luca Emanuele; Navarria, Pierina; Ascolese, AnnaMaria; Tozzi, Angelo; Iftode, Cristina; De Rose, Fiorenza; Villa, Elisa; Personeni, Nicola; Rimassa, Lorenza; Santoro, Armando; Fogliata, Antonella; Mancosu, Pietro; Tomatis, Stefano; Scorsetti, Marta

    2014-08-27

    To assess the safety and efficacy of Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy (SABR) in oligometastatic patients from colorectal cancer. 82 patients with 1-3 inoperable metastases confined to one organ (liver or lung), were treated with SABR for a total of 112 lesions in an observational study. Prescription dose ranged between 48 and 75 Gy in 3 or 4 consecutive fractions. Primary end-points were local control (LC), overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end-point was toxicity. Median follow-up was 24 months (range 3-47). One, two and three years LC rate was 90%,80% and 75% (85%,75% and 70% for lung and 95%, 90% and 85% for liver metastases; no statistically significance was found). The difference in LC between the subgroup of lesions treated with ≥ 60 Gy (n = 58) and those irradiated with <60 Gy (n = 52) was statistically significant, with a 1, 2 and 3 yrs LC of 97%,92% and 83% for the higher dose, compared to 85%,70% and 70% for the lower dose (p < 0.04). Median OS was 32 months. Actuarial OS rate at 1, 2 and 3 yrs was 85%,65% and 43%. Univariate analysis showed a correlation only between OS and cumulative GTV > 3 cm (p < 0.02). Median PFS was 14 months, with a PFS rate of 56% at 1 yr and 40% at 2-3 yrs, without correlation with the site and prescription dose (p < 0.48 and p < 0.56). No patients experienced radiation-induced liver disease or grade >3 toxicity. SABR is a safe and feasible alternative treatment of oligometastatic colorectal liver and lung metastases in patients not amenable to surgery or other ablative treatments.

  10. SALTO: a randomized, multicenter study assessing octreotide LAR in inoperable bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Laval, Guillemette; Rousselot, Hubert; Toussaint-Martel, Sophie; Mayer, Françoise; Terrebonne, Eric; François, Eric; Brixi, Hédia; Nguyen, Thierry; Bourdeix, Isabelle; Bisot-Locard, Ségolène; Zelek, Laurent

    2012-02-01

    This phase II, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, non-comparative study assessed the efficacy and safety of immediate-release octreotide and octreotide LAR, in combination with corticosteroids and standard medical care, on the symptoms of inoperable malignant bowel obstruction (MBO) due to peritoneal carcinomatosis. The primary efficacy endpoint was "success" at day 14 defined as a composite endpoint including the absence of a nasogastric tube, and vomiting less than twice per day and no use of anticholinergic agents. Patients in the octreotide arm received octreotide LAR 30 mg intramuscular (im) on days 1, 29 and 57, as well as daily immediate-release octreotide 600 μg per day plus methylprednisolone on days 1 to 6. Placebo-treated patients received methylprednisolone and matched placebo instead of octreotide. Difficulties associated with enrolling patients at palliative-care stage meant only 64 patients (instead of the planned 102 patients) were randomized, 32 to octreotide and 32 to placebo. Despite randomization, more patients in the octreotide arm (46.4%) than in the placebo arm (21.9%) had a baseline Karnofsky score less than 50. An intention-to-treat analysis showed that in the octreotide and placebo arms, 12 (38%) and nine (28%), respectively, patients were successfully treated at day 14, which increased to 9/15 (60%) and 7/25 (28%), respectively, among patients with a baseline Karnofsky score greater or equal to 50. Octreotide-treated patients reported three drug-related adverse events (AEs), and no drug-related serious AEs or deaths. Octreotide LAR may have a key role in treating patients with a MBO due to peritoneal carcinomatosis, particularly in those with moderately severe disease.

  11. Definitive three-dimensional high-dose-rate brachytherapy for inoperable endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Draghini, Lorena; Maranzano, Ernesto; Casale, Michelina; Trippa, Fabio; Anselmo, Paola; Arcidiacono, Fabio; Fabiani, Stefania; Italiani, Marco; Chirico, Luigia; Muti, Marco

    2017-04-01

    To report our experience on high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in patients with stage I-III endometrial cancer unfit to surgery. Seventeen patients underwent HDR-BT as definitive treatment. Median age was 79 years (range, 60-95), median Karnofsky performance status 90% (range, 60-100). Histology was endometrial adenocarcinoma in 14 (82%), and non-endometrial in 3 (18%) patients. In 15 (88%) patients, clinical stage was I and in remaining 2 (12%) was III. All patients were evaluated with computed tomography (CT) and endometrial biopsy. Using the Fletcher applicator, a CT-based planning HDR-BT was delivered. Local control (LC) was obtained when there was an interruption of vaginal bleeding in absence of CT-imaging progression. Fourteen patients underwent HDR-BT alone and three external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) combined with HDR-BT. All patients had a clinical LC, after a median follow-up of 53 months (range, 6-131), 3 and 6 years LC rates were 86% and 69%, respectively. Cancer specific survival (CSS) at 1, 2, and 6 years was 93%, 85%, and 85%, respectively. Age, stage, dose, and type of radiotherapy did not result significant prognostic factors for LC and CSS. Only histology significantly influenced LC: for high-risk histology (i.e., non-endometrial carcinoma or grade [G] 3 endometrial adenocarcinoma) LC was 73% at 1 year and 36% at 6 years; for low-risk histology (i.e., G1-2 endometrial adenocarcinoma) was 100% at 1 and 6 years (p = 0.05). Two (12%) patients had G2 acute toxicity and two others (12%) G1 late toxicity. Although some limitations of our analysis (relatively few number of patients recruited, retrospective evaluation, and consequent suboptimal patient selection), it confirms effectiveness and safety of definitive HDR-BT for medically inoperable stage I-III endometrial cancer. The best LC was obtained in stage I low-risk histology.

  12. Governance: A Community College Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carhart, John I.; Collins, Charles C.

    The purpose of this report is to describe the development of the input/output governance model at Los Medanos College and to explore the governance issues pertinent to all community colleges. Considerations in creating the model included the issue of authority and responsibility in terms of legal sources, the authority and accountability…

  13. Cost-effectiveness of selective internal radiation therapy using yttrium-90 resin microspheres in treating patients with inoperable colorectal liver metastases in the UK.

    PubMed

    Pennington, B; Akehurst, R; Wasan, H; Sangro, B; Kennedy, A S; Sennfält, K; Bester, L

    2015-01-01

    Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) using SIR-Spheres(®) (90)Y-labeled resin microspheres has been shown to be a well-tolerated, effective treatment in patients with inoperable liver-dominant chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). This study estimated the cost-effectiveness of (90)Y-resin microspheres compared to best supportive care (BSC) from a UK perspective. Survival data from a comparative retrospective cohort study was analyzed and used in a state-transition cost-effectiveness model, using quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained as the measure of effectiveness. The model incorporated costs for the SIRT procedure, monitoring, further treatment, adverse events, and death. Utility values, reflecting patient quality-of-life, were taken from a published source. SIRT using (90)Y-resin microspheres compared to BSC improved overall survival by a mean of 1.12 life years and resulted in a cost per QALY gained of £28,216. In sensitivity analysis, this varied between £25,015-£28,817. In an area of large unmet need, treatment with (90)Y-resin microspheres offers a clinically effective and cost-effective treatment option.

  14. High-Dose-Rate Rotte 'Y' Applicator Brachytherapy for Definitive Treatment of Medically Inoperable Endometrial Cancer: 10-Year Results

    SciTech Connect

    Coon, Devin; Beriwal, Sushil Heron, Dwight E.; Kelley, Joseph L.; Edwards, Robert P.; Sukumvanich, Paniti; Zorn, Kristin K.; Krivak, Thomas C.

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To assess the intermediate clinical outcomes of medically inoperable patients with endometrial cancer treated with definitive Rotte 'Y' applicator high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) over a 10-year period. Methods and Materials: Forty-nine inoperable patients were treated with HDRB from 1997 to 2007. Forty three (84%) were markedly obese (body mass index >35 kg/m{sup 2}). Thirty-one patients (63.3%) underwent two-dimensional treatment planning, whereas 18 patients (36.7%) underwent three-dimensional treatment planning. Thirty five of the patients (71.4%) were first treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). For patients receiving EBRT in addition to HDRB, the median Y-applicator dose was 20 Gy in 5 fractions; for patients receiving HDRB alone it was 35 Gy in 5 fractions. All patients received two Y-applicator treatments per day. Results: Median follow-up time for all patients was 33 months. Acute HDRB toxicities were limited to Grade 1 and 2 occurring in 5 patients. One patient had a myocardial infarction. Four patients had late Grade 2 or 3 toxicity. Three patients had local recurrence (median time to recurrence, 16 months). The 3- and 5-year actuarial cause-specific survival rates were 93% and 87%, respectively; the overall survival rate was 83% and 42%, respectively, at 3 and 5 years. Conclusions: Twice-daily HDRB using a Y-applicator is a well-tolerated and efficacious regimen for the definitive treatment of medically inoperable patients with early-stage endometrial cancer. The recent incorporation of three-dimensional treatment planning has the potential to further decrease treatment morbidities.

  15. CT-guided 125I seed implantation for inoperable retroperitoneal sarcoma: A technique for delivery of local tumor brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Biao; Guo, Wen-Hao; Lan, Ting; Yuan, Fang; Liu, Guan-Jian; Zan, Rui-Yu; You, Xin; Tan, Qiao-Yue; Liao, Zheng-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Radical surgery is currently the first treatment of choice for retroperitoneal soft tissue sarcoma (RSTS). However, the prognosis of RSTS remains poor due to ineffective local control and a high incidence of metastasis after surgical resection. Brachytherapy has been shown to safely provide local radiotherapy for numerous types of cancer when used alone or in combination with surgical resection, but has not been well characterized in the management of RSTS. The aim of this study was to evaluate CT-guided 125I seed implantation for local control and pain relief in the treatment of inoperable RSTS. A total of 23 patients with RSTS were treated with 125I implantation. Pain was assessed using a visual analog scale. Other endpoints were evaluated via computed tomography scan or phone call/e-mail records. The occurrence of complications was assessed preoperatively (baseline) and during postoperatively follow-up or until patient succumbed. All patients were successfully treated with 125I implantation. A mean number of 70.87 radioactive seeds were applied in each patient. During the follow-up, two patients were unaccounted for, local recurrence occurred in three patients, five succumbed and complications were observed in sixteen. The patient's VAS score changed from 7.4 preoperatively to 7.6, 2.3, 2.0, 1.2, 1.5, 1.4 and 2.5 at 24 h, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months after the procedure, respectively. Good local control and significant pain relief after 125I seed implantation was observed in patients with inoperable RSTS. Thus, the present results suggest that this method could be an effective treatment option for patients with inoperable RSTS. PMID:28101168

  16. Exercise Training Improves Exercise Capacity and Quality of Life in Patients with Inoperable or Residual Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Herb, Jochen; Ehlken, Nicola; Fischer, Christine; Reichenberger, Frank; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Seyfarth, Hans-Juergen; Mayer, Eckhard

    2012-01-01

    Background Aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effects of exercise training in patients with inoperable or residual chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Methods Thirty-five consecutive patients with invasively confirmed inoperable or residual CTEPH (16 women;19 men; mean age 61±15 years, mean pulmonary artery pressure, 63±20 mmHg; primary inoperable n = 33, persisting pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary endarterectomy n = 2) on stable disease-targeted medication received exercise training in-hospital for 3 weeks and continued at home for 15 weeks. Medication remained unchanged during the study period. Efficacy parameters have been evaluated at baseline, after 3 and 15 weeks by blinded-observers. Survival rate has been evaluated in a follow-up period of median 36.4 months (interquartile range 26.6–46.6 months). Results All patients tolerated exercise training without severe adverse events. Patients significantly improved the mean distance walked in 6 minutes compared to baseline by 61±54 meters after 3 weeks (p<0.001) and by 71±70 meters after 15 weeks (p = 0.001), as well as scores of quality-of-life questionnaire, peak oxygen consumption and maximal workload. NT-proBNP improved significantly after 3 weeks of exercise training (p = 0.046). The 1-year survival rate was 97%, 2-year survival rate was 94% and the 3-year-survival 86% respectively. Conclusion Training as add-on to medical therapy may be effective in patients with CTEPH to improve work capacity, quality of life and further prognostic relevant parameters and possibly improves the 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rate. Further multicentric randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm these promising results. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01398345 PMID:22848542

  17. Definitive three-dimensional high-dose-rate brachytherapy for inoperable endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Draghini, Lorena; Casale, Michelina; Trippa, Fabio; Anselmo, Paola; Arcidiacono, Fabio; Fabiani, Stefania; Italiani, Marco; Chirico, Luigia; Muti, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To report our experience on high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in patients with stage I-III endometrial cancer unfit to surgery. Material and methods Seventeen patients underwent HDR-BT as definitive treatment. Median age was 79 years (range, 60-95), median Karnofsky performance status 90% (range, 60-100). Histology was endometrial adenocarcinoma in 14 (82%), and non-endometrial in 3 (18%) patients. In 15 (88%) patients, clinical stage was I and in remaining 2 (12%) was III. All patients were evaluated with computed tomography (CT) and endometrial biopsy. Using the Fletcher applicator, a CT-based planning HDR-BT was delivered. Local control (LC) was obtained when there was an interruption of vaginal bleeding in absence of CT-imaging progression. Results Fourteen patients underwent HDR-BT alone and three external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) combined with HDR-BT. All patients had a clinical LC, after a median follow-up of 53 months (range, 6-131), 3 and 6 years LC rates were 86% and 69%, respectively. Cancer specific survival (CSS) at 1, 2, and 6 years was 93%, 85%, and 85%, respectively. Age, stage, dose, and type of radiotherapy did not result significant prognostic factors for LC and CSS. Only histology significantly influenced LC: for high-risk histology (i.e., non-endometrial carcinoma or grade [G] 3 endometrial adenocarcinoma) LC was 73% at 1 year and 36% at 6 years; for low-risk histology (i.e., G1-2 endometrial adenocarcinoma) was 100% at 1 and 6 years (p = 0.05). Two (12%) patients had G2 acute toxicity and two others (12%) G1 late toxicity. Conclusions Although some limitations of our analysis (relatively few number of patients recruited, retrospective evaluation, and consequent suboptimal patient selection), it confirms effectiveness and safety of definitive HDR-BT for medically inoperable stage I-III endometrial cancer. The best LC was obtained in stage I low-risk histology. PMID:28533799

  18. Disparities in Treatment of Patients with Inoperable Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Population-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Koshy, M.; Malik, R.; Spiotto, M.; Mahmood, U.; Weichselbaum, R. R.; Sher, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients unable to receive surgery for stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can undergo conventional radiotherapy (ConvRT), stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), or no treatment (NoTx). This study assessed patterns of care and disparities in the receipt of each of these treatments. Methods The study included patients in the National Cancer Database from 2003-2011 with T1-T2N0M0 inoperable lung cancer (n= 39,822). Logistic regressions were performed to determine predictors of receiving any radiation vs. NoTx and for receiving SBRT vs. ConvRT. Findings Treatment with radiation was significantly less likely in blacks (OR 0.65) and Hispanics (OR 0.42) compared to whites. Treatment with SBRT vs ConvRT was more likely in an academic research program (OR: 2.62) and a high-volume facility (OR: 7.00) compared to community cancer programs or low-volume facilities. In 2011, use of SBRT, ConvRT and NoTx was 25%, 28% and 46% for patients in a community cancer center versus 68%, 11% and 21%, respectively, in an academic center (p < 0.0001). Conclusion There were marked institutional and socioeconomic variations in the treatment of inoperable stage I NSCLC. These results suggest that removal of barriers to receive radiation therapy and particularly improved access to SBRT may meaningfully improve survival in this disease. PMID:25371079

  19. A novel approach to inoperable or recurrent rectal cancer by chemoembolization. A new arrow in our quiver?

    PubMed Central

    Bini, Roberto; Comelli, Simone; Leli, Renzo; Vaudano, Giacomo Paolo; Savio, Daniele; Viora, Tiziana; Addeo, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Assess the feasibility, safety and efficacy of TACE with irinotecan loaded micro particles (debiri) for the treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer patients. Results We assessed the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS). The tool is designed to assess nine common symptoms in cancer patients: pain, tiredness, nausea, depression, anxiety, drowsiness, appetite, wellbeing and shortness of breath. The ESAS score was 7 in 10/12 (83%) patients before treatment and 6 in 2/12 (16.5%) patients. After treatment in 6/12 (50%) patients the score dropped to 3; 3/12 (33%) reported 4, 1/12 (8%) reported 2. All patients experienced local control disease with a degree of citoreduction; in 4 cases (33%) we observed outstanding responses with a dramatic reduction in the tumors size which led us to surgical radical resections. Materials and methods We run a prospective mono-institutional study where we recruited, 12 non- consecutive patients with histology confirmation of rectal cancer, inoperable and not treatable due to severe comorbidities, or pelvic recurrence/progression after curative treatment, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or surgery. Their performance status (PS) ECOG was 2-3. Twelve patients (10 male and 2 female) with a median age 71 (range 56-89) were recruited in the study. Conclusions The study has met the primary endpoint and showed encouraging activity. Debiri could be a possible option for locally advanced/inoperable or recurred rectal cancer patients. Further trials are warranted to validate this methodic in early stages. PMID:27303924

  20. Endoscopic stenting for inoperable malignant biliary obstruction: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zorrón Pu, Leonardo; de Moura, Eduardo Guimarães Hourneaux; Bernardo, Wanderley Marques; Baracat, Felipe Iankelevich; Mendonça, Ernesto Quaresma; Kondo, André; Luz, Gustavo Oliveira; Furuya Júnior, Carlos Kiyoshi; Artifon, Everson Luiz de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To analyze through meta-analyses the benefits of two types of stents in the inoperable malignant biliary obstruction. METHODS: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials (RCT) was conducted, with the last update on March 2015, using EMBASE, CINAHL (EBSCO), MEDLINE, LILACS/CENTRAL (BVS), SCOPUS, CAPES (Brazil), and gray literature. Information of the selected studies was extracted in sight of six outcomes: primarily regarding dysfunction, complication and re-intervention rates; and secondarily costs, survival, and patency time. The data about characteristics of trial participants, inclusion and exclusion criteria and types of stents were also extracted. The bias was mainly assessed through the JADAD scale. This meta-analysis was registered in the PROSPERO database by the number CRD42014015078. The analysis of the absolute risk of the outcomes was performed using the software RevMan, by computing risk differences (RD) of dichotomous variables and mean differences (MD) of continuous variables. Data on RD and MD for each primary outcome were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel test and inconsistency was qualified and reported in χ2 and the Higgins method (I2). Sensitivity analysis was performed when heterogeneity was higher than 50%, a subsequent assay was done and other findings were compiled. Student’s t-test was used for the comparison of weighted arithmetic means regarding secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Initial searching identified 3660 studies; 3539 were excluded through title, repetition, and/or abstract, while 121 studies were fully assessed and were excluded mainly because they did not compare self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) and plastic stents (PS), leading to thirteen RCT selected, with 13 articles and 1133 subjects meta-analyzed. The mean age was 69.5 years old, that were affected mostly by bile duct (proximal) and pancreatic tumors (distal). The preferred SEMS diameter used was the 10 mm (30 Fr) and the preferred PS diameter used was 10 Fr

  1. Palliative stenting for relief of dysphagia in patients with inoperable esophageal cancer: impact on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Madhusudhan, Chinthakandhi; Saluja, Sundeep S; Pal, Sujoy; Ahuja, Vineet; Saran, Pratap; Dash, Nihar R; Sahni, Peush; Chattopadhyay, Tushar K

    2009-01-01

    The aim of palliation in patients with inoperable esophageal cancer is to relieve dysphagia with minimal morbidity and mortality, and thus improve quality of life (QOL). The use of a self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) is a well-established modality for palliation of dysphagia in such patients. We assessed the QOL after palliative stenting in patients with inoperable esophageal cancer. Thirty-three patients with dysphagia due to inoperable esophageal cancer underwent SEMS insertion between October 2004 and December 2006. All patients had grade III/IV dysphagia and locally advanced unresectable cancer (n = 13), distant metastasis (n = 14), or comorbid conditions/poor general health status precluding a major surgical procedure (n = 6). Patients with grade I/II dysphagia and those with carcinoma of the cervical esophagus were excluded. The QOL was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 (version 3) and EORTC QLQ-Esophagus (OES) 18 questionnaire (a QOL scale specifically designed for esophageal diseases) before and at 1, 4, and 8 weeks after placement of the stent. The mean age of the patients was 56 (range 34-78) years, and 22 were men. A covered SEMS was used in all patients. The most common site of malignancy was the lower third of the esophagus (n = 18, 55%). In 23 (77%) patients, the stent crossed the gastroesophageal junction. Seven patients required a reintervention for stent block (n = 5) and stent migration (n = 2). Dysphagia improved significantly immediately after stenting, and this improvement persisted until 8 weeks (16.5 vs. 90.6; P < 0.01). The global health status (5.8 vs. 71.7; P < 0.01) and all functional scores improved significantly after stenting from baseline until 8 weeks. Except pain (14.1 vs. 17.7; P = 0.67), there was significant improvement in deglutition (22.7 vs. 2.0; P < 0.01), eating (48 vs. 12.6; P < 0.01), and other symptom scales (19.7 vs. 12.1; P = 0.04) following stenting. The

  2. High level modelling and design of asynchronous interface logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovlev, A. V.; Koelmans, A. M.; Lavagno, L.

    1993-11-01

    The authors propose a new methodology to design asynchronous circuits that is divided in two stages: abstract synthesis and logic synthesis. The first state is carried out by refining an abstract model, based on logic predicates describing the correct input-output behavior of the circuit, into a labelled Petri net and then into a formalization of timing diagrams (the Signal Transition Graph). This refinement involves hierarchical decomposition of the initial implementation until its size can be handled by automated logic synthesis tools, as well as replacing symbolic events occurring on the input-output ports of the labelled Petri net with up and down transitions occurring on the input-output wires of a circuit implementation.

  3. A Phase I Trial of an Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Plus Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy in Patients with Inoperable Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    inoperable disease for fear of side effects. As a result, 30% of such patients will die from metastases within 3 years. A new class of drugs called immune...checkpoint inhibitors exploit the body’s immune system to target and kill tumor cells. The drug used in the proposed trial, MPDL3280A (atezolizumab

  4. [Response in a case of inoperable bile duct cancer treated by combined chemotherapy of S-1 and gemcitabine].

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Nobuhiro; Ayata, Sakura; Maruyama, Yuzuru; Tsukada, Yoshihisa

    2010-08-01

    A 60-year-old male patient was diagnosed as bile duct cancer with left neck and abdominal para-aortic lymph node metastasis. He was treated by combined chemotherapy of S-1 and gemcitabine(GEM). S-1 (120 mg/day) was administered 14 days followed by 14 days rest as one course. GEM (1,000 mg/m2) was administered at 8 and 15 days after the start of S-1. Combined therapy could be continued, though S-1 and GEM were reduced for neutropemia. After 5 courses of treatment, CT and MRCP revealed a partial response. S-1/GEM combined therapy was effective for inoperable biliary tract carcinoma.

  5. Optimum palliation of inoperable hilar cholangiocarcinoma: comparative assessment of the efficacy of plastic and self-expanding metal stents.

    PubMed

    Raju, Ramu P; Jaganmohan, Sathya R; Ross, William A; Davila, Marta L; Javle, Milind; Raju, Gottumukkala S; Lee, Jeffrey H

    2011-05-01

    Endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage (ERBD) with plastic or self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) is often performed for palliative care for cholangiocarcinoma. The objective was to compare the clinical effectiveness, including stent patency, complication rate, and need for salvage percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, of SEMS and plastic stents. A total of 100 patients with inoperable cholangiocarcinoma were identified from an endoscopic database from 1/1/01 to 9/30/06 at a tertiary cancer hospital and their clinical history was retrospectively reviewed. All patients were followed to death, re-intervention, or for at least one year. Stent patency and patient survival were estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis, supplemented by the log-rank test for comparisons between groups. Forty-eight patients had SEMS placed and 52 patients had plastic stents placed. ERBD was successful in 46 (95.8%) in the SEMS group and 49 (94.2%) in the plastic group (P = 0.67). Median patency times were 1.86 months in the plastic group and 5.56 months in the SEMS group (P < 0.0001). A mean of 1.53 and 4.60 re-interventions were performed in the SEMS and plastic groups, respectively (P < 0.05). Complications occurred in 4/48 (8.3%) in the SEMS group and 4/52 (7.7%) in the plastic group (P = 0.79). Median survival was 9.08 and 8.22 months in the SEMS and plastic stent groups, respectively (P = 0.50). Metallic stent patency was superior to that of plastic stents in all Bismuth-Corlette classifications of hilar cholangiocarcinoma with similar complication rates. SEMS seem to be cost-effective and, when feasible, should be considered as an initial intervention in patients with inoperable hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

  6. Robotic stereotactic body radiation therapy for elderly medically inoperable early-stage non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Karam, Sana D; Horne, Zachary D; Hong, Robert L; Baig, Nimrah; Gagnon, Gregory J; McRae, Don; Duhamel, David; Nasr, Nadim M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is being increasingly applied in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) because of its high local efficacy. This study aims to examine survival outcomes in elderly patients with inoperable stage I NSCLC treated with SBRT. Methods A total of 31 patients with single lesions treated with fractionated SBRT from 2008 to 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. A median prescribed dose of 48 Gy was delivered to the prescription isodose line, over a median of four treatments. The median biologically effective dose (BED) was 105.6 (range 37.50–180), and the median age was 73 (65–90 years). No patient received concurrent chemotherapy. Results With a median follow up of 13 months (range, 4–40 months), the actuarial median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 32 months, and 19 months, respectively. The actuarial median local control (LC) time was not reached. The survival outcomes at median follow up of 13 months were 80%, 68%, and 70% for LC, PFS, and OS, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed a BED of >100 Gy was associated with improved LC rates (P = 0.02), while squamous cell histology predicted for worse LC outcome at median follow up time of 13 months (P = 0.04). Increased tumor volume was a worse prognostic indicator of both LC and OS outcomes (P < 0.05). Finally, female gender was a better prognostic factor for OS than male gender (P = 0.006). There were no prognostic indicators of PFS that reached statistical significance. No acute or subacute high-grade toxicities were documented. Conclusion SBRT is a safe, feasible, and effective treatment option for elderly patients with inoperable early stage NSCLC. BED, histology, and tumor size are predictors of local control, while tumor size and gender predict OS. PMID:28210133

  7. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy-Based Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Medically Inoperable Early-Stage Lung Cancer: Excellent Local Control

    SciTech Connect

    Videtic, Gregory M.M.; Stephans, Kevin; Reddy, Chandana; Gajdos, Stephen; Kolar, Matthew; Clouser, Edward; Djemil, Toufik

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: To validate the use of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) beams for medically inoperable Stage I lung cancer. Methods and Materials: From February 2004 to November 2006, a total of 26 patients with 28 lesions received SBRT using a Novalis/BrainLAB system. Immobilization involved a Bodyfix vacuum cushion. A weighted abdominal belt limited respiratory excursion. Computed tomographic simulation images were acquired at rest, full inhalation, and full exhalation and were merged to generate an internal gross tumor volume (ITV). Dose was prescribed to cover the planning target volume (PTV), defined as PTV = ITV + 3-5 mm set-up margin. Heterogeneity corrections were used. Delivery of 50 Gy in five sequential fractions typically used seven nonopposing, noncoplanar beams. Image-guided target verification was provided by BrainLAB-ExacTrac. Results: Among the 26 patients, the mean age was 74 years (range, 49-88 years). Of the patients, 50% were male and 50% female. The median Karnofsky performance status was 70 (range, 40-100). The median follow-up was 30.9 months (range, 10.4-51.4 months). Tissue diagnosis was contraindicated in seven patients (26.9%). There were 22 T1 (78.6%) and six T2 (21.4%) tumors. The median conformality index was 1.38 (range, 1.12-1.8). The median heterogeneity index was 1.08 (range, 1.04-1.2). One patient (3.6%) developed acute Grade 3 dyspnea and one patient developed late Grade 2 chest wall pain. Actuarial local control and overall survival at 3 years were 94.4% and 52%, respectively. Conclusions: Use of IMRT-based delivery of SBRT using restriction of tumor motion in medically inoperable lung cancer demonstrates excellent local control and favorable survival.

  8. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for medically inoperable lung metastases-A pooled analysis of the German working group "stereotactic radiotherapy".

    PubMed

    Rieber, Juliane; Streblow, Jan; Uhlmann, Lorenz; Flentje, Michael; Duma, Marciana; Ernst, Iris; Blanck, Oliver; Wittig, Andrea; Boda-Heggemann, Judit; Krempien, Robert; Lohaus, Fabian; Klass, Nathalie Desirée; Eble, Michael J; Imhoff, Detlef; Kahl, Henning; Petersen, Cordula; Gerum, Sabine; Henkenberens, Christoph; Adebahr, Sonja; Hass, Peter; Schrade, Elsge; Wendt, Thomas G; Hildebrandt, Guido; Andratschke, Nicolaus; Sterzing, Florian; Guckenberger, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    The current literature on stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for oligometastatic disease is characterized by small patient cohorts with heterogeneous primary tumors, metastases location and dose regimes. Hence, this study established a multi-institutional database of 700 patients treated with SBRT for pulmonary metastases to identify prognostic factors influencing survival and local control. All German radiotherapy departments were contacted and invited to participate in this analysis. A total number of 700 patients with medically inoperable lung metastases treated with SBRT in 20 centers between 1997 and 2014 were included in a database. Primary and metastatic tumor characteristics, treatment characteristics and follow-up data including survival, local control, distant metastases, and toxicity were evaluated. Lung metastases were treated with median PTV-encompassing single doses of 12.5Gy (range 3.0-33.0Gy) in a median number of 3 fractions (range 1-13). After a median follow-up time of 14.3 months, 2-year local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) were 81.2% and 54.4%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, OS was most significantly influenced by pretreatment performance status, maximum metastasis diameter, primary tumor histology, time interval between primary tumor diagnosis and SBRT treatment and number of metastases. For LC, independent prognostic factors were pretreatment performance status, biological effective dose (BED) at PTV isocenter (BEDISO) and single fraction (PTV-encompassing) dose in multivariate analysis. Radiation-induced pneumonitis grade 2 or higher was observed in 6.5% of patients. The only factor significantly influencing toxicity was BEDISO (p=0.006). SBRT for medically inoperable patients with pulmonary metastases achieved excellent local control and promising overall survival. Important prognostic factors were identified for selecting patients who might benefit most from this therapy approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  9. A concurrent ultra-fractionated radiation therapy and temozolomide treatment: A promising therapy for newly diagnosed, inoperable glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Beauchesne, P; Quillien, V; Faure, G; Bernier, V; Noel, G; Quetin, P; Gorlia, T; Carnin, C; Pedeux, R

    2016-03-15

    We report on a phase II clinical trial to determine the effect of a concurrent ultra-fractionated radiotherapy and temozolomide treatment in inoperable glioblastoma patients. A phase II study opened; patients over 18 years of age who were able to give informed consent and had histologically proven, newly diagnosed inoperable diagnosed and supratentorial glioblastoma were eligible. Three doses of 0.75 Gy spaced apart by at least 4 hr were delivered daily, 5 days a week for six consecutive weeks for a total of 67.5 Gy. Chemotherapy was administered during the same period, which consisted of temozolomide given at a dose of 75 mg/m(2) for 7 days a week. After a 4-week break, chemotherapy was resumed for up to six cycles of adjuvant temozolomide treatment, given every 28 days, according to the standard 5-day regimen. Tolerance and toxicity were the primary endpoints; survival and progression-free survival were the secondary endpoints. In total, 40 patients were enrolled in this study, 29 men and 11 women. The median age was 58 years, and the median Karnofsky performance status was 80. The concomitant ultra-fractionated radiotherapy and temozolomide treatment was well tolerated. Complete responses were seen in four patients, and partial responses were reported in seven patients. The median survival from the initial diagnosis was 16 months. Several long-term survivors were noted. Concurrent ultra-fractionated radiation therapy and temozolomide treatment are well accepted by the patients. The results showed encouraging survival rates for these unfavorable patients.

  10. Safety and feasibility within 24 h of discharge in patents with inoperable malignant lung nodules after percutaneous microwave ablation.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhou, Kang; Gao, Qinzong; Li, Xiaoguang

    2016-12-01

    Minimally invasive interventional therapy is now the more effective treatment strategy for organ-confined malignancy in patients who are poor candidates for surgery. Microwave ablation (MWA) in lung malignancy has been receiving much attention as an effective minimally invasive approach. The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and feasibility within 24 h of discharge of patients treated with percutaneous MWA for inoperable malignant lung nodules, and elucidate the factors predisposing to hospital readmission. From September 2014 to April 2016, a total of eighty patients with inoperable malignant lung nodules who underwent 24 h of discharge following percutaneous MWA were consecutively enrolled in this retrospective study. Primary endpoints included the rate of short-term admission and procedure-related complications within 30 days of hospital discharge. The secondary outcomes included the rate of technical success and hospital readmission. Student's t- test and Fisher exact test were used to analysis parametric and categorical variables accordingly. The technical success was achieved in 94% of ablation sessions. Within 24 h of discharge was feasible in 73 cases (91.3%), and 7 (8.7%) required short-term admission. The complication rate was 27.5% (22/80), included the major 40.9% (9/22) and minor 59.1% (13/22) complications. Postoperative adverse event was 17.5% (14/80), these was managed conservatively. The lesion location and puncture technique were associated with an increased need for readmission. Routine 24 h discharge following percutaneous MWA for malignant lung nodules is safe and feasible, with relatively low complications and few requirements for short-term readmission.

  11. Stereotactic body radiation therapy versus no treatment for early stage non-small cell lung cancer in medically inoperable elderly patients: A National Cancer Data Base analysis.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Ronica H; Liu, Yuan; Gillespie, Theresa W; Mikell, John L; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Fernandez, Felix G; Curran, Walter J; Lipscomb, Joseph; Higgins, Kristin A

    2015-12-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has demonstrated high rates of local control with low morbidity and has now emerged as the standard of care for medically inoperable, early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the impact of lung SBRT on survival in the elderly population is less clear given competing comorbid conditions. An analysis of the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) was undertaken to determine whether definitive SBRT improves survival relative to observation alone patients ages 70 years and older. The NCDB, a retrospective national database that captures approximately 70% of all patients treated for cancer, was queried for patients aged 70 years or older with early stage (T1-T3N0M0) NSCLC from 2003 to 2006. Overall survival was compared between patients who received stereotactic body radiotherapy alone and those who received no treatment. An extended Cox proportional hazards model was applied to estimate the treatment effect of SBRT. In total, 3147 patients met the selection criteria for this analysis. SBRT was delivered to 258 patients (8.2%), and 2889 patients (91.8%) received no treatment. There was no significant difference in the distribution of Charlson/Deyo comorbidity index scores between the 2 groups (P = .076). Multivariable analysis revealed improved overall survival with SBRT compared with observation for the entire cohort (hazard ratio, 0.64; P < .001). SBRT is associated with improved survival in elderly patients with early stage NSCLC who have concurrent comorbid conditions compared with observation alone. The current data support the use of SBRT for the treatment of elderly patients with early stage NSCLC who have limiting comorbid conditions. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  12. High Radiation Dose May Reduce the Negative Effect of Large Gross Tumor Volume in Patients With Medically Inoperable Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Lujun; West, Brady T.; Hayman, James A.; Lyons, Susan; Cease, Kemp; Kong, F.-M. . E-mail: Fengkong@med.umich.edu

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the effect of radiation dose varies with gross tumor volume (GTV) in patients with stage I/II non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Included in the study were 114 consecutive patients with medically inoperable stage I/II NSCLC treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy between 1992 and 2004. The median biologic equivalent dose (BED) was 79.2 Gy (range, 58.2-124.5 Gy). The median GTV was 51.8 cm{sup 3} (range, 2.1-727.8 cm{sup 3}). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Kaplan-Meier estimation and Cox regression models were used for survival analyses. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that there was a significant interaction between radiation dose and GTV (p < 0.001). In patients with BED {<=}79.2 Gy (n = 68), the OS medians for patients with GTV >51.8 cm{sup 3} and {<=}51.8 cm{sup 3} were 18.2 and 23.9 months, respectively (p 0.015). If BED was >79.2 Gy (n = 46), no significant difference was found between GTV groups (p = 0.681). For patients with GTV >51.8 cm{sup 3} (n = 45), the OS medians in those with BED >79.2 Gy and {<=}79.2 Gy were 30.4 and 18.2 months, respectively (p < 0.001). If GTV was {<=}51.8 cm{sup 3} (n = 45), the difference was no longer significant (p = 0.577). Conclusion: High-dose radiation is more important for patients with larger tumors and may be effective in reducing the adverse outcome associated with large GTV. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding.

  13. Linguistic Ambiguity in a Connectionist Model for Grammatical Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelica, Julia; Ney, James W.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of the connectionist model of language processing, focusing on the parallel distributed processing (PDP) model proposed by Rumelhart and others (1986) that explains the microstructure of cognition in terms of interactive activation between elementary input, output, and intermediate processing units linked by weighted…

  14. ZIMOD: A Simple Computer Model of the Zimbabwean Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Jon; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a rationale for the construction and use of a simple consistency model of the Zimbabwean economy that incorporates an input-output matrix. The model is designed to investigate alternative industrial strategies and their consequences for the balance of payments, consumption, and overall gross domestic product growth for a…

  15. The Boundary Question in Household Production: A Systems Model Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beutler, Ivan F.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    An input-output system model is presented as a framework in which to address complex boundary issues. The model provides a theoretical way to distinguish between household production, consumption, and other activities that fall outside of the market economy. (Author/JOW)

  16. ZIMOD: A Simple Computer Model of the Zimbabwean Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Jon; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a rationale for the construction and use of a simple consistency model of the Zimbabwean economy that incorporates an input-output matrix. The model is designed to investigate alternative industrial strategies and their consequences for the balance of payments, consumption, and overall gross domestic product growth for a…

  17. One-Year Clinical Outcomes With SAPIEN 3 Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in High-Risk and Inoperable Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Howard C; Thourani, Vinod H; Kodali, Susheel K; Makkar, Raj R; Szeto, Wilson Y; Anwaruddin, Saif; Desai, Nimesh; Lim, Scott; Malaisrie, S Chris; Kereiakes, Dean J; Ramee, Steven; Greason, Kevin L; Kapadia, Samir; Babaliaros, Vasilis; Hahn, Rebecca T; Pibarot, Philippe; Weissman, Neil J; Leipsic, Jonathon; Whisenant, Brian K; Webb, John G; Mack, Michael J; Leon, Martin B

    2016-07-12

    In the initial PARTNER trial (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves) of transcatheter aortic valve replacement for high-risk (HR) and inoperable patients, mortality at 1 year was 24% in HR and 31% in inoperable patients. A recent report of the 30-day outcomes with the low-profile SAPIEN 3 transcatheter aortic valve replacement system demonstrated very low rates of adverse events, but little is known about the longer-term outcomes with this device. Between October 2013 and September 2014, 583 HR (65%) or inoperable (35%) patients were treated via the transfemoral (84%) or transapical/transaortic (16%) access route at 29 US sites. Major clinical events at 1 year were adjudicated by an independent clinical events committee, and echocardiographic results were analyzed by a core laboratory. Baseline characteristics included age of 83 years, 42% female, and median Society of Thoracic Surgeons score of 8.4%. At the 1-year follow-up, survival (all-cause) was 85.6% for all patients, 87.3% in the HR subgroup, and 82.3% in the inoperable subgroup. Survival free of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in the transfemoral patients from the HR cohort was 87.7% and 93.3%, respectively. There was no severe paravalvular leak. Moderate paravalvular leak (2.7%) was associated with an increase in mortality at 1 year, whereas mild paravalvular leak had no significant association with mortality. Symptomatic improvement as assessed by the percentage of patients in New York Heart Association class III and IV (90.1% to 7.7% at 1 year; P<0.0001) and by Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall summary score (improved from 46.9 to 72.4; P<0.0001) was marked. Multivariable predictors of 1-year mortality included alternative access, Society of Thoracic Surgeons score, and disabling stroke. In this large, adjudicated registry of SAPIEN 3 HR and inoperable patients, the very low rates of important complications resulted in a strikingly low mortality rate at 1 year. Between 30 and 365

  18. Hirabayashi, Satoshi; Kroll, Charles N.; Nowak, David J. 2011. Component-based development and sensitivity analyses of an air pollutant dry deposition model. Environmental Modelling & Software. 26(6): 804-816.

    Treesearch

    Satoshi Hirabayashi; Chuck Kroll; David Nowak

    2011-01-01

    The Urban Forest Effects-Deposition model (UFORE-D) was developed with a component-based modeling approach. Functions of the model were separated into components that are responsible for user interface, data input/output, and core model functions. Taking advantage of the component-based approach, three UFORE-D applications were developed: a base application to estimate...

  19. Stereotactic hypofractionated radiotherapy for stage I non-small cell lung cancer--mature results for medically inoperable patients.

    PubMed

    Nyman, Jan; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Hultén, Ulla

    2006-01-01

    Medically inoperable patients with stage I NSCLC are mainly offered conventionally fractionated radiotherapy with a limited chance of local control and some toxicity. A technique for stereotactic precision therapy for extracranial tumors using a linear accelerator and a body frame for patient immobilization was applied in an attempt to improve the local control and decrease toxicity for consecutive patients with inoperable stage I NSCLC at Sahlgrenska University hospital since 1998. A hypofractionated schedule with three fractions of 15Gy to a total of 45 Gy during 1 week was used which represents a biological equivalent dose (BED) of 112.5 Gy. Planning target volume (PTV) was a 5mm margin around the tumor in the transversal plane and 10mm in the cranial-caudal direction and the dose was prescribed in the periphery of the PTV. Forty-five patients were treated between September 98 and March 03, 25 men and 20 women, median age 74 years (58-84) and median Karnofsky 80 (100-60). TNM: 18 T1N0, 27 T2N0. 18 squamous cell carcinoma, 15 adenocarcinoma, 3 NSCLC and histology was missing in nine patients. The majority, 51%, did not experience any toxicity at all, four had esophagitis grade I, nine had skin reactions, four had transient chest pain and four had infections. Late toxicity was two rib fractures and three patients with atelectasias. After a median follow-up of 43 months had nine patients developed local recurrence or never achieved local control, two had regional recurrence and nine distant metastases. The 1-, 2-, 3- and 5-year overall survival was 80, 71, 55 and 30%, respectively, with a median survival of 39 months. No prognostic factor for survival could be identified among histology, tumor stage and size, gender and age. We think this hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy shows encouraging survival and a relatively low toxicity in this elderly population with substantial comorbidity. A multicenter randomized trial comparing this treatment with conventional

  20. Analyzing Company Economics Using the Leontief Open Production Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laumakis, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    This article details the application of an economic theory to the fiscal operation of a small engineering consulting firm. Nobel Prize-winning economist Wassily Leontief developed his general input-output economic theory in the mid-twentieth century to describe the flow of goods and services in the U.S. economy. We use one mathematical model that…

  1. Analyzing Company Economics Using the Leontief Open Production Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laumakis, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    This article details the application of an economic theory to the fiscal operation of a small engineering consulting firm. Nobel Prize-winning economist Wassily Leontief developed his general input-output economic theory in the mid-twentieth century to describe the flow of goods and services in the U.S. economy. We use one mathematical model that…

  2. Utilizing inventory information to calibrate a landscape simulation model

    Treesearch

    Steven R. Shifley; Frank R., III Thompson; David R. Larsen; David J. Mladenoff; Eric J. Gustafson

    2000-01-01

    LANDIS is a spatially explicit model that uses mapped landscape conditions as a starting point and projects the patterns in forest vegetation that will result from alternative harvest practices, alternative fire regimes, and wind events. LANDIS was originally developed for Lake States forests, but it is capable of handling the input, output, bookkeeping, and mapping...

  3. Proton Beam Therapy for Patients With Medically Inoperable Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer at the University of Tsukuba

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Sugahara, Shinji; Tokita, Mari; Satoh, Hiroaki; Tsuboi, Koji; Ishikawa, Shigemi; Tokuuye, Koichi

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate in a retrospective review the role of proton beam therapy for patients with medically inoperable Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods: From November 2001 to July 2008, 55 medically inoperable patients with Stage I NSCLC were treated with proton beam therapy. A total of 58 (T1/T2, 30/28) tumors were treated. The median age of study participants was 77 years (range, 52-86 years). A total dose of 66 GyE in 10 fractions was given to peripherally located tumors and 72.6 GyE in 22 fractions to centrally located tumors. Results: The rates (95% confidence interval) of overall and progression-free survival of all patients and of local control of all tumors at 2 years were 97.8% (93.6-102.0%), 88.7% (77.9-99.5%), and 97.0% (91.1-102.8%), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in progression-free rate between T1 and T2 tumors (p = 0.87). Two patients (3.6%) had deterioration in pulmonary function, and 2 patients (3.6%) had Grade 3 pneumonitis. Conclusion: Proton beam therapy was effective and well tolerated in medically inoperable patients with Stage I NSCLC.

  4. Post-marketing safety evaluation of S-1 in patients with inoperable or recurrent breast cancer: especially in patients treated with S-1 + trastuzumab.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yuki; Oshitanai, Risa; Terao, Mayako; Terada, Mizuho; Tsuda, Banri; Okamura, Takuho; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Tokuda, Yutaka

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of S-1 in Japanese in inoperable or recurrent breast cancer patients. A prospective post-marketing surveillance was performed at 313 sites in Japan in patients with inoperable or recurrent breast cancer treated with S-1. We examined 1361 patients between January 2006 and December 2007 with regard to the incidence of adverse drug reactions graded by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0. At least one adverse drug reaction was encountered by 858 patients, with an overall incidence of 63.0% (858/1361). The incidence of Grade 3 or higher adverse drug reactions in a descending order was 14.7% (200/1361). In this study, the most common combination drug was trastuzumab. The overall incidence of adverse drug reactions was 63.5% (431/679 patients) in patients treated with S-1 alone, and 55.9% (66/118 patients) in patients treated with S-1 + trastuzumab. Monotherapy with S-1 or combination therapy with S-1 + trastuzumab was well tolerated for inoperable or recurrent breast cancer patients.

  5. Evaluation of cisplatin and DTIC in inoperable stage III and IV melanoma. A Southwest Oncology Group study.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, W S; Daniels, D S; Sondak, V K; Dana, B; Townsend, R; Hynes, H E; Hutchins, L F; Pancoast, J R

    1993-08-01

    The Southwest Oncology Group entered 62 patients with Stage IV or inoperable Stage III (one patient) melanoma into SWOG protocol 8804 and treated them with cisplatin 100 mg/m2 and DTIC 750 mg/m2 i.v. infusion over 15-30 minutes. There were 18 patients with brain metastases and four ocular primaries. Five patients, all without bain metastases, were ineligible. Responses of 8 patients could not be determined, and 11 patients received only one course of treatment. Of the eligible patients, 46 (81%) had some hematologic toxicities, with 31 of these (67%) having grade III or worse. There were 23 patients (40%) with renal toxicities. The miscellaneous toxicities were muscle weakness, flu-like symptoms, and fatigue. Five patients died while on treatment. There were no complete responses. Eight patients had partial responses ranging from 1.5 to 10.5 months, although two patients were still alive at 30.4 and 30.9 months. The estimated response rate for patients with brain metastases was 11%. The estimated response rate for patients without brain metastases was 13%. If one unconfirmed partial response is included, the overall response rate is 14% with a 95% confidence interval of 6% to 26%. It is concluded that DTIC and cisplatin have definite activity in melanoma, but, at least in this population, the toxicity is treatment-limiting and requires close attention to patient care.

  6. The role of airway stent placement in the management of tracheobronchial stenosis caused by inoperable advanced lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Kinya; Ishida, Junzo; Yamaguchi, Gaku; Usuda, Jitsuo; Tsutsui, Hidemitsu; Saito, Makoto; Konaka, Chimori; Kato, Harubumi

    2010-04-01

    To our knowledge there is no in-depth report on the benefits of airway stenting, which focuses specifically on patients with inoperable advanced lung cancer causing severe central airway obstruction. We evaluated the role of airway stenting as one aspect of the multidisciplinary management of advanced lung cancer. We performed airway stenting in 40 lung cancer patients, placing a total of 58 stents. Stenting was done as a final modality in 22 patients with terminal-stage lung cancer (group A). The other 18 patients received additional therapy after stenting (group B), 12 (66.7%) of whom were treatment-naïve on admission. The performance status (PS) and Hugh-Jones classification (H-J) scores improved in both groups after stenting: from 3.56 to 2.48 (P = 0.001) and 4.29 to 3.20 (P = 0.004) in group A, and from 3.15 to 1.25 (P < 0.001) and 4.10 to 2.10 (P < 0.001) in group B, respectively. The median survival time and 1-year survival rate after stenting were 1.6 months and 5.1%, respectively, in group A, and 5.6 months and 25.0%, respectively, in group B. Airway stenting followed by adjuvant therapy may improve the survival of treatment-naïve patients with severe symptomatic airway obstruction caused by advanced lung cancer.

  7. Alterations in inflammatory biomarkers and energy intake in cancer cachexia: a prospective study in patients with inoperable pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Bye, Asta; Wesseltoft-Rao, Nima; Iversen, Per Ole; Skjegstad, Grete; Holven, Kirsten B; Ulven, Stine; Hjermstad, Marianne J

    2016-06-01

    Chronic systemic inflammatory response is proposed as an underlying mechanism for development of cancer cachexia. We conducted a prospective study to examine changes in inflammatory biomarkers during the disease course and the relationship between inflammatory biomarkers and cachexia in patients with inoperable pancreatic cancer. Twenty patients, median (range) age 67.5 (35-79) years, 5 females, were followed for median 5.5 (1-12) months. Cachexia was diagnosed according to the 2011 consensus-based classification system (weight loss >5 % past six months, BMI < 20 kg/m(2) and weight loss >2 %, or sarcopenia) and the modified Glasgow Prognostic score (mGPS) that combines CRP and albumin levels. Inflammatory biomarkers were measured by enzyme immunoassays. The patients had increased levels of most inflammatory biomarkers, albeit not all statistically significant, both at study entry and close to death, indicating ongoing inflammation. According to the consensus-based classification system, eleven (55 %) patients were classified as cachectic upon inclusion. They did not differ from non-cachectic patients with regard to inflammatory biomarkers or energy intake. According to the mGPS, seven (35 %) were defined as cachectic and had a higher IL-6 (p < 0.001) than the non-cachectic patients. They also had a slightly, but insignificantly longer survival than non-cachectic patients (p = 0.08). The mGPS should be considered as an additional framework for identification of cancer cachexia.

  8. Plastic prosthesis versus expandable metal stents for palliation of inoperable esophageal thoracic carcinoma: a controlled prospective study.

    PubMed

    De Palma, G D; di Matteo, E; Romano, G; Fimmano, A; Rondinone, G; Catanzano, C

    1996-05-01

    Rapid palliation of malignant dysphagia is usually possible with endoscopic implantation of a plastic prosthesis, but this device has a high rate of complications. Recently, expandable metal stents, a new class of endoprosthesis, have become available and may reduce complication rates. Thirty nine patients affected by esophageal thoracic cancer were randomly assigned to treatment with either a plastic stent (20 patients) or expandable metal stent (19 patients). The degree of palliation (expressed as dysphagia score) and incidence of complications (short- and long-term) were compared in both treatment groups. Technical success, as a percentage of successful intubation, was similar in both treatment groups (90% vs 94.7%, p = NS) and dysphagia scores improved significantly and similarly in both treatment groups. Nevertheless, complications and mortality related to implantation were significantly less frequent with metal stents than with plastic prostheses (complications: 0% vs 21%, p < 0.001; mortality: 0% vs. 15.8%, p < 0.001). Late complications included obstruction by food in both treatment groups (four cases with plastic stents vs four cases with metal stents), tube migration only with plastic prostheses (two cases) and tumor ingrowth only with metal stents (two cases). Expandable metal stents can be considered an effective and safer alternative to conventional plastic prostheses in the treatment of esophageal obstruction caused by inoperable cancer.

  9. Description of the FORTRAN implementation of the spring small grains planting date distribution model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artley, J. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The Hodges-Artley spring small grains planting date distribution model was coded in FORTRAN. The PLDRVR program, which implements the model, is described and a copy of the code is provided. The purpose, calling procedure, local variables, and input/output devices for each subroutine are explained to supplement the user's guide.

  10. A Model for the Assessment of Community College Employee Workload Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Frank J.

    1995-01-01

    Uses input-output analysis to develop a model that assesses the effect of changes in final-demand work on employees at a South Carolina community college. Model uses matrices and the Leontief inverse function to monitor employee workload impact and analyze simulated scenarios. (YKH)

  11. Continuous carboplatin infusion during 6 weeks' radiotherapy in locally inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer: a phase I and pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed Central

    Groen, H. J.; van der Leest, A. H.; de Vries, E. G.; Uges, D. R.; Szabó, B. G.; Mulder, N. H.

    1995-01-01

    A phase I study was performed in 21 patients with previously untreated, locally inoperable, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with ambulatory continuous carboplatin infusion together with continuous thoracic irradiation over 6 weeks. A dose range for carboplatin of 15 mg m-2 day-1 during the last 21 days (first level), during the last 31 days (second level), or during 6 weeks of the radiation period (third level) and thereafter 20 or 25 mg m-2 day-1 during 6 weeks of radiation (fourth and fifth level) was used. The total radiation dose was 60 Gy given as 2 Gy day-1 for 5 days week-1. The first three patients received radiotherapy without carboplatin. WHO grade III/IV leucopenia and thrombocytopenia occurred in the last two dose levels in two out of six and one out of six patients with 20 mg m-2 day-1 respectively, and in all three patients with 25 mg m-2 day-1 (dose-limiting toxicity). One local infection around the port and a subclavian vein thrombosis occurred. Radiation toxicity of the lung and oesophagus did not seem to be influenced by carboplatin treatment. Out of 21 patients one had a complete response (CR), ten partial response (PR), six stable disease (SD) and four progressive disease (PD). Total (TPt) and ultrafilterable plasma platinum (UPt) were measured in the last three dose levels with atomic absorption spectrophotometry with Zeeman correction. The mean (s.d.) level for TPt for 6 weeks at 15, 20 and 25 mg m-2 day-1 was 0.76 (0.15), 0.78 (0.19) and 0.90 (0.22) mg l-1 for UPt 0.10 (0.03), 0.12 (0.02) and 0.20 (0.03) mg l-1 respectively. TPt concentration levelled off after 3 weeks. The mean (s.d.) CLTB for UPt was 281 +/- 21 ml min-1 and correlated with glomerular filtration rate (r = 0.61, P = 0.03). As estimated with the sigmoid Emax model defined by the Hill equation the percentage reduction in platelets correlated with the area under the curve for UPt (r = 0.77). The maximum tolerable dose of carboplatin with concomitant continuous 60 Gy

  12. The Development of a Cost-Efficiency Model to Assist in Special Education Program Decision-Making and Financing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Daniel P.; Sommers, Paul A.

    Summarized are activities of the Wausau District Public Schools (Wisconsin) toward developing a model for cost efficiency analysis in special education. The model links input-output analysis and task analysis features. Introductory information includes varying impressions of cost efficiency concerns and the current status of project development.…

  13. Using Propensity Score Matching to Model Retention of Developmental Math Students in Community Colleges in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Bobbie Jean

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, modeling student retention has been done by deriving student success predictors and measuring the likelihood of success based on several background factors such as age, race, gender, and other pre-college variables, also known as the input-output model. Increasingly, however, researchers have used mediating factors of the student…

  14. Intensity-Modulated and Image-Guided Radiotherapy in Patients with Locally Advanced Inoperable Pancreatic Cancer after Preradiation Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Sinn, M.; Ganeshan, R.; Graf, R.; Pelzer, U.; Stieler, J. M.; Striefler, J. K.; Bahra, M.; Wust, P.; Riess, H.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Radiotherapy (RT) in patients with pancreatic cancer is still a controversial subject and its benefit in inoperable stages of locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC), even after induction chemotherapy, remains unclear. Modern radiation techniques such as image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) may improve effectiveness and reduce radiotherapy-related toxicities. Methods. Patients with LAPC who underwent radiotherapy after chemotherapy between 09/2004 and 05/2013 were retrospectively analyzed with regard to preradiation chemotherapy (PRCT), modalities of radiotherapy, and toxicities. Progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated by Kaplan-Meier curves. Results. 15 (68%) women and 7 men (median age 64 years; range 40–77) were identified. Median duration of PRCT was 11.1 months (range 4.3–33.0). Six patients (27%) underwent conventional RT and 16 patients (73%) advanced IMRT and IGRT; median dosage was 50.4 (range 9–54) Gray. No grade III or IV toxicities occurred. Median PFS (estimated from the beginning of RT) was 5.8 months, 2.6 months in the conventional RT group (conv-RT), and 7.1 months in the IMRT/IGRT group (P = 0.029); median OS was 11.0 months, 4.2 months (conv-RT), and 14.0 months (IMRT/IGRT); P = 0.141. Median RT-specific PFS for patients with prolonged PRCT > 9 months was 8.5 months compared to 5.6 months for PRCT < 9 months (P = 0.293). This effect was translated into a significantly better median RT-specific overall survival of patients in the PRCT > 9 months group, with 19.0 months compared to 8.5 months in the PRCT  <  9 months group (P = 0.049). Conclusions. IGRT and IMRT after PRCT are feasible and effective options for patients with LAPC after prolonged preradiation chemotherapy. PMID:25401140

  15. High-powered percutaneous microwave ablation of stage I medically inoperable non-small cell lung cancer: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Howard; Steinke, Karin

    2013-08-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the feasibility and outcome of using high-powered percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) in treating medically inoperable early stage non-small cell lung cancer. From November 2010 to June 2012, 15 patients underwent CT-guided MWA of 15 tumours in 16 sessions. One patient had a second ablation session for local tumour progression. Each tumour had a diameter of 40 mm or less (median 24 mm). Treatment outcome was evaluated using modified response evaluation criteria in solid tumours criteria based on follow-up contrast-enhanced CT studies and 18-F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans. Thirty-three ablation cycles of 15 tumours were performed in 16 sessions (2.1 per session), with a median duration of 2.5 min per ablation. Treatment was completed in all cases with no 30-day mortality. At a median follow-up period of 1 year, local progression was identified following 5/16 (31%) ablation sessions. Eleven out of 16 (69%) of MWAs had shown local treatment response, with 9/11 displaying complete response and 2/11 displaying partial response. Local progression on follow up was predominantly seen in pleural-based tumours that were greater than 30 mm in longest axial diameter (4/5 cases). The main adverse event was a pneumothorax, which occurred in 10/16 (63%) of procedures, but a chest tube was only required in 2/16 (13%) cases. Percutaneous MWA in early stage non-small cell lung cancer is well tolerated and has promising midterm outcomes. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  16. Effects of selenomethionine on acute toxicities from concurrent chemoradiation for inoperable stage III non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mix, Michael; Ramnath, Nithya; Gomez, Jorge; de Groot, Charles; Rajan, Saju; Dibaj, Shiva; Tan, Wei; Rustum, Youcef; Jameson, Michael B; Singh, Anurag K

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To prospectively determine the safety and tolerability of oral L-selenomethionine (SLM) with concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT) for Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and estimate if the incidence and/or severity of adverse events could be reduced by its use. METHODS: Sixteen patients with stage III NSCLC were accrued to this single arm, phase II study. CCRT consisted of radiation given at 2 Gy per fraction for 30-33 fractions, 5 d per week with concurrent weekly IV paclitaxel 50 mg/m2 followed by carboplatin dosed at an area under the time-concentration curve of 2. SLM was dosed in a loading phase at 4800 μg twice daily for one week prior to CCRT followed by once daily dosing during treatment. RESULTS: No selenium-related toxicity was observed. Analysis revealed grade 3 or higher esophagitis in 3 of 16 patients (19%), pneumonitis in 0, leukopenia in 2 (12.5%), and anemia in 1 (6%); the latter two were significantly reduced when compared to the protocol-stated expected rate of 35% (P = 0.045 for leukopenia, and P < 0.01 for anemia). Median overall survival was 14.9 mo and median failure-free survival was 9 mo (95%CI: 3.3-21.5). CONCLUSION: There may be some protective benefit of selenium in the setting of CCRT for inoperable NSCLC. The data suggests decreased rates of myelosuppression when compared to similarly-treated historical and contemporary controls. Further evaluation of selenium in this setting may be warranted. PMID:26468452

  17. [Effect of long-term therapy with oral Beraprost on survival of patients with arterial and inoperable thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Kurzyna, Marcin; Florczyk, Michał; Fijałkowska, Anna; Kuca, Paweł; Szewczyk, Grzegorz; Burakowski, Janusz; Kober, Jarosław; Sikora, Jarosław; Wawrzyńska, Liliana; Szturmowicz, Monika; Tomkowskil, Witold; Torbicki, Adam

    2004-04-01

    Beraprost sodium (BPS)--an orally active prostacyclin analogue--improves haemodynamic parameters and quality of life in group of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Effect of long-term therapy with BPS is not well defined. This study assesses influence of long-term therapy with BPS on the survival of patients with precapillary pulmonary hypertension. Studied group consisted of 25 patients with precapillary PH (18 F, 7M, aged 34 +/- 13,9 years). Sixteen patients were diagnosed with primary PH, 3 pts had PH associated with connective tissue disease, 5 pts developed PH in course of congenital systemic to pulmonary shunt, and 1 patient suffered from inoperable chronic thromboembolic PH. At time of diagnosis 15 pts presented exercise impairment of WHO class II and 10 pts were in functional class III. All studied subjects had complete hemodynamic assessment of right heart and obtained values were used for estimation of hypothetic survival using prognostic equation proposed by D'Alonzo et al. On follow-up period patients received BPS in the highest tolerated dose (80-480 mg daily). During a follow-up period (mean: 22 months) 7 patients died. Cumulative survival rate BPS group was significantly higher in BPS group comparing to hypothetical survival at 6 months (96% (95% CI: 88-104%) vs 73% (95% CI: 67-78%), p = 0.02) and 12 months (94% (95% CI: 84-104%) vs 65% (58-71%), p = 0.01), respectively. At 18 and 24 months differences between BPS virtual and hypothetical survival were not statistically significant. There was no correlation between survival and maximal achieved dose of BPS. These results suggest, that BPS improves prognosis of patients with precapillary PH during 12 months after initiation of therapy. Later effect of BPS seems to decrease, requiring changing or intensification of therapy.

  18. Inter-application displacement of brachytherapy dose received by the bladder and rectum of the patients with inoperable cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marosevic, Goran; Ljuca, Dzenita; Osmic, Hasan; Fazlic, Semir; Arsovski, Oliver; Mileusnic, Dusan

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to examine on the CT basis the inter-application displacement of the positions D0.1cc, D1cc and D2cc of the brachytherapy dose applied to the bladder and rectum of the patients with inoperable cervical cancer. Patients and methods This prospective study included 30 patients with cervical cancer who were treated by concomitant chemo-radiotherapy. HDR intracavitary brachytherapy was made by the applicators type Fletcher tandem and ovoids. For each brachytherapy application the position D0.1cc was determined of the bladder and rectum that receive a brachytherapty dose. Then, based on the X, Y, and Z axis displacement, inter-application mean X, Y, and Z axis displacements were calculated as well as their displacement vectors (R). It has been analyzed whether there is statistically significant difference in inter-application displacement of the position of the brachytherapy dose D0.1cc, D1cc and D2cc of the bladder and rectum. The ANOVA test and post-hoc analysis by Tukey method were used for testing statistical importance of differences among the groups analyzed. The difference among the groups analyzed was considered significant if p < 0.05. Results There are significant inter-application displacements of the position of the brachytherapy dose D0,1cc, D1cc and D2cc of the bladder and rectum. Conclusions When we calculate the cumulative brachytherapy dose by summing up D0,1cc, D1cc and D2cc of the organs at risk for all the applications, we must bear in mind their inter-application displacement, and the fact that it is less likely that the worst scenario would indeed happen. PMID:24991211

  19. Information-System Structure by Communication-Technology Concepts: A Cybernetic Model Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisig, Gerhard H. R.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the "Evidence-of-Existence" information system in which the structure is developed, with application of cybernetic concepts, as an isomorphic model in analogy to the system structure of communication technology. Three criteria of structuring are postulated: (1) source-channel-sink, with input-output characteristics, (2) filter-type…

  20. Measuring Resources in Education: A Comparison of Accounting and the Resource Cost Model Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jay G.

    2000-01-01

    The need for programmatic cost information, data compatibility, and understanding input/output relationships are sparking efforts to improve standards for organizing and reporting educational-resource data. Unlike accountants, economists measure resources in real terms and organize information around service delivery, using a resource-cost model.…

  1. Reirradiation With Cetuximab in Locoregional Recurrent and Inoperable Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Feasibility and First Efficacy Results

    SciTech Connect

    Balermpas, Panagiotis; Keller, Christian; Hambek, Markus; Wagenblast, Jens; Seitz, Oliver; Roedel, Claus; Weiss, Christian

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To report our experience with a prospective protocol of external beam reirradiation (Re-RT) combined with cetuximab for patients with inoperable, recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Patients and Methods: Between August 2008 and June 2010, 18 patients with inoperable recurrence of SCCHN after adjuvant or definitive radiotherapy (RT) and simultaneous or sequential cisplatin-based chemotherapy for primary SCCHN were enrolled. Acute and late toxicity from the experimental regimen were recorded every week during RT and every 3 months thereafter. Efficacy was assessed with repeated imaging using response evaluation criteria in solid tumors and clinical examinations 8-12 weeks after completion of the treatment and every 3 months thereafter. Results: Median follow-up time for all patients was 9.4 (range: 3.85-31.7) months and for patients alive 30.4 (range: 15.7-31.7) months. Acute toxicity was generally mild or moderate. Five patients developed a grade 3 acneiform rash related to cetuximab. Late toxicity occurred as grade 3 trismus in five and as grade 3 abacterial salivary gland inflammation in one patient, respectively. Overall response rate was 47%. Median overall and progression-free survival for all patients was 8.38 months and 7.33 months, respectively. The overall survival rate was 44% at 1 year, with a 1 year local control rate of 33%. Conclusion: Notwithstanding the limitations of our preliminary data Re-RT combined with cetuximab for recurrent and inoperable SCCHN is feasible and the integration of newer targeted agents seems to be less toxic compared to conventional chemotherapy with encouraging response rates at least for a subset of patients.

  2. Ablative Radiotherapy Doses Lead to a Substantial Prolongation of Survival in Patients With Inoperable Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: A Retrospective Dose Response Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Randa; Krishnan, Sunil; Bhosale, Priya R.; Javle, Milind M.; Aloia, Thomas A.; Shroff, Rachna T.; Kaseb, Ahmed O.; Bishop, Andrew J.; Swanick, Cameron W.; Koay, Eugene J.; Thames, Howard D.; Hong, Theodore S.; Das, Prajnan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Standard therapies for localized inoperable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC) are ineffective. Advances in radiotherapy (RT) techniques and image guidance have enabled ablative doses to be delivered to large liver tumors. This study evaluated the effects of RT dose escalation in the treatment of IHCC. Patients and Methods Seventy-nine consecutive patients with inoperable IHCC were identified and treated with definitive RT from 2002 to 2014. At diagnosis, the median tumor size was 7.9 cm (range, 2.2 to 17 cm). Seventy patients (89%) received systemic chemotherapy before RT. RT doses were 35 to 100 Gy (median, 58.05 Gy) in three to 30 fractions for a median biologic equivalent dose (BED) of 80.5 Gy (range, 43.75 to 180 Gy). Results Median follow-up time for patients alive at time of analysis was 33 months (range, 11 to 93 months). Median overall survival (OS) time after diagnosis was 30 months; 3-year OS rate was 44%. Radiation dose was the single most important prognostic factor; higher doses correlated with an improved local control (LC) rate and OS. The 3-year OS rate for patients receiving BED greater than 80.5 Gy was 73% versus 38% for those receiving lower doses (P = .017); 3-year LC rate was significantly higher (78%) after a BED greater than 80.5 Gy than after lower doses (45%, P = .04). BED as a continuous variable significantly affected LC (P = .009) and OS (P = .004). There were no significant treatment-related toxicities. Conclusion Delivery of higher doses of RT improves LC and OS in inoperable IHCC. A BED greater than 80.5 Gy seems to be an ablative dose of RT for large IHCCs, with long-term survival rates that compare favorably with resection. PMID:26503201

  3. Dosimetric feasibility of stereotactic body radiation therapy as an alternative to brachytherapy for definitive treatment of medically inoperable early stage endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to evaluate the dosimetric feasibility of definitive stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for the treatment of medically inoperable early stage endometrial cancer. Methods CT simulation scans from 10 medically inoperable early stage endometrial cancer patients previously treated with high dose-rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy were used to generate Helical Tomotherapy (HT) plans using the IMRT mode with clinical target volumes (CTVs) that included the uterus plus cervix. A prescription dose of 34 Gy in 4 fractions was used. The SBRT dosimetry was compared to the 10 prior intracavitary brachytherapy plans normalized to a standard dose. Organs at risk (OARs) evaluated were the bladder, rectum, sigmoid, femoral heads, and other bowel, including both large and small bowel. The simulation CT and daily image guidance for 4 patients treated with this technique were evaluated to assess for interfraction variation in the uterine position and effects on dosimetry. Results Compared to intracavitary brachytherapy, HT SBRT produced significantly greater overall target coverage to the uterus, boost CTV, and PTV, with exception of the V150% of the uterus. HT SBRT significantly increased dose to the rectum, bowel, and femoral heads compared to intracavitary brachytherapy, though not outside of dose tolerance limits. Review of daily image guidance for patients treated with this technique demonstrated good reproducibility with a mean overlap index of 0.87 (range, 0.74 – 0.99). Conclusions Definitive SBRT for medically inoperable early stage endometrial cancer appears to be a feasible treatment option. Future studies are warranted to evaluate long-term clinical outcomes with this technique, compared to HDR intracavitary brachytherapy. PMID:25059785

  4. Toxicity and Patterns of Failure of Adaptive/Ablative Proton Therapy for Early-Stage, Medically Inoperable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Joe Y.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Wen, Hong Y.; De Gracia, Beth; Bluett, Jaques B.; McAleer, Mary F.; Swisher, Stephen G.; Cox, James D.

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To analyze the toxicity and patterns of failure of proton therapy given in ablative doses for medically inoperable early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Eighteen patients with medically inoperable T1N0M0 (central location) or T2-3N0M0 (any location) NSCLC were treated with proton therapy at 87.5 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) at 2.5 Gy /fraction in this Phase I/II study. All patients underwent treatment simulation with four-dimensional CT; internal gross tumor volumes were delineated on maximal intensity projection images and modified by visual verification of the target volume in 10 breathing phases. The internal gross tumor volumes with maximal intensity projection density was used to design compensators and apertures to account for tumor motion. Therapy consisted of passively scattered protons. All patients underwent repeat four-dimensional CT simulations during treatment to assess the need for adaptive replanning. Results: At a median follow-up time of 16.3 months (range, 4.8-36.3 months), no patient had experienced Grade 4 or 5 toxicity. The most common adverse effect was dermatitis (Grade 2, 67%; Grade 3, 17%), followed by Grade 2 fatigue (44%), Grade 2 pneumonitis (11%), Grade 2 esophagitis (6%), and Grade 2 chest wall pain (6%). Rates of local control were 88.9%, regional lymph node failure 11.1%, and distant metastasis 27.8%. Twelve patients (67%) were still alive at the last follow-up; five had died of metastatic disease and one of preexisting cardiac disease. Conclusions: Proton therapy to ablative doses is well tolerated and produces promising local control rates for medically inoperable early-stage NSCLC.

  5. Symptomatic treatment with lanreotide microparticles in inoperable bowel obstruction resulting from peritoneal carcinomatosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Pascale; Blumberg, Joëlle; Landau, Alain; Lebrun-Jezekova, Daniela; Botton, Estelle; Beatrix, Olivier; Mayeur, Didier; Herve, Robert; Maisonobe, Pascal; Chauvenet, Laure

    2012-12-10

    To investigate the somatostatin analog lanreotide as symptomatic treatment for inoperable bowel obstruction due to peritoneal carcinomatosis. In all, 80 patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis, inoperable malignant digestive obstruction, and two or more vomiting episodes per day or nasogastric tube (NGT) who were previously treated with intravenous corticosteroids and proton pump inhibitors were randomly assigned to one 30-mg injection of lanreotide microparticles (n = 43) or placebo (n = 37) in a 10-day, double-blind, parallel-group phase. The primary end point was the proportion of patients responding on day 7 (one or fewer episodes of vomiting per day or no vomiting recurrence after NGT removal [for ≥ 3 consecutive days in both cases]). Vomiting frequency/NGT secretion volumes, nausea, abdominal pain, well-being, and safety were also assessed. Patients could then enter an open-label lanreotide-only phase. The study was conducted at 22 European hospitals. More patients receiving lanreotide than placebo were responders; this difference was not statistically significant for the intent-to-treat (ITT) population on the basis of diary cards (primary analysis; 41.9% [18 of 43] v 29.7% [11 of 37], respectively; odds ratio, 1.75; 95% CI, 0.68 to 4.49; P = .24) but was statistically significant for the corresponding supportive per protocol analysis (57.7% [15 of 26] v 30.4% [seven of 23]; P < .05) and ITT analysis, on the basis of investigators' assessments (50.0% [19 of 38] v 28.6% [10 of 35]; P < .05). Improvements in well-being were significantly greater with lanreotide on days 3, 6, and 7. No significant differences were observed for other secondary end points. Only two (mild/moderate) treatment-emergent adverse events were considered related to lanreotide. These results show that lanreotide has some efficacy and is safe in the symptomatic treatment of patients with inoperable bowel obstruction due to peritoneal carcinomatosis.

  6. Induction Chemotherapy and Continuous Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radiotherapy (CHART) for Patients With Locally Advanced Inoperable Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: The MRC INCH Randomized Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Hatton, Matthew; Nankivell, Matthew; Lyn, Ethan; Falk, Stephen; Pugh, Cheryl; Navani, Neal; Stephens, Richard; Parmar, Mahesh

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: Recent clinical trials and meta-analyses have shown that both CHART (continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiation therapy) and induction chemotherapy offer a survival advantage over conventional radical radiotherapy for patients with inoperable non-small cell-lung cancer (NSCLC). This multicenter randomized controlled trial (INCH) was set up to assess the value of giving induction chemotherapy before CHART. Methods and Materials: Patients with histologically confirmed, inoperable, Stage I-III NSCLC were randomized to induction chemotherapy (ICT) (three cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by CHART) or CHART alone. Results: Forty-six patients were randomized (23 in each treatment arm) from 9 UK centers. As a result of poor accrual, the trial was closed in December 2007. Twenty-eight patients were male, 28 had squamous cell histology, 34 were Stage IIIA or IIIB, and all baseline characteristics were well balanced between the two treatment arms. Seventeen (74%) of the 23 ICT patients completed the three cycles of chemotherapy. All 42 (22 CHART + 20 ICT) patients who received CHART completed the prescribed treatment. Median survival was 17 months in the CHART arm and 25 months in the ICT arm (hazard ratio of 0.60 [95% CI 0.31-1.16], p = 0.127). Grade 3 or 4 adverse events (mainly fatigue, dysphagia, breathlessness, and anorexia) were reported for 13 (57%) CHART and 13 (65%) ICT patients. Conclusions: This small randomized trial indicates that ICT followed by CHART is feasible and well tolerated. Despite closing early because of poor accrual, and so failing to show clear evidence of a survival benefit for the additional chemotherapy, the results suggest that CHART, and ICT before CHART, remain important options for the treatment of inoperable NSCLC and deserve further study.

  7. Aero-elastic Parameter Estimation of a 2.5 MW Wind Turbine Through Dynamic Analysis of In-Operation Vibration Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozbek, Muammer; Rixen, Daniel J.

    Aero-elastic parameters of a 2.5 MW—80 m diameter—wind turbine were extracted by using the in-operation vibration data recorded for various wind speeds and operating conditions. The data acquired by 8 strain gauges (2 sensors on each blade and 2 sensors on the tower) installed on the turbine was analyzed by using OMA (Operational Modal Analysis) methods while several turbine parameters (eigenfrequencies and damping ratios) were extracted. The obtained system parameters were then qualitatively compared with the results presented in a study from literature, which includes both aeroelastic simulations and in-field measurements performed on a similar size and capacity wind turbine.

  8. Endoscopic radiofrequency ablation combined with fully covered self-expandable metal stent for inoperable periampullary carcinoma in a liver transplant patient

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Qing; Wang, Guijie; Zhang, Yamin; Jin, Yan; Cui, Zilin; Sun, Xiaoye; Shen, Zhongyang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Postliver transplant periampullary carcinoma is an extremely uncommon disease. Patient concerns: Cutaneous jaundice in a patient who had received a liver transplant 4 years earlier. Diagnosis: Periampullary carcinoma. Interventions: Radiofrequency ablation plus fully covered self-expanding metal stents (FCSEMS). Outcomes: The treatment of malignant neoplasm of the ampulla of Vater is the patient by radiofrequency ablation plus FCSEMS placement was successful. No complications occurred. Lessons: This is the first reported case of a liver transplant patient with inoperable periampullary carcinoma successfully treated by radiofrequency ablation plus FCSEMS placement. Our experience will be useful to other surgeons in managing similar patients in the future. PMID:28151854

  9. [Combination of trastuzumab, aromatase inhibitor and anti-cancer drugs obtained a good prognosis for an inoperable stage III B breast cancer patient with giant skin ulceration].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Yasutaka; Tanaka, Noriyoshi; Konishi, Juichiro

    2012-04-01

    A 68-year-old woman who had an inoperable, ER-positive, PgR-positive and HER2-positive advanced breast cancer with giant skin ulceration has been treated with the combination of trastuzumab, aromatase inhibitor and anti-cancer drugs. She was thus well-controll for over 9 years. Trastuzumab was administered more than 400 times, but no cardiac toxicity has been observed. The synergistic efficacy of the combination of trastuzumab and anti-cancer drugs was already proven, but it has recently been reported that concurrent treatment of trastuzumab and endocrine therapy improves the prognoses of triple positive breast cancer patients.

  10. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Medically Inoperable Lung Cancer: Prospective, Single-Center Study of 108 Consecutive Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Taremi, Mojgan; Hope, Andrew; Dahele, Max; Pearson, Shannon; Fung, Sharon; Purdie, Thomas; Brade, Anthony; Cho, John; Sun, Alexander; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre; Bezjak, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To present the results of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for medically inoperable patients with Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and contrast outcomes in patients with and without a pathologic diagnosis. Methods and Materials: Between December 2004 and October 2008, 108 patients (114 tumors) underwent treatment according to the prospective research ethics board-approved SBRT protocols at our cancer center. Of the 108 patients, 88 (81.5%) had undergone pretreatment whole-body [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography. A pathologic diagnosis was unavailable for 33 (28.9%) of the 114 lesions. The SBRT schedules included 48 Gy in 4 fractions or 54-60 Gy in 3 fractions for peripheral lesions and 50-60 Gy in 8-10 fractions for central lesions. Toxicity and radiologic response were assessed at the 3-6-month follow-up visits using conventional criteria. Results: The mean tumor diameter was 2.4-cm (range, 0.9-5.7). The median follow-up was 19.1 months (range, 1-55.7). The estimated local control rate at 1 and 4 years was 92% (95% confidence interval [CI], 86-97%) and 89% (95% CI, 81-96%). The cause-specific survival rate at 1 and 4 years was 92% (95% CI, 87-98%) and 77% (95% CI, 64-89%), respectively. No statistically significant difference was found in the local, regional, and distant control between patients with and without pathologically confirmed NSCLC. The most common acute toxicity was Grade 1 or 2 fatigue (53 of 108 patients). No toxicities of Grade 4 or greater were identified. Conclusions: Lung SBRT for early-stage NSCLC resulted in excellent local control and cause-specific survival with minimal toxicity. The disease-specific outcomes were comparable for patients with and without a pathologic diagnosis. SBRT can be considered an option for selected patients with proven or presumed early-stage NSCLC.

  11. Image Guided Hypofractionated 3-Dimensional Radiation Therapy in Patients With Inoperable Advanced Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Osti, Mattia Falchetto; Agolli, Linda; Valeriani, Maurizio; Falco, Teresa; Bracci, Stefano; De Sanctis, Vitaliana; Enrici, Riccardo Maurizi

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (HypoRT) can potentially improve local control with a higher biological effect and shorter overall treatment time. Response, local control, toxicity rates, and survival rates were evaluated in patients affected by inoperable advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received HypoRT. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled; 27% had stage IIIA, 50% had stage IIIB, and 23% had stage IV disease. All patients underwent HypoRT with a prescribed total dose of 60 Gy in 20 fractions of 3 Gy each. Radiation treatment was delivered using an image guided radiation therapy technique to verify correct position. Toxicities were graded according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group morbidity score. Survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median follow-up was 13 months (range, 4-56 months). All patients completed radiation therapy and received the total dose of 60 Gy to the primary tumor and positive lymph nodes. The overall response rate after radiation therapy was 83% (3 patients with complete response and 22 patients with partial response). The 2-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 38.1% and 36%, respectively. Locoregional recurrence/persistence occurred in 11 (37%) patients. Distant metastasis occurred in 17 (57%) patients. Acute toxicities occurred consisting of grade 1 to 2 hematological toxicity in 5 patients (17%) and grade 3 in 1 patient; grade 1 to 2 esophagitis in 12 patients (40%) and grade 3 in 1 patient; and grade 1 to 2 pneumonitis in 6 patients (20%) and grade 3 in 2 patients (7%). Thirty-three percent of patients developed grade 1 to 2 late toxicities. Only 3 patients developed grade 3 late adverse effects: esophagitis in 1 patient and pneumonitis in 2 patients. Conclusions: Hypofractionated curative radiation therapy is a feasible and well-tolerated treatment for patients with locally advanced NSCLC. Randomized

  12. A phase I study of nedaplatin, pemetrexed and thoracic intensity-modulated radiotherapy for inoperable stage III lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yiyu; Gu, Weiguang; Deng, Jin; Yang, Hua; Yang, Wen

    2016-10-07

    Concurrent chemotherapy and radiation is the standard treatment for unresectable stage III Lung adenocarcinoma. However, no optimal concurrent chemotherapeutic regimen has been described. This study aimed to assess concurrent pemetrexed, nedaplatin and thoracic intensity-modulated radiotherapy followed by consolidation pemetrexed/nedaplatin for unresectable Stage IIIA/B lung adenocarcinoma. Patients with unresectable stage III lung adenocarcinoma received thoracic intensity-modulated radiotherapy at 60-64 Gy in 30-32 fractions, concurrently with two cycles of 500 mg/m(2) pemetrexed, with nedaplatin doses escalating from 60 mg/m(2) (level 1) to 70 mg/m(2) (level 2) and 80 mg/m(2) (level 3). Consolidation consisted of three pemetrexed/nedaplatin (500 mg/m(2), 60 mg/m(2)) cycles every 3 weeks after concurrent therapy. The primary objective of the safety was to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD). The secondary endpoints included response rate, PFS and OS. Fifteen patients were enrolled, including 3, 6 and 6 individuals in the first, second, and third dose levels, respectively. Three cases of dose-limiting toxicities (grade 3 hepatitis, pneumonitis, and grade 4 thrombocytopenia), including one and two patients at levels 2 and 3, respectively, were observed and resulted in discontinued/delayed treatment. Response rates were 86.7 % (95 % confidence interval [CI], 64.2-97.8 %) and 64.3 % (95 % CI, 38.3-85.4 %) at chemoradiation and treatment completions, respectively. Median OS was 30.0 months (95 % CI, 16.4-43.6 months); 2-year OS was 44.0 % (95 % CI, 18.7-69.2 %). Median PFS was 12.0 months (95 % CI, 6.9-17.0 months), and the 2-year PFS 27.0 % (95 % CI, 4.7-49.3 %). Full dose 500 mg/m(2) of pemetrexed and nedaplatin 70 mg/m(2) could be used safely with thoracic intensity-modulated radiotherapy for inoperable stage III lung adenocarcinoma. Further evaluation of stage III lung adenocarcinoma management is warranted. This study was

  13. Image guided hypofractionated 3-dimensional radiation therapy in patients with inoperable advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Osti, Mattia Falchetto; Agolli, Linda; Valeriani, Maurizio; Falco, Teresa; Bracci, Stefano; De Sanctis, Vitaliana; Enrici, Riccardo Maurizi

    2013-03-01

    Hypofractionated radiation therapy (HypoRT) can potentially improve local control with a higher biological effect and shorter overall treatment time. Response, local control, toxicity rates, and survival rates were evaluated in patients affected by inoperable advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received HypoRT. Thirty patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled; 27% had stage IIIA, 50% had stage IIIB, and 23% had stage IV disease. All patients underwent HypoRT with a prescribed total dose of 60 Gy in 20 fractions of 3 Gy each. Radiation treatment was delivered using an image guided radiation therapy technique to verify correct position. Toxicities were graded according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group morbidity score. Survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The median follow-up was 13 months (range, 4-56 months). All patients completed radiation therapy and received the total dose of 60 Gy to the primary tumor and positive lymph nodes. The overall response rate after radiation therapy was 83% (3 patients with complete response and 22 patients with partial response). The 2-year overall survival and progression-free survival rates were 38.1% and 36%, respectively. Locoregional recurrence/persistence occurred in 11 (37%) patients. Distant metastasis occurred in 17 (57%) patients. Acute toxicities occurred consisting of grade 1 to 2 hematological toxicity in 5 patients (17%) and grade 3 in 1 patient; grade 1 to 2 esophagitis in 12 patients (40%) and grade 3 in 1 patient; and grade 1 to 2 pneumonitis in 6 patients (20%) and grade 3 in 2 patients (7%). Thirty-three percent of patients developed grade 1 to 2 late toxicities. Only 3 patients developed grade 3 late adverse effects: esophagitis in 1 patient and pneumonitis in 2 patients. Hypofractionated curative radiation therapy is a feasible and well-tolerated treatment for patients with locally advanced NSCLC. Randomized studies are needed to compare HypoRT to conventional

  14. The challenge of inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): results of a single-institutional experience on stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT).

    PubMed

    Scorsetti, Marta; Comito, Tiziana; Cozzi, Luca; Clerici, Elena; Tozzi, Angelo; Franzese, Ciro; Navarria, Pierina; Fogliata, Antonella; Tomatis, Stefano; D'Agostino, Giuseppo; Iftode, Cristina; Mancosu, Pietro; Ceriani, Roberto; Torzilli, Guido

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) unsuitable for standard loco-regional therapies. Patients with 1-3 inoperable HCC lesions with diameter ≤6 cm were treated by SBRT. According to lesions size and liver function, two prescription regimens were adopted: 48-75 Gy in three fractions or 36-60 Gy in six fractions. SBRT was delivered using the volumetric modulated arc therapy technique with flattening filter-free photon beams. The primary end points of this study were in-field local control (LC) and toxicity. Secondary end points were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Forty-three patients with 63 HCC lesions were irradiated. All patients had Child-Turcotte-Pugh class A or B disease. Thirty lesions (48%) were treated with 48-75 Gy in three consecutive fractions, and 33 (52%) received 36-60 Gy in six fractions. Median follow-up was 8 months (range 3-43 months). Actuarial LC at 6, 12 and 24 months was 94.2 ± 3.3, 85.8 ± 5.5 and 64.4 ± 11.5%, respectively. A biological equivalent dose (BED) >100 Gy and GTV size were significant prognostic factors for LC in univariate analysis (p < 0.001 and p < 0.02). Median OS was 18.0 ± 5.8 months. Actuarial OS at 6, 12 and 24 months was 91.1 ± 4.9, 77.9 ± 8.2 and 45.3 ± 14.0%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that OS is correlated with LC (p < 0.04), BED >100 (p < 0.05) and cumulative gross tumor volume GTV <5 cm (p < 0.04). Median PFS was 8 months, with a 1-year PFS rate of 41%. A significant (≥ grade 3) toxicity was observed in seven patients (16%) 2-6 months after the completion of the treatment. No classic radiation-induced liver disease was observed. Stereotactic body radiation therapy is a safe and effective therapeutic option for HCC lesions unsuitable to standard loco-regional therapies, with acceptable local control rates and low treatment-related toxicity. The significant correlation

  15. Treatment of inoperable coronary disease and refractory angina: spinal stimulators, epidurals, gene therapy, transmyocardial laser, and counterpulsation.

    PubMed

    Svorkdal, Nelson

    2004-03-01

    Intractable angina from refractory coronary disease is a severe form of myocardial ischemia for which revascularization provides no prognostic benefit. Inoperable coronary disease is also accompanied by a "vicious cycle" of myocardial dystrophy from a chronic alteration of the cardiac sympathetic tone and sensitization of damaged cardiac tissues. Several adjunctive treatments have demonstrated efficacy when revascularization is either unsuccessful or contraindicated. Spinal cord stimulation modifies the neurologic input and output of the heart by delivering a very low dose of electrical current to the dorsal columns of the high thoracic spinal cord. Neural fibers then release CGRP and other endogenous peptides to the coronary circulation reducing myocardial oxygen demand and enhancing vasodilation of collaterals to improve the myocardial blood flow of the most diseased regions of the heart. Randomized study has shown the survival data at five years is comparable to bypass for high-risk patients. Transmyocardial laser revascularization creates small channels into ischemic myocardium in an effort to enhance flow though studies have shown no improvement in prognosis over medical therapy alone. Enhanced external counterpulsation uses noninvasive pneumatic compression of the legs to improve diastolic filling of the coronary vessels and promote development of collateral flow. The compressor regimen requires thirty-five hours of therapy over a seven-week treatment period. Therapeutic angiogenesis requires injection of cytokines to promote neovascularization and improve myocardial perfusion into the regions affected by chronic ischemia. Phase 3 trials are pending. High thoracic epidural blockade produces a rapid and potent sympatholysis, coronary vasodilation and reduced myocardial oxygen demand in refractory coronary disease. This technique can be used as an adjunct to bypass surgery or medical therapy in chronic or acute unstable angina. Epidurals are easy to perform and

  16. Regional Economic Development Impact Model: Phase I Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    A multiregional variable input-output (MRVIO) model is introduced to investigate the impact of a change in transportation costs on regional development and trade flows. The MRVIO model is a theoretically well-founded, practically useful, and policy sensitive model. The regional technical coefficients and the trade coefficients are endogenous variables to the MRVIO model. These coefficients are sensitive to the transportation costs as...transportation cost stimulates the regional development . However, its sensitivity differs among industries. (Author)

  17. Activity of pemetrexed-based regimen as first-line chemotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer with asymptomatic inoperable brain metastasis: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weiyou; Røe, Oluf Dimitri; Wu, Chen; Li, Wei; Guo, Renhua; Gu, Yanhong; Liu, Yiqian; Shu, Yongqian; Chen, Xiaofeng

    2015-08-01

    This retrospective study was conducted to assess the efficacy of combination of pemetrexed and cisplatin/carboplatin as first-line treatment in inoperable and asymptomatic brain metastasis (BM) from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 30 patients with adenocarcinoma were included. Nine patients had solitary, and 21 patients had multiple BM. At evaluation after two cycles, the complete response (CR) rate, partial response (PR) rate, and stable disease (SD) for brain lesions was 0, 33.3, and 46.7%, respectively. The overall CR, PR, and SD were 0, 23.3, and 46.7%, respectively. The median time to tumour progression of BM (TTP-BM) was 6.0 months (95% CI 4.068-7.932). The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 5.0 months (95% CI 4.197-5.803) and 11.0 months (95% CI 7.398-14.602), respectively. Pemetrexed has comparable activity on brain lesions as on extracranial tumours in advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients with inoperable and asymptomatic BM.

  18. Hypofractionated accelerated CT-guided interstitial ¹⁹²Ir-HDR-Brachytherapy as re-irradiation in inoperable recurrent cervical lymphadenopathy from head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Tselis, Nikolaos; Ratka, Markus; Vogt, Hans-Georg; Kolotas, Christos; Baghi, Mehran; Baltas, Dimos; Fountzilas, George; Georgoulias, Vassilios; Ackermann, Hanns; Zamboglou, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    Despite significant improvements in the treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC), lymph node recurrences remain a clinical challenge after primary radiotherapy. The value of interstitial (IRT) brachytherapy (BRT) for control of lymph node recurrence remains unclear. In order to clarify its role a retrospective review was undertaken on the value of computed tomography (CT)-guided IRT high-dose-rate (HDR)-BRT in isolated recurrent disease from HNC. From 2000 to 2007, 74 patients were treated for inoperable recurrent cervical lymphadenopathy. All patients had previously been treated with radical radiotherapy or chemoradiation with or without surgery. The HDR-BRT delivered a median salvage dose of 30.0 Gy (range, 12.0-36.0 Gy) in twice-daily fractions of 2.0-5.0 Gy in 71 patients and of 30.0 Gy (range, 10.0-36.0 Gy) in once-daily fractions of 6.0-10.0 Gy in three patients. The overall and disease-free survival rates at one, two and three years were 42%, 19%, 6%, and 42%, 37% and 19%, respectively. The local control probability at one, two and three years was 67% at all three time points. Grade III-IV complications occurred in 13% of patients. In patients with inoperable recurrent neck disease from HNC, hypofractionated accelerated CT-guided IRT-HDR-BRT can play an important role in providing palliation and tumor control. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Misonidazole combined with radiotherapy in the treatment of inoperable squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. A double-blind randomized trial

    SciTech Connect

    Panduro, J.; Kjaer, M.; Wolff-Jensen, J.; Hansen, H.H.

    1983-07-01

    Sixty-seven patients with inoperable squamous cell carcinoma of the lung were randomized to receive split-course irradiation therapy, 40 Gy in 10 fractions over 5 weeks plus either placebo or misonidazole 1.200 mg/m2 orally on each treatment day. The target area was the primary tumor, both hilar regions, mediastinum, and both supraclavicular regions. Thirty-three patients received misonidazole, while 34 patients received placebo. Mean observation time for the study was 27 months (range, 17-36+ months. 31% of the patients in the misonidazole group obtained a complete response (CR) or a partial response (PR) as compared to 29% in the placebo group. No difference was demonstrated in the relapse pattern comparing the two groups. The death intensity was significantly higher (P . 0.03) in the misonidazole than in the placebo group, with the median survival being 4.2 and 6.7 months, respectively. Eight patients in the misonidazole group (31%) developed sensoric neuropathy while one patient in the placebo group developed irradiation myelopathy of the Brown-Sequard type. The group of patients who later developed neuropathy had significantly higher plasma misonidazole concentrations on treatment days than the group of patients who did not. It is concluded that the combination of misonidazole and irradiation therapy for inoperable squamous cell carcinoma of the lung has no effect on response rate and relapse pattern, but a significant unexplained adverse effect on survival.

  20. Long-term outcomes of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) with fiducial tracking for inoperable stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    PubMed

    Lischalk, Jonathan W; Woo, Stephanie M; Kataria, Shaan; Aghdam, Nima; Paydar, Ima; Repka, Michael C; Anderson, Eric D; Collins, Brian T

    2016-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is considered standard of care in the medically inoperable patient population. Multiple methods of SBRT delivery exist including fiducial-based tumor tracking, which allows for smaller treatment margins and avoidance of patient immobilization devices. We explore the long-term clinical outcomes of this novel fiducial-based SBRT method. In this single institutional retrospective review, we detail the outcomes of medically inoperable pathologically confirmed stage I NSCLC. Patients were treated with the Cyberknife SBRT system using a planning target volume (PTV) defined as a 5-mm expansion from gross tumor volume (GTV) without creation of an internal target volume (ITV). Dose was delivered in three or five equal fractions of 10 to 20 Gy. Pretreatment and posttreatment pulmonary function test (PFT) changes and evidence of late radiological rib fractures were analyzed for the majority of patients. Actuarial local control, locoregional control, distant control, and overall survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Sixty-one patients with a median age of 75 years were available for analysis. The majority (80 %) of patients were deemed to be medically inoperable due to underlying pulmonary dysfunction. Eleven patients (18 %) developed symptomatic pneumothoraces secondary to fiducial placement under CT guidance, which precipitously dropped to 0 % following transition to bronchoscopic fiducial placement. The 2-year rib fracture risk was 21.4 % with a median time to rib fracture of 2.9 years. PFTs averaged over all patients and parameters demonstrated small absolute declines, 5.7 % averaged PFT decline, at approximately 1 year of follow-up, but only the diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) demonstrated a statistically significant decline (10.29 vs. 9.01 mL/min/mmHg, p = 0.01). Five-year local control, locoregional control, and overall survival

  1. Oral History in All 50 States; Two Major Openings, Input/Output, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Oral History Research Office.

    Statistics show the vigorous growth of oral history programs in the United States since 1965. Recent events at the Oral History Research Office, Columbia University, include the opening of two new memoirs (Francis Perkins and Henry A. Wallace); a successful oral history course; and projects in progress in business, English literature,…

  2. An Analysis of the Space Sector’s Surge Capacity. An Input-Output Approach.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-13

    Silverware & Plated Ware 64.0400 Misc. Sporting Goods 64.0501 Pens & Mechanical Pencils 64.0502 Lead Pencils & Art Goods 64.0503 Marking Devices 64.0504...Mechanical Pencils 64.0502 Lead Pencils & Art Goods 64.0503 Marking Devices 64.0504 Carbon Paper & Inked Ribbons 64.0800 Brooms & Brushes 64.1200...1987; . 5> Nicholson. Walter. M.-croeconomi _ Thecrv, N.w :’-, ryden Press, 1985 5" N::koas , 3eerge 7 Ready S._rie .,.w •echni qes . efense Manaeren-i

  3. Content-Based ESL in a Sheltered Psychology Course: Input, Output and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    Compared the writing skills of psychology students enrolled in a sheltered content-area English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) writing course with those of ESL psychology students enrolled in a course with more traditional instruction. Both groups gained in language proficiency; however, the findings suggest that focussed reading rather than actual…

  4. Nitrate input/output budget and nitrate isotope ratio in forest ecosystems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobari, Y.; Koba, K.; Fukushima, K.; Tokuchi, N.; Tateno, R.; Ohte, N.; Suzuki, N.; Toyoda, S.; Yoshida, N.

    2006-12-01

    Recent years nitrogen input to forest has been increased by industrial development and increase use of fossil fuel, so elucidating the fate of nitrate added to forest ecosystems is quite important issue for revealing its potential of nitrogen-removing from environment, and better management of forests. Forest ecosystems in mountains region, typically in Japan, vary in many respects from Europe or United States, therefore, It is not possible to make the research result of Europe and America simply adjust to Japan as it is. In this study, measurement of nitrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios of nitrate give us integrated information of nitrate dynamics in Japanese forest ecosystems. There are cedar/ cypress plantations in Japan, about 40 percent of the total forest area is, need to maintain, therefore forest disturbance by human activity (e.g. clearcutting or thinning) is large proportion of total forest ecosystems. Forest disturbance is considered to affect nitrate discharge in many ways (Aber et al. 1998), and contribution of atmospheric nitrate to total nitrate discharge is dramatically increased after disturbance (e.g. forest decline by acid rain: Durka et al. 1994). In our study site with different application (logging) history, nitrate concentrations in streamwater showed clear trend. Atmospheric nitrate has high oxygen isotope ratio (over 10 per-mill vs. VSMOW), while its nitrogen isotopic ratio is about 0 per-mill vs. Atmosphere N2 and nitrate undergone denitrification in soil has high nitrogen isotope ratio (Kendall 1998). Nitrate discharge from forest ecosystems is mainly regulated by plant/microbe uptake, nitrification (NH4 toNO3) and denitrification (NO3 to N2). If clear cut of plantation affects the ratio of atmospheric versus microbial (nitrified) nitrate in streamwater, together with high concentrations in younger forest, we can assume several signal of isotopic ratios of nitrate with the hypothesis below; 1) Streamwater from young forests has high oxygen isotope ratio resemble to that of rain. 2) Streamwater from aged forests has rather lower oxygen isotope ratio than young. 3) Nitrogen isotope ratio is affected by many parameter, groundwater level, angle of dip, watershed area, soil composition, and so on. In this study site, we can comparable of the difference of the nitrogen circulation when "year after re- foretasting" is assumed to be the main parameter under almost the same environmental condition. Therefore, it is thought that "year " is an element that rules the nitrogen circulation if a significant difference is seen on this site compared with the nitrate isotope ratios. In this research, it is assumed to be a purpose to analyze how the nitrogen circulation in the forest ecosystem is characterized by 100-year-timescale. We inspect this hypothesis and make first step of forest assessment by nitrate stable isotope ratios.

  5. Transportation Network with Fluctuating Input/Output Designed by the Bio-Inspired Physarum Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Shin; Takamatsu, Atsuko

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose designing transportation network topology and traffic distribution under fluctuating conditions using a bio-inspired algorithm. The algorithm is inspired by the adaptive behavior observed in an amoeba-like organism, plasmodial slime mold, more formally known as plasmodium of Physarum plycephalum. This organism forms a transportation network to distribute its protoplasm, the fluidic contents of its cell, throughout its large cell body. In this process, the diameter of the transportation tubes adapts to the flux of the protoplasm. The Physarum algorithm, which mimics this adaptive behavior, has been widely applied to complex problems, such as maze solving and designing the topology of railroad grids, under static conditions. However, in most situations, environmental conditions fluctuate; for example, in power grids, the consumption of electric power shows daily, weekly, and annual periodicity depending on the lifestyles or the business needs of the individual consumers. This paper studies the design of network topology and traffic distribution with oscillatory input and output traffic flows. The network topology proposed by the Physarum algorithm is controlled by a parameter of the adaptation process of the tubes. We observe various rich topologies such as complete mesh, partial mesh, Y-shaped, and V-shaped networks depending on this adaptation parameter and evaluate them on the basis of three performance functions: loss, cost, and vulnerability. Our results indicate that consideration of the oscillatory conditions and the phase-lags in the multiple outputs of the network is important: The building and/or maintenance cost of the network can be reduced by introducing the oscillating condition, and when the phase-lag among the outputs is large, the transportation loss can also be reduced. We use stability analysis to reveal how the system exhibits various topologies depending on the parameter. PMID:24586616

  6. Input-output functions of vestibular afferent responses to air-conducted clicks in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Tang, Xuehui; Wei, Wei; Maklad, Adel; Mustain, William; Rabbitt, Richard; Highstein, Steve; Allison, Jerome; Zhou, Wu

    2014-02-01

    Sound-evoked vestibular myogenic potentials recorded from the sternocleidomastoid muscles (the cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential or cVEMP) and the extraocular muscles (the ocular VEMP or oVEMP) have proven useful in clinical assessment of vestibular function. VEMPs are commonly interpreted as a test of saccular function, based on neurophysiological evidence showing activation of saccular afferents by intense acoustic click stimuli. However, recent neurophysiological studies suggest that the clicks used in clinical VEMP tests activate vestibular end organs other than the saccule. To provide the neural basis for interpreting clinical VEMP testing results, the present study examined the extent to which air-conducted clicks differentially activate the various vestibular end organs at several intensities and durations in Sprague-Dawley rats. Single unit recordings were made from 562 vestibular afferents that innervated the otoliths [inferior branch otolith (IO) and superior branch otolith (SO)], the anterior canal (AC), the horizontal canal (HC), and the posterior canal (PC). Clicks higher than 60 dB SL (re-auditory brainstem response threshold) activated both semicircular canal and otolith organ afferents. Clicks at or below 60 dB SL, however, activated only otolith organ afferents. Longer duration clicks evoked larger responses in AC, HC, and SO afferents, but not in IO afferents. Intra-axonal recording and labeling confirmed that sound sensitive vestibular afferents innervated the horizontal and anterior canal cristae as well as the saccular and utricular maculae. Interestingly, all sound sensitive afferents are calyx-bearing fibers. These results demonstrate stimulus-dependent acoustic activation of both semicircular canals and otolith organs, and suggest that sound activation of vestibular end organs other than the saccule should not be ruled out when designing and interpreting clinical VEMP tests.

  7. Integrating Ecological and Water Footprint Accounting in a Multi-Regional Input-Output Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon, ecological, and water footprints (CF, EF, and WF) are accounting tools that can be used to understand the connection between consumption activities and environmental pressures on the Earth?s atmosphere, bioproductive areas, and freshwater resources. These indicators have ...

  8. Intrinsic Information Processing and Energy Dissipation in Stochastic Input-Output Dynamical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-09

    processes, which play key role in limiting computation. Fortunately, computational mechanics accounts for this diversity, but in autonomous dynamical...computation. Fortunately, computational mechanics accounts for this diversity, but in autonomous dynamical systems. Thermodynamic cycles that perform...useful information processing are nonautonomous systems. To analyze information processing in nonautonomous systems, computational mechanics must be ex

  9. Input-output budgets for a mature hardwood deciduous forest on Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Correll, D.L.; Weller, D.E.

    1994-12-31

    For 13 years the authors measured bulk precipitation inputs and stream discharges of major inorganic ions, nitrate, ammonium, organic-N, ortho-phosphate, and organic-P. The study site was a 6.3 ha forested water shed on the inner Atlantic Coastal Plain that has never been clear-cut. The forest is underlaid by a clay aquiclude and the stream discharge was gauged by a V-notch weir. Continuous, composited, volume-integrated samples assured that measurements of discharge fluxes were representative of total discharge fluxes. Spot samples of stream discharge were also taken at known discharge rates between zero and 29.4 1 ha{sup {minus}1}sec{sup {minus}1} to determine the relationship of discharge composition to discharge rate. Bulk precipitation was sampled by event at a station only 0.5 km away. Bulk precipitation was primarily a dilute solution of nitric and sulfuric acids with lower levels of ammonium, chloride and metallic cations, while stream discharge was primary a solution of metallic sulfates and chlorides. The differences indicate the nearly complete retention of ammonium, hydronium, and nitrate ions; the partial retention of sulfate; and a net loss of metallic cations from the watershed. Forest discharges of organic-C, P, and N per unit area were substantially less than for other land uses on nearby watersheds, and the organic matter discharged from the forest contained less N and P.

  10. MATCH-TO-SUCCESSIVE-SAMPLE-DEVICE SYSTEM WITH PAPER TAPE INPUT/OUTPUT UNIT.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    the input data, the MSSD system also records each response and indicates whether or not the response was correct. Positive and negative ... reinforcement are administered at the conclusion of each problem, depending on the reinforcement modes programmed by the experimenter. (Author)

  11. Global fishmeal and fish-oil supply: inputs, outputs and markets.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, C J; Jackson, A J

    2013-10-01

    Recent data on fishmeal and fish-oil supply are presented identifying key producer countries and raw material sources and distinguishing between whole fish and by-products. The conversion of these raw materials into marine ingredients is discussed and global volumes presented. This is followed by a summary of the main countries using these marine ingredients over recent years. Uses of fishmeal and fish-oil by market segment are then presented. From this, a global mass balance of inputs and outputs is derived which allows the calculation of the input-to-output ratios (fish in:fish out; FIFO) for the main aquaculture production types to be made. Current areas of focus by the industry include the need to demonstrate sustainable practice, more strategic use of marine ingredients, greater use of fishery and land-animal by-products as well as vegetable substitutes, and novel sources of essential omega-3 fats, notably the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. Implications are drawn for future supply prospects of fishmeal and fish-oil and their future role in aquaculture, agriculture and human health.

  12. Oral History in All 50 States; Two Major Openings, Input/Output, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Oral History Research Office.

    Statistics show the vigorous growth of oral history programs in the United States since 1965. Recent events at the Oral History Research Office, Columbia University, include the opening of two new memoirs (Francis Perkins and Henry A. Wallace); a successful oral history course; and projects in progress in business, English literature,…

  13. Regional Input-Output Tables and Trade Flows: an Integrated and Interregional Non-survey Approach

    DOE PAGES

    Boero, Riccardo; Edwards, Brian Keith; Rivera, Michael Kelly

    2017-03-20

    Regional input–output tables and trade flows: an integrated and interregional non-survey approach. Regional Studies. Regional analyses require detailed and accurate information about dynamics happening within and between regional economies. However, regional input–output tables and trade flows are rarely observed and they must be estimated using up-to-date information. Common estimation approaches vary widely but consider tables and flows independently. Here, by using commonly used economic assumptions and available economic information, this paper presents a method that integrates the estimation of regional input–output tables and trade flows across regions. Examples of the method implementation are presented and compared with other approaches, suggestingmore » that the integrated approach provides advantages in terms of estimation accuracy and analytical capabilities.« less

  14. Message Passage Interface Input/Output (MPI-IO Test) Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Nunez, James

    2005-04-08

    Although there a host of existing file system and I/O test programs available, most were not designed with parallel I/O in mind and are not useful at the scale of our clusters. Los Alamos National Lab's MPI-IO test was written with I/O and scale in mind. The MPI-IO test is built on top of MPI's I/O calls and is used to gather timing information for reading from and writing to file(s) using a variety of I/O profiles; N processes writing to N files, N processes writing to one file, N processes sending data to m processes writing to m files, or n processes sending data to m processes to one file. A data aggregation capability is available and the user can pass down MPI-IO, ROMIO and some file system specific MPI hints. By default, the MPI-IO Test will write and specific pattern to a file, close the file, open the file for read, read the data, check for data integrity and close the file. Timing information is reported for file open, close, read and write data rates, and effective bandwidths. The MPI-IO Test can be used for performance benchmarking and, in some cases, to diagnost problems with file systems or I/O networks.

  15. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Linear Systems Extreme Inputs/Outputs

    DOE PAGES

    Smallwood, David O.

    2007-01-01

    A linear structure is excited at multiple points with a stationary normal random process. The response of the structure is measured at multiple outputs. If the autospectral densities of the inputs are specified, the phase relationships between the inputs are derived that will minimize or maximize the trace of the autospectral density matrix of the outputs. If the autospectral densities of the outputs are specified, the phase relationships between the outputs that will minimize or maximize the trace of the input autospectral density matrix are derived. It is shown that other phase relationships and ordinary coherence less than one willmore » result in a trace intermediate between these extremes. Least favorable response and some classes of critical response are special cases of the development. It is shown that the derivation for stationary random waveforms can also be applied to nonstationary random, transients, and deterministic waveforms.« less

  16. Global network of embodied water flow by systems input-output simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhanming; Chen, Guoqian; Xia, Xiaohua; Xu, Shiyun

    2012-09-01

    The global water resources network is simulated in the present work for the latest target year with statistical data available and with the most detailed data disaggregation. A top-down approach of systems inputoutput simulation is employed to track the embodied water flows associated with economic flows for the globalized economy in 2004. The numerical simulation provides a database of embodied water intensities for all economic commodities from 4928 producers, based on which the differences between direct and indirect water using efficiencies at the global scale are discussed. The direct and embodied water uses are analyzed at continental level. Besides, the commodity demand in terms of monetary expenditure and the water demand in terms of embodied water use are compared for the world as well as for three major water using regions, i.e., India, China, and the United States. Results show that food product contributes to a significant fraction for water demand, despite the value varies significantly with respect to the economic status of region.

  17. The computational structural mechanics testbed architecture. Volume 5: The Input-Output Manager DMGASP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felippa, Carlos A.

    1989-01-01

    This is the fifth of a set of five volumes which describe the software architecture for the Computational Structural Mechanics Testbed. Derived from NICE, an integrated software system developed at Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory, the architecture is composed of the command language (CLAMP), the command language interpreter (CLIP), and the data manager (GAL). Volumes 1, 2, and 3 (NASA CR's 178384, 178385, and 178386, respectively) describe CLAMP and CLIP and the CLIP-processor interface. Volumes 4 and 5 (NASA CR's 178387 and 178388, respectively) describe GAL and its low-level I/O. CLAMP, an acronym for Command Language for Applied Mechanics Processors, is designed to control the flow of execution of processors written for NICE. Volume 5 describes the low-level data management component of the NICE software. It is intended only for advanced programmers involved in maintenance of the software.

  18. A control problem for Burgers' equation with bounded input/output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, John A.; Kang, Sungkwon

    1990-01-01

    A stabilization problem for Burgers' equation is considered. Using linearization, various controllers are constructed which minimize certain weighted energy functionals. These controllers produce the desired degree of stability for the closed-loop nonlinear system. A numerical scheme for computing the feedback gain functional is developed and several numerical experiments are performed to show the theoretical results.

  19. Energy intensity of computer manufacturing: hybrid assessment combining process and economic input-output methods.

    PubMed

    Williams, Eric

    2004-11-15

    The total energy and fossil fuels used in producing a desktop computer with 17-in. CRT monitor are estimated at 6400 megajoules (MJ) and 260 kg, respectively. This indicates that computer manufacturing is energy intensive: the ratio of fossil fuel use to product weight is 11, an order of magnitude larger than the factor of 1-2 for many other manufactured goods. This high energy intensity of manufacturing, combined with rapid turnover in computers, results in an annual life cycle energy burden that is surprisingly high: about 2600 MJ per year, 1.3 times that of a refrigerator. In contrast with many home appliances, life cycle energy use of a computer is dominated by production (81%) as opposed to operation (19%). Extension of usable lifespan (e.g. by reselling or upgrading) is thus a promising approach to mitigating energy impacts as well as other environmental burdens associated with manufacturing and disposal.

  20. Non-Markovian open quantum systems: Input-output fields, memory, and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diósi, Lajos

    2012-03-01

    Principles of monitoring non-Markovian open quantum systems are analyzed. We use a field representation of the environment [C. W. Gardiner and M. J. Collett, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.31.3761 31, 3761 (1985)] for the separation of its memory and detector part, respectively. We claim that the system-plus-memory compound becomes Markovian; the detector part is tractable by standard Markovian monitoring. Because of non-Markovianity, only the mixed state of the system can be predicted; the pure state of the system can be retrodicted. We present the corresponding non-Markovian stochastic Schrödinger equation.

  1. On the input-output properties of linear time-invariant systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desoer, C. A.; Lam, F. L.

    1972-01-01

    Recently improved sufficient conditions for the Lp stability of multiple-input multiple-output linear time-invariant feedback systems are given. The continuous-time case is done in detail; the discrete-time case is outlined. Unstable open-loop systems with singular residue matrices are allowed.

  2. Central Cross-Talk in Task Switching : Evidence from Manipulating Input-Output Modality Compatibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Denise Nadine; Koch, Iring

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined the role of compatibility of input and output (I-O) modality mappings in task switching. We define I-O modality compatibility in terms of similarity of stimulus modality and modality of response-related sensory consequences. Experiment 1 included switching between 2 compatible tasks (auditory-vocal vs. visual-manual) and…

  3. Central Cross-Talk in Task Switching : Evidence from Manipulating Input-Output Modality Compatibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Denise Nadine; Koch, Iring

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined the role of compatibility of input and output (I-O) modality mappings in task switching. We define I-O modality compatibility in terms of similarity of stimulus modality and modality of response-related sensory consequences. Experiment 1 included switching between 2 compatible tasks (auditory-vocal vs. visual-manual) and…

  4. Input-output budgets of selected nutrients on an experimental watershed near Parsons, West Virginia

    Treesearch

    J. D. Helvey; Samuel H. Kunkle; Samuel H. Kunkle

    1986-01-01

    A control watershed at the Fernow Experimental Watershed effectively neutralizes acids received in precipitation. However, sulfate input by precipitation greatly exceeds sulfate losses as streamflow and watershed acidification is a real concern.

  5. Input/Output Scalability of Genomic Alignment: How to Configure a Computational Biology Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Vaidyanathan, P; Madhyastha, T M; Jones, T

    2001-10-03

    Many scientific applications are I/O-intensive, which makes optimization and scaling difficult, especially on parallel architectures. The I/O requirements of computational biology applications are different from other scientific applications. The main difference is that many computational biology applications are embarrassingly parallel and require repeated read-only access to a large global database. In this paper we examine the scalability of an embarrassingly parallel computational biology application: psLayout, which played a crucial role in the mapping of the human genome. This study was carried out on three architecture: the native UCSC Linux cluster, a Linux cluster at Lawrence Livermore National Labs with a faster interconnect and NFS server, and the ASCI Blue-Pacific supercomputer. We show that a cluster equipped with a fast network and parallel file system or a scalable NFS server has reasonable I/O scalability. We believe that replication is an important issue when scaling to larger numbers of processors, and we introduce the design of a library for automatic data replication to address this issue.

  6. Logarithmic and Power Law Input-Output Relations in Sensory Systems with Fold-Change Detection

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Miri; Mayo, Avi; Alon, Uri

    2014-01-01

    Two central biophysical laws describe sensory responses to input signals. One is a logarithmic relationship between input and output, and the other is a power law relationship. These laws are sometimes called the Weber-Fechner law and the Stevens power law, respectively. The two laws are found in a wide variety of human sensory systems including hearing, vision, taste, and weight perception; they also occur in the responses of cells to stimuli. However the mechanistic origin of these laws is not fully understood. To address this, we consider a class of biological circuits exhibiting a property called fold-change detection (FCD). In these circuits the response dynamics depend only on the relative change in input signal and not its absolute level, a property which applies to many physiological and cellular sensory systems. We show analytically that by changing a single parameter in the FCD circuits, both logarithmic and power-law relationships emerge; these laws are modified versions of the Weber-Fechner and Stevens laws. The parameter that determines which law is found is the steepness (effective Hill coefficient) of the effect of the internal variable on the output. This finding applies to major circuit architectures found in biological systems, including the incoherent feed-forward loop and nonlinear integral feedback loops. Therefore, if one measures the response to different fold changes in input signal and observes a logarithmic or power law, the present theory can be used to rule out certain FCD mechanisms, and to predict their cooperativity parameter. We demonstrate this approach using data from eukaryotic chemotaxis signaling. PMID:25121598

  7. Integrating Ecological and Water Footprint Accounting in a Multi-Regional Input-Output Framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon, ecological, and water footprints (CF, EF, and WF) are accounting tools that can be used to understand the connection between consumption activities and environmental pressures on the Earth?s atmosphere, bioproductive areas, and freshwater resources. These indicators have ...

  8. Transportation network with fluctuating input/output designed by the bio-inspired Physarum algorithm.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shin; Takamatsu, Atsuko

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose designing transportation network topology and traffic distribution under fluctuating conditions using a bio-inspired algorithm. The algorithm is inspired by the adaptive behavior observed in an amoeba-like organism, plasmodial slime mold, more formally known as plasmodium of Physarum plycephalum. This organism forms a transportation network to distribute its protoplasm, the fluidic contents of its cell, throughout its large cell body. In this process, the diameter of the transportation tubes adapts to the flux of the protoplasm. The Physarum algorithm, which mimics this adaptive behavior, has been widely applied to complex problems, such as maze solving and designing the topology of railroad grids, under static conditions. However, in most situations, environmental conditions fluctuate; for example, in power grids, the consumption of electric power shows daily, weekly, and annual periodicity depending on the lifestyles or the business needs of the individual consumers. This paper studies the design of network topology and traffic distribution with oscillatory input and output traffic flows. The network topology proposed by the Physarum algorithm is controlled by a parameter of the adaptation process of the tubes. We observe various rich topologies such as complete mesh, partial mesh, Y-shaped, and V-shaped networks depending on this adaptation parameter and evaluate them on the basis of three performance functions: loss, cost, and vulnerability. Our results indicate that consideration of the oscillatory conditions and the phase-lags in the multiple outputs of the network is important: The building and/or maintenance cost of the network can be reduced by introducing the oscillating condition, and when the phase-lag among the outputs is large, the transportation loss can also be reduced. We use stability analysis to reveal how the system exhibits various topologies depending on the parameter.

  9. Structure and Input-Output Properties in Networks of Nonlinear Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-20

    Networks of Nonlinear Systems FA9550-11-1-0244 Murat Arcak University of California Berkeley Sponsored Projects Office Berkeley , CA. 94704-5940 DAF Air...and Computer Sciences University of California, Berkeley AFOSR Dynamical Systems and Control Department Dynamics and Control Program FA9550-11-1-0244

  10. Extreme inputs/outputs for multiple input multiple output linear systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Smallwood, David Ora

    2005-09-01

    A linear structure is excited at multiple points with a stationary normal random process. The response of the structure is measured at multiple outputs. If the auto spectral densities of the inputs are specified, the phase relationships between the inputs are derived that will minimize or maximize the trace of the auto spectral density matrix of the outputs. If the autospectral densities of the outputs are specified, the phase relationships between the outputs that will minimize or maximize the trace of the input auto spectral density matrix are derived. It is shown that other phase relationships and ordinary coherence less than one will result in a trace intermediate between these extremes. Least favorable response and some classes of critical response are special cases of the development. It is shown that the derivation for stationary random waveforms can also be applied to nonstationary random, transients, and deterministic waveforms.

  11. An Investigation of Methods to Improve Input/Output Current Waveforms in Matrix Converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Kyungmin; Nakakoji, Hajime; Kobayashi, Kosuke; Sato, Yukihiko

    The matrix converter is a three phase AC-to-AC direct converter without any energy storage requirement such as DC link capacitors. However, the matrix converter has some practical problems such as the necessity of the bi-directional power devices, necessity of special commutation sequence, and complexity of the control method. Thus, there are no practical systems in which the matrix converters are used. In this paper, the control strategy for matrix converters with basic configuration is investigated to realize the practical matrix converters. First of all, the necessity of the phase detector for the input voltage and the output current sensor is pointed out from the viewpoint of realization of the basic operation. With these sensors required in the basic configuration, the instantaneous control of the output current is realized. It is also pointed out that the three phase switching is effective to improve the input current waveforms. Some methods for implementation of the three phase switching are proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed control methods is confirmed by some experimental results employing a test system.

  12. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: INPUT/OUTPUT DATA FOR SEVERAL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This treatability study is a pilot-scale evaluation of a thin-film evaporator (TFE) for volatile organics (VO) removal from oily sludges such as refinery sludges. TFEs were studied to evaluate their use to remove and recover VO from these sludges prior to land treatment. This w...

  13. The Circulation/Acquisition Ratio: An Input-Output Measure for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Marilyn M.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a method for measuring library impact by calculating the ratio of materials circulated in a time unit to those acquired in that period. A breakdown by Dewey Decimal Classification for a hypothetical library is reported, as well as how this ratio can be interpreted. (BK)

  14. New Radiation Input/Output Systems for Millimeter-Wave Gyrotron Traveling-Wave Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisov, G. G.; Bogdashov, A. A.; Gachev, I. G.; Mishakin, S. V.; Samsonov, S. V.

    2016-03-01

    We consider in detail the method allowing one to input and output the microwave radiation produced by an elecrovacuum amplifier through the same barrier window, which was proposed earlier, in the context of its application in a traveling-wave tube based on a waveguide with a helically corrugated surface. Special attention is given to the splitter of differently polarized radiation, and the results of studying this splitter at wavelengths of about 6 and 1 mm theoretically and experimentally are presented.

  15. Electrical properties of an input--output cable for Josephson applications

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.J.

    1982-11-01

    The electrical properties of an 80 signal line microstrip cable for transmitting signals between room-temperature electronics and cryogenic electronics were calculated and verified. The impedance, propagation velocity, skin effect losses, dielectric losses, forward wave cross talk, and backward wave cross talk were investigated for a copper and polyimide microstrip cable. An effective method of reducing forward wave cross talk was discovered. The microstrip cable has a high signal line density, 19.7 lines/cm, and a high bandwidth, dc-1 GHz.

  16. F/A-18E/F Nacelle Simulator Input/Output Boundary Condition Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    aft diamond vent was measured with a pitot rake. The airflow in the other outlets was measured with a calibrated vane anemometer and stopwatch. Air...dimensional flow to the vane anemometer. 7. ASME Pitot -Static Tube: o.d. .327 in. The calibration data for the instrumentation is presented in appendix B...of the diamond; the velocity out the starboard side was measured with the vane anemometer to be ~20% of that out the port side. The pitot rake

  17. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: INPUT/OUTPUT DATA FOR SEVERAL TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This treatability study is a pilot-scale evaluation of a thin-film evaporator (TFE) for volatile organics (VO) removal from oily sludges such as refinery sludges. TFEs were studied to evaluate their use to remove and recover VO from these sludges prior to land treatment. This w...

  18. Watershed versus in-lake alkalinity generation: A comparison of rates using input-output studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, P.W.; Hooper, R.P.; Eshleman, K.N.; Church, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    As a means of assessing the relative contributions of watershed (terrestrial) and in-lake processes to overall lake/watershed alkalinity budgets, alkalinity production rates for watersheds and low-alkalinity lakes were compiled from the literature and compared. Analysis of data indicates that for low-alkalinity systems, areal alkalinity production rates for watersheds and lakes are approximately equal. The relationship suggests that watershed area to lake area ratio can be used as a convenient estimator of the relative importance of watershed and in-lake sources of alkalinity for drainage lake systems. For precipitation-dominated seepage lakes and other systems where hydrology limits soil-water contact, hydrologic flow paths and residence times can be of overriding importance in determining alkalinity sources. For regions dominated by drainage lakes with high watershed area to lake area ratios (such as the Northeastern U.S.), however, alkalinity budgets are dominated by watershed processes. Omission of in-lake alkalinity consideration for most lakes in such regions would have little impact on computed alkalinity budgets or on predicted response to changes in acidic-deposition loadings.

  19. The Global versus Local Hamiltonian Description of Quantum Input-Output Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, John

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to derive the global Hamiltonian form for a quantum system and bath, or more generally a quantum network with multiple quantum input field connections, based on the local descriptions. We give a new simple argument which shows that the global Hamiltonian for a single Markov component arises as the singular perturbation of the free translation operator. We show that the Fermi analogue takes an equivalent form provided the parity of the coefficients is correctly specified. This allows us to immediately extend the theory of quantum feedback networks to Fermi systems.

  20. Input, Output, Throughput and Kaput. Position Paper on Technology. Response Prepared by Teresa Strozik.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowen, Walter; Wakefield, Rowan A.

    A review of the history of libraries from the viewpoint of a speaker in the year 2080 describes the opposing trends of a shift of human values toward individuality and diversity, while technology was becoming more uniform. Man-computer relationships steadily replaced people-to-people relationships. While the cost of contact services rose,…

  1. FLIS Procedures Manual. Document Identifier Code Input/Output Formats (Fixed Length). Volume 8.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    4100.39-M DEFENSE LOGISTICS SERVICES CENTER Volume 8 74 WASHINGTON AVE N BATTLE CREEK MI 49017-3084 DLSC- VPH 1 April 1997 FOREWORD This is one of the...volume 1, chapter 1.6, or administrative comments and inquiries may be directed to DLSC- VPH . Service/Agency distribution is handled through...changes to DLSC- VPH . Content changes appearing on these pages are entered in bold-faced italic type. Comments or questions may be directed to DLSC- VPH . This

  2. A General Security Marking Policy for Classified Computer Input/Output Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-01

    highest classifi- cation of material ever recorded on it, and bears a label showing current contents and classification data . If stored in a container...controlled, accounted for, stored , and transmitted as SECRET. When the requester has assured himself that it contains no data not requested the tentative...drawings, specifications, or other data is not to be regarded by implication or otherwise, as in any manner licensing the holder or any other person

  3. Error Models of the Analog to Digital Converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaeli, Linus; Šaliga, Ján

    2014-04-01

    Error models of the Analog to Digital Converters describe metrological properties of the signal conversion from analog to digital domain in a concise form using few dominant error parameters. Knowledge of the error models allows the end user to provide fast testing in the crucial points of the full input signal range and to use identified error models for post correction in the digital domain. The imperfections of the internal ADC structure determine the error characteristics represented by the nonlinearities as a function of the output code. Progress in the microelectronics and missing information about circuital details together with the lack of knowledge about interfering effects caused by ADC installation prefers another modeling approach based on the input-output behavioral characterization by the input-output error box. Internal links in the ADC structure cause that the input-output error function could be described in a concise form by suitable function. Modeled functional parameters allow determining the integral error parameters of ADC. Paper is a survey of error models starting from the structural models for the most common architectures and their linkage with the behavioral models represented by the simple look up table or the functional description of nonlinear errors for the output codes.

  4. Oral everolimus treatment in a preterm infant with multifocal inoperable cardiac rhabdomyoma associated with tuberous sclerosis complex and a structural heart defect.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ibrahim; Ethier, Guillaume; Goyer, Isabelle; Major, Philippe; Dahdah, Nagib

    2014-11-26

    Rhabdomyoma (RHM) is a benign cardiac tumour usually associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Most RHMs are asymptomatic and regress spontaneously during the first years of life. Haemodynamically significant RHMs are classically treated with surgical excision. We present a case of a premature infant, born to a mother having TSC, with a prenatal diagnosis of pulmonary valve atresia and a large ventricular septal defect. Multiple cardiac RHMs were also present, including a large tumour affecting the right ventricular filling. Owing to the prematurity and low birth weight, the infant was inoperable. In this report, we describe our approach to pharmacologically reduce the RHM size using oral everolimus in preparation for a two-ventricle surgical repair of the structural cardiac defect. We also specifically describe the dose of everolimus that was used in this case to achieve therapeutic serum levels, which was seven times lower than the conventional dose applicable for older infants.

  5. An Independent Verification and Validation of the Future Theater Level Model Conceptual Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    the Battle Area FLOT Forward Line of Troops FTLM Future Theater Level Model GUI Graphical User Interface I/ O Input/Output IV&V Independent...areas have been grouped together and the four areas concerned with input and output (I/ O ) have been grouped together. The Analytic Structure area...LOGISTICS • i .i .-.• .j 3.0 4.G j I/ O GROUP OPERATIONAL GROUP (.• (.* 1." 1.’ t

  6. A Pilot Trial of Serial FDG-PET in Patients with Medically Inoperable Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated with Hypofractionated Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT)

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Mark A.; Hoopes, David J.; Fletcher, James W.; Lin, Pei-Fen; Tann, Mark; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T.; Williams, Mark D.; Fakiris, Achilles J.; McGarry, Ronald C.; Timmerman, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Routine assessment is made of tumor metabolic activity as measured by 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This report describes PET correlates prospectively collected after SBRT for patients with medically inoperable NSCLC. Methods and Materials 14 consecutive patients with medically inoperable Stage I NSCLC were enrolled. All patients received SBRT to 60-66 Gy in 3 fractions. Patients underwent serial planned FDG-PET/CT fusion imaging pre-SBRT and at 2, 26 and 52 weeks following SBRT. Results With median follow-up of 30.2 months, no patients experienced local failure. One patient developed regional failure, one developed distant failure, and one developed a second primary. The median tumor pre-SBRT maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was 8.70. Post-SBRT median SUVmax values at 2, 26 and 52 weeks were 6.04, 2.80, and 3.58 respectively. Patients with low pre-SBRT SUV were more likely to experience initial 2-week rises in SUV, while patients with high pre-SBRT SUV commonly had SUV declines 2 weeks post treatment (p = 0.036). Six of 13 patients had primary tumor SUVmax > 3.5 at 12 months post SBRT, but remained without evidence of local disease failure on further follow-up. Conclusions A substantial proportion of patients may have moderately elevated FDG-PET SUVmax at 12 months without evidence of local failure on further follow-up. Thus, slightly elevated PET SUVmax should not be considered a surrogate for local treatment failure. Our data do not support routine serial FDG-PET/CT for follow-up of patients receiving SBRT for stage I NSCLC. PMID:19473777

  7. Usefulness of Photodynamic Diagnosis and Therapy using Talaporfin Sodium for an Advanced-aged Patient with Inoperable Gastric Cancer (a secondary publication)

    PubMed Central

    Oinuma, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: In Japan the rise in the average life expectancy has caused an increase in the proportion of the population who are classed as geriatric. Accordingly, the number of elderly people being treated for cancer is increasing concomitantly. However, with the increase in age, the numbers of prior complications also increase. This is especially so in the advanced-aged patients, defined in Japan as those over the age of 85. Such complications may be too high risk for radical surgery and a less invasive treatment is warranted. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a noninvasive treatment approved by the Japanese National Health Insurance for the treatment of early stage superficial type esophageal and gastric cancers, early stage uterine cervical cancers and dysplasia, and early and advanced lung cancer. We report herein on the efficacy of palliative PDT using talaporfin sodium (Laserphyrin®) for a case of inoperable gastric cancer. Material and methods: The patient was an 87-year-old-man, a diabetic with histories of diabetic nephropathy, cerebral infarction and myocardial infarction. This patient was first diagnosed as having gastric cancer in 2007 but surgery and chemotherapy were contraindicated due to his poor physical status and poor renal function, respectively, owing to the anticipated side effects. The patient was referred to our institution after hearing of PDT in 2009. He was treated with 1 course of porfimer sodium PDT and 3 courses of talaporfin sodium PDT with photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) during the period from September, 2009 to June, 2011. Results: The massive gastric cancer located in the cardia was successfully treated with 4 PDT sessions without any serious complications; therefore the patient was able to orally ingest food until his death due to natural causes other than the cancer, in October, 2011. Conclusion: Talaporfin sodium PDT is safe and effective treatment for advanced-aged patients suffering from inoperable gastric cancer. PMID

  8. 30 Gy or 34 Gy? Comparing 2 Single-Fraction SBRT Dose Schedules for Stage I Medically Inoperable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Videtic, Gregory M.M. Stephans, Kevin L.; Woody, Neil M.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Zhuang, Tingliang; Magnelli, Anthony; Djemil, Toufik

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: To review outcomes of 2 single-fraction lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) schedules used for medically inoperable early stage lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients in our institution have been treated on and off protocols using single-fraction SBRT (30 Gy and 34 Gy, respectively). All patients had node-negative lung cancer measuring ≤5 cm and lying ≥2 cm beyond the trachea-bronchial tree and were treated on a Novalis/BrainLAB system with the ExactTrac positioning system for daily image guidance. Results: For the interval from 2009 to 2012, 80 patients with 82 lesions were treated with single-fraction lung SBRT. Fifty-five patients (69%) and 25 patients (31%) received 30 Gy and 34 Gy, respectively. In a comparison of 30 Gy and 34 Gy cohorts, patient and tumor characteristics were balanced and median follow-up in months was 18.7 and 17.8, respectively. The average heterogeneity-corrected mean doses to the target were 33.75 Gy and 37.94 Gy for the 30-Gy and 34-Gy prescriptions, respectively. Comparing 30-Gy and 34-Gy cohorts, 92.7% and 84.0% of patients, respectively, experienced no toxicity (P was not significant), and had neither grade 3 nor higher toxicities. For the 30-Gy and 34-Gy patients, rates of 1-year local failure, overall survival, and lung cancer-specific mortality were 2.0% versus 13.8%, 75.0% versus 64.0%, and 2. 1% versus 16.0%, respectively (P values for differences were not significant). Conclusions: This is the largest single-fraction lung SBRT series yet reported. and it confirms the safety, efficacy, and minimal toxicity of this schedule for inoperable early stage lung cancer.

  9. Compartmental and Data-Based Modeling of Cerebral Hemodynamics: Linear Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Henley, B.C.; Shin, D.C.; Zhang, R.; Marmarelis, V.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Compartmental and data-based modeling of cerebral hemodynamics are alternative approaches that utilize distinct model forms and have been employed in the quantitative study of cerebral hemodynamics. This paper examines the relation between a compartmental equivalent-circuit and a data-based input-output model of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (DCA) and CO2-vasomotor reactivity (DVR). The compartmental model is constructed as an equivalent-circuit utilizing putative first principles and previously proposed hypothesis-based models. The linear input-output dynamics of this compartmental model are compared with data-based estimates of the DCA-DVR process. This comparative study indicates that there are some qualitative similarities between the two-input compartmental model and experimental results. PMID:26900535

  10. Interval Predictor Models for Data with Measurement Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacerda, Marcio J.; Crespo, Luis G.

    2017-01-01

    An interval predictor model (IPM) is a computational model that predicts the range of an output variable given input-output data. This paper proposes strategies for constructing IPMs based on semidefinite programming and sum of squares (SOS). The models are optimal in the sense that they yield an interval valued function of minimal spread containing all the observations. Two different scenarios are considered. The first one is applicable to situations where the data is measured precisely whereas the second one is applicable to data subject to known biases and measurement error. In the latter case, the IPMs are designed to fully contain regions in the input-output space where the data is expected to fall. Moreover, we propose a strategy for reducing the computational cost associated with generating IPMs as well as means to simulate them. Numerical examples illustrate the usage and performance of the proposed formulations.

  11. On looking into the Black Box: Prospects and Limits in the Search for Mental Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    to identify input-output relationships [Rouse, 1977; van Bussel, 1980; van Heusden , 1980]. All four of the above studies resulted in hypothesized...8217 abilities to "capture" mental models are constrained by humans’ lack of abilities to verbalize their models. Van Heusden [1980. found that subjects...Independent studies by Rouse [1977], van Bussel [1980], and van Heusden [19801 have concluded, via empirical modeling methods, that humans’ models

  12. Improved AWG Fourier optics model.

    PubMed

    Molina-Fernández, I; Wangüemert-Pérez, J

    2004-10-04

    In this paper we present an improved Fourier Optics model to calculate the transmission characteristics between any arbitrary pair of input/output ports (IOPs) of an Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG). In this model the input and output sections of the AWG are modeled using the same approximations, thus removing some reciprocity-related inconsistencies present in previously existing models. The expressions which summarize the model are compact and easily interpretable. Simple quasi-analytical expressions are also derived under the Gaussian approximation of the mode field profiles.

  13. Dynamic model of in-lake alkalinity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, L.A.; Brezonik, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    In-lake alkalinity generation (IAG) is important in regulation of alkalinity in lakes with long residence times, particularly seepage lakes. An IAG model based on input/output modeling concepts is presented that describes budgets for each ion involved in alkalinity regulation by a single differential equation that includes inputs, outputs, and a first-order sink term. These equations are linked to an alkalinity balance equation that includes inputs, outputs, IAG (by sulfate and nitrate reduction), and internal alkalinity consumption (by ammonium assimilation). Calibration using published lake budgets shows that rate constants are generally similar among soft water lakes (k/sub SO/sub 4// approx. 0.5 m/yr; k/sub NO/sub 3// approx. = 1.3 yr/sup -1/; k/sub NH/sub 4// approx. 1.5 yr/sup -1/). Sensitivity analysis shows that predicted alkalinity is sensitive to water residence time, but less sensitive to modest changes in rate constants. The model reflects the homeostatic nature of internal alkalinity generation, in which internal alkalinity production increases with increasing acid input and decreases with decreasing acid inputs of HNO/sub 3/ or H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/.

  14. The Impact of Tumor Size on Outcomes After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Medically Inoperable Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Allibhai, Zishan; Taremi, Mojgan; Bezjak, Andrea; Brade, Anthony; Hope, Andrew J.; Sun, Alexander; Cho, B.C. John

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy for medically inoperable early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) offers excellent control rates. Most published series deal mainly with small (usually <4 cm), peripheral, solitary tumors. Larger tumors are associated with poorer outcomes (ie, lower control rates, higher toxicity) when treated with conventional RT. It is unclear whether SBRT is sufficiently potent to control these larger tumors. We therefore evaluated and examined the influence of tumor size on treatment outcomes after SBRT. Methods and Materials: Between October 2004 and October 2010, 185 medically inoperable patients with early (T1-T2N0M0) NSCLC were treated on a prospective research ethics board-approved single-institution protocol. Prescription doses were risk-adapted based on tumor size and location. Follow-up included prospective assessment of toxicity (as per Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0) and serial computed tomography scans. Patterns of failure, toxicity, and survival outcomes were calculated using Kaplan-Meier method, and the significance of tumor size (diameter, volume) with respect to patient, treatment, and tumor factors was tested. Results: Median follow-up was 15.2 months. Tumor size was not associated with local failure but was associated with regional failure (P=.011) and distant failure (P=.021). Poorer overall survival (P=.001), disease-free survival (P=.001), and cause-specific survival (P=.005) were also significantly associated with tumor size (with tumor volume more significant than diameter). Gross tumor volume and planning target volume were significantly associated with grade 2 or worse radiation pneumonitis. However, overall rates of grade ≥3 pneumonitis were low and not significantly affected by tumor or target size. Conclusions: Currently employed stereotactic body radiation therapy dose regimens can provide safe effective local therapy even for larger solitary NSCLC tumors (up to 5.7 cm

  15. A phase II study of capecitabine and oxaliplatin combination chemotherapy in patients with inoperable adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder or biliary tract.

    PubMed

    Graham, J S; Boyd, K; Coxon, F Y; Wall, L R; Eatock, M M; Maughan, T S; Highley, M; Soulis, E; Harden, S; Bützberger-Zimmerli, P; Evans, T R J

    2016-03-12

    Advanced biliary tract carcinomas are associated with a poor prognosis, and palliative chemotherapy has only modest benefit. This multi-centre phase II study was conducted to determine the efficacy of capecitabine in combination with oxaliplatin in patients with inoperable gall bladder or biliary tract cancer. This was a Phase II, non-randomised, two-stage Simon design, multi-centre study. Ethics approval was sought and obtained by the North West MREC, and then locally by the West Glasgow Hospitals Research Ethics Committee. Eligible patients with inoperable locally advanced or metastatic adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder or biliary tract and with adequate performance status, haematologic, renal, and hepatic function were treated with capecitabine (1000 mg/m(2) po, twice daily, days 1-14) and oxaliplatin (130 mg/m(2) i.v., day 1) every 3 weeks for up to six cycles. The primary objective of the study was to determine the objective tumour response rates (complete and partial). The secondary objectives included assessment of toxicity, progression-free survival, and overall survival. Forty-three patients were recruited between July 2003 and December 2005. The regimen was well tolerated with no grade 3/4 neutropenia or thrombocytopenia. Grade 3/4 sensory neuropathy was observed in six patients. Two-thirds of patients received their chemotherapy without any dose delays. Overall response rate was 23.8% (95% CI 12.05-39.5%). Stable disease was observed in a further 13 patients (31%) and progressive disease observed in 12 (28.6%) of patients. The median progression-free survival was 4.6 months (95% CI 2.8-6.4 months; Fig. 1) and the median overall survival 7.9 months (95% CI 5.3-10.4 months; Fig. 2). Fig. 1 Progression-free survival Fig. 2 Overall survival Capecitabine combined with oxaliplatin has a lower disease control and shorter overall survival than the combination of cisplatin with gemcitabine which has subsequently become the standard of care in this disease

  16. SU-E-T-625: Potential for Reduced Radiation Induced Toxicity for the Treatment of Inoperable Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Using RapidArc Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Pokhrel, D; Sood, S; Badkul, R; Jiang, H; Saleh, H; Wang, F

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using RapidArc (RA) treatment planning to reduce irradiation volume of normal lung and other organs at risk (OARs) in the treatment of inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods: A retrospective treatment planning and delivery study was performed to compare target coverage and the volumes of the normal lung, spinal cord, heart and esophagus on 4D-CT scan above their dose tolerances delivered by RA vs. IMRT for ten inoperable NSCLC patients (Stage I-IIIB). RA plans consisted of either one-full or two-partial co-planar arcs used to treat 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) with 6MV beam to a prescription of 66Gy in 33 fractions. IMRT plans were generated using 5–7 co-planar fields with 6MV beam. PTV coverage, dose-volume histograms, homogeneity/conformity indices (CI), total number of monitor units(MUs), beam-on time and delivery accuracy were compared between the two treatment plans. Results: Similar target coverage was obtained between the two techniques. RA (CI=1.02) provided more conformal plans without loss of homogeneity compared to IMRT plans (CI=1.12). Compared to IMRT, RA achieved a significant median dose reduction in V10 (3%), V20 (8%), and mean lung dose (3%) on average, respectively. On average, V5 was comparable between the two treatment plans. RA reduced mean esophagus (6%), mean heart (18%), and maximum spinal cord dose (7%), on average, respectively. Total number of MUs and beam-on time were each reduced almost by a factor of 2 when compared to IMRT-patient comfort, reduced intra-fraction-motion and leakage dose. The average IMRT and RA QA pass rate was about 98% for both types of plans for 3%/3mm criterion. Conclusion: Compared to IMRT plans, RA provided not only comparable target coverage, but also improved conformity, treatment time, and significant reduction in irradiation of OARs. This may potentially allow for target dose escalation without increase in normal tissue toxicity.

  17. A multiple-input multiple-output system for modeling the cardiac dynamics.

    PubMed

    Monzon, Jorge E; Picaza, Carlos Alvarez; Pisarello, Maria I

    2011-01-01

    We describe the dynamics of the cardiovascular system by finding the input-output relationships in the state space of a functional cardiac model, based on state equations and observability criteria of control theory. The unit step response of the multiple-input multiple-output system model illustrates the damping effect of the arterial wall to the pulsatility of the heart. Our results show that hypertensive patients exhibit a lower inertia of the blood flow.

  18. A novel approach to the modelling and control of flexible robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Xuru; Tarn, Tzyh-Jong; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1988-01-01

    A general dynamic model of a two-link Euler-Bernoulli beam flexible robot arm is presented in the form of partial-differential-integral equations. Observations are made on important properties of the dynamic model. The resulting infinite-dimensional system is then input-output decoupled and partially linearized by a diffeomorphic state transformation and nonlinear state feedback. The local stability issue is addressed for a one-link flexible robot arm.

  19. Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model: Offshore Wind User Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Goldberg, M.; Keyser, D.

    2013-06-01

    The Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) model, developed by NREL and MRG & Associates, is a spreadsheet based input-output tool. JEDI is meant to be a user friendly and transparent tool to estimate potential economic impacts supported by the development and operation of offshore wind projects. This guide describes how to use the model as well as technical information such as methodology, limitations, and data sources.

  20. A novel approach to the modelling and control of flexible robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Xuru; Tarn, Tzyh-Jong; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1988-01-01

    A general dynamic model of a two-link Euler-Bernoulli beam flexible robot arm is presented in the form of partial-differential-integral equations. Observations are made on important properties of the dynamic model. The resulting infinite-dimensional system is then input-output decoupled and partially linearized by a diffeomorphic state transformation and nonlinear state feedback. The local stability issue is addressed for a one-link flexible robot arm.

  1. Theoretic aspects of the identification of the parameters in the optimal control model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanwijk, R. A.; Kok, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    The identification of the parameters of the optimal control model from input-output data of the human operator is considered. Accepting the basic structure of the model as a cascade of a full-order observer and a feedback law, and suppressing the inherent optimality of the human controller, the parameters to be identified are the feedback matrix, the observer gain matrix, and the intensity matrices of the observation noise and the motor noise. The identification of the parameters is a statistical problem, because the system and output are corrupted by noise, and therefore the solution must be based on the statistics (probability density function) of the input and output data of the human operator. However, based on the statistics of the input-output data of the human operator, no distinction can be made between the observation and the motor noise, which shows that the model suffers from overparameterization.

  2. High-dose radiotherapy in inoperable nonsmall cell lung cancer: Comparison of volumetric modulated arc therapy, dynamic IMRT and 3D conformal radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bree, Ingrid de; Hinsberg, Marieelle G.E. van; Veelen, Lieneke R. van

    2012-01-01

    Conformal 3D radiotherapy (3D-CRT) combined with chemotherapy for inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to the preferable high dose is often not achievable because of dose-limiting organs. This reduces the probability of regional tumor control. Therefore, the surplus value of using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques, specifically volumetric modulated arc therapy (RapidArc [RA]) and dynamic IMRT (d-IMRT) has been investigated. RA and d-IMRT plans were compared with 3D-CRT treatment plans for 20 patients eligible for concurrent high-dose chemoradiotherapy, in whom a dose of 60 Gy was not achievable. Comparison of dose delivery in the target volume and organs at risk was carried out by evaluating 3D dose distributions and dose-volume histograms. Quality of the dose distribution was assessed using the inhomogeneity and conformity index. For most patients, a higher dose to the target volume can be delivered using RA or d-IMRT; in 15% of the patients a dose {>=}60 Gy was possible. Both IMRT techniques result in a better conformity of the dose (p < 0.001). There are no significant differences in homogeneity of dose in the target volume. IMRT techniques for NSCLC patients allow higher dose to the target volume, thus improving regional tumor control.

  3. Final results of a phase II trial for stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with inoperable liver metastases from colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Scorsetti, Marta; Comito, Tiziana; Tozzi, Angelo; Navarria, Pierina; Fogliata, Antonella; Clerici, Elena; Mancosu, Pietro; Reggiori, Giacomo; Rimassa, Lorenza; Torzilli, Guido; Tomatis, Stefano; Santoro, Armando; Cozzi, Luca

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in the treatment of colorectal liver metastases. Forty-two patients with inoperable colorectal liver metastases not amenable to radiofrequency ablation (RFA) were treated with SBRT for a total number of 52 lesions. All patients received a total dose of 75 Gy in 3 consecutive fractions. Mean size of the lesions was 3.5 cm (range 1.1-5.4). Toxicity was classified according to the Common Toxicity Criteria version 3.0. Median follow-up was 24 (range 4-47) months. The progression in field was observed in 5 lesions. Twenty-four months actuarial local control (LC) rate was 91 %. Median overall survival (OS) was 29.2 ± 3.7 months. Actuarial OS rate at 24 months was 65 %. Median progression-free survival was 12.0 ± 4.2 months; 24 months actuarial rate was 35 %. No patients experienced radiation-induced liver disease or grade ≥3 toxicity. SBRT represents a feasible alternative for the treatment of colorectal liver metastases not amenable to surgery or other ablative treatments in selected patients, showing optimal LC and promising survival rate.

  4. Structural identifiability analyses of candidate models for in vitro Pitavastatin hepatic uptake.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, Thomas R B; Chappell, Michael J; Yates, James W T; Evans, Neil D

    2014-05-01

    In this paper a review of the application of four different techniques (a version of the similarity transformation approach for autonomous uncontrolled systems, a non-differential input/output observable normal form approach, the characteristic set differential algebra and a recent algebraic input/output relationship approach) to determine the structural identifiability of certain in vitro nonlinear pharmacokinetic models is provided. The Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide (OATP) substrate, Pitavastatin, is used as a probe on freshly isolated animal and human hepatocytes. Candidate pharmacokinetic non-linear compartmental models have been derived to characterise the uptake process of Pitavastatin. As a prerequisite to parameter estimation, structural identifiability analyses are performed to establish that all unknown parameters can be identified from the experimental observations available.

  5. Main control computer security model of closed network systems protection against cyber attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymen, Bilal

    2014-06-01

    The model that brings the data input/output under control in closed network systems, that maintains the system securely, and that controls the flow of information through the Main Control Computer which also brings the network traffic under control against cyber-attacks. The network, which can be controlled single-handedly thanks to the system designed to enable the network users to make data entry into the system or to extract data from the system securely, intends to minimize the security gaps. Moreover, data input/output record can be kept by means of the user account assigned for each user, and it is also possible to carry out retroactive tracking, if requested. Because the measures that need to be taken for each computer on the network regarding cyber security, do require high cost; it has been intended to provide a cost-effective working environment with this model, only if the Main Control Computer has the updated hardware.

  6. The Battlefield Environment Division Modeling Framework (BMF). Part 2. Serial and Parallel Output Enhancements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The treatment of input/output ( IO ) is critically important in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for scalable...use of object-oriented program (OOP) design. Here we extend BMF to include IO functionality for serial and distributed compute configurations. The...Atmospheric Boundary Layer Environment (ABLE) model has been built using BMF, and ABLE now uses the IO enhancements to BMF to enable serial and

  7. SCI Identification (SCIDNT) program user's guide. [maximum likelihood method for linear rotorcraft models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The computer program Linear SCIDNT which evaluates rotorcraft stability and control coefficients from flight or wind tunnel test data is described. It implements the maximum likelihood method to maximize the likelihood function of the parameters based on measured input/output time histories. Linear SCIDNT may be applied to systems modeled by linear constant-coefficient differential equations. This restriction in scope allows the application of several analytical results which simplify the computation and improve its efficiency over the general nonlinear case.

  8. Modeling the Combined Terrorist-Narcotics Trafficker Threat to National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    organization with extensive linkages to Hezbollah, FARC has more than 7,000 armed combatants operating out of the jungles on the borders with Ecuador and...is assembled, the system asks the user for information and data. Process Input Output Input Rate Output Rate Product Sample Model Figure A1.1. The...increase with time of the Process and Product parameters (Figure A1.4). The system permits user selection of Run Specifications that define the

  9. Model reduction of flexible manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Xu, Yangsheng; Chen, C. S.

    1992-06-01

    Flexible manipulators can be characterized by a dynamic model with a large number of vibration modes, and the use of the model in the model-based control schemes requires reduction of model order. Balanced truncation is an effective method for model reduction of asymptotically stable systems by transforming the states to a coordinate system in which the controllability and observability Gramians are equal and diagonal, and eliminating the states which contribute weakly to the input-output map. An elastic flexible manipulator, however, is a marginally stable system and thus the balanced truncation method can not be directly applied. Herein, a method is presented of reducing the order of a marginally stable system based on the fact that translation transformations in the frequency domain preserve input-output properties of the system. The successful application is addressed of the method to model reduction of flexible manipulators with infinite-dimensional for finite-dimensional model. The method is also applicable for any other marginally stable model, such as elastic space trusswork and multi-dimensional space vehicle structure.

  10. Comparison of efficacy and safety of three different chemotherapy regimens delivered with concomitant radiotherapy in inoperable stage III non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ozcelik, Melike; Korkmaz, Taner; Odabas, Hatice; Gemici, Cengiz; Ercelep, Ozlem; Yuksel, Sinemis; Mert, Aslihan Guven; Surmeli, Heves; Isik, Deniz; Aydin, Dincer; Seker, Mesut; Mayadagli, Alparslan; Ozdemir, Pınar; Aliustaoglu, Mehmet; Gumus, Mahmut

    2016-07-01

    Concomitant administration of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is currently recognized as the standard of treatment in locally advanced inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Our study aimed to compare the efficacy and toxicities of three different chemotherapy regimens delivered concurrently with radiotherapy. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of patients who received the PE (cisplatin, 50 mg/m(2), on days 1, 8, 29, and 36 plus etoposide, 50 mg/m(2), on days 1 to 5 and 29 to 33), PD (docetaxel, 20 mg/m(2), on day 1 plus cisplatin, 20 mg/m(2), on day 1, every week), and PC (carboplatin, AUC 2 plus paclitaxel, 45 mg/m(2), on day 1, every week) regimens concurrently with radiotherapy. A total of 227 patients were evaluated in the study. Median follow-up time was 13 months (2-101). There were 27 females (11.9 %) and 200 males (88.1 %) with a median age of 61 (38-82) years. The PD group had higher rates of esophagitis, mucositis, and anemia (p < 0.05). The PC group had higher rates of neuropathy (p = 0.000). The progression-free survival (PFS) time was 10 months for patients in the PC group, 15 months for patients in the PD group, and 21 months for the PE group (p = 0.010). Patients in the PC group had a median overall survival time of 23 months, those in the PD group 27 months, and those in the PE group 36 months (p = 0.098). Combination of cisplatin-etoposide with radiotherapy led to a more favorable outcome compared with the other two regimens. It shows generally manageable toxicity profile and compliance to treatment is noticeable.

  11. The VEGFR2, COX-2 and MMP-2 polymorphisms are associated with clinical outcome of patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Butkiewicz, Dorota; Krześniak, Małgorzata; Drosik, Anna; Giglok, Monika; Gdowicz-Kłosok, Agnieszka; Kosarewicz, Agata; Rusin, Marek; Masłyk, Barbara; Gawkowska-Suwińska, Marzena; Suwiński, Rafał

    2015-11-15

    Certain common inherited variations in genes involved in tumor angiogenesis, progression and metastasis may contribute to cancer therapy outcome and prognosis by altering the gene expression and protein activity. In this report, we examined the effect of functional polymorphisms in MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, VEGF, VEGFR2, FGFR4 and COX-2 genes on overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of 350 Caucasian patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The results of multivariate analysis indicated that VEGFR2 -906C and COX-2 -1195G alleles were strongly associated with poor OS and PFS (p = 0.002 and 0.015, respectively, for OS; p = 0.009 and 0.015, respectively, for PFS), while MMP-2 -1306 T allele carriers had significantly reduced PFS (p = 0.010). Moreover, an increased risk of death and progression was significantly associated with the number of adverse alleles for VEGFR2/COX-2 (p = 0.0005 for OS and 0.0006 for PFS in >1 adverse allele carriers) and VEGFR2/COX-2/MMP-2 combinations (p = 0.0003 for OS and 0.0001 for PFS in patients with >2 adverse alleles). Finally, VEGFR2 TC/CC, COX-2 AG/GG and MMP-2 CT/TT genotypes as well as "at risk" allele combinations were identified as independent predictors of unfavorable OS and PFS in the group. In conclusion, the data suggest that selected VEGFR2, COX-2 and MMP-2 polymorphisms may be potential prognostic markers in unresectable NSCLC treated with radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy, although further validation studies are warranted to confirm our observations.

  12. Distribution of lymph node metastases on FDG-PET/CT in inoperable or unresectable oesophageal cancer patients and the impact on target volume definition in radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Machiels, Melanie; Wouterse, Sanne J; Geijsen, Elisabeth D; van Os, Rob M; Bennink, Roel J; van Laarhoven, Hanneke Wm; Hulshof, Maarten Ccm

    2016-08-01

    Definitive chemoradiotherapy (dCRT) is standard care for localised inoperable/unresectable oesophageal tumours. Many surgical series have reported on distribution of lymph node metastases (LNM) in resected patients. However, no data is available on the distribution of at-risk LN regions in this more unfavourable patient group. This study aimed to determine the spread of LNM using FDG-PET/CT, to compare it with the distribution in surgical series and to define its impact on the definition of elective LN irradiation (ENI). FDG-PET/CT images of patients with oesophageal cancer treated with dCRT (from 2003 to 2013) were reviewed to identify the anatomic distribution of FDG-avid LNs. Tumours were divided according to proximal, mid-thoracic or distal localisation. About 105 consecutive patients entered analysis. The highest numbers of FDG-avid LNs in proximal tumours were at LN station 101R (45%) and 106recL (35%). For mid-thoracic tumours at 104R (30%) and 105 (30%). For tumours located in the distal oesophagus, the most common sites were along the lesser curvature of the stomach (21%) and the left gastric artery (21%). Except for the supraclavicular and pretracheal nodes, there were no positive locoregional LNM found outside the standard surgical resection area. Our results show a good correlation between the distribution of nodal volumes at risk in surgical series and on FDG-PET/CT. The results can be used to determine target definition in dCRT for oesophageal cancer. For mid-thoracic tumours, the current target delineation guidelines may be extended based on the risk of node involvement, but more clinical studies are needed to determine if the potential harm of expanding the CTV outweighs the potential benefit. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  13. Long-Term Clinical Outcome of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Inoperable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: The MD Anderson Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Zhiqin; Yang Kunyu; Komaki, Ritsuko; Wei Xiong; Tucker, Susan L.; Zhuang Yan; Martel, Mary K.; Vedam, Sastray; Balter, Peter; Zhu Guangying; Gomez, Daniel; Lu, Charles; Mohan, Radhe; Cox, James D.; Liao Zhongxing

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: In 2007, we published our initial experience in treating inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The current report is an update of that experience with long-term follow-up. Methods and Materials: Patients in this retrospective review were 165 patients who began definitive radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy, for newly diagnosed, pathologically confirmed NSCLC to a dose of {>=}60 Gy from 2005 to 2006. Early and late toxicities assessed included treatment-related pneumonitis (TRP), pulmonary fibrosis, esophagitis, and esophageal stricture, scored mainly according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 3.0. Other variables monitored were radiation-associated dermatitis and changes in body weight and Karnofsky performance status. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compute survival and freedom from radiation-related acute and late toxicities as a function of time. Results: Most patients (89%) had Stage III to IV disease. The median radiation dose was 66 Gy given in 33 fractions (range, 60-76 Gy, 1.8-2.3 Gy per fraction). Median overall survival time was 1.8 years; the 2-year and 3-year overall survival rates were 46% and 30%. Rates of Grade {>=}3 maximum TRP (TRP{sub max}) were 11% at 6 months and 14% at 12 months. At 18 months, 86% of patients had developed Grade {>=}1 maximum pulmonary fibrosis (pulmonary fibrosis{sub max}) and 7% Grade {>=}2 pulmonary fibrosis{sub max}. The median times to maximum esophagitis (esophagitis{sub max}) were 3 weeks (range, 1-13 weeks) for Grade 2 and 6 weeks (range, 3-13 weeks) for Grade 3. A higher percentage of patients who experienced Grade 3 esophagitis{sub max} later developed Grade 2 to 3 esophageal stricture. Conclusions: In our experience, using IMRT to treat NSCLC leads to low rates of pulmonary and esophageal toxicity, and favorable clinical outcomes in terms of survival.

  14. Parallel processor engine model program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, P.

    1984-01-01

    The Parallel Processor Engine Model Program is a generalized engineering tool intended to aid in the design of parallel processing real-time simulations of turbofan engines. It is written in the FORTRAN programming language and executes as a subset of the SOAPP simulation system. Input/output and execution control are provided by SOAPP; however, the analysis, emulation and simulation functions are completely self-contained. A framework in which a wide variety of parallel processing architectures could be evaluated and tools with which the parallel implementation of a real-time simulation technique could be assessed are provided.

  15. User's manual for a parameter identification technique. [with options for model simulation for fixed input forcing functions and identification from wind tunnel and flight measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanning, G.

    1975-01-01

    A digital computer program written in FORTRAN is presented that implements the system identification theory for deterministic systems using input-output measurements. The user supplies programs simulating the mathematical model of the physical plant whose parameters are to be identified. The user may choose any one of three options. The first option allows for a complete model simulation for fixed input forcing functions. The second option identifies up to 36 parameters of the model from wind tunnel or flight measurements. The third option performs a sensitivity analysis for up to 36 parameters. The use of each option is illustrated with an example using input-output measurements for a helicopter rotor tested in a wind tunnel.

  16. The IDA/BPT Crisis Relocation Planning Model: Description, Documentation and User’s Guide to the Computer Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-22

    CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Federal Emergency Management Agency December 22, 1982 Office of Research 13. NUMBER OF PAGES...18 2.0 User’s Guide to the Computer Program ..................... 20 2.1 Master Control Sequence ............................. 22 2.2 Input/Output... control during an evacuation. Users of the IDA/BPT model may choose among three options for controlling traffic during an evacuation. Normal Traffic

  17. Triple-tandem high-dose-rate brachytherapy for early-stage medically inoperable endometrial cancer: Initial report on acute toxicity and dosimetric comparison to stereotactic body radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Kauffmann, Greg; Wu, Tianming; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Hasan, Yasmin

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) may be appealing in medically inoperable endometrial cancer to avoid procedural risks. We performed a dosimetric comparison to triple-tandem, high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Six consecutive clinical stage I, grade 1-2, medically inoperable endometrial cancer patients were treated with triple-tandem HDR brachytherapy. We report patient factors and acute toxicity. Also, we performed dosimetric comparison to SBRT using both 3D conformal arc (3DArc) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy. D2cc values for normal tissues were calculated and compared to the HDR plans. Median age was 57 years. Patient comorbidities included morbid obesity, congestive heart failure, diabetes, and pulmonary emboli. In three patients who received prior external beam radiation (EBRT), median EBRT and HDR doses were 46 Gy and 20 Gy, respectively. The median dose with HDR brachytherapy monotherapy was 35 Gy. Acute toxicities during EBRT included gastrointestinal (3/3 with grade 1-2) and genitourinary (3/3 with grade 1-2). Acute toxicities during HDR brachytherapy were gastrointestinal (2/6 total with grade 1-2) and genitourinary (2/6 total with grade 1). The mean D2cc/Gy of prescription dose for rectum, sigmoid, and bladder were 0.58, 0.40, and 0.47 respectively. Overall, doses to normal tissues were higher for SBRT plans as compared to HDR. Also, the R50 (ratio of the 50% prescription isodose volume to the PTV) was lowest with HDR brachytherapy. In medically inoperable, clinical stage I endometrial cancer patients with multiple comorbidities, definitive triple-tandem, HDR brachytherapy results in mild acute toxicity. In addition, HDR brachytherapy achieves relatively lower doses to surrounding normal tissues as compared to SBRT. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nearly data-based optimal control for linear discrete model-free systems with delays via reinforcement learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jilie; Zhang, Huaguang; Wang, Binrui; Cai, Tiaoyang

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a nearly data-based optimal control scheme is proposed for linear discrete model-free systems with delays. The nearly optimal control can be obtained using only measured input/output data from systems, by reinforcement learning technology, which combines Q-learning with value iterative algorithm. First, we construct a state estimator by using the measured input/output data. Second, the quadratic functional is used to approximate the value function at each point in the state space, and the data-based control is designed by Q-learning method using the obtained state estimator. Then, the paper states the method, that is, how to solve the optimal inner kernel matrix ? in the least-square sense, by value iteration algorithm. Finally, the numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  19. Associative memory model with spontaneous neural activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurikawa, Tomoki; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2012-05-01

    We propose a novel associative memory model wherein the neural activity without an input (i.e., spontaneous activity) is modified by an input to generate a target response that is memorized for recall upon the same input. Suitable design of synaptic connections enables the model to memorize input/output (I/O) mappings equaling 70% of the total number of neurons, where the evoked activity distinguishes a target pattern from others. Spontaneous neural activity without an input shows chaotic dynamics but keeps some similarity with evoked activities, as reported in recent experimental studies.

  20. Recursive parameter estimation of hydrologic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaram, Harihar; Georgakakos, Konstantine P.

    1989-02-01

    Proposed is a nonlinear filtering approach to recursive parameter estimation of conceptual watershed response models in state-space form. The conceptual model state is augmented by the vector of free parameters which are to be estimated from input-output data, and the extended Kaiman filter is used to recursively estimate and predict the augmented state. The augmented model noise covariance is parameterized as the sum of two components: one due to errors in the augmented model input and another due to errors in the specification of augmented model constants that were estimated from other than input-output data (e.g., topographic and rating curve constants). These components depend on the sensitivity of the augmented model to input and uncertain constants. Such a novel parameterization allows for nonstationary model noise statistics that are consistent with the dynamics of watershed response as they are described by the conceptual watershed response model. Prior information regarding uncertainty in input and uncertain constants in the form of degree-of-belief estimates of hydrologists can be used directly within the proposed formulation. Even though model structure errors are not explicitly parameterized in the present formulation, such errors can be identified through the examination of the one-step ahead predicted normalized residuals and the parameter traces during convergence. The formulation is exemplified by the estimation of the parameters of a conceptual hydrologic model with data from the 2.1-km2 watershed of Woods Lake located in the Adirondack Mountains of New York.