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Sample records for inositol phospholipids precedes

  1. Dictyostelium uses ether-linked inositol phospholipids for intracellular signalling.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jonathan; Kay, Robert R; Kielkowska, Anna; Niewczas, Izabella; Fets, Louise; Oxley, David; Stephens, Len R; Hawkins, Phillip T

    2014-10-01

    Inositol phospholipids are critical regulators of membrane biology throughout eukaryotes. The general principle by which they perform these roles is conserved across species and involves binding of differentially phosphorylated inositol head groups to specific protein domains. This interaction serves to both recruit and regulate the activity of several different classes of protein which act on membrane surfaces. In mammalian cells, these phosphorylated inositol head groups are predominantly borne by a C38:4 diacylglycerol backbone. We show here that the inositol phospholipids of Dictyostelium are different, being highly enriched in an unusual C34:1e lipid backbone, 1-hexadecyl-2-(11Z-octadecenoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-myo-inositol), in which the sn-1 position contains an ether-linked C16:0 chain; they are thus plasmanylinositols. These plasmanylinositols respond acutely to stimulation of cells with chemoattractants, and their levels are regulated by PIPKs, PI3Ks and PTEN. In mammals and now in Dictyostelium, the hydrocarbon chains of inositol phospholipids are a highly selected subset of those available to other phospholipids, suggesting that different molecular selectors are at play in these organisms but serve a common, evolutionarily conserved purpose.

  2. Rabbit synoviocyte inositol phospholipid metabolism is stimulated by hydroxyapatite crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Rothenberg, R.J.; Cheung, H.

    1988-04-01

    Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 synthesis partially ameliorates some aspects of synovitis, but joint destruction still progresses. Other aspects of phospholipid metabolism may play a role in synovial tissue pathophysiology. Products of phosphatidylinositol metabolism can activate intracellular processes in response to extracellular stimuli. We asked whether this pathway is activated in synoviocytes in monolayer tissue culture by the addition of hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals in medium. These crystals are found in pathological human synovial fluid. These crystals are associated with the secretion of degradative enzymes and with a destructive arthritis in humans. Rabbit synoviocyte cultures, previously incubated with (3H)inositol to label inositol phospholipids, were stimulated with the addition of hydroxyapatite (180 micrograms/ml) to the cultures. There was enhanced intracellular accumulation of (3H)inositol monophosphate (30-100%) after 4 h. This indicated an increased phospholipase C activity. The radioactivity in (3H)inositol bis- and trisphosphates was too low to reliably measure. The use of (32P)Pi allowed detection of these compounds. In the presence of HA, incorporation of (32P)Pi into phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol monophosphate, and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate was increased. In addition, cultures exposed to (32P)Pi during stimulation with HA had an increased content of (32P)inositol monophosphate, bisphosphate, and trisphosphate.

  3. Structural analysis of inositol phospholipids from Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote forms.

    PubMed Central

    Bertello, L E; Gonçalvez, M F; Colli, W; de Lederkremer, R M

    1995-01-01

    Inositol phospholipids (IPL) from epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi have been investigated by metabolic labelling with [3H]palmitic acid and by GLC-MS analysis of the lipids obtained from non-labelled parasites. The IPL fraction was separated into phosphatidylinositol (PI) and inositol-phosphoceramide subfractions, the latter accounting for 80-85% of the total IPL. The neutral lipids released from the IPLs by PI-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) from Bacillus thuringiensis were analysed by silica-gel and reverse-phase TLC for the radioactive lipids and by GLC-MS for the non-radioactive samples. Ceramides containing dihydrosphingosine and sphingosine with C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids were identified. The main component in the [3H]palmitic acid-labelled ceramides was palmitoyldihydrospingosine, while in the non-labelled sample the ceramides contained mainly sphingosine. This could reflect partial uptake of phospholipid from the medium. The PI contain both alkylacyl- and diacyl-glycerol lipids, with the ether lipid being more abundant. The latter was identified as 1-O-hexadecylglycerol esterified by C18:2 and C18:1 fatty acids. Interestingly, the same lipid had been identified in the anchor of the 1G7 glycoprotein of T. cruzi metacyclic forms. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:7646454

  4. Metabolism of the phospholipid precursor inositol and its relationship to growth and viability in the natural auxotroph Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, S; Homann, M J; Henry, S A; Carman, G M

    1986-01-01

    Phospholipid metabolism in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe was examined. Three enzymes of phospholipid biosynthesis, cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol synthase (CDP-DG), phosphatidylinositol (PI) synthase, and phosphatidylserine (PS) synthase, were characterized in extracts of S. pombe cells. Contrary to an earlier report, we were able to demonstrate that CDP-DG served as a precursor for PI and PS biosynthesis in S. pombe. S. pombe is naturally auxotrophic for the phospholipid precursor inositol. We found that S. pombe was much more resistant to loss of viability during inositol starvation than artificially generated inositol auxotrophs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The phospholipid composition of S. pombe cells grown in inositol-rich medium (50 microM) was similar to that of S. cerevisiae cells grown under similar conditions. However, growth of S. pombe at low inositol concentrations (below 30 microM) affected the ratio of the anionic phospholipids PI and PS, while the relative proportions of other glycerophospholipids remained unchanged. During inositol starvation, the rate of PI synthesis decreased rapidly, and there was a concomitant increase in the rate of PS synthesis. Phosphatidic acid and CDP-DG, which are precursors to these phospholipids, also increased when PI synthesis was blocked by lack of exogenous inositol. The major product of turnover of inositol-containing phospholipids in S. pombe was found to be free inositol, which accumulated in the medium and could be reused by the cell. Images PMID:3011744

  5. Phospholipid biosynthesis in Candida albicans: Regulation by the precursors inositol and choline

    SciTech Connect

    Klig, L.S.; Friedli, L.; Schmid, E. )

    1990-08-01

    Phospholipid metabolism in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans was examined. The phospholipid biosynthetic pathways of C. albicans were elucidated and were shown to be similar to those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, marked differences were seen between these two fungi in the regulation of the pathways in response to exogenously provided precursors inositol and choline. In S. cerevisiae, the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine via methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine appears to be regulated in response to inositol and choline; provision of choline alone does not repress the activity of this pathway. The same pathway in C. albicans responds to the exogenous provision of choline. Possible explanations for the observed differences in regulation are discussed.

  6. Expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae inositol-1-phosphate synthase (INO1) gene is regulated by factors that affect phospholipid synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, J P; Henry, S A

    1986-01-01

    The INO1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes the regulated enzyme inositol-1-phosphate synthase, which catalyzes the first committed step in the synthesis of inositol-containing phospholipids. The expression of this gene was analyzed under conditions known to regulate phospholipid synthesis. RNA blot hybridization with a genomic clone for INO1 detected two RNA species of 1.8 and 0.6 kb. The abundance of the 1.8-kb RNA was greatly decreased when the cells were grown in the presence of the phospholipid precursor inositol, as was the enzyme activity of the synthase. Complementation analysis showed that this transcript encoded the INO1 gene product. The level of INO1 RNA was repressed 12-fold when the cells were grown in medium containing inositol, and it was repressed 33-fold when the cells were grown in the presence of inositol and choline together. The INO1 transcript was present at a very low level in cells containing mutations (ino2 and ino4) in regulatory genes unlinked to INO1 that result in inositol auxotrophy. The transcript was constitutively overproduced in cells containing a mutation (opi1) that causes constitutive expression of inositol-1-phosphate synthase and results in excretion of inositol. The expression of INO1 RNA was also examined in cells containing a mutation (cho2) affecting the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine. In contrast to what was observed in wild-type cells, growth of cho2 cells in medium containing inositol did not result in a significant decrease in INO1 RNA abundance. Inositol and choline together were required for repression of the INO1 transcript in these cells, providing evidence for a regulatory link between the synthesis of inositol- and choline-containing lipids. The level of the 0.6-kb RNA was affected, although to a lesser degree, by many of the same factors that influence INO1 expression. Images PMID:3025587

  7. Comparison of muscarine- and vasopressin-stimulated inositol phospholipid metabolism in the superior cervical ganglion of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, J.; Anderson, C.; Perlman, R.L.

    1986-03-05

    Both muscarine and vasopressin have previously been shown to increase the accumulation of /sup 3/H-inositol phosphates (/sup 3/H-IP) in superior cervical ganglia in which the phospholipids were labeled with /sup 3/H-inositol. They have compared the effects of muscarine and vasopressin on phospholipid metabolism in the ganglion. The effects of these agents on /sup 3/H-IP accumulation are additive. The response to muscarine plateaus after approximately 10 min whereas the response to vasopressin increases for at least 30 min. Decentralization and maintenance in organ culture appear to potentiate the effect of muscarine on /sup 3/H-IP accumulation but do not effect the response of the ganglia to vasopressin. Muscarine and vasopressin also increase the incorporation of /sup 3/H-inositol into phospholipids in the ganglion. Autoradiographic techniques were used to localize the inositol-containing phospholipids in the ganglion. Muscarine increases phospholipid labeling primarily in the cell bodies of the principal ganglionic neurons, whereas vasopressin increases phospholipid labeling primarily in the neuropil. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that muscarine and vasopressin stimulate the metabolism of different pools of phospholipids.

  8. [Activity of the inositol-containing phospholipid dimer analogues against human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    Baranova, E O; Shastina, N S; Lobach, O A; Chataeva, M S; Nosik, D N; Shvets, V I

    2014-01-01

    For the purpose of finding effective inhibitors of virus adsorption the series of inositol-containing phospholipid dimer analogues were previously synthesized. In the present work, the antiretroviral activity of these compounds against HIV-1 was demonstrated on the model of cells infected with the virus. The highest effect was found in the case of dimer poliol 5, EC50 (50%-effective concentration) was 3.9 microg/ml. The development of new polyanionic compounds, which can interfere with early steps of the virus life cycle, is a promising addition to the antiretroviral therapy based on the virus enzyme inhibitors.

  9. Studies on the biochemistry and physiology of inositol phospholipids in Dunaliella salina

    SciTech Connect

    Einspahr, K.J.

    1988-01-01

    In the unicellular alga, Dunaliella salina, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP), and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP{sub 2}) comprise 14.8, 1.2, and 0.3 mol %, respectively, of cellular phospholipids. In isolated plasma membrane fractions, PIP and PIP{sub 2} are highly concentrated, together comprising 9.5 mol % of plasmalemma phospholipids. The metabolism of these inositol phospholipids and phosphatidic acid (PA) is very rapid under normal growth conditions, as illustrated by the fact that within 5 minutes after introduction of {sup 32}P{sub i} into the growth medium over 75% of lipid-bound label was found in these quantitatively minor phospholipids. Within 2 minutes after a sudden hypoosmotic shock, the levels of PIP{sub 2} and PIP dropped to 65 and 79%, respectively, of controls. Within the same time frame PA rose to 141% of control values. These data suggest that a rapid breakdown of the polyphosphoinositides may mediate the profound morphological and physiological changes which allow this organism to survive drastic hypoosmotic stress.

  10. Cyclic AMP restores a normal phenotype to sis oncogene transformed cells and inhibits inositol phospholipid turnover

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, S.K.; Lazarus, A.; Pendergas, M.; Lockwood, A.H.

    1987-05-01

    The sis oncogene encodes the A chain of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). NIH3T3 fibroblasts transfected with the cloned sis oncogene display a malignant phenotype and have enhanced turnover of the regulatory phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5 biphosphate (PIP2). They have found that elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP can restore many aspects of normal growth and morphology to sis-transformed cells. Cells rapidly become less refractile, flatten on the substratum, develop actomyosin bundles, and acquire a more tranquil membrane. Growth rate and saturation density are reduced. Cultures become contact-inhibited and, at confluence, assume a normal fibrobastic morphology. The ability to grow in low serum or suspension is lost. Following addition of 8-Br-cAMP, cellular levels of PIP and PIP2 increase to those in untransformed cells. Concurrently, the steady-state levels of inositol phosphates are reduced to normal values. They have found a similar effect of cAMP on inositol phospholipid metabolism in cells transformed by the human H-ras oncogene. These results suggest that cAMP, acting through the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, antagonizes ras and sis oncogene expression by inhibiting polyphosphoinositide turnover. Such action might occur by phosphorylation of the PDGF (sis) receptor or of a ras-stimulated phospholipase C.

  11. Ethanol stimulates phospholipid turnover and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production in Chlamydomonas eugametos gametes.

    PubMed

    Musgrave, A; Kuin, H; Jongen, M; de Wildt, P; Schuring, F; Klerk, H; van den Ende, H

    1992-02-01

    Alcohols induce mating-structure activation in Chlamydomonas eugametos gametes. From the effect of ethanol on the (32)P-labelling of polyphosphoinositides, we conclude that the synthesis of these lipids is stimulated. Biologically inactive concentrations of ethanol (<6%) had no effect on synthesis, but 6-8% ethanol stimulated synthesis for upto 60 min. The (32)P incorporated into polyphosphoinositides and phosphatidic acid during ethanol treatment was readily chased out when 1 mM unlabelled Na3PO4 was added. Using a binding assay for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, we show that the production of this phospholipid constituent is dramatically increased after ethanol treatment. This effect, coupled to a rise in intracellular calcium concentration, could explain gamete activation. The significance of these results in explaining other ethanol-induced phenomena in algae is discussed.

  12. Transient and sustained increases in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate precede the differential growth response in gravistimulated maize pulvini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perera, I. Y.; Heilmann, I.; Boss, W. F.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The internodal maize pulvinus responds to gravistimulation with differential cell elongation on the lower side. As the site of both graviperception and response, the pulvinus is an ideal system to study how organisms sense changes in orientation. We observed a transient 5-fold increase in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) within 10 s of gravistimulation in the lower half of the pulvinus, indicating that the positional change was sensed immediately. Over the first 30 min, rapid IP3 fluctuations were observed between the upper and lower halves. Maize plants require a presentation time of between 2 and 4 h before the cells on the lower side of the pulvinus are committed to elongation. After 2 h of gravistimulation, the lower half consistently had higher IP3, and IP3 levels on the lower side continued to increase up to approximately 5-fold over basal levels before visible growth. As bending became visible after 8-10 h, IP3 levels returned to basal values. Additionally, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase activity in the lower pulvinus half increased transiently within 10 min of gravistimulation, suggesting that the increased IP3 production was accompanied by an up-regulation of phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate biosynthesis. Neither IP3 levels nor phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase activity changed in pulvini halves from vertical control plants. Our data indicate the involvement of IP3 and inositol phospholipids in both short- and long-term responses to gravistimulation. As a diffusible second messenger, IP3 provides a mechanism to transmit and amplify the signal from the perceiving to the responding cells in the pulvinus, coordinating a synchronized growth response.

  13. Myo-inositol changes precede amyloid pathology and relate to APOE genotype in Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Sundgren, Pia C.; Strandberg, Olof; Zetterberg, Henrik; Minthon, Lennart; Blennow, Kaj; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Westman, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to test whether in vivo levels of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) metabolites myo-inositol (mI), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), and choline are abnormal already during preclinical Alzheimer disease (AD), relating these changes to amyloid or tau pathology, and functional connectivity. Methods: In this cross-sectional multicenter study (a subset of the prospective Swedish BioFINDER study), we included 4 groups, representing the different stages of predementia AD: (1) cognitively healthy elderly with normal CSF β-amyloid 42 (Aβ42), (2) cognitively healthy elderly with abnormal CSF Aβ42, (3) patients with subjective cognitive decline and abnormal CSF Aβ42, (4) patients with mild cognitive decline and abnormal CSF Aβ42 (Ntotal = 352). Spectroscopic markers measured in the posterior cingulate/precuneus were considered alongside known disease biomarkers: CSF Aβ42, phosphorylated tau, total tau, [18F]-flutemetamol PET, f-MRI, and the genetic risk factor APOE. Results: Amyloid-positive cognitively healthy participants showed a significant increase in mI/creatine and mI/NAA levels compared to amyloid-negative healthy elderly (p < 0.05). In amyloid-positive healthy elderly, mI/creatine and mI/NAA correlated with cortical retention of [18F] flutemetamol tracer ( = 0.44, p = 0.02 and = 0.51, p = 0.01, respectively). Healthy elderly APOE ε4 carriers with normal CSF Aβ42 levels had significantly higher mI/creatine levels (p < 0.001) than ε4 noncarriers. Finally, elevated mI/creatine was associated with decreased functional connectivity within the default mode network (rpearson = −0.16, p = 0.02), independently of amyloid pathology. Conclusions: mI levels are elevated already at asymptomatic stages of AD. Moreover, mI/creatine concentrations were increased in healthy APOE ε4 carriers with normal CSF Aβ42 levels, suggesting that mI levels may reveal regional brain consequences of APOE ε4 before detectable amyloid pathology. PMID:27164711

  14. Endogenous TRPV1 stimulation leads to the activation of the inositol phospholipid pathway necessary for sustained Ca(2+) oscillations.

    PubMed

    Pecze, László; Blum, Walter; Henzi, Thomas; Schwaller, Beat

    2016-12-01

    Sensory neuron subpopulations as well as breast and prostate cancer cells express functional transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) ion channels; however little is known how TRPV1 activation leads to biological responses. Agonist-induced activation of TRPV1 resulted in specific spatiotemporal patterns of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) signals in breast and prostate cancer-derived cells. Capsaicin (CAPS; 50μM) evoked intracellular Ca(2+) oscillations and/or intercellular Ca(2+) waves in all cell lines. As evidenced in prostate cancer Du 145 cells, oscillations were largely dependent on the expression of functional TRPV1 channels in the plasma membrane, phospholipase C activation and on the presence of extracellular Ca(2+) ions. Concomitant oscillations of the mitochondrial matrix Ca(2+) concentration resulted in mitochondria energization evidenced by increased ATP production. CAPS-induced Ca(2+) oscillations also occurred in a subset of sensory neurons, yet already at lower CAPS concentrations (1μM). Stimulation of ectopically expressed TRPV1 channels in CAPS-insensitive NIH-3T3 cells didn't provoke CAPS-triggered Ca(2+) oscillations; rather it resulted in low-magnitude, long-lasting elevations of the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. This indicates that sole TRPV1 activation is not sufficient to generate Ca(2+) oscillations. Instead the initial TRPV1-mediated signal leads to the activation of the inositol phospholipid pathway. This in turn suffices to generate a biologically relevant frequency-modulated Ca(2+) signal.

  15. Coupling of inositol phospholipid hydrolysis to peptide hormone receptors expressed from adrenal and pituitary mRNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, R.P.; Catt, K.J.

    1987-12-01

    The expression of several neurotransmitter and drug receptors from injected exogenous mRNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes has been demonstrated by electrophysiological measurements of ion channel activation. The expression of specific receptors for peptide hormones in such a translation system would facilitate studies on the structure and regulation of cell-surface receptors as well as their coupling to membrane transduction mechanisms. The expression of receptors for calcium-mobilizing hormones in Xenopus oocytes was sought by analysis of phospholipid turnover in hormone-stimulated oocytes. For this purpose, Xenopus oocytes were injected with mRNA extracted from bovine adrenal and pituitary glands and incubated with myo-(/sup 3/H)inositol to label plasma-membrane phosphatidylinositol phosphates. The expression of functionally active receptors for angiotensin II (AII) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) was demonstrated by the stimulation of (/sup 3/H)inositol phosphate production by AII and TRH in the mRNA-injected, (/sup 3/H)inositol-prelabeled oocytes. The ability of AII and TRH to act by way of newly synthesized receptors from mammalian endocrine tissues to stimulate phosphatidylinositol polyphosphate hydrolysis in Xenopus oocytes suggests a generalized and conserved mechanism of receptor coupling to the transduction mechanism responsible for activation of phospholipase C in the plasma membrane.

  16. Influence of cyclic nucleotides (cAMP) on inositol phospholipid (InsPL) metabolism in cultured mesangial (MS) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Troyer, D.A.; Venkatachalam, M.A.; Bonventre, J.V.; Kreisberg, J.I.

    1986-03-01

    Elevation of cAMP inhibits hormone-induced contraction of MS cells, and in other cell types, reduces stimulated InsPL metabolism. The authors found that neither isobutylmethylxanthine (MIX, 0.5 mM), which increases MS cell cAMP levels 4-fold, nor forskolin (100 ..mu..M) altered vasopressin (VP, 10 nM) induced release of /sup 3/H-inositol trisphosphate from prelabelled MS cells. Also, maneuvers which elevated cAMP did not block the VP-induced rise of intracellular calcium as measured by quin-2. Further, neither MIX nor isoproterenol affected the stimulation of glycolysis by VP as measured by lactic acid production. MIX diminished VP stimulated /sup 32/P orthophosphate (/sup 32/P) incorporation into phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol. The /sup 32/P content in phosphoinositides of cells treated with MIX and VP was 65% of that in cells treated with VP only. However, the authors found that the specific activity of /sup 32/P in ATP in the presence of MIX + VP was 74% of that with VP alone. Thus, the apparent suppression of /sup 32/P incorporation due to MIX was attributable to a concurrent diminution of the specific activity of /sup 32/P in ATP. The authors conclude that increases of cAMP interfere with contraction distal to PIP/sub 2/ hydrolysis, inositol phosphate release, calcium mobilization, and enhancement of glycolysis.

  17. Changes in Band 3 oligomeric state precede cell membrane phospholipid loss during blood bank storage of red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Karon, Brad S.; Hoyer, James D.; Stubbs, James R.; Thomas, David D.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lipid loss in the form of vesicles contributes to the red blood cell (RBC) storage lesion, and this loss of lipid is correlated with changes in membrane protein function. Sensitive spectroscopic techniques were used to measure changes in Band 3 oligomeric state during storage of RBCs, compared to metabolic changes and phospholipid loss. The aim of the study was to determine whether changes in the macromolecular organization of membrane proteins occur before, coincident with, or after lipid loss during RBC storage. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Five RBC units were collected from normal volunteers and stored under standard blood bank conditions, and both metabolic changes and lipid loss were measured by multiple assays. Band 3 oligomeric state was assessed by time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer of eosin-5-maleimide–labeled RBC ghosts. RESULTS Extracellular pH decreased and extracellular potassium increased rapidly during cold storage of blood. Band 3 on the RBC membrane exhibited a shift from small to large oligomers early in the storage period and before detectable loss of phospholipid from the RBC membrane. The immobilized fraction of Band 3, that which is tethered to the cytoskeletal network via spectrin and ankyrin, did not change during cold storage. CONCLUSION Our results demonstrate that changes in the macromolecular organization of membrane proteins on the RBC occur early in storage, and these changes may induce phospholipid loss, irreversible morphologic changes, and loss of function during RBC storage. PMID:19389033

  18. Antagonism by 8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino)tetraline and other serotonin agonists of muscarinic M1-type receptors coupled to inositol phospholipid breakdown in human IMR-32 and SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, C.J. Karolinska Institutet ); Ahlgren, P.C. ); O'Neill, C. )

    1991-01-01

    IMR-32 and SK-N-MC cells were found to contain ({sup 3}H)quinuclidinyl benzilate specific binding sites inhibited by pirenzepine in a manner suggesting the presence of both M1-type and M2-type muscarinic receptor recognition sites. Neither cell had detectable ({sup 3}H)8-OH-DPAT binding sites. Carbachol stimulated the rate of inositol phospholipid breakdown in IMR-32 and SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cells with an EC{sub 50} value of about 50 {mu}M in both cases. Pirenzepine inhibited the carbachol stimulated inositol phospholipid breakdown in both cells with Hill slopes of unity and IC{sub 50} values of 15 nM (IMR-32) and 12 nM (SK-N-MC). The 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT competitively inhibited carbachol-stimulated inositol phospholipid breakdown with pA{sub 2} values of 5.78 (IMR-32) and 5.61 (SK-N-MC). The 5-HT agonists 5-MeODMT and buspirone at micromolar concentrations inhibited carbachol-stimulated breakdown in IMR-32 cells. The inhibition by 8-OH-DPAT and 5-MeODMT was not affected by preincubation with (-)alprenolol. 5-HT was without effect on either basal or carbachol-stimulated breakdown. It is concluded that IMR-32 and SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells express muscarinic M1-type but not serotoninergic receptors coupled to phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C. 8-OH-DPAT acts as a weak antagonist at these muscarinic receptors.

  19. Regulatory Mutations of Inositol Biosynthesis in Yeast: Isolation of Inositol-Excreting Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Miriam L.; Reiner, Barry; Henry, Susan A.

    1982-01-01

    The enzyme inositol-1-phosphate synthase (I-1-P synthase), product of the INO1 locus, catalyzes the synthesis of inositol-1-phosphate from the substrate glucose-6-phosphate. The activity of this enzyme is dramatically repressed in the presence of inositol. By selecting for mutants which overproduce and excrete inositol, we have identified mutants constitutive for inositol-1-phosphate synthase as well as a mutation in phospholipid biosynthesis. Genetic analysis of the mutants indicates that at least three loci (designated OPI1, OPI2 and OPI4) direct inositol-mediated repression of I-1-P synthase. Mutants of these loci synthesize I-1-P synthase constitutively. Three loci are unlinked to each other and to INO1, the structural gene for the enzyme. A mutant of a fourth locus, OPI3, does not synthesize I-1-P synthase constitutively, despite its inositol excretion phenotype. This mutant is preliminarily identified as having a defect in phospholipid synthesis. PMID:7047296

  20. Cell signalling and phospholipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    These studies explored whether phosphoinositide (PI) has a role in plants analogous to its role in animal cells. Although no parallel activity of PI in signal transduction was found in plant cells, activity of inositol phospholipid kinase was found to be modulated by light and by cell wall degrading enzymes. These studies indicate a major role for inositol phospholipids in plant growth and development as membrane effectors but not as a source of second messengers.

  1. Inositol phospholipids regulate the guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor Tiam1 by facilitating its binding to the plasma membrane and regulating GDP/GTP exchange on Rac1

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Binding of the Rac1-specific guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor, Tiam1, to the plasma membrane requires the N-terminal pleckstrin homology domain. In the present study, we show that membrane-association is mediated by binding of PtdIns(4,5)P2 to the pleckstrin homology domain. Moreover, in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells, translocation of Tiam1 to the cytosol, following receptor-mediated stimulation of PtdIns(4,5)P2 breakdown, correlates with decreased Rac1-GTP levels, indicating that membrane-association is required for GDP/GTP exchange on Rac1. In addition, we show that platelet-derived growth factor activates Rac1 in vivo by increasing PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 concentrations, rather than the closely related lipid, PtdIns(3,4)P2. Finally, the data demonstrate that PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 bind to the same pleckstrin homology domain in Tiam1 and that soluble inositol phosphates appear to compete with lipids for this binding. Together, these novel observations provide strong evidence that distinct phosphoinositides regulate different functions of this enzyme, indicating that local concentrations of signalling lipids and the levels of cytosolic inositol phosphates will play crucial roles in determining its activity in vivo. PMID:15242348

  2. Inositol phospholipids regulate the guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor Tiam1 by facilitating its binding to the plasma membrane and regulating GDP/GTP exchange on Rac1.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Ian N; Batty, Ian H; Prescott, Alan R; Gray, Alex; Kular, Gursant S; Stewart, Hazel; Downes, C Peter

    2004-09-15

    Binding of the Rac1-specific guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor, Tiam1, to the plasma membrane requires the N-terminal pleckstrin homology domain. In the present study, we show that membrane-association is mediated by binding of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) to the pleckstrin homology domain. Moreover, in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells, translocation of Tiam1 to the cytosol, following receptor-mediated stimulation of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) breakdown, correlates with decreased Rac1-GTP levels, indicating that membrane-association is required for GDP/GTP exchange on Rac1. In addition, we show that platelet-derived growth factor activates Rac1 in vivo by increasing PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) concentrations, rather than the closely related lipid, PtdIns(3,4)P(2). Finally, the data demonstrate that PtdIns(4,5)P(2) and PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) bind to the same pleckstrin homology domain in Tiam1 and that soluble inositol phosphates appear to compete with lipids for this binding. Together, these novel observations provide strong evidence that distinct phosphoinositides regulate different functions of this enzyme, indicating that local concentrations of signalling lipids and the levels of cytosolic inositol phosphates will play crucial roles in determining its activity in vivo.

  3. Cell signalling and phospholipid metabolism. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, W.F.

    1990-12-31

    These studies explored whether phosphoinositide (PI) has a role in plants analogous to its role in animal cells. Although no parallel activity of PI in signal transduction was found in plant cells, activity of inositol phospholipid kinase was found to be modulated by light and by cell wall degrading enzymes. These studies indicate a major role for inositol phospholipids in plant growth and development as membrane effectors but not as a source of second messengers.

  4. Phosphate, inositol and polyphosphates.

    PubMed

    Livermore, Thomas M; Azevedo, Cristina; Kolozsvari, Bernadett; Wilson, Miranda S C; Saiardi, Adolfo

    2016-02-01

    Eukaryotic cells have ubiquitously utilized the myo-inositol backbone to generate a diverse array of signalling molecules. This is achieved by arranging phosphate groups around the six-carbon inositol ring. There is virtually no biological process that does not take advantage of the uniquely variable architecture of phosphorylated inositol. In inositol biology, phosphates are able to form three distinct covalent bonds: phosphoester, phosphodiester and phosphoanhydride bonds, with each providing different properties. The phosphoester bond links phosphate groups to the inositol ring, the variable arrangement of which forms the basis of the signalling capacity of the inositol phosphates. Phosphate groups can also form the structural bridge between myo-inositol and diacylglycerol through the phosphodiester bond. The resulting lipid-bound inositol phosphates, or phosphoinositides, further expand the signalling potential of this family of molecules. Finally, inositol is also notable for its ability to host more phosphates than it has carbons. These unusual organic molecules are commonly referred to as the inositol pyrophosphates (PP-IPs), due to the presence of high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds (pyro- or diphospho-). PP-IPs themselves constitute a varied family of molecules with one or more pyrophosphate moiety/ies located around the inositol. Considering the relationship between phosphate and inositol, it is no surprise that members of the inositol phosphate family also regulate cellular phosphate homoeostasis. Notably, the PP-IPs play a fundamental role in controlling the metabolism of the ancient polymeric form of phosphate, inorganic polyphosphate (polyP). Here we explore the intimate links between phosphate, inositol phosphates and polyP, speculating on the evolution of these relationships.

  5. The response to inositol: regulation of glycerolipid metabolism and stress response signaling in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Susan A.; Gaspar, Maria L.; Jesch, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on discoveries of the mechanisms governing the regulation of glycerolipid metabolism and stress response signaling in response to the phospholipid precursor, inositol. The regulation of glycerolipid lipid metabolism in yeast in response to inositol is highly complex, but increasingly well understood, and the roles of individual lipids in stress response are also increasingly well characterized. Discoveries that have emerged over several decades of genetic, molecular and biochemical analyses of metabolic, regulatory and signaling responses of yeast cells, both mutant and wild type, to the availability of the phospholipid precursor, inositol are discussed. PMID:24418527

  6. Coordinate regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: pleiotropically constitutive opi1 mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Klig, L S; Homann, M J; Carman, G M; Henry, S A

    1985-01-01

    Phospholipid metabolism in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae opi1 mutant, which excretes inositol and is constitutive for the biosynthetic enzyme inositol-1-phosphate synthase (M. Greenberg, P. Goldwasser, and S. Henry, Mol. Gen. Genet. 186:157-163, 1982), was examined and compared to that of a wild-type strain. In wild-type S. cerevisiae, the phospholipid composition and the relative rates of synthesis of individual phospholipids change in response to the availability of exogenous supplies of soluble phospholipid precursors, particularly inositol. The opi1 mutant, in contrast, displays a relatively invariant phospholipid composition, and its pattern of phospholipid synthesis does not change in response to exogenous phospholipid precursors. Phosphatidylinositol synthase was not found to be regulated in either wild-type or opi1 cells. In wild-type cells, phosphatidylserine synthase and the phospholipid N-methyltransferases are coordinately repressed in response to a combination of inositol and choline. However, in opi1 cells these activities are expressed constitutively. These results suggest that the gene product of the OPI1 locus participates in the coordinate regulation of phospholipid synthesis. Images PMID:3888957

  7. Chloride secretagogues stimulate inositol phosphate formation in shark rectal gland tubules cultured in suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Ecay, T.W.; Valentich, J.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Neuroendocrine activation of transepithelial chloride secretion by shark rectal gland cells is associated with increases in cellular cAMP, cGMP, and free calcium concentrations. We report here on the effects of several chloride secretagogues on inositol phosphate formation in cultured rectal gland tubules. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), atriopeptin (AP), and ionomycin increase the total inositol phosphate levels of cultured tubules, as measured by ion exchange chromatography. Forskolin, a potent chloride secretagogue, has no effect on inositol phosphate formation. The uptake of {sup 3}H-myo-inositol into phospholipids is very slow, preventing the detection of increased levels of inositol trisphosphate. However, significant increases in inositol monophosphate (IP1) and inositol biphosphate (IP2) were measured. The time course of VIP- and AP-stimulated IP1 and IP2 formation is similar to the effects of these agents on the short-circuit current responses of rectal gland monolayer cultures. In addition, aluminum fluoride, an artificial activator of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, stimulates IP1 and IP2 formation. We conclude that rectal gland cells contain VIP and AP receptors coupled to the activation of phospholipase C. Coupling may be mediated by G-proteins. Receptor-stimulated increases in inositol phospholipid metabolism is one mechanism leading to increased intracellular free calcium concentrations, an important regulatory event in the activation of transepithelial chloride secretion by shark rectal gland epithelial cells.

  8. Regulation of Phospholipid Synthesis in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Carman, George M.; Han, Gil-Soo

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with its full complement of organelles, synthesizes membrane phospholipids by pathways that are generally common to those found in higher eukaryotes. Phospholipid synthesis in yeast is regulated in response to a variety of growth conditions (e.g., inositol supplementation, zinc depletion, and growth stage) by a coordination of genetic (e.g., transcriptional activation and repression) and biochemical (e.g., activity modulation and localization) mechanisms. Phosphatidate (PA), whose cellular levels are controlled by the activities of key phospholipid synthesis enzymes, plays a central role in the transcriptional regulation of phospholipid synthesis genes. In addition to the regulation of gene expression, phosphorylation of key phospholipid synthesis catalytic and regulatory proteins controls the metabolism of phospholipid precursors and products. PMID:21275641

  9. Functional expression of a myo-inositol/H+ symporter from Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed Central

    Drew, M E; Langford, C K; Klamo, E M; Russell, D G; Kavanaugh, M P; Landfear, S M

    1995-01-01

    The vast majority of surface molecules in such kinetoplastid protozoa as members of the genus Leishmania contain inositol and are either glycosyl inositol phospholipids or glycoproteins that are tethered to the external surface of the plasma membrane by glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors. We have shown that the biosynthetic precursor for these abundant glycolipids, myo-inositol, is translocated across the parasite plasma membrane by a specific transporter that is structurally related to mammalian facilitative glucose transporters. This myo-inositol transporter has been expressed and characterized in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Two-electrode voltage clamp experiments demonstrate that this protein is a sodium-independent electrogenic symporter that appears to utilize a proton gradient to concentrate myo-inositol within the cell. Immunolocalization experiments with a transporter-specific polyclonal antibody reveal the presence of this protein in the parasite plasma membrane. PMID:7565702

  10. Noradrenaline stimulation of the phosphoinositide system: evidence for a novel hydrophobic inositol-containing compound in resistance arterioles.

    PubMed Central

    Ollerenshaw, J. D.; Heagerty, A. M.; Swales, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    1. Five inositol phosphates were extracted from adult rat resistance arterioles and separated by ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography. 2. By use of this technique, inositol phosphates liberated were identified as inositol 1-phosphate, inositol 1,4-bisphosphate, inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate. Stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis with noradrenaline produced increases in inositol phosphate production. 3. Three inositol-containing phospholipids extracted from resistance arterioles were measured as their glycerol esters following deacylation, thereby permitting an analysis of both membrane and cytosolic components of the phosphoinositide signalling system. 4. A substantial agonist-sensitive pool of a previously undescribed inositol but not glycerol-containing lipid extract component was also identified in this tissue. 5. These experiments for the first time allow a precise description of phosphoinositide metabolism in resting and agonist-stimulated resistance arterioles and provide data on a novel compound possibly similar to that recently described in other tissues. PMID:2840158

  11. Regulation of phospholipid synthesis in phosphatidylserine synthase-deficient (chol) mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Letts, V A; Henry, S A

    1985-01-01

    chol mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are deficient in the synthesis of the phospholipid phosphatidylserine owing to lowered activity of the membrane-associated enzyme phosphatidylserine synthase. chol mutants are auxotrophic for ethanolamine or choline and, in the absence of these supplements, cannot synthesize phosphatidylethanolamine or phosphatidylcholine (PC). We exploited these characteristics of the chol mutants to examine the regulation of phospholipid metabolism in S. cerevisiae. Macromolecular synthesis and phospholipid metabolism were examined in chol cells starved for ethanolamine. As expected, when chol mutants were starved for ethanolamine, the rates of synthesis of the phospholipids phosphatidylethanolamine and PC declined rapidly. Surprisingly, however, coupled to the decline in PC biosynthesis was a simultaneous decrease in the overall rate of phospholipid synthesis. In particular, the rate of synthesis of phosphatidylinositol decreased in parallel with the decline in PC biosynthesis. The results obtained suggest that the slowing of PC biosynthesis in ethanolamine-starved chol cells leads to a coordinated decrease in the synthesis of all phospholipids. However, under conditions of ethanolamine deprivation in chol cells, the cytoplasmic enzyme inositol-1-phosphate synthase could not be repressed by exogenous inositol, and the endogenous synthesis of the phospholipid precursor inositol appeared to be elevated. The implications of these findings with respect to the coordinated regulation of phospholipid synthesis are discussed. Images PMID:2991194

  12. Regulation of phosphatidylserine synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by phospholipid precursors.

    PubMed Central

    Poole, M A; Homann, M J; Bae-Lee, M S; Carman, G M

    1986-01-01

    The addition of ethanolamine or choline to inositol-containing growth medium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild-type cells resulted in a reduction of membrane-associated phosphatidylserine synthase (CDPdiacylglycerol:L-serine O-phosphatidyltransferase, EC 2.7.8.8) activity in cell extracts. The reduction of activity did not occur when inositol was absent from the growth medium. Under the growth conditions where a reduction of enzyme activity occurred, there was a corresponding qualitative reduction of enzyme subunit as determined by immunoblotting with antiserum raised against purified phosphatidylserine synthase. Water-soluble phospholipid precursors did not effect purified phosphatidylserine synthase activity. Phosphatidylserine synthase (activity and enzyme subunit) was not regulated by the availability of water-soluble phospholipid precursors in S. cerevisiae VAL2C(YEp CHO1) and the opi1 mutant. VAL2C(YEp CHO1) is a plasmid-bearing strain that over produces phosphatidylserine synthase activity, and the opi1 mutant is an inositol biosynthesis regulatory mutant. The results of this study suggest that the regulation of phosphatidylserine synthase by the availability of phospholipid precursors occurs at the level of enzyme formation and not at the enzyme activity level. Furthermore, the regulation of phosphatidylserine synthase is coupled to inositol synthesis. Images PMID:3023284

  13. Platelet activating factor activity in the phospholipids of bovine spermatozoa

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, J.E.; Hough, S.; Elrod, C. )

    1990-11-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) has been detected in sperm from several mammalian species and can affect sperm motility and fertilization. Because bovine sperm contain a high percentage of ether-linked phospholipid precursors required for PAF synthesis, a study was undertaken to determine the PAF activity of bovine sperm phospholipids. Total lipids of washed, ejaculated bull sperm were extracted, and phospholipids were fractionated by thin-layer chromatography. Individual phospholipid fractions were assayed for PAF activity on the basis of (3H)serotonin release from equine platelets. PAF activity was detected in the PAF fraction (1.84 pmol/mumol total phospholipid) and in serine/inositol (PS/PI), choline (CP), and ethanolamine phosphoglyceride (EP) and cardiolipin (CA) fractions. Activity was highest in the CP fraction (8.05 pmol/mumol total phospholipid). Incomplete resolution of PAF and neutral lipids may have contributed to the activity in the PS/PI and CA fractions, respectively. Phospholipids from nonsperm sources did not stimulate serotonin release. Platelet activation by purified PAF and by sperm phospholipid fractions was inhibited by the receptor antagonist SRI 63-675. These results indicate that bovine sperm contain PAF and that other sperm phospholipids, especially CP and EP, which are high in glycerylether components, are capable of receptor-mediated platelet activation.

  14. Inositol phosphates in the environment.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Benjamin L; Papházy, Michael J; Haygarth, Philip M; McKelvie, Ian D

    2002-01-01

    The inositol phosphates are a group of organic phosphorus compounds found widely in the natural environment, but that represent the greatest gap in our understanding of the global phosphorus cycle. They exist as inositols in various states of phosphorylation (bound to between one and six phosphate groups) and isomeric forms (e.g. myo, D-chiro, scyllo, neo), although myo-inositol hexakisphosphate is by far the most prevalent form in nature. In terrestrial environments, inositol phosphates are principally derived from plants and accumulate in soils to become the dominant class of organic phosphorus compounds. Inositol phosphates are also present in large amounts in aquatic environments, where they may contribute to eutrophication. Despite the prevalence of inositol phosphates in the environment, their cycling, mobility and bioavailability are poorly understood. This is largely related to analytical difficulties associated with the extraction, separation and detection of inositol phosphates in environmental samples. This review summarizes the current knowledge of inositol phosphates in the environment and the analytical techniques currently available for their detection in environmental samples. Recent advances in technology, such as the development of suitable chromatographic and capillary electrophoresis separation techniques, should help to elucidate some of the more pertinent questions regarding inositol phosphates in the natural environment. PMID:12028785

  15. An accelerated mass spectrometric method for measuring myo-inositol in phosphatidylinositol in rat brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutsch, Joseph; Ma, Kaizung; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2006-03-01

    A fast and efficient chemical ionization mass spectrometric (CI-GC-MS) method for measuring myo-inositol in phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) in rat brain has been developed. Previously, quantitation of PtdIns involved the release of the myo-inositol by two enzymatic reactions using phospholipase C and alkaline phosphatase. The hydrolytic action of these enzymes was replaced by using commercially available 48% hydrofluoric acid (HF) at 80 °C for 30 min. The process can be carried out on the crude Folch extract of brain phospholipids without prior thin layer chromatography (TLC) purification, thereby significantly increasing the speed of analysis. For quantification, unlabeled myo-inositol, labeled myo- and neo-inositol (internal standard) were converted to acetate derivatives and analyzed by CI-GC-MS.

  16. Two inositol hexakisphosphate kinases drive inositol pyrophosphate synthesis in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inositol pyrophosphates are novel cellular signaling molecules with newly discovered roles in energy sensing and metabolic control. Studies in eukaryotes have revealed that these compounds turn over rapidly, and thus only small amounts accumulate. Inositol pyrophosphates have not been the subject of...

  17. Carbamoylcholine and gastrin induce inositol lipid turnover in canine gastric parietal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, T.; Fisher, S.K.; Park, J.; Seguin, E.B.; Agranoff, B.W.; Yamada, Tadataka )

    1988-07-01

    The potential role of inositol phospholipid turnover in mediating acid secretion was examined in a preparation enriched for isolated canine gastric parietal cells. The stimulatory effects of carbamoylcholine (carbachol) and gastrin on parietal cell uptake of ({sup 14}C)aminopyrine were linked to dose- and time-dependent selective reduction in cellular phosphatidylinositol content, although the specific fatty acid composition of the phosphoinositides was not altered. Analysis of ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphates accumulated in cells prelabeled with ({sup 3}H)inositol revealed an increase in labeled inositol trisphosphate by 5 min of incubation with either carbachol or gastrin. Furthermore, after preincubation of parietal cells in medium containing ({sup 32}P)orthophosphate, the two secretagogues elicited a time-dependent decrease in {sup 32}P labeling of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and concomitant increase in labeling of phosphatidic acid. These data demonstrate that the acid secretagogue actions of carbachol and gastrin are correlated with turnover of cellular inositol phospholipids in a preparation consisting predominantly of parietal cells.

  18. Metabolic and structural evidence for the existence of a third species of polyphosphoinositide in cells: D-phosphatidyl-myo-inositol 3-phosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, L; Hawkins, P T; Downes, C P

    1989-01-01

    When human 1321 N1 astrocytoma cells were labelled to steady state with [3H]inositol and briefly with [32P]orthophosphate, a compound which contained both radiotracers and which co-migrated with phosphatidylinositol-myo-inositol 4-phosphate during t.l.c. could be extracted in acidic chloroform/methanol. Treatment with methylamine under conditions which lead to deacylation of conventional glycerophospholipids yielded a water-soluble moiety which was labelled with both radioisotopes and was eluted from an anion-exchange h.p.l.c. column with a retention time similar to, but distinct from, that of glycerophosphoinositol 4-phosphate. Experiments using sodium periodate and selective phosphatase enzymes to degrade this compound systematically generated a series of products which suggested the structure of the parent phospholipid was phosphatidyl-myo-inositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P). PtdIns3P is metabolically closely related to the pool(s) of inositol phospholipid(s) that serves as substrate(s) for an agonist-sensitive phosphoinositidase C, as the levels of PtdIns3P fell significantly when 1321 N1 cells were stimulated with carbachol. The relative rate of turnover of the inositol moiety of PtdIns3P is similar to that of both of the major polyphosphoinositides and significantly higher than that of total cellular phosphatidyl-myo-inositol. This suggests that all three polyphosphoinositides are synthesized from a common, rapidly metabolized, pool of phosphatidyl-myo-inositol. PMID:2541684

  19. Interconversion of inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate to inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate and (1,3,4)-trisphosphate in permeabilized adrenal glomerulosa cells is calcium-sensitive and ATP-dependent

    SciTech Connect

    Rossier, M.F.; Dentand, I.A.; Lew, P.D.; Capponi, A.M.; Vallotton, M.B.

    1986-08-29

    The metabolism of (/sub 3/H)inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate was followed in permeabilized bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells. At low Ca++ concentration (pCa = 7.2), more than 90% of (/sub 3/H)inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate had disappeared within 2 min, while two other metabolites, (/sub 3/H)inositol (1,3,4)-trisphosphate and (/sub 3/H)inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate appeared progressively. At higher Ca++ concentrations (pCa = 5.7 and 4.8), the formation of these two metabolites was markedly increased, but completely abolished if the medium was ATP-depleted. The peak levels for the generation of (/sub 3/H)inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate (1 min) preceded those of (3H)inositol (1,3,4)-trisphosphate and were closely correlated. These results suggest that, in adrenal glomerulosa cells, the isomer inositol (1,3,4)-trisphosphate is generated from inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate via a calcium-sensitive and ATP-dependent phosphorylation/dephosphorylation pathway involving the formation of inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate.

  20. Regulation of phospholipid synthesis in phosphatidylserine synthase-deficient (chol) mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Letts, V.A.; Henry, S.A.

    1985-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants, chol, are deficient in the synthesis of the phospholipid phosphatidylserine owing to lowered activity of the membrane-associated enzyme phosphatidylserine synthase. These mutants are auxotrophic for ethanolamine or choline and, in the absence of these supplements, cannot synthesize phosphatidylethanolamine or phosphatidylcholine (PC). The authors exploited these characteristics of the chol mutants to examine the regulation of phospholipid metabolism in S. cerevisiae. Macromolecular synthesis and phospholipid metabolism were examined in chol cells starved for ethanolamine. Coupled to the decline in PC biosynthesis was a simultaneous decrease in the overall rate of phospholipid synthesis. In particular, the rate of synthesis of phosphatidylinositol decreased in parallel with the decline in PC biosynthesis. However, under conditions of ethanolamine deprivation in chol cells, the cytoplasmic enzyme inositol-1-phosphate synthase could not be repressed by exogenous inositol, and the endogenous synthesis of the phospholipid precursor inositol appeared to be elevated. The implications of these findings with respect to the coordinated regulation of phospholipid synthesis are discussed.

  1. Phospholipid turnover and ultrastructural correlates during spontaneous germinal vesicle breakdown of the bovine oocyte: Effects of a cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Homa, S.T.; Webster, S.D.; Russell, R.K. )

    1991-08-01

    The turnover of (32P)orthophosphate in bovine oocyte phospholipids was studied during the early stages of spontaneous meiotic maturation, and during inhibition of this process by the cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine (IBMX). Radioactive lipids were separated by TLC and the meiotic stage was determined cytogenetically. Ultrastructure of the nuclear membrane was examined using transmission EM. During the commitment period to meiotic resumption, which precedes germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), small localized convolutions appeared in the intact nuclear membrane. This was accompanied by a decrease in (32P)phosphatidic acid (PA) and an increase in (32P)-phosphatidylcholine (PC). This was followed by extensive convolutions, and subsequent dissociation, of the nuclear membrane, concomitant with a tremendous surge in (32P)PC and (32P)phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The cAMP-mediated maintenance of meiotic arrest involved retention of entire nuclear envelope integrity and total inhibition of the surge in (32P)PC and (32P)PE which accompanied GVBD. The increase in (32P)phosphatidylinositol (PI) associated with all stages of early meiotic resumption was unaffected by IBMX. Microinjection of heparin inhibited GVBD, and injection of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) overrode IBMX-maintained meiotic arrest in almost 40% of the oocytes. The results suggest that there may be several functions for phospholipid turnover in the regulation of spontaneous meiotic resumption in the bovine oocyte. The first precedes the commitment period, and involves IP3 generation to serve as the primary signal for meiotic resumption. The second occurs concomitant with the commitment period, is unaffected by the level of intracellular cAMP, and is associated with the general turnover of phospholipid.

  2. PRECEDE for Wellness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonaguro, John A.

    1981-01-01

    The PRECEDE model was developed for health educators in an effort to improve programs and to influence health behaviors. The model consists of several diagnostic phases: (1) epidemiological; (2) social; (3) behavioral; (4) educational; (5) administrative; and (6) evaluation. (JN)

  3. Role of phospholipids in the actions of prolactin in the mammary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Etindi, R.O.N.

    1987-01-01

    These studies were designed to determine the role of phospholipid turnover in the mechanism of action of prolactin in mammary gland explants derived from 12-14 day pregnant mice. Prolactin stimulates phospholipid biosynthesis 12-16h after cultured mouse mammary tissues are exposed to it. Prolactin stimulates phospholipid biosynthesis at physiological concentrations and the response is maximal at all PRL concentrations above 25 ng/ml. p-Bromphenacyl bromide (BPB) at concentrations of 50 ..mu..M and above and quinacrine (50 ..mu..M) abolish the actions of prolactin on casein and lipid biosynthesis in cultured mouse mammary gland explants. In mouse mammary gland explants, binding of prolactin to its receptor leads to a phospholipase C type hydrolysis of inositol phospholipids, but this effect is transient and does not occur immediately after hormone exposure. Prolactin significantly stimulated the accumulation of (/sup 3/H)label in inositol monophosphate (IP/sub 1/), inositol bisphosphate (IP/sub 2/) and inositol trisphosphate (IP/sub 3/) 1-3 hours after addition of prolactin. Gossypol, a drug which has been shown to be an inhibitor of kinase C activity in mouse mammary tissues, is shown to abolish several of the actions of prolactin in cultured mouse mammary gland expalants.

  4. Phosphatidic acid stimulates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production in adult cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Kurz, T; Wolf, R A; Corr, P B

    1993-03-01

    The cellular content of phosphatidic acid can increase in response to several agonists either by phosphorylation of diacylglycerol after phospholipase C-catalyzed hydrolysis of phospholipids or directly through activation of phospholipase D. Although previous findings indicated that the generation of phosphatidic acid was exclusively a means of regulation of the cellular concentration of diacylglycerol, more recent studies have indicated that phosphatidic acid may also directly regulate several cellular functions. Accordingly, the present study was performed to assess whether phosphatidic acid could stimulate cardiac phospholipase C in intact adult rabbit ventricular myocytes. The mass of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins (1,4,5)P3] was determined by a specific and sensitive binding protein assay and by direct mass measurement using anion exchange chromatography for separation of selected inositol phosphates and gas chromatography and mass spectrometry for quantification of inositol monophosphate (IP1), inositol bisphosphate (IP2), inositol trisphosphate (IP3), and inositol tetrakisphosphate (IP4). Phosphatidic acid (10(-9)-10(-6) M) elicited a rapid concentration-dependent increase in Ins (1,4,5)P3 accumulation, with the peak fourfold to fivefold increase at 30 seconds of stimulation; the concentration required for 50% of maximal stimulation was 4.4 x 10(-8) M. The time course of individual inositol phosphates indicated a successive increase in the mass of IP3, IP4, IP2, and IP1 in response to stimulation with phosphatidic acid. The production of Ins (1,4,5)P3 in response to phosphatidic acid was not altered in the absence of extracellular calcium or in the presence of extracellular EGTA (10(-3) M). Thus, these findings indicate that phosphatidic acid is a potent activator of inositol phosphate production in adult ventricular myocytes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. The incorporation of myo-inositol into phosphatidylinositol derivatives is stimulated during hormone-induced meiotic maturation of amphibian oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Carrasco, D.; Allende, C.C.; Allende, J.E. )

    1990-12-01

    The incorporation of myo-({sup 3}H)inositol into phosphatidylinositol and its phosphorylated derivatives was studied by microinjection of the radioactive precursor into Xenopus laevis oocytes. Induction of meiotic maturation of the oocytes by treatment with either progesterone one or insulin resulted in a significant increase in the incorporation of myo-({sup 3}H)inositol into the phospholipid fraction. This increase occurred 3-6 h after hormonal treatment, a time coincident with the start of the breakdown of the nuclear envelope, and requires protein synthesis. The effect of progesterone and insulin contrasts with the effect of acetylcholine, which acts through a muscarinic receptor causing the activation of phospholipase C, since the latter effector causes an increase in myo-({sup 3}H)inositol incorporation, which is more rapid and does not require protein synthesis. These results suggest that the meiotic maturation process is connected with changes in inositol metabolism in the amphibian oocyte.

  6. Crystal Structures of Type-II Inositol Polyphosphate 5-Phosphatase INPP5B with Synthetic Inositol Polyphosphate Surrogates Reveal New Mechanistic Insights for the Inositol 5-Phosphatase Family.

    PubMed

    Mills, Stephen J; Silvander, Camilla; Cozier, Gyles; Trésaugues, Lionel; Nordlund, Pär; Potter, Barry V L

    2016-03-08

    The inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase INPP5B hydrolyzes the 5-phosphate group from water- and lipid-soluble signaling messengers. Two synthetic benzene and biphenyl polyphosphates (BzP/BiPhPs), simplified surrogates of inositol phosphates and phospholipid headgroups, were identified by thermodynamic studies as potent INPP5B ligands. The X-ray structure of the complex between INPP5B and biphenyl 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexakisphosphate [BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P6, IC50 5.5 μM] was determined at 2.89 Å resolution. One inhibitor pole locates in the phospholipid headgroup binding site and the second solvent-exposed ring binds to the His-Tag of another INPP5B molecule, while a molecule of inorganic phosphate is also present in the active site. Benzene 1,2,3-trisphosphate [Bz(1,2,3)P3] [one ring of BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P6] inhibits INPP5B ca. 6-fold less potently. Co-crystallization with benzene 1,2,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [Bz(1,2,4,5)P4, IC50 = 6.3 μM] yielded a structure refined at 2.9 Å resolution. Conserved residues among the 5-phosphatase family mediate interactions with Bz(1,2,4,5)P4 and BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P6 similar to those with the polar groups present in positions 1, 4, 5, and 6 on the inositol ring of the substrate. 5-Phosphatase specificity most likely resides in the variable zone located close to the 2- and 3-positions of the inositol ring, offering insights to inhibitor design. We propose that the inorganic phosphate present in the INPP5B-BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P6 complex mimics the postcleavage substrate 5-phosphate released by INPP5B in the catalytic site, allowing elucidation of two new key features in the catalytic mechanism proposed for the family of phosphoinositide 5-phosphatases: first, the involvement of the conserved Arg-451 in the interaction with the 5-phosphate and second, identification of the water molecule that initiates 5-phosphate hydrolysis. Our model also has implications for the proposed "moving metal" mechanism.

  7. NMR analyses of deuterated phospholipids isolated from Pichia angusta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massou, S.; Augé, S.; Tropis, M.; Lindley, N. D.; Milon, A.

    1998-02-01

    The phospholipid composition of methylotrophic yeasts grown on deuterated and hydrogenated media has been determined by proton and phosphorus NMR. By using a line narrowing solvent, we could obtain linewidth lower than 2 Hz, and all the resonances could be resolved. Phospholipids were identified on the basis of their chemical shift and by 31P - H correlations (HMQC - HOHAHA gradient enhanced experiments). We have thus analysed qualitatively and quantitatively lipids mixtures directly after chloroform-methanol extraction. The lipid composition is deeply modified after growth in deuterated medium were phosphatidyl Inositol (PI) becomes the major lipid, instead of a PC, PS, PI mixture in hydrogenated conditions. La composition en phospholipides de levures méthylotrophes ayant poussé sur des milieux de cultures hydrogénés et deutériés a été déterminée par RMN du proton et du phosphore31. L'utilisation d'un solvant d'affinement a permis d'obtenir des largeurs de raies inférieures à 2Hz et de résoudre toutes les classes de phospholipides. Ils sont ensuite identifiés par leur déplacement chimique et par des corrélations phosphore - proton spécifiques (expériences HMQC-HOHAHA gradients). Cette approche a permis une analyse qualitative et quantitative de mélanges de phospholipides directement après extraction au chloroforme-méthanol. La composition en phospholipides est profondément modifiée lors de la croissance en milieu perdeutérié où l'on observe un lipide majoritaire, le phosphatidyl Inositol (PI), au lieu d'un mélange PC, PS PI en milieu hydrogéné.

  8. Inositol uptake in rat aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Rapoport, R.M.; Van Gorp, C.; Chang, Ki-Churl )

    1990-01-01

    {sup 3}H-inositol uptake into deendothelialized aorta was linear for at least 2 h and was composed of both a saturable, Na{sup +}-dependent, and a nonsaturable, Na{sup +}-independent component. The Na{sup +}-dependent component of inositol uptake had a K{sub m} of 50 {mu}M and a V{sub max} of 289 pmol/mg prot/h. Exposure to LiCl, ouabain, or Ca{sup 2+} - free Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution inhibited uptake. Metabolic poisoning with dinitrophenol, as well as incubation with phloretin, an inhibitor of carrier-mediated hexose transport, also inhibited uptake. Exposure to norepinephrine decreased inositol uptake, while phorbol myristate acetate was without effect. Isobutylmethylxanthine significantly increased inositol uptake, while the increased uptake due to dibutyryl cyclic AMP and forskolin were not statistically significant. Sodium nitroprusside, and activator of guanylate cyclase, and 8-bromo cyclic GMP, were without effect on uptake, as was methylene blue, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase. Inositol uptake into the aorta was increased when the endothelium was allowed to remain intact, although this effect was likely due to uptake in both the endothelial and smooth muscle cells.

  9. Inositol, neural tube closure and the prevention of neural tube defects

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Kit‐Yi; Copp, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Susceptibility to neural tube defects (NTDs), such as anencephaly and spina bifida is influenced by genetic and environmental factors including maternal nutrition. Maternal periconceptional supplementation with folic acid significantly reduces the risk of an NTD‐affected pregnancy, but does not prevent all NTDs, and “folic acid non‐responsive” NTDs continue to occur. Similarly, among mouse models of NTDs, some are responsive to folic acid but others are not. Among nutritional factors, inositol deficiency causes cranial NTDs in mice while supplemental inositol prevents spinal and cranial NTDs in the curly tail (Grhl3 hypomorph) mouse, rodent models of hyperglycemia or induced diabetes, and in a folate‐deficiency induced NTD model. NTDs also occur in mice lacking expression of certain inositol kinases. Inositol‐containing phospholipids (phosphoinositides) and soluble inositol phosphates mediate a range of functions, including intracellular signaling, interaction with cytoskeletal proteins, and regulation of membrane identity in trafficking and cell division. Myo‐inositol has been trialed in humans for a range of conditions and appears safe for use in human pregnancy. In pilot studies in Italy and the United Kingdom, women took inositol together with folic acid preconceptionally, after one or more previous NTD‐affected pregnancies. In nonrandomized cohorts and a randomized double‐blind study in the United Kingdom, no recurrent NTDs were observed among 52 pregnancies reported to date. Larger‐scale fully powered trials are needed to determine whether supplementation with inositol and folic acid would more effectively prevent NTDs than folic acid alone. Birth Defects Research 109:68–80, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Birth Defects Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27324558

  10. Rapid Degradation and Limited Synthesis of Phospholipids in the Cotyledons of Mung Bean Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Gilkes, Neil R.; Herman, Eliot M.; Chrispeels, Maarten J.

    1979-01-01

    Seedling growth of mung bean is accompanied by the rapid catabolism of the three major phospholipids in the cotyledons (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylinositol). The decline starts 24 hours after the beginning of imbibition and by the 4th day of growth more than 50% of the phospholipids have been catabolized. Extracts of cotyledons of 24-hour-imbibed beans contain enzymes capable of degrading membrane-associated phospholipids in vitro. This degradation involves phospholipase D and phosphatase activity. Studies with radioactive acetate, glycerol, and orthophosphate indicate that the three major phospholipids are also synthesized in the cotyledons. Incorporation of glycerol and acetate into phospholipids of cotyledons is relatively constant throughout seedling growth, while the incorporation of [32P]orthophosphate steadily declines from a high value 24 hours after the start of imbibition. The newly synthesized phospholipids become associated with membranous organelles, especially the endoplasmic reticulum, and have an in situ half-life of 2 to 2.5 days. Determination of the activities of two enzymes involved in phospholipid biosynthesis (phosphorylcholine-glyceride transferase and CDP-diglyceride-inositol transferase) shows that the enzymes have their highest activities 12 hours after the start of imbibition. High activities for both enzymes were found in cotyledons of beans incubated at 1 C, indicating that the enzymes may preexist in the dry seeds. The experiments demonstrate that cotyledons start synthesizing new phospholipids immediately after imbibition, but that the rate of phospholipid catabolism far exceeds the rate of synthesis long before the cotyledons start to senesce. PMID:16660911

  11. CYTOTOXIC PHOSPHOLIPID OXIDATION PRODUCTS

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Yang, Lili; McIntyre, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    Phospholipid oxidation products accumulate in the necrotic core of atherosclerotic lesions, in apoptotic cells, and circulate in oxidized LDL. Phospholipid oxidation generates toxic products, but little is known about which specific products are cytotoxic, their receptors, or the mechanism(s) that induces cell death. We find the most common phospholipid oxidation product of oxidized LDL, phosphatidylcholine with esterified sn-2 azelaic acid, induced apoptosis at low micromolar concentrations. The synthetic ether phospholipid hexadecyl azelaoyl phosphatidylcholine (HAzPC) was rapidly internalized, and over-expression of PLA2g7 (PAF acetylhydrolase) that specifically hydrolyzes such oxidized phospholipids suppressed apoptosis. Internalized HAzPC associated with mitochondria, and cytochrome C and apoptosis-inducing factor escaped from mitochondria to the cytoplasm and nucleus, respectively, in cells exposed to HAzPC. Isolated mitochondria exposed to HAzPC rapidly swelled, and released cytochrome C and apoptosis-inducing factor. Other phospholipid oxidation products induced swelling, but HAzPC was the most effective and was twice as effective as its diacyl homolog. Cytoplasmic cytochrome C completes the apoptosome, and activated caspase 9 and 3 were present in cells exposed to HAzPC. Irreversible inhibition of caspase 9 blocked downstream caspase 3 activation, and prevented apoptosis. Mitochondrial damage initiated this apoptotic cascade because over-expression of Bcl-XL, an anti-apoptotic protein localized to mitochondria, blocked cytochrome C escape, and apoptosis. Thus, exogenous phospholipid oxidation products target intracellular mitochondria to activate the intrinsic apoptotic cascade. PMID:17597068

  12. Broad Spectrum Anticancer Activity of Myo-Inositol and Inositol Hexakisphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Dinicola, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Inositols (myo-inositol and inositol hexakisphosphate) exert a wide range of critical activities in both physiological and pathological settings. Deregulated inositol metabolism has been recorded in a number of diseases, including cancer, where inositol modulates different critical pathways. Inositols inhibit pRB phosphorylation, fostering the pRB/E2F complexes formation and blocking progression along the cell cycle. Inositols reduce PI3K levels, thus counteracting the activation of the PKC/RAS/ERK pathway downstream of PI3K activation. Upstream of that pathway, inositols disrupt the ligand interaction between FGF and its receptor as well as with the EGF-transduction processes involving IGF-II receptor and AP-1 complexes. Additionally, Akt activation is severely impaired upon inositol addition. Downregulation of both Akt and ERK leads consequently to NF-kB inhibition and reduced expression of inflammatory markers (COX-2 and PGE2). Remarkably, inositol-induced downregulation of presenilin-1 interferes with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and reduces Wnt-activation, β-catenin translocation, Notch-1, N-cadherin, and SNAI1 release. Inositols interfere also with the cytoskeleton by upregulating Focal Adhesion Kinase and E-cadherin and decreasing Fascin and Cofilin, two main components of pseudopodia, leading hence to invasiveness impairment. This effect is reinforced by the inositol-induced inhibition on metalloproteinases and ROCK1/2 release. Overall, these effects enable inositols to remodel the cytoskeleton architecture. PMID:27795708

  13. Measurement of Inositol Triphosphate Levels from Rat Hippocampal Slices

    PubMed Central

    Tabatadze, Nino; Woolley, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Inositol triphosphate (IP3) is an important second messenger that participates in signal transduction pathways in diverse cell types including hippocampal neurons. Stimulation of phospholipase C in response to various stimuli (hormones, growth factors, neurotransmitters, neurotrophins, neuromodulators, odorants, light, etc) results in hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate (PIP2), a phospholipid that is located in the plasma membrane, and leads to the production of IP3 and diacylglycerol. Binding of IP3 to the IP3 receptor (IP3R) induces Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and enables the initiation of intracellular Ca2+-dependent signaling. Here we describe a procedure for the measurement of cellular IP3 levels in tissue homogenates prepared from rat hippocampal slices. PMID:27468425

  14. Synthesis of inositol phosphate ligands of plant hormone-receptor complexes: pathways of inositol hexakisphosphate turnover.

    PubMed

    Hanke, David E; Parmar, Paroo N; Caddick, Samuel E K; Green, Porntip; Brearley, Charles A

    2012-06-15

    Reduction of phytate is a major goal of plant breeding programs to improve the nutritional quality of crops. Remarkably, except for the storage organs of crops such as barley, maize and soybean, we know little of the stereoisomeric composition of inositol phosphates in plant tissues. To investigate the metabolic origins of higher inositol phosphates in photosynthetic tissues, we have radiolabelled leaf tissue of Solanum tuberosum with myo-[2-3H]inositol, undertaken a detailed analysis of inositol phosphate stereoisomerism and permeabilized mesophyll protoplasts in media containing inositol phosphates. We describe the inositol phosphate composition of leaf tissue and identify pathways of inositol phosphate metabolism that we reveal to be common to other kingdoms. Our results identify the metabolic origins of a number of higher inositol phosphates including ones that are precursors of cofactors, or cofactors of plant hormone-receptor complexes. The present study affords alternative explanations of the effects of disruption of inositol phosphate metabolism reported in other species, and identifies different inositol phosphates from that described in photosynthetic tissue of the monocot Spirodela polyrhiza. We define the pathways of inositol hexakisphosphate turnover and shed light on the occurrence of a number of inositol phosphates identified in animals, for which metabolic origins have not been defined.

  15. Flagellar membranes are rich in raft-forming phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    Serricchio, Mauro; Schmid, Adrien W.; Steinmann, Michael E.; Sigel, Erwin; Rauch, Monika; Julkowska, Daria; Bonnefoy, Serge; Fort, Cécile; Bastin, Philippe; Bütikofer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The observation that the membranes of flagella are enriched in sterols and sphingolipids has led to the hypothesis that flagella might be enriched in raft-forming lipids. However, a detailed lipidomic analysis of flagellar membranes is not available. Novel protocols to detach and isolate intact flagella from Trypanosoma brucei procyclic forms in combination with reverse-phase liquid chromatography high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry allowed us to determine the phospholipid composition of flagellar membranes relative to whole cells. Our analyses revealed that phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, ceramide and the sphingolipids inositol phosphorylceramide and sphingomyelin are enriched in flagella relative to whole cells. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol are strongly depleted in flagella. Within individual glycerophospholipid classes, we observed a preference for ether-type over diacyl-type molecular species in membranes of flagella. Our study provides direct evidence for a preferential presence of raft-forming phospholipids in flagellar membranes of T. brucei. PMID:26276100

  16. The inositols and polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Bharti; Kalra, Sanjay; Sharma, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    This review describes the rationale, biochemical, and clinical data related to the use of inositols in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). It covers studies related to the mechanism of action of myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol (MDI), with randomized controlled trials conducted in women with PCOS, and utilizes these data to suggest pragmatic indications and methods for using MDI combination in PCOS. Rationally crafted inositol combinations have a potential role to play in maintaining metabolic, endocrine, and reproductive health in women with PCOS. PMID:27730087

  17. Inositol trisphosphate and calcium signalling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berridge, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Inositol trisphosphate is a second messenger that controls many cellular processes by generating internal calcium signals. It operates through receptors whose molecular and physiological properties closely resemble the calcium-mobilizing ryanodine receptors of muscle. This family of intracellular calcium channels displays the regenerative process of calcium-induced calcium release responsible for the complex spatiotemporal patterns of calcium waves and oscillations. Such a dynamic signalling pathway controls many cellular processes, including fertilization, cell growth, transformation, secretion, smooth muscle contraction, sensory perception and neuronal signalling.

  18. Inositol phosphates induce DAPI fluorescence shift.

    PubMed

    Kolozsvari, Bernadett; Parisi, Federica; Saiardi, Adolfo

    2014-06-15

    The polymer inorganic polyP (polyphosphate) and inositol phosphates, such as IP6 (inositol hexakisphosphate; also known as phytic acid), share many biophysical features. These similarities must be attributed to the phosphate groups present in these molecules. Given the ability of polyP to modify the excitation-emission spectra of DAPI we decided to investigate whether inositol phosphates possess the same property. We discovered that DAPI-IP6 complexes emit at approximately 550 nm when excited with light of wavelength 410-420 nm. IP5 (inositol pentakisphosphate) is also able to induce a similar shift in DAPI fluorescence. Conversely, IP3 (inositol trisphosphate) and IP4 (inositol tetrakisphosphate) are unable to shift DAPI fluorescence. We have employed this newly discovered feature of DAPI to study the enzymatic activity of the inositol polyphosphate multikinase and to monitor phytase phosphatase reactions. Finally, we used DAPI-IP6 fluorescence to determine the amount of IP6 in plant seeds. Using an IP6 standard curve this straight-forward analysis revealed that among the samples tested, borlotti beans possess the highest level of IP6 (9.4 mg/g of dry mass), whereas the Indian urad bean the lowest (3.2 mg/g of dry mass). The newly identified fluorescence properties of the DAPI-IP5 and DAPI-IP6 complexes allow the levels and enzymatic conversion of these two important messengers to be rapidly and reliably monitored.

  19. Importance and regulation of inositol biosynthesis during growth and differentiation of Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guohua; Tian, Yuqing; Hu, Kun; Zhu, Yu; Chater, Keith F; Feng, Chi; Liu, Gang; Tan, Huarong

    2012-03-01

    Unusually among bacteria, actinobacteria possess myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase (mIPS). In the developmentally complex Streptomyces coelicolor, the mIPS-encoding gene (inoA) is cotranscribed with a putative regulatory gene (inoR). The inoRA transcript was more abundant in an inoR in-frame deletion mutant, and InoR formed different complexes in vitro with an extensive region around the inoRA promoter. Binding was relieved by adding glucose 6-phosphate. Thus, InoR is a metabolite-sensitive autorepressor that influences inoA expression, and hence the level of inositol, by controlling transcription from P(inoRA) . Disruption of inoA resulted in inositol-dependent growth and development, with full phenotypic correction at 0.1 mM inositol: at lower inositol concentrations differentiation was arrested at intermediate stages. This pattern may partly reflect increased demand for membrane phospholipids during sporulation septation. A corresponding sharp upregulation of inoRA transcription coincident with sporulation was dependent on a developmental regulator, WhiI. A truncated form of WhiI could bind two sites downstream of P(inoRA) , and one of the WhiI-binding sites overlapped the InoR-binding site. The combined action of a metabolic regulator and a developmental regulator at the simple P(inoRA) promoter is a previously undescribed strategy for the differential provision of developmentally appropriate levels of a substance required during the formation of spore chains.

  20. Surfactant phospholipid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Agassandian, Marianna; Mallampalli, Rama K.

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is essential for life and is comprised of a complex lipoprotein-like mixture that lines the inner surface of the lung to prevent alveolar collapse at the end of expiration. The molecular composition of surfactant depends on highly integrated and regulated processes involving its biosynthesis, remodeling, degradation, and intracellular trafficking. Despite its multicomponent composition, the study of surfactant phospholipid metabolism has focused on two predominant components, disaturated phosphatidylcholine that confers surface-tension lowering activities, and phosphatidylglycerol, recently implicated in innate immune defense. Future studies providing a better understanding of the molecular control and physiological relevance of minor surfactant lipid components are needed. PMID:23026158

  1. Inositol pyrophosphates modulate hydrogen peroxide signalling.

    PubMed

    Onnebo, Sara Maria Nancy; Saiardi, Adolfo

    2009-09-14

    Inositol pyrophosphates are involved in a variety of cellular functions, but the specific pathways and/or downstream targets remain poorly characterized. In the present study we use Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants to examine the potential roles of inositol pyrophosphates in responding to cell damage caused by ROS (reactive oxygen species). Yeast lacking kcs1 [the S. cerevisiae IP6K (inositol hexakisphosphate kinase)] have greatly reduced IP7 (diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate) and IP8 (bisdiphosphoinositol tetrakisphosphate) levels, and display increased resistance to cell death caused by H2O2, consistent with a sustained activation of DNA repair mechanisms controlled by the Rad53 pathway. Other Rad53-controlled functions, such as actin polymerization, appear unaffected by inositol pyrophosphates. Yeast lacking vip1 [the S. cerevisiae PP-IP5K (also known as IP7K, IP7 kinase)] accumulate large amounts of the inositol pyrophosphate IP7, but have no detectable IP8, indicating that this enzyme represents the physiological IP7 kinase. Similar to kcs1Delta yeast, vip1Delta cells showed an increased resistance to cell death caused by H2O2, indicating that it is probably the double-pyrophosphorylated form of IP8 [(PP)2-IP4] which mediates the H2O2 response. However, these inositol pyrophosphates are not involved in directly sensing DNA damage, as kcs1Delta cells are more responsive to DNA damage caused by phleomycin. We observe in vivo a rapid decrease in cellular inositol pyrophosphate levels following exposure to H2O2, and an inhibitory effect of H2O2 on the enzymatic activity of Kcs1 in vitro. Furthermore, parallel cysteine mutagenesis studies performed on mammalian IP6K1 are suggestive that the ROS signal might be transduced by the direct modification of this evolutionarily conserved class of enzymes.

  2. The Effectiveness of Myo-Inositol and D-Chiro Inositol Treatment in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Di Vieste, Giacoma; Bonomo, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Inositol has been used as a supplement in treating several pathologies such as PCOS, metabolic syndrome, and gestational diabetes. Both myo-inositol and its isomer d-chiro-inositol showed insulin mimetic effects in conditions of insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a condition typically caused by insulin resistance. There is a lack of evidence of inositol use in T2DM. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of myo-inositol and d-chiro-inositol treatment in T2DM. This was a pilot study involving a consecutive sample of patients with T2DM with suboptimal glycemic control (HbA1c 7.0–10.0%) already treated with glucose-lowering agents. Patients (23.1% males, mean age of 60.8 ± 11.7 years) took for three months a combination of myo-inositol (550 mg) and d-chiro-inositol (13.8 mg) orally twice a day as add-on supplement to their glucose-lowering drugs. Possible occurrence of side effects was investigated. After three months of treatment fasting blood glucose (192.6 ± 60.2 versus 160.9 ± 36.4; p = 0.02) and HbA1c levels (8.6 ± 0.9 versus 7.7 ± 0.9; p = 0.02) significantly decreased compared to baseline. There was no significant difference in blood pressure, lipid profile, and BMI levels. None of the participants reported side effects. In conclusion, a supplementation with a combination of myo- and d-chiro-inositol is an effective and safe strategy for improving glycemic control in T2DM. PMID:27807448

  3. Synthesis of myo-inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate from inositol phosphates generated by receptor activation.

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, L R; Hawkins, P T; Barker, C J; Downes, C P

    1988-01-01

    myo-[3H]Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate can be made from myo-[3H]inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in a rat brain homogenate or soluble fraction. Although D-myo-inositol 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate can be phosphorylated by a soluble rat brain enzyme to give myo-inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate, it is not an intermediate in the pathway from myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. The intermediates in the above pathway are myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, myo-inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate and myo-inositol 1,3,4,6-tetrakisphosphate [Shears, Parry, Tang, Irvine, Michell & Kirk (1987) Biochem. J. 246, 139-147; Balla, Guillemette, Baukal & Catt (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 9952-9955], and it is catalysed by soluble kinase activities of similar anion-exchange mobility and Mr value. Compounds with chromatographic and chemical properties consistent with the structures myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, myo-inositol 1,3,4,6-tetrakisphosphate and myo-inositol 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate are present in avian erythrocytes, human 1321 N1 astrocytoma cells and primary-cultured murine bone-marrow-derived macrophages. The amounts of these inositol tetrakisphosphates rise upon muscarinic cholinergic stimulation of the astrocytoma cells or stimulation of macrophages with platelet-activating factor. PMID:2845930

  4. Effects of glucose on sorbitol pathway activation, cellular redox, and metabolism of myo-inositol, phosphoinositide, and diacylglycerol in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, T P; Porcellati, F; Kato, K; Stevens, M J; Sherman, W R; Greene, D A

    1994-01-01

    Sorbitol (aldose reductase) pathway flux in diabetes perturbs intracellular metabolism by two putative mechanisms: reciprocal osmoregulatory depletion of other organic osmolytes e.g., myo-inositol, and alterations in NADPH/NADP+ and/or NADH/NAD+. The "osmolyte" and "redox" hypotheses predict secondary elevations in CDP-diglyceride, the rate-limiting precursor for phosphatidylinositol synthesis, but through different mechanisms: the "osmolyte" hypothesis via depletion of intracellular myo-inositol (the cosubstrate for phosphatidylinositol-synthase) and the "redox" hypothesis through enhanced de novo synthesis from triose phosphates. The osmolyte hypothesis predicts diminished phosphoinositide-derived arachidonyl-diacylglycerol, while the redox hypothesis predicts increased total diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid. In high aldose reductase expressing retinal pigment epithelial cells, glucose-induced, aldose reductase inhibitor-sensitive CDP-diglyceride accumulation and inhibition of 32P-incorporation into phosphatidylinositol paralleled myo-inositol depletion (but not cytoplasmic redox, that was unaffected by glucose) and depletion of arachidonyl-diacylglycerol. 3 mM pyruvate added to the culture medium left cellular redox unaltered, but stimulated Na(+)-dependent myo-inositol uptake, accumulation, and incorporation into phosphatidylinositol. These results favor myo-inositol depletion rather than altered redox as the primary cause of glucose-induced aldose reductase-related defects in phospholipid metabolism in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells. Images PMID:8201009

  5. Chronic treatment with lithium and pretreatment with excess inositol reduce inositol pool size in astrocytes by different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, M; Hertz, E; Belmaker, R H; Hertz, L

    1998-03-16

    Chronic treatment with a lithium salt is the classical treatment for manic-depressive disorder. It is hypothesized that the therapeutic action of lithium is caused by its inhibition of inositol phosphatases which leads to a relative deficiency of inositol and, therefore, an impairment of inositol recycling and production of precursor for the second messengers inositol triphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). However, peculiarly enough, treatment with high doses of inositol also has an antidepressant effect. In the present work, we have studied the acute and chronic effects of lithium and of excess inositol, in separation or together, on accumulation of 50 microM [3H]inositol (a physiologically relevant concentration) into primary cultures of mouse astrocytes. Two parameters were investigated: (1) rate of unidirectional uptake across the cell membrane (measured during short-term exposure to the radioisotope), and (2) magnitude of the intracellular pool of inositol, equilibrating with extracellular inositol (measured during long-term exposure to the radioisotope). Inositol uptake was highly concentrative and occurred with a Km of approximately 500 microM and a Vmax of 1.5 nmol/min/mg protein. The uptake rate was not affected by either acute or chronic treatment with LiCl (or both), but it was substantially reduced ('down-regulated') after pretreatment with a high concentration of inositol. The inositol pool size was decreased to a similar extent as the uptake rate by previous exposure to excess inositol. In spite of the fact that inositol uptake rate was unaffected by lithium, the magnitude of the inositol pool was significantly decreased by chronic treatment with a pharmacologically relevant concentration of LiCl (1 mM), but not by treatment with lower concentrations. This decrease is likely to reflect a reduction in either inositol synthesis or replenishment of inositol from IP3, due to the inhibition of inositol phosphatases by the lithium ion. In agreement

  6. 21 CFR 582.5370 - Inositol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inositol. 582.5370 Section 582.5370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5370 - Inositol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inositol. 582.5370 Section 582.5370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5370 - Inositol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inositol. 582.5370 Section 582.5370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5370 - Inositol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inositol. 582.5370 Section 582.5370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5370 - Inositol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inositol. 582.5370 Section 582.5370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  11. Myo-Inositol content determined by myo-inositol biosynthesis and oxidation in blueberry fruit.

    PubMed

    Song, Fangyuan; Su, Hongyan; Yang, Nan; Zhu, Luying; Cheng, Jieshan; Wang, Lei; Cheng, Xianhao

    2016-11-01

    Myo-inositol metabolism in plant edible organs has become the focus of many recent studies because of its benefits to human health and unique functions in plant development. In this study, myo-inositol contents were analyzed during the development of two blueberry cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop'. Furthermore, two VcMIPS 1/2 (Vaccinium corymbosum MIPS) genes, one VcIMP (Vaccinium corymbosum IMP) gene and one VcMIOX (Vaccinium corymbosum MIOX) gene were isolated for the first time from blueberry. The expression patterns of VcMIPS2, VcIMP and VcMIOX genes showed a relationship with the change profiles of myo-inositol content during fruit ripening. The results were further confirmed by the analyses of the enzyme activity. Results indicated that both myo-inositol biosynthesis and oxidation played important roles in determining of myo-inositol levels during the development of blueberry. To our knowledge, this report is the first to discuss myo-inositol levels in fruits in terms of biosynthesis and catabolism.

  12. The inositol phosphate/diacylglycerol signalling pathway in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed Central

    Docampo, R; Pignataro, O P

    1991-01-01

    Using [32P]Pi and [3H]inositol as precursors, we have detected the presence of phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, and their derivatives inositol phosphate, inositol 1,4-bisphosphate and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate respectively, in Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes. Using digitonin-permeabilized cells it was possible to detect a stimulation in the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and inositol 1,4-bisphosphate as well as an increased generation of diacylglycerol in the presence of 1 mM-CaCl2. These results are consistent with the operation of a functional inositol phosphate/diacylglycerol pathway in T. cruzi, and constitute the first demonstration of the presence and activation of this pathway in a parasitic protozoan. These results also indicate that this pathway is conserved during evolution from lower to higher eukaryotic organisms. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2025225

  13. Content of methylated inositols in familiar edible plants.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Osamu; Mun'im, Abdul; Negishi, Yukiko

    2015-03-18

    Familiar plants contain large amounts of inositols; soybean, white clover, red clover, bush clover, locust tree, wisteria, and kudzu of the legume family contain pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiro-inositol) at approximately 200-600 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). The contents of pinitol in other plants were 260 mg/100 g FW for sticky mouse-ear, 275 mg/100 g FW for chickweed, and 332 mg/100 g FW for ginkgo. chiro-Inositol of 191 and 156 mg/100 g FW was also found in dandelion and Japanese mallotus, respectively. Ononitol (4-O-methyl-myo-inositol) of 166 mg/100 g FW was found in sticky mouse-ear. Furthermore, young leaves of ginkgo contained sequoyitol (5-O-methyl-myo-inositol) of 287 mg/100 g FW. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of the methylated inositols were higher than those of the original inositols. Effective uses of these familiar edible plants are expected to promote good health.

  14. Analysis of Dictyostelium discoideum inositol pyrophosphate metabolism by gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Francesca; Livermore, Thomas; Rose, Giuseppina; Chubb, Jonathan Robert; Gaspari, Marco; Saiardi, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum was instrumental in the discovery and early characterization of inositol pyrophosphates, a class of molecules possessing highly-energetic pyrophosphate bonds. Inositol pyrophosphates regulate diverse biological processes and are attracting attention due to their ability to control energy metabolism and insulin signalling. However, inositol pyrophosphate research has been hampered by the lack of simple experimental procedures to study them. The recent development of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and simple staining to resolve and detect inositol pyrophosphate species has opened new investigative possibilities. This technology is now commonly applied to study in vitro enzymatic reactions. Here we employ PAGE technology to characterize the D. discoideum inositol pyrophosphate metabolism. Surprisingly, only three major bands are detectable after resolving acidic extract on PAGE. We have demonstrated that these three bands correspond to inositol hexakisphosphate (IP₆ or Phytic acid) and its derivative inositol pyrophosphates, IP₇ and IP₈. Biochemical analyses and genetic evidence were used to establish the genuine inositol phosphate nature of these bands. We also identified IP₉ in D. discoideum cells, a molecule so far detected only from in vitro biochemical reactions. Furthermore, we discovered that this amoeba possesses three different inositol pentakisphosphates (IP₅) isomers, which are largely metabolised to inositol pyrophosphates. Comparison of PAGE with traditional Sax-HPLC revealed an underestimation of the cellular abundance of inositol pyrophosphates by traditional methods. In fact our study revealed much higher levels of inositol pyrophosphates in D. discoideum in the vegetative state than previously detected. A three-fold increase in IP₈ was observed during development of D. discoideum a value lower that previously reported. Analysis of inositol pyrophosphate metabolism using ip6k null amoeba

  15. Inositol pyrophosphates inhibit synaptotagmin-dependent exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae-Sun; Lee, Joo-Young; Kyung, Jae Won; Yang, Yoosoo; Park, Seung Ju; Lee, Seulgi; Pavlovic, Igor; Kong, Byoungjae; Jho, Yong Seok; Jessen, Henning J.; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk; Shin, Yeon-Kyun; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yoon, Tae-Young; Kim, Seyun

    2016-01-01

    Inositol pyrophosphates such as 5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (5-IP7) are highly energetic inositol metabolites containing phosphoanhydride bonds. Although inositol pyrophosphates are known to regulate various biological events, including growth, survival, and metabolism, the molecular sites of 5-IP7 action in vesicle trafficking have remained largely elusive. We report here that elevated 5-IP7 levels, caused by overexpression of inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) kinase 1 (IP6K1), suppressed depolarization-induced neurotransmitter release from PC12 cells. Conversely, IP6K1 depletion decreased intracellular 5-IP7 concentrations, leading to increased neurotransmitter release. Consistently, knockdown of IP6K1 in cultured hippocampal neurons augmented action potential-driven synaptic vesicle exocytosis at synapses. Using a FRET-based in vitro vesicle fusion assay, we found that 5-IP7, but not 1-IP7, exhibited significantly higher inhibitory activity toward synaptic vesicle exocytosis than IP6. Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1), a Ca2+ sensor essential for synaptic membrane fusion, was identified as a molecular target of 5-IP7. Notably, 5-IP7 showed a 45-fold higher binding affinity for Syt1 compared with IP6. In addition, 5-IP7–dependent inhibition of synaptic vesicle fusion was abolished by increasing Ca2+ levels. Thus, 5-IP7 appears to act through Syt1 binding to interfere with the fusogenic activity of Ca2+. These findings reveal a role of 5-IP7 as a potent inhibitor of Syt1 in controlling the synaptic exocytotic pathway and expand our understanding of the signaling mechanisms of inositol pyrophosphates. PMID:27364007

  16. Phospholipid and glycolipid composition of acidocalcisomes of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Salto, María Laura; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark; de Lederkremer, Rosa M; Docampo, Roberto

    2008-04-01

    Highly purified acidocalcisomes from Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes were obtained by differential centrifugation and iodixanol gradient ultracentrifugation. Lipid analysis of acidocalcisomes revealed the presence of low amounts of 3beta-hydroxysterols and predominance of phospholipids. Alkylacyl phosphatidylinositol (16:0/18:2), diacyl phosphatidylinositol (18:0/18:2), diacyl phosphatidylcholine (16:0/18:2; 16:1/18:2; 16:2/18:2; 18:1/18:2 and 18:2/18:2), and diacyl phosphatidylethanolamine (16:0/18:2 and 16:1/18:2) were the only phospholipids characterized by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Incubation of epimastigotes with [(3)H]-mannose and isolation of acidocalcisomes allowed the detection of a glycoinositolphospholipid (GIPL) in these organelles. The sugar content of the acidocalcisomal GIPL was similar to that of the GIPL present in a microsomal fraction but the amount of galactofuranose and inositol with respect to the other monosaccharides was lower, suggesting a different chemical structure. Taken together, these results indicate that acidocalcisomes of T. cruzi have a distinct lipid and carbohydrate composition.

  17. Effect of transforming growth factor-alpha on inositol phospholipid metabolism in human epidermoid carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Takenawa, T.; Twardzik, D.R.

    1988-08-01

    Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) stimulates (in a dose-dependent manner) the incorporation of (/sup 32/P)Pi into phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP), phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), and phosphatidic acid (PA) in the human epidermoid carcinoma cell line (A431). The effect of TGF-alpha on the incorporation was found to be similar to that of EGF. On the other hand, a striking difference in the activation of diacylglycerol (DG) kinase activity was seen between TGF-alpha and EGF. At least 100 times more TGF-alpha was required to achieve maximal stimulation of DG kinase activity relative to EGF. These results suggest that the activation of DG kinase by TGF-alpha may involve a mechanism independent from or subsequent to activation of the EGF receptor.

  18. 47 CFR 213.5 - Precedence designators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Precedence designators. 213.5 Section 213.5 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.5 Precedence designators. (a) The following...

  19. 47 CFR 213.5 - Precedence designators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Precedence designators. 213.5 Section 213.5 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.5 Precedence designators. (a) The following...

  20. 47 CFR 213.5 - Precedence designators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Precedence designators. 213.5 Section 213.5 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.5 Precedence designators. (a) The following...

  1. 47 CFR 213.5 - Precedence designators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Precedence designators. 213.5 Section 213.5 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.5 Precedence designators. (a) The following...

  2. 47 CFR 213.5 - Precedence designators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Precedence designators. 213.5 Section 213.5 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.5 Precedence designators. (a) The following...

  3. Partial purification and characterization of indol-3-ylacetylglucose:myo-inositol indol-3-ylacetyltransferase (indoleacetic acid-inositol synthase)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesy, J. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1990-01-01

    A procedure is described for the purification of the enzyme indol-3-ylacetylglucose:myo-inositol indol-3-ylacetyltransferase (IAA-myo-inositol synthase). This enzyme catalyzes the transfer of indol-3-ylacetate from 1-0-indol-3-ylacetyl-beta-d-glucose to myo-inositol to form indol-3-ylacetyl-myo-inositol and glucose. A hexokinase or glucose oxidase based assay system is described. The enzyme has been purified approximately 16,000-fold, has an isoelectric point of pH 6.1 and yields three catalytically inactive bands upon acrylamide gel electrophoresis of the native protein. The enzyme shows maximum transferase activity with myo-inositol but shows some transferase activity with scyllo-inositol and myo-inosose-2. No transfer of IAA occurs with myo-inositol-d-galactopyranose, cyclohexanol, mannitol, or glycerol as acyl acceptor. The affinity of the enzyme for 1-0-indol-3-ylacetyl-beta-d-glucose is, Km = 30 micromolar, and for myo-inositol is, Km = 4 millimolar. The enzyme does not catalyze the exchange incorporation of glucose into IAA-glucose indicating the reaction mechanism involves binding of IAA glucose to the enzyme with subsequent hydrolytic cleavage of the acyl moiety by the hydroxyl of myo-inositol to form IAA myo-inositol ester.

  4. Candida albicans OPI1 Regulates Filamentous Growth and Virulence in Vaginal Infections, but Not Inositol Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Lien; de Bernardis, Flavia; Yu, Shang-Jie; Sandini, Silvia; Kauffman, Sarah; Tams, Robert N.; Bethea, Emily; Reynolds, Todd B.

    2015-01-01

    ScOpi1p is a well-characterized transcriptional repressor and master regulator of inositol and phospholipid biosynthetic genes in the baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An ortholog has been shown to perform a similar function in the pathogenic fungus Candida glabrata, but with the distinction that CgOpi1p is essential for growth in this organism. However, in the more distantly related yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, the OPI1 homolog was not found to regulate inositol biosynthesis, but alkane oxidation. In Candida albicans, the most common cause of human candidiasis, its Opi1p homolog, CaOpi1p, has been shown to complement a S. cerevisiae opi1∆ mutant for inositol biosynthesis regulation when heterologously expressed, suggesting it might serve a similar role in this pathogen. This was tested in the pathogen directly in this report by disrupting the OPI1 homolog and examining its phenotypes. It was discovered that the OPI1 homolog does not regulate INO1 expression in C. albicans, but it does control SAP2 expression in response to bovine serum albumin containing media. Meanwhile, we found that CaOpi1 represses filamentous growth at lower temperatures (30°C) on agar, but not in liquid media. Although, the mutant does not affect virulence in a mouse model of systemic infection, it does affect virulence in a rat model of vaginitis. This may be because Opi1p regulates expression of the SAP2 protease, which is required for rat vaginal infections. PMID:25602740

  5. Interactions of amelogenin with phospholipids

    SciTech Connect

    Bekshe Lokappa, Sowmya; Chandrababu, Karthik Balakrishna; Dutta, Kaushik; Perovic, Iva; Evans, John Spencer; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2014-11-22

    Amelogenin protein has the potential to interact with other enamel matrix proteins, mineral, and cell surfaces. In this paper, we investigated the interactions of recombinant amelogenin rP172 with small unilamellar vesicles as model membranes, toward the goal of understanding the mechanisms of amelogenin–cell interactions during amelogenesis. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used. In the presence of phospholipid vesicles, a blue shift in the Trp fluorescence emission maxima of rP172 was observed (~334 nm) and the Trp residues of rP172 were inaccessible to the aqueous quencher acrylamide. DLS studies indicated complexation of rP172 and phospholipids, although the possibility of fusion of phospholipids following amelogenin addition cannot be ruled out. NMR and CD studies revealed a disorder–order transition of rP172 in a model membrane environment. Strong fluorescence resonance energy transfer from Trp in rP172 to DNS-bound-phospholipid was observed, and fluorescence polarization studies indicated that rP172 interacted with the hydrophobic core region of model membranes. Finally, our data suggest that amelogenin has ability to interact with phospholipids and that such interactions may play key roles in enamel biomineralization as well as reported amelogenin signaling activities.

  6. Interactions of amelogenin with phospholipids

    DOE PAGES

    Bekshe Lokappa, Sowmya; Chandrababu, Karthik Balakrishna; Dutta, Kaushik; ...

    2014-11-22

    Amelogenin protein has the potential to interact with other enamel matrix proteins, mineral, and cell surfaces. In this paper, we investigated the interactions of recombinant amelogenin rP172 with small unilamellar vesicles as model membranes, toward the goal of understanding the mechanisms of amelogenin–cell interactions during amelogenesis. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used. In the presence of phospholipid vesicles, a blue shift in the Trp fluorescence emission maxima of rP172 was observed (~334 nm) and the Trp residues of rP172 were inaccessible to the aqueous quencher acrylamide. DLS studies indicated complexationmore » of rP172 and phospholipids, although the possibility of fusion of phospholipids following amelogenin addition cannot be ruled out. NMR and CD studies revealed a disorder–order transition of rP172 in a model membrane environment. Strong fluorescence resonance energy transfer from Trp in rP172 to DNS-bound-phospholipid was observed, and fluorescence polarization studies indicated that rP172 interacted with the hydrophobic core region of model membranes. Finally, our data suggest that amelogenin has ability to interact with phospholipids and that such interactions may play key roles in enamel biomineralization as well as reported amelogenin signaling activities.« less

  7. Inositol lipids: from an archaeal origin to phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate faults in human disease.

    PubMed

    Michell, Robert H

    2013-12-01

    The last couple of decades have seen an extraordinary transformation in our knowledge and understanding of the multifarious biological roles of inositol phospholipids. Herein, I briefly consider two topics. The first is the role that recently acquired biochemical and genomic information - especially from archaeons - has played in illuminating the possible evolutionary origins of the biological employment of inositol in lipids, and some questions that these studies raise about the 'classical' biosynthetic route to phosphatidylinositol. The second is the growing recognition of the importance in eukaryotic cells of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate. Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate only entered our phosphoinositide consciousness quite recently, but it is speedily gathering a plethora of roles in diverse cellular processes and diseases thereof. These include: control of endolysosomal vesicular trafficking and of the activity of ion channels and pumps in the endolysosomal compartment; control of constitutive and stimulated protein traffic to and from plasma membrane subdomains; control of the nutrient and stress-sensing target of rapamycin complex 1 pathway (TORC1); and regulation of key genes in some central metabolic pathways.

  8. Inositols in the Treatment of Insulin-Mediated Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Palomba, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of research is currently focused on the role of inositol isomers and in particular myo-inositol (MYO-INS) and D-chiroinositol (DCI) in the treatment of insulin resistance states. Both isomers have been shown to exert insulin-mimetic action and to lower postprandial glucose. Further, insulin resistance-related diseases were associated to derangements in inositol metabolism. Thus, the aim of this review is to provide current evidence on the potential benefits of inositol isomers (MYO-INS and DCI) in the treatment of disease associated to insulin resistance such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), gestational diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Finally, molecular insights into inositol insulin-sensitizing effects will be covered focusing on the possible role of inositol glycans as insulin second messengers. PMID:27688754

  9. Inositol hexakisphosphate kinase products contain diphosphate and triphosphate groups.

    PubMed

    Draskovic, Petra; Saiardi, Adolfo; Bhandari, Rashna; Burton, Adam; Ilc, Gregor; Kovacevic, Miroslav; Snyder, Solomon H; Podobnik, Marjetka

    2008-03-01

    Eukaryotic cells produce a family of diverse inositol polyphosphates (IPs) containing pyrophosphate bonds. Inositol pyrophosphates have been linked to a wide range of cellular functions, and there is growing evidence that they act as second messengers. Inositol hexakisphosphate kinase (IP6K) is able to convert the natural substrates inositol pentakisphosphate (IP 5) and inositol hexakisphosphate (IP 6) to several products with an increasing number of phospho-anhydride bonds. In this study, we structurally analyzed IPs synthesized by three mammalian isoforms of IP6K from IP 5 and IP 6. The NMR and mass analyses showed a number of products with diverse, yet specific, stereochemistry, defined by the architecture of IP6K's active site. We now report that IP6K synthesizes both pyrophosphate (diphospho) as well as triphospho groups on the inositol ring. All three IP6K isoforms share the same activities both in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Precedence relationship representations of mechanical assembly sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homendemello, L. S.; Sanderson, A. C.

    1989-01-01

    Two types of precedence relationship representations for mechanical assembly sequences are presented: precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection between two parts and the establishment of another connection, and precedence relationships between the establishment of one connection and states of the assembly process. Precedence relationship representations have the advantage of being very compact. The problem with these representations was how to guarantee their correctness and completeness. Two theorems are presented each of which leads to the generation of one type of precedence relationship representation guaranteeing its correctness and completeness for a class of assemblies.

  11. The D-chiro-inositol paradox in the ovary.

    PubMed

    Carlomagno, Gianfranco; Unfer, Vittorio; Roseff, Scott

    2011-06-30

    The D-chiro-inositol-to-myo-inositol ratio is regulated by an insulin-dependent epimerase. Enzyme activity varies among tissues, likely owing to the specific needs of the two different molecules. We hypothesize that in the ovaries of polycystic ovary syndrome patients, epimerase activity is enhanced, leading to a local myo-inositol deficiency which in turn is responsible for the poor oocyte quality.

  12. Effects of Inositol(s) in Women with PCOS: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Nestler, John E.; Kamenov, Zdravko A.; Prapas, Nikos; Facchinetti, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder, with complex etiology and pathophysiology, which remains poorly understood. It affects about 5–10% of women of reproductive age who typically suffer from obesity, hyperandrogenism, ovarian dysfunction, and menstrual irregularity. Indeed, PCOS is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility in industrialized nations, and it is associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and increased cardiovascular risk. Although insulin resistance is not included as a criterion for diagnosis, it is a critical pathological condition of PCOS. The purpose of this systematic review is the analysis of recent randomized clinical trials of inositol(s) in PCOS, in particular myo- and D-chiro-inositol, in order to better elucidate their physiological involvement in PCOS and potential therapeutic use, alone and in conjunction with assisted reproductive technologies, in the clinical treatment of women with PCOS. PMID:27843451

  13. [Phospholipids: properties and health effects].

    PubMed

    Torres García, Jairo; Durán Agüero, Samuel

    2014-09-12

    Phospholipids are amphipathic lipids, which are found in all the cell membranes, organized as a lipid bilayer. They belong to the glycerol-derived lipids, showing a similar structure as triglycerides. The current interest of them comes from its effectiveness to incorporate different fatty acids in the cell membrane, as they exhibit better absorption and utilization than triglycerides. In this paper, the bibliographical data published about the benefits of the phospholipids in inflammatory processes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, liver disease and as an antioxidants transporter is reviewed.

  14. The “Other” Inositols and Their Phosphates: Synthesis, Biology and Medicine (with Recent Advances in myo-Inositol Chemistry)

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Mark P; Mills, Stephen J; Potter, Barry V L

    2016-01-01

    Cell signalling via inositol phosphates, eg the second messenger myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and phosphoinositides comprises a huge field of biology. Of nine 1,2,3,4,5,6-cyclohexanehexol isomers, myo-inositol is pre-eminent, with “other” inositols (cis-, epi-, allo-, muco-, neo-, l-chiro-, d-chiro- and scyllo-) and derivatives rarer or thought not to exist in nature. However, recently, neo- and d-chiro-inositol hexakisphosphates were revealed in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, highlighting the paucity of knowledge of the origins and potential biological functions of such stereoisomers, a prevalent group of environmental organic phosphates, and their parent inositols. Some “other” inositols are medically relevant, e.g. scyllo-inositol (neurodegenerative diseases), and d-chiro-inositol (diabetes). It is timely to consider exploration of roles and applications of “other” isomers and their derivatives, likely by exploiting techniques now well developed for the myo-series. PMID:26694856

  15. Growth hormone releasing hexapeptide (GHRP-6) activates the inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate/diacylglycerol pathway in rat anterior pituitary cells.

    PubMed

    Mau, S E; Witt, M R; Bjerrum, O J; Saermark, T; Vilhardt, H

    1995-01-01

    Growth hormone-releasing hexapeptide (GHRP-6) is known to stimulate secretion of growth hormone (GH) in vivo and in vitro in a variety of species. However, the cellular effects of GHRP-6 remain largely unknown. We have tested the influence of GHRP-6 on the inositol phospholipid second messenger system in cultured anterior pituitary cells. Cultured pituitary cells responded upon challenge with GHRP-6 with a dose-dependent release of GH. Moreover, incubation of GHRP-6 with pituitary cell cultures labelled with myo-[3H]inositol resulted in a dose-dependent rise in [3H]inositol phosphates. Brief stimulation of pituitary cells with GHRP-6 increased phosphorylation of MBP4-14, a specific protein kinase C substrate, when incubated with the cytosol- or plasma membrane fraction from the stimulated cells. Furthermore, introduction of MBP4-14 into the cytosol in digitonin permeabilized pituitary cells caused increased phosphorylation of this substrate. GHRP-6 induced a rise in intracellular Ca2+ in individual somatotrophs loaded with the Ca2+ indicator, Fura-2. Preincubation (3 min) with somatostatin (SRIF) diminished the Ca2+ spike elicited by GHRP-6, while no effect of SRIF was observed when added simultaneously with GHRP-6. These results indicate that GHRP-6-stimulated GH-secretion involves the diacylglycerol/inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate pathway with a resulting rise in cytosolic Ca2+.

  16. Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant with a partial defect in the synthesis of CDP-diacylglycerol and altered regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Klig, L S; Homann, M J; Kohlwein, S D; Kelley, M J; Henry, S A; Carman, G M

    1988-01-01

    A Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant (cdg1 mutation) was isolated on the basis of an inositol excretion phenotype and exhibited pleiotropic deficiencies in phospholipid biosynthesis. Genetic analysis of the mutant confirmed that the cdg1 mutation represents a new genetic locus and that a defect in a single gene was responsible for the Cdg1 phenotype. CDP-diacylglycerol synthase activity in mutant haploid cells was 25% of the wild-type derepressed level. Biochemical and immunoblot analyses revealed that the defect in CDP-diacylglycerol synthase activity in the cdg1 mutant was due to a reduced level of the CDP-diacylglycerol synthase Mr-56,000 subunit rather than to an alteration in the enzymological properties of the enzyme. This defect resulted in a reduced rate of CDP-diacylglycerol synthesis, an elevated phosphatidate content, and alterations in overall phospholipid synthesis. Unlike wild-type cells, CDP-diacylglycerol synthase was not regulated in response to water-soluble phospholipid precursors. The cdg1 lesion also caused constitutive expression of inositol-1-phosphate synthase and elevated phosphatidylserine synthase. Phosphatidylinositol synthase was not affected in the cdg1 mutant. Images PMID:2832385

  17. Targeting Phospholipid Metabolism in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Menglin; Bhujwalla, Zaver M.; Glunde, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    All cancers tested so far display abnormal choline and ethanolamine phospholipid metabolism, which has been detected with numerous magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) approaches in cells, animal models of cancer, as well as the tumors of cancer patients. Since the discovery of this metabolic hallmark of cancer, many studies have been performed to elucidate the molecular origins of deregulated choline metabolism, to identify targets for cancer treatment, and to develop MRS approaches that detect choline and ethanolamine compounds for clinical use in diagnosis and treatment monitoring. Several enzymes in choline, and recently also ethanolamine, phospholipid metabolism have been identified, and their evaluation has shown that they are involved in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Several already established enzymes as well as a number of emerging enzymes in phospholipid metabolism can be used as treatment targets for anticancer therapy, either alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic approaches. This review summarizes the current knowledge of established and relatively novel targets in phospholipid metabolism of cancer, covering choline kinase α, phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase D1, phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C, sphingomyelinases, choline transporters, glycerophosphodiesterases, phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, and ethanolamine kinase. These enzymes are discussed in terms of their roles in oncogenic transformation, tumor progression, and crucial cancer cell properties such as fast proliferation, migration, and invasion. Their potential as treatment targets are evaluated based on the current literature. PMID:28083512

  18. Inositol polyphosphate phosphatases in human disease.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Sandra; Bertucci, Micka C; Conduit, Sarah E; Vuong, David L; Mitchell, Christina A

    2012-01-01

    Phosphoinositide signalling molecules interact with a plethora of effector proteins to regulate cell proliferation and survival, vesicular trafficking, metabolism, actin dynamics and many other cellular functions. The generation of specific phosphoinositide species is achieved by the activity of phosphoinositide kinases and phosphatases, which phosphorylate and dephosphorylate, respectively, the inositol headgroup of phosphoinositide molecules. The phosphoinositide phosphatases can be classified as 3-, 4- and 5-phosphatases based on their specificity for dephosphorylating phosphates from specific positions on the inositol head group. The SAC phosphatases show less specificity for the position of the phosphate on the inositol ring. The phosphoinositide phosphatases regulate PI3K/Akt signalling, insulin signalling, endocytosis, vesicle trafficking, cell migration, proliferation and apoptosis. Mouse knockout models of several of the phosphoinositide phosphatases have revealed significant physiological roles for these enzymes, including the regulation of embryonic development, fertility, neurological function, the immune system and insulin sensitivity. Importantly, several phosphoinositide phosphatases have been directly associated with a range of human diseases. Genetic mutations in the 5-phosphatase INPP5E are causative of the ciliopathy syndromes Joubert and MORM, and mutations in the 5-phosphatase OCRL result in Lowe's syndrome and Dent 2 disease. Additionally, polymorphisms in the 5-phosphatase SHIP2 confer diabetes susceptibility in specific populations, whereas reduced protein expression of SHIP1 is reported in several human leukaemias. The 4-phosphatase, INPP4B, has recently been identified as a tumour suppressor in human breast and prostate cancer. Mutations in one SAC phosphatase, SAC3/FIG4, results in the degenerative neuropathy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Indeed, an understanding of the precise functions of phosphoinositide phosphatases is not only

  19. Characterization of inositol phosphates in carrot (Daucus carota L. ) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rincon, M.; Chen, Q.; Boss, W.F. )

    1989-01-01

    We have shown previously that inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) stimulates an efflux of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} from fusogenic carrot protoplasts. In light of these results, we suggested that IP{sub 3} might serve as a second messenger for the mobilization of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} in higher plant cells. To determine whether or not IP{sub 3} and other inositol phosphates were present in the carrot cells, the cells were labeled with myo-(2-{sup 3}H)inositol for 18 hours and extracted with ice-cold 10% trichloroacetic acid. The inositol metabolites were separated by anion exchange chromatography and by paper electrophoresis. We found that ({sup 3}H)inositol metabolites coeluted with inositol bisphosphate (IP{sub 2}) and IP{sub 3} when separated by anion exchange chromatography. However, we could not detect IP{sub 2} or IP{sub 3} when the inositol metabolites were analyzed by paper electrophoresis even though the polyphosphoinositides, which are the source of IP{sub 2} and IP{sub 3}, were present in these cells. Thus, ({sup 3}H)inositol metabolites other than IP{sub 2} and IP{sub 3} had coeluted on the anion exchange columns. The data indicate that either IP{sub 3} is rapidly metabolized or that it is not present at a detectable level in the carrot cells.

  20. Myo-Inositol-Dependent Sodium Uptake in Ice Plant1

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Donald E.; Koukoumanos, Michelle; Bohnert, Hans J.

    1999-01-01

    In salt-stressed ice plants (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum), sodium accumulates to high concentrations in vacuoles, and polyols (myo-inositol, d-ononitol, and d-pinitol) accumulate in the cytosol. Polyol synthesis is regulated by NaCl and involves induction and repression of gene expression (D.E. Nelson, B. Shen, and H.J. Bohnert [1998] Plant Cell 10: 753–764). In the study reported here we found increased phloem transport of myo-inositol and reciprocal increased transport of sodium and inositol to leaves under stress. To determine the relationship between increased translocation and sodium uptake, we analyzed the effects of exogenous application of myo-inositol: The NaCl-inducible ice plant myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase is repressed in roots, and sodium uptake from root to shoot increases without stimulating growth. Sodium uptake and transport through the xylem was coupled to a 10-fold increase of myo-inositol and ononitol in the xylem. Seedlings of the ice plant are not salt-tolerant, and yet the addition of exogenous myo-inositol conferred upon them patterns of gene expression and polyol accumulation observed in mature, salt-tolerant plants. Sodium uptake and transport through the xylem was enhanced in the presence of myo-inositol. The results indicate an interdependence of sodium uptake and alterations in the distribution of myo-inositol. We hypothesize that myo-inositol could serve not only as a substrate for the production of compatible solutes but also as a leaf-to-root signal that promotes sodium uptake. PMID:9880357

  1. Inositol pyrophosphates: why so many phosphates?

    PubMed Central

    Shears, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    The inositol pyrophosphates (PP-InsPs) are a specialized group of “energetic” signaling molecules found in yeasts, plants and animals. PP-InsPs boast the most crowded three dimensional phosphate arrays found in Nature; multiple phosphates and diphosphates are crammed around the six-carbon, inositol ring. Yet, phosphate esters are also a major energy currency in cells. So the synthesis of PP-InsPs, and the maintenance of their levels in the face of a high rate of ongoing turnover, all requires significant bioenergetic input. What are the particular properties of PP-InsPs that repay this investment of cellular energy? Potential answers to that question are discussed here, against the backdrop of a recent hypothesis that signaling by PP-InsPs is evolutionarily ancient. The latter idea is extended herein, with the proposal that the primordial origins of PP-InsPs is reflected in the apparent lack of isomeric specificity of certain of their actions. Nevertheless, there are other aspects of signaling by these polyphosphates that are more selective for a particular PP-InsP isomer. Consideration of the nature of both specific and non-specific effects of PP-InsPs can help rationalize why such molecules possess so many phosphates. PMID:25453220

  2. Nanomechanics of electrospun phospholipid fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, Ana C.; Nikogeorgos, Nikolaos; Lee, Seunghwan; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2015-06-01

    Electrospun asolectin phospholipid fibers were prepared using isooctane as a solvent and had an average diameter of 6.1 ± 2.7 μm. Their mechanical properties were evaluated by nanoindentation using Atomic Force Microscopy, and their elastic modulus was found to be approximately 17.2 ± 1 MPa. At a cycle of piezo expansion-retraction (loading-unloading) of a silicon tip on a fiber, relatively high adhesion was observed during unloading. It is proposed that this was primarily due to molecular rearrangements at the utmost layers of the fiber caused by the indentation of the hydrophilic tip. The phospholipid fibers were shown to be stable in ambient conditions, preserving the modulus of elasticity up to 24 h.

  3. Interactions of Amelogenin with Phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    Lokappa, Sowmya Bekshe; Chandrababu, Karthik Balakrishna; Dutta, Kaushik; Perovic, Iva; Evans, John Spencer; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Amelogenin protein has the potential to interact with other enamel matrix proteins, mineral and cell surfaces. We investigated the interactions of recombinant amelogenin rP172 with small unilamellar vesicles as model membranes, towards the goal of understanding the mechanisms of amelogenin-cell interactions during amelogenesis. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used. In the presence of phospholipid vesicles, a blue shift in the Trp fluorescence emission maxima of rP172 was observed (~334 nm) and the Trp residues of rP172 were inaccessible to the aqueous quencher acrylamide. Though in DLS studies we cannot exclude the possibility of fusion of liposomes as the result of amelogenin addition, NMR and CD studies revealed a disorder-order transition of rP172 in a model membrane environment. Strong FRET from Trp in rP172 to DNS–bound-phospholipid was observed, and fluorescence polarization studies indicated that rP172 interacted with the hydrophobic core region of model membranes. Our data suggest that amelogenin has ability to interact with phospholipids and that such interactions may play key roles in enamel biomineralization as well as reported amelogenin signaling activities. PMID:25298002

  4. Electrical Properties of Phospholipid Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Schwan, H. P.; Takashima, S.; Miyamoto, V. K.; Stoeckenius, W.

    1970-01-01

    The capacitance of the membrane of phospholipid vesicles and the electrical properties of the vesicle interior have been determined. To this end the electrical properties of phospholipid vesicles have been investigated over a frequency range extending from 1 kHz to 100 MHz. The dielectric behavior is characterized by two dispersions, one placed between 1 kHz and 1 MHz and the other between 1 and 100 MHz. The relaxational behavior at low frequencies is explained by counterion movement tangential to the vesicle surface and a reasonable value for the fixed charge of the vesicles is calculated from the dispersion magnitude. The relaxation at high frequencies is of the Maxwell-Wagner type and appears caused by the phospholipid bilayer bounding the interior phase of the vesicles. It is consistent with the existence of a closed bilayer with a capacitance of about 2 μF/cm2 and an internal phase similar to the vesicle suspending medium. There is no indication of other than normally structured water inside the small vesicles. PMID:5471701

  5. Nutritional Deficiencies and Phospholipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gimenez, María S.; Oliveros, Liliana B.; Gomez, Nidia N.

    2011-01-01

    Phospholipids are important components of the cell membranes of all living species. They contribute to the physicochemical properties of the membrane and thus influence the conformation and function of membrane-bound proteins, such as receptors, ion channels, and transporters and also influence cell function by serving as precursors for prostaglandins and other signaling molecules and modulating gene expression through the transcription activation. The components of the diet are determinant for cell functionality. In this review, the effects of macro and micronutrients deficiency on the quality, quantity and metabolism of different phospholipids and their distribution in cells of different organs is presented. Alterations in the amount of both saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins A, E and folate, and other micronutrients, such as zinc and magnesium, are discussed. In all cases we observe alterations in the pattern of phospholipids, the more affected ones being phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin. The deficiency of certain nutrients, such as essential fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins and some metals may contribute to a variety of diseases that can be irreversible even after replacement with normal amount of the nutrients. Usually, the sequelae are more important when the deficiency is present at an early age. PMID:21731449

  6. A Novel Inositol Pyrophosphate Phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Steidle, Elizabeth A.; Chong, Lucy S.; Wu, Mingxuan; Crooke, Elliott; Fiedler, Dorothea; Resnick, Adam C.; Rolfes, Ronda J.

    2016-01-01

    Inositol pyrophosphates are high energy signaling molecules involved in cellular processes, such as energetic metabolism, telomere maintenance, stress responses, and vesicle trafficking, and can mediate protein phosphorylation. Although the inositol kinases underlying inositol pyrophosphate biosynthesis are well characterized, the phosphatases that selectively regulate their cellular pools are not fully described. The diphosphoinositol phosphate phosphohydrolase enzymes of the Nudix protein family have been demonstrated to dephosphorylate inositol pyrophosphates; however, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog Ddp1 prefers inorganic polyphosphate over inositol pyrophosphates. We identified a novel phosphatase of the recently discovered atypical dual specificity phosphatase family as a physiological inositol pyrophosphate phosphatase. Purified recombinant Siw14 hydrolyzes the β-phosphate from 5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (5PP-IP5 or IP7) in vitro. In vivo, siw14Δ yeast mutants possess increased IP7 levels, whereas heterologous SIW14 overexpression eliminates IP7 from cells. IP7 levels increased proportionately when siw14Δ was combined with ddp1Δ or vip1Δ, indicating independent activity by the enzymes encoded by these genes. We conclude that Siw14 is a physiological phosphatase that modulates inositol pyrophosphate metabolism by dephosphorylating the IP7 isoform 5PP-IP5 to IP6. PMID:26828065

  7. Biosynthesis and possible functions of inositol pyrophosphates in plants

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sarah P.; Gillaspy, Glenda E.; Perera, Imara Y.

    2015-01-01

    Inositol phosphates (InsPs) are intricately tied to lipid signaling, as at least one portion of the inositol phosphate signaling pool is derived from hydrolysis of the lipid precursor, phosphatidyl inositol (4,5) bisphosphate. The focus of this review is on the inositol pyrophosphates, which are a novel group of InsP signaling molecules containing diphosphate or triphosphate chains (i.e., PPx) attached to the inositol ring. These PPx-InsPs are emerging as critical players in the integration of cellular metabolism and stress signaling in non-plant eukaryotes. Most eukaryotes synthesize the precursor molecule, myo-inositol (1,2,3,4,5,6)-hexakisphosphate (InsP6), which can serve as a signaling molecule or as storage compound of inositol, phosphorus, and minerals (referred to as phytic acid). Even though plants produce huge amounts of precursor InsP6 in seeds, almost no attention has been paid to whether PPx-InsPs exist in plants, and if so, what roles these molecules play. Recent work has delineated that Arabidopsis has two genes capable of PP-InsP5 synthesis, and PPx-InsPs have been detected across the plant kingdom. This review will detail the known roles of PPx-InsPs in yeast and animal systems, and provide a description of recent data on the synthesis and accumulation of these novel molecules in plants, and potential roles in signaling. PMID:25729385

  8. [Phospholipids and structural modification of tissues and cell membranes for adaptation in high altitude mountains].

    PubMed

    Iakovlev, V M; Vishnevskiĭ, A A; Shanazarov, A S

    2012-01-01

    The nature of the impact of physical factors of high altitudes (3200 m) on the lipids of tissues and membranes of animals was researched. It was established that the adaptation process in Wistar rats was followed by peroxide degradation and subsequent modification of the phospholipids' structure of tissues and microsomal membranes. Adaptive phospholipids reconstruction takes place in microsomal membranes in the tissues of the lungs, brain, liver and skeletal muscles. Together with this, the amount of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidic acid accumulates, indicating that the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol-4, 5 biphosphate to diacylglycerol and secondary messenger--inositol triphosphate, occurs. A decrease in temperature adaptation (+10 degrees C) leads to a more noticeable shift in peroxide oxidation of lipids, phospholipid structure in the tissues and membranes rather than adaptation in thermoneutral conditions (+30 degrees C). Modification of lipid composition of tissues and cell membranes in the highlands obviously increases the adaptive capabilities of cells of the whole body: physical performance and resistance to hypoxia increases in animals.

  9. Listeria monocytogenes meningitis preceded by acute cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Luthe, Sarah Kyuragi; Sato, Ryota; Maeda, Tetsuro; Takahashi, Kuniko

    2017-03-20

    Listeria monocytogenes is a well-known cause of meningitis in immunocompromised patients. This organism has a growing significance for community-acquired meningitis, which should have ampicillin added to the usual regimen. We describe a case of L. monocytogenes meningitis preceded by cholangitis. This case suggests gastrointestinal symptoms preceding meningitis may be a clue of listeriosis. It is important for physicians to consider L. monocytogenes as a cause of bacterial meningitis in patients with altered mental status preceded by gastrointestinal symptoms, especially in the immunocompromised population.

  10. Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    S. et al. (2002). Decreased activity of brain phospholipid metabolic enzymes in human users of cocaine and methamphetamine. Drug & Alcohol ...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0497 TITLE: Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use...NUMBER Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0497 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  11. Inositol and In Vitro Fertilization with Embryo Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Simi, G.; Genazzani, A. R.; Obino, M. E. R.; Papini, F.; Pinelli, S.; Cela, V.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, studies on inositol supplementation during in vitro fertilization program (IVF) have gained particular importance due to the effect of this molecule on reducing insulin resistance improving ovarian function, oocyte quality, and embryo and pregnancy rates and reducing gonadotropin amount during stimulation. Inositol and its isoforms, especially myoinositol (MYO), are often used as prestimulation therapy in infertile patients undergoing IVF cycle. Inositol supplementation started three months before ovarian stimulation, resulting in significant improvements in hormonal responses, reducing the amount of FSH necessary for optimal follicle development and serum levels of 17beta-estradiol measured the day of hCG injection. As shown by growing number of trials, MYO supplementation improves oocyte quality by reducing the number of degenerated and immature oocytes, in this way increasing the quality of embryos produced. Inositol can also improve the quality of sperm parameters in those patients affected by oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. PMID:28348586

  12. A conserved family of enzymes that phosphorylate inositol hexakisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Mulugu, Sashidhar; Bai, Wenli; Fridy, Peter C; Bastidas, Robert J; Otto, James C; Dollins, D Eric; Haystead, Timothy A; Ribeiro, Anthony A; York, John D

    2007-04-06

    Inositol pyrophosphates are a diverse group of high-energy signaling molecules whose cellular roles remain an active area of study. We report a previously uncharacterized class of inositol pyrophosphate synthase and find it is identical to yeast Vip1 and Asp1 proteins, regulators of actin-related protein-2/3 (ARP 2/3) complexes. Vip1 and Asp1 acted as enzymes that encode inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) and inositol heptakisphosphate (IP7) kinase activities. Alterations in kinase activity led to defects in cell growth, morphology, and interactions with ARP complex members. The functionality of Asp1 and Vip1 may provide cells with increased signaling capacity through metabolism of IP6.

  13. Absence of detectable inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate) in plasma.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Robin F

    2014-06-01

    A critical evaluation of a recent attempt to measure inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) in mammalian plasma by mass spectroscopy leads to the conclusion that as yet there is no unambiguous evidence that plasma contains any IP6.

  14. Structural analysis of a multifunctional, tandemly repeated inositol polyphosphatase.

    PubMed

    Gruninger, Robert J; Selinger, L Brent; Mosimann, Steven C

    2009-09-11

    Mitsuokella multacida expresses a unique inositol polyphosphatase (PhyAmm) that is composed of tandem repeats (TRs). Each repeat possesses a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) active-site signature sequence and fold. Using a combination of structural, mutational, and kinetic studies, we show that the N-terminal (D1) and C-terminal (D2) active sites of the TR have diverged and possess significantly different specificities for inositol polyphosphate. Structural analysis and molecular docking calculations identify steric and electrostatic differences within the substrate binding pocket of each TR that may be involved in the altered substrate specificity. The implications of our results for the biological function of related PTP-like phytases are discussed. Finally, the structures and activities of PhyAmm and tandemly repeated receptor PTPs are compared and discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first example of an inositol phosphatase with tandem PTP domains possessing substrate specificity for different inositol phosphates.

  15. Shapes of Mixed Phospholipid Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Aranda-Espinoza, Helim; Maldonado, Amir

    2006-01-01

    We studied the shape of phospholipid vesicles prepared by hydration of a mixture of phosphatidylcholine (SOPC) and phosphatidylserine (SOPS) in different proportions. The aim of the work is to obtain some insight into the influence of the chemical composition of a biomembrane on its shape. The optical microscopy results show that the shape of the vesicles depend on the SOPC:SOPS composition. For low SOPS contents, coiled cylindrical vesicles are observed. The results suggest that specific compositions of the SOPC:SOPS vesicles produce some spontaneous curvature on the membrane and then a coiling instability. PMID:19669461

  16. Interaction of caldesmon with phospholipids.

    PubMed Central

    Czuryło, E A; Zborowski, J; Dabrowska, R

    1993-01-01

    The interaction of caldesmon with liposomes composed of various phospholipids has been examined by tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy. The results indicate that caldesmon makes its strongest complex with phosphatidylserine (PS) vesicles (Kass. = 1.45 x 10(5) M-1). Both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions contribute to the stability of this complex. The site for strong binding of PS seems to be located in the N-terminal part of the 34 kDa C-terminal fragment of caldesmon. Binding of PS at this site results in displacement of calmodulin from its complex with caldesmon. Images Figure 4 PMID:8484721

  17. Functional Characterization of Pneumocystis carinii Inositol Transporter 1

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Margaret S.; Sesterhenn, Thomas; Porollo, Aleksey; Vadukoot, Anish Kizhakkekkara; Merino, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fungi in the genus Pneumocystis live in the lungs of mammals, where they can cause a fatal pneumonia (PCP [Pneumocystis pneumonia]) in hosts with compromised immune systems. The absence of a continuous in vitro culture system for any species of Pneumocystis has led to limited understanding of these fungi, especially for the discovery of new therapies. We recently reported that Pneumocystis carinii, Pneumocystis murina, and most significantly, Pneumocystis jirovecii lack both enzymes necessary for myo-inositol biosynthesis but contain genes with homologies to fungal myo-inositol transporters. Since myo-inositol is essential for eukaryotic viability, the primary transporter, ITR1, was functionally and structurally characterized in P. carinii. The predicted structure of P. carinii ITR1 (PcITR1) contained 12 transmembrane alpha-helices with intracellular C and N termini, consistent with other inositol transporters. The apparent Km was 0.94 ± 0.08 (mean ± standard deviation), suggesting that myo-inositol transport in P. carinii is likely through a low-affinity, highly selective transport system, as no other sugars or inositol stereoisomers were significant competitive inhibitors. Glucose transport was shown to use a different transport system. The myo-inositol transport was distinct from mammalian transporters, as it was not sodium dependent and was cytochalasin B resistant. Inositol transport in these fungi offers an attractive new drug target because of the reliance of the fungi on its transport, clear differences between the mammalian and fungal transporters, and the ability of the host to both synthesize and transport this critical nutrient, predicting low toxicity of potential inhibitors to the fungal transporter. PMID:27965450

  18. Synaptotagmin 1 causes phosphatidyl inositol lipid-dependent actin remodeling in cultured non-neuronal and neuronal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsson, Anna-Karin; Karlsson, Roger

    2012-01-15

    Here we demonstrate that a dramatic actin polymerizing activity caused by ectopic expression of the synaptic vesicle protein synaptotagmin 1 that results in extensive filopodia formation is due to the presence of a lysine rich sequence motif immediately at the cytoplasmic side of the transmembrane domain of the protein. This polybasic sequence interacts with anionic phospholipids in vitro, and, consequently, the actin remodeling caused by this sequence is interfered with by expression of a phosphatidyl inositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2)-targeted phosphatase, suggesting that it intervenes with the function of PIP2-binding actin control proteins. The activity drastically alters the behavior of a range of cultured cells including the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y and primary cortical mouse neurons, and, since the sequence is conserved also in synaptotagmin 2, it may reflect an important fine-tuning role for these two proteins during synaptic vesicle fusion and neurotransmitter release.

  19. Phospholipid liposomes functionalized by protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glukhova, O. E.; Savostyanov, G. V.; Grishina, O. A.

    2015-03-01

    Finding new ways to deliver neurotrophic drugs to the brain in newborns is one of the contemporary problems of medicine and pharmaceutical industry. Modern researches in this field indicate the promising prospects of supramolecular transport systems for targeted drug delivery to the brain which can overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Thus, the solution of this problem is actual not only for medicine, but also for society as a whole because it determines the health of future generations. Phospholipid liposomes due to combination of lipo- and hydrophilic properties are considered as the main future objects in medicine for drug delivery through the BBB as well as increasing their bioavailability and toxicity. Liposomes functionalized by various proteins were used as transport systems for ease of liposomes use. Designing of modification oligosaccharide of liposomes surface is promising in the last decade because it enables the delivery of liposomes to specific receptor of human cells by selecting ligand and it is widely used in pharmacology for the treatment of several diseases. The purpose of this work is creation of a coarse-grained model of bilayer of phospholipid liposomes, functionalized by specific to the structural elements of the BBB proteins, as well as prediction of the most favorable orientation and position of the molecules in the generated complex by methods of molecular docking for the formation of the structure. Investigation of activity of the ligand molecule to protein receptor of human cells by the methods of molecular dynamics was carried out.

  20. The Inositol-3-Phosphate Synthase Biosynthetic Enzyme Has Distinct Catalytic and Metabolic Roles

    PubMed Central

    Frej, Anna D.; Clark, Jonathan; Le Roy, Caroline I.; Lilla, Sergio; Thomason, Peter A.; Otto, Grant P.; Churchill, Grant; Insall, Robert H.; Claus, Sandrine P.; Hawkins, Phillip; Stephens, Len

    2016-01-01

    Inositol levels, maintained by the biosynthetic enzyme inositol-3-phosphate synthase (Ino1), are altered in a range of disorders, including bipolar disorder and Alzheimer's disease. To date, most inositol studies have focused on the molecular and cellular effects of inositol depletion without considering Ino1 levels. Here we employ a simple eukaryote, Dictyostelium discoideum, to demonstrate distinct effects of loss of Ino1 and inositol depletion. We show that loss of Ino1 results in an inositol auxotrophy that can be rescued only partially by exogenous inositol. Removal of inositol supplementation from the ino1− mutant resulted in a rapid 56% reduction in inositol levels, triggering the induction of autophagy, reduced cytokinesis, and substrate adhesion. Inositol depletion also caused a dramatic generalized decrease in phosphoinositide levels that was rescued by inositol supplementation. However, loss of Ino1 triggered broad metabolic changes consistent with the induction of a catabolic state that was not rescued by inositol supplementation. These data suggest a metabolic role for Ino1 that is independent of inositol biosynthesis. To characterize this role, an Ino1 binding partner containing SEL1L1 domains (Q54IX5) and having homology to mammalian macromolecular complex adaptor proteins was identified. Our findings therefore identify a new role for Ino1, independent of inositol biosynthesis, with broad effects on cell metabolism. PMID:26951199

  1. Inositol 1,4-bisphosphate is an allosteric activator of muscle-type 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Mayr, G W

    1989-01-01

    The allosteric effects of various inositol biphosphate (InsP2) isomers and other inositol phosphates, of glycerophosphoinositol phosphates (GroPInsPx) and of phosphoinositides (PtdInsPx) on muscle-type 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK) were investigated. The binding of these substances to PFK was indirectly estimated by their ability to stabilize the tetrameric enzyme. At near-physiological concentrations of other allosteric effectors, muscle PFK was activated AMP-dependently by Ins(1,4)P2 (Ka = 43 microM), Ins(2,4)P2 (Ka = 70 microM) and GroPIns4P (Ka = 20 microM). These compounds activated PFK by a mechanism similar to that established for activating hexose bisphosphates. Indirect binding experiments indicated minimal Kd,app. values of about 5 microM for the binding of Ins(1,4)P2 in the presence of 0.1 mM-AMP at pH 7.4. This apparent affinity was comparable with that of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and glucose 1,6-bisphosphate at identical conditions. The enzyme was also found to interact specifically with PtdIns4P (Kd,app. = 37 microM), the inositol phospholipid carrying Ins(1,4)P2 as its head group. The regulatory behaviour of muscle-type PFK in vitro and the concentrations of Ins(1,4)P2 in vivo (between 4 and greater than 50 nmol/g wet wt. of tissue) are consistent with the hypothesis that there is a functional interaction in vivo. Furthermore, a role of PtdIns4P in membrane compartmentation of PFK is suggested. Comparative experiments with liver PFK indicate that these regulatory properties may be relatively specific for the muscle isoform. Unlike muscle PFK, the liver isoform was slightly activated by sub-micromolar concentrations of Ins(1,4,5)P3. PMID:2541692

  2. Relationship between stimulated phosphatidic acid production and inositol lipid hydrolysis in intestinal longitudinal smooth muscle from guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Mallows, R S; Bolton, T B

    1987-06-15

    Accumulation of [32P]phosphatidic acid (PA) and total [3H]inositol phosphates (IPs) was measured in the longitudinal smooth-muscle layer from guinea-pig small intestine. Stimulation with carbachol, histamine and substance P produced increases in accumulation of both [3H]IPs and [32P]PA over the same concentration range. The increase in [32P]PA accumulation in response to carbachol (1 microM-0.1 mM) was inhibited in the presence of atropine (0.5 microM). Buffering the external free [Ca2+] to 10 nM did not prevent the carbachol-stimulated increase in [32P]PA accumulation. Carbachol and Ca2+ appear to act synergistically to increase accumulation of [32P]PA. In contrast, although incubation with noradrenaline also increased accumulation of [3H]IPs, no increase in accumulation of [32P]PA could be detected. These results suggest that an increase in formation of IPs is not necessarily accompanied by an increase in PA formation, and imply the existence of receptor-modulated pathways regulating PA concentrations other than by phospholipase-C-catalysed inositol phospholipid hydrolysis.

  3. A secreted salivary inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase from a blood-feeding insect: allosteric activation by soluble phosphoinositides and phosphatidylserine.

    PubMed

    Andersen, John F; Ribeiro, José M C

    2006-05-02

    Type II inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases (IPPs) act on both soluble inositol phosphate and phosphoinositide substrates. In many cases, these enzymes occur as multidomain proteins in which the IPP domain is linked to lipid-binding or additional catalytic domains. Rhodnius prolixus IPPRp exists as an isolated IPP domain which is secreted into the saliva of this blood-feeding insect. It shows selectivity for soluble and lipid substrates having a 1,4,5-trisphosphate substitution pattern while only poorly hydrolyzing substrates containing a D3 phosphate. With soluble diC8 PI(4,5)P(2) as a substrate, sigmoidal kinetics were observed, suggesting the presence of allosteric activation sites. Surprisingly, IPPRp-mediated hydrolysis of PI(4,5)P(2) and PI(3,4,5)P(3) was also stimulated up to 100-fold by diC8 PI(4)P and diC8 phosphatidylserine (PS). The activation kinetics were again sigmoidal, demonstrating that the allosteric sites recognize nonsubstrate phospholipids. Activation was positively cooperative, and analysis by the Hill equation suggests that at least three to four allosteric sites are present. In a vesicular system, hydrolysis of PI(4,5)P(2) followed a surface dilution kinetic model, and as expected, PS was found to be strongly stimulatory. If allosteric activation of type II IPPs by PI(4)P and PS is a widespread feature of the group, it may represent a novel regulatory mechanism for these important enzymes.

  4. The use of natural and synthetic phospholipids as pharmaceutical excipients.

    PubMed

    van Hoogevest, Peter; Wendel, Armin

    2014-09-01

    In pharmaceutical formulations, phospholipids obtained from plant or animal sources and synthetic phospholipids are used. Natural phospholipids are purified from, e.g., soybeans or egg yolk using non-toxic solvent extraction and chromatographic procedures with low consumption of energy and minimum possible waste. Because of the use of validated purification procedures and sourcing of raw materials with consistent quality, the resulting products differing in phosphatidylcholine content possess an excellent batch to batch reproducibility with respect to phospholipid and fatty acid composition. The natural phospholipids are described in pharmacopeias and relevant regulatory guidance documentation of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA). Synthetic phospholipids with specific polar head group, fatty acid composition can be manufactured using various synthesis routes. Synthetic phospholipids with the natural stereochemical configuration are preferably synthesized from glycerophosphocholine (GPC), which is obtained from natural phospholipids, using acylation and enzyme catalyzed reactions. Synthetic phospholipids play compared to natural phospholipid (including hydrogenated phospholipids), as derived from the number of drug products containing synthetic phospholipids, a minor role. Only in a few pharmaceutical products synthetic phospholipids are used. Natural phospholipids are used in oral, dermal, and parenteral products including liposomes. Natural phospholipids instead of synthetic phospholipids should be selected as phospholipid excipients for formulation development, whenever possible, because natural phospholipids are derived from renewable sources and produced with more ecologically friendly processes and are available in larger scale at relatively low costs compared to synthetic phospholipids. Practical applications: For selection of phospholipid excipients for pharmaceutical formulations, natural phospholipids are preferred

  5. [Effects of phospholipids on oxidative demethylation of dimethylcyclohexylamine by cumene hydroperoxide involving methemoglobin].

    PubMed

    Kiseleva, S N; Khatyleva, S Iu; Kisel', M A; Kiselev, P A; Akhrem, A A

    1981-12-01

    The reaction of oxidative demethylation of N-dimethylcyclohexylamine by cumene hydroperoxide involving methemoglobin was studied. Data from differential spectroscopy and kinetic analysis revealed the formation of a methemoglobin--N-dimethylcyclohexylamine--cumene hydroperoxide complex. The inhibiting analysis revealed the radical stages in the process of demethylation. An addition to the reaction mixture of phosphatidyl serine, phosphatidyl inositol and lysophosphatidyl choline at a ratio of 50 divided by 500 molecules per 1 molecule of protein increased the rate of the reaction product accumulation 2--3-fold. Phosphatidyl choline and the ionic detergent sodium cholate did not practically affect the reaction rate under the given experimental conditions. The nature of the activating effect of some phospholipids on oxidative demethylation is discussed.

  6. Autistic disorder and phospholipids: A review.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christine M; Austin, David W

    2011-01-01

    Dysregulated phospholipid metabolism has been proposed as an underlying biological component of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autistic disorder (AD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This review provides an overview of fatty acid and phospholipid metabolism and evidence for phospholipid dysregulation with reference to the membrane hypothesis of schizophrenia. While there is evidence that phospholipid metabolism is at least impaired in individuals with AD, it has not been established whether phospholipid metabolism is implicated in causal, mechanistic or epiphenomenological models. More research is needed to ascertain whether breastfeeding, and specifically, the administration of colostrum or an adequate substitute can play a preventative role by supplying the neonate with essential fatty acids (EFAs) at a critical juncture in their development. Regarding treatment, further clinical trials of EFA supplementation are essential to determine the efficacy of EFAs in reducing AD symptomatology and whether supplementation can serve as a cost-effective and readily available intervention.

  7. Assaying inositol and phosphoinositide phosphatase enzymes.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Janet L; Ercetin, Mustafa; Gillaspy, Glenda E

    2013-01-01

    One critical aspect of phosphoinositide signaling is the turnover of signaling molecules in the pathway. These signaling molecules include the phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PtdInsPs) and inositol phosphates (InsPs). The enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of these molecules are thus important potential regulators of signaling, and in many cases the activity of such enzymes needs to be measured and compared to other enzymes. PtdInsPs and InsPs are broken down by sequential dephosphorylation reactions which are catalyzed by a set of specific phosphatases. Many of the phosphatases can act on both PtdInsP and InsP substrates. The protocols described in this chapter detail activity assays that allow for the measurement of PtdInsP and InsP phosphatase activities in vitro starting with native or recombinant enzymes. Three different assays are described that have different equipment requirements and allow one to test a range of PtdInsP and InsP phosphatases that act on different substrates.

  8. Inositol Trisphosphate Receptor Ca2+ Release Channels

    PubMed Central

    FOSKETT, J. KEVIN; WHITE, CARL; CHEUNG, KING-HO; MAK, DON-ON DANIEL

    2010-01-01

    The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptors (InsP3Rs) are a family of Ca2+ release channels localized predominately in the endoplasmic reticulum of all cell types. They function to release Ca2+ into the cytoplasm in response to InsP3 produced by diverse stimuli, generating complex local and global Ca2+ signals that regulate numerous cell physiological processes ranging from gene transcription to secretion to learning and memory. The InsP3R is a calcium-selective cation channel whose gating is regulated not only by InsP3, but by other ligands as well, in particular cytoplasmic Ca2+. Over the last decade, detailed quantitative studies of InsP3R channel function and its regulation by ligands and interacting proteins have provided new insights into a remarkable richness of channel regulation and of the structural aspects that underlie signal transduction and permeation. Here, we focus on these developments and review and synthesize the literature regarding the structure and single-channel properties of the InsP3R. PMID:17429043

  9. Phospholipid Vesicles in Materials Science

    SciTech Connect

    Granick, Steve

    2016-05-11

    The objective of this research was to develop the science basis needed to deploy phospholipid vesicles as functional materials in energy contexts. Specifically, we sought to: (1) Develop an integrated molecular-level understanding of what determines their dynamical shape, spatial organization, and responsiveness to complex, time-varying environments; and (2) Develop understanding of their active transportation in crowded environments, which our preliminary measurements in cells suggest may hold design principles for targeting improved energy efficiency in new materials systems. The methods to do this largely involved fluorescence imaging and other spectroscopy involving single particles, vesicles, particles, DNA, and endosomes. An unexpected importance outcome was a new method to image light-emitting diodes during actual operation using super-resolution spectroscopy.

  10. Egg Phospholipids and Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Blesso, Christopher N.

    2015-01-01

    Eggs are a major source of phospholipids (PL) in the Western diet. Dietary PL have emerged as a potential source of bioactive lipids that may have widespread effects on pathways related to inflammation, cholesterol metabolism, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function. Based on pre-clinical studies, egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin appear to regulate cholesterol absorption and inflammation. In clinical studies, egg PL intake is associated with beneficial changes in biomarkers related to HDL reverse cholesterol transport. Recently, egg PC was shown to be a substrate for the generation of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbe-dependent metabolite associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. More research is warranted to examine potential serum TMAO responses with chronic egg ingestion and in different populations, such as diabetics. In this review, the recent basic science, clinical, and epidemiological findings examining egg PL intake and risk of CVD are summarized. PMID:25871489

  11. Reflections on inositol(s) for PCOS therapy: steps toward success.

    PubMed

    Nestler, John E; Unfer, Vittorio

    2015-07-01

    In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) pathogenesis, both the insulin resistance and the related compensatory hyperinsulinemia are involved. Despite their similarities, Myo-inositol (MI) and d-chiro-inositol (DCI) play different roles in PCOS etiology and therapy. Indeed, in tissue such as the liver both molecules are involved in the insulin signaling, i.e. MI promotes glucose uptake and DCI glycogen synthesis. In reproductive tissue such as the ovary, MI regulates glucose uptake and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) signaling, whereas DCI is devoted to the insulin-mediated androgen production. The new hypothesis on "DCI paradox" in the ovary has provided the key for a better understanding. Unlike other tissues, ovary is not insulin resistant, indeed because the epimerase enzyme, which converts MI to DCI, is insulin dependent, the "DCI paradox" hypothesis suggests that in the ovary of PCOS women, an increased epimerase activity leads to a DCI overproduction and MI depletion. This imbalance could be the cause of the poor oocyte quality and the impairment in the FSH signaling. Owing to this situation, the focal point is the administration of both MI and DCI in a proper ratio for treating PCOS. This topic, with several other "hot" issues, was the driving thread in the discussion between the two scientists.

  12. Inositol Treatment and ART Outcomes in Women with PCOS

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Deepika

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5–10% of women in reproductive age and is characterized by oligo/amenorrhea, androgen excess, insulin resistance, and typical polycystic ovarian morphology. It is the most common cause of infertility secondary to ovulatory dysfunction. The underlying etiology is still unknown but is believed to be multifactorial. Insulin-sensitizing compounds such as inositol, a B-complex vitamin, and its stereoisomers (myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol) have been studied as an effective treatment of PCOS. Administration of inositol in PCOS has been shown to improve not only the metabolic and hormonal parameters but also ovarian function and the response to assisted-reproductive technology (ART). Accumulating evidence suggests that it is also capable of improving folliculogenesis and embryo quality and increasing the mature oocyte yield following ovarian stimulation for ART in women with PCOS. In the current review, we collate the evidence and summarize our current knowledge on ovarian stimulation and ART outcomes following inositol treatment in women with PCOS undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and/or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). PMID:27795706

  13. Inositol Treatment and ART Outcomes in Women with PCOS.

    PubMed

    Garg, Deepika; Tal, Reshef

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-10% of women in reproductive age and is characterized by oligo/amenorrhea, androgen excess, insulin resistance, and typical polycystic ovarian morphology. It is the most common cause of infertility secondary to ovulatory dysfunction. The underlying etiology is still unknown but is believed to be multifactorial. Insulin-sensitizing compounds such as inositol, a B-complex vitamin, and its stereoisomers (myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol) have been studied as an effective treatment of PCOS. Administration of inositol in PCOS has been shown to improve not only the metabolic and hormonal parameters but also ovarian function and the response to assisted-reproductive technology (ART). Accumulating evidence suggests that it is also capable of improving folliculogenesis and embryo quality and increasing the mature oocyte yield following ovarian stimulation for ART in women with PCOS. In the current review, we collate the evidence and summarize our current knowledge on ovarian stimulation and ART outcomes following inositol treatment in women with PCOS undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and/or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

  14. New Functions of the Inositol Polyphosphate 5-Phosphatases in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Erneux, Christophe; Ghosh, Somadri; Ramos, Ana Raquel; Edimo, William's Elong

    2016-01-01

    Inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases act on inositol phosphates and phosphoinositides as substrates. They are 10 different isoenzymes and several splice variants in the human genome that are involved in a series of human pathologies such as the Lowe syndrome, the Joubert and MORM syndromes, breast cancer, glioblastoma, gastric cancer and several other type of cancers. Inositol 5-phosphatases can be amplified in human cancer cells, whereas the 3- and 4- phosphatase tumor suppressor PTEN and INPP4B, repectively are often repressed or deleted. The inositol 5-phosphatases are critically involved in a complex network of higly regulated phosphoinositides, affecting the lipid content of PI(3, 4, 5)P3, PI(4, 5)P2 and PI(3, 4)P2. This has an impact on the normal behavior of many intracellular target proteins e.g. protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) or actin binding proteins and final biological responses. The production of PI(3, 4P)2 by dephosphorylation of the substrate PI(3, 4, 5)P3 is particularly important as it produces a new signal messenger in the control of cell migration, invasion and endocytosis. New inhibitors/activators of inositol 5- phosphatases have recently been identified for the possible control of their activity in several human pathologies such as inflamation and cancer.

  15. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura preceding systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Simeon-Aznar, C P; Cuenca-Luque, R; Fonollosa-Pla, V; Bosch-Gil, J A

    1992-01-01

    The case of a patient admitted with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura nine years after developing systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is reported. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura associated with SLE has been described on other occasions, but in most patients the diagnosis of SLE precedes that of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. The unusual sequence and the chronological separation of the two diseases is emphasised. PMID:1575591

  16. Chronotropic incompetence precedes silent pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Mahadevan, Karunasai; Silverman, Lawrence M; Becker, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    A patient with recurrent pulmonary emboli collected heart rate data during exercise, which provided important premorbid clues to changes in cardiopulmonary exercise tolerance coincident with accrual of thrombus in the central circulation. On both occasions, chronotropic incompetence (CI) preceded the pulmonary emboli events. When patients with programmed exercise goals notice CI, they should seek professional guidance.

  17. On the Rhetoric and Precedents of Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Victor

    1999-01-01

    Considers contribution of rhetorical training of the Aztecs prior to the European conquest as well as other early philosophers from the Americas. Encourages breaking precedent in order to battle racism by looking to rhetorical training developed in the Americas and Puerto Rico in addition to the European thinkers. (SC)

  18. Sleep Disturbance Preceding Completed Suicide in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Tina R.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Brent, David A.

    2008-01-01

    We examined sleep difficulties preceding death in a sample of adolescent suicide completers as compared with a matched sample of community control adolescents. Sleep disturbances were assessed in 140 adolescent suicide victims with a psychological autopsy protocol and in 131 controls with a similar semistructured psychiatric interview. Rates of…

  19. More Than the Rules of Precedence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Yawei

    2005-01-01

    In a fundamental computer-programming course, such as CSE101, questions about how to evaluate an arithmetic expression are frequently used to check if our students know the rules of precedence. The author uses two of our final examination questions to show that more knowledge of computer science is needed to answer them correctly. Furthermore,…

  20. Generation of precedence relations for mechanical assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Hui; Sanderson, A. C.

    1989-01-01

    Planning of assembly sequences is essential to the manufacturing system design process. Several methodologies have been proposed to represent all the feasible assembly sequences. In this thesis, three algorithms are presented to generate three sets of precedence relations based on all the infeasible assembly tasks, all the infeasible assembly states, and all the feasible assembly sequences, respectively. The equivalence of the resulting sets of precedence relations to the AND/OR graph is established. A new property, the real time property, of a representation of assembly sequences is defined and discussed. A representation of assembly sequences is said to have the real time property, if it is possible to generate the next assembly task by testing locally in the representation, and it will guarantee that the generated assembly task will not lead the assembly sequence to a dead end situation, in which no feasible assembly task can be performed any more. It is shown that the correctness and completeness of one representation can not guarantee the real time property of the representation. It is proven that the directed graph representation and the set of precedence relations based on all the infeasible assembly states have the real time property, while the AND/OR graph representation and the set of precedence relations based on all the infeasible assembly tasks do not have the real time property. Finally in the thesis, the PLEIDEAS system, a PLanning Environment for Integrated DEsign of Assembly Systems, is described and illustrated by an example.

  1. 32 CFR 700.501 - Precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OFFICIAL RECORDS UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS The Commandant of the Marine Corps § 700.501 Precedence. The Commandant of the Marine Corps, while so serving, has the grade of general. In the performance of duties within the Department of the Navy, the Commandant of the Marine Corps...

  2. Leukotriene B/sub 4/ (LTB/sub 4/) induces formation of inositol-phosphates (IP's) in rat peritoneal polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN's)

    SciTech Connect

    Chi-Rosso, G.; Crooke, S.T.; Mong, S.

    1986-05-01

    LTB/sub 4/ induced rapid breakdown of prelabeled inositol-phospholipids (PI) in rat PMN. Formation of (/sup 3/H)-inositol-trisphosphate ((/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 3/) was rapid, with a peak of 250-300% of the control level, after 5-15 sec of stimulation with LTB/sub 4/. Accumulation of (/sup 3/H)-inositol-bisphosphate ((/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 2/) was rapid, peaking after 30 sec of stimulation. (/sup 3/H)-inositol-monophosphate ((/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 1/) accumulated gradually in the presence of LiCl. The kinetics of (/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 3/, (/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 2/ and (/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 1/ accumulation suggested that LTB/sub 4/ may interact with receptors in PMNs, activate phospholipase C which, in turn, induces hydrolysis of PI. The agonist activities of several LTB/sub 4/ analogs were employed to investigate the structure activity relationship of LTB/sub 4/ receptor mediated activation of PI hydrolysis. Increases in (/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 3/ formation were dependent upon the concentration of LTB/sub 4/ and the agonist analogs. The rank order potency of these analogs were equivalent to that of the pharmacological activity of LTB/sub 4/ agonists in the chemotaxis assay. Furthermore, the Islet activation protein (IAP) inhibited LTB/sub 4/ induced (/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 3/ formation. The tumor promoting phorbomyristate ester also inhibited LTB/sub 4/ induced (/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 3/ formation. These results suggest LTB/sub 4/ may interact with receptors in rat PMNs, activate G/sub i/ protein regulated phospholipase C and induce (/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 3/ formation.

  3. SCS3 and YFT2 Link Transcription of Phospholipid Biosynthetic Genes to ER Stress and the UPR

    PubMed Central

    Moir, Robyn D.; Gross, David A.; Silver, David L.; Willis, Ian M.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to store nutrients in lipid droplets (LDs) is an ancient function that provides the primary source of metabolic energy during periods of nutrient insufficiency and between meals. The Fat storage-Inducing Transmembrane (FIT) proteins are conserved ER–resident proteins that facilitate fat storage by partitioning energy-rich triglycerides into LDs. FIT2, the ancient ortholog of the FIT gene family first identified in mammals has two homologs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SCS3 and YFT2) and other fungi of the Saccharomycotina lineage. Despite the coevolution of these genes for more than 170 million years and their divergence from higher eukaryotes, SCS3, YFT2, and the human FIT2 gene retain some common functions: expression of the yeast genes in a human embryonic kidney cell line promotes LD formation, and expression of human FIT2 in yeast rescues the inositol auxotrophy and chemical and genetic phenotypes of strains lacking SCS3. To better understand the function of SCS3 and YFT2, we investigated the chemical sensitivities of strains deleted for either or both genes and identified synthetic genetic interactions against the viable yeast gene-deletion collection. We show that SCS3 and YFT2 have shared and unique functions that connect major biosynthetic processes critical for cell growth. These include lipid metabolism, vesicular trafficking, transcription of phospholipid biosynthetic genes, and protein synthesis. The genetic data indicate that optimal strain fitness requires a balance between phospholipid synthesis and protein synthesis and that deletion of SCS3 and YFT2 impacts a regulatory mechanism that coordinates these processes. Part of this mechanism involves a role for SCS3 in communicating changes in the ER (e.g. due to low inositol) to Opi1-regulated transcription of phospholipid biosynthetic genes. We conclude that SCS3 and YFT2 are required for normal ER membrane biosynthesis in response to perturbations in lipid metabolism and ER stress. PMID

  4. LIPID PEROXIDATION GENERATES BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE PHOSPHOLIPIDS INCLUDING OXIDATIVELY N-MODIFIED PHOSPHOLIPIDS

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Sean S.; Guo, Lilu

    2014-01-01

    Peroxidation of membranes and lipoproteins converts “inert” phospholipids into a plethora of oxidatively modified phospholipids (oxPL) that can act as signaling molecules. In this review, we will discuss four major classes of oxPL: mildly oxygenated phospholipids, phospholipids with oxidatively truncated acyl chains, phospholipids with cyclized acyl chains, and phospholipids that have been oxidatively N-modified on their headgroups by reactive lipid species. For each class of oxPL we will review the chemical mechanisms of their formation, the evidence for their formation in biological samples, the biological activities and signaling pathways associated with them, and the catabolic pathways for their elimination. We will end by briefly highlighting some of the critical questions that remain about the role of oxPL in physiology and disease. PMID:24704586

  5. Synthesis of fagopyritols A1 and B1 from D-chiro-inositol.

    PubMed

    Cid, M Belén; Alfonso, Francisco; Martín-Lomas, Manuel

    2004-09-13

    Fagopyritol A1 (3-O-alpha-d-galactopyranosyl-d-chiro-inositol) and fagopyritol B1 (2-O-alpha-d-galactopyranosyl-d-chiro-inositol) have been synthesized by glycosylation of the diequatorial diol 1,4,5,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-d-chiro-inositol, readily obtained from d-chiro-inositol, with 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzyl-d-galactopyranosyl trichloroacetimidate.

  6. Human Sodium/Inositol Cotransporter 2 (SMIT2) Transports Inositols But Not Glucose in L6 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Fitzgerald, Robin L.; Ostlund, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary To characterize the function of the sodium/inositol symporter SMIT2 in skeletal muscle, human SMIT2 cDNA was transfected into L6 myoblasts using pcDNA3.1 expression vector. Compared with the pcDNA3.1 vector only transfection, this overexpression increased the uptake of [3H]D-chiro-inositol (DCI) by 159-fold. [3H]myo-Inositol uptake increased by 37-fold. In contrast, [14C]D-glucose, [14C]2-deoxy-D-glucose, or [14C]3-O-methyl-D-glucose uptake remained unchanged in the presence of either 0, 5.5, or 25 mM unlabeled glucose. The Km of DCI and myo-inositol for DCI uptake was 111.0 and 158.0 μM, respectively, whereas glucose competed for DCI uptake with a Ki of 6.1 mM. Insulin treatment of non-transfected L6 cells (2 μM for 24 hours) increased [3H]DCI specific uptake 18-fold. DCI transport is up regulated by insulin and competitively inhibited by millimolar levels of glucose. Therefore, expression and/or function of SMIT2, a high affinity transporter specific for DCI and myo-inositol, may be reduced in diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance and polycystic ovary syndrome causing the abnormal DCI metabolism observed in these conditions. PMID:19032932

  7. Brain inositol is a novel stimulator for promoting Cryptococcus penetration of the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong-Bao; Kim, Jong-Chul; Wang, Yina; Toffaletti, Dena L; Eugenin, Eliseo; Perfect, John R; Kim, Kee Jun; Xue, Chaoyang

    2013-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common cause of fungal meningitis, with high mortality and morbidity. The reason for the frequent occurrence of Cryptococcus infection in the central nervous system (CNS) is poorly understood. The facts that human and animal brains contain abundant inositol and that Cryptococcus has a sophisticated system for the acquisition of inositol from the environment suggests that host inositol utilization may contribute to the development of cryptococcal meningitis. In this study, we found that inositol plays an important role in Cryptococcus traversal across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) both in an in vitro human BBB model and in in vivo animal models. The capacity of inositol to stimulate BBB crossing was dependent upon fungal inositol transporters, indicated by a 70% reduction in transmigration efficiency in mutant strains lacking two major inositol transporters, Itr1a and Itr3c. Upregulation of genes involved in the inositol catabolic pathway was evident in a microarray analysis following inositol treatment. In addition, inositol increased the production of hyaluronic acid in Cryptococcus cells, which is a ligand known to binding host CD44 receptor for their invasion. These studies suggest an inositol-dependent Cryptococcus traversal of the BBB, and support our hypothesis that utilization of host-derived inositol by Cryptococcus contributes to CNS infection.

  8. Anion exchange chromatographic separation of inositol phosphates and their quantification by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Heathers, G P; Juehne, T; Rubin, L J; Corr, P B; Evers, A S

    1989-01-01

    The direct measurement of mass of inositol trisphosphate from biologic samples is described. Separation of inositol monophosphate, bisphosphate, trisphosphate, and inositol tetrakisphosphate was achieved using anion exchange chromatography with a sodium sulfate gradient. In addition, separation of the isomers of each inositol phosphate was performed using HPLC procedures. The individual inositol phosphate fractions were subsequently dephosphorylated and desalted. The myo-inositol from each fraction was then derivatized to the hexatrimethylsilyl derivative and the myo-inositol derivatives were quantified by a novel gas chromatographic analysis using the hexatrimethylsilyl derivative of chiro-inositol as an internal concentration reference. This method is a reproducible and relatively rapid procedure for the direct quantification of inositol phosphate mass which overcomes many of the problems associated with the use of radiolabeled precursors. The method is a significant improvement over existing procedures for the quantitative determination of the mass of inositol phosphate by virtue of improved recovery, sensitivity, and technical simplicity. The applicability of this method is illustrated by the quantitative determination of inositol trisphosphate in response to norepinephrine stimulation of adult canine myocytes and cerebral cortical brain slices and by measurement of the isomers of inositol trisphosphate in isolated myocytes.

  9. Calcium-dependent phospholipid catabolism and arachidonic acid mobilization in cerebral minces

    SciTech Connect

    Damron, D.S.; Dorman, R.V. )

    1990-06-01

    Cerebral minces were used to investigate the role of calcium influx on trauma-induced alterations of brain lipid metabolism. Cerebral phospholipids, nonpolar lipids, and free fatty acids were radiolabeled in vivo with ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid. Tissue incubation stimulated the time-dependent catabolism of choline and inositol glycerophospholipids, and resulted in the accumulation of ({sup 3}H)free fatty acids. These effects were attenuated in Ca{sup 2}{sup +}-free incubations, and when EGTA or verapamil were present. The inhibition of calcium influx also reduced the labeling of diglycerides, whereas ethanolamine and serine glycerophospholipids were not affected by incubation or treatments. Replacing Ca{sup 2}{sup +} with other cations also attenuated the incubation-dependent alterations in lipid metabolism. However, only cadmium was able to compete with calcium and reduce the accumulation of ({sup 3}H)free fatty acids. It appeared that about half of the observed phospholipid catabolism was dependent on Ca{sup 2}{sup +} influx and that at least 80% of the ({sup 3}H)free fatty acid accumulation required calcium.

  10. Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0497 TITLE: Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use...SUBTITLE Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0497 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...ability to measure alcohol quantity consumed and associated damage better than can be done with ethyl alcohol level measures and other existing

  11. Dielectrophoresis of Functional Phospholipid Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froude, Victoria; Zhu, Yingxi Elaine

    2008-03-01

    Recently, there has been an emerging interest in using AC-dielectrophoresis (DEP) to transport and assemble phospholipid vesicles (liposomes) and nanoparticles to form functional bio-assemblies where the underlying charge polarization mechanism of colloids in AC fields strongly depends on nano-scaled surface charge. In this work, we study liposomes segregation and aggregation in the presence of nanocolloids and salts in which the biological functionality of liposomes is augmented by the physical functionality of inorganic coating and particles. Liposomes, synthesized by sonication with 1,2-Dioleoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphate (DOPA), are manipulated at varied AC-field frequencies across fabricated micro-electrodes in a quadrapole configuration on glass. We observe the co-assembly of liposome and opposite-charged nanocolloids by confocal microscopy and SEM, where the smaller nanocolloids are captured in between liposome junctions to form stabilized composite vesicles at several distinct frequencies. We observe a strong dependence of the liposome DEP mobility on the number of nanoparticles present in suspension and propose a new mechanism based on charge segregation and charged nanocolloid entrainment in the double layer.

  12. Inositol Hexaphosphate and Inositol Inhibit Colorectal Cancer Metastasis to the Liver in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Min; Song, Yang; Wen, Zhaoxia; Lu, Xingyi; Cui, Lianhua

    2016-01-01

    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) and inositol (Ins), naturally occurring carbohydrates present in most mammals and plants, inhibit the growth of numerous cancers both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we first examined the anti-metastatic effects of IP6 and Ins using a liver metastasis model of colorectal cancer (CRC) in BALB/c mice. CT-26 cells were injected into the splenic capsule of 48 BALB/c mice. The mice were then randomly divided into four groups: IP6, Ins, IP6 + Ins and normal saline control (n = 12 per group). IP6 and/or Ins (80 mg/kg each, 0.2 mL/day) were injected into the gastrointestinal tracts of the mice on the second day after surgery. All mice were sacrificed after 20 days, and the tumor inhibition rates were determined. The results demonstrated that the tumor weights of liver metastases and the tumor inhibition rates were reduced in the experimental groups compared to the control group and that treatment with the combination of IP6 and Ins resulted in greater inhibition of tumor growth than treatment with either compound alone. These findings suggest that IP6 and Ins prevent the development and metastatic progression of colorectal cancer to the liver in mice by altering expression of the extracellular matrix proteins collagen IV, fibronectin and laminin; the adhesion factor receptor integrin-β1; the proteolytic enzyme matrix metalloproteinase 9; and the angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor beta in the tumor metastasis microenvironment. In conclusion, IP6 and Ins inhibited the development and metastatic progression of colorectal cancer to the liver in BALB/c mice, and the effect of their combined application was significantly greater than the effect of either compound alone. This evidence supports further testing of the combined application of IP6 and Ins for the prevention of colorectal cancer metastasis to the liver in clinical studies. PMID:27187454

  13. Patterns of seismic activity preceding large earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Bruce E.; Carlson, J. M.; Langer, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    A mechanical model of seismic faults is employed to investigate the seismic activities that occur prior to major events. The block-and-spring model dynamically generates a statistical distribution of smaller slipping events that precede large events, and the results satisfy the Gutenberg-Richter law. The scaling behavior during a loading cycle suggests small but systematic variations in space and time with maximum activity acceleration near the future epicenter. Activity patterns inferred from data on seismicity in California demonstrate a regional aspect; increased activity in certain areas are found to precede major earthquake events. One example is given regarding the Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989 which is located near a fault section associated with increased activity levels.

  14. Metabolomic change precedes apple superficial scald symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rudell, David R; Mattheis, James P; Hertog, Maarten L A T M

    2009-09-23

    Untargeted metabolic profiling was employed to characterize metabolomic changes associated with 'Granny Smith' apple superficial scald development following 1-MCP or DPA treatment. Partial least-squares discriminant analyses were used to link metabolites with scald, postharvest treatments, and storage duration. Models revealed metabolomic differentiation between untreated controls and fruit treated with DPA or 1-MCP within 1 week following storage initiation. Metabolic divergence between controls and DPA-treated fruit after 4 weeks of storage preceded scald symptom development by 2 months. alpha-Farnesene oxidation products with known associations to scald, including conjugated trienols, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol, were associated with presymptomatic as well as scalded control fruit. Likewise, a large group of putative triterpenoids with mass spectral features similar to those of ursolic acid and beta-sitosterol were associated with control fruit and scald. Results demonstrate that extensive metabolomic changes associated with scald precede actual symptom development.

  15. Cutaneous presentation preceding acute monocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xianhua; Li, Fuqiu; Li, Xue; Zhu, Wenjing; Mou, Yan; Huang, Yang; Zhao, Huanyu; Gao, Wei; Xia, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Cutaneous presentation preceding acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is rare, and the prognosis is poor. Patient concerns: We report 4 cases of AML cutis, where skin infiltration precedes any blood or bone marrow evidence of leukemia. We also reviewed 13 cases reported in English and Chinese literature. The 4 cases all presented typical cutaneous lesions without any systemic evidence of leukemia. Histopathological examination found that dense monomorphous cell infiltration involved the dermis. Some cells surrounded blood vessels and skin appendages in a concentric manner or showed single-row arrangement in the collagen fiber bundles. Uninvolved papillary dermis was found to separate normal epidermis from dermal infiltration. Minor cells had a large kidney-shaped or oval nucleus with nucleoli and slightly eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical analysis was positive for CD4, CD56, while CD123 was negative in all cases. Diagnoses: AML-M5. Interventions: 2 patients received chemotherapy ,but others rejected treatment. Outcomes: Most patients died within 1 year after the onset of skin lesions. Lessons: These findings suggest that skin infiltration of AML may precede any systemic evidence, and typical cutaneous lesions in elderly individuals may be indicative for AML. PMID:28272239

  16. Role of an Expanded Inositol Transporter Repertoire in Cryptococcus neoformans Sexual Reproduction and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Chaoyang; Liu, Tongbao; Chen, Lydia; Li, Wenjun; Liu, Iris; Kronstad, James W.; Seyfang, Andreas; Heitman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are globally distributed human fungal pathogens and the leading causes of fungal meningitis. Recent studies reveal that myo-inositol is an important factor for fungal sexual reproduction. That C. neoformans can utilize myo-inositol as a sole carbon source and the existence of abundant inositol in the human central nervous system suggest that inositol is important for Cryptococcus development and virulence. In accord with this central importance of inositol, an expanded myo-inositol transporter (ITR) gene family has been identified in Cryptococcus. This gene family contains two phylogenetically distinct groups, with a total of 10 or more members in C. neoformans and at least six members in the sibling species C. gattii. These inositol transporter genes are differentially expressed under inositol-inducing conditions based on quantitative real-time PCR analyses. Expression of ITR genes in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae itr1 itr2 mutant lacking inositol transport can complement the slow-growth phenotype of this strain, confirming that ITR genes are bona fide inositol transporters. Gene mutagenesis studies reveal that the Itr1 and Itr1A transporters are important for myo-inositol stimulation of mating and that functional redundancies among the myo-inositol transporters likely exist. Deletion of the inositol 1-phosphate synthase gene INO1 in an itr1 or itr1a mutant background compromised virulence in a murine inhalation model, indicating the importance of inositol sensing and acquisition for fungal infectivity. Our study provides a platform for further understanding the roles of inositol in fungal physiology and virulence. PMID:20689743

  17. Method for lipidomic analysis: p53 expression modulation of sulfatide, ganglioside, and phospholipid composition of U87 MG glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    He, Huan; Conrad, Charles A; Nilsson, Carol L; Ji, Yongjie; Schaub, Tanner M; Marshall, Alan G; Emmett, Mark R

    2007-11-15

    Lipidomics can complement genomics and proteomics by providing new insight into dynamic changes in biomembranes; however, few reports in the literature have explored, on an organism-wide scale, the functional link between nonenzymatic proteins and cellular lipids. Here, we report changes induced by adenovirus-delivered wild-type p53 gene and chemotherapy of U87 MG glioblastoma cells, a treatment known to trigger apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. We compare polar lipid changes in treated cells and control cells by use of a novel, sensitive method that employs lipid extraction, one-step liquid chromatography separation, high-resolution mass analysis, and Kendrick mass defect analysis. Nano-LC FT-ICR MS and quadrupole linear ion trap MS/MS analysis of polar lipids yields hundreds of unique assignments of glyco- and phospholipids at sub-ppm mass accuracy and high resolving power (m/Deltam50% = 200 000 at m/z 400) at 1 s/scan. MS/MS data confirm molecular structures in many instances. Sulfatides are most highly modulated by wild-type p53 treatment. The treatment also leads to an increase in phospholipids such as phosphatidyl inositols, phosphatidyl serines, phosphatidyl glycerols, and phosphatidyl ethanolamines. An increase in hydroxylated phospholipids is especially noteworthy. Also, a decrease in the longer chain gangliosides, GD1 and GM1b, is observed in wild-type p53 (treated) cells.

  18. Phospholipid interactions in model membrane systems. II. Theory.

    PubMed Central

    Stigter, D; Mingins, J; Dill, K A

    1992-01-01

    We describe statistical thermodynamic theory for the lateral interactions among phospholipid head groups in monolayers and bilayers. Extensive monolayer experiments show that at low surface densities, PC head groups have strong lateral repulsions which increase considerably with temperature, whereas PE interactions are much weaker and have no significant temperature dependence (see the preceding paper). In previous work, we showed that the second virial coefficients for these interactions can be explained by: (a) steric repulsions among the head groups, and (b) a tilting of the P-N+ dipole of PC so that the N+ end enters the oil phase, to an extent that increases with temperature. It was also predicted that PE interactions should be weaker and less temperature dependent because the N+ terminal of the PE head-group is hydrophilic, hence, it is tilted into the water phase, so dipolar contributions among PE's are negligible due to the high dielectric constant of water. In the present work, we broaden the theory to treat phospholipid interactions up to higher lateral surface densities. We generalize the Hill interfacial virial expansion to account for dipoles and to include the third virial term. We show that to account for the large third virial coefficients for both PC and PE requires that the short range lateral attractions among the head groups also be taken into account. In addition, the third virial coefficient includes fluctuating head group dipoles, computed by Monte Carlo integration assuming pairwise additivity of the instantaneous pair potentials. We find that because the dipole fluctuations are correlated, the average triplet interactions do not equal the sum of the average dipole pair potentials. This is important for predicting, the magnitude and the independence of temperature of the third virial coefficients for PC. The consistency of the theory with data of both the second and the third virial coefficients extends the applicability of the head

  19. Membrane-Derived Phospholipids Control Synaptic Neurotransmission and Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    García-Morales, Victoria; Montero, Fernando; González-Forero, David; Rodríguez-Bey, Guillermo; Gómez-Pérez, Laura; Medialdea-Wandossell, María Jesús; Domínguez-Vías, Germán; García-Verdugo, José Manuel; Moreno-López, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic communication is a dynamic process that is key to the regulation of neuronal excitability and information processing in the brain. To date, however, the molecular signals controlling synaptic dynamics have been poorly understood. Membrane-derived bioactive phospholipids are potential candidates to control short-term tuning of synaptic signaling, a plastic event essential for information processing at both the cellular and neuronal network levels in the brain. Here, we showed that phospholipids affect excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission by different degrees, loci, and mechanisms of action. Signaling triggered by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) evoked rapid and reversible depression of excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents. At excitatory synapses, LPA-induced depression depended on LPA1/Gαi/o-protein/phospholipase C/myosin light chain kinase cascade at the presynaptic site. LPA increased myosin light chain phosphorylation, which is known to trigger actomyosin contraction, and reduced the number of synaptic vesicles docked to active zones in excitatory boutons. At inhibitory synapses, postsynaptic LPA signaling led to dephosphorylation, and internalization of the GABAAγ2 subunit through the LPA1/Gα12/13-protein/RhoA/Rho kinase/calcineurin pathway. However, LPA-induced depression of GABAergic transmission was correlated with an endocytosis-independent reduction of GABAA receptors, possibly by GABAAγ2 dephosphorylation and subsequent increased lateral diffusion. Furthermore, endogenous LPA signaling, mainly via LPA1, mediated activity-dependent inhibitory depression in a model of experimental synaptic plasticity. Finally, LPA signaling, most likely restraining the excitatory drive incoming to motoneurons, regulated performance of motor output commands, a basic brain processing task. We propose that lysophospholipids serve as potential local messengers that tune synaptic strength to precedent activity of the neuron. PMID:25996636

  20. Health effects of dietary phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Küllenberg, Daniela; Taylor, Lenka A; Schneider, Michael; Massing, Ulrich

    2012-01-05

    Beneficial effects of dietary phospholipids (PLs) have been mentioned since the early 1900's in relation to different illnesses and symptoms, e.g. coronary heart disease, inflammation or cancer. This article gives a summary of the most common therapeutic uses of dietary PLs to provide an overview of their approved and proposed benefits; and to identify further investigational needs.From the majority of the studies it became evident that dietary PLs have a positive impact in several diseases, apparently without severe side effects. Furthermore, they were shown to reduce side effects of some drugs. Both effects can partially be explained by the fact that PL are highly effective in delivering their fatty acid (FA) residues for incorporation into the membranes of cells involved in different diseases, e.g. immune or cancer cells. The altered membrane composition is assumed to have effects on the activity of membrane proteins (e.g. receptors) by affecting the microstructure of membranes and, therefore, the characteristics of the cellular membrane, e.g. of lipid rafts, or by influencing the biosynthesis of FA derived lipid second messengers. However, since the FAs originally bound to the applied PLs are increased in the cellular membrane after their consumption or supplementation, the FA composition of the PL and thus the type of PL is crucial for its effect. Here, we have reviewed the effects of PL from soy, egg yolk, milk and marine sources. Most studies have been performed in vitro or in animals and only limited evidence is available for the benefit of PL supplementation in humans. More research is needed to understand the impact of PL supplementation and confirm its health benefits.

  1. Nonenzymatic Reactions above Phospholipid Surfaces of Biological Membranes: Reactivity of Phospholipids and Their Oxidation Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Solís-Calero, Christian; Ortega-Castro, Joaquín; Frau, Juan; Muñoz, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipids play multiple and essential roles in cells, as components of biological membranes. Although phospholipid bilayers provide the supporting matrix and surface for many enzymatic reactions, their inherent reactivity and possible catalytic role have not been highlighted. As other biomolecules, phospholipids are frequent targets of nonenzymatic modifications by reactive substances including oxidants and glycating agents which conduct to the formation of advanced lipoxidation end products (ALEs) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). There are some theoretical studies about the mechanisms of reactions related to these processes on phosphatidylethanolamine surfaces, which hypothesize that cell membrane phospholipids surface environment could enhance some reactions through a catalyst effect. On the other hand, the phospholipid bilayers are susceptible to oxidative damage by oxidant agents as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Molecular dynamics simulations performed on phospholipid bilayers models, which include modified phospholipids by these reactions and subsequent reactions that conduct to formation of ALEs and AGEs, have revealed changes in the molecular interactions and biophysical properties of these bilayers as consequence of these reactions. Then, more studies are desirable which could correlate the biophysics of modified phospholipids with metabolism in processes such as aging and diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25977746

  2. Solution structure and phospholipid interactions of the isolated voltage-sensor domain from KvAP.

    PubMed

    Butterwick, Joel A; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2010-11-05

    Voltage-sensor domains (VSDs) are specialized transmembrane segments that confer voltage sensitivity to many proteins such as ion channels and enzymes. The activities of these domains are highly dependent on both the chemical properties and the physical properties of the surrounding membrane environment. To learn about VSD-lipid interactions, we used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine the structure and phospholipid interface of the VSD from the voltage-dependent K(+) channel KvAP (prokaryotic Kv from Aeropyrum pernix). The solution structure of the KvAP VSD solubilized within phospholipid micelles is similar to a previously determined crystal structure solubilized by a nonionic detergent and complexed with an antibody fragment. The differences observed include a previously unidentified short amphipathic α-helix that precedes the first transmembrane helix and a subtle rigid-body repositioning of the S3-S4 voltage-sensor paddle. Using (15)N relaxation experiments, we show that much of the VSD, including the pronounced kink in S3 and the S3-S4 paddle, is relatively rigid on the picosecond-to-nanosecond timescale. In contrast, the kink in S3 is mobile on the microsecond-to-millisecond timescale and may act as a hinge in the movement of the paddle during channel gating. We characterized the VSD-phospholipid micelle interactions using nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy and showed that the micelle uniformly coats the KvAP VSD and approximates the chemical environment of a phospholipid bilayer. Using paramagnetically labeled phospholipids, we show that bilayer-forming lipids interact with the S3 and S4 helices more strongly than with S1 and S2.

  3. Comparison between effects of myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol on ovarian function and metabolic factors in women with PCOS.

    PubMed

    Pizzo, Alfonsa; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Barbaro, Luisa

    2014-03-01

    Myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol are capable of improving the ovarian function and metabolism of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. The aim of this work is to compare the effects of myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol in PCOS. We enrolled 50 patients, with homogeneous bio-physical features, affected by PCOS and menstrual irregularities, and we randomly divided them into two groups: 25 were treated with 4 g of myo-inositol/die plus 400 mcg of folic acid/die orally for six months, 25 with 1 g of D-chiro-inositol/die plus 400 mcg of folic acid/die orally for six months. We analyzed in both groups pre-treatment and post-treatment BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, Ferriman-Gallwey score, Cremoncini score, serum LH, LH/FSH ratio, total and free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), Δ-4-androstenedione, SHBG, prolactin, glucose/immunoreactive insulin (IRI) ratio, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index, and the resumption of regular menstrual cycles. Both the isoforms of inositol were effective in improving ovarian function and metabolism in patients with PCOS, although myo-inositol showed the most marked effect on the metabolic profile, whereas D-chiro-inositol reduced hyperandrogenism better.

  4. Quantification of phospholipids classes in human milk.

    PubMed

    Giuffrida, Francesca; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Flück, Brigitte; Tavazzi, Isabelle; Thakkar, Sagar K; Destaillats, Frédéric; Braun, Marcel

    2013-10-01

    Phospholipids are integral constituents of the milk fat globule membranes and they play a central role in infants' immune and inflammatory responses. A methodology employing liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detector has been optimized and validated to quantify the major phospholipids classes in human milk. Phospholipids were extracted using chloroform and methanol and separated on C18 column. Repeatability, intermediate reproducibility, and recovery values were calculated and a large sample set of human milk analyzed. In human milk, phospholipid classes were quantified at concentrations of 0.6 mg/100 g for phosphatidylinositol; 4.2 mg/100 g for phosphatidylethanolamine, 0.4 mg/100 g for phosphatidylserine, 2.8 mg/100 g for phosphatidylcholine, and 4.6 mg/100 g for sphingomyelin. Their relative standard deviation of repeatability and intermediate reproducibility values ranging between 0.8 and 13.4 % and between 2.4 and 25.7 %, respectively. The recovery values ranged between 67 and 112 %. Finally, the validated method was used to quantify phospholipid classes in human milk collected from 50 volunteers 4 weeks postpartum providing absolute content of these lipids in a relatively large cohort. The average content of total phospholipids was 23.8 mg/100 g that corresponds to an estimated mean intake of 140 mg phospholipids/day in a 4-week old infant when exclusively breast-fed.

  5. Using inositol as a biocompatible ligand for efficient transgene expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Bellis, Susan L; Fan, Yiwen; Wu, Yunkun

    2015-01-01

    Transgene transfection techniques using cationic polymers such as polyethylenimines (PEIs) and PEI derivatives as gene vectors have shown efficacy, although they also have shortcomings. PEIs have decent DNA-binding capability and good cell internalization performance, but they cannot deliver gene payloads very efficiently to cell nuclei. In this study, three hyperbranched polyglycerol-polyethylenimine (PG6-PEI) polymers conjugated with myo-inositol (INO) molecules were developed. The three resulting PG6-PEI-INO polymers have an increased number of INO ligands per molecule. PG6-PEI-INO 1 had only 14 carboxymethyl INO (CMINO) units per molecule. PG6-PEI-INO 2 had approximately 130 CMINO units per molecule. PG6-PEI-INO 3 had as high as 415 CMINO units approximately. Mixing PG6-PEI-INO polymers with DNA produced compact nanocomposites. We then performed localization studies using fluorescent microscopy. As the number of conjugated inositol ligands increased in PG6-PEI-INO polymers, there was a corresponding increase in accumulation of the polymers within 293T cell nuclei. Transfection performed with spherical 293T cells yielded 82% of EGFP-positive cells when using PG6-PEI-INO 3 as the vehicle. Studies further revealed that extracellular adenosine triphosphate (eATP) can inhibit the transgene efficiency of PG6-PEI-INO polymers, as compared with PEI and PG6-PEI that were not conjugated with inositol. Our work unveiled the possibility of using inositol as an effective ligand for transgene expression. PMID:25926732

  6. Filamentous Fungi with High Cytosolic Phospholipid Transfer Activity in the Presence of Exogenous Phospholipid

    PubMed Central

    Record, Eric; Lesage, Laurence; Cahagnier, Bernard; Marion, Didier; Asther, Marcel

    1994-01-01

    The phospholipid transfer activity of cell extracts from 15 filamentous fungus strains grown on a medium containing phospholipids as the carbon source was measured by a fluorescence assay. This assay was based on the transfer of pyrene-labeled phosphatidylcholines forming the donor vesicles to acceptor vesicles composed of egg phosphatidylcholines. The highest phosphatidylcholine transfer activity was obtained with cell extracts from Aspergillus oryzae. The presence of exogenous phospholipids in the culture medium of A. oryzae was shown to increase markedly the activity of phospholipid transfer as well as the pool of exocellular proteins during the primary phase of growth. Modifications in the biochemical marker activities of cellular organelles were observed: succinate dehydrogenase, a mitochondrial marker; inosine diphosphatase, a Golgi system marker; and cytochrome c oxidoreductase, an endoplasmic reticulum marker, were increased 7.3-, 2-, and 22-fold, respectively, when A. oryzae was grown in the presence of phospholipids. PMID:16349388

  7. Symptoms of schizotypy precede cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Jason; Nakamura, Brad; Earleywine, Mitchell; LaBrie, Joseph

    2005-03-30

    The current investigation uses a large non-clinical sample of undergraduate college students (N=189) to investigate schizotypal traits among cannabis and non-cannabis users, as well as the temporal order of the onset of these traits and cannabis use. Findings suggest that regular cannabis users are significantly more prone to cognitive and perceptual distortions as well as disorganization, but not interpersonal deficits, than non-regular users and those who have never used. Additionally, the onset of schizotypal symptoms generally precedes the onset of cannabis use. The findings do not support a causal link between cannabis use and schizotypal traits.

  8. Lipin-1 regulation of phospholipid synthesis maintains endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis and is critical for triple-negative breast cancer cell survival.

    PubMed

    He, Jingquan; Zhang, Feng; Tay, Li Wei Rachel; Boroda, Salome; Nian, Weiqi; Levental, Kandice R; Levental, Ilya; Harris, Thurl E; Chang, Jeffrey T; Du, Guangwei

    2017-03-27

    Cancer cells reprogram their metabolism to increase the synthesis of macromolecules for rapid proliferation. Compared to fatty acids, much less is known about the synthesis of phospholipids, which is essential for membrane biogenesis in cancer cells. We found that LPIN1, which encodes lipin-1, a phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) controlling the rate-limiting step in the phospholipid synthesis pathway, is highly up-regulated in basal-like triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Moreover, high LPIN1 expression correlates with the poor prognosis of these patients. Knockdown of LPIN1 increases apoptosis in basal-like TNBC cell lines, whereas it has minimal or less effect on normal human mammary gland epithelial cells (HMECs) and estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cell lines. Fatty acid incorporation and lipidomics analyses showed that LPIN1 knockdown blocks phospholipid synthesis and changes membrane lipid compositions that ultimately induce the activation of 1 of the 3 branches of unfolded protein responses, the inositol-requiring enzyme-1α pathway. We also show for the first time, to our knowledge, that lipin-1 knockdown significantly inhibits tumor growth in vivo using an orthotopic xenograft breast mouse model. Our results suggest that lipin-1 is a potential target for cancer therapy.-He, J., Zhang, F., Tay, L. W. R., Boroda, S., Nian, W., Levental, K. R., Levental, I., Harris, T. E., Chang, J. T., Du, G. Lipin-1 regulation of phospholipid synthesis maintains endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis and is critical for triple-negative breast cancer cell survival.

  9. [Psychosocial stress preceding drug-related deaths].

    PubMed

    Kraus, L; Müller-Kalthoff, T

    2002-10-01

    This article analyses drug-related deaths in the German Federal States of Bavaria (Munich, Nuremberg and Augsburg counties) during 1999 and Baden-Wurttemberg (Stuttgart and Mannheim counties) during 1999 and in the first half of 2000. The persons who had been in contact with drug care services were studied for psychosocial stress preceding drug-related deaths. Epidemiological data from different sources (police, relatives, counselling centres, detoxification clinics, therapy and substitution treatment) were collated to estimate factors of psychosocial stress preceding drug deaths. The results in both Laender indicate high prevalence rates of a history of at least one non-fatal overdose (approx. 50%) or a suicide attempt (approx. 35%). More than 40% of the deceased had been suffering from at least one additional mental disorder, in most cases from depression. At least one critical life event (in most cases, a relapse) or a period of abstinence (i.e., due to imprisonment, therapy or detoxification) during the past three months before death was reported for more than half of the addicts. The results were discussed in the light of data on opiate users and the general population. Improved specialist training of therapeutic and medical workers as well as of any other co-operating professionals is considered a necessary prerequisite for an early detection of risk factors.

  10. Inositol-phosphodihydroceramides in the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia: Structural analysis and incorporation of exogenous myo-inositol

    PubMed Central

    Megson, Zoë Anne; Pittenauer, Ernst; Duda, Katarzyna Anna; Engel, Regina; Ortmayr, Karin; Koellensperger, Gunda; Mach, Lukas; Allmaier, Günter; Holst, Otto; Messner, Paul; Schäffer, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Background Unique phosphodihydroceramides containing phosphoethanolamine and glycerol have been previously described in Porphyromonas gingivalis. Importantly, they were shown to possess pro-inflammatory properties. Other common human bacteria were screened for the presence of these lipids, and they were found, amongst others, in the oral pathogen Tannerella forsythia. To date, no detailed study into the lipids of this organism has been performed. Methods Lipids were extracted, separated and purified by HPTLC, and analyzed using GC-MS, ESI–MS and NMR. Of special interest was how T. forsythia acquires the metabolic precursors for the lipids studied here. This was assayed by radioactive and stable isotope incorporation using carbon-14 and deuterium labeled myo-inositol, added to the growth medium. Results T. forsythia synthesizes two phosphodihydroceramides (Tf GL1, Tf GL2) which are constituted by phospho-myo-inositol linked to either a 17-, 18-, or 19-carbon sphinganine, N-linked to either a branched 17:0(3-OH) or a linear 16:0(3-OH) fatty acid which, in Tf GL2, is, in turn, ester-substituted with a branched 15:0 fatty acid. T. forsythia lacks the enzymatic machinery required for myo-inositol synthesis but was found to internalize inositol from the medium for the synthesis of both Tf GL1 and Tf GL2. Conclusion The study describes two novel glycolipids in T. forsythia which could be essential in this organism. Their synthesis could be reliant on an external source of myo-inositol. General significance The effects of these unique lipids on the immune system and their role in bacterial virulence could be relevant in the search for new drug targets. PMID:26277409

  11. Functional redundancy of CDP-ethanolamine and CDP-choline pathway enzymes in phospholipid biosynthesis: ethanolamine-dependent effects on steady-state membrane phospholipid composition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    McGee, T P; Skinner, H B; Bankaitis, V A

    1994-01-01

    It has been established that yeast membrane phospholipid content is responsive to the inositol and choline content of the growth medium. Alterations in the levels of transcription of phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes contribute significantly to this response. We now describe conditions under which ethanolamine can exert significant influence on yeast membrane phospholipid composition. We demonstrate that mutations which block a defined subset of the reactions required for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) via the CDP-choline pathway cause ethanolamine-dependent effects on the steady-state levels of bulk PC in yeast membranes. Such an ethanolamine-dependent reduction in bulk membrane PC content was observed for both choline kinase (cki) and choline phosphotransferase (cpt1) mutants, but it was not observed for mutants defective in cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase, the enzyme that catalyzes the penultimate reaction of the CDP-choline pathway for PC biosynthesis. Moreover, the ethanolamine effect observed for cki and cpt1 mutants was independent of the choline content of the growth medium. Finally, we found that haploid yeast strains defective in the activity of both the choline and ethanolamine phosphotransferases experienced an ethanolamine-insensitive reduction in steady-state PC content, an effect which was not observed in strains defective in either one of these activities alone. The collective data indicate that specific enzymes of the CDP-ethanolamine pathway for phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis, while able to contribute to PC synthesis when yeast cells are grown under conditions of ethanolamine deprivation, do not do so when yeast cells are presented with this phospholipid headgroup precursor. Images PMID:7961445

  12. Metabolism of myo-[2-3H]Inositol and scyllo-[R-3H]Inositol in Ripening Wheat Kernels 1

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Ken; Loewus, Frank A.

    1980-01-01

    Injection of myo-[2-3H]inositol or scyllo-[R-3H]inositol into the peduncular cavity of wheat stalks about 2 to 4 weeks postanthesis led to rapid translocation into the spike and accumulation of label in developing kernels, especially the bran fraction. With myo-[2-3H]inositol, about 50 to 60% of the label was incorporated into high molecular weight cell wall substance in the region of the injection. That portion translocated to the kernels was utilized primarily for cell wall polysaccharide formation and phytate biosynthesis. A small amount was recovered as free myo-inositol and galactinol. When scyllo-[R-3H]inositol was supplied, most of the label was translocated into the developing kernels where it accumulated as free scyllo-inositol and O-α-d-galactopyranosyl-scyllo-inositol in approximately equal amount. None of the label from scyllo-[R-3H]inositol was utilized for either phytate biosynthesis or cell wall polysaccharide formation. PMID:16661513

  13. Structural characterization of phospholipids by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Marto, J A; White, F M; Seldomridge, S; Marshall, A G

    1995-11-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry provides for structural analysis of the principal biological phospholipids: glycerophosphatidylcholine, -ethanolamine, -serine, and -inositol. Both positive and negative molecular or quasimolecular ions are generated in high abundance. Isolated molecular ions may be collisionally activated in the source side of a dual trap mass analyzer, yielding fragments serving to identify the polar head group (positive ion mode) and fatty acid side chains (negative ion mode). Azimuthal quadrupolar excitation following collisionally activated dissociation refocuses productions close to the solenoid axis; subsequent transfer of product ions to the analyzer ion trap allows for high-resolution mass analysis. Cyro-cooling of the sample probe with liquid nitrogen greatly reduces matrix adduction encountered in the negative ion mode.

  14. [Wide QRS tachycardia preceded by pacemaker spikes].

    PubMed

    Romero, M; Aranda, A; Gómez, F J; Jurado, A

    2014-04-01

    The differential diagnosis and therapeutic management of wide QRS tachycardia preceded by pacemaker spike is presented. The pacemaker-mediated tachycardia, tachycardia fibrillo-flutter in patients with pacemakers, and runaway pacemakers, have a similar surface electrocardiogram, but respond to different therapeutic measures. The tachycardia response to the application of a magnet over the pacemaker could help in the differential diagnosis, and in some cases will be therapeutic, as in the case of a tachycardia-mediated pacemaker. Although these conditions are diagnosed and treated in hospitals with catheterization laboratories using the application programmer over the pacemaker, patients presenting in primary care clinic and emergency forced us to make a diagnosis and treat the haemodynamically unstable patient prior to referral.

  15. Identification of inhibitors of inositol 5-phosphatases through multiple screening strategies.

    PubMed

    Pirruccello, Michelle; Nandez, Ramiro; Idevall-Hagren, Olof; Alcazar-Roman, Abel; Abriola, Laura; Berwick, Shana Alexandra; Lucast, Louise; Morel, Dayna; De Camilli, Pietro

    2014-06-20

    Phosphoinositides are low abundance membrane phospholipids that have key roles in signaling, membrane trafficking, and cytoskeletal dynamics in all cells. Until recently, strategies for robust and quantitative development of pharmacological tools for manipulating phosphoinositide levels have focused selectively on PI(3,4,5)P3 due to the importance of this lipid in growth factor signaling and cell proliferation. However, drugs that affect levels of other phosphoinositides have potential therapeutic applications and will be powerful research tools. Here, we describe methodology for the high-throughput screening of small molecule modulators of the inositol 5-phosphatases, which dephosphorylate PI(4,5)P2 (the precursor for PI(3,4,5)P3) and PI(3,4,5)P3). We developed three complementary in vitro activity assays, tested hit compounds on a panel of 5-phosphatases, and monitored efficacy toward various substrates. Two prominent chemical scaffolds were identified with high nanomolar/low micromolar activity, with one class showing inhibitory activity toward all 5-phosphatases tested and the other selective activity toward OCRL and INPP5B, which are closely related to each other. One highly soluble OCRL/INPP5B-specific inhibitor shows a direct interaction with the catalytic domain of INPP5B. The efficacy of this compound in living cells was validated through its property to enhance actin nucleation at the cell cortex, a PI(4,5)P2 dependent process, and to inhibit PI(4,5)P2 dephosphorylation by OCRL (both overexpressed and endogenous enzyme). The assays and screening strategies described here are applicable to other phosphoinositide-metabolizing enzymes, at least several of which have major clinical relevance. Most importantly, this study identifies the first OCRL/INPP5B specific inhibitor and provides a platform for the design of more potent inhibitors of this family of enzymes.

  16. Activation of inositol trisphosphate-sensitive Ca2+ channels of sarcoplasmic reticulum from frog skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Isla, B A; Alcayaga, C; Marengo, J J; Bull, R

    1991-01-01

    1. The modulation by Ca2+ of the activation by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) of Ca2+ channels present in native sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes from frog skeletal muscle was studied after channel incorporation into planar phospholipid bilayers in the presence of Ca2+ or Ba2+ as current carrier species. 2. Channel activity expressed as fractional open time (Po) was low (less than or equal to 0.15) in the presence of varying free Ca2+ concentrations bathing the myoplasmic face of the channel (cis side), and did not increase significantly between 0.01 and 30 microM-Ca2+. 3. Channel activation mediated by IP3 could be elicited from free Ca2+ levels similar to those of resting skeletal muscle (about 0.1 microM) and was found to be strongly regulated by the free Ca2+ concentration present at the myoplasmic moiety of the channel. 4. Channel activation by 10 microM-IP3 depended on the Ca2+ concentration on the cis side. Po reached a maximum between pCa 7.0 and 6.0, but decreased at higher concentrations of free Ca2+. Thus, Ca2+ exerted a modulatory influence on IP3-mediated activation in a concentration range where the channel was insensitive to Ca2+. 5. The results indicate that Ca2+ ions act as modulators of IP3 efficacy to open the channel. This could arise from an interaction of Ca2+ with the channel gating mechanism or with the agonist binding site. PMID:1667801

  17. Cerebral Hypoperfusion Precedes Nausea During Centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serrador, Jorge M.; Schlegel, Todd T.; Black, F. Owen; Wood, Scott J.

    2004-01-01

    Nausea and motion sickness are important operational concerns for aviators and astronauts. Understanding underlying mechanisms associated with motion sickness may lead to new treatments. The goal of this work was to determine if cerebral blood flow changes precede the development of nausea in motion sick susceptible subjects. Cerebral flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (transcranial Doppler), blood pressure (Finapres) and end-tidal CO2 were measured while subjects were rotated on a centrifuge (250 degrees/sec). Following 5 min of rotation, subjects were translated 0.504 m off-center, creating a +lGx centripetal acceleration in the nasal-occipital plane. Ten subjects completed the protocol without symptoms while 5 developed nausea (4 while 6ff-center and 1 while rotating on-center). Prior to nausea, subjects had significant increases in blood pressure (+13plus or minus 3 mmHg, P less than 0.05) and cerebrovascular resistance (+46 plus or minus 17%, P less than 0.05) and decreases in cerebral flow velocity both in the second (-13 plus or minus 4%) and last minute (-22 plus or minus 5%) before symptoms (P less than 0.05). In comparison, controls demonstrated no change in blood pressure or cerebrovascular resistance in the last minute of off-center rotation and only a 7 plus or minus 2% decrease in cerebral flow velocity. All subjects had significant hypocapnia (-3.8 plus or minus 0.4 mmHg, P less than 0.05), however this hypocapnia could not fully explain the cerebral hypoperfusion associated with the development of nausea. These data indicate that reductions in cerebral blood flow precede the development of nausea. Further work is necessary to determine what role cerebral hypoperfusion plays in motion sickness and whether cerebral hypoperfusion can be used to predict the development of nausea in susceptible individuals.

  18. Cochlear contributions to the precedence effect.

    PubMed

    Verhulst, Sarah; Bianchi, Federica; Dau, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    Normal-hearing individuals have sharply tuned auditory filters, and consequently their basilar-membrane (BM) impulse responses (IRs) have durations of several ms at frequencies in the range from 0 to 5 kHz. When presenting clicks that are several ms apart, the BM IRs to the individual clicks will overlap in time, giving rise to complex interactions that have not been fully understood in the human cochlea. The perceptual consequences of these BM IR interactions are of interest as lead-lag click pairs are often used to study localization and the precedence effect. The present study aimed at characterizing perceptual consequences of BM IR interactions in individual listeners based on click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). Lag suppression, denoting the level difference between the CEOAE or wave-V response amplitude evoked by the first and the second clicks, was observed for inter-click intervals (ICIs) between 1 and 4 ms. Behavioral correlates of lag suppression were obtained for the same individuals by investigating the percept of the lead-lag click pairs presented either monaurally or binaurally. The click pairs were shown to give rise to fusion (i.e., the inability to hear out the second click in a lead-lag click pair), regardless of monaural or binaural presentation. In both cases, the ICI range where the percept was a fused image correlated well with the ICI range for which monaural lag suppression occurred in the CEOAE and ABR (i.e., for ICIs below 4.3 ms). Furthermore, the lag suppression observed in the wave-V amplitudes to binaural stimulation did not show additional contributions to the lag suppression obtained monaurally, suggesting that peripheral lag suppression up to the level of the brainstem is dominant in the perception of the precedence effect.

  19. Fish Oil Supplementation in Humans: Effects on Platelet Responses, Phospholipid Composition and Metabolism.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skeaff, Clark Murray

    Platelets are believed to play a significant role in the development of occlusive vascular diseases. Epidemiological reports have correlated the high intake of marine foods, rich in omega3 fatty acids, with diminished platelet responses and a low incidence of arterial thrombosis and myocardial infarction. The activation of platelet responses is mediated by the accelerated metabolism of membrane phospholipid; therefore, it was of interest to examine, in human volunteers, the effect of a dietary fish oil concentrate (MaxEPA), enriched in omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, on platelet aggregation and phospholipid composition/metabolism. For the complete separation of cellular phospholipids, a one-dimensional thin-layer chromatography system using silica-gel pre-coated glass plates was developed. The solvent system consisted of CHCl_3/CH_3OH/CH _3COOH/H_2O (50/37.5/3.5/2.0, by vol), required approximately 90-120 minutes for full phospholipid separation, and was highly reproducible even under conditions of variable humidity and temperature. The consumption of a fish oil concentrate (MaxEPA) for 6 weeks (3.6 g of 20:5omega 3 and 2.4 g of 22:6omega3 per day) diminished both the collagen- and platelet activating factor-induced maximum aggregation responses in washed human platelet suspensions by 50.1% and 27.2%, respectively, as compared to initial unsupplemented baseline responses. Thrombin -induced aggregation remained unchanged. Thrombin stimulation of intact human platelets produced a significant decrease in the mass of phosphatidylinositol in plasma membrane. In platelets pre-labelled with (2-^3H) glycerol and stimulated with either thrombin or low-dose collagen, the loss of (^3H) phosphatidylinositol did not differ between those subjects consuming olive oil or fish oil. Likewise, the thrombin-stimulated accumulation of diacylglycerol, an activator of protein kinase C, was unaffected by fish oil consumption. The ratio of collagen -induced increase in radioactivity

  20. Inositol lipid phosphatases in membrane trafficking and human disease.

    PubMed

    Billcliff, Peter G; Lowe, Martin

    2014-07-15

    The specific interaction of phosphoinositides with proteins is critical for a plethora of cellular processes, including cytoskeleton remodelling, mitogenic signalling, ion channel regulation and membrane traffic. The spatiotemporal restriction of different phosphoinositide species helps to define compartments within the cell, and this is particularly important for membrane trafficking within both the secretory and endocytic pathways. Phosphoinositide homoeostasis is tightly regulated by a large number of inositol kinases and phosphatases, which respectively phosphorylate and dephosphorylate distinct phosphoinositide species. Many of these enzymes have been implicated in regulating membrane trafficking and, accordingly, their dysregulation has been linked to a number of human diseases. In the present review, we focus on the inositol phosphatases, concentrating on their roles in membrane trafficking and the human diseases with which they have been associated.

  1. An evaluation of serum high density lipoproteins-phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Ide, H; Tsuji, M; Shimada, M; Kondo, T; Fujiya, S; Asanuma, Y; Agishi, Y

    1988-07-01

    Phospholipids in high density lipoproteins (HDL) is being used as a negative risk indicator of atherosclerosis. Phospholipids in HDL may not demonstrate the actual level of HDL-phospholipids when determined by the precipitation or ultracentrifugal methods, because HDL fractions contain very high density lipoproteins (VHDL) and albumin. In the present study, the true level of phospholipids in HDL was estimated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and it was compared with the level of phospholipids in HDL determined by the precipitation method. Sera from 18 healthy subjects were used as materials. In the HPLC method, the HDL fraction was extracted making sure that it contained no free albumin, which is albumin not bound to phospholipids. The HDL fraction was separated into subfractions. It was found that phospholipids in the VHDL fraction make a 20.2 +/- 7.3% (mean +/- S.D.) part of the total HDL-phospholipids. A large part of the VHDL fraction was constituted of albumin-bound phospholipids. A significant correlation was observed between HDL-phospholipids determined by the precipitation method, which contain albumin, and the actual HDL fraction phospholipids determined by HPLC, which do not contain VHDL (r = 0.903, p less than 0.01). These results suggest that HDL-phospholipids values determined by the precipitation method give useful clinical data.

  2. PLA2-responsive and SPIO-loaded phospholipid micelles

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qiang; Yan, Lesan; Chiorazzo, Michael; Delikatny, E. James; Tsourkas, Andrew; Cheng, Zhiliang

    2015-01-01

    A PLA2-responsive and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticle-loaded phospholipid micelle was developed. The release of phospholipid-conjugated dye from these micelles was triggered due to phospholipid degradation by phospholipase A2. High relaxivity of the encapsulated SPIO could enable non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26139589

  3. Membrane interaction and functional plasticity of inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Braun, Werner; Schein, Catherine H

    2014-05-06

    In this issue of Structure, Trésaugues and colleagues determined the interaction of membrane-bound phosphoinositides with three clinically significant human inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases (I5Ps). A comparison to the structures determined with soluble substrates revealed differences in the binding mode and suggested how the I5Ps and apurinic endonuclease (APE1) activities evolved from the same metal-binding active center.

  4. Inhibition by Ca2+ of inositol trisphosphate-mediated Ca2+ liberation: a possible mechanism for oscillatory release of Ca2+.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, I; Ivorra, I

    1990-01-01

    Light-flash photolysis of caged inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) was used to generate reproducible transients of free InsP3 in Xenopus oocytes, and the resulting liberation of Ca2+ from intracellular stores was monitored by recording Ca2+-activated membrane currents and by use of the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator fluo-3. InsP3-mediated Ca2+ release was inhibited by elevating the intracellular free Ca2+ level, either by microinjecting Ca2+ into the cell or by applying conditioning light flashes to liberate Ca2+. This inhibition followed a slow time course, being maximal after about 2 s and subsequently declining over several seconds. Negative feedback of Ca2+ ions on InsP3-mediated Ca2+ liberation may explain the oscillatory release of Ca2+ seen during activation of inositol phospholipid signaling in the oocyte, and the time course of the inhibition is consistent with the period of the oscillations. PMID:2296584

  5. Myoinositol and D-Chiro Inositol in Improving Insulin Resistance in Obese Male Children: Preliminary Data

    PubMed Central

    Andreassi, Alice; Salvioni, Michela; Pelliccione, Fiore; Mantellassi, Gianna; Banderali, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Myoinositol and D-chiro inositol, which are inositol isomers, have been shown to possess insulin-mimetic properties and to improve insulin resistance, especially in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. However, it has not been determined if this relationship exists also in children. Based on these previous findings, we hypothesized that inositol could be effective in improving insulin sensitivity in children with insulin resistance. To evaluate this hypothesis, we administered both inositol formulations before carrying out an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a group of obese insulin-resistant male children with high basal insulin levels and compared the values obtained with an OGTT previously conducted without inositol, in the same group, with unchanged BMI. Our results confirm that myoinositol and D-chiro inositol acutely reduce insulin increase after glucose intake mainly in children with high basal insulin level. PMID:27882052

  6. A femtomole-sensitivity mass assay for inositol hexakisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Letcher, Andrew J; Schell, Michael J; Irvine, Robin F

    2010-01-01

    Inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6)) is an important component of cells, and its mass levels are usually assayed by either (a) equilibrium labelling of cell cultures with radiolabelled inositol or (b) by a variety of mass assays of differing sensitivities and ambiguities. Here, we describe a mass assay for InsP(6) that is based on phosphorylating InsP(6) with [(32)P]-ATP to 5-(PP)InsP(5) using a recombinant Giardia InsP(6) kinase and quantification of the radiolabelled 5-[(32)P](PP)InsP(5) product by anion exchange HPLC with an internal [(3)H]-(PP)InsP(5) standard. Interference with the enzyme reaction by other factors in the tissue extract is corrected for by assay of identical aliquots of tissue spiked with known amounts of InsP(6). This assay only measures InsP(6) (and not other inositol phosphates), and although it is simple in principle and requires no dedicated or specialised equipment, it is quite time-consuming. But the assay is unambiguous and is capable of quantifying accurately as little as 10 fmol of InsP(6) in a cell extract.

  7. Synthesis of mannosylglucosaminylinositol phospholipids in normal but not paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria cells.

    PubMed

    Hirose, S; Ravi, L; Prince, G M; Rosenfeld, M G; Silber, R; Andresen, S W; Hazra, S V; Medof, M E

    1992-07-01

    To identify mannosyl (Man)-containing intermediates of the human glycoinositol phospholipid (GPI) anchor pathway and examine their expression in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), mannolipid products deriving from in vitro guanosine diphosphate [3H]Man labeling of HeLa cell microsomes were characterized. The defined GPI species were correlated with products deriving from in vivo [3H]Man labeling of normal and (GPI-anchor defective) affected leukocytes. In vitro analyses in HeLa cells showed dolichol-phosphoryl (Dol-P)-[3H]Man and a spectrum of [3H]Man lipids exhibiting TLC mobilities approximating those of Trypanosoma brucei (Tryp) GPI precursors. Iatrobead HPLC separations and partial characterizations of the major isolated [3H]Man species (designated H1-H8) showed that all but H1 (Dol-P-Man) were sensitive to HNO2 deamination and serum GPI-specific phospholipase D digestion but were resistant to phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C digestion unless previously deacylated with mild alkali. [3H]Man label in H3, H4, and H6 but not in H5 or H7 was efficiently released into the aqueous phase by jack bean alpha-mannosidase digestion. BioGel P-4 and AX-5 sizing of the dephosphorylated core glycan fragments of H6 and H7 gave values that coincided precisely with the corresponding glycan fragments from the fully assembled Tryp anchor donor A' (P2). Affected leukocytes from four patients with PNH supported formation of GlcNAc- and GlcN-PI but all failed to express H6 and H7 as well as H8 and two showed complete absence of earlier Man-containing intermediates. These findings argue that human intracellular GPI mannolipids are built on acylated inositol phospholipids, that H6 and H7 contain differentially phosphoethanolamine-substituted Man3-GlcN-inositol cores, and that PNH cells are defective in conversion of GlcN-PI into these more mature mannolipid structures.

  8. Inositols and methylinositols in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides) berries.

    PubMed

    Kallio, Heikki; Lassila, Marika; Järvenpää, Eila; Haraldsson, Gudmundur G; Jonsdottir, Sigridur; Yang, Baoru

    2009-05-15

    Sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) berries, especially of ssp. sinensis, contain significant quantities of an unknown, water-soluble compound, evidently a cyclitol derivative. The compound was isolated by HPLC and analyzed by GC-MS [trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivative, selected ion monitoring (SIM) and total ion chromatogram (TIC) analyses], by (1)H and (13)C NMR and by optical activity measurements. The results together with analyses of reference compound verified the unambiguous structure (-)-2-O-methyl-L-chiro-inositol (L-quebrachitol). In addition, chiro-inositol and myo-inositol existing in trace amounts were identified based on reference compounds, chromatographic data and mass spectra of the TMS derivatives. Methyl-myo-inositol was tentatively identified based on chromatography and mass spectrometry. Inositols and methyl inositols are bioactive compounds essential for regulating physiological processes of plants and humans. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of chiro-inositol and myo-inositol in sea buckthorn and L-quebrachitol in edible berries. The identification of the inositols and l-quebrachitol in sea buckthorn may bring new insights into the sensory properties and also mechanisms behind the health effects of the berry.

  9. What precedes development of rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Klareskog, L; Alfredsson, L; Rantapaa-Dahlqvis..., S; Berglin, E; Stolt, P; Padyukov, L

    2004-01-01

    Studies on aetiology of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) need to investigate the potential environmental triggers that are active before onset of disease, the genetic context in which these triggers act, and whether the presence of such triggers in an arthritis prone genetic context will give rise to the immune reactions associated with/preceding RA. Such knowledge would help not only to address much better the issue of causality of these potential triggers and the immune reactions, but also to carry out various interventions aimed at influencing the disease provoking immune events before development of clinical signs of disease. This short report summarises recent data demonstrating (a) the presence of anticitrullin antibodies or rheumatoid factors in between a third and half of patients with RA before development of clinical signs; (b) long term smoking is associated with a high risk of future development of seropositive but not seronegative RA; and (c) a strong gene–environment interaction between smoking and SE genes in the development of seropositive RA. We conclude that, in a certain genetic context, smoking is a potential trigger of RA, and a combination of the two factors is associated with the occurrence of immune reactions long before the onset of RA. PMID:15479868

  10. White Dwarf Convection Preceding Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zingale, Michael; Almgren, A. S.; Bell, J. B.; Malone, C. M.; Nonaka, A.; Woosley, S. E.

    2010-01-01

    In the single degenerate scenario for Type Ia supernovae, a Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf `simmers' for centuries preceding the ultimate explosion. During this period, reactions near the center drive convection throughout most of the interior of the white dwarf. The details of this convective flow determine how the first flames in the white dwarf ignite. Simulating this phase is difficult because the flows are highly subsonic. Using the low Mach number hydrodynamics code, MAESTRO, we present 3-d, full star models of the final hours of this convective phase, up to the point of ignition of a Type Ia supernova. We discuss the details of the convective velocity field and the locations of the initial hot spots. Finally, we show some preliminary results with rotation. Support for this work came from the DOE/Office of Nuclear Physics, grant No. DE-FG02-06ER41448 (Stony Brook), the SciDAC Program of the DOE Office of Mathematics, Information, and Computational Sciences under the DOE under contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 (LBNL), and the DOE SciDAC program, under grant No. DE-FC02-06ER41438 (UCSC). We made use of the jaguar machine via a DOE INCITE allocation at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computational Facility.

  11. Results from the International Consensus Conference on Myo-inositol and d-chiro-inositol in Obstetrics and Gynecology: the link between metabolic syndrome and PCOS.

    PubMed

    Facchinetti, Fabio; Bizzarri, Mariano; Benvenga, Salvatore; D'Anna, Rosario; Lanzone, Antonio; Soulage, Christophe; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Hod, Moshe; Cavalli, Pietro; Chiu, Tony T; Kamenov, Zdravko A; Bevilacqua, Arturo; Carlomagno, Gianfranco; Gerli, Sandro; Oliva, Mario Montanino; Devroey, Paul

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, interest has been focused to the study of the two major inositol stereoisomers: myo-inositol (MI) and d-chiro-inositol (DCI), because of their involvement, as second messengers of insulin, in several insulin-dependent processes, such as metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome. Although these molecules have different functions, very often their roles have been confused, while the meaning of several observations still needs to be interpreted under a more rigorous physiological framework. With the aim of clarifying this issue, the 2013 International Consensus Conference on MI and DCI in Obstetrics and Gynecology identified opinion leaders in all fields related to this area of research. They examined seminal experimental papers and randomized clinical trials reporting the role and the use of inositol(s) in clinical practice. The main topics were the relation between inositol(s) and metabolic syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome (with a focus on both metabolic and reproductive aspects), congenital anomalies, gestational diabetes. Clinical trials demonstrated that inositol(s) supplementation could fruitfully affect different pathophysiological aspects of disorders pertaining Obstetrics and Gynecology. The treatment of PCOS women as well as the prevention of GDM seem those clinical conditions which take more advantages from MI supplementation, when used at a dose of 2g twice/day. The clinical experience with MI is largely superior to the one with DCI. However, the existence of tissue-specific ratios, namely in the ovary, has prompted researchers to recently develop a treatment based on both molecules in the proportion of 40 (MI) to 1 (DCI).

  12. Metabolism of myo-Inositol by Legionella pneumophila Promotes Infection of Amoebae and Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Manske, Christian; Schell, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Legionella pneumophila is a natural parasite of environmental amoebae and the causative agent of a severe pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease. The facultative intracellular pathogen employs a bipartite metabolism, where the amino acid serine serves as the major energy supply, while glycerol and glucose are mainly utilized for anabolic processes. The L. pneumophila genome harbors the cluster lpg1653 to lpg1649 putatively involved in the metabolism of the abundant carbohydrate myo-inositol (here termed inositol). To assess inositol metabolism by L. pneumophila, we constructed defined mutant strains lacking lpg1653 or lpg1652, which are predicted to encode the inositol transporter IolT or the inositol-2-dehydrogenase IolG, respectively. The mutant strains were not impaired for growth in complex or defined minimal media, and inositol did not promote extracellular growth. However, upon coinfection of Acanthamoeba castellanii, the mutants were outcompeted by the parental strain, indicating that the intracellular inositol metabolism confers a fitness advantage to the pathogen. Indeed, inositol added to L. pneumophila-infected amoebae or macrophages promoted intracellular growth of the parental strain, but not of the ΔiolT or ΔiolG mutant, and growth stimulation by inositol was restored by complementation of the mutant strains. The expression of the Piol promoter and bacterial uptake of inositol required the alternative sigma factor RpoS, a key virulence regulator of L. pneumophila. Finally, the parental strain and ΔiolG mutant bacteria but not the ΔiolT mutant strain accumulated [U-14C6]inositol, indicating that IolT indeed functions as an inositol transporter. Taken together, intracellular L. pneumophila metabolizes inositol through the iol gene products, thus promoting the growth and virulence of the pathogen. IMPORTANCE The environmental bacterium Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of a severe pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease. The

  13. Interaction of isopropylthioxanthone with phospholipid liposomes.

    PubMed

    Momo, Federico; Fabris, Sabrina; Stevanato, Roberto

    2007-04-01

    Isopropylthioxanthone (ITX) is a highly lipophilic molecule which can be released in foods and beverages from the packages, where it is present as photoinitiator of inks in printing processes. Recently it was found in babies milk, and its toxicity cannot be excluded. The structure of the molecule suggests a possible strong interaction with the lipid moiety of biological membranes, and this is the first study of its effects on phospholipid organization, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and spin labelling techniques. The data obtained with multilamellar liposomes of saturated phospholipids of different length, with and without cholesterol, point out that the molecule changes the lipid structure; in particular, in the gel state, behaving like a disordering agent it increases the mobility of the bilayer, while, in the fluid state, tends to rigidify the membrane, in a cholesterol like way. This behavior supports the hypothesis that ITX experiences a relocation process when the lipid matrix passes from the gel to the fluid state.

  14. Colorimetric estimation of phospholipids in aqueous dispersions.

    PubMed

    Hallen, R M

    1980-05-01

    A method for the estimation of phospholipids in aqueous dispersions is described. The method is based on the formation of a lipid-molybdenum blue complex, which is extracted into chloroform from the aqueous phase. Phosphate ions, detergents, proteins, neutral lipids and various other ions do not interfere in the lipid estimation. The method is sensitive down to a lipid concentration of 0.1 mumol/ml, with an accuracy better than +/- 3%.

  15. Cholesterol autoxidation in phospholipid membrane bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Sevanian, A.; McLeod, L.L.

    1987-09-01

    Lipid peroxidation in unilamellar liposomes of known cholesterol-phospholipid composition was monitored under conditions of autoxidation or as induced by a superoxide radical generating system, gamma-irradiation or cumene hydroperoxide. Formation of cholesterol oxidation products was indexed to the level of lipid peroxidation. The major cholesterol oxidation products identified were 7-keto-cholesterol, isomeric cholesterol 5,6-epoxides, isomeric 7-hydroperoxides and isomeric 3,7-cholestane diols. Other commonly encountered products included 3,5-cholestadiene-7-one and cholestane-3 beta, 5 alpha, 6 beta-triol. Superoxide-dependent peroxidation required iron and produced a gradual increase in 7-keto-cholesterol and cholesterol epoxides. Cholesterol oxidation was greatest in liposomes containing high proportions of unsaturated phospholipid to cholesterol (4:1 molar ratio), intermediate with low phospholipid to cholesterol ratios (2:1) and least in liposomes prepared with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. This relationship held regardless of the oxidizing conditions used. Cumene hydroperoxide-dependent lipid peroxidation and/or more prolonged oxidations with other oxidizing systems yielded a variety of products where cholesterol-5 beta,6 beta-epoxide, 7-ketocholesterol and the 7-hydroperoxides were most consistently elevated. Oxyradical initiation of lipid peroxidation produced a pattern of cholesterol oxidation products distinguishable from the pattern derived by cumene hydroperoxide-dependent peroxidation.

  16. Phospholipid nanodisc engineering for drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Tatsuya

    2012-06-01

    Biocompatible mesoscale nanoparticles (5-100 nm in diameter) are attractive tools for drug delivery. Among them are several types of liposomes and polymer micelles already in clinical trial or use. Generally, biocompatibility of such particles is achieved by coating them with polyethylene glycol (PEG). Without PEG coating, particles are quickly trapped in the reticuloendothelial system when intravenously administered. However, recent studies have revealed several potential problems with PEG coating, including antigenicity and restriction of cellular uptake. This has motivated the development of alternative drug and gene delivery vehicles, including chemically and genetically engineered high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-like nanodiscs or "bicelles". HDL is a naturally occurring mesoscale nanoparticle that normally ferries cholesterol around in the body. Its initial "nascent" form is thought to be a simple 10 nm disc of phospholipids in a bilayer, and can be easily synthesized in vitro by mixing recombinant apoA-I proteins with various phospholipids. In this review, the use of synthetic HDL-like phospholipid nanodiscs as biocompatible drug carriers is summarized, focussing on manufacturing, size-control, drug loading and cell targeting.

  17. Phylogenomic investigation of phospholipid synthesis in archaea.

    PubMed

    Lombard, Jonathan; López-García, Purificación; Moreira, David

    2012-01-01

    Archaea have idiosyncratic cell membranes usually based on phospholipids containing glycerol-1-phosphate linked by ether bonds to isoprenoid lateral chains. Since these phospholipids strongly differ from those of bacteria and eukaryotes, the origin of the archaeal membranes (and by extension, of all cellular membranes) was enigmatic and called for accurate evolutionary studies. In this paper we review some recent phylogenomic studies that have revealed a modified mevalonate pathway for the synthesis of isoprenoid precursors in archaea and suggested that this domain uses an atypical pathway of synthesis of fatty acids devoid of any acyl carrier protein, which is essential for this activity in bacteria and eukaryotes. In addition, we show new or updated phylogenetic analyses of enzymes likely responsible for the isoprenoid chain synthesis from their precursors and the phospholipid synthesis from glycerol phosphate, isoprenoids, and polar head groups. These results support that most of these enzymes can be traced back to the last archaeal common ancestor and, in many cases, even to the last common ancestor of all living organisms.

  18. Metabolic effects of a novel silicate inositol complex of the nitric oxide precursor arginine in the obese insulin-resistant JCR:LA-cp rat.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Spencer D; Kelly, Sandra E; Vine, Donna F; Russell, James C

    2007-10-01

    Insulin resistance is a major contributor to macro- and microvascular complications, particularly in the presence of the metabolic syndrome, and is also associated with polycystic ovary syndrome. Impaired nitric oxide metabolism and endothelial function are important components of the vascular disease. Increasing the bioavailability of arginine, the precursor of nitric oxide, thus potentially offers protection against end-stage disease. We have recently demonstrated that dietary supplementation with a novel silicate inositol arginine complex reduces vasculopathy and glomerular sclerosis in the insulin-resistant JCR:LA-cp rat. The objective of this study was to address the absorption of, and the underlying metabolic alterations caused by, the arginine silicate inositol complex and arginine HCl (as a reference agent) in obese insulin-resistant male and female JCR:LA-cp rats. Male and female rats were treated with the preparations at 1.0 mg/(kg d) (expressed as arginine HCl) from 8 to 12 and 12 to 18 weeks of age, respectively. Obese female, but not male, rats treated with the arginine silicate inositol complex showed a reduced rate of weight gain without concomitant reduction in food intake. Plasma silicon levels were raised very significantly in arginine silicate-treated rats, consistent with significant absorption of the complex. In male rats, arginine levels were elevated by treatment with arginine silicate only; and female rats responded to both preparations. Plasma concentrations of oxides of nitrogen in rats treated with the silicate complex showed a dimorphism, decreasing in male and increasing in female rats. Fasting insulin levels were elevated in male rats treated with the arginine silicate complex, whereas fasting and postprandial insulin levels were decreased in female rats. Furthermore, female, but not male, rats treated with either of the arginine preparations showed significant reductions in cholesterol, triglyceride, and phospholipid concentrations

  19. Defective Craniofacial Development and Brain Function in a Mouse Model for Depletion of Intracellular Inositol Synthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Ohnishi, Tetsuo; Murata, Takuya; Watanabe, Akiko; Hida, Akiko; Ohba, Hisako; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Mishima, Kazuo; Gondo, Yoichi; Yoshikawa, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    myo-Inositol is an essential biomolecule that is synthesized by myo-inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) from inositol monophosphate species. The enzymatic activity of IMPase is inhibited by lithium, a drug used for the treatment of mood swings seen in bipolar disorder. Therefore, myo-inositol is thought to have an important role in the mechanism of bipolar disorder, although the details remain elusive. We screened an ethyl nitrosourea mutant mouse library for IMPase gene (Impa) mutations and identified an Impa1 T95K missense mutation. The mutant protein possessed undetectable enzymatic activity. Homozygotes died perinatally, and E18.5 embryos exhibited striking developmental defects, including hypoplasia of the mandible and asymmetric fusion of ribs to the sternum. Perinatal lethality and morphological defects in homozygotes were rescued by dietary myo-inositol. Rescued homozygotes raised on normal drinking water after weaning exhibited a hyper-locomotive trait and prolonged circadian periods, as reported in rodents treated with lithium. Our mice should be advantageous, compared with those generated by the conventional gene knock-out strategy, because they carry minimal genomic damage, e.g. a point mutation. In conclusion, our results reveal critical roles for intracellular myo-inositol synthesis in craniofacial development and the maintenance of proper brain function. Furthermore, this mouse model for cellular inositol depletion could be beneficial for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical effect of lithium and myo-inositol-mediated skeletal development. PMID:24554717

  20. Characterization of Inositol-containing Phosphosphingolipids from Tobacco Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Karan; Lester, Robert L.

    1975-01-01

    A method for a large scale extraction of phosphoglycosphingolipids from the leaves of Nicotiana tabacum L. has been developed. The phosphosphingolipid concentrate consists of a dozen or more polar lipids as judged by thin layer chromatography. Two of these lipids were purified by chromatography on porous silica beads and partially characterized. These lipids are formulated as: N-acetylglucosamidoglucuronidoinositol phosphorylceramide and glucosamidoglucuronidoinositol phosphorylceramide. Although not fully characterized, the other lipids in the concentrate are inositol-containing phosphosphingolipids with a higher carbohydrate content. PMID:16659016

  1. Antidiabetic phospholipid-nuclear receptor complex reveals the mechanism for phospholipid-driven gene regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Musille, Paul M; Pathak, Manish C; Lauer, Janelle L; Hudson, William H; Griffin, Patrick R; Ortlund, Eric A

    2013-01-31

    The human nuclear receptor liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) has an important role in controlling lipid and cholesterol homeostasis and is a potential target for the treatment of diabetes and hepatic diseases. LRH-1 is known to bind phospholipids, but the role of phospholipids in controlling LRH-1 activation remains highly debated. Here we describe the structure of both apo LRH-1 and LRH-1 in complex with the antidiabetic phospholipid dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC). Together with hydrogen-deuterium exchange MS and functional data, our studies show that DLPC binding is a dynamic process that alters co-regulator selectivity. We show that the lipid-free receptor undergoes previously unrecognized structural fluctuations, allowing it to interact with widely expressed co-repressors. These observations enhance our understanding of LRH-1 regulation and highlight its importance as a new therapeutic target for controlling diabetes.

  2. Levoprotiline ((-)-oxaprotiline) effects on inositol phosphate generation in human peripheral lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Schubert, T; Müller, W E

    1991-01-01

    The effects of the atypical antidepressant levoprotiline (LPT) on inositol phosphate metabolism were investigated in N-formyl-methionyl-leucylphenylalanine (fMLP) activated human lymphocytes. In the presence of LPT, stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis by fMLP lead to an increased accumulation of inositol bisphosphates, an effect which could be detected within the range of therapuetic plasma concentrations and which is exerted by lithium in a similar way. Furthermore, incubation of lymphocytes with LPT and subsequent stimulation with fMLP lead to a pronounced decrease in the level of free intracellular [3H]inositol. Both LPT effects, the increased accumulation of inositol bisphosphates and the reduction of free intracellular [3H]inositol, were found to be more pronounced for LPT than for its enantiomer (+)-oxaprotiline. The results are discussed in view of a possible biochemical mechanism which may contribute to the antidepressive activity of LPT.

  3. Specificity determinants in phosphoinositide dephosphorylation: crystal structure of an archetypal inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Tsujishita, Y; Guo, S; Stolz, L E; York, J D; Hurley, J H

    2001-05-04

    Inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases are central to intracellular processes ranging from membrane trafficking to Ca(2+) signaling, and defects in this activity result in the human disease Lowe syndrome. The 1.8 resolution structure of the inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase domain of SPsynaptojanin bound to Ca(2+) and inositol (1,4)-bisphosphate reveals a fold and an active site His and Asp pair resembling those of several Mg(2+)-dependent nucleases. Additional loops mediate specific inositol polyphosphate contacts. The 4-phosphate of inositol (1,4)-bisphosphate is misoriented by 4.6 compared to the reactive geometry observed in the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1, explaining the dephosphorylation site selectivity of the 5-phosphatases. Based on the structure, a series of mutants are described that exhibit altered substrate specificity providing general determinants for substrate recognition.

  4. Degradation of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate by a phytate-degrading enzyme from Pantoea agglomerans.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Ralf

    2004-11-01

    High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis established myo-inositol pentakisphosphate as the final product of phytate dephosphorylation by the phytate-degrading enzyme from Pantoea agglomerans. Neither product inhibition by phosphate nor inactivation of the Pantoea enzyme during the incubation period were responsible for the limited phytate hydrolysis as shown by addition of phytate-degrading enzyme and phytate, respectively, after the observed stop of enzymatic phytate degradation. In additon, the Pantoea enzyme did not possess activity toward the purified myo-inositol pentakisphosphate. Using a combination of High-Performance Ion Chromatography (HPIC) analysis and kinetic studies, the nature of the generated myo-inositol pentakisphosphate was established. The data demonstrate that the phytate-degrading enzyme from Pantoea agglomerans dephosphorylates myo-inositol hexakisphosphate in a stereospecific way to finally D-myo-inositol(1,2,4,5,6)pentakisphosphate.

  5. Cholinesterase inhibitor soman increases inositol trisphosphate in rat brain. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Mobley, P.L.

    1990-12-31

    Studies were conducted to determine the effect of the cholinesterase inhibitor soman on the amount of inositol trisphosphate in the neocortex, striatum, cerebellum, and medulla-pons regions of rat brain in vivo. The studies indicate that treatment with soman increase inositol trisphosphate in the neocortex and striatum, but not in the cerebellum or medulla-pons region. In the neocortex the most pronounced increases were observed in animals with severe poisoning symptoms; however, inositol trisphophate was also found to be elevated in animals with only mild poisoning symptoms. A variety of evidence suggests that the receptor-mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidyl inositol results in the formation of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol, both of which function as intracellular signal messengers, and that this mechanism represents a major signal transduction system through which extracellular signals can influence intracellular events.

  6. myo-Inositol and d-Ribose Ligand Discrimination in an ABC Periplasmic Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Herrou, Julien

    2013-01-01

    The periplasmic binding protein (PBP) IbpA mediates the uptake of myo-inositol by the IatP-IatA ATP-binding cassette transmembrane transporter. We report a crystal structure of Caulobacter crescentus IbpA bound to myo-inositol at 1.45 Å resolution. This constitutes the first structure of a PBP bound to inositol. IbpA adopts a type I PBP fold consisting of two α-β lobes that surround a central hinge. A pocket positioned between the lobes contains the myo-inositol ligand, which binds with submicromolar affinity (0.76 ± 0.08 μM). IbpA is homologous to ribose-binding proteins and binds d-ribose with low affinity (50.8 ± 3.4 μM). On the basis of IbpA and ribose-binding protein structures, we have designed variants of IbpA with inverted binding specificity for myo-inositol and d-ribose. Five mutations in the ligand-binding pocket are sufficient to increase the affinity of IbpA for d-ribose by 10-fold while completely abolishing binding to myo-inositol. Replacement of ibpA with these mutant alleles unable to bind myo-inositol abolishes C. crescentus growth in medium containing myo-inositol as the sole carbon source. Neither deletion of ibpA nor replacement of ibpA with the high-affinity ribose binding allele affected C. crescentus growth on d-ribose as a carbon source, providing evidence that the IatP-IatA transporter is specific for myo-inositol. This study outlines the evolutionary relationship between ribose- and inositol-binding proteins and provides insight into the molecular basis upon which these two related, but functionally distinct, classes of periplasmic proteins specifically bind carbohydrate ligands. PMID:23504019

  7. 10 CFR 501.10 - Order of precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order of precedence. 501.10 Section 501.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS General Provisions § 501.10 Order of precedence. If there is any conflict or inconsistency between the provisions of...

  8. 10 CFR 501.10 - Order of precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Order of precedence. 501.10 Section 501.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS General Provisions § 501.10 Order of precedence. If there is any conflict or inconsistency between the provisions of...

  9. 10 CFR 501.10 - Order of precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Order of precedence. 501.10 Section 501.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS General Provisions § 501.10 Order of precedence. If there is any conflict or inconsistency between the provisions of...

  10. 10 CFR 501.10 - Order of precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Order of precedence. 501.10 Section 501.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS General Provisions § 501.10 Order of precedence. If there is any conflict or inconsistency between the provisions of...

  11. 10 CFR 501.10 - Order of precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Order of precedence. 501.10 Section 501.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS General Provisions § 501.10 Order of precedence. If there is any conflict or inconsistency between the provisions of...

  12. Stereospecificity of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate hydrolysis by a protein tyrosine phosphatase-like inositol polyphosphatase from Megasphaera elsdenii.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Aaron A; Greiner, Ralf; Selinger, L Brent

    2009-02-01

    Inositol polyphosphatases (IPPases), particularly those that can hydrolyze myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (Ins P(6)), are of biotechnological interest for their ability to reduce the metabolically unavailable organic phosphate content of feedstuffs and to produce lower inositol polyphosphates (IPPs) for research and pharmaceutical applications. Here, the gene coding for a new protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-like IPPase was cloned from Megasphaera elsdenii (phyAme), and the biochemical properties of the recombinant protein were determined. The deduced amino acid sequence of PhyAme is similar to known PTP-like IPPases (29-44% identity), and the recombinant enzyme displayed strict specificity for IPP substrates. Optimal IPPase activity was displayed at an ionic strength of 250 mM, a pH of 5.0, and a temperature of 60 degrees C. In order to elucidate its stereospecificity of Ins P(6) dephosphorylation, a combination of high-performance ion-pair chromatography and kinetic studies was conducted. PhyAme displayed a stereospecificity that is unique among enzymes belonging to this class in that it preferentially cleaved Ins P(6) at one of two phosphate positions, 1D-3 or 1D-4. PhyAme followed two distinct and specific routes of hydrolysis, predominantly degrading Ins P(6) to Ins(2)P via: (a) 1D-Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P(5), 1D-Ins(1,2,5,6)P(4), 1D-Ins(1,2,6)P(3), and 1D-Ins(1,2)P(2) (60%) and (b) 1D-Ins(1,2,3,5,6)P(5), 1D-Ins(1,2,3,6)P(4), Ins(1,2,3)P(3), and D/L-Ins(1,2)P(2)(35%).

  13. Effect of acute thioacetamide administration on rat brain phospholipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Osada, J.; Aylagas, H.; Miro-Obradors, M.J.; Arce, C.; Palacios-Alaiz, E.; Cascales, M. )

    1990-09-01

    Brain phospholipid composition and the ({sup 32}P)orthophosphate incorporation into brain phospholipids of control and rats treated for 3 days with thioacetamide were studied. Brain phospholipid content, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, lysolecithin and phosphatidic acid did not show any significant change by the effect of thioacetamide. In contrast, thioacetamide induced a significant decrease in the levels of phosphatidylserine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylinositol and diphosphatidylglycerol. After 75 minutes of intraperitoneal label injection, specific radioactivity of all the above phospholipids with the exception of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine significantly increased. After 13 hours of isotope administration the specific radioactivity of almost all studied phospholipid classes was elevated, except for phosphatidic acid, the specific radioactivity of which did not change and for diphosphatidylglycerol which showed a decrease in specific radioactivity. These results suggest that under thioacetamide treatment brain phospholipids undergo metabolic transformations that may contribute to the hepatic encephalopathy induced by thioacetamide.

  14. Phospholipid methylation in starfish spermatozoa is linked to sperm chemoattraction.

    PubMed Central

    Tezon, J; Miller, R L; Bardin, C W

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism whereby ovarian peptides cause sperm attraction was studied in the starfish. Phospholipid methylation and protein-O-carboxyl methylation, reactions linked to chemotactic responses in a variety of systems, were studied in starfish sperm. When sperm were preincubated with [methyl-3H]methionine and then exposed to the attractant, a rapid drop in radioactivity occurred in the phospholipid fraction. Methylated phospholipids decreased by 90% in the first 2 sec; however, no change was observed in endogenous methylation of protein carboxyl groups. The effect on phospholipid methylation was dose dependent, with a 40% reduction in radioactive phospholipids in sperm occurring with the minimal amount of attractant necessary to obtain a positive response in a sperm attraction bioassay. Attractants from species of starfish with little or no cross-reactivity in the bioassay had a limited effect on phospholipid methylation. The transmethylase inhibitor, homocysteine, caused a marked decrease in the accumulation of methylated phospholipids under basal conditions, which was correlated with as much as a 50-fold increase in sperm sensitivity to the attractant. The addition of chemoattractant resulted in a reduction in the amount of all individual methylated phospholipids, but the amount of phosphatidylmono[3H]methylethanolamine relative to the other methylated phospholipid decreased by a factor of 4 after stimulation. Homocysteine had the same effect. The reduction in methylated phospholipids by attractants suggests that phospholipid methylation is linked to the mechanism of action of these peptides. Methylation of phospholipids may play a role in the rapid desensitization of sperm cells to the attractant, which would be required for the orientation of the spermatozoa in the gradient of ovarian peptide. PMID:3459145

  15. Inositol Hexakisphosphate Kinase 3 Regulates Metabolism and Lifespan in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Moritoh, Yusuke; Oka, Masahiro; Yasuhara, Yoshitaka; Hozumi, Hiroyuki; Iwachidow, Kimihiko; Fuse, Hiromitsu; Tozawa, Ryuichi

    2016-01-01

    Inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 3 (IP6K3) generates inositol pyrophosphates, which regulate diverse cellular functions. However, little is known about its own physiological role. Here, we show the roles of IP6K3 in metabolic regulation. We detected high levels of both mouse and human IP6K3 mRNA in myotubes and muscle tissues. In human myotubes, IP6K3 was upregulated by dexamethasone treatment, which is known to inhibit glucose metabolism. Furthermore, Ip6k3 expression was elevated under diabetic, fasting, and disuse conditions in mouse skeletal muscles. Ip6k3−/− mice demonstrated lower blood glucose, reduced circulating insulin, deceased fat mass, lower body weight, increased plasma lactate, enhanced glucose tolerance, lower glucose during an insulin tolerance test, and reduced muscle Pdk4 expression under normal diet conditions. Notably, Ip6k3 deletion extended animal lifespan with concomitant reduced phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein in the heart. In contrast, Ip6k3−/− mice showed unchanged skeletal muscle mass and no resistance to the effects of high fat diet. The current observations suggest novel roles of IP6K3 in cellular regulation, which impact metabolic control and lifespan. PMID:27577108

  16. Phospholipid biosynthesis and solvent tolerance in Pseudomonas putida strains.

    PubMed Central

    Pinkart, H C; White, D C

    1997-01-01

    The role of the cell envelope in the solvent tolerance mechanisms of Pseudomonas putida was investigated. The responses of a solvent-tolerant strain, P. putida Idaho, and a solvent-sensitive strain, P. putida MW1200, were examined in terms of phospholipid content and composition and of phospholipid biosynthetic rate following exposure to a nonmetabolizable solvent, o-xylene. Following o-xylene exposure, P. putida MW1200 exhibited a decrease in total phospholipid content. In contrast, P. putida Idaho demonstrated an increase in phospholipid content 1 to 6 h after exposure. Analysis of phospholipid biosynthesis showed P. putida Idaho to have a higher basal rate of phospholipid synthesis than MW1200. This rate increased significantly following exposure to xylene. Both strains showed little significant turnover of phospholipid in the absence of xylene. In the presence of xylene, both strains showed increased phospholipid turnover. The rate of turnover was significantly greater in P. putida Idaho than in P. putida MW1200. These results suggest that P. putida Idaho has a greater ability than the solvent-sensitive strain MW1200 to repair damaged membranes through efficient turnover and increased phospholipid biosynthesis. PMID:9209036

  17. Inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate and not phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate is the probable precursor of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate in agonist-stimulated parotid gland.

    PubMed Central

    Downes, C P; Hawkins, P T; Irvine, R F

    1986-01-01

    When [3H]inositol-prelabelled rat parotid-gland slices were stimulated with carbachol, noradrenaline or Substance P, the major inositol trisphosphate produced with prolonged exposure to agonists was, in each case, inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate. Much lower amounts of radioactivity were present in the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate fraction separated by anion-exchange h.p.l.c. Analysis of the inositol trisphosphate head group of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate in [32P]Pi-labelled parotid glands showed the presence of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, but no detectable phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate. Carbachol-stimulated [3H]inositol-labelled parotid glands contained an inositol polyphosphate with the chromatographic properties and electrophoretic mobility of an inositol tetrakisphosphate, the probable structure of which was determined to be inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate. Since an enzyme in erythrocyte membranes is capable of degrading this tetrakisphosphate to inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate, it is suggested to be the precursor of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate in parotid glands. PMID:2432882

  18. Specific determination of myo-inositol in multivitamin pharmaceutical preparations by a flow injection system using a myo-inositol dehydrogenase reactor coupled with a glucose eliminating enzyme reactor.

    PubMed

    Ono, Masaki; Nakajima, Toshiaki; Itoh, Yuji; Shimada, Kenji; Yamato, Susumu

    2003-12-04

    A flow injection system for myo-inositol determination in multivitamin pharmaceutical preparations using two enzyme reactors was developed. Myo-inositol was detected using a fluorophotometer, to measure the fluorescence of NADH produced from NAD+ by a myo-inositol dehydrogenase reactor (IDR) containing myo-inositol dehydrogenase immobilized on porous glass. Enhanced interference due to excess glucose included in a multivitamin pharmaceutical preparation as a sweetener was eliminated by a glucose eliminating reactor (GER) co-immobilized with three enzymes (glucose oxidase, mutarotase and catalase). The calibration coefficient for the standard curve was 0.9993 for myo-inositol detection in the range of 1-5 microg/ml. Myo-inositol was determined even in the presence of glucose concentrations of 140-420 microg/ml. The recovery of myo-inositol added to the multivitamin pharmaceutical preparation was 99.6% (n=9).

  19. Phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes in human brain.

    PubMed

    Ross, B M; Moszczynska, A; Blusztajn, J K; Sherwin, A; Lozano, A; Kish, S J

    1997-04-01

    Growing evidence suggests an involvement of brain membrane phospholipid metabolism in a variety of neurodegenerative and psychiatric conditions. This has prompted the use of drugs (e.g., CDPcholine) aimed at elevating the rate of neural membrane synthesis. However, no information is available regarding the human brain enzymes of phospholipid synthesis which these drugs affect. Thus, the objective of our study was to characterize the enzymes involved, in particular, whether differences existed in the relative affinity of substrates for the enzymes of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) compared to those of phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis. The concentration of choline in rapidly frozen human brain biopsies ranged from 32-186 nmol/g tissue, a concentration similar to that determined previously for ethanolamine. Since human brain ethanolamine kinase possessed a much lower affinity for ethanolamine (Km = 460 microM) than choline kinase did for choline (Km = 17 microM), the activity of ethanolamine kinase in vivo may be more dependent on substrate availability than that of choline kinase. In addition, whereas ethanolamine kinase was inhibited by choline, and to a lesser extent by phosphocholine, choline kinase activity was unaffected by the presence of ethanolamine, or phosphoethanolamine, and only weakly inhibited by phosphocholine. Phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase (PECT) and phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (PCCT) also displayed dissimilar characteristics, with PECT and PCCT being located predominantly in the cytosolic and particulate fractions, respectively. Both PECT and PCCT exhibited a low affinity for CTP (Km approximately 1.2 mM), suggesting that the activities of these enzymes, and by implication, the rate of phospholipid synthesis, are highly dependent upon the cellular concentration of CTP. In conclusion our data indicate different regulatory properties of PE and PC synthesis in human brain, and suggest that the rate of PE synthesis may be more

  20. Phospholipid and sphingolipid metabolism in Leishmania

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Beverley, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    In many eukaryotes, phospholipids (PLs) and sphingolipids (SLs) are abundant membrane components and reservoirs for important signaling molecules. In Leishmania, the composition, metabolism, and function of PLs and SLs differ significantly from those in mammalian cells. Although only a handful of enzymes have been experimentally characterized, available data suggest many steps of PL/SL metabolism are critical for Leishmania viability and/or virulence, and could be a source for new drug targets. Further studies of genes involved in the synthesis (de novo and salvage) and degradation of PLs and SLs will reveal their diverse effects on Leishmania pathogenesis. PMID:20026359

  1. Dietary Phospholipids and Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Jeffrey S.; Kamili, Alvin; Wat, Elaine; Chung, Rosanna W. S.; Tandy, Sally

    2010-01-01

    Experiments carried out with cultured cells and in experimental animals have consistently shown that phospholipids (PLs) can inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption. Limited evidence from clinical studies suggests that dietary PL supplementation has a similar effect in man. A number of biological mechanisms have been proposed in order to explain how PL in the gut lumen is able to affect cholesterol uptake by the gut mucosa. Further research is however required to establish whether the ability of PLs to inhibit cholesterol absorption is of therapeutic benefit. PMID:22254012

  2. Membrane phospholipid asymmetry in human thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Kuypers, F A; Yuan, J; Lewis, R A; Snyder, L M; Kiefer, C R; Bunyaratvej, A; Fucharoen, S; Ma, L; Styles, L; de Jong, K; Schrier, S L

    1998-04-15

    Phospholipid asymmetry in the red blood cell (RBC) lipid bilayer is well maintained during the life of the cell, with phosphatidylserine (PS) virtually exclusively located in the inner monolayer. Loss of phospholipid asymmetry, and consequently exposure of PS, is thought to play an important role in red cell pathology. The anemia in the human thalassemias is caused by a combination of ineffective erythropoiesis (intramedullary hemolysis) and a decreased survival of adult RBCs in the peripheral blood. This premature destruction of the thalassemic RBC could in part be due to a loss of phospholipid asymmetry, because cells that expose PS are recognized and removed by macrophages. In addition, PS exposure can play a role in the hypercoagulable state reported to exist in severe beta-thalassemia intermedia. We describe PS exposure in RBCs of 56 comparably anemic patients with different genetic backgrounds of the alpha- or beta-thalassemia phenotype. The use of fluorescently labeled annexin V allowed us to determine loss of phospholipid asymmetry in individual cells. Our data indicate that in a number of thalassemic patients, subpopulations of red cells circulate that expose PS on their outer surface. The number of such cells can vary dramatically from patient to patient, from as low as that found in normal controls (less than 0.2%) up to 20%. Analysis by fluorescent microscopy of beta-thalassemic RBCs indicates that PS on the outer leaflet is distributed either over the entire membrane or localized in areas possibly related to regions rich in membrane-bound alpha-globin chains. We hypothesize that these membrane sites in which iron carrying globin chains accumulate and cause oxidative damage, could be important in the loss of membrane lipid organization. In conclusion, we report the presence of PS-exposing subpopulations of thalassemic RBC that are most likely physiologically important, because they could provide a surface for enhancing hemostasis as recently reported

  3. Effect of Treating Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats With Sorbinil, Myo-Inositol or Aminoguanidine on Endoneurial Blood Flow, Motor Nerve Conduction Velocity and Vascular Function of Epineurial Arterioles of the Sciatic Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Coppey, Lawrence J.; Gellett, Jill S.; Davidson, Eric P.; Dunlap, Joyce A.

    2002-01-01

    Previously we have demonstrated that diabetes causes impairment in vascular function of epineurial vessels, which precedes the slowing of motor nerve conduction velocity. Treatment of diabetic rats with aldose reductase inhibitors, aminoguanidine or myo-inositol supplementation have been shown to improve motor nerve conduction velocity and/or decreased endoneurial blood flow. However, the effect these treatments have on vascular reactivity of epineurial vessels of the sciatic nerve is unknown. In these studies we examined the effect of treating streptozotocininduced rats with sorbinil, aminoguanidine or myo-inositol on motor nerve conduction velocity, endoneurial blood flow and endothelium dependent vascular relaxation of arterioles that provide circulation to the region of the sciatic nerve. Treating diabetic rats with sorbinil, aminoguanidine or myo-inositol improved the reduction of endoneurial blood flow and motor nerve conduction velocity. However, only sorbinil treatment significantly improved the diabetes-induced impairment of acetylcholinemediated vasodilation of epineurial vessels of the sciatic nerve. All three treatments were efficacious in preventing the appropriate metabolic derangements associated with either activation of the polyol pathway or increased nonenzymatic glycation. In addition, sorbinil was shown to prevent the diabetes-induced decrease in lens glutathione level. However, other markers of oxidative stress were not vividly improved by these treatments. These studies suggest that sorbinil treatment may be more effective in preventing neural dysfunction in diabetes than either aminoguanidine or myoinositol. PMID:11900277

  4. Loss-of-function of inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase reversibly increases the severity of allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Aich, Jyotirmoi; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Ahmad, Tanveer; Agrawal, Anurag; Ghosh, Balaram

    2012-06-06

    Inositol polyphosphate phosphatases regulate the magnitude of phosphoinositide-3 kinase signalling output. Although inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase is known to regulate phosphoinositide-3 kinase signalling, little is known regarding its role in asthma pathogenesis. Here we show that modulation of inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase alters the severity of asthma. Allergic airway inflammation in mice led to calpain-mediated degradation of inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase. In allergic airway inflammation models, preventing inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase degradation by inhibiting calpain activity, or overexpression of inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase in mouse lungs, led to attenuation of the asthma phenotype. Conversely, knockdown of inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase severely aggravated the allergic airway inflammation and the asthma phenotype. Interestingly, inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase knockdown in lungs of naive mice led to spontaneous airway hyper-responsiveness, suggesting that inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase could be vital in maintaining the lung homeostasis. We suggest that inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase has an important role in modulating inflammatory response in asthma, and thus, uncover a new understanding of the complex interplay between inositol signalling and asthma, which could provide alternative strategies in asthma management.

  5. Changes in inositol phosphates in wild carrot cells upon initiation of cell wall digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Rincon, M.; Boss, W.F.

    1987-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that inositol trisphosphate (IP/sub 3/) stimulated /sup 45/Ca/sup +2/ efflux from fusogenic carrot protoplasts and it was suggested that IP/sub 3/ may serve as a second messenger for the mobilization of intracellular Ca/sup +2/ in higher plant cells. To determine whether or not inositol phosphate metabolism changes in response to external stimuli, the cells were labeled with myo-(2-/sup 3/H) inositol for 18 h and exposed to cell wall digestion enzymes, Driselase. The inositol phosphates were extracted with ice cold 10% TCA and separated by anion exchange chromatography. The radioactivity of the fraction that contained IP/sub 3/ increased 2-3.8 fold and that which contained inositol bisphosphate increased 1.9-2.6 fold within 1.5 min of exposure to Driselase. After 6 min, the radioactivity of both fractions increased 6-7.7 fold and an increase in inositol monophosphate was observed. These data indicate that inositol phosphate metabolism is stimulated by Driselase and suggest polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis occurs upon initiation of cell wall digestion.

  6. Transport and metabolism of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-galactoside in seedlings of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komoszynski, M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol galactoside labeled with 3H in the indole and 14C in the galactose moieties was applied to kernels of 5 day old germinating seedlings of Zea mays. Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol galactoside was not transported into either the shoot or root tissue as the intact molecule but was instead hydrolyzed to yield [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and [3H]indole-3-acetic acid which were then transported to the shoot with little radioactivity going to the root. With certain assumption concerning the equilibration of applied [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-[U-14C]galactose with the endogenous pool, it may be concluded that indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol galactoside in the endosperm supplies about 2 picomoles per plant per hour of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and 1 picomole per plant per hour of indole-3-acetic acid to the shoot and thus is comparable to indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol as a source of indole-acetic acid for the shoot. Quantitative estimates of the amount of galactose in the kernels suggest that [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-[14C]galactose is hydrolyzed after the compound leaves the endosperm but before it reaches the shoot. In addition, [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-[14C]galactose supplies appreciable amounts of 14C to the shoot and both 14C and 3H to an uncharacterized insoluble fraction of the endosperm.

  7. Inositol pyrophosphates modulate cell cycle independently of alteration in telomere length.

    PubMed

    Banfic, Hrvoje; Crljen, Vladiana; Lukinovic-Skudar, Vesna; Dembitz, Vilma; Lalic, Hrvoje; Bedalov, Antonio; Visnjic, Dora

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis of inositol pyrophosphates through activation of Kcs1 plays an important role in the signalling response required for cell cycle progression after mating pheromone arrest. Overexpression of Kcs1 doubled the level of inositol pyrophosphates when compared to wild type cells and 30 min following the release from α-factor block further increase in inositol pyrophosphates was observed, which resulted that cells overexpressing Kcs1 reached G2/M phase earlier than wild type cells. Similar effect was observed in ipk1Δ cells, which are unable to synthesize IP6-derived inositol pyrophosphates (IP7 and IP8) but will synthesize IP5-derived inositol pyrophosphates (PP-IP4 and (PP)2-IP3). Although ipk1Δ cells have shorter telomeres than wild type cells, overexpression of Kcs1 in both strains have similar effect on cell cycle progression. As it is known that PP-IP4 regulates telomere length through Tel1, inositol polyphosphates, cell cycle and telomere length were determined in tel1Δ cells. The release of the cells from α-factor block and overexpression of Kcs1 in tel1Δ cells produced similar effects on inositol pyrophosphates level and cell cycle progression when compared to wild type cells, although tel1Δ cells possesses shorter telomeres than wild type cells. It can be concluded that telomere length does not affect cell cycle progression, since cells with short telomeres (ipk1Δ and tel1Δ) progress through cell cycle in a similar manner as wild type cells and that overexpression of Kcs1 in cells with either short or normal telomeres will increase S phase progression without affecting telomere length. Furthermore, IP5-derived inositol pyrophosphates can compensate for the loss of IP6-derived inositol pyrophosphates, in modulating S phase progression of the cell cycle.

  8. Inositol for the prevention of neural tube defects: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Greene, Nicholas D E; Leung, Kit-Yi; Gay, Victoria; Burren, Katie; Mills, Kevin; Chitty, Lyn S; Copp, Andrew J

    2016-03-28

    Although peri-conceptional folic acid (FA) supplementation can prevent a proportion of neural tube defects (NTD), there is increasing evidence that many NTD are FA non-responsive. The vitamin-like molecule inositol may offer a novel approach to preventing FA-non-responsive NTD. Inositol prevented NTD in a genetic mouse model, and was well tolerated by women in a small study of NTD recurrence. In the present study, we report the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects by Inositol (PONTI) pilot study designed to gain further experience of inositol usage in human pregnancy as a preliminary trial to a future large-scale controlled trial to evaluate efficacy of inositol in NTD prevention. Study subjects were UK women with a previous NTD pregnancy who planned to become pregnant again. Of 117 women who made contact, ninety-nine proved eligible and forty-seven agreed to be randomised (double-blind) to peri-conceptional supplementation with inositol plus FA or placebo plus FA. In total, thirty-three randomised pregnancies produced one NTD recurrence in the placebo plus FA group (n 19) and no recurrences in the inositol plus FA group (n 14). Of fifty-two women who declined randomisation, the peri-conceptional supplementation regimen and outcomes of twenty-two further pregnancies were documented. Two NTD recurred, both in women who took only FA in their next pregnancy. No adverse pregnancy events were associated with inositol supplementation. The findings of the PONTI pilot study encourage a large-scale controlled trial of inositol for NTD prevention, but indicate the need for a careful study design in view of the unwillingness of many high-risk women to be randomised.

  9. Phospholipid imprinted polymers as selective endotoxin scavengers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulc, Robert; Szekely, Gyorgy; Shinde, Sudhirkumar; Wierzbicka, Celina; Vilela, Filipe; Bauer, David; Sellergren, Börje

    2017-03-01

    Herein we explore phospholipid imprinting as a means to design receptors for complex glycolipids comprising the toxic lipopolysaccharide endotoxin. A series of polymerizable bis-imidazolium and urea hosts were evaluated as cationic and neutral hosts for phosphates and phosphonates, the latter used as mimics of the phospholipid head groups. The bis-imidazolium hosts interacted with the guests in a cooperative manner leading to the presence of tight and well defined 1:2 ternary complexes. Optimized monomer combinations were subsequently used for imprinting of phosphatidic acid as an endotoxin dummy template. Presence of the aforementioned ternary complexes during polymerization resulted in imprinting of lipid dimers – the latter believed to crudely mimic the endotoxin Lipid A motif. The polymers were characterized with respect to template rebinding, binding affinity, capacity and common structural properties, leading to the identification of polymers which were thereafter subjected to an industrially validated endotoxin removal test. Two of the polymers were capable of removing endotoxin down to levels well below the accepted threshold (0.005 EU/mg API) in pharmaceutical production.

  10. Phospholipid imprinted polymers as selective endotoxin scavengers

    PubMed Central

    Sulc, Robert; Szekely, Gyorgy; Shinde, Sudhirkumar; Wierzbicka, Celina; Vilela, Filipe; Bauer, David; Sellergren, Börje

    2017-01-01

    Herein we explore phospholipid imprinting as a means to design receptors for complex glycolipids comprising the toxic lipopolysaccharide endotoxin. A series of polymerizable bis-imidazolium and urea hosts were evaluated as cationic and neutral hosts for phosphates and phosphonates, the latter used as mimics of the phospholipid head groups. The bis-imidazolium hosts interacted with the guests in a cooperative manner leading to the presence of tight and well defined 1:2 ternary complexes. Optimized monomer combinations were subsequently used for imprinting of phosphatidic acid as an endotoxin dummy template. Presence of the aforementioned ternary complexes during polymerization resulted in imprinting of lipid dimers – the latter believed to crudely mimic the endotoxin Lipid A motif. The polymers were characterized with respect to template rebinding, binding affinity, capacity and common structural properties, leading to the identification of polymers which were thereafter subjected to an industrially validated endotoxin removal test. Two of the polymers were capable of removing endotoxin down to levels well below the accepted threshold (0.005 EU/mg API) in pharmaceutical production. PMID:28303896

  11. Dihydrolipoyl dioleoylglycerol antioxidant capacity in phospholipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Laszlo, Joseph A; Evans, Kervin O; Compton, David L; Appell, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Antioxidants have critical roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis and disease-state prevention. The multi-functional agent α-lipoic acid offers numerous beneficial effects to oxidatively stressed tissues. α-Lipoic acid was enzymatically incorporated into a triglyceride in conjunction with oleic acid, creating lipoyl dioleoylglycerol, and chemically reduced to form dihydrolipoyl dioleoylglycerol. The triglyceride forms of lipoic acid stabilized dioleoylphosphatidylcholine unilamellar liposomal vesicles, as judged by calcein-cobalt leakage. Stabilization resulted from increased packing density of phospholipid acyl chains. Scavenging activity against the 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) radical was monitored by oxidation of 4,4-difluoro-5-(4-phenyl-1,3-butadienyl)-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-undecanoic acid (C(11)-Bodipy). Dihydrolipoyl dioleoylglycerol in vesicles demonstrated strong antioxidant capacity in comparison to the conventional Trolox standard. Fluorescence quenching measurements indicated the lipoyl moiety of dihydrolipoyl dioleoylglycerol is positioned near the vesicle aqueous/lipid boundary. Treatment of intact vesicles with a nonpenetrating sulfhydryl reagent indicated that 80% of the dihydrolipoyl dioleoylglycerol was available for reaction. Molecular modeling of lipoyl dioleoylglycerol and dihydrolipoyl dioleoylglycerol in a phospholipid layer confirmed the existence of an extended configuration for the molecules that accounts for the interfacial location of the lipoyl moiety, which may allow the antioxidant to readily react with radical species approaching membranes from the aqueous phase.

  12. Phospholipid synthesis rates in the eastern subtropical South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mooy, B. A. S.; Moutin, T.; Duhamel, S.; Rimmelin, P.; van Wambeke, F.

    2008-02-01

    Membrane lipid molecules are a major component of planktonic organisms and this is particularly true of the microbial picoplankton that dominate the open ocean; with their high surface-area to volume ratios, the synthesis of membrane lipids places a major demand on their overall cell metabolism. Specifically, the synthesis of cell membrane phospholipids creates a demand for the nutrient phosphorus, and we sought to refine our understanding of the role of phospholipids in the upper ocean phosphorus cycle. We measured the rates of phospholipid synthesis in a transect of the eastern subtropical South Pacific from Easter Island to Concepcion, Chile as part of the BIOSOPE program. Our approach combined standard phosphorus radiotracer incubations and lipid extraction methods. We found that phospholipid synthesis rates varied from less than 1 to greater than 200 pmol P L-1 h-1, and that phospholipid synthesis contributed between less than 5% to greater than 22% of the total PO43- incorporation rate. Changes in the percentage that phospholipid synthesis contributed to total PO43- uptake were strongly correlated with the ratio of primary production to bacterial production, which supported our hypothesis that heterotrophic bacteria were the primary agents of phospholipid synthesis. The spatial variation in phospholipid synthesis rates underscored the importance of heterotrophic bacteria in the phosphorus cycle of the eastern subtropical South Pacific, particularly the hyperoligotrophic South Pacific subtropical gyre.

  13. Phospholipid synthesis rates in the eastern subtropical South Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mooy, B. A. S.; Moutin, T.; Duhamel, S.; Rimmelin, P.; van Wambeke, F.

    2007-08-01

    Membrane lipid molecules are a major component of planktonic organisms and this is particularly true of the microbial picoplankton that dominate the open ocean; with their high surface-area to volume ratios, the synthesis of membrane lipids places a major demand on their overall cell metabolism. The synthesis of one class of membrane lipids, the phospholipids, also creates a demand for the nutrient phosphorus, and we sought to refine our understanding of the role of phospholipids in the upper ocean phosphorus cycle. We measured the rates of phospholipid synthesis in a transect of the eastern subtropical South Pacific from Easter Island to Concepcion, Chile as part of the BIOSOPE program. Our approach combined standard phosphorus radiotracer incubations and lipid extraction methods. We found that phospholipid synthesis rates varied from less than 1 to greater than 200 pmol P L-1 h-1, and that phospholipid synthesis contributed between less than 5% to greater than 22% of the total PO43- incorporation rate. Changes in the percentage that phospholipid synthesis contributed to total PO43- incorporation were strongly correlated with the ratio of primary production to bacterial production, which supported our hypothesis that heterotrophic bacteria were the primary agents of phospholipid synthesis. The spatial variation in phospholipid synthesis rates underscored the importance of heterotrophic bacteria in the phosphorus cycle of the eastern subtropical South Pacific, particularly the hyperoligotrophic South Pacific subtropical gyre.

  14. Aldose Reductase-catalyzed Reduction of Aldehyde Phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Sanjay; Spite, Matthew; Trent, John O.; West, Matthew B.; Ahmed, Yonis; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Oxidation of unsaturated phospholipids results in the generation of aldehyde side chains that remain esterified to the phospholipid backbone. Such “core” aldehydes elicit immune responses and promote inflammation. However, the biochemical mechanisms by which phospholipid aldehydes are metabolized or detoxified are not well understood. In the studies reported here, we examined whether aldose reductase (AR), which reduces hydrophobic aldehydes, metabolizes phospholipid aldehydes. Incubation with AR led to the reduction of 5-oxovaleroyl, 7-oxo-5-heptenoyl, 5-hydroxy-6-oxo-caproyl, and 5-hydroxy-8-oxo-6-octenoyl phospholipids generated upon oxidation of 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PAPC). The enzyme also catalyzed the reduction of phospholipid aldehydes generated from the oxidation of 1-alkyl, and 1-alkenyl analogs of PAPC, and 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl phosphatidic acid or phosphoglycerol. Aldose reductase catalyzed the reduction of chemically synthesized 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POVPC) with a Km of 10 μM. Addition of POVPC to the culture medium led to incorporation and reduction of the aldehyde in COS-7 and THP-1 cells. Reduction of POVPC in these cells was prevented by the AR inhibitors sorbinil and tolrestat and was increased in COS-7 cells overexpressing AR. Together, these observations suggest that AR may be a significant participant in the metabolism of several structurally diverse phospholipid aldehydes. This metabolism may be a critical regulator of the pro-inflammatory and immunogenic effects of oxidized phospholipids. PMID:15465833

  15. Inositol 5-phosphatases: insights from the Lowe syndrome protein OCRL.

    PubMed

    Pirruccello, Michelle; De Camilli, Pietro

    2012-04-01

    The precise regulation of phosphoinositide lipids in cellular membranes is crucial for cellular survival and function. Inositol 5-phosphatases have been implicated in a variety of disorders, including various cancers, obesity, type 2 diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases and rare genetic conditions. Despite the obvious impact on human health, relatively little structural and biochemical information is available for this family. Here, we review recent structural and mechanistic work on the 5-phosphatases with a focus on OCRL, whose loss of function results in oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe and Dent 2 disease. Studies of OCRL emphasize how the actions of 5-phosphatases rely on both intrinsic and extrinsic membrane recognition properties for full catalytic function. Additionally, structural analysis of missense mutations in the catalytic domain of OCRL provides insight into the phenotypic heterogeneity observed in Lowe syndrome and Dent disease.

  16. Control of eukaryotic phosphate homeostasis by inositol polyphosphate sensor domains.

    PubMed

    Wild, Rebekka; Gerasimaite, Ruta; Jung, Ji-Yul; Truffault, Vincent; Pavlovic, Igor; Schmidt, Andrea; Saiardi, Adolfo; Jessen, Henning Jacob; Poirier, Yves; Hothorn, Michael; Mayer, Andreas

    2016-05-20

    Phosphorus is a macronutrient taken up by cells as inorganic phosphate (P(i)). How cells sense cellular P(i) levels is poorly characterized. Here, we report that SPX domains--which are found in eukaryotic phosphate transporters, signaling proteins, and inorganic polyphosphate polymerases--provide a basic binding surface for inositol polyphosphate signaling molecules (InsPs), the concentrations of which change in response to P(i) availability. Substitutions of critical binding surface residues impair InsP binding in vitro, inorganic polyphosphate synthesis in yeast, and P(i) transport in Arabidopsis In plants, InsPs trigger the association of SPX proteins with transcription factors to regulate P(i) starvation responses. We propose that InsPs communicate cytosolic P(i) levels to SPX domains and enable them to interact with a multitude of proteins to regulate P(i) uptake, transport, and storage in fungi, plants, and animals.

  17. Nuclear inositol lipid metabolism: more than just second messenger generation?

    PubMed

    Martelli, Alberto M; Follo, Matilde Yung; Evangelisti, Camilla; Falà, Federica; Fiume, Roberta; Billi, Anna Maria; Cocco, Lucio

    2005-10-01

    A distinct polyphosphoinositide cycle is present in the nucleus, and growing evidence suggests its importance in DNA replication, gene transcription, and apoptosis. Even though it was initially thought that nuclear inositol lipids would function as a source for second messengers, recent findings strongly indicate that lipids present in the nucleus also fulfil other roles. The scope of this review is to highlight the most intriguing advances made in the field over the last few years, such as the possibility that nuclear phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate is involved in maintaining chromatin in a transcriptionally active conformation, the new emerging roles for intranuclear phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5) trisphosphate and phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and the evidence which suggests a tight relationship between a decreased level of nuclear phosphoinositide specific phospholipase C-beta1 and the evolution of myelodisplastic syndrome into acute myeloid leukemia.

  18. Arginine Silicate Inositol Complex Accelerates Cutaneous Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Durmus, Ali Said; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Ozdemir, Oguzhan; Orhan, Cemal; Sahin, Nurhan; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanifi; Komorowski, James Richard; Ali, Shakir; Sahin, Kazim

    2016-10-14

    Arginine silicate inositol (ASI) complex is a composition of arginine, silicon, and inositol that has been shown to have beneficial effects on vascular health. This study reports the effects of an ASI ointment on wound healing in rats. A full-thickness excision wound was created by using a disposable 5 mm diameter skin punch biopsy tool. In this placebo-controlled study, the treatment group's wound areas were covered by 4 or 10 % ASI ointments twice a day for 5, 10, or 15 days. The rats were sacrificed either 5, 10, or 15 days after the wounds were created, and biopsy samples were taken for biochemical and histopathological analysis. Granulation tissue appeared significantly faster in the ASI-treated groups than in the control groups (P < 0.05). The mean unhealed wound area was significantly smaller, and the mean percentage of total wound healing was significantly higher in ASI-treated wounds than in the control wounds. Hydroxyproline, collagen, and matrix metalloproteinases were measured in the granulated tissue and found to be affected. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), collagen, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), and various cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) measured in this study showed a significant fall in expression level in ASI-treated wounds. The results suggest that topical application of ASI ointment (especially 4 % concentration) has beneficial effects on the healing response of an excisional wound.

  19. Alterations in Lipid and Inositol Metabolisms in Two Dopaminergic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Hannah S.; Do, Kieu Trinh; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Wahl, Simone; Adamski, Jerzy; Peters, Annette; Krumsiek, Jan; Suhre, Karsten; Haslinger, Bernhard; Ceballos-Baumann, Andres; Gieger, Christian; Winkelmann, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum metabolite profiling can be used to identify pathways involved in the pathogenesis of and potential biomarkers for a given disease. Both restless legs syndrome (RLS) and Parkinson`s disease (PD) represent movement disorders for which currently no blood-based biomarkers are available and whose pathogenesis has not been uncovered conclusively. We performed unbiased serum metabolite profiling in search of signature metabolic changes for both diseases. Methods 456 metabolites were quantified in serum samples of 1272 general population controls belonging to the KORA cohort, 82 PD cases and 95 RLS cases by liquid-phase chromatography and gas chromatography separation coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Genetically determined metabotypes were calculated using genome-wide genotyping data for the 1272 general population controls. Results After stringent quality control, we identified decreased levels of long-chain (polyunsaturated) fatty acids of individuals with PD compared to both RLS (PD vs. RLS: p = 0.0001 to 5.80x10-9) and general population controls (PD vs. KORA: p = 6.09x10-5 to 3.45x10-32). In RLS, inositol metabolites were increased specifically (RLS vs. KORA: p = 1.35x10-6 to 3.96x10-7). The impact of dopaminergic drugs was reflected in changes in the phenylalanine/tyrosine/dopamine metabolism observed in both individuals with RLS and PD. Conclusions A first discovery approach using serum metabolite profiling in two dopamine-related movement disorders compared to a large general population sample identified significant alterations in the polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in PD and implicated the inositol metabolism in RLS. These results provide a starting point for further studies investigating new perspectives on factors involved in the pathogenesis of the two diseases as well as possible points of therapeutic intervention. PMID:26808974

  20. Relationship Between Myo-Inositol Supplementary and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiangqin; Liu, Zhaozhen; Zhang, Yulong; Lin, Yuan; Song, Jianrong; Zheng, Lianghui; Lin, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To determine whether myo-inositol supplement will increase the action of endogenous insulin, which is mainly measured by markers of insulin resistance such as homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and web of science were comprehensively searched using “gestational diabetes mellitus” and “myo-inositol” to identify relevant studies. Both subject headings and free texts were adopted. The methodological quality of the included studies were assessed and pooled analyzed by the methods recommended by the Cochrane collaboration. A total of 5 trials containing 513 participants were included. There was a significant reduction in aspects of gestational diabetes incidence (risk ratio [RR], 0.29; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.19–0.44), birth weight (mean difference [MD], −116.98; 95% CI, −208.87 to −25.09), fasting glucose oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (MD, −0.36; 95% CI, −0.51 to −0.21), 1-h glucose OGTT (MD, −0.63; 95% CI, −1.01 to −0.26), 2-h glucose OGTT (MD, −0.45; 95% CI, −0.75 to −0.16), and related complications (odds ratio [OR], 0.28; 95% CI 0.14–0.58). On the basis of current evidence, myo-inositol supplementation reduces the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), although this conclusion requires further evaluation in large-scale, multicenter, blinded randomized controlled trials. PMID:26496267

  1. Do mammals make all their own inositol hexakisphosphate?

    PubMed

    Letcher, Andrew J; Schell, Michael J; Irvine, Robin F

    2008-12-01

    A highly specific and sensitive mass assay for inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) was characterized. This centres around phosphorylating InsP6 with [32P]ATP using a recombinant InsP6 kinase from Giardia lambia, followed by HPLC of the 32P-labelled products with an internal [3H]InsP7 standard. This assay was used to quantify InsP6 levels in a variety of biological samples.Concentrations of InsP6 in rat tissues varied from 10-20 microM (assuming 64% of wet weight of tissue is cytosol water), whereas using the same assumption axenic Dictyostelium discoideum cells contained 352 +/- 11 microM InsP6. HeLa cells were seeded at low density and grown to confluence, at which point they contained InsP6 levels per mg of protein similar to rat tissues. This amounted to 1.952 +/- 0.117 nmol InsP6 per culture dish, despite the cells being grown in serum shown to contain no detectable(less than 20 pmol per dish) InsP6. These results demonstrate that mammalian cells synthesize all their own InsP6. Human blood was analysed, and although the white cell fraction contained InsP6 at a concentration comparable with other tissues, in serum and platelet-free plasma no InsP6 was detected (<1 nM InsP6). Human urine was also examined, and also contained no detectable (<5 nM) InsP6. These results suggest that dietary studies purporting to measure InsP6 at micromolar concentrations in human plasma or urine may not have been quantifying this inositol phosphate. Therefore claims that administrating InsP6 in the diet or applying it topically can produce health benefits by increasing extracellular InsP6 levels may require reassessment.

  2. Calcium-independent effects of TMB-8. Modification of phospholipid metabolism in neuroblastoma cells by inhibition of choline uptake.

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, F B; Byers, D M; Spence, M W; Cook, H W

    1992-01-01

    TMB-8 [8-(NN-diethylamino)-octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate] blocks agonist-stimulated release of Ca2+ from intracellular sites in many cell lines and is often used to distinguish between dependence on extracellular and intracellular Ca2+. In N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells, TMB-8 did not alter the resting cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in unstimulated cells, yet phospholipid metabolism was greatly affected. At concentrations of TMB-8 (25-150 microM) that inhibit Ca2+ release, phosphatidylcholine formation was inhibited, whereas synthesis of phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylserine was stimulated. Unlike other cationic amphipathic compounds, TMB-8 did not inhibit phosphatidate phosphatase or enzymes in the pathway from choline to phosphatidylcholine. Choline transport was the major site of action. TMB-8 was a competitive inhibitor (Ki = 10 microM) of low-affinity (Kt = 20 microM) choline transport. When added at the same time as labelled precursor, TMB-8 also decreased cellular uptake of phosphate and inositol, but not that of ethanolamine or serine. In prelabelled cells, continued uptake and incorporation of phosphate and inositol were not affected. Under these conditions phosphatidylinositol synthesis was increased 2-fold and, like the effect on phosphatidylcholine, reached a plateau at 100 microM-TMB-8. Phosphatidylglycerol synthesis increased linearly with TMB-8 concentration to 40-fold stimulation at 150 microM, suggesting a selective effect on synthesis of phosphatidylglycerol from CDP-diacylglycerol. Phosphatidylserine synthesis was also increased up to 3-fold. These Ca(2+)-independent effects limit the use of TMB-8 in studies of cell signalling that involve stimulated phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine metabolism. PMID:1530583

  3. Crystal Structure of the Ligand Binding Suppressor Domain of Type 1 Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Bosanac, Ivan; Yamazaki, Haruka; Matsu-ura, Toru; Michikawa, Takayuki; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Ikura, Mitsuhiko

    2010-11-10

    Binding of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) to the amino-terminal region of IP{sub 3} receptor promotes Ca{sup 2+} release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Within the amino terminus, the first 220 residues directly preceding the IP{sub 3} binding core domain play a key role in IP{sub 3} binding suppression and regulatory protein interaction. Here we present a crystal structure of the suppressor domain of the mouse type 1 IP{sub 3} receptor at 1.8 {angstrom}. Displaying a shape akin to a hammer, the suppressor region contains a Head subdomain forming the {beta}-trefoil fold and an Arm subdomain possessing a helix-turn-helix structure. The conserved region on the Head subdomain appeared to interact with the IP{sub 3} binding core domain and is in close proximity to the previously proposed binding sites of Homer, RACK1, calmodulin, and CaBP1. The present study sheds light onto the mechanism underlying the receptor's sensitivity to the ligand and its communication with cellular signaling proteins.

  4. Inositol induces a profound alteration in the pattern and rate of synthesis and turnover of membrane lipids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Maria L; Aregullin, Manuel A; Jesch, Stephen A; Henry, Susan A

    2006-08-11

    The addition of inositol to actively growing yeast cultures causes a rapid increase in the rate of synthesis of phosphatidylinositol and, simultaneously, triggers changes in the expression of hundreds of genes. We now demonstrate that the addition of inositol to yeast cells growing in the presence of choline leads to a dramatic reprogramming of cellular lipid synthesis and turnover. The response to inositol includes a 5-6-fold increase in cellular phosphatidylinositol content within a period of 30 min. The increase in phosphatidylinositol content appears to be dependent upon fatty acid synthesis. Phosphatidylcholine turnover increased rapidly following inositol addition, a response that requires the participation of Nte1p, an endoplasmic reticulum-localized phospholipase B. Mass spectrometry revealed that the acyl species composition of phosphatidylinositol is relatively constant regardless of supplementation with inositol or choline, whereas phosphatidylcholine acyl species composition is influenced by both inositol and choline. In medium containing inositol, but lacking choline, high levels of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine were detected. Within 60 min following the addition of inositol, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine levels had decreased from approximately 40% of total phosphatidylcholine to a basal level of less than 5%. nte1Delta cells grown in the absence of inositol and in the presence of choline exhibited lower levels of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine than wild type cells grown under these same conditions, but these levels remained largely constant after the addition of inositol. These results are discussed in relationship to transcriptional regulation known to be linked to lipid metabolism in yeast.

  5. Non-Mendelian Inheritance of DNA-Induced Inositol Independence in Neurospora

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, N. C.; Tatum, E. L.

    1973-01-01

    Inositol-independent (inos+) revertants of Neurospora induced in inositol-requiring mutants by treatment with wild-type DNA in previous studies were found to be stable and to grow well in the absence of inositol. Genetic data presented in this paper show that a major proportion of these induced revertants rarely transmitted the inositol independence character (inos+) to their sexual progeny. Non-Mendelian transmission of the transformed character (inos+) was also found to occur in some of the sexual progeny in subsequent generations. These genetic data support the idea that the transforming DNA pieces carrying the genetic information (called exosomes) are not readily integrated into the host genome. It is suggested that elimination of most exosomes during meiosis causes a loss of the genetic information and leads to non-Mendelian transmission of the induced revertant character (inos+). PMID:4521213

  6. Inositol prevents folate-resistant neural tube defects in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Greene, N D; Copp, A J

    1997-01-01

    Clinical trials demonstrate that up to 70% of neural tube defects (NTDs) can be prevented by folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy, whereas the remaining NTDs are resistant to folate. Here, we show that a second vitamin, myo-inositol, is capable of significantly reducing the incidence of spinal NTDs in curly tail mice, a genetic model of folate-resistant NTDs. Inositol increases flux through the inositol/lipid cycle, stimulating protein kinase C activity and upregulating expression of retinoic acid receptor beta, specifically in the caudal portion of the embryonic hindgut. This reduces the delay in closure of the posterior neuropore, the embryonic defect that is known to lead directly to spina bifida in curly tail embryos. Our findings reveal a molecular pathway of NTD prevention and suggest the possible efficacy of combined treatment with folate and inositol in overcoming the majority of human NTDs.

  7. Unlike lithium, anticonvulsants and antidepressants do not alter rat brain myo-inositol.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Brent M; Greenshaw, Andrew J; McKay, Ryan; Slupsky, Carolyn M; Silverstone, Peter H

    2007-10-08

    Lithium is the first-line in bipolar disorder treatment. Lithium's clinical efficacy might be due to its inhibition of myo-inositol turnover in the phosphatidylinositol second messenger system. This study aimed to determine whether this action can extend to antidepressants and anticonvulsants also used to treat bipolar symptoms. Male rats were treated for 2 weeks with an intraperitoneal injection of phenelzine, fluoxetine, desipramine, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, sodium valproate or vehicle. Brains were dissected and myo-inositol concentrations were analyzed using high-field nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 18.8 T and quantified using Chenomx Profiler software. Brain regions assessed included the prefrontal, temporal and occipital cortical areas as well as the hippocampus. The main finding is that contrary to lithium, the anticonvulsants and antidepressants do not alter brain myo-inositol concentration. This suggests that these agents might work via a mechanism that is not centered on changes in myo-inositol concentration.

  8. Light induces a rapid and transient increase in inositol-trisphosphate in toad rod outer segments

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.E.; Blazynski, C.; Cohen, A.I.

    1987-08-14

    The sub-second time course of changes in the content of (/sup 3/H)inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate was determined in rod outer segments from very rapidly frozen Bufo retinas that had been incubated with (/sup 3/H)inositol. Rod outer segments were cut off frozen specimens with a cryostat microtome and the water soluble extracts were analyzed. The content of (/sup 3/H)inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate rose after approximately 250 msec of bright illumination, but returned to the unstimulated level after 1 sec, whether the stimulus remained on or not. That is, there was rapid but transient change in the content of (/sup 3/H)inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate after the onset of stimulation.

  9. Cyclic phosphatidic acid - a unique bioactive phospholipid.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yuko

    2008-09-01

    Cyclic phosphatidic acid (CPA) is a naturally occurring analog of the growth factor-like phospholipid mediator, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). The sn-2 hydroxy group of CPA forms a 5-membered ring with the sn-3 phosphate. CPA affects numerous cellular functions, including anti-mitogenic regulation of the cell cycle, induction of stress fiber formation, inhibition of tumor cell invasion and metastasis, and regulation of differentiation and survival of neuronal cells. Interestingly, many of these cellular responses caused by CPA oppose those of LPA despite the activation of apparently overlapping receptor populations. Since the early 1990s, studies on CPA actions gradually developed, and we are now beginning to understand the importance of this lipid. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge about CPA, including enzymatic formation of CPA, unique biological activities and biological targets of CPA, and we also explore metabolically stabilized CPA analogs.

  10. Langmuir films containing ibuprofen and phospholipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraldo, Vananélia P. N.; Pavinatto, Felippe J.; Nobre, Thatyane M.; Caseli, Luciano; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.

    2013-02-01

    This study shows the incorporation of ibuprofen, an anti-inflammatory drug, in Langmuir monolayers as cell membrane models. Significant effects were observed for dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (DPPC) monolayers with relevant changes in the elasticity of the monolayer. Dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl glycerol (DPPG) monolayers were affected by small concentrations of ibuprofen, from 1 to 5 mol%. For both types of monolayer, ibuprofen could penetrate into the hydrophobic part of the monolayer, which was confirmed with polarization-modulated infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) images showed that ibuprofen prevents the formation of large domains of DPPC. The pharmacological action should occur primarily with penetration of ibuprofen via electrically neutral phospholipid headgroups of the membrane.

  11. Phospholipid monolayers between fluid and solid states.

    PubMed Central

    Helm, C A; Möhwald, H; Kjaer, K; Als-Nielsen, J

    1987-01-01

    Monolayers of the phospholipid dimyristoyl phosphatidic acid on the surface of water have been studied by a combination of the new techniques of synchrotron x-ray diffraction and fluorescence microscopy with classical surface pressure data. The pressure vs. area isotherm changes slope at the surface pressures pi c and pi s. The optical technique demonstrates that between pi c and pi s the fluid phase coexists with a denser "gel" phase. Electron diffraction data have shown that the gel phase has bond orientational order over tens of micrometers. However, the x-ray data demonstrate that positional correlations extend only over tens of angstroms. Thus, the gel phase is not crystalline. Above pi s a solid phase is formed with a positional correlation range that is eight times longer for the chemically purest films. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 PMID:3651557

  12. Phospholipids in mitochondrial dysfunction during hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Leskova, Galina F

    2016-12-20

    Energy deficiency plays a key role in the development of irreversible shock conditions. Therefore, identifying mitochondrial functional disturbances during hemorrhagic shock should be considered a prospective direction for studying its pathogenesis. Phospholipid (PL)-dependent mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction in the brain (i.e., in the frontal lobes of the cerebral hemispheres and medulla oblongata) and liver, which, when damaged, leads to an encephalopathy, are examined in this review. These mechanisms show strong regional specificity. Analyzing the data presented in this review suggests that the basis for mitochondrial functional disturbances is cholinergic hyperactivation, accompanied by a choline deficiency and membrane phosphatidylcholine (PC) depletion. Stabilization of the PL composition in mitochondrial membranes using "empty" PC liposomes could be one of the most important methods for eliminating energy deficiency during massive blood loss.

  13. Phospholipid composition modulates carbon nanodiamond-induced alterations in phospholipid domain formation.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Aishik; Mucci, Nicolas J; Tan, Ming Li; Steckley, Ashleigh; Zhang, Ti; Forrest, M Laird; Dhar, Prajnaparamita

    2015-05-12

    The focus of this work is to elucidate how phospholipid composition can modulate lipid nanoparticle interactions in phospholipid monolayer systems. We report on alterations in lipid domain formation induced by anionically engineered carbon nanodiamonds (ECNs) as a function of lipid headgroup charge and alkyl chain saturation. Using surface pressure vs area isotherms, monolayer compressibility, and fluorescence microscopy, we found that anionic ECNs induced domain shape alterations in zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine lipids, irrespective of the lipid alkyl chain saturation, even when the surface pressure vs area isotherms did not show any significant changes. Bean-shaped structures characteristic of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) were converted to multilobed, fractal, or spiral domains as a result of exposure to ECNs, indicating that ECNs lower the line tension between domains in the case of zwitterionic lipids. For membrane systems containing anionic phospholipids, ECN-induced changes in domain packing were related to the electrostatic interactions between the anionic ECNs and the anionic lipid headgroups, even when zwitterionic lipids are present in excess. By comparing the measured size distributions with our recently developed theory derived by minimizing the free energy associated with the domain energy and mixing entropy, we found that the change in line tension induced by anionic ECNs is dominated by the charge in the condensed lipid domains. Atomic force microscopy images of the transferred anionic films confirm that the location of the anionic ECNs in the lipid monolayers is also modulated by the charge on the condensed lipid domains. Because biological membranes such as lung surfactants contain both saturated and unsaturated phospholipids with different lipid headgroup charges, our results suggest that when studying potential adverse effects of nanoparticles on biological systems the role of lipid compositions cannot be neglected.

  14. Effect of cellular inositol content on ethanol tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in sake brewing.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Keiji; Kitano, Hideyuki; Mizoguchi, Haruhiko; Hara, Shodo

    2004-01-01

    The effect of cellular inositol content on the ethanol tolerance of sake yeast was investigated. In a static culture of strain K901 in a synthetic medium, when cells were grown in the presence of inositol in limited amount (L-cells), the inositol content of cells decreased by one-third that of cells grown in the presence of inositol in sufficient amount (H-cells). L-cells exhibited a higher death rate constant than H-cells in the presence of 12-20% ethanol, while no difference in specific ethanol production rate in the presence of 0-18% ethanol between the two cell types was observed. L-cells leaked more intracellular components, such as nucleotides, phosphate and potassium, in the presence of ethanol than H-cells. L-cells exhibited a lower intracellular pH value than H-cells, which represented the lowering of cell vitality by the decrease in H(+) extrusion activity. Furthermore, the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity of L-cells was approximately one-half of that of H-cells. Therefore, it was considered that the decrease in viability in the presence of ethanol due to inositol limitation results from the lowering of H(+)-ATPase activity, which maintains the permeability barrier of the yeast membrane, ensuring the homeostasis of ions in the cytoplasm of yeast cells. It is assumed that the lowering of H(+)-ATPase activity due to inositol limitation is caused by the change in lipid environment of the enzyme, which is affected by inositol-containing glycerophospholipids such as phosphatidylinositol (PI), because in the PI-saturated mixed micellar assay system, the difference in H(+)-ATPase activity between L- and H-cells disappeared. In the early stage of sake mash, inositol limitation lowers the ethanol tolerance due to the decrease in H(+)-ATPase activity as in static culture. In the final stage of sake mash, the disruption of the ino1 gene responsible for inositol synthesis, resulted in a decrease in cell density. Furthermore, the ino1 disruptant, which was not

  15. Anionic phospholipids modulate peptide insertion into membranes.

    PubMed

    Liu, L P; Deber, C M

    1997-05-06

    While the insertion of a hydrophobic peptide or membrane protein segment into the bilayer can be spontaneous and driven mainly by the hydrophobic effect, anionic lipids, which comprise ca. 20% of biological membranes, provide a source of electrostatic attractions for binding of proteins/peptides into membranes. To unravel the interplay of hydrophobicity and electrostatics in the binding of peptides into membranes, we designed peptides de novo which possess the typical sequence Lys-Lys-Ala-Ala-Ala-X-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala-X-Ala-Ala-Trp-Ala-Ala-X-Ala-Al a-Ala-Lys-Lys-Lys-Lys-amide, where X residues correspond to "guest" residues which encompass a range of hydrophobicity (Leu, Ile, Gly, and Ser). Circular dichroism spectra demonstrated that peptides were partially (40-90%) random in aqueous buffer but were promoted to form 100% alpha-helical structures by anionic lipid micelles. In neutral lipid micelles, only the relatively hydrophobic peptides (X = L and I) spontaneously adopted the alpha-helical conformation, but when 25% of negatively charged lipids were mixed in to mimic the content of anionic lipids in biomembranes, the less hydrophobic (X = S and G) peptides then formed alpha-helical conformations. Consistent with these findings, fluorescence quenching by the aqueous-phase quencher iodide indicated that in anionic (dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol) vesicles, the peptide Trp residue was buried in the lipid vesicle hydrophobic core, while in neutral (dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine) vesicles, only hydrophobic (X = L and I) peptides were shielded from the aqueous solution. Trp emission spectra of peptides in the presence of phospholipids doxyl-labeled at the 5-, 7-, 10-, 12-, and 16-fatty acid positions implied not only a transbilayer orientation for inserted peptides but also that mixed peptide populations (transbilayer + surface-associated) may arise. Overall results suggest that for hydrophobic peptides with segmental threshold hydrophobicity below that which

  16. Influence of pH and phospholipid species on release of acetaminophen from tablets containing phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Fujii, M; Moriyama, J; Hamazumi, N; Matsumoto, M

    1998-02-01

    The release of acetaminophen (AAP) from tablets containing phospholipids was examined using hydrogenated soybean phospholipid (HSL) and its main components, phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), although the PI was not well purified (PI rich). Tablets compressed with 400 kgf had about 9% porosity and 2-4 kgf hardness. The release patterns of AAP from the tablets were fitted to Higuchi's square root of time law. The release rate was influenced by the pH of the medium, though solubility of AAP did not change with pH. PC tablets showed faster release at pH of less than 3 than that at pH of above 3, whereas PI rich and HSL tablets showed faster release at pH of above 3 than that at pH of less than 3. The release rate from PE tablets was little affected by pH. A linear relationship exists between the release rate of AAP and the rate of water absorption by the tablet. The ionization state of the phospholipids changes with the pH of the medium, and affects the hydration characteristics. The fully ionized state, at pH of less than 3 in the case of PC and above 3 in the case of PI is most effective on hydration. PE does not fully ionize because of intermolecular hydrogen bonding.

  17. Phospholipid monolayers probed by vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy: instability of unsaturated phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Liljeblad, Jonathan F D; Bulone, Vincent; Tyrode, Eric; Rutland, Mark W; Johnson, C Magnus

    2010-05-19

    The surface specific technique vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy has been applied to in situ studies of the degradation of Langmuir monolayers of 1,2-diacyl-phosphocholines with various degrees of unsaturation in the aliphatic chains. To monitor the degradation of the phospholipids, the time-dependent change of the monolayer area at constant surface pressure and the sum frequency intensity of the vinyl CH stretch at the carbon-carbon double bonds were measured. The data show a rapid degradation of monolayers of phospholipids carrying unsaturated aliphatic chains compared to the stable lipids carrying fully saturated chains when exposed to the ambient laboratory air. In addition, the degradation of the phospholipids can be inhibited by purging the ambient air with nitrogen. This instability may be attributed to spontaneous degradation by oxidation mediated by various reactive species in the air. To further elucidate the process of lipid oxidation in biological membranes artificial Langmuir monolayers probed by a surface specific spectroscopic technique as in this study can serve as a model system for studying the degradation/oxidation of cell membrane constituents.

  18. Modulation of hemodynamic and vascular filtration changes in diabetic rats by dietary myo-inositol

    SciTech Connect

    Pugliese, G.; Tilton, R.G.; Speedy, A.; Santarelli, E.; Eades, D.M.; Province, M.A.; Kilo, C.; Sherman, W.R.; Williamson, J.R. )

    1990-03-01

    To assess the potential of myo-inositol-supplemented diets to prevent diabetes-induced vascular functional changes, we examined the effects of diets supplemented with 0.5, 1, or 2% myo-inositol on blood flow and vascular filtration function in nondiabetic control rats and rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes (STZ-D). After 1 mo of diabetes and dietary myo-inositol supplementation, (1) 131I-labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) permeation of vessels was assessed in multiple tissues, (2) glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated as renal plasma clearance of 57Co-labeled EDTA, (3) regional blood flows were measured with 15-microns 85Sr-labeled microspheres, and (4) endogenous albumin and IgG urinary excretion rates were quantified by radial immunodiffusion assay. In STZ-D rats, 131I-BSA tissue clearance increased significantly (2- to 4-fold) in the anterior uvea, choroid-sclera, retina, sciatic nerve, aorta, new granulation tissue, diaphragm, and kidney but was unchanged in skin, forelimb muscle, and heart. myo-Inositol-supplemented diets reduced diabetes-induced increases in 131I-BSA clearance (in a dose-dependent manner) in all tissues; however, only in new granulation tissue and diaphragm did the 2% myo-inositol diet completely normalize vascular albumin permeation. Diabetes-induced increases in GFR and in urinary albumin and IgG excretion were also substantially reduced or normalized by dietary myo-inositol supplements. Increased blood flow in anterior uvea, choroid-sclera, kidney, new granulation tissue, and skeletal muscle in STZ-D rats also was substantially reduced or normalized by the 2% myo-inositol diet. myo-Inositol had minimal if any effects on the above parameters in control rats.

  19. The RpiR-like repressor IolR regulates inositol catabolism in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Petra R A; Choong, Ee-Leng; Rossbach, Silvia

    2011-10-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti, the nitrogen-fixing symbiont of alfalfa, has the ability to catabolize myo-, scyllo-, and D-chiro-inositol. Functional inositol catabolism (iol) genes are required for growth on these inositol isomers, and they play a role during plant-bacterium interactions. The inositol catabolism genes comprise the chromosomally encoded iolA (mmsA) and the iolY(smc01163)RCDEB genes, as well as the idhA gene located on the pSymB plasmid. Reverse transcriptase assays showed that the iolYRCDEB genes are transcribed as one operon. The iol genes were weakly expressed without induction, but their expression was strongly induced by myo-inositol. The putative transcriptional regulator of the iol genes, IolR, belongs to the RpiR-like repressor family. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that IolR recognized a conserved palindromic sequence (5'-GGAA-N6-TTCC-3') in the upstream regions of the idhA, iolY, iolR, and iolC genes. Complementation assays found IolR to be required for the repression of its own gene and for the downregulation of the idhA-encoded myo-inositol dehydrogenase activity in the presence and absence of inositol. Further expression studies indicated that the late pathway intermediate 2-keto-5-deoxy-D-gluconic acid 6-phosphate (KDGP) functions as the true inducer of the iol genes. The iolA (mmsA) gene encoding methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase was not regulated by IolR. The S. meliloti iolA (mmsA) gene product seems to be involved in more than only the inositol catabolic pathway, since it was also found to be essential for valine catabolism, supporting its more recent annotation as mmsA.

  20. Stereospecificity of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate dephosphorylation by a phytate-degrading enzyme of baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Greiner, R; Alminger, M L; Carlsson, N G

    2001-05-01

    During food processing such as baking, phytate is dephosphorylated to produce degradation products, such as myo-inositol pentakis-, tetrakis-, tris-, bis-, and monophosphates. Certain myo-inositol phosphates have been proposed to have positive effects on human health. The position of the phosphate groups on the myo-inositol ring is thereby of great significance for their physiological functions. Using a combination of high-performance ion chromatography analysis and kinetic studies the stereospecificity of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate dephosphorylation by a phytate-degrading enzyme from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was established. The data demonstrate that the phytate-degrading enzyme from baker's yeast dephosphorylates myo-inositol hexakisphosphate in a stereospecific way by sequential removal of phosphate groups via D-Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P(5), D-Ins(1,2,5,6)P(4), D-Ins(1,2,6)P(3), D-Ins(1,2)P(2), to finally Ins(2)P (notation 3/4/5/6/1). Knowledge of the absolute stereochemical specificity of the baker's yeast phytase allows use of the enzyme to produce defined myo-inositol phosphates for kinetic and physiological studies.

  1. Plant inositol monophosphatase is a lithium-sensitive enzyme encoded by a multigene family.

    PubMed Central

    Gillaspy, G E; Keddie, J S; Oda, K; Gruissem, W

    1995-01-01

    myo-Inositol monophosphatase (IMP) is a soluble, Li(+)-sensitive protein that catalyzes the removal of a phosphate from myo-inositol phosphate substrates. IMP is required for de novo inositol synthesis from glucose 6-phosphate and for breakdown of inositol trisphosphate, a second messenger generated by the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway. We cloned the IMP gene from tomato (LeIMP) and show that the plant enzyme is encoded by a small gene family. Three different LeIMP cDNAs encode distinct but highly conserved IMP enzymes that are catalytically active in vitro. Similar to the single IMP from animals, the activities of all three LeIMPs are inhibited by low concentrations of LiCl. LeIMP mRNA levels are developmentally regulated in seedlings and fruit and in response to light. Immunoblot analysis detected three proteins of distinct molecular masses (30, 29, and 28 kD) in tomato; these correspond to the predicted molecular masses of the LeIMPs encoded by the genes. Immunoreactive proteins in the same size range are also present in several other plants. Immunolocalization studies indicated that many cell types within seedlings accumulate LeIMP proteins. In particular, cells associated with the vasculature express high levels of LeIMP protein; this may indicate a coordinate regulation between phloem transport and synthesis of inositol. The presence of three distinct enzymes in tomato most likely reflects the complexity of inositol utilization in higher plants. PMID:8718627

  2. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of mouse myo-inositol oxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Peter M. Caradoc-Davies, Tom T.; Dickson, James M.; Cooper, Garth J. S.; Loomes, Kerry M.; Baker, Edward N.

    2006-08-01

    Mouse myo-inositol oxygenase, a key enzyme involved in inositol catabolism, has been expressed, purified and crystallized in a form suitable for structure determination by X-ray crystallography. Myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX) catalyzes the novel oxidative cleavage of myo-inositol (MI) and its epimer d-chiro inositol (DCI) to d-glucuronate. MIOX utilizes an Fe{sup II}/Fe{sup III} binuclear iron centre for the dioxygen-dependent cleavage of the C1—C6 bond in MI. Despite its key role in inositol metabolism, the structural basis of its unique four-electron oxidation mechanism and its substrate specificity remain unknown. In order to answer these questions and to facilitate the use of this key enzyme for the development of new therapeutic strategies for diabetes, the mouse enzyme has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized from 4.4 M sodium formate. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.87, b = 77.26, c = 84.84 Å, and diffract to 2.8 Å resolution.

  3. Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Multiple Dose myo-Inositol in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Phelps, Dale L.; Ward, Robert M.; Williams, Rick L.; Nolen, Tracy L.; Watterberg, Kristi L.; Oh, William; Goedecke, Michael; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Fennell, Timothy; Poindexter, Brenda B.; Cotten, C. Michael; Hallman, Mikko; Frantz, Ivan D.; Faix, Roger G.; Zaterka-Baxter, Kristin M.; Das, Abhik; Ball, M. Bethany; Lacy, Conra Backstrom; Walsh, Michele C.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Bell, Edward F.; Shankaran, Seetha; Carlton, David P.; Chess, Patricia R.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Preterm infants with RDS given inositol had reduced BPD, death and severe ROP. We assessed the safety and pharmacokinetics(PK) of daily inositol to select a dose providing serum levels previously associated with benefit, and to learn if accumulation occurred when administered throughout the normal period of retinal vascularization. METHODS Infants ≤29wks GA (n=122, 14 centers) were randomized and treated with placebo or inositol at 10, 40 or 80mg/kg/day. Intravenous administration converted to enteral when feedings were established, and continued to the first of 10 weeks, 34weeks PMA or discharge. Serum collection employed a sparse sampling population PK design. Inositol urine losses and feeding intakes were measured. Safety was prospectively monitored. RESULTS At 80mg/kg/day mean serum levels reached 140mg/L, similar to Hallman’s findings. Levels declined after 2 weeks, converging in all groups by 6 wks. Analyses showed a mean volume of distribution 0.657 L/kg, clearance 0.058 L/kg/hr, and half-life 7.90 hr. Adverse events and co-morbidities were fewer in the inositol groups, but not significantly so. CONCLUSIONS Multiple dose inositol at 80mg/kg/day was not associated with increased adverse events, achieves previously effective serum levels, and is appropriate for investigation in a Phase 3 trial. PMID:27074126

  4. Regioselective Opening of myo-Inositol Orthoesters: Mechanism and Synthetic Utility

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Acid hydrolysis of myo-inositol 1,3,5-orthoesters, apart from orthoformates, exclusively affords the corresponding 2-O-acyl myo-inositol products via a 1,2-bridged five-membered ring dioxolanylium ion intermediate observed by NMR spectroscopy. These C-2-substituted inositol derivatives provide valuable precursors for rapid and highly efficient routes to 2-O-acyl inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphates and myo-inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate with biologically interesting and anticancer properties. Deuterium incorporation into the α-methylene group of such alkyl ester products (2-O-C(O)CD2R), when the analogous alkyl orthoester is treated with deuterated acid, is established utilizing the novel orthoester myo-inositol 1,3,5-orthobutyrate as an example. Such deuterated ester products provide intermediates for deuterium-labeled synthetic analogues. Investigation into this selective formation of 2-O-ester products and the deuterium incorporation is presented with proposed mechanisms from NMR experiments. PMID:23438216

  5. Useful access to enantiomerically pure protected inositols from carbohydrates: the aldohexos-5-uloses route

    PubMed Central

    D’Andrea, Felicia; Catelani, Giorgio; Pistarà, Venerando

    2016-01-01

    The intramolecular aldol condensation of aldohexos-5-ulose derivatives of the D-xylo and L-ribo stereoseries has been studied. Only one of the four possible inososes was isolated from both stereoseries in reasonable yields (30–38%). The results obtained, together with the previous findings for the L-arabino and L-lyxo stereoseries, allowed for the rationalisation of a mechanism of the reaction based on open-transition-state models and electron-withdrawing inductive effects. Complementary reductions of the intermediate inososes were possible by changing the reaction conditions, and two isomeric inositol derivatives were obtained with complete stereoselection from each inosose. The presented approach permits us to control the configuration of three out of the six stereocentres of the inositol frame and gives access to seven of the nine inositols. Noteworthy, for the D-xylo derivative, the two-step sequence (condensation followed by reduction with NaBH(OAc)3) represents the biomimetic synthesis of myo-inositol. Furthermore, the sugar-based pathway leads directly to enantiomerically pure selectively protected inositols and does not require any desymmetrisation procedure which is needed when myo-inositol and other achiral precursors are employed as starting materials. As an example of application of the method, the indirect selective protection of secondary inositols’ hydroxy functions, by placing specific protecting groups on the aldohexos-5-ulose precursor has been presented. PMID:28144301

  6. Determination of phytic acid and inositol pentakisphosphates in foods by high-performance ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingchuan

    2004-07-28

    A high-performance anion exchange chromatographic method was adapted for the quantitative determination of phytic acid and inositol pentakisphosphate isomers (excluding enantiomers) in foods. Because of the cost and limited availability of inositol phosphate standards, a phytic acid sodium salt standard was used for the calculation of an average relative response factor for the quantification of inositol pentakisphosphate isomers, and the purity of phytic acid sodium salt standard was also accurately established. The detection limits (S/N = 3) for phytic acid and inositol pentakisphosphates were in the range of 1.5-3.4 microM (0.1-0.2 microg/100 microL). This method has been successfully applied to the determination of phytic acid and inositol pentakisphosphates in a variety of beans and nuts after extraction with 0.5 M HCl and cleanup with solid phase extraction cartridges. The results demonstrated that there was a strong correlation between either the phytic acid content or the total content of phytic acid together with inositol pentakisphosphates and the total dietary fiber content in the group of all raw dry beans and in the group of raw dry black beans but not in the group of raw dry red kidney beans, which was probably due to the insufficient number of the raw dry red kidney bean samples.

  7. Synthesis of inositol 1,2-(cyclic)-4,5-trisphosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Auchus, R J; Kaiser, S L; Majerus, P W

    1987-01-01

    We have developed a method for synthesis of inositol 1,2-(cyclic)-4,5-trisphosphate from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate using a water-soluble carbodiimide. We obtained 1-1.5 mumol of the inositol cyclic trisphosphate starting with 5 mumol of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. The cyclized product was isolated by HPLC on Partisil SAX. The identity of the cyclic product was verified by its hydrolysis to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in acid and by its conversion to 1,2-(cyclic)-4-bisphosphate by a specific 5-phosphomonoesterase from platelets. We also identified the product by 31P NMR spectroscopy, which showed a peak at 17.2 ppm, characteristic of a five-membered cyclic phosphodiester ring, and peaks at 4.1 ppm and 0.8 ppm, indicative of phosphomonoesters. This relatively simple method for producing inositol 1,2-(cyclic)-4,5-trisphosphate will facilitate studies of the physiology of this compound in signal transduction. PMID:3469663

  8. Abscisic acid-lipid interactions: a phospholipid monolayer study.

    PubMed

    Bürner, H; Benz, R; Gimmler, H; Hartung, W; Stillwell, W

    1993-08-15

    Lipid monolayer studies were performed on a Langmuir trough in the absence and in the presence of the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA). The ABA-induced effects on the lipid monolayers can be summarized as follows: (i) ABA as the free acid (pH below 5.3) increased the molecular area and slightly decreased the surface pressure in the collapse points of monolayers made of saturated, unsaturated and of mixed lipids; ABA as the anion showed only minor effects. (ii) The ABA-induced area increase of the lipid monolayers decreased when the surface pressure increased, but some ABA remained in the monolayers made of unsaturated phospholipids even at collapse pressure. (iii) The incorporation of ABA into the monolayers could be inhibited by adding the plant sterol beta-sitosterol to the monolayer forming phospholipids. (iv) There was no substantial difference of ABA action on plant phospholipids as compared with other phospholipids. (v) ABA had a much stronger influence on unsaturated phospholipids than on saturated ones. (vi) ABA decreased the phase-transition temperature of saturated phospholipids. These results, which agree with those obtained from phospholipid vesicle studies, indicate that the physical state of the lipid is important for the ability of ABA penetrating into the lipid monolayer. Finally, a possible relevance of these results is discussed in terms of the action of ABA on guard cell membranes of plants.

  9. Phospholipids at the Interface: Current Trends and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Pichot, Roman; Watson, Richard L.; Norton, Ian T.

    2013-01-01

    Phospholipids are one of the major structural elements of biological membranes. Due to their amphiphilic character, they can adopt various molecular assemblies when dispersed in water, such as bilayer vesicles or micelles, which give them unique interfacial properties and render them very attractive in terms of foam or emulsion stabilization. This article aims at reviewing the properties of phospholipids at the air/water and oil/water interfaces, as well as the recent advances in using these natural components as stabilizers, alone or in combination with other compounds such as proteins. A discussion regarding the challenges and opportunities offered by phospholipids-stabilized structure concludes the review. PMID:23736688

  10. Determining the effects of inositol supplementation and the opi1 mutation on ethanol tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Krause, Erin L; Villa-García, Manuel J; Henry, Susan A; Walker, Larry P

    2007-11-07

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important microorganism for the ethanol fuel industry. As with many microorganisms, the production and accumulation of certain metabolites, such as ethanol, can have a detrimental effect on cell growth and productivity. Yeast cells containing a higher concentration of phosphatidylinositol (PI) in the cellular membrane, due to inositol supplementation in the growth media, have been shown to tolerate and produce higher concentrations of ethanol. The specific goal of our research was to assess the effects of inositol supplementation in the growth media as well as to compare the ethanol tolerance of the wild-type S. cerevisiae to a mutant, the opi1 strain (opi=overproduction of inositol). The OPI1 gene product is a negative regulatory factor that controls the transcription of the INO1 structural gene, which encodes the enzyme catalyzing the limiting step in the biosynthesis of inositol, that is, the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to inositol-3-phosphate. Upon the deletion of the OPI1 gene, the cell will constitutively produce inositol, regardless of the extracellular inositol concentration. Inositol supplementation in cultures of wild-type cells increased ethanol tolerance in terms of cell viability. Cells grown in -I media had a 20% higher specific death rate than cells grown in +I media when exposed to 15% ethanol. The opi1 strain, with the ability to constitutively produce inositol regardless of media composition, showed less inhibition of cell growth in the presence of ethanol than did the wild-type strain, particularly in inositol-free media. We conclude that the introduction of an opi1 mutation in yeast results in an inherent increase in PI levels and constitutive biosynthesis of inositol that, in turn, will reduce the cost of supplementing inositol into the media to achieve a higher ethanol tolerance.

  11. Crystal Structure and Product Analysis of an Archaeal myo-Inositol Kinase Reveal Substrate Recognition Mode and 3-OH Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Ryuhei; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Sato, Takaaki; Atomi, Haruyuki; Miki, Kunio

    2015-06-09

    The TK2285 protein from Thermococcus kodakarensis was recently characterized as an enzyme catalyzing the phosphorylation of myo-inositol. Only two myo-inositol kinases have been identified so far, the TK2285 protein and Lpa3 from Zea mays, both of which belong to the ribokinase family. In either case, which of the six hydroxyl groups of myo-inositol is phosphorylated is still unknown. In addition, little is known about the myo-inositol binding mechanism of these enzymes. In this work, we determined two crystal structures: those of the TK2285 protein complexed with the substrates (ATP analogue and myo-inositol) or the reaction products formed by the enzyme. Analysis of the ternary substrates-complex structure and site-directed mutagenesis showed that five residues were involved in the interaction with myo-inositol. Structural comparison with other ribokinase family enzymes indicated that two of the five residues, Q136 and R140, are characteristic of myo-inositol kinase. The crystal structure of the ternary products-complex, which was prepared by incubating the TK2285 protein with myo-inositol and ATP, holds 1d-myo-inositol 3-phosphate (Ins(3)P) in the active site. NMR and HPLC analyses with a chiral column also indicated that the TK2285 reaction product was Ins(3)P. The results obtained here showed that the TK2285 protein specifically catalyzes the phosphorylation of the 3-OH of myo-inositol. We thus designated TK2285 as myo-inositol 3-kinase (MI3K). The precise identification of the reaction product should provide a sound basis to further explore inositol metabolism in Archaea.

  12. Identification of a secretory phospholipase A2 from Papaver somniferum L. that transforms membrane phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Jablonická, Veronika; Mansfeld, Johanna; Heilmann, Ingo; Obložinský, Marek; Heilmann, Mareike

    2016-09-01

    The full-length sequence of a new secretory phospholipase A2 was identified in opium poppy seedlings (Papaver somniferum L.). The cDNA of poppy phospholipase A2, denoted as pspla2, encodes a protein of 159 amino acids with a 31 amino acid long signal peptide at the N-terminus. PsPLA2 contains a PLA2 signature domain (PA2c), including the Ca(2+)-binding loop (YGKYCGxxxxGC) and the catalytic site motif (DACCxxHDxC) with the conserved catalytic histidine and the calcium-coordinating aspartate residues. The aspartate of the His/Asp dyad playing an important role in animal sPLA2 catalysis is substituted by a serine residue. Furthermore, the PsPLA2 sequence contains 12 conserved cysteine residues to form 6 structural disulfide bonds. The calculated molecular weight of the mature PsPLA2 is 14.0 kDa. Based on the primary structure PsPLA2 belongs to the XIB group of PLA2s. Untagged recombinant PsPLA2 obtained by expression in Escherichia coli, renaturation from inclusion bodies and purification by cation-exchange chromatography was characterized in vitro. The pH optimum for activity of PsPLA2 was found to be pH 7, when using mixed micelles of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and Triton X-100. PsPLA2 specifically cleaves fatty acids from the sn-2 position of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and shows a pronounced preference for PC over phosphatidyl ethanolamine, -glycerol and -inositol. The active recombinant enzyme was tested in vitro against natural phospholipids isolated from poppy plants and preferably released the unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, from the naturally occurring mixture of substrate lipids.

  13. [Does trunk varicosity precede insufficiency of the perforating veins?].

    PubMed

    Bernink, B P

    1983-01-01

    The author discusses the theoretical question of precedence of trunk, or perforator, incompetency. Whatever the case, the treatment is always the same. Drawing attention to the laws published in 1970 determining the opening and closing of small vessels, the author mainly discusses the so-called "balloon effect": of which the "physiological valvule" is a derivation, concluding that trunk varicosity precedes perforating vein incompetence. When the deep system is intact, the author prefers to use the term "blow down", reserving the term "blow out" for secondary varices, the deep system being damaged.

  14. Preceding trauma in childhood hematogenous bone and joint infections.

    PubMed

    Pääkkönen, Markus; Kallio, Markku J T; Lankinen, Petteri; Peltola, Heikki; Kallio, Pentti E

    2014-03-01

    Preceding trauma may play a role in the etiology and pathogenesis of hematogenous bone and joint infections. Among 345 children with an acute hematogenous bone and/or joint infection, 20% reported trauma during a 2-week period leading to infection. Blunt impact, bruises, or excoriations were commonly reported. The rate was similar to that in the general pediatric population obtained from the literature. In the study group, patients with and without trauma were similar in age, serum C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, length of hospitalization, and late sequelae. Preceding minor trauma did not prove to be significant as an etiological or as a prognostic factor.

  15. Interactions between phospholipids and titanium dioxide particles.

    PubMed

    Le, Quoc-Chon; Ropers, Marie-Hélène; Terrisse, Hélène; Humbert, Bernard

    2014-11-01

    A systematic study was carried out on monolayer films and lipid vesicles to elucidate the interactions between membrane lipids and commercial particles of titanium dioxide TiO2 (TiO2-P25). Pressure-area isotherms of lipids at various pH values were recorded on a Langmuir trough with or without TiO2-P25 and NaCl in the subphase. Electrophoretic mobilities of lipid vesicles and TiO2-P25 particles were measured to identify the pH range where attractive electrostatic interactions between lipids and TiO2-P25 could take place. The results show that (i) the surface of TiO2-P25 particles interacts only with some phospholipids, (ii) the driving forces are electrostatic and (iii) non-electrostatic interactions were also observed, depending on the molecular structure. More precisely, the phospholipids 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate monosodium salt (DMPA), 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-1-glycerol (DMPG) and 1',3'-bis[1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho]-sn-glycerol (TMCL) interacted strongly with the TiO2-P25 surface through electrostatic interactions, providing they were oppositely charged, i.e. for pH between 2 and 6.6. For TMCL and DMPG, interactions with the surface of TiO2-P25 in non-favourable electrostatic conditions, suggested another kind of binding, probably through the hydroxyl groups of the terminal glycerol. Weaker attractive interactions were demonstrated for 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (DMPS) and the synthetic lipid dihexadecyl phosphate (DHP). For DMPS, the carboxylate group is involved in the adsorption onto TiO2. The other membrane lipids such as 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DMPE) and sphingomyelin (SM) did not interact with TiO2-P25 regardless of pH.

  16. Early effects of Escherichia coli endotoxin infusion on vasopressin-stimulated breakdown and metabolism of inositol lipids in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez de Turco, E.B.; Spitzer, J.A.

    1988-08-30

    The turnover of vasopressin-stimulated 32P-phosphoinositides and 32P-phosphatidic acid and accumulation of (2-3H)-inositol phosphates were examined in hepatocytes from rats infused i.v. with saline and E. coli endotoxin for 3 hrs. Within 60s of VP stimulation the decrease in phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate labeling as well as the increased uptake of 32P into phosphatidic acid were similar in both groups. However, at a later time (300s) the 32P-phosphatidylinositol turnover was greatly decreased concomitantly with a higher labeling of phosphatidic acid. The accumulation of (2-3H)-inositol phosphates in ET-cells was significantly decreased both at 30s and 600s after VP addition. The distribution of (2-3H)-inositol labeling accumulated in the different inositol phosphate fractions over the first 30s of VP stimulation showed a tendency to lower accumulation of inositol trisphosphate, and a significantly lower accumulation of inositol bisphosphate simultaneously with a higher labeling of the inositol tetrakisphosphate fraction. These observations reflect an early effect of ET-infusion on VP-stimulated inositol lipid turnover and on the subsequent metabolism of the released inositol phosphates.

  17. Supported phospholipid/alkanethiol biomimetic membranes: insulating properties.

    PubMed Central

    Plant, A L; Gueguetchkeri, M; Yap, W

    1994-01-01

    A novel model lipid bilayer membrane is prepared by the addition of phospholipid vesicles to alkanethiol monolayers on gold. This supported hybrid bilayer membrane is rugged, easily and reproducibly prepared in the absence of organic solvent, and is stable for very long periods of time. We have characterized the insulating characteristics of this membrane by examining the rate of electron transfer and by impedance spectroscopy. Supported hybrid bilayers formed from phospholipids and alkanethiols are pinhole-free and demonstrate measured values of conductivity and resistivity which are within an order of magnitude of that reported for black lipid membranes. Capacitance values suggest a dielectric constant of 2.7 for phospholipid membranes in the absence of organic solvent. The protein toxin, melittin, destroys the insulating capability of the phospholipid layer without significantly altering the bilayer structure. This model membrane will allow the assessment of the effect of lipid membrane perturbants on the insulating properties of natural lipid membranes. PMID:7811924

  18. Biomolecular interactions at phospholipid-decorated surfaces of liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Brake, Jeffrey M; Daschner, Maren K; Luk, Yan-Yeung; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2003-12-19

    The spontaneous assembly of phospholipids at planar interfaces between thermotropic liquid crystals and aqueous phases gives rise to patterned orientations of the liquid crystals that reflect the spatial and temporal organization of the phospholipids. Strong and weak specific-binding events involving proteins at these interfaces drive the reorganization of the phospholipids and trigger orientational transitions in the liquid crystals. Because these interfaces are fluid, processes involving the lateral organization of proteins (such as the formation of protein- and phospholipid-rich domains) are also readily imaged by the orientational response of the liquid crystal, as are stereospecific enzymatic events. These results provide principles for label-free monitoring of aqueous streams for molecular and biomolecular species without the need for complex instrumentation.

  19. Phospholipids of the lung in normal, toxic, and diseased states

    SciTech Connect

    Akino, T.; Ohno, K.

    1981-01-01

    The highly pulmonary concentration of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphorylcholine (dipalmitoyllecithin) and its implication as an important component of lung surfactant have promoted investigation of phospholipid metabolism in the lung. This review will set the contents including recent informations for better understanding of phospholipid metabolism of the lung in normal state (physiological significances of lung phospholipids, characteristics of phospholipids in lung tissue and alveolar washing, biosynthetic pathways of dipalmitoyllecithin, etc.) as well as in toxic states (pulmonary oxygen toxicity, etc.) and in diseased states (idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, etc.) Since our main concern has been to clarify the most important route for supplying dipalmitoyllecithin, this review will be focused upon the various biosynthetic pathways leading to the formation of different molecular species of lecithin and their potential significance in the normal, toxic, and diseased lungs.

  20. Herpes simplex virus 1 induces de novo phospholipid synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, Esther; Oliveira, Anna Paula de; Tobler, Kurt; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; Sonda, Sabrina; Kaech, Andres; Lucas, Miriam S.; Ackermann, Mathias; Wild, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 capsids bud at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes acquiring an envelope composed of phospholipids. Hence, we measured incorporation of phospholipid precursors into these membranes, and quantified changes in size of cellular compartments by morphometric analysis. Incorporation of [{sup 3}H]-choline into both nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes was significantly enhanced upon infection. [{sup 3}H]-choline was also part of isolated virions even grown in the presence of brefeldin A. Nuclei expanded early in infection. The Golgi complex and vacuoles increased substantially whereas the endoplasmic reticulum enlarged only temporarily. The data suggest that HSV-1 stimulates phospholipid synthesis, and that de novo synthesized phospholipids are inserted into nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes to i) maintain membrane integrity in the course of nuclear and cellular expansion, ii) to supply membrane constituents for envelopment of capsids by budding at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes, and iii) to provide membranes for formation of transport vacuoles.

  1. A phospholipid uptake system in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Lisbeth R; López-Marqués, Rosa L; Pedas, Pai R; McDowell, Stephen C; Brown, Elizabeth; Kunze, Reinhard; Harper, Jeffrey F; Pomorski, Thomas G; Palmgren, Michael

    2015-07-27

    Plants use solar energy to produce lipids directly from inorganic elements and are not thought to require molecular systems for lipid uptake from the environment. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana Aminophospholipid ATPase10 (ALA10) is a P4-type ATPase flippase that internalizes exogenous phospholipids across the plasma membrane, after which they are rapidly metabolized. ALA10 expression and phospholipid uptake are high in the epidermal cells of the root tip and in guard cells, the latter of which regulate the size of stomatal apertures to modulate gas exchange. ALA10-knockout mutants exhibit reduced phospholipid uptake at the root tips and guard cells and are affected in growth and transpiration. The presence of a phospholipid uptake system in plants is surprising. Our results suggest that one possible physiological role of this system is to internalize lysophosphatidylcholine, a signalling lipid involved in root development and stomatal control.

  2. Crystal structure of a substrate complex of myo-inositol oxygenase, a di-iron oxygenase with a key role in inositol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Brown, Peter M; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T; Dickson, James M J; Cooper, Garth J S; Loomes, Kerry M; Baker, Edward N

    2006-10-10

    Altered metabolism of the inositol sugars myo-inositol (MI) and d-chiro-inositol is implicated in diabetic complications. In animals, catabolism of MI and D-chiro-inositol depends on the enzyme MI oxygenase (MIOX), which catalyzes the first committed step of the glucuronate-xylulose pathway, and is found almost exclusively in the kidneys. The crystal structure of MIOX, in complex with MI, has been determined by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction methods and refined at 2.0-A resolution (R=0.206, Rfree=0.253). The structure reveals a monomeric, single-domain protein with a mostly helical fold that is distantly related to the diverse HD domain superfamily. Five helices form the structural core and provide six ligands (four His and two Asp) for the di-iron center, in which the two iron atoms are bridged by a putative hydroxide ion and one of the Asp ligands, Asp-124. A key loop forms a lid over the MI substrate, which is coordinated in bidentate mode to one iron atom. It is proposed that this mode of iron coordination, and interaction with a key Lys residue, activate MI for bond cleavage. The structure also reveals the basis of substrate specificity and suggests routes for the development of specific MIOX inhibitors.

  3. The diabetic rat kidney mediates inosituria and selective urinary partitioning of D-chiro-inositol.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hao-Han; Choong, Bernard; Phillips, Anthony R J; Loomes, Kerry M

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus with a pressing need for effective metabolic markers to detect renal impairment. Of potential significance are the inositol compounds, myo-inositol (MI), and the less abundant stereoisomer, D-chiro-inositol (DCI), which are excreted at increased levels in the urine in diabetes mellitus, a phenomenon known as inosituria. There is also a selective urinary excretion of DCI compared to MI. As the biological origins of altered inositol metabolism in diabetes mellitus are unknown, the aim of this study was to determine whether the diabetic kidney was directly responsible. Kidneys isolated from four-week streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were characterized by a 3-fold reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) compared to matched non-diabetic kidneys. When perfused with fixed quantities of MI (50 µM) and DCI (5 µM) under normoglycemic conditions (5 mM glucose), GFR-normalized urinary excretion of MI was increased by 1.7-fold in diabetic vs. non-diabetic kidneys. By comparison, GFR-normalized urinary excretion of DCI was increased by 4-fold. Perfusion conditions replicating hyperglycemia (20 mM glucose) potentiated DCI but not MI urinary excretion in both non-diabetic and diabetic kidneys. Overall, there was a 2.4-fold increase in DCI urinary excretion compared to MI in diabetic kidneys that was independent of glucose ambience. This increased urinary excretion of DCI and MI in diabetic kidneys occurred despite increased renal expression of the inositol transporters, sodium myo-inositol transporter subtype 1 and 2 (SMIT1 and SMIT2). These findings show that the diabetic kidney primarily mediates inosituria and altered urinary partitioning of MI and DCI. Urinary inositol levels might therefore serve as an indicator of impaired renal function in diabetes mellitus with wider implications for monitoring chronic kidney disease.

  4. Myo-inositol inhibits intestinal glucose absorption and promotes muscle glucose uptake: a dual approach study.

    PubMed

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2016-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of myo-inositol on muscle glucose uptake and intestinal glucose absorption ex vivo as well as in normal and type 2 diabetes model of rats. In ex vivo study, both intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake were studied in isolated rat jejunum and psoas muscle respectively in the presence of increasing concentrations (2.5 % to 20 %) of myo-inositol. In the in vivo study, the effect of a single bolus dose (1 g/kg bw) of oral myo-inositol on intestinal glucose absorption, blood glucose, gastric emptying and digesta transit was investigated in normal and type 2 diabetic rats after 1 h of co-administration with 2 g/kg bw glucose, when phenol red was used as a recovery marker. Myo-inositol inhibited intestinal glucose absorption (IC50 = 28.23 ± 6.01 %) and increased muscle glucose uptake, with (GU50 = 2.68 ± 0.75 %) or without (GU50 = 8.61 ± 0.55 %) insulin. Additionally, oral myo-inositol not only inhibited duodenal glucose absorption and reduced blood glucose increase, but also delayed gastric emptying and accelerated digesta transit in both normal and diabetic animals. Results of this study suggest that dietary myo-inositol inhibits intestinal glucose absorption both in ex vivo and in normal or diabetic rats and also promotes muscle glucose uptake in ex vivo condition. Hence, myo-inositol may be further investigated as a possible anti-hyperglycaemic dietary supplement for diabetic foods and food products.

  5. Hysteresis in myo-inositol utilization by Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Hellinckx, Jessica; Fuchs, Thilo M

    2016-12-27

    Growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 14028 with myo-inositol (MI) as the sole carbon and energy source is characterized by a bistable phenotype that manifests in a growth phenotype with an extraordinarily long and length-variable lag phase. However, in the presence of hydrogen carbonate, in the absence of IolR that represses the MI degradation pathway, or if cells are already adapted to minimal medium (MM) with MI, the lag phase is drastically shortened, and the bistable phenotype is abolished. We hypothesized that memory development or hysteresis is a further characteristic of MI degradation by S. Typhimurium; therefore, we investigated the transition from a short to a long lag phase in more detail. Growth experiments demonstrated that memory on the population level is successively lost within approximately 8 hr after cells, which had been adapted to MI utilization, were transferred to lysogeny broth (LB) medium. Flow cytometry (FC) analysis using a chromosomal fusion to PiolE , a promoter controlling the expression of the enzymatic genes iolE and iolG involved in MI degradation, indicated a gradual reversion within a few hours from a population in the "ON" status with respect to iolE transcription to one that is mainly in the "OFF" status. Growth and FC experiments revealed that IolR does not affect hysteresis.

  6. Cellular Cations Control Conformational Switching of Inositol Pyrophosphate Analogues.

    PubMed

    Hager, Anastasia; Wu, Mingxuan; Wang, Huanchen; Brown, Nathaniel W; Shears, Stephen B; Veiga, Nicolás; Fiedler, Dorothea

    2016-08-22

    The inositol pyrophosphate messengers (PP-InsPs) are emerging as an important class of cellular regulators. These molecules have been linked to numerous biological processes, including insulin secretion and cancer cell migration, but how they trigger such a wide range of cellular responses has remained unanswered in many cases. Here, we show that the PP-InsPs exhibit complex speciation behaviour and propose that a unique conformational switching mechanism could contribute to their multifunctional effects. We synthesised non-hydrolysable bisphosphonate analogues and crystallised the analogues in complex with mammalian PPIP5K2 kinase. Subsequently, the bisphosphonate analogues were used to investigate the protonation sequence, metal-coordination properties, and conformation in solution. Remarkably, the presence of potassium and magnesium ions enabled the analogues to adopt two different conformations near physiological pH. Understanding how the intrinsic chemical properties of the PP-InsPs can contribute to their complex signalling outputs will be essential to elucidate their regulatory functions.

  7. Enigmatic ion-exchange behavior of myo-inositol phosphates.

    PubMed

    Shelor, C Phillip; Liao, Hongzhu; Kadjo, Akinde Florence; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2015-05-05

    The separation of myo-inositol mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, pentakis-, and hexakisphosphate (InsP1, InsP2, InsP3, InsP4, InsP5, InsP6) was carried out using hydroxide eluent ion chromatography. Acid hydrolysis of InsP6 (phytate) was used to prepare a distribution of InsPs, ranging from InsP1 to InsP5's and including unhydrolyzed InsP6. Counting all possible positional isomers (many of which have stereoisomers that will not be separable by conventional ion exchange), 40 chromatographically separable peaks are possible; up to 22 were separated and identified by mass spectrometry. InsPs show unusual ion-exchange behavior in two respects: (a) the retention order is not monotonically related with the charge on the ion and (b) at the same hydroxide eluent concentration, retention is greatly dependent on the eluent metal cation. The retention of InsP3-InsP6 was determined to be controlled by steric factors while elution was influenced by eluent cation complexation. These highly phosphorylated InsPs have a much greater affinity for alkali metals (Li(+) > Na(+) > K(+)) than quaternary ammonium ions. This difference in cation affinity was exploited to improve separation through the use of a tetramethylammonium hydroxide-sodium hydroxide gradient.

  8. The inositol trisphosphate receptor in the control of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Criollo, Alfredo; Vicencio, José Miguel; Tasdemir, Ezgi; Maiuri, M Chiara; Lavandero, Sergio; Kroemer, Guido

    2007-01-01

    The second messenger myo-inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) acts on the IP(3) receptor (IP(3)R), an IP(3)-activated Ca(2+) channel of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The IP(3)R agonist IP(3) inhibits starvation-induced autophagy. The IP(3)R antagonist xestospongin B induces autophagy in human cells through a pathway that requires the obligate contribution of Beclin-1, Atg5, Atg10, Atg12 and hVps34, yet is inhibited by ER-targeted Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL, two proteins that physically interact with IP(3)R. Autophagy can also be induced by depletion of the IP(3)R by small interfering RNAs. Autophagy induction by IP(3)R blockade cannot be explained by changes in steady state levels of Ca(2+) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the cytosol. Autophagy induction by IP(3)R blockade is effective in cells lacking the obligate mediator of ER stress IRE1. In contrast, IRE1 is required for autophagy induced by ER stress-inducing agents such a tunicamycin or thapsigargin. These findings suggest that there are several distinct pathways through which autophagy can be initiated at the level of the ER.

  9. Regulation of autophagy by the inositol trisphosphate receptor.

    PubMed

    Criollo, A; Maiuri, M C; Tasdemir, E; Vitale, I; Fiebig, A A; Andrews, D; Molgó, J; Díaz, J; Lavandero, S; Harper, F; Pierron, G; di Stefano, D; Rizzuto, R; Szabadkai, G; Kroemer, G

    2007-05-01

    The reduction of intracellular 1,4,5-inositol trisphosphate (IP(3)) levels stimulates autophagy, whereas the enhancement of IP(3) levels inhibits autophagy induced by nutrient depletion. Here, we show that knockdown of the IP(3) receptor (IP(3)R) with small interfering RNAs and pharmacological IP(3)R blockade is a strong stimulus for the induction of autophagy. The IP(3)R is known to reside in the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as well as within ER-mitochondrial contact sites, and IP(3)R blockade triggered the autophagy of both ER and mitochondria, as exactly observed in starvation-induced autophagy. ER stressors such as tunicamycin and thapsigargin also induced autophagy of ER and, to less extent, of mitochondria. Autophagy triggered by starvation or IP(3)R blockade was inhibited by Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) specifically targeted to ER but not Bcl-2 or Bcl-X(L) proteins targeted to mitochondria. In contrast, ER stress-induced autophagy was not inhibited by Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L). Autophagy promoted by IP(3)R inhibition could not be attributed to a modulation of steady-state Ca(2+) levels in the ER or in the cytosol, yet involved the obligate contribution of Beclin-1, autophagy-related gene (Atg)5, Atg10, Atg12 and hVps34. Altogether, these results strongly suggest that IP(3)R exerts a major role in the physiological control of autophagy.

  10. Molecular Insights into Phospholipid -- NSAID Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu Boggara, Mohan; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2007-03-01

    Non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) e.g. Aspirin and Ibuprofen, with chronic usage cause gastro intestinal (GI) toxicity. It has been shown experimentally that NSAIDs pre-associated with phospholipids reduce the GI toxicity and also increase the therapeutic activity of these drugs compared to the unmodified ones. Using all atomistic simulations and two different methodologies, we studied the partitioning behavior of two model NSAIDs (Aspirin and Ibuprofen) as a function of pH and drug loading. The results from two methodologies are consistent in describing the equilibrium drug distribution in the bilayers. Additionally, the heterogeneity in density and polarity of the bilayer in the normal direction along with the fact that NSAIDs are amphiphilic (all of them have a carboxylic acid group and a non-polar part consisting of aromatic moieties), indicate that the diffusion mechanism in the bilayer is far different compared to the same in a bulk medium. This study summarizes the various effects of NSAIDs and their behavior inside the lipid bilayer both as a function of pH and drug concentration.

  11. Enhancement by cytidine of membrane phospholipid synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    G-Coviella, I. L.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Cytidine, as cytidine 5'-diphosphate choline, is a major precursor in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine in cell membranes. In the present study, we examined the relationships between extracellular levels of cytidine, the conversion of [14C]choline to [14C]phosphatidylcholine, and the net syntheses of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine by PC12 cells. The rate at which cytidine (as [3H]cytidine) was incorporated into the PC12 cells followed normal Michaelis-Menten kinetics (Km = 5 microM; Vmax = 12 x 10(-3) mmol/mg of protein/min) when the cytidine concentrations in the medium were below 50 microM; at higher concentrations, intracellular [3H]cytidine nucleotide levels increased linearly. Once inside the cell, cytidine was converted mainly into cytidine triphosphate. In pulse-chase experiments, addition of cytidine to the medium caused a time- and dose-dependent increase (by up to 30%) in the incorporation of [14C]choline into membrane [14C]-phosphatidylcholine. When the PC12 cells were supplemented with both cytidine and choline for 14 h, small but significant elevations (p less than 0.05) were observed in their absolute contents of membrane phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylserine, all increasing by 10-15% relative to their levels in cells incubated with choline alone. Exogenous cytidine, acting via cytidine triphosphate, can thus affect the synthesis and levels of cell membrane phospholipids.

  12. Tissue phospholipids (TPL) in avian tuberculosis (AT)

    SciTech Connect

    Nandedkar, A.K.N.; Malhotra, H.C.

    1986-05-01

    AT constitutes one of the major problems in animal husbandry. Chickens (white, leg horn, male, 400-600 g) were infected with Mycobacterium avium maintained on I.U.T. medium to induce clinical AT which was confirmed by histopathological examinations of the affected tissues. Fatty infiltration and tissue enlargement was visible in infected birds. After 4 wks, incorporation of i.v. /sup 32/P (50 uCi/100 g body wt.) in affected tissues was followed for 3,7,9,12 hr intervals. Lipids were extracted and fractionated by silicic acid (SA) column and SA impregnated paper chromatography. When compared with pair-fed controls, in AT slower turnover of TPL in liver, slightly higher in heart and significantly increased turnover of TPL in serum were observed. No appreciable change in total TPL content was noticed in brain, spleen and kidney. Further fractionation of TPL provided better understanding of the metabolism. Increase in lysophosphatidyl-choline (LPC) and -ethanolamine (LPE) content, powerful hemolytic agents, in liver may explain frequent occurrence of anemia in tuberculosis. Also, a concomitant marked increase in the ratio of total saturated/unsaturated fatty acids is observed in serum phosphatidyl choline fraction. This confirms the observation that the membrane phospholipid metabolism is significantly affected in tuberculosis infection.

  13. Stereo- and regiospecificity of yeast phytases-chemical synthesis and enzymatic conversion of the substrate analogues neo- and L-chiro-inositol hexakisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Adelt, Stephan; Podeschwa, Michael; Dallmann, Guido; Altenbach, Hans-Josef; Vogel, Günter

    2003-02-01

    Phytases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphate esters in myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytic acid). The precise routes of enzymatic dephosphorylation by phytases of the yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia rhodanensis have been investigated up to the myo-inositol trisphosphate level, including the absolute configuration of the intermediates. Stereoselective assignment of the myo-inositol pentakisphosphates (D-myo-inositol 1,2,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate and D-myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5-pentakisphosphate) generated was accomplished by a new method based on enantiospecific enzymatic conversion and HPLC analysis. Via conduritol B or E derivatives the total syntheses of two epimers of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, neo-inositol hexakisphosphate and L-chiro-inositol hexakisphosphate were performed to examine the specificity of the yeast phytases with these substrate analogues. A comparison of kinetic data and the degradation pathways determined gave the first hints about the molecular recognition of inositol hexakisphosphates by the enzymes. Exploitation of the high stereo- and regiospecificity observed in the dephosphorylation of neo- and L-chiro-inositol hexakisphosphate made it possible to establish enzyme-assisted steps for the synthesis of D-neo-inositol 1,2,5,6-tetrakisphosphate, L-chiro-inositol 1,2,3,5,6-pentakisphosphate and L-chiro-inositol 1,2,3,6-tetrakisphosphate.

  14. Polyglutamine expansion in huntingtin alters its interaction with phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Kegel, Kimberly B; Sapp, Ellen; Alexander, Jonathan; Valencia, Antonio; Reeves, Patrick; Li, Xueyi; Masso, Nicholas; Sobin, Lindsay; Aronin, Neil; DiFiglia, Marian

    2009-09-01

    Huntingtin has an expanded polyglutamine tract in patients with Huntington's disease. Huntingtin localizes to intracellular and plasma membranes but the function of huntingtin at membranes is unknown. Previously we reported that exogenously expressed huntingtin bound pure phospholipids using protein-lipid overlays. Here we show that endogenous huntingtin from normal (Hdh(7Q/7Q)) mouse brain and mutant huntingtin from Huntington's disease (Hdh(140Q/140Q)) mouse brain bound to large unilamellar vesicles containing phosphoinositol (PI) PI 3,4-bisphosphate, PI 3,5-bisphosphate, and PI 3,4,5-triphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P3]. Huntingtin interactions with multivalent phospholipids were similar to those of dynamin. Mutant huntingtin associated more with phosphatidylethanolamine and PI(3,4,5)P3 than did wild-type huntingtin, and associated with other phospholipids not recognized by wild-type huntingtin. Wild-type and mutant huntingtin also bound to large unilamellar vesicles containing cardiolipin, a phospholipid specific to mitochondrial membranes. Maximal huntingtin-phospholipid association required inclusion of huntingtin amino acids 171-287. Endogenous huntingtin recruited to the plasma membrane in cells that incorporated exogenous PI 3,4-bisphosphate and PI(3,4,5)P3 or were stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor or insulin growth factor 1, which both activate PI 3-kinase. These data suggest that huntingtin interacts with membranes through specific phospholipid associations and that mutant huntingtin may disrupt membrane trafficking and signaling at membranes.

  15. Biomimetic surface modification of polyurethane with phospholipids grafted carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Dongsheng; Liu, Liuxu; Li, Zhen; Fu, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    To improve blood compatibility of polyurethane (PU), phospholipids grafted carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were prepared through zwitterion-mediated cycloaddition reaction and amide condensation, and then were added to the PU as fillers via solution mixing to form biomimetic surface. The properties of phospholipids grafted CNTs (CNT-PC) were investigated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1) H NMR). The results indicated that the phospholipids were grafted onto CNTs in high efficiency, and the hydrophilicity and dispersibility of the modified CNTs were improved effectively. The structures and properties of composites containing CNT-PC were investigated by optical microscope, XPS, and water contact angles. The results indicated that phospholipids were enriched on the surface with addition of 0.1 wt % of CNT-PC, which significantly reduced protein adsorption and platelet adhesion. The method of carrying phospholipids on the nanofiller to modify polymers has provided a promising way of constructing biomimetic phospholipid membrane on the surface to improve blood compatibility.

  16. Polyphosphoinositide binding domains: Key to inositol lipid biology.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Gerald R V; Balla, Tamas

    2015-06-01

    Polyphosphoinositides (PPIn) are an important family of phospholipids located on the cytoplasmic leaflet of eukaryotic cell membranes. Collectively, they are critical for the regulation of many aspects of membrane homeostasis and signaling, with notable relevance to human physiology and disease. This regulation is achieved through the selective interaction of these lipids with hundreds of cellular proteins, and thus the capability to study these localized interactions is crucial to understanding their functions. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of the principle types of PPIn-protein interactions, focusing on specific lipid-binding domains. We then discuss how these domains have been re-tasked by biologists as molecular probes for these lipids in living cells. Finally, we describe how the knowledge gained with these probes, when combined with other techniques, has led to the current view of the lipids' localization and function in eukaryotes, focusing mainly on animal cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phosphoinositides.

  17. Alfalfa suppression of weeds is affected by preceding crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic producers are seeking alternative tactics for weed control so that they can reduce their need for tillage. In this study, we examined the impact of the preceding crop on alfalfa suppression of weeds. Alfalfa was most competitive with weeds following soybean. When following spring wheat, v...

  18. Cross-frequency interactions in the precedence effect.

    PubMed

    Shinn-Cunningham, B G; Zurek, P M; Durlach, N I; Clifton, R K

    1995-07-01

    This paper concerns the extent to which the precedence effect is observed when leading and lagging sounds occupy different spectral regions. Subjects, listening under headphones, were asked to match the intracranial lateral position of an acoustic pointer to that of a test stimulus composed of two binaural noise bursts with asynchronous onsets, parametrically varied frequency content, and different interaural delays. The precedence effect was measured by the degree to which the interaural delay of the matching pointer was independent of the interaural delay of the lagging noise burst in the test stimulus. The results, like those of Blauert and Divenyi [Acustica 66, 267-274 (1988)], show an asymmetric frequency effect in which the lateralization influence of a lagging high-frequency burst is almost completely suppressed by a leading low-frequency burst, whereas a lagging low-frequency burst is weighted equally with a leading high-frequency burst. This asymmetry is shown to be the result of an inherent low-frequency dominance that is seen even with simultaneous bursts. When this dominance is removed (by attenuating the low-frequency burst) the precedence effect operates with roughly equal strength both upward and downward in frequency. Within the scope of the current study (with lateralization achieved through the use of interaural time differences alone, stimuli from only two frequency bands, and only three subjects performing in all experiments), these results suggest that the precedence effect arises from a fairly central processing stage in which information is combined across frequency.

  19. Independence Pending: Teacher Behaviors Preceding Learner Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roesler, Rebecca A.

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to identify the teacher behaviors that preceded learners' active participation in solving musical and technical problems and describe learners' roles in the problem-solving process. I applied an original model of problem solving to describe the behaviors of teachers and students in 161 rehearsal frames…

  20. Metrical expectations from preceding prosody influence perception of lexical stress

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Meredith; Salverda, Anne Pier; Dilley, Laura C.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Two visual-world experiments tested the hypothesis that expectations based on preceding prosody influence the perception of suprasegmental cues to lexical stress. The results demonstrate that listeners’ consideration of competing alternatives with different stress patterns (e.g., ‘jury/gi’raffe) can be influenced by the fundamental frequency and syllable timing patterns across material preceding a target word. When preceding stressed syllables distal to the target word shared pitch and timing characteristics with the first syllable of the target word, pictures of alternatives with primary lexical stress on the first syllable (e.g., jury) initially attracted more looks than alternatives with unstressed initial syllables (e.g., giraffe). This effect was modulated when preceding unstressed syllables had pitch and timing characteristics similar to the initial syllable of the target word, with more looks to alternatives with unstressed initial syllables (e.g., giraffe) than to those with stressed initial syllables (e.g., jury). These findings suggest that expectations about the acoustic realization of upcoming speech include information about metrical organization and lexical stress, and that these expectations constrain the initial interpretation of suprasegmental stress cues. These distal prosody effects implicate on-line probabilistic inferences about the sources of acoustic-phonetic variation during spoken-word recognition. PMID:25621583

  1. A Precedent for Test Validation. ERIC/TM Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence; Farris, Michael P.

    In December 1991, the South Carolina Supreme Court ordered the State Board of Education to stop using the Education Entrance Examination (EEE) for licensing parents who want to teach their children at home. In ruling that the test's validation process did not meet a standard of reasonableness, the Court established a significant precedent for test…

  2. Impact of preceding crop on alfalfa competitiveness with weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic producers would like to include no-till practices in their farming systems. We are seeking to develop a continuous no-till system for organic farming, based on a complex rotation that includes a 3-year sequence of alfalfa. In this study, we evaluated impact of preceding crop on weed infest...

  3. 48 CFR 3452.215-33 - Order of precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Order of precedence. 3452.215-33 Section 3452.215-33 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and...

  4. 5 CFR 178.204 - Order of payment precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., money due an employee at the time of the employee's death shall be paid to the person or persons surviving at the date of death, in the following order of precedence, and the payment bars recovery by... employee in a writing received in the employing agency prior to the employee's death; (b) Second, if...

  5. Molecular definition of a novel inositol polyphosphate metabolic pathway initiated by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Seeds, Andrew M; Bastidas, Robert J; York, John D

    2005-07-29

    The production of inositol polyphosphate (IPs) and pyrophosphates (PP-IPs) from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (I(1,4,5)P3) requires the 6-/3-/5-kinase activity of Ipk2 (also known as Arg82 and inositol polyphosphate multikinase). Here, we probed the distinct roles for I(1,4,5)P3 6- versus 3-kinase activities in IP metabolism and cellular functions reported for Ipk2. Expression of either I(1,4,5)P3 6- or 3-kinase activity rescued growth of ipk2-deficient yeast at high temperatures, whereas only 6-kinase activity enabled growth on ornithine as the sole nitrogen source. Analysis of IP metabolism revealed that the 3-kinase initiated the synthesis of novel pathway consisting of over eleven IPs and PP-IPs. This pathway was present in wild-type and ipk2 null cells, albeit at low levels as compared with inositol hexakisphosphate synthesis. The primary route of synthesis was: I(1,4,5)P3 --> I(1,3,4,5)P4 --> I(1,2,3,4,5)P5 --> PP-IP4 --> PP2-IP3 and required Kcs1 (or possibly Ipk2), Ipk1, a novel inositol pyrophosphate synthase, and then Kcs1 again, respectively. Mutation of kcs1 ablated this pathway in ipk2 null cells and overexpression of Kcs1 in ipk2 mutant cells phenocopied IP3K expression, confirming it harbors a novel 3-kinase activity. Our work provides a revised genetic map of IP metabolism in yeast and evidence for dosage compensation between IPs and PP-IPs downstream of I(1,4,5)P3 in the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic processes.

  6. Profiles of lipid components, fatty acid distributions of triacylglycerols and phospholipids in Jack beans (Canavalia gladiata DC.).

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiromi; Yoshida, Naoko; Kuriyama, Isoko; Tomiyama-Sakamoto, Yuka; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-15

    Endogenous tocopherols in extracted lipids from Jack beans (Canavalia gladiata DC.) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and were investigated in relation to the fatty acids (FA) distribution of triacylgycerols (TAG) and phospholipids (PL). The dominant tocopherols were (δ)-tocopherol (78.9-96.5mg%) and (γ)-tocopherol (42.1-56.1mg%) with much smaller amounts of (α)-tocopherol (1.1-1.3mg%). The lipids of Jack beans comprised mainly TAG (34.6-38.6 wt.%) and PL (54.8-57.4 wt.%), and other components were also detected in minor proportions (0.3-3.8 wt.%). The PL components included phosphatidyl choline (46.2-48.7 wt.%), phosphatidyl inositol (23.4-29.6 wt.%) and phosphatidyl ethanolamine (18.5-21.2 wt.%). Comparison of these different beans showed, with a few exceptions, no significant differences (P>0.05) in FA distribution. The FA distribution of TAG among the five beans was evident in the Jack beans: unsaturated FA (93.3-95.3 wt.%) were predominantly concentrated at the sn-2 position and saturated FA (33.6-34.4 wt.%) primarily occupying the sn-1 position or sn-3 position. The results obtained from this work would provide useful information to both producers and consumers for manufacturing functional foods or beverages in Japan and elsewhere.

  7. Asymmetric distribution of glucose and indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol in geostimulated Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momonoki, Y. S.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol occurs in both the kernel and vegetative shoot of germinating Zea mays seedlings. The effect of a gravitational stimulus on the transport of [3H]-5-indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and [U-14C]-D-glucose from the kernel to the seedling shoot was studied. Both labeled glucose and labeled indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol become asymmetrically distributed in the mesocotyl cortex of the shoot with more radioactivity occurring in the bottom half of a horizontally placed seedling. Asymmetric distribution of [3H]indole-3-acetic acid, derived from the applied [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol, occurred more rapidly than distribution of total 3H-radioactivity. These findings demonstrate that the gravitational stimulus can induce an asymmetric distribution of substances being transported from kernel to shoot. They also indicate that, in addition to the transport asymmetry, gravity affects the steady state amount of indole-3-acetic acid derived from indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol.

  8. Genetic variants in the inositol phosphate metabolism pathway and risk of different types of cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Juan; Yu, Chen-Yang; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Chen, Hao-Yan; Guan, Jian; Chen, Ying-Xuan; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2015-02-16

    Members of the inositol phosphate metabolism pathway regulate cell proliferation, migration and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling, and are frequently dysregulated in cancer. Whether germline genetic variants in inositol phosphate metabolism pathway are associated with cancer risk remains to be clarified. We examined the association between inositol phosphate metabolism pathway genes and risk of eight types of cancer using data from genome-wide association studies. Logistic regression models were applied to evaluate SNP-level associations. Gene- and pathway-based associations were tested using the permutation-based adaptive rank-truncated product method. The overall inositol phosphate metabolism pathway was significantly associated with risk of lung cancer (P = 2.00 × 10(-4)), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (P = 5.70 × 10(-3)), gastric cancer (P = 3.03 × 10(-2)) and renal cell carcinoma (P = 1.26 × 10(-2)), but not with pancreatic cancer (P = 1.40 × 10(-1)), breast cancer (P = 3.03 × 10(-1)), prostate cancer (P = 4.51 × 10(-1)), and bladder cancer (P = 6.30 × 10(-1)). Our results provide a link between inherited variation in the overall inositol phosphate metabolism pathway and several individual genes and cancer. Further studies will be needed to validate these positive findings, and to explore its mechanisms.

  9. Purification and properties of myo-inositol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase from germinating mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, B; De, B P; Biswas, B B

    1984-01-01

    A novel enzyme, myo-inositol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the conversion of myo-inositol 1-phosphate to ribulose 5-phosphate has been purified 84-fold from mung bean seedling employing several common techniques. The molecular weight of this purified enzyme has been recorded as 88,500 by Sephadex G-200 column chromatography, and in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis one protein band containing three subunits of Mr 32,000 each was discernible. Km values for NAD+ and myo-inositol 1-phosphate have been recorded as 2.8 X 10(-4) and 5.0 X 10(-4) M, respectively. Production of NADH in myo-inositol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase reaction has also been evidenced by measurement of NADH fluorescence. Dehydrogenation and decarboxylation of myo-inositol 1-phosphate are mediated by the same enzyme. In fact, the rate of dehydrogenation corroborates with that of decarboxylation. Stoichiometry of this reaction suggests that for the production of 1 mol of ribulose 5-phosphate 2 mol of NAD+ are reduced.

  10. Metabolism and Ovarian Function in PCOS Women: A Therapeutic Approach with Inositols

    PubMed Central

    Rossetti, Paola; Buscema, Massimo; Condorelli, Rosita Angela; Gullo, Giuseppe; Triolo, Onofrio

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by chronical anovulation and hyperandrogenism which may be present in a different degree of severity. Insulin-resistance and hyperinsulinemia are the main physiopathological basis of this syndrome and the failure of inositol-mediated signaling may concur to them. Myo (MI) and D-chiro-inositol (DCI), the most studied inositol isoforms, are classified as insulin sensitizers. In form of glycans, DCI-phosphoglycan and MI-phosphoglycan control key enzymes were involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. In form of phosphoinositides, they play an important role as second messengers in several cellular biological functions. Considering the key role played by insulin-resistance and androgen excess in PCOS patients, the insulin-sensitizing effects of both MI and DCI were tested in order to ameliorate symptoms and signs of this syndrome, including the possibility to restore patients' fertility. Accumulating evidence suggests that both isoforms of inositol are effective in improving ovarian function and metabolism in patients with PCOS, although MI showed the most marked effect on the metabolic profile, whereas DCI reduced hyperandrogenism better. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on inositol signaling and correlate data on biological functions of these multifaceted molecules, in view of a rational use for the therapy in women with PCOS. PMID:27579037

  11. Dephosphorylation of 1D-myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate in rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, A J; Storey, D J; Downes, C P; Michell, R H

    1988-01-01

    Dephosphorylation of 1D-myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate [Ins(1,4)P2] in rat liver is catalysed by a cytosolic phosphatase that removes the 1-phosphate group. The Km for Ins(1,4)P2 is approx. 17 microM. Li+ (100 mM) causes 50% inhibition of Ins(1,4)P2 phosphatase activity when activity is measured at the very low substrate concentration of 10 nM, but on raising the substrate concentration to 100 microM there is a greater than 10-fold increase in sensitivity to Li+, suggesting that Li+ acts mainly, but not entirely, as an uncompetitive inhibitor of Ins(1,4)P2 phosphatase. In addition, rat liver cytosol shows Li+-sensitive phosphatase activity against 1D-myo-inositol 1-,3- and 4-monophosphates. The Ins(1,4)P2 1-phosphatase and inositol monophosphatase activities all share an apparent Mr of 47 x 10(3), as determined by gel-filtration chromatography. However, the Ins(1,4)P2 1-phosphatase is more sensitive to inactivation by heat, and can be separated from inositol monophosphatase activity by anion-exchange chromatography. We conclude that rat liver cytosol contains an Ins(1,4)P2 1-phosphatase that is distinct from, but in many ways similar to, inositol monophosphatase. PMID:2848493

  12. Relative quantification of phospholipid accumulation in the PC12 cell plasma membrane following phospholipid incubation using TOF-SIMS imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lanekoff, Ingela; Sjövall, Peter; Ewing, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) imaging has been used to investigate the incorporation of phospholipids into the plasma membrane of PC12 cells after incubation with phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The incubations were done at concentrations previously shown to change the rate of exocytosis in model cell lines. The use of TOF-SIMS in combination with an in situ freeze fracture device enables the acquisition of ion images from the plasma membrane in single PC12 cells. By incubating cells with deuterated phospholipids and acquiring ion images at high mass resolution, specific deuterated fragment ions were used to monitor the incorporation of lipids into the plasma membrane. The concentration of incorporated phospholipids relative to the original concentration of PC was thus determined. The observed relative amounts of phospholipid accumulation in the membrane ranges from 0.5 to 2 percent following 19 hours of incubation with PC at 100 to 300 μM and from 1 to 9 percent following incubation with PE at the same concentrations. Phospholipid accumulation is therefore shown to be dependent on the concentration in the surrounding media. In combination with previous exocytosis results, the present data suggests that very small changes in the plasma membrane phospholipid concentration are sufficient to produce significant effects on important cellular processes, such as exocytosis in PC12 cells. PMID:21563801

  13. Inositol trisphosphate metabolism in carrot (Daucus carota L. ) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Memon, A.R.; Rincon, M.; Boss, W.F. )

    1989-10-01

    The metabolism of exogenously added D-myo-(1-{sup 3}H)inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) has been examined in microsomal membrane and soluble fractions of carrot cells grown in suspension culture. When ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 3} was added to a microsomal membrane fraction, ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 2} was the primary metabolite consisting of approximately 83% of the total recovered ({sup 3}H) by electrophoresis. ({sup 3}H)IP was only 6% of the ({sup 3}H) recovered, and 10% of the ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 3} was not further metabolized. In contrast, when ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 3} was added to the soluble fraction, approximately equal amounts of ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 2} and ({sup 3}H)IP were recovered. Ca{sup 2+} (100 micromolar) tended to enhance IP{sub 3} dephosphorylation but inhibited the IP{sub 2} dephosphorylation in the soluble fraction by about 20%. MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} (1 millimolar) inhibited the dephosphorylation of IP{sub 3} by the microsomal fraction and the dephosphorylation of IP{sub 2} by the soluble fraction. MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, however, did not inhibit the dephosphorylation of IP{sub 3} by the soluble fraction. Li{sup +} (10 and 50 millimolar) had no effect on IP{sub 3} metabolism in either the soluble or membrane fraction; however, Li{sup +} (50 millimolar) inhibited IP{sub 2} dephosphorylation in the soluble fraction about 25%.

  14. Dietary safflower phospholipid reduces liver lipids in laying hens.

    PubMed

    An, B K; Nishiyama, H; Tanaka, K; Ohtani, S; Iwata, T; Tsutsumi, K; Kasai, M

    1997-05-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary safflower phospholipids (crude safflower phospholipid and purified safflower phospholipid) on performance and lipid metabolism of laying hens. Sixty-week-old Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens were divided into four groups of seven birds each, and were given one of four experimental diets containing 5% beef tallow (served as a control, tallow), a mixture of safflower oil and palm oil (SP-oil), crude safflower phospholipid (Saf-PLcrude), or purified safflower phospholipid (Saf-PL) for 7 wk. Egg production ratio and daily egg mass were significantly higher in hens fed Saf-PLcrude diets than in hens of the other diet groups. There were no significant differences in egg weight among groups. Liver cholesterol and triglyceride contents were significantly decreased in all treated groups as compared with the control. The activity of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3 methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase was the highest in hens fed the Saf-PLcrude diet. Serum esterified cholesterol concentration was decreased by feeding of SP-oil, Saf-PLcrude, or Saf-PL diets. Serum lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity was highest in hens fed the tallow diet. Excreta neutral steroid excretion was significantly increased in the Saf-PLcrude or Saf-PL diet groups, although acidic steroid excretion was not affected by dietary treatments. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, and phospholipid contents in egg yolks were not different for any dietary treatments. The fatty acid compositions of egg yolks from hens fed Saf-PLcrude diets were not different with those fed the SP-oil diet, although eggs of hens fed the Saf-PL diet showed lower total polyunsaturated fatty acids. These results suggest that dietary safflower phospholipids may be a valuable ingredient to layers for reducing liver triglycerides and serum cholesterol without any adverse effects.

  15. A second-generation Bacillus cell factory for rare inositol production

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kosei; Takanaka, Shinji; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Some rare inositol stereoisomers are known to exert specific health-promoting effects, including scyllo-inositol (SI), which is a promising therapeutic agent for Alzheimer disease. We recently reported a Bacillus subtilis cell factory that performed the efficient production of SI from the cheapest and most abundant isomer myo-inositol (MI). In the cell factory all “useless” genes involved in MI and SI metabolism were deleted and overexpression of the key enzymes, IolG and IolW, was appended. It converted 10 g/L MI into the same amount of SI in 48 h of cultivation. In this addendum, we discuss further improvement in the cell factory and its possible applications. PMID:25482235

  16. Determination of free inositols and other low molecular weight carbohydrates in vegetables.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Hernández, Oswaldo; Ruiz-Aceituno, Laura; Sanz, María Luz; Martínez-Castro, Isabel

    2011-03-23

    Different low molecular weight carbohydrates including saccharides, polyalcohols, sugar acids, and glycosides have been identified and quantified in different edible vegetables from Asteraceae, Amarantaceae, Amarylidaceae, Brassicaceae, Dioscoreaceae, and Solanaceae families by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Apart from glucose, fructose, and sucrose, other saccharides such as sedoheptulose in chicory, spinach, cabbage, purple yam, eggplant, radish, and oak leaf lettuce, rutinose in eggplant skin, and a glycosyl-inositol in spinach have been identified. chiro-Inositol was found in all vegetables of the Asteraceae family (3.1-32.6 mg 100 g(-1)), whereas scyllo-inositol was detected in those of purple yam, eggplant, artichoke, chicory, escarole, and endive (traces-23.2 mg 100 g(-1)). α-Galactosides, kestose, glucaric acid, and glycosyl-glycerols were also identified and quantified in some of the analyzed vegetables. Considering the bioactivity of most of these compounds, mainly chicory leaves, artichokes, lettuces, and purple yam could constitute beneficial sources for human health.

  17. HPLC with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometric detection for the analysis of inositol phosphates.

    PubMed

    Amaro, Rosa; Escalona, Andrés; Murillo, Miguel

    2004-10-01

    The use of inductively coupled plasma optimal emission spectroscopy as a detector for the high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of inositol phosphates is studied. It is found that separation of different inositol phosphates with a mobile phase consisting of tetraethylammonium (0.14%, w/v), methanol (5%, v/v), and formic acid (0.18%, w/v) may be obtained on a PRP-1 column with an analysis time of 18 min. In addition, high specificity and sensitivity of the detection system used permits detection of the inositol phosphates from bi- to hexaphosphate free from interference of other chromatographic peaks, which could be from the sample or mobile phase. Additionally, it is possible to use less sample because of the high sensitivity of the detection system.

  18. Role for ionotropic and metabotropic receptors in quisqualate-stimulated inositol polyphosphate accumulation in rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Baird, J G; Challiss, R A; Nahorski, S R

    1991-06-01

    The actions of the excitatory amino acid quisqualate (QA) on inositol polyphosphate accumulation in cerebral cortex slices have been assessed using both [3H]inositol prelabeling and mass measurements over relatively short incubation periods. QA stimulated accumulation of all the inositol polyphosphates, with similar EC50 values (2.8 +/- 0.7 microM). High performance liquid chromatography analysis of isomeric forms of inositol polyphosphates and specific mass assays revealed that both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation products of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate accumulate. A large component of the QA-stimulated inositol polyphosphate accumulation was inhibited by the ionotropic antagonist 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione in a competitive manner. This implied that the QA response may be due to entry of Ca2+ via voltage-sensitive calcium channels as a consequence of an ionotropic receptor-induced depolarization. In support of this mechanism, the QA-induced response was dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium, whereas the well characterized muscarinic receptor agonist response to carbachol showed only a slight reduction under the same conditions. The concentration-dependent (EC50 8.8 +/- 3 microM) response to the selective ionotropic agonist amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoazolepropionic acid (AMPA) differed from that to QA or carbachol, in that accumulation of only [3H]inositol mono- and bisphosphates was stimulated, with no increase in the [3H]inositol tris- or tetrakisphosphates. Use of the metabotropic agonist (trans)-(+/-)-1-aminocyclopentyl-1,3-dicarboxylate (ACPD), however, produced concentration-dependent increases in all [3H]inositol polyphosphates. Although both AMPA and ACPD responses alone were smaller in magnitude than that to QA, when present together AMPA and ACPD produced additive responses on [3H]inositol mono- and bisphosphate and a marked synergistic increase in [3H]inositol tetrakisphosphate accumulation, resulting in a response similar to

  19. Structure-based identification of inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase from Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Faisal Tarique, Khaja; Arif Abdul Rehman, Syed; Betzel, Christian; Gourinath, Samudrala

    2014-11-01

    Inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase from Entamoeba histolytica (EhIPPase) is an Mg(2+)-dependent and Li(+)-sensitive enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of inositol 1,4-bisphosphate [Ins(1,4)P2] into myo-inositol 1-monophosphate and PO4(3-). In the present work, EhIPPase has been biochemically identified and its crystal structure has been determined in the presence of Mg(2+) and PO4(3-) at 2.5 Å resolution. This enzyme was previously classified as a 3'(2'),5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase in the NCBI, but its biochemical activity and structural analysis suggest that this enzyme behaves more like an inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase. The ability of EhIPPase to hydrolyze the smaller Ins(1,4)P2 better than the bulkier 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate (PAP) is explained on the basis of the orientations of amino-acid residues in the binding site. This structure is the first of its class to be determined from any protozoan parasite, and is the third to determined among all organisms, following its rat and bovine homologues. The three-dimensional fold of EhIPPase is similar to those of other members of the inositol monophosphatase superfamily, which also includes inositol monophosphatase, 3'(2'),5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate 1-phosphatase. They all share conserved residues essential for metal binding and substrate hydrolysis, with the motif D-Xn-EE-Xn-DP(I/L)DG(S/T)-Xn-WD-Xn-GG. The structure is divided into two domains, namely α+β and α/β, and the substrate and metal ions bind between them. However, the ability of each enzyme class to act specifically on its cognate substrate is governed by the class-specific amino-acid residues at the active site.

  20. Motility precedes egress of malaria parasites from oocysts

    PubMed Central

    Klug, Dennis; Frischknecht, Friedrich

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is transmitted when an infected Anopheles mosquito deposits Plasmodium sporozoites in the skin during a bite. Sporozoites are formed within oocysts at the mosquito midgut wall and are released into the hemolymph, from where they invade the salivary glands and are subsequently transmitted to the vertebrate host. We found that a thrombospondin-repeat containing sporozoite-specific protein named thrombospondin-releated protein 1 (TRP1) is important for oocyst egress and salivary gland invasion, and hence for the transmission of malaria. We imaged the release of sporozoites from oocysts in situ, which was preceded by active motility. Parasites lacking TRP1 failed to migrate within oocysts and did not egress, suggesting that TRP1 is a vital component of the events that precede intra-oocyst motility and subsequently sporozoite egress and salivary gland invasion. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19157.001 PMID:28115054

  1. Case report of unusual leukoencephalopathy preceding primary CNS lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Brecher, K.; Hochberg, F.; Louis, D.; de la Monte, S.; Riskind, P.

    1998-01-01

    A previously healthy 35 year old woman presented with bilateral uveitus associated with multiple, evolving, non-enhancing white matter lesions consistent with a progressive leukoencephalopathy such as multiple sclerosis. Thirty months after her initial presentation, she was diagnosed with primary CNS lymphoma and died 14 months later. The unusual clinical course preceding the diagnosis suggests that a demyelinating disease may have preceded, and possibly heralded, the development of primary CNS lymphoma. Cases of "sentinel lesions" heralding the diagnosis of primary CNS lymphoma have been reported, and this case further corroborates such instances and raises further issues regarding possible neoplastic transformation occurring in inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

 PMID:9854972

  2. Auditory startle reflex inhibited by preceding self-action.

    PubMed

    Kawachi, Yousuke; Matsue, Yoshihiko; Shibata, Michiaki; Imaizumi, Osamu; Gyoba, Jiro

    2014-01-01

    A startle reflex to a startle pulse is inhibited when preceded by a prestimulus. We introduced a key-press action (self-action) or an 85 dB noise burst as a prestimulus, followed by a 115 dB noise burst as a startle pulse. We manipulated temporal offsets between the prestimulus and the startle pulse from 30-1,500 ms to examine whether self-action modulates the startle reflex and the temporal properties of the modulatory effect. We assessed eyeblink reflexes by electromyography. Both prestimuli decreased reflexes compared to pulse-alone trials. Moreover, the temporal windows of inhibition were different between the types of prestimuli. A faster maximal inhibition and narrower temporal window in self-action trials suggest that preceding self-action inhibits the startle reflex and allows prediction of the coming pulse in different ways from auditory prestimuli.

  3. Use of Per-C-Deuterated myo-Inositol for Study of Cell Wall Synthesis in Germinating Beans.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, K; Nagahashi, G; Gretz, M R; Taylor, I E

    1989-06-01

    Cell wall polysaccharides of the hypocotyl and roots in germinating beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were selectively labeled in arabinosyl, xylosyl, and galacturonosyl residues by per-C-deuterated myo-inositol, which was introduced through 72 hours of imbibition. Glucuronate residues remained unlabeled. Selected ion gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that deuterium was not redistributed in these three sugar residues or into other carbohydrate residues during this conversion, suggesting that the labeled residues are formed exclusively via the myo-inositol oxidation pathway and that no glucogenesis from myo-inositol takes place during this conversion. The presence of a significant level of deuterated arabinose, xylose, and galacturonate after just 72 hours of imbibitional uptake of per-C-deuterated myo-inositol indicated that the myo-inositol oxidation pathway has a predominant role in the biosynthesis of new cell walls.

  4. Chronic inositol treatment reduces depression-like immobility of Flinders Sensitive Line rats in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Einat, Haim; Belmaker, Robert H; Zangen, Avraham; Overstreet, D H; Yadid, Gal

    2002-01-01

    Inositol, a precursor of the PIP cycle that was reported to have therapeutic effects in depressive patients and to be effective in two animal models of depression, was evaluated in the forced swim test using the genetic Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats model of depression. Groups of rats were tested in a 2 x 2 design with Strain (FSL or Control) as one factor and Drug (Inositol or Placebo) as the second factor. Rats received chronic treatment (daily for 14 days) with inositol (1.2 g/kg) or placebo (1:2 glucose/mannitol solution). On day 14 rats were exposed to the forced swim test for 5 min and their behavior videotaped. Tapes were analyzed for three levels of activity: immobility, swimming, and vigorous struggle. Inositol countered the exaggerated immobility of FSL rats in the forced swim test, without affecting control animals. Data support our previous suggestion of inositol as a potential antidepressant.

  5. Use of Per-C-Deuterated myo-Inositol for Study of Cell Wall Synthesis in Germinating Beans 1

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Ken; Nagahashi, Gerald; Gretz, Michael R.; Taylor, Iain E. P.

    1989-01-01

    Cell wall polysaccharides of the hypocotyl and roots in germinating beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were selectively labeled in arabinosyl, xylosyl, and galacturonosyl residues by per-C-deuterated myo-inositol, which was introduced through 72 hours of imbibition. Glucuronate residues remained unlabeled. Selected ion gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that deuterium was not redistributed in these three sugar residues or into other carbohydrate residues during this conversion, suggesting that the labeled residues are formed exclusively via the myo-inositol oxidation pathway and that no glucogenesis from myo-inositol takes place during this conversion. The presence of a significant level of deuterated arabinose, xylose, and galacturonate after just 72 hours of imbibitional uptake of per-C-deuterated myo-inositol indicated that the myo-inositol oxidation pathway has a predominant role in the biosynthesis of new cell walls. PMID:16666828

  6. Ibuprofen-phospholipid solid dispersions: improved dissolution and gastric tolerance.

    PubMed

    Hussain, M Delwar; Saxena, Vipin; Brausch, James F; Talukder, Rahmat M

    2012-01-17

    Solid dispersions of ibuprofen with various phospholipids were prepared, and the effect of phospholipids on the in vitro dissolution and in vivo gastrointestinal toxicity of ibuprofen was evaluated. Most phospholipids improved the dissolution of ibuprofen; dimyristoylphosphatidyl-glycerol (DMPG) had the greatest effect. At 45 min, the extent of dissolution of ibuprofen from the ibuprofen-DMPG system (weight ratio 9:1) increased about 69% compared to ibuprofen alone; the initial rate of dissolution increased sevenfold. Increasing the DMPG content from 9:1 to 4:1 in this system did not significantly increase the rate and the extent of dissolution. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron micrograph indicated a smaller crystallite size of ibuprofen with fairly uniform distribution in the ibuprofen-DMPG solid dispersion. A small amount of carrier phospholipid significantly increases the rate and the extent of dissolution, which may increase the bioavailability of ibuprofen. The number of ulcers >0.5mm in size formed in the gastric mucosa of rats following ibuprofen, DMPG, DMPC and DPPC solid dispersions (ibuprofen and phospholipid weight ratio 4:1) were 8.6 ± 6.2, 3.9 ± 5.3, 5.3 ± 4.9 and 9.1 ± 7.4, respectively. Solid dispersion of ibuprofen with DMPG was significantly less irritating to the gastric mucosa than ibuprofen itself (one-way ANOVA, p<0.05). Solid dispersion of ibuprofen and DMPG decreases the gastric side effects of ibuprofen.

  7. Stabilizing factors of phospholipid asymmetry in the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Dressler, V; Haest, C W; Plasa, G; Deuticke, B; Erusalimsky, J D

    1984-08-22

    Transbilayer reorientation (flip) of exogenous lysophospholipids and changes of the transbilayer distribution of endogenous phospholipids were studied in human erythrocytes and membrane vesicles. (1) Exogenous lysophosphatidylserine irreversibly accumulates in the inner membrane layer of resealed ghosts of human erythrocytes. (2) This accumulation even occurs after complete loss of asymmetric distribution of endogenous phosphatidylethanolamine and partial loss of phosphatidylserine asymmetry in diamide-treated cells. (3) Formation of inside-out and right-side-out vesicles from erythrocyte membranes results in a loss of endogenous phospholipid asymmetry as well as of the ability to establish asymmetry of exogenous lysophosphatidylserine. Rates of transbilayer reorientation of lysophospholipids for the vesicles, however, are comparable to those for intact cells. (4) Loss of endogenous asymmetry of phosphatidylserine is also observed in vesicles isolated from erythrocytes after heat denaturation of spectrin. The asymmetry in the residual cells is maintained. (5) In contrast to the loss of asymmetry of phosphatidylethanolamine and of phosphatidylserine, the asymmetry of sphingomyelin is completely maintained in the vesicles. (6) The stability of phospholipid asymmetry in the native cell is discussed in terms of a limitation of access of phospholipids to hypothetical reorientation sites. Such a limitation may either be the result of interaction of phospholipids with the membrane skeleton as in case of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine, or the result of lipid-lipid interactions as in case of sphingomyelin.

  8. Putative Key Role of Inositol Messengers in Endothelial Cells in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Kunjara, Sirilaksana; McLean, Patricia; Rademacher, Laurens; Rademacher, Thomas W.; Fascilla, Fabiana; Bettocchi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Immunological alterations, endothelial dysfunction, and insulin resistance characterize preeclampsia. Endothelial cells hold the key role in the pathogenesis of this disease. The signaling pathways mediating these biological abnormalities converge on PKB/Akt, an intracellular kinase regulating cell survival, proliferation, and metabolism. Inositol second messengers are involved in metabolic and cell signaling pathways and are highly expressed during preeclampsia. Intracellular action of these molecules is deeply affected by zinc, manganese, and calcium. To evaluate the pathophysiological significance, we present the response of the intracellular pathways of inositol phosphoglycans involved in cellular metabolism and propose a link with the disease. PMID:27738431

  9. A potassium-18-crown-6 salt of a cyclic myo-inositol phosphate.

    PubMed

    Kumara Swamy, K C; Kumaraswamy, S

    2001-10-01

    The six-membered phosphorinane ring in (1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaoxacyclooctadecane)potassium 2-O-benzoyl-1,3,5-O-methylidyne-myo-inositol 4,6-cyclophosphate trihydrate, [K(C(12)H(24)O(6))](C(14)H(12)O(9)P).3H(2)O, has a boat rather than a chair conformation. The K(+) ion is eight-coordinate and is connected to one of the phosphate O atoms, one of the O atoms of the myo-inositol residue and the six O atoms of the crown ether.

  10. Phytic acid and myo-inositol support adipocyte differentiation and improve insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Nam; Han, Sung Nim; Kim, Hye-Kyeong

    2014-08-01

    Phytic acid, also known as myo-inositol hexaphosphate, has been shown to lower blood glucose levels and to improve insulin sensitivity in rodents. We investigated the effects of phytic acid and myo-inositol on differentiation, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and lipolysis of adipocytes to test the hypothesis that the antidiabetic properties of phytic acid and myo-inositol are mediated directly through adipocytes. 3T3-L1 cells were treated with 10, 50, or 200 μmol/L of phytic acid or myo-inositol. Oil Red O staining and an intracellular triacylglycerol assay were used to determine lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation. Immunoblotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed to evaluate expression of transcription factors, a target protein, and insulin signaling molecules. Phytic acid and myo-inositol exposures increased lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner (P < .01). The expression of key transcription factors associated with adipocyte differentiation, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, and the expression of fatty acid synthase increased upon treatments with phytic acid and myo-inositol (P < .05). Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mature adipocytes increased with phytic acid and myo-inositol treatments (P < .01). In addition, mRNA levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), mRNA levels of glucose transporter 4, and phosphorylation of tyrosine in IRS1 increased upon phytic acid and myo-inositol treatments. In fully differentiated adipocytes, phytic acid and myo-inositol reduced basal lipolysis dose dependently (P < .01). These results suggest that phytic acid and myo-inositol increase insulin sensitivity in adipocytes by increasing lipid storage capacity, improving glucose uptake, and inhibiting lipolysis.

  11. Sterol-Modified Phospholipids: Cholesterol and Phospholipid Chimeras with Improved Biomembrane Properties

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhaohua; Szoka, Francis C.

    2009-01-01

    We synthesized a family of sterol-modified glycerophospholipids (SML) in which the sn-1 or sn-2 position is covalently attached to cholesterol and the alternative position contains an aliphatic chain. The SML were used to explore how anchoring cholesterol to a phospholipid affects cholesterol behavior in a bilayer. Notably, cholesterol in the SML retains the membrane condensing properties of free cholesterol regardless of the chemistry or position of its attachment to the glycerol moiety of the phospholipid. SMLs by themselves formed liposomes upon hydration and in mixtures between an SML and diacylglycerophospholipids (C14 to C18 chain length) the thermotropic phase transition is eliminated at the SML equivalent of about 30 mole percent free cholesterol. Osmotic-induced contents leakage from SML (C14–C18) liposomes depends upon the linkage and position of cholesterol but in general is similar to that observed in diacylphosphatidylcholine/ cholesterol: 3/2 (mole ratio) liposomes. SML liposomes are exceptionally resistant to contents release in the presence of serum at 37 °C. This is probably due to fact that SML exchange between bilayers is more than 100 fold less than the exchange rate of free cholesterol in the same conditions. Importantly SML liposomes containing doxorubicin are as effective in treating the murine C26 colon carcinoma, as Doxil™ a commercial liposome doxorubicin formulation. SMLs stabilize bilayers but do not exchange hence provide a new tool for biophysical studies on membranes and they may improve liposomal drug delivery in organs predisposed to the extraction of free cholesterol from bilayers, such as; the skin, lung or blood. PMID:18950160

  12. High-performance reversed-phase ion-pair chromatographic study of myo-inositol phosphates. Separation of myo-inositol phosphates, some common nucleotides and sugar phosphates.

    PubMed

    Patthy, M; Balla, T; Arányi, P

    1990-12-07

    A detailed study of all the major chromatographic variables affecting the retention behaviour and separation of myo-inositol phosphates in reversed-phase ion-pair chromatographic systems was carried out. The parameters studied included the eluent concentration of the pairing ion, the eluent concentration of the organic modifier and the buffer salt, the pH of the eluent, the minimum column plate count necessary for the separation of the inositol trisphosphate isomers and isocratic and gradient modes of separation. The retention behaviour of some common nucleotides and sugar phosphates was also investigated as these phosphates present chromatographic interference problems in biochemical studies based on the cellular incorporation of [32P]Pi. The separation methods developed appear to be superior to established anion-exchange separation techniques in terms of separation speed and "mildness" of the chromatographic conditions.

  13. Plasma phospholipid mass transfer rate: relationship to plasma phospholipid and cholesteryl ester transfer activities and lipid parameters.

    PubMed

    Cheung, M C; Wolfbauer, G; Albers, J J

    1996-09-27

    Human plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) has been shown to facilitate the transfer of phospholipid from liposomes or isolated very low and low density lipoproteins to high density lipoproteins. Its activity in plasma and its physiological function are presently unknown. To elucidate the role of PLTP in lipoprotein metabolism and to delineate factors that may affect the rate of phospholipid transfer between lipoproteins, we determined the plasma phospholipid mass transfer rate (PLTR) in 16 healthy adult volunteers and assessed its relationship to plasma lipid levels, and to phospholipid transfer activity (PLTA) and cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA) measured by radioassays. The plasma PLTR in these subjects was 27.2 +/- 11.8 nmol/ml per h at 37 degrees C (mean +/- S.D.), and their PLTA and CETA were 13.0 +/- 1.7 mumol/ml per h and 72.8 +/- 15.7 nmol/ml per h, respectively. Plasma PLTR was correlated directly with total, non-HDL, and HDL triglyceride (rs = 0.76, P < 0.001), total and non-HDL phospholipid (rs > 0.53, P < 0.05), and inversely with HDL free cholesterol (rs = -0.54, P < 0.05), but not with plasma PLTA and CETA. When 85% to 96% of the PLTA in plasma was removed by polyclonal antibodies against recombinant human PLTP, phospholipid mass transfer from VLDL and LDL to HDL was reduced by 50% to 72%, but 80% to 100% of CETA could still be detected. These studies demonstrate that PLTP plays a major role in facilitating the transfer of phospholipid between lipoproteins, and suggest that triglyceride is a significant modulator of intravascular phospholipid transport. Furthermore, most of the PLTP and CETP in human plasma is associated with different particles. Plasma PLTA and CETA were also measured in mouse, rat, hamster, guinea pig, rabbit, dog, pig, and monkey. Compared to human, PLTA in rat and mouse was significantly higher and in rabbit and guinea pig was significantly lower while the remaining animal species had PLTA similar to humans. No

  14. Anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL) and apoptosis: prothrombin-dependent aPL as a paradigm for phospholipid-dependent interactions with apoptotic cells☆

    PubMed Central

    Rauch, Joyce; D’Agnillo, Paolo; Subang, Rebecca; Levine, Jerrold S.

    2012-01-01

    The natural targets of anti-phospholipid antibodies (aPL) and the stimuli that induce them remain unknown. Apoptotic cells have been proposed as both potential targets and immunogens for anti-phospholipid antibodies. Demonstration of selective recognition by anti-phospholipid antibodies provides support for apoptotic cells as antigenic targets. Here, we summarize data showing that prothrombin (PT) binds to apoptotic, but not viable, cells, and that apoptotic-cell bound prothrombin provides a target for human polyclonal and murine monoclonal lupus anticoagulant (LA) antibodies. We discuss findings for two monoclonal lupus anticoagulant antibodies that have high (antibody 29J3-62) or low (antibody 29I4-24) affinity, respectively, for soluble prothrombin. Despite their very different affinities for soluble prothrombin, both monoclonal antibodies reacted similarly with prothrombin bound to phospholipid or apoptotic cells. Furthermore, both antibodies enhanced the binding of prothrombin to apoptotic cells. We propose that the recognition of apoptotic cells by these prothrombin-dependent monoclonal antibodies provides a paradigm for other anti-phospholipid autoantibodies. 29I4-24 is prototypical of phospholipid-dependent anti-phospholipid antibodies, while 29J3-62 represents a prototype for phospholipid-independent anti-phospholipid antibodies. Proteins such as prothrombin and β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) bind to apoptotic cells, thereby enhancing the recognition of apoptotic cells by anti-phospholipid antibodies. Furthermore, anti-phospholipid antibodies potentiate the interaction of these proteins with apoptotic cells. While it is unclear whether apoptotic cells are the inducing stimuli in patients with anti-phospholipid antibodies or even whether anti-phospholipid antibodies interact with apoptotic cells in vivo, it is nonetheless clear that anti-phospholipid antibodies have the potential to affect both the procoagulant activity and the uptake and clearance of

  15. A protein tyrosine phosphatase-like inositol polyphosphatase from Selenomonas ruminantium subsp. lactilytica has specificity for the 5-phosphate of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Aaron A; Greiner, Ralf; Selinger, L Brent

    2008-01-01

    Although it is becoming well known that myo-inositol polyphosphates and the enzymes involved in their metabolism play a critical role in eukaryotic systems, little is understood of their significance in prokaryotic systems. A novel protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-like inositol polyphosphatase (IPPase) gene has been cloned from Selenomonas ruminantium subsp. lactilytica (phyAsrl). The deduced amino acid sequence of PhyAsrl is most similar to a PTP-like IPPase from the anaerobic bacterium S. ruminantium (35% identity), but also shows similarity (19-30% identity) to various other putative prokaryotic PTPs. Recombinant PhyAsrl could dephosphorylate myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (Ins P(6)) in vitro, and maximal activity was displayed at an ionic strength of 200 mM, a pH of 4.5, and a temperature of 55 degrees C. In order to elucidate its substrate specificity and pathway of Ins P(6) dephosphorylation, a combination of kinetic and high-performance ion-pair chromatography studies were conducted. The data indicated that PhyAsrl has a general specificity for polyphosphorylated myo-inositol substrates, but can also dephosphorylate molecules containing high energy pyrophosphate bonds in vitro. PhyAsrl is unique from other microbial IPPases in that it preferentially cleaves the 5-phosphate position of Ins P(6). Furthermore, it can produce Ins(2)P via a highly unique and ordered pathway of sequential dephosphorylation: Ins P(6), Ins(1,2,3,4,6)P(5), D-Ins(1,2,3,6)P(4), Ins(1,2,3)P(3), and D/L-Ins(1,2)P(2). Finally, reverse transcription PCR was used to determine that phyAsrl is constitutively expressed, and together with bioinformatic analysis, was used to gain an understanding of its physiological significance.

  16. Possible mechanism of adhesion in a mica supported phospholipid bilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Pertsin, Alexander; Grunze, Michael

    2014-05-14

    Phospholipid bilayers supported on hydrophilic solids like silica and mica play a substantial role in fundamental studies and technological applications of phospholipid membranes. In both cases the molecular mechanism of adhesion between the bilayer and the support is of primary interest. Since the possibilities of experimental methods in this specific area are rather limited, the methods of computer simulation acquire great importance. In this paper we use the grand canonical Monte Carlo technique and an atomistic force field to simulate the behavior of a mica supported phospholipid bilayer in pure water as a function of the distance between the bilayer and the support. The simulation reveals a possible adhesion mechanism, where the adhesion is due to individual lipid molecules that protrude from the bilayer and form widely spaced links with the support. Simultaneously, the bilayer remains separated from the bilayer by a thin water interlayer which maintains the bilayer fluidity.

  17. Phospholipid flippases: building asymmetric membranes and transport vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Tessy T.; Baldridge, Ryan D.; Xu, Peng; Graham, Todd R.

    2012-01-01

    Phospholipid flippases in the type IV P-type ATPase family (P4-ATPases) are essential components of the Golgi, plasma membrane and endosomal system that play critical roles in membrane biogenesis. These pumps flip phospholipid across the bilayer to create an asymmetric membrane structure with substrate phospholipids, such as phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine, enriched within the cytosolic leaflet. The P4-ATPases also help form transport vesicles that bud from Golgi and endosomal membranes, thereby impacting the sorting and localization of many different proteins in the secretory and endocytic pathways. At the organismal level, P4-ATPase deficiencies are linked to liver disease, obesity, diabetes, hearing loss, neurological deficits, immune deficiency and reduced fertility. Here, we review the biochemical, cellular and physiological functions of P4-ATPases, with an emphasis on their roles in vesicle-mediated protein transport. PMID:22234261

  18. Neutron diffraction studies of amphipathic helices in phospholipid bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, J.P.; Gilchrist, P.J.; Duff, K.C.; Saxena, A.M.

    1994-12-31

    The structural feature which is thought to facilitate the interaction of many peptides with phospholipid bilayers is the ability to fold into an amphipathic helix. In most cases the exact location and orientation of this helix with respect to the membrane is not known, and may vary with factors such as pH and phospholipid content of the bilayer. The growing interest in this area is stimulated by indications that similar interactions can contribute to the binding of certain hormones to their cell-surface receptors. We have been using the techniques of neutron diffraction from stacked phospholipid bilayers in an attempt to investigate this phenomenon with a number of membrane-active peptides. Here we report some of our findings with three of these: the bee venom melittin; the hormone calcitonin; and a synthetic peptide representing the ion channel fragment of influenza A M2 protein.

  19. Phospholipids and Glycolipids of Sterol-requiring Mycoplasma

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Paul F.; Koostra, Walter L.

    1967-01-01

    The phospholipids of Mycoplasma hominis type 2 strain 07 are composed almost entirely of phosphatidyl glycerol. Traces of other glycerophospholipids may exist. No glycolipids are found. The phospholipids of Mycoplasma sp. avian strain J are composed of diphosphatidyl glycerol, which predominates in older cultures, a monoacyl glycerophosphoryl glycerophosphate, which may serve as a precursor of diphosphatidyl glycerol, and phosphatidyl glycerophosphate. This organism also contains cholesteryl glucoside and an unidentified glycolipid which appears to be similar to a monoglucosyl diglyceride. No turnover or radioisotope labeling of the phospholipids occurs during metabolism. This lack of turnover during growth is indicative of a structural role for these glycerophospholipids. A concomitant decrease of monoacyl glycerophosphoryl glycerophosphate and increase of diphosphatidyl glycerol occurs during growth. PMID:6025304

  20. Metabolism of extracellular inositol hexaphosphate (phytate) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Andlid, Thomas A; Veide, Jenny; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2004-12-15

    Iron and zinc deficiencies are global problems, frequently leading to severe illness in vulnerable human populations. Addition of phytases can improve the bioavailability of iron and zinc in food. Saccharomyces cerevisiae would be an ideal candidate as a bioavailability improving food additive if it demonstrates significant phytase activity. The purpose of the paper was to study yeast phytase activity to obtain information required to improve strains. All yeasts tested readily degraded extracellular inositol hexaphosphate (phytate; IP6) in media with IP6 as the sole phosphorous source. Phosphate (Pi) addition yielded repression consistent with the PHO system. However, repression of IP6-degrading enzymes was not only dependent on level of Pi, but also on pH and medium composition. In complex medium, containing Pi at a concentration previously suggested to yield full repression of the secretory acid phosphatases (SAPs; e.g., [Mol. Biol. Cell 11 (2000) 4309]), and at relatively high pH, repression of phytate-degrading enzymes was weak. The capacity to degrade phytate, irrespective of Pi addition or not, was highest at the pH most distant from the pH optimum of the SAPs [Microbiol. Res. 151 (1996) 291], suggesting that expression rather than enzyme activity was affected by pH. In synthetic medium, repression was strong and pH-independent (no IP6 degradation within the range tested). The distinct difference between media shows that, in addition to known regulatory role of Pi for the PHO system, additional factors may be involved. Using a deletion strain, we further demonstrate that the main secretory acid phosphatase Pho5p is not essential for intact phytate-degrading capacity and growth without Pi, neither is Pho3p. However, when constitutively overexpressing PHO5 an increased net phytase activity was obtained, in repressing and non-repressing conditions. This proves that, although redundant in a wild type, Pho5p can catalyze hydrolysis of IP6 and that at least one

  1. Autoimmunity, phospholipid-reacting antibodies and malaria immunity.

    PubMed

    Gomes, L R; Martins, Y C; Ferreira-da-Cruz, M F; Daniel-Ribeiro, C T

    2014-10-01

    Several questions regarding the production and functioning of autoantibodies (AAb) during malaria infection remain open. Here we provide an overview of studies conducted in our laboratory that shed some light on the questions of whether antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) and other AAb associated with autoimmune diseases (AID) can recognize Plasmodia antigens and exert anti-parasite activity; and whether anti-parasite phospholipid antibodies, produced in response to malaria, can inhibit phospholipid-induced inflammatory responses and protect against the pathogenesis of severe malaria. Our work showed that sera from patients with AID containing AAb against dsDNA, ssDNA, nuclear antigens (ANA), actin, cardiolipin (aCL) and erythrocyte membrane antigens recognize plasmodial antigens and can, similarly to monoclonal AAb of several specificities including phospholipid, inhibit the growth of P. falciparum in vitro. However, we did not detect a relationship between the presence of anti-glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) antibodies in the serum and asymptomatic malaria infection, although we did register a relationship between these antibodies and parasitemia levels in infected individuals. Taken together, these results indicate that autoimmune responses mediated by AAb of different specificities, including phospholipid, may have anti-plasmodial activity and protect against malaria, although it is not clear whether anti-parasite phospholipid antibodies can mediate the same effect. The potential effect of anti-parasite phospholipid antibodies in malarious patients that are prone to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus or antiphospholipid syndrome, as well as the (possibly protective?) role of the (pathogenic) aPL on the malaria symptomatology and severity in these individuals, remain open questions.

  2. Differential turnover of phospholipid acyl groups in mouse peritoneal macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwae, T.; Schmid, P.C.; Johnson, S.B.; Schmid, H.H. )

    1990-03-25

    Phospholipid acyl turnover was assessed in mouse peritoneal exudate cells which consisted primarily of macrophages. The cells were incubated for up to 5 h in media containing 40% H218O, and uptake of 18O into ester carbonyls of phospholipids was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of hydrogenated methyl esters. The uptake was highest in choline phospholipids and phosphatidylinositol, less in ethanolamine phospholipids, and much less in phosphatidylserine. Acyl groups at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions of diacyl glycerophospholipids, including arachidonic and other long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, acquired 18O at about the same rate. Acyl groups of alkylacyl glycerophosphocholine exhibited lower rates of 18O uptake, and acyl groups of ethanolamine plasmalogens (alkenylacyl glycerophosphoethanolamines) acquired only minimal amounts of 18O within 5 h, indicating a low average acyl turnover via free fatty acids. Pulse experiments with exogenous 3H-labeled arachidonic acid supported the concept that acylation of alkenyl glycerophosphoethanolamine occurs by acyl transfer from other phospholipids rather than via free fatty acids and acyl-CoA. The 18O content of intracellular free fatty acids increased gradually over a 5-h period, whereas in extracellular free fatty acids it reached maximal 18O levels within the first hour. Arachidonate and other long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids were found to participate readily in deacylation-reacylation reactions but were present only in trace amounts in the free fatty acid pools inside and outside the cells. We conclude that acyl turnover of macrophage phospholipids through hydrolysis and reacylation is rapid but tightly controlled so that appreciable concentrations of free arachidonic acid do not occur.

  3. New prodrugs based on phospholipid-nucleoside conjugates

    SciTech Connect

    MacCoss, M.

    1982-02-03

    A method is described for the preparation of defined, isomerically pure phospholipid-nucleoside conjugates as a prodrug in which the drug (araC) is attached to the phospholipid by a monophosphate linkage. Key intermediates in the process involve selective blocking and deblocking of the nucleoside derivative. These particular monophosphate-linked derivatives represent a new class of prodrug, which are useful by themselves or in combination with diphosphate linked derivatives. Several new compositions involving diphosphate linked derivatives are described in which the products are isomerically pure and having defined fatty acid chain lengths.

  4. Light and phospholipid driven structural transitions in nematic microdroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubtsov, A. V.; Pasechnik, S. V.; Shmeliova, D. V.; Kralj, Samo

    2014-10-01

    We studied the UV-irradiation and phospholipid driven bipolar-radial structural transitions within azoxybenzene nematic liquid crystal (LC) droplets dispersed in water. It was found that the UV-irradiation induced trans-cis isomerisation of LC molecules could enable structural transitions into radial-type configurations at a critical UV-irradiation time tc. In particular, we show that under appropriate conditions, a value of tc could sensitively fingerprint the concentration of phospholipid molecules present in LC-water dispersions. This demonstrated proof-of-principle mechanism could be exploited for development of sensitive detectors for specific nanoparticles (NPs), where value of tc reveals concentration of NPs.

  5. How to Achieve High-Quality Oocytes? The Key Role of Myo-Inositol and Melatonin

    PubMed Central

    Rossetti, Paola; Corrado, Francesco; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; Condorelli, Rosita Angela; Valenti, Gaetano; Sapia, Fabrizio; Buscema, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have experienced growing interest from infertile patients seeking to become pregnant. The quality of oocytes plays a pivotal role in determining ART outcomes. Although many authors have studied how supplementation therapy may affect this important parameter for both in vivo and in vitro models, data are not yet robust enough to support firm conclusions. Regarding this last point, in this review our objective has been to evaluate the state of the art regarding supplementation with melatonin and myo-inositol in order to improve oocyte quality during ART. On the one hand, the antioxidant effect of melatonin is well known as being useful during ovulation and oocyte incubation, two occasions with a high level of oxidative stress. On the other hand, myo-inositol is important in cellular structure and in cellular signaling pathways. Our analysis suggests that the use of these two molecules may significantly improve the quality of oocytes and the quality of embryos: melatonin seems to raise the fertilization rate, and myo-inositol improves the pregnancy rate, although all published studies do not fully agree with these conclusions. However, previous studies have demonstrated that cotreatment improves these results compared with melatonin alone or myo-inositol alone. We recommend that further studies be performed in order to confirm these positive outcomes in routine ART treatment. PMID:27651794

  6. Muscarinic receptor-mediated inositol tetrakisphosphate response in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sanborn, B.B.; Schneider, A.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Inositol trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}), a product of the phosphoinositide cycle, mobilizes intracellular Ca{sup 2+} in many cell types. New evidence suggests that inositol tetrakisphosphate (IP{sub 4}), an IP{sub 3} derivative, may act as another second messenger to further alter calcium homeostasis. However, the function and mechanism of action of IP{sub 4} are presently unresolved. We now report evidence of muscarinic receptor-mediated accumulation of IP{sub 4} in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, a classic neurosecretory system in which calcium movements have been well studied. Muscarine stimulated an increase in ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 4} and ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 3} accumulation in chromaffin cells and this effect was completely blocked by atropine. ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 4} accumulation was detectable within 15 sec, increased to a maximum by 30 sec and thereafter declined. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, an inhibitor of IP{sub 3} and IP{sub 4} hydrolysis, enhanced accumulation of these inositol polyphosphates. The results provide the first evidence of a rapid inositol tetrakisphosphate response in adrenal chromaffin cells, which should facilitate the future resolution of the relationship between IP{sub 4} and calcium homeostasis.

  7. Salt-induced abnormalities on root tip mitotic cells of Allium cepa: prevention by inositol pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Jolly; Majumder, Arun Lahiri

    2010-09-01

    Salt-induced growth reduction of plants is a well-known phenomenon which poses major problem in crop productivity in places where vast majority of land plants are affected by salt. In this report, studies were carried out to reveal the effect of salt injury on the cell division pattern in roots and the role of myo-inositol in preventing the salt-induced ion disequilibrium on the chromosome and DNA degradation in roots. Present study revealed induction of various chromosomal abnormalities on the root tip mitotic cells of Allium cepa by treatment with different concentrations of NaCl (0-500 mM) for 24 h as also the amelioration of such effect by prior treatment of the roots with different concentration of myo-inositol (0-300 mM). Results showed that a narrow albeit definite range of extracellular myo-inositol (100-150 mM) is effective in preventing internucleosomal fragmentation which is the early response in roots under salt stress. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing Oryza (OsINO1) as well as Porteresia (PcINO1) cytosolic L: -myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase coding genes can withstand and retain their chromosomal and DNA integrity in 100 mM NaCl solution and can subsequently prevent DNA fragmentation, caused by intracellular endonuclease activity at this salt concentration.

  8. myo-Inositol and Phytate Are Toxic to Formosan Subterranean Termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Veillon, Lucas; Bourgeois, Jared; Leblanc, Amanda; Henderson, Gregg; Marx, Brian D; Muniruzzaman, Syed; Laine, Roger A

    2014-10-01

    Several rare and common monosaccharides were screened for toxic effects on the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, with the aim of identifying environmentally friendly termiticides. myo-Inositol and phytic acid, which are nontoxic to mammals, were identified as potential termite control compounds. Feeding bioassays with termite workers, where both compounds were supplied on filter paper in concentrations from 160.2 to 1,281.7 μg/mm(3), showed concentration-dependent toxicity within 2 wk. Interestingly myo-inositol was nontoxic when administered to termites in agar (40 mg/ml) in the absence of a cellulosic food source, an unexplained phenomenon. In addition, decreased populations of termite hindgut protozoa were observed upon feeding on myo-inositol but not phytate-spiked filter paper. Radiotracer feeding studies using myo-inositol-[2-(3)H] with worker termites showed no metabolism after ingestion over a 2-d feeding period, ruling out metabolites responsible for the selective toxicity.

  9. Characterization of two genes, Impa1 and Impa2 encoding mouse myo-inositol monophosphatases.

    PubMed

    Shamir, A; Sjøholt, G; Ebstein, R P; Agam, G; Steen, V M

    2001-06-27

    The enzyme myo-inositol monophosphatase (Impa) catalyzes the synthesis of free myo-inositol from various myo-inositol monophosphates in the phosphatidylinositol signaling system. Impa is a lithium-blockable enzyme that has been hypothesized to be the biological target for lithium-salts used as mood-stabilizing drugs in the treatment of manic-depressive (bipolar) illness. As an initial step to explore the functional consequences of reduced or absent Impa activity in an animal model we here report the isolation of two Impa-encoding mouse genes, Impa1 and Impa2. Impa1 spans approximately 17.5 kb and contains nine exons of 46--1354 bp encoding a protein of 277 amino acids. Impa2 spans at least 19.5 kb and contains eight exons of 46--444 bp size encoding a protein of 290 amino acids. The genomic structure including the positions of the exon-intron splice sites seems to be conserved among myo-inositol monophosphatase genes in mammalian species. One or more Impa-like genes do also exist in evolutionary more distant species like invertebrates, plants and bacteria. The proteins encoded by the non-vertebrate genes seem to be equally related to Impa1 and Impa2. We therefore suggest that the Impa1 and Impa2 genes duplicated from a common ancestral gene after the evolutionary divergence of vertebrates.

  10. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) inositol monophosphatase: gene structure and enzyme characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The de novo synthesis of myo-inositol (Ins) is catalyzed by two enzymatic activities; Ins(3)P1 synthase (MIPS; EC. 5.5.1.4) and Ins monophosphatase (IMPase; EC 3.1.3.25). The barley IMP-1 gene and gene products were studied to facilitate research into the regulation of Ins synthesis and supply. In m...

  11. Lactic acid and thermal treatments trigger the hydrolysis of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and modify the abundance of lower myo-inositol phosphates in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Deckardt, Kathrin; Schollenberger, Margit; Rodehutscord, Markus; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2014-01-01

    Barley is an important source of dietary minerals, but it also contains myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) that lowers their absorption. This study evaluated the effects of increasing concentrations (0.5, 1, and 5%, vol/vol) of lactic acid (LA), without or with an additional thermal treatment at 55°C (LA-H), on InsP6 hydrolysis, formation of lower phosphorylated myo-inositol phosphates, and changes in chemical composition of barley grain. Increasing LA concentrations and thermal treatment linearly reduced (P<0.001) InsP6-phosphate (InsP6-P) by 0.5 to 1 g compared to the native barley. In particular, treating barley with 5% LA-H was the most efficient treatment to reduce the concentrations of InsP6-P, and stimulate the formation of lower phosphorylated myo-inositol phosphates such as myo-inositol tetraphosphate (InsP4) and myo-inositol pentaphosphates (InsP5). Also, LA and thermal treatment changed the abundance of InsP4 and InsP5 isomers with Ins(1,2,5,6)P4 and Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P5 as the dominating isomers with 5% LA, 1% LA-H and 5% LA-H treatment of barley, resembling to profiles found when microbial 6-phytase is applied. Treating barley with LA at room temperature (22°C) increased the concentration of resistant starch and dietary fiber but lowered those of total starch and crude ash. Interestingly, total phosphorus (P) was only reduced (P<0.05) in barley treated with LA-H but not after processing of barley with LA at room temperature. In conclusion, LA and LA-H treatment may be effective processing techniques to reduce InsP6 in cereals used in animal feeding with the highest degradation of InsP6 at 5% LA-H. Further in vivo studies are warranted to determine the actual intestinal P availability and to assess the impact of changes in nutrient composition of LA treated barley on animal performance.

  12. Baseline activity predicts working memory load of preceding task condition.

    PubMed

    Pyka, Martin; Hahn, Tim; Heider, Dominik; Krug, Axel; Sommer, Jens; Kircher, Tilo; Jansen, Andreas

    2013-11-01

    The conceptual notion of the so-called resting state of the brain has been recently challenged by studies indicating a continuing effect of cognitive processes on subsequent rest. In particular, activity in posterior parietal and medial prefrontal areas has been found to be modulated by preceding experimental conditions. In this study, we investigated which brain areas show working memory dependent patterns in subsequent baseline periods and how specific they are for the preceding experimental condition. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, 94 subjects performed a letter-version of the n-back task with the conditions 0-back and 2-back followed by a low-level baseline in which subjects had to passively observe the letters appearing. In a univariate analysis, 2-back served as control condition while 0-back, baseline after 0-back and baseline after 2-back were modeled as regressors to test for activity changes between both baseline conditions. Additionally, we tested, using Gaussian process classifiers, the recognition of task condition from functional images acquired during baseline. Besides the expected activity changes in the precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex, we found differential activity in the thalamus, putamen, and postcentral gyrus that were affected by the preceding task. The multivariate analysis revealed that images of the subsequent baseline block contain task related patterns that yield a recognition rate of 70%. The results suggest that the influence of a cognitive task on subsequent baseline is strong and specific for some areas but not restricted to areas of the so-called default mode network.

  13. Inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 1 (IP6K1) activity is required for cytoplasmic dynein-driven transport

    PubMed Central

    Chanduri, Manasa; Rai, Ashim; Malla, Aushaq Bashir; Wu, Mingxuan; Fiedler, Dorothea; Mallik, Roop; Bhandari, Rashna

    2016-01-01

    Inositol pyrophosphates, such as diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (IP7), are conserved eukaryotic signaling molecules that possess pyrophosphate and monophosphate moieties. Generated predominantly by inositol hexakisphosphate kinases (IP6Ks), inositol pyrophosphates can modulate protein function by posttranslational serine pyrophosphorylation. Here, we report inositol pyrophosphates as novel regulators of cytoplasmic dynein-driven vesicle transport. Mammalian cells lacking IP6K1 display defects in dynein-dependent trafficking pathways, including endosomal sorting, vesicle movement, and Golgi maintenance. Expression of catalytically active but not inactive IP6K1 reverses these defects, suggesting a role for inositol pyrophosphates in these processes. Endosomes derived from slime mold lacking inositol pyrophosphates also display reduced dynein-directed microtubule transport. We demonstrate that Ser51 in the dynein intermediate chain (IC) is a target for pyrophosphorylation by IP7, and this modification promotes the interaction of the IC N-terminus with the p150Glued subunit of dynactin. IC–p150Glued interaction is decreased, and IC recruitment to membranes is reduced in cells lacking IP6K1. Our study provides the first evidence for the involvement of IP6Ks in dynein function and proposes that inositol pyrophosphate-mediated pyrophosphorylation may act as a regulatory signal to enhance dynein-driven transport. PMID:27474409

  14. GATA4-mediated cardiac hypertrophy induced by D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Zhiming . E-mail: zhuzming@mail.dph-fsi.com; Zhu Shanjun; Liu Daoyan; Yu Zengping; Yang Yongjian; Giet, Markus van der; Tepel, Martin . E-mail: Martin.Tepel@charite.de

    2005-12-16

    We evaluated the effects of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate on cardiac hypertrophy. D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate augmented cardiac hypertrophy as evidenced by its effects on DNA synthesis, protein synthesis, and expression of immediate-early genes c-myc and c-fos, {beta}-myosin heavy chain, and {alpha}-actin. The administration of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate increased the expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells and cardiac-restricted zinc finger transcription factor (GATA4). Real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate-induced GATA4 mRNA was significantly enhanced even in the presence of the calcineurin inhibitor, cyclosporine A. The effect of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate was blocked after inhibition of inositol-trisphosphate receptors but not after inhibition of c-Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK) or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. The study shows that D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate-induced cardiac hypertrophy is mediated by GATA4 but independent from the calcineurin pathway.

  15. Stereospecificity of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate dephosphorylation by a phytate-degrading enzyme of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Greiner, R; Carlsson, N; Alminger, M L

    2001-11-17

    Using a combination of high-performance ion chromatography analysis and kinetic studies, the stereospecificity of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate dephosphorylation by the phytate-degrading enzyme P2 of Escherichia coli was established. High-performance ion chromatography revealed that the phytate-degrading enzyme P2 of E. coli degrades myo-inositol hexakisphosphate by stepwise dephosphorylation via D/L-Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P(5), D/L-Ins(2,3,4,5)P(4), D/L-Ins(2,4,5)P(3) or D/L-Ins(1,2,4)P(3), D/L-Ins(1,2)P(2) or Ins(2, 5)P(2) or D/L-Ins(4,5)P(2) to finally Ins(2)P or Ins(5)P. Kinetic parameters for myo-inositol pentakisphosphate hydrolysis by E. coli and wheat phytase, respectively, showed that the myo-inositol pentakisphosphate intermediate produced either by the phytate-degrading enzyme of wheat or E. coli are not identical. The absolute configuration of the myo-inositol pentakisphosphate isomer produced by the E. coli enzyme was determined by taking into consideration that wheat phytase produces predominantly the D-Ins(1, 2,3,5,6)P(5) isomer (Lim, P.E., Tate, M.E., 1973. The phytases: II. Properties of phytase fraction F(1) and F(2) from wheat bran and the myo-inositol phosphates produced by fraction F(2). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 302, 326-328). The data demonstrate that the phytate-degrading enzyme P2 of E. coli dephosphorylates myo-inositol hexakisphosphate in a stereospecific way by sequential removal of phosphate groups via D-Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P(5), D-Ins(2,3,4,5)P(4), D-Ins(2,4,5)P(3), Ins(2,5)P(2) to finally Ins(2)P (notation 6/1/3/4/5).

  16. Vitiligo disease triggers: psychological stressors preceding the onset of disease.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2015-05-01

    Vitiligo is the loss of skin pigmentation caused by autoimmune destruction of melanocytes. Little is known about the impact of psychological stressors preceding vitiligo onset on symptoms associated with vitiligo and the extent of disease. We performed a questionnaire-based study of 1541 adults with vitiligo to evaluate the impact of psychological stressors in this patient population. Psychological stressors should be considered as potential disease triggers in vitiligo patients, and screening of vitiligo patients for psychological stressors and associated symptoms should be included in routine assessment.

  17. Enzymic synthesis of 1-O-indol-3-ylacetyl-beta-D-glucose and indol-3-ylacetyl-myo-inositol.

    PubMed Central

    Michalczuk, L; Bandurski, R S

    1982-01-01

    An enzyme fraction from extracts of immature kernels of Zea mays catalyses the formation of 1-O-indol-3-ylacetyl-beta-D-glucose from indol-3-ylacetic acid and UDP-glucose. A second enzyme fraction catalyses the formation of indol-3-ylacetyl-myo-inositol from 1-O-indol-3-ylacetyl-beta-D-glucose and myo-inositol. To our knowledge, this is the first example of hydroxy-group acylation by a 1-O-acyl sugar. The following reaction sequence is proposed: Indol-3-ylacetic acid + UDP-glucose leads to indol-3-ylacetylglucose + UDP (1) Indol-3-ylacetylglucose + myo-inositol leads to indol-3-ylacetyl-myo-inositol + glucose (2) The enzyme catalysing reaction (1) is called UDP-glucose:indol-3-ylacetate glucosyl-transferase (indol-3-ylacetylglucose synthase), and that catalysing reaction (2) is indol-3-ylacetylglucose:myo-inositol indol-3-ylacetyltransferase (indol-3-ylacetyl-myo-inositol synthase). We further show that indol-3-ylacetylglucose synthase is specific for UDP-glucose and, at the stage of purity tested, the enzyme will use either indol-3-ylacetic acid or naphthalene-1-acetic acid, but not 2.4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, as glucose acceptor. The indol-3-ylacetyl-myo-inositol synthase is specific for indol-3-ylacetyl-glucose and will not use naphthalene-1-acetylglucose as substrate, and it is specific for myo-inositol among the alcohol acceptors tested. Thus, of the auxins tested, only indol-3-ylacetic acid forms the myo-inositol ester. PMID:6218801

  18. IP3 accumulation and/or inositol depletion: two downstream lithium's effects that may mediate its behavioral and cellular changes

    PubMed Central

    Sade, Y; Toker, L; Kara, N Z; Einat, H; Rapoport, S; Moechars, D; Berry, G T; Bersudsky, Y; Agam, G

    2016-01-01

    Lithium is the prototype mood stabilizer but its mechanism is still unresolved. Two hypotheses dominate—the consequences of lithium's inhibition of inositol monophosphatase at therapeutically relevant concentrations (the ‘inositol depletion' hypothesis), and of glycogen-synthase kinase-3. To further elaborate the inositol depletion hypothesis that did not decisively determine whether inositol depletion per se, or phosphoinositols accumulation induces the beneficial effects, we utilized knockout mice of either of two inositol metabolism-related genes—IMPA1 or SMIT1, both mimic several lithium's behavioral and biochemical effects. We assessed in vivo, under non-agonist-stimulated conditions, 3H-inositol incorporation into brain phosphoinositols and phosphoinositides in wild-type, lithium-treated, IMPA1 and SMIT1 knockout mice. Lithium treatment increased frontal cortex and hippocampal phosphoinositols labeling by several fold, but decreased phosphoinositides labeling in the frontal cortex of the wild-type mice of the IMPA1 colony strain by ~50%. Inositol metabolites were differently affected by IMPA1 and SMIT1 knockout. Inositoltrisphosphate administered intracerebroventricularly affected bipolar-related behaviors and autophagy markers in a lithium-like manner. Namely, IP3 but not IP1 reduced the immobility time of wild-type mice in the forced swim test model of antidepressant action by 30%, an effect that was reversed by an antagonist of all three IP3 receptors; amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion of wild-type mice (distance traveled) was 35% reduced by IP3 administration; IP3 administration increased hippocampal messenger RNA levels of Beclin-1 (required for autophagy execution) and hippocampal and frontal cortex protein levels ratio of Beclin-1/p62 by about threefold (p62 is degraded by autophagy). To conclude, lithium affects the phosphatidylinositol signaling system in two ways: depleting inositol, consequently decreasing phosphoinositides; elevating

  19. Effect of membrane perturbants on the activity and phase distribution of inositol phosphorylceramide synthase; development of a novel assay.

    PubMed

    Aeed, Paul A; Sperry, Andrea E; Young, Casey L; Nagiec, Marek M; Elhammer, Ake P

    2004-07-06

    The effect of 26 different membrane-perturbing agents on the activity and phase distribution of inositol phosphorylceramide synthase (IPC synthase) activity in crude Candida albicans membranes was investigated. The nonionic detergents Triton X-100, Nonidet P-40, Brij, Tween, and octylglucoside all inactivated the enzyme. However, at moderate concentrations, the activity of the Triton X-100- and octylglucoside-solubilized material could be partially restored by inclusion of 5 mM phosphatidylinositol (PI) in the solubilization buffer. The apparent molecular mass of IPC synthase activity solubilized in 2% Triton X-100 was between 1.5 x 10(6) and 20 x 10(6) Da, while under identical conditions, octylglucoside-solubilized activity remained associated with large presumably membrane-like structures. Increased detergent concentrations produced more drastic losses of enzymatic activity. The zwitterionic detergents Empigen BB, N-dodecyl-N,N-(dimethylammonio)butyrate (DDMAB), Zwittergent 3-10, and amidosulfobetaine (ASB)-16 all appeared capable of solubilizing IPC synthase. However, these agents also inactivated the enzyme essentially irreversibly. Solubilization with lysophospholipids again resulted in drastic losses of enzymatic activity that were not restored by the inclusion of PI. Lysophosphatidylinositol also appeared to compete, to some extent, with the donor substrate phosphatidylinositol. The sterol-containing agent digitonin completely inactivated IPC synthase. By contrast, sterol-based detergents such as 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS), 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-2-hydroxy-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPSO), and taurodeoxycholate (tDOC) had little or no effect on the enzyme activity. The IPC synthase activity in C. albicans membranes remained largely intact and sedimentable at CHAPS concentrations (4%) where >90% of the phospholipids and 60% of the total proteins were extracted from the membranes. At 2.5% CHAPS, a

  20. Inositol Depletion Induced by Acute Treatment of the Bipolar Disorder Drug Valproate Increases Levels of Phytosphingosine.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Shyamalagauri; Russo, Sarah; Cowart, L Ashley; Greenberg, Miriam L

    2017-03-24

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric illness affecting ∼1% of the world population. Valproate (VPA) and lithium, widely used for the treatment of BD, are not universally effective. These drugs have been shown to cause inositol depletion, but translating this observation to a specific therapeutic mechanism has been difficult, hampering the development of more effective therapies. We have shown previously in yeast that chronic VPA treatment induces the unfolded protein response due to increasing ceramide levels. To gain insight into the mechanisms activated during acute VPA treatment, we performed a genome-wide expression study in yeast treated with VPA for 30 min. We observed increased mRNA and protein levels of RSB1, which encodes an exporter of long chain bases dihydrosphingosine (DHS) and phytosphingosine (PHS), and further saw that VPA increased sensitivity of an rsb1Δ mutant to PHS, suggesting that VPA increases long chain base levels. Consistent with this, PHS levels were elevated in wild type and, to a greater extent, in rsb1Δ cells. Expression of ORM genes (negative regulators of PHS synthesis) and of fatty acid elongase genes FEN1 and SUR4 were decreased, and expression of YOR1 (exporter of PHS-1P) and DPL1 (lyase that degrades DHS-1P and PHS-1P) was increased. These effects were more pronounced in medium lacking inositol, and were mirrored by inositol starvation of an ino1Δ mutant. These findings provide a metabolic explanation as to how VPA-mediated inositol depletion causes increased synthesis of PHS and further support the therapeutic relevance of inositol depletion as a bipolar disorder treatment.

  1. PTH (parathyroid hormone) elevates inositol polyphosphates and diacylglycerol in a rat osteoblast-like cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Civitelli, R.; Reid, I.R.; Westbrook, S.; Avioli, L.V.; Hruska, K.A. )

    1988-11-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH)-stimulated signal transduction through mechanisms alternate to adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) production were studied in UMR 106-01 cells, a cell line with an osteoblastic phenotype. PTH produced transient, dose-related increases in cytosolic calcium ((Ca{sup 2+}){sub i}), inositol trisphosphates, and diacylglycerol (DAG). Both inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins-1,4,5P{sub 3}) and inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate (Ins-1,3,4P{sub 3}) production were rapidly stimulated by PTH. Consistent with the production of Ins-1,3,4P{sub 3}, rapid stimulation of late eluting inositol tetrakisphosphate was observed. The effects on the inositol phosphates were induced rapidly, consistent with roles as signals for changes in (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i}. In saponin-permeabilized UMR 106-01 cells, Ins-1,4,5P{sub 3} stimulated {sup 45}Ca release from a nonmitochondrial intracellular pool. Thus the hypothesis that PTH-stimulated Ins-1,4,5P{sub 3} production initiates Ca{sup 2+} release and contributes to transient elevations of (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} is supported. These data suggest that stimulation of cAMP production during PTH stimulation may negatively affect production of rises in (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} during PTH stimulation. The inactivation of the inhibitory G protein of adenylate cyclase by pertussis toxin could explain its action similar to cAMP analogues. Cyclci nucleotides diminish the effects of PTH on (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i}, probably interacting on a biochemical step subsequent to or independent of Ins-1,4,5P{sub 3} release.

  2. Interaction of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase monomer with phospholipid vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Webster, K A; Patel, H V; Freeman, K B; Papahadjopoulos, D

    1979-01-01

    The association between bovine and porcine mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) and phospholipid vesicles was investigated. At concentrations at which malate dehydrogenase exists as a dimer, entrapment within the aqueous compartment but not binding of the 14C-labelled enzyme was observed. The dissociated enzyme was labile to moderate heat and to p-chloromercuribenzoate, but in both cases inactivation was decreased by incubation with suspensions of charged phospholipid vesicles. This suggested an interaction between enzyme subunits and phospholipid, and this was confirmed by direct binding measurements and by studies that followed changes in the fluorescein-labelled enzyme. The circular-dichroism spectra of the enzyme indicated a high alpha-helix content, and suggested that a small conformational change occurred when the enzyme dissociated. Fluorescence data also suggested less-rigid molecules after dissociation. A possible mechanism, based on the flexibility of enzyme monomer and its interaction with phospholipids, by which mitochondrial matrix enzymes are specifically localized in cells, is discussed. PMID:435273

  3. Hexamodal imaging with porphyrin-phospholipid-coated upconversion nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rieffel, James; Chen, Feng; Kim, Jeesu; Chen, Guanying; Shao, Wei; Shao, Shuai; Chitgupi, Upendra; Hernandez, Reinier; Graves, Stephen A; Nickles, Robert J; Prasad, Paras N; Kim, Chulhong; Cai, Weibo; Lovell, Jonathan F

    2015-03-11

    Hexamodal imaging using simple nanoparticles is demonstrated. Porphyrin-phospholipids are used to coat upconversion nanoparticles in order to generate a new biocompatible material. The nanoparticles are characterized in vitro and in vivo for imaging via fluorescence, upconversion, positron emission tomography, computed tomography, Cerenkov luminescence, and photoacoustic tomography.

  4. 21 CFR 862.1575 - Phospholipid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phospholipid test system. 862.1575 Section 862.1575 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... treatment of disorders involving lipid (fat) metabolism. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

  5. Comparative Phospholipid Profiles of Control and Glaucomatous Human Trabecular Meshwork

    PubMed Central

    Aribindi, Katyayini; Guerra, Yenifer; Lee, Richard K.; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We compared phospholipid (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylinositol) profiles of control and glaucomatous trabecular meshwork (TM) derived from human donors. Methods. Control TM and most primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) TM were collected from cadaver donors. A select subset of POAG surgical TM samples also were collected for analyses. Lipid extraction was performed using a modification of the Bligh and Dyer method, protein concentrations were determined using the Bradford method, and for select samples confirmed with densitometry of PHAST gels. Lipids were identified and subjected to ratiometric quantification using a TSQ quantum Access Max triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with precursor ion scan (PIS) or neutral ion loss scan (NLS), using appropriate class specific lipid standards. Results. The comparative profiles of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, phosphoethanolamine, and phosphatidylinositol between control and glaucomatous TM showed several species common between them. A number of unique lipids in all four phospholipid classes also were identified in control TM that were absent in glaucoma TM and vice versa. Conclusions. A number of phospholipids were found to be uniquely present in control but absent in glaucomatous TM and vice versa. Compared to a previous study of control and POAG blood, a number of these phospholipids are absent locally (TM), as well as systemically (in blood). PMID:23557733

  6. Four Acyltransferases Uniquely Contribute to Phospholipid Heterogeneity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Oelkers, Peter; Pokhrel, Keshav

    2016-01-01

    Diverse acyl-CoA species and acyltransferase isoenzymes are components of a complex system that synthesizes glycerophospholipids and triacylglycerols. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has four main acyl-CoA species, two main glycerol-3-phosphate 1-O-acyltransferases (Gat1p, Gat2p), and two main 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferases (Lpt1p, Slc1p). The in vivo contribution of these isoenzymes to phospholipid heterogeneity was determined using haploids with compound mutations: gat1Δlpt1Δ, gat2Δlpt1Δ, gat1Δslc1Δ, and gat2Δslc1Δ. All mutations mildly reduced [3H]palmitic acid incorporation into phospholipids relative to triacylglycerol. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry identified few differences from wild type in gat1Δlpt1Δ, dramatic differences in gat2Δslc1Δ, and intermediate changes in gat2Δlpt1Δ and gat1Δslc1Δ. Yeast expressing Gat1p and Lpt1p had phospholipids enriched with acyl chains that were unsaturated, 18 carbons long, and paired for length. These alterations prevented growth at 18.5°C and in 10% ethanol. Therefore, Gat2p and Slc1p dictate phospholipid acyl chain composition in rich media at 30°C. Slc1p selectively pairs acyl chains of different lengths. PMID:27920551

  7. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe cho1+ gene encodes a phospholipid methyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Kanipes, M I; Hill, J E; Henry, S A

    1998-01-01

    The isolation of mutants of Schizosaccharomyces pombe defective in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine via the methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine is reported. These mutants are choline auxotrophs and fall into two unlinked complementation groups, cho1 and cho2. We also report the analysis of the cho1+ gene, the first structural gene encoding a phospholipid biosynthetic enzyme from S. pombe to be cloned and characterized. The cho1+ gene disruption mutant (cho1Delta) is viable if choline is supplied and resembles the cho1 mutants isolated after mutagenesis. Sequence analysis of the cho1+ gene indicates that it encodes a protein closely related to phospholipid methyltransferases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and rat. Phospholipid methyltransferases encoded by a rat liver cDNA and the S. cerevisiae OPI3 gene are both able to complement the choline auxotrophy of the S. pombe cho1 mutants. These results suggest that both the structure and function of the phospholipid N-methyltransferases are broadly conserved among eukaryotic organisms. PMID:9755189

  8. PHOSPHOLIPIDS OF FIVE PSEUDOMONAD ARCHETYPES FOR DIFFERENT TOLUENE DEGRADATION PATHWAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS) was used to determine phospholipid profiles for five reference pseudomonad strains harboring distinct toluene catabolic pathways: Pseudomonas putida mt-2, Pseudomonas putida F1, Burkholderia cepacia G4, B...

  9. Characterization of associated proteins and phospholipids in natural rubber latex.

    PubMed

    Sansatsadeekul, Jitlada; Sakdapipanich, Jitladda; Rojruthai, Porntip

    2011-06-01

    Non-rubber components present in natural rubber (NR) latex, such as proteins and phospholipids, are presumed to be distributed in the serum fraction as well as surrounding the rubber particle surface. The phospholipid-protein layers covering the rubber particle surface are especially interesting due to their ability to enhance the colloidal stability of NR latex. In this study, we have characterized the components surrounding the NR particle surface and investigated their role in the colloidal stability of NR particles. Proteins from the cream fraction were proteolytically removed from the NR latex and compare to those from the serum fractions using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealing that both fractions contained similar proteins in certain molecular weights such as 14.5, 25 and 27 kDa. Phospholipids removed from latex by treatment with NaOH were analyzed using (1)H-NMR spectroscopy and several major signals were assignable to -(CH(2))(n)-, -CH(2)OP, -CH(2)OC═O and -OCH(2)CH(2)NH-. These signals are important evidence that indicates phospholipids associate with the rubber chain. The colloidal behavior of rubber lattices before and after removal of protein-lipid membrane was evaluated by zeta potential analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The lowest zeta potential value of NR particles was observed at pH 10, consequently leading to the highest stability of rubber particles. Additionally, SEM micrographs clearly displayed a gray ring near the particle surface corresponding to the protein-lipid membrane layer.

  10. Soft contact lens biomaterials from bioinspired phospholipid polymers.

    PubMed

    Goda, Tatsuro; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2006-03-01

    Soft contact lens (SCL) biomaterials originated from the discovery of a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (poly[HEMA])-based hydrogel in 1960. Incorporation of hydrophilic polymers into poly(HEMA) hydrogels was performed in the 1970-1980s, which brought an increase in the equilibrium water content, leading to an enhancement of the oxygen permeability. Nowadays, the poly(HEMA)-based hydrogels have been applied in disposable SCL. At the same time, high oxygen-permeable silicone hydrogels were produced, which made it possible to continually wear SCL. Recently, numerous trials for improving the water wettability of silicone hydrogels have been performed. However, little attention has been paid to improving their anti-biofouling properties and biocompatibility. Since biomimetic phospholipid polymers possess excellent anti-biofouling properties and biocompatibility they have the potential to play a valuable role in the surface modification of the silicone hydrogel. The representative phospholipid polymers containing a 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) unit suppressed nonspecific protein adsorption, increased cell compatibility and contributed to blood compatible biomaterials. The MPC polymer coating on the silicone hydrogel improved its water wettability and biocompatibility, while maintaining high oxygen permeability compared with the original silicone hydrogel. Furthermore, the newly prepared phospholipid-type intermolecular crosslinker made it possible to synthesize a 100% phospholipid polymer hydrogel that can enhance the anti-biofouling properties and biocompatibility. In this review, the authors discuss how polymer hydrogels should be designed in order to obtain a biocompatible SCL and future perspectives.

  11. Synthesis of myo-inositol 1,2,3-tris- and 1,2,3,5-tetrakis(dihydrogen phosphate)s as a tool for the inhibition of iron-gall-ink corrosion.

    PubMed

    Sala, Martin; Kolar, Jana; Strlic, Matija; Kocevar, Marijan

    2006-05-22

    Two myo-inositol phosphates, myo-inositol 1,2,3-tris(dihydrogen phosphate) and myo-inositol 1,2,3,5-tetrakis(dihydrogen phosphate), have been synthesised in several steps from myo-inositol (in Chem. Abstr.: d-myo-inositol) in the form of their sodium salts. They were shown to prevent iron-gall-ink decay in cellulose items at the same level as phytic acid dodecasodium salt.

  12. Arterial stiffening precedes systolic hypertension in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Weisbrod, Robert M; Shiang, Tina; Al Sayah, Leona; Fry, Jessica L; Bajpai, Saumendra; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A; Lob, Heinrich E; Santhanam, Lakshmi; Mitchell, Gary; Cohen, Richard A; Seta, Francesca

    2013-12-01

    Stiffening of conduit arteries is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity. Aortic wall stiffening increases pulsatile hemodynamic forces that are detrimental to the microcirculation in highly perfused organs, such as the heart, brain, and kidney. Arterial stiffness is associated with hypertension but presumed to be due to an adaptive response to increased hemodynamic load. In contrast, a recent clinical study found that stiffness precedes and may contribute to the development of hypertension although the mechanisms underlying hypertension are unknown. Here, we report that in a diet-induced model of obesity, arterial stiffness, measured in vivo, develops within 1 month of the initiation of the diet and precedes the development of hypertension by 5 months. Diet-induced obese mice recapitulate the metabolic syndrome and are characterized by inflammation in visceral fat and aorta. Normalization of the metabolic state by weight loss resulted in return of arterial stiffness and blood pressure to normal. Our findings support the hypothesis that arterial stiffness is a cause rather than a consequence of hypertension.

  13. Human behavior preceding dog bites to the face.

    PubMed

    Rezac, P; Rezac, K; Slama, P

    2015-12-01

    Facial injuries caused by dog bites pose a serious problem. The aims of this study were to determine human behavior immediately preceding a dog bite to the face and to assess the effects of victim age and gender and dog sex and size on the location of the bite to the face and the need for medical treatment. Complete data on 132 incidents of bites to the face were analysed. A human bending over a dog, putting the face close to the dog's face, and gazing between victim and dog closely preceded a dog bite to the face in 76%, 19% and 5% of cases, respectively. More than half of the bites were directed towards the central area of the victim's face (nose, lips). More than two thirds of the victims were children, none of the victims was an adult dog owner and only adult dogs bit the face. Victim's age and gender and dog's sex and size did not affect the location of the bite on the face. People who were bitten by large dogs sought medical treatment more often than people who were bitten by small dogs (P <0.01). Risk factors such as bending over the dog, putting the face close to the dog's face and gazing between human and dog should be avoided, and children should be carefully and constantly supervised when in the presence of dogs.

  14. Hydroclimatic conditions preceding the March 2014 Oso landslide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henn, Brian; Cao, Qian; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Mass, Clifford; Bower, J. Brent; St. Laurent, Michael; Mao, Yixin; Perica, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    The 22 March 2014 Oso landslide was one of the deadliest in U.S. history, resulting in 43 fatalities and the destruction of more than 40 structures. We examine synoptic conditions, precipitation records and soil moisture reconstructions in the days, months, and years preceding the landslide. Atmospheric reanalysis shows a period of enhanced moisture transport to the Pacific Northwest beginning on 11 February 2014. The 21- to 42-day periods prior to the landslide had anomalously high precipitation; we estimate that 300-400 mm of precipitation fell at Oso in the 21 days prior to the landslide. Relative only to historical periods ending on 22 March, the return periods of these precipitation accumulations are large (25-88 years). However, relative to the largest accumulations from any time of the year (annual maxima), return periods are more modest (2-6 years). In addition to the 21-42 days prior to the landslide, there is a secondary maximum in the precipitation return periods for the 4 years preceding the landslide. Reconstructed soil moisture was anomalously high prior to the landslide, with a return period that exceeded 40 years about a week before the event.

  15. Cellular contraction precedes membrane depolarization in Vorticella convallaria

    PubMed

    Shiono; Naitoh

    1997-01-01

    Application of a mechanical stimulus to the cell body of the peritrich ciliate Vorticella convallaria evoked an all-or-nothing membrane depolarization, the large pulse. This was always accompanied by an all-or-nothing cellular contraction, and simultaneous recordings of the two events revealed that the large pulse was always preceded by the cellular contraction. A smaller graded membrane depolarization (the medium pulse) was sometimes produced in response to a weaker mechanical stimulus. The medium pulse was accompanied by a small, graded, localized contraction of the cell body and was occasionally followed by a large pulse. When a large pulse occurred during a medium pulse, it reached the same peak level as that of a large pulse evoked without a preceding medium pulse. When a medium pulse occurred during a medium pulse, summation of the two pulses was observed. Sustained contraction causes V. convallaria to become rounded, and in this state a mechanical stimulus stronger than that used to evoke the large pulse evoked a graded depolarizing mechanoreceptor potential in the cell. We conclude that both the large and medium pulses are caused by an inward receptor current that is activated mechanically following contraction of the cell body. A localized contraction evokes a small mechanoreceptor current, causing a medium pulse. An all-or-nothing contraction evokes a saturated, all-or-nothing mechanoreceptor current, causing a large pulse.

  16. Continental warming preceding the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum.

    PubMed

    Secord, Ross; Gingerich, Philip D; Lohmann, Kyger C; Macleod, Kenneth G

    2010-10-21

    Marine and continental records show an abrupt negative shift in carbon isotope values at ∼55.8 Myr ago. This carbon isotope excursion (CIE) is consistent with the release of a massive amount of isotopically light carbon into the atmosphere and was associated with a dramatic rise in global temperatures termed the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM). Greenhouse gases released during the CIE, probably including methane, have often been considered the main cause of PETM warming. However, some evidence from the marine record suggests that warming directly preceded the CIE, raising the possibility that the CIE and PETM may have been linked to earlier warming with different origins. Yet pre-CIE warming is still uncertain. Disentangling the sequence of events before and during the CIE and PETM is important for understanding the causes of, and Earth system responses to, abrupt climate change. Here we show that continental warming of about 5 °C preceded the CIE in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. Our evidence, based on oxygen isotopes in mammal teeth (which reflect temperature-sensitive fractionation processes) and other proxies, reveals a marked temperature increase directly below the CIE, and again in the CIE. Pre-CIE warming is also supported by a negative amplification of δ(13)C values in soil carbonates below the CIE. Our results suggest that at least two sources of warming-the earlier of which is unlikely to have been methane-contributed to the PETM.

  17. Preceding Inhibition Silences Layer 6 Neurons in Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi; Liu, Bao-hua; Wu, Guangying K.; Kim, Young; Xiao, Zhongju; Tao, Huizhong W.; Zhang, Li I.

    2010-01-01

    Summary A canonical feedforward circuit is proposed to underlie sensory cortical responses with balanced excitation and inhibition in layer 4 (L4). However, in another input layer, L6, sensory responses and the underlying synaptic circuits remain largely unclear. Here, cell-attached recordings in rat primary auditory cortex revealed that for the majority of L6 excitatory neurons, tonal stimuli did not drive spike responses, but suppressed spontaneous firings. Whole-cell recordings further revealed that the silencing resulted from tone-evoked strong inhibition arriving earlier than excitation. This pattern of inputs can be attributed to a parallel feedforward circuit with both excitatory and inhibitory inputs disynaptically relayed. In contrast, in the other neurons directly driven by thalamic input, stimuli evoked excitation preceding relatively weak inhibition, resulting in robust spike responses. Thus, the dichotomy of L6 response properties arises from two distinct patterns of excitatory-inhibitory interplay. The parallel circuit module generating preceding inhibition may provide a gating mechanism for conditional corticothalamic feedback. PMID:20223205

  18. Perturbation of old knowledge precedes integration of new knowledge.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiaoping; Perfetti, Charles A

    2017-03-14

    The importance of memory consolidation in integrating new knowledge has received much recent attention in the field of word learning. Less examined is the change in existing word knowledge as a result of learning, which we hypothesize to occur prior to the opportunity for consolidation. To test this, we had participants learn new meanings for known words and novel words. Then they performed a one-back task on a list of words that included the trained words followed by words that probed either their new or original meanings while EEGs were recorded. A probe word related to the new meaning of the preceding trained word did not show an N400 reduction compared to an unrelated word, suggesting that the new meaning had not been fully integrated, consistent with one account of complementary learning systems. However, when the probe word was related to the original meaning of the preceding trained word a perturbation effect was observed, indicated by a larger negativity at the central midline cluster (Cz) within 500-700 ms when the trained word had a new meaning than when presented as an exposure control. The perturbation effect suggests that even before a new meaning has become integrated with a word form, the attempt to learn a new meaning temporarily makes the original meaning of a word less accessible.

  19. Resonance energy transfer imaging of phospholipid vesicle interaction with a planar phospholipid membrane: undulations and attachment sites in the region of calcium-mediated membrane--membrane adhesion

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Membrane fusion of a phospholipid vesicle with a planar lipid bilayer is preceded by an initial prefusion stage in which a region of the vesicle membrane adheres to the planar membrane. A resonance energy transfer (RET) imaging microscope, with measured spectral transfer functions and a pair of radiometrically calibrated video cameras, was used to determine both the area of the contact region and the distances between the membranes within this zone. Large vesicles (5-20 microns diam) were labeled with the donor fluorophore coumarin- phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), while the planar membrane was labeled with the acceptor rhodamine-PE. The donor was excited with 390 nm light, and separate images of donor and acceptor emission were formed by the microscope. Distances between the membranes at each location in the image were determined from the RET rate constant (kt) computed from the acceptor:donor emission intensity ratio. In the absence of an osmotic gradient, the vesicles stably adhered to the planar membrane, and the dyes did not migrate between membranes. The region of contact was detected as an area of planar membrane, coincident with the vesicle image, over which rhodamine fluorescence was sensitized by RET. The total area of the contact region depended biphasically on the Ca2+ concentration, but the distance between the bilayers in this zone decreased with increasing [Ca2+]. The changes in area and separation were probably related to divalent cation effects on electrostatic screening and binding to charged membranes. At each [Ca2+], the intermembrane separation varied between 1 and 6 nm within each contact region, indicating membrane undulation prior to adhesion. Intermembrane separation distances < or = 2 nm were localized to discrete sites that formed in an ordered arrangement throughout the contact region. The area of the contact region occupied by these punctate attachment sites was increased at high [Ca2+]. Membrane fusion may be initiated at these sites of

  20. Calcium-phospholipid enhanced protein phosphorylation in human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.J.; Moore, R.; Cardaman, R.C.

    1986-07-01

    Calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein phosphorylation has not been studied in placenta. Human placental cytosol was subjected to an endogenous protein phosphorylation assay using (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP in the presence of calcium and phosphatidylserine. Protein phosphorylation was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. When compared to basal levels, calcium (10/sup -6/ M) in combination with phosphatidylserine (50 ..mu..g/ml) significantly enhanced (P < 100) /sup 32/P incorporation into phosphoproteins having mol wt 47,000, 43,000, and 37,000. Half-maximal /sup 22/P incorporation was observed with 3.5 x 10/sup -7/ M Ca/sup 2 +/ in the presence of phosphatidylserine (50 ..mu..g/ml). The effect of phosphatidylserine was biphasic. In the presence of Ca 10/sup -6/ M, /sup 32/P incorporation increased to a maximum at 70 /sup +/g/ml of phosphatidylserine. The increase was suppressed at 150 ..mu..g/ml. Tetracaine caused a dose-dependent inhibition of calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent enhancement of the three phosphoproteins. Calcium in the absence of phospholipid enhanced the phosphorylation of a protein of 98,000 mol wt. Phosphatidylserine suppressed this enhancement. Calmodulin (10/sup -6/ M) had no detectable effect upon phosphorylation beyond that of calcium alone, but the calmodulin inhibitor R-24571 specifically inhibited the calcium-stimulated 98,000 mol wt phosphoprotein. Calcium-activated, phospholipid-dependent phospholipid-dependent phosphoproteins are present in human placental cytosol; whether calcium-activated, calmodulin-dependent phosphoproteins also are present remains a question.

  1. Sponge mesoporous silica formation using disordered phospholipid bilayers as template.

    PubMed

    Galarneau, Anne; Sartori, Federica; Cangiotti, Michela; Mineva, Tzonka; Di Renzo, Francesco; Ottaviani, M Francesca

    2010-02-18

    Lecithin/dodecylamine/lactose mixtures in ethanol/aqueous media led to the formation of sponge mesoporous silica (SMS) materials by means of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as silica source. SMS materials show a "sponge-mesoporous" porosity with a pore diameter of about 5-6 nm, in accordance to the length of a lecithin bilayer. SMS synthesis was developed to create a new class of powerful biocatalysts able to efficiently encapsulate enzymes by adding a porosity control to the classical sol-gel synthesis and by using phospholipids and lactose as protecting agents for the enzymes. In the present study, the formation of SMS was investigated by using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) probes inserted inside phospholipid bilayers. The influence of progressive addition of each component (ethanol, dodecylamine, lactose, TEOS) on phospholipid bilayers was first examined; then, the time evolution of EPR spectra during SMS synthesis was studied. Parameters informative of mobility, structure, order, and polarity around the probes were extracted by computer analysis of the EPR line shape. The results were discussed on the basis of solids characterization by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen isotherm, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The results, together with the well-known ability of ethanol to promote membrane hemifusion, suggested that the templating structure is a bicontinuous phospholipid bilayer phase, shaped as a gyroid, resulting of multiple membrane hemifusions induced by the high alcohol content used in SMS synthesis. SMS synthesis was compared to hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) synthesis accomplished by adding TEOS to a dodecylamine/EtOH/water mixture. EPR evidenced the difference between HMS and SMS synthesis; the latter uses an already organized but slowly growing mesophase of phospholipids, never observed before, whereas the former shows a progressive elongation of micelles into wormlike structures. SMS-type materials represent a new

  2. Quantification of fatty acids as methyl esters and phospholipids in cheese samples after separation of triacylglycerides and phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Hauff, Simone; Vetter, Walter

    2009-03-23

    Determination of the individual fatty acid composition of neutral- and phospholipids as well as the phospholipid content of dairy food and other foodstuffs are important tasks in life sciences. For these purposes, a method was developed for the separation of lipids (standards of triolein and diacylphosphatidylcholines as well as three cheese samples) by solid-phase extraction using a self-packed column filled with partly deactivated silica. Non-halogenated solvents were used for the elution of the lipid classes. Cyclohexane/ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v) served for the elution of neutral lipids, while polar lipids were eluted with three solvents (ethyl acetate/methanol, methanol, and methanol/water) into one fraction. The separated lipid fractions were transesterified and the individual fatty acids were quantified by using gas chromatography coupled to electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The recovery rate for standard phosphatidylcholines was approximately 90% and cross-contamination from neutral lipids was negligible. The method was applied to cheese samples. Quantitative amounts of individual fatty acids in the phospholipid fraction were <0.002-0.29% of total lipids from camembert, <0.002-0.12% of total lipids from mozzarella, and <0.002-0.18% of total lipids in a goat cream cheese. Differences in the fatty acid pattern of neutral and polar lipids were detected. The quantity of the fatty acids determined in the phospholipid fraction was divided by the factor 0.7 in order to convert the fatty acid content into the phospholipid content of the cheese samples. This factor is based on the contribution of 16:0 to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). The resulting DPPC equivalents (DPPC(eq)) were found to be representative for the average contribution of fatty acids to all classes of phospholipids in dairy products. Using this approach, the phospholipid content of lipids from mozzarella, camembert, and goat cream

  3. 26 CFR 25.2504-2 - Determination of gifts for preceding calendar periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Determination of gifts for preceding calendar... § 25.2504-2 Determination of gifts for preceding calendar periods. (a) Gifts made before August 6, 1997... a preceding calendar period, as defined in § 25.2502-1(c)(2), the gift was made prior to August...

  4. 26 CFR 25.2504-2 - Determination of gifts for preceding calendar periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of gifts for preceding calendar... § 25.2504-2 Determination of gifts for preceding calendar periods. (a) Gifts made before August 6, 1997... a preceding calendar period, as defined in § 25.2502-1(c)(2), the gift was made prior to August...

  5. 26 CFR 25.2504-2 - Determination of gifts for preceding calendar periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of gifts for preceding calendar... § 25.2504-2 Determination of gifts for preceding calendar periods. (a) Gifts made before August 6, 1997... a preceding calendar period, as defined in § 25.2502-1(c)(2), the gift was made prior to August...

  6. 26 CFR 25.2504-2 - Determination of gifts for preceding calendar periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Determination of gifts for preceding calendar... § 25.2504-2 Determination of gifts for preceding calendar periods. (a) Gifts made before August 6, 1997... a preceding calendar period, as defined in § 25.2502-1(c)(2), the gift was made prior to August...

  7. 26 CFR 25.2504-2 - Determination of gifts for preceding calendar periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of gifts for preceding calendar... § 25.2504-2 Determination of gifts for preceding calendar periods. (a) Gifts made before August 6, 1997... a preceding calendar period, as defined in § 25.2502-1(c)(2), the gift was made prior to August...

  8. 17 CFR 240.11a1-1(T) - Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., parity, and precedence. 240.11a1-1(T) Section 240.11a1-1(T) Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... (rule 11a-1) § 240.11a1-1(T) Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence. (a) A transaction... priority, parity, and precedence in execution to orders for the account of persons who are not members...

  9. 17 CFR 240.11a1-1(T) - Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., parity, and precedence. 240.11a1-1(T) Section 240.11a1-1(T) Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... (rule 11a-1) § 240.11a1-1(T) Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence. (a) A transaction... priority, parity, and precedence in execution to orders for the account of persons who are not members...

  10. 17 CFR 240.11a1-1(T) - Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., parity, and precedence. 240.11a1-1(T) Section 240.11a1-1(T) Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... (rule 11a-1) § 240.11a1-1(T) Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence. (a) A transaction... priority, parity, and precedence in execution to orders for the account of persons who are not members...

  11. 17 CFR 240.11a1-1(T) - Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., parity, and precedence. 240.11a1-1(T) Section 240.11a1-1(T) Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... (rule 11a-1) § 240.11a1-1(T) Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence. (a) A transaction... priority, parity, and precedence in execution to orders for the account of persons who are not members...

  12. 17 CFR 240.11a1-1(T) - Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., parity, and precedence. 240.11a1-1(T) Section 240.11a1-1(T) Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... (rule 11a-1) § 240.11a1-1(T) Transactions yielding priority, parity, and precedence. (a) A transaction... priority, parity, and precedence in execution to orders for the account of persons who are not members...

  13. Revisiting Precede-Proceed: A Leading Model for Ecological and Ethical Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Precede-Proceed model has provided moral and practical guidance for the fields of health education and health promotion since Lawrence Green first developed Precede in 1974 and Green and Kreuter added Proceed in 1991. Precede-Proceed today remains the most comprehensive and one of the most used approaches to promoting health.…

  14. Changes in autonomic activity preceding onset of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osaka, M.; Saitoh, H.; Sasabe, N.; Atarashi, H.; Katoh, T.; Hayakawa, H.; Cohen, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    Background: The triggering role of the autonomic nervous system in the initiation of ventricular tachycardia has not been established. To investigate the relationship between changes in autonomic activity and the occurrence of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) we examined heart rate variability (HRV) during the 2-hour period preceding spontaneous episodes of NSVT. Twenty-four subjects were identified retrospectively as having had one episode of NSVT during 24-hour Holter ECC recording. Methods: We measured the mean interval between normal heats (meanRR), the standard deviation of the intervals between beats (SD), the percentage of counts of sequential intervals between normal beats with a change of >50 ms (%RR50), the logarithms of low- and high-frequency spectral components (lnLF, lnHF) of HRV for sequential 10-minute segments preceding NSVT. The correlation dimension (CDim) of HRV was calculated similarly for sequential 20-minute segments. We assessed the significance of the time-course change of each marker over the 120-minute period prior to NSVT onset. Results: MeanRR (P < 0.05), lnLF (P < 0.0001), lnHF (P < 0.0001), the natural logarithm of the ratio of LF to HF (ln[LF/HF]; P < 0.05), and CDim (P < 0.05) showed significant time-course changes during that period, while SD and %RR50 did not. MeanRR, lnLF, lnHF, and CDim all decreased prior to the onset of NSVT, whereas ln(LF/HF) increased. We divided the subjects into two groups: one consisting of 12 patients with coronary artery disease; and the second group of 12 patients without known coronary artery disease. Both groups showed significant changes (P < 0.05) of CDim, lnLF, and lnHF preceding the episodes of NSVT. Conclusions: Changes in the pattern of HRV prior to the onset of episodes of NSVT suggest that changes in autonomic activity may commonly play a role in the triggering of spontaneous episodes of NSVT in susceptible patients. The measured changes suggest a reduction in parasympathetic

  15. Clinical characteristics and laboratory findings of 252 Chinese patients with anti-phospholipid syndrome: comparison with Euro-Phospholipid cohort.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hui; Teng, Jia-Lin; Sun, Yue; Wu, Xin-Yao; Hu, Qiong-Yi; Liu, Hong-Lei; Cheng, Xiao-Bing; Yin, Yu-Feng; Ye, Jun-Na; Chen, Pojen P; Yang, Cheng-de

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to characterize the Chinese Han patients with anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) and compare the data with those of the Euro-Phospholipid cohort. We conducted a single center study consisting of 252 patients with definite APS from 2000 to 2015. We analyzed the clinical and laboratory characteristics of our cohort and compared the data with those of the Euro-Phospholipid cohort. Our cohort consisted of 216 females and 36 males, with a mean age at entry into this study of 41 years (range 11-74 years). Of these patients, 69 (27.4%) patients had primary APS, and 183 (72.6%) had secondary APS (SAPS), including 163 (64.7%) patients had systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Thrombotic events occurred in 190 (75.4%) patients, and the most common ones were deep vein thrombosis (40.1%) and stroke (23.8%), which were similar to the reports of the Euro-Phospholipid cohort. In contrast, our cohort had less pulmonary embolism (6.7%). Among 93 females with 299 pregnancy episodes, the rates of early (<10 weeks) and late fetal loss (≥10 weeks) were, respectively, 37.8% and 24.4%. The latter was significantly higher than that of the Euro-Phospholipid cohort. Moreover, 7 APS nephropathy patients (characterized histopathologically by thrombotic microangiopathy) and 8 catastrophic APS patients were found in our cohort. Anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCL) were detected in 169 (67.1%) patients, lupus anti-coagulant (LA) was detected in 83 (32.9%), and anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies (anti-β2GPI) in 148 (58.7%) patients. These results show that some clinical manifestations of APS may vary among different racial groups.

  16. The physics of charge separation preceding lightning strokes in thunderclouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyrala, Ali

    1987-01-01

    The physics of charge separation preceding lightning strokes in thunderclouds is presented by three types of arguments: An explanation is given for the aggregation of electrical charges of like sign overcoming Coulomb repulsion by attraction due to exchange interaction. The latter is well known in quantum mechanics from the theories of the nuclear bond and the covalent bond. A classical electrostatic model of charge balls of segregated positive and negative charges in the thundercloud is presented. These charge balls can only be maintained in temporarily stable locations by a containing vortex. Because they will be of different sizes and masses, they will stabilize at different altitudes when drag forces are included with the given electrostatic force. The question of how the charges become concentrated again after lightning discharges is approached by means of the collisional Boltzmann transport equation to explain quasi-periodic recharging. It is shown that solutions cannot be separable in both position and time if they are to represent aggregation.

  17. Tumor diagnosis preceding Parkinson's disease: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    D'Amelio, Marco; Ragonese, Paolo; Morgante, Letterio; Epifanio, Antonio; Callari, Graziella; Salemi, Giuseppe; Savettieri, Giovanni

    2004-07-01

    Lower cancer risk in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients compared to the general population has been reported. However, most of the studies were based on death certificates. We designed a case-control study to estimate the association of tumor preceding PD onset and PD. PD patients were matched by age and gender to PD-free individuals, randomly selected from the municipalities of residence of cases. Occurrence of tumors preceding PD onset was assessed through a structured questionnaire. Neoplasms were categorized as benign, malignant, or of uncertain classification, and endocrine-related or not. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated using conditional logistic regression and adjusted for tumor categories and risk factors. We included 222 PD patients. Frequency of cancer was 6.8% for cases, 12.6% for controls. PD patients had a decreased risk for neoplasms (adjusted OR, 0.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2-0.7). Risk was reduced only for women (adjusted OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7). PD patients had a decreased risk both for malignant (adjusted OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.1-2.5) and nonmalignant neoplasms (adjusted OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7). Still, risk was decreased for endocrine-related tumors (adjusted OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9) and non-endocrine-related tumors (adjusted OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9). Our study confirms the inverse association between PD and neoplasms reported in previous epidemiologic studies.

  18. Osmoregulatory inositol transporter SMIT1 modulates electrical activity by adjusting PI(4,5)P2 levels

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Gucan; Yu, Haijie; Traynor-Kaplan, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Myo-inositol is an important cellular osmolyte in autoregulation of cell volume and fluid balance, particularly for mammalian brain and kidney cells. We find it also regulates excitability. Myo-inositol is the precursor of phosphoinositides, key signaling lipids including phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. However, whether myo-inositol accumulation during osmoregulation affects signaling and excitability has not been fully explored. We found that overexpression of the Na+/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT1) and myo-inositol supplementation enlarged intracellular PI(4,5)P2 pools, modulated several PI(4,5)P2-dependent ion channels including KCNQ2/3 channels, and attenuated the action potential firing of superior cervical ganglion neurons. Further experiments using the rapamycin-recruitable phosphatase Sac1 to hydrolyze PI(4)P and the P4M probe to visualize PI(4)P suggested that PI(4)P levels increased after myo-inositol supplementation with SMIT1 expression. Elevated relative levels of PIP and PIP2 were directly confirmed using mass spectrometry. Inositol trisphosphate production and release of calcium from intracellular stores also were augmented after myo-inositol supplementation. Finally, we found that treatment with a hypertonic solution mimicked the effect we observed with SMIT1 overexpression, whereas silencing tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein prevented these effects. These results show that ion channel function and cellular excitability are under regulation by several “physiological” manipulations that alter the PI(4,5)P2 setpoint. We demonstrate a previously unrecognized linkage between extracellular osmotic changes and the electrical properties of excitable cells. PMID:27217553

  19. Probing the promiscuous active site of myo-inositol dehydrogenase using synthetic substrates, homology modeling, and active site modification.

    PubMed

    Daniellou, Richard; Zheng, Hongyan; Langill, David M; Sanders, David A R; Palmer, David R J

    2007-06-26

    The active site of myo-inositol dehydrogenase (IDH, EC 1.1.1.18) from Bacillus subtilis recognizes a variety of mono- and disaccharides, as well as 1l-4-O-substituted inositol derivatives. It catalyzes the NAD+-dependent oxidation of the axial alcohol of these substrates with comparable kinetic constants. We have found that 4-O-p-toluenesulfonyl-myo-inositol does not act as a substrate for IDH, in contrast to structurally similar compounds such as those bearing substituted benzyl substituents in the same position. X-ray crystallographic analysis of 4-O-p-toluenesulfonyl-myo-inositol and 4-O-(2-naphthyl)methyl-myo-inositol, which is a substrate for IDH, shows a distinct difference in the preferred conformation of the aryl substituent. Conformational analysis of known substrates of IDH suggests that this conformational difference may account for the difference in reactivity of 4-O-p-toluenesulfonyl-myo-inositol in the presence of IDH. A sequence alignment of IDH with the homologous glucose-fructose oxidoreductase allowed the construction of an homology model of inositol dehydrogenase, to which NADH and 4-O-benzyl-scyllo-inosose were docked and the active site energy minimized. The active site model is consistent with all experimental results and suggests that a conserved tyrosine-glycine-tyrosine motif forms the hydrophobic pocket adjoining the site of inositol recognition. Y233F and Y235F retain activity, while Y233R and Y235R do not. A histidine-aspartate pair, H176 and D172, are proposed to act as a dyad in which H176 is the active site acid/base. The enzyme is inactivated by diethyl pyrocarbonate, and the mutants H176A and D172N show a marked loss of activity. Kinetic isotope effect experiments with D172N indicate that chemistry is rate-determining for this mutant.

  20. Efficacy of IP6 + inositol in the treatment of breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: prospective, randomized, pilot clinical study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Prospective, randomized, pilot clinical study was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effects of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) + Inositol in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant therapy. Patients and methods Patients with invasive ductal breast cancer where polychemotherapy was indicated were monitored in the period from 2005-2007. Fourteen patients in the same stage of ductal invasive breast cancer were involved in the study, divided in two randomized groups. One group was subjected to take IP6 + Inositol while the other group was taking placebo. In both groups of patients the same laboratory parameters were monitored. When the treatment was finished, all patients have filled questionnaires QLQ C30 and QLQ-BR23 to determine the quality of life. Results Patients receiving chemotherapy, along with IP6 + Inositol did not have cytopenia, drop in leukocyte and platelet counts. Red blood cell counts and tumor markers were unaltered in both groups. However, patients who took IP6 + Inositol had significantly better quality of life (p = 0.05) and functional status (p = 0.0003) and were able to perform their daily activities. Conclusion IP6 + Inositol as an adjunctive therapy is valuable help in ameliorating the side effects and preserving quality of life among the patients treated with chemotherapy. PMID:20152024

  1. In vitro effect of myo-inositol on sperm motility in normal and oligoasthenospermia patients undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Artini, P G; Casarosa, E; Carletti, E; Monteleone, P; Di Noia, A; Di Berardino, O M

    2017-02-01

    It is a known fact that abnormal seminal liquid specimens contain abnormal amounts of oxygen free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and that the use of antioxidant molecules both in vivo and in vitro leads to improvement of semen quality in terms of motility, reduction in DNA damage, with obvious consequences on the fertilization potential. Myo-inositol has been observed to have anti-oxidant properties and be present in much greater concentrations specifically in seminal liquid than in the blood. Moreover, there seems to be a direct relationship between myo-inositol and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and sperm motility. Studies performed in vivo have demonstrated that a dietary supplementation with myo-inositol in men undergoing assisted reproduction techniques may improve sperm quality and motility in oligoasthenospermia (OAT) patients. In the following study we utilized myo-inositol in vitro to verify its effect on semen quality in both normal and OAT patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) with respect to standard sperm medium. In vitro incubation of seminal liquid carried out using myo-inositol (Andrositol-Lab, Lo.Li. Pharma-Roma, Italy) at a concentration of 15 μl/ml improved progressive motility in both normospermia and OAT subjects. In our opinion, myo-inositol may prove to be a useful strategy to improve sperm preparation for clinical use in IVF.

  2. myo-Inositol synthesis from (1-/sup 3/H)glucose in Phaseolus vulgaris L. during early stages of germination

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, K.; Taylor, I.E.P.

    1986-06-01

    Radiolabeled D-(1-/sup 3/H)glucose was fed by imbibition under sterile conditions to bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds. After 72 and 96 hours of feeding, the /sup 3/H was located in uronic acid and pentose residues as well as hexose residues of cell wall polysaccharides in growing hypocotyl and root. Free myo-inositol present in cotyledons, hypocotyl, and root also contained /sup 3/H, showing that de novo synthesis of myo-inositol from (1-/sup 3/H)glucose did occur during the first 72 hours of germination. More than 90% of the labeled, free myo-inositol was present in the cotyledons. The /sup 3/H percentage in trifluoroacetic acid-soluble arabinaose residues of cell wall polysaccharides from 72-hour-old bean hypocotyls was only half of their mole percentage. On the other hand, /sup 3/H percentages in hexose residues were higher than their mole percentages. The results suggest that myo-inositol is synthesized from reserve sugars during the very early stages of germination, and that the newly synthesized myo-inositol, as well as that stored in cotyledons, can be used for the construction of new hypocotyl and root cell wall polysaccharides after conversion into uronic acids and pentoses via the myo-inositol oxidation pathway.

  3. Separation of phytic acid and other related inositol phosphates by high-performance ion chromatography and its applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing-Chuan; Li, Betty W

    2003-11-07

    A high-performance anion-exchange chromatographic method was developed for the separation of phytic acid and other inositol phosphates (myo-inositol bis-, tris-, tetrakis-, and pentakisphosphates) with gradient elution and ultraviolet absorbance detection after post-column derivatization. With the acidic eluents, the combination of anion-exchange and ion suppression retention mechanisms led to the separation of 35 inositol phosphates (excluding enantiomers) into 27 peaks for the first time, and the retention behaviors of all myo-inositol bis- to hexakisphosphate isomers were studied. The whole separation procedure was completed within 65 min. Based on the investigations of nonenzymatic hydrolysis of phytic acid under different conditions by using this method, an in-house reference standard solution was produced, which can be used for method development. In addition, by applying this method to in vitro kinetic studies, at least one new enzymatic hydrolysis pathway of phytic acid was found, and one rule of enzymatic dephosphorylation of inositol phosphates (position effect) was proposed and another one (neighboring effect) was confirmed. The principle of the proposed identification approach for several inositol phosphate isomers based on hydrolysis products study will be applicable to other natural products analysis, for which standards are very expensive or not available.

  4. Bst1 is required for Candida albicans infecting host via facilitating cell wall anchorage of Glycosylphosphatidyl inositol anchored proteins

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Zou, Zui; Huang, Xin; Shen, Hui; He, Li Juan; Chen, Si Min; Li, Li Ping; Yan, Lan; Zhang, Shi Qun; Zhang, Jun Dong; Xu, Zheng; Xu, Guo Tong; An, Mao Mao; Jiang, Yuan Ying

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidyl inositol anchored proteins (GPI-APs) on fungal cell wall are essential for invasive infections. While the function of inositol deacylation of GPI-APs in mammalian cells has been previously characterized the impact of inositol deacylation in fungi and implications to host infection remains largely unexplored. Herein we describe our identification of BST1, an inositol deacylase of GPI-Aps in Candida albicans, was critical for GPI-APs cell wall attachment and host infection. BST1-deficient C. albicans (bst1Δ/Δ) was associated with severely impaired cell wall anchorage of GPI-APs and subsequen unmasked β-(1,3)-glucan. Consistent with the aberrant cell wall structures, bst1Δ/Δ strain did not display an invasive ability and could be recognized more efficiently by host immune systems. Moreover, BST1 null mutants or those expressing Bst1 variants did not display inositol deacylation activity and exhibited severely attenuated virulence and reduced organic colonization in a murine systemic candidiasis model. Thus, Bst1 can facilitate cell wall anchorage of GPI-APs in C. albicans by inositol deacylation, and is critical for host invasion and immune escape. PMID:27708385

  5. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of inositol dehydrogenase (IDH) from Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Van Straaten, K. E.; Hoffort, A.; Palmer, D. R. J.; Sanders, D. A. R.

    2008-01-01

    Inositol dehydrogenase (IDH) is an enzyme that catalyses the NAD+-dependent oxidation of myo-inositol to scyllo-inosose. The enzyme has been purified to homogeneity by means of Ni2+-affinity chromatography and was crystallized in both native and selenomethionine (SeMet) labelled forms using the microbatch method. SAD X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.0 Å resolution from a SeMet-labelled crystal at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) and a MAD data set was collected to 1.75 Å resolution at the Canadian Light Source (CLS); this is the first reported anomalous diffraction experiment from the CLS. The crystals belong to space group I222 and contain one molecule per asymmetric unit. PMID:18259059

  6. A chromogenic substrate for phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C: 4-nitrophenyl myo-inositol-1-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Shashidhar, M S; Volwerk, J J; Griffith, O H; Keana, J F

    1991-12-01

    A chromogenic water-soluble substrate for phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C was synthesized starting from myo-inositol employing isopropylidene and 4-methoxytetrahydropyranyl protecting groups. In this analogue of phosphatidylinositol, 4-nitrophenol replaces the diacylglycerol moiety, resulting in synthetic, racemic 4-nitrophenyl myo-inositol-1-phosphate. Using this synthetic substrate a rapid, convenient and sensitive spectrophotometric assay for the phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus was developed. Initial rates of the cleavage of the nitrophenol substrate were linear with time and the amount of enzyme used. At pH 7.0, specific activities for the B. cereus enzyme were 77 and 150 mumol substrate cleaved min-1 (mg protein)-1 at substrate concentrations of 1 and 2 mM, respectively. Under these conditions, less than 50 ng quantities of enzyme were easily detected. The chromogenic substrate was stable during long term storage (6 months) as a solid at -20 degrees C.

  7. The inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases: traffic controllers, waistline watchers and tumour suppressors?

    PubMed

    Astle, Megan V; Horan, Kristy A; Ooms, Lisa M; Mitchell, Christina A

    2007-01-01

    Phosphoinositide signals regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, cytoskeletal rearrangement and intracellular trafficking. Hydrolysis of PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, by inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases regulates synaptic vesicle recycling (synaptojanin-1), hematopoietic cell function [SHIP1(SH2-containing inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase-1)], renal cell function [OCRL (oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe)] and insulin signalling (SHIP2). We present here a detailed review of the characteristics of the ten mammalian 5-phosphatases. Knockout mouse phenotypes and underexpression studies are associated with significant phenotypic changes, indicating non-redundant roles, despite, in many cases, overlapping substrate specificity and tissue expression. The extraordinary complexity in the control of phosphoinositide signalling continues to be revealed.

  8. Structural basis for phosphoinositide substrate recognition, catalysis, and membrane interactions in human inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Trésaugues, Lionel; Silvander, Camilla; Flodin, Susanne; Welin, Martin; Nyman, Tomas; Gräslund, Susanne; Hammarström, Martin; Berglund, Helena; Nordlund, Pär

    2014-05-06

    SHIP2, OCRL, and INPP5B belong to inositol polyphosphate 5-phophatase subfamilies involved in insulin regulation and Lowes syndrome. The structural basis for membrane recognition, substrate specificity, and regulation of inositol polyphosphate 5-phophatases is still poorly understood. We determined the crystal structures of human SHIP2, OCRL, and INPP5B, the latter in complex with phosphoinositide substrate analogs, which revealed a membrane interaction patch likely to assist in sequestering substrates from the lipid bilayer. Residues recognizing the 1-phosphate of the substrates are highly conserved among human family members, suggesting similar substrate binding modes. However, 3- and 4-phosphate recognition varies and determines individual substrate specificity profiles. The high conservation of the environment of the scissile 5-phosphate suggests a common reaction geometry for all members of the human 5-phosphatase family.

  9. Osmotic stress-induced phosphoinositide and inositol phosphate signalling in plants.

    PubMed

    Munnik, Teun; Vermeer, Joop E M

    2010-04-01

    Polyphosphoinositides (PPIs) became famous for their role in inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) mediated-Ca(2+) signalling in mammalian cells, generated through signal-activated phospholipase C (PLC) hydrolysis of the minor membrane lipid, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate. For many years, the plant field followed the same paradigm, however, slowly a completely different picture is emerging. Moreover, various novel PPI-signalling compounds have been identified meanwhile, with new functions and targets coming to light. These include lipids phosphorylated at the D3-position of inositol but also water-soluble inositolpolyphosphates (IPPs). For several of them, a relationship to water stress has been reported. This review summarizes the current status of PPIs and IPPs in plants and discusses their potential in osmotic stress signalling and drought.

  10. High-performance thin-layer chromatography method for inositol phosphate analysis.

    PubMed

    Hatzack, F; Rasmussen, S K

    1999-12-24

    A simple and inexpensive high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method for the analysis of inositol mono- to hexakisphosphates on cellulose precoated plates is described. Plates were developed in 1-propanol-25% ammonia solution-water (5:4:1) and substance quantities as low as 100-200 pmol were detected by molybdate staining. Chromatographic mobilities of nucleotides and phosphorylated carbohydrates were also characterized. Charcoal treatment was employed to separate nucleotides from inositol phosphates with similar R(F) values prior to HPTLC analysis. Practical application of the HPTLC system is demonstrated by analysis of grain extracts from wild type and low-phytate mutant barley as well as phytate degradation products resulting from barley phytase activity.

  11. Inositol hexakisphosphate kinase-1 regulates behavioral responses via GSK3 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, A; Latapy, C; Xu, J; Snyder, S H; Beaulieu, J-M

    2014-03-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), a prominent enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism, also has a major role in brain function. It is physiologically regulated by the kinase Akt, which phosphorylates GSK3 to inhibit catalytic activity. Inositol hexakisphosphate-1 (IP6K1) generates the inositol pyrophosphate diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (IP7), which physiologically inhibits Akt leading to enhanced GSK3 activity. We report that IP6K1 binds and stimulates GSK3 enzymatic activity in a non-catalytic fashion. Physiological relevance is evident in the inhibition of GSK3 activity in the brains of IP6K1-deleted mice. Behavioral alterations of IP6K1 knockout mice resemble those of GSK3 mutants. Accordingly, modulation of IP6K1-GSK3β interaction may exert beneficial effects in psychiatric disorders involving GSK3.

  12. Effect of protic ionic liquid nanostructure on phospholipid vesicle formation.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Saffron J; Wood, Kathleen; Atkin, Rob; Warr, Gregory G

    2017-02-15

    The formation of bilayer-based lyotropic liquid crystals and vesicle dispersions by phospholipids in a range of protic ionic liquids has been investigated by polarizing optical microscopy using isothermal penetration scans, differential scanning calorimetry, and small angle X-ray and neutron scattering. The stability and structure of both lamellar phases and vesicle dispersions is found to depend primarily on the underlying amphiphilic nanostructure of the ionic liquid itself. This finding has significant implications for the use of ionic liquids in soft and biological materials and for biopreservation, and demonstrates how vesicle structure and properties can be controlled through selection of cation and anion. For a given ionic liquid, systematic trends in bilayer thickness, chain-melting temperature and enthalpy increase with phospholipid acyl chain length, paralleling behaviour in aqueous systems.

  13. Supported phospholipid bilayers for two-dimensional protein crystallization.

    PubMed

    Uzgiris, E E

    1986-01-29

    Phospholipid bilayers, supported on UV irradiated carbon shadowed nitrocellulose electron microscope grids, have been used to induce two-dimensional crystal growth of IgE and IgG anti-DNP monoclonal antibodies. The UV irradiation renders the grids hydrophilic in a very uniform fashion and allows for the transfer of phospholipid monolayers from an air/water interface in a sequential dipping procedure. The surface coverage achieved was nearly 100% as measured by antibody binding and by the formation of protein arrays on the bilayer covered grids. The supported bilayers appear to be stably held and are appropriate for slow binding conditions and long incubation times with low concentrations of binding protein.

  14. Occurrence of diacylglyceryltrimethylhomoserines and major phospholipids in some plants.

    PubMed

    Rozentsvet, O A; Dembitsky, V M; Saksonov, S V

    2000-06-01

    Over 40 higher plant species were examined for the contents of total lipids, phospholipids, diacylglyceryl-N,N,N-trimethylhomoserine (DGTS), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) by using micro-HPTLC. The results showed a wider range of plants containing betaine lipids. So, DGTS was found in some higher plant species, not studied earlier, belonging to Equisetophyta, Polypodiophyta; the lipid composition of many other species from Spermatophyta was also studied. It was demonstrated that more primitive plant species contained, as a rule, the betaine lipid DGTS. The quantitative data for the distribution of the main phospholipid classes PC, PE, and PG in various plant species and their tissues are given in this paper.

  15. Light and phospholipid driven structural transitions in nematic microdroplets

    SciTech Connect

    Dubtsov, A. V. Pasechnik, S. V.; Shmeliova, D. V.; Kralj, Samo

    2014-10-13

    We studied the UV-irradiation and phospholipid driven bipolar-radial structural transitions within azoxybenzene nematic liquid crystal (LC) droplets dispersed in water. It was found that the UV-irradiation induced trans-cis isomerisation of LC molecules could enable structural transitions into radial-type configurations at a critical UV-irradiation time t{sub c}. In particular, we show that under appropriate conditions, a value of t{sub c} could sensitively fingerprint the concentration of phospholipid molecules present in LC-water dispersions. This demonstrated proof-of-principle mechanism could be exploited for development of sensitive detectors for specific nanoparticles (NPs), where value of t{sub c} reveals concentration of NPs.

  16. Regulation of the Golgi Complex by Phospholipid Remodeling Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Kevin D.; Clarke, Benjamin A.; Brown, William J.

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian Golgi complex is a highly dynamic organelle consisting of stacks of flattened cisternae with associated coated vesicles and membrane tubules that contribute to cargo import and export, intra-cisternal trafficking, and overall Golgi architecture. At the morphological level, all of these structures are continuously remodeled to carry out these trafficking functions. Recent advances have shown that continual phospholipid remodeling by phospholipase A (PLA) and lysophospholipid acyltransferase (LPAT) enzymes, which deacylate and reacylate Golgi phospholipids, respectively, contributes to this morphological remodeling. Here we review the identification and characterization of four cytoplasmic PLA enzymes and one integral membrane LPAT that participate in the dynamic functional organization of the Golgi complex, and how some of these enzymes are integrated to determine the relative abundance of COPI vesicle and membrane tubule formation. PMID:22562055

  17. Hyperbaric hyperoxia reversibly inhibits erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acid turnover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dise, Craig A.; Clark, James M.; Lambersten, Christian J.; Goodman, David B. P.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of hyperbaric hyperoxia on the acylation of membrane phospholipid was studied by measuring the rates of activation of exogenous tritiated oleic acid to acyl thioester and of transesterification of the thioester into membrane phospholipids in intact human erythrocytes obtained 1 h after an exposure of the subjects to a hyperbaric oxygen atmosphere (3.5 h, 100 pct O2, 3 ATA). Exposure to pure oxygen was found to inhibit both the acylation and transesterification reactions by more than 30 percent, with partial recovery detected 24 h later. On the other hand, no rate changes were observed when isolated membranes from the same batches of cells were used in similar experiments. It is suggested that the decrease in the incorporation of tritiated oleic acid after hyperbaric hyperoxia may reflect an early event in the pathogenesis of oxygen-induced cellular injury and that it may be a useful index for the assessment of the tolerance of tissues to hyperoxia.

  18. Conformational Changes in Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-Pentakisphosphate 2-Kinase upon Substrate Binding

    PubMed Central

    Baños-Sanz, José Ignacio; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia; Whitfield, Hayley; Hamilton, Chris; Brearley, Charles A.; González, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (IP5 2-K) catalyzes the synthesis of inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate from ATP and IP5. Inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate is implicated in crucial processes such as mRNA export, DNA editing, and phosphorus storage in plants. We previously solved the first structure of an IP5 2-K, which shed light on aspects of substrate recognition. However, failure of IP5 2-K to crystallize in the absence of inositide prompted us to study putative conformational changes upon substrate binding. We have made mutations to residues on a region of the protein that produces a clasp over the active site. A W129A mutant allowed us to capture IP5 2-K in its different conformations by crystallography. Thus, the IP5 2-K apo-form structure displays an open conformation, whereas the nucleotide-bound form shows a half-closed conformation, in contrast to the inositide-bound form obtained previously in a closed conformation. Both nucleotide and inositide binding produce large conformational changes that can be understood as two rigid domain movements, although local changes were also observed. Changes in intrinsic fluorescence upon nucleotide and inositide binding are in agreement with the crystallographic findings. Our work suggests that the clasp might be involved in enzyme kinetics, with the N-terminal lobe being essential for inositide binding and subsequent conformational changes. We also show how IP5 2-K discriminates between inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate and 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate enantiomers and that substrate preference can be manipulated by Arg130 mutation. Altogether, these results provide a framework for rational design of specific inhibitors with potential applications as biological tools for in vivo studies, which could assist in the identification of novel roles for IP5 2-K in mammals. PMID:22745128

  19. An Uncharacterized Member of the Ribokinase Family in Thermococcus kodakarensis Exhibits myo-Inositol Kinase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Takaaki; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Yukika; Kuwata, Keiko; Kusaka, Eriko; Fujita, Haruo; Miki, Kunio; Atomi, Haruyuki

    2013-01-01

    Here we performed structural and biochemical analyses on the TK2285 gene product, an uncharacterized protein annotated as a member of the ribokinase family, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis. The three-dimensional structure of the TK2285 protein resembled those of previously characterized members of the ribokinase family including ribokinase, adenosine kinase, and phosphofructokinase. Conserved residues characteristic of this protein family were located in a cleft of the TK2285 protein as in other members whose structures have been determined. We thus examined the kinase activity of the TK2285 protein toward various sugars recognized by well characterized ribokinase family members. Although activity with sugar phosphates and nucleosides was not detected, kinase activity was observed toward d-allose, d-lyxose, d-tagatose, d-talose, d-xylose, and d-xylulose. Kinetic analyses with the six sugar substrates revealed high Km values, suggesting that they were not the true physiological substrates. By examining activity toward amino sugars, sugar alcohols, and disaccharides, we found that the TK2285 protein exhibited prominent kinase activity toward myo-inositol. Kinetic analyses with myo-inositol revealed a greater kcat and much lower Km value than those obtained with the monosaccharides, resulting in over a 2,000-fold increase in kcat/Km values. TK2285 homologs are distributed among members of Thermococcales, and in most species, the gene is positioned close to a myo-inositol monophosphate synthase gene. Our results suggest the presence of a novel subfamily of the ribokinase family whose members are present in Archaea and recognize myo-inositol as a substrate. PMID:23737529

  20. Cyclic nucleotide regulation of inositol lipid metabolism in rat cerebral cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Nicchitta, C.V.; Williamson, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have investigated the effects of compounds known to elevate cAMP levels and/or activate the cAMP dependent protein kinase on resting and stimulated inositol lipid metabolism in rat cortical slices and synaptosomes. In (/sup 3/H)-myo-inositol-labeled brain slices, carbamylcholine-stimulated accumulation of (/sup 3/H)-myo-inositol 1-phosphate (IP/sub 1/) was decreased 50% by forskolin (150..mu..M) isobutylmethylxantihine (IBMX) (1mM), 8-bromo cAMP (5mM) or 8-(4-chlorophenylthio) cAMP (5mM). In studies with synaptosomes, the incorporation of (/sup 32/Pi) into phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP), phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP/sub 2/) and phosphatidic acid (PA) was also reduced in the presence of forskolin or the cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitors IBMX and RO20-1724 (+/-)-4-(3-butoxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-2-imidazolidinone. In the presence of maximally effective concentrations of these agents, steady state PIP levels were reduced by 50% and PIP/sub 2/ and PA levels by 40%. The effects of these compounds on (/sup 32/Pi) labeling of the phosphoinositides and PA are consistent with an inhibition of flux through the inositide cycle, presumably through the action of cAMP. Such an inhibition may account for the reduction in carbamylcholine sensitive IP/sub 1/ accumulation observed in brain slices. These studies indicate that in rat brain, ..beta..-adrenergic stimulation may be involved in modulating the activity of muscarinic cholinergic agonists. This regulation appears to be at the level of inositol lipid metabolism.

  1. The pathway for the production of inositol hexakisphosphate in human cells.

    PubMed

    Verbsky, John W; Chang, Shao-Chun; Wilson, Monita P; Mochizuki, Yasuhiro; Majerus, Philip W

    2005-01-21

    The yeast and Drosophila pathways leading to the production of inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6)) have been elucidated recently. The in vivo pathway in humans has been assumed to be similar. Here we show that overexpression of Ins(1,3,4)P(3) 5/6-kinase in human cell lines results in an increase of inositol tetrakisphosphate (InsP(4)) isomers, inositol pentakisphosphate (InsP(5)) and InsP(6), whereas its depletion by RNA interference decreases the amounts of these inositol phosphates. Expression of Ins(1,3,4,6)P(4) 5-kinase does not increase the amount of InsP(5) and InsP(6), although its depletion does block InsP(5) and InsP(6) production, showing that it is necessary for production of InsP(5) and InsP(6). Expression of Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P(5) 2-kinase increases the amount of InsP(6) by depleting the InsP(5) in the cell, and depletion of 2-kinase decreases the amount of InsP(6) and causes an increase in InsP(5). These results are consistent with a pathway that produces InsP(6) through the sequential action of Ins(1,3,4)P(3) 5/6-kinase, Ins(1,3,4,6)P(4) 5-kinase, and Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 2-kinase to convert Ins(1,3,4)P(3) to InsP(6). Furthermore, the evidence implicates 5/6-kinase as the rate-limiting enzyme in this pathway.

  2. Characterization of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate deposits from larval Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed

    Casaravilla, Cecilia; Brearley, Charles; Soulé, Silvia; Fontana, Carolina; Veiga, Nicolás; Bessio, María I; Ferreira, Fernando; Kremer, Carlos; Díaz, Alvaro

    2006-07-01

    The abundant metabolite myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) can form vesicular deposits with cations, a widespread phenomenon in plants also found in the cestode parasite, Echinococcus granulosus. In this organism, the deposits are exocytosed, accumulating in a host-exposed sheath of extracellular matrix termed the laminated layer. The formation and mobilization of InsP6 deposits, which involve precipitation and solubilization reactions, respectively, cannot yet be rationalized in quantitative chemical terms, as the solids involved have not been formally described. We report such a description for the InsP6 deposits from E. granulosus, purified as the solid residue left by mild alkaline digestion of the principal mucin component of the laminated layer. The deposits are largely composed of the compound Ca5H2L.16H2O (L representing fully deprotonated InsP6), and additionally contain Mg2+ (6-9% molar ratio with respect to Ca2+), but not K+. Calculations employing recently available chemical constants show that the precipitation of Ca5H2L.16H2O is predicted by thermodynamics in secretory vesicle-like conditions. The deposits appear to be similar to microcrystalline solids when analysed under the electron microscope; we estimate that each crystal comprises around 200 InsP6 molecules. We calculate that the deposits increase, by three orders of magnitude, the surface area available for adsorption of host proteins, a salient ability of the laminated layer. The major inositol phosphate in the deposits, other than InsP6, is myo-inositol (1,2,4,5,6) pentakisphosphate, or its enantiomer, inositol (2,3,4,5,6) pentakisphosphate. The compound appears to be a subproduct of the intracellular pathways leading to the synthesis and vesicular accumulation of InsP6, rather than arising from extracellular hydrolysis of InsP6.

  3. Salinity-induced regulation of the myo-inositol biosynthesis pathway in tilapia gill epithelium.

    PubMed

    Sacchi, Romina; Li, Johnathon; Villarreal, Fernando; Gardell, Alison M; Kültz, Dietmar

    2013-12-15

    The myo-inositol biosynthesis (MIB) pathway converts glucose-6-phosphate to the compatible osmolyte myo-inositol that protects cells from osmotic stress. Using proteomics, the enzymes that constitute the MIB pathway, myo-inositol phosphate synthase (MIPS) and inositol monophosphatase 1 (IMPA1), are identified in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) gill epithelium. Targeted, quantitative, label-free proteomics reveals that they are both upregulated during salinity stress. Upregulation is stronger when fish are exposed to severe (34 ppt acute and 90 ppt gradual) relative to moderate (70 ppt gradual) salinity stress. IMPA1 always responds more strongly than MIPS, suggesting that MIPS is more stable during salinity stress. MIPS is N-terminally acetylated and the corresponding peptide increases proportionally to MIPS protein, while non-acetylated N-terminal peptide is not detectable, indicating that MIPS acetylation is constitutive and may serve to stabilize the protein. Hyperosmotic induction of MIPS and IMPA1 is confirmed using western blot and real-time qPCR and is much higher at the mRNA than at the protein level. Two distinct MIPS mRNA variants are expressed in the gill, but one is more strongly regulated by salinity than the other. A single MIPS gene is encoded in the tilapia genome whereas the zebrafish genome lacks MIPS entirely. The genome of euryhaline tilapia contains four IMPA genes, two of which are expressed, but only one is salinity regulated in gill epithelium. The genome of stenohaline zebrafish contains a single IMPA gene. We conclude that the MIB pathway represents a major salinity stress coping mechanism that is regulated at multiple levels in euryhaline fish but absent in stenohaline zebrafish.

  4. Differential Intrahepatic Phospholipid Zonation in Simple Steatosis and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wattacheril, Julia; Seeley, Erin H.; Angel, Peggi; Chen, Heidi; Bowen, Benjamin P.; Lanciault, Christian; M.Caprioli, Richard; Abumrad, Naji; Flynn, Charles Robb

    2013-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) occurs frequently in a setting of obesity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, but the etiology of the disease, particularly the events favoring progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) as opposed to simple steatosis (SS), are not fully understood. Based on known zonation patterns in protein, glucose and lipid metabolism, coupled with evidence that phosphatidylcholine may play a role in NASH pathogenesis, we hypothesized that phospholipid zonation exists in liver and that specific phospholipid abundance and distribution may be associated with histologic disease. A survey of normal hepatic protein expression profiles in the Human Protein Atlas revealed pronounced zonation of enzymes involved in lipid utilization and storage, particularly those facilitating phosphatidylcholine (PC) metabolism. Immunohistochemistry of obese normal, SS and NASH liver specimens with anti-phosphatidylethanomine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) antibodies showed a progressive decrease in the zonal distribution of this PC biosynthetic enzyme. Phospholipid quantitation by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in hepatic extracts of Class III obese patients with increasing NAFLD severity revealed that most PC species with 32, 34 and 36 carbons as well as total PC abundance was decreased with SS and NASH. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization - imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) imaging revealed strong zonal distributions for 32, 34 and 36 carbon PCs in controls (minimal histologic findings) and SS that was lost in NASH specimens. Specific lipid species such as PC 34∶1 and PC 36∶2 best illustrated this phenomenon. These findings suggest that phospholipid zonation may be associated with the presence of an intrahepatic proinflammatory phenotype and thus have broad implications in the etiopathogenesis of NASH. PMID:23451176

  5. Localization of anionic phospholipids in Escherichia coli cells.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Piercen M; Crooks, John A; Leidl, Mathias; Yoon, Earl J; Saghatelian, Alan; Weibel, Douglas B

    2014-10-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is an anionic phospholipid with a characteristically large curvature and is of growing interest for two primary reasons: (i) it binds to and regulates many peripheral membrane proteins in bacteria and mitochondria, and (ii) it is distributed asymmetrically in rod-shaped cells and is concentrated at the poles and division septum. Despite the growing number of studies of CL, its function in bacteria remains unknown. 10-N-Nonyl acridine orange (NAO) is widely used to image CL in bacteria and mitochondria, as its interaction with CL is reported to produce a characteristic red-shifted fluorescence emission. Using a suite of biophysical techniques, we quantitatively studied the interaction of NAO with anionic phospholipids under physiologically relevant conditions. We found that NAO is promiscuous in its binding and has photophysical properties that are largely insensitive to the structure of diverse anionic phospholipids to which it binds. Being unable to rely solely on NAO to characterize the localization of CL in Escherichia coli cells, we instead used quantitative fluorescence microscopy, mass spectrometry, and mutants deficient in specific classes of anionic phospholipids. We found CL and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) concentrated in the polar regions of E. coli cell membranes; depletion of CL by genetic approaches increased the concentration of PG at the poles. Previous studies suggested that some CL-binding proteins also have a high affinity for PG and display a pattern of cellular localization that is not influenced by depletion of CL. Framed within the context of these previous experiments, our results suggest that PG may play an essential role in bacterial physiology by maintaining the anionic character of polar membranes.

  6. Spectroscopic Study on the Interaction of 4-dimethylaminochalcones with Phospholipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomečková, V.; Revická, M.; Sassen, A.; Veliká, B.; Stupák, M.; Perjési, P.

    2014-11-01

    The ultraviolet-visible and fluorescence spectroscopic properties of 4'-dimethylaminochalcone ( 1a) and its cyclic analogs 2a-4a have been studied in the presence of phospholipid vesicles (i.e., egg yolk lecithin and dipalmitoylpho sphatidylcholine), bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lipoprotein particles (i.e., bovine serum albumin plus egg yolk lecithin). The spectral results showed that compounds 1a-4a formed hydrophobic interactions with the phospholipids, lipoproteins, and BSA at the polar/nonpolar interface. Compounds 3a and 4a exhibited the strongest hydrophobic interactions of all of the compounds tested towards the phospholipids. Compound 2a gave the best fluorescent fluorophore indicating interactions with the lipids, lipoproteins, and proteins. Fluorescent microscopic imaging of breast cancer cells treated with compounds 1a-4a revealed that they could be used to stain all of the cellular components and destroy the nuclear structure. Compounds 1a-4a were found to be concentrated predominantly on the surfaces of the liposomes and lipoproteins.

  7. Phospholipid Synthesis in Aging Potato Tuber Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wen-Jing; Castelfranco, Paul A.

    1968-01-01

    The effect of activation (“aging”) of potato tuber slices on their phospholipid metabolism was investigated. Aged slices were incubated with 14C labeled choline, ethanolamine, methionine, serine, and acetate. In all cases, the incorporation of radioactivity into the lipid fraction increased with the length of time the slices were aged. This incorporation was shown to be true synthesis and not exchange between precursors and existing phospholipids. The increased incorporation of labeled choline into lipids was mainly due to an increase in its uptake by the tissue, the presence of actidione during aging prevented this increased uptake. The increase in the incorporation of labeled acetate into lipids resulted from the development of a fatty acid synthetase during aging. In the case of ethanolamine, both its uptake into the tissue and its incorporation into the lipid fraction increased. The phospholipids formed from these precursors were identified by paper and thin-layer chromatography. The major compound formed from choline was lecithin, while phosphatidylethanolamine and a small amount of lecithin were formed from ethanolamine. Images PMID:16656906

  8. Antioxidant effect of lutein towards phospholipid hydroperoxidation in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kiko, Takehiro; Hatade, Keijiro; Sookwong, Phumon; Arai, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2009-11-01

    Peroxidised phospholipid-mediated cytotoxity is involved in the pathophysiology of many diseases; for example, phospholipid hydroperoxides (PLOOH) are abnormally increased in erythrocytes of dementia patients. Dietary carotenoids (especially xanthophylls, polar carotenoids such as lutein) have gained attention as potent inhibitors against erythrocyte phospholipid hydroperoxidation, thereby making them plausible candidates for preventing diseases (i.e. dementia). To evaluate these points, we investigated whether orally administered lutein is distributed to human erythrocytes, and inhibits erythrocyte PLOOH formation. Six healthy subjects took one capsule of food-grade lutein (9.67 mg lutein per capsule) once per d for 4 weeks. Before and during the supplementation period, carotenoids and PLOOH in erythrocytes and plasma were determined by our developed HPLC technique. The administered lutein was incorporated into human erythrocytes, and erythrocyte PLOOH level decreased after the ingestion for 2 and 4 weeks. The antioxidative effect of lutein was confirmed on erythrocyte membranes, but not in plasma. These results suggest that lutein has the potential to act as an important antioxidant molecule in erythrocytes, and it thereby may contribute to the prevention of dementia. Therefore future biological and clinical studies will be required to evaluate the efficacy as well as safety of lutein in models of dementia with a realistic prospect of its use in human therapy.

  9. New HPLC method for separation of blood plasma phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Suchocka, Zofia; Gronostajska, Dorota; Suchocki, Piotr; Pachecka, Jan

    2003-08-08

    The aim of the present work was to develop a new HPLC method for separation of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) from small-volume samples of blood plasma. Human plasma glycerophospholipids were separated by liquid-liquid extraction method followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) on aminopropyl columns. Reversed-phase Sephasil C8 column (10 cm x 2.1 mm, I.D. 5 microm) and micropreparative chromatograph "SMART" were used for separation of PC, PE, LPC and PI from SPE phospholipids extract. Binary-step gradient of eluent A: acetonitrile-methanol (130:5, v/v) and B (0.01% trifluoroacetic acid) provided good, fast and reproducible resolution of investigated phospholipids classes in 12 min at 30 degrees C. Eluted phospholipids were detected at wavelengths lambda=235 and 254 nm. This method made it possible to determine quantitatively: 5 microg ml(-1) PC, 1 microg ml(-1) LPC, 4 microg ml(-1) PE and 3 microg ml(-1) PI in blood plasma samples.

  10. Nonenzymatic biomimetic remodeling of phospholipids in synthetic liposomes.

    PubMed

    Brea, Roberto J; Rudd, Andrew K; Devaraj, Neal K

    2016-08-02

    Cell membranes have a vast repertoire of phospholipid species whose structures can be dynamically modified by enzymatic remodeling of acyl chains and polar head groups. Lipid remodeling plays important roles in membrane biology and dysregulation can lead to disease. Although there have been tremendous advances in creating artificial membranes to model the properties of native membranes, a major obstacle has been developing straightforward methods to mimic lipid membrane remodeling. Stable liposomes are typically kinetically trapped and are not prone to exchanging diacylphospholipids. Here, we show that reversible chemoselective reactions can be harnessed to achieve nonenzymatic spontaneous remodeling of phospholipids in synthetic membranes. Our approach relies on transthioesterification/acyl shift reactions that occur spontaneously and reversibly between tertiary amides and thioesters. We demonstrate exchange and remodeling of both lipid acyl chains and head groups. Using our synthetic model system we demonstrate the ability of spontaneous phospholipid remodeling to trigger changes in vesicle spatial organization, composition, and morphology as well as recruit proteins that can affect vesicle curvature. Membranes capable of chemically exchanging lipid fragments could be used to help further understand the specific roles of lipid structure remodeling in biological membranes.

  11. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Infection Triggers Host Phospholipid Metabolism Perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Y.; Lau, B.; Smith, S.; Troyan, K.; Barnett Foster, D. E.

    2004-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) specifically recognizes phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) on the outer leaflet of host epithelial cells. EPEC also induces apoptosis in epithelial cells, which results in increased levels of outer leaflet PE and increased bacterial binding. Consequently, it is of interest to investigate whether EPEC infection perturbs host cell phospholipid metabolism and whether the changes play a role in the apoptotic signaling. Our findings indicate that EPEC infection results in a significant increase in the epithelial cell PE level and a corresponding decrease in the phosphatidylcholine (PC) level. PE synthesis via both the de novo pathway and the serine decarboxylation pathway was enhanced, and de novo synthesis of phosphatidylcholine via CDP-choline was reduced. The changes were transitory, and the maximum change was noted after 4 to 5 h of infection. Addition of exogenous PC or CDP-choline to epithelial cells prior to infection abrogated EPEC-induced apoptosis, suggesting that EPEC infection inhibits the CTP-phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase step in PC synthesis, which is reportedly inhibited during nonmicrobially induced apoptosis. On the other hand, incorporation of exogenous PE by the host cells enhanced EPEC-induced apoptosis and necrosis without increasing bacterial adhesion. This is the first report that pathogen-induced apoptosis is associated with significant changes in PE and PC metabolism, and the results suggest that EPEC adhesion to a host membrane phospholipid plays a role in disruption of host phospholipid metabolism. PMID:15557596

  12. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection triggers host phospholipid metabolism perturbations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y; Lau, B; Smith, S; Troyan, K; Barnett Foster, D E

    2004-12-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) specifically recognizes phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) on the outer leaflet of host epithelial cells. EPEC also induces apoptosis in epithelial cells, which results in increased levels of outer leaflet PE and increased bacterial binding. Consequently, it is of interest to investigate whether EPEC infection perturbs host cell phospholipid metabolism and whether the changes play a role in the apoptotic signaling. Our findings indicate that EPEC infection results in a significant increase in the epithelial cell PE level and a corresponding decrease in the phosphatidylcholine (PC) level. PE synthesis via both the de novo pathway and the serine decarboxylation pathway was enhanced, and de novo synthesis of phosphatidylcholine via CDP-choline was reduced. The changes were transitory, and the maximum change was noted after 4 to 5 h of infection. Addition of exogenous PC or CDP-choline to epithelial cells prior to infection abrogated EPEC-induced apoptosis, suggesting that EPEC infection inhibits the CTP-phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase step in PC synthesis, which is reportedly inhibited during nonmicrobially induced apoptosis. On the other hand, incorporation of exogenous PE by the host cells enhanced EPEC-induced apoptosis and necrosis without increasing bacterial adhesion. This is the first report that pathogen-induced apoptosis is associated with significant changes in PE and PC metabolism, and the results suggest that EPEC adhesion to a host membrane phospholipid plays a role in disruption of host phospholipid metabolism.

  13. NMR Structures of Membrane Proteins in Phospholipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Radoicic, Jasmina; Lu, George J.; Opella, Stanley J.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane proteins have always presented technical challenges for structural studies because of their requirement for a lipid environment. Multiple approaches exist including X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy that can give significant insights into their structure and function. However, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is unique in that it offers the possibility of determining the structures of unmodified membrane proteins in their native environment of phospholipid bilayers under physiological conditions. Furthermore, NMR enables the characterization of the structure and dynamics of backbone and side chain sites of the proteins alone and in complexes with both small molecules and other biopolymers. The learning curve has been steep for the field as most initial studies were performed under non-native environments using modified proteins until ultimately progress in both techniques and instrumentation led to the possibility of examining unmodified membrane proteins in phospholipid bilayers under physiological conditions. This review aims to provide an overview of the development and application of NMR to membrane proteins. It highlights some of the most significant structural milestones that have been reached by NMR spectroscopy of membrane proteins; especially those accomplished with the proteins in phospholipid bilayer environments where they function. PMID:25032938

  14. Extraction and Analysis of Microbial Phospholipid Fatty Acids in Soils

    PubMed Central

    Quideau, Sylvie A.; McIntosh, Anne C.S.; Norris, Charlotte E.; Lloret, Emily; Swallow, Mathew J.B.; Hannam, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) are key components of microbial cell membranes. The analysis of PLFAs extracted from soils can provide information about the overall structure of terrestrial microbial communities. PLFA profiling has been extensively used in a range of ecosystems as a biological index of overall soil quality, and as a quantitative indicator of soil response to land management and other environmental stressors. The standard method presented here outlines four key steps: 1. lipid extraction from soil samples with a single-phase chloroform mixture, 2. fractionation using solid phase extraction columns to isolate phospholipids from other extracted lipids, 3. methanolysis of phospholipids to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and 4. FAME analysis by capillary gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Two standards are used, including 1,2-dinonadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PC(19:0/19:0)) to assess the overall recovery of the extraction method, and methyl decanoate (MeC10:0) as an internal standard (ISTD) for the GC analysis. PMID:27685177

  15. Bile salt-phospholipid aggregation at submicellar concentrations.

    PubMed

    Baskin, Rebekah; Frost, Laura D

    2008-04-01

    The aggregation behavior of the bile salts taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC) and sodium cholate (NaC), are followed at concentrations below critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) using the environment sensitive, fluorescent-labeled phospholipid, 2-(6-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)hexanoyl-1-hexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (NBD-C(6)-HPC). A buffer solution containing NBD-C(6)-HPC is titrated with increasing NaC or NaTDC and the fluorescence changes followed. Both bile salts induced fluorescence changes below their critical micelle concentration indicating the presence of a bile salt-phospholipid aggregate. A critical control experiment using 6-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino) hexanoic acid (NBD-X) shows that the bile salts are interacting with the longer, C16 hydrocarbon tail, not the NBD probe. The fluorescence curves were fitted to the Hill equation as a model for cooperative aggregation. The cooperativity model provides a minimum estimate for the number of bile salts to give maximal fluorescence. This number was calculated for NaC and NaTDC to have a minimum value of approximately 2. A small aggregation number supports the existence of primary micellar aggregates at submicellar concentrations for bile salt-phospholipid aqueous solutions.

  16. Changes in phospholipid metabolism during B lymphocyte activation

    SciTech Connect

    Kriz, M.K.; Vitetta, E.S.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1986-07-15

    Phospholipid metabolism in murine B lymphocytes stimulated with anti-Ig bound to Sepharose has been examined. T cell-depleted splenic B lymphocytes cultured with Sepharose-coupled, affinity-purified goat anti-mouse Ig (GAMIg) increased the incorporation of /sup 32/PO/sub 4/ into phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol within 3 hr and increased (/sup 3/H)-thymidine uptake at 48 hr. No increase in labeling was observed in phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, or phosphatidylserine. Based on both negative and positive selection procedures, it was demonstrated that these responses occurred in B lymphocytes. In contrast to the thymidine uptake response did not require the presence of accessory cells or exogenous cytokines. The same selective changes in phospholipid metabolism were observed in neoplastic B lymphocytes (BCL/sub 1/) after treatment with Sepharose anti-..mu.., but not with Sepharose anti-Ia or Sepharose normal Ig. The dose-response relationships of /sup 32/PO/sub 4/ incorporation into phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol and (/sup 3/H) thymidine uptake were nearly identical in BCL/sub 1/ cells. The results of these experiments indicate that interaction B lymphocytes with insolubilized anti-Ig results in prompt and selective changes in phospholipid metabolism that appear to be correlated with B lymphocyte proliferation.

  17. Label free detection of phospholipids by infrared absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Tahsin; Foster, Erick; Vigil, Genevieve; Khan, Aamir A.; Bohn, Paul; Howard, Scott S.

    2014-08-01

    We present our study on compact, label-free dissolved lipid sensing by combining capillary electrophoresis separation in a PDMS microfluidic chip online with mid-infrared (MIR) absorption spectroscopy for biomarker detection. On-chip capillary electrophoresis is used to separate the biomarkers without introducing any extrinsic contrast agent, which reduces both cost and complexity. The label free biomarker detection could be done by interrogating separated biomarkers in the channel by MIR absorption spectroscopy. Phospholipids biomarkers of degenerative neurological, kidney, and bone diseases are detectable using this label free technique. These phospholipids exhibit strong absorption resonances in the MIR and are present in biofluids including urine, blood plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid. MIR spectroscopy of a 12-carbon chain phosphatidic acid (PA) (1,2-dilauroyl-snglycero- 3-phosphate (sodium salt)) dissolved in N-methylformamide, exhibits a strong amide peak near wavenumber 1660 cm-1 (wavelength 6 μm), arising from the phosphate headgroup vibrations within a low-loss window of the solvent. PA has a similar structure to many important phospholipids molecules like phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and phosphatidylserine (PS), making it an ideal molecule for initial proof-of-concept studies. This newly proposed detection technique can lead us to minimal sample preparation and is capable of identifying several biomarkers from the same sample simultaneously.

  18. Molecular determinants of phospholipid synergy in blood clotting.

    PubMed

    Tavoosi, Narjes; Davis-Harrison, Rebecca L; Pogorelov, Taras V; Ohkubo, Y Zenmei; Arcario, Mark J; Clay, Mary C; Rienstra, Chad M; Tajkhorshid, Emad; Morrissey, James H

    2011-07-01

    Many regulatory processes in biology involve reversible association of proteins with membranes. Clotting proteins bind to phosphatidylserine (PS) on cell surfaces, but a clear picture of this interaction has yet to emerge. We present a novel explanation for membrane binding by GLA domains of clotting proteins, supported by biochemical studies, solid-state NMR analyses, and molecular dynamics simulations. The model invokes a single "phospho-L-serine-specific" interaction and multiple "phosphate-specific" interactions. In the latter, the phosphates in phospholipids interact with tightly bound Ca(2+) in GLA domains. We show that phospholipids with any headgroup other than choline strongly synergize with PS to enhance factor X activation. We propose that phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin (the major external phospholipids of healthy cells) are anticoagulant primarily because their bulky choline headgroups sterically hinder access to their phosphates. Following cell damage or activation, exposed PS and phosphatidylethanolamine collaborate to bind GLA domains by providing phospho-L-serine-specific and phosphate-specific interactions, respectively.

  19. Treatment of hirsutism with myo-inositol: a prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Minozzi, M; D'Andrea, G; Unfer, V

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of myo-inositol treatment in hirsute women; changes in lipid pattern and insulin sensitivity were also considered. Forty-six hirsute women were enrolled at the first Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology and evaluated at baseline and after receiving myo-inositol therapy for 6 months. Body mass index (BMI), hirsutism, serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein(a), serum adrenal and ovarian androgens, fasting glucose and insulin concentrations were evaluated. No changes in BMI were observed. The hirsutism decreased after therapy (P < 0.001). Total androgens, FSH and LH concentrations decreased while oestradiol concentrations increased. There was a slight non-significant decrease in total cholesterol concentrations, an increase in HDL cholesterol concentrations and a decrease in LDL cholesterol concentrations. No significant changes were observed in serum triglyceride, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein(a) concentrations. Insulin resistance (P < 0.01), analysed by homeostasis model assessment, was reduced significantly after therapy. Administration of oral myo-inositol significantly reduced hirsutism and hyperandrogenism and ameliorated the abnormal metabolic profile of women with hirsutism.

  20. Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction of inositols from pine nuts (Pinus pinea L.).

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Aceituno, L; Rodríguez-Sánchez, S; Sanz, J; Sanz, M L; Ramos, L

    2014-06-15

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) has been used for the first time to extract bioactive inositols from pine nuts. The influence of extraction time, temperature and cycles of extraction in the yield and composition of the extract was studied. A quadratic lineal model using multiple linear regression in the stepwise mode was used to evaluate possible trends in the process. Under optimised PLE conditions (50°C, 18 min, 3 cycles of 1.5 mL water each one) at 10 MPa, a noticeable reduction in extraction time and solvent volume, compared with solid-liquid extraction (SLE; room temperature, 2h, 2 cycles of 5 mL water each one) was achieved; 5.7 mg/g inositols were extracted by PLE, whereas yields of only 3.7 mg/g were obtained by SLE. Subsequent incubation of PLE extracts with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (37°C, 5h) allowed the removal of other co-extracted low molecular weight carbohydrates which may interfere in the bioactivity of inositols.

  1. Characterization of MTMR3. an inositol lipid 3-phosphatase with novel substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Walker, D M; Urbé, S; Dove, S K; Tenza, D; Raposo, G; Clague, M J

    2001-10-16

    Inositol lipids play key roles in many fundamental cellular processes that include growth, cell survival, motility, and membrane trafficking. Recent studies on the PTEN and Myotubularin proteins have underscored the importance of inositol lipid 3-phosphatases in cell function. Inactivating mutations in the genes encoding PTEN and Myotubularin are key steps in the progression of some cancers and in the onset of X-linked myotubular myopathy, respectively. Myotubularin-related protein 3 (MTMR3) shows extensive homology to Myotubularin, including the catalytic domain, but additionally possesses a C-terminal extension that includes a FYVE domain. We show that MTMR3 is an inositol lipid 3-phosphatase, with a so-far-unique substrate specificity. It is able to hydrolyze PtdIns3P and PtdIns3,5P2, both in vitro and when heterologously expressed in S. cerevisiae, and to thereby provide the first clearly defined route for the cellular production of PtdIns5P. Overexpression of a catalytically dead MTMR3 (C413S) in mammalian cells induces a striking formation of vacuolar compartments that enclose membranous structures that are highly concentrated in mutant proteins.

  2. Distribution of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, P400, in adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, J; Suburo, A M; Bentura, M L; Fernández, T; Nakade, S; Mikoshiba, K; Martínez-Murillo, R; Polak, J M

    1993-11-15

    The distribution of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor protein, P400, was investigated in adult rat brain by immunocytochemistry with the monoclonal antibody 4C11 raised against mouse cerebellar inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor protein. Immunoreactive neuronal cell bodies were detected in the cerebral cortex, the claustrum, the endopiriform nucleus, the corpus callosum, the anterior olfactory nuclei, the olfactory tubercle, the nucleus accumbens, the lateral septum, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the hippocampal formation, the dentate gyrus, the caudate-putamen, the fundus striatum, the amygdaloid complex, the thalamus, the caudolateral part of the hypothalamus, the supramammillary nuclei, the substantia nigra, the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, the ventrotegmental area, the Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, the dorsal cochlear nucleus, the subnucleus oralis and caudalis of trigeminal nerve, and the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Immunoreactive fibres were found in the medial forebrain bundle, the globus pallidus, the stria terminalis, the pyramidal tract, the spinal tract of trigeminal nerve, and the ventral horn of spinal cord. Nerve fibres forming a dense plexus ending in terminal-like boutons were detected in relation to nonimmunoreactive neurons of the dentate, interpositus, and fastigial nuclei of the cerebellum and around neurons of the vestibular nuclei. This receptor protein binds a specific second messenger, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, which produces a mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ and a modulation of transmitter release.

  3. Studies of inositol 1-phosphate analogues as inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol phosphate synthase in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Morii, Hiroyuki; Okauchi, Tatsuo; Nomiya, Hiroki; Ogawa, Midori; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Taniguchi, Hatsumi

    2013-03-01

    We previously reported a novel pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol in mycobacteria via phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) [Morii H., Ogawa, M., Fukuda, K., Taniguchi, H., and Koga, Y (2010) J. Biochem. 148, 593-602]. PIP synthase in the pathway is a promising target for the development of new anti-mycobacterium drugs. In the present study, we evaluated the characteristics of the PIP synthase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Four types of compounds were chemically synthesized based on the assumption that structural homologues of inositol 1-phosphate, a PIP synthase substrate, would act as PIP synthase inhibitors, and the results confirmed that all synthesized compounds inhibited PIP synthase activity. The phosphonate analogue of inositol 1-phosphate (Ino-C-P) had the greatest inhibitory effect among the synthesized compounds examined. Kinetic analysis indicated that Ino-C-P acted as a competitive inhibitor of inositol 1-phosphate. The IC(50) value for Ino-C-P inhibition of the PIP synthase activity was estimated to be 2.0 mM. Interestingly, Ino-C-P was utilized in the same manner as the normal PIP synthase substrate, leading to the synthesis of a phosphonate analogue of PIP (PI-C-P), which had a structure similar to that of the natural product, PIP. In addition, PI-C-P had high inhibitory activity against PIP synthase.

  4. Effect of traditional, microwave and industrial cooking on inositol phosphate content in beans, chickpeas and lentils.

    PubMed

    Máñez, G; Alegría, A; Farré, R; Frígola, A

    2002-11-01

    An high-performance liquid chromatography method for determining inositol phosphate fractions was adapted to legumes. The validity of the method was assessed by estimating the following analytical parameters: linearity (linear response between 125 and 5000 microg inositol hexaphosphate (IP(6))/ml); instrumental precision and method precision (relative standard deviation, %) were 1.9% (IP(6)) for instrumental, and 2.5% (IP(6)) and 8.2% (IP(5)) for method precision. An accuracy was estimated by percentage recovery (72 +/- 3%). The application of this method to raw, conventional, microwave-cooked and ready-to-eat beans, chickpeas and lentils gave IP(6) contents ranging from 0.63 g/100 g dry matter in ready-to-eat lentils to 1.87 g/100 g dry matter in raw beans. The IP(6) content was reduced by all the cooking procedures, while the relative percentage of inositol pentaphosphate increased in all the legumes studied, and reached the maximum of 31% (expressed in relation to dry matter) in ready-to-eat beans.

  5. Isolation and identification of myo-inositol crystals from dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus).

    PubMed

    Rebecca, Ow Phui San; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq; Somasundram, Chandran

    2012-04-17

    Crystals isolated from Hylocereus polyrhizus were analyzed using four different approaches--X-ray Crystallography, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and identified as myo-inositol. The X-ray crystallography analysis showed that the unit-cell parameters were: a = 6.6226 (3) Å, b = 12.0462 (5) Å, c = 18.8942 (8) Å, α = 90.00, β = 93.98, δ = 90.00. The purity of the crystals were checked using HPLC, whereupon a clean single peak was obtained at 4.8 min with a peak area of 41232 μV*s. The LC-MS/MS technique, which is highly sensitive and selective, was used to provide a comparison of the isolated crystals with a myo-inositol standard where the results gave an identical match for both precursor and product ions. NMR was employed to confirm the molecular structure and conformation of the crystals, and the results were in agreement with the earlier results in this study. The discovery of myo-inositol crystals in substantial amount in H. polyrhizus has thus far not been reported and this is an important finding which will increase the marketability and importance of H. polyrhizus as a crop with a wide array of health properties.

  6. Recombinant expression of a functional myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (MIPS) in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinyi; Hernick, Marcy

    2015-10-01

    Myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (MIPS, E.C. 5.5.1.4) catalyzes the first step in inositol production-the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate (Glc-6P) to myo-inositol-1-phosphate. While the three dimensional structure of MIPS from Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been solved, biochemical studies examining the in vitro activity have not been reported to date. Herein we report the in vitro activity of mycobacterial MIPS expressed in E. coli and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Recombinant expression in E. coli yields a soluble protein capable of binding the NAD(+) cofactor; however, it has no significant activity with the Glc-6P substrate. In contrast, recombinant expression in M. smegmatis mc(2)4517 yields a functionally active protein. Examination of structural data suggests that MtMIPS expressed in E. coli adopts a fold that is missing a key helix containing two critical (conserved) Lys side chains, which likely explains the inability of the E. coli expressed protein to bind and turnover the Glc-6P substrate. Recombinant expression in M. smegmatis may yield a protein that adopts a fold in which this key helix is formed enabling proper positioning of important side chains, thereby allowing for Glc-6P substrate binding and turnover. Detailed mechanistic studies may be feasible following optimization of the recombinant MIPS expression protocol in M. smegmatis.

  7. Anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column detection for the analysis of phytic acid and other inositol phosphates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rounds, M. A.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The use of gradient anion-exchange HPLC, with a simple post-column detection system, is described for the separation of myo-inositol phosphates, including "phytic acid" (myo-inositol hexaphosphate). Hexa-, penta-, tetra-, tri- and diphosphate members of this homologous series are clearly resolved within 30 min. This method should facilitate analysis and quantitation of "phytic acid" and other inositol phosphates in plant, food, and soil samples.

  8. Anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column detection for the analysis of phytic acid and other inositol phosphates.

    PubMed

    Rounds, M A; Nielsen, S S

    1993-10-29

    The use of gradient anion-exchange HPLC, with a simple post-column detection system, is described for the separation of myo-inositol phosphates, including "phytic acid" (myo-inositol hexaphosphate). Hexa-, penta-, tetra-, tri- and diphosphate members of this homologous series are clearly resolved within 30 min. This method should facilitate analysis and quantitation of "phytic acid" and other inositol phosphates in plant, food, and soil samples.

  9. A new liquid chromatography method with charge aerosol detector (CAD) for the determination of phospholipid classes. Application to milk phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Kiełbowicz, Grzegorz; Micek, Piotr; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław

    2013-02-15

    A new rapid method for the quantitative analysis of five classes of phospholipids (PLs) (phosphatidylcholine--PC, lysophosphatidylcholine--LPC, phosphatidylethanolamine--PE and phosphatidylserine--PS and phosphatidylinositol--PI) using liquid chromatography with charge aerosol detector (CAD) is described. The separation of the compounds of interest was achieved on a diol stationary phase with a mobile phase consisting of 13% HCOOH, hexane and 2-propanol in 19 min elution program, including 10 min equilibration of the column. The method was applied to characterize the phospholipid fractions of cow milk. PLs present in cow milk were separated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure with Si cartridges before LC analysis with recovery ranging from 95.3% to 104.4%. The use of CAD detection of the eluted compounds was precise, linear and sensitive.

  10. Aqueous solutions at the interface with phospholipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Max L; Vácha, Robert

    2012-01-17

    In a sense, life is defined by membranes, because they delineate the barrier between the living cell and its surroundings. Membranes are also essential for regulating the machinery of life throughout many interfaces within the cell's interior. A large number of experimental, computational, and theoretical studies have demonstrated how the properties of water and ionic aqueous solutions change due to the vicinity of membranes and, in turn, how the properties of membranes depend on the presence of aqueous solutions. Consequently, understanding the character of aqueous solutions at their interface with biological membranes is critical to research progress on many fronts. The importance of incorporating a molecular-level description of water into the study of biomembrane surfaces was demonstrated by an examination of the interaction between phospholipid bilayers that can serve as model biological membranes. The results showed that, in addition to well-known forces, such as van der Waals and screened Coulomb, one has to consider a repulsion force due to the removal of water between surfaces. It was also known that physicochemical properties of biological membranes are strongly influenced by the specific character of the ions in the surrounding aqueous solutions because of the observation that different anions produce different effects on muscle twitch tension. In this Account, we describe the interaction of pure water, and also of aqueous ionic solutions, with model membranes. We show that a symbiosis of experimental and computational work over the past few years has resulted in substantial progress in the field. We now better understand the origin of the hydration force, the structural properties of water at the interface with phospholipid bilayers, and the influence of phospholipid headgroups on the dynamics of water. We also improved our knowledge of the ion-specific effect, which is observed at the interface of the phospholipid bilayer and aqueous solution, and its

  11. A monoclonal gammopathy precedes multiple myeloma in most patients

    PubMed Central

    Abadie, Jude; Verma, Pramvir; Howard, Robin S.; Kuehl, W. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Preexisting plasma cell disorders, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, or smoldering myeloma are present in at least one-third of multiple myeloma patients. However, the proportion of patients with a preexisting plasma cell disorder has never been determined by laboratory testing on prediagnostic sera. We cross-referenced our autologous stem cell transplantation database with the Department of Defense Serum Repository. Serum protein electrophoresis, immunofixation electrophoresis, and serum free light-chain analysis were performed on all sera collected 2 or more years before diagnosis to detect a monoclonal gammopathy (M-Ig). In 30 of 90 patients, 110 prediagnostic samples were available from 2.2 to 15.3 years before diagnosis. An M-Ig was detected initially in 27 of 30 patients (90%, 95% confidence interval, 74%-97%); by serum protein electrophoresis and/or immunofixation electrophoresis in 21 patients (77.8%), and only by serum free light-chain analysis in 6 patients (22.2%). Four patients had only one positive sample within 4 years before diagnosis, with all preceding sera negative. All 4 patients with light-chain/nonsecretory myeloma evolved from a light-chain M-Ig. A preexisting M-Ig is present in most multiple myeloma patients before diagnosis. Some patients progress rapidly through a premalignant phase. Light-chain detected M-Ig is a new entity that requires further study. PMID:19234139

  12. Semantic categorization precedes affective evaluation of visual scenes.

    PubMed

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyönä, Jukka; Calvo, Manuel G

    2010-05-01

    We compared the primacy of affective versus semantic categorization by using forced-choice saccadic and manual response tasks. Participants viewed paired emotional and neutral scenes involving humans or animals flashed rapidly in extrafoveal vision. Participants were instructed to categorize the targets by saccading toward the location occupied by a predefined target scene. The affective task involved saccading toward an unpleasant or pleasant scene, and the semantic task involved saccading toward a scene containing an animal. Both affective and semantic target scenes could be reliably categorized in less than 220 ms, but semantic categorization was always faster than affective categorization. This finding was replicated with singly, foveally presented scenes and manual responses. In comparison with foveal presentation, extrafoveal presentation slowed down the categorization of affective targets more than that of semantic targets. Exposure threshold for accurate categorization was lower for semantic information than for affective information. Superordinate-, basic-, and subordinate-level semantic categorizations were faster than affective evaluation. We conclude that affective analysis of scenes cannot bypass object recognition. Rather, semantic categorization precedes and is required for affective evaluation.

  13. PRECEDENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF CONTENTS USING DOSE RATE MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.; Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.

    2012-06-05

    For the transportation of Radioactive Material (RAM) packages, the requirements for the maximum allowed dose rate at the package surface and in its vicinity are given in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Section 71.47. The regulations are based on the acceptable dose rates to which the public, workers, and the environment may be exposed. As such, the regulations specify dose rates, rather than quantity of radioactive isotopes and require monitoring to confirm the requirements are met. 10CFR71.47 requires that each package of radioactive materials offered for transportation must be designed and prepared for shipment so that under conditions normally incident to transportation the radiation level does not exceed 2 mSv/h (200 mrem/h) at any point on the external Surface of the package, and the transport index does not exceed 10. Before shipment, the dose rate of the package is determined by measurement, ensuring that it conforms to the regulatory limits, regardless of any analyses. This is the requirement for all certified packagings. This paper discusses the requirements for establishing the dose rates when shipping RAM packages and the precedents for meeting these requirements by measurement.

  14. Coronal X-ray activity preceding solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, D. F.

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of coronal emplacements preceding solar flares were investigated based on a comprehensive survey of Skylab soft X-ray images. A search interval of 30 min before flare was used in the X-ray observations. X-ray images with preflare enhancements were compared with high resolution H-alpha images and photospheric magnetograms and preflare enhancements were found in a statistically significant number of the observed preflare intervals. The enhancement events consisted of loops, kernels, and sinuous features with one to three separate preflare structures appearing in each interval. Typical gas pressures in the preflare X-ray features were estimated on the order of a few dyne per sq cm and densities were 4-10 x 10 to the -9th per cu cm for assumed average temperatures. H-alpha brightenings in the form of knots and patches were found in conjunction with the X-ray preflare features in nearly all of the intervals. It is concluded that H-alpha emission is characteristic of preflare emission processes. The observational data are interpreted within the framework of existing loop preheating models, and the results are discussed in detail.

  15. High rates of evolution preceded the origin of birds.

    PubMed

    Puttick, Mark N; Thomas, Gavin H; Benton, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    The origin of birds (Aves) is one of the great evolutionary transitions. Fossils show that many unique morphological features of modern birds, such as feathers, reduction in body size, and the semilunate carpal, long preceded the origin of clade Aves, but some may be unique to Aves, such as relative elongation of the forelimb. We study the evolution of body size and forelimb length across the phylogeny of coelurosaurian theropods and Mesozoic Aves. Using recently developed phylogenetic comparative methods, we find an increase in rates of body size and body size dependent forelimb evolution leading to small body size relative to forelimb length in Paraves, the wider clade comprising Aves and Deinonychosauria. The high evolutionary rates arose primarily from a reduction in body size, as there were no increased rates of forelimb evolution. In line with a recent study, we find evidence that Aves appear to have a unique relationship between body size and forelimb dimensions. Traits associated with Aves evolved before their origin, at high rates, and support the notion that numerous lineages of paravians were experimenting with different modes of flight through the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous.

  16. Early Axonopathy Preceding Neurofibrillary Tangles in Mutant Tau Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Leroy, Karelle; Bretteville, Alexis; Schindowski, Katharina; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Authelet, Michèle; De Decker, Robert; Yilmaz, Zehra; Buée, Luc; Brion, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases characterized by brain and spinal cord involvement often show widespread accumulations of tau aggregates. We have generated a transgenic mouse line (Tg30tau) expressing in the forebrain and the spinal cord a human tau protein bearing two pathogenic mutations (P301S and G272V). These mice developed age-dependent brain and hippocampal atrophy, central and peripheral axonopathy, progressive motor impairment with neurogenic muscle atrophy, and neurofibrillary tangles and had decreased survival. Axonal spheroids and axonal atrophy developed early before neurofibrillary tangles. Neurofibrillary inclusions developed in neurons at 3 months and were of two types, suggestive of a selective vulnerability of neurons to form different types of fibrillary aggregates. A first type of tau-positive neurofibrillary tangles, more abundant in the forebrain, were composed of ribbon-like 19-nm-wide filaments and twisted paired helical filaments. A second type of tau and neurofilament-positive neurofibrillary tangles, more abundant in the spinal cord and the brainstem, were composed of 10-nm-wide neurofilaments and straight 19-nm filaments. Unbiased stereological analysis indicated that total number of pyramidal neurons and density of neurons in the lumbar spinal cord were not reduced up to 12 months in Tg30tau mice. This Tg30tau model thus provides evidence that axonopathy precedes tangle formation and that both lesions can be dissociated from overt neuronal loss in selected brain areas but not from neuronal dysfunction. PMID:17690183

  17. HIGH RATES OF EVOLUTION PRECEDED THE ORIGIN OF BIRDS

    PubMed Central

    Puttick, Mark N; Thomas, Gavin H; Benton, Michael J; Polly, P David

    2014-01-01

    The origin of birds (Aves) is one of the great evolutionary transitions. Fossils show that many unique morphological features of modern birds, such as feathers, reduction in body size, and the semilunate carpal, long preceded the origin of clade Aves, but some may be unique to Aves, such as relative elongation of the forelimb. We study the evolution of body size and forelimb length across the phylogeny of coelurosaurian theropods and Mesozoic Aves. Using recently developed phylogenetic comparative methods, we find an increase in rates of body size and body size dependent forelimb evolution leading to small body size relative to forelimb length in Paraves, the wider clade comprising Aves and Deinonychosauria. The high evolutionary rates arose primarily from a reduction in body size, as there were no increased rates of forelimb evolution. In line with a recent study, we find evidence that Aves appear to have a unique relationship between body size and forelimb dimensions. Traits associated with Aves evolved before their origin, at high rates, and support the notion that numerous lineages of paravians were experimenting with different modes of flight through the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. PMID:24471891

  18. Mancozeb-induced behavioral deficits precede structural neural degeneration.

    PubMed

    Harrison Brody, A; Chou, Eunice; Gray, Janet M; Pokyrwka, Nancy J; Raley-Susman, Kathleen M

    2013-01-01

    Manganese-containing fungicides like Mancozeb have been associated with neurodegenerative conditions like Parkinson's disease. We examined the behavioral damage and differential neuronal vulnerability resulting from Mancozeb exposure using Caenorhabditis elegans, an important mid-trophic level soil organism that is also a powerful model for studying mechanisms of environmental pollutant-induced neurodegenerative disease. The dopamine-mediated swim to crawl locomotory transition behavior is exquisitely vulnerable to Mancozeb, with functional impairment preceding markers of neuronal structural damage. The damage is partially rescued in mutants lacking the divalent metal transporter, SMF-1, demonstrating that some, but not all, of the damage is mediated by manganese. Increasing concentrations of Mancozeb recruit additional behavioral dysfunction, notably serotonin-mediated egg-laying behavior, but without evident serotonergic neuronal structural damage. Thus, measurements of behavioral dysfunction are a sensitive early marker of fungicide toxicity that could be exploited to examine further mechanisms of neuron damage and possible therapeutic interventions. These results also provide important insight into the consequences of fungicide use on the ecological behavior of nematodes.

  19. Activation of ras oncogenes preceding the onset of neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Barbacid, M. ); Sukumar, S. )

    1990-06-01

    The identification of ras oncogenes in human and animal cancers including precancerous lesions indicates that these genes participate in the early stages of neoplastic development. Yet, these observations do not define the timing of ras oncogene activation in the multistep process of carcinogenesis. To ascertain the timing of ras oncogene activation, an animal model system was devised that involves the induction of mammary carcinomas in rats exposed at birth to the carcinogen nitrosomethylurea. High-resolution restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified ras sequences revealed the presence of both H-ras and K-ras oncogenes in normal mammary glands 2 weeks after carcinogen treatment and at least 2 months before the onset of neoplasia. These ras oncogenes can remain latent within the mammary gland until exposure to estrogens, demonstrating that activation of ras oncogenes can precede the onset of neoplasia and suggesting that normal physiological proliferative processes such as estrogen-induced mammary gland development may lead to neoplasia if the targeted cells harbor latent ras oncogenes.

  20. Ultralow-Frequency Magnetic Fields Preceding Large Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser-Smith, Antony C.

    2008-06-01

    The Great Alaska Earthquake (M 9.2) of 27 March 1964 was the largest earthquake ever to strike the United States in modern times and one of the largest ever recorded anywhere. Later that year, Moore [1964], in a surprisingly rarely cited paper, reported the occurrence of strong ultralow-frequency (ULF; <=10 hertz) magnetic field disturbances at Kodiak, Alaska, in the 1.2 hours before the earthquake. That report has since been followed by others [Fraser-Smith et al., 1990; Kopytenko et al., 1993; Hayakawa et al., 1996; see also Molchanov et al., 1992] similarly describing the occurrence of large-amplitude ULF magnetic field fluctuations before other large earthquakes (``large'' describes earthquakes with magnitudes M ~ 7 or greater). These reports involving four separate, large earthquakes were made by four different groups and the results were published in well-known, refereed scientific journals, so there is no doubt that there is evidence for the existence of comparatively large ULF magnetic field fluctuations preceding large earthquakes.

  1. Bell's palsy: symptoms preceding and accompanying the facial paresis.

    PubMed

    De Seta, Daniele; Mancini, Patrizia; Minni, Antonio; Prosperini, Luca; De Seta, Elio; Attanasio, Giuseppe; Covelli, Edoardo; De Carlo, Andrea; Filipo, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This individual prospective cohort study aims to report and analyze the symptoms preceding and accompanying the facial paresis in Bell's palsy (BP). Two hundred sixty-nine patients affected by BP with a maximum delay of 48 hours from the onset were enrolled in the study. The evolution of the facial paresis expressed as House-Brackmann grade in the first 10 days and its correlation with symptoms were analyzed. At the onset, 136 patients presented postauricular pain, 114 were affected by dry eye, and 94 reported dysgeusia. Dry mouth was present in 54 patients (19.7%), facial pain, hyperlacrimation, aural fullness, and hyperacusis represented a smaller percentage of the reported symptoms. After 10 days, 39.9% of the group had a severe paresis while 10.2% reached a complete recovery. Dry mouth at the onset was correlated with severe grade of palsy and was prognostic for poor recovery in the early period. These outcomes lead to the deduction that the nervus intermedius plays an important role in the presentation of the BP and it might be responsible for most of the accompanying symptomatology of the paresis. Our findings could be of important interest to early address a BP patient to further examinations and subsequent therapy.

  2. Bell's Palsy: Symptoms Preceding and Accompanying the Facial Paresis

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Patrizia; Minni, Antonio; Prosperini, Luca; De Seta, Elio; Attanasio, Giuseppe; Covelli, Edoardo; De Carlo, Andrea; Filipo, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This individual prospective cohort study aims to report and analyze the symptoms preceding and accompanying the facial paresis in Bell's palsy (BP). Two hundred sixty-nine patients affected by BP with a maximum delay of 48 hours from the onset were enrolled in the study. The evolution of the facial paresis expressed as House-Brackmann grade in the first 10 days and its correlation with symptoms were analyzed. At the onset, 136 patients presented postauricular pain, 114 were affected by dry eye, and 94 reported dysgeusia. Dry mouth was present in 54 patients (19.7%), facial pain, hyperlacrimation, aural fullness, and hyperacusis represented a smaller percentage of the reported symptoms. After 10 days, 39.9% of the group had a severe paresis while 10.2% reached a complete recovery. Dry mouth at the onset was correlated with severe grade of palsy and was prognostic for poor recovery in the early period. These outcomes lead to the deduction that the nervus intermedius plays an important role in the presentation of the BP and it might be responsible for most of the accompanying symptomatology of the paresis. Our findings could be of important interest to early address a BP patient to further examinations and subsequent therapy. PMID:25544960

  3. [3H]inositol polyphosphate metabolism in muscarinic cholinoceptor-stimulated airways smooth muscle: accumulation of [3H]inositol 4,5 bisphosphate via a lithium-sensitive inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Lynch, B J; Muqit, M M; Walker, T R; Chilvers, E R

    1997-02-01

    Agonist-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis is the principal mechanism underlying pharmacomechanical coupling in airways smooth muscle. In bovine tracheal smooth muscle, activation of muscarinic cholinoceptors results in sustained phospholipase C-mediated PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis but transient Ins(1,4,5)P3 accumulation, which implies agonist-stimulated metabolism of Ins(1,4,5)P3. To investigate the metabolic fate of Ins(1,4,5)P3 in bovine tracheal smooth muscle, we developed a [3H]inositol-labeling protocol wherein more than 98% of the [3H]inositol polyphosphates that accumulated over a 0 to 30-min incubation with 100 microM carbachol in the presence of 5 mM LiCl were derived from [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 and wherein the Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase (EC 2.7.1.127) and 5-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.56) pathways generated a set of mutually exclusive [3H]-inositol polyphosphate isomers. Under these conditions, the 5-phosphatase pathway was shown to be the dominant route for [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 metabolism at all time intervals measured, especially at early times (0-300 sec), where it accounted for more than 85% of [H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 metabolism. We also observed accumulation of a novel agonist and LiCl-sensitive [3H]InsP2 isomer identified as [3H]Ins(4,5)P2. The presence of a LiCI-sensitive inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.57) was demonstrated, and high LiCl concentrations (30 mM) caused a significant enhancement of [3H]Ins(1,4)P2 accumulation and a corresponding decline in [3H]Ins4P levels. Because nearly identical bell-shaped LiCl concentration-response curves were obtained for [H]Ins4P and [3H]Ins(4,5)P2 accumulation, and [3H]Ins(4,5)P2 was not generated under conditions expected to stimulate phospholipase D, these data suggest that the most likely precurser of [3H]Ins(4,5)P2 is [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3. This is the first demonstration of Ins(4,5)P2 accumulation in a non-neuronal cell type, and the foregoing data suggest a novel route of formation via an Ins(1,4,5)P3 1-phosphatase

  4. Sugar-metal ion interactions: the complicated coordination structures of cesium ion with D-ribose and myo-inositol.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haijian; Xue, Junhui; Wen, Xiaodong; Li, Weihong; Zhang, Chao; Yang, Limin; Xu, Yizhuang; Zhao, Guozhong; Bu, Xiaoxia; Liu, Kexin; Chen, Jia'er; Wu, Jinguang

    2013-11-18

    The novel cesium chloride-D-ribose complex (CsCl·C5H10O5; Cs-R) and cesium chloride-myo-inositol complex (CsCl·C6H12O6; Cs-I) have been synthesized and characterized using X-ray diffraction and FTIR, FIR, THz, and Raman spectroscopy. Cs(+) is eight-coordinated to three chloride ions, O1 and O2 from one D-ribose molecule, O1 from another D-ribose molecule, and O4 and O5 from the third D-ribose molecule in Cs-R. For one D-ribose molecule, the oxygen atom O1 in the ring is coordinated to two cesium ions as an oxygen bridge, O2 is cocoordinated with O1 to one of the two cesium ions, and O4 and O5 are coordinated to the third cesium ion, respectively. O3 does not coordinate to metal ions and only takes part in forming hydrogen bonds. One chloride ion is connected to three cesium ions. Thus, a complicated structure of Cs-D-ribose forms. For Cs-I, Cs(+) is 10-coordinated to three chloride ions, O1 and O2 from one myo-inositol molecule, O3 and O4 from another myo-inositol molecule, O5 and O6 from the third myo-inositol molecule, and O6 from the fourth myo-inositol molecule. One metal ion is connected to four ligands, and one myo-inositol is coordinated to four Cs(+) ions, which is also a complicated coordination structure. Crystal structure results, FTIR, FIR, THz, and Raman spectra provide detailed information on the structure and coordination of hydroxyl groups to metal ions in the cesium chloride-D-ribose and cesium chloride-myo-inositol complexes.

  5. Phospholipid and cholesterol alterations accompany structural disarray in myelin membrane of rats with hepatic encephalopathy induced by thioacetamide.

    PubMed

    Swapna, I; Kumar, K V Sathya Sai; Reddy, P Vijaya Bhaskar; Murthy, Ch R K; Reddanna, P; Senthilkumaran, B

    2006-08-01

    Fulminant hepatic failure is often associated with a wide range of neurological symptoms which are collectively referred to as hepatic encephalopathy. Fulminant hepatic failure with associated hepatic encephalopathy has a poor prognosis with the currently available sure treatment being only liver transplantation. This is largely owing to the lack of understanding of critical factors involved in the etiology of the condition. Lipid changes have been implicated in cerebral derangements characteristic of hepatic encephalopathy. About 79% of the brain lipid is concentrated in the myelin fraction where they play an important role in ion balance and conduction of nerve impulses. Hence, in the present study we aimed to investigate changes in myelin lipid composition and structure. Myelin was isolated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation from cerebral cortex of male Wistar rats (250-300 g body weight) treated with 300 mg/kg body weight thioacetamide administered twice at 24h interval to induce hepatic encephalopathy. Significant decrease was observed in the cholesterol and phospholipids content of myelin from treated rats. Sphingomyelin, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine content also decreased significantly following 18 h of thioacetamide administration. However, phosphatidylcholine levels remained unaltered. Transmission electron microscopic observation of myelin membrane from cerebral cortex sections showed considerable disorganization in myelin structure. Increase in malondialdehyde levels precede lipid changes leading to the speculation that oxidative damage may be the critical factor leading to decrease in the anionic phospholipids. Changes in myelin were evident only in later stages of hepatic encephalopathy indicating that myelin alteration may not play a role in early stages of hepatic encephalopathy. Nevertheless, myelin alteration may have a crucial role to play in various psycho-motor alterations during later stages of hepatic encephalopathy.

  6. Spatial and temporal alterations of phospholipids determined by mass spectrometry during mouse embryo implantation[S

    PubMed Central

    Burnum, Kristin E.; Cornett, Dale S.; Puolitaival, Satu M.; Milne, Stephen B.; Myers, David S.; Tranguch, Susanne; Brown, H. Alex; Dey, Sudhansu K.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular events involved in successful embryo implantation are not well understood. In this study, we used MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) technologies to characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of phospholipid species associated with mouse embryo implantation. Molecular images showing phospholipid distribution within implantation sites changed markedly between distinct cellular areas during days 4–8 of pregnancy. For example, by day 8, linoleate- and docosahexaenoate-containing phospholipids localized to regions destined to undergo cell death, whereas oleate-containing phospholipids localized to angiogenic regions. Arachidonate-containing phospholipids showed different segregation patterns depending on the lipid class, revealing a strong correlation of phosphatidylethanolamines and phosphatidylinositols with cytosolic phospholipase A2α and cyclooxygenase-2 during embryo implantation. LC-ESI-MS/MS was used to validate MALDI IMS phospholipid distribution patterns. Overall, molecular images revealed the dynamic complexity of lipid distributions in early pregnancy, signifying the importance of complex interplay of lipid molecules in uterine biology and implantation. PMID:19429885

  7. Composition and fatty acid distribution of bovine milk phospholipids from processed milk products.

    PubMed

    Gallier, Sophie; Gragson, Derek; Cabral, Charles; Jiménez-Flores, Rafael; Everett, David W

    2010-10-13

    The aim of this work was to assess the accuracy of different extraction methods of phospholipids and to measure the effect that processing has on phospholipid composition. Four methods of extracting phospholipids from buttermilk powder were compared to optimize recovery of sphingomyelin. Using the optimal method, the phospholipid profile of four dairy products (raw milk, raw cream, homogenized and pasteurized milk, and buttermilk powder) was determined. A total lipid extraction by the Folch method followed by a solid-phase extraction using the Bitman method was the most efficient technique to recover milk sphingomyelin. Milk processing (churning, centrifuging, homogenization, spray-drying) affected the profile of milk phospholipids, leading to a loss of sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine after centrifugation for cream separation. A corresponding decrease in the saturation content of the raw cream phospholipids and a loss of phosphatidylethanolamine after spray-drying to produce buttermilk powder were also observed.

  8. Perceived control increases the reward positivity and stimulus preceding negativity.

    PubMed

    Mühlberger, Christina; Angus, Douglas Jozef; Jonas, Eva; Harmon-Jones, Cindy; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2017-02-01

    The reward positivity (RewP) and the stimulus preceding negativity (SPN), two ERPs associated with reward delivery and reward anticipation, are modulated by motivational intensity. Motivational intensity is the effort organisms would make to exert behaviors, and it varies with the difficulty of exerting that behavior. If a task is perceived as impossible, which means that one does not have control over own outcomes, motivational intensity is low. In the current study, we tested the prediction that perceiving control over one's outcomes increases both the RewP to feedback and the SPN prior to feedback compared to perceiving no control. We also examined whether P300 and LPP amplitudes to reward and nonreward images were similarly modulated. Twenty-five female participants completed a gambling task in which correct choices were followed by pictures of attractive men and incorrect choices were followed by pictures of rocks. To manipulate perceived control, participants were told that, in one block of trials, they could learn a mouse-click rule in order to see only pictures of men (high perceived control condition), while in the other block, the pictures would appear randomly (low perceived control condition). However, in both conditions, feedback appeared randomly. Although the RewP was elicited in both blocks, the RewP and SPN were higher in the high perceived control condition (i.e., when participants thought that they could influence their outcomes). Perceived control did not modulate the P300 and LPP to pictures. The results suggest that approach motivation and its intensity modulate the processing of performance feedback.

  9. Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing of Manned Spacecraft: Historical Precedent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemke, Paul R.; Tuma, Margaret L.; Askins, Bruce R.

    2008-01-01

    For the first time in nearly 30 years, NASA is developing a new manned space flight launch system. The Ares I will carry crew and cargo to not only the International Space Station, but onward for the future exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Ares I control system and structural designs use complex computer models for their development. An Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test (IVGVT) will validate the efficacy of these computer models. The IVGVT will reduce the technical risk of unexpected conditions that could place the vehicle or crew in jeopardy. The Ares Project Office's Flight and Integrated Test Office commissioned a study to determine how historical programs, such as Saturn and Space Shuttle, validated the structural dynamics of an integrated flight vehicle. The study methodology was to examine the historical record and seek out members of the engineering community who recall the development of historic manned launch vehicles. These records and interviews provided insight into the best practices and lessons learned from these historic development programs. The information that was gathered allowed the creation of timelines of the historic development programs. The timelines trace the programs from the development of test articles through test preparation, test operations, and test data reduction efforts. These timelines also demonstrate how the historical tests fit within their overall vehicle development programs. Finally, the study was able to quantify approximate staffing levels during historic development programs. Using this study, the Flight and Integrated Test Office was able to evaluate the Ares I Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test schedule and workforce budgets in light of the historical precedents to determine if the test had schedule or cost risks associated with it.

  10. Podocyte hypertrophy precedes apoptosis under experimental diabetic conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Ha; Moon, Sung Jin; Paeng, Jisun; Kang, Hye-Young; Nam, Bo Young; Kim, Seonghun; Kim, Chan Ho; Lee, Mi Jung; Oh, Hyung Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2015-08-01

    Podocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis are two hallmarks of diabetic glomeruli, but the sequence in which these processes occur remains a matter of debate. Here we investigated the effects of inhibiting hypertrophy on apoptosis, and vice versa, in both podocytes and glomeruli, under diabetic conditions. Hypertrophy and apoptosis were inhibited using an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor (PKI 166) and a pan-caspase inhibitor (zAsp-DCB), respectively. We observed significant increases in the protein expression of p27, p21, phospho-eukaryotic elongation factor 4E-binding protein 1, and phospho-p70 S6 ribosomal protein kinase, in both cultured podocytes exposed to high-glucose (HG) medium, and streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) rat glomeruli. These increases were significantly inhibited by PKI 166, but not by zAsp-DCB. In addition, the amount of protein per cell, the relative cell size, and the glomerular volume were all significantly increased under diabetic conditions, and these changes were also blocked by treatment with PKI 166, but not zAsp-DCB. Increased protein expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, together with increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratios, were also observed in HG-stimulated podocytes and DM glomeruli. Treatment with either zAsp-DCB or PKI 166 resulted in a significant attenuation of these effects. Both PKI 166 and zAsp-DCB also inhibited the increase in number of apoptotic cells, as assessed by Hoechst 33342 staining and TUNEL assay. Under diabetic conditions, inhibition of podocyte hypertrophy results in attenuated apoptosis, whereas blocking apoptosis has no effect on podocyte hypertrophy, suggesting that podocyte hypertrophy precedes apoptosis.

  11. Impaired cortical mitochondrial function following TBI precedes behavioral changes

    PubMed Central

    Watson, William D.; Buonora, John E.; Yarnell, Angela M.; Lucky, Jessica J.; D’Acchille, Michaela I.; McMullen, David C.; Boston, Andrew G.; Kuczmarski, Andrew V.; Kean, William S.; Verma, Ajay; Grunberg, Neil E.; Cole, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) pathophysiology can be attributed to either the immediate, primary physical injury, or the delayed, secondary injury which begins minutes to hours after the initial injury and can persist for several months or longer. Because these secondary cascades are delayed and last for a significant time period post-TBI, they are primary research targets for new therapeutics. To investigate changes in mitochondrial function after a brain injury, both the cortical impact site and ipsilateral hippocampus of adult male rats 7 and 17 days after a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury were examined. State 3, state 4, and uncoupler-stimulated rates of oxygen consumption, respiratory control ratios (RCRs) were measured and membrane potential quantified, and all were significantly decreased in 7 day post-TBI cortical mitochondria. By contrast, hippocampal mitochondria at 7 days showed only non-significant decreases in rates of oxygen consumption and membrane potential. NADH oxidase activities measured in disrupted mitochondria were normal in both injured cortex and hippocampus at 7 days post-CCI. Respiratory and phosphorylation capacities at 17 days post-CCI were comparable to naïve animals for both cortical and hippocampus mitochondria. However, unlike oxidative phosphorylation, membrane potential of mitochondria in the cortical lining of the impact site did not recover at 17 days, suggesting that while diminished cortical membrane potential at 17 days does not adversely affect mitochondrial capacity to synthesize ATP, it may negatively impact other membrane potential-sensitive mitochondrial functions. Memory status, as assessed by a passive avoidance paradigm, was not significantly impaired until 17 days after injury. These results indicate pronounced disturbances in cortical mitochondrial function 7 days after CCI which precede the behavioral impairment observed at 17 days. PMID:24550822

  12. Pregnancy and employment leave: legal precedents and future policy.

    PubMed

    Gardin, S K; Richwald, G A

    1986-01-01

    An estimated 85% of female workers in the US become pregnant during their working lives; 62% of married US women were employed for some period during the 12 months preceding childbirth. Historically, US legislation has assumed a protectionist policy with regard to restricting prenatal and postpartum employment, yet this stance has not been backed up by protection of income, benefits, reinstatement, or seniority. The passage in 1964 of Title VII of the Federal Civil Rights Act banning discrimination on the basis of sex triggered a long string of legal battles fought on the premise that pregnancy is a disability. As a result of Congressional efforts, an amendment to Title VII--the Pregnancy Discrimination Act--was passed in 1978. This law requires that women disabled due to pregnancy or childbirth be provided with the same benefits as those provided other disabled employees. However, the law does not require an employer who does not provide disability benefits, paid sick leave, or medical benefits to other employees to provide them to pregnant women. A weakness of existing legislation is its failure to address the difficulties inherent in accommodating childbearing women in the labor force. Accommodation under the current employment system results in productivity disruption and financial losses for both employer and employee. In all other major industrial countries, maternity benefits such as paid leave before and after childbirth, reinstatement rights, and nursing breaks on the job are guaranteed through national legislation. Such benefits emanate from acknowledgment of women's essential participation in the labor force as well as their unique ability to give birth. Under a more flexible employment system, equal protection would not result in the denial of maternity leave to female employees, but rather the provision parental leave to male and female employees.

  13. Construction of phospholipid anti-biofouling multilayer on biomedical PET surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian-Ping; Wang, Xiao-Li; Fan, De-Zeng; Ji, Jian; Shen, Jia-Cong

    2008-11-01

    The biomimetic phospholipid anti-biofouling multilayers were constructed on the biomedical poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) through the combination of layer-by-layer assembly and Michael addition reaction. Two biomacromolecules with opposite charges, alginate and chitosan, were sequentially adsorbed onto PET samples. The assembled multilayer was subsequently crosslinked with glutaraldehyde and biomimetic phospholipids was introduced into the assembled multilayer through the Michael addition of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC). The multilayer and phospholipid-modified PETs showed excellent hemocompatibility.

  14. 48 CFR 411.101 - Order of precedence for requirements documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 411.101 Order of precedence for requirements documents. (a) Office of Management and Budget...

  15. Biliary Phospholipids Sustain Enterocyte Proliferation and Intestinal Tumor Progression via Nuclear Receptor Lrh1 in mice

    PubMed Central

    Petruzzelli, Michele; Piccinin, Elena; Pinto, Claudio; Peres, Claudia; Bellafante, Elena; Moschetta, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The proliferative-crypt compartment of the intestinal epithelium is enriched in phospholipids and accumulation of phospholipids has been described in colorectal tumors. Here we hypothesize that biliary phospholipid flow could directly contribute to the proliferative power of normal and dysplastic enterocytes. We used Abcb4−/− mice which lack biliary phospholipid secretion. We first show that Abcb4−/− mice are protected against intestinal tumorigenesis. At the molecular level, the transcriptional activity of the nuclear receptor Liver Receptor Homolog-1 (Lrh1) is reduced in Abcb4−/− mice and its re-activation re-establishes a tumor burden comparable to control mice. Feeding Abcb4−/− mice a diet supplemented with phospholipids completely overcomes the intestinal tumor protective phenotype, thus corroborating the hypothesis that the absence of biliary phospholipids and not lack of Abcb4 gene per se is responsible for the protection. In turn, phospholipids cannot re-establish intestinal tumorigenesis in Abcb4−/− mice crossed with mice with intestinal specific ablation of Lrh1, a nuclear hormone receptor that is activates by phospholipids. Our data identify the key role of biliary phospholipids in sustaining intestinal mucosa proliferation and tumor progression through the activation of nuclear receptor Lrh1. PMID:27995969

  16. Properties of a Hydrated Excess Proton Near the Cholesterol-Containing Phospholipid Bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Takefumi

    In order to study effects of cholesterol (Chol) on the interaction between the excess proton and the phospholipid bilayer, reactive molecular dynamics simulations are performed with the multistate empirical valence bond model. Although Chol significantly affects the bilayer structure, the proton affinity of the Chol-containing phospholipid bilayer is as high as that of the pure phospholipid bilayer. It is found that the excess proton is strongly trapped by the carbonyl groups and the phosphate groups of the phospholipids. This structure is quite similar to the structure observed in the pure lipid bilayer systems.

  17. Characterization of phospholipid composition and its control in the plasma membrane of developing soybean root

    SciTech Connect

    Whitman, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    The phospholipid composition of plasma membrane enriched fractions from developing soybean root and several mechanisms which may regulate it have been examined. Plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from meristematic and mature sections of four-day-old dark grown soybean roots (Glycine max (L.) Merr. Cult. Wells II). Analysis of lipid extracts revealed two major phospholipid classes: phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Minor phospholipid classes were phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylgylcerol and diphosphatidylgylcerol. Phospholipid composition was similar at each developmental stage. Fatty acids of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were 16:0, 18:0, 18:2, and 18:3. Fatty acid composition varied with both phospholipid class and the developmental stage of the root. The degradation of phosphatidylcholine by endogenous phospholipase D during membrane isolation indicated that this enzyme might be involved in phospholipid turnover within the membrane. Phospholipase D activity was heat labile and increasing the pH of the enzyme assay from 5.3 to 7.8 resulted in 90% inhibition of activity. The turnover of fatty acids within the phospholipids of the plasma membrane was studied. Mature root sections were incubated with (1-/sup 14/C) acetate, 1 mM Na acetate and 50 ..mu..g/ml chloramphenicol. Membrane lipid extracts analyzed for phospholipid class and acyl chain composition revealed that the long incubation times did not alter the phospholipid composition of the plasma membrane enriched fraction.

  18. The Effects of Conditions of Cerebral Anoxia, on Phospholipids, Metabolism, and Circulation of the Brain.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Anoxia, *Phospholipids, Blood circulation, Pathology, Blood plasma , Erythrocytes, Patients, Metabolism, Blood chemistry, Brain, Experimental data, Dogs, Laboratory animals, Tables(Data), Blood diseases

  19. A retrospective: Use of Escherichia coli as a vehicle to study phospholipid synthesis and function

    PubMed Central

    Dowhan, William

    2012-01-01

    Although the study of individual phospholipids and their synthesis began in the 1920’s first in plants and then mammals, it was not until the early 1960’s that Eugene Kennedy using Escherichia coli initiated studies of bacterial phospholipid metabolism. With the base of information already available from studies of mammalian tissue, the basic blueprint of phospholipid biosynthesis in E. coli was worked out by the late 1960’s. In 1970’s and 1980’s most of the enzymes responsible for phospholipid biosynthesis were purified and many of the genes encoding these enzymes were identified. By the late 1990’s conditional and null mutants were available along with clones of the genes for every step of phospholipid biosynthesis. Most of these genes had been sequenced before the complete E. coli genome sequence was available. Strains of E. coli were developed in which phospholipid composition could be changed in a systematic manner while maintaining cell viability. Null mutants, strains in which phospholipid metabolism was artificially regulated, and strains synthesizing foreign lipids not found in E. coli have been used to this day to define specific roles for individual phospholipid. This review will trace the findings that have led to the development of E. coli as an excellent model system to study mechanisms underlying the synthesis and function of phospholipids that are widely applicable to other prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. PMID:22925633

  20. Flow of glucose carbon into cholesterol and phospholipids in various regions of the adult rat brain: enhanced incorporation into hypothalamic phospholipids

    SciTech Connect

    Barkai, A.I.

    1981-01-01

    The contribution of glucose carbon to the biosynthesis of cholesterol and phospholipids in distinct brain regions was studied quantitatively in the adult male rat. Rates of flow of glucose carbon into the lipids in vivo were calculated from two measurements: the curve representing the decrease in plasma /sup 14/C-glucose with time and the specific activity of the cerebral lipid 180 minutes after a rapid intravenous injection of a tracer dose of D-U /sup 14/C-glucose. The following brain regions were studied: cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, medulla, and corpus callosum and cerebellum. The values for carbon flow into phospholipids were significantly higher in the hypothalamus than in the whole brain, whereas small, but insignificant, regional differences were found for carbon flow into cholesterol. The conversion of U-/sup 14/C-glucose to individual phospholipids of both hypothalamus and cerebral cortex was further investigated in vitro in order to establish whether the higher rate of carbon flow into hypothalamic phospholipids resulted from enhanced synthesis of a particular phospholipid. In agreement with the results obtained in vivo, the rate of incorporation of /sup 14/C into total phospholipids was 60% higher in hypothalamic tissue. The results indicate that the higher rate of carbon flow into hypothalamic phospholipids might be attributed to enhanced incorporation of glucose carbon to phosphatidyl-choline and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine following a faster conversion of glucose to glycerol in this brain region.

  1. Regulation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3/Akt signalling by inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Eramo, Matthew J; Mitchell, Christina A

    2016-02-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) generated lipid signals, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and PtdIns(3,4)P2, are both required for the maximal activation of the serine/threonine kinase proto-oncogene Akt. The inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases (5-phosphatases) hydrolyse the 5-position phosphate from the inositol head group of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 to yield PtdIns(3,4)P2. Extensive work has revealed several 5-phosphatases inhibit PI3K-driven Akt signalling, by decreasing PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 despite increasing cellular levels of PtdIns(3,4)P2. The roles that 5-phosphatases play in suppressing cell proliferation and transformation are slow to emerge; however, the 5-phosphatase PIPP [proline-rich inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase; inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (INPP5J)] has recently been identified as a putative tumour suppressor in melanoma and breast cancer and SHIP1 [SH2 (Src homology 2)-containing inositol phosphatase 1] inhibits haematopoietic cell proliferation. INPP5E regulates cilia stability and INPP5E mutations have been implicated ciliopathy syndromes. This review will examine 5-phosphatase regulation of PI3K/Akt signalling, focussing on the role PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 5-phosphatases play in developmental diseases and cancer.

  2. Formation of inositol 1,3,4,6-tetrakisphosphate during angiotensin II action in bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Balla, T.; Guillemette, G.; Baukal, A.J.; Catt, K.J.

    1987-10-14

    Angiotensin II stimulates the formation of several inositol polyphosphates in cultured bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells prelabelled with (/sup 3/H) inositol. Analysis by high performance anion exchange chromatography of the inositol-phosphate compounds revealed the existence of two additional inositol tetrakisphosphate (InsP4) isomers in proximity to Ins-1,3,4,5-P4, the known phosphorylation product of Ins-1,4,5-trisphosphate and precursor of Ins-1,3,4-trisphosphate. Both of these new compounds showed a slow increase after stimulation with angiotensin II. The structure of one of these new InsP4 isomers, which is a phosphorylation product of Ins-1,3,4-P3, was deduced by its resistance to periodate oxidation to be Ins-1,3,4,6-P4. The existence of multiple cycles of phosphorylation-dephosphorylation reactions for the processing of Ins-1,4,5-P4 may represent a new aspect of the inositol-lipid related signalling mechanism in agonist-activated target cells.

  3. Methyl-inositol, γ-aminobutyric acid and other health benefit compounds in the aril of litchi.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zi-Chen; Yang, Zhuan-Ying; Li, Jian-Guo; Chen, Hou-Bin; Huang, Xu-Ming; Wang, Hui-Cong

    2016-11-01

    The available components in the flesh of litchi seem insufficient to interpret its wide and significant physiological effects. Some unusual compounds, including myo-inositol, inositol methyl derivatives and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were identified as main constituents in the flesh of litchi. Their concentrations varied among cultivars but remain relatively constant during development. Litchi flesh was shown to contain moderate myo-inositol (0.28-0.78 mg g(-1) FW), ascorbic acid (0.08-0.39 mg g(-1) FW) and phenolics (0.47-1.60 mg g(-1) FW), but abundant l-quebrachitol (1.6-6.4 mg g(-1) FW) and GABA (1.7-3.5 mg g(-1) FW). The concentration of GABA in the flesh of litchi was about 100 times higher than in other fruits. And l-quebrachitol is not a common component in fruits. The biological and physiological activities of inositols, inositol derivatives and GABA have been extensively documented. These compounds are probably important compositional characteristic contributing to the widely shown health benefits of litchi.

  4. Certain Malvaceae Plants Have a Unique Accumulation of myo-Inositol 1,2,4,5,6-Pentakisphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Phillippy, Brian Q.; Perera, Imara Y.; Donahue, Janet L.; Gillaspy, Glenda E.

    2015-01-01

    Methods used to quantify inositol phosphates in seeds lack the sensitivity and specificity necessary to accurately detect the lower concentrations of these compounds contained in the leaves of many plants. In order to measure inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) and inositol pentakisphosphate (InsP5) levels in leaves of different plants, a method was developed to concentrate and pre-purify these compounds prior to analysis. Inositol phosphates were extracted from leaves with diluted HCl and concentrated on small anion exchange columns. Reversed-phase solid phase extraction cartridges were used to remove compounds that give peaks that sometimes interfere during HPLC. The method permitted the determination of InsP6 and InsP5 concentrations in leaves as low as 10 µM and 2 µM, respectively. Most plants analyzed contained a high ratio of InsP6 to InsP5. In contrast, certain members of the Malvaceae family, such as cotton (Gossypium) and some hibiscus (Hibiscus) species, had a preponderance of InsP5. Radiolabeling of cotton seedlings also showed increased amounts of InsP5 relative to InsP6. Why some Malvaceae species exhibit a reversal of the typical ratios of these inositol phosphates is an intriguing question for future research. PMID:27135328

  5. [3H]Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol hydrolysis by extracts of Zea mays L. vegetative tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, P. J.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    [3H]Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was hydrolyzed by buffered extracts of acetone powders prepared from 4 day shoots of dark grown Zea mays L. seedlings. The hydrolytic activity was proportional to the amount of extract added and was linear for up to 6 hours at 37 degrees C. Boiled or alcohol denatured extracts were inactive. Analysis of reaction mixtures by high performance liquid chromatography demonstrated that not all isomers of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol were hydrolyzed at the same rate. Buffered extracts of acetone powders were prepared from coleoptiles and mesocotyls. The rates of hydrolysis observed with coleoptile extracts were greater than those observed with mesocotyl extracts. Active extracts also catalyzed the hydrolysis of esterase substrates such as alpha-naphthyl acetate and the methyl esters of indoleacetic acid and naphthyleneacetic acid. Attempts to purify the indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol hydrolyzing activity by chromatographic procedures resulted in only slight purification with large losses of activity. Chromatography over hydroxylapatite allowed separation of two enzymically active fractions, one of which catalyzed the hydrolysis of both indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and esterase substrates. With the other enzymic hydrolysis of esterase substrates was readily demonstrated, but no hydrolysis of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was ever detected.

  6. Inhibitory effects of phytic acid and other inositol phosphates on zinc and calcium absorption in suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, B; Sandberg, A S; Sandström, B; Kunz, C

    1989-02-01

    While it is known that phytic acid, inositol hexaphosphate, has a negative effect on zinc and calcium absorption, the effects of inositol which is phosphorylated to a lesser extent are less known. We have prepared inositol triphosphate (IP-3), tetraphosphate (IP-4), pentaphosphate (IP-5) and hexaphosphate (IP-6) by hydrolysis of sodium phytate and separation by ion-exchange chromatography and have studied their effect on zinc and calcium absorption. Using a suckling rat pup model, we found that liver uptake of 65Zn after 6 h was 5% of the total dose from solutions of IP-6, 19% from IP-5, 28% from IP-4, 29% from IP-3 and 31% from ZnCl2 (control). Non-absorbed calcium was 17%, 1.4%, 0.5%, 0.5% and 0.5% of the given dose of 45Ca, respectively. Thus, at a high degree of phosphorylation (IP-6, IP-5), zinc and calcium uptake was inhibited, while no effect was observed for the other phosphates. Consequently, total "phytate" analysis, which includes inositol phosphates with varying degrees of phosphorylation, can give misleading information with regard to mineral availability. In addition, even limited dephosphorylation of inositol hexaphosphate can have a positive effect on mineral absorption.

  7. Kinetics, substrate specificity, and stereospecificity of two new protein tyrosine phosphatase-like inositol polyphosphatases from Selenomonas lacticifex.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Aaron A; Greiner, Ralf; Selinger, L Brent

    2008-08-01

    Inositol polyphosphatases (IPPases) play an important role in the metabolism of inositol polyphosphates, a class of molecules involved in signal transduction. Here we characterize 2 new protein tyrosine phosphatase-like IPPases (PhyAsl and PhyBsl) cloned from Selenomonas lacticifex that can hydrolyze myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) in vitro. To determine their preferred substrates and stereospecificity of InsP6 dephosphorylation, a combination of kinetic and high-performance ion pair chromatography studies were conducted. Despite only 33% amino acid sequence identity between them, both enzymes display strict specificity for IPP substrates and cleave InsP6 primarily at the D-3-phosphate position (>90%). Furthermore, both enzymes predominantly degrade InsP6 to Ins(2)P via identical and very specific routes of dephosphorylation (3,4,5,6,1). Despite these similarities, PhylAsl is shown to have a slight kinetic preference for the major inositol pentakisphosphate intermediate in its InsP6 hydrolysis pathway, whereas PhyBsl displays a unique and substantial preference for an inositol tetrakisphosphate intermediate.

  8. Oxidative stress and susceptibility to mitochondrial permeability transition precedes the onset of diabetes in autoimmune non-obese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Malaguti, C; La Guardia, P G; Leite, A C R; Oliveira, D N; de Lima Zollner, R L; Catharino, R R; Vercesi, A E; Oliveira, H C F

    2014-12-01

    Beta cell destruction in type 1 diabetes (TID) is associated with cellular oxidative stress and mitochondrial pathway of cell death. The aim of this study was to determine whether oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are present in T1D model (non-obese diabetic mouse, NOD) and if they are related to the stages of disease development. NOD mice were studied at three stages: non-diabetic, pre-diabetic, and diabetic and compared with age-matched Balb/c mice. Mitochondria respiration rates measured at phosphorylating and resting states in liver and soleus biopsies and in isolated liver mitochondria were similar in NOD and Balb/c mice at the three disease stages. However, NOD liver mitochondria were more susceptible to calcium-induced mitochondrial permeability transition as determined by cyclosporine-A-sensitive swelling and by decreased calcium retention capacity in all three stages of diabetes development. Mitochondria H2O2 production rate was higher in non-diabetic, but unaltered in pre-diabetic and diabetic NOD mice. The global cell reactive oxygen species (ROS), but not specific mitochondria ROS production, was significantly increased in NOD lymphomononuclear and stem cells in all disease stages. In addition, marked elevated rates of 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (H2DCF) oxidation were observed in pancreatic islets from non-diabetic NOD mice. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) and lipidomic approach, we identified oxidized lipid markers in NOD liver mitochondria for each disease stage, most of them being derivatives of diacylglycerols and phospholipids. These results suggest that the cellular oxidative stress precedes the establishment of diabetes and may be the cause of mitochondrial dysfunction that is involved in beta cell death.

  9. Slow Phospholipid Exchange between a Detergent-Solubilized Membrane Protein and Lipid-Detergent Mixed Micelles: Brominated Phospholipids as Tools to Follow Its Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Montigny, Cédric; Dieudonné, Thibaud; Orlowski, Stéphane; Vázquez-Ibar, José Luis; Gauron, Carole; Georgin, Dominique; Lund, Sten; le Maire, Marc; Møller, Jesper V.; Champeil, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Membrane proteins are largely dependent for their function on the phospholipids present in their immediate environment, and when they are solubilized by detergent for further study, residual phospholipids are critical, too. Here, brominated phosphatidylcholine, a phospholipid which behaves as an unsaturated phosphatidylcholine, was used to reveal the kinetics of phospholipid exchange or transfer from detergent mixed micelles to the environment of a detergent-solubilized membrane protein, the paradigmatic P-type ATPase SERCA1a, in which Trp residues can experience fluorescence quenching by bromine atoms present on phospholipid alkyl chains in their immediate environment. Using dodecylmaltoside as the detergent, exchange of (brominated) phospholipid was found to be much slower than exchange of detergent under the same conditions, and also much slower than membrane solubilization, the latter being evidenced by light scattering changes. The kinetics of this exchange was strongly dependent on temperature. It was also dependent on the total concentration of the mixed micelles, revealing the major role for such exchange of the collision of detergent micelles with the detergent-solubilized protein. Back-transfer of the brominated phospholipid from the solubilized protein to the detergent micelle was much faster if lipid-free DDM micelles instead of mixed micelles were added for triggering dissociation of brominated phosphatidylcholine from the solubilized protein, or in the additional presence of C12E8 detergent during exchange, also emphasizing the role of the chemical nature of the micelle/protein interface. This protocol using brominated lipids appears to be valuable for revealing the possibly slow kinetics of phospholipid transfer to or from detergent-solubilized membrane proteins. Independently, continuous recording of the activity of the protein can also be used in some cases to correlate changes in activity with the exchange of a specific phospholipid, as shown here

  10. Phospholipid and Hydrocarbon Interactions with a Charged Electrode Interface.

    PubMed

    Levine, Zachary A; DeNardis, Nadica Ivošević; Vernier, P Thomas

    2016-03-22

    Using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and experiments we examined the interactions of alkanes and phospholipids at charged interfaces in order to understand how interfacial charge densities affect the association of these two representative molecules with electrodes. Consistent with theory and experiment, these model systems reveal interfacial associations mediated through a combination of Coulombic and van der Waals forces. van der Waals forces, in particular, mediate rapid binding of decane to neutral electrodes. No decane binding was observed at high surface charge densities because of interfacial water polarization, which screens hydrophobic attractions. The positively charged choline moiety of the phospholipid palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC) is primarily responsible for POPC attraction by a moderately negatively charged electrode. The hydrocarbon tails of POPC interact with the hydrophobic electrode interface similarly to decane. Previously reported electrochemical results confirm these findings by demonstrating bipolar displacement currents from PC vesicles adhering to moderately negatively charged interfaces, originating from the choline interactions observed in simulations. At more negatively charged interfaces, choline-to-surface binding was stronger. In both simulations and experiments the maximal interaction of anionic PS occurs with a positively charged interface, provided that the electrostatic forces outweigh local Lennard-Jones interactions. Direct comparisons between the binding affinities measured in experiments and those obtained in simulations reveal previously unobserved atomic interactions that facilitate lipid vesicle adhesion to charged interfaces. Moreover, the implementation of a charged interface in molecular dynamics simulations provides an alternative method for the generation of large electric fields across phospholipid bilayers, especially for systems with periodic boundary conditions, and may be useful for

  11. Structural identification and cardiovascular activities of oxidized phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Robert G

    2012-09-14

    Free radical-induced oxidation of membrane phospholipids generates complex mixtures of oxidized phospholipids (oxPLs). The combinatorial operation of a few dozen reaction types on a few dozen phospholipid structures results in the production of a dauntingly vast diversity of oxPL molecular species. Structural identification of the individual oxPL in these mixtures is a redoubtable challenge that is absolutely essential to allow determination of the biological activities of individual species. With an emphasis on cardiovascular consequences, this Review focuses on biological activities of oxPLs whose molecular structures are known and highlights 2 diametrically opposite approaches that were used to determine those structures, that is, (1) the classic approach from bioactivity of a complex mixture to isolation and structural characterization of the active molecule followed by confirmation of the structure by unambiguous chemical synthesis and (2) hypothesis of products that are likely to be generated by lipid oxidation, followed by synthesis, and then detection in vivo guided by the availability of authentic standards, and last, characterization of biological activities. Especially important for the application of the second paradigm is the capability of LC-MS/MS and derivatizations to selectively detect and quantify specific oxPL in complex mixtures, without the need for their isolation or complete separation. This technology can provide strong evidence for identity by comparisons with pure, well-characterized samples available by chemical syntheses. Those pure samples are critical for determining the biological activities attributable to specific molecular species of oxPLs in the complex mixtures generated in vivo as a consequence of oxidative stress.

  12. Transfer of oleic acid between albumin and phospholipid vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.A.; Cistola, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The net transfer of oleic acid between egg phosphatidylcholine unilamellar vesicles and bovine serum albumin has been monitored by TC NMR spectroscopy and 90% isotopically substituted (1- TC)oleic acid. The carboxyl chemical shifts of oleic acid bound to albumin were different from those for oleic acid in phospholipid vesicles. Therefore, in mixtures of donor particles, the equilibrium distribution of oleic acid was determined from chemical shift and peak intensity data without separation of donor and acceptor particles. In a system containing equal masses of albumin and phospholipid and a stoichiometry of 4-5 mol of oleic acid per mol of albumin, the oleic acid distribution was pH dependent, with greater than or equal to80% of the oleic acid associated with albumin at pH 7.4; association was greater than or equal to90% at pH 8.0. Decreasing the pH below 7.4 markedly decreased the proportion of fatty acid bound to albumin. The distribution was reversible with pH and was independent of whether vesicles or albumin acted as a donor. These data suggest that pH may strongly influence the partitioning of fatty acid between cellular membranes and albumin. The TC NMR method is also advantageous because it provides information about the structural environments of oleic acid bound to albumin or phospholipid, the ionization state of oleic acid in each environment, and the structural integrity of the vesicles. In addition, minimum and maximum limits for the exchange rates of oleic acid among different environments were obtained from the NMR data.

  13. Influence of bioregulators on the phospholipid Langmuir monolayers.

    PubMed

    Mogilevich, A S; Mogilevich, S E; Luik, A L

    1997-01-01

    Influence of bioregulators on the phospholipid Langmuir monolayers made of distearoylphosphatidylcholine and its equimolar mixture with dimitrystoylphosphatidylcholine was investigated. The results obtained allow concluding that the presence of physiologically active compounds in the subphase weakens the lipid-lipid interaction and increases the free energy change of air-liquid interface in the case of pure distearoylphosphatidylcholine monolayers, but in the case of mixed monolayers it leads both to the increase and decrease of these parameters. Presence of the dimirystoylphosphatidylcholine molecules with the short fatty acyl chains in the monolayer destabilizes it. This effect is partially compensated by the interaction between lipid and subphase molecules.

  14. Antibodies to Phospholipids and Liposomes: Binding of Antibodies to Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    LIPOSOMES: BINDING OF ANTIBODIES TO CELLS 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) W.E. FOGLER , G. M. SWARTZ, AND C.R. ALVING 13a TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE...Elsevier BBA 73693 Antibodies to phospholipids and liposomes: binding of antibodies to cells William E. Fogler *, Glenn M. Swartz, Jr. and Carl R. Alving...Immunol. 21. Research Associateship from the U.S. National 12863-86812Hall. T. and Esser, K. (1984) 3. Immunol. 132. 2059-2063 Research Council. 13 Fogler

  15. Rising catch variability preceded historical fisheries collapses in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Litzow, Michael A; Mueter, Franz J; Urban, J Daniel

    2013-09-01

    Statistical indicators such as rising variance and rising skewness in key system parameters may provide early warning of "regime shifts" in communities and populations. However, the utility of these indicators has rarely been tested in the large, complex ecosystems that are of most interest to managers. Crustacean fisheries in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea experienced a series of collapses beginning in the 1970s, and we used spatially resolved catch data from these fisheries to test the predictions that increasing variability and skewness would precede stock collapse. Our data set consisted of catch data from 14 fisheries (12 collapsing and two non-collapsing), spanning 278 cumulative years. Our sampling unit for analysis was the Alaska Department of Fish and Game statistical reporting area (mean n for individual fisheries = 42 areas, range 7-81). We found that spatial variability in catches increased prior to stock collapse: a random-effects model estimating trend in variability across all 12 collapsing fisheries showed strong evidence of increasing variability prior to collapse. Individual trends in variability were statistically significant for only four of the 12 collapsing fisheries, suggesting that rising variability might be most effective as an indicator when information from multiple populations is available. Analyzing data across multiple fisheries allowed us to detect increasing variability 1-4 years prior to collapse, and trends in variability were significantly different for collapsing and non-collapsing fisheries. In spite of theoretical expectations, we found no evidence of pre-collapse increases in catch skewness. Further, while models generally predict that rising variability should be a transient phenomenon around collapse points, increased variability was a persistent feature of collapsed fisheries in our study. We conclude that this result is more consistent with fishing effects as the cause of increased catch variability, rather than the

  16. A Precedent-setting Case of Dynamic Triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomberg, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    On October 28, 2012 the M7.7 Haida Gwaii, British Columbia earthquake broke the southern end of the Queen Charlotte plate-boundary fault system. Less than 3 months later on January 5, 2013 the M7.5 Craig, Alaska earthquake broke the same fault system ~385 km to the northwest. In its public statements about the Craig earthquake, the US Geological Survey noted its likely causal connection with the Haida Gwaii earthquake three months earlier. This inference was based on the improbability of two large earthquakes with recurrence intervals of hundreds of years or more on the same fault system occurring within the same 3-month interval by chance (the Poisson probability is ~.0004% assuming a 100 yr recurrence interval). What physical processes plausibly connect these two events? Although of the correct sign to encourage failure, static stress changes were more than an order of magnitude smaller than triggering thresholds documented elsewhere, and the duration between the events was too small for accrual of significant visco-elastic stress changes. The M7.7 Haida Gwaii earthquake was noteworthy in many aspects, but most remarkable was that the seismic waves it radiated probably dynamically triggered the M7.5 Craig earthquake thereby setting two new important precedents. First, the magnitude of the triggered earthquake exceeds all previously documented cases of dynamic triggering of frictional, shear failure earthquakes. Second, the extraordinarily large amplitude (peak velocities in excess of 1 cm/s) and long duration (several 100 sec) triggering waves likely resulted from trapping of energy within a sedimentary trough, rather than from focusing due to source effects as in most previous examples of clear dynamic triggering. Unlike source characteristics that vary unpredictably from event to event, the permanence of structural features that act as wave-guides suggests enhanced triggering probabilities in this and likely the numerous other settings. In these settings

  17. The phospholipid code: a key component of dying cell recognition, tumor progression and host–microbe interactions

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, A A; Hulett, M D; Poon, I KH

    2015-01-01

    A significant effort is made by the cell to maintain certain phospholipids at specific sites. It is well described that proteins involved in intracellular signaling can be targeted to the plasma membrane and organelles through phospholipid-binding domains. Thus, the accumulation of a specific combination of phospholipids, denoted here as the ‘phospholipid code', is key in initiating cellular processes. Interestingly, a variety of extracellular proteins and pathogen-derived proteins can also recognize or modify phospholipids to facilitate the recognition of dying cells, tumorigenesis and host–microbe interactions. In this article, we discuss the importance of the phospholipid code in a range of physiological and pathological processes. PMID:26450453

  18. Lily pollen alkaline phytase is a histidine phosphatase similar to mammalian multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatase (MINPP).

    PubMed

    Mehta, Bakul Dhagat; Jog, Sonali P; Johnson, Steven C; Murthy, Pushpalatha P N

    2006-09-01

    Phytic acid is the most abundant inositol phosphate in cells; it constitutes 1-5% of the dry weight of cereal grains and legumes. Phytases are the primary enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of phytic acid and thus play important roles in inositol phosphate metabolism. A novel alkaline phytase in lily pollen (LlALP) was recently purified in our laboratory. In this paper, we describe the cloning and characterization of LlALP cDNA from lily pollen. Two isoforms of alkaline phytase cDNAs, LlAlp1 and LlAlp2, which are 1467 and 1533 bp long and encod