Sample records for inoxidaveis super 13cr

  1. Corrosion resistance of high-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels in super-critical pressurized water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, H. S.; Kimura, A.

    2007-08-01

    The effects of alloying elements, such as Cr and Al, on corrosion resistance in super critical pressurized water (SCPW) have been investigated to develop corrosion resistant oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels. Corrosion tests were performed in a SCPW (783 K, 25 MPa) environment. Weight gain was measured after exposure to the SCPW, and then oxide layers were analyzed by low angle X-ray diffraction and SEM microscopy. The weight gains of all high-Cr ODS steels are smaller than an austenitic stainless steel (SUS316L). More uniform and thinner oxidation layers were observed on the ODS steels after corrosion compared to those on 9Cr martensitic steel and SUS316L.

  2. SuperTIGER: On the Cosmic Ray Charge Frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Theresa J.

    2017-08-01

    The Super Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder (SuperTIGER) was designed to measure significant statistics particularly for cosmic rays (CRs) with charge > 30. These heaviest nuclei are some 10^3-10^5 times rarer than the lighter elements. With the longest science flight to date on a Long Duration Balloon in 2012-13, SuperTIGER has collected >1200 of these rare nuclei and millions of lighter CR events. After the instrument spent two winters in Antarctica, we recovered it and are completing preparations for a second flight. We present results from the first flight, including the highest statistical precision measurements of CR charges from 30-40 to date. We anticipate even greater improvements with our second flight, this coming austral summer, 2017-18 from McMurdo, Antarctica. The results show enhanced numbers of elements formed in massive stars relative to solar system values, and thus give insight into the origin of Galactic CRs, likely in OB associations, and into the atomic processes which accelerate nuclei.

  3. Microstructure of Vacuum-Brazed Joints of Super-Ni/NiCr Laminated Composite Using Nickel-Based Amorphous Filler Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qunshuang; Li, Yajiang; Wu, Na; Wang, Juan

    2013-06-01

    Vacuum brazing of super-Ni/NiCr laminated composite and Cr18-Ni8 stainless steel was carried out using Ni-Cr-Si-B amorphous filler metal at 1060, 1080, and 1100 °C, respectively. Microstructure and phase constitution were investigated by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and micro-hardness tester. When brazed at 1060-1080 °C, the brazed region can be divided into two distinct zones: isothermally solidified zone (ISZ) consisting of γ-Ni solid solution and athermally solidified zone (ASZ) consisting of Cr-rich borides. Micro-hardness of the Cr-rich borides formed in the ASZ was as high as 809 HV50 g. ASZ decreased with increase of the brazing temperature. Isothermal solidification occurred sufficiently at 1100 °C and an excellent joint composed of γ-Ni solid solution formed. The segregation of boron from ISZ to residual liquid phase is the reason of Cr-rich borides formed in ASZ. The formation of secondary precipitates in diffusion-affected zone is mainly controlled by diffusion of B.

  4. High-Power Diode Laser-Treated 13Cr4Ni Stainless Steel for Hydro Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, B. S.

    2014-06-01

    The cast martensitic chromium nickel stainless steels such as 13Cr4Ni, 16Cr5Ni, and 17Cr4Ni PH have found wide application in hydro turbines. These steels have adequate corrosion resistance with good mechanical properties because of chromium content of more than 12%. The 13Cr4Ni stainless steel is most widely used among these steels; however, lacks silt, cavitation, and water impingement erosion resistances (SER, CER, and WIER). This article deals with characterizing 13Cr4Ni stainless steel for silt, cavitation, and water impingement erosion; and studying its improved SER, CER, and WIER behavior after high-power diode laser (HPDL) surface treatment. The WIER and CER have improved significantly after laser treatment, whereas there is a marginal improvement in SER. The main reason for improved WIER and CER is due to its increased surface hardness and formation of fine-grained microstructure after HPDL surface treatment. CER and WIER of HPDL-treated 13Cr4Ni stainless steel samples have been evaluated as per ASTM G32-2003 and ASTM G73-1978, respectively; and these were correlated with microstructure and mechanical properties such as ultimate tensile strength, modified ultimate resilience, and microhardness. The erosion damage mechanism, compared on the basis of scanning electron micrographs and mechanical properties, is discussed and reported in this article.

  5. Kinetics of Cr/Mo-rich precipitates formation for 25Cr-6.9Ni-3.8Mo-0.3N super duplex stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Sang-Ho; Kang, Namhyun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Ahn, Sang-Kon; Lee, Hae Woo; Chang, Woong-Seong; Cho, Kyung-Mox

    2012-04-01

    The amount and composition of Cr-rich (σ) and Mo-rich (χ) precipitates in super duplex stainless steels was analyzed. An isothermal heat treatment was conducted at temperatures ranging from 700 °C to 1000 °C for up to 10 days. A time-temperature transformation (TTT) diagram was constructed for the mixture of σ and χ phases. The mixture of the σ and χ phases exhibited the fastest rate of formation at approximately 900 °C. Minor phases, such as Cr2N, M23C6, and M7C3, were also detected using a transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Also, a continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram was constructed for the mixture of σ and χ phases using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation. Compared with the known CCT diagram of the σ phase, this study revealed faster kinetics with an order of magnitude difference and a new CCT diagram was also developed for a mixture of σ and χ phases. The calculated fraction of σ and χ phases obtained at a cooling speed of 0.5 °C/s was in good agreement with the experimental data.

  6. Optimizing Heat Treatment Process of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni Martensitic Stainless of Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, M. S.; Prifiharni, S.; Mabruri, E.

    2017-05-01

    The Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni stainless steels are modified into martensitic stainless steels for steam turbine blades application. The working temperature of steam turbine was around 600 - 700 °C. The improvement properties of turbine blade material is necessary to maintain steam turbine work. The previous research revealed that it has corrosion resistance of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni which is better than 13Cr stainless steels in the chloride environment. In this work, the effect of heat treatment on microstructure and hardness of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni stainless steels has been studied. The steel was prepared by induction melting followed by hot forging. The steels were austenitized at 1000, 1050, and 1100 °C for 1 hour and were tempered at 600, 650, and 700 °C for 1 hour. The steels were then subjected to metallographic observation and hardness test of Rockwell C. The optimal heat treatment of Fe-13Cr-3Mo-3Ni was carried out austenitized in 1050 °C and tempered in 600 - 700 °C.

  7. Effect of laser absorption on picosecond laser ablation of Cr12MoV mold steel, 9Cr18 stainless steel and H13A cemented carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Baoye; Liu, Peng; Wang, Xizhao; Zhang, Fei; Deng, Leimin; Duan, Jun; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2018-05-01

    Due to excellent properties, Cr12MoV mold steel, 9Cr18 stainless steel and H13A cemented carbide are widely used in industry. In this paper, the effect of absorption of laser light on ablation efficiency and roughness have been studied using a picosecond pulse Nd:YVO4 laser. The experimental results reveal that laser wavelength, original surface roughness and chemical composition play an important role in controlling ablation efficiency and roughness. Firstly, higher ablation efficiency with lower surface roughness is achieved on the ablation of 9Cr18 at 532, comparing with 1064 nm. Secondly, the ablation efficiency increases while the Ra of the ablated region decreases with the decrease of original surface roughness on ablation of Cr12MoV mold steel at 532 nm. Thirdly, the ablation efficiency of H13A cemented carbide is much higher than 9Cr18 stainless steel and Cr12MoV mold steel at 1064 nm. Scanning electron microscopy images reveals the formation of pores on the surface of 9Cr18 stainless steel and Cr12MoV mold steel at 532 nm while no pores are formed at 1064 nm. As to H13A cemented carbide, worm-like structure is formed at 1064 nm. The synergetic effects of the heat accumulation, plasma shielding and ablation threshold on laser ablation efficiency and machining quality were analyzed and discussed systematically in this paper.

  8. Implications of the Super-K atmospheric, long baseline, and reactor data for the mixing angles θ13 and θ23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escamilla-Roa, J.; Latimer, D. C.; Ernst, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    A three-neutrino analysis of oscillation data is performed using the recent, more finely binned Super-K oscillation data, together with the CHOOZ, K2K, and MINOS data. The solar parameters Δ21 and θ12 are fixed from a recent analysis and Δ32, θ13, and θ23 are varied. We utilize the full three-neutrino oscillation probability and an exact treatment of Earth’s Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect with a castle-wall density. By including terms linear in θ13 and ɛ:=θ23-π/4, we find asymmetric errors for these parameters θ13=-0.07-0.11+0.18 and ɛ=0.03-0.15+0.09. For θ13, we see that the lower bound is primarily set by the CHOOZ experiment while the upper bound is determined by the low energy e-like events in the Super-K atmospheric data. We find that the parameters θ13 and ɛ are correlated—the preferred negative value of θ13 permits the preferred value of θ23 to be in the second octant, and the true value of θ13 affects the allowed region for θ23.

  9. Super-Resolution for Color Imagery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    separately; however, it requires performing the super-resolution computation 3 times. We transform images in the default red, green, blue (RGB) color space...chrominance components based on ARL’s alias-free image upsampling using Fourier-based windowing methods. A reverse transformation is performed on... Transformation from sRGB to CIELAB............................................... 3 Fig. 2 YCbCr mathematical coordinate transformation

  10. Exfoliation and van der Waals heterostructure assembly of intercalated ferromagnet Cr1/3TaS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamasaki, Yuji; Moriya, Rai; Arai, Miho; Masubuchi, Satoru; Pyon, Sunseng; Tamegai, Tsuyoshi; Ueno, Keiji; Machida, Tomoki

    2017-12-01

    Ferromagnetic van der Waals (vdW) materials are in demand for spintronic devices with all-two-dimensional-materials heterostructures. Here, we demonstrate mechanical exfoliation of magnetic-atom-intercalated transition metal dichalcogenide Cr1/3TaS2 from its bulk crystal; previously such intercalated materials were thought difficult to exfoliate. Magnetotransport in exfoliated tens-of-nanometres-thick flakes revealed ferromagnetic ordering below its Curie temperature T C ~ 110 K as well as strong in-plane magnetic anisotropy; these are identical to its bulk properties. Further, van der Waals heterostructure assembly of Cr1/3TaS2 with another intercalated ferromagnet Fe1/4TaS2 is demonstrated using a dry-transfer method. The fabricated heterojunction composed of Cr1/3TaS2 and Fe1/4TaS2 with a native Ta2O5 oxide tunnel barrier in between exhibits tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR), revealing possible spin injection and detection with these exfoliatable ferromagnetic materials through the vdW junction.

  11. Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior of Hardening-Treated 13Cr Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Li-Bin; Ishitake, Hisamitsu; Izumi, Sakae; Shiokawa, Kunio; Yamashita, Mitsuo; Sakai, Yoshihiro

    2018-03-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of the hardening-treated materials of 13Cr stainless steel was examined with SSRT tests and constant load tests. In the simulated geothermal water and even in the test water without addition of impurities, the hardening-treated materials showed a brittle intergranular fracture due to the sensitization, which was caused by the present hardening-treatments.

  12. Effects of the partial substitution of Ni by Cr on the transport, magnetic, and magnetocaloric properties of Ni 50Mn 37In 13

    DOE PAGES

    Pandey, Sudip; Quetz, Abdiel; Aryal, Anil; ...

    2017-03-15

    Here, the structural, magnetic, and magnetotransport properties of Ni 50-xCr xMn 37In 13 Heusler alloys have been synthesized and investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), field and pressure dependent magnetization, and electrical resistivity measurements. The partial substitution of Ni by Cr in Ni 50Mn 37In 13 significantly improves the magnetocaloric effect in the vicinity of the martensitic transition (T M). This system also shows a large negative entropy change at the Curie temperature (T C), making it a candidate material for application in a refrigeration cycle that exploits both positive and negative magnetic entropy changes. The refrigeration capacity (RC) values atmore » T M and T C increase significantly by more than 20 % with Cr substitution. The application of hydrostatic pressure increases the temperature stability of the martensitic phase in Ni 45Cr 5Mn 37In 13. The influence of Cr substitution on the transport properties of Ni 48Cr 2Mn 37In 13 is discussed. An asymmetric magnetoresistance, i.e., a spin-valve-like behavior, has been observed near T M for Ni 48Cr 2Mn 37In 13.« less

  13. Effects of the partial substitution of Ni by Cr on the transport, magnetic, and magnetocaloric properties of Ni 50Mn 37In 13

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Pandey, Sudip; Quetz, Abdiel; Aryal, Anil

    Here, the structural, magnetic, and magnetotransport properties of Ni 50-xCr xMn 37In 13 Heusler alloys have been synthesized and investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), field and pressure dependent magnetization, and electrical resistivity measurements. The partial substitution of Ni by Cr in Ni 50Mn 37In 13 significantly improves the magnetocaloric effect in the vicinity of the martensitic transition (T M). This system also shows a large negative entropy change at the Curie temperature (T C), making it a candidate material for application in a refrigeration cycle that exploits both positive and negative magnetic entropy changes. The refrigeration capacity (RC) values atmore » T M and T C increase significantly by more than 20 % with Cr substitution. The application of hydrostatic pressure increases the temperature stability of the martensitic phase in Ni 45Cr 5Mn 37In 13. The influence of Cr substitution on the transport properties of Ni 48Cr 2Mn 37In 13 is discussed. An asymmetric magnetoresistance, i.e., a spin-valve-like behavior, has been observed near T M for Ni 48Cr 2Mn 37In 13.« less

  14. Cr13Ni5Si2-Based Composite Coating on Copper Deposited Using Pulse Laser Induction Cladding

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke; Wang, Hailin; Zhu, Guangzhi; Zhu, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    A Cr13Ni5Si2-based composite coating was successfully deposited on copper by pulse laser induction hybrid cladding (PLIC), and its high-temperature wear behavior was investigated. Temperature evolutions associated with crack behaviors in PLIC were analyzed and compared with pulse laser cladding (PLC) using the finite element method. The microstructure and present phases were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Compared with continuous laser induction cladding, the higher peak power offered by PLIC ensures metallurgical bonding between highly reflective copper substrate and coating. Compared with a wear test at room temperature, at 500 °C the wear volume of the Cr13Ni5Si2-based composite coating increased by 21%, and increased by 225% for a NiCr/Cr3C2 coating deposited by plasma spray. This novel technology has good prospects for application with respect to the extended service life of copper mold plates for slab continuous casting. PMID:28772519

  15. Cr13Ni5Si2-Based Composite Coating on Copper Deposited Using Pulse Laser Induction Cladding.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Wang, Hailin; Zhu, Guangzhi; Zhu, Xiao

    2017-02-10

    A Cr13Ni5Si2-based composite coating was successfully deposited on copper by pulse laser induction hybrid cladding (PLIC), and its high-temperature wear behavior was investigated. Temperature evolutions associated with crack behaviors in PLIC were analyzed and compared with pulse laser cladding (PLC) using the finite element method. The microstructure and present phases were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Compared with continuous laser induction cladding, the higher peak power offered by PLIC ensures metallurgical bonding between highly reflective copper substrate and coating. Compared with a wear test at room temperature, at 500 °C the wear volume of the Cr13Ni5Si2-based composite coating increased by 21%, and increased by 225% for a NiCr/Cr3C2 coating deposited by plasma spray. This novel technology has good prospects for application with respect to the extended service life of copper mold plates for slab continuous casting.

  16. Surface Nb-ALLOYING on 0.4C-13Cr Stainless Steel: Microstructure and Tribological Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shengwang; You, Kai; Liu, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Yihui; Wang, Zhenxia; Liu, Xiaoping

    2016-02-01

    0.4C-13Cr stainless steel was alloyed with niobium using double glow plasma surface alloying and tribological properties of Nb-alloyed steel such as hardness, friction and wear were measured. Effects of the alloying temperature on microstructure and the tribological behavior of the alloyed steel were investigated compared with untreated steel. Formation mechanisms of Nb-alloyed layers and increased wear resistance were also studied. The result shows that after surface Nb-alloying treatment, the 0.4C-13Cr steel exhibits a diffusion adhesion at the alloyed layer/substrate interface and improved tribological property. The friction coefficient of Nb-alloyed steel is decreased by about 0.3-0.45 and the wear rate after Nb-alloying is only 2-5% of untreated steel.

  17. Microwave absorption through the martensitic and Curie transitions in Ni45Cr5Mn37In13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Sudip; Vyzulin, Sergey; Quetz, Abdiel; Aryal, Anil; Dubenko, Igor; Granovsky, Alexander; Stadler, Shane; Ali, Naushad

    2018-05-01

    We have investigated the electron spin resonance (ESR) of the Ni45Cr5Mn37In13 Heusler alloy near the structural and magnetic phase transition temperatures. Ni45Cr5Mn37In13 is characterized by a first order magnetostructural (martensitic) transition (MST) with magneto-responsive properties such as magnetoresistance, Hall and magnetocaloric effects, etc., in the vicinity of the MST. Since the details and origins of these behaviors are not well understood, we used a technique beyond magnetometry, i.e., "microwave absorption", to reveal new information. ESR studies of Ni45Cr5Mn37In13 shows that this compound is characterized by wide absorption spectra at temperatures greater than 250 K that depend on the angle of the magnetic field relative to the normal to the sample plate (α) and temperature (T). Two local maxima at about 5 and 6 kOe were detected for α close to zero degrees near the martensitic transition and Curie temperatures. The absorption spectra are discussed along with the results of the structural and magnetic studies.

  18. Interface bonding of NiCrAlY coating on laser modified H13 tool steel surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza, M. S.; Aqida, S. N.; Ismail, I.

    2016-06-01

    Bonding strength of thermal spray coatings depends on the interfacial adhesion between bond coat and substrate material. In this paper, NiCrAlY (Ni-164/211 Ni22 %Cr10 %Al1.0 %Y) coatings were developed on laser modified H13 tool steel surface using atmospheric plasma spray (APS). Different laser peak power, P p, and duty cycle, DC, were investigated in order to improve the mechanical properties of H13 tool steel surface. The APS spraying parameters setting for coatings were set constant. The coating microstructure near the interface was analyzed using IM7000 inverted optical microscope. Interface bonding of NiCrAlY was investigated by interfacial indentation test (IIT) method using MMT-X7 Matsuzawa Hardness Tester Machine with Vickers indenter. Diffusion of atoms along NiCrAlY coating, laser modified and substrate layers was investigated by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) using Hitachi Tabletop Microscope TM3030 Plus. Based on IIT method results, average interfacial toughness, K avg, for reference sample was 2.15 MPa m1/2 compared to sample L1 range of K avg from 6.02 to 6.96 MPa m1/2 and sample L2 range of K avg from 2.47 to 3.46 MPa m1/2. Hence, according to K avg, sample L1 has the highest interface bonding and is being laser modified at lower laser peak power, P p, and higher duty cycle, DC, prior to coating. The EDXS analysis indicated the presence of Fe in the NiCrAlY coating layer and increased Ni and Cr composition in the laser modified layer. Atomic diffusion occurred in both coating and laser modified layers involved in Fe, Ni and Cr elements. These findings introduce enhancement of coating system by substrate surface modification to allow atomic diffusion.

  19. Correlation of microstructure and low cycle fatigue properties for 13.5Cr1.1W0.3Ti ODS steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, P.; Klimenkov, M.; Möslang, A.; Lindau, R.; Seifert, H. J.

    2014-12-01

    Reduced activation oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are prospective structural materials for the blanket system and first wall components in Tokamak-type fusion reactors. Under the pulsed operation, these components will be predominantly subjected to cyclic thermal-mechanical loading which leads to inevitable fatigue damage. In this work, strain controlled isothermal fatigue tests were conducted for 13.5Cr1.1W0.3Ti ODS steel at 550 °C. The total strain range varied from 0.54% to 0.9%. After thermomechanical processing, 13.5CrWTi-ODS steel exhibits a remarkable lifetime extension with a factor of 10-20 for strain ranges Δε ⩽ 0.7%. 13.5Cr ODS steel shows no cyclic softening at all during the whole testing process irrespective of the strain range. TEM observations reveal ultrastable grain structure and constant dislocation densities around 1014 m-2, independent of the number of cycles or the applied strain amplitude. The presence of the stabilized ultrafine Y-Ti-O dispersoids enhances the microstructural stability and therefore leads to outstanding fatigue resistance for 13.5Cr1.1W0.3Ti-ODS steel.

  20. Hot deformation characteristics of as-cast high-Cr ultra-super-critical rotor steel with columnar grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zong-ye; Hu, Qiao-dan; Zeng, Long; Li, Jian-guo

    2016-11-01

    Isothermal hot compression tests of as-cast high-Cr ultra-super-critical (USC) rotor steel with columnar grains perpendicular to the compression direction were carried out in the temperature range from 950 to 1250°C at strain rates ranging from 0.001 to 1 s-1. The softening mechanism was dynamic recovery (DRV) at 950°C and the strain rate of 1 s-1, whereas it was dynamic recrystallization (DRX) under the other conditions. A modified constitutive equation based on the Arrhenius model with strain compensation reasonably predicted the flow stress under various deformation conditions, and the activation energy was calculated to be 643.92 kJ•mol-1. The critical stresses of dynamic recrystallization under different conditions were determined from the work-hardening rate ( θ)-flow stress ( σ) and -∂ θ/∂ σ-σ curves. The optimum processing parameters via analysis of the processing map and the softening mechanism were determined to be a deformation temperature range from 1100 to 1200°C and a strain-rate range from 0.001 to 0.08 s-1, with a power dissipation efficiency η greater than 31%.

  1. The structural significance of HAZ sigma phase formation in welded 25%Cr super duplex pipework

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wiesner, C.S.; Garwood, S.J.; Bowden, P.L.

    1993-12-31

    The welding of 25%Cr duplex stainless steel can lead to the formation of sigma phase in both weld metal and heat affected zone (HAZ) regions. It has generally been accepted that this can be avoided by the adoption of appropriate welding procedure controls, generally aimed at reducing heat input and promoting rapid cooling rates. However, experience during pipe spool fabrication for the Marathon East Brae Project has shown that it is extremely difficult to satisfy a welding specification requiring sigma free HAZs. This has proved a particular problem with thin wall pipe welds made in the 2G/5G or 6G fixedmore » positions, where the joint geometry reduces heat flow away from the weld and welding conditions tend to result in the use of higher heat inputs. This paper examines the effect of sigma phase on the fracture toughness of 25%Cr super duplex steel (UNS S32760). It is shown that the CTOD toughness at {minus}20 C decreases as soon as any sigma phase is present and continues to decrease with increasing sigma levels. The toughness of the sigmatized specimens produced by heat treatment was shown to be conservative compared to the toughness measured in the HAZ of 14.2mm and 7.1mm thick pipe weldments, made with welding parameters chosen to enhance HAZ sigma phase formation. Based on the CTOD versus percent sigma level relationship derived from the laboratory specimens, fracture assessment calculations of tolerable flaw sizes were performed. These demonstrated that under the severest design conditions, assuming the maximum flaw sizes which could remain undetected in the pipework, sigma levels up to 2.5% can be tolerated safely. The conservatism of the fracture assessments for predicting the performance of weldments was demonstrated by full scale tensile testing of 2 inch nominal bore x 2.77 mm wall thickness pipe butt welds containing through-thickness circumferential fatigue cracks located in the sigmatized HAZ.« less

  2. In-situ determination of austenite and martensite formation in 13Cr6Ni2Mo supermartensitic stainless steel

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bojack, A., E-mail: a.bojack@tudelft.nl; Delft University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft; Zhao, L.

    2012-09-15

    In-situ analysis of the phase transformations in a 13Cr6Ni2Mo supermartensitic stainless steel (X2CrNiMoV13-5-2) was carried out using a thermo-magnetic technique, dilatometry and high temperature X-ray diffractometry (HT-XRD). A combination of the results obtained by the three applied techniques gives a valuable insight in the phase transformations during the austenitization treatment, including subsequent cooling, of the 13Cr6Ni2Mo supermartensitic stainless steel, where the magnetic technique offers a high accuracy in monitoring the austenite fraction. It was found by dilatometry that the austenite formation during heating takes place in two stages, most likely caused by partitioning of Ni into austenite. The in-situ evolutionmore » of the austenite fraction is monitored by high-temperature XRD and dilatometry. The progress of martensite formation during cooling was described with a Koistinen-Marburger relation for the results obtained from the magnetic and dilatometer experiments. Enhanced martensite formation at the sample surface was detected by X-ray diffraction, which is assumed to be due to relaxation of transformation stresses at the sample surface. Due to the high alloy content and high thermodynamic stability of austenite at room temperature, 4 vol.% of austenite was found to be stable at room temperature after the austenitization treatment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We in-situ analyzed phase transformations and fractions of a 13Cr6Ni2Mo SMSS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher accuracy of the austenite fraction was obtained from magnetic technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Austenite formation during heating takes place in two stages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced martensite formation at the sample surface detected by X-ray diffraction.« less

  3. Electronic structure of the chiral helimagnet and 3d-intercalated transition metal dichalcogenide Cr 1/3NbS 2

    DOE PAGES

    Sirca, N.; Mo, S. -K.; Bondino, F.; ...

    2016-08-18

    The electronic structure of the chiral helimagnet Cr 1/3NbS 2 has been studied with core level and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Intercalated Cr atoms are found to be effective in donating electrons to the NbS 2 layers but also cause significant modifications of the electronic structure of the host NbS 2 material. Specifically, the data provide evidence that a description of the electronic structure of Cr 1/3NbS 2 on the basis of a simple rigid band picture is untenable. The data also reveal substantial inconsistencies with the predictions of standard density functional theory. In conclusion, the relevance of these resultsmore » to the attainment of a correct description of the electronic structure of chiral helimagnets, magnetic thin films/multilayers, and transition metal dichalcogenides intercalated with 3d magnetic elements is discussed.« less

  4. Influences of passivating elements on the corrosion and biocompatibility of super stainless steels.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Young-Ran; Jang, Soon-Geun; Oh, Keun-Taek; Kim, Jung-Gu; Kim, Young-Sik

    2008-08-01

    Biometals need high corrosion resistance since metallic implants in the body should be biocompatible and metal ion release should be minimized. In this work, we designed three kinds of super stainless steel and adjusted the alloying elements to obtain different microstructures. Super stainless steels contain larger amounts of Cr, Mo, W, and N than commercial alloys. These elements play a very important role in localized corrosion and, thus, their effects can be represented by the "pitting resistance equivalent number (PREN)." This work focused on the behavior which can arise when the bare surface of an implant in the body is exposed during walking, heavy exercise, and so on. Among the experimental alloys examined herein, Alloy Al and 316L stainless steels were mildly cytotoxic, whereas the other super austenitic, duplex, and ferritic stainless steels were noncytotoxic. This behavior is primarily related to the passive current and pitting resistance of the alloys. When the PREN value was increased, the passivation behavior in simulated body solution was totally different from that in acidic chloride solution and, thus, the Cr(2)O(3)/Cr(OH)(3) and [Metal oxide]/[Metal + Metal oxide] ratios of the passive film in the simulated body solution were larger than those in acidic chloride solution. Also, the critical current density in simulated body solution increased and, thus, active dissolution may induce metal ion release into the body when the PREN value and Ni content are increased. This behavior was closely related to the presence of EDTA in the simulated body solution. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A Comparison between Shear Bond Strength of VMK Master Porcelain with Three Base-metal Alloys (Ni-cr-T3, VeraBond, Super Cast) and One Noble Alloy (X-33) in Metal-ceramic Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadzadeh, A; Neshati, A; Mousavi, N; Epakchi, S; Dabaghi Tabriz, F; Sarbazi, AH

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: The increase in the use of metal-ceramic restorations and a high prevalence of porcelain chipping entails introducing an alloy which is more compatible with porcelain and causes a stronger bond between the two. This study is to compare shear bond strength of three base-metal alloys and one noble alloy with the commonly used VMK Master Porcelain. Materials and Method: Three different groups of base-metal alloys (Ni-cr-T3, Super Cast, and VeraBond) and one group of noble alloy (X-33) were selected. Each group consisted of 15 alloy samples. All groups went through the casting process and change from wax pattern into metal disks. The VMK Master Porcelain was then fired on each group. All the specimens were put in the UTM; a shear force was loaded until a fracture occurred and the fracture force was consequently recorded. The data were analyzed by SPSS Version 16 and One-Way ANOVA was run to compare the shear strength between the groups. Furthermore, the groups were compared two-by-two by adopting Tukey test. Results: The findings of this study revealed shear bond strength of Ni-Cr-T3 alloy was higher than the three other alloys (94 MPa or 330 N). Super Cast alloy had the second greatest shear bond strength (80. 87Mpa or 283.87 N). Both VeraBond (69.66 MPa or 245 N) and x-33 alloys (66.53 MPa or 234 N) took the third place. Conclusion: Ni-Cr-T3 with VMK Master Porcelain has the greatest shear bond strength. Therefore, employment of this low-cost alloy is recommended in metal-ceramic restorations. PMID:24724144

  6. Effect of pressure on the magnetic properties of TM3[Cr(CN)6]2·12H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zentková, M.; Arnold, Z.; Kamarád, J.; Kavecanský, V.; Lukácová, M.; Mat'aš, S.; Mihalik, M.; Mitróová, Z.; Zentko, A.

    2007-07-01

    We present the results of magnetization and AC susceptibility measurements performed on ferrimagnetic Mn32+[CrIII(CN)6]2·12H2O and ferromagnetic Ni32+[CrIII(CN)6]2·12H2O systems under pressures up to 0.9 GPa in a commercial SQUID magnetometer. The magnetization process is affected by pressure: magnetization saturates at higher magnetic field, saturated magnetization μs of Ni3[Cr(CN)6]2 is reduced and almost unaffected for Mn3[Cr(CN)6]2 at low temperatures. The Curie temperature TC of Mn3[Cr(CN)6]2 increases with the applied pressure, ΔTC/Δp = 25.5 K GPa-1, due to a strengthened super-exchange antiferromagnetic interaction JAF, but it is not affected significantly in the case of Ni3[Cr(CN)6]2 with a dominant ferromagnetic JF super-exchange interaction. The increase in the JAF interaction is attributed to the enhanced value of the single electron overlapping integral S and the energy gap Δ of the mixed molecular orbitals t2g (Mn2+) and t2g (CrIII) induced by pressure.

  7. Studies on Stress Corrosion Cracking of Super 304H Austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabha, B.; Sundaramoorthy, P.; Suresh, S.; Manimozhi, S.; Ravishankar, B.

    2009-12-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a common mode of failure encountered in boiler components especially in austenitic stainless steel tubes at high temperature and in chloride-rich water environment. Recently, a new type of austenitic stainless steels called Super304H stainless steel, containing 3% copper is being adopted for super critical boiler applications. The SCC behavior of this Super 304H stainless steel has not been widely reported in the literature. Many researchers have studied the SCC behavior of steels as per various standards. Among them, the ASTM standard G36 has been widely used for evaluation of SCC behavior of stainless steels. In this present work, the SCC behavior of austenitic Fe-Cr-Mn-Cu-N stainless steel, subjected to chloride environments at varying strain conditions as per ASTM standard G36 has been studied. The environments employed boiling solution of 45 wt.% of MgCl2 at 155 °C, for various strain conditions. The study reveals that the crack width increases with increase in strain level in Super 304H stainless steels.

  8. Are super-shedder feedlot cattle really super?

    PubMed

    Munns, Krysty D; Selinger, Lorna; Stanford, Kim; Selinger, L Brent; McAllister, Tim A

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and duration of super-shedding in cattle by enumerating Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feces and to compare lineage and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) subtypes from super- and low-shedders. E. coli O157:H7 was enumerated from fecal samples obtained from the rectums of 400 feedlot cattle. Super-shedding steers (N=11) were identified, transported, and penned individually. Freshly voided fecal pats were sampled 2 h before and 6 h after feeding for 7 d, then once daily for an additional 19 d. Isolates (N=126) were subtyped using PFGE, and lineage was typed using a lineage-specific polymorphism assay. Of the 11 super-shedders identified at the commercial feedlot, only five were confirmed as super-shedders at the research feedlot, with no super-shedders identified 6 d after sampling at the commercial feedlot. Super-shedding was not consistent in fecal pats collected from the same individual at different times of the day. Isolates exhibited three distinct PFGE subtypes, with most isolates (97.6%) displaying the same subtype, including those obtained from steers that transitioned from super- to low-shedding. The short duration of super-shedding and its lack of continuance suggest that these individuals may not play as great a role in the dissemination of E. coli O157:H7 within the feedlot as previously proposed.

  9. Hot Corrosion Behavior of Bare, Cr3C2-(NiCr) and Cr3C2-(NiCr) + 0.2wt.%Zr Coated SuperNi 718 at 900 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudgal, Deepa; Singh, Surendra; Prakash, Satya

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion in incinerators, power plants, and chemical industries are frequently encountered due to the presence of salts containing sodium, sulphur, and chlorine. To obviate this problem, bare and coated alloys were tested under environments simulating the conditions present inside incinerators and power plants. 0.2 wt.% zirconium powder was incorporated in the Cr3C2-(NiCr) coating powder. The original powder and Zr containing powder was sprayed on Superni 718 alloy by D-gun technique. The bare and coated alloys were tested under Na2SO4 + K2SO4 + NaCl + KCl and Na2SO4 + NaCl environment. The corrosion rate of specimens was monitored using weight change measurements. Characterization of the corrosion products has been done using FE-SEM/EDS and XRD techniques. Bare and coated alloys showed very good corrosion resistance under given molten salt environments. Addition of 0.2wt.%Zr in Cr3C2-25%(NiCr) coating further greatly reduced the oxidation rate as well as improved the adherence of oxide scale to the coating surface during the time of corrosion.

  10. Critical Behavior and Macroscopic Phase Diagram of the Monoaxial Chiral Helimagnet Cr 1/3NbS 2

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Clements, Eleanor M.; Das, Raja; Li, Ling

    2017-07-26

    Cr 1/3NbS 2 is a unique example of a hexagonal chiral helimagnet with high crystalline anisotropy, and has generated growing interest for a possible magnetic field control of the incommensurate spin spiral. Here, we construct a comprehensive phase diagram based on detailed magnetization measurements of a high quality single crystal of Cr 1/3NbS 2 over three magnetic field regions. An analysis of the critical properties in the forced ferromagnetic region yields 3D Heisenberg exponents β = 0.3460 ± 0.040, γ = 1.344 ± 0.002, and T C = 130.78 K ± 0.044, which are consistent with the localized nature themore » of Cr 3+ moments and suggest short-range ferromagnetic interactions. We exploit the temperature and magnetic field dependence of magnetic entropy change (ΔS M) to accurately map the nonlinear crossover to the chiral soliton lattice regime from the chiral helimagnetic phase. Our observations in the low field region are consistent with the existence of chiral ordering in a temperature range above the Curie temperature, T C < T < T*, where a first-order transition has been previously predicted. An analysis of the universal behavior of ΔS M(T,H) experimentally demonstrates for the first time the first-order nature of the onset of chiral ordering.« less

  11. Fireside Corrosion Behaviors of Super304H and HR3C in Coal Ash/Gas Environment with Different SO2 Contents at 650 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jintao; Yang, Zhen; Li, Yan; Huang, Jinyang; Zhou, Yongli; Zhao, Xinbao; Yuan, Yong

    2018-05-01

    The corrosion behaviors of Super304H and HR3C used for USC boiler applications were investigated in simulated coal ash/gas environments with 0.1 and 1.5% of SO2 at 650 °C for 500 h. The results indicated that the increase in SO2 accelerated the corrosion rate and the spalling tendency of the corrosion layer in both tested alloys. Fe2O3, Cr2O3 and FeCr2O4 main peaks were revealed by XRD on Super304H, but on HR3C only the Cr2O3 peak showed a high intensity. The SO2 content did not affect the corrosion product composition of any of the alloys, but accelerated the inner sulfidation and the spallation on Super304H. No obvious internal sulfidation was observed on HR3C in either SO2 content. Based on the experimental results, the alloy corrosion mechanism and the influence of sulfur content on the corrosion process were discussed.

  12. Tuning Magnetic Soliton Phase via Dimensional Confinement in Exfoliated 2D Cr 1/3 NbS 2 Thin Flakes

    DOE PAGES

    Tang, Siwei; Fishman, Randy S.; Okamoto, Satoshi; ...

    2018-05-02

    Thin flakes of Cr 1/3NbS 2 are fabricated successfully via microexfoliation techniques. Temperature-dependent and field-dependent magnetizations of thin flakes with various thicknesses are investigated. When the thickness of the flake is around several hundred nanometers, the softening and eventual disappearance of the bulk soliton peak is accompanied by the appearance of other magnetic peaks at lower magnetic fields. The emergence and annihilation of the soliton peaks are explained and simulated theoretically by the change in spin spiral number inside the soliton lattice due to dimensional confinement. Compared to the conventional magnetic states in nanoscale materials, the stability and thickness tunabilitymore » of quantified spin spirals make Cr 1/3NbS 2 a potential candidate for spintronics nanodevices beyond Moore’s law.« less

  13. Tuning Magnetic Soliton Phase via Dimensional Confinement in Exfoliated 2D Cr 1/3 NbS 2 Thin Flakes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tang, Siwei; Fishman, Randy S.; Okamoto, Satoshi

    Thin flakes of Cr 1/3NbS 2 are fabricated successfully via microexfoliation techniques. Temperature-dependent and field-dependent magnetizations of thin flakes with various thicknesses are investigated. When the thickness of the flake is around several hundred nanometers, the softening and eventual disappearance of the bulk soliton peak is accompanied by the appearance of other magnetic peaks at lower magnetic fields. The emergence and annihilation of the soliton peaks are explained and simulated theoretically by the change in spin spiral number inside the soliton lattice due to dimensional confinement. Compared to the conventional magnetic states in nanoscale materials, the stability and thickness tunabilitymore » of quantified spin spirals make Cr 1/3NbS 2 a potential candidate for spintronics nanodevices beyond Moore’s law.« less

  14. Advanced experimental study on giant magnetoresistance of Fe/Cr superlattices by rf-sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obi, Y.; Takanashi, K.; Mitani, Y.; Tsuda, N.; Fujimori, H.

    1992-02-01

    The study on MagnetoResistance (MR) has been performed for the Fe/Cr SuperLattice (SL) produced by the rf-sputtering method. Especially the effect of the preparation condition on MR has been investigated in detail. The MR oscillates with respect to the Cr layer thickness ( tCr) as was reported by Parkin et al. [1]. The characteristic experimental results is that the MR depends strongly on the Ar pressure. This indicates that the size of the MR is greatly affected by the interface roughness of the SL induced by the different Ar pressure during sputtering.

  15. Mechanism study of humic acid functional groups for Cr(VI) retention: Two-dimensional FTIR and 13C CP/MAS NMR correlation spectroscopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia; Chen, Linpeng; Yin, Huilin; Jin, Song; Liu, Fei; Chen, Honghan

    2017-06-01

    Undissolved humic acid (HA) is known to substantially effect the migration and transformation of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in soils. The mechanisms of Cr(VI) retention in soils by undissolved HA have been reported; however, past studies are inconclusive about the types of HA functional groups that are involved in Cr(VI) retention and the retention mechanisms. Utilizing a two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) analysis for FTIR and 13 C CP/MAS NMR, this study investigated the variations of HA function groups and molecular structures after reactions with aqueous Cr(VI) under different pH conditions. Based on the changing sequence of functional groups interpreted from the 2DCOS results, a four-step mechanism for Cr(VI) retention was determined as follows: (1) electrostatic adsorption of Cr(VI) to HA surface, (2) complexation of adsorbed Cr(VI) by carboxyl and ester, (3) reduction of complexed Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by phenol and polysaccharide, and (4) complexation of reduced Cr(III) by carboxylic groups. These functional groups that are involved in Cr(VI) retention were determined to occur in aromatic domains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Properties of super stainless steels for orthodontic applications.

    PubMed

    Oh, Keun-Taek; Kim, Young-Sik; Park, Yong-Soo; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2004-05-15

    Orthodontic stainless-steel appliances are considered to be corrosion resistant, but localized corrosion can occur in the oral cavity. This study was undertaken to evaluate the properties of super stainless steels in orthodontic applications. Accordingly, the metallurgical properties, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, amount of the released nickel, cytotoxicity, and characteristics of the passive film were investigated. Corrosion resistances of the specimens were high and in the following order: super austenitic stainless steel (SR-50A) > super ferritic stainless steel (SFSS) = super duplex stainless steel (SR-6DX) > 316L SS > super martensitic stainless steel (SR-3Mo) in artificial saliva, 37 degrees C. At 500 mV (SCE), current densities of SR-50A, SFSS, SR-6DX, 316L SS, and SR-3Mo were 5.96 microA/cm(2), 20.3 microA/cm(2), 31.9 microA/cm(2), 805 microA/cm(2), and 5.36 mA/cm(2), respectively. Open circuit potentials of SR-50A, 316L SS, SR-6DX, SR-3Mo, and SFSS were - 0.2, - 0.22, - 0.24, - 0.43, and - 0.46 V (SCE), respectively. SR-50A, SFSS, and SR-6DX released below 3 ng/ml nickel for 8 weeks, and increased a little with immersion time, and 316L SS released about 3.5 ng/ml nickel, but SR-3Mo released a large amount of nickel, which increased with immersion time. The study demonstrated that SR-50A, SR-6DX, and SFSS have high corrosion resistance and mild or no cytotoxicity, due to the passive film enhanced by synergistic effect of Mo + N or by high addition effect of Cr + W. All super stainless steels showed very low cytotoxicity regardless of their nickel contents, although SR-3Mo was found to be relatively cytotoxic. From these studies, these steels are considered suitable for orthodontic applications. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Slurry Erosion Studies on Surface Modified 13Cr-4Ni Steels: Effect of Angle of Impingement and Particle Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manisekaran, T.; Kamaraj, M.; Sharrif, S. M.; Joshi, S. V.

    2007-10-01

    Hydroturbine steels, such as 13Cr-4Ni martensitic steels, are generally subjected to heavy-erosive wear and loss of efficiency due to solid particulate entrainment in the water. Surface-modified steels have proven to give better performance in terms of erosive wear resistance. In the present study, an attempt is made to investigate the effect of angle of impingement and particle size on slurry-jet erosion behavior of pulsed plasma nitrided and laser hardened 13Cr-4Ni steels. Laser hardening process has shown good performance at all angles of impingement due to martensitic transformation of retained austenite. Plastic deformation mode of material removal was also an evident feature of all laser-hardened surface damage locations. However, pulsed-plasma nitrided steels have exhibited chip formation and micro-cutting mode of erosive wear. Erosion with 150-300 μm size was twice compared to 150 μm size slurry particulates.

  18. Super-Eddington accretion on to the neutron star NGC 7793 P13: Broad-band X-ray spectroscopy and ultraluminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, D. J.; Fürst, F.; Harrison, F. A.; Stern, D.; Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Brightman, M.; Fabian, A. C.; Middleton, M. J.; Ptak, A.; Tao, L.

    2018-02-01

    We present a detailed, broad-band X-ray spectral analysis of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) pulsar NGC 7793 P13, a known super-Eddington source, utilizing data from the XMM-Newton, NuSTAR and Chandra observatories. The broad-band XMM-Newton+NuSTAR spectrum of P13 is qualitatively similar to the rest of the ULX sample with broad-band coverage, suggesting that additional ULXs in the known population may host neutron star accretors. Through time-averaged, phase-resolved and multi-epoch studies, we find that two non-pulsed thermal blackbody components with temperatures ∼0.5 and 1.5 keV are required to fit the data below 10 keV, in addition to a third continuum component which extends to higher energies and is associated with the pulsed emission from the accretion column. The characteristic radii of the thermal components appear to be comparable, and are too large to be associated with the neutron star itself, so the need for two components likely indicates the accretion flow outside the magnetosphere is complex. We suggest a scenario in which the thick inner disc expected for super-Eddington accretion begins to form, but is terminated by the neutron star's magnetic field soon after its onset, implying a limit of B ≲ 6 × 1012 G for the dipolar component of the central neutron star's magnetic field. Evidence of similar termination of the disc in other sources may offer a further means of identifying additional neutron star ULXs. Finally, we examine the spectrum exhibited by P13 during one of its unusual 'off' states. These data require both a hard power-law component, suggesting residual accretion on to the neutron star, and emission from a thermal plasma, which we argue is likely associated with the P13 system.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Super-CLASS GMRT catalogue - SCG (Riseley+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riseley, C. J.; Scaife, A. M. M.; Hales, C. A.; Harrison, I.; Birkinshaw, M.; Battye, R. A.; Beswick, R. J.; Brown, M. L.; Casey, C. M.; Chapman, S. C.; Demetroullas, C.; Hung, C.-L.; Jackson, N. J.; Muxlow, T.; Watson, B.

    2016-06-01

    The Super-CLASS GMRT (SCG) catalogue is the low-frequency counterpart of the Super-Cluster Assisted Shear Survey. It is a survey at 13-arcsec resolution, with a limiting 5σ flux density of 170uJy. The catalogue comprises 3257 sources. (1 data file).

  20. Study on the crystallographic orientation relationship and formation mechanism of reversed austenite in economical Cr12 super martensitic stainless steel

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ye, Dong; Li, Shaohong; Li, Jun

    Effect of carbides and crystallographic orientation relationship on the formation mechanism of reversed austenite of economical Cr12 super martensitic stainless steel (SMSS) has been investigated mainly by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results indicate that the M{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitation and the formation of the reversed austenite have the interaction effect during tempering process in SMSS. The reversed austenite forms intensively at the sub-block boundary and the lath boundary within a misorientation range of 0–60°. M{sub 23}C{sub 6} has the same crystallographic orientation relationship with reversed austenite. There are two different kinds of formation modesmore » for reversed austenite. One is a nondiffusional shear reversion; the other is a diffusion transformation. Both are strictly limited by crystallographic orientation relationship. The austenite variants are limited to two kinds within one packet and five kinds within one prior austenite grain. - Highlights: • Reversed austenite forms at martensite boundaries with misorientation of 0–60° • M{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitation and reversed austenite formation have the interaction effect. • Two austenite variants with different orientations can be formed inside a packet. • Two reversed austenite formation modes: shear reversion; diffusion transformation.« less

  1. Correlation between bulk- and surface chemistry of Cr-tanned leather and the release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI).

    PubMed

    Hedberg, Yolanda S; Lidén, Carola; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger

    2014-09-15

    About 1-3% of the adult general population in Europe is allergic to chromium (Cr). The assessment of the potential release of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) from leather is hence important from a human health and environmental risk perspective. The Cr(VI) content in leather was recently restricted in the European Union. The aim of this study was to assess possible correlations between the bulk and surface chemistry of leather, released Cr(III) and Cr(VI), and capacities of co-released leather specific species to reduce and complex released Cr. Four differently tanned leathers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, and the diphenylcarbazide colorimetric method. Their characteristics were compared with results on Cr(III) and Cr(VI) release into artificial sweat (ASW, pH<6.5) and phosphate buffer (PB, pH 7.5-8.0), measured by means of spectrophotometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Co-released leather-specific species were shown to reduce Cr(VI), both in ASW and in PB. Their reduction capacities correlated with findings of the surface content of Cr and of released Cr. Leather samples without this capacity, and with less aromatic surface groups visible by ATR-FTIR, revealed Cr(VI) both at the surface and in solution (PB). Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Breeding Super-Earths and Birthing Super-puffs in Transitional Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene

    2016-02-01

    The riddle posed by super-Earths (1-4R⊕, 2-20M⊕) is that they are not Jupiters: their core masses are large enough to trigger runaway gas accretion, yet somehow super-Earths accreted atmospheres that weigh only a few percent of their total mass. We show that this puzzle is solved if super-Earths formed late, as the last vestiges of their parent gas disks were about to clear. This scenario would seem to present fine-tuning problems, but we show that there are none. Ambient gas densities can span many (in one case up to 9) orders of magnitude, and super-Earths can still robustly emerge after ˜0.1-1 Myr with percent-by-weight atmospheres. Super-Earth cores are naturally bred in gas-poor environments where gas dynamical friction has weakened sufficiently to allow constituent protocores to gravitationally stir one another and merge. So little gas is present at the time of core assembly that cores hardly migrate by disk torques: formation of super-Earths can be in situ. The basic picture—that close-in super-Earths form in a gas-poor (but not gas-empty) inner disk, fed continuously by gas that bleeds inward from a more massive outer disk—recalls the largely evacuated but still accreting inner cavities of transitional protoplanetary disks. We also address the inverse problem presented by super-puffs: an uncommon class of short-period planets seemingly too voluminous for their small masses (4-10R⊕, 2-6M⊕). Super-puffs most easily acquire their thick atmospheres as dust-free, rapidly cooling worlds outside ˜1 AU where nebular gas is colder, less dense, and therefore less opaque. Unlike super-Earths, which can form in situ, super-puffs probably migrated in to their current orbits; they are expected to form the outer links of mean-motion resonant chains, and to exhibit greater water content. We close by confronting observations and itemizing remaining questions.

  3. BREEDING SUPER-EARTHS AND BIRTHING SUPER-PUFFS IN TRANSITIONAL DISKS

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene, E-mail: evelee@berkeley.edu, E-mail: echiang@astro.berkeley.edu

    The riddle posed by super-Earths (1–4R{sub ⊕}, 2–20M{sub ⊕}) is that they are not Jupiters: their core masses are large enough to trigger runaway gas accretion, yet somehow super-Earths accreted atmospheres that weigh only a few percent of their total mass. We show that this puzzle is solved if super-Earths formed late, as the last vestiges of their parent gas disks were about to clear. This scenario would seem to present fine-tuning problems, but we show that there are none. Ambient gas densities can span many (in one case up to 9) orders of magnitude, and super-Earths can still robustlymore » emerge after ∼0.1–1 Myr with percent-by-weight atmospheres. Super-Earth cores are naturally bred in gas-poor environments where gas dynamical friction has weakened sufficiently to allow constituent protocores to gravitationally stir one another and merge. So little gas is present at the time of core assembly that cores hardly migrate by disk torques: formation of super-Earths can be in situ. The basic picture—that close-in super-Earths form in a gas-poor (but not gas-empty) inner disk, fed continuously by gas that bleeds inward from a more massive outer disk—recalls the largely evacuated but still accreting inner cavities of transitional protoplanetary disks. We also address the inverse problem presented by super-puffs: an uncommon class of short-period planets seemingly too voluminous for their small masses (4–10R{sub ⊕}, 2–6M{sub ⊕}). Super-puffs most easily acquire their thick atmospheres as dust-free, rapidly cooling worlds outside ∼1 AU where nebular gas is colder, less dense, and therefore less opaque. Unlike super-Earths, which can form in situ, super-puffs probably migrated in to their current orbits; they are expected to form the outer links of mean-motion resonant chains, and to exhibit greater water content. We close by confronting observations and itemizing remaining questions.« less

  4. Effect of Sub- and Super-critical Water Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of Porcine Skin

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Super- and sub-critical water treatments have been of interest as novel methods for protein hydrolysis. In the present study, we studied the effect of sub-critical water (Sub-H2O, 300℃, 80 bar) treatment as well as super-critical water (Super-H2O, 400℃, 280 bar) treatment on the physicochemical properties of porcine skin (PS), which has abundant collagen. Porcine skin was subjected to pre-thermal treatment by immersion in water at 70℃, and then treated with sub- or super-critical water. Physicochemical properties of the hydrolysates, such as molecular weight distribution, free amino acid content, amino acid profile, pH, color, and water content were determined. For the molecular weight distribution analysis, 1 kDa hydrolyzed porcine skin (H-PS) was produced by Super-H2O or Sub-H2O treatment. The free amino acid content was 57.18 mM and 30.13 mM after Sub-H2O and Super-H2O treatment, respectively. Determination of amino acid profile revealed that the content of Glu (22.5%) and Pro (30%) was higher after Super-H2O treatment than after Sub-H2O treatment, whereas the content of Gly (28%) and Ala (13.1%) was higher after Sub-H2O treatment. Super-H2O or Sub-H2O treatment affected the pH of PS, which changed from 7.29 (Raw) to 9.22 (after Sub-H2O treatment) and 9.49 (after Super-H2O treatment). Taken together, these results showed that Sub-H2O treatment was slightly more effective for hydrolysis than Super-H2O was. However, both Sub-H2O and Super-H2O treatments were effective processing methods for hydrolysis of PS collagen in a short time and can be regarded as a green chemistry technology. PMID:26761798

  5. Effect of Sub- and Super-critical Water Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of Porcine Skin.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yeon-Ji; Kim, Jae-Hyeong; Jung, Kyung-Hun; Min, Sang-Gi; Chun, Ji-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Super- and sub-critical water treatments have been of interest as novel methods for protein hydrolysis. In the present study, we studied the effect of sub-critical water (Sub-H2O, 300℃, 80 bar) treatment as well as super-critical water (Super-H2O, 400℃, 280 bar) treatment on the physicochemical properties of porcine skin (PS), which has abundant collagen. Porcine skin was subjected to pre-thermal treatment by immersion in water at 70℃, and then treated with sub- or super-critical water. Physicochemical properties of the hydrolysates, such as molecular weight distribution, free amino acid content, amino acid profile, pH, color, and water content were determined. For the molecular weight distribution analysis, 1 kDa hydrolyzed porcine skin (H-PS) was produced by Super-H2O or Sub-H2O treatment. The free amino acid content was 57.18 mM and 30.13 mM after Sub-H2O and Super-H2O treatment, respectively. Determination of amino acid profile revealed that the content of Glu (22.5%) and Pro (30%) was higher after Super-H2O treatment than after Sub-H2O treatment, whereas the content of Gly (28%) and Ala (13.1%) was higher after Sub-H2O treatment. Super-H2O or Sub-H2O treatment affected the pH of PS, which changed from 7.29 (Raw) to 9.22 (after Sub-H2O treatment) and 9.49 (after Super-H2O treatment). Taken together, these results showed that Sub-H2O treatment was slightly more effective for hydrolysis than Super-H2O was. However, both Sub-H2O and Super-H2O treatments were effective processing methods for hydrolysis of PS collagen in a short time and can be regarded as a green chemistry technology.

  6. dbSUPER: a database of super-enhancers in mouse and human genome

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Aziz; Zhang, Xuegong

    2016-01-01

    Super-enhancers are clusters of transcriptional enhancers that drive cell-type-specific gene expression and are crucial to cell identity. Many disease-associated sequence variations are enriched in super-enhancer regions of disease-relevant cell types. Thus, super-enhancers can be used as potential biomarkers for disease diagnosis and therapeutics. Current studies have identified super-enhancers in more than 100 cell types and demonstrated their functional importance. However, a centralized resource to integrate all these findings is not currently available. We developed dbSUPER (http://bioinfo.au.tsinghua.edu.cn/dbsuper/), the first integrated and interactive database of super-enhancers, with the primary goal of providing a resource for assistance in further studies related to transcriptional control of cell identity and disease. dbSUPER provides a responsive and user-friendly web interface to facilitate efficient and comprehensive search and browsing. The data can be easily sent to Galaxy instances, GREAT and Cistrome web-servers for downstream analysis, and can also be visualized in the UCSC genome browser where custom tracks can be added automatically. The data can be downloaded and exported in variety of formats. Furthermore, dbSUPER lists genes associated with super-enhancers and also links to external databases such as GeneCards, UniProt and Entrez. dbSUPER also provides an overlap analysis tool to annotate user-defined regions. We believe dbSUPER is a valuable resource for the biology and genetic research communities. PMID:26438538

  7. Absorption, excretion and retention of 51Cr from labelled Cr-(III)-picolinate in rats.

    PubMed

    Kottwitz, Karin; Laschinsky, Niels; Fischer, Roland; Nielsen, Peter

    2009-04-01

    The bioavailability of chromium from Cr-picolinate (CrPic(3)) and Cr-chloride (CrCl(3)) was studied in rats using (51)Cr-labelled compounds and whole-body-counting. The intestinal absorption of Cr was twice as high from CrPic(3) (1.16% vs 0.55%) than from CrCl(3), however most of the absorbed (51)Cr from CrPic(3) was excreted into the urine within 24 h. After i.v. or i.p. injection, the whole-body retention curves fitted well to a multiexponential function, demonstrating that plasma chromium is in equilibrium with three pools. For CrPic(3), a large pool exists with a very rapid exchange (T (1/2) = <0.5 days), suggesting that CrPic(3) is absorbed as intact molecule, from which the main part is directly excreted by the kidney before degradation of the chromium complex in the liver can occur. CrCl(3) is less well absorbed but the rapid exchange pool is much smaller, resulting in even higher Cr concentrations in tissue such as muscle and fat. However, 1-3 days after application, the relative distribution of (51)Cr from both compounds was similar in all tissues studied, indicating that both compounds contribute to the same storage pool. In summary, the bioavailability of CrPic(3) in rats is not superior compared to CrCl(3).

  8. Studies of the Cr-CrN coating characteristics formed by means of the magnetron sputtering method from bulk target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachalin, G. V.; Mednikov, A. F.; Tkhabisimov, A. B.; Sidorov, S. V.

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents the study’s results of ion-plasma chromium based coating characteristics produced on blade steel samples 12Kh13 and EI961 by means of the magnetron sputtering method from the bulk “hot” target. A set of metallographic studies and erosion tests of coatings were carried out using the research equipment URI (unique research installation) “Hydroshock rig Erosion-M” of NRU “MPEI”. Cr-CrN based coatings have a layered structure; thickness of intermediate Cr layers ranges from 0.7 to 1.7 μm, thickness of nitride layers CrN ranges from 1.5 to 4 μm, while the overall coating thickness is 17.0-21.5 μm coating microhardness is 1830-1880 HV0.05. The resulting coatings are found to increase 1.5 times the incubation period duration of erosion wear for steels 12Kh13 and EI961; they reduce the maximum erosion rate 1.3 times, and the steady erosion rate - 1.5 times.

  9. Negative-Electrode Catalysts for Fe/Cr Redox Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahn, R. F.; Hagedorn, N.

    1987-01-01

    Electrodes perform more consistently and less expensive. Surfaces catalyzed by bismuth and bismuth/lead developed for application on chromium electrode in iron/chromium redox electrochemical energy storage system. NASA Fe/Cr storage system incorporates two soluble electrodes consisting of acidified solutions of iron chloride (FeC13 and FeC12) and chromium chloride (CrC13 and CrC12) oxidized and reduced in power-conversion unit to store and produce electricity. Electrolytes circulated with pumps and stored in external tanks.

  10. Oxalato-bridged dinuclear complexes of Cr(III) and Fe(III): synthesis, structure, and magnetism of [(C2H5)4N]4[MM'(ox)(NCS)8] with MM' = CrCr, FeFe, and CrFe.

    PubMed

    Triki, S; Bérézovsky, F; Sala Pala, J; Coronado, E; Gómez-García, C J; Clemente, J M; Riou, A; Molinié, P

    2000-08-21

    A new series of homo- and heterometallic oxalato-bridged dinuclear compounds of formulas [Et4N]4[MM'(ox)(NCS)8] ([Et4N]+ = [(C2H5)4N]+; ox = C2O4(2-)) with MM' = Cr(III)-Cr(III) (1), Fe(III)-Fe(III) (2), and Cr(III)-Fe(III) (3) is reported. They have been structurally characterized by infrared spectra and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The three compounds are isostructural and crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Cmca with Z = 8, a = 16.561(8) A, b = 13.481(7) A, and c = 28.168(8) A for 1, a = 16.515(2) A, b = 13.531(1) A, and c = 28.289(4) A for 2, a = 16.664(7) A, b = 13.575(6) A, and c = 28.386(8) A for 3. The structure of 3 is made up of a discrete dinuclear anion [CrFe(ox)(NCS)8]4- and four disordered [Et4N]+ cations, each of them located on special positions. The anion, in a crystallographically imposed C2h symmetry, contains metal cations in distorted octahedral sites. The Cr(ox)Fe group, which is planar within 0.02 A, presents an intramolecular metal-metal distance of 5.43 A. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate antiferromagnetic pairwise interactions for 1 and 2 with J = -3.23 and -3.84 cm-1, respectively, and ferromagnetic Cr-Fe coupling with J = 1.10 cm-1 for 3 (J being the parameter of the exchange Hamiltonian H = -2JS1S2). The ESR spectra at different temperatures confirm the magnetic susceptibility data.

  11. Introduction to the virtual special issue on super-resolution imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Liangcai; Liu, Zhengjun

    2017-12-01

    Until quite recently, the resolution of optical imaging instruments, including telescopes, cameras and microscopes, was considered to be limited by the diffraction of light and by image sensors. In the past few years, many exciting super-resolution approaches have emerged that demonstrate intriguing ways to bypass the classical limit in optics and detectors. More and more research groups are engaged in the study of advanced super-resolution schemes, devices, algorithms, systems, and applications [1-6]. Super-resolution techniques involve new methods in science and engineering of optics [7,8], measurements [9,10], chemistry [11,12] and information [13,14]. Promising applications, particularly in biomedical research and semiconductor industry, have been successfully demonstrated.

  12. AsMo7O27-bridged dinuclear sandwich-type heteropolymolybdates of Cr(III) and Fe(III): magnetism of [MM'(AsMo7O27)2]12- with MM' = FeFe, CrFe, and CrCr.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haisheng; Li, Lili; Liu, Bin; Xue, Ganglin; Hu, Huaiming; Fu, Feng; Wang, Jiwu

    2009-11-02

    Two new dinuclear sandwich-type heteropolymolybdates based on the mulitidendate inorganic fragment [AsMo(7)O(27)] and Cr(III) and Fe(III) ions, namely, the homometallic sandwich polyoxometalate (POM) (NH(4))(12)[Fe(2)(AsMo(7)O(27))(2)] x 12 H(2)O (1) and the first example of the "symmetrical" heterometallic Cr(III)-Fe(III) sandwich POM, (NH(4))(12)[FeCr(AsMo(7)O(27))(2)] x 13 H(2)O (2), were simultaneously synthesized in high yield. Their magnetic properties are thoroughly investigated together with the homometallic sandwich POM (NH(4))(12)[Cr(2)(AsMo(7)O(27))(2)] x 11 H(2)O (3). The chi(M)T values for compounds 1-3 at 300 K correspond well to the calculated spin-only values for Fe(III) (S = 5/2) and Cr(III) (S = 3/2) with g(Fe) = g(Cr) = 2. Upon cooling, the chi(M)T values decline monotonously and reach 0.14, 1.00, and 0.11 cm(3) K mol(-1) at 2.0 K for 1, 2, and 3, respectively, indicating a significant antiferromagnetic exchange between the magnetic centers with J = -2.09, -4.09, and -6.26 cm(-1), respectively, for 1, 2, and 3. The magnetic results clearly establish that compound 2 is formed by bimetallic Cr(III)-Fe(III) units and not by a mixture of the two antiferromagnetically coupled homometallic species. Their thermal properties are also characterized.

  13. Evaluation of rolling contact fatigue of induction heated 13Cr-2Ni-2Mo Stainless steel bar with Si3N4-ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadoiwa, Ariyasu; Mizobe, Koshiro; Kida, Katsuyuki

    2018-03-01

    13Cr % martensitic stainless steels were used in various industry, because they have excellent corrosion resistance and high hardness among other stainless steels. They are also expected as a bearing material, however, the research on rolling contact fatigue (RCF) is not enough. In this study, 13Cr-2Ni-2Mo stainless steels were quenched by induction heating and their RCF lives were evaluated. A Si3N4-ball was used in order to apply higher stress (Pmax = 5.6 GPa) than our previous tests (Pmax=5.3 GPa), in a single-ball RCF testing machine. It was found that the basic life (L10) was 2.20×106 cycles and Median life (L50) was 6.04×106 cycles. In addition, Weibull modulus became higher than the previous tests.

  14. Monitoring creatine and phosphocreatine by (13)C MR spectroscopic imaging during and after (13)C4 creatine loading: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Barbara H; Lassche, Saskia; Hopman, Maria T; Wevers, Ron A; van Engelen, Baziel G M; Heerschap, Arend

    2016-08-01

    Creatine (Cr) supplementation to enhance muscle performance shows variable responses among individuals and different muscles. Direct monitoring of the supplied Cr in muscles would address these differences. In this feasibility study, we introduce in vivo 3D (13)C MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) of the leg with oral ingestion of (13)C4-creatine to observe simultaneously Cr and phosphocreatine (PCr) for assessing Cr uptake, turnover, and the ratio PCr over total Cr (TCr) in individual muscles. (13)C MRSI was performed of five muscles in the posterior thigh in seven subjects (two males and two females of ~20 years, one 82-year-old male, and two neuromuscular patients) with a (1)H/(13)C coil in a 3T MR system before, during and after intake of 15 % (13)C4-enriched Cr. Subjects ingested 20 g Cr/day for 4 days in four 5 g doses at equal time intervals. The PCr/TCr did not vary significantly during supplementation and was similar for all subjects and investigated muscles (average 0.71 ± 0.07), except for the adductor magnus (0.64 ± 0.03). The average Cr turnover rate, assessed in male muscles, was 2.1 ± 0.7 %/day. The linear uptake rates of Cr were variable between muscles, although not significantly different. This assessment was possible in all investigated muscles of young male volunteers, but less so in muscles of the other subjects due to lower signal-to-noise ratio. Improvements for future studies are discussed. In vivo (13)C MRSI after (13)C-Cr ingestion is demonstrated for longitudinal studies of Cr uptake, turnover, and PCr/TCr ratios of individual muscles in one exam.

  15. Two-dimensional pentagonal CrX (X = S, Se or Te) monolayers: antiferromagnetic semiconductors for spintronics and photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenzhou; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Shi, Xingqiang; Pan, Hui

    2018-06-25

    Two dimensional (2D) materials with hexagonal building blocks have received tremendous interest in recent years and show promise as nanoscale devices for versatile applications. Herein, we propose a new family of 2D pentagonal CrX (X = S, Se or Te) monolayers (penta-CrX) for applications in electronics, spintronics and photocatalysis. We find that the 2D penta-CrX monolayers are thermally, structurally and mechanically stable. The penta-CrX monolayers are antiferromagnetic and semiconducting. We show that the magnetism is attributed to the super-exchange induced by the ionic interactions between the Cr and X atoms and can be enhanced upon applying tension. We further show that the penta-CrS and penta-CrSe monolayers show good redox potentials versus a normal hydrogen electrode, and their band gaps are comparable to the energy of a photon in the visible light region, indicating their capability of maximal utilization of solar energy for water splitting. With intrinsic semiconducting and controllable magnetic properties, the proposed penta-CrX monolayers may hold promise as flexible spintronics and photocatalysts.

  16. Cr isotope fractionation factors for Cr(VI) reduction by a metabolically diverse group of bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Anirban; Johnson, Thomas M.; Sanford, Robert A.

    2014-10-01

    Reduction of Cr(VI) is an important process that determines the geochemical behavior, mobility and bioavailability of Cr in both terrestrial and marine environments. Many metabolically diverse microorganisms possess Cr(VI) reduction capacity. Cr(VI) reduction fractionates Cr isotopes and thus 53Cr/52Cr ratios can be used to monitor Cr(VI) reduction and redox conditions. The magnitude of isotopic fractionation (ε) for a variety of microbial reduction mechanisms must be known for accurate interpretation of observed shifts in 53Cr/52Cr ratios. We determined isotopic fractionation factors for Cr(VI) reduction by metal reducers Geobacter sulfurreducens and Shewanella sp. strain NR, a denitrifying soil bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri DCP-Ps1, and a sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris. All bacteria investigated in this study produced significant Cr isotope fractionation. The fractionation (ε) for G. sulfurreducens, Shewanella sp. (NR), P. stutzeri DCP-Ps1, and D. vulgaris were -3.03‰ ± 0.12‰, -2.17‰ ± 0.22‰, -3.14‰ ± 0.13‰, and -3.01‰ ± 0.11‰, respectively. Despite differences in microbial strains in this study, the ε did not vary significantly except for Shewanella sp. (NR). Our results suggest that strong isotopic fractionation is induced during Cr(VI) reduction under electron donor poor (∼300 μM) conditions.

  17. Effect of 0.2 and 0.5% Ti on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 13Cr supermartensitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Yong; Huang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Cheng; Gao, Wen; Zhao, Chao

    2015-11-01

    The effect that a 0, 0.2, and 0.5 wt.% titanium content has on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 13Cr supermartensitic stainless steel was investigated using an optical microscope, transmission electron microscope, and X-ray diffraction. The resultant microstructures of the three steels were tempered martensite with a reversed austenite dispersed throughout the matrix. Additionally, the formation of Cr-rich carbides was suppressed by stable Ti(C, N), which improved the strength without severely decreasing in the Ti-microalloyed steel toughness. Nano-precipitation of Ni3Ti was found for the 0.5 wt.% Ti steel during tempering, which significantly increased the strength, but decreased the toughness. The reversed austenite volume fraction also significantly influenced the mechanical properties.

  18. Formation of reversed austenite during tempering of 14Cr-7Ni-0.3Nb-0.7Mo-0.03C super martensitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Eun Seo; Yoo, Dae Kyoung; Sung, Jee Hyun; Kang, Chang Yong; Lee, Jun Hee; Sung, Jang Hyun

    2004-12-01

    Reversed austenite transformation and existence of retained austenite during tempering of the super martensitic stainless steel of Fe-14Cr-7Ni-0.3Nb-0.7Mo-0.03C were studied by means of experiments on microstructure and X-ray diffraction, and tensile and hardness tests. Acicular type retained austenite at the lath boundary of martensite with the interior appeared after solution annealing. This retained austenite still existed, and reversed austenite was not formed, with tempering up to 24h at 450°C. The reversed austenite began to form above 550°C, and the volume fraction of reversed austenite decreased with increasing tempering temperature after showing a maximum value of 19.2% at 650°C. This maximum volume fraction of reversed austenite was responsible for the lowest value of strength and hardness. The Ni contents of plate type reversed austenite and the surrounding matrix increased and decreased respectively, implying that the reversed austenite was formed as a result of nickel diffusion. The orientation relationships between reversed austenite and the surrounding matrix showed a K-S relationship of(bar 11bar 1)_γ //(01bar 1)_m and[011]_γ //[bar 111]_m.

  19. RIGScan CR: RIGScan CR49.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    RIGScan CR49, a 125I-labelled CR monoclonal antibody directed against the tumour-associated antigen TAG-72, is undergoing development with Neoprobe for the intraoperative detection of metastatic colorectal cancer. The Neoprobe's proprietary RIGS (radioimmunoguided surgery) technology combines an injectable radiolabelled cancer-targeting agent and hand-held radiation detection probe that emits an audible tone when located tissue has accumulated a significant amount of the radioactive agent. Neoprobe's RIGS technology also includes a patented surgical method providing surgeons with real-time information to locate tumour deposits that can not be detected by other conventional methods. The RIGS technology has been evaluated in late clinical studies for the detection of adenocarcinomas including primary colorectal, gastrointestinal, breast, ovarian, pancreatic, prostate and neuroendocrine/endocrine. Neoprobe signed an option agreement for its first-generation RIGScan compound, RIGScan CR, with OncoSurg Inc. (formerly NuRigs Ltd). The second-generation humanised RIGScan CR agent was also optionally licensed to OncoSurg Inc. In 1997, Neoprobe filed for approval with the US FDA and the EMEA for RIGScan CR for the intraoperative detection of metastatic colorectal cancer. Both regulatory agencies have requested additional clinical data. On 19 April 2004, Neoprobe announced that it had met with the US FDA to discuss its position on submitting additional clinical information in response to the FDA's questions regarding the Biologic Licence Application (BLA) for RIGScan CR49. The company provided the FDA with new information related to a survival differential for patients whose colorectal cancer was evaluated with RIGScan CR49. The information was not available at the time of the BLA's submission in 1997. The agency indicated that it would consider accepting survival data from one of the two phase III trials, NEO2-14, but not from another trial NEO2-13, as supportive data for a

  20. Microstructure and wear property of Fe-Cr13-C hardfacing alloy reinforced by WC particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ke; Li, Jiaqi; Bao, Yefeng; Jiang, Yongfeng

    2017-07-01

    Tungsten as the most effective carbide-forming element was added in the Fe-Cr13-C hardfacing alloy to precipitate WC particles. Optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) were used to investigate the microstructures of the hardfacing alloy. The wear resistance was tested through a slurry rubber wheel abrasion test machine, and the wear behavior was also studied. The results indicate that the microstructures of the hardfacing alloy consist of lath martensite, residual austenite and WC particles. The wear resistance can be significantly improved through the addition of tungsten element being provided by the precipitation of WC particles. And the predominant wear mechanism was microcutting with shallow grooves and spalling.

  1. Experimental determination of solubilities of magnesium borates: Solubility constants of boracite [Mg 3B 7O 13Cl(cr)] and aksaite [MgB 6O 7(OH) 6 ·2H 2O(cr)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Xiong, Yongliang; Kirkes, Leslie Dawn; Knox, Jandi

    In this work, solubility measurements regarding boracite [Mg 3B 7O 13Cl(cr)] and aksaite [MgB 6O 7(OH) 6·2H 2O(cr)] from the direction of supersaturation were conducted at 22.5 ± 0.5 °C. The equilibrium constant (log 10K 0) for boracite in terms of the following reaction, Mg 3B 7O 13Cl(cr) + 15H 2O(l) ⇌ 3Mg 2+ + 7B(OH) 4 – + Cl – + 2H + is determined as -29.49 ± 0.39 (2σ) in this study. The equilibrium constant for aksaite according to the following reaction, MgB 6O 7(OH) 6•2H 2O(cr) + 9H 2O(l) ⇌ Mg 2+ + 6B(OH) 4 – + 4H + is determined as -44.41 ± 0.41 (2σ) in this work. This work recommends a set of thermodynamic properties for aksaite at 25 °C and 1 bar as follows: ΔHmore » $$0\\atop{f}$$ =-6063.70 ± 4.85 kJ·mol -1, ΔG =-5492.55 ± 2.32 kJ·mol -1, and S 0 = 344.62 ± 1.85 J·mol -1·K -1. Among them, ΔG$$0\\atop{f}$$ is derived from the equilibrium constant for aksaite determined by this study; ΔH$$0\\atop{f}$$ is from the literature, determined by calorimetry; and S 0 is computed in the present work from ΔG$$0\\atop{f}$$ and ΔH$$0\\atop{f}$$. This investigation also recommends a set of thermodynamic properties for boracite at 25 °C and 1 bar as follows: ΔH$$0\\atop{f}$$ =-6575.02 ± 2.25 kJ·mol -1, ΔG$$0\\atop{f}$$ =-6178.35 ± 2.25 kJ·mol -1, and S 0 = 253.6 ± 0.5 J·mol -1·K -1. Among them, ΔG$$0\\atop{f}$$ is derived from the equilibrium constant for boracite determined by this study; S 0 is from the literature, determined by calorimetry; and ΔH$$0\\atop{f}$$ is computed in this work from ΔG$$0\\atop{f}$$ and S 0. The thermodynamic properties determined in this study can find applications in many fields. For instance, in the field of material science, boracite has many useful properties including ferroelectric and ferroelastic properties. The equilibrium constant of boracite determined in this work will provide guidance for economic synthesis of boracite in an aqueous medium. Similarly, in the field of nuclear waste

  2. Experimental determination of solubilities of magnesium borates: Solubility constants of boracite [Mg 3B 7O 13Cl(cr)] and aksaite [MgB 6O 7(OH) 6 ·2H 2O(cr)

    DOE PAGES

    Xiong, Yongliang; Kirkes, Leslie Dawn; Knox, Jandi; ...

    2018-02-03

    In this work, solubility measurements regarding boracite [Mg 3B 7O 13Cl(cr)] and aksaite [MgB 6O 7(OH) 6·2H 2O(cr)] from the direction of supersaturation were conducted at 22.5 ± 0.5 °C. The equilibrium constant (log 10K 0) for boracite in terms of the following reaction, Mg 3B 7O 13Cl(cr) + 15H 2O(l) ⇌ 3Mg 2+ + 7B(OH) 4 – + Cl – + 2H + is determined as -29.49 ± 0.39 (2σ) in this study. The equilibrium constant for aksaite according to the following reaction, MgB 6O 7(OH) 6•2H 2O(cr) + 9H 2O(l) ⇌ Mg 2+ + 6B(OH) 4 – + 4H + is determined as -44.41 ± 0.41 (2σ) in this work. This work recommends a set of thermodynamic properties for aksaite at 25 °C and 1 bar as follows: ΔHmore » $$0\\atop{f}$$ =-6063.70 ± 4.85 kJ·mol -1, ΔG =-5492.55 ± 2.32 kJ·mol -1, and S 0 = 344.62 ± 1.85 J·mol -1·K -1. Among them, ΔG$$0\\atop{f}$$ is derived from the equilibrium constant for aksaite determined by this study; ΔH$$0\\atop{f}$$ is from the literature, determined by calorimetry; and S 0 is computed in the present work from ΔG$$0\\atop{f}$$ and ΔH$$0\\atop{f}$$. This investigation also recommends a set of thermodynamic properties for boracite at 25 °C and 1 bar as follows: ΔH$$0\\atop{f}$$ =-6575.02 ± 2.25 kJ·mol -1, ΔG$$0\\atop{f}$$ =-6178.35 ± 2.25 kJ·mol -1, and S 0 = 253.6 ± 0.5 J·mol -1·K -1. Among them, ΔG$$0\\atop{f}$$ is derived from the equilibrium constant for boracite determined by this study; S 0 is from the literature, determined by calorimetry; and ΔH$$0\\atop{f}$$ is computed in this work from ΔG$$0\\atop{f}$$ and S 0. The thermodynamic properties determined in this study can find applications in many fields. For instance, in the field of material science, boracite has many useful properties including ferroelectric and ferroelastic properties. The equilibrium constant of boracite determined in this work will provide guidance for economic synthesis of boracite in an aqueous medium. Similarly, in the field of nuclear waste

  3. Structural, magnetic and transport properties of Pb{sub 2}Cr{sub 1+x}Mo{sub 1−x}O{sub 6} (−1≤x≤1/3)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zhao, H.F.; School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Science and Technology, Beijing 100083; Cao, L.P.

    Pb{sub 2}Cr{sub 1+x}Mo{sub 1-x}O{sub 6} (−1≤x≤1/3) samples were synthesized via a high pressure and high temperature route. X-ray diffraction results suggest the samples crystallize in a disordered double perovskite structure (Pm-3m). X-ray photoemission spectroscopy results confirm the presence of Mo{sup 4+} for x=−1 and Mo{sup 6+} for x=1/3. The measured magnetic and electrical properties exhibit systematic change with increasing x. - Highlights: • A series of Pb{sub 2}Cr{sub 1+x}Mo{sub 1−x}O{sub 6} samples were synthesized under high pressure. • Magnetic and electrical properties of the series samples were investigated. • Valence states of Cr and Mo were determined through the analysesmore » of XRD and XPS results. • Ground state of PbMoO{sub 3} were determined through the transport study and first-principles calculations.« less

  4. Microcosm investigation on phytoremediation of Cr using Azolla pinnata.

    PubMed

    Rai, Prabhat Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The extent of Chromium (Cr) pollution in Singrauli industrial region, India was assessed and phytoremediation capacity of a small water fern, Azolla pinnata R.BR (Azollaceae) was observed to purify waters polluted by Cr under microcosm condition. Azolla pinnata endemic to India is a potential hyper-accumulator of heavy metals. During 13 days of the experiment the fern was grown in the aqueous medium containing Cr3+ and CrO4(2-) ions, each in a concentration 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 mg L(-1). The presence of these ions caused a + 3.1 to -37.5% inhibition of Azolla pinnata growth in comparison to the control. After 13 days of the experiment, metal contents in the solution was decreased up to 70% (CrO4(2-) 3.0 mg L(-1) treatment) to 88% (CrO4(2-) 0.5 mg L(-1) treatment). In the Azolla pinnata tissues, the concentration of couple of the ionic forms of Cr under investigation ranged from 415 to 1095 mg kg(-1) dry mass (dm); the highest level being found for Cr (III) containing solution.

  5. Corrosion performance of Cr3C2-NiCr+0.2%Zr coated super alloys under actual medical waste incinerator environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Lalit; Mudgal, Deepa; Singh, Surendra; Prakash, Satya

    2018-03-01

    Incineration techniques are widely used to dispose of various types of waste which lead to formation of very corrosive environment. Such corrosive environment leads to the degradation of the alloys used in these areas. To obviate this problem, zirconium modified Cr3C2-(NiCr) coating powder has been deposited on three superalloys namely Superni 718, Superni 600 and Superco 605 using Detonation gun technique. Corrosion test was conducted in actual medical waste incinerator environment. The samples were hung inside the secondary chamber operated at 1050°C for 1000h under cyclic condition. Corrosion kinetics was monitored using the weight gain measurements and thickness loss. Corrosion products were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction technique. It was observed that coating is found to be successful in impeding the corrosion problem in superalloys.

  6. Melting in super-earths.

    PubMed

    Stixrude, Lars

    2014-04-28

    We examine the possible extent of melting in rock-iron super-earths, focusing on those in the habitable zone. We consider the energetics of accretion and core formation, the timescale of cooling and its dependence on viscosity and partial melting, thermal regulation via the temperature dependence of viscosity, and the melting curves of rock and iron components at the ultra-high pressures characteristic of super-earths. We find that the efficiency of kinetic energy deposition during accretion increases with planetary mass; considering the likely role of giant impacts and core formation, we find that super-earths probably complete their accretionary phase in an entirely molten state. Considerations of thermal regulation lead us to propose model temperature profiles of super-earths that are controlled by silicate melting. We estimate melting curves of iron and rock components up to the extreme pressures characteristic of super-earth interiors based on existing experimental and ab initio results and scaling laws. We construct super-earth thermal models by solving the equations of mass conservation and hydrostatic equilibrium, together with equations of state of rock and iron components. We set the potential temperature at the core-mantle boundary and at the surface to the local silicate melting temperature. We find that ancient (∼4 Gyr) super-earths may be partially molten at the top and bottom of their mantles, and that mantle convection is sufficiently vigorous to sustain dynamo action over the whole range of super-earth masses.

  7. Deformations of super Riemann surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninnemann, Holger

    1992-11-01

    Two different approaches to (Kostant-Leites-) super Riemann surfaces are investigated. In the local approach, i.e. glueing open superdomains by superconformal transition functions, deformations of the superconformal structure are discussed. On the other hand, the representation of compact super Riemann surfaces of genus greater than one as a fundamental domain in the Poincaré upper half-plane provides a simple description of super Laplace operators acting on automorphic p-forms. Considering purely odd deformations of super Riemann surfaces, the number of linear independent holomorphic sections of arbitrary holomorphic line bundles will be shown to be independent of the odd moduli, leading to a simple proof of the Riemann-Roch theorem for compact super Riemann surfaces. As a further consequence, the explicit connections between determinants of super Laplacians and Selberg's super zeta functions can be determined, allowing to calculate at least the 2-loop contribution to the fermionic string partition function.

  8. The Extreme Universe Space Observatory Super Pressure Balloon Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiencke, Lawrence; Olinto, Angela; Adams, Jim; JEM-EUSO Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Extreme Universe Space Observatory on a super pressure balloon (EUSO-SPB) mission will make the first fluorescence observations of high energy cosmic ray extensive air showers by looking down on the atmosphere from near space. A long duration flight of at least 50 nights launched from Wanaka NZ is planned for 2017. We describe completed instrument, and the planned mission. We acknowledge the support of NASA through grants NNX13AH53G and NNX13AH55G.

  9. Atmospheric neutrino oscillation analysis with external constraints in Super-Kamiokande I-IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Bronner, C.; Haga, Y.; Hayato, Y.; Ikeda, M.; Iyogi, K.; Kameda, J.; Kato, Y.; Kishimoto, Y.; Marti, Ll.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Nakahata, M.; Nakajima, T.; Nakano, Y.; Nakayama, S.; Okajima, Y.; Orii, A.; Pronost, G.; Sekiya, H.; Shiozawa, M.; Sonoda, Y.; Takeda, A.; Takenaka, A.; Tanaka, H.; Tasaka, S.; Tomura, T.; Akutsu, R.; Irvine, T.; Kajita, T.; Kametani, I.; Kaneyuki, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Okumura, K.; Richard, E.; Tsui, K. M.; Labarga, L.; Fernandez, P.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Gustafson, J.; Kachulis, C.; Kearns, E.; Raaf, J. L.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Berkman, S.; Tobayama, S.; Goldhaber, M.; Carminati, G.; Elnimr, M.; Kropp, W. R.; Mine, S.; Locke, S.; Renshaw, A.; Smy, M. B.; Sobel, H. W.; Takhistov, V.; Weatherly, P.; Ganezer, K. S.; Hartfiel, B. L.; Hill, J.; Hong, N.; Kim, J. Y.; Lim, I. T.; Park, R. G.; Akiri, T.; Himmel, A.; Li, Z.; O'Sullivan, E.; Scholberg, K.; Walter, C. W.; Wongjirad, T.; Ishizuka, T.; Nakamura, T.; Jang, J. S.; Choi, K.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Smith, S. N.; Amey, J.; Litchfield, R. P.; Ma, W. Y.; Uchida, Y.; Wascko, M. O.; Cao, S.; Friend, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakamura, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakashita, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Tsukamoto, T.; Abe, KE.; Hasegawa, M.; Suzuki, A. T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Yano, T.; Hayashino, T.; Hirota, S.; Huang, K.; Ieki, K.; Jiang, M.; Kikawa, T.; Nakamura, KE.; Nakaya, T.; Patel, N. D.; Suzuki, K.; Takahashi, S.; Wendell, R. A.; Anthony, L. H. V.; McCauley, N.; Pritchard, A.; Fukuda, Y.; Itow, Y.; Mitsuka, G.; Murase, M.; Muto, F.; Suzuki, T.; Mijakowski, P.; Frankiewicz, K.; Hignight, J.; Imber, J.; Jung, C. K.; Li, X.; Palomino, J. L.; Santucci, G.; Vilela, C.; Wilking, M. J.; Yanagisawa, C.; Ito, S.; Fukuda, D.; Ishino, H.; Kayano, T.; Kibayashi, A.; Koshio, Y.; Mori, T.; Nagata, H.; Sakuda, M.; Xu, C.; Kuno, Y.; Wark, D.; Di Lodovico, F.; Richards, B.; Tacik, R.; Kim, S. B.; Cole, A.; Thompson, L.; Okazawa, H.; Choi, Y.; Ito, K.; Nishijima, K.; Koshiba, M.; Totsuka, Y.; Suda, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Calland, R. G.; Hartz, M.; Martens, K.; Quilain, B.; Simpson, C.; Suzuki, Y.; Vagins, M. R.; Hamabe, D.; Kuze, M.; Yoshida, T.; Ishitsuka, M.; Martin, J. F.; Nantais, C. M.; de Perio, P.; Tanaka, H. A.; Konaka, A.; Chen, S.; Wan, L.; Zhang, Y.; Wilkes, R. J.; Minamino, A.; Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    2018-04-01

    An analysis of atmospheric neutrino data from all four run periods of Super-Kamiokande optimized for sensitivity to the neutrino mass hierarchy is presented. Confidence intervals for Δ m322 , sin2θ23, sin2θ13 and δC P are presented for normal neutrino mass hierarchy and inverted neutrino mass hierarchy hypotheses, based on atmospheric neutrino data alone. Additional constraints from reactor data on θ13 and from published binned T2K data on muon neutrino disappearance and electron neutrino appearance are added to the atmospheric neutrino fit to give enhanced constraints on the above parameters. Over the range of parameters allowed at 90% confidence level, the normal mass hierarchy is favored by between 91.9% and 94.5% based on the combined Super-Kamiokande plus T2K result.

  10. Simultaneous analysis of Cr(III), Cr(VI), and chromium picolinate in foods using capillary electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, YiQuan; Chen, JinFa; Xi, Zhiming; Yang, Guidi; Wu, Zujian; Li, JianRong; Fu, FengFu

    2015-05-01

    We herein reported a method for the simultaneous detection of trace Cr(VI), Cr(III), and chromium(III) picolinate (CrPic) in foods using CE-ICP-MS together with ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The Cr(III) (Cr(3+) ) was chelated with trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N´,N´-tetraacetic acid (DCTA) to form a single charged Cr-DCTA(-) complex. Then, Cr(VI) (CrO4 (2-) ), Cr-DCTA(-) , and CrPic were separated by CE within 8 min under a separation voltage of -13 KV followed by their monitoring with ICP mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The proposed method is simple, effective, and sensitive. It has an instrument detection limit of 0.10, 0.18, and 0.20 ngCr/mL for Cr(VI), Cr(III), and CrPic, respectively. With the help of the methods, we have successfully determined Cr(VI), Cr(III), and CrPic in nutritional supplement (CrPic yeast tablet) with an RSD (n = 5) <6% and a recovery of 93-103%. The experimental results showed that CrPic was the main speciation of chromium in the nutritional supplement, with a concentration of 1514.6 μg Cr/g. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Super periodic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Mohammd; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of super periodic potential (SPP) of arbitrary order n, n ∈I+, in one dimension. General theory of wave propagation through SPP of order n is presented and the reflection and transmission coefficients are derived in their closed analytical form by transfer matrix formulation. We present scattering features of super periodic rectangular potential and super periodic delta potential as special cases of SPP. It is found that the symmetric self-similarity is the special case of super periodicity. Thus by identifying a symmetric fractal potential as special cases of SPP, one can obtain the tunnelling amplitude for a particle from such fractal potential. By using the formalism of SPP we obtain the close form expression of tunnelling amplitude of a particle for general Cantor and Smith-Volterra-Cantor potentials.

  12. Fabrication of Pd-Cr wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamond, Sidney; Leach, Dennen M.

    1989-01-01

    Fabrication of Pd-13 percent Cr alloy wires is described. Melting, casting, swaging and annealing processes are discussed. Drawing to reach two diameters (0.003 inch and 0.00176 inch) of wire is described. Representative micrographs of the Pd-Cr alloy at selected stages during wire fabrication are included. The resistance of the wire was somewhat lower, by about 15 to 20 percent, than comparable wire of other alloys used for strain gages.

  13. Super-lncRNAs: identification of lncRNAs that target super-enhancers via RNA:DNA:DNA triplex formation.

    PubMed

    Soibam, Benjamin

    2017-11-01

    Super-enhancers are characterized by high levels of Mediator binding and are major contributors to the expression of their associated genes. They exhibit high levels of local chromatin interactions and a higher order of local chromatin organization. On the other hand, lncRNAs can localize to specific DNA sites by forming a RNA:DNA:DNA triplex, which in turn can contribute to local chromatin organization. In this paper, we characterize a new class of lncRNAs called super-lncRNAs that target super-enhancers and which can contribute to the local chromatin organization of the super-enhancers. Using a logistic regression model based on the number of RNA:DNA:DNA triplex sites a lncRNA forms within the super-enhancer, we identify 442 unique super-lncRNA transcripts in 27 different human cell and tissue types; 70% of these super-lncRNAs were tissue restricted. They primarily harbor a single triplex-forming repeat domain, which forms an RNA:DNA:DNA triplex with multiple anchor DNA sites (originating from transposable elements) within the super-enhancers. Super-lncRNAs can be grouped into 17 different clusters based on the tissue or cell lines they target. Super-lncRNAs in a particular cluster share common short structural motifs and their corresponding super-enhancer targets are associated with gene ontology terms pertaining to the tissue or cell line. Super-lncRNAs may use these structural motifs to recruit and transport necessary regulators (such as transcription factors and Mediator complexes) to super-enhancers, influence chromatin organization, and act as spatial amplifiers for key tissue-specific genes associated with super-enhancers. © 2017 Soibam; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  14. Barnacle Bill in Super Resolution from Super Panorama

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-07-03

    "Barnacle Bill" is a small rock immediately west-northwest of the Mars Pathfinder lander and was the first rock visited by the Sojourner Rover's alpha proton X-ray spectrometer (APXS) instrument. This image shows super resolution techniques applied to the first APXS target rock, which was never imaged with the rover's forward cameras. Super resolution was applied to help to address questions about the texture of this rock and what it might tell us about its mode of origin. This view of Barnacle Bill was produced by combining the "Super Panorama" frames from the IMP camera. Super resolution was applied to help to address questions about the texture of these rocks and what it might tell us about their mode of origin. The composite color frames that make up this anaglyph were produced for both the right and left eye of the IMP. The composites consist of 7 frames in the right eye and 8 frames in the left eye, taken with different color filters that were enlarged by 500% and then co-added using Adobe Photoshop to produce, in effect, a super-resolution panchromatic frame that is sharper than an individual frame would be. These panchromatic frames were then colorized with the red, green, and blue filtered images from the same sequence. The color balance was adjusted to approximate the true color of Mars. The anaglyph view was produced by combining the left with the right eye color composite frames by assigning the left eye composite view to the red color plane and the right eye composite view to the green and blue color planes (cyan), to produce a stereo anaglyph mosaic. This mosaic can be viewed in 3-D on your computer monitor or in color print form by wearing red-blue 3-D glasses. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01409

  15. Ionospheric Convection in the Postnoon Auroral Oval: SuperDARN and Polar UVI Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlovsky, A.; Koustov, A.; Lyatsky, W.; Kangas, J.; Parks, G.; Chua, D.

    2002-01-01

    Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) observations, ultraviolet imaging from the Polar satellite (UVI), and particle precipitation data from DMSP satellites have been used to investigate the electrodynamics of the postnoon auroral oval in the Northern hemisphere. We show that: (1) For negative IMF By, the convection reversal (CR) was co-located with the maximum of auroral luminosity, but during positive IMF By the convection reversal was poleward of the auroral oval up to several degrees in latitude; (2) Postnoon auroral oval was associated with a large-scale upward field-aligned current (FAC) of the order of 6x10(exp -7). A m(exp -2) in magnitude (the FAC was inferred from the SuperDARN and UVI data). For negative IMF By, maximum of the auroral intensity coincides in latitude with the maximum of the upward field-aligned current. However, for positive IMF By. the maximum of the upward FAC was shifted to the poleward edge of the auroral oval; (3) In response to the IMF By turning from positive to negative, the maximum of the auroral luminosity did not change its position noticeably, but the position of the convection reversal changed considerably from 80-81 degs to about 76 degs MLAT, and the maximum of FAC moved from 77-78 degs to about 76 degs MLAT. Thus, after IMF By turns negative, both the FAC maximum and CR tend to coincide with the auroral maximum; (4) The IMF Bz positive deflection was followed by a decrease in both field-aligned current intensity and auroral luminosity. However, the decrease in the auroral luminosity lags behind the FAC decrease by about 12 min. Firstly, these observations allow us to suggest that the IMF By-related electric field can penetrate into the closed magnetosphere and produce convection and FAC changes in the region of the postnoon auroral oval. Secondly, we suggest that the interchange instability is a promising mechanism for the postnoon auroras.

  16. Substrate bias effects on composition and coercivity of CoCrTa/Cr thin films on canasite and glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y.; Lambeth, D. N.; Sui, X.; Lee, L.-L.; Laughlin, D. E.

    1993-05-01

    CoCrTa/Cr thin films were prepared by rf diode sputtering onto canasite and glass substrates at various bias voltages from two targets of different compositions (Co82.8Cr14.6Ta2.6 and Co86Cr12Ta2). While Auger depth profile analysis indicates that there is some broadening at the CoCrTa-Cr interface, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy reveals that changes in alloy composition due to the resputtering processes are even more prominent. For both targets, as the substrate bias increases the Co content in the films declines, and the magnetization decreases. The maximum film coercivity appears to correlate to the final film composition. By investigating the results from both targets, it is concluded that the coercivity reaches a maximum when the film composition is in the neighborhood of Co84Cr13Ta3. Thus, to optimize the coercivity different bias voltages are required for each target. Excessive substrate bias, however, leads to films with low magnetization and coercivity.

  17. Search for bosonic super-WIMP interactions with the XENON100 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aprile, E.; Aalbers, J.; Agostini, F.; Alfonsi, M.; Althueser, L.; Amaro, F. D.; Anthony, M.; Arneodo, F.; Barrow, P.; Baudis, L.; Bauermeister, B.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berger, T.; Breur, P. A.; Brown, A.; Brown, A.; Brown, E.; Bruenner, S.; Bruno, G.; Budnik, R.; Bütikofer, L.; Calvén, J.; Capelli, C.; Cardoso, J. M. R.; Cichon, D.; Coderre, D.; Colijn, A. P.; Conrad, J.; Cussonneau, J. P.; Decowski, M. P.; de Perio, P.; di Gangi, P.; di Giovanni, A.; Diglio, S.; Eurin, G.; Fei, J.; Ferella, A. D.; Fieguth, A.; Fulgione, W.; Gallo Rosso, A.; Galloway, M.; Gao, F.; Garbini, M.; Geis, C.; Goetzke, L. W.; Greene, Z.; Grignon, C.; Hasterok, C.; Hogenbirk, E.; Howlett, J.; Itay, R.; Kaminsky, B.; Kazama, S.; Kessler, G.; Kish, A.; Landsman, H.; Lang, R. F.; Lellouch, D.; Levinson, L.; Lin, Q.; Lindemann, S.; Lindner, M.; Lombardi, F.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Manfredini, A.; Maris, I.; Marrodán Undagoitia, T.; Masbou, J.; Massoli, F. V.; Masson, D.; Mayani, D.; Messina, M.; Micheneau, K.; Molinario, A.; Morâ, K.; Murra, M.; Naganoma, J.; Ni, K.; Oberlack, U.; Pakarha, P.; Pelssers, B.; Persiani, R.; Piastra, F.; Pienaar, J.; Pizzella, V.; Piro, M.-C.; Plante, G.; Priel, N.; Ramírez García, D.; Rauch, L.; Reichard, S.; Reuter, C.; Rizzo, A.; Rupp, N.; Dos Santos, J. M. F.; Sartorelli, G.; Scheibelhut, M.; Schindler, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schumann, M.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Selvi, M.; Shagin, P.; Silva, M.; Simgen, H.; Sivers, M. V.; Stein, A.; Thers, D.; Tiseni, A.; Trinchero, G.; Tunnell, C.; Vargas, M.; Wang, H.; Wang, Z.; Wei, Y.; Weinheimer, C.; Wittweg, C.; Wulf, J.; Ye, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, T.; Xenon Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    We present results of searches for vector and pseudoscalar bosonic super-weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), which are dark matter candidates with masses at the keV-scale, with the XENON100 experiment. XENON100 is a dual-phase xenon time projection chamber operated at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. A profile likelihood analysis of data with an exposure of 224.6 live days ×34 kg showed no evidence for a signal above the expected background. We thus obtain new and stringent upper limits in the (8 - 125 ) keV /c2 mass range, excluding couplings to electrons with coupling constants of ga e>3 ×10-13 for pseudo-scalar and α'/α >2 ×10-28 for vector super-WIMPs, respectively. These limits are derived under the assumption that super-WIMPs constitute all of the dark matter in our galaxy.

  18. Effect of temperature on anodic behavior of 13Cr martensitic steel in CO2 environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, G. X.; Zheng, M.; Lv, X. H.; Dong, X. H.; Li, H. L.

    2005-04-01

    The corrosion behavior of 13Cr martensitic stainless steel in a CO2 environment in a stimulated oilfield was studied with potentiodynamic polarization and the impedance spectra technique. The results showed that the microstructure of the surface scale clearly changed with temperature. This decreased the sensitivity of pitting corrosion and increased the tendency toward general (or uniform) corrosion. The capacitance, the charge transfer resistance, and the polarization resistance of the corrosion product scale decrease with increasing temperature from 90 to 120 °C, and thus the corrosion is a thermal activation controlled process. Charge transfer through the scale is difficult and the corrosion is controlled by a diffusion process at a temperature of 150 °C. Resistance charge transfer through the corrosion product layer is higher than that in the passive film.

  19. Effect of Aging on Precipitation Behavior and Pitting Corrosion Resistance of SAF2906 Super Duplex Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianchun; Li, Guoping; Liang, Wei; Han, Peide; Wang, Hongxia

    2017-09-01

    The effect of aging temperature and holding time on the precipitation of secondary phases and pitting corrosion resistance of SAF2906 super duplex stainless steel was examined. Chromium nitride and σ phase were observed to preferentially precipitate at the ferrite/austenite interface. An amount of nitrides was also observed within the ferrite grain. The precipitation of chromium nitride occurred before the σ phase. The increase in aging temperature and holding time did not affect the concentration of the nitrides but increased the area fraction of the σ phase at a faster rate. The Cr2N precipitation in SAF2906 is more evident than that of the other duplex stainless steels. The variation tendency of the precipitation concentrations is primarily consistent with the prediction results of Thermo-Calc software. The electrochemical results showed that Cr2N and σ phase significantly reduced the pitting potential. Scanning electron microscope observations revealed that pits appear mainly in regions adjacent to sigma phase and Cr2N.

  20. Searching for New Physics at SuperB - The Super Flavor Factory

    ScienceCinema

    Hiltin, David

    2018-01-05

    SuperB – a Super Flavor Factory, an electron-positron collider with a luminosity of 1036 cm-2 s-1, can conduct conduct unique sensitive searches for New Physics effects such as lepton flavor violation and new sources of CP violation in the quark and lepton sectors.

  1. Example-Based Super-Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shu; Han, Boran; Kutz, J Nathan

    2018-04-23

    Capturing biological dynamics with high spatiotemporal resolution demands the advancement in imaging technologies. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy offers spatial resolution surpassing the diffraction limit to resolve near-molecular-level details. While various strategies have been reported to improve the temporal resolution of super-resolution imaging, all super-resolution techniques are still fundamentally limited by the trade-off associated with the longer image acquisition time that is needed to achieve higher spatial information. Here, we demonstrated an example-based, computational method that aims to obtain super-resolution images using conventional imaging without increasing the imaging time. With a low-resolution image input, the method provides an estimate of its super-resolution image based on an example database that contains super- and low-resolution image pairs of biological structures of interest. The computational imaging of cellular microtubules agrees approximately with the experimental super-resolution STORM results. This new approach may offer potential improvements in temporal resolution for experimental super-resolution fluorescence microscopy and provide a new path for large-data aided biomedical imaging.

  2. SEA: a super-enhancer archive.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yanjun; Zhang, Shumei; Shang, Shipeng; Zhang, Bin; Li, Song; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Fang; Su, Jianzhong; Wu, Qiong; Liu, Hongbo; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-04

    Super-enhancers are large clusters of transcriptional enhancers regarded as having essential roles in driving the expression of genes that control cell identity during development and tumorigenesis. The construction of a genome-wide super-enhancer database is urgently needed to better understand super-enhancer-directed gene expression regulation for a given biology process. Here, we present a specifically designed web-accessible database, Super-Enhancer Archive (SEA, http://sea.edbc.org). SEA focuses on integrating super-enhancers in multiple species and annotating their potential roles in the regulation of cell identity gene expression. The current release of SEA incorporates 83 996 super-enhancers computationally or experimentally identified in 134 cell types/tissues/diseases, including human (75 439, three of which were experimentally identified), mouse (5879, five of which were experimentally identified), Drosophila melanogaster (1774) and Caenorhabditis elegans (904). To facilitate data extraction, SEA supports multiple search options, including species, genome location, gene name, cell type/tissue and super-enhancer name. The response provides detailed (epi)genetic information, incorporating cell type specificity, nearby genes, transcriptional factor binding sites, CRISPR/Cas9 target sites, evolutionary conservation, SNPs, H3K27ac, DNA methylation, gene expression and TF ChIP-seq data. Moreover, analytical tools and a genome browser were developed for users to explore super-enhancers and their roles in defining cell identity and disease processes in depth. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. A multi-responsive luminescent sensor based on a super-stable sandwich-type terbium(iii)-organic framework.

    PubMed

    Wen, Guo-Xuan; Han, Min-Le; Wu, Xue-Qian; Wu, Ya-Pan; Dong, Wen-Wen; Zhao, Jun; Li, Dong-Sheng; Ma, Lu-Fang

    2016-10-04

    A super-stable multifunctional terbium(iii)-organic framework, namely {[Tb(TATAB) (H 2 O) 2 ]·NMP·H 2 O} n (Tb-MOF, H 3 TATAB = 4,4',4''-s-triazine-1,3,5-triyltri-m-aminobenzoic acid, NMP = N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone) was synthesized. Tb-MOF exhibits a 2D sql structure with binuclear [Tb 2 (COO) 4 (H 2 O) 4 ] 2+ units as 4-connected nodes, and free water and NMP molecules are inserted between 2D layers through hydrogen-bonding interactions, forming a sandwich-type architecture. Observably, such a framework remains intact in a remarkable variety of environments such as common solvents and aqueous solutions with metal cations and inorganic anions, as well as with a pH ranging from 1 to 13. In particular, Tb-MOF can not only detect small organic molecules, metal cations and inorganic anions with high sensitivity and high selectivity, but also can accurately detect explosive 2-nitrophenol, 3-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol in water. Its luminescence quenching response to Fe 3+ and Cr 2 O 7 2- ions can be explained in terms of the competitive absorption mechanism. In addition, the luminescence intensity of Tb-MOF is strongly correlated with the pH value in a pH range from 1 to 13. Thus, this material can be potentially used as a multi-responsive luminescent sensor.

  4. Super-Eddington radiation transfer in soft gamma repeaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulmer, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    Bursts from soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) have been shown to be super-Eddington by a factor of 1000 and have been persuasively associated with compact objects. Super-Eddington radiation transfer on the surface of a strongly magnetic (greater than or equal to 10(exp 13) G) neutron star is studied and related to the observational constraints on SGRs. In strong magnetic fields, Thompson scattering is suppressed in one polarization state, so super-Eddington fluxes can be radiated while the plasma remains in hydrostatic equilibrium. We discuss a model which offers a somewhat natural explanation for the observation that the energy spectra of bursts with varying intensity are similar. The radiation produced is found to be linearly polarized to one part in 1000 in a direction determined by the local magnetic field, and intensity variations between bursts are understood as a change in the radiating area on the source. The net polarization is inversely correlated with burst intensity. Further, it is shown that for radiation transfer calculations in limit of superstrong magnetic fields, it is sufficient to solve the radiation transfer for the low opacity state rather than the coupled equations for both. With this approximation, standard stellar atmosphere techniques are utilized to calculate the model energy spectrum.

  5. Handbook of Super 8 Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telzer, Ronnie, Ed.

    This handbook is designed for anyone interested in producing super 8 films at any level of complexity and cost. Separate chapters present detailed discussions of the following topics: super 8 production systems and super 8 shooting and editing systems; budgeting; cinematography and sound recording; preparing to edit; editing; mixing sound tracks;…

  6. Plasma-Sprayed High Entropy Alloys: Microstructure and Properties of AlCoCrFeNi and MnCoCrFeNi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, Andrew Siao Ming; Berndt, Christopher C.; Sesso, Mitchell L.; Anupam, Ameey; S, Praveen; Kottada, Ravi Sankar; Murty, B. S.

    2015-02-01

    High entropy alloys (HEAs) represent a new class of materials that present novel phase structures and properties. Apart from bulk material consolidation methods such as casting and sintering, HEAs can also be deposited as a surface coating. In this work, thermal sprayed HEA coatings are investigated that may be used as an alternative bond coat material for a thermal barrier coating system. Nanostructured HEAs that were based on AlCoCrFeNi and MnCoCrFeNi were prepared by ball milling and then plasma sprayed. Splat studies were assessed to optimise the appropriate thermal spray parameters and spray deposits were prepared. After mechanical alloying, aluminum-based and manganese-based HEA powders revealed contrary prominences of BCC and FCC phases in their X-ray diffraction patterns. However, FCC phase was observed as the major phase present in both of the plasma-sprayed AlCoCrFeNi and MnCoCrFeNi coatings. There were also minor oxide peaks detected, which can be attributed to the high temperature processing. The measured porosity levels for AlCoCrFeNi and MnCoCrFeNi coatings were 9.5 ± 2.3 and 7.4 ± 1.3 pct, respectively. Three distinct phase contrasts, dark gray, light gray and white, were observed in the SEM images, with the white regions corresponding to retained multicomponent HEAs. The Vickers hardness (HV0.3kgf) was 4.13 ± 0.43 and 4.42 ± 0.60 GPa for AlCoCrFeNi and MnCoCrFeNi, respectively. Both type of HEAs coatings exhibited anisotropic mechanical behavior due to their lamellar, composite-type microstructure.

  7. The super-resolution debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Rachel

    2018-05-01

    In the quest for nanoscopy with super-resolution, consensus from the imaging community is that super-resolution is not always needed and that scientists should choose an imaging technique based on their specific application.

  8. Magnetic Properties of Hard Magnetic Alloy Fe - 28% Cr - 13.4% Co - 2% Mo - 0.5% Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vompe, T. A.; Milyaev, I. M.; Yusupov, V. S.

    2017-01-01

    The method of regression analysis is used to obtain equations describing the dependences of magnetic hysteresis properties of magnetically hard powder alloy Fe - 28% Cr - 13.4% Co - 2% Mo - 0.5% Si on regimes of thermomagnetic treatment (the temperatures of the start of the treatment and the rates of cooling in magnetic field). The determined treatment modes make it possible to obtain in an alloy with a coercive force H c up to 40 kA/m, a residual induction B r up to 1.2 T, and a maximum energy product ( BH)max up to 25 kJ/m3. The alloy may find application in the production of rotors of synchronous hysteresis-reluctance motors.

  9. Mechanical properties of orthodontic wires made of super engineering plastic.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Minami; Kanno, Zuisei; Wada, Takahiro; Hongo, Toshio; Doi, Hisashi; Hanawa, Takao; Ono, Takashi; Uo, Motohiro

    2015-01-01

    Most orthodontic equipment is fabricated from alloys such as stainless steel, Co-Cr and Ni-Ti because of their excellent elastic properties. In recent years, increasing esthetic demands, metal allergy and interference of metals with magnetic resonance imaging have driven the development of non-metallic orthodontic materials. In this study, we assessed the feasibility of using three super engineering plastics (PEEK, PES and PVDF) as orthodontic wires. PES and PVDF demonstrated excellent esthetics, although PEEK showed the highest bending strength and creep resistance. PEEK and PVDF showed quite low water absorption. Because of recent developments in coloration of PEEK, we conclude that PEEK has many advantageous properties that make it a suitable candidate for use as an esthetic metal-free orthodontic wire.

  10. Microstructural evolution during quenching and partitioning of 0.2C-1.5Mn-1.3Si steels with Cr or Ni additions

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Pierce, Dean T.; Coughlin, D. R.; Clarke, Kester D.

    Here, the influence of Cr and Ni additions and quench and partition (Q&P) processing parameters on the microstructural development, including carbide formation and austenite retention during Q&P, was studied in two steels with a base composition of 0.2C-1.5Mn-1.3Si wt.% and additions of 1.5 wt.% Cr (1.5Cr) or Ni (1.5Ni). Additions of 1.5 wt.% Cr significantly slowed the kinetics of austenite decomposition relative to the 1.5Ni alloy at all partitioning temperatures, promoting greater austenite retention, lower retained austenite carbon (C) contents, and reduced sensitivity of the retained austenite amounts to processing variables. In the 1.5Cr alloy after partitioning at 400 °Cmore » for 300 s, η-carbides were identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) revealed no significant enrichment of substitutional elements in the carbides. In the 1.5Ni alloy after partitioning at 450 °C for 300 s, both plate-like and globular carbides were observed by TEM. APT analysis of the globular carbides clearly revealed significant Si rejection and Mn enrichment. Mössbauer effect spectroscopy was used to quantify the amount of carbides after Q&P. In general, carbide amounts below ~0.3% of Fe were measured in both alloys after partitioning for short times (10 s), irrespective of quench or partitioning temperature, which corresponds to a relatively small portion of the bulk C. With increasing partitioning time, carbide amounts remained approximately constant or increased, depending on the alloy, quench temperature, and/or partitioning temperature.« less

  11. Microstructural evolution during quenching and partitioning of 0.2C-1.5Mn-1.3Si steels with Cr or Ni additions

    DOE PAGES

    Pierce, Dean T.; Coughlin, D. R.; Clarke, Kester D.; ...

    2018-03-08

    Here, the influence of Cr and Ni additions and quench and partition (Q&P) processing parameters on the microstructural development, including carbide formation and austenite retention during Q&P, was studied in two steels with a base composition of 0.2C-1.5Mn-1.3Si wt.% and additions of 1.5 wt.% Cr (1.5Cr) or Ni (1.5Ni). Additions of 1.5 wt.% Cr significantly slowed the kinetics of austenite decomposition relative to the 1.5Ni alloy at all partitioning temperatures, promoting greater austenite retention, lower retained austenite carbon (C) contents, and reduced sensitivity of the retained austenite amounts to processing variables. In the 1.5Cr alloy after partitioning at 400 °Cmore » for 300 s, η-carbides were identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) revealed no significant enrichment of substitutional elements in the carbides. In the 1.5Ni alloy after partitioning at 450 °C for 300 s, both plate-like and globular carbides were observed by TEM. APT analysis of the globular carbides clearly revealed significant Si rejection and Mn enrichment. Mössbauer effect spectroscopy was used to quantify the amount of carbides after Q&P. In general, carbide amounts below ~0.3% of Fe were measured in both alloys after partitioning for short times (10 s), irrespective of quench or partitioning temperature, which corresponds to a relatively small portion of the bulk C. With increasing partitioning time, carbide amounts remained approximately constant or increased, depending on the alloy, quench temperature, and/or partitioning temperature.« less

  12. Thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity, and thermopower of aerospace alloys from 4 to 300 K. 6: Fe-22Cr-13Ni-5Mn stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hust, J. G.; Sparks, L. L.

    1971-01-01

    The equipment and techniques for determining the thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity Lorenz ratio, and thermopower characteristics of Fe-22Cr-13Ni-5Mn stainless steel are discussed. The dimensions of the specimen and its preparation are described. The experimental data are represented by arbitrary functions over the entire range and smooth tables are generated from these functions.

  13. Effect of Nb Addition to Ti-Bearing Super Martensitic Stainless Steel on Control of Austenite Grain Size and Strengthening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaoping; Langelier, Brian; Gault, Baptiste; Subramanian, Sundaresa

    2017-05-01

    The role of Nb in normalized and tempered Ti-bearing 13Cr5Ni2Mo super martensitic stainless steel is investigated through in-depth characterization of the bimodal chemistry and size of Nb-rich precipitates/atomic clusters and Nb in solid solution. Transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography are used to analyze the samples and clarify precipitates/atom cluster interactions with dislocations and austenite grain boundaries. The effect of 0.1 wt pct Nb addition on the promotion of (Ti, Nb)N-Nb(C,N) composite precipitates, as well as the retention of Nb in solution after cooling to room temperature, are analyzed quantitatively. (Ti, Nb)N-Nb(C,N) composite precipitates with average diameters of approximately 24 ± 8 nm resulting from epitaxial growth of Nb(C,N) on pre-existing (Ti,Nb)N particles, with inter-particle spacing on the order of 205 ± 68 nm, are found to be associated with mean austenite grain size of 28 ± 10 µm in the sample normalized at 1323 K (1050 °C). The calculated Zener limiting austenite grain size of 38 ± 13 µm is in agreement with the experimentally observed austenite grain size distribution. 0.08 wt pct Nb is retained in the as-normalized condition, which is able to promote Nb(C, N) atomic clusters at dislocations during tempering at 873 K (600 °C) for 2 hours, and increases the yield strength by 160 MPa, which is predicted to be close to maximum increase in strengthening effect. Retention of solute Nb before tempering also leads to it preferentially combing with C and N to form Nb(C, N) atom clusters, which suppresses the occurrence of Cr- and Mo-rich carbides during tempering.

  14. Multi-frame super-resolution with quality self-assessment for retinal fundus videos.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Thomas; Brost, Alexander; Mogalle, Katja; Zhang, Qianyi; Köhler, Christiane; Michelson, Georg; Hornegger, Joachim; Tornow, Ralf P

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel super-resolution framework to reconstruct high-resolution fundus images from multiple low-resolution video frames in retinal fundus imaging. Natural eye movements during an examination are used as a cue for super-resolution in a robust maximum a-posteriori scheme. In order to compensate heterogeneous illumination on the fundus, we integrate retrospective illumination correction for photometric registration to the underlying imaging model. Our method utilizes quality self-assessment to provide objective quality scores for reconstructed images as well as to select regularization parameters automatically. In our evaluation on real data acquired from six human subjects with a low-cost video camera, the proposed method achieved considerable enhancements of low-resolution frames and improved noise and sharpness characteristics by 74%. In terms of image analysis, we demonstrate the importance of our method for the improvement of automatic blood vessel segmentation as an example application, where the sensitivity was increased by 13% using super-resolution reconstruction.

  15. [The measurement of thermal expansion coefficient of Co-Cr alloy fabricated by selective laser melting].

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiao-mei; Zeng, Li; Wei, Bin; Huang, Yi-feng

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the thermal expansion coefficient of different processing parameters upon the Co-Cr alloy prepared by selective laser melting (SLM) technique, in order to provide technical support for clinical application of SLM technology. The heating curve of self-made Co-Cr alloy was protracted from room temperature to 980°C centigrade with DIL402PC thermal analysis instrument, keeping temperature rise rate and cooling rate at 5 K/min, and then the thermal expansion coefficient of 9 groups of Co-Cr alloy was measured from 20°C centigrade to 500°C centigrade and 600°C centigrade. The 9 groups thermal expansion coefficient values of Co-Cr alloy heated from 20°C centigrade to 500°C centigrade were 13.9×10(-6)/K,13.6×10(-6)/K,13.9×10(-6)/K,13.7×10(-6)/K,13.5×10(-6)/K,13.8×10(-6)/K,13.7×10(-6)/K,13.7×10(-6)/K,and 13.9×10(-6)/K, respectively; when heated from 20°C centigrade to 600°C centigrade, they were 14.2×10(-6)/K,13.9×10(-6)/K,13.8×10(-6)/K,14.0×10(-6)/K,14.1×10(-6)/K,14.1×10(-6)/K,13.9×10(-6)/K,14.2×10(-6)/K, and 13.7×10(-6)/K, respectively. The results showed that the Co-Cr alloy has good matching with the VITA VMK 95 porcelain powder and can meet the requirement of clinic use.

  16. SuperAGILE Services at ASDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preger, B.; Verrecchia, F.; Pittori, C.; Antonelli, L. A.; Giommi, P.; Lazzarotto, F.; Evangelista, Y.

    2008-05-01

    The Italian Space Agency Science Data Center (ASDC) is a facility with several responsibilities including support to all the ASI scientific missions as for management and archival of the data, acting as the interface between ASI and the scientific community and providing on-line access to the data hosted. In this poster we describe the services that ASDC provides for SuperAGILE, in particular the ASDC public web pages devoted to the dissemination of SuperAGILE scientific results. SuperAGILE is the X-Ray imager onboard the AGILE mission, and provides the scientific community with orbit-by-orbit information on the observed sources. Crucial source information including position and flux in chosen energy bands will be reported in the SuperAGILE public web page at ASDC. Given their particular interest, another web page will be dedicated entirely to GRBs and other transients, where new event alerts will be notified and where users will find all the available informations on the GRBs detected by SuperAGILE.

  17. Generation of live offspring from vitrified embryos with synthetic polymers SuperCool X-1000 and SuperCool Z-1000.

    PubMed

    Marco-Jimenez, F; Jimenez-Trigos, E; Lavara, R; Vicente, J S

    2014-01-01

    Ice growth and recrystallisation are considered important factors in determining vitrification outcomes. Synthetic polymers inhibit ice formation during cooling or warming of the vitrification process. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adding commercially available synthetic polymers SuperCool X-1000 and SuperCool Z-1000 to vitrification media on in vivo development competence of rabbit embryos. Four hundred and thirty morphologically normal embryos recovered at 72 h of gestation were used. The vitrification media contained 20% dimethyl sulphoxide and 20% ethylene glycol, either alone or in combination with 1% of SuperCool X-1000 and 1% SuperCool. Our results show that embryos can be successfully vitrified using SuperCool X-1000 and SuperCool Z-1000 and when embryos are transferred, live offspring can be successfully produced. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that we succeeded for the first time in obtaining live offspring after vitrification of embryos using SuperCool X-1000 and SuperCool Z-1000 polymers.

  18. Assessment of phase constitution on the Al-rich region of rapidly solidified Al-Co-Fe-Cr alloys

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wolf, W., E-mail: witorw@gmail.com

    The formation of quasicrystalline approximants in rapidly solidified Al-Co-Fe-Cr alloys was investigated. Alloys of atomic composition Al{sub 71}Co{sub 13}Fe{sub 8}Cr{sub 8}, Al{sub 77}Co{sub 11}Fe{sub 6}Cr{sub 6} and Al{sub 76}Co{sub 19}Fe{sub 4}Cr{sub 1} were produced using melt spinning and arc melting methods and their microstructural characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Up to the present there is no consensus in the literature regarding the formation of quasicrystalline phase or quasicrystalline approximants in the Al{sub 71}Co{sub 13}Fe{sub 8}Cr{sub 8} alloy. This work presents, for the first time, a detailed structural characterization of selected alloysmore » in the Al-Co-Fe-Cr system close to the atomic composition Al{sub 71}Co{sub 13}Fe{sub 8}Cr{sub 8}. The results indicated the samples to be composed, mostly, by two intermetallic phases, which are quaternary extensions of Al{sub 5}Co{sub 2} and Al{sub 13}Co{sub 4} and are quasicrystalline approximants. Although the Al{sub 5}Co{sub 2} phase has already been reported in the Al{sub 71}Co{sub 13}Fe{sub 8}Cr{sub 8} alloy, the presence of the monoclinic Al{sub 13}Co{sub 4} is now identified for the first time in the as cast state. In the binary Al-Co system a quasicrystalline phase is known to form in a rapidly solidified alloy with composition close to the monoclinic and orthorhombic Al{sub 13}Co{sub 4} phases. This binary quasicrystalline phase presents an average valence electron per atom (e/a) between 1.7 and 1.9; thus, in addition to the Al{sub 71}Co{sub 13}Fe{sub 8}Cr{sub 8} alloy, the compositions Al{sub 77}Co{sub 11}Fe{sub 6}Cr{sub 6} and Al{sub 76}Co{sub 19}Fe{sub 4}Cr{sub 1} were chosen to be within the region of formation of the quaternary extension of the Al{sub 13}Co{sub 4} phase and also within the (e/a) of 1.7 to 1.9. However, no quasicrystalline phase is present in any of the studied alloys. The Al-Co-Fe-Cr

  19. SuperCam_MastUnit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deleuze, M. D.; Bernardi, P. B.; Caïs, Ph. C.; Perez, R. P.; Rees, J. M. R.; Pares, L. P.; Dubois, B. D.; Parot, Y. P.; Quertier, B. Q.; Maurice, S. M.; Maccabe, K. M.; Wiens, R. W.; Rull, F. R.

    2016-10-01

    This paper will describe and give a development status of SuperCam's mast unit. SuperCam will be carried on the Mars 2020 rover, and consists in an enhanced version of the ChemCam LIBS which is still performing at the surface of Mars, on Curiosity.

  20. Super cool X-1000 and Super cool Z-1000, two ice blockers, and their effect on vitrification/warming of mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Badrzadeh, H; Najmabadi, S; Paymani, R; Macaso, T; Azadbadi, Z; Ahmady, A

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the survival and blastocyst formation rates of mouse embryos after vitrification/thaw process with different ice blocker media. We used X-1000 and Z-1000 separately and mixed using V-Kim, a closed vitrification system. Mouse embryos were vitrified using ethylene glycol based medium supplemented with Super cool X-1000 and/or Super cool Z-1000. Survival rates for the control, Super cool X-1000, Super cool Z-1000, and Super cool X-1000/Z-1000 groups were 74%, 72%, 68%, and 85% respectively, with no significant difference among experimental and control groups; however, a significantly higher survival rate was noticed in the Super cool X-1000/Z-1000 group when compared with the Super cool Z-1000 group. Blastocyst formation rates for the control, Super cool X-1000, Super cool Z-1000, and Super cool X-1000/Z-1000 groups were 71%, 66%, 65%, and 72% respectively. There was no significant difference in this rate among control and experimental groups. In a closed vitrification system, addition of ice blocker Super cool X-1000 to the vitrification solution containing Super cool Z-1000 may improve the embryo survival rate. We recommend combined ice blocker usage to optimize the vitrification outcome. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Super-response to cardiac resynchronization therapy may predict late phrenic nerve stimulation.

    PubMed

    Juliá, Justo; López-Gil, María; Fontenla, Adolfo; Lozano, Álvaro; Villagraz, Lola; Salguero, Rafael; Arribas, Fernando

    2017-11-22

    Changes in the anatomical relationship between left phrenic nerve and coronary veins may occur due to the reverse remodelling observed in super-responders to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and might be the underlying mechanism in patients developing late-onset phrenic nerve stimulation (PNS) without evidence of lead dislodgement (LD). In this study, we sought to evaluate the role of super-response (SR) to CRT as a potential predictor of late-onset PNS. Consecutive patients implanted with a left ventricular (LV) lead in a single centre were retrospectively analysed. Phrenic nerve stimulation was classified as 'early' when it occurred within 3 months of implantation and 'late' for occurrences thereafter. 'Late' PNS was considered related to LD (LD-PNS) when LV threshold differed by > 1 V or impedance >250 Ω from baseline values or in case of radiological displacement. Cases not meeting the former criteria were classified as 'non-LD-PNS'. Super-response was defined as a decrease ≥30% of the left ventricluar end-systolic volume at 1-year echocardiography. At 32 ± 7 months follow-up, PNS occurred in 20 of 139 patients. Late non-LD-PNS incidence was significantly higher in the SR group (8/61; 13.1%) when compared with the non-SR (1/78; 1.3%) (P = 0.010). Super-response remained the only predictor of non-LD-PNS at multivariate analysis (odds ratio: 11.62, 95% confidence interval 1.41-95.68, P = 0.023). Incidence of late non-LD-PNS is higher among SR to CRT, suggesting a potential role of the changes in the anatomical relationship between left phrenic nerve and coronary veins. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. [Preparation of electrodeposited Cr-La coating and its spectral properties].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-zhen; Wang, Gang; Song, Ling-ling; Li, Xin; Zhu, Xu-qiang

    2011-07-01

    Cr-La coating (dc) and Cr-La coating (pulse) were prepared by electrodeposition method of direct current and pulsating current respectively. The Cr-La coating (dc) and Cr-La coating (pulse) were characterized with ICP-AES, EDAX, XRD and SEM techniques, respectively. Cr-La coating(dc) was amorphous. There were crystalline La and CrC in Cr-La coating (pulse). The microhardness of the Cr-La coating(dc) and Cr-La coating (pulse) were as high as 860.3 and 930.2 HV respectively, which were higher 11.15% and 20.18% higher than that of the Cr coating (774.0 HV). The wear weight losses of Cr-La coating(dc) and Cr-La coating(pulse) were 1.29 and 2.25 times lower than that of Cr coating, respectively. The friction coefficient of Cr coating, Cr-La coating(dc) and Cr-La coating(pulse) were 0. 884, 0. 640 and 0. 648 respectively. The properties of wear weight loss and microhardness of coatings were improved with pulsating current. The wear weight loss and microhardness of Cr-La coating(pulse) were lower 1.75 time lower and higher 8.13% higher than that of the Cr-La coating(dc), respectively.

  3. Hysteresis properties of the amorphous high permeability Co66Fe3Cr3Si15B13 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsepelev, V. S.; Starodubtsev, Yu. N.; Tsepeleva, N. P.

    2018-04-01

    The scaling law of minor loops was studied on an amorphous alloy Co66Fe3Cr3Si15B13 with a very high initial permeability (more than 150000) and low coercivity (about 0.1 A/m). An analytical expression for the coercive force in the Rayleigh region was derived. The coercive force is connected with the maximal magnetic field Hmax via the reversibility coefficient μi/ηHmax. Reversibility coefficient shows the relationship between reversible and irreversible magnetization processes. A universal dependence of magnetic losses for hysteresis Wh on the remanence Br with a power factor of 1.35 is confirmed for a wide range of magnetic fields strengths.

  4. Neutrino oscillations: what do we know about θ13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, David

    2008-10-01

    The phenomenon of neutrino oscillations is reviewed. A new analysis tool for the recent, more finely binned Super-K atmospheric data is outlined. This analysis incorporates the full three-neutrino oscillation probabilities, including the mixing angle θ13 to all orders, and a full three- neutrino treatment of the Earth's MSW effect. Combined with the K2K, MINOS, and CHOOZ data, the upper bound on θ13 is found to arise from the Super-K atmospheric data, while the lower bound arises from CHOOZ. This is caused by the linear in θ13 terms which are of particualr importance in the region L/E>10^4 m/MeV where the sub-dominant expansion is not convergent. In addition, the enhancement of θ12 by the Earth MSW effect is found to be important for this result. The best fit value of θ13 is found to be (statistically insignificantly) negative and given by θ13=-0.07^+0.18-0.11. In collaboration with Jesus Escamilla, Vanderbilt University and David Latimer, University of Kentucky.

  5. Detecting Water on Super-Earths Using JAVST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, D.

    2010-01-01

    Nearby lower train sequence stars host a class of planets known as Super-Earths, that have no analog in our own solar system. Super-Earths are rocky and/or icy planets with masses up to about 10 Earth masses, They are expected to host atmospheres generated by a number of processes including accretion of chondritic material. Water vapor should be a common constituent of super-Earth atmospheres, and may be detectable in transiting super-Earths using transmission spectroscopy during primar y eclipse, and emission spectroscopy at secondary eclipse. I will discuss the prospects for super-Earth atmospheric measurements using JWST.

  6. Hippo in Super Resolution from Super Panorama

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-07-03

    This view of the "Hippo," 25 meters to the west of the lander, was produced by combining the "Super Panorama" frames from the IMP camera. Super resolution was applied to help to address questions about the texture of this rock and what it might tell us about its mode of origin. The composite color frames that make up this anaglyph were produced for both the right and left eye of the IMP. These composites consist of more than 15 frames per eye (because multiple sequences covered the same area), taken with different color filters that were enlarged by 500% and then co-added using Adobe Photoshop to produce, in effect, a super-resolution panchromatic frame that is sharper than an individual frame would be. These panchromatic frames were then colorized with the red, green, and blue filtered images from the same sequence. The color balance was adjusted to approximate the true color of Mars. The anaglyph view was produced by combining the left with the right eye color composite frames by assigning the left eye composite view to the red color plane and the right eye composite view to the green and blue color planes (cyan), to produce a stereo anaglyph mosaic. This mosaic can be viewed in 3-D on your computer monitor or in color print form by wearing red-blue 3-D glasses. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA01421

  7. Establishment of Wear Resistant HVOF Coatings for 50CrMo4 Chromium Molybdenum Alloy Steel as an Alternative for Hard Chrome Plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karuppasamy, S.; Sivan, V.; Natarajan, S.; Kumaresh Babu, S. P.; Duraiselvam, M.; Dhanuskodi, R.

    2018-05-01

    High cost imported components of seamless steel tube manufacturing plants wear frequently and need replacement to ensure the quality of the product. Hard chrome plating, which is time consuming and hazardous, is conventionally used to restore the original dimension of the worn-out surface of the machine components. High Velocity Oxy-Fuel (HVOF) thermal spray coatings with NiCrBSi super alloy powder and Cr3C2 NiCr75/25 alloy powder applied on a 50CrMo4 (DIN-1.7228) chromium molybdenum alloy steel, the material of the wear prone machine component, were evaluated for use as an alternative for hard chrome plating in this present work. The coating characteristics are evaluated using abrasive wear test, sliding wear test and microscopic analysis, hardness test, etc. The study results revealed that the HVOF based NiCrBSi and Cr3C2NiCr75/25 coatings have hardness in the range of 800-900 HV0.3, sliding wear rate in the range of 50-60 µm and surface finish around 5 microns. Cr3C2 NiCr75/25 coating is observed to be a better option out of the two coatings evaluated for the selected application.

  8. Absence of Fast-Moving Iron in an Intermediate Type Ia Supernova Between Normal and Super-Chandrasekhar

    DOE PAGES

    Cao, Yi; Johansson, J.; Nugent, Peter E.; ...

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we report observations of a peculiar SN Ia iPTF13asv (a.k.a., SN2013cv) from the onset of the explosion to months after its peak. The early-phase spectra of iPTF13asv show an absence of iron absorption, indicating that synthesized iron elements are confined to low-velocity regions of the ejecta, which, in turn, implies a stratified ejecta structure along the line of sight. Our analysis of iPTF13asv's light curves and spectra shows that it is an intermediate case between normal and super-Chandrasekhar events. On the one hand, its light curve shape (B-bandmore » $${\\rm{\\Delta }}{m}_{15}=1.03\\pm 0.01$$) and overall spectral features resemble those of normal SNe Ia. On the other hand, its large peak optical and UV luminosity ($${M}_{B}=-19.84\\;{\\rm{mag}}$$, $${M}_{{uvm}2}=-15.5\\;{\\rm{mag}}$$) and its low but almost constant Si ii velocities of about 10,000 km s -1 are similar to those in super-Chandrasekhar events, and its persistent carbon signatures in the spectra are weaker than those seen commonly in super-Chandrasekhar events. We estimate a 56Ni mass of $${0.81}_{-0.18}^{+0.10}{M}_{\\odot }$$ and a total ejecta mass of $${1.59}_{-0.12}^{+0.45}{M}_{\\odot }$$. Finally, the large ejecta mass of iPTF13asv and its stratified ejecta structure together seemingly favor a double-degenerate origin.« less

  9. A system of three transiting super-Earths in a cool dwarf star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díez Alonso, E.; Suárez& Gómez, S. L.; González Hernández, J. I.; Suárez Mascareño, A.; González Gutiérrez, C.; Velasco, S.; Toledo-Padrón, B.; de Cos Juez, F. J.; Rebolo, R.

    2018-05-01

    We present the detection of three super-Earths transiting the cool star LP415-17, monitored by K2 mission in its 13th campaign. High-resolution spectra obtained with High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher-North/Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (HARPS-N/TNG) showed that the star is a mid-late K dwarf. Using spectral synthesis models, we infer its effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity, and subsequently determined from evolutionary models a stellar radius of 0.58 R⊙. The planets have radii of 1.8, 2.6, and 1.9 R⊕ and orbital periods of 6.34, 13.85, and 40.72 d. High-resolution images discard any significant contamination by an intervening star in the line of sight. The orbit of the furthest planet has radius of 0.18 au, close to the inner edge of the habitable zone. The system is suitable to improve our understanding of formation and dynamical evolution of super-Earth systems in the rocky-gaseous threshold, their atmospheres, internal structure, composition, and interactions with host stars.

  10. Water Vapor Effects on the Oxidation Behavior of Fe-Cr and Ni-Cr Alloys in Atmospheres Relevant to Oxy-fuel Combustion

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mu, N.; Jung, K. Y.; Yanar, N. M.

    2011-10-01

    The oxidation behavior of a number of Fe–Cr- and Ni–Cr-based alloys was studied in atmospheres relevant to oxyfuel combustion at 650 °C. Oxidation was greatly enhanced in ferritic model alloys exposed in low p(O{sub 2}) CO{sub 2} + 30%H{sub 2}O and Ar + 30%H{sub 2}O gases. Rapidly growing iron oxides appear to be porous and gas permeable. Transition from non-protective to protective oxidation occurs on alloys with higher Cr contents between 13.5 and 22 wt% in H{sub 2}O. Excess oxygen, usually found in the actual oxyfuel combustion environments, disrupts the selective oxidation of Fe–Cr alloys by accelerating vaporization of early-formedmore » Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} in combination with accelerated chromia growth induced by the H{sub 2}O. Rapid Cr consumption leads to the nucleation and rapid growth of iron oxides. On the contrary, Ni–Cr alloys are less affected by the presence of H{sub 2}O and excess O{sub 2}. The difference between Fe–Cr and Ni–Cr alloys is not clear but is postulated to involve less acceleration of chromia growth by water vapor for the latter group of alloys.« less

  11. Guide-bound structures of an RNA-targeting A-cleaving CRISPR-Cas13a enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Knott, Gavin J.; East-Seletsky, Alexandra; Cofsky, Joshua C.; Holton, James M.; Charles, Emeric; O’Connell, Mitchell R.; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2018-01-01

    CRISPR adaptive immune systems protect bacteria from infections by deploying CRISPR RNA (crRNA)-guided enzymes to recognize and cut foreign nucleic acids. Type VI-A CRISPR-Cas systems include the Cas13a enzyme, an RNA-activated ribonuclease (RNase) capable of crRNA processing and single-stranded RNA degradation upon target transcript binding. Here we present the 2.0 Å resolution crystal structure of a crRNA-bound L. bacterium Cas13a (LbaCas13a), representing a recently discovered Cas13a enzyme subtype. This structure and accompanying biochemical experiments define for the first time the Cas13a catalytic residues that are directly responsible for crRNA maturation. In addition, the orientation of the foreign-derived target RNA-specifying sequence in the protein interior explains the conformational gating of Cas13a nuclease activation. These results describe how Cas13a enzymes generate functional crRNAs and how catalytic activity is blocked prior to target RNA recognition, with implications for both bacterial immunity and diagnostic applications. PMID:28892041

  12. Guide-bound structures of an RNA-targeting A-cleaving CRISPR–Cas13a enzyme

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Knott, Gavin J.; East-Seletsky, Alexandra; Cofsky, Joshua C.

    CRISPR adaptive immune systems protect bacteria from infections by deploying CRISPR RNA (crRNA)-guided enzymes to recognize and cut foreign nucleic acids. Type VI-A CRISPR–Cas systems include the Cas13a enzyme, an RNA-activated RNase capable of crRNA processing and single-stranded RNA degradation upon target-transcript binding. Here we present the 2.0-Å resolution crystal structure of a crRNA-bound Lachnospiraceae bacterium Cas13a (LbaCas13a), representing a recently discovered Cas13a enzyme subtype. This structure and accompanying biochemical experiments define the Cas13a catalytic residues that are directly responsible for crRNA maturation. In addition, the orientation of the foreign-derived target-RNA-specifying sequence in the protein interior explains the conformational gatingmore » of Cas13a nuclease activation. These results describe how Cas13a enzymes generate functional crRNAs and how catalytic activity is blocked before target-RNA recognition, with implications for both bacterial immunity and diagnostic applications.« less

  13. Guide-bound structures of an RNA-targeting A-cleaving CRISPR–Cas13a enzyme

    DOE PAGES

    Knott, Gavin J.; East-Seletsky, Alexandra; Cofsky, Joshua C.; ...

    2017-09-11

    CRISPR adaptive immune systems protect bacteria from infections by deploying CRISPR RNA (crRNA)-guided enzymes to recognize and cut foreign nucleic acids. Type VI-A CRISPR–Cas systems include the Cas13a enzyme, an RNA-activated RNase capable of crRNA processing and single-stranded RNA degradation upon target-transcript binding. Here we present the 2.0-Å resolution crystal structure of a crRNA-bound Lachnospiraceae bacterium Cas13a (LbaCas13a), representing a recently discovered Cas13a enzyme subtype. This structure and accompanying biochemical experiments define the Cas13a catalytic residues that are directly responsible for crRNA maturation. In addition, the orientation of the foreign-derived target-RNA-specifying sequence in the protein interior explains the conformational gatingmore » of Cas13a nuclease activation. These results describe how Cas13a enzymes generate functional crRNAs and how catalytic activity is blocked before target-RNA recognition, with implications for both bacterial immunity and diagnostic applications.« less

  14. Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Rectal Tissue from Beef Steers Revealed Reduced Host Immunity in Escherichia coli O157:H7 Super-Shedders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ou; Liang, Guanxiang; McAllister, Tim A; Plastow, Graham; Stanford, Kim; Selinger, Brent; Guan, Le Luo

    2016-01-01

    Super-shedder cattle are a major disseminator of E. coli O157:H7 into the environment, and the terminal rectum has been proposed as the primary E. coli O157:H7 colonization site. This study aimed to identify host factors that are associated with the super-shedding process by comparing transcriptomic profiles in rectal tissue collected from 5 super-shedder cattle and 4 non-shedder cattle using RNA-Seq. In total, 17,859 ± 354 genes and 399 ± 16 miRNAs were detected, and 11,773 genes were expressed in all animals. Fifty-eight differentially expressed (DE) genes (false discovery rate < 0.05) including 11 up-regulated and 47 down-regulated (log 2 (fold change) ranged from -5.5 to 4.2), and 2 up-regulated DE miRNAs (log 2 (fold change) = 2.1 and 2.5, respectively) were identified in super-shedders compared to non-shedders. Functional analysis of DE genes revealed that 31 down-regulated genes were potentially associated with reduced innate and adaptive immune functions in super-shedders, including 13 lymphocytes membrane receptors, 3 transcription factors and 5 cytokines, suggesting the decreased key host immune functions in the rectal tissue of super-shedders, including decreased quantity and migration of immune cells such as lymphocytes, neutrophils and dendritic cells. The up-regulation of bta-miR-29d-3p and the down regulation of its predicted target gene, regulator of G-protein signaling 13, suggested a potential regulatory role of this miRNA in decreased migration of lymphocytes in super-shedders. Based on these findings, the rectal tissue of super-shedders may inherently exhibit less effective innate and adaptive immune protection. Further study is required to confirm if such effect on host immunity is due to the nature of the host itself or due to actions mediated by E. coli O157:H7.

  15. The Solution Construction of Heterotic Super-Liouville Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhan-Ying; Zhen, Yi

    2001-12-01

    We investigate the heterotic super-Liouville model on the base of the basic Lie super-algebra Osp(1|2).Using the super extension of Leznov-Saveliev analysis and Drinfeld-Sokolov linear system, we construct the explicit solution of the heterotic super-Liouville system in component form. We also show that the solutions are local and periodic by calculating the exchange relation of the solution. Finally starting from the action of heterotic super-Liouville model, we obtain the conserved current and conserved charge which possessed the BRST properties.

  16. Crystal structure, Raman scattering and magnetic properties of CuCr2-xZrxSe4 and CuCr2-xSnxSe4 selenospinels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, C.; Galdámez, A.; Barahona, P.; Moris, S.; Peña, O.

    2018-06-01

    Selenospinels, CuCr2-xMxSe4 (M = Zr and Sn), were synthesized via conventional solid-state reactions. The crystal structure of CuCr1.5Sn0.5Se4, CuCr1.7Sn0.3Se4, CuCr1.5Zr0.5Se4, and CuCr1.8Zr0.2Se4 were determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. All the phases crystallized in a cubic spinel-type structure. The chemical compositions of the single-crystals were examined using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS). Powder X-ray diffraction patterns of CuCr1.3Sn0.7Se4 and CuCr1.7Sn0.3Se4 were consistent with phases belonging to the Fd 3 bar m Space group. An analysis of the vibrational properties on the single-crystals was performed using Raman scattering measurements. The magnetic properties showed a spin glass behavior with increasing Sn content and ferromagnetic order for CuCr1.7Sn0.3Se4.

  17. Super-hydrophobic surfaces of SiO₂-coated SiC nanowires: fabrication, mechanism and ultraviolet-durable super-hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Li, Zhenjiang; Zhang, Meng; Meng, Alan

    2015-04-15

    The interest in highly water-repellent surfaces of SiO2-coated SiC nanowires has grown in recent years due to the desire for self-cleaning and anticorrosive surfaces. It is imperative that a simple chemical treatment with fluoroalkylsilane (FAS, CF3(CF2)7CH2CH2Si(OC2H5)3) in ethanol solution at room temperature resulted in super-hydrophobic surfaces of SiO2-coated SiC nanowires. The static water contact angle of SiO2-coated SiC nanowires surfaces was changed from 0° to 153° and the morphology, microstructure and crystal phase of the products were almost no transformation before and after super-hydrophobic treatment. Moreover, a mechanism was expounded reasonably, which could elucidate the reasons for their super-hydrophobic behavior. It is important that the super-hydrophobic surfaces of SiO2-coated SiC nanowires possessed ultraviolet-durable (UV-durable) super-hydrophobicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Deriving Global Convection Maps From SuperDARN Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gjerloev, J. W.; Waters, C. L.; Barnes, R. J.

    2018-04-01

    A new statistical modeling technique for determining the global ionospheric convection is described. The principal component regression (PCR)-based technique is based on Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) observations and is an advanced version of the PCR technique that Waters et al. (https//:doi.org.10.1002/2015JA021596) used for the SuperMAG data. While SuperMAG ground magnetic field perturbations are vector measurements, SuperDARN provides line-of-sight measurements of the ionospheric convection flow. Each line-of-sight flow has a known azimuth (or direction), which must be converted into the actual vector flow. However, the component perpendicular to the azimuth direction is unknown. Our method uses historical data from the SuperDARN database and PCR to determine a fill-in model convection distribution for any given universal time. The fill-in data process is driven by a list of state descriptors (magnetic indices and the solar zenith angle). The final solution is then derived from a spherical cap harmonic fit to the SuperDARN measurements and the fill-in model. When compared with the standard SuperDARN fill-in model, we find that our fill-in model provides improved solutions, and the final solutions are in better agreement with the SuperDARN measurements. Our solutions are far less dynamic than the standard SuperDARN solutions, which we interpret as being due to a lack of magnetosphere-ionosphere inertia and communication delays in the standard SuperDARN technique while it is inherently included in our approach. Rather, we argue that the magnetosphere-ionosphere system has inertia that prevents the global convection from changing abruptly in response to an interplanetary magnetic field change.

  19. Effect of electroslag remelting on carbides in 8Cr13MoV martensitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qin-tian; Li, Jing; Shi, Cheng-bin; Yu, Wen-tao

    2015-11-01

    The effect of electroslag remelting (ESR) on carbides in 8Cr13MoV martensitic stainless steel was experimentally studied. Phases precipitated from liquid steel during solidification were calculated using the Thermo-Calc software. The carbon segregation was analyzed by original position analysis (OPA), and the carbides were analyzed by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy- dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicated that more uniform carbon distribution and less segregation were obtained in the case of samples subjected to the ESR process. After ESR, the amount of netty carbides decreased significantly, and the chromium and vanadium contents in the grain-boundary carbides was reduced. The total area and average size of carbides were obviously smaller after the ESR process. In the sample subjected to ESR, the morphology of carbides changed from lamellar and angular to globular or lump, whereas the types of carbides did not change; both M23C6 and M7C3 were present before and after the ESR process.

  20. A study on porous super austenitic stainless steel coating for improvement of bone ingrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Keun Taek; Park, Yong Soo

    1998-02-01

    In this study, the prostheses were provided with the bone ingrowth site by coating the super stainless steel powder on the same substrate (S32050) using plasma spraying method. Plasma current and powder feed rate varied in this study based on the optimum conditions of previous experiments. The optimum conditions for satisfying the requirements of the porous coatings were found. The characteristics of the coatings were observed according to the experimental parameters. It was found that plasma current influenced the chemical composition (the oxides, Cr component), melting and flattening degree of the sprayed particle (surface roughness, thickness of the splat, pores) and corrosion -resistance. The powder feed rate also influenced the coating thickness and efficiency. The amount of Cr was increased, but Ni, Mo, Fe were decreased with plasma current. An increase of Cr in the coating surface corresponded to an increase in the amount of the formed oxides. The coated specimen in 400A had a high corrosion-resistance owing to a dense coating. The coated specimen in 500A formed many types of oxides. In 300A current, the coating was rough with many pores, and corrosion-resistance of the coating showed a large variation according to the oxidation and compositional change. Specifically at 100 g/min powder feed rate in a 300A current, the coating was rough and porous, nevertheless, it had high corrosion resistance.

  1. Super-Lie n-algebra extensions, higher WZW models and super-p-branes with tensor multiplet fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorenza, Domenico; Sati, Hisham; Schreiber, Urs

    2015-12-01

    We formalize higher-dimensional and higher gauge WZW-type sigma-model local prequantum field theory, and discuss its rationalized/perturbative description in (super-)Lie n-algebra homotopy theory (the true home of the "FDA"-language used in the supergravity literature). We show generally how the intersection laws for such higher WZW-type σ-model branes (open brane ending on background brane) are encoded precisely in (super-)L∞-extension theory and how the resulting "extended (super-)space-times" formalize spacetimes containing σ-model brane condensates. As an application we prove in Lie n-algebra homotopy theory that the complete super-p-brane spectrum of superstring/M-theory is realized this way, including the pure σ-model branes (the "old brane scan") but also the branes with tensor multiplet worldvolume fields, notably the D-branes and the M5-brane. For instance the degree-0 piece of the higher symmetry algebra of 11-dimensional (11D) spacetime with an M2-brane condensate turns out to be the "M-theory super-Lie algebra". We also observe that in this formulation there is a simple formal proof of the fact that type IIA spacetime with a D0-brane condensate is the 11D sugra/M-theory spacetime, and of (prequantum) S-duality for type IIB string theory. Finally we give the non-perturbative description of all this by higher WZW-type σ-models on higher super-orbispaces with higher WZW terms in stacky differential cohomology.

  2. A novel super-resolution camera model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xiaopeng; Wang, Yi; Xu, Jie; Wang, Lin; Liu, Fei; Luo, Qiuhua; Chen, Xiaodong; Bi, Xiangli

    2015-05-01

    Aiming to realize super resolution(SR) to single image and video reconstruction, a super resolution camera model is proposed for the problem that the resolution of the images obtained by traditional cameras behave comparatively low. To achieve this function we put a certain driving device such as piezoelectric ceramics in the camera. By controlling the driving device, a set of continuous low resolution(LR) images can be obtained and stored instantaneity, which reflect the randomness of the displacements and the real-time performance of the storage very well. The low resolution image sequences have different redundant information and some particular priori information, thus it is possible to restore super resolution image factually and effectively. The sample method is used to derive the reconstruction principle of super resolution, which analyzes the possible improvement degree of the resolution in theory. The super resolution algorithm based on learning is used to reconstruct single image and the variational Bayesian algorithm is simulated to reconstruct the low resolution images with random displacements, which models the unknown high resolution image, motion parameters and unknown model parameters in one hierarchical Bayesian framework. Utilizing sub-pixel registration method, a super resolution image of the scene can be reconstructed. The results of 16 images reconstruction show that this camera model can increase the image resolution to 2 times, obtaining images with higher resolution in currently available hardware levels.

  3. Remediation of Cr(VI)-Contaminated Soil Using the Acidified Hydrazine Hydrate.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yameng; Li, Fangfang; Jiang, Yuling; Yang, Weihua; Lv, Lv; Xue, Haotian; Wang, Yangyang

    2016-09-01

    Acidified hydrazine hydrate was used to remediate Cr(VI)-contaminated soil. The content of water-soluble Cr(VI) in contaminated soil was 4977.53 mg/kg. The optimal initial pH of hydrazine hydrate solution, soil to solution ratio and molar ratio of Cr(VI) to hydrazine hydrate for remediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated soil were 5.0, 3:1 and 1:3, respectively. Over 99.50 % of water-soluble Cr(VI) in the contaminated soil was reduced at the optimal condition within 30 min. The remediated soil can keep stable within 4 months. Meanwhile the total phosphorus increased from 0.47 to 4.29 g/kg, indicating that using of acidified hydrazine hydrate is an effective method to remediate Cr(VI)-contaminated soil.

  4. Inhibitory effect of super-hydrophobicity on silver release and antibacterial properties of super-hydrophobic Ag/TiO2 nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Licheng; Zhang, Lihai; Yang, Yun; Zhang, Wei; Lv, Houchen; Yang, Fei; Lin, Changjian; Tang, Peifu

    2016-07-01

    The antibacterial properties of super-hydrophobic silver (Ag) on implant surface have not yet to be fully illuminated. In our study, we investigate the protective effects of super-hydrophobic coating of silver/titanium dioxide (Ag/TiO2 ) nanotubes against bacterial pathogens, as well as its pattern of Ag release. Ag/TiO2 nanotubes are prepared by a combination of electrochemical anodization and pulse electrodeposition. The super-hydrophobic coating is prepared by modifying the surface of Ag/TiO2 nanotubes with 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctyl-triethoxysilane (PTES). Surface features and Ag release are examined by SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact-angle measurement, and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The antibacterial activity of super-hydrophobic coating Ag/TiO2 nanotubes is investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Consequently, the super-hydrophobic coating on Ag/TiO2 nanotubes shows a regularly arranged structure; and nano-Ag particles (10-30 nm) are evenly distributed on the surface or inside the nanotubes. The contact angles of water on the super-hydrophobic coating Ag/TiO2 nanotubes are all above 150°. In addition, the super-hydrophobic character displays a certain conserved effect that contributes to the sustained release of Ag. The super-hydrophobic Ag/TiO2 nanotubes are also effective in inhibiting bacterial adhesion, killing the adhering bacteria and preventing postoperative infection in rabbits. Therefore, it is expected that the super-hydrophobic Ag/TiO2 nanotubes which can contain the release of Ag, leading to stable release, may show a consistent surface antibacterial capability. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1004-1012, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Precipitation phases at different processes and heat treat ments as well as their effects on the mechanical properties of super-austenitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hunying; Zhou, Zhangjian; Wang, Man; Li, Shaofu; Zhang, Liwei; Zou, Lei

    2013-03-01

    A new type lCr30Ni30Mo2TiZr super-austenitic stainless steel has been developed. The microstructures, precipitation phases and mechanical properties of the steel under different deformation processes and heat treatment (solution, stabilized treatment) were investigated using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as mechanical tests. The results indicate that coarse carbides such as Cr-rich M23C6, sigma (σ), and little chi (χ) phases were formed in the steel, and large α' -Cr phases were also detected at three joint grain boundaries, and they were promoted by large strain. The precipitate phases were dissolved or transformed to intermetallic phase even at higher elevated temperature, and influenced the mechanical property obviously. These intermetallic compounds seriously reduced elongation of the rolled steel at room temperature and 700 °C, but increased the forged one at 700 °C. Impact absorbed energies of the stabilized specimens were lower than half of that solution status.

  6. Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Rectal Tissue from Beef Steers Revealed Reduced Host Immunity in Escherichia coli O157:H7 Super-Shedders

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ou; Liang, Guanxiang; McAllister, Tim A.; Plastow, Graham; Stanford, Kim; Selinger, Brent; Guan, Le Luo

    2016-01-01

    Super-shedder cattle are a major disseminator of E. coli O157:H7 into the environment, and the terminal rectum has been proposed as the primary E. coli O157:H7 colonization site. This study aimed to identify host factors that are associated with the super-shedding process by comparing transcriptomic profiles in rectal tissue collected from 5 super-shedder cattle and 4 non-shedder cattle using RNA-Seq. In total, 17,859 ± 354 genes and 399 ± 16 miRNAs were detected, and 11,773 genes were expressed in all animals. Fifty-eight differentially expressed (DE) genes (false discovery rate < 0.05) including 11 up-regulated and 47 down-regulated (log 2 (fold change) ranged from -5.5 to 4.2), and 2 up-regulated DE miRNAs (log 2 (fold change) = 2.1 and 2.5, respectively) were identified in super-shedders compared to non-shedders. Functional analysis of DE genes revealed that 31 down-regulated genes were potentially associated with reduced innate and adaptive immune functions in super-shedders, including 13 lymphocytes membrane receptors, 3 transcription factors and 5 cytokines, suggesting the decreased key host immune functions in the rectal tissue of super-shedders, including decreased quantity and migration of immune cells such as lymphocytes, neutrophils and dendritic cells. The up-regulation of bta-miR-29d-3p and the down regulation of its predicted target gene, regulator of G-protein signaling 13, suggested a potential regulatory role of this miRNA in decreased migration of lymphocytes in super-shedders. Based on these findings, the rectal tissue of super-shedders may inherently exhibit less effective innate and adaptive immune protection. Further study is required to confirm if such effect on host immunity is due to the nature of the host itself or due to actions mediated by E. coli O157:H7. PMID:26959367

  7. AC-Induced Bias Potential Effect on Corrosion of Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-05

    induction, variable conduction Experimental Setup Super- martensitic stainless steel composition Analysis: C Mn Si Cr Ni Mo Cu N Typical 13 Cr ɘ.01 0.6... stainless steel used in pipelines. •Low carbon (ɘ.01): allows the formation of a “soft” martensite that is more resistant than standard martensitic ...Proposed AC Corrosion Models  AC Simulated Corrosion testing  Stainless steel pipe and coating  Cathodic protection  Experimental Setup  Preliminary

  8. Zirconia coating stabilized super-iron alkaline cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xingwen; Licht, Stuart

    A low-level zirconia coating significantly stabilizes high energy alkaline super-iron cathodes, and improves the energy storage capacity of super-iron batteries. Zirconia coating is derived from ZrCl 4 in an organic medium through the conversion of ZrCl 4 to ZrO 2. In alkaline battery system, ZrO 2 provides an intact shield for the cathode materials and the hydroxide shuttle through the coating sustains alkaline cathode redox chemistry. Most super-iron cathodes are solid-state stable, such as K 2FeO 4 and Cs 2FeO 4, but tend to be passivated in alkaline electrolyte due to the formation of Fe(III) over layer. Zirconia coating effectively enhances the stability of these super-iron cathodes. However, for solid-state unstable super-iron cathode (e.g. BaFeO 4), only a little stabilization effect of zirconia coating is observed.

  9. Haze production rates in super-Earth and mini-Neptune atmosphere experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörst, Sarah M.; He, Chao; Lewis, Nikole K.; Kempton, Eliza M.-R.; Marley, Mark S.; Morley, Caroline V.; Moses, Julianne I.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Vuitton, Véronique

    2018-04-01

    Numerous Solar System atmospheres possess photochemically generated hazes, including the characteristic organic hazes of Titan and Pluto. Haze particles substantially impact atmospheric temperature structures and may provide organic material to the surface of a world, potentially affecting its habitability. Observations of exoplanet atmospheres suggest the presence of aerosols, especially in cooler (<800 K), smaller (<0.3× Jupiter's mass) exoplanets. It remains unclear whether the aerosols muting the spectroscopic features of exoplanet atmospheres are condensate clouds or photochemical hazes1-3, which is difficult to predict from theory alone4. Here, we present laboratory haze simulation experiments that probe a broad range of atmospheric parameters relevant to super-Earth- and mini-Neptune-type planets5, the most frequently occurring type of planet in our galaxy6. It is expected that photochemical haze will play a much greater role in the atmospheres of planets with average temperatures below 1,000 K (ref. 7), especially those planets that may have enhanced atmospheric metallicity and/or enhanced C/O ratios, such as super-Earths and Neptune-mass planets8-12. We explored temperatures from 300 to 600 K and a range of atmospheric metallicities (100×, 1,000× and 10,000× solar). All simulated atmospheres produced particles, and the cooler (300 and 400 K) 1,000× solar metallicity (`H2O-dominated' and CH4-rich) experiments exhibited haze production rates higher than our standard Titan simulation ( 10 mg h-1 versus 7.4 mg h-1 for Titan13). However, the particle production rates varied greatly, with measured rates as low as 0.04 mg h-1 (for the case with 100× solar metallicity at 600 K). Here, we show that we should expect great diversity in haze production rates, as some—but not all—super-Earth and mini-Neptune atmospheres will possess photochemically generated haze.

  10. Haze production rates in super-Earth and mini-Neptune atmosphere experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörst, Sarah M.; He, Chao; Lewis, Nikole K.; Kempton, Eliza M.-R.; Marley, Mark S.; Morley, Caroline V.; Moses, Julianne I.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Vuitton, Véronique

    2018-03-01

    Numerous Solar System atmospheres possess photochemically generated hazes, including the characteristic organic hazes of Titan and Pluto. Haze particles substantially impact atmospheric temperature structures and may provide organic material to the surface of a world, potentially affecting its habitability. Observations of exoplanet atmospheres suggest the presence of aerosols, especially in cooler (<800 K), smaller (<0.3× Jupiter's mass) exoplanets. It remains unclear whether the aerosols muting the spectroscopic features of exoplanet atmospheres are condensate clouds or photochemical hazes1-3, which is difficult to predict from theory alone4. Here, we present laboratory haze simulation experiments that probe a broad range of atmospheric parameters relevant to super-Earth- and mini-Neptune-type planets5, the most frequently occurring type of planet in our galaxy6. It is expected that photochemical haze will play a much greater role in the atmospheres of planets with average temperatures below 1,000 K (ref. 7), especially those planets that may have enhanced atmospheric metallicity and/or enhanced C/O ratios, such as super-Earths and Neptune-mass planets8-12. We explored temperatures from 300 to 600 K and a range of atmospheric metallicities (100×, 1,000× and 10,000× solar). All simulated atmospheres produced particles, and the cooler (300 and 400 K) 1,000× solar metallicity (`H2O-dominated' and CH4-rich) experiments exhibited haze production rates higher than our standard Titan simulation ( 10 mg h-1 versus 7.4 mg h-1 for Titan13). However, the particle production rates varied greatly, with measured rates as low as 0.04 mg h-1 (for the case with 100× solar metallicity at 600 K). Here, we show that we should expect great diversity in haze production rates, as some—but not all—super-Earth and mini-Neptune atmospheres will possess photochemically generated haze.

  11. sl(1|2) Super-Toda Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhan-Ying; Xue, Pan-Pan; Zhao, Liu; Shi, Kang-Jie

    2008-11-01

    Explicit exact solution of supersymmetric Toda fields associated with the Lie superalgebra sl(2|1) is constructed. The approach used is a super extension of Leznov Saveliev algebraic analysis, which is based on a pair of chiral and antichiral Drienfeld Sokolov systems. Though such approach is well understood for Toda field theories associated with ordinary Lie algebras, its super analogue was only successful in the super Liouville case with the underlying Lie superalgebra osp(1|2). The problem lies in that a key step in the construction makes use of the tensor product decomposition of the highest weight representations of the underlying Lie superalgebra, which is not clear until recently. So our construction made in this paper presents a first explicit example of Leznov Saveliev analysis for super Toda systems associated with underlying Lie superalgebras of the rank higher than 1.

  12. Stable biomimetic super-hydrophobic engineering materials.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiguang; Zhou, Feng; Hao, Jingcheng; Liu, Weimin

    2005-11-16

    We describe a simple and inexpensive method to produce super-hydrophobic surfaces on aluminum and its alloy by oxidation and chemical modification. Water or aqueous solutions (pH = 1-14) have contact angles of 168 +/- 2 and 161 +/- 2 degrees on the treated surfaces of Al and Al alloy, respectively. The super-hydrophobic surfaces are produced by the cooperation of binary structures at micro- and nanometer scales, thus reducing the energies of the surfaces. Such super-hydrophobic properties will greatly extend the applications of aluminum and its alloy as lubricating materials.

  13. Evaluation of Pd-Cr Wires for Strain Gage Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Jih-Fen; Greer, L. C., III; Oberle, L. G.

    1995-01-01

    A newly developed alloy, palladium-13 weight percent chromium (Pd13Cr), was identified by United Technologies Research Center under a NASA contract to be the best material for high temperature strain gage applications. An electrical resistance strain gage that can provide accurate static strain measurement to a temperature higher than that of a commercially available gage is urgently needed in aerospace and aeronautics research. A strain gage made of a 25.4 micron (1 mil) diameter Pd13Cr wire has been recently demonstrated to be usable for static strain measurements to 800 C. This compares to the 400 C temperature limit of the commercially available strain gages. The performance of the Pd-Cr gage, however, strongly depends on the quality of the Pd13Cr wire. Four batches of Pd-Cr wires purchased from three different manufacturers were therefore evaluated to determine the best source of the wire for strain gage applications. The three suppliers were Precious Metal Institute in China, Sigmund Cohn Co., and G & S Titanium, Inc. in the United States. Two batches of wires obtained from Previous Metal Institute in 1987 and 1992, respectively are referred to herein as China87 and China92 wires. The mechanical, chemical and electrical properties of these wires, both as-received and after high temperature exposures at 800 C for 50 hours were analyzed. The elastic modulus and the failure strength of the wires were evaluated using a tensile test machine equipped with a laser speckle strain measurement system. The chemical and microstructural properties of the wires were inspected using a plasma atomic emission spectrometer and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS). The electrical stability and repeatability of the wires were determined by measuring the electrical resistance of the wires during three thermal cycles to 1000 C and a ten-hour soak at 1000 C. As a result of this study, the wire which has the highest

  14. Recovery of the SuperTIGER Instrument and Preparations for the Flight of SuperTIGER-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, N. E.; Supertiger Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    On December 8, 2012, the SuperTIGER (Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) instrument began its long-duration balloon flight from Williams Field, Antarctica. Flying for a record-breaking 55 days at a mean altitude of 125,000 feet, the instrument successfully measured the relative elemental abundances of Galactic cosmic ray nuclei having charge (Z) greater than Z=10, showing very well resolved individual element peaks up to Z=40. The instrument measures particle charge and energy through the combined use of two Cherenkov detectors and three scintillation detectors, and determines particle trajectory with a scintillating fiber hodoscope. After cutdown and two years on the ice, SuperTIGER was successfully recovered in January, 2015. Its detectors and hodoscopes are being tested and refurbished, and are expected to be used again for a second flight, SuperTIGER-2. The second flight is aimed at improving SuperTIGER's already excellent charge resolution as well as at accumulating more data to be combined with that of SuperTIGER for improved statistics. In November 2015, a test of the scintillator saturation effect was performed at CERN using a beam of interacted Pb nuclei to help create more accurate charge reconstruction models that will help resolve elements in the range Z=41 to Z=60. This research was supported by NASA under Grants NNX09AC17G, NNX14AB25G, the Peggy and Steve Fossett Foundation and the McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences at Washington University.

  15. SOWFA + Super Controller User's Manual

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fleming, P.; Gebraad, P.; Churchfield, M.

    2013-08-01

    SOWFA + Super Controller is a modification of the NREL's SOWFA tool which allows for a user to apply multiturbine or centralized wind plant control algorithms within the high-fidelity SOWFA simulation environment. The tool is currently a branch of the main SOWFA program, but will one day will be merged into a single version. This manual introduces the tool and provides examples such that a usercan implement their own super controller and set up and run simulations. The manual only discusses enough about SOWFA itself to allow for the customization of controllers and running of simulations, and details of SOWFAmore » itself are reported elsewhere Churchfield and Lee (2013); Churchfield et al. (2012). SOWFA + Super Controller, and this manual, are in alpha mode.« less

  16. Photostimulated near-infrared persistent luminescence as a new optical read-out from Cr3+-doped LiGa5O8

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Yan, Wuzhao; Chuang, Yen-Jun; Zhen, Zipeng; Xie, Jin; Pan, Zhengwei

    2013-01-01

    In conventional photostimulable storage phosphors, the optical information written by x-ray or ultraviolet irradiation is usually read out as a visible photostimulated luminescence (PSL) signal under the stimulation of a low-energy light with appropriate wavelength. Unlike the transient PSL, here we report a new optical read-out form, photostimulated persistent luminescence (PSPL) in the near-infrared (NIR), from a Cr3+-doped LiGa5O8 NIR persistent phosphor exhibiting a super-long NIR persistent luminescence of more than 1,000 h. An intense PSPL signal peaking at 716 nm can be repeatedly obtained in a period of more than 1,000 h when an ultraviolet-light (250–360 nm) pre-irradiated LiGa5O8:Cr3+ phosphor is repeatedly stimulated with a visible light or a NIR light. The LiGa5O8:Cr3+ phosphor has promising applications in optical information storage, night-vision surveillance, and in vivo bio-imaging. PMID:23532003

  17. Cr(3+) Binding to DNA Backbone Phosphate and Bases: Slow Ligand Exchange Rates and Metal Hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenhu; Yu, Tianmeng; Vazin, Mahsa; Ding, Jinsong; Liu, Juewen

    2016-08-15

    The interaction between chromium ions and DNA is of great interest in inorganic chemistry, toxicology, and analytical chemistry. Most previous studies focused on in situ reduction of Cr(VI), producing Cr(3+) for DNA binding. Recently, Cr(3+) was reported to activate the Ce13d DNAzyme for RNA cleavage. Herein, the Ce13d is used to study two types of Cr(3+) and DNA interactions. First, Cr(3+) binds to the DNA phosphate backbone weakly through reversible electrostatic interactions, which is weakened by adding competing inorganic phosphate. However, Cr(3+) coordinates with DNA nucleobases forming stable cross-links that can survive denaturing gel electrophoresis condition. The binding of Cr(3+) to different nucleobases was further studied in terms of binding kinetics and affinity by exploiting carboxyfluorescein-labeled DNA homopolymers. Once binding takes place, the stable Cr(3+)/DNA complex cannot be dissociated by EDTA, attributable to the ultraslow ligand exchange rate of Cr(3+). The binding rate follows the order of G > C > T ≈ A. Finally, Cr(3+) gradually loses its DNA binding ability after being stored at neutral or high pH, attributable to hydrolysis. This hydrolysis can be reversed by lowering the pH. This work provides a deeper insight into the bioinorganic chemistry of Cr(3+) coordination with DNA, clarifies some inconsistency in the previous literature, and offers practically useful information for generating reproducible results.

  18. Super-resolution imaging applied to moving object tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swalaganata, Galandaru; Ratna Sulistyaningrum, Dwi; Setiyono, Budi

    2017-10-01

    Moving object tracking in a video is a method used to detect and analyze changes that occur in an object that being observed. Visual quality and the precision of the tracked target are highly wished in modern tracking system. The fact that the tracked object does not always seem clear causes the tracking result less precise. The reasons are low quality video, system noise, small object, and other factors. In order to improve the precision of the tracked object especially for small object, we propose a two step solution that integrates a super-resolution technique into tracking approach. First step is super-resolution imaging applied into frame sequences. This step was done by cropping the frame in several frame or all of frame. Second step is tracking the result of super-resolution images. Super-resolution image is a technique to obtain high-resolution images from low-resolution images. In this research single frame super-resolution technique is proposed for tracking approach. Single frame super-resolution was a kind of super-resolution that it has the advantage of fast computation time. The method used for tracking is Camshift. The advantages of Camshift was simple calculation based on HSV color that use its histogram for some condition and color of the object varies. The computational complexity and large memory requirements required for the implementation of super-resolution and tracking were reduced and the precision of the tracked target was good. Experiment showed that integrate a super-resolution imaging into tracking technique can track the object precisely with various background, shape changes of the object, and in a good light conditions.

  19. Dependence with the oxidation state of X-ray transition energies, intensities and natural line widths of CrKβ spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Deluigi, M.; Tirao, G.; Stutz, G.; Cusatis, C.; Riveros, J. A.

    2006-06-01

    The Kβ emission spectrum of chromium was experimentally analyzed in different compounds and compared with previous data. Measurements of whole Kβ spectra were performed with a wavelength dispersive commercial XRF equipment. To study possible effects of the chemical state in the width and position of the main Kβ 1,3 line, high resolution measurements were also performed. In the latter measurements, a spectrometer based on a backdiffracting crystal analyzer with spherical focalization and synchrotron radiation monochromatic excitation was used. Kβ 1,3 line shifts in relation to metallic Cr were observed, both to higher energies (≅+1 eV) for Cr III and to lower energies (≅-0.5 eV) for Cr VI. It was also found that the natural width of Cr1,3 line, the ionization energy of the 3p orbital of Cr, and the relative intensities of Kβ″ and Kβ 2,5 lines with respect to the main Kβ 1,3 line increase as the oxidation state increases. The use of these features as an index for chemical state analysis is discussed.

  20. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 118: Area 27 Super Kukla Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mark Burmeister

    2007-09-01

    This CR provides documentation and justification for the closure of CAU 118 without further corrective action. This justification is based on process knowledge and the results of the investigative and closure activities conducted in accordance with the CAU 118 SAFER Plan: Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for CAU 118: Area 27 Super Kukla Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (NNSA/NSO, 2006). The SAFER Plan provides information relating to site history as well as the scope and planning of the investigation. This CR also provides the analytical and radiological survey data to confirm that the remediation goals were met asmore » specified in the CAU 118 SAFER Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2006). The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) approved the CAU 118 SAFER Plan (Murphy, 2006), which recommends closure in place with use restrictions (URs).« less

  1. Super-leadership and work enjoyment: direct and moderated influences.

    PubMed

    Müller, Günter F; Georgianna, Sibylle; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Roth, Anne C; Schreiber, Walter A; Sauerland, Martin; Muessigmann, Michael J; Jilg, Franziska

    2013-12-01

    Super-leadership is part of an approach called 'empowering leadership.' Within this approach, super-leadership is assumed to enable subordinates to lead themselves. The current study examined correlates of super-leadership. A questionnaire measuring two dimensions of super-leadership was used to analyze relationships between super-leadership and subordinates' work enjoyment, i.e., job satisfaction, subjective well-being, and emotional organizational commitment. In addition, moderating effects of the organizational context, i.e., organizational decentralization, on the relationships between super-leadership and work enjoyment were explored. 198 German employees from different occupations participated in the study. Latent moderator structural equation analysis revealed that the two factors of super-leadership, "coaching and communicative support" and "facilitation of personal autonomy and responsibility," had direct positive effects on subordinates' work enjoyment. Organizational decentralization moderated the effect of "coaching and communicative support" on work enjoyment but not the relations involving "facilitation of personal autonomy and responsibility." Conclusions for further research and practical applications were discussed.

  2. Enhancing Analytical Separations Using Super-Resolution Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moringo, Nicholas A.; Shen, Hao; Bishop, Logan D. C.; Wang, Wenxiao; Landes, Christy F.

    2018-04-01

    Super-resolution microscopy is becoming an invaluable tool to investigate structure and dynamics driving protein interactions at interfaces. In this review, we highlight the applications of super-resolution microscopy for quantifying the physics and chemistry that occur between target proteins and stationary-phase supports during chromatographic separations. Our discussion concentrates on the newfound ability of super-resolved single-protein spectroscopy to inform theoretical parameters via quantification of adsorption-desorption dynamics, protein unfolding, and nanoconfined transport.

  3. Development and application of a method for Cr(III) determination in dairy products by HPLC-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Fanny; Jitaru, Petru; Cormant, Florence; Noël, Laurent; Guérin, Thierry

    2018-02-01

    This study describes the development of an analytical approach for the determination of Cr(III) in dairy products by microwave assisted extraction, complexation in situ by ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). The extraction step was optimised by using an experimental design. A limit of quantification of 38µgkg -1 dry weight (d.w.) was obtained whereas the bias (%) measured ranged from 10 to 18%. The repeatability and intermediate precision varied between 1.2-5.0% and 7.5-13.5%, respectively. The method was applied to the analysis of several dairy samples beforehand characterized in terms of Cr(VI) and total chromium (Cr total ). Cr(III) concentrations ranged from <13 to 255µgkg -1 d.w. The results showed a good agreement between Cr(III) and Cr total concentration levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. CoRoT-7b: SUPER-EARTH OR SUPER-Io?

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Barnes, Rory; Kaib, Nathan A.; Raymond, Sean N.

    2010-02-01

    CoRoT-7b, a planet about 70% larger than the Earth orbiting a Sun-like star, is the first-discovered rocky exoplanet, and hence has been dubbed a 'super-Earth'. Some initial studies suggested that since the planet is so close to its host star, it receives enough insolation to partially melt its surface. However, these past studies failed to take into consideration the role that tides may play in this system. Even if the planet's eccentricity has always been zero, we show that tidal decay of the semimajor axis could have been large enough that the planet formed on a wider orbit which receivedmore » less insolation. Moreover, CoRoT-7b could be tidally heated at a rate that dominates its geophysics and drives extreme volcanism. In this case, CoRoT-7b is a 'super-Io' that, like Jupiter's volcanic moon, is dominated by volcanism and rapid resurfacing. Such heating could occur with an eccentricity of just 10{sup -5}. This small value could be driven by CoRoT-7c if its own eccentricity is larger than {approx}10{sup -4}. CoRoT-7b may be the first of a class of planetary super-Ios likely to be revealed by the CoRoT and Kepler spacecraft.« less

  5. Super Guppy in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Super Guppy, bigger sister of the aptly named Pregnant Guppy, was the only airplane in the world capable of carrying a complete S-IVB stage. This aircraft was built by John M. Conroy of Aero Spaceliners, Incorporated, who started with the fuselages of a surplus Boeing C-97 Stratocruiser, ballooned out the upper decks enormously, and hinged the front sections so that they could be folded back 110 degrees. The Super Guppy flew smoothly at a 250-mph cruising speed, and its cargo deck provided a 25-foot clear diameter.

  6. Dynamic nuclear polarization of (1)H, (13)C, and (59)Co in a tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) crystalline lattice doped with Cr(III).

    PubMed

    Corzilius, Björn; Michaelis, Vladimir K; Penzel, Susanne A; Ravera, Enrico; Smith, Albert A; Luchinat, Claudio; Griffin, Robert G

    2014-08-20

    The study of inorganic crystalline materials by solid-state NMR spectroscopy is often complicated by the low sensitivity of heavy nuclei. However, these materials often contain or can be prepared with paramagnetic dopants without significantly affecting the structure of the crystalline host. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is generally capable of enhancing NMR signals by transferring the magnetization of unpaired electrons to the nuclei. Therefore, the NMR sensitivity in these paramagnetically doped crystals might be increased by DNP. In this paper we demonstrate the possibility of efficient DNP transfer in polycrystalline samples of [Co(en)3Cl3]2·NaCl·6H2O (en = ethylenediamine, C2H8N2) doped with Cr(III) in varying concentrations between 0.1 and 3 mol %. We demonstrate that (1)H, (13)C, and (59)Co can be polarized by irradiation of Cr(III) with 140 GHz microwaves at a magnetic field of 5 T. We further explain our findings on the basis of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of the Cr(III) site and analysis of its temperature-dependent zero-field splitting, as well as the dependence of the DNP enhancement factor on the external magnetic field and microwave power. This first demonstration of DNP transfer from one paramagnetic metal ion to its diamagnetic host metal ion will pave the way for future applications of DNP in paramagnetically doped materials or metalloproteins.

  7. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization of 1H, 13C, and 59Co in a Tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) Crystalline Lattice Doped with Cr(III)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The study of inorganic crystalline materials by solid-state NMR spectroscopy is often complicated by the low sensitivity of heavy nuclei. However, these materials often contain or can be prepared with paramagnetic dopants without significantly affecting the structure of the crystalline host. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is generally capable of enhancing NMR signals by transferring the magnetization of unpaired electrons to the nuclei. Therefore, the NMR sensitivity in these paramagnetically doped crystals might be increased by DNP. In this paper we demonstrate the possibility of efficient DNP transfer in polycrystalline samples of [Co(en)3Cl3]2·NaCl·6H2O (en = ethylenediamine, C2H8N2) doped with Cr(III) in varying concentrations between 0.1 and 3 mol %. We demonstrate that 1H, 13C, and 59Co can be polarized by irradiation of Cr(III) with 140 GHz microwaves at a magnetic field of 5 T. We further explain our findings on the basis of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of the Cr(III) site and analysis of its temperature-dependent zero-field splitting, as well as the dependence of the DNP enhancement factor on the external magnetic field and microwave power. This first demonstration of DNP transfer from one paramagnetic metal ion to its diamagnetic host metal ion will pave the way for future applications of DNP in paramagnetically doped materials or metalloproteins. PMID:25069794

  8. Deep learning massively accelerates super-resolution localization microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wei; Aristov, Andrey; Lelek, Mickaël; Hao, Xian; Zimmer, Christophe

    2018-06-01

    The speed of super-resolution microscopy methods based on single-molecule localization, for example, PALM and STORM, is limited by the need to record many thousands of frames with a small number of observed molecules in each. Here, we present ANNA-PALM, a computational strategy that uses artificial neural networks to reconstruct super-resolution views from sparse, rapidly acquired localization images and/or widefield images. Simulations and experimental imaging of microtubules, nuclear pores, and mitochondria show that high-quality, super-resolution images can be reconstructed from up to two orders of magnitude fewer frames than usually needed, without compromising spatial resolution. Super-resolution reconstructions are even possible from widefield images alone, though adding localization data improves image quality. We demonstrate super-resolution imaging of >1,000 fields of view containing >1,000 cells in ∼3 h, yielding an image spanning spatial scales from ∼20 nm to ∼2 mm. The drastic reduction in acquisition time and sample irradiation afforded by ANNA-PALM enables faster and gentler high-throughput and live-cell super-resolution imaging.

  9. Super-resolved refocusing with a plenoptic camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhiliang; Yuan, Yan; Bin, Xiangli; Qian, Lulu

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents an approach to enhance the resolution of refocused images by super resolution methods. In plenoptic imaging, we demonstrate that the raw sensor image can be divided to a number of low-resolution angular images with sub-pixel shifts between each other. The sub-pixel shift, which defines the super-resolving ability, is mathematically derived by considering the plenoptic camera as equivalent camera arrays. We implement simulation to demonstrate the imaging process of a plenoptic camera. A high-resolution image is then reconstructed using maximum a posteriori (MAP) super resolution algorithms. Without other degradation effects in simulation, the super resolved image achieves a resolution as high as predicted by the proposed model. We also build an experimental setup to acquire light fields. With traditional refocusing methods, the image is rendered at a rather low resolution. In contrast, we implement the super-resolved refocusing methods and recover an image with more spatial details. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, we finally compare the reconstructed images using image quality metrics like peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR).

  10. High temperature wear performance of HVOF-sprayed Cr3C2-WC-NiCoCrMo and Cr3C2-NiCr hardmetal coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wuxi; Zhou, Kesong; Li, Yuxi; Deng, Chunming; Zeng, Keli

    2017-09-01

    A novel Cr3C2-WC-NiCoCrMo and commercial Cr3C2-NiCr thermal spray-grade powders with particle size of -45 + 15 μm were prepared by an agglomeration and sintering process. Cr3C2-WC-NiCoCrMo and Cr3C2-NiCr coatings were deposited by high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spraying. The fundamental properties of both coatings were evaluated and friction wear test against Al2O3 counterbodies of both coatings at high temperatures (450 °C, 550 °C, 650 °C) were carried out ball-on-disk high temperature tribometer. All specimens were characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and 3D non-contact surface mapping profiler. The results have shown that the Cr3C2-WC-NiCoCrMo coating exhibited lower porosity, higher micro-hardness compared to the Cr3C2-NiCr coating. The Cr3C2-WC-NiCoCrMo coating also exhibited better wear resistance and higher friction coefficient compared to the Cr3C2-NiCr coating when sliding against the Al2O3 counterpart. Wear rates of both coatings increased with raising temperature. Both coatings experienced abrasive wear; hard phase particles (WC and Cr3C2) with different sizes, distributed in the matrix phase, will effectively improve the resistance against wear at high temperatures.

  11. Association Analysis of Polymorphisms in TOMM40, CR1, PVRL2, SORL1, PICALM, and 14q32.13 Regions in Colombian Alzheimer Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Rojas, Jenny; Morales, Luis; Guerrero, Esneyder; Arboleda-Bustos, Carlos E; Mejia, Adriana; Forero, Diego; Lopez, Luis; Pardo, Rodrigo; Arboleda, Gonzalo; Yunis, Juan; Arboleda, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the association of several single-nucleotide polymorphisms in different genes including APOE, TOMM40, CR1, PVRL2, SORL1, PICALM, and GWA_14q32.13 in a Colombian sample of Late-Onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) patients. A case-control study was conducted in 362 individuals (181 LOADs and 181 controls) to determine the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in APOE (e2, e3, and e4), TOMM40 (rs2075650), CR1 (rs665640), PVRL2 (rs6859), SORL1 (rs11218304), PICALM (rs3851179), and GWA_14q32.13 (rs11622883) with LOAD in a sample from Colombia. We were able to confirm the previously reported association of the APOE4 allele with AD. In addition, we report a new significant association with rs2075650 of TOMM40 for LOAD in our sample. We did not detect any significant interaction between TOMM40 and APOE4 carriers (heterozygous or homozygous) for disease risk development. However, Kaplan-Meier survival analyses suggest that AD patients with TOMM40 allele rs2075650-G have an average age of disease onset of 6 years earlier compared with carriers of the A allele. In addition, the age of disease onset is earlier if APOE4/4 is present. Our findings suggest that rs2075650 of TOMM40 could be involved in earlier presentation of LOAD in the Colombian population.

  12. Electrocardiographic parameters predict super-response in cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Cvijić, Marta; Žižek, David; Antolič, Bor; Zupan, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an established treatment for heart failure patients. However, determinants of response to CRT remain elusive. The aim of the study was to assess the value of ECG parameters to predict super-response in CRT patients. A 12-lead surface ECG was recorded at baseline and immediately after CRT-device implantation. Baseline ECG parameters (QRS duration, bundle branch morphology, axis, PR interval, QTc, intrinsicoid deflection) and post-implant paced QRS duration were analyzed; relative change in QRS duration was calculated. Decrease of left ventricular end-systolic volume ≥30% after 12 months was classified as super-response. In group of 101 patients, 32 (31.7%) were super-responders. There were no significant differences in baseline ECG parameters between super-responders and other patients. Post-implant QRS duration was shorter in super-responders (148 ± 22 ms vs. 162 ± 28 ms; P=0.010). Only in super-responders was significant QRS reduction observed after implantation. Relative QRS shortening was higher in super-responders (12.1% (6.8 to 22.2) vs. 1.7% (-11.9 to 11.8); P=0.005). In a multivariable analysis post-implant QRS duration and relative QRS shortening remained independent predictor of super-response. Absolute post-implant QRS duration and relative QRS shortening are the only ECG parameters associated with super-response in CRT. Further prospective studies on larger population are warranted to determine our findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. First observations of the midlatitude evening anomaly using Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Larquier, S.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Baker, J. B. H.; Ravindran Varrier, N.; Lester, M.

    2011-10-01

    Under geomagnetically quiet conditions, the daytime midlatitude ionosphere is mainly influenced by solar radiation: typically, electron densities in the ionosphere peak around solar noon. Previous observations from the Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar (ISR) have evidenced the presence of evening electron densities higher than daytime densities during the summer. The recent development of midlatitude Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radars over North America and Japan has revealed an evening enhancement in ground backscatter during the summer. SuperDARN observations are compared to data from the Millstone Hill ISR, confirming a direct relation between the observed evening enhancements in electron densities and ground backscatter. Statistics over a year of data from the Blackstone radar show that the enhancement occurs during sunset for a few hours from April to September. The evening enhancement observed by both SuperDARN and the Millstone Hill ISR is shown to be related to recent satellite observations reporting an enhancement in electron densities over a wide range of longitudes in the Northern Hemisphere midlatitude sector during summer time. Finally, global results from the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) and the horizontal wind model (HWM07) are presented in relation with previously published experimental results and proposed mechanisms of the evening enhancement, namely, thermospheric horizontal winds and geomagnetic field configuration. It is shown that the IRI captures the features of the evening enhancement as observed by SuperDARN radars and satellites.

  14. One-dimensional super Calabi-Yau manifolds and their mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noja, S.; Cacciatori, S. L.; Piazza, F. Dalla; Marrani, A.; Re, R.

    2017-04-01

    We apply a definition of generalised super Calabi-Yau variety (SCY) to supermanifolds of complex dimension one. One of our results is that there are two SCY's having reduced manifold equal to P^1, namely the projective super space P^{.1|2} and the weighted projective super space W{P}_{(2)}^{.1|1} . Then we compute the corresponding sheaf cohomology of superforms, showing that the cohomology with picture number one is infinite dimensional, while the de Rham cohomology, which is what matters from a physical point of view, remains finite dimensional. Moreover, we provide the complete real and holomorphic de Rham cohomology for generic projective super spaces {P}^{.n|m} . We also determine the automorphism groups: these always match the dimension of the projective super group with the only exception of {P}^{.1|2} , whose automorphism group turns out to be larger than the projective super group. By considering the cohomology of the super tangent sheaf, we compute the deformations of {P}^{.1|m} , discovering that the presence of a fermionic structure allows for deformations even if the reduced manifold is rigid. Finally, we show that {P}^{.1|2} is self-mirror, whereas W{P}_{(2)}^{.1|1} has a zero dimensional mirror. Also, the mirror map for {P}^{.1|2} naturally endows it with a structure of N = 2 super Riemann surface.

  15. Oblique reconstructions in tomosynthesis. II. Super-resolution

    PubMed Central

    Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In tomosynthesis, super-resolution has been demonstrated using reconstruction planes parallel to the detector. Super-resolution allows for subpixel resolution relative to the detector. The purpose of this work is to develop an analytical model that generalizes super-resolution to oblique reconstruction planes. Methods: In a digital tomosynthesis system, a sinusoidal test object is modeled along oblique angles (i.e., “pitches”) relative to the plane of the detector in a 3D divergent-beam acquisition geometry. To investigate the potential for super-resolution, the input frequency is specified to be greater than the alias frequency of the detector. Reconstructions are evaluated in an oblique plane along the extent of the object using simple backprojection (SBP) and filtered backprojection (FBP). By comparing the amplitude of the reconstruction against the attenuation coefficient of the object at various frequencies, the modulation transfer function (MTF) is calculated to determine whether modulation is within detectable limits for super-resolution. For experimental validation of super-resolution, a goniometry stand was used to orient a bar pattern phantom along various pitches relative to the breast support in a commercial digital breast tomosynthesis system. Results: Using theoretical modeling, it is shown that a single projection image cannot resolve a sine input whose frequency exceeds the detector alias frequency. The high frequency input is correctly visualized in SBP or FBP reconstruction using a slice along the pitch of the object. The Fourier transform of this reconstructed slice is maximized at the input frequency as proof that the object is resolved. Consistent with the theoretical results, experimental images of a bar pattern phantom showed super-resolution in oblique reconstructions. At various pitches, the highest frequency with detectable modulation was determined by visual inspection of the bar patterns. The dependency of the highest

  16. Heisenberg model of a {Cr8}-cubane magnetic molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luban, Marshall; Kögerler, Paul; Miller, Lance L.; Winpenny, Richard E. P.

    2003-05-01

    A Heisenberg model of eight CrIII paramagnetic centers (spins s=3/2) at the vertices of a cube with four distinct exchange interactions is found to provide a reasonably accurate description of the magnetic susceptibility of the cubane-type magnetic molecule [Cr8O4(O2CC6H5)16]={Cr8} from 2-290 K for an external field of 0.5 T. We find that two exchange bonds are antiferromagnetic (13, 24 K) and two are ferromagnetic (5, 13.5 K), with an accuracy of approximately 1 K. The determination of the four exchange constants is greatly facilitated using the exact high-temperature expansion of the weak-field susceptibility, effectively reducing the number of unknown parameters to two. We have calculated the thermodynamic properties of the system and these can be compared with the results of future experiments. At temperatures below 0.5 K sharp increases are expected in the magnetization versus external magnetic field at approximately 6 and 12 T and higher fields due to level crossings. Inelastic neutron scattering could check our predictions for the low-lying magnetic energy levels.

  17. Responses of Super Rice (Oryza sativa L.) to Different Planting Methods for Grain Yield and Nitrogen-Use Efficiency in the Single Cropping Season

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Song; Wang, Danying; Xu, Chunmei; Ji, Chenglin; Zhang, Xiaoguo; Zhao, Xia; Zhang, Xiufu; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2014-01-01

    To break the yield ceiling of rice production, a super rice project was developed in 1996 to breed rice varieties with super high yield. A two-year experiment was conducted to evaluate yield and nitrogen (N)-use response of super rice to different planting methods in the single cropping season. A total of 17 rice varieties, including 13 super rice and four non-super checks (CK), were grown under three N levels [0 (N0), 150 (N150), and 225 (N225) kg ha−1] and two planting methods [transplanting (TP) and direct-seeding in wet conditions (WDS)]. Grain yield under WDS (7.69 t ha−1) was generally lower than TP (8.58 t ha−1). However, grain yield under different planting methods was affected by N rates as well as variety groups. In both years, there was no difference in grain yield between super and CK varieties at N150, irrespective of planting methods. However, grain yield difference was dramatic in japonica groups at N225, that is, there was an 11.3% and 14.1% average increase in super rice than in CK varieties in WDS and TP, respectively. This suggests that high N input contributes to narrowing the yield gap in super rice varieties, which also indicates that super rice was bred for high fertility conditions. In the japonica group, more N was accumulated in super rice than in CK at N225, but no difference was found between super and CK varieties at N0 and N150. Similar results were also found for N agronomic efficiency. The results suggest that super rice varieties have an advantage for N-use efficiency when high N is applied. The response of super rice was greater under TP than under WDS. The results suggest that the need to further improve agronomic and other management practices to achieve high yield and N-use efficiency for super rice varieties in WDS. PMID:25111805

  18. Responses of super rice (Oryza sativa L.) to different planting methods for grain yield and nitrogen-use efficiency in the single cropping season.

    PubMed

    Chen, Song; Wang, Danying; Xu, Chunmei; Ji, Chenglin; Zhang, Xiaoguo; Zhao, Xia; Zhang, Xiufu; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh

    2014-01-01

    To break the yield ceiling of rice production, a super rice project was developed in 1996 to breed rice varieties with super high yield. A two-year experiment was conducted to evaluate yield and nitrogen (N)-use response of super rice to different planting methods in the single cropping season. A total of 17 rice varieties, including 13 super rice and four non-super checks (CK), were grown under three N levels [0 (N0), 150 (N150), and 225 (N225) kg ha-1] and two planting methods [transplanting (TP) and direct-seeding in wet conditions (WDS)]. Grain yield under WDS (7.69 t ha-1) was generally lower than TP (8.58 t ha-1). However, grain yield under different planting methods was affected by N rates as well as variety groups. In both years, there was no difference in grain yield between super and CK varieties at N150, irrespective of planting methods. However, grain yield difference was dramatic in japonica groups at N225, that is, there was an 11.3% and 14.1% average increase in super rice than in CK varieties in WDS and TP, respectively. This suggests that high N input contributes to narrowing the yield gap in super rice varieties, which also indicates that super rice was bred for high fertility conditions. In the japonica group, more N was accumulated in super rice than in CK at N225, but no difference was found between super and CK varieties at N0 and N150. Similar results were also found for N agronomic efficiency. The results suggest that super rice varieties have an advantage for N-use efficiency when high N is applied. The response of super rice was greater under TP than under WDS. The results suggest that the need to further improve agronomic and other management practices to achieve high yield and N-use efficiency for super rice varieties in WDS.

  19. Influence of ageing time on hardness, microstructure and wear behaviour of AISI2507 super duplex stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davanageri, Mahesh; Narendranath, S.; Kadoli, Ravikiran

    2017-08-01

    The effect of ageing time on hardness, microstructure and wear behaviour of super duplex stainless AISI 2507 is examined. The material was solution treated at 1050 °C and water quenched, further the ageing has been carried out at 850 °C for 30 min, 60 min and 90 min. The chromium (Cr) and molybdenum (Mo) enriched intermetallic sigma phase (σ) were found to precipitate at the ferrite/austenite interface and within the ferrite region. The concentration of intermetallic sigma phase (σ), which was quantified by a combination of scanning electron microscopy and image analysis, increases with increasing ageing time, leading to significant increase in the hardness. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) was employed to investigate the element distribution and phase identification. Wear characterstics of the aged super duplex stainless steel were measured by varying normal loads, sliding speeds, sliding distance and compared with solution treated (as-cast) specimens. Scanning electron microscopy was used to assist in analysis of worn out surfaces. The outcomes suggested that the increase in percentage of sigma phase increases hardness and wear resistance in heat-treated specimens compared to solution treated specimens (as-cast).

  20. [A Case of Duodenal Invasive Advanced Gastric Cancer in Which the Primary Tumor Achieved pCR, but Viable Cancer Cells Remained in Lymph Node No.13 after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Kubota, Tetsushi; Choda, Yasuhiro; Morito, Toshiaki; Miyake, Soichiro; Ishida, Michihiro; Sato, Daisuke; Sumitani, Daisuke; Nakano, Kanyu; Harano, Masao; Matsukawa, Hiroyoshi; Ojima, Yasutomo; Idani, Hitoshi; Shiozaki, Shigehiro; Okajima, Masazumi

    2017-11-01

    A woman approximately 70-years-old with duodenal invasive advanced gastric cancer was referred to our hospital. Meta- stasis to lymph node(LN)No.13 was suspected based on FDG/PET-CT. For better curability, we selected neoadjuvant chemotherapy( NAC)with S-1 plus oxaliplatin(SOX therapy). After 3 courses of SOX, distal gastrectomy with D2(+No.13) lymphadenectomy was performed. Upon pathological evaluation, no viable cancer cells were found in the primary tumor, but viable cancer cells were identified in LN No.6 and 13. LN No.13 was defined as M1 according to the current Japanese classification of gastric carcinoma. On the other hand, the 2014 Japanese gastric cancer treatment guidelines(ver. 4)mentioned that D2(+No.13)lymphadenectomy may be an option in potentially curative gastrectomy for tumors invading the duodenum. This case suggests that No.13 lymphadenectomy is necessary as a curative operation for duodenal invasive advanced gastric cancer, even if the primary tumor has achieved pCR after NAC.

  1. Spaceport Super Safety and Health Day

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-15

    Brig. Gen. J. Gregory Pavlovich (left), 45th Space Wing, and Center Director Jim Kennedy (right) present one of several individual safety awards given on Spaceport Super Safety and Health Day. An annual event at KSC and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Spaceport Super Safety and Health Day is dedicated to reinforcing safe and healthful behaviors in the workforce.

  2. Cyclic and isothermal oxidation behavior at 1100 and 1200 C of Ni-20Cr, Ni-20Cr-3Mn, Ni-20Cr-3Si, and Ni-40Cr alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowell, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    Alloys of Ni-20Cr, Ni-20Cr-3Mn, Ni-20Cr-3Si, and Ni-40Cr were cyclically oxidized at 1100 and 1200 C for up to 100 hours. Oxidation behavior was judged by sample thickness and weight change, metallography, diffraction, and microprobe analysis. The least attacked were Ni-40Cr and Ni-20Cr-3Si. The alloy Ni-20Cr-3Mn was much less attacked than Ni-20Cr, but more than the other alloys. The formation of Cr2O3 accounted for the increased resistance of Ni-Cr and Ni-20Cr-3Si, and the formation of MnCr2O4 accounts for the improvement in Ni-20Cr-3mn over Ni-20Cr.

  3. Eigenfunctions and heat kernels of super Maass Laplacians on the super Poincaré upper half-plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Kazuto

    1992-03-01

    Heat kernels of ``super Maass Laplacians'' are explicitly constructed on super Poincaré upper half-plane by a serious treatment of a complete set of eigenfunctions. By component decomposition an explicit treatment can be done for arbitrary weight and a knowledge of classical Maass Laplacians becomes helpful. The result coincides with that of Aoki [Commun. Math. Phys. 117, 405 (1988)] which was obtained by solving differential equations.

  4. RNA virus interference via CRISPR/Cas13a system in plants.

    PubMed

    Aman, Rashid; Ali, Zahir; Butt, Haroon; Mahas, Ahmed; Aljedaani, Fatimah; Khan, Muhammad Zuhaib; Ding, Shouwei; Mahfouz, Magdy

    2018-01-04

    CRISPR/Cas systems confer immunity against invading nucleic acids and phages in bacteria and archaea. CRISPR/Cas13a (known previously as C2c2) is a class 2 type VI-A ribonuclease capable of targeting and cleaving single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) molecules of the phage genome. Here, we employ CRISPR/Cas13a to engineer interference with an RNA virus, Turnip Mosaic Virus (TuMV), in plants. CRISPR/Cas13a produces interference against green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing TuMV in transient assays and stable overexpression lines of Nicotiana benthamiana. CRISPR RNA (crRNAs) targeting the HC-Pro and GFP sequences exhibit better interference than those targeting other regions such as coat protein (CP) sequence. Cas13a can also process pre-crRNAs into functional crRNAs. Our data indicate that CRISPR/Cas13a can be used for engineering interference against RNA viruses, providing a potential novel mechanism for RNA-guided immunity against RNA viruses and for other RNA manipulations in plants.

  5. Evidence for Extended Aqueous Alteration in CR Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trigo-Rodriquez, J. M.; Moyano-Cambero, C. E.; Mestres, N.; Fraxedas, J.; Zolensky, M.; Nakamura, T.; Martins, Z.

    2013-01-01

    We are currently studying the chemical interrelationships between the main rockforming components of carbonaceous chondrites (hereafter CC), e.g. silicate chondrules, refractory inclusions and metal grains, and the surrounding meteorite matrices. It is thought that the fine-grained materials that form CC matrices are representing samples of relatively unprocessed protoplanetary disk materials [1-3]. In fact, modern non-destructive analytical techniques have shown that CC matrices host a large diversity of stellar grains from many distinguishable stellar sources [4]. Aqueous alteration has played a role in homogeneizing the isotopic content that allows the identification of presolar grains [5]. On the other hand, detailed analytical techniques have found that the aqueously-altered CR, CM and CI chondrite groups contain matrices in which the organic matter has experienced significant processing concomitant to the formation of clays and other minerals. In this sense, clays have been found to be directly associated with complex organics [6, 7]. CR chondrites are particularly relevant in this context as this chondrite group contains abundant metal grains in the interstitial matrix, and inside glassy silicate chondrules. It is important because CR are known for exhibiting a large complexity of organic compounds [8-10], and only metallic Fe is considered essential in Fischer-Tropsch catalysis of organics [11-13]. Therefore, CR chondrites can be considered primitive materials capable to provide clues on the role played by aqueous alteration in the chemical evolution of their parent asteroids.

  6. Microstructure Investigation of 13Cr-2Mo ODS Steel Components Obtained by High Voltage Electric Discharge Compaction Technique.

    PubMed

    Bogachev, Igor; Yudin, Artem; Grigoryev, Evgeniy; Chernov, Ivan; Staltsov, Maxim; Khasanov, Oleg; Olevsky, Eugene

    2015-11-02

    Refractory oxide dispersion strengthened 13Cr-2Mo steel powder was successfully consolidated to near theoretical density using high voltage electric discharge compaction. Cylindrical samples with relative density from 90% to 97% and dimensions of 10 mm in diameter and 10-15 mm in height were obtained. Consolidation conditions such as pressure and voltage were varied in some ranges to determine the optimal compaction regime. Three different concentrations of yttria were used to identify its effect on the properties of the samples. It is shown that the utilized ultra-rapid consolidation process in combination with high transmitted energy allows obtaining high density compacts, retaining the initial structure with minimal grain growth. The experimental results indicate some heterogeneity of the structure which may occur in the external layers of the tested samples due to various thermal and electromagnetic in-processing effects. The choice of the optimal parameters of the consolidation enables obtaining samples of acceptable quality.

  7. Microstructure investigation of 13Cr-2Mo ODS steel components obtained by high voltage electric discharge compaction technique

    DOE PAGES

    Bogachev, Igor; Yudin, Artem; Grigoryev, Evgeniy; ...

    2015-11-02

    Refractory oxide dispersion strengthened 13Cr-2Mo steel powder was successfully consolidated to near theoretical density using high voltage electric discharge compaction. Cylindrical samples with relative density from 90% to 97% and dimensions of 10 mm in diameter and 10–15 mm in height were obtained. Consolidation conditions such as pressure and voltage were varied in some ranges to determine the optimal compaction regime. Three different concentrations of yttria were used to identify its effect on the properties of the samples. It is shown that the utilized ultra-rapid consolidation process in combination with high transmitted energy allows obtaining high density compacts, retaining themore » initial structure with minimal grain growth. The experimental results indicate some heterogeneity of the structure which may occur in the external layers of the tested samples due to various thermal and electromagnetic in-processing effects. As a result, the choice of the optimal parameters of the consolidation enables obtaining samples of acceptable quality.« less

  8. Interdiffusion in the Ni/TD-NiCr and Cr/TD-NiCr systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawar, A. V.; Tenney, D. R.

    1974-01-01

    The diffusion of Ni and Cr into TD-NiCr has been studied over the 900 to 1100 C temperature range. The diffusion couples were prepared by electroplating Cr and Ni on polished TD-NiCr wafers. Concentration profiles produced as a result of isothermal diffusion at 905, 1000, and 1100 C were determined by electron microprobe analysis. The Boltzmann-Matano analysis was used to determine concentration-dependent diffusion coefficients which were found to compare favorably with previously reported values. These data suggest that 2 vol % ThO2 distribution has no appreciable effect on the rates of diffusion in TD-NiCr with a large grain size. This supports the view that an inert dispersoid in an alloy matrix will not in itself lead to enhanced diffusion unless a short-circuit diffusion structure is stabilized.

  9. Pair luminescence in Cr3+ -doped Ba2Mg(BO3)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondzior, Bartosz; Miniajluk, Natalia; Dereń, Przemysław J.

    2018-05-01

    Cr3+ ions were introduced to the Ba2Mg(BO3)2 host to provide information about the site occupation, crystal field strength, and the site symmetry. The samples were synthesized by solid-state reaction. Emission observed under 440 nm excitation was characteristic for Cr3+ ions in strong octahedral ligand field with Dq/B parameter ratio 2.74 and sharp R line at 698 nm. The charge mismatch between Cr3+ dopant and Mg2+ host ion is compensated by the creation of Cr3+ pair in the vicinity of Ba or Mg vacancy. The emission decay curve is bi-exponential with decay times 1.2 and 13.3 ms.

  10. Super-complexes of adhesion GPCRs and neural guidance receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Verity A.; Mehmood, Shahid; Chavent, Matthieu; Roversi, Pietro; Carrasquero, Maria; Del Toro, Daniel; Seyit-Bremer, Goenuel; Ranaivoson, Fanomezana M.; Comoletti, Davide; Sansom, Mark S. P.; Robinson, Carol V.; Klein, Rüdiger; Seiradake, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Latrophilin adhesion-GPCRs (Lphn1-3 or ADGRL1-3) and Unc5 cell guidance receptors (Unc5A-D) interact with FLRT proteins (FLRT1-3), thereby promoting cell adhesion and repulsion, respectively. How the three proteins interact and function simultaneously is poorly understood. We show that Unc5D interacts with FLRT2 in cis, controlling cell adhesion in response to externally presented Lphn3. The ectodomains of the three proteins bind cooperatively. Crystal structures of the ternary complex formed by the extracellular domains reveal that Lphn3 dimerizes when bound to FLRT2:Unc5, resulting in a stoichiometry of 1:1:2 (FLRT2:Unc5D:Lphn3). This 1:1:2 complex further dimerizes to form a larger `super-complex' (2:2:4), using a previously undescribed binding motif in the Unc5D TSP1 domain. Molecular dynamics simulations, point-directed mutagenesis and mass spectrometry demonstrate the stability and molecular properties of these complexes. Our data exemplify how receptors increase their functional repertoire by forming different context-dependent higher-order complexes.

  11. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of ferritic/martensitic steel in super critical pressurized water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, T.; Shiba, K.; Enoeda, M.; Akiba, M.

    2007-08-01

    A water-cooled solid breeder (WCSB) blanket cooled by high temperature SCPW (super critical pressurized water) is a practical option of DEMO reactor. Therefore, it is necessary to check the compatibility of the steel with SCPW. In this work, reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel, F82H has been tested through slow strain rate tests (SSRT) in 23.5 MPa SCPW. And weight change behavior was measured up to 1000 h. F82H did not demonstrated stress corrosion cracking and its weight simply increased with surface oxidation. The weight change of F82H was almost same as commercial 9%-Cr steels. According to a cross-sectional analysis and weight change behavior, corrosion rate of F82H in the 823 K SCPW is estimated to be 0.04 mm/yr.

  12. Atmospheric Escape from the Closest Super-Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenreich, David

    2015-10-01

    In July 2015, we announced the discovery of the super-Earth HD 219134b, orbiting a V = 5.57 star 6.5-pc away from us (Motalebi et al. 2015). This is the brightest and closest transiting system known so far. With Spitzer and HARPS-N, we measured the density of HD 219134b, which is compatible with a rocky planet, possibly containing a large amount of volatile species. The planet receives high stellar irradiation, which could significantly erode its atmosphere. Preliminary estimates indicate that this 4.5 Earth-mass object should nonetheless retain a substantial atmosphere. HD 219134b lies sufficiently far from its star to allow the formation of a hydrogen cloud with a detectable coma. HST is the only telescope able to detect, for the first time, atmospheric escape from a super-Earth, by observing a Lyman-alpha transit. The detection of escaping hydrogen will represent a smoking gun for the presence of water vapor in the lower atmosphere. Constraining the mass-loss rate will allow us to probe the evolution of super-Earths and assess whether hotter super-Earths can be evaporation remnants. Resolving the Lyman-alpha absorption signal will also bring new insights on the dynamics in the exospheric clouds, revealing interaction between the host star and its super-Earth through radiation pressure and stellar wind. A non-detection could hint at a CO/CO2-rich 'super-Venus' and will prepare for adapted follow-up observations. Both outcomes will thus motivate new proposals in Cycle 24.

  13. Secondary ion mass spectra of gold super clusters up to 140000 Dalton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feld, H.; Leute, A.; Rading, D.; Benninghoven, A.; Schmid, G.

    1990-03-01

    The bombardment of a two-shell gold complex (Au55(PPh3)12Cl6) with 10 keV Xe+-ions results in the formation of secondary ion masses up to 140000 u. These are by far the largest secondary ions observed under primary particle bombardment. The detection and identification of these ions with a Time-Of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (TOF-SIMS) gives important information about the behavior of naked full-shell clusters. Au13 particles, generated from the Au55 cluster, serve as building blocks for a series of super-clusters up to (Au13)55. The results for keV-ion bombardment are compared to those for MeV-ion bombardment.

  14. Manganese-Chromium-Cyanide Clusters: Molecular MnCr 6(CN) 18 and Mn 3Cr 6(CN) 18 Species and a Related MnCr 3(CN) 9 Chain Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Julie L.; Sokol, Jennifer J.; Hee, Allan G.; Long, Jeffrey R.

    2001-07-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to design new single-molecule magnets, we are exploring synthetic routes to high-nuclearity metal-cyanide clusters. Here, we report the results of solution assembly reactions between [(Me3tacn)Cr(CN)3] (Me3tacn= N,N‧,N″-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane) and selected manganese(II) salts. Reaction with the perchlorate salt in the presence of AClO4 (A=Na, K) gives A[(Me3tacn)6MnCr6(CN)18] (ClO4)3, featuring a heptanuclear cluster in which six [(Me3tacn)Cr(CN)3] units surround a central MnII ion. The Mn coordination geometry closely approaches a trigonal prism, with triangular faces twisted away from a fully eclipsed position by an angle of 12.8° and 11.3° for A=Na and K, respectively. The magnetic behavior of both compounds indicates weak antiferromagnetic coupling between neighboring MnII and CrIII centers (J=-3.0 and -3.1 cm-1, respectively) to give an S={13}/{2}; ground state. Alternatively, addition of sodium tetraphenylborate to the reaction solution yields [(Me3tacn)6(H2O)6Mn3Cr6(CN)18] (BPh4)6·12H2O, in which attachment of two MnII ions to the preceding cluster generates a new species with two trigonal bipyramids sharing a common vertex. This compound displays magnetic behavior consistent with weak antiferromagnetic coupling and an S={3}/{2} ground state. Finally, a reaction employing manganese(II) triflate is found to produce the one-dimensional solid [(Me3tacn)3MnCr3(CN)9](CF3SO3)2, exhibiting a closely related chain structure, and, again, weak antiferromagnetic coupling.

  15. Super-Laplacians and their symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, P. S.; Lindström, U.

    2017-05-01

    A super-Laplacian is a set of differential operators in superspace whose highestdimensional component is given by the spacetime Laplacian. Symmetries of super-Laplacians are given by linear differential operators of arbitrary finite degree and are determined by superconformal Killing tensors. We investigate these in flat superspaces. The differential operators determining the symmetries give rise to algebras which can be identified in many cases with the tensor algebras of the relevant superconformal Lie algebras modulo certain ideals. They have applications to Higher Spin theories.

  16. Urinary C‑X‑C motif chemokine 13 is a noninvasive biomarker of antibody‑mediated renal allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dajin; Zhang, Jian; Peng, Wenhan; Weng, Chunhua; Chen, Jianghua

    2018-06-22

    Noninvasive monitoring methods of immune status are preferred by transplant recipients. The present study investigated whether urinary C‑X‑C motif chemokine 13 (CXCL13) had the potential to reflect ongoing immune processes within renal allografts. Using an ELISA assay, the level of urinary CXCL13 was quantified in a total of 146 renal allograft recipients and 40 healthy controls at scheduled intervals and at the time of the indicated or protocol biopsy. The results of the present study revealed that urinary CXCL13/creatinine (Cr) was lower in normal transplants compared with in those with acute tubular necrosis (ATN; P=0.001), chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN; P=0.01), and acute rejection (AR; P<0.0001), which was associated with a good diagnostic performance for AR [area under the curve (AUC)=0.818, P<0.0001). In addition, urinary CXCL13/Cr levels in patients with AR were also higher than that of patients with graft dysfunction but no rejection, including ATN and CAN (P=0.034). Notably, urinary CXCL13 distinguished between acute antibody‑mediated rejection (ABMR) and acute cellular rejection, with an AUC of 0.856. Furthermore, patients with steroid‑resistant AR exhibited significantly increased urinary CXCL13/Cr levels than patients with reversible AR (P=0.001). Additionally, elevated levels of urinary CXCL13/Cr within the first month of transplant were predictive of graft function at 3 and 6 months (P=0.044 and P=0.04, respectively). Collectively, the findings of the present study indicated that the noninvasive investigation of urinary CXCL13/Cr may be valuable for the detection of AR, particularly ABMR. In addition, high urinary CXCL13/Cr levels predicted a poor response to steroid treatment and compromised graft function.

  17. SRRF: Universal live-cell super-resolution microscopy.

    PubMed

    Culley, Siân; Tosheva, Kalina L; Matos Pereira, Pedro; Henriques, Ricardo

    2018-08-01

    Super-resolution microscopy techniques break the diffraction limit of conventional optical microscopy to achieve resolutions approaching tens of nanometres. The major advantage of such techniques is that they provide resolutions close to those obtainable with electron microscopy while maintaining the benefits of light microscopy such as a wide palette of high specificity molecular labels, straightforward sample preparation and live-cell compatibility. Despite this, the application of super-resolution microscopy to dynamic, living samples has thus far been limited and often requires specialised, complex hardware. Here we demonstrate how a novel analytical approach, Super-Resolution Radial Fluctuations (SRRF), is able to make live-cell super-resolution microscopy accessible to a wider range of researchers. We show its applicability to live samples expressing GFP using commercial confocal as well as laser- and LED-based widefield microscopes, with the latter achieving long-term timelapse imaging with minimal photobleaching. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Migration-driven diversity of super-Earth compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, Sean N.; Boulet, Thibault; Izidoro, Andre; Esteves, Leandro; Bitsch, Bertram

    2018-06-01

    A leading model for the origin of super-Earths proposes that planetary embryos migrate inward and pile up on close-in orbits. As large embryos are thought to preferentially form beyond the snow line, this naively predicts that most super-Earths should be very water-rich. Here we show that the shortest-period planets formed in the migration model are often purely rocky. The inward migration of icy embryos through the terrestrial zone accelerates the growth of rocky planets via resonant shepherding. We illustrate this process with a simulation that provided a match to the Kepler-36 system of two planets on close orbits with very different densities. In the simulation, two super-Earths formed in a Kepler-36-like configuration; the inner planet was pure rock while the outer one was ice-rich. We conclude from a suite of simulations that the feeding zones of close-in super-Earths are likely to be broad and disconnected from their final orbital radii.

  19. Epstein-Barr Virus oncoprotein super-enhancers control B cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hufeng; Schmidt, Stefanie CS; Jiang, Sizun; Willox, Bradford; Bernhardt, Katharina; Liang, Jun; Johannsen, Eric C; Kharchenko, Peter; Gewurz, Benjamin E; Kieff, Elliott; Zhao, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Super-enhancers are clusters of gene-regulatory sites bound by multiple transcription factors that govern cell transcription, development, phenotype, and oncogenesis. By examining Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), we identified four EBV oncoproteins and five EBV-activated NF-κB subunits co-occupying ~1800 enhancer sites. Of these, 187 had markedly higher and broader histone H3K27ac signals characteristic of super-enhancers, and were designated “EBV super-enhancers”. EBV super-enhancer-associated genes included the MYC and BCL2 oncogenes, enabling LCL proliferation and survival. EBV super-enhancers were enriched for B cell transcription factor motifs and had a high co-occupancy of the transcription factors STAT5 and NFAT. EBV super-enhancer-associated genes were more highly expressed than other LCL genes. Disrupting EBV super-enhancers by the bromodomain inhibitor, JQ1 or conditionally inactivating an EBV oncoprotein or NF-κB decreased MYC or BCL2 expression and arrested LCL growth. These findings provide insight into mechanisms of EBV-induced lymphoproliferation and identify potential therapeutic interventions. PMID:25639793

  20. Monazite-type SrCr O 4 under compression

    DOE PAGES

    Gleissner, J.; Errandonea, Daniel; Segura, A.; ...

    2016-10-20

    We report a high-pressure study of monoclinic monazite-type SrCrO 4 up to 26 GPa. Therein we combined x-ray diffraction, Raman, and optical-absorption measurements with ab initio calculations, to find a pressure-induced structural phase transition of SrCrO 4 near 8-9 GPa. Evidence of a second phase transition was observed at 10-13 GPa. The crystal structures of the high-pressure phases were assigned to the tetragonal scheelite-type and monoclinic AgMnO 4-type structures. Both transitions produce drastic changes in the electronic band gap and phonon spectrum of SrCrO 4. We determined the pressure evolution of the band gap for the low- and high-pressure phasesmore » as well as the frequencies and pressure dependencies of the Raman-active modes. In all three phases most Raman modes harden under compression, however the presence of low-frequency modes which gradually soften is also detected. In monazite-type SrCrO 4, the band gap blueshifts under compression, but the transition to the scheelite phase causes an abrupt decrease of the band gap in SrCrO 4. Calculations showed good agreement with experiments and were used to better understand the experimental results. From x-ray-diffraction studies and calculations we determined the pressure dependence of the unit-cell parameters of the different phases and their ambient-temperature equations of state. The results are compared with the high-pressure behavior of other monazites, in particular PbCrO 4. A comparison of the high-pressure behavior of the electronic properties of SrCrO 4 (SrWO 4) and PbCrO 4 (PbWO 4) will also be made. Lastly, the possible occurrence of a third structural phase transition is discussed.« less

  1. Pinching parameters for open (super) strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Playle, Sam; Sciuto, Stefano

    2018-02-01

    We present an approach to the parametrization of (super) Schottky space obtained by sewing together three-punctured discs with strips. Different cubic ribbon graphs classify distinct sets of pinching parameters; we show how they are mapped onto each other. The parametrization is particularly well-suited to describing the region within (super) moduli space where open bosonic or Neveu-Schwarz string propagators become very long and thin, which dominates the IR behaviour of string theories. We show how worldsheet objects such as the Green's function converge to graph theoretic objects such as the Symanzik polynomials in the α ' → 0 limit, allowing us to see how string theory reproduces the sum over Feynman graphs. The (super) string measure takes on a simple and elegant form when expressed in terms of these parameters.

  2. THE ALBEDOS OF KEPLER'S CLOSE-IN SUPER-EARTHS

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Demory, Brice-Olivier, E-mail: bod21@cam.ac.uk

    Exoplanet research focusing on the characterization of super-Earths is currently limited to the handful of targets orbiting bright stars that are amenable to detailed study. This Letter proposes to look at alternative avenues to probe the surface and atmospheric properties of this category of planets, known to be ubiquitous in our galaxy. I conduct Markov Chain Monte Carlo light-curves analyses for 97 Kepler close-in R{sub P} ≲ 2.0 R {sub ⊕} super-Earth candidates with the aim of detecting their occultations at visible wavelengths. Brightness temperatures and geometric albedos in the Kepler bandpass are constrained for 27 super-Earth candidates. A hierarchicalmore » Bayesian modeling approach is then employed to characterize the population-level reflective properties of these close-in super-Earths. I find median geometric albedos A{sub g} in the Kepler bandpass ranging between 0.16 and 0.30, once decontaminated from thermal emission. These super-Earth geometric albedos are statistically larger than for hot Jupiters, which have medians A{sub g} ranging between 0.06 and 0.11. A subset of objects, including Kepler-10b, exhibit significantly larger albedos (A{sub g} ≳ 0.4). I argue that a better understanding of the incidence of stellar irradation on planetary surface and atmospheric processes is key to explain the diversity in albedos observed for close-in super-Earths.« less

  3. Super Moon Rises

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-19

    The full moon is seen as it rises near the National Mall, Saturday, March 19, 2011, in Washington. The full moon tonight is called a "Super Moon" since it is at its closest to Earth. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  4. Feasibility of SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging in the super-obese using a multi-head semiconductor camera with attenuation correction.

    PubMed

    DeCicco, Anthony E; Sokil, Alexis B; Marhefka, Gregary D; Reist, Kirk; Hansen, Christopher L

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is not only associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease, but also decreases the accuracy of many diagnostic modalities pertinent to this disease. Advances in myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) have mitigated somewhat the effects of obesity, although the feasibility of MPI in the super-obese (defined as a BMI > 50) is currently untested. We undertook this study to assess the practicality of MPI in the super-obese using a multi-headed solid-state gamma camera with attenuation correction. We retrospectively identified consecutive super-obese patients referred for MPI at our institution. The images were interpreted by 3 blinded, experienced readers and graded for quality and diagnosis, and subjectively evaluated the contribution of attenuation correction. Clinical follow-up was obtained from review of medical records. 72 consecutive super-obese patients were included. Their BMI ranged from 50 to 67 (55.7 ± 5.1). Stress image quality was considered good or excellent in 45 (63%), satisfactory in 24 (33%), poor in 3 (4%), and uninterpretable in 0 patients. Rest images were considered good or excellent in 34 (49%), satisfactory in 23 (33%), poor in 13 (19%), and uninterpretable in 0 patients. Attenuation correction changed the interpretation in 34 (47%) of studies. MPI is feasible and provides acceptable image quality for super-obese patients, although it may be camera and protocol dependent.

  5. CLOUDS IN SUPER-EARTH ATMOSPHERES: CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM CALCULATIONS

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mbarek, Rostom; Kempton, Eliza M.-R., E-mail: mbarekro@grinnell.edu, E-mail: kemptone@grinnell.edu

    Recent studies have unequivocally proven the existence of clouds in super-Earth atmospheres. Here we provide a theoretical context for the formation of super-Earth clouds by determining which condensates are likely to form under the assumption of chemical equilibrium. We study super-Earth atmospheres of diverse bulk composition, which are assumed to form by outgassing from a solid core of chondritic material, following Schaefer and Fegley. The super-Earth atmospheres that we study arise from planetary cores made up of individual types of chondritic meteorites. They range from highly reducing to oxidizing and have carbon to oxygen (C:O) ratios that are both sub-solarmore » and super-solar, thereby spanning a range of atmospheric composition that is appropriate for low-mass exoplanets. Given the atomic makeup of these atmospheres, we minimize the global Gibbs free energy of formation for over 550 gases and condensates to obtain the molecular composition of the atmospheres over a temperature range of 350–3000 K. Clouds should form along the temperature–pressure boundaries where the condensed species appear in our calculation. We find that the composition of condensate clouds depends strongly on both the H:O and C:O ratios. For the super-Earth archetype GJ 1214b, KCl and ZnS are the primary cloud-forming condensates at solar composition, in agreement with previous work. However, for oxidizing atmospheres, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and ZnO condensates are favored instead, and for carbon-rich atmospheres with super-solar C:O ratios, graphite clouds appear. For even hotter planets, clouds form from a wide variety of rock-forming and metallic species.« less

  6. Clouds in Super-Earth Atmospheres: Chemical Equilibrium Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbarek, Rostom; Kempton, Eliza M.-R.

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have unequivocally proven the existence of clouds in super-Earth atmospheres. Here we provide a theoretical context for the formation of super-Earth clouds by determining which condensates are likely to form under the assumption of chemical equilibrium. We study super-Earth atmospheres of diverse bulk composition, which are assumed to form by outgassing from a solid core of chondritic material, following Schaefer & Fegley. The super-Earth atmospheres that we study arise from planetary cores made up of individual types of chondritic meteorites. They range from highly reducing to oxidizing and have carbon to oxygen (C:O) ratios that are both sub-solar and super-solar, thereby spanning a range of atmospheric composition that is appropriate for low-mass exoplanets. Given the atomic makeup of these atmospheres, we minimize the global Gibbs free energy of formation for over 550 gases and condensates to obtain the molecular composition of the atmospheres over a temperature range of 350-3000 K. Clouds should form along the temperature-pressure boundaries where the condensed species appear in our calculation. We find that the composition of condensate clouds depends strongly on both the H:O and C:O ratios. For the super-Earth archetype GJ 1214b, KCl and ZnS are the primary cloud-forming condensates at solar composition, in agreement with previous work. However, for oxidizing atmospheres, K2SO4 and ZnO condensates are favored instead, and for carbon-rich atmospheres with super-solar C:O ratios, graphite clouds appear. For even hotter planets, clouds form from a wide variety of rock-forming and metallic species.

  7. Microstructure and Sliding Wear Performance of Cr7C3-(Ni,Cr)3(Al,Cr) Coating Deposited from Cr7C3 In Situ Formed Atomized Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hong-Bin; Shen, Jie; Gao, Feng; Yu, Yueguang; Li, Changhai

    2017-01-01

    This work is aimed at developing a new type of Cr7C3-(Ni,Cr)3(Al,Cr) coating for parts used in heavy-duty diesel engines. The feedstock, in which the stripe-shaped Cr7C3 was in situ formed, was firstly prepared by vacuum melting and gas atomization and then subjected by high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying to form the coatings. The carbon content, microstructure and phase constitution of the powders, as well as the sprayed coatings, were analyzed by chemical analysis, SEM and XRD. The hardness and sliding wear performance of the sprayed coatings were also tested and compared to a commercial Cr3C2-NiCr coating used on piston rings. The results showed that the content of carbon in feedstock was almost the same as designed, and that the volume content of in situ formed Cr7C3 was increased with carbon and chromium added. The major phases of the powders and sprayed coatings are Cr7C3 and Cr-alloyed Ni3Al. Only a small amount of carbon lost during the spraying process. As Cr7C3 content increased in the coatings, the microhardness at room temperature was firstly increased to about 1000Hv0.3. The microhardness of the coatings stayed almost constant, while the testing temperature was raised up to 700 °C for 0.5 h, which illustrates the potential application of the investigated coatings under high temperature conditions. The coatings containing 70 and 77 vol.% Cr7C3 showed the most promising wear resistance, lower friction coefficient and better tribological compatibility to gray cast iron counterpart than other tested Cr7C3-(Ni,Cr)3(Al,Cr) coatings and the reference Cr3C2-NiCr coating.

  8. GJ 832c: A Super-Earth in the Habitable Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Tuomi, Mikko; Butler, R. P.; Jones, H. R. A.; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Horner, Jonathan; Tinney, C. G.; Marshall, J. P.; Carter, B. D.; Bailey, J.; Salter, G. S.; O'Toole, S. J.; Wright, D.; Crane, J. D.; Schectman, S. A.; Arriagada, P.; Thompson, I.; Minniti, D.; Jenkins, J. S.; Diaz, M.

    2014-08-01

    We report the detection of GJ 832c, a super-Earth orbiting near the inner edge of the habitable zone of GJ 832, an M dwarf previously known to host a Jupiter analog in a nearly circular 9.4 yr orbit. The combination of precise radial-velocity measurements from three telescopes reveals the presence of a planet with a period of 35.68 ± 0.03 days and minimum mass (m sin i) of 5.4 ± 1.0 Earth masses. GJ 832c moves on a low-eccentricity orbit (e = 0.18 ± 0.13) toward the inner edge of the habitable zone. However, given the large mass of the planet, it seems likely that it would possess a massive atmosphere, which may well render the planet inhospitable. Indeed, it is perhaps more likely that GJ 832c is a "super-Venus," featuring significant greenhouse forcing. With an outer giant planet and an interior, potentially rocky planet, the GJ 832 planetary system can be thought of as a miniature version of our own solar system. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  9. Super-hydrophobicity fundamentals: implications to biofouling prevention.

    PubMed

    Marmur, Abraham

    2006-01-01

    The theory of wetting on super-hydrophobic surfaces is presented and discussed, within the general framework of equilibrium wetting and contact angles. Emphasis is put on the implications of super-hydrophobicity to the prevention of biofouling. Two main lines of thought are discussed, viz. i) "mirror imaging" of the Lotus effect, namely designing a surface that repels biological entities by being super-hydrophilic, and ii) designing a surface that minimises the water-wetted area when submerged in water (by keeping an air film between the water and the surface), so that the suspended biological entities have a low probability of encountering the solid surface.

  10. Preliminary Microstructural and Microscratch Results of Ni-Cr-Fe and Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings on Magnesium Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istrate, B.; Munteanu, C.; Lupescu, S.; Benchea, M.; Vizureanu, P.

    2017-06-01

    Thermal coatings have a large scale application in aerospace and automotive field, as barriers improving wear mechanical characteristics and corrosion resistance. In present research, there have been used two types of coatings, Ni-Cr-Fe, respectively Cr3C2-NiCr which were deposited on magnesium based alloys (pure magnesium and Mg-30Y master alloy). There have been investigated the microstructural aspects through scanning electronic microscopy and XRD analysis and also a series of mechanical characteristics through microscratch and indentation determinations. The results revealed the formation of some adherent layers resistant to the penetration of the metallic indenter, the coatings did not suffer major damages. Microstructural analysis highlighted the formation of Cr3C2, Cr7C3, Cr3Ni2, Cr7Ni3, FeNi3, Cr-Ni phases. Also, the apparent coefficient of friction for Ni-Cr-Fe coatings presents superior values than Cr3C2-NiCr coatings.

  11. Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of CrN and CrSiCN Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Feng; Yang, Qi; Huang, Xiao; Wei, Ronghua

    2010-07-01

    Three CrN-based coatings were deposited on 17-4PH stainless steel substrate using plasma enhanced magnetron sputtering (PEMS) technique. The microstructure and corrosion resistance were evaluated to examine the effect of Si and C in the coatings. The three coating compositions were CrN(Cr0.69N0.31), CrSiCN-1 (Cr0.55Si0.014C0.14N0.3), and CrSiCN-2 (Cr0.43Si0.037C0.24N0.3). The testing results indicated that with the increase of Si concentration, the coating microstructure transformed from B1 structure to B1 + Si3N4 structure. All the three coating systems were subjected to electrochemical tests in 3.5% NaCl solution at room temperature. Potentiodynamic polarization results revealed that the CrSiCN-2 coating had a higher anodic current density and a lower corrosion potential when compared to the CrN and CrSiCN-1 coatings. Extended exposure in 3.5% NaCl caused several localized corrosion to the CrSiCN-2 coating due to the porous coating structure. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements demonstrated that the CrSiCN-1 has better corrosion resistance than CrN and CrSiCN-2.

  12. Microstructure and mechanical properties of FeCrAl alloys under heavy ion irradiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydogan, E.; Weaver, J. S.; Maloy, S. A.; El-Atwani, O.; Wang, Y. Q.; Mara, N. A.

    2018-05-01

    FeCrAl ferritic alloys are excellent cladding candidates for accident tolerant fuel systems due to their high resistance to oxidation as a result of formation of a protective Al2O3 scale at high temperatures in steam. In this study, we report the irradiation response of the 10Cr and 13Cr FeCrAl cladding tubes under Fe2+ ion irradiation up to ∼16 dpa at 300 °C. Dislocation loop size, density and characteristics were determined using both two-beam bright field transmission electron microscopy and on-zone scanning transmission electron microscopy techniques. 10Cr (C06M2) tube has a lower dislocation density, larger grain size and a slightly weaker texture compared to the 13Cr (C36M3) tube before irradiation. After irradiation to 0.7 dpa and 16 dpa, the fraction of <100> type sessile dislocations decreases with increasing Cr amount in the alloys. It has been found that there is neither void formation nor α‧ precipitation as a result of ion irradiations in either alloy. Therefore, dislocation loops were determined to be the only irradiation induced defects contributing to the hardening. Nanoindentation testing before the irradiation revealed that the average nanohardness of the C36M3 tube is higher than that of the C06M2 tube. The average nanohardness of irradiated tube samples saturated at 1.6-2.0 GPa hardening for both tubes between ∼3.4 dpa and ∼16 dpa. The hardening calculated based on transmission electron microscopy was found to be consistent with nanohardness measurements.

  13. Microstructure and mechanical properties of FeCrAl alloys under heavy ion irradiations

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Aydogan, E.; Weaver, J. S.; Maloy, S. A.

    FeCrAl ferritic alloys are excellent cladding candidates for accident tolerant fuel systems due to their high resistance to oxidation as a result of formation of a protective Al 2O 3 scale at high temperatures in steam. In this study, we report the irradiation response of the 10Cr and 13Cr FeCrAl cladding tubes under Fe 2+ ion irradiation up to ~16 dpa at 300 °C. Dislocation loop size, density and characteristics were determined using both two beam bright field transmission electron microscopy and on-zone scanning transmission electron microscopy techniques. 10Cr (C06M2) tube has a lower dislocation density, larger grain size andmore » a slightly weaker texture compared to the 13Cr (C36M3) tube before irradiation. After irradiation to 0.7 dpa and 16 dpa, the fraction of <100> type sessile dislocations decreases with increasing Cr amount in the alloys. It has been found that there is neither void formation nor α' precipitation as a result of ion irradiations in either alloy. Therefore, dislocation loops were determined to be the only irradiation induced defects contributing to the hardening. Nanoindentation testing before the irradiation revealed that the average nanohardness of the C36M3 tube is higher than that of the C06M2 tube. The average nanohardness of irradiated tube samples saturated at 1.6-2.0 GPa hardening for both tubes between ~3.4 dpa and ~16 dpa. The hardening calculated based on transmission electron microscopy was found to be consistent with nanohardness measurements.« less

  14. Microstructure and mechanical properties of FeCrAl alloys under heavy ion irradiations

    DOE PAGES

    Aydogan, E.; Weaver, J. S.; Maloy, S. A.; ...

    2018-03-02

    FeCrAl ferritic alloys are excellent cladding candidates for accident tolerant fuel systems due to their high resistance to oxidation as a result of formation of a protective Al 2O 3 scale at high temperatures in steam. In this study, we report the irradiation response of the 10Cr and 13Cr FeCrAl cladding tubes under Fe 2+ ion irradiation up to ~16 dpa at 300 °C. Dislocation loop size, density and characteristics were determined using both two beam bright field transmission electron microscopy and on-zone scanning transmission electron microscopy techniques. 10Cr (C06M2) tube has a lower dislocation density, larger grain size andmore » a slightly weaker texture compared to the 13Cr (C36M3) tube before irradiation. After irradiation to 0.7 dpa and 16 dpa, the fraction of <100> type sessile dislocations decreases with increasing Cr amount in the alloys. It has been found that there is neither void formation nor α' precipitation as a result of ion irradiations in either alloy. Therefore, dislocation loops were determined to be the only irradiation induced defects contributing to the hardening. Nanoindentation testing before the irradiation revealed that the average nanohardness of the C36M3 tube is higher than that of the C06M2 tube. The average nanohardness of irradiated tube samples saturated at 1.6-2.0 GPa hardening for both tubes between ~3.4 dpa and ~16 dpa. The hardening calculated based on transmission electron microscopy was found to be consistent with nanohardness measurements.« less

  15. Review of super Ni/Cd cell designs and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams-Blakemore, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc., in cooperation with Hughes Aircraft Company, began production of the Super Nickel-Cadmium cell in 1989. Since that time the Super Nickel-Cadmium cell has been deployed in a wide variety of satellites. This paper will review one of those programs and provide a performance update. We will discuss storage requirements and capacity histories for the various Super NiCad Cell designs.

  16. Influence of minor combined addition of Cr and Pr on microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behaviors of an ultrahigh strength Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Zr alloy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Huang, Lanping; Chen, Kanghua; Liu, Wensheng

    2018-01-01

    This work focuses on controlling grain boundary structure in an ultra-high strength Al-8.6Zn-2.5Mg-2.2Cu-0.16Zr (wt.%) alloy by the combined addition of trace Cr (0.1wt.%) and Pr (0.14wt.%), and evaluating mechanical properties and localized corrosion behaviors of the alloy in the peak aged condition. The introduction of trace Cr and Pr leads to the formation of nanoscale Cr, Pr-containing Al 3 Zr and Zr-containing PrCr 2 Al 20 dispersoids which can obviously inhibit the recrystallization and sub-grain growth of the super-high strength Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys, and retain the deformation-recovery microstructure dominated by low-angle grain boundaries. The nearly ellipsoidal dispersoids with a size of 10-35nm are discretely distributed and precipitate free zones are hardly formed in low-angle grain boundaries. This new alloy composition exhibits better combined properties, higher resistance to stress corrosion, exfoliation corrosion and inter-granular corrosion with the undamaged strength, ductility and fracture toughness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. North Twin Peak in super resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This pair of images shows the result of taking a sequence of 25 identical exposures from the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) of the northern Twin Peak, with small camera motions, and processing them with the Super-Resolution algorithm developed at NASA's Ames Research Center.

    The upper image is a representative input image, scaled up by a factor of five, with the pixel edges smoothed out for a fair comparison. The lower image allows significantly finer detail to be resolved.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    The super-resolution research was conducted by Peter Cheeseman, Bob Kanefsky, Robin Hanson, and John Stutz of NASA's Ames Research Center, Mountain View, CA. More information on this technology is available on the Ames Super Resolution home page at

    http://ic-www.arc.nasa.gov/ic/projects/bayes-group/ group/super-res/

  18. Enhanced abiotic reduction of Cr(VI) in a soil slurry system by natural biomaterial addition.

    PubMed

    Park, Donghee; Ahn, Chi Kyu; Kim, Young Mi; Yun, Yeoung-Sang; Park, Jong Moon

    2008-12-30

    Among various plant-based natural biomaterials, pine bark was chosen as an efficient biomaterial capable of removing toxic Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. XPS spectra indicated that Cr(VI) was abiotically reduced to Cr(III) in both liquid and solid phases. The Cr(VI)-reducing capacity of pine bark was determined as 545 (+/-1.3)mg-Cr(VI)g(-1) of it, which was 8.7 times higher than that of a common chemical Cr(VI)-reductant, FeSO4 x 7H2O. Because pine bark could completely reduce toxic Cr(VI) to less toxic or nontoxic Cr(III) even at neutral pH, it was used as an organic reductant to remediate Cr(VI)-contaminated soil in this study. Soil slurry system using a bottle roller was applied to ex situ slurry-phase remediation experiments. In the soil slurry system, pine bark completely reduced Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and adsorbed the reduced-Cr(III) on its surface. Abiotic remediation rate of Cr(VI)-contaminated soil increased with the increase of pine bark dosage and with the decreases of Cr(VI) and water contents. In conclusion, pine bark can be used to remediate Cr(VI)-contaminated soil efficiently and environmentally friendly.

  19. Database on Performance of Neutron Irradiated FeCrAl Alloys

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Field, Kevin G.; Briggs, Samuel A.; Littrell, Ken

    The present report summarizes and discusses the database on radiation tolerance for Generation I, Generation II, and commercial FeCrAl alloys. This database has been built upon mechanical testing and microstructural characterization on selected alloys irradiated within the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) up to doses of 13.8 dpa at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 550°C. The structure and performance of these irradiated alloys were characterized using advanced microstructural characterization techniques and mechanical testing. The primary objective of developing this database is to enhance the rapid development of a mechanistic understanding on the radiation tolerancemore » of FeCrAl alloys, thereby enabling informed decisions on the optimization of composition and microstructure of FeCrAl alloys for application as an accident tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding. This report is structured to provide a brief summary of critical results related to the database on radiation tolerance of FeCrAl alloys.« less

  20. Review of even element super-heavy nuclei and search for element 120

    DOE PAGES

    Hofmann, S.; Heinz, S.; Mann, R.; ...

    2016-06-28

    The reaction 54Cr$ + $248Cm was investigated at the velocity filter SHIP at GSI, Darmstadt, with the intention to study production and decay properties of isotopes of element 120. Three correlated signals were measured, which occurred within a period of 279ms. The heights of the signals correspond with the expectations for a decay sequence starting with an isotope of element 120. However, a complete decay chain cannot be established, since a signal from the implantation of the evaporation residue cannot be identified unambiguously. Measured properties of the event chain are discussed in detail. The result is compared with theoretical predictions.more » Previously measured decay properties of even element super-heavy nuclei were compiled in order to find arguments for an assignment from the systematics of experimental data. In the course of this review, a few tentatively assigned data could be corrected. New interpretations are given for results which could not be assigned definitely in previous studies. The discussion revealed that the cross-section for production of element 120 could be high enough so that a successful experiment seems possible with presently available techniques. However, a continuation of the experiment at SHIP for a necessary confirmation of the results obtained in a relatively short irradiation of five weeks is not possible at GSI presently. Furthermore, we decided to publish the results of the measurement and of the review as they exist now. In the summary and outlook section we also present concepts for the continuation of research in the field of super-heavy nuclei.« less

  1. Three-dimensional magnetic critical behavior in CrI 3

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yu; Petrovic, C.

    2018-01-18

    CrI 3 is a promising candidate for the van der Waals bonded ferromagnetic devices since its ferromagnetism can be maintained upon exfoliating of bulk crystals down to single layer. In this work we studied critical properties of bulk CrI 3 single crystals around the paramagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition. Critical exponents β= 0.260(4) with a critical temperature T c= 60.05(13) K and γ= 1.136(6) with T c= 60.43(4) K are obtained by the Kouvel-Fisher method, whereas δ= 5.32(2) is obtained by a critical isotherm analysis at T c= 60 K. In conclusion, the critical exponents determined in bulk CrI 3more » single crystals suggest a three-dimensional long-range magnetic coupling with the exchange distance decaying as J(r)≈r -4:69« less

  2. Dances with Membranes: Breakthroughs from Super-resolution Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Curthoys, Nikki M.; Parent, Matthew; Mlodzianoski, Michael; Nelson, Andrew J.; Lilieholm, Jennifer; Butler, Michael B.; Valles, Matthew; Hess, Samuel T.

    2017-01-01

    Biological membrane organization mediates numerous cellular functions and has also been connected with an immense number of human diseases. However, until recently, experimental methodologies have been unable to directly visualize the nanoscale details of biological membranes, particularly in intact living cells. Numerous models explaining membrane organization have been proposed, but testing those models has required indirect methods; the desire to directly image proteins and lipids in living cell membranes is a strong motivation for the advancement of technology. The development of super-resolution microscopy has provided powerful tools for quantification of membrane organization at the level of individual proteins and lipids, and many of these tools are compatible with living cells. Previously inaccessible questions are now being addressed, and the field of membrane biology is developing rapidly. This chapter discusses how the development of super-resolution microscopy has led to fundamental advances in the field of biological membrane organization. We summarize the history and some models explaining how proteins are organized in cell membranes, and give an overview of various super-resolution techniques and methods of quantifying super-resolution data. We discuss the application of super-resolution techniques to membrane biology in general, and also with specific reference to the fields of actin and actin-binding proteins, virus infection, mitochondria, immune cell biology, and phosphoinositide signaling. Finally, we present our hopes and expectations for the future of super-resolution microscopy in the field of membrane biology. PMID:26015281

  3. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy by stepwise optical saturation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yide; Nallathamby, Prakash D.; Vigil, Genevieve D.; Khan, Aamir A.; Mason, Devon E.; Boerckel, Joel D.; Roeder, Ryan K.; Howard, Scott S.

    2018-01-01

    Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy is an important tool in biomedical research for its ability to discern features smaller than the diffraction limit. However, due to its difficult implementation and high cost, the super-resolution microscopy is not feasible in many applications. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a saturation-based super-resolution fluorescence microscopy technique that can be easily implemented and requires neither additional hardware nor complex post-processing. The method is based on the principle of stepwise optical saturation (SOS), where M steps of raw fluorescence images are linearly combined to generate an image with a M-fold increase in resolution compared with conventional diffraction-limited images. For example, linearly combining (scaling and subtracting) two images obtained at regular powers extends the resolution by a factor of 1.4 beyond the diffraction limit. The resolution improvement in SOS microscopy is theoretically infinite but practically is limited by the signal-to-noise ratio. We perform simulations and experimentally demonstrate super-resolution microscopy with both one-photon (confocal) and multiphoton excitation fluorescence. We show that with the multiphoton modality, the SOS microscopy can provide super-resolution imaging deep in scattering samples. PMID:29675306

  4. Warming Mars Using Artificial Super-Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinova, M. M.; McKay, C. P.; Hashimoto, H.

    Artificial super-greenhouse gases will be needed in terraforming Mars. They could be used to initiate warming and also to supplement the greenhouse effect of a breathable oxygen/nitrogen atmosphere containing a limited amount of carbon dioxide. The leading super-greenhouse gas candidates are SF6 and perfluorocarbons (PFCs) such as CF4 and C2F6. The transmission spectra of C2F6, CF2Cl2, and CF3Cl were analyzed, and their specific absorption bands quantitatively assessed. A detailed band model was used to accurately calculate and compare the greenhouse warming of Earth and Mars given different temperature profiles and concentrations of the gases. The results show that for the current Mars, 0.1 Pa (10-6 atm) of a single super-greenhouse gas will result in a warming of about 3 K. The synthesis of this amount of gas requires about 1020 J, equivalent to ~ 70 minutes of the total solar energy reaching Mars. Super-greenhouse gases are a viable method for warming up a planet alone and are certainly practical in combination with other methods.

  5. Electronic and Optical Properties of a Semiconducting Spinel (Fe 2 CrO 4 )

    DOE PAGES

    Chambers, Scott A.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; ...

    2017-01-13

    Epitaxial chromium ferrite (Fe 2CrO 4), prepared by state-of-the-art oxygen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy, is shown to exhibit unusual electronic transport properties driven by the crystallographic structure and composition of the material. By replacing 1/3 of the Fe cations with Cr converts the host ferrimagnet from a metal into a semiconductor by virtue of its fixed valence (3+); Cr substitutes for Fe at B sites in the spinel lattice. Conversely, replacing 2/3 of the Fe cations with Cr results in an insulator. Three candidate conductive paths, all involving electron hopping between Fe 2+ and Fe 3+, are identified inmore » Fe 2CrO 4. Moreover, Fe 2CrO 4 is shown to be photoconductive across the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. As a result, this material is of potential interest for important photo-electrochemical processes such as water splitting.« less

  6. A superparticle on the super Riemann surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Shuji; Uehara, Shozo; Yasui, Yukinori

    1990-02-01

    The free motion of a nonrelativistic superparticle on the super Riemann surface (SRS) of genus h≥2 is investigated. Geodesics or classical paths are given explicitly on the super Poincaré upper half-plane SH, a universal covering space of the SRS, and the paths with some suitable initial conditions yield periodic orbits on the SRS. The periodic orbits are unstable and the system is chaotic. Quantum mechanics is solved on the universal covering space SH and the heat kernel is given on the SRS. This leads to a superanalog of the Selberg trace formula. The Selberg super zeta function is introduced whose zero points and poles determine the energy spectrum on the SRS.

  7. Mechanical properties of neutron-irradiated model and commercial FeCrAl alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Kevin G.; Briggs, Samuel A.; Sridharan, Kumar; Howard, Richard H.; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2017-06-01

    The development and understanding of the mechanical properties of neutron-irradiated FeCrAl alloys is increasingly a critical need as these alloys continue to become more mature for nuclear reactor applications. This study focuses on the mechanical properties of model FeCrAl alloys and of a commercial FeCrAl alloy neutron-irradiated to up to 13.8 displacements per atom (dpa) at irradiation temperatures between 320 and 382 °C. Tensile tests were completed at room temperature and at 320 °C, and a subset of fractured tensile specimens was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Results showed typical radiation hardening and embrittlement indicative of high chromium ferritic alloys with strong chromium composition dependencies at lower doses. At and above 7.0 dpa, the mechanical properties saturated for both the commercial and model FeCrAl alloys, although brittle cleavage fracture was observed at the highest dose in the model FeCrAl alloy with the highest chromium content (18 wt %). The results suggest the composition and microstructure of FeCrAl alloys plays a critical role in the mechanical response of FeCrAl alloys irradiated near temperatures relevant to light water reactors.

  8. Super-stable Poissonian structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we characterize classes of Poisson processes whose statistical structures are super-stable. We consider a flow generated by a one-dimensional ordinary differential equation, and an ensemble of particles ‘surfing’ the flow. The particles start from random initial positions, and are propagated along the flow by stochastic ‘wave processes’ with general statistics and general cross correlations. Setting the initial positions to be Poisson processes, we characterize the classes of Poisson processes that render the particles’ positions—at all times, and invariantly with respect to the wave processes—statistically identical to their initial positions. These Poisson processes are termed ‘super-stable’ and facilitate the generalization of the notion of stationary distributions far beyond the realm of Markov dynamics.

  9. Formation of Deep Electron Trap by Yb3+ Codoping Leads into Super-Long Persistent Luminescence in Ce3+-doped Yttrium Aluminum Gallium Garnet Phosphors.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Jumpei; Miyano, Shun; Tanabe, Setsuhisa

    2018-05-23

    The Y 3 Al 2 Ga 3 O 12 :Ce 3+ -Cr 3+ compound is one of the brightest persistent phosphors, but its persistent luminescence (PersL) duration is not so long due to the relatively shallow Cr 3+ electron trap. Comparing the vacuum referred binding energy of the electron trapping state by Cr 3+ and those by lanthanide ions, we selected Yb 3+ as a deeper electron trapping center. The Y 3 Al 2 Ga 3 O 12 :Ce 3+ -Yb 3+ phosphors show Ce 3+ :5d→4f green persistent luminescence after ceasing blue light excitation. The formation of Yb 2+ was confirmed by the increased intensity of absorption at 585 nm during the charging process. This result indicates that the Yb 3+ ions act as electron traps by capturing an electron. From the thermoluminescence glow curves, it was found the Yb 3+ trap makes much deeper electron trap with 1.01 eV depth than the Cr 3+ electron trap with 0.81 eV depth. This deeper Yb 3+ trap provides much slower detrapping rate of filled electron traps than the Cr 3+ -codoped persistent phosphor. In addition, by preparing transparent ceramics and optimizing Ce 3+ and Yb 3+ concentrations, the Y 3 Al 2 Ga 3 O 12 :Ce 3+ (0.2%)-Yb 3+ (0.1%) as-made transparent ceramic phosphor showed super long persistent luminescence for over 138.8 hours after ceasing blue light charging.

  10. Association of apical rocking with super-response to cardiac resynchronisation therapy.

    PubMed

    Ghani, A; Delnoy, P P H M; Smit, J J J; Ottervanger, J P; Ramdat Misier, A R; Adiyaman, A; Elvan, A

    2016-01-01

    Super-responders to cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) show an exceptional improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Previous studies showed that apical rocking was independently associated with echocardiographic response to CRT. However, little is known about the association between apical rocking and super-response to CRT. To determine the independent association of LV apical rocking with super-response to CRT in a large cohort. A cohort of 297 consecutive heart failure patients treated with primary indication for CRT-D were included in an observational registry. Apical rocking was defined as motion of the left ventricular (LV) apical myocardium perpendicular to the LV long axis. 'Super-response' was defined by the top quartile of LVEF response based on change from baseline to follow-up echocardiogram. Best-subset regression analysis identified predictors of LVEF super-response to CRT. Apical rocking was present in 45 % of patients. Super-responders had an absolute mean LVEF increase of 27 % (LVEF 22.0 % ± 5.7 at baseline and 49.0 % ± 7.5 at follow-up). Apical rocking was significantly more common in super-responders compared with non-super-responders (76 and 34 %, P < 0.001). In univariate analysis, female gender (OR 2.39, 95 % CI 1.38-4.11), lower LVEF at baseline (OR 0.91 95 % CI 0.87-0.95), non-ischaemic aetiology (OR 4.15, 95 % CI 2.33-7.39) and apical rocking (OR 6.19, 95 % CI 3.40-11.25) were associated with super-response. In multivariate analysis, apical rocking was still strongly associated with super-response (OR 5.82, 95 % CI 2.68-12.61). Super-responders showed an excellent clinical prognosis with a very low incidence of heart failure admission, cardiac mortality and appropriate ICD therapy. Apical rocking is independently associated with super-response to CRT.

  11. Chemical and Morphological Characterization of Magnetron Sputtered at Different Bias Voltages Cr-Al-C Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Obrosov, Aleksei; Gulyaev, Roman; Zak, Andrzej; Ratzke, Markus; Naveed, Muhammad; Dudzinski, Wlodzimierz; Weiß, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    MAX phases (M = transition metal, A = A-group element, and X = C/N) are of special interest because they possess a unique combination of the advantages of both metals and ceramics. Most attention is attracted to the ternary carbide Cr2AlC because of its excellent high-temperature oxidation, as well as hot corrosion resistance. Despite lots of publications, up to now the influence of bias voltage on the chemical bonding structure, surface morphology, and mechanical properties of the film is still not well understood. In the current study, Cr-Al-C films were deposited on silicon wafers (100) and Inconel 718 super alloy by dc magnetron sputtering with different substrate bias voltages and investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and nanoindentation. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was used to analyze the correlation between the growth of the films and the coating microstructure. The XPS results confirm the presence of Cr2AlC MAX phase due to a negative shift of 0.6–0.9 eV of the Al2p to pure aluminum carbide peak. The XRD results reveal the presence of Cr2AlC MAX Phase and carbide phases, as well as intermetallic AlCr2. The film thickness decreases from 8.95 to 6.98 µm with increasing bias voltage. The coatings deposited at 90 V exhibit the lowest roughness (33 nm) and granular size (76 nm) combined with the highest hardness (15.9 GPa). The ratio of Al carbide to carbide-like carbon state changes from 0.12 to 0.22 and correlates with the mechanical properties of the coatings. TEM confirms the columnar structure, with a nanocrystalline substructure, of the films. PMID:28772516

  12. Analysis of the Mechanical Behavior, Creep Resistance and Uniaxial Fatigue Strength of Martensitic Steel X46Cr13

    PubMed Central

    Brnic, Josip; Krscanski, Sanjin; Lanc, Domagoj; Brcic, Marino; Turkalj, Goran; Canadija, Marko; Niu, Jitai

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with the analysis of the mechanical behavior at different temperatures, uniaxial creep and uniaxial fatigue of martensitic steel X46Cr13 (1.4034, AISI 420). For the purpose of considering the aforementioned mechanical behavior, as well as determining the appropriate resistance to creep and fatigue strength levels, numerous uniaxial tests were carried out. Tests related to mechanical properties performed at different temperatures are presented in the form of engineering stress-strain diagrams. Short-time creep tests performed at different temperatures and different stress levels are presented in the form of creep curves. Fatigue tests carried out at stress ratios R=0.25 and R=−1 are shown in the form of S–N (fatigue) diagrams. The finite fatigue regime for each of the mentioned stress ratios is modeled by an inclined log line, while the infinite fatigue regime is modeled by a horizontal line, which represents the fatigue limit of the material and previously was calculated by the modified staircase method. Finally, the fracture toughness has been calculated based on the Charpy V-notch impact energy. PMID:28772749

  13. Rolling and tumbling: status of the SuperAGILE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Monte, E.; Costa, E.; di Persio, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Lapshov, I.; Lazzarotto, F.; Mastropietro, M.; Morelli, E.; Pacciani, L.; Rapisarda, M.; Rubini, A.; Soffitta, P.; Tavani, M.; Argan, A.; Trois, A.

    2010-07-01

    The SuperAGILE experiment is the hard X-ray monitor of the AGILE mission. It is a 2 x one-dimensional imager, with 6-arcmin angular resolution in the energy range 18 - 60 keV and a field of view in excess of 1 steradian. SuperAGILE is successfully operating in orbit since Summer 2007, providing long-term monitoring of bright sources and prompt detection and localization of gamma-ray bursts. Starting on October 2009 the AGILE mission lost its reaction wheel and the satellite attitude is no longer stabilized. The current mode of operation of the AGILE satellite is a Spinning Mode, around the Sun-pointing direction, with an angular velocity of about 0.8 degree/s (corresponding to 8 times the SuperAGILE point spread function every second). In these new conditions, SuperAGILE continuously scans a much larger fraction of the sky, with much smaller exposure to each region. In this paper we review some of the results of the first 2.5 years of "standard" operation of SuperAGILE, and show how new implementations in the data analysis software allows to continue the hard X-ray sky monitoring by SuperAGILE also in the new attitude conditions.

  14. SuperCDMS Prototype Detector Design and Testing

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kennedy, Allison Blair

    A substantial amount of astrophysical evidence indicates that approximately a quarter of all energy in the universe is composed of a nonluminous, and nonbaryonic \\dark" matter. Of the potential dark matter particle candidates, Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, or WIMPs, is particularly well motivated. As a means to directly detect WIMP interactions with baryonic matter, the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) project was established, operating at the Soudan Underground Laboratory from 2003 - 2015, under the CDMS II and SuperCDMS Soudan experiments. CDMS detectors simultaneously measure the ionization and phonon energies of recoil events in Si and Ge crystals kept atmore » cryogenic temperatures in a low-background environment. The ratio of ionization energy to recoil energy serves as a discrimination parameter to separate nuclear recoil events from the electron-recoil background. The next installation, SuperCDMS SNOLAB, is preparing for future operation, with an initial payload of eighteen Ge and six Si, 100 mm diameter, 33 mm thick detectors. Of this initial payload, eight Ge and four Si detectors will operate in a high-voltage ( 100 V) mode, which have an increased sensitivity to low-mass WIMPs due to decreased energy thresholds. The SuperCDMS test facility at University of Minnesota aids in the detector R&D and characterization of prototype detectors, as part of the scale-up eort for Super- CDMS SNOLAB. This thesis presents the rst full ionization and phonon characterization study of a 100 mm diameter, 33 mm thick prototype Ge detector with interleaved phonon and ionization channels. Measurements include ionization collection eciency, surface event rejection capabilities, and successful demonstration of nuclear recoil event discrimination. Results indicate that 100 mm diameter, interleaved Ge detectors show potential for use in SuperCDMS SNOLAB. As part of detector R&D, the Minnesota test facility also looks beyond the next stage of Super

  15. A braided monoidal category for free super-bosons

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Runkel, Ingo, E-mail: ingo.runkel@uni-hamburg.de

    The chiral conformal field theory of free super-bosons is generated by weight one currents whose mode algebra is the affinisation of an abelian Lie super-algebra h with non-degenerate super-symmetric pairing. The mode algebras of a single free boson and of a single pair of symplectic fermions arise for even|odd dimension 1|0 and 0|2 of h, respectively. In this paper, the representations of the untwisted mode algebra of free super-bosons are equipped with a tensor product, a braiding, and an associator. In the symplectic fermion case, i.e., if h is purely odd, the braided monoidal structure is extended to representations ofmore » the Z/2Z-twisted mode algebra. The tensor product is obtained by computing spaces of vertex operators. The braiding and associator are determined by explicit calculations from three- and four-point conformal blocks.« less

  16. Experimental evidence of super-resolution better than λ/105 with positive refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miñano, Juan C.; Sánchez-Dehesa, José; González, Juan C.; Benítez, P.; Grabovičkić, D.; Carbonell, Jorge; Ahmadpanahi, H.

    2014-03-01

    Super-resolution (SR) systems surpassing the Abbe diffraction limit have been theoretically and experimentally demonstrated using a number of different approaches and technologies: using materials with a negative refractive index, utilizing optical super-oscillation, using a resonant metalens, etc. However, recently it has been proved theoretically that in the Maxwell fish-eye lens (MFE), a device made of positive refractive index materials, the same phenomenon takes place. Moreover, using a simpler device equivalent to the MFE called the spherical geodesic waveguide (SGW), an SR of up to λ/3000 was simulated in COMSOL. Until now, only one piece of experimental evidence of SR with positive refraction has been reported (up to λ/5) for an MFE prototype working at microwave frequencies. Here, experimental results are presented for an SGW prototype showing an SR of up to λ/105. The SGW prototype consists of two concentric metallic spheres with an air space in between and two coaxial ports acting as an emitter and a receiver. The prototype has been analyzed in the range 1 GHz to 1.3 GHz.

  17. The Formation of Super-Earths by Tidally Forced Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Cong

    2017-12-01

    The Kepler observations indicate that many exoplanets are super-Earths, which brings about a puzzle for the core-accretion scenario. Since observed super-Earths are in the range of critical mass, they accrete gas efficiently and become gas giants. Theoretically, super-Earths are predicted to be rare in the core-accretion framework. To resolve this contradiction, we propose that the tidally forced turbulent diffusion may affect the heat transport inside the planet. Thermal feedback induced by turbulent diffusion is investigated. We find that the tidally forced turbulence generates pseudo-adiabatic regions within radiative zones, which pushes the radiative-convective boundaries inward. This decreases the cooling luminosity and enhances the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) timescale. For a given lifetime of protoplanetary disks (PPDs), there exists a critical threshold for the turbulent diffusivity, ν critical. If ν turb > ν critical, the KH timescale is longer than the disk lifetime and the planet becomes a super-Earth, rather than a gas giant. We find that even a small value of turbulent diffusion has influential effects on the evolution of super-Earths. The ν critical increases with the core mass. We further ascertain that, within the minimum-mass extrasolar nebula, ν critical increases with the semimajor axis. This may explain the feature that super-Earths are common in inner PPD regions, while gas giants are common in outer PPD regions. The predicted envelope mass fraction is not fully consistent with observations. We discuss physical processes, such as late core assembly and mass-loss mechanisms, that may be operating during super-Earth formation.

  18. Terrestrial planet formation in the presence of migrating super-Earths

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Izidoro, André; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Raymond, Sean N., E-mail: izidoro.costa@gmail.com, E-mail: morbidelli@oca.eu, E-mail: rayray.sean@gmail.com

    Super-Earths with orbital periods less than 100 days are extremely abundant around Sun-like stars. It is unlikely that these planets formed at their current locations. Rather, they likely formed at large distances from the star and subsequently migrated inward. Here we use N-body simulations to study the effect of super-Earths on the accretion of rocky planets. In our simulations, one or more super-Earths migrate inward through a disk of planetary embryos and planetesimals embedded in a gaseous disk. We tested a wide range of migration speeds and configurations. Fast-migrating super-Earths (τ{sub mig} ∼ 0.01-0.1 Myr) only have a modest effectmore » on the protoplanetary embryos and planetesimals. Sufficient material survives to form rocky, Earth-like planets on orbits exterior to the super-Earths'. In contrast, slowly migrating super-Earths shepherd rocky material interior to their orbits and strongly deplete the terrestrial planet-forming zone. In this situation any Earth-sized planets in the habitable zone are extremely volatile-rich and are therefore probably not Earth-like.« less

  19. X-ray fluorescence analysis of Cr(6+) component in mixtures of Cr(2)O(3) and K(2)CrO(4).

    PubMed

    Tochio, Tatsunori; Sakakura, Shusuke; Oohashi, Hirofumi; Mizota, Hirohisa; Zou, Yanhui; Ito, Yoshiaki; Fukushima, Sei; Tanuma, Shigeo; Shoji, Takashi; Fujimura, Hajime; Yamashita, Michiru

    2010-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis using Cr K(alpha) spectra was applied to the determination of the mixing ratio of Cr(6+) to (Cr(6+) + Cr(3+)) in several mixtures of K(2)CrO(4) and Cr(2)O(3). Because the powder of K(2)CrO(4) contained large particles that were more than 50 microm in diameter, it was ground between a pestle and a mortar for about 8 h. The coarse particles still remaining were removed by using a sieve with 325-mesh (44 microm) in order to reduce the difference in absorption effects between emissions from Cr(6+) and those from Cr(3+). The mixing ratio, K(2)CrO(4)/(K(2)CrO(4) + Cr(2)O(3)), of the five mixtures investigated is 0.50, 0.40, 0.20, 0.10, and 0.05 in weight, respectively. Each spectrum obtained was analyzed by decomposing it into two reference spectra, those of the two pure materials, K(2)CrO(4) and Cr(2)O(3), with a constant background. The results for the mixtures containing K(2)CrO(4) of more than 20 wt% are that the relative deviation from the true value is less than approximately 5%. On the other hand, when the content of K(2)CrO(4) decreases to less than 10 wt%, the relative deviation gets so large as 20 - 25%. The error coming from a peak separation of spectrum involved in our results were estimated by applying our method to five sets of data for each mixture computationally generated, taking into account the uncertainty in total counts of real measurements.

  20. Redox and complexation chemistry of the CrVI/CrV-D-glucaric acid system.

    PubMed

    Mangiameli, María Florencia; González, Juan Carlos; Bellú, Sebastián; Bertoni, Fernando; Sala, Luis F

    2014-06-28

    When an excess of uronic acid over Cr(VI) is used, the oxidation of D-glucaric acid (Glucar) by Cr(VI) yields D-arabinaric acid, CO2 and Cr(III)-Glucar complex as final redox products. The redox reaction involves the formation of intermediate Cr(IV) and Cr(V) species. The reaction rate increases with [H(+)] and [substrate]. The experimental results indicated that Cr(IV) and Cr(V) are very reactive intermediates since their disappearance rates are much faster than Cr(VI). Cr(IV) and Cr(V) intermediates are involved in fast steps and do not accumulate in the redox reaction of the mixture Cr(VI)-Glucar. Kinetic studies show that the redox reaction between Glucar and Cr(VI) proceeds through a mechanism combining one- and two-electron pathways: Cr(VI) → Cr(IV) → Cr(II) and Cr(VI) → Cr(IV) → Cr(III). After the redox reaction, results show a slow hydrolysis of the Cr(III)-Glucar complex into [Cr(OH2)6](3+). The proposed mechanism is supported by the observation of free radicals, CrO2(2+) (superoxo-Cr(III) ion) and oxo-Cr(V)-Glucar species as reaction intermediates. The continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance, CW-EPR, spectra show that five-coordinate oxo-Cr(V) bischelates are formed at pH ≤ 4 with the aldaric acid bound to oxo-Cr(V) through the carboxylate and the α-OH group. A different oxo-Cr(V) species with Glucar was detected at pH 6.0. The high g(iso) value for the last species suggests a mixed coordination species, a five-coordinated oxo-Cr(V) bischelate with one molecule of Glucar acting as a bi-dentate ligand, using the 2-hydroxycarboxylate group, and a second molecule of Glucar with any vic-diolate sites. At pH 7.5 only a very weak EPR signal was observed, which may point to instability of these complexes. This behaviour contrasts with oxo-Cr(V)-uronic species, and must thus be related to the Glucar acyclic structure. In vitro, our studies on the chemistry of oxo-Cr(V)-Glucar complexes can provide information on the nature of the species that

  1. Super-resolution reconstruction of hyperspectral images.

    PubMed

    Akgun, Toygar; Altunbasak, Yucel; Mersereau, Russell M

    2005-11-01

    Hyperspectral images are used for aerial and space imagery applications, including target detection, tracking, agricultural, and natural resource exploration. Unfortunately, atmospheric scattering, secondary illumination, changing viewing angles, and sensor noise degrade the quality of these images. Improving their resolution has a high payoff, but applying super-resolution techniques separately to every spectral band is problematic for two main reasons. First, the number of spectral bands can be in the hundreds, which increases the computational load excessively. Second, considering the bands separately does not make use of the information that is present across them. Furthermore, separate band super-resolution does not make use of the inherent low dimensionality of the spectral data, which can effectively be used to improve the robustness against noise. In this paper, we introduce a novel super-resolution method for hyperspectral images. An integral part of our work is to model the hyperspectral image acquisition process. We propose a model that enables us to represent the hyperspectral observations from different wavelengths as weighted linear combinations of a small number of basis image planes. Then, a method for applying super resolution to hyperspectral images using this model is presented. The method fuses information from multiple observations and spectral bands to improve spatial resolution and reconstruct the spectrum of the observed scene as a combination of a small number of spectral basis functions.

  2. Radiation pressure in super star cluster formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Benny T.-H.; Milosavljević, Miloš

    2018-05-01

    The physics of star formation at its extreme, in the nuclei of the densest and the most massive star clusters in the universe—potential massive black hole nurseries—has for decades eluded scrutiny. Spectroscopy of these systems has been scarce, whereas theoretical arguments suggest that radiation pressure on dust grains somehow inhibits star formation. Here, we harness an accelerated Monte Carlo radiation transport scheme to report a radiation hydrodynamical simulation of super star cluster formation in turbulent clouds. We find that radiation pressure reduces the global star formation efficiency by 30-35%, and the star formation rate by 15-50%, both relative to a radiation-free control run. Overall, radiation pressure does not terminate the gas supply for star formation and the final stellar mass of the most massive cluster is ˜1.3 × 106 M⊙. The limited impact as compared to in idealized theoretical models is attributed to a radiation-matter anti-correlation in the supersonically turbulent, gravitationally collapsing medium. In isolated regions outside massive clusters, where the gas distribution is less disturbed, radiation pressure is more effective in limiting star formation. The resulting stellar density at the cluster core is ≥108 M⊙ pc-3, with stellar velocity dispersion ≳ 70 km s-1. We conclude that the super star cluster nucleus is propitious to the formation of very massive stars via dynamical core collapse and stellar merging. We speculate that the very massive star may avoid the claimed catastrophic mass loss by continuing to accrete dense gas condensing from a gravitationally-confined ionized phase.

  3. Super-hydrophobic, highly adhesive, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Morgan M; Ducker, Robert E; MacDonald, John C; Lambert, Christopher R; McGimpsey, W Grant

    2012-02-01

    Super-hydrophobic surfaces have been fabricated by casting polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) on a textured substrate of known surface topography, and were characterized using contact angle, atomic force microscopy, surface free energy calculations, and adhesion measurements. The resulting PDMS has a micro-textured surface with a static contact angle of 153.5° and a hysteresis of 27° when using de-ionized water. Unlike many super-hydrophobic materials, the textured PDMS is highly adhesive, allowing water drops as large as 25.0 μL to be inverted. This high adhesion, super-hydrophobic behavior is an illustration of the "petal effect". This rapid, reproducible technique has promising applications in transport and analysis of microvolume samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Super-resolution Microscopy in Plant Cell Imaging.

    PubMed

    Komis, George; Šamajová, Olga; Ovečka, Miroslav; Šamaj, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    Although the development of super-resolution microscopy methods dates back to 1994, relevant applications in plant cell imaging only started to emerge in 2010. Since then, the principal super-resolution methods, including structured-illumination microscopy (SIM), photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM), stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), and stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED), have been implemented in plant cell research. However, progress has been limited due to the challenging properties of plant material. Here we summarize the basic principles of existing super-resolution methods and provide examples of applications in plant science. The limitations imposed by the nature of plant material are reviewed and the potential for future applications in plant cell imaging is highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of Cr(VI), Cr(III)-nitrate and Cr(III)-EDTA complex in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells.

    PubMed

    Novotnik, Breda; Ščančar, Janez; Milačič, Radmila; Filipič, Metka; Žegura, Bojana

    2016-07-01

    Chromium (Cr) and ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) are common environmental pollutants and can be present in high concentrations in surface waters at the same time. Therefore, chelation of Cr with EDTA can occur and thereby stable Cr(III)-EDTA complex is formed. Since there are no literature data on Cr(III)-EDTA toxicity, the aim of our work was to evaluate and compare Cr(III)-EDTA cytotoxic and genotoxic activity with those of Cr(VI) and Cr(III)-nitrate in human hepatoma (HepG2) cell line. First the effect of Cr(VI), Cr(III)-nitrate and Cr(III)-EDTA on cell viability was studied in the concentration range from 0.04 μg mL(-1) to 25 μg mL(-1) after 24 h exposure. Further the influence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of Cr(VI), Cr(III)-nitrate and Cr(III)-EDTA on DNA damage and genomic stability was determined with the comet assay and cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome assay, respectively. Cell viability was decreased only by Cr(VI) at concentrations above 1.0 μg mL(-1). Cr(VI) at ≥0.2 μg mL(-1) and Cr(III) at ≥1.0 μg mL(-1) induced DNA damage, while after Cr(III)-EDTA exposure no formation DNA strand breaks was determined. Statistically significant formation of micronuclei was induced only by Cr(VI) at ≥0.2 μg mL(-1), while no influence on the frequency of nuclear buds nor nucleoplasmic bridges was observed at any exposure. This study provides the first evidence that Cr(III)-EDTA did not induce DNA damage and had no influence on the genomic stability of HepG2 cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Builder's Guide to Super Good Cents Contruction and Sales.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    OSU Extension Energy Program; United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    This Builder's guide describes the Super Good Cents {reg sign} program and the benefits available to participating builders. It explains the program standards and the typical building techniques used by Super Good Cents builders. Finally, the guide tells how you can participate and answers many of the questions asked by builders about the Super Good Cents program.

  7. Bulk and surface properties of liquid Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloys.

    PubMed

    Novakovic, R

    2011-06-15

    The energetics of mixing and structural arrangement in liquid Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloys has been analysed through the study of surface properties (surface tension and surface segregation), dynamic properties (chemical diffusion) and microscopic functions (concentration fluctuations in the long-wavelength limit and chemical short-range order parameter) in the framework of statistical mechanical theory in conjunction with quasi-lattice theory. The Al-Cr phase diagram exhibits the existence of different intermetallic compounds in the solid state, while that of Cr-Ni is a simple eutectic-type phase diagram at high temperatures and includes the low-temperature peritectoid reaction in the range near a CrNi(2) composition. Accordingly, the mixing behaviour in Al-Cr and Cr-Ni alloy melts was studied using the complex formation model in the weak interaction approximation and by postulating Al(8)Cr(5) and CrNi(2) chemical complexes, respectively, as energetically favoured.

  8. Infrared super-resolution imaging based on compressed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Xiubao; Chen, Qian; Gu, Guohua; Shen, Xuewei

    2014-03-01

    The theoretical basis of traditional infrared super-resolution imaging method is Nyquist sampling theorem. The reconstruction premise is that the relative positions of the infrared objects in the low-resolution image sequences should keep fixed and the image restoration means is the inverse operation of ill-posed issues without fixed rules. The super-resolution reconstruction ability of the infrared image, algorithm's application area and stability of reconstruction algorithm are limited. To this end, we proposed super-resolution reconstruction method based on compressed sensing in this paper. In the method, we selected Toeplitz matrix as the measurement matrix and realized it by phase mask method. We researched complementary matching pursuit algorithm and selected it as the recovery algorithm. In order to adapt to the moving target and decrease imaging time, we take use of area infrared focal plane array to acquire multiple measurements at one time. Theoretically, the method breaks though Nyquist sampling theorem and can greatly improve the spatial resolution of the infrared image. The last image contrast and experiment data indicate that our method is effective in improving resolution of infrared images and is superior than some traditional super-resolution imaging method. The compressed sensing super-resolution method is expected to have a wide application prospect.

  9. Reduction of Cr(6+) to Cr(3+) in a packed-bed bioreactor

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Turick, C.E.; Apel, W.A.; Camp, C.E.

    1997-12-31

    Hexavalent chromium, Cr(6{sup +}), is a common and toxic pollutant in soils and waters. Reduction of the mobile Cr(6{sup +}) to the less mobile and less toxic trivalent chromium, Cr(3{sup +}), can be achieved with conventional chemical reduction technologies. Alternatively, Cr(6{sup +}) can be biochemically reduced to Cr(3{sup +}) by anaerobic microbial consortia which appear to use Cr(6{sup +}) as a terminal electron acceptor. A bioprocess for Cr(6{sup +}) reduction has been demonstrated using a packed-bed bioreactor containing ceramic packing, and then compared to a similar bioreactor containing DuPont Bio-Sep beads. An increase in volumetric productivity from 4 mg Cr(6{supmore » +})/L/h to 260 mg Cr(6{sup +})/L/h, probably due to an increase in biomass density, was obtained using Bio-Sep beads. The beads contain internal macropores which were shown by scanning electron microscopy to house dense concentrations of bacteria. Comparisons to conventional Cr(6{sup +}) treatment technologies indicate that a bioprocess has several economic and operational advantages. 7 refs., 4 figs.« less

  10. Super Resolution Image of Yogi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Yogi is a meter-size rock about 5 meters northwest of the Mars Pathfinder lander and was the second rock visited by the Sojourner Rover's alpha proton X-ray spectrometer (APXS) instrument. This mosaic shows super resolution techniques applied to the second APXS target rock, which was poorly illuminated in the rover's forward camera view taken before the instrument was deployed. Super resolution was applied to help to address questions about the texture of this rock and what it might tell us about its mode of origin.

    This mosaic of Yogi was produced by combining four 'Super Pan' frames taken with the IMP camera. This composite color mosaic consists of 7 frames from the right eye, taken with different color filters that were enlarged by 500% and then co-added using Adobe Photoshop to produce, in effect, a super-resolution panchromatic frame that is sharper than an individual frame would be. This panchromatic frame was then colorized with the red, green, and blue filtered images from the same sequence. The color balance was adjusted to approximate the true color of Mars. Shadows were processed separately from the rest of the rock and combined with the rest of the scene to bring out details in the shadow of Yogi that would be too dark to view at the same time as the sunlit surfaces.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  11. A Super Contribution to Vocational Theory: Work Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zytowski, Donald G.

    1994-01-01

    Traces influence of Donald Super in introducing work values into career development/vocational theory. Reviews conceptualization, taxonomy, and assessment of work values. Presents research bearing on Super's "onion model," representing his views on relationship of work values to other affective variables. Reviews research regarding functional role…

  12. Face Recognition by Metropolitan Police Super-Recognisers

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, David J.; Noyes, Eilidh; Dowsett, Andrew J.; Jenkins, Rob; Burton, A. Mike

    2016-01-01

    Face recognition is used to prove identity across a wide variety of settings. Despite this, research consistently shows that people are typically rather poor at matching faces to photos. Some professional groups, such as police and passport officers, have been shown to perform just as poorly as the general public on standard tests of face recognition. However, face recognition skills are subject to wide individual variation, with some people showing exceptional ability—a group that has come to be known as ‘super-recognisers’. The Metropolitan Police Force (London) recruits ‘super-recognisers’ from within its ranks, for deployment on various identification tasks. Here we test four working super-recognisers from within this police force, and ask whether they are really able to perform at levels above control groups. We consistently find that the police ‘super-recognisers’ perform at well above normal levels on tests of unfamiliar and familiar face matching, with degraded as well as high quality images. Recruiting employees with high levels of skill in these areas, and allocating them to relevant tasks, is an efficient way to overcome some of the known difficulties associated with unfamiliar face recognition. PMID:26918457

  13. Face Recognition by Metropolitan Police Super-Recognisers.

    PubMed

    Robertson, David J; Noyes, Eilidh; Dowsett, Andrew J; Jenkins, Rob; Burton, A Mike

    2016-01-01

    Face recognition is used to prove identity across a wide variety of settings. Despite this, research consistently shows that people are typically rather poor at matching faces to photos. Some professional groups, such as police and passport officers, have been shown to perform just as poorly as the general public on standard tests of face recognition. However, face recognition skills are subject to wide individual variation, with some people showing exceptional ability-a group that has come to be known as 'super-recognisers'. The Metropolitan Police Force (London) recruits 'super-recognisers' from within its ranks, for deployment on various identification tasks. Here we test four working super-recognisers from within this police force, and ask whether they are really able to perform at levels above control groups. We consistently find that the police 'super-recognisers' perform at well above normal levels on tests of unfamiliar and familiar face matching, with degraded as well as high quality images. Recruiting employees with high levels of skill in these areas, and allocating them to relevant tasks, is an efficient way to overcome some of the known difficulties associated with unfamiliar face recognition.

  14. SuperDARN convection and Sondrestrom plasma drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Koustov, A. V.; Thayer, J.; McCready, M. A.

    2001-07-01

    Plasma convection measurements by the Goose Bay and Stokkseyri SuperDARN radar pair and the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar are compared in three different ways, by looking at the line-of-sight (l-o-s) velocities, by comparing the SuperDARN vectors and corresponding Sondrestrom l-o-s velocities and by comparing the end products of the instruments, the convection maps. All three comparisons show overall reasonable agreement of the convection measurements though the data spread is significant and for some points a strong disagreement is obvious. The convection map comparison shows a tendency for the SuperDARN velocities to be often less than the Sondrestrom drifts for strong flows (velocities > 1000 m/s) and larger for weak flows (velocities < 500 m/s). On average, both effects do not exceed 35%. Data indicate that inconsistencies between the two data sets occur largely at times of fast temporal variations of the plasma drift and for strongly irregular flow ac-cording to the SuperDARN convection maps. These facts indicate that the observed discrepancies are in many cases a result of the different spatial and temporal resolutions of the instruments.

  15. Dilatometry Analysis of Dissolution of Cr-Rich Carbides in Martensitic Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qiuliang; Volkova, Olena; Biermann, Horst; Mola, Javad

    2017-12-01

    The dissolution of Cr-rich carbides formed in the martensitic constituent of a 13 pct Cr stainless steel was studied by dilatometry and correlative electron channeling contrast examinations. The dissolution of carbides subsequent to the martensite reversion to austenite was associated with a net volume expansion which in turn increased the dilatometry-based apparent coefficient of thermal expansion (CTEa) during continuous heating. The effects of carbides fraction and size on the CTEa variations during carbides dissolution are discussed.

  16. Super Bowl Sunday: risky business for at-risk (male) drinkers?

    PubMed

    Dearing, Ronda L; Twaragowski, Cheryl L; Smith, Philip H; Homish, Gregory G; Connors, Gerard J; Walitzer, Kimberly S

    2014-08-01

    Major sporting events and other festive occasions are typically associated with alcohol consumption; however, little is known about risky drinking during events such as the "Super Bowl." We sought to determine whether drinking on Super Bowl Sunday differed from Saturdays (the heaviest drinking day of the week) surrounding the date of the Super Bowl among at-risk drinkers. Heavy drinking participants (N = 208) were recruited via advertisements for a 2-year prospective study of drinking behaviors. From this larger sample, 196 were selected for whom the date of the Super Bowl was included in their daily alcohol consumption reports (including reports of abstinence on those days) for 2006, 2007, and/or 2008. Participants' average age was 36.4 (SD = 12.9); 49.5% were women. Participants at the point of recruitment were not seeking treatment and had not been in alcohol treatment in the past year. Analyses using multilevel modeling comparing Super Bowl Sunday to Saturdays indicated that men drank more alcohol on Super Bowl Sunday across all 3 years, whereas women's drinking was higher in only one of the 3 years. CONCLUSIONS/IMPORTANCE: These findings suggest that heavy drinking during the Super Bowl (and in association with other sporting events), particularly among men, warrants additional attention due to the potential for deleterious public health consequences.

  17. Hot super-Earths stripped by their host stars

    PubMed Central

    Lundkvist, M. S.; Kjeldsen, H.; Albrecht, S.; Davies, G. R.; Basu, S.; Huber, D.; Justesen, A. B.; Karoff, C.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Van Eylen, V.; Vang, C.; Arentoft, T.; Barclay, T.; Bedding, T. R.; Campante, T. L.; Chaplin, W. J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Elsworth, Y. P.; Gilliland, R. L.; Handberg, R.; Hekker, S.; Kawaler, S. D.; Lund, M. N.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Miglio, A.; Rowe, J. F.; Stello, D.; Tingley, B.; White, T. R.

    2016-01-01

    Simulations predict that hot super-Earth sized exoplanets can have their envelopes stripped by photoevaporation, which would present itself as a lack of these exoplanets. However, this absence in the exoplanet population has escaped a firm detection. Here we demonstrate, using asteroseismology on a sample of exoplanets and exoplanet candidates observed during the Kepler mission that, while there is an abundance of super-Earth sized exoplanets with low incident fluxes, none are found with high incident fluxes. We do not find any exoplanets with radii between 2.2 and 3.8 Earth radii with incident flux above 650 times the incident flux on Earth. This gap in the population of exoplanets is explained by evaporation of volatile elements and thus supports the predictions. The confirmation of a hot-super-Earth desert caused by evaporation will add an important constraint on simulations of planetary systems, since they must be able to reproduce the dearth of close-in super-Earths. PMID:27062914

  18. Understanding the plume dynamics of explosive super-eruptions.

    PubMed

    Costa, Antonio; J Suzuki, Yujiro; Koyaguchi, Takehiro

    2018-02-13

    Explosive super-eruptions can erupt up to thousands of km 3 of magma with extremely high mass flow rates (MFR). The plume dynamics of these super-eruptions are still poorly understood. To understand the processes operating in these plumes we used a fluid-dynamical model to simulate what happens at a range of MFR, from values generating intense Plinian columns, as did the 1991 Pinatubo eruption, to upper end-members resulting in co-ignimbrite plumes like Toba super-eruption. Here, we show that simple extrapolations of integral models for Plinian columns to those of super-eruption plumes are not valid and their dynamics diverge from current ideas of how volcanic plumes operate. The different regimes of air entrainment lead to different shaped plumes. For the upper end-members can generate local up-lifts above the main plume (over-plumes). These over-plumes can extend up to the mesosphere. Injecting volatiles into such heights would amplify their impact on Earth climate and ecosystems.

  19. Hot super-Earths stripped by their host stars.

    PubMed

    Lundkvist, M S; Kjeldsen, H; Albrecht, S; Davies, G R; Basu, S; Huber, D; Justesen, A B; Karoff, C; Silva Aguirre, V; Van Eylen, V; Vang, C; Arentoft, T; Barclay, T; Bedding, T R; Campante, T L; Chaplin, W J; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Elsworth, Y P; Gilliland, R L; Handberg, R; Hekker, S; Kawaler, S D; Lund, M N; Metcalfe, T S; Miglio, A; Rowe, J F; Stello, D; Tingley, B; White, T R

    2016-04-11

    Simulations predict that hot super-Earth sized exoplanets can have their envelopes stripped by photoevaporation, which would present itself as a lack of these exoplanets. However, this absence in the exoplanet population has escaped a firm detection. Here we demonstrate, using asteroseismology on a sample of exoplanets and exoplanet candidates observed during the Kepler mission that, while there is an abundance of super-Earth sized exoplanets with low incident fluxes, none are found with high incident fluxes. We do not find any exoplanets with radii between 2.2 and 3.8 Earth radii with incident flux above 650 times the incident flux on Earth. This gap in the population of exoplanets is explained by evaporation of volatile elements and thus supports the predictions. The confirmation of a hot-super-Earth desert caused by evaporation will add an important constraint on simulations of planetary systems, since they must be able to reproduce the dearth of close-in super-Earths.

  20. Geometric structures of super-(Diff(S/sup 1/)/S/sup 1/)*

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Schmidke, W.B.; Vokos, S.P.

    Superconformal invariance is of central importance to a perturbative and non-perturbative formulation of stringy theory. The group that describes the invariances of the superstring is the super-Virasoro group, Super-Diff(S/sup 1/). The super-reparameterizations of the circle that leave a point fixed compose the quotient space Super-(Diff(S/sup 1/)/S/sup 1/). We investigate the holomorphic geometry of this infinite-dimensional Kaehler supermanifold and calculate its curvature. copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc.

  1. Super-enhancer-mediated RNA processing revealed by integrative microRNA network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hiroshi I.; Young, Richard A; Sharp, Phillip A

    2017-01-01

    Summary Super-enhancers are an emerging sub-class of regulatory regions controlling cell identity and disease genes. However, their biological function and impact on miRNA networks are unclear. Here we report that super-enhancers drive the biogenesis of master miRNAs crucial for cell identity by enhancing both transcription and Drosha/DGCR8-mediated primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) processing. Super-enhancers, together with broad H3K4me3 domains, shape a tissue-specific and evolutionarily conserved atlas of miRNA expression and function. CRISPR/Cas9 genomics revealed that super-enhancer constituents act cooperatively and facilitate Drosha/DGCR8 recruitment and pri-miRNA processing to boost cell-specific miRNA production. The BET-bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 preferentially inhibits super-enhancer-directed cotranscriptional pri-miRNA processing. Furthermore, super-enhancers are characterized by pervasive interaction with DGCR8/Drosha and DGCR8/Drosha-regulated mRNA stability control, suggesting unique RNA regulation at super-enhancers. Finally, super-enhancers mark multiple miRNAs associated with cancer hallmarks. This study presents principles underlying miRNA biology in health and disease and a unrecognized higher-order property of super-enhancers in RNA processing beyond transcription. PMID:28283057

  2. Super Blue Moon Lunar Eclipse

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-01-31

    NASA TV provided coverage of Super Blue Moon Lunar Eclipse on Jan. 31. The full moon was the third in a series of “supermoons,” when the Moon is closer to Earth in its orbit -- known as perigee -- and about 14 percent brighter than usual. It was also the second full moon of the month, commonly known as a “blue moon.” As the super blue moon passed through Earth’s shadow, viewers in some locations experienced a total lunar eclipse. While in Earth’s shadow, the moon also took on a reddish tint – which is sometimes referred to as a “blood moon.”

  3. Evaluation of Ni-Cr-base alloys for SOFC interconnect applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhenguo; Xia, Guan-Guang; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    To further understand the suitability of Ni-Cr-base alloys for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnect applications, three commercial Ni-Cr-base alloys, Haynes 230, Hastelloy S and Haynes 242 were selected and evaluated for oxidation behavior under different exposure conditions, scale conductivity and thermal expansion. Haynes 230 and Hastelloy S, which have a relatively high Cr content, formed a thin scale mainly comprised of Cr 2O 3 and (Mn,Cr,Ni) 3O 4 spinels under SOFC operating conditions, demonstrating excellent oxidation resistance and a high scale electrical conductivity. In contrast, a thick double-layer scale with a NiO outer layer above a chromia-rich substrate was grown on Haynes 242 in moist air or at the air side of dual exposure samples, indicating limited oxidation resistance for the interconnect application. With a face-centered-cubic (FCC) substrate, all three alloys possess a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) that is higher than that of candidate ferritic stainless steels, e.g. Crofer22 APU. Among the three alloys, Haynes 242, which is heavily alloyed with W and Mo and contains a low Cr content, demonstrated the lowest average CTE at 13.1 × 10 -6 K -1 from room temperature to 800 °C, but it was also observed that the CTE behavior of Haynes 242 was very non-linear.

  4. Gargantuan Super Spiral Galaxies Loom Large in the Cosmos

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-17

    In archived NASA data, researchers have discovered "super spiral" galaxies that dwarf our own spiral galaxy, the Milky Way, and compete in size and brightness with the largest galaxies in the universe. The unprecedented galaxies have long hidden in plain sight by mimicking the appearance of typical spirals. Three examples of super spirals are presented here in images taken by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The super spiral on the left (Figure 1), catalogued as 2MASX J08542169+0449308, contains two galactic nuclei, instead of just the usual one, and thus looks like two eggs frying in a pan. The central image (Figure 2) shows a super spiral designated 2MASX J16014061+2718161, and it also contains the double nuclei. On the right (Figure 3), a huge galaxy with the moniker SDSS J094700.08+254045.7 stands as one of the biggest and brightest super spirals. The mega-galaxy's starry disk and spiral arms stretch about 320,000 light-years across, or more than three times the breadth of the Milky Way. These double nuclei, which are known to result from the recent merger of two galaxies, could offer a vital hint about the potential origin of super spirals. Researchers speculate that a special merger involving two, gas-rich spiral galaxies could see their pooled gases settle down into a new, larger stellar disk -- presto, a super spiral. The super spirals were discovered using the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database, or NED, an online repository containing information on over 100 million galaxies. NED brings together a wealth of data from many different projects, including ultraviolet light observations from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, visible light from Sloan Digital Sky Survey, infrared light from the 2-Micron All-Sky Survey, and links to data from other missions such as NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20064

  5. Clouds Composition in Super-Earth Atmospheres: Chemical Equilibrium Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempton, Eliza M.-R.; Mbarek, Rostom

    2015-12-01

    Attempts to determine the composition of super-Earth atmospheres have so far been plagued by the presence of clouds. Yet the theoretical framework to understand these clouds is still in its infancy. For the super-Earth archetype GJ 1214b, KCl, Na2S, and ZnS have been proposed as condensates that would form under the condition of chemical equilibrium, if the planet’s atmosphere has a bulk composition near solar. Condensation chemistry calculations have not been presented for a wider range of atmospheric bulk composition that is to be expected for super-Earth exoplanets. Here we provide a theoretical context for the formation of super-Earth clouds in atmospheres of varied composition by determining which condensates are likely to form, under the assumption of chemical equilibrium. We model super-Earth atmospheres assuming they are formed by degassing of volatiles from a solid planetary core of chondritic material. Given the atomic makeup of these atmospheres, we minimize the global Gibbs free energy of over 550 gases and condensates to obtain the molecular composition of the atmospheres over a temperature range of 350-3,000 K. Clouds should form along the temperature-pressure boundaries where the condensed species appear in our calculations. The super-Earth atmospheres that we study range from highly reducing to oxidizing and have carbon to oxygen (C:O) ratios that are both sub-solar and super-solar, thereby spanning a diverse range of atmospheric composition that is appropriate for low-mass exoplanets. Some condensates appear across all of our models. However, the majority of condensed species appear only over specific ranges of H:O and C:O ratios. We find that for GJ 1214b, KCl is the primary cloud-forming condensate at solar composition, in agreement with previous work. However, for oxidizing atmospheres, where H:O is less than unity, K2SO4 clouds form instead. For carbon-rich atmospheres with super-solar C:O ratios, graphite clouds additionally appear. At

  6. Crystal structure of a super leucine zipper, an extended two-stranded super long coiled coil

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Jiasheng

    2010-01-01

    Coiled coil is a ubiquitous structural motif in proteins, with two to seven alpha helices coiled together like the strands of a rope, and coiled coil folding and assembly is not completely understood. A GCN4 leucine zipper mutant with four mutations of K3A, D7A, Y17W, and H18N has been designed, and the crystal structure has been determined at 1.6 Å resolution. The peptide monomer shows a helix trunk with short curved N- and C-termini. In the crystal, two monomers cross in 35° and form an X-shaped dimer, and each X-shaped dimer is welded into the next one through sticky hydrophobic ends, thus forming an extended two-stranded, parallel, super long coiled coil rather than a discrete, two-helix coiled coil of the wild-type GCN4 leucine zipper. Leucine residues appear at every seventh position in the super long coiled coil, suggesting that it is an extended super leucine zipper. Compared to the wild-type leucine zipper, the N-terminus of the mutant has a dramatic conformational change and the C-terminus has one more residue Glu 32 determined. The mutant X-shaped dimer has a large crossing angle of 35° instead of 18° in the wild-type dimer. The results show a novel assembly mode and oligomeric state of coiled coil, and demonstrate that mutations may affect folding and assembly of the overall coiled coil. Analysis of the formation mechanism of the super long coiled coil may help understand and design self-assembling protein fibers. PMID:20027625

  7. Crystal Structure of a Super Leucine Zipper an Extended Two-Stranded Super Long Coiled Coil

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    J Diao

    2011-12-31

    Coiled coil is a ubiquitous structural motif in proteins, with two to seven alpha helices coiled together like the strands of a rope, and coiled coil folding and assembly is not completely understood. A GCN4 leucine zipper mutant with four mutations of K3A, D7A, Y17W, and H18N has been designed, and the crystal structure has been determined at 1.6 {angstrom} resolution. The peptide monomer shows a helix trunk with short curved N- and C-termini. In the crystal, two monomers cross in 35{sup o} and form an X-shaped dimer, and each X-shaped dimer is welded into the next one through stickymore » hydrophobic ends, thus forming an extended two-stranded, parallel, super long coiled coil rather than a discrete, two-helix coiled coil of the wild-type GCN4 leucine zipper. Leucine residues appear at every seventh position in the super long coiled coil, suggesting that it is an extended super leucine zipper. Compared to the wild-type leucine zipper, the N-terminus of the mutant has a dramatic conformational change and the C-terminus has one more residue Glu 32 determined. The mutant X-shaped dimer has a large crossing angle of 35{sup o} instead of 18{sup o} in the wild-type dimer. The results show a novel assembly mode and oligomeric state of coiled coil, and demonstrate that mutations may affect folding and assembly of the overall coiled coil. Analysis of the formation mechanism of the super long coiled coil may help understand and design self-assembling protein fibers.« less

  8. On metrics and super-Riemann surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkin, Luke

    1987-08-01

    It is shown that any super-Riemann surface M admits a large space of metrics (in a rather basic sense); while if M is of compact genus g type, g>1, M admits a unique metric whose lift to the universal cover is superconformally equivalent to the standard (Baranov-Shvarts) metric on the super-half plane. This explains the relation between the different methods of calculation of the upper Teichmüller space by the author (using arbitrary superconformal transformations) and Crane and Rabin (using only isometries).

  9. Mechanical properties of neutron-irradiated model and commercial FeCrAl alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Field, Kevin G.; Briggs, Samuel A.; Sridharan, Kumar; ...

    2017-03-28

    The development and understanding of the mechanical properties of neutron-irradiated FeCrAl alloys is increasingly a critical need as these alloys continue to become more mature for nuclear reactor applications. This study focuses on the mechanical properties of model FeCrAl alloys and of a commercial FeCrAl alloy neutron-irradiated to up to 13.8 displacements per atom (dpa) at irradiation temperatures between 320 and 382 °C. Tensile tests were completed at room temperature and at 320 °C, and a subset of fractured tensile specimens was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Results showed typical radiation hardening and embrittlement indicative of high chromium ferritic alloysmore » with strong chromium composition dependencies at lower doses. At and above 7.0 dpa, the mechanical properties saturated for both the commercial and model FeCrAl alloys, although brittle cleavage fracture was observed at the highest dose in the model FeCrAl alloy with the highest chromium content (18 wt %). Finally, the results suggest the composition and microstructure of FeCrAl alloys plays a critical role in the mechanical response of FeCrAl alloys irradiated near temperatures relevant to light water reactors.« less

  10. Super-Chelators for Advanced Protein Labeling in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Gatterdam, Karl; Joest, Eike F; Dietz, Marina S; Heilemann, Mike; Tampé, Robert

    2018-05-14

    Live-cell labeling, super-resolution microscopy, single-molecule applications, protein localization, or chemically induced assembly are emerging approaches, which require specific and very small interaction pairs. The minimal disturbance of protein function is essential to derive unbiased insights into cellular processes. Herein, we define a new class of hexavalent N-nitrilotriacetic acid (hexaNTA) chelators, displaying the highest affinity and stability of all NTA-based small interaction pairs described so far. Coupled to bright organic fluorophores with fine-tuned photophysical properties, the super-chelator probes were delivered into human cells by chemically gated nanopores. These super-chelators permit kinetic profiling, multiplexed labeling of His 6 - and His 12 -tagged proteins as well as single-molecule-based super-resolution imaging. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Jan. 31, 2018 Super Blue Blood Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-01-26

    January 31 brings a lunar trifecta: the Super Blue Blood Moon! NASA TV will offer a livestream starting at 5:30 a.m. This full moon is the third in a series of “supermoons,” when the Moon is closer to Earth in its orbit -- known as perigee -- and about 14 percent brighter than usual. It’s the second full moon of the month, commonly known as a “blue moon.” The super blue moon will pass through Earth’s shadow to give viewers in the right location a total lunar eclipse. While the Moon is in the Earth’s shadow it will take on a reddish tint, known as a “blood moon.” More: https://www.nasa.gov/feature/super-blue-blood-moon-coming-jan-31 Credit: NASA 360

  12. Hierarchy within the mammary STAT5-driven Wap super-enhancer.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ha Youn; Willi, Michaela; HyunYoo, Kyung; Zeng, Xianke; Wang, Chaochen; Metser, Gil; Hennighausen, Lothar

    2016-08-01

    Super-enhancers comprise dense transcription factor platforms highly enriched for active chromatin marks. A paucity of functional data led us to investigate the role of super-enhancers in the mammary gland, an organ characterized by exceptional gene regulatory dynamics during pregnancy. ChIP-seq analysis for the master regulator STAT5A, the glucocorticoid receptor, H3K27ac and MED1 identified 440 mammary-specific super-enhancers, half of which were associated with genes activated during pregnancy. We interrogated the Wap super-enhancer, generating mice carrying mutations in STAT5-binding sites within its constituent enhancers. Individually, the most distal site displayed the greatest enhancer activity. However, combinatorial mutation analysis showed that the 1,000-fold induction in gene expression during pregnancy relied on all enhancers. Disabling the binding sites of STAT5, NFIB and ELF5 in the proximal enhancer incapacitated the entire super-enhancer. Altogether, these data suggest a temporal and functional enhancer hierarchy. The identification of mammary-specific super-enhancers and the mechanistic exploration of the Wap locus provide insights into the regulation of cell-type-specific expression of hormone-sensing genes.

  13. Validity and reliability of the session-RPE method for quantifying training in Australian football: a comparison of the CR10 and CR100 scales.

    PubMed

    Scott, Tannath J; Black, Cameron R; Quinn, John; Coutts, Aaron J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the criterion validity and test-retest reliability of the CR10 and CR100 rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scales for team sport athletes that undertake high-intensity, intermittent exercise. Twenty-one male Australian football (AF) players (age: 19.0 ± 1.8 years, body mass: 83.92 ± 7.88 kg) participated the first part (part A) of this study, which examined the construct validity of the session-RPE (sRPE) method for quantifying training load in AF. Ten male athletes (age: 16.1 ± 0.5 years) participated in the second part of the study (part B), which compared the test-retest reliability of the CR10 and CR100 RPE scales. In part A, the validity of the sRPE method was assessed by examining the relationships between sRPE, and objective measures of internal (i.e., heart rate) and external training load (i.e., distance traveled), collected from AF training sessions. Part B of the study assessed the reliability of sRPE through examining the test-retest reliability of sRPE during 3 different intensities of controlled intermittent running (10, 11.5, and 13 km·h(-1)). Results from part A demonstrated strong correlations for CR10- and CR100-derived sRPE with measures of internal training load (Banisters TRIMP and Edwards TRIMP) (CR10: r = 0.83 and 0.83, and CR100: r = 0.80 and 0.81, p < 0.05). Correlations between sRPE and external training load (distance, higher speed running and player load) for both the CR10 (r = 0.81, 0.71, and 0.83) and CR100 (r = 0.78, 0.69, and 0.80) were significant (p < 0.05). Results from part B demonstrated poor reliability for both the CR10 (31.9% CV) and CR100 (38.6% CV) RPE scales after short bouts of intermittent running. Collectively, these results suggest both CR10- and CR100-derived sRPE methods have good construct validity for assessing training load in AF. The poor levels of reliability revealed under field testing indicate that the sRPE method may not be sensible to detecting small

  14. Highly Corrosion Resistant and Sandwich-like Si3N4/Cr-CrNx/Si3N4 Coatings Used for Solar Selective Absorbing Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ke; Du, Miao; Haoa, Lei; Meng, Jianping; Wang, Jining; Mi, Jing; Liu, Xiaopeng

    2016-12-14

    Highly corrosion resistant, layer-by-layer nanostructured Si 3 N 4 /Cr-CrN x /Si 3 N 4 coatings were deposited on aluminum substrate by DC/RF magnetron sputtering. Corrosion resistance experiments were performed in 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 wt % NaCl salt spray at 35 °C for 168 h. Properties of the coatings were comprehensively investigated in terms of optical property, surface morphology, microstructure, elemental valence state, element distribution, and potentiodynamic polarization. UV-vis-near-IR spectrophotometer and FTIR measurements show that the change process in optical properties of Si 3 N 4 /Cr-CrN x /Si 3 N 4 /Al coatings can be divided into three stages: a rapid active degradation stage, a steady passivation stage, and a transpassivation degradation stage. With the increase in the concentration of NaCl salt spray, solar absorptance and thermal emittance experienced a slight degradation. SEM images reveal that there is an increase in surface defects, such as microcracks and holes and -cracks. XRD and TEM measurements indicate that the phase structure changed partially and the content of CrO x and Al 2 O 3 has increased. Auger electron spectroscopy shows that the elements of Cr, N, and O have undergone a minor diffusion. Electrochemical polarization curves show that the as-deposited Si 3 N 4 /Cr-CrN x /Si 3 N 4 /Al coatings have excellent corrosion resistance of 3633.858 kΩ, while after corroding in 5.0 wt % NaCl salt spray for 168 h the corrosion resistance dropped to 13.759 kΩ. However, these coatings still have an outstanding performance of high solar absorptance of 0.924 and low thermal emittance of 0.090 after corroding in 3.0 wt % NaCl salt spray for 120 h. Thus, the Si 3 N 4 /Cr-CrN x /Si 3 N 4 /Al coating is a good choice for solar absorber coatings applied in the high-saline environment.

  15. [Acid volatile sulfide and bioaccumulation of Cr in sediments from a municipal polluted river].

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Wen, Yan-Mao; Zhu, Ping-Ting; Jin, Hui; Song, Wei-Wei; Dai, Rui-Zhi

    2009-03-15

    Samples of sediment, overlying water, pore water, and benthic invertebrate were collected at 13 stations along a typical municipal polluted river in the Pearl River Delta. The samples were analyzed to study relationships between acid volatile sulfide (AVS) versus Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in sediment, overlying water, and pore water as well as Cr in Limnodrilus sp.. Based on the "Cr hypothesis", the relationship between AVS and bioavailability of Cr in heavily polluted areas was explored to extend the utility of AVS measurements as sediment assessments. The mean value of total Cr in sediment was 329.57 mg/kg, which was 9.4 times of background value (35 mg/kg). The result indicated that the study area has been seriously polluted by Cr. The concentrations of Cr(VI) in sediment and overlying water were low, indicating that most of Cr was in the form of Cr(III). In the study area, the value of AVS was relatively high with an average value of 650.38 mg/kg, while Cr in the pore water was low with the average of 68.42 microg/L. Cr(VI) in the pore water was below the detection limit except at Z1 station. The range of Cr concentrations in Limnodrilus sp. was from 12.46 mg/kg to 38.99 mg/kg of dried weight, with the average of 25.85 mg/kg, which was higher than other similar results in the literature. The result showed that the amount of Cr accumulation in Limnodrilus sp. was significant. A further analysis showed a significant correlation between Cr in Limnodrilus sp. and Cr in the pore water (r = 0.614, p < 0.05). Since most of Cr in pore water was in the form of Cr(III), the toxicity of Cr(III) in pore water to organism can not be neglected in the heavily polluted river.

  16. Identifying Galactic Cosmic Ray Origins With Super-TIGER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deNolfo, Georgia; Binns, W. R.; Israel, M. H.; Christian, E. R.; Mitchell, J. W.; Hams, T.; Link, J. T.; Sasaki, M.; Labrador, A. W.; Mewaldt, R. A.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Super-TIGER (Super Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) is a new long-duration balloon-borne instrument designed to test and clarify an emerging model of cosmic-ray origins and models for atomic processes by which nuclei are selected for acceleration. A sensitive test of the origin of cosmic rays is the measurement of ultra heavy elemental abundances (Z > or equal 30). Super-TIGER is a large-area (5 sq m) instrument designed to measure the elements in the interval 30 < or equal Z < or equal 42 with individual-element resolution and high statistical precision, and make exploratory measurements through Z = 60. It will also measure with high statistical accuracy the energy spectra of the more abundant elements in the interval 14 < or equal Z < or equal 30 at energies 0.8 < or equal E < or equal 10 GeV/nucleon. These spectra will give a sensitive test of the hypothesis that microquasars or other sources could superpose spectral features on the otherwise smooth energy spectra previously measured with less statistical accuracy. Super-TIGER builds on the heritage of the smaller TIGER, which produced the first well-resolved measurements of elemental abundances of the elements Ga-31, Ge-32, and Se-34. We present the Super-TIGER design, schedule, and progress to date, and discuss the relevance of UH measurements to cosmic-ray origins.

  17. Super-Group Field Cosmology in Batalin-Vilkovisky Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we study the third quantized super-group field cosmology, a model in multiverse scenario, in Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) formulation. Further, we propose the superfield/super-antifield dependent BRST symmetry transformations. Within this formulation we establish connection between the two different solutions of the quantum master equation within the BV formulation.

  18. Facilitating Career Development through Super's Life Career Rainbow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okocha, Aneneosa A.

    Super's life-span life-space theory offers a developmental framework for career counseling. This paper provides a brief overview of Super's theory of Life Career Rainbow (LCR) segment. The LCR feature is useful for identifying the stage of a client's career development and in formulating goals for counseling. The assessment is accomplished by…

  19. NASA Goes to the Super Bowl

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-02-07

    It can't always be about space, right? Well, technically this still is about space...and the Super Bowl. Take a look at how NASA sees all the Super Bowl Championship Cities! Enjoy the game! NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  20. Courting in super-black

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Michael

    2018-03-01

    This unusual animal is a male superb bird-of-paradise doing a courtship display. Found in New Guinea and parts of eastern Australia, the birds have evolved a “super-black” plumage that enhances the brilliance of adjacent colours.

  1. Super-resolution optical telescopes with local light diffraction shrinkage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changtao; Tang, Dongliang; Wang, Yanqin; Zhao, Zeyu; Wang, Jiong; Pu, Mingbo; Zhang, Yudong; Yan, Wei; Gao, Ping; Luo, Xiangang

    2015-01-01

    Suffering from giant size of objective lenses and infeasible manipulations of distant targets, telescopes could not seek helps from present super-resolution imaging, such as scanning near-field optical microscopy, perfect lens and stimulated emission depletion microscopy. In this paper, local light diffraction shrinkage associated with optical super-oscillatory phenomenon is proposed for real-time and optically restoring super-resolution imaging information in a telescope system. It is found that fine target features concealed in diffraction-limited optical images of a telescope could be observed in a small local field of view, benefiting from a relayed metasurface-based super-oscillatory imaging optics in which some local Fourier components beyond the cut-off frequency of telescope could be restored. As experimental examples, a minimal resolution to 0.55 of Rayleigh criterion is obtained, and imaging complex targets and large targets by superimposing multiple local fields of views are demonstrated as well. This investigation provides an access for real-time, incoherent and super-resolution telescopes without the manipulation of distant targets. More importantly, it gives counterintuitive evidence to the common knowledge that relayed optics could not deliver more imaging details than objective systems. PMID:26677820

  2. Selective Inhibition of Tumor Oncogenes by Disruption of Super-Enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Lovén, Jakob; Hoke, Heather A.; Lin, Charles Y.; Lau, Ashley; Orlando, David A.; Vakoc, Christopher R.; Bradner, James E.; Lee, Tong Ihn; Young, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Chromatin regulators have become attractive targets for cancer therapy, but it is unclear why inhibition of these ubiquitous regulators should have gene-specific effects in tumor cells. Here, we investigate how inhibition of the widely expressed transcriptional coactivator BRD4 leads to selective inhibition of the MYC oncogene in multiple myeloma (MM). BRD4 and Mediator were found to co-occupy thousands of enhancers associated with active genes. They also co-occupied a small set of exceptionally large super-enhancers associated with genes that feature prominently in MM biology, including the MYC oncogene. Treatment of MM tumor cells with the BET-bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 led to preferential loss of BRD4 at super-enhancers and consequent transcription elongation defects that preferentially impacted genes with super-enhancers, including MYC. Super-enhancers were found at key oncogenic drivers in many other tumor cells. These observations have implications for the discovery of cancer therapeutics directed at components of super-enhancers in diverse tumor types. PMID:23582323

  3. [CrIII(NCMe)6]3+--a labile CrIII source enabling formation of Cr[M(CN)6] (M=V, Cr, Mn, Fe) Prussian blue-type magnetic materials.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kendric J; Daniels, Matthew C; Reiff, William M; Troff, Shayla A; Miller, Joel S

    2007-11-26

    The kinetic inertness of the hexaaquachromium(III) (kH2O=2.4x10(-6) s(-1)) has led to challenges with respect to incorporating CrIII ions into Prussian blue-type materials; however, hexakis(acetonitrile)chromium(III) was shown to be substantially more labile (approximately 10(4) times) and enables a new synthetic route for the synthesis of these materials via nonaqueous solvents. The synthesis, spectroscopic, and physical properties of Cr[M(CN)6] (M=V, Cr, Mn, Fe) Prussian blue analogues synthesized from [CrIII(NCMe)6]3+ and the corresponding [MIII(CN)6]3- are described. All these compounds {(NEt4)0.02CrIII[VIII(CN)6]0.98(BF4)(0.08).0.10MeCN (1), CrIII[CrIII(CN)6].0.16MeCN (2), CrIII[MnIII(CN)6].0.10MeCN (3), and (NEt4)0.04CrIII0.64CrIV0.40[FeII(CN)6]0.40[FeIII(CN)6]0.60(BF4)(0.16).1.02MeCN (4)} are ferrimagnets exhibiting cluster-glass behavior. Strong antiferromagnetic coupling was observed for M=V, Cr, and Mn with Weiss constants (theta) ranging from -132 to -524 K; and in 2, where the strongest coupling is observed (theta=-524 K), the highest Tc (110 K) value was observed. Weak antiferromagnetic coupling was observed for M=Fe (theta=-12 K) leading to the lowest Tc (3 K) value in this series. Weak coupling and the low Tc value observed in 4 were additionally contributed by the presence of both [FeII(CN)6]4- and [FeIII(CN)6]3- as confirmed by 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  4. The 2015 super-resolution microscopy roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hell, Stefan W.; Sahl, Steffen J.; Bates, Mark; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Heintzmann, Rainer; Booth, Martin J.; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Shtengel, Gleb; Hess, Harald; Tinnefeld, Philip; Honigmann, Alf; Jakobs, Stefan; Testa, Ilaria; Cognet, Laurent; Lounis, Brahim; Ewers, Helge; Davis, Simon J.; Eggeling, Christian; Klenerman, David; Willig, Katrin I.; Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Castello, Marco; Diaspro, Alberto; Cordes, Thorben

    2015-11-01

    Far-field optical microscopy using focused light is an important tool in a number of scientific disciplines including chemical, (bio)physical and biomedical research, particularly with respect to the study of living cells and organisms. Unfortunately, the applicability of the optical microscope is limited, since the diffraction of light imposes limitations on the spatial resolution of the image. Consequently the details of, for example, cellular protein distributions, can be visualized only to a certain extent. Fortunately, recent years have witnessed the development of ‘super-resolution’ far-field optical microscopy (nanoscopy) techniques such as stimulated emission depletion (STED), ground state depletion (GSD), reversible saturated optical (fluorescence) transitions (RESOLFT), photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM), stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), structured illumination microscopy (SIM) or saturated structured illumination microscopy (SSIM), all in one way or another addressing the problem of the limited spatial resolution of far-field optical microscopy. While SIM achieves a two-fold improvement in spatial resolution compared to conventional optical microscopy, STED, RESOLFT, PALM/STORM, or SSIM have all gone beyond, pushing the limits of optical image resolution to the nanometer scale. Consequently, all super-resolution techniques open new avenues of biomedical research. Because the field is so young, the potential capabilities of different super-resolution microscopy approaches have yet to be fully explored, and uncertainties remain when considering the best choice of methodology. Thus, even for experts, the road to the future is sometimes shrouded in mist. The super-resolution optical microscopy roadmap of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics addresses this need for clarity. It provides guidance to the outstanding questions through a collection of short review articles from experts in the field, giving a thorough

  5. A Stochastic Super-Exponential Growth Model for Population Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, P.; Rekker, A.

    2010-11-01

    A super-exponential growth model with environmental noise has been studied analytically. Super-exponential growth rate is a property of dynamical systems exhibiting endogenous nonlinear positive feedback, i.e., of self-reinforcing systems. Environmental noise acts on the growth rate multiplicatively and is assumed to be Gaussian white noise in the Stratonovich interpretation. An analysis of the stochastic super-exponential growth model with derivations of exact analytical formulae for the conditional probability density and the mean value of the population abundance are presented. Interpretations and various applications of the results are discussed.

  6. [Study on high temperature oxidation of Ni-Cr ceramic alloys. Effects of Cr and Mo].

    PubMed

    Mizutani, M

    1990-03-01

    The effects of Cr and Mo addition to Ni-Cr alloys on high temperature oxidation were investigated. The alloys were prepared with the composition of Cr ranging from 5 to 40 wt%. Also 2, 4 and 9 wt% of Mo was added to both Ni-5% Cr and Ni-20% Cr binary alloys. The alloys were heated at 800 degrees C, 900 degrees C and 1000 degrees C for 15 minutes in air, and the weight change after heat treatment was measured by electric automatic balance. The weight change during heating was measured by thermogravimetric measurement (TG). The products after heat treatment were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results are summarized as follows: The Ni-Cr binary alloys were classified into three types of Cr ranging from 5 to 20 wt%, Cr 25% and Cr from 30 wt% to 40 wt% according to the weight gains with oxidation. In the case of the more than 25 wt% Cr content of the Ni-Cr binary alloys, the weight gain was extremely low and the heating temperature effects on the weight change were also small. X-ray diffraction study showed that NiO, NiCr2O4 and Cr2O3 formed on the surface of the Ni-Cr binary alloys whose composition of Cr ranged from 5 to 25 wt%, whereas NiO and NiCr2O4 rarely formed on the Ni-Cr binary alloys whose composition of Cr ranged from 30 to 40 wt%. This suggests that the formation of Cr2O3 prevents the formation of NiO on the alloy with a high Cr content. The weight gain of the Ni-Cr-Mo ternary alloys was smaller than that of the Ni-Cr binary alloys without Mo, and the temperature effects on the weight gain of the Ni-Cr-Mo ternary alloys were different for each Cr content. However, the effect of the amounts of Mo was small. NiO, NiCr2O4, Cr2O3 and MoO2 were identified by X-ray diffraction on the surface of the Ni-Cr-Mo ternary alloys. According to the SEM observation, it seems that NiO was formed at the outermost layer, both NiCr2O4 and Cr2O3 at the inside layer, and MoO2 at the innermost layer. The formation of both NiO and Cr

  7. Two binuclear cyanide-bridged Cr(III)-Mn(III) complexes based-on [Cr(2,2'-bipy)(CN)4]- building block: synthesis, crystal structures and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Zhanga, Daopeng; Kong, Lingqian; Zhang, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    Tetracyanide building block [Cr(2,2'-bipy)(CN)(4)]- and two bicompartimental Schiff-base based manganese(III) compounds have been employed to assemble cyanide-bridged heterometallic complexes, resulting in two cyanide-bridged CrIII-MnIII complexes: [Mn(L(1))(H(2)O)][Cr(2,2'-bipy)(CN)(4)]·CH(3)OH·2.5H(2)O (1) and [Mn(L(2))(H(2)O)][Cr(2,2'-bipy)(CN)(4)]·CH(3)OH·(3)H(2)O (2) (L1 = N,N'-(1,3-propylene)-bis(3-methoxysalicylideneiminate), L2 = N,N'-ethylene-bis(3-ethoxysalicylideneiminate)). Single X-ray diffraction analysis shows their similar cyanide-bridged binuclear structures, in which the cyanide precursor acting as monodentate ligand connects the manganese(III) ion. The binuclear complexes are self-complementary through coordinated aqua ligand and the free O4 compartment from the neighboring complex, giving H-bond linking dimer structure. Investigation over magnetic properties reveals the antiferromagnetic magnetic coupling between the cyanide-bridged Cr(III) and Mn(III) ions. A best-fit to the magnetic susceptibilities of these two complexes leads to the magnetic coupling constants J = -5.95 cm(-1), j = -0.61 cm(-1) (1) and J = -4.15 cm(-1), j = -0.57 cm(-1) (2), respectively.

  8. Evolution of displacement cascades in Fe-Cr structures with different [001] tilt grain boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Shams, M.; Haider, W.; Shabib, I.

    2017-06-01

    Reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels of Cr concentration between 2.25 and 12 wt% are candidate structural materials for next-generation nuclear reactors. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is used to generate the displacement cascades in Fe-Cr structures with different Cr concentrations by using different primary knock-on atom (PKA) energies between 2 and 10 keV. A concentration-dependent model potential has been used to describe the interactions between Fe and Cr. Single crystals (SCs) of three different coordinate bases (e.g. [310], [510], and [530]) and bi-crystal (BC) structures with three different [001] tilt grain boundaries (GBs) (e.g. Σ5, Σ13, and Σ17) have been simulated. The Wigner-Seitz cell criterion has been used to identify the produced Frenkel pairs. The results show a marked difference between collisions observed in SCs and those in BC structures. The numbers of vacancies and interstitials are found to be significantly higher in BC structures than those found in SCs. The number of point defects exhibits a power relationship with the PKA energies; however, the Cr concentration does not seem to have any influence on the number of survived point defects. In BC models, a large fraction of the total survived point defects (between 59% and 93%) tends accumulate at the GBs, which seem to trap the generated point defects. The BC structure with Σ17 GB is found to trap more defects than Σ5 and Σ13 GBs. The defect trapping is found to be dictated by the crystallographic parameters of the GBs. For all studied GBs, self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) are easily trapped within the GB region than vacancies. An analysis of defect composition reveals an enrichment of Cr in SIAs, and in BC cases, more than half of the Cr-SIAs are found to be located within the GB region.

  9. Image reconstructions from super-sampled data sets with resolution modeling in PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Yusheng; Matej, Samuel; Metzler, Scott D

    2014-12-01

    Spatial resolution in positron emission tomography (PET) is still a limiting factor in many imaging applications. To improve the spatial resolution for an existing scanner with fixed crystal sizes, mechanical movements such as scanner wobbling and object shifting have been considered for PET systems. Multiple acquisitions from different positions can provide complementary information and increased spatial sampling. The objective of this paper is to explore an efficient and useful reconstruction framework to reconstruct super-resolution images from super-sampled low-resolution data sets. The authors introduce a super-sampling data acquisition model based on the physical processes with tomographic, downsampling, and shifting matrices as its building blocks. Based on the model, we extend the MLEM and Landweber algorithms to reconstruct images from super-sampled data sets. The authors also derive a backprojection-filtration-like (BPF-like) method for the super-sampling reconstruction. Furthermore, they explore variant methods for super-sampling reconstructions: the separate super-sampling resolution-modeling reconstruction and the reconstruction without downsampling to further improve image quality at the cost of more computation. The authors use simulated reconstruction of a resolution phantom to evaluate the three types of algorithms with different super-samplings at different count levels. Contrast recovery coefficient (CRC) versus background variability, as an image-quality metric, is calculated at each iteration for all reconstructions. The authors observe that all three algorithms can significantly and consistently achieve increased CRCs at fixed background variability and reduce background artifacts with super-sampled data sets at the same count levels. For the same super-sampled data sets, the MLEM method achieves better image quality than the Landweber method, which in turn achieves better image quality than the BPF-like method. The authors also demonstrate

  10. The Super-Seniors Study: Phenotypic characterization of a healthy 85+ population.

    PubMed

    Halaschek-Wiener, Julius; Tindale, Lauren C; Collins, Jennifer A; Leach, Stephen; McManus, Bruce; Madden, Kenneth; Meneilly, Graydon; Le, Nhu D; Connors, Joseph M; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R

    2018-01-01

    To understand why some people live to advanced age in good health and others do not, it is important to study not only disease, but also long-term good health. The Super-Seniors Study aims to identify factors associated with healthy aging. 480 healthy oldest-old 'Super-Seniors' aged 85 to 105 years and never diagnosed with cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, dementia, or major pulmonary disease, were compared to 545 mid-life controls aged 41-54, who represent a group that is unselected for survival from late-life diseases. Health and lifestyle information, personal and family medical history, and blood samples were collected from all participants. Super-Seniors also underwent four geriatric tests. Super-Seniors showed high cognitive (Mini-Mental State Exam mean = 28.3) and functional capacity (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale mean = 21.4), as well as high physical function (Timed Up and Go mean = 12.3 seconds) and low levels of depression (Geriatric Depression Scale mean = 1.5). Super-Seniors were less likely to be current smokers than controls, but the frequency of drinking alcohol was the same in both groups. Super-Seniors were more likely to have 4 or more offspring; controls were more likely to have no children. Female Super-Seniors had a mean age of last fertility 1.9 years older than controls, and were 2.3 times more likely to have had a child at ≥ 40 years. The parents of Super-Seniors had mean ages of deaths of 79.3 years for mothers, and 74.5 years for fathers, each exceeding the life expectancy for their era by a decade. Super-Seniors are cognitively and physically high functioning individuals who have evaded major age-related chronic diseases into old age, representing the approximately top 1% for healthspan. The familiality of long lifespan of the parents of Super-Seniors supports the hypothesis that heritable factors contribute to this desirable phenotype.

  11. The Super-Seniors Study: Phenotypic characterization of a healthy 85+ population

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Jennifer A.; Leach, Stephen; McManus, Bruce; Madden, Kenneth; Meneilly, Graydon; Le, Nhu D.; Connors, Joseph M.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R.

    2018-01-01

    Background To understand why some people live to advanced age in good health and others do not, it is important to study not only disease, but also long-term good health. The Super-Seniors Study aims to identify factors associated with healthy aging. Methods 480 healthy oldest-old ‘Super-Seniors’ aged 85 to 105 years and never diagnosed with cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, dementia, or major pulmonary disease, were compared to 545 mid-life controls aged 41–54, who represent a group that is unselected for survival from late-life diseases. Health and lifestyle information, personal and family medical history, and blood samples were collected from all participants. Super-Seniors also underwent four geriatric tests. Results Super-Seniors showed high cognitive (Mini-Mental State Exam mean = 28.3) and functional capacity (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale mean = 21.4), as well as high physical function (Timed Up and Go mean = 12.3 seconds) and low levels of depression (Geriatric Depression Scale mean = 1.5). Super-Seniors were less likely to be current smokers than controls, but the frequency of drinking alcohol was the same in both groups. Super-Seniors were more likely to have 4 or more offspring; controls were more likely to have no children. Female Super-Seniors had a mean age of last fertility 1.9 years older than controls, and were 2.3 times more likely to have had a child at ≥ 40 years. The parents of Super-Seniors had mean ages of deaths of 79.3 years for mothers, and 74.5 years for fathers, each exceeding the life expectancy for their era by a decade. Conclusions Super-Seniors are cognitively and physically high functioning individuals who have evaded major age-related chronic diseases into old age, representing the approximately top 1% for healthspan. The familiality of long lifespan of the parents of Super-Seniors supports the hypothesis that heritable factors contribute to this desirable phenotype. PMID:29795606

  12. SuperB Simulation Production System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomassetti, L.; Bianchi, F.; Ciaschini, V.; Corvo, M.; Del Prete, D.; Di Simone, A.; Donvito, G.; Fella, A.; Franchini, P.; Giacomini, F.; Gianoli, A.; Longo, S.; Luitz, S.; Luppi, E.; Manzali, M.; Pardi, S.; Paolini, A.; Perez, A.; Rama, M.; Russo, G.; Santeramo, B.; Stroili, R.

    2012-12-01

    The SuperB asymmetric e+e- collider and detector to be built at the newly founded Nicola Cabibbo Lab will provide a uniquely sensitive probe of New Physics in the flavor sector of the Standard Model. Studying minute effects in the heavy quark and heavy lepton sectors requires a data sample of 75 ab-1 and a peak luminosity of 1036 cm-2 s-1. The SuperB Computing group is working on developing a simulation production framework capable to satisfy the experiment needs. It provides access to distributed resources in order to support both the detector design definition and its performance evaluation studies. During last year the framework has evolved from the point of view of job workflow, Grid services interfaces and technologies adoption. A complete code refactoring and sub-component language porting now permits the framework to sustain distributed production involving resources from two continents and Grid Flavors. In this paper we will report a complete description of the production system status of the art, its evolution and its integration with Grid services; in particular, we will focus on the utilization of new Grid component features as in LB and WMS version 3. Results from the last official SuperB production cycle will be reported.

  13. On Super-Resolution and the MUSIC Algorithm,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    SUPER-RESOLUTION AND THE MUSIC ALGORITHM AUTHOR: G D de Villiers DATE: May 1985 SUMMARY Simulation results for phased array signal processing using...the MUSIC algorithm are presented. The model used is more realistic than previous ones and it gives an indication as to how the algorithm would perform...resolution ON SUPER-RESOLUTION AND THE MUSIC ALGORITHM 1. INTRODUCTION At present there is a considerable amount of interest in "high-resolution" b

  14. [Effect of preparation methods on the metal-porcelain bond strength of Co-Cr alloys].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Chi, Shuai; Xu, Jin; Wang, Yanyan; Zhan, Desong

    2014-04-01

    To compare the shear bond strength(SBS) of cast Co-Cr alloys and selective laser melting(SLM) Co-Cr alloys with those of dental porcelain. A dental porcelain (Vita) was applied on cast and SLM Co-Cr alloy specimens (n = 10). SBS test was conducted, and fracture mode analysis was determined. Student's t-test by SPSS 13.0 software was employed to analyze the data. The SLM Co-Cr alloy specimens had lower SBS values than the cast Co-Cr alloy specimens (P > 0.05). The metal-porcelain bond strength value of the cast group was (33.11 +/- 4.98) MPa, and that of the SLM group was (30.94 +/- 5.98) MPa. The specimens in both test groups exhibited mixed failure. The metal-porcelain system processed by SLM exhibit a bond strength that is similar to that of the cast group. This system also display a high precision.

  15. Effect of microstructural anisotropy on fracture toughness of hot rolled 13Cr ODS steel - The role of primary and secondary cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, A.; Viehrig, H. W.; Bergner, F.; Heintze, C.; Altstadt, E.; Hoffmann, J.

    2017-08-01

    ODS steels have been known to exhibit anisotropic fracture behaviour and form secondary cracks. In this work, the factors responsible for the anisotropic fracture behaviour have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter microscopy. Fracture toughness of hot rolled 13Cr ODS steel was determined using unloading compliance method for L-T and T-L orientations at various temperatures. L-T orientation had higher fracture toughness than T-L orientation and also contained more pronounced secondary cracking. Secondary cracks appeared at lower loads than primary cracks in both orientations. Primary crack propagation was found to be preferentially through fine grains in a bimodal microstructure. Grains were aligned and elongated the most towards rolling direction followed by T and S directions resulting in fracture anisotropy. Crystallographic texture and preferential alignment of Ti enriched particles parallel to rolling direction also contributed towards fracture anisotropy.

  16. SuperCDMS Underground Detector Fabrication Facility

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Platt, M.; Mahapatra, R.; Bunker, Raymond A.

    The SuperCDMS SNOLAB dark matter experiment processes Ge and Si crystals into fully tested phonon and ionization detectors at surface fabrication and test facilities. If not mitigated, it is anticipated that trace-level production of radioisotopes in the crystals due to exposure to cosmic rays at (or above) sea level will result in the dominant source of background events in future dark matter searches using the current SuperCDMS detector technology. Fabrication and testing of detectors in underground facilities shielded from cosmic radiation is one way to directly reduce production of trace levels of radioisotopes, thereby improving experimental sensitivity for the discoverymore » of dark matter beyond the level of the current experiment. In this report, we investigate the cost and feasibility to establish a complete detector fabrication processing chain in an underground location to mitigate cosmogenic activation of the Ge and Si detector substrates. For a specific and concrete evaluation, we explore options for such a facility located at SNOLAB, an underground laboratory in Sudbury, Canada hosting the current and future experimental phases of SuperCDMS.« less

  17. Hot corrosion of Co-Cr, Co-Cr-Al, and Ni-Cr alloys in the temperature range of 700-750 deg C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, K. T.; Meier, G. H.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of SO3 pressure in the gas phase on the Na2SO4 induced hot corrosion of Co-Cr, Ni-Cr, and Co-Cr-Al alloys was studied in the temperature range 700 to 750 C. The degradation of the Co-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys was found to be associated with the formation of liquid mixed sulfates (CoSO4-Na2SO4 or NiSO4-Na2SO4) which provided a selective dissolution of the Co or Ni and a subsequent sulfidation oxidation mode of attack which prevented the maintenance of a protective Cr2O3 film. A clear mechanism was not developed for the degradation of Co-Cr-Al alloys. A pitting corrosion morphology was induced by a number of different mechanisms.

  18. A Builder`s Guide to Super Good Cents Contruction and Sales.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    OSU Extension Energy Program; United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    This Builder`s guide describes the Super Good Cents {reg_sign} program and the benefits available to participating builders. It explains the program standards and the typical building techniques used by Super Good Cents builders. Finally, the guide tells how you can participate and answers many of the questions asked by builders about the Super Good Cents program.

  19. Characterizing super-spreading in microblog: An epidemic-based information propagation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Wang, Bai; Wu, Bin; Shang, Suiming; Zhang, Yunlei; Shi, Chuan

    2016-12-01

    As the microblogging services are becoming more prosperous in everyday life for users on Online Social Networks (OSNs), it is more favorable for hot topics and breaking news to gain more attraction very soon than ever before, which are so-called "super-spreading events". In the information diffusion process of these super-spreading events, messages are passed on from one user to another and numerous individuals are influenced by a relatively small portion of users, a.k.a. super-spreaders. Acquiring an awareness of super-spreading phenomena and an understanding of patterns of wide-ranged information propagations benefits several social media data mining tasks, such as hot topic detection, predictions of information propagation, harmful information monitoring and intervention. Taking into account that super-spreading in both information diffusion and spread of a contagious disease are analogous, in this study, we build a parameterized model, the SAIR model, based on well-known epidemic models to characterize super-spreading phenomenon in tweet information propagation accompanied with super-spreaders. For the purpose of modeling information diffusion, empirical observations on a real-world Weibo dataset are statistically carried out. Both the steady-state analysis on the equilibrium and the validation on real-world Weibo dataset of the proposed model are conducted. The case study that validates the proposed model shows that the SAIR model is much more promising than the conventional SIR model in characterizing a super-spreading event of information propagation. In addition, numerical simulations are carried out and discussed to discover how sensitively the parameters affect the information propagation process.

  20. Low-field spin dynamics of Cr7Ni and Cr7Ni-Cu -Cr 7Ni molecular rings as detected by μ SR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, S.; Arosio, P.; Bordonali, L.; Adelnia, F.; Mariani, M.; Garlatti, E.; Baines, C.; Amato, A.; Sabareesh, K. P. V.; Timco, G.; Winpenny, R. E. P.; Blundell, S. J.; Lascialfari, A.

    2017-11-01

    Muon spin rotation measurements were used to investigate the spin dynamics of heterometallic Cr7Ni and Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni molecular clusters. In Cr7Ni the magnetic ions are arranged in a quasiplanar ring and interact via an antiferromagnetic exchange coupling constant J , while Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni is composed of two Cr7Ni linked by a bridging moiety containing one Cu ion, that induces an inter-ring ferromagnetic interaction J'≪J . The longitudinal muon relaxation rate λ collected at low magnetic fields μ0H <0.15 Tesla, shows that the two systems present differences in spin dynamics vs temperature. While both samples exhibit a main peak in the muon relaxation rate vs temperature, at T ˜10 K for Cr7Ni and T ˜8 K for Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni , the two compounds have distinct additional features: Cr7Ni shows a shoulder in λ (T ) for T <8 K, while Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni shows a flattening of λ (T ) for T <2 K down to temperatures as low as T =20 mK. The main peak of both systems is explained by a Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound (BPP)-like heuristic fitting model that takes into account of a distribution of electronic spin characteristic times for T >5 K, while the shoulder presented by Cr7Ni can be reproduced by a BPP function that incorporates a single electronic characteristic time theoretically predicted to dominate for T <5 K. The flattening of λ (T ) in Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni occurring at very low temperature can be tentatively attributed to field-dependent quantum effects and/or to an inelastic term in the spectral density of the electronic spin fluctuations.

  1. Surface morphological evolution of epitaxial CrN(001) layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick, J. R.; Gall, D.

    2005-09-01

    CrN layers, 57 and 230 nm thick, were grown on MgO(001) at Ts=600-800 °C by ultrahigh-vacuum magnetron sputter deposition in pure N2 discharges from an oblique deposition angle α=80°. Layers grown at 600 °C nucleate as single crystals with a cube-on-cube epitaxial relationship with the substrate. However, rough surfaces with cauliflower-type morphologies cause the nucleation of misoriented CrN grains that develop into cone-shaped grains that protrude out of the epitaxial matrix to form triangular faceted surface mounds. The surface morphology of epitaxial CrN(001) grown at 700 °C is characterized by dendritic ridge patterns extending along the orthogonal <110> directions superposed by square-shaped super mounds with <100> edges. The ridge patterns are attributed to a Bales-Zangwill instability while the supermounds form due to atomic shadowing which leads to the formation of epitaxial inverted pyramids that are separated from the surrounding layer by tilted nanovoids. Growth at 800 °C yields complete single crystals with smooth surfaces. The root-mean-square surface roughness for 230-nm-thick layers decreases from 18.8 to 9.3 to 1.1 nm as Ts is raised from 600 to 700 to 800 °C. This steep decrease is due to a transition in the roughening mechanism from atomic shadowing to kinetic roughening. Atomic shadowing is dominant at 600 and 700 °C, where misoriented grains and supermounds, respectively, capture a larger fraction of the oblique deposition flux in comparison to the surrounding epitaxial matrix, resulting in a high roughening rate that is described by a power law with an exponent β>0.5. In contrast, kinetic roughening controls the surface morphology for Ts=800 °C, as well as the epitaxial fraction of the layers grown at 600 and 700 °C, yielding relatively smooth surfaces and β<=0.27.

  2. Tissue accumulation and urinary excretion of Cr in chromium picolinate (CrPic)-supplemented lambs.

    PubMed

    Dallago, Bruno Stéfano Lima; Lima, Bárbara Alcântara Ferreira; Braz, Shélida Vasconcelos; Mustafa, Vanessa da Silva; McManus, Concepta; Paim, Tiago do Prado; Campeche, Aline; Gomes, Edgard Franco; Louvandini, Helder

    2016-05-01

    Chromium (Cr) concentrations in liver, kidney, spleen, heart, lymph node, skeletal muscle, bone, testis and urine of lambs were measured to trace the biodistribution and bioaccumulation of Cr after oral supplementation with chromium picolinate (CrPic). Twenty-four Santa Inês lambs were treated with four different concentrations of CrPic: placebo, 0.250, 0.375 and 0.500 mg of CrPic/animal/day for 84 days. The basal diet consisted of Panicum maximum cv Massai hay and concentrate. Cr concentrations were measured by ICP-MS measuring (52)Cr as collected mass. There was a positive linear relationship between dose administered and the accumulation of Cr in the heart, lungs and testis. Urinary excretion of Cr occurred in a time and dose-dependent manner, so the longer or more dietary Cr provided, the greater excretion of the element. As some non-carcass components (such as lungs or heart) are added to bone and visceral meal to feed animals, there is a risk of bioaccumulation and biomagnification due to Cr offered as CrPic in the diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis and Luminescence Characteristics of Cr 3+ doped Y 3Al 5O 12 Phosphors

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Smith, Brenda A.; Dabestani, Reza T.; Lewis, Linda A.

    2015-10-01

    Luminescence performance of yttrium aluminum garnet (Y 3Al 5O 12) phosphors as a function of Cr 3+ concentration has been investigated via two different wet-chemical synthesis techniques, direct- (DP) and hydrothermal-precipitation (HP). Using either of these methods, the red-emitting phosphor [Y 3Al 5-xCr xO 12 (YAG: Cr 3+)] showed similar photoluminescence (PL) intensities once the dopant concentration was optimized. Specifically, the YAG: Cr 3+ PL emission intensity reached a maximum at Cr3+ concentrations of x = 0.02 (0.4 at.%) and x = 0.13 (2.6 at.%) for DP and HP processed samples, respectively. The results indicated the strong influence of themore » processing method on the optimized YAG: Cr 3+ performance, where a more effective energy transfer rate between a pair of Cr3+ activators at low concentration levels was observed by using the DP synthesis technique. Development of a highly efficient phosphor, using a facile synthesis approach, could significantly benefit consumer and industrial applications by improving the operational efficiency of a wide range of practical devices.« less

  4. Theoretical Characterization of Charge Transport in Chromia (α-Cr2O3)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Iordanova, Nellie I.; Dupuis, Michel; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2005-08-15

    Transport of conduction electrons and holes through the lattice of ?-Cr2O3 (chromia) is modeled as a valence alternation of chromium cations using ab initio electronic structure calculations and electron transfer theory. In the context of the small polaron model, a cluster approach was used to compute quantities controlling the mobility of localized electrons and holes, i.e. the reorganization energy and the electronic coupling matrix element that enter Marcus? theory. The calculation of the electronic coupling followed the Generalized Mulliken-Hush approach and the quasi-diabatic method using the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) method. Our findings indicate that hole mobility ismore » more than three orders of magnitude larger than electron mobility in both (001) and [001] lattice directions. The difference arises mainly from the larger internal reorganization energy calculated for electron transport relative to hole transport processes while electronic couplings have similar magnitudes. The much larger hole mobility vs electron mobility in ?-Cr2O3 is in contrast to similar hole and electron mobility in hematite ?-Fe2O3 previously calculated. Our calculations also indicate that the electronic coupling for all charge transfer processes of interest is smaller than for the corresponding processes in hematite. This variation is attributed to weaker interaction between the metal 3d states and the O(2p) states in chromia than in hematite, leading to smaller overlap between the charge transfer donor and acceptor wavefunctions and smaller super-exchange coupling in chromia. Nevertheless, the weaker coupling in chromia is still sufficiently large to suggest that charge transport processes in chromia are adiabatic in nature. The electronic coupling is found to depend on both the superexchange interaction through the bridging oxygen atoms and the d-shell electron spin coupling within the Cr-Cr donor-acceptor pair, while the reorganization energy is

  5. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous (Fex, Cr1-x)(OH)3 Precipitation: Implications for Cr Sequestration

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dai, Chong; Zuo, Xiaobing; Cao, B

    2016-02-16

    The formation of (Fe, Cr)(OH)3 nanoparticles determines the fate of aqueous Cr in many aquatic environments. Using small angle X-ray scattering, precipitation rates of (Fe, Cr)(OH)3 nanoparticles in solution and on quartz were quantified from 0.1 mM Fe(III) solutions containing 0 – 0.25 mM Cr(III) at pH = 3.7 ± 0.2. Concentration ratio of aqueous Cr(III)/Fe(III) controlled the chemical composition (x) of (Fex, Cr1-x)(OH)3 precipitates, solutions’ supersaturation with respect to precipitates, and the surface charge of quartz. Therefore, aqueous Cr(III)/Fe(III) ratio affected homogeneous (in solution) and heterogeneous (on quartz) precipitation rates of (Fex, Cr1-x)(OH)3 through different mechanisms. The sequestration mechanismsmore » of Cr(III) in precipitates were also investigated. In solutions with high aqueous Cr(III)/Fe(III) ratios, surface enrichment of Cr(III) on the precipitates occurred, resulting in slower particle growth in solution. From solutions with 0 – 0.1 mM Cr(III), the particles on quartz grew from 2 to 4 nm within 1 h. Interestingly, from solution with 0.25 mM Cr(III), particles of two distinct sizes (2 and 6 nm) formed on quartz, and their sizes remained unchanged throughout the reaction. Our study provided new insights on homogeneous and heterogeneous precipitation of (Fex, Cr1-x)(OH)3 nanoparticles, which can help determine the fate of Cr in aquatic environments.« less

  6. Investigation of the nanostructure and wear properties of physical vapor deposited CrCuN nanocomposite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, M. A.; Kench, P. J.; Tsotsos, C.; Gibson, P. N.; Leyland, A.; Matthews, A.

    2005-05-01

    This article presents results on CrCuN nanocomposite coatings grown by physical vapor deposition. The immiscibility of Cr (containing a supersaturation of nitrogen) and Cu offers the potential of depositing a predominantly metallic (and therefore tough) nanocomposite, composed of small Cr(N) metallic and/or β-Cr2N ceramic grains interdispersed in a (minority) Cu matrix. A range of CrCuN compositions have been deposited using a hot-filament enhanced unbalanced magnetron sputtering system. The stoichiometry and nanostructure have been studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Hardness, wear resistance, and impact resistance have been determined by nanoindentation, reciprocating-sliding, and ball-on-plate high-cycle impact. Evolution of the nanostructure as a function of composition and correlations of the nanostructure and mechanical properties of the CrCuN coatings are discussed. A nanostructure comprised of 1-3 nm α-Cr(N) and β-Cr2N grains separated by intergranular regions of Cu gives rise to a coating with significantly enhanced resistance to impact wear.

  7. The SuperCDMS SNOLAB Detector Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aramaki, Tsuguo

    2016-08-01

    The SuperCDMS collaboration is moving forward with the design and construction of SuperCDMS SNOLAB, where the initial deployment will include ˜ 30 kg of Ge and ˜ 5 kg of Si detectors. Here, we will discuss the associated cryogenic cold hardware required for the detector readout. The phonon signals will be read out with superconducting quantum interference device arrays and the ionization signals will use high electron mobility transistor amplifiers operating at 4 K. A number of design challenges exist regarding the required wiring complex impedance, noise pickup, vibration, and thermal isolation. Our progress to date will be presented.

  8. Kinetics and Mechanism of the Hydrogenation of CpCr(CO)3•/[CpCr(CO)3]2 Equilibrium to CpCr(CO)3H

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Norton, Jack R.; Spataru, Tudor; Camaioni, Donald M.

    2014-05-26

    The kinetics of the hydrogenation of 2 CpCr(CO)3•/[CpCr(CO)3]2 to CpCr(CO)3H has been investigated. The reaction is second-order in Cr and first-order in H2, with a rate constant of 45 M 2s 1 at 25 °C in benzene. DFT calculations rule out an H2 complex as an intermediate, and suggest (a) end-on approach of H2 to one Cr of [CpCr(CO)3]2 as the Cr-Cr bond undergoes heterolytic cleavage, (b) heterolytic cleavage of the coordinated H2 between O and Cr, and (c) isomerization of the resulting O-protonated CpCr(CO)2(COH) to CpCr(CO)3H. The work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was supported by the U.S.more » Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences; Battelle operates PNNL for DOE.« less

  9. Cr localization and speciation in roots of chromate fed Helianthus annuus L. seedlings using synchrotron techniques.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa, Guadalupe; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Cruz-Jiménez, Gustavo; Bernal-Alvarado, Jesús; Córdova-Fraga, Teodoro; López-Moreno, Laura; Cotte, Marine

    2014-01-01

    In order to gain knowledge on the potential use of Helianthus annuus L. for the remediation of Cr(VI) polluted waters, hydroponics experiments were set up to determine Cr uptake and tolerance in different Cr(VI)-sulfate conditions, and Cr biotransformations. Results indicated that Cr(VI) promoted seed germination, and plant tolerance was higher at younger plant stages. Cr uptake was dependent on sulfate concentrations. The highest Cr levels in roots and shoots (13,700 and 2,500 mg kg(-1) dry weight (DW), respectively) were obtained in 1 mM sulfate. The lowest Cr uptake in roots (10,600 mg kg(-1) DW) was observed in seedlings treated with no sulfate. In shoots, Cr concentration was of 1,500 mg kg(-1)DW for the 1 mM sulfate treatment, indicating a different level of interaction between chromate and sulfate in both tissues. For the first time, using micro X-ray florescence (muXRF), we demonstrated Cr reaches the root stele and is located in the walls of xylem vessels. Bulk and micro X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (muXANES) results showed that Cr in the roots is mostly in the form of Cr(III) phosphate (80%), with the remainder complexed to organic acids. Our results suggest this plant species may serve for Cr(VI) rhizofiltration purposes.

  10. Hierarchy within the mammary STAT5-driven Wap super-enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xianke; Wang, Chaochen; Metser, Gil; Hennighausen, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    Super-enhancers comprise of dense transcription factor platforms highly enriched for active chromatin marks. A paucity of functional data led us to investigate their role in the mammary gland, an organ characterized by exceptional gene regulatory dynamics during pregnancy. ChIP-Seq for the master regulator STAT5, the glucocorticoid receptor, H3K27ac and MED1, identified 440 mammary-specific super-enhancers, half of which were associated with genes activated during pregnancy. We interrogated the Wap super-enhancer, generating mice carrying mutations in STAT5 binding sites within its three constituent enhancers. Individually, only the most distal site displayed significant enhancer activity. However, combinatorial mutations showed that the 1,000-fold gene induction relied on all enhancers. Disabling the binding sites of STAT5, NFIB and ELF5 in the proximal enhancer incapacitated the entire super-enhancer, suggesting an enhancer hierarchy. The identification of mammary-specific super-enhancers and the mechanistic exploration of the Wap locus provide insight into the complexity of cell-specific and hormone-regulated genes. PMID:27376239

  11. Super-Resolution Scanning Laser Microscopy Based on Virtually Structured Detection

    PubMed Central

    Zhi, Yanan; Wang, Benquan; Yao, Xincheng

    2016-01-01

    Light microscopy plays a key role in biological studies and medical diagnosis. The spatial resolution of conventional optical microscopes is limited to approximately half the wavelength of the illumination light as a result of the diffraction limit. Several approaches—including confocal microscopy, stimulated emission depletion microscopy, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, photoactivated localization microscopy, and structured illumination microscopy—have been established to achieve super-resolution imaging. However, none of these methods is suitable for the super-resolution ophthalmoscopy of retinal structures because of laser safety issues and inevitable eye movements. We recently experimentally validated virtually structured detection (VSD) as an alternative strategy to extend the diffraction limit. Without the complexity of structured illumination, VSD provides an easy, low-cost, and phase artifact–free strategy to achieve super-resolution in scanning laser microscopy. In this article we summarize the basic principles of the VSD method, review our demonstrated single-point and line-scan super-resolution systems, and discuss both technical challenges and the potential of VSD-based instrumentation for super-resolution ophthalmoscopy of the retina. PMID:27480461

  12. Super-resolved terahertz microscopy by knife-edge scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giliberti, V.; Flammini, M.; Ciano, C.; Pontecorvo, E.; Del Re, E.; Ortolani, M.

    2017-08-01

    We present a compact, all solid-state THz confocal microscope operating at 0.30 THz that achieves super-resolution by using the knife-edge scan approach. In the final reconstructed image, a lateral resolution of 60 μm ≍ λ/17 is demonstrated when the knife-edge is deep in the near-field of the sample surface. When the knife-edge is lifted up to λ/4 from the sample surface, a certain degree of super-resolution is maintained with a resolution of 0.4 mm, i.e. more than a factor 2 if compared to the diffraction-limited scheme. The present results open an interesting path towards super-resolved imaging with in-depth information that would be peculiar to THz microscopy systems.

  13. Personnel neutron dosimetry using electrochemically etched CR-39 foils

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hankins, D.E.; Homann, S.; Westermark, J.

    1986-09-17

    A personnel neutron dosimetry system has been developed based on the electrochemical etching of CR-39 plastic at elevated temperatures. The doses obtained using this dosimeter system are more accurate than those obtained using other dosimetry systems, especially when varied neutron spectra are encountered. This Cr-39 dosimetry system does not have the severe energy dependence that exists with albedo neutron dosimeters or the fading and reading problems encountered with NTA film. The dosimetry system employs an electrochemical etch procedure that be used to process large numbers of Cr-39 dosimeters. The etch procedure is suitable for operations where the number of personnelmore » requires that many CR-39 dosimeters be processed. Experience shows that one full-time technician can etch and evaluate 2000 foils per month. The energy response to neutrons is fairly flat from about 80 keV to 3.5 MeV, but drops by about a factor of three in the 13 to 16 MeV range. The sensitivity of the dosimetry system is about 7 tracks/cm/sup 2//mrem, with a background equivalent to about 8 mrem for new CR-39 foils. The limit of sensitivity is approximately 10 mrem. The dosimeter has a significant variation in directional dependence, dropping to about 20% at 90/sup 0/. This dosimeter has been used for personnel neutron dosimetry at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for more tha 18 months. 6 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  14. Characterization of Microstructure and Texture of 13Cr4Ni Martensitic Stainless Steel Weld Before and After Tempering =

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtabad Amrei, Mohsen

    13Cr4Ni martensitic stainless steels are known for their outstanding performances in the hydroelectric industry, where they are mainly used in the construction of turbine components. Considering the size and geometry of turbine runners and blades, multi-pass welding procedures are commonly used in the fabrication and repair of such turbines. The final microstructure and mechanical properties of the weld are sensitive to the welding process parameters and thermal history. In the case of 13Cr4Ni steel, the thermal cycles imposed by the multi-pass welding operation have significant effects on the complex weld microstructure. Additionally, post-weld heat treatments are commonly used to reduce weld heterogeneity and improve the material's mechanical properties by tempering the microstructure and by forming a "room-temperature-stable austenite." In the first phase of this research, the microstructures and crystallographic textures of aswelded single-pass and double-pass welds were studied as a basis to studying the more complex multi-pass weld microstructure. This study found that the maximum hardness is obtained in high temperature heat affected zone inside the base metal. In particular, the results showed that the heat cycle exposed by the second pass increases the hardness of the previous pass because it produces a finer martensite microstructure. In areas of heat affected zone, a tempering effect is reported from 3 up to 6 millimeters far from the fusion line. Finding austenite phase in these areas are matter of interest and it can be indicative of the microstructure complexity of multi-pass welds. In the second phase of research, the microstructure of multi-pass welds was found to be more heterogeneous than that of single- and double-pass welds. Any individual pass in a multi-pass weld consists of several regions formed by adjacent weld passes heat cycle. Results showed that former austenite grains modification occurred in areas close to the subsequent weld passes

  15. Facile preparation of super durable superhydrophobic materials.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Zhang, Junping; Li, Bucheng; Fan, Ling; Li, Lingxiao; Wang, Aiqin

    2014-10-15

    The low stability, complicated and expensive fabrication procedures seriously hinder practical applications of superhydrophobic materials. Here we report an extremely simple method for preparing super durable superhydrophobic materials, e.g., textiles and sponges, by dip coating in fluoropolymers (FPs). The morphology, surface chemical composition, mechanical, chemical and environmental stabilities of the superhydrophobic textiles were investigated. The results show how simple the preparation of super durable superhydrophobic textiles can be! The superhydrophobic textiles outperform their natural counterparts and most of the state-of-the-art synthetic superhydrophobic materials in stability. The intensive mechanical abrasion, long time immersion in various liquids and repeated washing have no obvious influence on the superhydrophobicity. Water drops are spherical in shape on the samples and could easily roll off after these harsh stability tests. In addition, this simple dip coating approach is applicable to various synthetic and natural textiles and can be easily scaled up. Furthermore, the results prove that a two-tier roughness is helpful but not essential with regard to the creation of super durable superhydrophobic textiles. The combination of microscale roughness of textiles and materials with very low surface tension is enough to form super durable superhydrophobic textiles. According to the same procedure, superhydrophobic polyurethane sponges can be prepared, which show high oil absorbency, oil/water separation efficiency and stability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Multi-dimensional super-resolution imaging enables surface hydrophobicity mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiovanni, Marie N.; Godet, Julien; Horrocks, Mathew H.; Tosatto, Laura; Carr, Alexander R.; Wirthensohn, David C.; Ranasinghe, Rohan T.; Lee, Ji-Eun; Ponjavic, Aleks; Fritz, Joelle V.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Klenerman, David; Lee, Steven F.

    2016-12-01

    Super-resolution microscopy allows biological systems to be studied at the nanoscale, but has been restricted to providing only positional information. Here, we show that it is possible to perform multi-dimensional super-resolution imaging to determine both the position and the environmental properties of single-molecule fluorescent emitters. The method presented here exploits the solvatochromic and fluorogenic properties of nile red to extract both the emission spectrum and the position of each dye molecule simultaneously enabling mapping of the hydrophobicity of biological structures. We validated this by studying synthetic lipid vesicles of known composition. We then applied both to super-resolve the hydrophobicity of amyloid aggregates implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, and the hydrophobic changes in mammalian cell membranes. Our technique is easily implemented by inserting a transmission diffraction grating into the optical path of a localization-based super-resolution microscope, enabling all the information to be extracted simultaneously from a single image plane.

  17. Multi-dimensional super-resolution imaging enables surface hydrophobicity mapping

    PubMed Central

    Bongiovanni, Marie N.; Godet, Julien; Horrocks, Mathew H.; Tosatto, Laura; Carr, Alexander R.; Wirthensohn, David C.; Ranasinghe, Rohan T.; Lee, Ji-Eun; Ponjavic, Aleks; Fritz, Joelle V.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Klenerman, David; Lee, Steven F.

    2016-01-01

    Super-resolution microscopy allows biological systems to be studied at the nanoscale, but has been restricted to providing only positional information. Here, we show that it is possible to perform multi-dimensional super-resolution imaging to determine both the position and the environmental properties of single-molecule fluorescent emitters. The method presented here exploits the solvatochromic and fluorogenic properties of nile red to extract both the emission spectrum and the position of each dye molecule simultaneously enabling mapping of the hydrophobicity of biological structures. We validated this by studying synthetic lipid vesicles of known composition. We then applied both to super-resolve the hydrophobicity of amyloid aggregates implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, and the hydrophobic changes in mammalian cell membranes. Our technique is easily implemented by inserting a transmission diffraction grating into the optical path of a localization-based super-resolution microscope, enabling all the information to be extracted simultaneously from a single image plane. PMID:27929085

  18. Crystal Chemistry and Conductivity Studies in the System La 0.5+ x+ yLi 0.5-3 xTi 1-3 yCr 3 yO 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Sarrión, M. L.; Mestres, L.; Morales, M.; Herraiz, M.

    2000-12-01

    The stoichiometry polymorphism and electrical behavior of solid solutions La0.5+x+yLi0.5-3xTi1-3yCr3yO3 with perovskite-type structure were studied. Data are given in the form of a solid solutions triangle, phase diagrams, XRD patterns for the three polymorphs, A, β, and C, composition dependence of their lattice parameters, and ionic and electronic conductivity plots. Microstructure and composition were studied by SEM/EDS and electron probe microanalysis. These compounds are mixed conductors. Ionic conductivity decreased when the amount of lithium diminished and electronic conductivity increased with chromium content.

  19. Chromium sorption and Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) by grape stalks and yohimbe bark.

    PubMed

    Fiol, Núria; Escudero, Carlos; Villaescusa, Isabel

    2008-07-01

    In this work, two low cost sorbents, grape stalks and yohimbe bark wastes were used to remove Cr(VI) and Cr(III) from aqueous solutions. Batch experiments were designed to obtain Cr(VI) and Cr(III) sorption data. The mechanism of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) removal and Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) by the two vegetable wastes, has been investigated. Fourier transform infrared rays (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis on solid phase were performed to determine the main functional groups that might be involved in metal uptake and to confirm the presence of Cr(III) on the sorbent, respectively. Results put into evidence that both sorbents are able to reduce Cr(VI) to its trivalent form.

  20. Hydrogen attack in Cr-Mo steels. [3Cr-1. 5Mo and 2. 25Cr-1Mo steels

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ruoff, S.; Stone, D.; Wanagel, J.

    Experiments conducted upon 3Cr-1.5Mo steel at elevated temperatures (600 C), and high pressure hydrogen (2000 psi), have shown a greater resistence to hydrogen attack compared with similar studies of 2.25Cr-lMo steels. Hydrogen exposure tests with and without an applied stress have been performed on both types of steels. Results of similar conditions show clear evidence of hydrogen attack in 2.25Cr-lMo steel, however, for the 3Cr-1.5Mo steel with exposure time up to 80 days without an applied stress no evidence of hydrogen attack is observed. For stress-rupture tests using stresses of 14 and 16 ksi, the 3Cr-1.5Mo steel showed no effectsmore » of hydrogen attack, and no damage was observed using a SEM.« less

  1. Validation of Shielding Analysis Capability of SuperMC with SINBAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chaobin; Yang, Qi; Wu, Bin; Han, Yuncheng; Song, Jing

    2017-09-01

    Abstract: The shielding analysis capability of SuperMC was validated with the Shielding Integral Benchmark Archive Database (SINBAD). The SINBAD was compiled by RSICC and NEA, it includes numerous benchmark experiments performed with the D-T fusion neutron source facilities of OKTAVIAN, FNS, IPPE, etc. The results from SuperMC simulation were compared with experimental data and MCNP results. Very good agreement with deviation lower than 1% was achieved and it suggests that SuperMC is reliable in shielding calculation.

  2. First-Principles Calculations for Chemical Reaction between Sodium Diethyldithiocarbamate and Transition-Metal (Cr) atom to Produce Cr(DDC)3 and Cr(DDC)2ODDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiyanto, Henry; Muhida, Rifki; Kishi, Tomoya; Rempillo, Ofelia; Rahman, Mahmudur; Dipojono, Hermawan Kresno; Di\\ {n}o, Wilson Agerico; Matsumoto, Shigeno; Kasai, Hideaki

    2006-10-01

    We investigate the chemical reaction between a Cr transition-metal atom and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (NaDDC), a complexing agent used to detect and extract Cr in human blood samples. Using density-functional-theory-based calculations, we determine their stable structures of Cr(DDC)2ODDC and Cr(DDC)3 complexes and obtain their dissociation energies. We found dissociation energies of -10.66 and -3.24 eV for Cr(DDC)2ODDC and Cr(DDC)3 complexes, respectively. Hence, on the basis of dissociation energies, we have verified that the reaction of NaDDC with Cr produces Cr(DDC)2ODDC as a major product.

  3. Robust video super-resolution with registration efficiency adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinfeng; Xiong, Ruiqin; Ma, Siwei; Zhang, Li; Gao, Wen

    2010-07-01

    Super-Resolution (SR) is a technique to construct a high-resolution (HR) frame by fusing a group of low-resolution (LR) frames describing the same scene. The effectiveness of the conventional super-resolution techniques, when applied on video sequences, strongly relies on the efficiency of motion alignment achieved by image registration. Unfortunately, such efficiency is limited by the motion complexity in the video and the capability of adopted motion model. In image regions with severe registration errors, annoying artifacts usually appear in the produced super-resolution video. This paper proposes a robust video super-resolution technique that adapts itself to the spatially-varying registration efficiency. The reliability of each reference pixel is measured by the corresponding registration error and incorporated into the optimization objective function of SR reconstruction. This makes the SR reconstruction highly immune to the registration errors, as outliers with higher registration errors are assigned lower weights in the objective function. In particular, we carefully design a mechanism to assign weights according to registration errors. The proposed superresolution scheme has been tested with various video sequences and experimental results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Evaluation of fluorophores for optimal performance in localization-based super-resolution imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, Graham T.; Vaughan, Joshua C.; Chen, Kok Hao; Bates, Mark; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2011-01-01

    One approach to super-resolution fluorescence imaging uses sequential activation and localization of individual fluorophores to achieve high spatial resolution. Essential to this technique is the choice of fluorescent probes — the properties of the probes, including photons per switching event, on/off duty cycle, photostability, and number of switching cycles, largely dictate the quality of super-resolution images. While many probes have been reported, a systematic characterization of the properties of these probes and their impact on super-resolution image quality has been described in only a few cases. Here, we quantitatively characterized the switching properties of 26 organic dyes and directly related these properties to the quality of super-resolution images. This analysis provides a set of guidelines for characterization of super-resolution probes and a resource for selecting probes based on performance. Our evaluation identified several photoswitchable dyes with good to excellent performance in four independent spectral ranges, with which we demonstrated low crosstalk, four-color super-resolution imaging. PMID:22056676

  5. Resent Results from Super-Kamiokande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriyama, S.

    2001-04-01

    Results on atmospheric and solar neutrino analyses at Super-Kamiokande are presented. The whole data set of atmospheric neutrino is consistently explained with an assumption of pure νμ-ντ oscillations. The allowed range of parameters is 1.4 × 10-3 < Δm2 < 5 × 10-3 eV2 and sin2 2θ > 0.88 at 90% C.L. On the other hand, we found pure νμ-νsterile oscillations are disfavored with 99% C.L. From solar neutrino data, we obtained 8B neutrino flux ratio to the prediction of the standard solar model to be 0.465±0.005±0.0150.013. The flux difference of daytime and nighttime is 1.3σ. The energy spectrum is consistent with expectations. By examining daytime and nighttime spectra, we found the small mixing angle solutions and vacuum oscillation solutions which satisfy the observed fluxes of solar neutrino experiments are disfavored with 95% C.L. for νe-νactive oscillations. Similarly, νe-νsterile oscillations are also disfavored.

  6. Adaptive Markov Random Fields for Example-Based Super-resolution of Faces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Todd A.; Chen, Tsuhan

    2006-12-01

    Image enhancement of low-resolution images can be done through methods such as interpolation, super-resolution using multiple video frames, and example-based super-resolution. Example-based super-resolution, in particular, is suited to images that have a strong prior (for those frameworks that work on only a single image, it is more like image restoration than traditional, multiframe super-resolution). For example, hallucination and Markov random field (MRF) methods use examples drawn from the same domain as the image being enhanced to determine what the missing high-frequency information is likely to be. We propose to use even stronger prior information by extending MRF-based super-resolution to use adaptive observation and transition functions, that is, to make these functions region-dependent. We show with face images how we can adapt the modeling for each image patch so as to improve the resolution.

  7. A new six-component super soliton hierarchy and its self-consistent sources and conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han-yu, Wei; Tie-cheng, Xia

    2016-01-01

    A new six-component super soliton hierarchy is obtained based on matrix Lie super algebras. Super trace identity is used to furnish the super Hamiltonian structures for the resulting nonlinear super integrable hierarchy. After that, the self-consistent sources of the new six-component super soliton hierarchy are presented. Furthermore, we establish the infinitely many conservation laws for the integrable super soliton hierarchy. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11547175, 11271008 and 61072147), the First-class Discipline of University in Shanghai, China, and the Science and Technology Department of Henan Province, China (Grant No. 152300410230).

  8. Study on the Rule of Super Strata Movement and Subsidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Shunli; Yuan, Hongyong; Jiang, Fuxing; Chen, Tao; Wu, Peng

    2018-01-01

    The movement of key strata is related to the safety of the whole earth’s surface for coal mining under super strata. Based on the key strata theory, the paper comprehensively analyzes the characteristics of the subsidence before and after the instability of the super strata by studing through FLAC3D and microseismic dynamic monitoring of the surface rock movement observation. The stability of the super strata movement is analyzed according to the characteristic value of the subsidence. The subsidence law and quantitative indexes under the control of the super rock strata that provides basis for the prevention and control of surface risk, optimize mining area and face layout and reasonably set mining boundary around mining area. It provides basis for the even growth of mine safety production and regional public safety.

  9. Uncovering the Roles of Oxygen in Cr(III) Photoredox Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Robert F; Fatur, Steven M; Shepard, Samuel G; Stevenson, Susan M; Boston, David J; Ferreira, Eric M; Damrauer, Niels H; Rappé, Anthony K; Shores, Matthew P

    2016-04-27

    A combined experimental and theoretical investigation aims to elucidate the necessary roles of oxygen in photoredox catalysis of radical cation based Diels-Alder cycloadditions mediated by the first-row transition metal complex [Cr(Ph2phen)3](3+), where Ph2phen = bathophenanthroline. We employ a diverse array of techniques, including catalysis screening, electrochemistry, time-resolved spectroscopy, and computational analyses of reaction thermodynamics. Our key finding is that oxygen acts as a renewable energy and electron shuttle following photoexcitation of the Cr(III) catalyst. First, oxygen quenches the excited Cr(3+)* complex; this energy transfer process protects the catalyst from decomposition while preserving a synthetically useful 13 μs excited state and produces singlet oxygen. Second, singlet oxygen returns the reduced catalyst to the Cr(III) ground state, forming superoxide. Third, the superoxide species reduces the Diels-Alder cycloadduct radical cation to the final product and reforms oxygen. We compare the results of these studies with those from cycloadditions mediated by related Ru(II)-containing complexes and find that the distinct reaction pathways are likely part of a unified mechanistic framework where the photophysical and photochemical properties of the catalyst species lead to oxygen-mediated photocatalysis for the Cr-containing complex but radical chain initiation for the Ru congener. These results provide insight into how oxygen can participate as a sustainable reagent in photocatalysis.

  10. [Adsorptive Stabilization of Soil Cr (VI) Using HDTMA Modified Montmorillonite].

    PubMed

    2016-03-15

    A series of organo-montomorillonites were prepared using Na-montomorillonite and hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HDTMA). The organo-montomorillonites were then investigated for the remediation of Cr(VI) contaminated soils. FT-IR, XRD, SEM and N2 -BET, CEC, Zeta potential measurement were conducted to understand the structural changes of montmorillonites as different amounts of HDTMAs were added as modifier. The characterization results indicated that the clay interlayer spacing distance increased from 1. 25 nm to 2. 13 nm, the clay surface roughness decreased, the clay surface area reduced from 38.91 m² · g⁻¹ to 0.42 m² · g⁻¹, the clay exchangeable cation amount reduced from 62 cmol · kg⁻¹ to 9.9 cmol · kg⁻¹ and the clay surface charge changed from -29.1 mV to 5.59 mV as the dosage of HDTMA in montmorillonite was increased. The TCLP (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) was used to evaluate the leachate toxicity of Cr(VI). The effects of the initial soil Cr(VI) concentration, montmorillonites dosage, reaction time and HDTMA modification amount were investigated, respectively. The results revealed that modification of montmorillonites would manifest an attenuated physical adsorptive effect and an enhanced electrostatic adsorptive effect on Cr(VI), suggesting electrostatic effect was the major force that resulted in improved Cr(VI) adsorption onto HDTMA modified montmorillonites.

  11. 42 CFR § 512.705 - CR/ICR services that count towards CR incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2017-10-01

    ... PAYMENT MODEL CR Incentive Payment Model for EPM and Medicare Fee-for-Service Participants § 512.705 CR... beneficiaries during AMI and CABG model episodes result in eligibility for CR incentive payments. (2) For FFS-CR... an AMI or CABG model episode. (d) CR incentive payment time period. All AMI and CABG model episodes...

  12. Measuring the performance of super-resolution reconstruction algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijk, Judith; Schutte, Klamer; van Eekeren, Adam W. M.; Bijl, Piet

    2012-06-01

    For many military operations situational awareness is of great importance. This situational awareness and related tasks such as Target Acquisition can be acquired using cameras, of which the resolution is an important characteristic. Super resolution reconstruction algorithms can be used to improve the effective sensor resolution. In order to judge these algorithms and the conditions under which they operate best, performance evaluation methods are necessary. This evaluation, however, is not straightforward for several reasons. First of all, frequency-based evaluation techniques alone will not provide a correct answer, due to the fact that they are unable to discriminate between structure-related and noise-related effects. Secondly, most super-resolution packages perform additional image enhancement techniques such as noise reduction and edge enhancement. As these algorithms improve the results they cannot be evaluated separately. Thirdly, a single high-resolution ground truth is rarely available. Therefore, evaluation of the differences in high resolution between the estimated high resolution image and its ground truth is not that straightforward. Fourth, different artifacts can occur due to super-resolution reconstruction, which are not known on forehand and hence are difficult to evaluate. In this paper we present a set of new evaluation techniques to assess super-resolution reconstruction algorithms. Some of these evaluation techniques are derived from processing on dedicated (synthetic) imagery. Other evaluation techniques can be evaluated on both synthetic and natural images (real camera data). The result is a balanced set of evaluation algorithms that can be used to assess the performance of super-resolution reconstruction algorithms.

  13. Method and apparatus for connecting high voltage leads to a high temperature super-conducting transformer

    DOEpatents

    Golner, Thomas M.; Mehta, Shirish P.

    2005-07-26

    A method and apparatus for connecting high voltage leads to a super-conducting transformer is provided that includes a first super-conducting coil set, a second super-conducting coil set, and a third super-conducting coil set. The first, second and third super-conducting coil sets are connected via an insulated interconnect system that includes insulated conductors and insulated connectors that are utilized to connect the first, second, and third super-conducting coil sets to the high voltage leads.

  14. Super Hydrides.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    enantioselective synthesis Of the clinically important anti-depressants, (-)Tomoxetine, Fluoxetine (Prozac, Eli Lilly), and Nisoxetine (Scheme 1 ). Schem I a I...Scheme 1 . Another salient feature of this synthesis is that it correlated for the first time the absolute configuration of the enantiomers of...RD-RI93 710 SUPER HYDRIDES(U) PURDUE UNIV LRFRYETTE IN H C BROWN 1 / 1 NAR 88 RRO-22302.2-CN DAR29-05-K-1662 UNCLSSIFIED F/G 7/3 NI. t2S 16, L,. 10 3

  15. The influence of polycarboxylate-type super-plasticizers on alkali-free liquid concrete accelerators performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wenkang; Yin, Haibo; Wang, Shuyin; He, Zhifeng

    2017-04-01

    Through studying on the setting times, cement mortar compressive strength and cement mortar compressive strength ratio, the influence of alkali-free liquid accelerators polycarboxylate-type super-plasticizers on the performance of alkali-free liquid accelerators in cement-based material was investigated. The results showed that the compatibility of super-plasticizers and alkali-free liquid accelerators was excellent. However, the dosage of super-plasticizers had a certain impact on the performance of alkali-free liquid accelerators as follows: 1) the setting times of alkali-free liquid accelerators was in the inverse proportional relationship to the dosage of super-plasticizers; 2)the influence of super-plasticizers dosage on the cement mortar compressive strength of alkali-free liquid accelerators was related to the types of accelerators, where exist an optimum super-plasticizers dosage for cement mortar compressive strength at 28d; 3)the later cement mortar compressive strength with alkali-free liquid accelerators were decreasing with the increment of the super-plasticizers dosage. In the practical application of alkali-free liquid accelerators and super-plasticizer, the dosage of super-plasticizer must be determined by dosage optimization test results.

  16. Structure and energetics of Cr(CO)6 and Cr(CO)5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Leslie A.; Liu, Bowen; Lindh, Roland

    1993-01-01

    The geometric structures and energetics of Cr(CO)6 and Cr(CO)5 are determined at the modified coupled-pair functional, single and double excitation coupled-cluster (CCSD), and CCSD(T) levels of theory. For Cr(CO)6, the structure and force constants for the totally symmetric representation are in good agreement with experimental data once basis set constants are taken into account. In the largest basis set at the CCSD(T) level of theory, the total binding energy of CR(CO)6 is estimated at around 140 kcal/mol, or about 86 percent of the experimental value. In contrast, the first bond energy of Cr(CO)6 is very well described at the CCSD(T) level of theory, with the best estimated value of 38 kcal/mol being within the experimental uncertainty.

  17. Varieties of sweet sorghum Super-1 and Super-2 and its equipment for bioethanol in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabendon, M. B.; Efendi, R.; Santoso, S. B.; Prastowo, B.

    2017-05-01

    The demands for alternative sources of energy are currently growing because people now are more aware of the many negative impacts fossil fuel gives to the environment. Plant based renewable energy provides potential sources of energy with advantages of cleaner fuel effect and capability of integration with food crop production. Sorghum have been considered to be a highly potential source of food, feed and fuel, especially sweet stalk sorghum that posses both functions as source of food from its grain and fuel made from its stalk juice. Sorghum varieties are well known to have excellent adaptability in marginal areas, especially drought prone areas where other food crops are unable to thrive. The current paper aimed to share ongoing research on many functional uses of sweet stalk sorghum varieties released at Indonesian Cereals Research Institute (ICERI). Among many varieties that had been released were two sweet stalk sorghum varieties SUPER-1 and SUPER-2 released in 2013 that stands out in biomass yield and bioethanol production. Based on various researches conducted at different location and planting season, yield potential of biomass ranged at 30 - 40 t/ha with higher yield occurred during dry season. Stalk juice sugar content in brix were found to be higher in dry season ranged at 13.6 % to 18.4 %, and the amount of juice stalk was obtained at about 30-50 % from total biomass yield. Furthermore, bioethanol production from stalk juice after fermentation was at the range of 8 to 10 % from total stalk juice volume. Modification of processing equipment of bioethanol have also been carried out and was able to increased the concentration of ethanol being distilled from 85% -92% to 90% -95%. Another result obtained was able to decreased fermentation time from 14-21 days to 6-10 days. Furthermore, the yield of ethanol from juice was also from an average of 4.95% to 6.75%.

  18. Multimedia C for Remote Language Teaching over SuperJANET.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes work carried out as part of a remote language teaching research investigation, which is looking into the use of multicast, multimedia conferencing over SuperJANET. The fundamental idea is to investigate the feasibility of sharing language teaching resources among universities within the United Kingdom by using the broadband SuperJANET…

  19. Bioremediation of chromium by the yeast Pichia guilliermondii: toxicity and accumulation of Cr (III) and Cr (VI) and the influence of riboflavin on Cr tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ksheminska, Helena; Jaglarz, Anita; Fedorovych, Daria; Babyak, Lyubov; Yanovych, Dmytro; Kaszycki, Pawel; Koloczek, Henryk

    2003-01-01

    A comparative study has been made on the sensitivity of the yeast Pichia guilliermondii to Cr (III) and Cr (VI) as well as on the Cr uptake potential at growth-inhibitory concentrations of chromium. The strains used in the study were either isolated from natural sources or obtained from a laboratory strain collection. The results show that most of the natural strains were more tolerant to chromium and were able to grow in the presence of 5 mM Cr (III) or 0.5 mM Cr (VI), that is at concentrations which substantially inhibited the growth of laboratory strains. The cellular Cr content after treatment was similar for both strain types and ranged from 1.2-4.0 mg/g d.w. and 0.4-0.9 mg/g d.w., for Cr (III) and Cr (VI) forms, respectively, however, in one case of a natural strain it reached the value of 10 mg Cr (III)/g dry mass. Natural-source strains were grouped into four groups based on the yeasts' differential response to Cr (III) and Cr (VI). Hexavalent Cr-resistant mutants of a P. giuilliermondii laboratory strain, which revealed markedly changed capabilities of chromium accumulation, were obtained by means of UV-induced mutagenesis. Cr (VI) treatment triggered oversynthesis of riboflavin and the addition of exogenous riboflavin increased P. guilliermondii resistance to both Cr (III) and Cr (VI). Electrophoretic protein profiles revealed the induction and/or suppression of several proteins in response to toxic Cr (VI) levels.

  20. Forming Super-Puffs Beyond 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene

    2017-06-01

    Super-puffs are an uncommon class of short-period planets seemingly too voluminous for their small masses (4-10 Rearth, 2-6 Mearth). Super-puffs most easily acquire their thick atmospheres as dust-free, rapidly cooling worlds outside ˜1AU where nebular gas is colder, less dense, and therefore less opaque. These puffy planets probably migrated in to their current orbits; they are expected to form the outer links of mean-motion resonant chains, and to exhibit atmospheric characteristics consistent with formation at large distances. I will also discuss, in general, how densities of planets can be used to infer their formation locations.

  1. KML Super Overlay to WMS Translator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2007-01-01

    This translator is a server-based application that automatically generates KML super overlay configuration files required by Google Earth for map data access via the Open Geospatial Consortium WMS (Web Map Service) standard. The translator uses a set of URL parameters that mirror the WMS parameters as much as possible, and it also can generate a super overlay subdivision of any given area that is only loaded when needed, enabling very large areas of coverage at very high resolutions. It can make almost any dataset available as a WMS service visible and usable in any KML application, without the need to reformat the data.

  2. Spectroscopic Studies of the Super Relaxed State of Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Naber, Nariman; Pate, Edward; Canton, Marcella; Reggiani, Carlo; Cooke, Roger

    2016-01-01

    In the super-relaxed state of myosin, ATPase activity is strongly inhibited by binding of the myosin heads to the core of the thick filament in a structure known as the interacting-heads motif. In the disordered relaxed state myosin heads are not bound to the core of the thick filament and have an ATPase rate that is 10 fold greater. In the interacting-heads motif the two regulatory light chains appear to bind to each other. We have made single cysteine mutants of the regulatory light chain, placed both paramagnetic and fluorescent probes on them, and exchanged them into skinned skeletal muscle fibers. Many of the labeled light chains tended to disrupt the stability of the super-relaxed state, and showed spectral changes in the transition from the disordered relaxed state to the super-relaxed state. These data support the putative interface between the two regulatory light chains identified by cryo electron microscopy and show that both the divalent cation bound to the regulatory light chain and the N-terminus of the regulatory light chain play a role in the stability of the super-relaxed state. One probe showed a shift to shorter wavelengths in the super-relaxed state such that a ratio of intensities at 440nm to that at 520nm provided a measure of the population of the super-relaxed state amenable for high throughput screens for finding potential pharmaceuticals. The results provide a proof of concept that small molecules that bind to this region can destabilize the super-relaxed state and provide a method to search for small molecules that do so leading to a potentially effective treatment for Type 2 diabetes and obesity. PMID:27479128

  3. Super-radiant effects in electron oscillators with near-cutoff operating waves

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bandurkin, I. V.; Savilov, A. V.; Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod

    2015-06-15

    Super-radiant regimes in electron oscillators can be attractive for applications requiring powerful and relatively short pulses of microwave radiation, since the peak power of the super-radiant pulse can exceed the power of the operating electron beam. In this paper, possibilities for realization of the super-radiant regimes are studied in various schemes of electron oscillators based on excitation of near-cutoff operating waves (gyrotron and orotron)

  4. Compositional differences among Chinese soy sauce types studied by (13)C NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Ghulam Mustafa; Wang, Xiaohua; Bin Yuan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Maili

    2016-09-01

    Soy sauce a well known seasoning all over the world, especially in Asia, is available in global market in a wide range of types based on its purpose and the processing methods. Its composition varies with respect to the fermentation processes and addition of additives, preservatives and flavor enhancers. A comprehensive (1)H NMR based study regarding the metabonomic variations of soy sauce to differentiate among different types of soy sauce available on the global market has been limited due to the complexity of the mixture. In present study, (13)C NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical data analysis like principle component analysis (PCA), and orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was applied to investigate metabonomic variations among different types of soy sauce, namely super light, super dark, red cooking and mushroom soy sauce. The main additives in soy sauce like glutamate, sucrose and glucose were easily distinguished and quantified using (13)C NMR spectroscopy which were otherwise difficult to be assigned and quantified due to serious signal overlaps in (1)H NMR spectra. The significantly higher concentration of sucrose in dark, red cooking and mushroom flavored soy sauce can directly be linked to the addition of caramel in soy sauce. Similarly, significantly higher level of glutamate in super light as compared to super dark and mushroom flavored soy sauce may come from the addition of monosodium glutamate. The study highlights the potentiality of (13)C NMR based metabonomics coupled with multivariate statistical data analysis in differentiating between the types of soy sauce on the basis of level of additives, raw materials and fermentation procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ordered bimetallic ferromagnets of chromium(III): [Cr(NH 3) 6][Cr(CN) 6], [Cr(H 2O)(NH 3) 5][Cr(CN) 6], and trans-[Cr(en) 2(H 2O) 2]trans-[Cr(en) 2(OH)F] 2(CIO 4) 5·2H 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burriel, Ramón; Casabó, Jaime; Pons, Josefina; Carnegie, David W.; Carlin, Richard L.

    1985-07-01

    The magnetic bahavior of the isomorphous compounds [Cr(NH 3) 6][Cr(CN) 6] and [Cr(H 2O)(NH 3) 5][Cr(CN) 6] has been studied by means of zero-field susceptibility measurements. The materials order ferromagnetically at 0.60 and 0.38K, respectively. The compounds behave as examples of the ferromagnetic ( S=3/2) Heisenberg body-center-cubic lattice. The susceptibilities have been analyzed and compared to the Padé approximants of the high-temperature series expansion for this model, a remarkably good fit being obtained with exchange constants 0.042 and 0.022 K, respectively. Another bimetallic substance, trans-[Cr(en) 2(H 2O) 2] trans-[Cr(en) 2(OH)F] 2(CIO 4) 5·2H 2O, with a dominant Heisenberg ferromagnetic interaction J/ kB=0.122 K in one dimension, orders antiferromagnetically at 0.14 K due to a weaker interchain interaction with exchange constant z‧ J‧/ kB=-0.019 K. The three sets of measurements have been carried out on powdered samples for which demagnetization effects are important. The exchange interactions are remarkably weak for such concentrated magnetic materials, yet they are stronger than those found in a number of other such Cr/Cr compounds.

  6. High-Temperature Erosive Behavior of Plasma Sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr/Cenosphere Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathapati, Mahantayya; Doddamani, Mrityunjay; Ramesh, M. R.

    2018-02-01

    This research examines the deposition of Cr3C2-NiCr/cenosphere and Cr3C2-NiCr coatings on MDN 321 steel through the process of plasma spray. In this process, the solid particle erosion test is established at 200, 400, 600 °C with 30° and 90° impact angles. Alumina erodent is adopted to investigate the erosive behavior of the coating at higher temperatures. The properties of the Cr3C2-NiCr/cenosphere coating are established based on the microhardness, the adhesive strength, the fracture toughness, and the ductility. To quantify volume loss as a result of erosion, an optical profilometer is used. At higher temperature, decrease in the erosion volume loss of Cr3C2-NiCr/cenosphere and Cr3C2-NiCr coatings is observed. The erosion-resistive property of Cr3C2-NiCr/cenosphere coating is higher than that of MDN 321 steel by 76%. This property is influenced by high-temperature stability of mullite, alumina, and protective oxide layer that is formed at elevated temperatures. The morphology of eroded coating discloses a brittle mode of material removal.

  7. Genetic dissection of the α-globin super-enhancer in vivo

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hay, Deborah; Hughes, Jim R.; Babbs, Christian

    Many genes determining cell identity are regulated by clusters of Mediator-bound enhancer elements collectively referred to as super-enhancers. Furthermore, these super-enhancers have been proposed to manifest higher-order properties important in development and disease. Here we report a comprehensive functional dissection of one of the strongest putative super-enhancers in erythroid cells. By generating a series of mouse models, deleting each of the five regulatory elements of the α-globin super-enhancer individually and in informative combinations, we demonstrate that each constituent enhancer seems to act independently and in an additive fashion with respect to hematological phenotype, gene expression, chromatin structure and chromosome conformation,more » without clear evidence of synergistic or higher-order effects. This study highlights the importance of functional genetic analyses for the identification of new concepts in transcriptional regulation.« less

  8. Genetic dissection of the α-globin super-enhancer in vivo

    DOE PAGES

    Hay, Deborah; Hughes, Jim R.; Babbs, Christian; ...

    2016-07-04

    Many genes determining cell identity are regulated by clusters of Mediator-bound enhancer elements collectively referred to as super-enhancers. Furthermore, these super-enhancers have been proposed to manifest higher-order properties important in development and disease. Here we report a comprehensive functional dissection of one of the strongest putative super-enhancers in erythroid cells. By generating a series of mouse models, deleting each of the five regulatory elements of the α-globin super-enhancer individually and in informative combinations, we demonstrate that each constituent enhancer seems to act independently and in an additive fashion with respect to hematological phenotype, gene expression, chromatin structure and chromosome conformation,more » without clear evidence of synergistic or higher-order effects. This study highlights the importance of functional genetic analyses for the identification of new concepts in transcriptional regulation.« less

  9. Linear relationship between water wetting behavior and microscopic interactions of super-hydrophilic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Chunlei; Guo, Pan; Shi, Guosheng; Fang, Haiping

    2013-12-21

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show a fine linear relationship between surface energies and microscopic Lennard-Jones parameters of super-hydrophilic surfaces. The linear slope of the super-hydrophilic surfaces is consistent with the linear slope of the super-hydrophobic, hydrophobic, and hydrophilic surfaces where stable water droplets can stand, indicating that there is a universal linear behavior of the surface energies with the water-surface van der Waals interaction that extends from the super-hydrophobic to super-hydrophilic surfaces. Moreover, we find that the linear relationship exists for various substrate types, and the linear slopes of these different types of substrates are dependent on the surface atom density, i.e., higher surface atom densities correspond to larger linear slopes. These results enrich our understanding of water behavior on solid surfaces, especially the water wetting behaviors on uncharged super-hydrophilic metal surfaces.

  10. The applications of populus fiber in removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Miaomiao; Gong, Yumei; Lyu, Aichao; Liu, Yuanfa; Zhang, Hong

    2016-10-01

    The surface modification of natural materials to be applied in removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions has attracted much attention. A natural sorbent for Cr(VI) based on natural populus fibers (PF) is prepared by transforming the cyano groups (AN) in polyacrylonitriles (PAN) grafted from PF into amidoxime groups (AO), which has strong ability to attract and chelate heavy metal ions. The prepared sorbent is characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). As potassium dichromate solution (K2Cr2O7) is used as a target solution for detecting adsorption capacity of the sorbent, the adsorption kinetics of the sorbent for chromiun is consistent with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model by analyzing the adsorption amount as a function of the sorbent dispersed duration in solution at pH = 2. The expected adsorption mechanism is that the Cr(VI) in anionic ions Cr2O72- and HCrO4- are adsorbed through electrostatic attraction but when Cr(VI) is reduced to Cr(III) by AO, the electronegative nitrogen and oxygen in AO chelate it through coordination bond. The as-prepared PF derivant with high adsorption efficiency of chromium 180.5 mg/g (3.47 mmol/g), low cost, reusability and greenly preparation process suggests that the development of natural PF as a sorbent in removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions is a destined significant approach.

  11. Mathematical models applied to the Cr(III) and Cr(VI) breakthrough curves.

    PubMed

    Ramirez C, Margarita; Pereira da Silva, Mônica; Ferreira L, Selma G; Vasco E, Oscar

    2007-07-19

    Trivalent and hexavalent chromium continuous biosorption was studied using residual brewer Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized in volcanic rock. The columns used in the process had a diameter of 4.5 cm and a length of 140 cm, working at an inlet flow rate of 15 mL/min. Breakthrough curves were used to study the yeast biosorption behavior in the process. The saturation time (ts) was 21 and 45 h for Cr(III) and Cr(VI), respectively, and a breakthrough time (tb) of 4 h for Cr(III) and 5 h for Cr(VI). The uptake capacity of the biosorbent for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) were 48 and 60 mg/g, respectively. Two non-diffusional mathematical models with parameters t0 and sigma were used to adjust the experimental data obtained. Microsoft Excel tools were used for the mathematical solution of the two parameters used.

  12. Research Program of a Super Fast Reactor

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Oka, Yoshiaki; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Liu, Jie

    2006-07-01

    Research program of a supercritical-pressure light water cooled fast reactor (Super Fast Reactor) is funded by MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) in December 2005 as one of the research programs of Japanese NERI (Nuclear Energy Research Initiative). It consists of three programs. (1) development of Super Fast Reactor concept; (2) thermal-hydraulic experiments; (3) material developments. The purpose of the concept development is to pursue the advantage of high power density of fast reactor over thermal reactors to achieve economic competitiveness of fast reactor for its deployment without waiting for exhausting uranium resources. Design goal is notmore » breeding, but maximizing reactor power by using plutonium from spent LWR fuel. MOX will be the fuel of the Super Fast Reactor. Thermal-hydraulic experiments will be conducted with HCFC22 (Hydro chlorofluorocarbons) heat transfer loop of Kyushu University and supercritical water loop at JAEA. Heat transfer data including effect of grid spacers will be taken. The critical flow and condensation of supercritical fluid will be studied. The materials research includes the development and testing of austenitic stainless steel cladding from the experience of PNC1520 for LMFBR. Material for thermal insulation will be tested. SCWR (Supercritical-Water Cooled Reactor) of GIF (Generation-4 International Forum) includes both thermal and fast reactors. The research of the Super Fast Reactor will enhance SCWR research and the data base. The research period will be until March 2010. (authors)« less

  13. Apoptosis of lymphocytes in the presence of Cr(V) complexes: role in Cr(VI)-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Vasant, C; Balamurugan, K; Rajaram, R; Ramasami, T

    2001-08-03

    Cr(VI) compounds have been declared as a potent occupational carcinogen by IARC (1990) through epidemiological studies among workers in chrome plating, stainless-steel, and pigment industries. Studies relating to the role of intermediate oxidation states such as Cr(V) and Cr(IV) in Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenicity are gaining importance. In this study, issues relating to toxicity elicited by Cr(V) have been addressed and comparisons made with those relating to Cr(VI) employing human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Lymphocytes have been isolated from heparinized blood by Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient centrifugation and exposed to Cr(V) complexes viz. sodium bis(2-ethyl-2-hydroxybutyrato)oxochromate(V), Na[Cr(V)O(ehba)(2)], 1 and sodium bis(2-hydroxy-2-methylbutyrato)oxochromate(V), Na[Cr(V)O(hmba)(2)], 2 and Cr(VI). The phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced proliferation of lymphocytes has been found to be inhibited by the two complexes of Cr(V) and chromate Cr(VI) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Viability of cells decreases in the presence of Cr(V). Apoptosis appears to be the mode of cell death in the presence of both Cr(V) and Cr(VI). Pretreatment of cells with antioxidants before exposure to chromium(V) complexes reverse apoptosis partially. Possibility for the formation and implication of reactive oxygen species in Cr(V)-induced apoptosis of human lymphocyte cells has been indicated in this investigation. The intermediates of Cr(V) and radical species in the biotoxic pathways elicited by Cr(VI) seems feasible. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  14. [Super sweet corn hybrid sh2 adaptability for industrial canning process].

    PubMed

    Ortiz de Bertorelli, Ligia; De Venanzi, Frank; Alfonzo, Braunnier; Camacho, Candelario

    2002-12-01

    The super sweet corns Krispy king, Victor and 324 (sh2 hybrids) were evaluated to determine their adaptabilities to the industrial canning process as whole kernels. All these hybrids and Bonanza (control) were sown in San Joaquín (Carabobo, Venezuela), harvested and canned. After 110 days storage at room temperature they were analyzed to be compared physically, chemically and sensorially with Bonanza hybrid. Results did not show significant differences among most of the physical characteristics, except for percentage of broken kernels which was higher in 324 hybrid. Chemical parameters showed significant differences (P < 0.05) comparing each super sweet hybrid with Bonanza. The super sweet hybrids presented a higher sugar content and soluble solid of the brine than Bonanza, also a lower pH. The super sweet whole kernel presented a lower soluble solids content than Bonanza but they were not significant (Krispy king and 324). Appearance, odor and overall quality were the same for super sweet hybrids and Bonanza (su). Color, flavor and sweetness were better for 324 than all the other hybrids. Super sweet hybrids presented a very good adaptation to the canning process, having as an advantage that doesn't require sugar addition in the brine and a very good texture (firm and crispy).

  15. Radon Mitigation for the SuperCDMS-SNOLAB Dark Matter Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Street, Joseph; SuperCDMS Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Experiments that seek to detect very rare processes, such as interactions of the dark matter particles thought to make up 85% of the mass of the universe, may suffer background interactions from radon daughters that have plated out onto detector surfaces. To reduce these backgrounds, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom was built at the South Dakota School of Mines & Technology. Cleanroom air is supplied by an optimized vacuum-swing-adsorption radon mitigation system that has achieved a > 300 × reduction from an input activity of 58.6 +/- 0.7 Bq/m3 to a cleanroom activity of 0.13 +/- 0.06 Bq/m3. Expected backgrounds due to radon daughters for the SuperCDMS dark matter search will be presented.

  16. Fabrication of TiO2/EP super-hydrophobic thin film on filter paper surface.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhengxin; Zhai, Xianglin; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Ming; Zang, Deli; Wang, Chengyu

    2015-09-05

    A composite filter paper with super-hydrophobicity was obtained by adhering micro/nano structure of amorphous titanium dioxide on the filter paper surface with modifying low surface energy material. By virtue of the coupling agent, which plays an important part in bonding amorphous titanium dioxide and epoxy resin, the structure of super-hydrophobic thin film on the filter paper surface is extremely stable. The microstructure of super-hydrophobic filter paper was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the images showed that the as-prepared filter paper was covered with uniform amorphous titanium dioxide particles, generating a roughness structure on the filter paper surface. The super-hydrophobic performance of the filter paper was characterized by water contact angle measurements. The observations showed that the wettability of filter paper samples transformed from super-hydrophilicity to super-hydrophobicity with the water contact angle of 153 ± 1°. Some experiments were also designed to test the effect of water-oil separation and UV-resistant by the super-hydrophobic filter paper. The prepared super-hydrophobic filter paper worked efficiently and simply in water-oil separation as well as enduringly in anti-UV property after the experiments. This method offers an opportunity to the practical applications of the super-hydrophobic filter paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Impact of SuperB on Flavor Physics

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Meadows, B.; Blanke, M.; Stocchi, A.

    2012-02-16

    This report provides a succinct summary of the physics programme of SuperB, and describes that potential in the context of experiments making measurements in flavour physics over the next 10 to 20 years. Detailed comparisons are made with Belle II and LHCb, the other B physics experiments that will run in this decade. SuperB will play a crucial role in defining the landscape of flavour physics over the next 20 years. SuperB is an approved high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} collider intended to search for indirect and some direct signs of new physics (NP) at low energy, while at themore » same time, enabling precision tests of the Standard Model (SM). This experiment will be built at a new laboratory on the Tor Vergata campus near Rome, Italy named after Nicola Cabibbo. The project has been described in a Conceptual Design Report, and more recently by a set of three white papers on the accelerator, detector, and physics programme. The main focus of the physics programme rests in the study of so-called Golden Modes, these are decay channels that provide access to measurements of theoretically clean observables that can provide both stringent constraints on models of NP, and precision tests of the SM. A number of ancillary measurements that remain important include those with observables that may not be theoretically clean, and those that can be used to provide stringent constraints on the SM but are not sensitive to NP. The remainder of this section introduces SuperB before discussing the golden modes for SuperB, precision CKM measurement modes, and an outline of the rest of this report.« less

  18. Super-Hydrophobic Green Corrosion Inhibitor On Carbon Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, H.; Ismail, A.; Ahmad, S.; Soon, C. F.

    2017-06-01

    There are many examples of organic coatings used for corrosion protection. In particular, hydrophobic and super-hydrophobic coatings are shown to give good protection because of their enhanced ability to slow down transport of water and ions through the coating. The purpose of this research is to develop water repellent coating to avoid direct contact between metal and environment corrosive and mitigate corrosion attack at pipeline system. This water repellent characteristic on super-hydrophobic coating was coated by electrodeposition method. Wettability of carbon steel with super-hydrophobic coating (cerium chloride and myristic acid) and oxidized surface was investigated through contact angle and inhibitor performance test. The inhibitor performance was studied in 25% tannin acid corrosion test at 30°C and 3.5% sodium chloride (NaCl). The water contact angle test was determined by placing a 4-μL water droplet of distilled water. It shows that the wettability of contact angle super-hydrophobic with an angle of 151.60° at zero minute can be classified as super-hydrophobic characteristic. By added tannin acid as inhibitor the corrosion protection on carbon steel becomes more consistent. This reveals that the ability of the coating to withstand with the corrosion attack in the seawater at different period of immersions. The results elucidate that the weight loss increased as the time of exposure increased. However, the corrosion rates for uncoated carbon steel is high compared to coated carbon steel. As a conclusion, from both samples it can be seen that the coated carbon steel has less corrosion rated compared to uncoated carbon steel and addition of inhibitor to the seawater provides more protection to resist corrosion attack on carbon steel.

  19. Reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by green rust - sulphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skovbjerg, L.; Stipp, S.

    2003-04-01

    Chromium is widely used in industrial processes such as leather tanning, electro-plating and as colour pigments. Unfortunately, hexavalent chromium is both toxic and very soluble so it can be a problem for groundwater resources. Given the right redox conditions, however, Cr(VI) can be reduced to trivalent chromium, which is much less soluble and is an essential trace nutrient. Fe(II), an element common in soil and sediments under anaerobic conditions, can serve as a reducing agent for Cr(VI). Green Rust (GR) is a layered Fe(II),Fe(III)-hydroxide with various anions compensating charge in the interlayers. It is very effective in reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III). GR exists in nature and is thought to be precursor for the formation of Fe(III)-oxides and oxyhydroxides at the redox boundary. It may be that the formation of GR is a key process in the effectiveness of reactive barriers for groundwater remediation that are based on Fe(0). The purpose of this work is to investigate the mechanisms controlling Cr(VI) reduction by Green Rust, to examine the effect of Cr adsorption and incorporation on GR morphology and composition, and to define the role of parameters such as interlayer anion, initial Cr(VI) concentration and time. We are using freshly synthesised material that has not been dried to avoid structural changes that may accompany dehydration and rehydration. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is used to characterise mineral structural changes and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), to examine changes in morphology as reactions take place. By adjusting the concentration of Cr(VI), we can control the rate of surface change and we can observe the nanoscale particles directly.

  20. Opto-chemical response of CR-39 and polystyrene to swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Lakhwant; Singh Samra, Kawaljeet; Singh, Ravinder

    2007-02-01

    The samples of CR-39 and polystyrene (PS) polymers have been irradiated with 64Cu 9+ (120 MeV) and 12C 5+ (70 MeV) ion beams having fluence ranging from 1 × 10 11 to 1 × 10 13 ions/cm -2. UV spectra of irradiated samples reveal that the optical band gap decreases from 5.50 to 2.75 eV in CR-39 and from 4.36 to 1.73 eV in PS. The correlation between optical band gap and the number of carbon atoms in a cluster with modified Tauc's equation has been discussed in case of CR-39. FTIR spectra reveal that there is the formation of hydroxyl, alkene, alkyne and carboxylic groups in the Cu-ion irradiated PS. In CR-39, changes in the intensity of the bands on irradiation relative to pristine samples without appearance of any new band have been observed and discussed.

  1. Fabrication of super-hydrophobic duo-structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, F.; Jiang, Y. J.; Wang, Y. Y.; Shi, Z. W.; Peng, C. S.

    2015-04-01

    Recently, super-hydrophobicity has attracted increasing attention due to its huge potential in the practical applications. In this paper, we have presented a duo-structure of the combination of micro-dot-matrix and nano-candle-soot. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used as a combination layer between the dot-matrix and the soot particles. Firstly, a period of 9-μm dot-matrix was easily fabricated on the K9 glass using the most simple and mature photolithography process. Secondly, the dot-matrix surface was coated by a thin film of PDMS (elastomer: hardener=10:1) which was diluted by methylbenzene at the volume ratio of 1:8. Thirdly, we held the PDMS modified surface over a candle flame to deposit a soot layer and followed by a gentle water-risen to remove the non-adhered particles. At last, the samples were baked at 85°C for 2 hours and then the duo-structure surface with both micro-size dot-matrix and nano-size soot particles was obtained. The SEM indicated this novel surface morphology was quite like a lotus leaf of the well-know micro-nano-binary structures. As a result, the contact angle meter demonstrated such surface exhibited a perfect super-hydrophobicity with water contact angle of 153° and sliding angle of 3°. Besides, just listed as above, the fabrication process for our structure was quite more easy, smart and low-cost compared with the other production technique for super-hydrophobic surfaces such as the phase separation method, electrochemical deposition and chemical vapor deposition etc. Hence, this super-hydrophobic duo-structure reported in this letter was a great promising candidate for a wide and rapid commercialization in the future.

  2. Atmospheric, Long Baseline, and Reactor Neutrino Data Constraints on θ13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roa, J. E.; Latimer, D. C.; Ernst, D. J.

    2009-08-01

    An atmospheric neutrino oscillation tool that uses full three-neutrino oscillation probabilities and a full three-neutrino treatment of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect, together with an analysis of the K2K, MINOS, and CHOOZ data, is used to examine the bounds on θ13. The recent, more finely binned, Super-K atmospheric data are employed. For L/Eν≳104km/GeV, we previously found significant linear in θ13 terms. This analysis finds θ13 bounded from above by the atmospheric data while bounded from below by CHOOZ. The origin of this result arises from data in the previously mentioned very long baseline region; here, matter effects conspire with terms linear in θ13 to produce asymmetric bounds on θ13. Assuming CP conservation, we find θ13=-0.07-0.11+0.18 (90% C.L.).

  3. P-type Al-doped Cr-deficient CrN thin films for thermoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    le Febvrier, Arnaud; Van Nong, Ngo; Abadias, Gregory; Eklund, Per

    2018-05-01

    Thermoelectric properties of chromium nitride (CrN)-based films grown on c-plane sapphire by dc reactive magnetron sputtering were investigated. In this work, aluminum doping was introduced in CrN (degenerate n-type semiconductor) by co-deposition. Under the present deposition conditions, over-stoichiometry in nitrogen (CrN1+δ) rock-salt structure is obtained. A p-type conduction is observed with nitrogen-rich CrN combined with aluminum doping. The Cr0.96Al0.04N1.17 film exhibited a high Seebeck coefficient and a sufficient power factor at 300 °C. These results are a starting point for designing p-type/n-type thermoelectric materials based on chromium nitride films, which are cheap and routinely grown on the industrial scale.

  4. Reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by wetland plants: Potential for in situ heavy metal detoxification

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lytle, C.M.; Qian, J.H.; Hansen, D.

    1998-10-15

    Reduction of heavy metals in situ by plants may be a useful detoxification mechanism for phytoremediation. Using X-ray spectroscopy, the authors show that Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), supplied with Cr(VI) in nutrient culture, accumulated nontoxic Cr(III) in root and shoot tissues. The reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) appeared to occur in the fine lateral roots. The Cr(III) was subsequently translocated to leaf tissues. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure of Cr in leaf and petiole differed when compared to Cr in roots. In roots, Cr(III) was hydrated by water, but in petiole and more so in leaf, a portion of themore » Cr(III) may be bound to oxalate ligands. This suggests that E. crassipes detoxified Cr(VI) upon root uptake and transported a portion of the detoxified Cr to leaf tissues. Cr-rich crystalline structures were observed on the leaf surface. The chemical species of Cr in other plants, collected from wetlands that contained Cr(VI)-contaminated wastewater, was also found to be Cr(III). The authors propose that this plant-based reduction of Cr(VI) by E. crassipes has the potential to be used for the in situ detoxification of Cr(VI)-contaminated wastestreams.« less

  5. Super-ranging. A new ranging strategy in European badgers.

    PubMed

    Gaughran, Aoibheann; Kelly, David J; MacWhite, Teresa; Mullen, Enda; Maher, Peter; Good, Margaret; Marples, Nicola M

    2018-01-01

    We monitored the ranging of a wild European badger (Meles meles) population over 7 years using GPS tracking collars. Badger range sizes varied seasonally and reached their maximum in June, July and August. We analysed the summer ranging behaviour, using 83 home range estimates from 48 individuals over 6974 collar-nights. We found that while most adult badgers (males and females) remained within their own traditional social group boundaries, several male badgers (on average 22%) regularly ranged beyond these traditional boundaries. These adult males frequently ranged throughout two (or more) social group's traditional territories and had extremely large home ranges. We therefore refer to them as super-rangers. While ranging across traditional boundaries has been recorded over short periods of time for extraterritorial mating and foraging forays, or for pre-dispersal exploration, the animals in this study maintained their super-ranges from 2 to 36 months. This study represents the first time such long-term extra-territorial ranging has been described for European badgers. Holding a super-range may confer an advantage in access to breeding females, but could also affect local interaction networks. In Ireland & the UK, badgers act as a wildlife reservoir for bovine tuberculosis (TB). Super-ranging may facilitate the spread of disease by increasing both direct interactions between conspecifics, particularly across social groups, and indirect interactions with cattle in their shared environment. Understanding super-ranging behaviour may both improve our understanding of tuberculosis epidemiology and inform future control strategies.

  6. Super-ranging. A new ranging strategy in European badgers

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, David J.; Good, Margaret; Marples, Nicola M.

    2018-01-01

    We monitored the ranging of a wild European badger (Meles meles) population over 7 years using GPS tracking collars. Badger range sizes varied seasonally and reached their maximum in June, July and August. We analysed the summer ranging behaviour, using 83 home range estimates from 48 individuals over 6974 collar-nights. We found that while most adult badgers (males and females) remained within their own traditional social group boundaries, several male badgers (on average 22%) regularly ranged beyond these traditional boundaries. These adult males frequently ranged throughout two (or more) social group’s traditional territories and had extremely large home ranges. We therefore refer to them as super-rangers. While ranging across traditional boundaries has been recorded over short periods of time for extraterritorial mating and foraging forays, or for pre-dispersal exploration, the animals in this study maintained their super-ranges from 2 to 36 months. This study represents the first time such long-term extra-territorial ranging has been described for European badgers. Holding a super-range may confer an advantage in access to breeding females, but could also affect local interaction networks. In Ireland & the UK, badgers act as a wildlife reservoir for bovine tuberculosis (TB). Super-ranging may facilitate the spread of disease by increasing both direct interactions between conspecifics, particularly across social groups, and indirect interactions with cattle in their shared environment. Understanding super-ranging behaviour may both improve our understanding of tuberculosis epidemiology and inform future control strategies. PMID:29444100

  7. Complete super-sample lensing covariance in the response approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreira, Alexandre; Krause, Elisabeth; Schmidt, Fabian

    2018-06-01

    We derive the complete super-sample covariance (SSC) of the matter and weak lensing convergence power spectra using the power spectrum response formalism to accurately describe the coupling of super- to sub-survey modes. The SSC term is completely characterized by the survey window function, the nonlinear matter power spectrum and the full first-order nonlinear power spectrum response function, which describes the response to super-survey density and tidal field perturbations. Generalized separate universe simulations can efficiently measure these responses in the nonlinear regime of structure formation, which is necessary for lensing applications. We derive the lensing SSC formulae for two cases: one under the Limber and flat-sky approximations, and a more general one that goes beyond the Limber approximation in the super-survey mode and is valid for curved sky applications. Quantitatively, we find that for sky fractions fsky ≈ 0.3 and a single source redshift at zS=1, the use of the flat-sky and Limber approximation underestimates the total SSC contribution by ≈ 10%. The contribution from super-survey tidal fields to the lensing SSC, which has not been included in cosmological analyses so far, is shown to represent about 5% of the total lensing covariance on multipoles l1,l2 gtrsim 300. The SSC is the dominant off-diagonal contribution to the total lensing covariance, making it appropriate to include these tidal terms and beyond flat-sky/Limber corrections in cosmic shear analyses.

  8. Local lattice distortion in NiCoCr, FeCoNiCr and FeCoNiCrMn concentrated alloys investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    DOE PAGES

    Tong, Yang; Jin, Ke; Bei, Hongbin; ...

    2018-05-26

    Severe lattice distortion is presumptively considered as a core effect of high-entropy alloys, but quantitative measurements are still missing. Here, we demonstrate that the lattice distortion in high-entropy alloys can be quantitatively analyzed based on pair distribution function obtained from synchrotron X-ray diffraction. By applying this method to equiatomic NiCoCr, FeCoNiCr and FeCoNiCrMn concentrated alloys, we found that the local lattice distortion in the NiCoCr (0.23%) and FeCoNiCrMn (0.24%) alloys are comparable while negligible in the FeCoNiCr alloy (0.04%). Furthermore, the origin of local lattice distortion in the NiCoCr and FeCoNiCrMn concentrated alloys was discussed.

  9. Local lattice distortion in NiCoCr, FeCoNiCr and FeCoNiCrMn concentrated alloys investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tong, Yang; Jin, Ke; Bei, Hongbin

    Severe lattice distortion is presumptively considered as a core effect of high-entropy alloys, but quantitative measurements are still missing. Here, we demonstrate that the lattice distortion in high-entropy alloys can be quantitatively analyzed based on pair distribution function obtained from synchrotron X-ray diffraction. By applying this method to equiatomic NiCoCr, FeCoNiCr and FeCoNiCrMn concentrated alloys, we found that the local lattice distortion in the NiCoCr (0.23%) and FeCoNiCrMn (0.24%) alloys are comparable while negligible in the FeCoNiCr alloy (0.04%). Furthermore, the origin of local lattice distortion in the NiCoCr and FeCoNiCrMn concentrated alloys was discussed.

  10. Design, Implementation, and Operational Methodologies for Sub-arcsecond Attitude Determination, Control, and Stabilization of the Super-pressure Balloon-Borne Imaging Telescope (SuperBIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javier Romualdez, Luis

    Scientific balloon-borne instrumentation offers an attractive, competitive, and effective alternative to space-borne missions when considering the overall scope, cost, and development timescale required to design and launch scientific instruments. In particular, the balloon-borne environment provides a near-space regime that is suitable for a number of modern astronomical and cosmological experiments, where the atmospheric interference suffered by ground-based instrumentation is negligible at stratospheric altitudes. This work is centered around the analytical strategies and implementation considerations for the attitude determination and control of SuperBIT, a scientific balloon-borne payload capable of meeting the strict sub-arcsecond pointing and image stability requirements demanded by modern cosmological experiments. Broadly speaking, the designed stability specifications of SuperBIT coupled with its observational efficiency, image quality, and accessibility rivals state-of-the-art astronomical observatories such as the Hubble Space Telescope. To this end, this work presents an end-to-end design methodology for precision pointing balloon-borne payloads such as SuperBIT within an analytical yet implementationally grounded context. Simulation models of SuperBIT are analytically derived to aid in pre-assembly trade-off and case studies that are pertinent to the dynamic balloon-borne environment. From these results, state estimation techniques and control methodologies are extensively developed, leveraging the analytical framework of simulation models and design studies. This pre-assembly design phase is physically validated during assembly, integration, and testing through implementation in real-time hardware and software, which bridges the gap between analytical results and practical application. SuperBIT attitude determination and control is demonstrated throughout two engineering test flights that verify pointing and image stability requirements in flight

  11. Influence of Co content on the biocompatibility and bio-corrosion of super ferritic stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Y. R.; Jang, S. G.; Nam, H. S.; Shim, G. T.; Cho, H. H.; Kim, J. G.; Kim, Y. S.

    2008-12-01

    Bio-metals require high corrosion resistance, because their biocompatibility is closely related to this parameter. Bio-metals release metal ions into the human body, leading to deleterious effects. Allergies, dermatitis, and asthma are the predominant systemic effects resulting in the human body. In particular, Ni is one of the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis. In the present work, we designed new ferritic stainless steels wherein Ni is replaced with Co under consideration of allergic respondes and microstructural stability. This work focuses on the effect of Co content on the biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of high PRE super ferritic stainless steels in bio-solution and acidic chloride solution. In the case of the acidic chloride solution, with increasing Co content in the ferritic stainless steels, passive current density increased and critical pitting temperature (CPT) decreased. Also, in the passive state, AC impedance and repassivation rate were reduced. These results are attributed to the thermodynamic stability of cobalt ions, as indicated in the EpH diagram for a Co-H2O system. However, in the case of bio-solutions, with increasing Co content of the alloys, the passive current density decreased. AC impedance and repassivation rate meanwhile increased in the passive state. This is due to the increased ratios of Cr2O3/Cr(OH)3 and [Metal Oxide]/Metal + Metal Oxide] of the passive film formed in bio-solution.

  12. Biocompatible Ferromagnetic Cr-Trihalide Monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiang

    Cr with an electronic configuration of 3d54s1 possesses the largest atomic magnetic moment (6µB) of all elements in the 3d transition metal series. Furthermore, the trivalent chromium (Cr3+) is biocompatible and is widely found in food and supplements. Here using first principles calculations combined with Monte Carlo simulations based on Ising model, we systematically study a class of 2D ferromagnetic monolayers CrX3 (X = Cl, Br, I). The feasibility of exfoliation from their layered bulk phase is confirmed by the small cleavage energy and high in-plane stiffness. Spin-polarized calculations, combined with self consistently determined Hubbard U that accounts for strong correlation energy, demonstrate that CrX3 (X =Cl, Br, I) monolayers are ferromagnetic and Cr is trivalent and carries a magnetic moment of 3µB, the resulting Cr3+ ions are biocompatible. The corresponding Curie temperatures for CrCl3 CrBr3 CrI3 are are found to 66, 86, and 107 K, respectively, which can be increased to 323, 314, 293 K by hole doping. The biocompatibility and ferromagnetism render these Cr-containing trichalcogenide monolayers unique for applications.

  13. Determination of Cr(III) solids formed by reduction of Cr(VI) in a contaminated fractured bedrock aquifer: evidence for natural attenuation of Cr(VI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) is toxic and can be highly mobile in many aquifer systems. Redox reactions with naturally occurring minerals and organic compounds can reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III), forming labile Cr(III) oxyhydroxide precipitates, which is a natural attenuation process. In...

  14. A study of degradation resistance and cytocompatibility of super-hydrophobic coating on magnesium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yufen; Feyerabend, Frank; Tang, Shawei; Hu, Jin; Lu, Xiaopeng; Blawert, Carsten; Lin, Tiegui

    2017-09-01

    Calcium stearate based super-hydrophobic coating was deposited on plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) pre-treated magnesium substrate. The pre-treated magnesium and super-hydrophobic coating covered sample were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electrochemical corrosion measurements. The cytocompatibility and degradation resistance of magnesium, pre-treated magnesium and super-hydrophobic coating were analysed in terms of cell adhesion and osteoblast differentiation. The results indicate that the calcium stearate top coating shows super-hydrophobicity and that the surface is composed of micro/nanostructure. The super-hydrophobic coating covered sample shows higher barrier properties compared with the PEO pre-treated magnesium and bare magnesium. Human osteoblast proliferation, but not differentiation is enhanced by the PEO coating. Contrary, the super-hydrophobic coating reduces proliferation, but enhances differentiation of osteoblast, observable by the formation of hydroxyapatite. The combination of corrosion protection and cell reaction indicates that this system could be interesting for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An early shoulder repositioning program in birth-related brachial plexus injury: a pilot study of the Sup-ER protocol.

    PubMed

    Verchere, Cynthia; Durlacher, Kim; Bellows, Doria; Pike, Jeffrey; Bucevska, Marija

    2014-06-01

    Birth-related brachial plexus injury (BRBPI) occurs in 1.2/1,000 births in British Columbia. Even in children with "good" recovery, external rotation (ER) and supination (Sup) are often weaker, and permanent skeletal imbalance ensues. A preventive early infant shoulder passive repositioning program was created using primarily a novel custom splint holding the affected arm in full ER and Sup: the Sup-ER splint. The details of the splint and the shoulder repositioning program evolved with experience over several years. This study reviews the first 4 years. A retrospective review of BCCH patients managed with the Sup-ER protocol from 2008 to 2011 compared their recovery scores to matched historical controls selected from our database by two independent reviewers. The protocol was initiated in 18 children during the study period. Six were excluded due to the following: insufficient data points, non-compliance, late splint initiation, and loss to follow-up. Of the 12 matches, the Sup-ER group final score at 2 years was better than controls by 1.18 active movement scale (AMS) points (p = 0.036) in Sup and 0.96 AMS points in ER (but not statistically significant (p = 0.13)). Unexpectedly, but importantly, during the study period, zero subjects were assessed to have the active functional criteria to indicate brachial plexus reconstruction, where previously we operated on 13 %. Early application of passive shoulder repositioning into Sup and ER may improve outcomes in function of the arm in infants with BRBPI. A North American multi-site randomized control trial has been approved and has started recruitment.

  16. Iowa's High School Super Senior School-to-Work Transition Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nietupski, John; Warth, Judy; Winslow, Amy; Johnson, Russ; Douglas, Beverly; Johnson, Maggie; Cilek, Judy

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an innovative school-to-work transition program incorporating identified best practices. Iowa's Super Senior program serves students in the "middle range" of the disability severity spectrum during the student's senior and 5th, or "Super Senior" year. The article describes the program elements, presents…

  17. SuperHERO: The Next Generation Hard X-Ray HEROES Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Gaskin, Jessica A.; Christe, Steven D.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Seller, Paul; Shih, Albert Y.; Stuchlik, David W.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Tenant, Allyn F.; hide

    2014-01-01

    SuperHERO is a new high-sensitivity Long Duration Balloon (LDB)-capable, hard-x-ray (20-75 keV) telescope for making novel astrophysics and heliophysics observations. The proposed SuperHERO payload will be developed jointly by the Astrophysics Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the Solar Physics Laboratory and Wallops Flight Facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. SuperHERO is a follow-on payload to the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) balloon-borne telescope that recently launched from Fort Sumner, NM in September of 2013. The HEROES core instrument is a hard x-ray telescope consisting of x-ray 109 optics configured into 8 modules. Each module is aligned to a matching gas-filled detector at a focal length of 6 m. SuperHERO will make significant improvements to the HEROES payload, including: new solid-state multi-pixel CdTe detectors, additional optics, the Wallops Arc-Second Pointer, alignment monitoring systems and lighter gondola.

  18. SuperHERO: The Next Generation Hard X-ray HEROES Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, Jessica A.; Christe, Steven D.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Shih, Albert Y. M.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Tennant, Allyn F.; Swartz, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    SuperHERO is a new high-sensitivity Long Duration Balloon (LDB)-capable, hard-x-ray (20-75 keV) telescope for making novel astrophysics and heliophysics observations. The proposed SuperHERO payload will be developed jointly by the Astrophysics Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the Solar Physics Laboratory and Wallops Flight Facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. SuperHERO is a follow-on payload to the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) balloon-borne telescope that recently launched from Fort Sumner, NM in September of 2013. The HEROES core instrument is a hard x-ray telescope consisting of x-ray 109 optics configured into 8 modules. Each module is aligned to a matching gas-filled detector at a focal length of 6 m. SuperHERO will make significant improvements to the HEROES payload, including: new solid-state multi-pixel CdTe detectors, additional optics, the Wallops Arc-Second Pointer, alignment monitoring systems and lighter gondola.

  19. Fracture toughness and sliding properties of magnetron sputtered CrBC and CrBCN coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qianzhi; Zhou, Fei; Ma, Qiang; Callisti, Mauro; Polcar, Tomas; Yan, Jiwang

    2018-06-01

    CrBC and CrBCN coatings with low and high B contents were deposited on 316L steel and Si wafers using an unbalanced magnetron sputtering system. Mechanical properties including hardness (H), elastic modulus (E) and fracture toughness (KIc) as well as residual stresses (σ) were quantified. A clear correlation between structural, mechanical and tribological properties of coatings was found. In particular, structural analyses indicated that N incorporation in CrBC coatings with high B content caused a significant structural evolution of the nanocomposite structure (crystalline grains embedded into an amorphous matrix) from nc-CrB2/(a-CrBx, a-BCx) to nc-CrN/(a-BCx, a-BN). As a result, the hardness of CrBC coating with high B content decreased from 23.4 to 16.3 GPa but the fracture toughness was enhanced. Consequently, less cracks initiated on CrBCN coatings during tribological tests, which combined with the shielding effect of a-BN on wear debris, led to a low friction coefficient and wear rate.

  20. Verification of passive cooling techniques in the Super-FRS beam collimators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douma, C. A.; Gellanki, J.; Najafi, M. A.; Moeini, H.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Rigollet, C.; Kuiken, O. J.; Lindemulder, M. F.; Smit, H. A. J.; Timersma, H. J.

    2016-08-01

    The Super FRagment Separator (Super-FRS) at the FAIR facility will be the largest in-flight separator of heavy ions in the world. One of the essential steps in the separation procedure is to stop the unwanted ions with beam collimators. In one of the most common situations, the heavy ions are produced by a fission reaction of a primary 238U-beam (1.5 GeV/u) hitting a 12C target (2.5 g/cm2). In this situation, some of the produced ions are highly charged states of 238U. These ions can reach the collimators with energies of up to 1.3 GeV/u and a power of up to 500 W. Under these conditions, a cooling system is required to prevent damage to the collimators and to the corresponding electronics. Due to the highly radioactive environment, both the collimators and the cooling system must be suitable for robot handling. Therefore, an active cooling system is undesirable because of the increased possibility of malfunctioning and other complications. By using thermal simulations (performed with NX9 of Siemens PLM), the possibility of passive cooling is explored. The validity of these simulations is tested by independent comparison with other simulation programs and by experimental verification. The experimental verification is still under analysis, but preliminary results indicate that the explored passive cooling option provides sufficient temperature reduction.

  1. Microsphere-aided optical microscopy and its applications for super-resolution imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upputuri, Paul Kumar; Pramanik, Manojit

    2017-12-01

    The spatial resolution of a standard optical microscope (SOM) is limited by diffraction. In visible spectrum, SOM can provide ∼ 200 nm resolution. To break the diffraction limit several approaches were developed including scanning near field microscopy, metamaterial super-lenses, nanoscale solid immersion lenses, super-oscillatory lenses, confocal fluorescence microscopy, techniques that exploit non-linear response of fluorophores like stimulated emission depletion microscopy, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, etc. Recently, photonic nanojet generated by a dielectric microsphere was used to break the diffraction limit. The microsphere-approach is simple, cost-effective and can be implemented under a standard microscope, hence it has gained enormous attention for super-resolution imaging. In this article, we briefly review the microsphere approach and its applications for super-resolution imaging in various optical imaging modalities.

  2. Impedance spectroscopy of undoped and Cr-doped ZnO gas sensors under different oxygen concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hardan, N.; Abdullah, M. J.; Aziz, A. Abdul

    2011-08-01

    Thin films of undoped and chromium (Cr)-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) were synthesized by RF reactive co-sputtering for oxygen gas sensing applications. The prepared films showed a highly c-axis oriented phase with a dominant (0 0 2) peak appeared at a Bragg angle of around 34.13 °, which was lower than that of the standard reference of ZnO powder (34.42 °). The peak shifted to a slightly higher angle with Cr doping. The operating temperature of the ZnO gas sensor was around 350 °C, which shifted to around 250 °C with Cr-doping. The response of the sensor to oxygen gas was enhanced by doping ZnO with 1 at.% Cr. Impedance spectroscopy analysis showed that the resistance due to grain boundaries significantly contributed to the characteristics of the gas sensor.

  3. The Reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by Natural Fe-Bearing Minerals: A Synchrotron XAS Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H.; Guo, X.; Ding, M.; Migdissov, A. A.; Boukhalfa, H.; Sun, C.; Roback, R. C.; Reimus, P. W.; Katzman, D.

    2017-12-01

    Cr(VI) in the form of CrO42- is a pollutant species in groundwater and soils that can pose health and environmental problems. Cr(VI) associated with use as a corrosion inhibitor at a power plant from 1956-1972 is present in a deep groundwater aquifer at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A potential remediation strategy for the Cr contamination is reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) via the acceptance of electrons from naturally occurring or induced Fe(II) occurring in Fe-bearing minerals. In this work, using synchrotron-based X-ray techniques, we investigated the Cr reduction behavior by Fe-bearing minerals from outcrop and core samples representative of the contaminated portion of the aquifer. Samples were exposed to solutions with a range of known Cr (VI) concentrations. XANES and EXAFS spectra showed that all the Cr(VI) had been reduced to Cr(III), and micro XRF mapping revealed close correlation of Cr and Fe distribution, implying that Fe(II) in minerals reduced Cr(VI) in the solution. Similar behavior was observed from in-situ XANES measurements on Cr reduction and adsorption by mineral separates from the rock samples in Cr(VI)-bearing solutions. In addition, to obtain reference parameters for interpreting the data of natural samples, we collected Cr and Fe EXAFS spectra of Cr(III)-Fe(III) hydroxide solid solutions, which show progressive changes in the local structure around Cr and Fe over the whole series.

  4. Development and characterization of PdCr temperature-compensated wire resistance strain gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lei, Jih-Fen

    1989-01-01

    A temperature-compensated resistance static strain gage with potential to be used to 600 C was recently developed. Gages were fabricated from specially developed palladium-13 w/o chromium (Pd-13Cr) wire and platinum (Pt) compensator. When bonded to high temperature Hastelloy X, the apparent strain from room temperature to 600 C was within 400 microstrain for gages with no preheat treatment and within 3500 microstrain for gages with 16 hours prestabilization at 640 C. The apparent strain versus temperature relationship of stabilized PdCr gages were repeatable with the reproducibility within 100 microstrain during three thermal cycles to 600 C and an 11 hours soak at 600 C. The gage fabrication, construction and installation is described. Also, the coating system used for this compensated resistance strain gage is explained. The electrical properties of the strain sensing element and main characteristics of the compensated gage including apparent strain, drift and reproducibility are discussed.

  5. Competing spin fluctuations and trace of vortex dynamics in the two-dimensional triangular-lattice antiferromagnet AgCrS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wenshuai; Shi, Liran; Ouyang, Zhongwen; Xia, Zhengcai; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Bingjie; Li, Hexuan; Zou, Youming; Yu, Lu; Zhang, Lei; Pi, Li; Qu, Zhe; Zhang, Yuheng

    2018-07-01

    The spin dynamics of the two-dimensional triangular-lattice antiferromagnet AgCrS2 is investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The g-factor is found to show an unusual non-monotonously temperature dependent behavior, which, along with the super-Curie behavior observed in the ESR intensity data, provides clear evidence for the competition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic fluctuations at temperatures well above T N. On approaching the Néel temperature T N from above, the linewidth is found to diverge. Such a divergent behavior could be well described by the Kawamura–Miyashita model due to Z2 type magnetic vortex–antivortex pairing, which is consistent with the expectation for a 2D Heisenberg magnetic system.

  6. Persistent Super-Utilization of Acute Care Services Among Subgroups of Veterans Experiencing Homelessness.

    PubMed

    Szymkowiak, Dorota; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Johnson, Erin E; Manning, Todd; O'Toole, Thomas P

    2017-10-01

    Acute health care utilization often occurs among persons experiencing homelessness. However, knowing which individuals will be persistent super-utilizers of acute care is less well understood. The objective of the study was to identify those more likely to be persistent super-utilizers of acute care services. We conducted a latent class analysis of secondary data from the Veterans Health Administration Corporate Data Warehouse, and Homeless Operations Management and Evaluation System. The study sample included 16,912 veterans who experienced homelessness and met super-utilizer criteria in any quarter between July 1, 2014 and December 31, 2015. The latent class analysis included veterans' diagnoses and acute care utilization. Medical, mental health, and substance use morbidity rates were high. More than half of the sample utilized Veterans Health Administration Homeless Programs concurrently with their super-utilization of acute care. There were 7 subgroups of super-utilizers, which varied considerably on the degree to which their super-utilization persisted over time. Approximately a third of the sample met super-utilizer criteria for ≥3 quarters; this group was older and disproportionately male, non-Hispanic white, and unmarried, with lower rates of post-9/11 service and higher rates of rural residence and service-connected disability. They were much more likely to be currently homeless with more medical, mental health, and substance use morbidity. Only a subset of homeless veterans were persistent super-utilizers, suggesting the need for more targeted interventions.

  7. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex N-acetylaspartate/total creatine (NAA/tCr) loss in male recreational cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Derik; Sartorius, Alexander; Welzel, Helga; Walter, Sigrid; Skopp, Gisela; Ende, Gabriele; Mann, Karl

    2007-06-01

    Cannabinoids present neurotoxic and neuroprotective properties in in vitro studies, inconsistent alterations in human neuroimaging studies, neuropsychological deficits, and an increased risk for psychotic episodes. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS), neuropsychological testing, and hair analysis for cannabinoids was performed in 13 male nontreatment-seeking recreational cannabis users and 13 male control subjects. A significantly diminished N-acetylaspartate/total creatine (NAA/tCr) ratio in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was observed in cannabis users (p = .0003). The NAA/tCr in the putamen/globus pallidum region correlated significantly with cannabidiol (R(2) = .66, p = .004). Results of the Wisconsin Card Sorting test, Trail making Test, and D2 test for attention were influenced by cannabinoids. Chronic recreational cannabis use is associated with an indication of diminished neuronal and axonal integrity in the DLPFC in this study. As chronic cannabis use is a risk factor for psychosis, these results are interesting because diminished NAA/tCr ratios in the DLPFC and neuropsychological deficits were also reported in schizophrenia. The strong positive correlation of NAA/tCr and cannabidiol in the putamen/globus pallidum is in line with neuroprotective properties of cannabidiol, which were also observed in in vitro model studies of Parkinson's disease.

  8. Widespread extrahippocampal NAA/(Cr+Cho) abnormalities in TLE with and without mesial temporal sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Susanne G; Ebel, Andreas; Barakos, Jerome; Scanlon, Cathy; Cheong, Ian; Finlay, Daniel; Garcia, Paul; Weiner, Michael W; Laxer, Kenneth D

    2011-04-01

    MR spectroscopy has demonstrated extrahippocampal NAA/(Cr+Cho) reductions in medial temporal lobe epilepsy with (TLE-MTS) and without (TLE-no) mesial temporal sclerosis. Because of the limited brain coverage of those previous studies, it was, however, not possible to assess differences in the distribution and extent of these abnormalities between TLE-MTS and TLE-no. This study used a 3D whole brain echoplanar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) sequence to address the following questions: (1) Do TLE-MTS and TLE-no differ regarding severity and distribution of extrahippocampal NAA/(Cr+Cho) reductions? (2) Do extrahippocampal NAA/(Cr+Cho) reductions provide additional information for focus lateralization? Forty-three subjects (12 TLE-MTS, 13 TLE-no, 18 controls) were studied with 3D EPSI. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) was used to identify regions of significantly decreased NAA/(Cr+Cho) in TLE groups and in individual patients. TLE-MTS and TLE-no had widespread extrahippocampal NAA/(Cr+Cho) reductions. NAA/(Cr+Cho) reductions had a bilateral fronto-temporal distribution in TLE-MTS and a more diffuse, less well defined distribution in TLE-no. Extrahippocampal NAA/(Cr+Cho) decreases in the single subject analysis showed a large inter-individual variability and did not provide additional focus lateralizing information. Extrahippocampal NAA/(Cr+Cho) reductions in TLE-MTS and TLE-no are neither focal nor homogeneous. This reduces their value for focus lateralization and suggests a heterogeneous etiology of extrahippocampal spectroscopic metabolic abnormalities in TLE.

  9. The Super-TIGER Instrument to Probe Galactic Cosmic Ray Origins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, John W.; Binns, W. R.; Bose, R, G.; Braun, D. L.; Christian, E. R.; Daniels, W. M; DeNolfo, G. A.; Dowkontt, P. F.; Hahne, D. J.; Hams, T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Super-TIGER (Super Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) is under construction for the first of two planned Antarctic long-duration balloon flights in December 2012. This new instrument will measure the abundances of ultra-heavy elements (30Zn and heavier), with individual element resolution, to provide sensitive tests of the emerging model of cosmic-ray origins in OB associations and models of the mechanism for selection of nuclei for acceleration. Super-TIGER builds on the techniques of TIGER, which produced the first well-resolved measurements of elemental abundances of the elements 31Ga, 32Ge, and 34Se. Plastic scintillators together with acrylic and silica-aerogel Cherenkov detectors measure particle charge. Scintillating-fiber hodoscopes track particle trajectories. Super-TIGER has an active area of 5.4 sq m, divided into two independent modules. With reduced material thickness to decrease interactions, its effective geometry factor is approx.6.4 times larger than TIGER, allowing it to measure elements up to 42Mo with high statistical precision, and make exploratory measurements up to 56Ba. Super-TIGER will also accurately determine the energy spectra of the more abundant elements from l0Ne to 28Ni between 0.8 and 10 GeV/nucleon to test the hypothesis that microquasars or other sources could superpose spectral features. We will discuss the implications of Super-TIGER measurements for the study of cosmic-ray origins and will present the measurement technique, design, status, and expected performance, including numbers of events and resolution. Details of the hodoscopes, scintillators, and Cherenkov detectors will be given in other presentations at this conference.

  10. Perspectives on super-shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by cattle.

    PubMed

    Munns, Krysty D; Selinger, L Brent; Stanford, Kim; Guan, Leluo; Callaway, Todd R; McAllister, Tim A

    2015-02-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen that causes illness in humans worldwide. Cattle are the primary reservoir of this bacterium, with the concentration and frequency of E. coli O157:H7 shedding varying greatly among individuals. The term "super-shedder" has been applied to cattle that shed concentrations of E. coli O157:H7 ≥ 10⁴ colony-forming units/g feces. Super-shedders have been reported to have a substantial impact on the prevalence and transmission of E. coli O157:H7 in the environment. The specific factors responsible for super-shedding are unknown, but are presumably mediated by characteristics of the bacterium, animal host, and environment. Super-shedding is sporadic and inconsistent, suggesting that biofilms of E. coli O157:H7 colonizing the intestinal epithelium in cattle are intermittently released into feces. Phenotypic and genotypic differences have been noted in E. coli O157:H7 recovered from super-shedders as compared to low-shedding cattle, including differences in phage type (PT21/28), carbon utilization, degree of clonal relatedness, tir polymorphisms, and differences in the presence of stx2a and stx2c, as well as antiterminator Q gene alleles. There is also some evidence to support that the native fecal microbiome is distinct between super-shedders and low-shedders and that low-shedders have higher levels of lytic phage within feces. Consequently, conditions within the host may determine whether E. coli O157:H7 can proliferate sufficiently for the host to obtain super-shedding status. Targeting super-shedders for mitigation of E. coli O157:H7 has been proposed as a means of reducing the incidence and spread of this pathogen to the environment. If super-shedders could be easily identified, strategies such as bacteriophage therapy, probiotics, vaccination, or dietary inclusion of plant secondary compounds could be specifically targeted at this subpopulation. Evidence that super-shedder isolates share a commonality with isolates

  11. Image quality improvement in cone-beam CT using the super-resolution technique.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Asuka; Kumagai, Shinobu; Arai, Norikazu; Takata, Takeshi; Saikawa, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Kenshiro; Kobayashi, Takenori; Kotoku, Jun'ichi

    2018-04-05

    This study was conducted to improve cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) image quality using the super-resolution technique, a method of inferring a high-resolution image from a low-resolution image. This technique is used with two matrices, so-called dictionaries, constructed respectively from high-resolution and low-resolution image bases. For this study, a CBCT image, as a low-resolution image, is represented as a linear combination of atoms, the image bases in the low-resolution dictionary. The corresponding super-resolution image was inferred by multiplying the coefficients and the high-resolution dictionary atoms extracted from planning CT images. To evaluate the proposed method, we computed the root mean square error (RMSE) and structural similarity (SSIM). The resulting RMSE and SSIM between the super-resolution images and the planning CT images were, respectively, as much as 0.81 and 1.29 times better than those obtained without using the super-resolution technique. We used super-resolution technique to improve the CBCT image quality.

  12. Study on super-long deep-hole drilling of titanium alloy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhanfeng; Liu, Yanshu; Han, Xiaolan; Zheng, Wencui

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the super-long deep-hole drilling of a titanium alloy was investigated. According to material properties of the titanium alloy, an experimental approach was designed to study three issues discovered during the drilling process: the hole-axis deflection, chip morphology, and tool wear. Based on the results of drilling experiments, crucial parameters for the super-long deep-hole drilling of titanium alloys were obtained, and the influences of these parameters on quality of the alloy's machining were also evaluated. Our results suggest that the developed drilling process is an effective method to overcome the challenge of super-long deep-hole drilling on difficult-to-cut materials.

  13. Calcium Treatment for FeSi-killed Fe-13 Pct Cr Stainless Steel with Various Top Slag Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Lijun; Zhai, Jun; Li, Jianmin; Chou, Kuochih

    2018-02-01

    Calcium treatment of Fe-13 pct Cr stainless steel, with inclusion modification as its main purpose, was evaluated on a laboratory scale. The stability diagram of Ca-Al was obtained using the FactSage software and could be divided into three parts based on the [Al] content: the ultra-low-Al region, the low-Al region, and the medium-high-Al region. Each of these regions required different amounts of calcium for inclusion modification. The ferrosilicon deoxidation product could be modified into low melting temperature inclusions by a CaO-SiO2 top slag in the ultra-low-Al region ([Al] content less than 40 ppm). Calcium treatment was necessary to modify the ferrosilicon deoxidation product into low melting temperature inclusions in the low-Al region ([Al] content from 40 to 100 ppm) for the CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 top slag. Calcium addition has a "liquid window" where adding calcium can accelerate inclusion modification. Adding calcium for 15 and 30 minutes resulted in complete modification times of 45 and 60 minutes, respectively, which indicates that early calcium treatment can produce plastic inclusions sooner. The relationship between the steel and inclusion content was determined by fitting the experimental data in the low-Al region. An appropriate range of T.Ca/T.O (total calcium content/total oxygen content) for inclusion modification is 0.99 to 1.44.

  14. Super-spiral structures of bi-stable spiral waves and a new instability of spiral waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jian; Wang, Qun; Lü, Huaping

    2017-10-01

    A new type of super-spiral structure and instability of spiral waves (in numerical simulation) are investigated. Before the period-doubling bifurcation of this system, the super-spiral structure occurs caused by phase trajectory selection. This type of super-spiral structure is totally different from the super-spiral structure observed early. Although the spiral rotates, the super-spiral structure is stationary. Observably, fully turbulence of the system occurs suddenly which has no process of instability. The forming principle of this instability may have applications in cardiology.

  15. Wavelength scanning achieves pixel super-resolution in holographic on-chip microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wei; Göröcs, Zoltan; Zhang, Yibo; Feizi, Alborz; Greenbaum, Alon; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2016-03-01

    Lensfree holographic on-chip imaging is a potent solution for high-resolution and field-portable bright-field imaging over a wide field-of-view. Previous lensfree imaging approaches utilize a pixel super-resolution technique, which relies on sub-pixel lateral displacements between the lensfree diffraction patterns and the image sensor's pixel-array, to achieve sub-micron resolution under unit magnification using state-of-the-art CMOS imager chips, commonly used in e.g., mobile-phones. Here we report, for the first time, a wavelength scanning based pixel super-resolution technique in lensfree holographic imaging. We developed an iterative super-resolution algorithm, which generates high-resolution reconstructions of the specimen from low-resolution (i.e., under-sampled) diffraction patterns recorded at multiple wavelengths within a narrow spectral range (e.g., 10-30 nm). Compared with lateral shift-based pixel super-resolution, this wavelength scanning approach does not require any physical shifts in the imaging setup, and the resolution improvement is uniform in all directions across the sensor-array. Our wavelength scanning super-resolution approach can also be integrated with multi-height and/or multi-angle on-chip imaging techniques to obtain even higher resolution reconstructions. For example, using wavelength scanning together with multi-angle illumination, we achieved a halfpitch resolution of 250 nm, corresponding to a numerical aperture of 1. In addition to pixel super-resolution, the small scanning steps in wavelength also enable us to robustly unwrap phase, revealing the specimen's optical path length in our reconstructed images. We believe that this new wavelength scanning based pixel super-resolution approach can provide competitive microscopy solutions for high-resolution and field-portable imaging needs, potentially impacting tele-pathology applications in resource-limited-settings.

  16. Atmospheric, long baseline, and reactor neutrino data constraints on theta_{13}.

    PubMed

    Roa, J E; Latimer, D C; Ernst, D J

    2009-08-07

    An atmospheric neutrino oscillation tool that uses full three-neutrino oscillation probabilities and a full three-neutrino treatment of the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect, together with an analysis of the K2K, MINOS, and CHOOZ data, is used to examine the bounds on theta_{13}. The recent, more finely binned, Super-K atmospheric data are employed. For L/E_{nu} greater, similar 10;{4} km/GeV, we previously found significant linear in theta_{13} terms. This analysis finds theta_{13} bounded from above by the atmospheric data while bounded from below by CHOOZ. The origin of this result arises from data in the previously mentioned very long baseline region; here, matter effects conspire with terms linear in theta_{13} to produce asymmetric bounds on theta_{13}. Assuming CP conservation, we find theta_{13} = -0.07_{-0.11};{+0.18} (90% C.L.).

  17. High throughput laser texturing of super-hydrophobic surfaces on steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemini, Laura; Faucon, Marc; Romoli, Luca; Kling, Rainer

    2017-03-01

    Super-hydrophobic surfaces are nowadays of primary interest in several application fields, as for de-icing devices in the automotive and aerospace industries. In this context, laser surface texturing has widely demonstrated to be an easy one-step method to produce super-hydrophobic surfaces on several materials. In this work, a high average power (up to 40W), high repetition-rate (up to 1MHz), femtosecond infrared laser was employed to produce super-hydrophobic surfaces on 316L steel. The set of process and laser parameters for which the super-hydrophobic behavior is optimized, was obtained by varying the laser energy and repetition rate. The morphology of the textured surfaces was firstly analyzed by SEM and confocal microscope analyses. The contact angle was measured over time in order to investigate the effect of air environment on the hydrophobic properties and define the period of time necessary for the super-hydrophobic properties to stabilize. An investigation on the effect of after-processing cleaning solvents on the CA evolution was carried to assess the influence of the after-processing sample handling on the CA evaluation. Results show that the highest values of contact angle, that is the best hydrophobic behavior, are obtained at high repetition rate and low energy, this way opening up a promising scenario in terms of upscaling for reducing the overall process takt-time.

  18. Actinide targets for the synthesis of super-heavy elements

    DOE PAGES

    Roberto, J.; Alexander, Charles W.; Boll, Rose Ann; ...

    2015-06-18

    Since 2000, six new super-heavy elements with atomic numbers 113 through 118 have been synthesized in hot fusion reactions of 48Ca beams on actinide targets. These target materials, including 242Pu, 244Pu, 243Am, 245Cm, 248Cm, 249Cf, and 249Bk, are available in very limited quantities and require specialized production and processing facilities resident in only a few research centers worldwide. This report describes the production and chemical processing of heavy actinide materials for super-heavy element research, current availabilities of these materials, and related target fabrication techniques. The impact of actinide materials in super-heavy element discovery is reviewed, and strategies for enhancing themore » production of rare actinides including 249Bk, 251Cf, and 254Es are described.« less

  19. A Patient-Centered Emergency Department Management Strategy for Sickle-Cell Disease Super-Utilizers.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Grant G; Hahn, Hallie R; Powel, Alex A; Leverence, Robert R; Morris, Linda A; Thompson, Lara G; Zumberg, Marc S; Borde, Deepa J; Tyndall, Joseph A; Shuster, Jonathan J; Yealy, Donald M; Allen, Brandon R

    2017-04-01

    A subpopulation of sickle-cell disease patients, termed super-utilizers, presents frequently to emergency departments (EDs) for vaso-occlusive events and may consume disproportionate resources without broader health benefit. To address the healthcare needs of this vulnerable patient population, we piloted a multidisciplinary intervention seeking to create and use individualized patient care plans that alter utilization through coordinated care. Our goals were to assess feasibility primarily, and to assess resource use secondarily. We evaluated the effects of a single-site interventional study targeted at a population of adult sickle-cell disease super-utilizers using a pre- and post-implementation design. The pre-intervention period was 06/01/13 to 12/31/13 (seven months) and the post-intervention period was 01/01/14 to 02/28/15 (14 months). Our approach included patient-specific best practice advisories (BPA); an ED management protocol; and formation of a "medical home" for these patients. For 10 subjects targeted initially we developed and implemented coordinated care plans; after deployment, we observed a tendency toward reduction in ED and inpatient utilization across all measured indices. Between the annualized pre- and post-implementation periods we found the following: ED visits decreased by 16.5 visits/pt-yr (95% confidence interval [CI] [-1.32-34.2]); ED length of state (LOS) decreased by 115.3 hours/pt-yr (95% CI [-82.9-313.5]); in-patient admissions decreased by 4.20 admissions/pt-yr (95% CI [-1.73-10.1]); in-patient LOS decreased by 35.8 hours/pt-yr (95% CI [-74.9-146.7]); and visits where the patient left before treatment were reduced by an annualized total of 13.7 visits. We observed no patient mortality in our 10 subjects, and no patient required admission to the intensive care unit 72 hours following discharge. This effort suggests that a targeted approach is both feasible and potentially effective, laying a foundation for broader study.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of Cd Cr and Zn Cd Cr layered double hydroxides intercalated with dodecyl sulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying; Zhang, He; Zhao, Lan; Li, Guo-Dong; Chen, Jie-Sheng; Xu, Lin

    2005-06-01

    Cd-Cr and Zn-Cd-Cr layered double hydroxides (CdCr-LDH and ZnCdCr-LDH) containing alkyl sulfate as the interlamellar anion have been prepared through a coprecipitation technique. The resulting compounds were characterized using X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. Magnetic property measurements indicate that antiferromagnetic interactions occur between the chromium ions in the two compounds at low temperatures. The introduction of zinc influences the ligand field of Cr III and the Cr III-Cr III interactions in the LDH compound. It is found that both CdCr-LDH and ZnCdCr-LDH can be delaminated by dispersion in formamide, leading to translucent and stable colloidal solutions.

  1. Transport properties of high-performance all-Heusler Co2CrSi/Cu2CrAl/Co2CrSi giant magnetoresistance device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Z. Q.; Lu, Y. H.; Shen, L.; Ko, V.; Han, G. C.; Feng, Y. P.

    2012-05-01

    Transport properties of giant magnetoresistance (MR) junction consisting of trilayer Co2CrSi/Cu2CrAl/Co2CrSi Heusler alloys (L21) are studied using first-principles approach based on density functional theory and the non-equilibrium Green's function method. Highly conductive channels are found in almost the entire k-plane when the magnetizations of the electrodes are parallel, while they are completely blocked in the antiparallel configuration, which leads to a high magnetoresistance ratio (the pessimistic MR ratio is nearly 100%). Furthermore, the calculated I-V curve shows that the device behaves as a good spin valve with a considerable disparity in currents under the parallel and antiparallel magnetic configurations of the electrodes. The Co2CrSi/Cu2CrAl/Co2CrSi junction could be useful for high-performance all-metallic current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance reading head for the next generation high density magnetic storage.

  2. SuperLab LT: Evaluation and Uses in Teaching Experimental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragozzine, Frank

    2002-01-01

    I describe and evaluate SuperLab LT (Chase & Abboud, 1990), a software package that enables students to replicate classic experiments in cognitive psychology. I also discuss the package with respect to its uses in teaching an undergraduate course in Experimental Psychology. Although the package has minor flaws, SuperLab LT provides numerous…

  3. Want to Teach about SuperPACs? What We Can Learn from Stephen Colbert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of the SuperPACs in American politics is a major issue in the current election. SuperPACs, and the media campaigns they fund, also present a major challenge for media and democratic education. This article explores the issues surrounding SuperPACs and the rise of media in elections and politics in general, and presents some starting…

  4. A SUPER-EARTH-SIZED PLANET ORBITING IN OR NEAR THE HABITABLE ZONE AROUND A SUN-LIKE STAR

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Barclay, Thomas; Burke, Christopher J.; Howell, Steve B.

    We present the discovery of a super-Earth-sized planet in or near the habitable zone of a Sun-like star. The host is Kepler-69, a 13.7 mag G4V-type star. We detect two periodic sets of transit signals in the 3-year flux time series of Kepler-69, obtained with the Kepler spacecraft. Using the very high precision Kepler photometry, and follow-up observations, our confidence that these signals represent planetary transits is >99.3%. The inner planet, Kepler-69b, has a radius of 2.24{sup +0.44}{sub -0.29} R{sub Circled-Plus} and orbits the host star every 13.7 days. The outer planet, Kepler-69c, is a super-Earth-sized object with a radiusmore » of 1.7{sup +0.34}{sub -0.23} R{sub Circled-Plus} and an orbital period of 242.5 days. Assuming an Earth-like Bond albedo, Kepler-69c has an equilibrium temperature of 299 {+-} 19 K, which places the planet close to the habitable zone around the host star. This is the smallest planet found by Kepler to be orbiting in or near the habitable zone of a Sun-like star and represents an important step on the path to finding the first true Earth analog.« less

  5. Volatile Transport in Pluto's Super Seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earle, Alissa M.; Binzel, Richard; Young, Leslie; Stern, S. Alan; Olkin, Catherine B.; Ennico, Kimberly; Moore, Jeffrey M.; Weaver, Harold A.; NASA New Horizons Composition Team, The NASA New Horizons GGI Team

    2016-10-01

    The data returned from NASA's New Horizons' reconnaissance of the Pluto system shows striking albedo variations from polar to equatorial latitudes as well as sharp boundaries for longitudinal variations. Pluto has a high obliquity (currently around 119 degrees) which varies by more than 23 degrees (between roughly 103 and 127 degrees) over a period of less than 3 million years. These obliquity properties, combined with Pluto's orbital regression in longitude of perihelion (360 degrees over 3.7 million years), create epochs of "Super Seasons" on Pluto. A "Super Season" occurs, for example, when Pluto happens to be pole-on towards the Sun at the same time as perihelion. In such a case, one pole experiences a short, intense summer (relative to its long-term average) followed by a longer than average period of winter darkness. By complement, the other pole experiences a much longer, but less intense summer and short winter season. We explore the relationship between albedo variations and volatile transport for the current epoch as well as historical epochs during which Pluto experienced these "Super Seasons". Our investigation suggests Pluto's orbit creates the potential for runaway albedo variations, particularly in the equatorial region, which would create and support stark longitudinal contrasts like the ones we see between the informally named Tombaugh and Cthulhu Regios.This work was supported by the NASA New Horizons mission.

  6. Creatine feeding does not enhance intramyocellular glycogen concentration during carbohydrate loading: an in vivo study by 31P- and 13C-MRS.

    PubMed

    Rico-Sanz, J; Zehnder, M; Buchli, R; Kühne, G; Boutellier, U

    2008-09-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that creatine (Cr) feeding enhances myocellular glycogen storage in humans undergoing carbohydrate loading. Twenty trained male subjects were randomly assigned to have their diets supplemented daily with 252 g of glucose polymer (GP) and either 21 g of Cr (CR-GP, n = 10) or placebo (PL-GP, n = 10) for 5 days. Changes in resting myocellular glycogen and phosphocreatine (PCr) were determined with Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (13C- and 31P-MRS, respectively). After CR-GP, the levels of intramyocellular glycogen increased from 147 +/- 13 (standard error) mmol x (kg wet weight(-1)) to 172 +/- 13 m mol x (kg wet weight)(-1), while it increased from 134 +/- 17 mmol x (kg wet weight)(-) to 182 +/- 17 mmol x (kg wet weight)(-1) after PL-GP; the increments in intramyocellular glycogen concentrations were not statistically different. The increment in the PCr/ATP ratio after CR-GP (+ 0.20 +/- 0.12) was significantly different compared to PL-GP (- 0.34 +/- 0.16) (p < 0.05). The present results do not support the hypothesis that Cr loading increases muscle glycogen storage.

  7. Distribution of chromium species in a Cr-polluted soil: presence of Cr(III) in glomalin related protein fraction.

    PubMed

    Gil-Cardeza, María L; Ferri, Alejandro; Cornejo, Pablo; Gomez, Elena

    2014-09-15

    The accumulation of Cr in soil could be highly toxic to human health; therefore Cr soil distribution was studied in rhizosphere soils from Ricinus communis and Conium maculatum and bare soil (BS) from an industrial and urban area in Argentina. Total Cr, Cr(VI) and Cr(III) concentrations were determined in 3 soil fractions: total, extractable and associated to total-glomalin-related protein (T-GRSP). BS had the highest total Cr and total Cr(VI) concentrations. Total Cr(VI) concentration from both rhizosphere soils did not differ from the allowed value for residential area in Argentina (8 μg Cr(VI) g(-1) soil), while total Cr(VI) in BS was 1.8 times higher. Total Cr concentration in all the soils was higher than the allowed value (250 μg Cr g(-1) soil). Extractable and associated to T-GRSP Cr(VI) concentrations were below the detection limit. Cr(III) bound to T-GRSP was the highest in the BS. These findings are in agreement with a long term effect of glomalin in sequestrating Cr. In both plant species, total Cr was higher in root than in shoot and both species presented arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). As far as we know, this is the first study that reports the presence of Cr in T-GRSP fraction of soil organic matter. These findings suggest that Cr mycorrhizostabilization could be a predominant mechanism used by R. communis and C. maculatum to diminish Cr soil concentration. Nevertheless, further research is needed to clarify the contribution of native AMF isolated from R. communis and C. maculatum rhizosphere to the Cr phytoremediation process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Medilox® super-oxidized water.

    PubMed

    Gunaydin, Murat; Esen, Saban; Karadag, Adil; Unal, Nevzat; Yanik, Keramettin; Odabasi, Hakan; Birinci, Asuman

    2014-07-14

    Super-oxidized water is one of the broad spectrum disinfectants, which was introduced recently. There are many researches to find reliable chemicals which are effective, inexpensive, easy to obtain and use, and effective for disinfection of microorganisms leading hospital infections. Antimicrobial activity of super-oxidized water is promising. The aim of this study was to investigate the in-vitro antimicrobial activity of different concentrations of Medilox® super-oxidized water that is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as high level disinfectant. In this study, super-oxidized water obtained from Medilox® [Soosan E & C, Korea] device, which had been already installed in our hospital, was used. Antimicrobial activities of different concentrations of super-oxidized water (1/1, 1/2, 1/5, 1/10, 1/20, 1/50, 1/100) at different exposure times (1, 2, 5, 10, 30 min) against six ATCC strains, eight antibiotic resistant bacteria, yeasts and molds were evaluated using qualitative suspension test. Dey-Engley Neutralizing Broth [Sigma-Aldrich, USA] was used as neutralizing agent. Medilox® was found to be effective against all standard strains (Acinetobacter baumannii 19606, Escherichia coli 25922, Enterococcus faecalis 29212, Klebsiella pneumoniae 254988, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 27853, Staphylococcus aureus 29213), all clinical isolates (Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Myroides spp.), and all yeastsat 1/1 dilution in ≥1 minute. It was found to be effective on Aspergillus flavus at 1/1 dilution in ≥2 minutes and on certain molds in ≥5 minutes. Medilox® super-oxidized water is a broad spectrum, on-site producible disinfectant, which is effective on bacteria and fungi and can be used for the control of nosocomial infection.

  9. Mid-IR super-continuum generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammed N.; Xia, Chenan; Freeman, Mike J.; Mauricio, Jeremiah; Zakel, Andy; Ke, Kevin; Xu, Zhao; Terry, Fred L., Jr.

    2009-02-01

    A Mid-InfraRed FIber Laser (MIRFIL) has been developed that generates super-continuum covering the spectral range from 0.8 to 4.5 microns with a time-averaged power as high as 10.5W. The MIRFIL is an all-fiber integrated laser with no moving parts and no mode-locked lasers that uses commercial off-the-shelf parts and leverages the mature telecom/fiber optics platform. The MIRFIL power can be easily scaled by changing the repetition rate and modifying the erbium-doped fiber amplifier. Some of the applications using the super-continuum laser will be described in defense, homeland security and healthcare. For example, the MIRFIL is being applied to a catheter-based medical diagnostic system to detect vulnerable plaque, which is responsible for most heart attacks resulting from hardening-of-the-arteries or atherosclerosis. More generally, the MIRFIL can be a platform for selective ablation of lipids without damaging normal protein or smooth muscle tissue.

  10. Methods for determining soluble and insoluble Cr III and Cr VI compounds in welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Matczak, W; Chmielnicka, J

    1989-01-01

    An analytical procedure for simultaneous determination of soluble and insoluble Cr III and Cr VI compounds in welding fumes has been proposed. In the welding fume samples collected on a membrane filter, total chromium was determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Glass filters with collected samples were divided into two parts. In one part of the sample, soluble and insoluble chromium was determined by means of AAS. The separation of soluble chromium III and VI was carried out on diphenylcarbazide resin. In the second part of the sample total chromium VI was determined by means of the colorimetric method with s-diphenylcarbazide. The difference in the results of these determinations allowed the calculation of the content of total Cr III, Cr III insolub. and Cr VI insolub. The results of determining chromium compounds in welding fumes samples collected in the welder's breathing zone and in experimental chambers are also presented in this paper. The content of total chromium in the fumes determined by AAS (from a membrane filtr) and that calculated from the sum of soluble and insoluble chromium (from a glass filter) were concordant and within the limits of the admissible error for the method. Total chromium content in welding fume samples collected individually was found to range from 2.4-4.2%. The percentage of particular chromium compounds as compared to total chromium (100%) amounted: total Cr III--34%, total Cr VI--66%, soluble chromium--66% and in this Cr III--20% and Cr VI--43%, insoluble chromium--34% and in this: Cr III--14% and Cr VI--20%.

  11. Development of a Super-Pressure Balloon with an Improved Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izutsu, Naoki; Akita, Daisuke; Fuke, Hideyuki; Iijima, Issei; Kato, Yoichi; Kawada, Jiro; Matsushima, Kiyoho; Matsuzaka, Yukihiko; Mizuta, Eiichi; Nakada, Takashi; Nonaka, Naoki; Saito, Yoshitaka; Takada, Atsushi; Tamura, Keisuke; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Tetsuya

    A zero-pressure balloon used for scientific observation in the stratosphere has an unmanageable limitation that its floating altitude decreases during a nighttime because of temperature drop of the lifting gas. Since a super-pressure balloon may not change its volume, the lifetime can extend very long. We had introduced so called the ‘lobed-pumpkin’ type of super-pressure balloon that can realize a full-scale long-duration balloon and it will be in practical use in the very near future. As for larger super-pressure balloons, however, we still have some potential difficulties to be resolved. We here propose a new design suitable for a larger super-pressure balloon, which is roughly ‘lobed pumpkin with lobed cylinder’ and can adapt a single design for balloons of a wide range of volumes. Indoor inflation tests were successfully carried out with balloons designed and made by the method. It has been shown that the limit of the resisting pressure differential for a new designed balloon is same as that of a normal lobed-pumpkin balloon.

  12. Super-Resolution Microscopy: Shedding Light on the Cellular Plasma Membrane.

    PubMed

    Stone, Matthew B; Shelby, Sarah A; Veatch, Sarah L

    2017-06-14

    Lipids and the membranes they form are fundamental building blocks of cellular life, and their geometry and chemical properties distinguish membranes from other cellular environments. Collective processes occurring within membranes strongly impact cellular behavior and biochemistry, and understanding these processes presents unique challenges due to the often complex and myriad interactions between membrane components. Super-resolution microscopy offers a significant gain in resolution over traditional optical microscopy, enabling the localization of individual molecules even in densely labeled samples and in cellular and tissue environments. These microscopy techniques have been used to examine the organization and dynamics of plasma membrane components, providing insight into the fundamental interactions that determine membrane functions. Here, we broadly introduce the structure and organization of the mammalian plasma membrane and review recent applications of super-resolution microscopy to the study of membranes. We then highlight some inherent challenges faced when using super-resolution microscopy to study membranes, and we discuss recent technical advancements that promise further improvements to super-resolution microscopy and its application to the plasma membrane.

  13. Femtosecond Cr:LiSAF and Cr:LiCAF lasers pumped by tapered diode lasers.

    PubMed

    Demirbas, Umit; Schmalz, Michael; Sumpf, Bernd; Erbert, Götz; Petrich, Gale S; Kolodziejski, Leslie A; Fujimoto, James G; Kärtner, Franz X; Leitenstorfer, Alfred

    2011-10-10

    We report compact, low-cost and efficient Cr:Colquiriite lasers that are pumped by high brightness tapered laser diodes. The tapered laser diodes provided 1 to 1.2 W of output power around 675 nm, at an electrical-to-optical conversion efficiency of about 30%. Using a single tapered diode laser as the pump source, we have demonstrated output powers of 500 mW and 410 mW together with slope efficiencies of 47% and 41% from continuous wave (cw) Cr:LiSAF and Cr:LiCAF lasers, respectively. In cw mode-locked operation, sub-100-fs pulse trains with average power between 200 mW and 250 mW were obtained at repetition rates around 100 MHz. Upon pumping the Cr:Colquiriite lasers with two tapered laser diodes (one from each side of the crystal), we have observed scaling of cw powers to 850 mW in Cr:LiSAF and to 650 mW in Cr:LiCAF. From the double side pumped Cr:LiCAF laser, we have also obtained ~220 fs long pulses with 5.4 nJ of pulse energy at 77 MHz repetition rate. These are the highest energy levels reported from Cr:Colquiriite so far at these repetition rates. Our findings indicate that tapered diodes in the red spectral region are likely to become the standard pump source for Cr:Colquiriite lasers in the near future. Moreover, the simplified pumping scheme might facilitate efficient commercialization of Cr:Colquiriite systems, bearing the potential to significantly boost applications of cw and femtosecond lasers in this spectral region (750-1000 nm).

  14. Care of a Homebound Super Obese Patient: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Pagels, Jamie Lynn

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is becoming more prevalent in the United States with almost 40% of the population being overweight or obese. A new category, defining super obesity as a body mass index of 50 or higher, has been added. The purpose of this article is to use a case study to develop a more thorough understanding of the complex care needs of the super obese patient and how home healthcare clinicians can use technology to advocate for super obese patients who are home and bedbound. A review of the literature and discussion will be provided. Potential technologies involved in provision of care will also be explored. Finally, a summary of the case along with proposed solutions will be offered.

  15. Super-resolution in a defocused plenoptic camera: a wave-optics-based approach.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Erdem; Katkovnik, Vladimir; Gotchev, Atanas

    2016-03-01

    Plenoptic cameras enable the capture of a light field with a single device. However, with traditional light field rendering procedures, they can provide only low-resolution two-dimensional images. Super-resolution is considered to overcome this drawback. In this study, we present a super-resolution method for the defocused plenoptic camera (Plenoptic 1.0), where the imaging system is modeled using wave optics principles and utilizing low-resolution depth information of the scene. We are particularly interested in super-resolution of in-focus and near in-focus scene regions, which constitute the most challenging cases. The simulation results show that the employed wave-optics model makes super-resolution possible for such regions as long as sufficiently accurate depth information is available.

  16. On the huge Lie superalgebra of pseudo-superdifferential operators and super KP-hierarchies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedra, M. B.

    1996-07-01

    Lie superalgebraic methods are used to establish a connection between the huge Lie superalgebra Ξ of super- (pseudo-) differential operators and various super KP-hierarchies. We show in particular that Ξ splits into 5=2×2+1 graded algebras expected to correspond to five classes of super-KP-hierarchies generalizing the well-known Manin-Radul and Figueroa-Mas-Ramos supersymmetric KP-hierarchies.

  17. Ketogenic diet treatment for pediatric super-refractory status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Appavu, Brian; Vanatta, Lisa; Condie, John; Kerrigan, John F; Jarrar, Randa

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to study whether ketogenic diet (KD) therapy leads to resolution of super-refractory status epilepticus in pediatric patients without significant harm. A retrospective review was performed at Phoenix Children's Hospital on patients with super-refractory status epilepticus undergoing ketogenic diet therapy from 2011 to 2015. Ten children with super-refractory status epilepticus, ages 2-16 years, were identified. 4/10 patients had immune mediated encephalitis, including Rasmussen encephalitis, anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis, and post-infectious mycoplasma encephalitis. Other etiologies included Lennox Gastaut Syndrome, non-ketotic hyperglycinemia, PCDH19 and GABRG2 genetic epilepsy, New Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus, and Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome. 4/10 patients' EEG features suggested focal with status epilepticus, and 6/10 suggested generalized with status epilepticus. Median hospital length was 61days and median ICU length was 27days. The median number of antiepileptic medications prior to diet initiation was 3.0 drugs, and the median after ketogenic diet treatment was 3.5 drugs. Median duration of status epilepticus prior to KD was 18days. 9/10 patients had resolution of super-refractory status epilepticus in a median of 7days after diet initiation. 8/9 patients were weaned off anesthesia within 15days of diet initiation, and within 1day of achieving ketonuria. 1/10 patients experienced side effects on the diet requiring supplementation. Most patients achieved resolution of status epilepticus on KD therapy, suggesting it could be an effective therapy that can be utilized early in the treatment of children with super refractory status epilepticus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Super-low dose endotoxin pre-conditioning exacerbates sepsis mortality.

    PubMed

    Chen, Keqiang; Geng, Shuo; Yuan, Ruoxi; Diao, Na; Upchurch, Zachary; Li, Liwu

    2015-04-01

    Sepsis mortality varies dramatically in individuals of variable immune conditions, with poorly defined mechanisms. This phenomenon complements the hypothesis that innate immunity may adopt rudimentary memory, as demonstrated in vitro with endotoxin priming and tolerance in cultured monocytes. However, previous in vivo studies only examined the protective effect of endotoxin tolerance in the context of sepsis. In sharp contrast, we report herein that pre-conditionings with super-low or low dose endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) cause strikingly opposite survival outcomes. Mice pre-conditioned with super-low dose LPS experienced severe tissue damage, inflammation, increased bacterial load in circulation, and elevated mortality when they were subjected to cecal-ligation and puncture (CLP). This is in opposite to the well-reported protective phenomenon with CLP mice pre-conditioned with low dose LPS. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that super-low and low dose LPS differentially modulate the formation of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) in neutrophils. Instead of increased ERK activation and NET formation in neutrophils pre-conditioned with low dose LPS, we observed significantly reduced ERK activation and compromised NET generation in neutrophils pre-conditioned with super-low dose LPS. Collectively, our findings reveal a novel mechanism potentially responsible for the dynamic programming of innate immunity in vivo as it relates to sepsis risks.

  19. Cancer detection based on Raman spectra super-paramagnetic clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Solís, José Luis; Guizar-Ruiz, Juan Ignacio; Martínez-Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Zerega, Brenda Esmeralda; Juárez-López, Héctor Alfonso; Vargas-Rodríguez, Héctor; Gallegos-Infante, Luis Armando; González-Silva, Ricardo Armando; Espinoza-Padilla, Pedro Basilio; Palomares-Anda, Pascual

    2016-08-01

    The clustering of Raman spectra of serum sample is analyzed using the super-paramagnetic clustering technique based in the Potts spin model. We investigated the clustering of biochemical networks by using Raman data that define edge lengths in the network, and where the interactions are functions of the Raman spectra's individual band intensities. For this study, we used two groups of 58 and 102 control Raman spectra and the intensities of 160, 150 and 42 Raman spectra of serum samples from breast and cervical cancer and leukemia patients, respectively. The spectra were collected from patients from different hospitals from Mexico. By using super-paramagnetic clustering technique, we identified the most natural and compact clusters allowing us to discriminate the control and cancer patients. A special interest was the leukemia case where its nearly hierarchical observed structure allowed the identification of the patients's leukemia type. The goal of this study is to apply a model of statistical physics, as the super-paramagnetic, to find these natural clusters that allow us to design a cancer detection method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of preliminary results evaluating the usefulness of super-paramagnetic clustering in the discipline of spectroscopy where it is used for classification of spectra.

  20. 53Cr NMR study of CuCrO2 multiferroic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smol'nikov, A. G.; Ogloblichev, V. V.; Verkhovskii, S. V.; Mikhalev, K. N.; Yakubovskii, A. Yu.; Kumagai, K.; Furukawa, Y.; Sadykov, A. F.; Piskunov, Yu. V.; Gerashchenko, A. P.; Barilo, S. N.; Shiryaev, S. V.

    2015-11-01

    The magnetically ordered phase of the CuCrO2 single crystal has been studied by the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method on 53Cr nuclei in the absence of an external magnetic field. The 53Cr NMR spectrum is observed in the frequency range νres = 61-66 MHz. The shape of the spectrum depends on the delay tdel between pulses in the pulse sequence τπ/2- t del-τπ- t del-echo. The spin-spin and spin-lattice relaxation times have been measured. Components of the electric field gradient, hyperfine fields, and the magnetic moment on chromium atoms have been estimated.

  1. Heterogeneity of Cr in Mytilus edulis: Implications for the Cr isotope system as a paleo-redox proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggmann, Sylvie; Klaebe, Robert; Frei, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Changes in 53Cr/52Cr (δ53Cr) values recorded by biogenic carbonates are emerging as a proxy for variations in the redox state of the Earth's oceans and atmosphere (e.g. [1], [2]). We investigate the ability of modern carbonate shells (Mytilus edulis) to record the δ53Cr composition of ambient seawater in order to assess their utility as a paleo-redox proxy. Samples of cultivated M. edulis from the Kiel Fjord, Germany, were analyzed for their δ53Cr composition and Cr concentrations [Cr] using TIMS. To disentangle the pathway of Cr into the carbonate shell, a series of step-digestions of their organic outer sheaths (periostraca) and their intra-layer composition were performed. Bulk analyses of specimens with intact periostraca returned 16 to 34 ppb Cr with δ53Cr values ranging from 0.28 to 0.65 ± 0.1 (2SE) and thus fall within the range of surface seawater from the Baltic Sea (0.3 - 0.6 \\permil [3]). Partial removal of periostraca resulted in lower [Cr] (5 to 17 ppb) and δ53Cr values (-0.05 ± 0.15 \\permil). These results show a positive correlation between the amount of organic matter present in a sample and both [Cr] and δ53Cr (n = 9). With nearly complete removal of periostraca, the remaining [Cr] is significantly lower (less than 5 ppb) and can only be accessed by incineration of the carbonate shell. The correlation between [Cr], δ53Cr and the amount of periostracum present in bulk samples indicates that a significant proportion of preserved Cr may be associated with the organic outer sheath. The Cr endmember accessed after incineration is less likely associated with the carbonate crystal lattice. Instead, the δ53Cr values obtained after incineration are similar to those reported from terrestrial rocks, suggesting the influence of detrital particles. Alternatively, Cr may be reduced and subsequently re-oxidized during the mineralization of biogenic carbonates [4]. Seasonal changes in primary productivity in seawater may further influence the shell

  2. SuperMemo; XIA LI BA REN (Macintosh Version 1.0).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Charlotte; Bourgerie, Dana S.

    1994-01-01

    Describes "SuperMemo," a memorization tool that uses an automated flashcard scheme that can include sound and graphics in the database of study items. Based on the learner's performance, "SuperMemo" schedules items to appear for review. Xia Li Ba Ren ("common person" in Chinese) is the name of a Chinese word processor that runs with a standard…

  3. Catalytic effect of soil colloids on the reaction between CrVI and p-methoxyphenol.

    PubMed

    Zhou, D M; Chen, H M; Zheng, C R; Tu, C

    2001-01-01

    Adsorption of CrVI and p-methoxyphenol (PMP) on soil colloids at different pH media was studied. The resulting k1 and n of 1.89 x 10(2) and 0.53 (r2 = 0.99) and k2 and b of 0.13 and 1.25 x 10(3) (r2 = 0.96) were obtained from Freundlich (Q = k1Caqn) and Langmuir [Q = k2bCaq/(1 + k2Caq)] simulation equations, respectively, for CrVI adsorption on soil colloids (pH 4.20). The adsorption of PMP on soil colloids in pH 5.72 media was simulated by five different equations and the results indicated that the Fritz-Schluender one (r2 = 1.00) was the most suitable among them. Adsorption quantity of CrVI and PMP on colloids increased with increasing acidity in the pH range of 3.5-9.0. Study of CrVI adsorption kinetics indicated that the adsorption equilibrium of CrVI was reached rapidly within 2 h. In pure aqueous solution, CrVI reduction by PMP was observed only when the media's pH was lower than 4.0. Oxidation and reduction reaction between CrVI and p-methoxyphenol obviously occurred when soil colloids were involved in this system, even at pH > or = 7.0, which strongly suggested that minerals in soil colloids acted as catalysts to speed the reaction of CrVI and PMP. The oxidized product of PMP by CrVI, extracted by chloroform in acid media and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, was identified as benzoquinone. The reaction included two steps of one electron process.

  4. Marine and freshwater concentration ratios (CR(wo-water)): review of Japanese data.

    PubMed

    Tagami, K; Uchida, S

    2013-12-01

    The water-to-organism (whole body) concentration ratio (CR(wo-water)), which is defined as the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in the biota (Bq kg(-1) fresh weight) to that in water (Bq L(-1)), has been used in mathematical models for environmental radiation protection. In the present paper, published global fallout (90)Sr, (137)Cs, (106)Ru, (144)Ce and (239+240)Pu activity concentration data and stable element concentration data for Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu and Mn for organisms living in freshwater or seawater areas in Japan were collated. The data suitable for obtaining CR(wo-water) values were identified. CR(wo-water) values of (137)Cs were similar for pelagic fish, benthic fish and whitebait (immature, small fish) with respective geometric means of 30 (range: 4.4-69), 32 (range: 15-54) and 33 (range: 13-84). The calculated CR(wo-water) values of the other radionuclides and stable elements were generally similar to other previously reported values; with the exception that those for Ce were lower for marine biota and those of Cu were higher for freshwater fish. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Super-resolution imaging of subcortical white matter using stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) and super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI)

    PubMed Central

    Hainsworth, A. H.; Lee, S.; Patel, A.; Poon, W. W.; Knight, A. E.

    2018-01-01

    Aims The spatial resolution of light microscopy is limited by the wavelength of visible light (the ‘diffraction limit’, approximately 250 nm). Resolution of sub-cellular structures, smaller than this limit, is possible with super resolution methods such as stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) and super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI). We aimed to resolve subcellular structures (axons, myelin sheaths and astrocytic processes) within intact white matter, using STORM and SOFI. Methods Standard cryostat-cut sections of subcortical white matter from donated human brain tissue and from adult rat and mouse brain were labelled, using standard immunohistochemical markers (neurofilament-H, myelin-associated glycoprotein, glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP). Image sequences were processed for STORM (effective pixel size 8–32 nm) and for SOFI (effective pixel size 80 nm). Results In human, rat and mouse, subcortical white matter high-quality images for axonal neurofilaments, myelin sheaths and filamentous astrocytic processes were obtained. In quantitative measurements, STORM consistently underestimated width of axons and astrocyte processes (compared with electron microscopy measurements). SOFI provided more accurate width measurements, though with somewhat lower spatial resolution than STORM. Conclusions Super resolution imaging of intact cryo-cut human brain tissue is feasible. For quantitation, STORM can under-estimate diameters of thin fluorescent objects. SOFI is more robust. The greatest limitation for super-resolution imaging in brain sections is imposed by sample preparation. We anticipate that improved strategies to reduce autofluorescence and to enhance fluorophore performance will enable rapid expansion of this approach. PMID:28696566

  6. Super-resolution imaging of subcortical white matter using stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) and super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI).

    PubMed

    Hainsworth, A H; Lee, S; Foot, P; Patel, A; Poon, W W; Knight, A E

    2018-06-01

    The spatial resolution of light microscopy is limited by the wavelength of visible light (the 'diffraction limit', approximately 250 nm). Resolution of sub-cellular structures, smaller than this limit, is possible with super resolution methods such as stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) and super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI). We aimed to resolve subcellular structures (axons, myelin sheaths and astrocytic processes) within intact white matter, using STORM and SOFI. Standard cryostat-cut sections of subcortical white matter from donated human brain tissue and from adult rat and mouse brain were labelled, using standard immunohistochemical markers (neurofilament-H, myelin-associated glycoprotein, glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP). Image sequences were processed for STORM (effective pixel size 8-32 nm) and for SOFI (effective pixel size 80 nm). In human, rat and mouse, subcortical white matter high-quality images for axonal neurofilaments, myelin sheaths and filamentous astrocytic processes were obtained. In quantitative measurements, STORM consistently underestimated width of axons and astrocyte processes (compared with electron microscopy measurements). SOFI provided more accurate width measurements, though with somewhat lower spatial resolution than STORM. Super resolution imaging of intact cryo-cut human brain tissue is feasible. For quantitation, STORM can under-estimate diameters of thin fluorescent objects. SOFI is more robust. The greatest limitation for super-resolution imaging in brain sections is imposed by sample preparation. We anticipate that improved strategies to reduce autofluorescence and to enhance fluorophore performance will enable rapid expansion of this approach. © 2017 British Neuropathological Society.

  7. Characterising Super Earths With The EChO Spacemission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessenyi, Marcell; Ollivier, M.; Tinetti, G.; Beaulieu, J. P.; Coudé du Foresto, V.; Encrenaz, T.; Micela, G.; Swinyard, B.; Ribas, I.; Aylward, A.; Tennyson, J.; Swain, M. R.; Sozzetti, A.; Vasisht, G.; Deroo, P.

    2011-09-01

    Transiting Super Earths orbiting M dwarfs are excellent targets for the prospect of studying potentially habitable extrasolar planets. While most of the currently known Exoplanets are of the Hot Jupiter and Neptune type, attention is now turning to these Super Earths. Two recent examples are GJ 1214b, found by Charbonneau et al. in 2009, and Cancri 55 e, found by Winn et al. in 2011. These candidates offer the opportunity of obtaining spectral signatures of their atmospheres in transiting scenarios, via data obtained by ground based and space observatories, compared to simulated climate scenarios. With the recent selection of the Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory (EChO) mission by ESA for further studies, I present observational strategies and time requirements for a range of targets characterisable by EChO, with a view to Super Earths orbiting M dwarfs.

  8. An Ingenious Super Light Trapping Surface Templated from Butterfly Wing Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhiwu; Li, Bo; Mu, Zhengzhi; Yang, Meng; Niu, Shichao; Zhang, Junqiu; Ren, Luquan

    2015-08-01

    Based on the super light trapping property of butterfly Trogonoptera brookiana wings, the SiO2 replica of this bionic functional surface was successfully synthesized using a simple and highly effective synthesis method combining a sol-gel process and subsequent selective etching. Firstly, the reflectivity of butterfly wing scales was carefully examined. It was found that the whole reflectance spectroscopy of the butterfly wings showed a lower level (less than 10 %) in the visible spectrum. Thus, it was confirmed that the butterfly wings possessed a super light trapping effect. Afterwards, the morphologies and detailed architectures of the butterfly wing scales were carefully investigated using the ultra-depth three-dimensional (3D) microscope and field emission scanning electronic microscopy (FESEM). It was composed by the parallel ridges and quasi-honeycomb-like structure between them. Based on the biological properties and function above, an exact SiO2 negative replica was fabricated through a synthesis method combining a sol-gel process and subsequent selective etching. At last, the comparative analysis of morphology feature size and the reflectance spectroscopy between the SiO2 negative replica and the flat plate was conducted. It could be concluded that the SiO2 negative replica inherited not only the original super light trapping architectures, but also the super light trapping characteristics of bio-template. This work may open up an avenue for the design and fabrication of super light trapping materials and encourage people to look for more super light trapping architectures in nature.

  9. Longitudinal Study of Two Irish Dairy Herds: Low Numbers of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157 and O26 Super-Shedders Identified.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Brenda P; McCabe, Evonne; Murphy, Mary; Buckley, James F; Crowley, Dan; Fanning, Séamus; Duffy, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    A 12-month longitudinal study was undertaken on two dairy herds to ascertain the Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 and O26 shedding status of the animals and its impact (if any) on raw milk. Cattle are a recognized reservoir for these organisms with associated public health and environmental implications. Animals shedding E. coli O157 at >10,000 CFU/g of feces have been deemed super-shedders. There is a gap in the knowledge regarding super-shedding of other STEC serogroups. A cohort of 40 lactating cows from herds previously identified as positive for STEC in a national surveillance project were sampled every second month between August, 2013 and July, 2014. Metadata on any potential super-shedders was documented including, e.g., age of the animal, number of lactations and days in lactation, nutritional condition, somatic cell count and content of protein in milk to assess if any were associated with risk factors for super-shedding. Recto-anal mucosal swabs (RAMS), raw milk, milk filters, and water samples were procured for each herd. The swabs were examined for E. coli O157 and O26 using a quantitative real time PCR method. Counts (CFU swab -1 ) were obtained from a standard calibration curve that related real-time PCR cycle threshold ( C t ) values against the initial concentration of O157 or O26 in the samples. Results from Farm A: 305 animals were analyzed; 15 E. coli O157 (5%) were recovered, 13 were denoted STEC encoding either stx1 and/or stx2 virulence genes and 5 (2%) STEC O26 were recovered. One super-shedder was identified shedding STEC O26 ( stx1 &2). Farm B: 224 animals were analyzed; eight E. coli O157 (3.5%) were recovered (seven were STEC) and 9 (4%) STEC O26 were recovered. Three super-shedders were identified, one was shedding STEC O157 ( stx2 ) and two STEC O26 ( stx2 ). Three encoded the adhering and effacement gene ( eae) and one isolate additionally encoded the haemolysin gene ( hlyA ). All four super-shedders were only super

  10. Longitudinal Study of Two Irish Dairy Herds: Low Numbers of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O157 and O26 Super-Shedders Identified

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Brenda P.; McCabe, Evonne; Murphy, Mary; Buckley, James F.; Crowley, Dan; Fanning, Séamus; Duffy, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    A 12-month longitudinal study was undertaken on two dairy herds to ascertain the Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 and O26 shedding status of the animals and its impact (if any) on raw milk. Cattle are a recognized reservoir for these organisms with associated public health and environmental implications. Animals shedding E. coli O157 at >10,000 CFU/g of feces have been deemed super-shedders. There is a gap in the knowledge regarding super-shedding of other STEC serogroups. A cohort of 40 lactating cows from herds previously identified as positive for STEC in a national surveillance project were sampled every second month between August, 2013 and July, 2014. Metadata on any potential super-shedders was documented including, e.g., age of the animal, number of lactations and days in lactation, nutritional condition, somatic cell count and content of protein in milk to assess if any were associated with risk factors for super-shedding. Recto-anal mucosal swabs (RAMS), raw milk, milk filters, and water samples were procured for each herd. The swabs were examined for E. coli O157 and O26 using a quantitative real time PCR method. Counts (CFU swab-1) were obtained from a standard calibration curve that related real-time PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values against the initial concentration of O157 or O26 in the samples. Results from Farm A: 305 animals were analyzed; 15 E. coli O157 (5%) were recovered, 13 were denoted STEC encoding either stx1 and/or stx2 virulence genes and 5 (2%) STEC O26 were recovered. One super-shedder was identified shedding STEC O26 (stx1&2). Farm B: 224 animals were analyzed; eight E. coli O157 (3.5%) were recovered (seven were STEC) and 9 (4%) STEC O26 were recovered. Three super-shedders were identified, one was shedding STEC O157 (stx2) and two STEC O26 (stx2). Three encoded the adhering and effacement gene (eae) and one isolate additionally encoded the haemolysin gene (hlyA). All four super-shedders were only super-shedding once

  11. Replication of CLU, CR1, and PICALM associations with alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Carrasquillo, Minerva M; Belbin, Olivia; Hunter, Talisha A; Ma, Li; Bisceglio, Gina D; Zou, Fanggeng; Crook, Julia E; Pankratz, V Shane; Dickson, Dennis W; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Petersen, Ronald C; Morgan, Kevin; Younkin, Steven G

    2010-08-01

    To test for replication of the association between variants in the CLU, CR1, and PICALM genes with Alzheimer disease. Follow-up case-control association study. The Mayo Clinics at Jacksonville, Florida, and Rochester, Minnesota. Community-based patients of European descent with late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) and controls without dementia who were seen at the Mayo clinics, and autopsy-confirmed cases and controls whose pathology was evaluated at the Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville. Additional samples were obtained from the National Cell Repository for Alzheimer Disease (NCRAD). A total of 1829 LOAD cases and 2576 controls were analyzed. The most significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms in CLU (rs11136000), CR1 (rs3818361), and PICALM (rs3851179) were tested for allelic association with LOAD. Main Outcome Measure Clinical or pathology-confirmed diagnosis of LOAD. Odds ratios for CLU, CR1, and PICALM were 0.82, 1.15, and 0.80, respectively, comparable in direction and magnitude with those originally reported. P values were 8.6 x 10(-5), .014, and 1.3 x 10(-5), respectively; they remain significant even after Bonferroni correction for the 3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms tested. These results show near-perfect replication and provide the first additional evidence that CLU, CR1, and PICALM are associated with the risk of LOAD.

  12. Super-resolution and super-localization microscopy: A novel tool for imaging chemical and biological processes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dong, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Optical microscopy imaging of single molecules and single particles is an essential method for studying fundamental biological and chemical processes at the molecular and nanometer scale. The best spatial resolution (~ λ/2) achievable in traditional optical microscopy is governed by the diffraction of light. However, single molecule-based super-localization and super-resolution microscopy imaging techniques have emerged in the past decade. Individual molecules can be localized with nanometer scale accuracy and precision for studying of biological and chemical processes.This work uncovered the heterogeneous properties of the pore structures. In this dissertation, the coupling of molecular transport and catalytic reaction at the singlemore » molecule and single particle level in multilayer mesoporous nanocatalysts was elucidated. Most previous studies dealt with these two important phenomena separately. A fluorogenic oxidation reaction of non-fluorescent amplex red to highly fluorescent resorufin was tested. The diffusion behavior of single resorufin molecules in aligned nanopores was studied using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM).« less

  13. Kinetic stable Cr isotopic fractionation between aqueous Cr(III)-Cl-H2O complexes at 25 °C: Implications for Cr(III) mobility and isotopic variations in modern and ancient natural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babechuk, Michael G.; Kleinhanns, Ilka C.; Reitter, Elmar; Schoenberg, Ronny

    2018-02-01

    The stable Cr isotope fractionation preserved in natural substances has been attributed predominantly to Cr(III)-Cr(VI) redox transformations. However, non-redox reaction pathways (e.g., ligand-promoted dissolution, ligand exchange, adsorption of Cr(III)) are liable to contribute to isotopic fractionation in natural systems given that soluble Cr(III)-ligands have been directly documented or modeled in several marine, continental, and hydrothermal environments. This study isolates the stable Cr isotope fractionation accompanying Cl-H2O ligand exchange during the transformation of three aqueous species in the Cr(III)-Cl-H2O system, [CrCl2(H2O)4]+aq (abr. CrCl2+ or S1), [CrCl(H2O)5]2+aq (abr. CrCl2+ or S2), and [Cr(H2O)6]3+aq (abr. Cr3+ or S3), at low pH (≤2). In dilute HCl (0.01 to 1 M), Cr3+ is the kinetically favoured species and transformation of CrCl2+ to CrCl2+ to Cr3+ via 2 steps of dechlorination/hydrolyzation begins immediately upon dissolution of a Cr(III)-Cl solid. Individual species are separated with cation exchange chromatography at different stages of transformation and inter- and intra-species (across an elution peak of one species) isotopic fractionation of up to 1 and 2‰ (δ53/52Cr), respectively, is documented. Comparison of peak elution characteristics with Cr-Cl-H-O isotopologue mass abundances suggests mass-dependent sorting of isotopologues alone cannot explain intra-species fractionation, supporting a previously published proposal that preferential adsorption of light Cr isotopes on the resin is driven by vibrational energy effects. The transformation of CrCl2+ to CrCl2+ is faster than CrCl2+ to Cr3+ and the rates of both transformations increase with solution pH. Preferential reaction of light Cr(III) isotopes into product species occurs during each transformation, consistent with closed-system, kinetic fractionation during Cl-H2O ligand exchange. Inter-species fractionation is assessed using time-series experiments beginning from the

  14. Super-Lattice Light Emitting Diodes (SLEDS) on GaAs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-31

    Super-Lattice Light Emitting Diodes (SLEDS) on GaAs Kassem Nabha1, Russel Ricker2, Rodney McGee1, Nick Waite1, John Prineas2, Sydney Provence2...infrared light emitting diodes (LEDs). Typically, the LED arrays are mated with CMOS read-in integrated circuit (RIIC) chips using flip-chip bonding. In...circuit (RIIC) chips using flip-chip bonding. This established technology is called Hybrid-super-lattice light emitting diodes (Hybrid- SLEDS). In

  15. Characteristics of Eutectic α(Cr,Fe)-(Cr,Fe)23C6 in the Eutectic Fe-Cr-C Hardfacing Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Hsuan-Han; Hsieh, Chih-Chun; Lin, Chi-Ming; Wu, Weite

    2017-01-01

    A specific eutectic (Cr,Fe)-(Cr,Fe)23C6 structure had been previously reported in the research studies of Fe-Cr-C hardfacing alloys. In this study, a close observation and discussion of the eutectic (Cr,Fe)-(Cr,Fe)23C6 were conducted. The eutectic solidification occurred when the chromium content of the alloy exceeded 35 wt pct. The eutectic structure showed a triaxial radial fishbone structure which was the so called "complex regular structure." Lamellar costa plates showed local asymmetry at two sides of a spine. Individual costae were able to combine as one, and spines showed extra branches. Costae that were nearly parallel to the heat flow direction were longer than those that were vertical to the heat flow direction. The triaxial spines preferred to intersect at 120 deg, while the costae preferred to intersect the spine at 90 deg and 35.26 deg due to the lattice relationships. The solidified metal near the fusion boundary showed an irregular structure instead of a complex regular structure. The reason for the irregular morphology was the high growth rate near the fusion boundary.

  16. A magnetar model for the hydrogen-rich super-luminous supernova iPTF14hls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessart, Luc

    2018-02-01

    Transient surveys have recently revealed the existence of H-rich super-luminous supernovae (SLSN; e.g., iPTF14hls, OGLE-SN14-073) that are characterized by an exceptionally high time-integrated bolometric luminosity, a sustained blue optical color, and Doppler-broadened H I lines at all times. Here, I investigate the effect that a magnetar (with an initial rotational energy of 4 × 1050 erg and field strength of 7 × 1013 G) would have on the properties of a typical Type II supernova (SN) ejecta (mass of 13.35 M⊙, kinetic energy of 1.32 × 1051 erg, 0.077 M⊙ of 56Ni) produced by the terminal explosion of an H-rich blue supergiant star. I present a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium time-dependent radiative transfer simulation of the resulting photometric and spectroscopic evolution from 1 d until 600 d after explosion. With the magnetar power, the model luminosity and brightness are enhanced, the ejecta is hotter and more ionized everywhere, and the spectrum formation region is much more extended. This magnetar-powered SN ejecta reproduces most of the observed properties of SLSN iPTF14hls, including the sustained brightness of ‑18 mag in the R band, the blue optical color, and the broad H I lines for 600 d. The non-extreme magnetar properties, combined with the standard Type II SN ejecta properties, offer an interesting alternative to the pair-unstable super-massive star model recently proposed, which involves a highly energetic and super-massive ejecta. Hence, such Type II SLSNe may differ from standard Type II SNe exclusively through the influence of a magnetar.

  17. Cr(VI)/Cr(III) and As(V)/As(III) ratio assessments in Jordanian spent oil shale produced by aerobic combustion and Anaerobic Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    El-Hasan, Tayel; Szczerba, Wojciech; Buzanich, Günter; Radtke, Martin; Riesemeier, Heinrich; Kersten, Michael

    2011-11-15

    With the increase in the awareness of the public in the environmental impact of oil shale utilization, it is of interest to reveal the mobility of potentially toxic trace elements in spent oil shale. Therefore, the Cr and As oxidation state in a representative Jordanian oil shale sample from the El-Lajjoun area were investigated upon different lab-scale furnace treatments. The anaerobic pyrolysis was performed in a retort flushed by nitrogen gas at temperatures in between 600 and 800 °C (pyrolytic oil shale, POS). The aerobic combustion was simply performed in porcelain cups heated in a muffle furnace for 4 h at temperatures in between 700 and 1000 °C (burned oil shale, BOS). The high loss-on-ignition in the BOS samples of up to 370 g kg(-1) results from both calcium carbonate and organic carbon degradation. The LOI leads to enrichment in the Cr concentrations from 480 mg kg(-1) in the original oil shale up to 675 mg kg(-1) in the ≥ 850 °C BOS samples. Arsenic concentrations were not much elevated beyond that in the average shale standard (13 mg kg(-1)). Synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis revealed that within the original oil shale the oxidation states of Cr and As were lower than after its aerobic combustion. Cr(VI) increased from 0% in the untreated or pyrolyzed oil shale up to 60% in the BOS ash combusted at 850 °C, while As(V) increased from 64% in the original oil shale up to 100% in the BOS ash at 700 °C. No Cr was released from original oil shale and POS products by the European compliance leaching test CEN/TC 292 EN 12457-1 (1:2 solid/water ratio, 24 h shaking), whereas leachates from BOS samples showed Cr release in the order of one mmol L(-1). The leachable Cr content is dominated by chromate as revealed by catalytic adsorptive stripping voltammetry (CAdSV) which could cause harmful contamination of surface and groundwater in the semiarid environment of Jordan.

  18. Response of Cr and Cr-Al coatings on Zircaloy-2 to high temperature steam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Weicheng; Mouche, Peter A.; Heuser, Brent J.

    2018-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of chromium (Cr) and chromium-aluminum (CrAl) coatings with various compositions deposited on Zircaloy-2 to 700 °C high-temperature steam (HTS) exposure has been investigated. CrAl coatings with higher Al compositions demonstrate lower oxidation weight gain. A layer of γ-alumina developed on the CrAl coatings with Al composition over 43 at%, while Al2O3 and Cr2O3 developed on CrAl coatings with Al composition below 33 at%. Oxidation of Zircaloy-2 substrate was inhibited by the 1um coatings to 20 h HTS exposure. Coating constituent elements diffused into the substrate and formed intermetallic phases with the Zircaloy substrate. Thicker layers of intermetallic phases developed on the coatings with higher Al composition. The intermetallic phases included Fe and Ni, indicating the dissolution of second phase particles (SPPs) during HTS exposure.

  19. Oxidation-chlorination of binary Ni-Cr alloys in flowing Ar-O2-Cl2 gas mixtures at 1200 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnallan, M. J.; Lee, Y. Y.; Chang, Y. W.; Jacobson, N. S.; Doychak, J.

    1991-01-01

    Nickel-chromium alloys are resistant to oxidation because of the selective oxidation of chromium to form a protective Cr2O3 scale. In chlorine-containing environments, volatile corrosion products can also be formed. The mixed oxidation-chlorination of Ni-4.5Cr, Ni-13.8Cr, and Ni-26.5Cr (by weight) alloys in Ar-O2-Cl2 gas mixtures is investigated using thermogravimetric analysis and atmospheric-pressure-sampling mass spectrometry, followed by examination of the corrosion products using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The overall kinetics of the corrosion are affected by the relative amounts of oxides and chlorides formed and the composition of the oxide corrosion products.

  20. The Australian SuperSite Network: A continental, long-term terrestrial ecosystem observatory.

    PubMed

    Karan, Mirko; Liddell, Michael; Prober, Suzanne M; Arndt, Stefan; Beringer, Jason; Boer, Matthias; Cleverly, James; Eamus, Derek; Grace, Peter; Van Gorsel, Eva; Hero, Jean-Marc; Hutley, Lindsay; Macfarlane, Craig; Metcalfe, Dan; Meyer, Wayne; Pendall, Elise; Sebastian, Alvin; Wardlaw, Tim

    2016-10-15

    Ecosystem monitoring networks aim to collect data on physical, chemical and biological systems and their interactions that shape the biosphere. Here we introduce the Australian SuperSite Network that, along with complementary facilities of Australia's Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN), delivers field infrastructure and diverse, ecosystem-related datasets for use by researchers, educators and policy makers. The SuperSite Network uses infrastructure replicated across research sites in different biomes, to allow comparisons across ecosystems and improve scalability of findings to regional, continental and global scales. This conforms with the approaches of other ecosystem monitoring networks such as Critical Zone Observatories, the U.S. National Ecological Observatory Network; Analysis and Experimentation on Ecosystems, Europe; Chinese Ecosystem Research Network; International Long Term Ecological Research network and the United States Long Term Ecological Research Network. The Australian SuperSite Network currently involves 10 SuperSites across a diverse range of biomes, including tropical rainforest, grassland and savanna; wet and dry sclerophyll forest and woodland; and semi-arid grassland, woodland and savanna. The focus of the SuperSite Network is on using vegetation, faunal and biophysical monitoring to develop a process-based understanding of ecosystem function and change in Australian biomes; and to link this with data streams provided by the series of flux towers across the network. The Australian SuperSite Network is also intended to support a range of auxiliary researchers who contribute to the growing body of knowledge within and across the SuperSite Network, public outreach and education to promote environmental awareness and the role of ecosystem monitoring in the management of Australian environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Diffusion of Super-Gaussian Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, C.-J.; Anderson, D.; Desaix, M.; Johannisson, P.; Lisak, M.

    2007-01-01

    The present analysis describes an analytically simple and systematic approximation procedure for modelling the free diffusive spreading of initially super-Gaussian profiles. The approach is based on a self-similar ansatz for the evolution of the diffusion profile, and the parameter functions involved in the modelling are determined by suitable…

  2. Sensing Super-position: Visual Instrument Sensor Replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A.; Schipper, John F.

    2006-01-01

    The coming decade of fast, cheap and miniaturized electronics and sensory devices opens new pathways for the development of sophisticated equipment to overcome limitations of the human senses. This project addresses the technical feasibility of augmenting human vision through Sensing Super-position using a Visual Instrument Sensory Organ Replacement (VISOR). The current implementation of the VISOR device translates visual and other passive or active sensory instruments into sounds, which become relevant when the visual resolution is insufficient for very difficult and particular sensing tasks. A successful Sensing Super-position meets many human and pilot vehicle system requirements. The system can be further developed into cheap, portable, and low power taking into account the limited capabilities of the human user as well as the typical characteristics of his dynamic environment. The system operates in real time, giving the desired information for the particular augmented sensing tasks. The Sensing Super-position device increases the image resolution perception and is obtained via an auditory representation as well as the visual representation. Auditory mapping is performed to distribute an image in time. The three-dimensional spatial brightness and multi-spectral maps of a sensed image are processed using real-time image processing techniques (e.g. histogram normalization) and transformed into a two-dimensional map of an audio signal as a function of frequency and time. This paper details the approach of developing Sensing Super-position systems as a way to augment the human vision system by exploiting the capabilities of the human hearing system as an additional neural input. The human hearing system is capable of learning to process and interpret extremely complicated and rapidly changing auditory patterns. The known capabilities of the human hearing system to learn and understand complicated auditory patterns provided the basic motivation for developing an

  3. Pioneer factors govern super-enhancer dynamics in stem cell plasticity and lineage choice

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Rene C.; Yang, Hanseul; Rockowitz, Shira; Larsen, Samantha B.; Nikolova, Maria; Oristian, Daniel S.; Polak, Lisa; Kadaja, Meelis; Asare, Amma; Zheng, Deyou; Fuchs, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Adult stem cells (SCs) reside in niches which balance self-renewal with lineage selection and progression during tissue homeostasis. Following injury, culture or transplantation, SCs outside their niche often display fate flexibility1-4. Here we show that super-enhancers5 underlie the identity, lineage commitment and plasticity of adult SCs in vivo. Using hair follicle (HF) as model, we map the global chromatin domains of HFSCs and their committed progenitors in their native microenvironments. We show that super-enhancers and their dense clusters (‘epicenters’) of transcription factor (TF) binding sites change upon lineage progression. New fate is acquired by decommissioning old and establishing new super-enhancers and/or epicenters, an auto-regulatory process that abates one master regulator subset while enhancing another. We further show that when outside their niche, either in vitro or in wound-repair, HFSCs dynamically remodel super-enhancers in response to changes in their microenvironment. Intriguingly, some key super-enhancers shift epicenters, enabling them to remain active and maintain a transitional state in an ever-changing transcriptional landscape. Finally, we identify SOX9 as a crucial chromatin rheostat of HFSC super-enhancers, and provide functional evidence that super-enhancers are dynamic, dense TF-binding platforms which are acutely sensitive to pioneer master regulators whose levels define not only spatial and temporal features of lineage-status, but also stemness, plasticity in transitional states and differentiation. PMID:25799994

  4. Super-shedding and the link between human infection and livestock carriage of Escherichia coli O157.

    PubMed

    Chase-Topping, Margo; Gally, David; Low, Chris; Matthews, Louise; Woolhouse, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Cattle that excrete more Escherichia coli O157 than others are known as super-shedders. Super-shedding has important consequences for the epidemiology of E. coli O157 in cattle--its main reservoir--and for the risk of human infection, particularly owing to environmental exposure. Ultimately, control measures targeted at super-shedders may prove to be highly effective. We currently have only a limited understanding of both the nature and the determinants of super-shedding. However, super-shedding has been observed to be associated with colonization at the terminal rectum and might also occur more often with certain pathogen phage types. More generally, epidemiological evidence suggests that super-shedding might be important in other bacterial and viral infections.

  5. Magnetic Cr doping of Bi2Se3: Evidence for divalent Cr from x-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, A. I.; van der Laan, G.; Collins-McIntyre, L. J.; Zhang, S.-L.; Baker, A. A.; Harrison, S. E.; Schönherr, P.; Cibin, G.; Hesjedal, T.

    2014-10-01

    Ferromagnetically doped topological insulators with broken time-reversal symmetry are a prerequisite for observing the quantum anomalous Hall effect. Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2(Se,Te)3 is the most successful materials system so far, as it combines ferromagnetic ordering with acceptable levels of additional bulk doping. Here, we report a study of the local electronic structure of Cr dopants in epitaxially grown Bi2Se3 thin films. Contrary to the established view that the Cr dopant is trivalent because it substitutionally replaces Bi3+, we find instead that Cr is divalent. This is evidenced by the energy positions of the Cr K and L2,3 absorption edges relative to reference samples. The extended x-ray absorption fine structure at the K edge shows that the Cr dopants substitute on octahedral sites with the surrounding Se ions contracted by Δd =-0.36 Å, in agreement with recent band structure calculations. Comparison of the Cr L2,3 x-ray magnetic circular dichroism at T =5 K with multiplet calculations gives a spin moment of 3.64 μB/Crbulk, which is close to the saturation moment for Cr2+ d4. The reduced Cr oxidation state in doped Bi2Se3 is ascribed to the formation of a covalent bond between Cr d (eg) and Se p orbitals, which is favored by the contraction of the Cr-Se distances.

  6. Ultrafast outflows in Super-Eddington Tidal Disruption Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, Erin

    2017-08-01

    The disruption of a star from the strong tidal forces of a supermassive black hole can cause the stellar debris to fall back towards the black hole at super Eddington rates. Efficient circularization of the debris can lead to the formation of an accretion disc with luminosities close to or potentially exceeding Eddington limit. Most super-Eddington accretion flow models (including recent magnetohydrodynamic simulations) predict large scale height, optically thick equatorial winds at relativistic velocities. In this talk, we will present observational results from two of the most well-observed X-ray emitting Tidal Disruption Events, Swift J1644+57 and ASASSN-14li. Both of these objects show evidence for massive outflows at tens of percent of the speed of light. The outflow in Swift J1644+57 was detected via blue shifted emission and reverberation of the iron K alpha line, and ASASSN-14li shows a potential P Cygni profile of the OVIII line. We will discuss the constraints that these observations put on the geometry of the super-Eddington accretion flows in tidal disruption events.

  7. Effect of alkaline precipitation on Cr species of Cr(III)-bearing complexes typically used in the tannery industry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dandan; Ye, Yuxuan; Liu, Hui; Ma, Hongrui; Zhang, Weiming

    2018-02-01

    Various organic compounds extensively used in the leather industry could influence the performance of alkaline precipitation with Cr(III). This study focused on two typical Cr(III)-bearing complexes (Cr(III)-collagen and Cr(III)-citrate) ubiquitous in tannery effluent yet with distinct treatment efficiencies, as Cr(III) was much more difficult to remove in the Cr(III)-citrate solution. Comprehensive analytical methods were employed to explore the intrinsic mechanism. It was found that a lower removal efficiency towards Cr(III) was significantly associated with higher oligomers. The molecular size of the Cr(III)-citrate complex continued to increase with rising pH, making it larger overall than Cr(III)-collagen species. The growing oligomer moiety of dissolved Cr(III)-complex species could persist in the stronger basic pH range, leading to the large amount of residual Cr(III) in the Cr(III)-citrate system. Combining this result with potentiometric titration and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data, it was believed that the polymeric species other than monomers facilitated resisting the attack from hydroxide ions, and the postulated Cr(III)-citrate species towards higher oligomers were discovered. Beyond that, both charge neutralization and sweeping effects were presented among the gradually emerging flocs in the Cr(III)-collagen system together with the electric double layer compression effect derived from salinity, thus resulting in a larger floc size and higher Cr(III) removal efficiency in saline solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Super-Memorizers Are Not Super-Recognizers

    PubMed Central

    Ramon, Meike; Miellet, Sebastien; Dzieciol, Anna M.; Konrad, Boris Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    Humans have a natural expertise in recognizing faces. However, the nature of the interaction between this critical visual biological skill and memory is yet unclear. Here, we had the unique opportunity to test two individuals who have had exceptional success in the World Memory Championships, including several world records in face-name association memory. We designed a range of face processing tasks to determine whether superior/expert face memory skills are associated with distinctive perceptual strategies for processing faces. Superior memorizers excelled at tasks involving associative face-name learning. Nevertheless, they were as impaired as controls in tasks probing the efficiency of the face system: face inversion and the other-race effect. Super memorizers did not show increased hippocampal volumes, and exhibited optimal generic eye movement strategies when they performed complex multi-item face-name associations. Our data show that the visual computations of the face system are not malleable and are robust to acquired expertise involving extensive training of associative memory. PMID:27008627

  9. Super-Memorizers Are Not Super-Recognizers.

    PubMed

    Ramon, Meike; Miellet, Sebastien; Dzieciol, Anna M; Konrad, Boris Nikolai; Dresler, Martin; Caldara, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Humans have a natural expertise in recognizing faces. However, the nature of the interaction between this critical visual biological skill and memory is yet unclear. Here, we had the unique opportunity to test two individuals who have had exceptional success in the World Memory Championships, including several world records in face-name association memory. We designed a range of face processing tasks to determine whether superior/expert face memory skills are associated with distinctive perceptual strategies for processing faces. Superior memorizers excelled at tasks involving associative face-name learning. Nevertheless, they were as impaired as controls in tasks probing the efficiency of the face system: face inversion and the other-race effect. Super memorizers did not show increased hippocampal volumes, and exhibited optimal generic eye movement strategies when they performed complex multi-item face-name associations. Our data show that the visual computations of the face system are not malleable and are robust to acquired expertise involving extensive training of associative memory.

  10. Research on the precision measurement of super-low reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hao-yu; Lu, Zong-gui; Xia, Yan-wen; Peng, Zhi-tao; Liu, Hua; Xu, Long-bo; Sun, Zhi-hong; Tang, Jun

    2010-10-01

    Introduced a high-precision measurement of measured the super-low reflectivity and small sampling angle. Using single reflect way measured, and compare with re-swatch. Testing the reflectance of the sampling mirror which be used on TIL, and analyze the error. Research results indicate, the main factor which affect result is energy detector error and energy detector linearity. This methods is easy and have high-precision, it can be used to measure the super-low reflectivity sampling mirror reflectance.

  11. Multi-pulse pumping for far-field super-resolution imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Requena, Sebastian; Raut, Sangram; Doan, Hung; Kimball, Joe; Fudala, Rafal; Borejdo, Julian; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Strzhemechny, Yuri; Gryczynski, Zygmunt

    2016-02-01

    Recently, far-field optical imaging with a resolution significantly beyond diffraction limit has attracted tremendous attention allowing for high resolution imaging in living objects. Various methods have been proposed that are divided in to two basic approaches; deterministic super-resolution like STED or RESOLFT and stochastic super-resolution like PALM or STORM. We propose to achieve super-resolution in far-field fluorescence imaging by the use of controllable (on-demand) bursts of pulses that can change the fluorescence signal of long-lived component over one order of magnitude. We demonstrate that two beads, one labeled with a long-lived dye and another with a short-lived dye, separated by a distance lower than 100 nm can be easily resolved in a single experiment. The proposed method can be used to separate two biological structures in a cell by targeting them with two antibodies labeled with long-lived and short-lived fluorophores.

  12. Super-resolved all-refocused image with a plenoptic camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang; Li, Lin; Hou, Guangqi

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes an approach to produce the super-resolution all-refocused images with the plenoptic camera. The plenoptic camera can be produced by putting a micro-lens array between the lens and the sensor in a conventional camera. This kind of camera captures both the angular and spatial information of the scene in one single shot. A sequence of digital refocused images, which are refocused at different depth, can be produced after processing the 4D light field captured by the plenoptic camera. The number of the pixels in the refocused image is the same as that of the micro-lens in the micro-lens array. Limited number of the micro-lens will result in poor low resolution refocused images. Therefore, not enough details will exist in these images. Such lost details, which are often high frequency information, are important for the in-focus part in the refocused image. We decide to super-resolve these in-focus parts. The result of image segmentation method based on random walks, which works on the depth map produced from the 4D light field data, is used to separate the foreground and background in the refocused image. And focusing evaluation function is employed to determine which refocused image owns the clearest foreground part and which one owns the clearest background part. Subsequently, we employ single image super-resolution method based on sparse signal representation to process the focusing parts in these selected refocused images. Eventually, we can obtain the super-resolved all-focus image through merging the focusing background part and the focusing foreground part in the way of digital signal processing. And more spatial details will be kept in these output images. Our method will enhance the resolution of the refocused image, and just the refocused images owning the clearest foreground and background need to be super-resolved.

  13. Elemental Abundances of Ultra-Heavy Galactic Cosmic Rays from the SuperTIGER Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    The SuperTIGER (Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder) experiment was launched on a long-duration balloon flight from Williams Field, Antarctica, on December 8, 2012. The instrument measured the relative elemental abundances of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) for charge (Z) Z>10 with excellent charge resolution, displaying well resolved individual element peaks for 10 ≤ Z ≤ 40. During its record-breaking 55-day flight, SuperTIGER collected ˜4.73 x10^{6} Iron nuclei, ˜8 times as many as detected by its predecessor, TIGER, with charge resolution at iron of 0.17 cu. SuperTIGER measures charge (Z) and energy (E) using a combination of three scintillator and two Cherenkov detectors, and employs a scintillating fiber hodoscope for event trajectory determination. The SuperTIGER data have been analyzed to correct for instrument effects and remove events that underwent nuclear interactions within the instrument. The data include more than 600 events in the charge range 30 < Z ≤ 40. SuperTIGER is the first experiment to resolve elemental abundances of every element in this charge range with high statistics and single-element resolution. The relative abundances of the galactic cosmic ray source have been derived from the measured relative elemental abundances using atmospheric and interstellar propagations. The SuperTIGER measured abundances are generally consistent with previous experimental results from TIGER and ACE-CRIS, with improved statistical precision. The SuperTIGER results confirm the earlier results from TIGER, supporting a model of cosmic-ray origin in OB associations, with preferential acceleration of refractory elements over volatile elements ordered by atomic mass (A). A second SuperTIGER Antarctic flight is planned for December 2017. Details of the instrument, flight, data analysis, and ongoing preparations will be presented.

  14. E. coli chemotaxis and super-diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobnikar, Jure; Matthäus, Franziska; Jagodic, Marko

    2010-03-01

    The bacteria E. coli actively propel by switching between clockwise and anti-clockwise rotation of the flagella attached to their cell membranes. This results in two modes of motion: tumbling and swimming. The switching between the two modes is coupled to the ligand sensing through the chemotactic signalling pathway inside the cell. We modelled the signalling pathway and performed numerical simulations of the chemotactic motion of a large number of E. coli bacteria under various external conditions. We have shown that under certain conditions the thermal noise in the level of receptor-bound CheR (an enzyme responsible for methylation of the receptor sites) leads to super-diffusive behaviour (L'evy walk) which is advantageous for the bacterial populations in environments with scarce food. Exerting external pressure we might observe evolution of the wild-type to the super-diffusive populations.

  15. SuperDCA for genome-wide epistasis analysis.

    PubMed

    Puranen, Santeri; Pesonen, Maiju; Pensar, Johan; Xu, Ying Ying; Lees, John A; Bentley, Stephen D; Croucher, Nicholas J; Corander, Jukka

    2018-05-29

    The potential for genome-wide modelling of epistasis has recently surfaced given the possibility of sequencing densely sampled populations and the emerging families of statistical interaction models. Direct coupling analysis (DCA) has previously been shown to yield valuable predictions for single protein structures, and has recently been extended to genome-wide analysis of bacteria, identifying novel interactions in the co-evolution between resistance, virulence and core genome elements. However, earlier computational DCA methods have not been scalable to enable model fitting simultaneously to 10 4 -10 5 polymorphisms, representing the amount of core genomic variation observed in analyses of many bacterial species. Here, we introduce a novel inference method (SuperDCA) that employs a new scoring principle, efficient parallelization, optimization and filtering on phylogenetic information to achieve scalability for up to 10 5 polymorphisms. Using two large population samples of Streptococcus pneumoniae, we demonstrate the ability of SuperDCA to make additional significant biological findings about this major human pathogen. We also show that our method can uncover signals of selection that are not detectable by genome-wide association analysis, even though our analysis does not require phenotypic measurements. SuperDCA, thus, holds considerable potential in building understanding about numerous organisms at a systems biological level.

  16. Recent advances in Reltron and Super-Reltron HPM source development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Robert B.; Muehlenweg, Carl A.; Habiger, Kerry W.; Smith, John R.; Shiffler, Donald A.

    1994-05-01

    Reltron and super-reltron microwave tubes use post acceleration of a well-modulated beam and multiple output cavity extraction sections to generate high power microwave pulses with excellent efficiency. We have continued our development of these tubes with emphasis being given to four specific topics: (1) Recent experiments with our 1-GHz super-reltron tube have demonstrated operation at a peak power level of 600 MW. With pulse durations of several hundred nanoseconds, the microwave energy per pulse is about 250 J. (2) We have extracted significant power (several tens of megawatts) at the third multiple (3 GHz) of our 1-GHz super-reltron tube using output cavities designed for operation in S-band. (3) We have fielded a small S-band super-reltron tube on our 260 kV modulator. We have obtained lifetime data for this tube under repetitive (20 Hz), long pulse (2 microsecond(s) ec) operating conditions. (4) We have initiated feasibility experiments of the reltron concept by post accelerating the bunched beam produced by a SLAC XK-5 klystron. In this paper we report our experimental results and discuss relevant theoretical considerations related to each of these four topics.

  17. Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Lapenta, Leonardo; Frisullo, Giovanni; Vollono, Catello; Brunetti, Valerio; Giannantoni, Nadia Mariagrazia; Sandroni, Claudio; Di Lella, Giuseppe; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2015-10-01

    Super-refractory status epilepticus (SE; ie, SE continuing or recurring despite 24 hours of general anesthesia) is a severe condition with high percentage of mortality and morbidity. Usually, this condition occurs because of serious brain damage; nevertheless, some patients develop super-refractory SE without identifiable etiology. Although not uncommonly encountered in neurointensive care, scientific data on this condition are still lacking in terms of treatment and prognosis. Herein, we report a case of super-refractory SE with recovery after 50 days, despite electroencephalographic (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signs traditionally related to poor prognosis. A review of the literature on super-refractory SE is also presented. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2014.

  18. Signal Characteristics of Super-Resolution Near-Field Structure Disks with 100 GB Capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jooho; Hwang, Inoh; Kim, Hyunki; Park, Insik; Tominaga, Junji

    2005-05-01

    We report the basic characteristics of super resolution near-field structure (Super-RENS) media at a blue laser optical system (laser wavelength 405 nm, numerical aperture 0.85). Using a novel write once read many (WORM) structure for a blue laser system, we obtained a carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) above 33 dB from the signal of the 37.5 nm mark length, which is equivalent to a 100 GB capacity with a 0.32 micrometer track pitch, and an eye pattern for 50 GB (2T: 75 nm) capacity using a patterned signal. Using a novel super-resolution material (tellurium, Te) with low super-resolution readout power, we also improved the read stability.

  19. Intestinal permeability to (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA in children with cystic fibrosis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Leclercq-Foucart, J.; Forget, P.; Sodoyez-Goffaux, F.

    1986-05-01

    Intestinal permeability was investigated in 14 children with cystic fibrosis making use of (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA as probe molecule. Ten normal young adults and 11 children served as controls. After oral administration of (/sup 51/Cr)EDTA, 24 h urine was collected. Urinary radioactivity was calculated and results expressed as percentage of oral dose excreted in 24 h urine. Mean and SEM were as follows: 2.51 +/- 0.21, 2.35 +/- 0.24, and 13.19 +/- 1.72 for control children, normal adults, and cystic fibrosis patients, respectively. The permeability differences between cystic fibrosis patients and either control children or control adults are significant (p lessmore » than 0.001).« less

  20. Molecular Mechanisms of RNA-Targeting by Cas13-containing Type VI CRISPR-Cas Systems.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Mitchell

    2018-06-22

    Prokaryotic adaptive immune systems use CRISPRs (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) and CRISPR associated (Cas) proteins for RNA-guided cleavage of foreign genetic elements. The focus of this review, Type VI CRISPR-Cas systems, include a single protein known as Cas13 (formerly C2c2), that when assembled with a crRNA forms a crRNA-guided RNA-targeting effector complex. Type VI CRISPR-Cas systems can be divided into four subtypes (A-D) based on Cas13 phylogeny. All Cas13 proteins studied to date possess two enzymatically distinct ribonuclease activities that are required for optimal interference. One RNase is responsible for pre-crRNA processing to form mature Type VI interference complexes, while the other RNase activity provided by the two HEPN (Higher Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes Nucleotide-binding) domains, is required for degradation of target RNA during viral interference. In this review, I will compare and contrast what is known about the molecular architecture and behavior of Type VI (A-D) CRISPR-Cas13 interference complexes, how this allows them to carry out their RNA-targeting function, how Type VI accessory proteins are able to modulate Cas13 activity, and how together all of these features have led to the rapid development of a range of RNA-targeting applications. Throughout I will also discuss some of the outstanding questions regarding Cas13's molecular behavior, and its role in bacterial adaptive immunity and RNA-targeting applications. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Cosmic string loops as the seeds of super-massive black holes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bramberger, Sebastian F.; Brandenberger, Robert H.; Jreidini, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Recent discoveries of super-massive black holes at high redshifts indicate a possible tension with the standard ΛCDM paradigm of early universe cosmology which has difficulties in explaining the origin of the required nonlinear compact seeds which trigger the formation of these super-massive black holes. Here we show that cosmic string loops which result from a scaling solution of strings formed during a phase transition in the very early universe lead to an additional source of compact seeds. The number density of string-induced seeds dominates at high redshifts and can help trigger the formation of the observed super-massive black holes.

  2. Super-Resolution Enhancement From Multiple Overlapping Images: A Fractional Area Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaels, Joshua A.

    With the availability of large quantities of relatively low-resolution data from several decades of space borne imaging, methods of creating an accurate, higher-resolution image from the multiple lower-resolution images (i.e. super-resolution), have been developed almost since such imagery has been around. The fractional-area super-resolution technique developed in this thesis has never before been documented. Satellite orbits, like Landsat, have a quantifiable variation, which means each image is not centered on the exact same spot more than once and the overlapping information from these multiple images may be used for super-resolution enhancement. By splitting a single initial pixel into many smaller, desired pixels, a relationship can be created between them using the ratio of the area within the initial pixel. The ideal goal for this technique is to obtain smaller pixels with exact values and no error, yielding a better potential result than those methods that yield interpolated pixel values with consequential loss of spatial resolution. A Fortran 95 program was developed to perform all calculations associated with the fractional-area super-resolution technique. The fractional areas are calculated using traditional trigonometry and coordinate geometry and Linear Algebra Package (LAPACK; Anderson et al., 1999) is used to solve for the higher-resolution pixel values. In order to demonstrate proof-of-concept, a synthetic dataset was created using the intrinsic Fortran random number generator and Adobe Illustrator CS4 (for geometry). To test the real-life application, digital pictures from a Sony DSC-S600 digital point-and-shoot camera with a tripod were taken of a large US geological map under fluorescent lighting. While the fractional-area super-resolution technique works in perfect synthetic conditions, it did not successfully produce a reasonable or consistent solution in the digital photograph enhancement test. The prohibitive amount of processing time (up to

  3. The investigation of the Cr doped ZnO thin films deposited by thermionic vacuum arc technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadigharehbagh, Reza; Pat, Suat; Musaoglu, Caner; Korkmaz, Şadan; Özen, Soner

    2018-02-01

    Cr doped ZnO thin films were prepared onto glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using thermionic vacuum arc. XRD patterns show the polycrystalline nature of the films. Cr, Zn, ZnO and Cr2O3 were detected in the layers. The mean crystallite sizes of the films were calculated about 20 nm for the films onto glass and PET substrates. The maximum dislocation density and internal strain values of the films are calculated. According to the optical analysis, the average transmittance and reflectance of the films were found to be approximately 53% and 16% for glass and PET substrates, respectively. The mean refractive index of the layer decreased to 2.15 from 2.38 for the PET substrate. The band gap values of the Cr-doped ZnO thin films were determined as 3.10 and 3.13 eV for glass and PET substrates.

  4. Processability evaluation of a Mo-containing FeCrAl alloy for seamless thin-wall tube fabrication

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Zhiqian; Yamamoto, Yukinori

    2017-06-10

    The processability of a Mo-containing FeCrAl alloy (Fe-13Cr-5.2Al-2Mo base, in wt%), developed for accident-tolerant nuclear fuel claddings, was evaluated through a stepwise rolling process at 400 °C under two different inter-pass annealing conditions (i.e., 650 °C for 1 h and at 870 °C for 30 min). The inter-pass annealing at 870 °C easily softened the FeCrAl alloy; however, it led to the formation of coarse grains of ~200 µm. On the other hand, the FeCrAl alloy maintained elongated, deformed grains with the inter-pass annealing at 650 °C, but the annealed samples showed relatively high deformation resistance and strong texture. Importantmore » aspects concerning the processability and microstructural control of FeCrAl alloys, such as deformation inhomogeneity, texture development, and grain coarsening, were discussed. Optimized processing conditions were recommended, based on the results, to achieve desirable microstructures with balanced processability and mechanical properties.« less

  5. Enhancement strategies for Cu(II), Cr(III) and Cr(VI) remediation by a variety of seaweed species.

    PubMed

    Murphy, V; Hughes, H; McLoughlin, P

    2009-07-15

    Various chemical treatments have been applied to six brown, red and green seaweed species with a view to enhancing their metal removal for Cu(II), Cr(III) and Cr(VI). Treatment with acetone resulted in the greatest enhancement for both cationic and anionic species with relatively low mass losses (15-35%), indicating its low risk to biomass operational stability. Cation binding was increased by 69%, while the total Cr removal was augmented by 15%. Cr(VI) binding was shown to be an adsorption-coupled reduction, whereby Cr(VI) was bound to the biomass surface at pH 2 and subsequently reduced to Cr(III). Acetone treatment also resulted in biomasses that were capable of converting up to 83% of Cr(VI) in solution to Cr(III). Blocking of carboxyl and amino functionalities had significant negative effects both on total Cr removal as well as percentage conversion of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Results therefore indicated the significant role played by these moieties in metal binding to these seaweeds. Potentiometric titrations displayed agreement between the degree of esterification and the decrease in Cu(II) removal for Ulva spp. and Polysiphonia lanosa. FTIR analysis identified changes in biomass functionality and availability after chemical modification, the results of which were in agreement with metal removal studies. In conclusion, these biosorbents represent suitable candidates to replace conventional removal technologies for metal bearing wastewaters, in particular for the detoxification of hazardous Cr(VI) waste streams.

  6. Localization-based super-resolution imaging of cellular structures.

    PubMed

    Kanchanawong, Pakorn; Waterman, Clare M

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy allows direct visualization of fluorescently tagged proteins within cells. However, the spatial resolution of conventional fluorescence microscopes is limited by diffraction to ~250 nm, prompting the development of super-resolution microscopy which offers resolution approaching the scale of single proteins, i.e., ~20 nm. Here, we describe protocols for single molecule localization-based super-resolution imaging, using focal adhesion proteins as an example and employing either photoswitchable fluorophores or photoactivatable fluorescent proteins. These protocols should also be easily adaptable to imaging a broad array of macromolecular assemblies in cells whose components can be fluorescently tagged and assemble into high density structures.

  7. Physical properties and phase diagram of the magnetic compound Cr0.26NbS1.74 at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorov, V. A.; Petrova, A. E.; Pinyagin, A. N.; Kolesnikov, N. N.; Khasanov, S. S.; Stishov, S. M.

    2016-06-01

    We report the results of a study of magnetic, electrical, and thermodynamic properties of a single crystal of the magnetic compound Cr0.26NbS1.74 at ambient and high pressures. Results of the measurements of magnetization as a function of temperature reveal the existence of a ferromagnetic phase transition in Cr0.26NbS1.74. The effective number of Bohr magnetons per Cr atom in the paramagnetic phase of Cr0.26NbS1.74 is µeff ≈ 4.6µB, which matches the literature data for Cr1/3NbS2. Similarly, the effective number of Bohr magnetons per Cr atom in the saturation fields is rather close in both substances and corresponds to the number of magnetons in the Cr+3 ion. In contrast to the stoichiometric compound, Cr0.26NbS1.74 does not show a metamagnetic transition, that indicates the lack of a magnetic soliton. A high-pressure phase diagram of the compound reveals the quantum phase transition at T = 0 and P ≈ 4.2 GPa and the triple point situated at T ≈ 20 K and P ≈ 4.2 GPa.

  8. Super-pixel extraction based on multi-channel pulse coupled neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, GuangZhu; Hu, Song; Zhang, Liu; Zhao, JingJing; Fu, YunXia; Lei, BangJun

    2018-04-01

    Super-pixel extraction techniques group pixels to form over-segmented image blocks according to the similarity among pixels. Compared with the traditional pixel-based methods, the image descripting method based on super-pixel has advantages of less calculation, being easy to perceive, and has been widely used in image processing and computer vision applications. Pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) is a biologically inspired model, which stems from the phenomenon of synchronous pulse release in the visual cortex of cats. Each PCNN neuron can correspond to a pixel of an input image, and the dynamic firing pattern of each neuron contains both the pixel feature information and its context spatial structural information. In this paper, a new color super-pixel extraction algorithm based on multi-channel pulse coupled neural network (MPCNN) was proposed. The algorithm adopted the block dividing idea of SLIC algorithm, and the image was divided into blocks with same size first. Then, for each image block, the adjacent pixels of each seed with similar color were classified as a group, named a super-pixel. At last, post-processing was adopted for those pixels or pixel blocks which had not been grouped. Experiments show that the proposed method can adjust the number of superpixel and segmentation precision by setting parameters, and has good potential for super-pixel extraction.

  9. Optical Super-Resolution by High-Index Liquid-Immersed Microspheres

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    the BD without liquid can be achieved using microspheres with small-to-moderate index of refraction such as borosilicate glass (n 1.47), soda lime ...titanate glass microspheres with diameters (D) in the range 2–220 lm and with high refractive index (n 1.9–2.1) can be used for super-resolution...achieving optical super-resolution. It has been demonstrated10 that silica spheres with refractive index (n) about 1.46 and with diame- ters (D) in the

  10. High Resolution Bathymetry Estimation Improvement with Single Image Super-Resolution Algorithm Super-Resolution Forests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-26

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/5514--17-9692 High Resolution Bathymetry Estimation Improvement with Single Image Super...collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources...gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate

  11. Genetic dissection of the α-globin super-enhancer in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Deborah; Hughes, Jim R.; Rode, Christina; Li, Pik-Shan; Pennacchio, Len A.; Sloane-Stanley, Jacqueline A.; Ayyub, Helena; Butler, Sue; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Gibbons, Richard J.; Smith, Andrew J.H.; Wood, William G.; Higgs, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    Many genes determining cell identity are regulated by clusters of mediator-bound enhancer elements collectively referred to as super-enhancers. These have been proposed to manifest higher-order properties important in development and disease. Here, we report a comprehensive functional dissection of one of the strongest putative super-enhancers in erythroid cells. By generating a series of mouse models, deleting each of the five regulatory elements of the α-globin super-enhancer singly and in informative combinations, we demonstrate that each constituent enhancer appears to act independently and in an additive fashion with respect to hematologic phenotype, gene expression, chromatin structure and chromosome conformation, without clear evidence of synergistic or higher-order effects. Our study highlights the importance of functional genetic analyses for the identification of new concepts in transcriptional regulation. PMID:27376235

  12. Effect of free Cr content on corrosion behavior of 3Cr steels in a CO2 environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Xu, Lining; Qiao, Lijie; Li, Jinxu

    2017-12-01

    The corrosion behavior of 3Cr steels with three microstructures (martensite, bainite, combined ferrite and pearlite) in simulated oil field formation water with a CO2 partial pressure of 0.8 MPa was investigated. The relationships between Cr concentrations in corrosion scales and corrosion rates were studied. The precipitated phases that contained Cr were observed in steels of different microstructures, and free Cr content levels were compared. The results showed that steel with the martensite microstructure had the highest free Cr content, and thus had the highest corrosion resistance. The free Cr content of bainite steel was lower than that of martensite steel, and the corrosion rate of bainite steel was higher than that of martensite steel. Because large masses of Cr were combined in ferrite and pearlite steel, the corrosion rates of ferrite and pearlite steel were the highest. Free Cr content in steel affects its corrosion behavior greatly.

  13. Multiple signal classification algorithm for super-resolution fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Krishna; Macháň, Radek

    2016-01-01

    Single-molecule localization techniques are restricted by long acquisition and computational times, or the need of special fluorophores or biologically toxic photochemical environments. Here we propose a statistical super-resolution technique of wide-field fluorescence microscopy we call the multiple signal classification algorithm which has several advantages. It provides resolution down to at least 50 nm, requires fewer frames and lower excitation power and works even at high fluorophore concentrations. Further, it works with any fluorophore that exhibits blinking on the timescale of the recording. The multiple signal classification algorithm shows comparable or better performance in comparison with single-molecule localization techniques and four contemporary statistical super-resolution methods for experiments of in vitro actin filaments and other independently acquired experimental data sets. We also demonstrate super-resolution at timescales of 245 ms (using 49 frames acquired at 200 frames per second) in samples of live-cell microtubules and live-cell actin filaments imaged without imaging buffers. PMID:27934858

  14. Diverse anaerobic Cr(VI) tolerant bacteria from Cr(VI)-contaminated 100H site at Hanford

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, R.; Phan, R.; Lam, S.; Leung, C.; Brodie, E. L.; Hazen, T. C.

    2007-12-01

    Hexavalent Chromium [Cr(VI)] is a widespread contaminant found in soil, sediment, and ground water. Cr(VI) is more soluble, toxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic compared to its reduced form Cr(III). In order to stimulate microbially mediated reduction of Cr(VI), a poly-lactate compound HRC was injected into the chromium contaminated aquifers at site 100H at Hanford. Based on the results of the bacterial community composition using high-density DNA microarray analysis of 16S rRNA gene products, we recently investigated the diversity of the dominant anaerobic culturable microbial population present at this site and their role in Cr(VI) reduction. Positive enrichments set up at 30°C using specific defined anaerobic media resulted in the isolation of an iron reducing isolate strain HAF, a sulfate reducing isolate strain HBLS and a nitrate reducing isolate, strain HLN among several others. Preliminary 16S rDNA sequence analysis identifies strain HAF as Geobacter metallireducens, strain HLN as Pseudomonas stutzeri and strain HBLS as a member of Desulfovibrio species. Strain HAF isolated with acetate as the electron donor utilized propionate, glycerol and pyruvate as alternative carbon sources, and reduced metals like Mn(IV) and Cr(VI). Growth was optimal at 37°C, pH of 6.5 and 0% salinity. Strain HLN isolated with lactate as electron donor utilized acetate, glycerol and pyruvate as alternative carbon sources, and reduced metals like Mn(IV) and Cr(VI). Optimal growth was observed at 37°C, at a pH of 7.5 and 0.3% salinity. Anaerobic active washed cell suspension of strain HLN reduced almost 95 micromolar Cr(VI) within 4 hours relative to controls. Further, with 100 micromolar Cr(VI) as the sole electron acceptor, cells of strain HLN grew to cell numbers of 4.05X 107/ml over a period of 24hrs after an initial lag, demonstrating direct enzymatic Cr(VI) reduction by this species. 10mM lactate served as the sole electron donor. These results demonstrate that Cr

  15. Effect of Cr2O3 addition on the oxidation induration mechanism of Hongge vanadium titanomagnetite pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Nan; Fu, Gui-qin; Chu, Man-sheng; Zhu, Miao-yong

    2018-04-01

    As part of a research project to develop a novel clean smelting process for the comprehensive utilization of Hongge vanadium titanomagnetite (HVTM), in this study, the effect of Cr2O3 addition on the oxidation induration mechanism of HVTM pellets (HVTMPs) was investigated in detail. The results showed that the compressive strength of the HVTMPs was greatly weakened by the Cr2O3 addition, mainly because of a substantial increase in the porosity of the HVTMPs. The Cr2O3 addition marginally affected the phase composition but greatly affected the microstructural changes of the HVTMPs. Increased amounts of Cr2O3 resulted in a decrease in the uniform distribution of the hematite grains and in an increase in the Fe-Cr solid solutions (Fe1.2Cr0.8O3 and Fe0.7Cr1.3O3) embedded in the hematite grains. Moreover, the compact hematite was destroyed by forming a dispersed structure and the hematite recrystallization was hindered during the oxidation induration, which adversely affected the compressive strength. On the basis of these results, a schematic was formulated to describe the oxidation induration mechanism with different amounts of added Cr2O3. This study provides theoretical and technical foundations for the effective production of HVTMPs and a reference for chromium-bearing minerals.

  16. Reaction diffusion in the NiCrAl and CoCrAl systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper assesses the effect of overlay coating and substrate composition on the kinetics of coating depletion by interdiffusion. This is accomplished by examining the constitution, kinetics and activation energies for a series of diffusion couples primarily of the NiCrAl/Ni-10Cr or CoCrAl/Ni-10Cr type annealed at temperatures in the range 1000-1205 C for times up to 500 hr. A general procedure is developed for analyzing diffusion in multicomponent multiphase systems. It is shown that by introducing the concept of beta-source strength, which can be determined from appropriate phase diagrams, the Wagner solution for consumption of a second phase in a semiinfinite couple is successfully applied to the analysis of MCrAl couples. Thus, correlation of beta-recession rate constants with couple composition, total and diffusional activation energies, and interdiffusion coefficients are determined.

  17. NASA Super Pressure Balloon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbrother, Debbie

    2017-01-01

    NASA is in the process of qualifying the mid-size Super Pressure Balloon (SPB) to provide constant density altitude flight for science investigations at polar and mid-latitudes. The status of the development of the 18.8 million cubic foot SPB capable of carrying one-tone of science to 110,000 feet, will be given. In addition, the operating considerations such as launch sites, flight safety considerations, and recovery will be discussed.

  18. NASA Super Pressure Balloon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbrother, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    NASA is in the process of qualifying the mid-size Super Pressure Balloon (SPB) to provide constant density altitude flight for science investigations at polar and mid-latitudes. The status of the development of the 18.8 million cubic foot SPB capable of carrying one-tonne of science to 110,000 feet, will be given. In addition, the operating considerations such as launch sites, flight safety considerations, and recovery will be discussed.

  19. Cr(VI) and Cr(III) removal from aqueous solution by raw and modified lignocellulosic materials: a review.

    PubMed

    Miretzky, P; Cirelli, A Fernandez

    2010-08-15

    In aqueous systems, chromium usually exists in both trivalent and hexavalent oxidation states, being Cr(VI) of particular importance and concern due to its great toxicity. Industrial sources of Cr(VI) are leather tanning, mining of chrome ore, production of steel and alloys, etc. The most common conventional method for Cr(VI) removal is reduction to Cr(III) at pH 2.0 and precipitation of Cr (OH)(3) with lime at pH 9-10. The disadvantage of precipitation is the disposal of the solid waste. Adsorption of Cr by different low cost materials seems to be a suitable choice for wastewater treatment. Many by-products of agriculture have proved to be suitable low cost adsorbents for Cr(VI) and Cr(III) removal from water. Lignocellulosic residues, which include both wood residues and agricultural residues, have adsorption capacity comparable to other natural sorbents, but they have the advantage of very low or no cost, great availability and simple operational process. This study is a review of the recent literature on the use of natural and modified lignocellulosic residues for Cr adsorption. The Cr maximum adsorption capacity and the adsorption mechanism under different experimental conditions are reported when possibly. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Atomistic simulation of the influence of Cr on the mobility of the edge dislocation in Fe(Cr) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafez Haghighat, S. M.; Terentyev, D.; Schäublin, R.

    2011-10-01

    In this work Fe-Cr compounds, as model alloys for the ferritic base steels that are considered as main candidates for the structural materials of the future fusion reactors, are studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The Cr or so-called α' precipitates, which are obstacles to dislocations, affect mechanical properties, leading to hardening and loss of ductility. The flow stress to move an edge dislocation in a Cr solid solution in pure Fe is studied as a function of Cr content. The strength of a nanometric Cr precipitate as obstacle to an edge dislocation in pure Fe is investigated as a function of its Cr content. Results show that with increasing Cr content the precipitate obstacle strength increases, with a strong sensitivity to the local atomic order. Temperature induces a monotonic decrease of the flow stress of the Cr solid solution and of the Cr precipitate obstacle strength.

  1. Detecting breast microcalcifications using super-resolution ultrasound imaging: a clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lianjie; Labyed, Yassin; Hanson, Kenneth; Sandoval, Daniel; Pohl, Jennifer; Williamson, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Imaging breast microcalcifications is crucial for early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. It is challenging for current clinical ultrasound to image breast microcalcifications. However, new imaging techniques using data acquired with a synthetic-aperture ultrasound system have the potential to significantly improve ultrasound imaging. We recently developed a super-resolution ultrasound imaging method termed the phase-coherent multiple-signal classification (PC-MUSIC). This signal subspace method accounts for the phase response of transducer elements to improve image resolution. In this paper, we investigate the clinical feasibility of our super-resolution ultrasound imaging method for detecting breast microcalcifications. We use our custom-built, real-time synthetic-aperture ultrasound system to acquire breast ultrasound data for 40 patients whose mammograms show the presence of breast microcalcifications. We apply our super-resolution ultrasound imaging method to the patient data, and produce clear images of breast calcifications. Our super-resolution ultrasound PC-MUSIC imaging with synthetic-aperture ultrasound data can provide a new imaging modality for detecting breast microcalcifications in clinic without using ionizing radiation.

  2. Efficient super-resolution image reconstruction applied to surveillance video captured by small unmanned aircraft systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qiang; Schultz, Richard R.; Chu, Chee-Hung Henry

    2008-04-01

    The concept surrounding super-resolution image reconstruction is to recover a highly-resolved image from a series of low-resolution images via between-frame subpixel image registration. In this paper, we propose a novel and efficient super-resolution algorithm, and then apply it to the reconstruction of real video data captured by a small Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). Small UAS aircraft generally have a wingspan of less than four meters, so that these vehicles and their payloads can be buffeted by even light winds, resulting in potentially unstable video. This algorithm is based on a coarse-to-fine strategy, in which a coarsely super-resolved image sequence is first built from the original video data by image registration and bi-cubic interpolation between a fixed reference frame and every additional frame. It is well known that the median filter is robust to outliers. If we calculate pixel-wise medians in the coarsely super-resolved image sequence, we can restore a refined super-resolved image. The primary advantage is that this is a noniterative algorithm, unlike traditional approaches based on highly-computational iterative algorithms. Experimental results show that our coarse-to-fine super-resolution algorithm is not only robust, but also very efficient. In comparison with five well-known super-resolution algorithms, namely the robust super-resolution algorithm, bi-cubic interpolation, projection onto convex sets (POCS), the Papoulis-Gerchberg algorithm, and the iterated back projection algorithm, our proposed algorithm gives both strong efficiency and robustness, as well as good visual performance. This is particularly useful for the application of super-resolution to UAS surveillance video, where real-time processing is highly desired.

  3. Dynamics of a Cr spin in a semiconductor quantum dot: Hole-Cr flip-flops and spin-phonon coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafuente-Sampietro, A.; Utsumi, H.; Sunaga, M.; Makita, K.; Boukari, H.; Kuroda, S.; Besombes, L.

    2018-04-01

    A detailed analysis of the photoluminescence (PL) intensity distribution in singly Cr-doped CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots (QDs) is performed. First of all, we demonstrate that hole-Cr flip-flops induced by an interplay of the hole-Cr exchange interaction and the coupling with acoustic phonons are the main source of spin relaxation within the exciton-Cr complex. This spin flip mechanism appears in the excitation power dependence of the PL of the exciton as well as in the intensity distribution of the resonant PL. The resonant optical pumping of the Cr spin which was recently demonstrated can also be explained by these hole-Cr flip-flops. Despite the fast exciton-Cr spin dynamics, an analysis of the PL intensity under magnetic field shows that the hole-Cr exchange interaction in CdTe/ZnTe QDs is antiferromagnetic. In addition to the Cr spin dynamics induced by the interaction with carriers' spin, we finally demonstrate using time resolved optical pumping measurements that a Cr spin interacts with nonequilibrium acoustic phonons generated during the optical excitation inside or near the QD.

  4. Super-resolution with an SLM and two intensity images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcalá Ochoa, Noé; de León, Y. Ponce

    2018-06-01

    It is reported a method which may simplify the optical setups used to achieve super-resolution through the amplitude multiplication of two waves. For this end we decompose a super-resolving pupil into two complex masks and with the aid of a Spatial Light Modulator (LCoS) we obtain two intensity images that are subtracted. With this proposal, the traditional experimental optical setups are considerably simplified, with the additional benefit that different masks can be utilized without needing to perform the setup alignment each time.

  5. Lattice relations and solidification of the complex regular eutectic (Cr,Fe)-(Cr,Fe)23C6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Hsuan-Han; Hsieh, Chih-Chun; Lin, Chi-Ming; Wu, Weite

    2017-05-01

    The eutectic (Cr,Fe)-(Cr,Fe)23C6 showed a triaxial fishbone structure and could be categorized as a "complex regular structure". In this study, the lattice relations of the fishbone (Cr,Fe)23C6 were examined and the solidification process was observed using a transmission electron microscope and a confocal laser scanning microscope. For one of the three fish bones in a eutectic cell, parallel (Cr,Fe)23C6 lamellas at one side of the spine had the same lattice direction, as did those in the (Cr,Fe) phase. The lattices of neighboring (Cr,Fe)23C6 and (Cr,Fe) phases were not coherent. Lamellar (Cr,Fe)23C6 on opposite sides of a spine had different lattice directions, and their lattice boundary was in the spine. By using the confocal laser scanning microscope, the solidification of lamellar eutectic structure could be observed. At the low cooling rate of 5 o C·min-1, parallel lamellas would grow thick blocks instead of thin plates. To obtain a thin lamellar eutectic structure, the cooling rate should be higher, like the rate in welding.

  6. Experimental evidence of Cr magnetic moments at low temperature in Cr2A(A=Al, Ge)C.

    PubMed

    Jaouen, M; Bugnet, M; Jaouen, N; Ohresser, P; Mauchamp, V; Cabioc'h, T; Rogalev, A

    2014-04-30

    From x-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments performed at low temperature on Cr2AlC and Cr2GeC thin films, it is evidenced that Cr atoms carry a net magnetic moment in these ternary phases. It is shown that the Cr magnetization of the Al-based compound nearly vanished at 100 K in agreement with what has been recently observed on bulk. X-ray linear dichroism measurements performed at various angles of incidence and temperatures clearly demonstrate the existence of a charge ordering along the c axis of the structure of Cr2AlC. All these experimental observations support, in part, theoretical calculations claiming that Cr dd correlations have to be considered to correctly describe the structure and properties of these Cr-based ternary phases.

  7. The physical demands of Super 14 rugby union.

    PubMed

    Austin, Damien; Gabbett, Tim; Jenkins, David

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the match-play demands of professional rugby union players competing in Super 14 matches during the 2008 and 2009 seasons. The movements of 20 players from Super 14 rugby union team during the 2008 and 2009 seasons were video recorded. Using time-motion analysis (TMA), five players from four positional groups (front-row forwards, back-row forwards, inside backs and outside backs) were assessed. Players covered between 4218 m and 6389 m during the games. The maximum distances covered in a game by the four groups were: front row forwards (5139 m), back row forwards, (5422 m), inside backs (6389 m) and outside backs (5489 m). The back row forwards spent the greatest amount of time in high-intensity exercise (1190 s), followed by the front row forwards (1015 s), the inside backs (876 s) and the outside backs (570 s). Average distances covered in individual sprint efforts were: front row forwards (16 m), back row forwards (14 m), inside backs (17 m) and outside backs (18 m). Work to rest ratios of 1:4, 1:4, 1:5, and 1:6 were found for the front row and back row forwards, and inside and outside backs respectively. The Super 14 competition during 2008 and 2009, have resulted in an increase in total high-intensity activities, sprint frequency, and work to rest ratios across all playing positions. For players and teams to remain competitive in Super 14 rugby, training (including recovery practices) should reflect these current demands. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiparticle Simulation of Intrabeam Scattering for SuperB

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Biagini, M.; Boscolo, M.; Demma, T.

    In this communication we present the structure of a multiparticle tracking code to investigate intrabeam scattering effects in low emittance colliders. Simulation results obtained with particular reference to the SuperB parameters are compared with those of conventional IBS theories.and with those of a novel semi-analythical model able to predict IBS effect in terms of emittance growths. Intrabeam scattering (IBS) is associated with multiple small angle scattering events leading to emittance growth. In most electron storage rings, the growth rates arising from IBS are usually much longer than damping times due to synchrotron radiation, and its effect is not observed. However,more » IBS growth rates increase with bunch charge density, and for machines such as SuperB, that operate with high bunch charges and very low emittances, the IBS growth rates can be large enough to observe significant emittance increase. Several formalisms have been developed for calculating IBS growth rates in storage rings, notably those by Piwinski, Bjorken and Mtingwa, and their high energy approximations. Calculations show that IBS should be manageable in both SuperB rings. However these analytical models, based on Gaussian bunch distributions, cannot investigate some interesting aspects of IBS such as its impact during the damping process and its effect on the beam distribution. We developed a multiparticle tracking code, based on the Zenkevich-Bolshakov algorithm, to investigate these effects. In this communication we present the structure of the code and some simulation results obtained with particular reference to the SuperB parameters. Simulation results are compared with those of conventional IBS theories.« less

  9. Targeting Super-Enhancers for Disease Treatment and Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ha Youn

    2018-05-10

    The transcriptional regulation of genes determines the fate of animal cell differentiation and subsequent organ development. With the recent progress in genome-wide technologies, the genomic landscapes of enhancers have been broadly explored in mammalian genomes, which led to the discovery of novel specific subsets of enhancers, termed superenhancers. Super-enhancers are large clusters of enhancers covering the long region of regulatory DNA and are densely occupied by transcription factors, active histone marks, and co-activators. Accumulating evidence points to the critical role that super-enhancers play in cell type-specific development and differentiation, as well as in the development of various diseases. Here, I provide a comprehensive description of the optimal approach for identifying functional units of superenhancers and their unique chromatin features in normal development and in diseases, including cancers. I also review the recent updated knowledge on novel approaches of targeting super-enhancers for the treatment of specific diseases, such as small-molecule inhibitors and potential gene therapy. This review will provide perspectives on using superenhancers as biomarkers to develop novel disease diagnostic tools and establish new directions in clinical therapeutic strategies.

  10. Integral representations on supermanifolds: super Hodge duals, PCOs and Liouville forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellani, Leonardo; Catenacci, Roberto; Grassi, Pietro Antonio

    2017-01-01

    We present a few types of integral transforms and integral representations that are very useful for extending to supergeometry many familiar concepts of differential geometry. Among them we discuss the construction of the super Hodge dual, the integral representation of picture changing operators of string theories and the construction of the super-Liouville form of a symplectic supermanifold.

  11. Cr(VI) adsorption from electroplating plating wastewater by chemically modified coir pith.

    PubMed

    Suksabye, Parinda; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2012-07-15

    Coir pith samples were chemically modified by grafting with acrylic acid for the removal of Cr(VI) from electroplating wastewater. The presence of acrylic acid on the coir pith surface was verified by a scanning electron microscope with an electron dispersive x-ray spectrometer (SEM/EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetry (TG). The carbonyl groups (C==O) from the carboxylic acids (COOH) increased on the coir pith surface after grafting with acrylic acid. In addition, the thermal stability of the acrylic acid-grafted coir pith also improved. The optimum conditions for grafting the acrylic acid on the coir pith consisted of 2 M acrylic acid and 0.00125 M ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN, as an initiator). The maximum Cr(VI) removal (99.99 ± 0.07%) was obtained with the following conditions: a 1.3% (w/v) dosage of acrylic acid-grafted coir pith, a system pH of 2, a contact time of 22 h, a temperature of 30 °C, a particle size of <150 μm and an initial Cr(VI) of 1,171 mg l(-1). At system pH of 2, Cr(VI) in the HCrO(4)(-) form can be adsorbed with acrylic acid-grafted coir pith via an electrostatic attraction. The adsorption isotherm of 2 M acrylic acid-grafted coir pith exhibited a good fit with the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum Cr(VI) adsorption capacity of the 2 M acrylic acid-grafted coir pith was 196.00 mg Cr(VI) g(-1) adsorbent, whereas for coir pith without grafting, the maximum Cr(VI) removal was 165.00 mg Cr(VI) g(-1) adsorbent. The adsorption capacity of the acrylic acid-grafted coir pith for Cr(VI) was higher compared to the original coir pith. This result was due to the enhancement of the carbonyl groups on the coir pith surface that may have involved the mechanism of chromium adsorption. The X-ray absorption near edged structure (XANES) and desorption studies suggested that most of the Cr(III) that presented on the acrylic acid-grafted coir pith was due to the Cr(VI) being reduced to Cr(III) on the adsorbent surface. FTIR

  12. The structure and energetics of Cr(CO)6 and Cr(CO)5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Leslie A.; Liu, Bowen; Lindh, Roland

    1992-01-01

    The geometric structure of Cr(CO)6 is optimized at the modified coupled pair functional (MCPF), single and double excitation coupled-cluster (CCSD) and CCSD(T) levels of theory (including a perturbational estimate for connected triple excitations), and the force constants for the totally symmetric representation are determined. The geometry of Cr(CO)5 is partially optimized at the MCPF, CCSD, and CCSD(T) levels of theory. Comparison with experimental data shows that the CCSD(T) method gives the best results for the structures and force constants, and that remaining errors are probably due to deficiencies in the one-particle basis sets used for CO. The total binding energies of Cr(CO)6 and Cr(CO)5 are also determined at the MCPF, CCSD, and CCSD(T) levels of theory. The CCSD(T) method gives a much larger total binding energy than either the MCPF or CCSD methods. An analysis of the basis set superposition error (BSSE) at the MCPF level of treatment points out limitations in the one-particle basis used. Calculations using larger basis sets reduce the BSSE, but the total binding energy of Cr(CO)6 is still significantly smaller than the experimental value, although the first CO bond dissociation energy of Cr(CO)6 is well described. An investigation of 3s3p correlation reveals only a small effect. In the largest basis set, the total CO binding energy of Cr(CO)6 is estimated to be 140 kcal/mol at the CCSD(T) level of theory, or about 86 percent of the experimental value. The remaining discrepancy between the experimental and theoretical value is probably due to limitations in the one-particle basis, rather than limitations in the correlation treatment. In particular an additional d function and an f function on each C and O are needed to obtain quantitative results. This is underscored by the fact that even using a very large primitive set (1042 primitive functions contracted to 300 basis functions), the superposition error for the total binding energy of Cr(CO)6 is 22

  13. Layered double hydroxide stability. 2. Formation of Cr(III)-containing layered double hydroxides directly from solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boclair, J. W.; Braterman, P. S.; Jiang, J.; Lou, S.; Yarberry, F.

    1999-01-01

    Solutions containing divalent metal [M(II) = Mg2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mn2+] chlorides and CrCl3 6H2O were titrated with NaOH to yield, for M(II) = Zn, Co, and Ni, hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides (LDHs), [[M(II)]1-z[Cr(III)]z(OH)2][Cl]z yH2O, in a single step, without intermediate formation of chromium hydroxide. Analysis of the resultant titration curves yields solubility constants for these compounds. These are in the order Zn < Ni approximately Co, with a clear preference for formation of the phase with z = 1/3. With Mg2+ as chloride, titration gives a mixture of Cr(OH)3 and Mg(OH)2, but the metal sulfates give Mg2Cr(OH)6 1/2(SO4) by a two-step process. Titrimetric and spectroscopic evidence suggests short-range cation order in the one-step LDH systems.

  14. A Super-Resolution Algorithm for Enhancement of FLASH LIDAR Data: Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulyshev, Alexander; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Roback, Eric; Reisse Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a 3D super-resolution algorithm applied to the range data obtained from a recent Flash Lidar helicopter flight test. The flight test was conducted by the NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project over a simulated lunar terrain facility at NASA Kennedy Space Center. ALHAT is developing the technology for safe autonomous landing on the surface of celestial bodies: Moon, Mars, asteroids. One of the test objectives was to verify the ability of 3D super-resolution technique to generate high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and to determine time resolved relative positions and orientations of the vehicle. 3D super-resolution algorithm was developed earlier and tested in computational modeling, and laboratory experiments, and in a few dynamic experiments using a moving truck. Prior to the helicopter flight test campaign, a 100mX100m hazard field was constructed having most of the relevant extraterrestrial hazard: slopes, rocks, and craters with different sizes. Data were collected during the flight and then processed by the super-resolution code. The detailed DEM of the hazard field was constructed using independent measurement to be used for comparison. ALHAT navigation system data were used to verify abilities of super-resolution method to provide accurate relative navigation information. Namely, the 6 degree of freedom state vector of the instrument as a function of time was restored from super-resolution data. The results of comparisons show that the super-resolution method can construct high quality DEMs and allows for identifying hazards like rocks and craters within the accordance of ALHAT requirements.

  15. A super-resolution algorithm for enhancement of flash lidar data: flight test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulyshev, Alexander; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Roback, Eric; Reisse, Robert

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes the results of a 3D super-resolution algorithm applied to the range data obtained from a recent Flash Lidar helicopter flight test. The flight test was conducted by the NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project over a simulated lunar terrain facility at NASA Kennedy Space Center. ALHAT is developing the technology for safe autonomous landing on the surface of celestial bodies: Moon, Mars, asteroids. One of the test objectives was to verify the ability of 3D super-resolution technique to generate high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and to determine time resolved relative positions and orientations of the vehicle. 3D super-resolution algorithm was developed earlier and tested in computational modeling, and laboratory experiments, and in a few dynamic experiments using a moving truck. Prior to the helicopter flight test campaign, a 100mX100m hazard field was constructed having most of the relevant extraterrestrial hazard: slopes, rocks, and craters with different sizes. Data were collected during the flight and then processed by the super-resolution code. The detailed DEM of the hazard field was constructed using independent measurement to be used for comparison. ALHAT navigation system data were used to verify abilities of super-resolution method to provide accurate relative navigation information. Namely, the 6 degree of freedom state vector of the instrument as a function of time was restored from super-resolution data. The results of comparisons show that the super-resolution method can construct high quality DEMs and allows for identifying hazards like rocks and craters within the accordance of ALHAT requirements.

  16. The Super-TIGER Instrument to Probe Galactic Cosmic-Ray Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, John E.

    2013-04-01

    Super-TIGER is a large area (5.4 m^2) balloon-borne instrument designed to measure cosmic-ray nuclei in the charge interval 30 <= Z <= 42 with individual-element resolution and high statistical precision, and make exploratory measurements through Z = 56. These measurements will provide sensitive tests of the emerging model of cosmic-ray origins in OB associations and models of the mechanism for selection of nuclei for acceleration. Furthermore, Super-TIGER will measure with high statistical accuracy the energy spectra of the more abundant elements in the interval 10 <= Z <= 28 at energies 0.8 < E < 10 GeV/nucleon to test the hypothesis that nearby micro-quasars could superpose features on the energy spectra. Super-TIGER, which builds on the heritage of the smaller TIGER, was constructed by a collaboration involving WUSTL, NASA/GSFC, Caltech, JPL and U Minn. It was successfully launched from Antarctica in December 2012, collecting high-quality data for over one month. Particle charge and energy were measured with a combination of plastic scintillators, acrylic and silica-aerogel Cherenkov detectors, and a scintillating fiber hodoscope. Details of the flight, instrument performance, data analysis and preliminary results of the Super-TIGER flight will be presented.

  17. Optical triggering of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser via transverse bleaching of a Cr:YAG saturable absorber.

    PubMed

    Cole, Brian; Lei, Jonathan; DiLazaro, Tom; Schilling, Bradley; Goldberg, Lew

    2009-11-01

    Optical triggering via direct bleaching of a Cr:YAG saturable absorber was applied to a monolithic Nd:YAG/Cr:YAG laser crystal. The method uses a single laser diode bar to bleach a thin sheet within the saturable absorber from a direction orthogonal to the lasing axis. By placing the Q-switch at the time corresponding to the steepest slope (dT/dt) for change in transmission during bleaching, the pulse-to-pulse timing jitter showed a 13.2x reduction in standard deviation, from 132 ns for free-running operation to 10 ns with optical triggering. We measured that a fluence of 60 kW/cm(2) was sufficient to enable optical triggering, where a diode appropriately sized for the length of the Cr:YAG (approximately 3 mm) would then require only approximately 150 W of optical power over a 1-2 micros duration to enable effective jitter reduction. Additionally, we measured an increase in optical-to-optical efficiency with optical triggering, where the efficiency improved from 12% to 13.5%.

  18. Growth, Structural, Electronic, and Magnetic Characterization of GaN, CrN, Fe Islands on CrN, and Fe/CrN Bilayer Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Khan

    As a part of my Ph.D research, initially I was involved in construction and calibration of an ultra-high vacuum thin film facility, and later on I studied structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of GaN, CrN, Fe/CrN bilayers, and Fe islands on CrN thin films. All of these films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy and characterized with a variety of state-of-the-art techniques including variable temperature reflection high energy electron diffraction, low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, variable temperature vibrating sample magnetometry, variable temperature neutron diffraction and reflectometry, variable temperature x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectometry, Rutherford backscattering, Auger electron spectroscopy, and cross-sectional tunneling electron microscopy. The experimental results are furthermore understood by comparing with numerical calculations using generalized gradient approximation, local density approximation with Hubbard correction, Refl1D, and data analysis and visual environment program. In my first research project, I studied Ga gas adatoms on GaN surfaces. We discovered frozen-out gallium gas adatoms on atomically smooth c(6x12) GaN(0001¯) surface using low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. We identified adsorption sites of the Ga adatoms on c(6x12) reconstructed surface. Their bonding is determined by measuring low unoccupied molecular orbital level. Absorption sites of the Ga gas adatoms on centered 6x12 are identified, and their asymmetric absorption on the chiral domains is investigated. In second project, I investigated magneto-structural phase transition in chromium nitride (CrN) thin films. The CrN thin films are grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Structural and magnetic transition are studied using variable temperature reflection high energy electron diffraction and variable temperature neutron diffraction. We observed a structural phase transition at the surface at 277+/-2 K, and a sharp, first

  19. Super resolution imaging of HER2 gene amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Masaya; Kubo, Takuya; Masumoto, Kanako; Iwanaga, Shigeki

    2016-02-01

    HER2 positive breast cancer is currently examined by counting HER2 genes using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-stained breast carcinoma samples. In this research, two-dimensional super resolution fluorescence microscopy based on stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), with a spatial resolution of approximately 20 nm in the lateral direction, was used to more precisely distinguish and count HER2 genes in a FISH-stained tissue section. Furthermore, by introducing double-helix point spread function (DH-PSF), an optical phase modulation technique, to super resolution microscopy, three-dimensional images were obtained of HER2 in a breast carcinoma sample approximately 4 μm thick.

  20. Chromium isotope variation along a contaminated groundwater plume: a coupled Cr(VI)- reduction, advective mixing perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullen, T.; Izbicki, J.

    2007-12-01

    Chromium (Cr) is a common contaminant in groundwater, used in electroplating, leather tanning, wood preservation, and as an anti-corrosion agent. Cr occurs in two oxidation states in groundwater: Cr(VI) is highly soluble and mobile, and is a carcinogen; Cr(III) is generally insoluble, immobile and less toxic than Cr(VI). Reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) is thus a central issue in approaches to Cr(VI) contaminant remediation in aquifers. Aqueous Cr(VI) occurs mainly as the chromate (CrO22-) and bichromate (HCrO2-) oxyanions, while Cr(III) is mainly "hexaquo" Cr(H2O)63+. Cr has four naturally-occurring stable isotopes: 50Cr, 52Cr, 53Cr and 54Cr. When Cr(VI) is reduced to Cr(III), the strong Cr-O bond must be broken, resulting in isotopic selection. Ellis et al. (2002) demonstrated that for reduction of Cr(VI) on magnetite and in natural sediment slurries, the change of isotopic composition of the remnant Cr(VI) pool was described by a Rayleigh fractionation model having fractionation factor ɛCr(VI)-Cr(III) = 3.4‰. We attempted to use Cr isotopes as a monitor of Cr(VI) reduction at a field site in Hinkley, California (USA) where groundwater contaminated with Cr(VI) has been under assessment for remediation. Groundwater containing up to 5 ppm Cr(VI) has migrated down-gradient from the contamination source through the fluvial to alluvial sediments to form a well-defined plume. Uncontaminated groundwater in the aquifer immediately adjacent to the plume has naturally-occurring Cr(VI) of 4 ppb or less (CH2M-Hill). In early 2006, colleagues from CH2M-Hill collected 17 samples of groundwater from within and adjacent to the plume. On a plot of δ53Cr vs. log Cr(VI), the data array is strikingly linear and differs markedly from the trend predicted for reduction of Cr(VI) in the contaminated water. There appear to be two groups of data: four samples with δ53Cr >+2‰ and Cr(VI) <4 ppb, and 13 samples with δ53Cr <+2‰ and Cr(VI) >15 ppb. Simple mixing lines between the

  1. Super-Earths as Failed Cores in Orbital Migration Traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro

    2016-11-01

    I explore whether close-in super-Earths were formed as rocky bodies that failed to grow fast enough to become the cores of gas giants before the natal protostellar disk dispersed. I model the failed cores’ inward orbital migration in the low-mass or type I regime to stopping points at distances where the tidal interaction with the protostellar disk applies zero net torque. The three kinds of migration traps considered are those due to the dead zone's outer edge, the ice line, and the transition from accretion to starlight as the disk's main heat source. As the disk disperses, the traps move toward final positions near or just outside 1 au. Planets at this location exceeding about 3 M ⊕ open a gap, decouple from their host traps, and migrate inward in the high-mass or type II regime to reach the vicinity of the star. I synthesize the population of planets that formed in this scenario, finding that a fraction of the observed super-Earths could have been failed cores. Most super-Earths that formed this way have more than 4 M ⊕, so their orbits when the disks dispersed were governed by type II migration. These planets have solid cores surrounded by gaseous envelopes. Their subsequent photoevaporative mass loss is most effective for masses originally below about 6 M ⊕. The failed core scenario suggests a division of the observed super-Earth mass-radius diagram into five zones according to the inferred formation history.

  2. Evaluation of railway transportation efficiency based on super-cross efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Xiuyuan

    2018-01-01

    The efficiency of railway transportation is an important index. It can measure the development of railway transportation enterprises, and the efficiency of railway transportation has become a hot issue in the study of railway development. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has been widely applied to railway efficiency analysis. In this paper, BBC model and super-cross efficiency model are constructed by using DEA theory, taking the 18 Railway Bureau as the research object, with the mileage, the number of employees, locomotive number, average daily loading number as input indicators, the passenger turnover, freight turnover and transport income as output indicators, then calculated and evaluated comprehensive efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency. We get that the super-cross efficiency is more in line with the actual situation. Getting the super-cross efficiency is more in line with the actual situation.

  3. A Microfluidic Platform for Correlative Live-Cell and Super-Resolution Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Johnny; Cordier, Guillaume Alan; Bálint, Štefan; Sandoval Álvarez, Ángel; Borbely, Joseph Steven; Lakadamyali, Melike

    2014-01-01

    Recently, super-resolution microscopy methods such as stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) have enabled visualization of subcellular structures below the optical resolution limit. Due to the poor temporal resolution, however, these methods have mostly been used to image fixed cells or dynamic processes that evolve on slow time-scales. In particular, fast dynamic processes and their relationship to the underlying ultrastructure or nanoscale protein organization cannot be discerned. To overcome this limitation, we have recently developed a correlative and sequential imaging method that combines live-cell and super-resolution microscopy. This approach adds dynamic background to ultrastructural images providing a new dimension to the interpretation of super-resolution data. However, currently, it suffers from the need to carry out tedious steps of sample preparation manually. To alleviate this problem, we implemented a simple and versatile microfluidic platform that streamlines the sample preparation steps in between live-cell and super-resolution imaging. The platform is based on a microfluidic chip with parallel, miniaturized imaging chambers and an automated fluid-injection device, which delivers a precise amount of a specified reagent to the selected imaging chamber at a specific time within the experiment. We demonstrate that this system can be used for live-cell imaging, automated fixation, and immunostaining of adherent mammalian cells in situ followed by STORM imaging. We further demonstrate an application by correlating mitochondrial dynamics, morphology, and nanoscale mitochondrial protein distribution in live and super-resolution images. PMID:25545548

  4. SuperSpec, The On-Chip Spectrometer: Improved NEP and Antenna Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Jordan; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Shirokoff, E.; Barry, P. S.; Bradford, C. M.; Chapman, S.; Che, G.; Doyle, S.; Glenn, J.; Gordon, S.; Hollister, M.; Kovács, A.; LeDuc, H. G.; Mauskopf, P.; McGeehan, R.; McKenney, C.; Reck, T.; Redford, J.; Ross, C.; Shiu, C.; Tucker, C.; Turner, J.; Walker, S.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2018-05-01

    SuperSpec is a new technology for mm and sub-mm spectroscopy. It is an on-chip spectrometer being developed for multi-object, moderate-resolution (R˜ 300 ), large bandwidth survey spectroscopy of high-redshift galaxies for the 1 mm atmospheric window. This band accesses the CO ladder in the redshift range of z = 0-4 and the [CII] 158 μm line from redshift z = 5-9. SuperSpec employs a novel architecture in which detectors are coupled to a series of resonant filters along a single microwave feedline instead of using dispersive optics. This construction allows for the creation of a full spectrometer occupying only ˜ 10 cm^2 of silicon, a reduction in size of several orders of magnitude when compared to standard grating spectrometers. This small profile enables the production of future multi-beam spectroscopic instruments envisioned for the millimeter band to measure the redshifts of dusty galaxies efficiently. The SuperSpec collaboration is currently pushing toward the deployment of a SuperSpec demonstration instrument in fall of 2018. The progress with the latest SuperSpec prototype devices is presented; reporting increased responsivity via a reduced inductor volume (2.6 μm^3 ) and the incorporation of a new broadband antenna. A detector NEP of 3-4 × 10^{-18} W/Hz^{0.5} is obtained, sufficient for background-limited observation on mountaintop sites. In addition, beam maps and efficiency measurements of a new wide-band dual bow-tie slot antenna are shown.

  5. Inactivated and live, attenuated influenza vaccines protect mice against influenza:Streptococcus pyogenes super-infections

    PubMed Central

    Chaussee, Michael S.; Sandbulte, Heather R.; Schuneman, Margaret J.; DePaula, Frank P.; Addengast, Leslie A.; Schlenker, Evelyn H.; Huber, Victor C.

    2011-01-01

    Mortality associated with influenza virus super-infections is frequently due to secondary bacterial complications. To date, super-infections with Streptococcus pyogenes have been studied less extensively than those associated with S. pneumoniae. This is significant because a vaccine for S. pyogenes is not clinically available, leaving vaccination against influenza virus as our only means for preventing these super-infections. In this study, we directly compared immunity induced by two types of influenza vaccine, either inactivated influenza virus (IIV) or live, attenuated influenza virus (LAIV), for the ability to prevent super-infections. Our data demonstrate that both IIV and LAIV vaccines induce similar levels of serum antibodies, and that LAIV alone induces IgA expression at mucosal surfaces. Upon super-infection, both vaccines have the ability to limit the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines within the lung, including IFN-γ which has been shown to contribute to mortality in previous models of super-infection. Limiting expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines within the lungs subsequently limits recruitment of macrophages and neutrophils to pulmonary surfaces, and ultimately protects both IIV- and LAIV-vaccinated mice from mortality. Despite their overall survival, both IIV- and LAIV-vaccinated mice demonstrated levels of bacteria within the lung tissue to levels that are similar to those seen in unvaccinated mice. Thus, influenza virus:bacteria super-infections can be limited by vaccine-induced immunity against influenza virus, but the ability to prevent morbidity is not complete. PMID:21440037

  6. Controlling the Topological Sector of Magnetic Solitons in Exfoliated Cr 1 / 3 NbS 2 Crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Lin; Chepiga, N.; Ki, D. -K.; ...

    2017-06-23

    Here, we investigate manifestations of topological order in monoaxial helimagnet Cr 1/3NbS 2 by performing transport measurements on ultrathin crystals. Upon sweeping the magnetic field perpendicularly to the helical axis, crystals thicker than one helix pitch (48 nm) but much thinner than the magnetic domain size (similar to 1 mu m) are found to exhibit sharp and hysteretic resistance jumps. We also show that these phenomena originate from transitions between topological sectors with a different number of magnetic solitons. This is confirmed by measurements on crystals thinner than 48 nm-in which the topological sector cannot