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Sample records for insect bite hypersensitivity

  1. Equine allergy therapy: update on the treatment of environmental, insect bite hypersensitivity, and food allergies.

    PubMed

    Marsella, Rosanna

    2013-12-01

    Allergies are common in horses. It is important to identify and correct as many factors as possible to control pruritus and make the patient comfortable. Culicoides hypersensitivity is a common component in allergic horses. The main treatment continues to be rigorous fly control and avoidance of insect bites. Environmental allergies are best addressed by early identification of the offending allergens and formulation of allergen-specific immunotherapy to decrease the need for rescue medications. Food allergy is best managed with food avoidance. Urticaria is one of the manifestations of allergic disease wherein detection of the triggering cause is essential for management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Pilot Qualitative Investigation of Stakeholders’ Experiences and Opinions of Equine Insect Bite Hypersensitivity in England

    PubMed Central

    Lomas, Hannah R.

    2018-01-01

    Equine insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH), commonly known as sweet itch or summer eczema, is a frustrating recurrent skin disease in the equine industry involving an immune reaction to the bites of Culicoides spp. midges. To investigate the impact of IBH in the field, an exploratory pilot study was conducted with equine stakeholders in one region of central England. Nine semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with horse owners and an equine veterinarian. The aim was to gain an understanding of experiences with IBH, and to gauge opinions on the value of the various management strategies horse owners use to control IBH. Awareness of IBH was generally high, particularly in those individuals who had previous experience with the condition. Those with previous experience of IBH commented on the significant effect on daily routines, and the associated cost implications. Most participants supported an integrated approach to hypersensitivity management, and this most commonly involved a combination of physical barriers and chemical repellents, but sometimes included feed supplementation. Overall, attitudes towards IBH suggested that the condition is a notable welfare and economic concern for stakeholders, but veterinary involvement tended to only be in more severe cases. Further research is required in the future to improve understanding, management and potential treatment of this condition. PMID:29315275

  3. The same ELA class II risk factors confer equine insect bite hypersensitivity in two distinct populations.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Lisa S; Swinburne, June E; Meadows, Jennifer R S; Broström, Hans; Eriksson, Susanne; Fikse, W Freddy; Frey, Rebecka; Sundquist, Marie; Tseng, Chia T; Mikko, Sofia; Lindgren, Gabriella

    2012-03-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a chronic allergic dermatitis common in horses. Affected horses mainly react against antigens present in the saliva from the biting midges, Culicoides ssp, and occasionally black flies, Simulium ssp. Because of this insect dependency, the disease is clearly seasonal and prevalence varies between geographical locations. For two distinct horse breeds, we genotyped four microsatellite markers positioned within the MHC class II region and sequenced the highly polymorphic exons two from DRA and DRB3, respectively. Initially, 94 IBH-affected and 93 unaffected Swedish born Icelandic horses were tested for genetic association. These horses had previously been genotyped on the Illumina Equine SNP50 BeadChip, which made it possible to ensure that our study did not suffer from the effects of stratification. The second population consisted of 106 unaffected and 80 IBH-affected Exmoor ponies. We show that variants in the MHC class II region are associated with disease susceptibility (p (raw) = 2.34 × 10(-5)), with the same allele (COR112:274) associated in two separate populations. In addition, we combined microsatellite and sequencing data in order to investigate the pattern of homozygosity and show that homozygosity across the entire MHC class II region is associated with a higher risk of developing IBH (p = 0.0013). To our knowledge this is the first time in any atopic dermatitis suffering species, including man, where the same risk allele has been identified in two distinct populations.

  4. Allergen-Specific Cytokine Polarization Protects Shetland Ponies against Culicoides obsoletus-Induced Insect Bite Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Meulenbroeks, Chantal; van der Lugt, Jaco J.; van der Meide, Nathalie M. A.; Willemse, Ton; Rutten, Victor P. M. G.; Zaiss, Dietmar M. W.

    2015-01-01

    The immunological mechanisms explaining development of an allergy in some individuals and not in others remain incompletely understood. Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a common, seasonal, IgE-mediated, pruritic skin disorder that affects considerable proportions of horses of different breeds, which is caused by bites of the insect Culicoides obsoletus (C. obsoletus). We investigated the allergen-specific immune status of individual horses that had either been diagnosed to be healthy or to suffer of IBH. Following intradermal allergen injection, skin biopsies were taken of IBH-affected and healthy ponies and cytokine expression was determined by RT-PCR. In addition, allergen-specific antibody titers were measured and cytokine expression of in vitro stimulated, allergen-specific CD4 T-cells was determined. 24 hrs after allergen injection, a significant increase in mRNA expression of the type-2 cytokine IL-4 was observed in the skin of IBH-affected Shetland ponies. In the skin of healthy ponies, however, an increase in IFNγ mRNA expression was found. Analysis of allergen-specific antibody titers revealed that all animals produced allergen-specific antibodies, and allergen-specific stimulation of CD4 T-cells revealed a significant higher percentage of IFNγ-expressing CD4 T-cells in healthy ponies compared to IBH-affected ponies. These data indicate that horses not affected by IBH, in contrast to the so far established dogma, are not immunologically ignorant but have a Th1-skewed allergen-specific immune response that appears to protect against IBH-associated symptoms. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of a natural situation, in which an allergen-specific immune skewing is protective in an allergic disorder. PMID:25901733

  5. The healing effects of a topical phytogenic ointment on insect bite hypersensitivity lesions in horses.

    PubMed

    van den Boom, R; Kempenaars, M; van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M Sloet

    2011-01-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is the most common cause of pruritus in horses and is a serious welfare issue for affected animals. In this study, the effect of a topical phytogenic ointment on the healing of cutaneous lesions was investigated in a double-blind trial involving 26 horses with I B H. The number of lesions and their total surface area were recorded on days 0, 7, and 21 in horses treated for 3 weeks with either verum or placebo ointment. After unblinding of treatment assignment, the horses that had been treated with the placebo ointment received the verum preparation for an additional 3 weeks and the number of lesions and their total surface area were again recorded. This part of the study was not blinded. The number of lesions and the total surface area decreased in both treatment groups (no significant difference). Owners also scored the degree of discomfort suffered by their horses as a result of IBH lesions, and at the end of the 3-week period this score was significantly lower in the verum than in the placebo group (P = 0.04). When placebo-treated horses subsequently received the verum ointment, their wound severity score also decreased significantly (P < 0.01). Daily application of an ointment (verum or placebo) does not cure IBH, but use of the phytogenic ointment led to a decrease in the owner-assessed discomfort suffered by horses.

  6. Insect Bites and Stings

    MedlinePlus

    Most insect bites are harmless, though they sometimes cause discomfort. Bee, wasp, and hornet stings and fire ant bites usually hurt. Mosquito and flea bites usually itch. Insects can also spread diseases. In the United States, ...

  7. Major histocompatibility complex and other allergy-related candidate genes associated with insect bite hypersensitivity in Icelandic horses.

    PubMed

    Klumplerova, Marie; Vychodilova, Leona; Bobrova, Olga; Cvanova, Michaela; Futas, Jan; Janova, Eva; Vyskocil, Mirko; Vrtkova, Irena; Putnova, Lenka; Dusek, Ladislav; Marti, Eliane; Horin, Petr

    2013-04-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an allergic dermatitis of horses caused by bites of insects. IBH is a multifactorial disease with contribution of genetic and environmental factors. Candidate gene association analysis of IBH was performed in a group of 89 Icelandic horses all born in Iceland and imported to Europe. Horses were classified in IBH-affected and non-affected based on clinical signs and history of recurrent dermatitis, and on the results of an in vitro sulfidoleukotriene (sLT)-release assay with Culicoides nubeculosus and Simulium vittatum extract. Different genetic markers were tested for association with IBH by the Fisher's exact test. The effect of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene region was studied by genotyping five microsatellites spanning the MHC region (COR112, COR113, COR114, UM011 and UMN-JH34-2), and exon 2 polymorphisms of the class II Eqca-DRA gene. Associations with Eqca-DRA and COR113 were identified (p < 0.05). In addition, a panel of 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 17 candidate allergy-related genes was tested. During the initial screen, no marker from the panel was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with IBH. Five SNPs associated with IBH at p < 0.10 were therefore used for analysis of combined genotypes. Out of them, SNPs located in the genes coding for the CD14 receptor (CD14), interleukin 23 receptor (IL23R), thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGFB3) molecules were associated with IBH as parts of complex genotypes. These results are supported by similar associations and by expression data from different horse populations and from human studies.

  8. Allergen-specific immunotherapy in horses with insect bite hypersensitivity: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ginel, Pedro J; Hernández, Eduardo; Lucena, Rosario; Blanco, Beatriz; Novales, Manuel; Mozos, Elena

    2014-02-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a common cause of pruritus in horses, but there are few controlled studies on the efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT). Atopic dermatitis and IBH can present with overlapping clinical signs; multiple insect and environmental allergens could be indicated in these horses to achieve effective hyposensitization. Although the success of ASIT using Culicoides spp. whole-body extracts is controversial, there are no controlled studies published that clearly show benefit from this form of therapy. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of ASIT in horses with IBH using commercially available extracts and tests. Twenty horses with seasonal pruritus and positive intradermal reactions to a whole Culicoides extract. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test (Allercept(®) ) was used to detect concurrent allergen-specific IgE for other insects and environmental allergens. The ASIT was formulated by adding the relevant serologically positive allergens to the Culicoides extract. After randomization, 10 horses received ASIT and the rest a placebo solution. Clinical response was assessed every 4 months during 1 year using a clinical scoring system based on the severity of four clinical signs at 10 different body regions. Horses were not stabled and, to minimize dropouts, an insect repellent was used weekly in both groups. Differences in clinical scores between groups were nonsignificant at any re-evaluation, while both groups improved to a similar extent, probably due to the insecticide treatment. Using commercially available extracts and tests, we could not demonstrate a beneficial effect of 1 year multiple ASIT in nonstabled horses with IBH. © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  9. The effect of a topical insecticide containing permethrin on the number of Culicoides midges caught near horses with and without insect bite hypersensitivity in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    de Raat, I J; van den Boom, R; van Poppel, M; van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M Sloet

    2008-10-15

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) in horses is most likely caused by Culicoides species, although other insects may also play a role. Until now no effective cure has been found for this condition, although numerous therapeutic and preventive measures have been used to control insect hypersensitivity. One such method is to apply a topical insecticide to horses. In this study, the effect of a topical insecticide containing permethrin (3.6%) was examined in seven pairs of horses. The horses were placed inside a tent trap to collect Culicoides spp. and other insects attracted to the horses on two subsequent evenings. On the first evening, both horses were untreated. After the end of this session, one horse of each pair was treated with the pour-on insecticide; treated horses were kept separate from untreated horses. The next evening the pairs of horses were again placed inside the tent trap and insects were collected. Similar percentages of Culicoides were trapped as in earlier studies (C. obsoletus 95.34% and C. pulicaris 4.54%), with healthy horses attracting more Culicoides than horses affected by IBH. The number of Culicoides, the percentage of blood-fed Culicoides obsoletus, and the total number of insects attracted to horses 24 hours after treatment with permethrin were reduced but the reduction was not statistically significant. No negative side effects of permethrin administration were observed.

  10. Using an Inbred Horse Breed in a High Density Genome-Wide Scan for Genetic Risk Factors of Insect Bite Hypersensitivity (IBH).

    PubMed

    Velie, Brandon D; Shrestha, Merina; Franҫois, Liesbeth; Schurink, Anouk; Tesfayonas, Yohannes G; Stinckens, Anneleen; Blott, Sarah; Ducro, Bart J; Mikko, Sofia; Thomas, Ruth; Swinburne, June E; Sundqvist, Marie; Eriksson, Susanne; Buys, Nadine; Lindgren, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    While susceptibility to hypersensitive reactions is a common problem amongst humans and animals alike, the population structure of certain animal species and breeds provides a more advantageous route to better understanding the biology underpinning these conditions. The current study uses Exmoor ponies, a highly inbred breed of horse known to frequently suffer from insect bite hypersensitivity, to identify genomic regions associated with a type I and type IV hypersensitive reaction. A total of 110 cases and 170 controls were genotyped on the 670K Axiom Equine Genotyping Array. Quality control resulted in 452,457 SNPs and 268 individuals being tested for association. Genome-wide association analyses were performed using the GenABEL package in R and resulted in the identification of two regions of interest on Chromosome 8. The first region contained the most significant SNP identified, which was located in an intron of the DCC netrin 1 receptor gene. The second region identified contained multiple top SNPs and encompassed the PIGN, KIAA1468, TNFRSF11A, ZCCHC2, and PHLPP1 genes. Although additional studies will be needed to validate the importance of these regions in horses and the relevance of these regions in other species, the knowledge gained from the current study has the potential to be a step forward in unraveling the complex nature of hypersensitive reactions.

  11. A preventive immunization approach against insect bite hypersensitivity: Intralymphatic injection with recombinant allergens in Alum or Alum and monophosphoryl lipid A.

    PubMed

    Jonsdottir, Sigridur; Svansson, Vilhjalmur; Stefansdottir, Sara Bjork; Schüpbach, Gertraud; Rhyner, Claudio; Marti, Eliane; Torsteinsdottir, Sigurbjorg

    2016-04-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an IgE-mediated dermatitis of horses caused by bites of Culicoides insects, not indigenous to Iceland. Horses born in Iceland and exported to Culicoides-rich areas are frequently affected with IBH. The aims of the study were to compare immunization with recombinant allergens using the adjuvant aluminum hydroxide (Alum) alone or combined with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) for development of a preventive immunization against IBH. Twelve healthy Icelandic horses were vaccinated intralymphatically three times with 10 μg each of four recombinant Culicoides nubeculosus allergens in Alum or in Alum/MPLA. Injection with allergens in both Alum and Alum/MPLA resulted in significant increase in specific IgG subclasses and IgA against all r-allergens with no significant differences between the adjuvant groups. The induced antibodies from both groups could block binding of allergen specific IgE from IBH affected horses to a similar extent. No IgE-mediated reactions were induced. Allergen-stimulated PBMC from Alum/MPLA horses but not from Alum only horses produced significantly more IFNγ and IL-10 than PBMC from non-vaccinated control horses. In conclusion, intralymphatic administration of small amounts of pure allergens in Alum/MPLA induces high IgG antibody levels and Th1/Treg immune response and is a promising approach for immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy against IBH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel in vitro diagnosis of equine allergies using a protein array and mathematical modelling approach: a proof of concept using insect bite hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Marti, E; Wang, X; Jambari, N N; Rhyner, C; Olzhausen, J; Pérez-Barea, J J; Figueredo, G P; Alcocer, M J C

    2015-10-15

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a seasonal recurrent skin allergy of horses caused by IgE-mediated reactions to allergens present in the saliva of biting insects of the genus Culicoides, and possibly also Simulium and Stomoxys species. In this work we show that protein microarrays containing complex extracts and pure proteins, including recombinant Culicoides allergens, can be used as a powerful technique for the diagnosis of IBH. Besides the obvious advantages such as general profiling and use of few microliters of samples, this microarray technique permits automation and allows the generation of mathematical models with the calculation of individual risk profiles that can support the clinical diagnosis of allergic diseases. After selection of variables on influence on the projection (VIP), the observed values of sensitivity and specificity were 1.0 and 0.967, respectively. This confirms the highly discriminatory power of this approach for IBH and made it possible to attain a robust predictive mathematical model for this disease. It also further demonstrates the specificity of the protein array method on identifying a particular IgE-mediated disease when the sensitising allergen group is known. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Entomologic evaluation of insect hypersensitivity in horses.

    PubMed

    Greiner, E C

    1995-04-01

    Potential methods of incriminating insects as the cause of insect hypersensitivity are presented. A listing of the biting midges known to attack horses in North America is presented also. An example of how species may be determined to be the cause of the hypersensitivity is given using data from a recent study in Florida. Light trap collections indicated the temporal and geographic distribution of potential contributing species and collections made by vacuuming horses further delineated species by proving they feed on horses and the correct locations on the horses to match lesion distribution. Culicoides hypersensitivity in horses in Florida seems to be caused by a series of species active and feeding on the horses at different times of the year.

  14. Insect Repellents: Protect Your Child from Insect Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print Share Choosing an Insect Repellent for Your Child Page Content Mosquitoes, biting flies, and tick bites ... container with you. Other Ways to Protect Your Child from Insect Bites While you can’t prevent ...

  15. Insect Repellents: Reducing Insect Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Labs and Research Centers Contact Us Share Repellents: Protection against Mosquitoes, Ticks and Other Arthropods About Insect ... Snapshot No FEAR Act Data Privacy Privacy and Security Notice Connect. Data.gov Inspector General Jobs Newsroom ...

  16. Protein electrophoresis in cranes with presumed insect bite.

    PubMed

    Hartup, Barry K; Schroeder, Carrie A

    2006-06-01

    Serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) has emerged as a potentially valuable diagnostic tool in avian medicine; yet, there is limited information regarding SPE in cranes. Since 2000, 20 cases of unilateral periocular or facial soft tissue swelling, blepharitis, feather loss, and ocular or nasal discharge attributed to insect bite hypersensitivity were observed in cranes from a captive breeding center. SPE may be useful for evaluating these lesions. The aim of this study was to characterize the inflammatory response in cranes with hypersensitivity reactions using SPE. Serum samples from 7 cranes diagnosed with hypersensitivity reactions were submitted to a diagnostic laboratory for agarose gel electrophoresis. Results were compared to those in control serum samples obtained from the same cranes during routine physical examination, when they were clinically healthy. Total protein and a- and g-globulin concentrations were significantly increased and albumin/globulin ratios were significantly decreased in serum samples from cranes with hypersensitivity lesions compared with control samples. Using SPE, we documented changes in protein fraction concentrations in cranes with clinical signs of hypersensitivity. The increase in alpha- and gamma-globulin concentrations suggested inflammation and antigenic stimulation, consistent with a Type I hypersensitivity reaction.

  17. Identifying Insect Bites and Stings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page Content Article Body Mosquitoes Mosquitoes are generally found near water (pools, lakes, birdbaths) and are attracted by bright colors and sweat. Bites result in stinging sensation followed by a small, red, itchy mound with a tiny ... found near or around food, garbage, and animal waste. ...

  18. INSECTS AS ALLERGEN INJECTANTS—Severe Reactions to Bites and Stings of Arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, Frank

    1962-01-01

    Arthropods capable of penetrating human skin often cause severe local and systemic reactions. Local reactions suggest delayed hypersensitivity while systemic symptoms resemble more the anaphylactic shock in animals. The nature of the antigen remains obscure but predominant evidence suggests its presence throughout the entire organism. Positive history of hypersensitivity to insect injectants was obtained in approximately 20 per cent of persons in the course of routine interviews of 1,078 patients. Repeated bites and stings at long or irregular intervals often induce a state of hypersensitivity, while repeated regular injections of extracts of these insects at shorter intervals may greatly reduce the hypersensitivity. The clinical evidence of allergic sensitivity to insect bites and stings cannot be readily confirmed by skin testing or by other immunological procedures. The history and the character of the lesions as well as certain entomological knowledge of the habits of the insects offer a better basis for specific diagnosis. Treatment with extracts of the whole offending insect generally provides good results but the protection afforded by such treatment varies in degree and duration. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:14485406

  19. Stinging and biting insect allergy: an Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Solley, Graham O

    2004-12-01

    Stings and bites from various insects are responsible for many anaphylactic events. To document the clinical features of specific forms of anaphylaxis and investigate clinical concerns regarding stinging and biting insect allergy. All patients presenting for evaluation of adverse reactions to insect stings or bites between December 1980 and December 1997 had the clinical details of their reactions recorded and their reactions classified. The spectrum of clinical symptoms and signs is similar to that seen in anaphylaxis from other sources; stings on the head or neck are not more likely to cause life-threatening reactions than stings elsewhere on the body; a lesser reaction will not necessarily lead to a more serious reaction from a future sting; asthmatic patients do appear to have an increased risk of asthma as a feature of their anaphylactic response; anaphylaxis is usually confined to a particular insect species for the individual patient; patients who have had multiple stings at one time may have experienced true anaphylaxis and not a "toxic" response; and patients who have had anaphylaxis from other sources are at no greater risk than that of the general population of reacting similarly to insect stings or bites. Anaphylactic events from insect stings show the same clinical features as those from other sources. Systemic reactions seem confined to a specific insect species. Patients who experience RXN3 reactions from multiple stings at one time should undergo specific venom testing, because many have experienced true anaphylaxis and not a toxic response. Future consideration should be given to the role of beta-adrenergic antagonists and ACE inhibitors in patients with systemic reactions.

  20. Insect Bites and Stings: First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tips to remember. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. http://www.aaaai.org/conditions-and-treatments/library/allergy-library/stinging-insect-allergy.aspx. Accessed Jan. 9, 2018. LoVecchio F. ...

  1. Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis Due to Insect Bites?

    PubMed

    Bhat, Yasmeen J; Hassan, Iffat; Sajad, Peerzada; Yaseen, Atiya; Wani, Rohi

    2015-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis is a rare severe cutaneous adverse reaction pattern that is mostly caused by the intake of drugs and rarely associated with viral infections, food allergens or toxins. Here we present the report of three patients who got admitted in our hospital for generalized pustulosis and fever after insect bites. The diagnosis of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis was made by EuroSCAR scoring. The drug etiology was excluded and spider bite was implicated as the etiological agent in these cases of AGEP which are the first such reported cases in India.

  2. Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis Due to Insect Bites?

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Yasmeen J; Hassan, Iffat; Sajad, Peerzada; Yaseen, Atiya; Wani, Rohi

    2015-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis is a rare severe cutaneous adverse reaction pattern that is mostly caused by the intake of drugs and rarely associated with viral infections, food allergens or toxins. Here we present the report of three patients who got admitted in our hospital for generalized pustulosis and fever after insect bites. The diagnosis of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis was made by EuroSCAR scoring. The drug etiology was excluded and spider bite was implicated as the etiological agent in these cases of AGEP which are the first such reported cases in India. PMID:26288442

  3. [Hypersensitivity to mosquito bite manifested as Skeeter síndrome].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Vanzzini, Rafael; González-Díaz, Sandra Nora; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Palma-Gómez, Samuel; Yong-Rodríguez, Adrián; Gutiérrez-Mujica, José Julio; García-Calderín, Diego; Ibarra, Jesús Arturo

    2015-01-01

    The reactions to mosquito bites are immunological reactions with involvement of IgE, IgG and T cells mediated hypersensitivity. These reactions are common and range from small local reactions, large local reactions to systemic allergic reactions. Skeeter syndrome is defined as a large local induced inflammatory reaction to mosquito bite and sometimes accompanied by systemic symptoms such as fever and vomiting. Diagnosis is based on clinical history and physical examination, supported by the identification of specific IgE by skin testing. Treatment includes prevention, antihistamines and steroids in some cases. Specific immunotherapy still requires further study. This paper reports two cases of patients with hypersensitivity reactions to mosquito bites, which were evaluated in our center presenting positive skin tests.

  4. The Hypersensitivity of Horses to Culicoides Bites in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Gail S.; Belton, Peter; Kleider, Nicholas

    1988-01-01

    Culicoides hypersensitivity is a chronic, recurrent, seasonal dermatitis of horses that has a worldwide distribution, but has only recently been reported in Canada. It is characterized by intense pruritus resulting in lesions associated with self-induced trauma. A survey of veterinarians and horse-owners in British Columbia showed no differences in susceptibility due to the sex, color, breed, or height of the horses. The prevalence of the disease in the 209 horses surveyed was 26%. Horses sharing the same pasture could be unaffected. The disease was reported primarily from southwestern British Columbia; it occurred between April and October and usually affected the ventral midline, mane, and tail. Horses were generally less than nine years old when the clinical signs first appeared ([unk]=5.9 yr). Culicoides hypersensitivity was common in the lineage of several affected horses, possibly indicating a genetic susceptibility. Most cases were severe enough to require veterinary attention and some horses were euthanized. PMID:17423117

  5. But Will It Bite Me? A Reference Book of Insects for Children--and Their Grownups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailes, Edith G.; Lipovsky, Louis J.

    This publication serves as a guide on insects for elementary school age children. The information is geared to answer the most commonly asked questions by children about insects (such as whether a given insect bites). Facts are also presented on how and where insects live, what they eat, and what eats them. The introductory chapter explains the…

  6. Management of stinging insect hypersensitivity: a 5-year retrospective medical record review.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Thomas; Dietrich, Jeffrey; Hagan, Larry

    2006-08-01

    The Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters for Allergy and Immunology recommends that patients with a history of a systemic reaction to an insect sting be educated on ways to avoid insect stings, carry injectable epinephrine for emergency self-treatment, undergo specific IgE testing for stinging insect sensitivity, and be considered for immunotherapy. To review frontline providers' documented care and recommendations for imported fire ant and flying insect hypersensitivity reactions. A retrospective medical record review was performed of emergency department and primary care clinic visits between November 1, 1999, and November 30, 2004. Using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes, medical records were selected for review to identify patients with potential insect hypersensitivity. A total of 769 medical records from patients who experienced an insect sting were reviewed. Of 120 patients with a systemic reaction, 66 (55.0%) received a prescription for injectable epinephrine, and 14 (11.7%) were given information regarding avoidance of the offending insect. Forty-seven patients with systemic reactions (39.2%) were referred to an allergist. Of 28 patients who kept their appointments and underwent skin testing, 3 had negative results and 25 (89%) had positive results and were advised to start immunotherapy. Adherence to the stinging insect hypersensitivity practice parameter recommendations is poor. Many patients who have experienced a systemic reaction after an insect sting and have sought medical care are not afforded an opportunity for potentially lifesaving therapy.

  7. A thousand bites - Insect introductions and late Holocene environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotakopulu, Eva; Buckland, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of insect species directly associated with man-made habitats and human dispersal has been, and remains globally significant. Their early expansion from their original niches into Europe is intrinsically related to discussions of climate change, origins of domesticated plants and animals, the spread of agriculture and infectious diseases. The Holocene fossil records of the dispersal of three storage pest species, Sitophilus granarius, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, and Tribolium castaneum, the housefly, Musca domestica, and the human flea, Pulex irritans from 221 sites have been mapped ranging from the Near East to Europe and from the Neolithic to the post medieval period. The importance of human induced change as a driver for the spread of synanthropic faunas and the potential for the spread of disease during this process are discussed. The results show links between mobility of farming groups and distribution of synanthropic insect species and produce a roadmap for the different cultural periods of the Late Holocene based on dispersal of these synanthropic insects. During the Neolithic, the first wave of insect introductions shows the northern European frontiers of storage of cereals, introduction of domestic animals and pastoralism and exchange. Pest introductions, linked with the itinerary of the Roman army, reached the most northerly parts of the Empire. During the medieval period, the insect records indicate further expansion and changes which parallel the spread of epidemic diseases like Plague. Understanding the timing and the rates of change of synanthropic insects provides key information about the development of the homogenised and highly anthropogenic environments in which we live today.

  8. USDA-ARS Knipling-Bushland U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory Tick & Biting Fly Research Unit scientific update

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ticks and biting flies cause tremendous economic damage to the U.S. livestock industry while also being a health concern to humans. Research on their biology and control is done at the Knipling-Bushland U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory, Tick and Biting Fly Research Unit with scientists loc...

  9. Biting

    MedlinePlus

    ... the timeout has ended. Creating a 'Bite-Free' Environment Whether you feel like you've made progress ... before you go. If a larger, more chaotic environment seems overwhelming, you might consider putting your child ...

  10. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2011.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2012-01-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin diseases that were reported in the Journal in 2011. Food allergy appears to be increasing in prevalence and carries a strong economic burden. Risk factors can include dietary ones, such as deficiency of vitamin D and timing of complementary foods, and genetic factors, such as filaggrin loss-of-function mutations. Novel mechanisms underlying food allergy include the role of invariant natural killer T cells and influences of dietary components, such as isoflavones. Among numerous preclinical and clinical treatment studies, promising observations include the efficacy of sublingual and oral immunotherapy, a Chinese herbal remedy showing promising in vitro results, the potential immunotherapeutic effects of having children ingest foods with baked-in milk if they tolerate it, and the use of anti-IgE with or without concomitant immunotherapy. Studies of allergic skin diseases, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity to drugs and insect venom are elucidating cellular mechanisms, improved diagnostics, and potential targets for future treatment. The role of skin barrier abnormalities, as well as the modulatory effects of the innate and adaptive immune responses, are major areas of investigation. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Immunologic Difference between Hypersensitivity to Mosquito Bite and Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Associated with Epstein-Barr Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Meng-Ying; Lin, Syh-Jae; Jaing, Tang-Her; Chen, Shih-Hsiang; Hung, Iou-Jih; Yang, Chao-Ping; Chen, Chin-Jung; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Li, Shin-Pai; Huang, Jing-Long

    2013-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening, virus-triggered immune disease. Hypersensitivity to mosquito bite (HMB), a presentation of Chronic Active Epstein-Barr Virus infection (CAEBV), may progress to HLH. This study aimed to investigate the immunologic difference between the HMB episodes and the HLH episodes associated with EBV infection. Immunologic changes of immunoglobulins, lymphocyte subsets, cytotoxicity, intracellular perforin and granzyme expressions, EBV virus load and known candidate genes for hereditary HLH were evaluated and compared. In 12 HLH episodes (12 patients) and 14 HMB episodes (4 patients), there were both decreased percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ and increased memory CD4+ and activated (CD2+HLADR+) lymphocytes. In contrast to HMB episodes that had higher IgE levels and EBV virus load predominantly in NK cells, those HLH episodes with virus load predominantly in CD3+ lymphocyte had decreased perforin expression and cytotoxicity that were recovered in the convalescence period. However, there was neither significant difference of total virus load in these episodes nor candidate genetic mutations responsible for hereditary HLH. In conclusion, decreased perforin expression in the HLH episodes with predominant-CD3+ EBV virus load is distinct from those HMB episodes with predominant-NK EBV virus load. Whether the presence of non-elevated memory CD4+ cells or activated lymphocytes (CD2+HLADR+) increases the mortality rate in the HLH episodes remains to be further warranted through larger-scale studies. PMID:24204658

  12. Gene expression analysis of hypersensitivity to mosquito bite, chronic active EBV infection and NK/T-lymphoma/leukemia.

    PubMed

    Washio, Kana; Oka, Takashi; Abdalkader, Lamia; Muraoka, Michiko; Shimada, Akira; Oda, Megumi; Sato, Hiaki; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Kagami, Yoshitoyo; Shimizu, Norio; Kato, Seiichi; Kimura, Hiroshi; Nishizaki, Kazunori; Yoshino, Tadashi; Tsukahara, Hirokazu

    2017-11-01

    The human herpes virus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), is a known oncogenic virus and plays important roles in life-threatening T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (T/NK-cell LPD) such as hypersensitivity to mosquito bite (HMB), chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV), and NK/T-cell lymphoma/leukemia. During the clinical courses of HMB and CAEBV, patients frequently develop malignant lymphomas and the diseases passively progress sequentially. In the present study, gene expression of CD16 (-) CD56 (+) -, EBV (+) HMB, CAEBV, NK-lymphoma, and NK-leukemia cell lines, which were established from patients, was analyzed using oligonucleotide microarrays and compared to that of CD56 bright CD16 dim/- NK cells from healthy donors. Principal components analysis showed that CAEBV and NK-lymphoma cells were relatively closely located, indicating that they had similar expression profiles. Unsupervised hierarchal clustering analyses of microarray data and gene ontology analysis revealed specific gene clusters and identified several candidate genes responsible for disease that can be used to discriminate each category of NK-LPD and NK-cell lymphoma/leukemia.

  13. Insect venom hypersensitivity: experience in a clinical immunology/allergy service in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Thong, B Y H; Leong, K P; Chng, H H

    2005-10-01

    To study the profile of patients with allergy to the venom of insect stings. 31 consecutive cases referred to our clinical immunology/allergy outpatient service from June 1, 1998 to June 30, 2002 were reviewed. These patients comprised 3.5 percent of 889 cases referred during the study period. Their mean age was 28.8 +/- 10.5 (range 19-57) years and the majority were males (90.3 percent). Of these, 20 (64.5 percent) were Chinese, four (12.9 percent) were Malays and seven (22.6 percent) were of other races. 19 patients (61.3 percent) were men from the uniformed services including 12 (63.2 percent) full-time National Servicemen. 71 percent (22 patients) were stung for the first time. Urticaria (22 cases, 71.0 percent), dyspnoea (13, 41.9 percent), angioedema (12, 38.7 percent) and syncope (ten, 32.3 percent) were the most common manifestations of insect allergy. Anaphylaxis occurred in 22 (71.0 percent) cases, constituting 30.1 percent of all cases of anaphylaxis referred to our service during the study period. Although the causative insect was identified as honeybee (12, 38.7 percent), ant (four, 12.9 percent), wasp (three, 9.7 percent), and fire ant (two, 6.5 percent) by the majority of patients, ten (32.2 percent) patients were unable to identify the causative insect. The two patients stung by fire ants were Americans working in Singapore who had been stung while in the United States. Among those with anaphylaxis, honeybee, wasp and fire ant venom, for which specific immunotherapy is available, were identified as the cause in 40.9 percent, 4.5 percent, and 4.5 percent, respectively. Insect venom hypersensitivity made up 3.5 percent of allergy/immunology referrals and 32.8 percent of cases of anaphylaxis referred to our institution. The majority were military servicemen who developed allergic reactions during the course of duty. The inability to identify the causative insect in 50 percent with sting anaphylaxis limits the role of specific immunotherapy in our

  14. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects in 2009.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2010-01-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects, as well as advances in allergic skin disease that were reported in the Journal in 2009. Among key epidemiologic observations, several westernized countries report that more than 1% of children have peanut allergy, and there is some evidence that environmental exposure to peanut is a risk factor. The role of regulatory T cells, complement, platelet-activating factor, and effector cells in the development and expression of food allergy were explored in several murine models and human studies. Delayed anaphylaxis to mammalian meats appears to be related to IgE binding to the carbohydrate moiety galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose, which also has implications for hypersensitivity to murine mAb therapeutics containing this oligosaccharide. Oral immunotherapy studies continue to show promise for the treatment of food allergy, but determining whether the treatment causes tolerance (cure) or temporary desensitization remains to be explored. Increased baseline serum tryptase levels might inform the risk of venom anaphylaxis and might indicate a risk for mast cell disorders in persons who have experienced such episodes. Reduced structural and immune barrier function contribute to local and systemic allergen sensitization in patients with atopic dermatitis, as well as increased propensity of skin infections in these patients. The use of increased doses of nonsedating antihistamines and potential usefulness of omalizumab for chronic urticaria was highlighted. These exciting advances reported in the Journal can improve patient care today and provide insights on how we can improve the diagnosis and treatment of these allergic diseases in the future. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2006-07-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in anaphylaxis; hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects; and allergic skin disease that were reported primarily in the Journal in 2005. Although studies documented deficiencies in community management of anaphylaxis, guidelines and National Institutes of Health summary reports provide direction toward improved research and education. At least 9% of young children "outgrow" a tree nut allergy. Advances in food allergy diagnosis include reports of probability of reactions to peanut at various peanut-specific IgE concentrations and skin test response size and the utility of evaluating IgE binding to specific epitopes. Future food allergy treatments might include selection of "less allergenic" fruit cultivars, genetic silencing of major allergens, and treatment of allergic patients with Chinese herbal remedies. Osteopontin might be a useful biomarker for success of venom immunotherapy. Progress in our understanding of the immunology of atopic dermatitis and autoimmune urticaria has also been made. These observations will likely contribute toward optimizing management of these common allergic disorders.

  16. Advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Leung, Donald Y M

    2005-07-01

    This review highlights some of the research advances in allergic skin disease, anaphylaxis, and hypersensitivity reactions to foods, drugs, and insects that were reported primarily in the Journal in 2004. Clinical observations included that gastrointestinal symptoms during anaphylaxis are associated with an increased risk for hypotension; recurrence of peanut allergy can occur for about 8% of children who pass an oral food challenge and is associated with continued avoidance of the food after the challenge; seafood allergy is reported by 2.3% of the US population; and determination of the time to resolution of childhood egg and milk allergy might be predictable by means of serial determination of food-specific IgE levels. The comorbid effects of atopic dermatitis (AD) on asthma and the role of topical calcineurin inhibitors in the therapy of AD were also addressed. Basic and translational research observations indicate that improved diagnosis and therapy might become possible on the basis of reported identification or characterization of allergens such as: lipid transfer proteins and birch pollen-related cross-reactive allergens in plant foods; proteins in scorpion venom that cross-react with proteins from imported fire ant; mosquito saliva proteins responsible for systemic anaphylaxis; and IgE binding to quinolones detectable with an in vitro immunoassay. In addition, advances in understanding immune regulation associated with abrogation of oral tolerance in food allergy and of dendritic cell function, modulation of regulatory T cells, and chemokine expression in AD have elucidated possible targets for future intervention.

  17. Battling the Bite: Tradeoffs in Immunity to Insect-Borne Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Schneider, David Samuel

    2016-06-21

    Effective pathogens are successful, by definition, because they can defeat our immune response. Pingen et al. (2016) in this issue of Immunity demonstrate that some mosquito-transmitted viruses depend upon a strong host immune response triggered by the innate immune response to the bite to promote dissemination through the body. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Detection of feline herpes virus 1 via polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry in cats with ulcerative facial dermatitis, eosinophilic granuloma complex reaction patterns and mosquito bite hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Persico, Paola; Roccabianca, Paola; Corona, Antonio; Vercelli, Antonella; Cornegliani, Luisa

    2011-12-01

    Ulcerative dermatitis caused by feline herpes virus 1 (FHV-1) is an uncommon disease characterized by cutaneous ulcers secondary to epidermal, adnexal and dermal necrosis. Differential diagnoses for FHV-1 lesions include, but are not limited to, mosquito bite hypersensitivity and eosinophilic granuloma complex. Histopathological diagnosis of FHV-1 dermatitis is based on the detection of the intranuclear inclusion bodies. In cases where intranuclear inclusions are missing but clinical and histological findings are compatible with FHV-1 dermatitis, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and PCRs have been used. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the presence of FHV-1 by IHC and PCR in skin biopsies and compared the results of the two tests. Sixty-four skin biopsy specimens from cats with compatible lesions were reviewed and tested via PCR and IHC for evidence of FHV-1. Polymerase chain reaction was positive in 12 of 64 biopsies; PCR and IHC were positive only in two of 64 biopsies, and these cases were considered true positive cases. The higher number of PCR-positive cases was possibly attributed to amplification of viral DNA from a live attenuated vaccination, but a previous FHV-1 infection with subsequent amplification of latently inserted FHV-1 could not be excluded. If clinical signs and histopathology suggest FHV-1 infection in the absence of typical inclusion bodies, IHC is the preferred diagnostic test; PCR may be useful for initial screening, but due to false positives is not sufficient for a definitive diagnosis. © 2011 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology. © 2011 ESVD and ACVD.

  19. Mosquito Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... spreading to the United States. One factor is climate change, which makes the conditions in some parts of ... United States. How can I prevent mosquito bites? Use an insect ... DEET, picaridin, IR3535, oil of lemon eucalyptus, or para-menthane-diol. It ...

  20. Disordered expression of inhibitory receptors on the NK1-type natural killer (NK) leukaemic cells from patients with hypersensitivity to mosquito bites

    PubMed Central

    Seo, N; Tokura, Y; Ishihara, S; Takeoka, Y; Tagawa, S; Takigawa, M

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed the existence of a distinct type of NK cell leukaemia of the juvenile type, which presents with hypersensitivity to mosquito bites (HMB) as an essential clinical manifestation and is infected with clonal Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). This disorder is thus called HMB-EBV-NK disease and has been reported in Orientals, mostly from Japan. We investigated the profile of cytokine production and the expression of both types of NK inhibitory receptors, i.e. CD94 lectin-like dimers and killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors, in NK leukaemic cells from three patients with HMB-EBV-NK disease. It was found that freshly isolated NK leukaemic cells expressed mRNA for interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and additionally produced IL-10 upon stimulation with IL-2, indicating that the NK cells were of NK1 type. More than 98% of NK cells from the patients bore CD94 at a higher level than did normal NK cells, whereas p70 or NKAT2, belonging to immunoglobulin-like receptor, was not expressed in those NK cells. Freshly isolated leukaemic NK cells transcribed mRNA for CD94-associated molecule NKG2C at an abnormally high level, and upon stimulation with IL-2 and/or IL-12 they expressed NKG2A as well. The disordered expression of these inhibitory receptors not only provides some insights into the pathogenesis of HMB-EBV-NK disease but also can be used as phenotypic markers for the diagnosis of this type of NK cell leukaemia. PMID:10844517

  1. Insect repellent activity of medicinal plant oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Anopheles minimus (Theobald) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say based on protection time and biting rate.

    PubMed

    Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Soonwera, Mayura

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated insect bite protection and length of the protection with 30 repellents which were divided into 3 categories: plant oil, essential oil and essential oil with ethyl alcohol, tested against three mosquito species, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles minimus and Culex quinquefasciatus, under laboratory conditions. The plant oil group was comprised of Phlai (Zingiber cassumunar) and Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum). Both substances were effective as repellents and feeding deterrents against An. minimus (205 minutes protection time and a biting rate of 0.9%), Cx. quinquefasciatus (165 minutes protection time and 0.9% biting rate) and Ae. aegypti (90 minutes protection time and 0.8% biting rate). Essential oil from citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) exhibited protection against biting from all 3 mosquito species: for An. minimus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, the results were 130 minutes and 0.9%, 140 minutes and 0.8%, and 115 minutes and 0.8%, respectively. The period of protection time against Ae. aegypti for all repellent candidates tested was lower than the Thai Industrial Standards Institute (TISI) determined time of greater than 2 hours.

  2. Insect Allergy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hobart; Halverson, Sara; Mackey, Regina

    2016-09-01

    Insect bites and stings are common. Risk factors are mostly associated with environmental exposure. Most insect bites and stings result in mild, local, allergic reactions. Large local reactions and systemic reactions like anaphylaxis are possible. Common insects that bite or sting include mosquitoes, ticks, flies, fleas, biting midges, bees, and wasps. The diagnosis is made clinically. Identification of the insect should occur when possible. Management is usually supportive. For anaphylaxis, patients should be given epinephrine and transported to the emergency department for further evaluation. Venom immunotherapy (VIT) has several different protocols. VIT is highly effective in reducing systemic reactions and anaphylaxis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Role of TRAF4 and B3GAT1 Gene Expression in the Food Hypersensitivity and Insect Venom Allergy in Mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Górska, Aleksandra; Gruchała-Niedoszytko, Marta; Niedoszytko, Marek; Maciejewska, Agnieszka; Chełmińska, Marta; Skrzypski, Marcin; Wasąg, Bartosz; Kaczkan, Małgorzata; Lange, Magdalena; Nedoszytko, Bogusław; Pawłowski, Ryszard; Małgorzewicz, Sylwia; Jassem, Ewa

    2016-12-01

    Mastocytosis is an uncommon disease classified as a myeloproliferative neoplasm, however, its symptoms are broad and place patients at crossroads between dermatology, hematology and allergology. Patients with mastocytosis often suffer from symptoms resulting from the activation and release of mediators from the mast cells, such as generalized itching, redness, headache, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, bone pain or arthritis, hypotension and shock. The possible severe, fatal or near fatal reactions caused by food hypersensitivity are reasons for the research focused on marker identification. The aim of the study was to analyse the gene expression differences in mastocytosis patients with and without food and drug hypersensitivity and insect venom allergy (IVA). A total of 57 Caucasian patients with mastocytosis were studied [median age 41.8; range 18-77 years; 15 (26.3 %) males and 42 (73.7 %) females]. Quantitative RT-PCRs of 11 genes plus ribosomal 18S RNA were run. Symptoms of food hypersensitivity were found in 12 patients (21 %), including 3 patients (13 %) with cutaneous mastocytosis (CM), and 9 (28 %) with indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM). IVA was confirmed in 13 patients (22.8 %) including 6 patients (10.5 %) with CM, and 7 patients (12.3 %) with ISM. Drug hypersensitivity was diagnosed in 10 patients (17.5 %). Significant differences in the gene expression were found for TRAF4 (p = 0.008) in the comparison of the mastocytosis patients with and without concomitant food hypersensitivity. Furthermore significant differences were found in gene expression for B3GAT1 (p = 0.003) in patients with IVA compared to patients without insect sting anaphylaxis in the medical history. The expression of studied genes did not differ according to the presence of drug hypersensitivity. The TRAF4 expression was higher in mastocytosis patients with food hypersensitivity in their medical history, the B3GAT1 expression was lower in mastocytosis patients with IVA in

  4. Fire Ant Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching ... across the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or ...

  5. Tips to Prevent Tick Bites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Using the right insect repellent and other preventive actions can discourage ticks, mosquitoes, and other biting insects from landing on you. Tips include avoiding tick habitats and minimizing exposed skin.

  6. Insect bites and stings

    MedlinePlus

    ... eds. Auerbach's Wilderness Medicine . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 43. Elston DM. Arthropods and leeches. ... eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 359. Otten EJ. Venomous animal ...

  7. The bite of the honeybee: 2-heptanone secreted from honeybee mandibles during a bite acts as a local anaesthetic in insects and mammals.

    PubMed

    Papachristoforou, Alexandros; Kagiava, Alexia; Papaefthimiou, Chrisovalantis; Termentzi, Aikaterini; Fokialakis, Nikolas; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Watkins, Max; Arnold, Gérard; Theophilidis, George

    2012-01-01

    Honeybees secrete 2-heptanone (2-H) from their mandibular glands when they bite. Researchers have identified several possible functions: 2-H could act as an alarm pheromone to recruit guards and soldiers, it could act as a chemical marker, or it could have some other function. The actual role of 2-H in honeybee behaviour remains unresolved. In this study, we show that 2-H acts as an anaesthetic in small arthropods, such as wax moth larva (WML) and Varroa mites, which are paralysed after a honeybee bite. We demonstrated that honeybee mandibles can penetrate the cuticle of WML, introducing less than one nanolitre of 2-H into the WML open circulatory system and causing instantaneous anaesthetization that lasts for a few minutes. The first indication that 2-H acts as a local anaesthetic was that its effect on larval response, inhibition and recovery is very similar to that of lidocaine. We compared the inhibitory effects of 2-H and lidocaine on voltage-gated sodium channels. Although both compounds blocked the hNav1.6 and hNav1.2 channels, lidocaine was slightly more effective, 2.82 times, on hNav.6. In contrast, when the two compounds were tested using an ex vivo preparation-the isolated rat sciatic nerve-the function of the two compounds was so similar that we were able to definitively classify 2-H as a local anaesthetic. Using the same method, we showed that 2-H has the fastest inhibitory effect of all alkyl-ketones tested, including the isomers 3- and 4-heptanone. This suggests that natural selection may have favoured 2-H over other, similar compounds because of the associated fitness advantages it confers. Our results reveal a previously unknown role of 2-H in honeybee defensive behaviour and due to its minor neurotoxicity show potential for developing a new local anaesthetic from a natural product, which could be used in human and veterinary medicine.

  8. A possible mechanism of NK cell-lineage granular lymphocyte proliferative disorder (NK-GLPD) in a patient with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) and severe hypersensitivity to mosquito bites (SHMB).

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Shiro; Ishii, Masaru; Asada, Hideo; Tatekawa, Toyoshi; Yamaguchi, Norihiko; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Ishii, Taeko; Mima, Toru; Kawase, Ichiro; Saeki, Yukihiko

    2002-08-01

    We report the case of a young female patient with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) and severe hypersensitivity to mosquito bites (SHMB). She showed a marked increase of NK cell population in peripheral blood. The NK cell population was suggested to be infected with EBV, and to be oligoclonal by Southern blotting using an EBV genome terminal-repeat probe. The NK cells aberrantly expressed CD25, a high affinity receptor for IL-2, and showed an augmented in vitro proliferative response to IL-2. Moreover, they also showed enhanced expression of both Fas-ligand and Bcl-2, and resistance to in vitro Fas-induced apoptotic cell death (Fas-ACD). Taken together, these observations suggested that both the augmentation of proliferative response to IL-2 and the decrease in Fas-ACD may cause NK cell lineage granular lymphocyte proliferative disorder (NK-GLPD) in patients with CAEBV and SHMB.

  9. Insects and Bugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Karen

    2009-01-01

    They have been around for centuries. They sting, they bite. They cause intense itching or painful sores. They even cause allergic reactions and sometimes death. There are two types of insects that are pests to humans--those that sting and those that bite. The insects that bite do so with their mouths and include mosquitoes, chiggers, and ticks.…

  10. Production of proinflammatory cytokines without invocation of cytotoxic effects by an Epstein-Barr virus-infected natural killer cell line established from a patient with hypersensitivity to mosquito bites.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Daisuke; Tsuji, Kazuhide; Yamamoto, Takenobu; Fujii, Kazuyasu; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2010-10-01

    Cumulative evidence supports that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected natural killer (NK) cells induce severe systemic and cutaneous inflammation in patients with hypersensitivity to mosquito bites (HMB). In order to understand the pathogenesis of HMB, we established an EBV-infected cell line and characterized the cytological profiles. A novel EBV-infected NK-cell line, designated NKED, was established from a patient with HMB and used for the present study along with two other NK-cell lines, KAI3 and KHYG-1. NKED expressed the latency II-related transcripts. NKED cells were positive for CD2 and CD161 antigens, and negative for CD3, CD16, CD34, CD56, and T-cell receptor α/β and γ/δ antigens. Although NKED cells contained several cytotoxic molecules, the cells had an extremely poor cytotoxic activity. The majority of NKED cells were negative for perforin, major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted NK-cell receptors, CD94 and KIR2D, and an activating receptor, NKG2D. NKED cells, however, secreted higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-α. Stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or tumor necrosis factor-α induced expression of BZLF1 messenger RNA in the NKED and KAI3 cells, indicating the transition from the latent- to the lytic-cycle infection. These data suggested that NKED cells revealed a very low cytotoxic effect probably because of the low expression levels of perforin, but had the ability to release proinflammatory cytokines. NKED cells did not reflect the characteristics of HMB, as they were different from pathogenic NK cells proliferating in the HMB patient, but the difference indicated that pathogenic NK cells could change their character in the presence of interleukin-2. Copyright © 2010 ISEH - Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    MedlinePlus

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis usually occurs in people who work in places where there are high levels of organic dusts, fungus, or molds. Long-term exposure can lead to lung inflammation and acute lung disease . ...

  12. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  13. Tick Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... that go outdoors, you need to beware of ticks. Ticks are small bloodsucking parasites. Many species transmit diseases ... of the diseases you can get from a tick bite are Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted ...

  14. Spider Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... at the center of the bite can become dark blue or purple and then evolve into a ... and brown recluse spiders prefer warm climates and dark, dry places. Black widow habitat Black widow spiders ...

  15. DELAYED HYPERSENSITIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Uhr, Jonathan W.; Salvin, S. B.; Pappenheimer, A. M.

    1957-01-01

    A general method for induction of the delayed hypersensitive state directed against single protein antigens is described. The method consists of intradermal injection of minute amounts of washed immune precipitates containing the antigen in question. Provided the specific precipitates are formed in the region of antibody excess, maximal sensitivity develops at least 2 to 3 weeks before detectable circulating antibody is formed in guinea pigs against the sensitizing antigen. Neither adjuvant nor killed acid-fast bacteria are required for induction of the delayed hypersensitive state although the degree of sensitization is considerably increased when the sensitizing material is incorporated in Freund's complete adjuvant. Characteristics of the "delayed" as opposed to the "immediate" hypersensitive states in the guinea pig are described and implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:13385403

  16. Insect allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Tan, John W; Campbell, Dianne E

    2013-09-01

    Allergic reactions to insect bites and stings are common, and the severity of reactions range from local reaction to anaphylaxis. In children, large local reaction to bites and stings is the most common presentation. Stings from insects of the order Hymenoptera (bees, wasps and ants) are the most common cause of insect anaphylaxis; however, the proportion of insect allergic children who develop anaphylaxis to an insect sting is lower than that of insect allergic adults. History is most important in diagnosing anaphylaxis, as laboratory tests can be unreliable. Venom immunotherapy is effective, where suitable allergen extract is available, but is only warranted in children with systemic reactions to insect venom. Large local reactions are at low risk of progression to anaphylaxis on subsequent stings, and hence, venom immunotherapy is not necessary. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  17. Metronidazole hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Knowles, S; Choudhury, T; Shear, N H

    1994-03-01

    To report a case of a possible hypersensitivity reaction induced by metronidazole. An Asian woman with a history of recurrent vaginitis had previously developed localized erythema while on intravaginal metronidazole and nystatin. While receiving oral metronidazole for treatment of a current bacterial vaginosis, she developed chills, fever, generalized erythema, and a rash within 60 minutes of the first dose. Treatment with diphenhydramine was instituted. The following day while in the hospital, the patient's condition worsened; she experienced shortness of breath and increased edema of the extremities. Methylprednisolone was administered with diphenhydramine and her condition improved over the next 5 days. The patient's vaginitis was treated with gentian violet and she was discharged on a tapering dosage of prednisone. Metronidazole-induced cutaneous reactions and systemic hypersensitivity reactions are reviewed. Alternatives to metronidazole and other potential cross-reactive drugs are suggested for the treatment of recurrent vaginitis. Although the patient's initial reaction to metronidazole represented a rare event, written documentation and communication in the patient's native language may have prevented the subsequent severe hypersensitivity reaction.

  18. Traditional use of indigenous mosquito-repellents to protect humans against mosquitoes and other insect bites in a rural community of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ntonifor, N N; Ngufor, C A; Kimbi, H K; Oben, B O

    2006-10-01

    To document and test the efficacy of indigenous traditional personal protection methods against mosquito bites and general nuisance. A prospective study based on a survey and field evaluation of selected plant-based personal protection methods against mosquito bites. Bolifamba, a rural setting of the Mount Cameroon region. A structured questionnaire was administered to 179 respondents and two anti-mosquito measures were tested under field conditions. Identified traditional anti-mosquito methods used by indigenes of Bolifamba. Two plants tested under field conditions were found to be effective. Of the 179 respondents, 88 (49.16%) used traditional anti-mosquito methods; 57 (64.77%) used plant-based methods while 31 (35.2%) used various petroleum oils. The rest of the respondents, 91 (50.8%) used conventional personal protection methods. Reasons for using traditional methods were because they were available, affordable and lack of known more effective alternatives. The demerits of these methods were: labourious to implement, stain dresses, produce a lot of smoke/ repulsive odours when used; those of conventional methods were lack of adequate information about them, high cost and non-availability. When the two most frequently used plants, Saccharum officinarium and Ocimum basilicum were evaluated under field conditions, each gave a better protection than the control. Most plants used against mosquitoes in the area are known potent mosquito repellents but others identified in the study warrant further research. The two tested under field conditions were effective though less than the commonly used commercial diethyltoluamide.

  19. A fatal mongoose bite.

    PubMed

    Tumram, Nilesh Keshav; Bardale, Rajesh Vaijnathrao; Dixit, Pradeep Gangadhar; Deshmukh, Ashutosh Yashwant

    2012-11-19

    Animal bite is a bite wound from a pet, farm or wild animal. Dog bites make up 80-85% of all reported incidents. Cats amount for about 10% of reported bites and other animals such as rodents, rabbits, horses, raccoons, bats and monkeys amount to 5-10%. Bites by mongoose are uncommon. Here, we present a case of fatal mongoose bite to an elderly woman who died as a complication of streptococcal infection at the bite site.

  20. Cat and Dog Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Share Print Cat and dog bites are common injuries. A family pet or ... bites. Path to safety If a cat or dog bites you, you should: Wash the wound gently ...

  1. Observations on effects of a neem seed extract (MiteStop®) on biting lice (mallophages) and bloodsucking insects parasitizing horses.

    PubMed

    Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Mehlhorn, Julia; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    The hair of 300 horses belonging to short hair and long hair races had been routinely treated during the last 3 years with a neem seed extract (MiteStop®) in order to kill mallophages (e.g., specimens of the genus Werneckiella). It was found that in all cases, a hidden infestation with these biting lice had existed, which became visible when the product (diluted 1:20 with tap water) was brushed onto the hair. The mallophages left the body surface and became visible as a fine "wooly looking" layer at the tips of the hair. Furthermore, this treatment stopped the forming of dandruff of the skin of the horses, which, in case of heavy mallophage infestations, had looked like being powdered. Another interesting result of the treatment was reported by the riders. They described that the product had a considerable repellent effect on bloodsucking tabanids, mosquitoes, ceratopogonids, simuliids, as well as on licking flies. This repellency effect was noted to last for up to 7 days if the horses were not washed.

  2. Spider Bites (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español First Aid: Spider Bites KidsHealth / For Parents / First Aid: Spider Bites ... rare. Signs and Symptoms Of a brown recluse spider bite: red blister in the center with surrounding ...

  3. Risk of Disease from Mosquito and Tick Bites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Insect repellents help reduce the risk of mosquito and tick bites, which can transmit diseases including West Nile Virus, malaria, encephalitis, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya virus, Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and ehrlichiosis.

  4. Joint Statement on Insect Repellents by EPA and CDC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA and the CDC are recommending the public to use insect repellents and take other precautions to avoid biting insects that carry serious diseases. This statement discusses diseases of concern, government roles, and repellent selection and use.

  5. Human bites (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Human bites present a high risk of infection. Besides the bacteria which can cause infection, there is ... the wound extends below the skin. Anytime a human bite has broken the skin, seek medical attention.

  6. Rat Bite Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rat Bite Fever Health Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Rat Bite Fever Page Content Article Body Rat-bite fever is a disease that occurs in humans who have been bitten by an infected rat ...

  7. Insect repellents and associated personal protection for a reduction in human disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Personal protection measures against biting arthropods include topical insect repellents, area repellents, insecticide-treated bednets and treated clothing. The literature on the effectiveness of personal protection products against arthropods is mainly limited to studies of prevention of bites, rat...

  8. Personal protection against biting insects and ticks

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Recent events with the first cases of local transmission of chikungunya and dengue fever virus in southern France by Aedes albopictus, adding to the nuisance and potential vectors that can be encountered when traveling in tropical or sub-tropical countries, has shown the value of a reflection on the Personal protection against vectors (PPAV). It is seen during an outbreak of vector-borne disease, or simply because of nuisance arthropods, that our fellow citizens try to protect themselves individually by using an arsenal of resources available on the market. Yet most of these means have been neither checked for effectiveness or safety tests, however, essential. Travellers, staff on mission or assignment, are looking for specific information on how to protect themselves or their families. Health workers had at their disposal so far indications that vary widely from one source to another. Therefore it seemed important to the Society of Travel Medicine (SMV) and the French Society of Parasitology (SFP) to initiate a reflection on this theme. This reflection took the form of recommendations for good practice, following the outline established by the French High Health Authority (HAS). The aim was to gather all relevant information, verified and validated and the format to be used not only by health personnel (doctors, pharmacists, nurses), but also by travel agents and individuals. This document highlights the need to take into account the risk of vector-borne diseases, some deadly, and the benefit of various methods of personal protection. The choice of methods is clearly oriented towards those whose effectiveness has been proven and potential risks assessed. The paper finally proposes two decision trees based on the transmission type (day or night) and kind of stay (short or roaming, long and steady). It concerns travellers, but also expatriates, residents and nomads. PMID:21395212

  9. First Aid: Insect Stings and Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... epinephrine (EpiPen), give it right away, then call 911. Tell them your child is experiencing a life- ... someone is with you, have that person call 911 while you give the epinephrine. If your child ...

  10. Insect anaphylaxis: where are we? The stinging facts 2012.

    PubMed

    Tracy, James M; Khan, Fatima S; Demain, Jeffrey G

    2012-08-01

    Insect allergy remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. In 2011, the third iteration of the stinging insect hypersensitivity practice parameter was published, the first being published in 1999 and the second in 2004. Since the 2004 edition, our understanding of insect hypersensitivity has continued to expand and has been incorporated into the 2011 edition. This work will review the relevant changes in the management of insect hypersensitivity occurring since 2004 and present our current understanding of the insect hypersensitivity diagnosis and management. Since the 2004 commissioning by the Joint Task Force (JTF) on Practice Parameters of 'Stinging insect hypersensitivity: a practice parameter update', there have been important contributions to our understanding of insect allergy. These contributions were incorporated into the 2011 iteration. Similar efforts were made by the European Allergy Asthma and Clinical Immunology Interest Group in 2005 and most recently in 2011 by the British Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Our understanding of insect allergy, including the natural history, epidemiology, diagnostic testing, and risk factors, has greatly expanded. This evolution of knowledge should provide improved long-term management of stinging insect hypersensitivity. This review will focus primarily on the changes between the 2004 and 2011 stinging insect practice parameter commissioned by the JTF on Practice Parameters, but will, where appropriate, highlight the differences between working groups.

  11. Animal bites - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Bites - animals - self-care ... Most animal bites come from pets. Dog bites are common and most often happen to children. Cat bites are ... which can cause deeper puncture wounds. Most other animal bites are caused by stray or wild animals, ...

  12. Hypersensitivity reactions to etoposide.

    PubMed

    Hoetelmans, R M; Schornagel, J H; ten Bokkel Huinink, W W; Beijnen, J H

    1996-04-01

    To report a hypersensitivity reaction to etoposide occurring in a patient after 2 months of drug therapy. A 20-year-old man with a diagnosis of testicular carcinoma was treated with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP regimen). After dose 20 of etoposide, an exanthema was noted, which was attributed to etoposide. The patient had received 19 doses of etoposide during the previous 2 months without any sign of an allergic reaction. Rechallenging the patient with etoposide from another batch resulted in recurrence of the exanthema. Both etoposide and its excipient (polysorbate 80) are suspected of causing hypersensitivity reactions. Although the exact mechanism of the hypersensitivity reaction is not known, it is believed to be of nonimmunogenic origin. With a lower rate of infusion of etoposide and/or by premedication with antihistamines and/or corticosteroids, hypersensitivity reactions to etoposide might be prevented in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to this drug.

  13. Human bites - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000736.htm Human bites - self-care To use the sharing features ... at higher risk for infection. How to Prevent Human Bites Prevent bites by: Teaching young children not ...

  14. Bites and Scratches (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pet (in kids, most animal bites are from dogs ) or a creature from the wild, scratches and ... First Aid: Animal Bites Cat Scratch Disease Preventing Dog Bites Rabies Cuts, Scratches, and Abrasions Dogs and ...

  15. Spider Bites: First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States, its range is central and southern states. Signs and symptoms of a brown recluse spider bite vary but may include: At first, a mild pain Redness and intense pain A deep blue or purple area around the bite, which ...

  16. [Mammal bite management].

    PubMed

    Contreras-Marín, Misael; Sandoval-Rodríguez, Jorge Issac; García-Ramírez, Raúl; Morales-Yépez, Héctor Adolfo

    Animal bites are a major public health problem, it is estimated that 2% of the population is bitten each year. Most bites are by dogs and the risk factors include young children, men, certain breeds of dogs and untrained dogs. The risk of infection after bites differs between animal species and depends on the animal teeth and oral flora. Animal bites are still a major cause of morbidity in patients of all ages and have caused several preventable childhood deaths. These wounds often become infected. If the wound requires it, early surgical evaluation must be performed. The use of antibiotics is only recommended for high risk bite wounds. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of botanical-based biopesticides and repellents against biting flies on livestock animals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biting flies are important insect pests causing millions of dollars in losses to the livestock industry. The attack by biting flies causes significant losses in animal production and potential food contamination and disease transmission. This presentation reports our recent findings on the developme...

  18. Identification of the mosquito biting deterrent constituents from the Indian folk remedy plant Jatropha curcas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An investigation of the Indian folk remedy plant, Jatropha curcas, was performed to specifically identify the constituents responsible for the mosquito biting deterrent activity of the oil as a whole. Jatropha curcas seed oil is burned in oil lamps in India and part of Africa to repel biting insect...

  19. Oral Hypersensitivity Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... of substances. The most common causes are food, food additives, drugs, oral hygiene products, and dental materials. Q: Are there any specific foods that are more commonly implicated in intraoral hypersensitivity ...

  20. Culicoides and other biting flies on the Palos Verdes Peninsula of Southern California, and their possible relationship to equine dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Mullens, Bradley A; Owen, Jeb P; Heft, David E; Sobeck, Ruth V

    2005-03-01

    Biting insects were sampled to investigate the cause(s) of dermatitis (putative Culicoides hypersensitivity [CHS]) on horses on the Palos Verdes Peninsula, Los Angeles County, California. Suction traps baited with CO2 were operated at 5 sites from April 2002 to August 2003, supplemented by sampling from horses. Six species of Culicoides, 7 species of mosquitoes, and occasional Simulium and Stomoxys were collected in traps. Culicoides sonorensis was the most common midge trapped, although C. obsoletus and C. freeborni also were collected repeatedly. Insects from the belly region of horses in spring (peak dermatitis period) were mostly C. obsoletus, which were far more abundant than indicated by CO2-baited suction traps. The predominant mosquito was Culiseta incidens; Culex quinquefasciatus and Cx. tarsalis also could be common, depending on the site. Mosquitoes, particularly Cs. incidens, were more abundant the 2nd year (normal rainfall), whereas C. sonorensis and C. freeborni were more abundant the 1st year (drought period). Culicoides obsoletus, supplemented by C. sonorensis, is regarded as a primary suspect causing CHS in this area.

  1. Culicoides Hypersensitivity in the Horse: 15 Cases in Southwestern British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Kleider, N.; Lees, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The investigation of a chronic, seasonal dermatitis of horses in southwestern British Columbia is described. Typically the history indicated an insidious onset, followed by a gradual progression in the severity of the signs each year. Lesions appeared during the warmer months of the year and tended to regress during the winter. The clinical signs consisted of areas of pruritus and excoriation, affecting predominantly the ventral midline, mane and tailhead. In all cases corticosteroid therapy relieved the pruritus and allowed the lesions to heal. The salient pathological findings were hyperkeratosis, spongiosis and a dermal infiltration of eosinophils together with mononuclear cells. These changes are typical of an allergic dermatitis, which has been recognized in many parts of the world as a hypersensitivity reaction to the bites of Culicoides spp. In this instance, the epidemiological findings relating to the geographic area, the local insect population and the distribution of lesions implicated Culicoides obsoletus as the etiological agent. ImagesFIGURE 1.FIGURE 2.Figure 3.FIGURE 4.Figure 5. PMID:17422351

  2. Rat-bite fever

    MedlinePlus

    Streptobacillary fever; Streptobacillosis; Haverhill fever; Epidemic arthritic erythema; Spirillary fever; Sodoku ... Rat-bite fever can be caused by either of 2 different bacteria, Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus. Both of these are ...

  3. Bug Bites and Stings

    MedlinePlus

    ... event of a bug bite or sting. Handling Bee and Wasp Stings A bee will usually leave behind a stinger attached to ... child has had an allergic reaction to a bee or wasp sting in the past, see your ...

  4. First Aid: Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... First Aid: Skin Infections Cat Scratch Disease Preventing Dog Bites Rabies Staying Safe ... All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, ...

  5. Treatment for Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Life Family Life Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community ... by animals the child knows, including the family pet. Although the injury often is minor, biting does ...

  6. Hypersensitivity lo local anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Grzanka, Alicja; Wasilewska, Iwona; Śliwczyńska, Magdalena; Misiołek, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Using local anaesthetics in daily practice, particularly by anaesthetists and dentists, is connected with the risk of side effects. Therefore, the observation of side effects, carrying out detailed research (according to the chart proposed in this study) and conducting specialist examinations is of the highest importance. There is a variety of side effects that could occur during local anaesthesia procedures, with the intensity ranging from clinically unimportant to life threatening. Clinicians' major concerns are the appearance of various hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis. Healthcare providers responsible for the administration of local anaesthetics should be able to detect hypersensitivity reactions to implement appropriate treatment and then choose highly selected diagnostic procedures. The final diagnosis should be based on specific medical history; documentation, including a description of the case and measurement of tryptase activity; skin tests; and provocation trials. Screening tests are not recommended in populations without hypersensitivity to local anaesthestics in their medical history.

  7. Funnel-web spider bite

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002844.htm Funnel-web spider bite To use the sharing features on ... the effects of a bite from the funnel-web spider. Male funnel-web spiders are more poisonous ...

  8. Animal Bites of the Hand

    MedlinePlus

    ... animal bite Find a hand surgeon near you. Videos Figures Figure 1: Finger infection from cat bite ... or "in." Also, avoid using media types like "video," "article," and "picture." Tip 4: Your results can ...

  9. Plant based insect repellent and insecticide treated bed nets to protect against malaria in areas of early evening biting vectors: double blind randomised placebo controlled clinical trial in the Bolivian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Hill, N; Lenglet, A; Arnéz, A M; Carneiro, I

    2007-11-17

    To determine the effectiveness in reducing malaria of combining an insect repellent with insecticide treated bed nets compared with the nets alone in an area where vector mosquitoes feed in the early evening. A double blind, placebo controlled cluster-randomised clinical study. Rural villages and peri-urban districts in the Bolivian Amazon. 4008 individuals in 860 households. All individuals slept under treated nets; one group also used a plant based insect repellent each evening, a second group used placebo. Episodes of Plasmodium falciparum or P vivax malaria confirmed by rapid diagnostic test or blood slide, respectively. We analysed 15,174 person months at risk and found a highly significant 80% reduction in episodes of P vivax in the group that used treated nets and repellent (incidence rate ratio 0.20, 95% confidence interval 0.11 to 0.38, P<0.001). Numbers of P falciparum cases during the study were small and, after adjustment for age, an 82% protective effect was observed, although this was not significant (0.18, 0.02 to 1.40, P=0.10). Reported episodes of fever with any cause were reduced by 58% in the group that used repellent (0.42, 0.31 to 0.56, P<0.001). Insect repellents can provide protection against malaria. In areas where vectors feed in the early evening, effectiveness of treated nets can be significantly increased by using repellent between dusk and bedtime. This has important implications in malaria vector control programmes outside Africa and shows that the combined use of treated nets and insect repellents, as advocated for most tourists travelling to high risk areas, is fully justified. NCT 00144716.

  10. Pharmacogenetics of drug hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Elizabeth J; Mallal, Simon A

    2010-01-01

    Drug hypersensitivity reactions and severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions, such as Stevens–Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis, are examples of serious adverse drug reactions mediated through a combination of metabolic and immunological mechanisms that could traditionally not have been predicted based on the pharmacological characteristics of the drug alone. The discovery of new associations between these syndromes and specific HLA has created the promise that risk for these reactions could be predicted through pharmacogenetic screening, thereby avoiding serious morbidity and mortality associated with these types of drug reactions. Despite this, several hurdles exist in the translation of these associations into pharmacogenetic tests that could be routinely used in the clinical setting. HLA-B*5701 screening to prevent abacavir hypersensitivity syndrome is an example of a test now in widespread routine clinical use in the developed world. PMID:20602616

  11. Water vapour and heat combine to elicit biting and biting persistence in tsetse

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tsetse flies are obligatory blood feeders, accessing capillaries by piercing the skin of their hosts with the haustellum to suck blood. However, this behaviour presents a considerable risk as landing flies are exposed to predators as well as the host’s own defense reactions such as tail flicking. Achieving a successful blood meal within the shortest time span is therefore at a premium in tsetse, so feeding until replete normally lasts less than a minute. Biting in blood sucking insects is a multi-sensory response involving a range of physical and chemical stimuli. Here we investigated the role of heat and humidity emitted from host skin on the biting responses of Glossina pallidipes, which to our knowledge has not been fully studied in tsetse before. Methods The onset and duration of the biting response of G. pallidipes was recorded by filming movements of its haustellum in response to rapid increases in temperature and/or relative humidity (RH) following exposure of the fly to two airflows. The electrophysiological responses of hygroreceptor cells in wall-pore sensilla on the palps of G. pallidipes to drops in RH were recorded using tungsten electrodes and the ultra-structure of these sensory cells was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Results Both latency and proportion of tsetse biting are closely correlated to RH when accompanied by an increase of 13.1°C above ambient temperature but not for an increase of just 0.2°C. Biting persistence, as measured by the number of bites and the time spent biting, also increases with increasing RH accompanied by a 13.1°C increase in air temperature. Neurones in wall-pore sensilla on the palps respond to shifts in RH. Conclusions Our results show that temperature acts synergistically with humidity to increase the rapidity and frequency of the biting response in tsetse above the levels induced by increasing temperature or humidity separately. Palp sensilla housing hygroreceptor cells

  12. Dog bites in Bosnia.

    PubMed Central

    Croft, A; Archer, R

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rabies is a zoonosis that remains endemic in most parts of the world. Primary care physicians are in the first line of defence against the disease. An increasing number of British practitioners and medical students are being exposed to the dangers of rabies through humanitarian work on overseas attachments. Rabies is enzootic throughout Bosnia-Herzegovina and presents a hazard to the multinational troops currently deployed there. AIM: To describe the British Army's experience of animal bites and rabies prevention in Bosnia during the first six months of its current peace enforcement mission, and to make general recommendations on the good management of any rabies hazard at primary care level and under field conditions. METHODS: Routine data from the Army's epidemiological database (ARRC 97) were reviewed, and theatre issues of rabies vaccine and immune globulin were used as a proxy measure for administered post-exposure prophylaxis. RESULTS: A total of 62 animal bites were reported in British troops between December 1995 and May 1996, of which 28 were unprovoked bites and resulted in the administration of a course of rabies vaccine. Ten of these were severe bites and rabies immune globulin (RIG) was administered in addition. The total cost of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis was US$6914.00. CONCLUSION: The prevention of rabies has major human and resource implications, and primary care staff involved in rabies post-exposure management need to be well supported in their clinical decision-making. Rabies protocols should be clear and unambiguous. The effective medical surveillance of military or humanitarian missions in rabies-enzootic areas must include the prompt reporting of animal bites. The predeployment training of medical teams should include an up-to-date assessment of the local rabies threat. PMID:9281871

  13. Bite force measurements with hard and soft bite surfaces.

    PubMed

    Serra, C M; Manns, A E

    2013-08-01

    Bite force has been measured by different methods and over a wide variety of designs. In several instruments, the fact that bite surface has been manufactured with stiff materials might interfere in obtaining reliable data, by a more prompt activation of inhibitory reflex mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to compare the maximum voluntary bite force measured by a digital occlusal force gauge (GM10 Nagano Keiki, Japan) between different opponent teeth, employing semi-hard or soft bite surfaces. A sample of 34 young adults with complete natural dentition was studied. The original semi-hard bite surface was exchanged by a soft one, made of leather and rubber. Maximum voluntary bite force recordings were made for each tooth group and for both bite surfaces. Statistical analyses (Student's t-test) revealed significant differences, with higher scores while using the soft surface across sexes and tooth groups (P < 0·05). Differential activation of periodontal mechanoreceptors of a specific tooth group is mainly conditioned by the hardness of the bite surface; a soft surface induces greater activation of elevator musculature, while a hard one induces inhibition more promptly. Thus, soft bite surfaces are recommended for higher reliability in maximum voluntary bite force recordings. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Predictors of severe systemic anaphylactic reactions in patients with Hymenoptera venom allergy: importance of baseline serum tryptase-a study of the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology Interest Group on Insect Venom Hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ruëff, Franziska; Przybilla, Bernhard; Biló, Maria Beatrice; Müller, Ulrich; Scheipl, Fabian; Aberer, Werner; Birnbaum, Joëlle; Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, Anna; Bonifazi, Floriano; Bucher, Christoph; Campi, Paolo; Darsow, Ulf; Egger, Cornelia; Haeberli, Gabrielle; Hawranek, Thomas; Körner, Michael; Kucharewicz, Iwona; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Lang, Roland; Quercia, Oliviero; Reider, Norbert; Severino, Maurizio; Sticherling, Michael; Sturm, Gunter Johannes; Wüthrich, Brunello

    2009-11-01

    Severe anaphylaxis to honeybee or vespid stings is associated with a variety of risk factors, which are poorly defined. Our aim was to evaluate the association of baseline serum tryptase concentrations and other variables routinely recorded during patient evaluation with the frequency of past severe anaphylaxis after a field sting. In this observational multicenter study, we enrolled 962 patients with established bee or vespid venom allergy who had a systemic reaction after a field sting. Data were collected on tryptase concentration, age, sex, culprit insect, cardiovascular medication, and the number of preceding minor systemic reactions before the index field sting. A severe reaction was defined as anaphylactic shock, loss of consciousness, or cardiopulmonary arrest. The index sting was defined as the hitherto first, most severe systemic field-sting reaction. Relative rates were calculated with generalized additive models. Two hundred six (21.4%) patients had a severe anaphylactic reaction after a field sting. The frequency of this event increased significantly with higher tryptase concentrations (nonlinear association). Other factors significantly associated with severe reactions after a field sting were vespid venom allergy, older age, male sex, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor medication, and 1 or more preceding field stings with a less severe systemic reaction. In patients with honeybee or vespid venom allergy, baseline serum tryptase concentrations are associated with the risk for severe anaphylactic reactions. Preventive measures should include substitution of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

  15. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Carlos AC; Gimenez, Andréa; Kuranishi, Lilian; Storrer, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HSP) is a common interstitial lung disease resulting from inhalation of a large variety of antigens by susceptible individuals. The disease is best classified as acute and chronic. Chronic HSP can be fibrosing or not. Fibrotic HSP has a large differential diagnosis and has a worse prognosis. The most common etiologies for HSP are reviewed. Diagnostic criteria are proposed for both chronic forms based on exposure, lung auscultation, lung function tests, HRCT findings, bronchoalveolar lavage, and biopsies. Treatment options are limited, but lung transplantation results in greater survival in comparison to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Randomized trials with new antifibrotic agents are necessary. PMID:27703382

  16. [Adverse reactions to mosquito bites in scholars from Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Manrique López, María Amelia; González Díaz, Sandra N; Arias Cruz, Alfredo; Sedó Mejía, Giovanni A; Canseco Villarreal, José Ignacio; Gómez Retamoza, Ernesto Antonio; Padrón López, Olga Magdalena; Cruz Moreno, Miguel Angel; Cisneros Salazar, Guillermo Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Allergic reactions to insect bites are a global problem, the true incidence and prevalence of morbidity from adverse reactions to mosquito bites are unknown. To describe the adverse reactions to mosquito bites in school-age children of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon. A cross-sectional descriptive study was made via a randomized application of questionnaires to children from public elementary schools in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon. A total of 11 public schools randomly selected were included in the study. One thousand questionnaires were submitted, of which 506 fulfilled the inclusion criteria; 55% were females. Seventy-six percent referred adverse reactions to mosquito bites, itching (75%) and rash (72%) being the most frequent ones, in the last 12 months. Adverse reactions to mosquito bites occur frequently. Early detection is important to establish a prompt treatment.

  17. Mode of action of insect repellents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mode of action of DEET and other insect repellents has been a topic of interest since the discovery of DEET in the mid twentieth century. Nearly 60 years have passed since DEET applied topically to the skin was shown to be effective in preventing mosquito bites. With the discovery and characte...

  18. Mosquito Bite Prevention For Travelers

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an insecticide that kills mosquitoes and other insects. - Do not wash bed nets or expose them ... for extra protection. Use only an EPA-registered insect repellent Š Consider bringing insect repellent with you. Š Always ...

  19. Snake bite: coral snakes.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Michael E

    2006-11-01

    North American coral snakes are distinctively colored beginning with a black snout and an alternating pattern of black, yellow, and red. They have fixed front fangs and a poorly developed system for venom delivery, requiring a chewing action to inject the venom. The severity of a coral snake bite is related to the volume of venom injected and the size of the victim. The length of the snake correlates positively with the snakes venom yield. Coral snake venom is primarily neurotoxic with little local tissue reaction or pain at the bite site. The net effect of the neurotoxins is a curare like syndrome. In canine victims there have been reports of marked hemolysis with severe anemia and hemoglobinuria. The onset of clinical signs may be delayed for as much as 10 to 18 hours. The victim begins to have alterations in mental status and develops generalized weakness and muscle fasciculations. Progression to paralysis of the limbs and respiratory muscles then follows. The best flied response to coral snake envenomation is rapid transport to a veterinary medical facility capable of 24 hour critical care and assisted ventilation. First aid treatment advocated in Australia for Elapid bites is the immediate use of a compression bandage. The victim should be hospitalized for a minimum of 48 hours for continuous monitoring. The only definitive treatment for coral snake envenomation is the administration of antivenin (M. fulvius). Once clinical signs of coral snake envenomation become manifest they progress with alarming rapidity and are difficult to reverse. If antivenin is not available or if its administration is delayed, supportive care includes respiratory support. Assisted mechanical ventilation can be used but may have to be employed for up to 48 to 72 hours.

  20. Repeated Amblyomma testudinarium tick bites are associated with increased galactose-α-1,3-galactose carbohydrate IgE antibody levels: A retrospective cohort study in a single institution.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Hideo; Fujiyama, Toshiharu; Umayahara, Takatsune; Kageyama, Reiko; Walls, Andrew F; Satoh, Takahiro

    2018-06-01

    Alpha-gal syndrome is a hypersensitivity reaction to red meat mediated by IgE antibody specific to galactose-α-1,3-galactose carbohydrate (alpha-gal). Amblyomma tick bites are associated with this condition, but the pathophysiology is not understood. To clarify the mechanism of development of alpha-gal syndrome after tick bites. We compared alpha-gal antibody levels between patients with and without a history of tick bites and examined histologic stainings of tick bite lesions between patients with and without detectable alpha-gal IgE antibody. Patients who had ≥2 tick bites had higher levels of alpha-gal IgE antibody compared with those with only 1 tick bite or healthy individuals. On histologic investigation, greater numbers of basophils and eosinophils, but not mast cells, were observed infiltrating lesions of patients with ≥2 tick bites compared with those with 1 tick bite. Type 2 cytokine-producing T-cell infiltration was predominantly observed in such patients. The study was conducted at a single institution in Japan. In Amblyomma tick bite lesions, basophils; eosinophils; and type 2, cytokine-producing T cells infiltrate the skin and alpha-gal IgE antibodies are produced. These findings provide a potential mechanistic connection between Amblyomma bites and red meat hypersensitivity. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sulfite hypersensitivity. A critical review

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnison, A.F.; Jacobsen, D.W.

    Sulfiting agents (sulfur dioxide and the sodium and potassium salts of bisulfite, sulfite, and metabisulfite) are widely used as preservatives in foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals. Within the past 5 years, there have been numerous reports of adverse reactions to sulfiting agents. This review presents a comprehensive compilation and discussion of reports describing reactions to ingested, inhaled, and parenterally administered sulfite. Sulfite hypersensitivity is usually, but not exclusively, found within the chronic asthmatic population. Although there is some disagreement on its prevalence, a number of studies have indicated that 5 to 10% of all chronic asthmatics are sulfite hypersensitive. This reviewmore » also describes respiratory sulfur dioxide sensitivity which essentially all asthmatics experience. Possible mechanisms of sulfite hypersensitivity and sulfur dioxide sensitivity are discussed in detail. Sulfite metabolism and the role of sulfite oxidase in the detoxification of exogenous sulfite are reviewed in relationship to the etiology of sulfite hypersensitivity. 147 references.« less

  2. Deaths From Bites and Stings of Venomous Animals

    PubMed Central

    Ennik, Franklin

    1980-01-01

    Data abstracted from 34 death certificates indicate that the three venomous animal groups most often responsible for human deaths in California from 1960 through 1976 were Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, ants and the like) (56 percent), snakes (35 percent) and spiders (6 percent). An average incidence of 2.0 deaths per year occurred during these 17 years, or an average death rate of 0.01 per 100,000 population per year. Nearly three times more males than females died of venomous animal bites and stings. Half of the deaths from venomous snake bites occurred in children younger than 5 years of age. Susceptible persons 40 years or older appeared to be particularly vulnerable to hymenopterous insect stings and often quickly died of anaphylaxis. Fatal encounters with venomous animals occurred more often around the home than at places of employment or during recreational activities. Deaths resulting from spider bites are rare in California but many bites are reported. Medical practitioners are urged to seek professional assistance in identifying offending animals causing human discomfort and to use these animals' scientific names on death certificates and in journal articles. ImagesIGN. PMID:7467305

  3. Marine animal stings or bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisonous bites or stings from any form of sea life, including jellyfish. There are about 2,000 ... man-of-war Stingray Stonefish Scorpion fish Catfish Sea urchins Sea anemone Hydroid Coral Cone shell Sharks ...

  4. To bite or not to bite! A questionnaire-based survey assessing why some people are bitten more than others by midges

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Scottish biting midge, Culicoides impunctatus, responsible for more than 90% of biting attacks on human beings in Scotland, is known to demonstrate a preference for certain human hosts over others. Methods In this study we used a questionnaire-based survey to assess the association between people's perception of how badly they get bitten by midges and their demographic, lifestyle and health related characteristics. Results Most people (85.8%) reported being bitten sometimes, often or always with only 14.2% reporting never being bitten by midges when in Scotland. There was no association between level of bites received and age, smoking, diet, exercise, medication, eating strongly flavoured foods or alcohol consumption. However, there was a strong association between the probability of being bitten and increasing height (in men) and BMI (in women). A large proportion of participants (33.8%) reported experiencing a bad/severe reaction to midge bites while 53.1% reported a minor reaction and 13.1% no reaction at all. Also, women tend to react more than men to midge bites. Additionally, the results indicated that the susceptibility to being bitten by midges is hereditary. Conclusions This study suggests that midges prefer to bite men that are tall and women that have a large BMI, and that the tendency for a child to be bitten or not could be inherited from their parent. The study is questionnaire-based; therefore, the interpretation of the results may be limited by the subjectivity of the answers given by the respondents. Although the results are relevant only to the Scottish biting midge, the approach used here could be useful for investigating human-insect interactions for other insects, particularly those which transmit pathogens that cause disease. PMID:20500852

  5. Insect Keepers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Virginia J.; Chessin, Debby A.; Theobald, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Insects are fascinating creatures--especially when you and your students get up close and personal with them! To that end, the authors facilitated an inquiry-based investigation with an emphasis on identification of the different types of insects found in the school yard, their characteristics, their habitat, and what they eat, while engaging the…

  6. III. Insects

    Treesearch

    Jose F. Negron

    2011-01-01

    RMRS research on insect pests focuses mostly on conifer pests. There is a long history of invasive insects causing significant impacts, mortality, and changes in forest ecosystem structure in North America. Perhaps the most evident example is the introduction of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, into eastern North America in the 1860s (Forbush and Frenald 1896)....

  7. Leucovorin-induced hypersensitivity reaction.

    PubMed

    Damaske, Avni; Ma, Nichole; Williams, Reba

    2012-03-01

    Leucovorin is a reduced form of folic acid, which has multiple uses.(1) In this case report, it is used in combination with fluorouracil in the treatment of colon cancer. We describe a 53-year-old male, who was started on FOLFOX 6 + bevacizumab who experienced a hypersensitivity reaction to leucovorin. There have been very few cases of leucovorin hypersensitivity reactions reported in the literature. In this case, symptoms include flushing, hives, body pain, headaches, elevated blood pressures, and general discomfort. Although leucovorin reactions are considered rare, one should be aware of the types of reactions that can occur with leucovorin.

  8. Insect allergy.

    PubMed

    Tracy, James M

    2011-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening allergic condition. The 3 most common triggers for anaphylaxis are food, medications, and insects. All of these triggers are the sources of considerable morbidity and mortality, but of the 3, only insect allergy is treatable through means other than trigger avoidance. Because ≥ 40 deaths per year are attributed to insect stings, it is critical that healthcare providers and the public understand the proper diagnosis as well as the long-term treatment of this potentially life-threatening allergy. Unlike food and medication allergy, which are managed primarily by allergen avoidance, Hymenoptera allergy is managed prospectively using venom immunotherapy; this results in a protective level of up to 98%. Insects of the order Hymenoptera include bees, wasps, hornets, yellowjackets, and ants. They are responsible for the majority of the fatal and near-fatal sting events. Understanding the biology and habitat of the various Hymenoptera species is helpful in recommending insect-avoidance strategies. The diagnosis of insect allergy relies on a history of a systemic allergic reaction with appropriate testing for venom-specific immunoglobulin E. If the history of a systemic reaction to an insect sting and the presence of venom specific immunoglobulin E is confirmed, venom immunotherapy is indicated. The proper and primary means of treating acute anaphylaxis is immediate epinephrine-and studies suggest that it is underutilized in the acute setting. However, it is venom immunotherapy, a disease-modifying therapy, that provides the affected individual with the most effective protection against future sting reactions. Long-term management of insect allergy and anaphylaxis includes appropriate referral to an allergist familiar with insect allergy and, if indicated, venom immunotherapy. © 2011 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  9. Infrared absorption characteristics of Culicoides sonorensis in relation to insect age

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biting midges can transmit diseases that significantly impact livestock in many parts of the world. The age structure of an insect vector population determines its likelihood of transmitting pathogens because the older insects are more likely to be infected than younger ones. Understanding the insec...

  10. Rat bite fever without fever.

    PubMed

    Stehle, P; Dubuis, O; So, A; Dudler, J

    2003-09-01

    Rat bite fever is a rarely reported acute febrile bacterial illness caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus following a rat bite. It is classically characterised by abrupt onset of fever with rigors, myalgias, headache, and the appearance of a generalised maculopapular petechial skin rash. Polyarthritis complicates the course of the disease in up to 50% of infected patients, and numerous hurdles can make the diagnosis particularly difficult in the absence of fever or rash, as in the present case. A high degree of awareness is necessary to make the correct diagnosis in such cases. Diagnosis has important prognostic implications as the disease is potentially lethal, but easily treatable.

  11. 21 CFR 882.5070 - Bite block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bite block. 882.5070 Section 882.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5070 Bite block. (a) Identification. A bite block...

  12. 21 CFR 882.5070 - Bite block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bite block. 882.5070 Section 882.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5070 Bite block. (a) Identification. A bite block...

  13. Stinging insect identification: Are the allergy specialists any better than their patients?

    PubMed

    Baker, Troy W; Forester, Joseph P; Johnson, Monica L; Sikora, Jeremy M; Stolfi, Adrienne; Stahl, Mark C

    2016-05-01

    It has been reported that the general population is not skillful at identifying stinging insects with the exception of the honeybee. No information is available to evaluate allergy physicians' accuracy with stinging insect identification. To measure the accuracy of allergists' ability to identify stinging insects and assess their common practices for evaluating individuals with suspected insect hypersensitivity. A picture-based survey and a dried specimen insect box were constructed to determine allergists' and nonallergists' accuracy in identifying insects. Allergists attending the 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology meeting were invited to participate in the study. Common practice approaches for evaluating individuals with stinging insect hypersensitivity were also investigated using a brief questionnaire. Allergy physicians are collectively better at insect identification than nonallergists. Overall, the mean (SD) number of correct responses for nonallergists was 5.4 (2.0) of a total of 10. This score was significantly lower than the score for allergists (6.1 [2.0]; P = .01) who participated in the study. Most allergists (78.5%) test for all stinging insects and use skin testing (69.5%) as the initial test of choice for evaluating individuals with insect hypersensitivity. Overall, allergists are more skilled at Hymenoptera identification. Most allergy specialists reported testing for all stinging insects when evaluating insect hypersensitivity, and skin testing was the preferred testing method in nearly 70% of allergists. These data support the practice parameter's recommendation to consider testing for all flying Hymenoptera insects during venom evaluation, which most of the participating allergists surveyed incorporate into their clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome and lamotrigine-associated anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome].

    PubMed

    Taillia, H; Alla, P; Fournier, B; Bounolleau, P; Ouologem, M; Ricard, D; Sallansonnet-Froment, M; de Greslan, T; Renard, J-L

    2009-10-01

    Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS) is defined by the association of high fever, cutaneous rash and multiorgan-system abnormalities (incidence, one in 1000 to one in 10,000 exposures). Fatal complications are described in 10%. This reaction usually develops 1 to 12 weeks after initiation of an aromatic anticonvulsant. Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) can be discussed as differential diagnosis. Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain the pathogenesis of AHS. These include accumulation of toxic metabolites, antibody production and viral infection. The one based on toxic metabolites has found the greatest acceptance due to the fact that it can be proven by an in vitro test, the lymphocyte toxicity assay. In vivo, skin biopsies show characteristic findings of erythema multiform or typical leucocytoclastic angitis. The patch-test is positive in 80% of the cases. Lamotrigine-associated anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome (LASH) is rare and was described in 1998. We report two new cases demonstrating the two particular configurations of apparition of LASH found in the 14 cases from the review of literature (Pubmed: anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome - lamotrigine): high doses of lamotrigine (or lamotrigine in very young or old patients), and lamotrigine associated with another anti-epileptic (phenobarbital or sodium valproate). We discuss the links between DRESS after lamotrigine and LASH as illustrated in a new case.

  15. Aripiprazole-induced hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Gunasekaran, Kulothungan; Murthi, Swetha; Jennings, Jeffrey; Lone, Nazir

    2017-05-09

    Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic agent commonly used in the management of schizophrenia. Aripiprazole has not been reported to have an association with interstitial lung disease. We describe a case of a 36-year-old woman who began to experience respiratory issues shortly after starting aripiprazole and presented to us 4 years later with progressive exertional shortness of breath. High-resolution CT of the chest showed a bilateral ground glass pattern. Video-assisted thoracoscopy with biopsy revealed alveolar septal thickening and an inflammatory infiltrate composed mainly of lymphocytes, suggestive of chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis. After discontinuing aripiprazole and initiating prednisolone therapy, the patient's pulmonary symptoms improved. This case highlights that aripiprazole can cause hypersensitivity pneumonitis in susceptible individuals. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Acute hypersensitivity reactions associated with administration of crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab antivenom.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Robert; Ruha, Anne-Michelle; Kashani, John

    2008-04-01

    Acute hypersensitivity reactions are well known to occur with the administration of the Antivenin (Crotalidae) Polyvalent (Wyeth Laboratories, Marietta, PA). Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) (CroFab; FabAV, Protherics, Inc., Brentwood, TN) was introduced in 2001, and early studies reported a hypersensitivity reaction rate up to 19%. We describe the incidence of acute hypersensitivity reactions to FabAV in patients bitten by rattlesnakes. This was a nonconcurrent observational cohort study, with data obtained by chart review of all patients admitted to our service for rattlesnake bites from July 2000 to June 2004. The study was conducted at an urban Level I trauma center and urban children's hospital. All patients treated with FabAV were included. Those who received no antivenom or who were treated with Antivenin (Crotalidae) Polyvalent were excluded. The main outcome variable was whether an acute hypersensitivity reaction developed. Ninety-three patients were included in the review (72 male and 21 female patients). The mean age was 34.5 years (range 16 months to 91 years), and the mean dose of antivenom was 12 vials (range 4 to 32 vials). The incidence of acute hypersensitivity reactions was 5 of 93, or 5.4%. Four patients developed a mild reaction that was easily treated and were able to finish the full course of antivenom. Only 1 patient developed a reaction that prevented further antivenom administration. FabAV appears to be associated with a lower incidence of acute hypersensitivity than initially reported. Most reactions are mild and easily treated and do not preclude further dosing of antivenom.

  17. Genotyping for Severe Drug Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Karlin, Eric; Phillips, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, there have been significant advances in our understanding of the immunopathogenesis and pharmacogenomics of severe immunologically-mediated adverse drug reactions. Such T-cell-mediated adverse drug reactions such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN), drug-induced liver disease (DILI) and other drug hypersensitivity syndromes have more recently been shown to be mediated through interactions with various class I and II HLA alleles. Key examples have included the associations of HLA-B*15:02 and carbamazepine induced SJS/TEN in Southeast Asian populations and HLA-B*57:01 and abacavir hypersensitivity. HLA-B*57:01 screening to prevent abacavir hypersensitivity exemplifies a successful translational roadmap from pharmacogenomic discovery through to widespread clinical implementation. Ultimately, our increased understanding of the interaction between drugs and the MHC could be used to inform drug design and drive pre-clinical toxicity programs to improve drug safety. PMID:24429903

  18. [What makes an insect a vector?].

    PubMed

    Kampen, Helge

    2009-01-01

    Blood-feeding insects transmit numerous viruses, bacteria, protozoans and helminths to vertebrates. The developmental cycles of the microorganisms in their vectors and the mechanisms of transmission are generally extremely complex and the result of a long-lasting coevolution of vector and vectored pathogen based on mutual adaptation. The conditions necessary for an insect to become a vector are multiple but require an innate vector competence as a genetic basis. Next to the vector competence plenty of entomological, ecological and pathogen-related factors are decisive, given the availability of infection sources. The various modes of pathogen transmission by vectors are connected to the developmental routes of the microorganisms in their vectors. In particular, pathogens transmitted by saliva encounter a lot of cellular and acellular barriers during their migration from the insect's midgut through the hemocele into the salivary fluid, including components of the insect's immune system. With regard to intracellular development, receptor-mediated invasion mechanisms are of relevance. As an environmental factor, the temperature has a paramount impact on the vectorial roles of hematophagous insects. Not only has it a considerable influence on the duration of a pathogen's development in its vector (extrinsic incubation period) but it can render putatively vector-incompetent insects to vectors ("leaky gut" phenomenon). Equally crucial are behavioural aspects of both the insect and the pathogen such as blood host preferences, seasonal appearance and circadian biting activity on the vector's side and diurnal/nocturnal periodicity on the pathogen's side which facilitate a contact in the first place.

  19. Effect of ebastine on mosquito bites.

    PubMed

    Reunala, T; Brummer-Korvenkontio, H; Petman, L; Palosuo, T; Sarna, S

    1997-07-01

    Mosquito bites usually cause wealing and delayed bite papules. Cetirizine decreases wealing, bite papules and pruritus but the effect of other antihistamines on mosquito bites is unknown. We studied the effect of ebastine in 30 mosquito bite-sensitive adult subjects. Ebastine 10 mg or 20 mg and placebo were given for 4 days in a cross-over fashion. Aedes aegypti bites were given on forearms. The size of the bite lesions and pruritus (visual analogue score) were measured at 15 min, 2, 6, and 24 h after the bites. Twenty-five subjects were evaluable in the study. At 15 min ebastine decreased significantly the size of the bite lesion (p = 0.0017) and pruritus (p<0.0001). The effects of 10 mg and 20 mg of ebastine were similar. No significant effect was found at 2, 6 or 24 h, but when the measurements at all four time points were compiled the size of the bite lesion and pruritus score decreased significantly. Sedation occurred during ebastine treatment in 6 (21%) and during placebo treatment in 2 (7%) subjects. The present results show that prophylactically given ebastine is effective against immediate mosquito bite symptoms.

  20. A novel sensor for bite force determinations.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Cláudio P; Glantz, Per Olof J; Svensson, Stig A; Bergmark, Anders

    2003-03-01

    The clinical usefulness, accuracy and precision of a novel bite force sensor based on force sensing resistors were tested in six subjects wearing maxillary removable partial dentures retained by conical crowns. The surfaces of the sensor were manufactured in a silicone material that had mechanical properties similar to those of tough foodstuffs. In two separate series of standardized bite force tests, submaximum force levels were recorded with the sensor and with a strain gaged bite fork. Subjects were assisted in the loading tests with visual feedback instrumentation. Reliability estimates for the bite force sensor were calculated in order to show their reproducibility. Strain gages attached to the prostheses were used to determine the pattern of force distribution during loading tests. The bite force results obtained with the new bite force sensor and with the bite fork were analyzed with ANOVA and Scheffés tests. The strain patterns registered with strain gages were analyzed with F-test. The bite force sensor and the bite fork transducer showed no statistically significant differences in respect of intra-individual bite force levels (range 50-300N). The bite forces registered with the new sensor were dependent on the loading position (p<0.05), sex (p<0.05) and test subject (p<0.05). The reliability of the new sensor for submaximum bite forces was calculated to be 93%. Strain gage results showed that the new sensor generated strain patterns of less variance (p<0.05) than the bite fork and therefore allowed for higher precision during biting tests. The presented instrument has such clinical merits, as to favor its use in experimental clinical studies on the biomechanics of prosthetic appliances.

  1. Insect Resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insect pests exhibit a diverse array of genetic-based responses when interacting with crop systems; these changes can be in response to pathogens, symbiotic microbes, host plants, chemicals, and the environment. Agricultural research has for decades focused on gathering crucial information on the bi...

  2. Acute hypersensitivity to mannitol: a case report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siahaan, A. M.; Fithrie, A.

    2018-03-01

    Mannitol is an osmotic diuretic agent that has been considered a main therapeutic option in cerebral edema for the past several decades. The most common adverse effect reported is acute kidney injury and electrolyte imbalance. Hypersensitivity associated with mannitol is not a usual finding. Here we describe a case of a traumatic brain injury patient who had a hypersensitivity reaction to mannitol. It is the first reported case report about hypersensitivity to Mannitol in Indonesia.

  3. Pilot study assessing the effectiveness of long-lasting permethrin-impregnated clothing for the prevention of tick bites.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Meagan F; Meshnick, Steven R

    2011-07-01

    Tick-borne diseases such as Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and ehrlichiosis are a significant concern for many thousands of workers who have frequent and unavoidable exposure to tick-infested habitats. Many North Carolina state employees with outdoor occupations report multiple tick bites each year, indicating that existing tick preventive strategies may be underutilized or ineffective. Treatment of clothing with permethrin, a nontoxic chemical with insecticidal, knockdown, and repellent properties, is highly effective against ticks. However, most permethrin products must be reapplied after several washings to maintain insecticidal activity. Recently, a factory-based method for long-lasting permethrin impregnation of clothing has been developed by Insect Shield, Inc., that allows clothing to retain insecticidal activity for over 70 washes. A nonrandomized open label pilot study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of Insect Shield-treated clothing for the prevention of tick bites among 16 outdoor workers from the North Carolina Division of Water Quality under actual field conditions. Participants completed questionnaires at the start of follow-up (March, 2008) and at the end of follow-up (September, 2008), and tick bites and outdoor work hours were reported on weekly tick bite logs for the entire follow-up period. Subjects wearing Insect Shield-treated clothing had a 93% reduction (p < 0.0001) in the total incidence of tick bites compared to subjects using standard tick bite prevention measures. This study provides preliminary evidence that long-lasting permethrin-impregnated clothing may be highly effective against tick bites.

  4. Dietary hypersensitivity in cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Mandigers, Paul; German, Alexander J

    2010-10-01

    Adverse reactions to food or dietary hypersensitivity are frequently seen problems in companion animal medicine and may be difficult to differentiate from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Dietary hypersensitivity can be divided into two subgroups: immunological and nonimmunological problems. Non-immunological problems can be subdivided into food intolerance, food poisoning, and dietary indiscretion. The immunological group can be subdivided into true food allergy (IgE mediated) and anaphylaxis (non-IgE mediated). This article gives an outline of what dietary hypersensitivity is, and more specifically food allergy and how to deal with patients with possible dietary hypersensitivity.

  5. Anger biting. The hidden impulse.

    PubMed

    Walter, R D

    1985-09-01

    Based upon the paralogical reasoning of the anger-impulsive biter, this paper addresses the overload of emotional catharsis which can block a full memory of the biting event and suspend the logical infrastructure of rational behavior. In an effort to overcome these types of investigative difficulties, the paper suggests an approach to resolve dilemma through decompressing the emotional content into path ways of logical understanding. By offering a network of rationale hooks, the perpetrator becomes better equipped to acknowledge the deed.

  6. Insects: A nutritional alternative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.

  7. Control of biting lice, Mallophaga - a review.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni; Caselli, Alice; Di Giuseppe, Graziano; Canale, Angelo

    2018-01-01

    The chewing lice (Mallophaga) are common parasites of different animals. Most of them infest terrestrial and marine birds, including pigeons, doves, swans, cormorants and penguins. Mallophaga have not been found on marine mammals but only on terrestrial ones, including livestock and pets. Their bites damage cattle, sheep, goats, horses and poultry, causing itch and scratch and arousing phthiriasis and dermatitis. Notably, Mallophaga can vector important parasites, such as the filarial heartworm Sarconema eurycerca. Livestock losses due to chewing lice are often underestimated, maybe because farmers notice the presence of the biting lice only when the infestation is too high. In this review, we examined current knowledge on the various strategies available for Mallophaga control. The effective management of their populations has been obtained through the employ of several synthetic insecticides. However, pesticide overuse led to serious concerns for human health and the environment. Natural enemies of Mallophaga are scarcely studied. Their biological control with predators and parasites has not been explored yet. However, the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae has been reported as effective in vitro and in vivo experiments against Damalinia bovis infestation on cattle. Furthermore, different Bacillus thuringiensis preparations have been tested against Mallophaga, the most effective were B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki, kenyae and morrisoni. Lastly, plant-borne insecticides have been evaluated against Mallophaga. Tested products mainly contained bioactive principles from two Meliaceae, Azadirachta indica, and Carapa guianensis. High efficacy of neem-borne preparations was reported, leading to the development of several products currently marketed. Overall, our review highlighted that our knowledge about Mallophaga vector activity and control is extremely patchy. Their control still relied on the employ of chemical pesticides widely used to fight other

  8. [Evaluation of effectiveness of several repellents against mosquito bites available at the Polish market].

    PubMed

    Mikulak, Ewa; Gliniewicz, Aleksandra; Królasik, Agnieszka; Sawicka, Bozena; Rabczenko, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Mosquitoes are blood-sucking insects, nuisance to humans and animals. Their bites cause itching and allergic reactions. These insects are also vectors of several viruses, bacteria and parasites. Protection against mosquitoes is therefore justified and desirable. This can give repellents and products for protection small outdoor areas such as terraces, home gardens. OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of eight selected products with different formulations used against mosquitoes including: 5 preparations for use on the body or clothing (repellents A, B, C, D, E and 3 products for use in small outdoor spaces (I, J, K). [corrected] Repellents were tested in laboratory trials, when volunteers were exposed to Aedes aegypti females breeding in the laboratory. Products I, J, K were tested in field trials; volunteers were exposed to female mosquitoes at various ages from the environment (Aedes sp, Culex sp). The results showed that all tested repellents were efficient during 4 hrs. After this time their effectiveness decreased--fast in the case of repellent B (10% DEET), not very fast, but significant--in the case of repellent C (15% DEET). Three products for small area protection gave (each of them) 3-hour protection against mosquito bites. Product K (21,97% allethrin) was 100% effective (no bites at all). Both kinds of product can give effective protection against mosquito bites. Their use is most effective, cheaper and more safe for the environment method of protection against mosquitoes than chemical spraying of large areas.

  9. Fast and Powerful: Biomechanics and Bite Forces of the Mandibles in the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana

    PubMed Central

    Weihmann, Tom; Reinhardt, Lars; Weißing, Kevin; Siebert, Tobias; Wipfler, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Knowing the functionality and capabilities of masticatory apparatuses is essential for the ecological classification of jawed organisms. Nevertheless insects, especially with their outstanding high species number providing an overwhelming morphological diversity, are notoriously underexplored with respect to maximum bite forces and their dependency on the mandible opening angles. Aiming for a general understanding of insect biting, we examined the generalist feeding cockroach Periplaneta americana, characterized by its primitive chewing mouth parts. We measured active isometric bite forces and passive forces caused by joint resistance over the entire mandibular range with a custom-built 2D force transducer. The opening angle of the mandibles was quantified by using a video system. With respect to the effective mechanical advantage of the mandibles and the cross-section areas, we calculated the forces exerted by the mandible closer muscles and the corresponding muscle stress values. Comparisons with the scarce data available revealed close similarities of the cockroaches’ mandible closer stress values (58 N/cm2) to that of smaller specialist carnivorous ground beetles, but strikingly higher values than in larger stag beetles. In contrast to available datasets our results imply the activity of faster and slower muscle fibres, with the latter becoming active only when the animals chew on tough material which requires repetitive, hard biting. Under such circumstances the coactivity of fast and slow fibres provides a force boost which is not available during short-term activities, since long latencies prevent a specific effective employment of the slow fibres in this case. PMID:26559671

  10. Human Bites in the Classroom: Incidence, Treatment, and Complications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlon, Helen Acree

    2007-01-01

    It has been estimated that at least one half of the population will experience some type of bite in their lifetime. Human bites are the third leading cause of all bites seen in hospital emergency departments after dog and cat bites. Human bites can be the source of exposure to body fluids, transmission of communicable diseases, infections ranging…

  11. Monkey Bites among US Military Members, Afghanistan, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Katheryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Bites from Macaca mulatta monkeys, native to Afghanistan, can cause serious infections. To determine risk for US military members in Afghanistan, we reviewed records for September–December 2011. Among 126 animal bites and exposures, 10 were monkey bites. Command emphasis is vital for preventing monkey bites; provider training and bite reporting promote postexposure treatment. PMID:23017939

  12. Monkey bites among US military members, Afghanistan, 2011.

    PubMed

    Mease, Luke E; Baker, Katheryn A

    2012-10-01

    Bites from Macaca mulatta monkeys, native to Afghanistan, can cause serious infections. To determine risk for US military members in Afghanistan, we reviewed records for September-December 2011. Among 126 animal bites and exposures, 10 were monkey bites. Command emphasis is vital for preventing monkey bites; provider training and bite reporting promote postexposure treatment.

  13. Insect evolution.

    PubMed

    Engel, Michael S

    2015-10-05

    It goes without saying that insects epitomize diversity, and with over a million documented species they stand out as one of the most remarkable lineages in the 3.5-billion-year history of life on earth (Figure 1). This reality is passé to even the layperson and is taken for granted in the same way none of us think much of our breathing as we go about our day, and yet insects are just as vital to our existence. Insects are simultaneously familiar and foreign to us, and while a small fraction are beloved or reviled, most are simply ignored. These inexorable evolutionary overachievers outnumber us all, their segmented body plan is remarkably labile, they combine a capacity for high rates of speciation with low levels of natural extinction, and their history of successes eclipses those of the more familiar ages of dinosaurs and mammals alike. It is their evolution - persisting over vast expanses of geological time and inextricably implicated in the diversification of other lineages - that stands as one of the most expansive subjects in biology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rat bite fever in a pet lover.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, B B; Paller, A S; Katz, B Z

    1998-02-01

    Rat-bite fever is an uncommon bacterial illness resulting from infection with Streptobacillus moniliformis that is often transmitted by the bite of a rat. The cutaneous findings in rat-bite fever are nonspecific but have been described as maculopapular or petechial. We describe a 9-year-old girl with acrally distributed hemorrhagic pustules, fever, and arthralgias. Diagnosis was delayed because of difficulty in identifying the pathologic organism. She was successfully treated with 10 days of ceftriaxone.

  15. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Genuis, Stephen J; Lipp, Christopher T

    2012-01-01

    As the prevalence of wireless telecommunication escalates throughout the world, health professionals are faced with the challenge of patients who report symptoms they claim are connected with exposure to some frequencies of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Some scientists and clinicians acknowledge the phenomenon of hypersensitivity to EMR resulting from common exposures such as wireless systems and electrical devices in the home or workplace; others suggest that electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is psychosomatic or fictitious. Various organizations including the World Health Organization as well as some nation states are carefully exploring this clinical phenomenon in order to better explain the rising prevalence of non-specific, multi-system, often debilitating symptoms associated with non-ionizing EMR exposure. As well as an assortment of physiological complaints, patients diagnosed with EHS also report profound social and personal challenges, impairing their ability to function normally in society. This paper offers a review of the sparse literature on this perplexing condition and a discussion of the controversy surrounding the legitimacy of the EHS diagnosis. Recommendations are provided to assist health professionals in caring for individuals complaining of EHS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypersensitivity reactions to HIV therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chaponda, Mas; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2011-01-01

    Many drugs used for the treatment of HIV disease (including the associated opportunistic infections) can cause drug hypersensitivity reactions, which vary in severity, clinical manifestations and frequency. These reactions are not only seen with the older compounds, but also with the newer more recently introduced drugs. The pathogenesis is unclear in most cases, but there is increasing evidence to support that many of these are mediated through a combination of immunologic and genetic factors through the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Genetic predisposition to the occurrence of these allergic reactions has been shown for some of the drugs, notably abacavir hypersensitivity which is strongly associated with the class I MHC allele, HLA-B*5701. Testing before the prescription of abacavir has been shown to be of clinical utility, has resulted in a change in the drug label, is now recommended in clinical guidelines and is practiced in most Western countries. For most other drugs, however, there are no good methods of prevention, and clinical monitoring with appropriate (usually supportive and symptomatic) treatment is required. There is a need to undertake further research in this area to increase our understanding of the mechanisms, which may lead to better preventive strategies through the development of predictive genetic biomarkers or through guiding the design of drugs less likely to cause these types of adverse drug reactions. PMID:21480946

  17. Age- and bite-structured models for vector-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Rock, K S; Wood, D A; Keeling, M J

    2015-09-01

    The biology and behaviour of biting insects is a vitally important aspect in the spread of vector-borne diseases. This paper aims to determine, through the use of mathematical models, what effect incorporating vector senescence and realistic feeding patterns has on disease. A novel model is developed to enable the effects of age- and bite-structure to be examined in detail. This original PDE framework extends previous age-structured models into a further dimension to give a new insight into the role of vector biting and its interaction with vector mortality and spread of disease. Through the PDE model, the roles of the vector death and bite rates are examined in a way which is impossible under the traditional ODE formulation. It is demonstrated that incorporating more realistic functions for vector biting and mortality in a model may give rise to different dynamics than those seen under a more simple ODE formulation. The numerical results indicate that the efficacy of control methods that increase vector mortality may not be as great as predicted under a standard host-vector model, whereas other controls including treatment of humans may be more effective than previously thought. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. DNA barcoding of human-biting black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pramual, Pairot; Thaijarern, Jiraporn; Wongpakam, Komgrit

    2016-12-01

    Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are important insect vectors and pests of humans and animals. Accurate identification, therefore, is important for control and management. In this study, we used mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) barcoding sequences to test the efficiency of species identification for the human-biting black flies in Thailand. We used human-biting specimens because they enabled us to link information with previous studies involving the immature stages. Three black fly taxa, Simulium nodosum, S. nigrogilvum and S. doipuiense complex, were collected. The S. doipuiense complex was confirmed for the first time as having human-biting habits. The COI sequences revealed considerable genetic diversity in all three species. Comparisons to a COI sequence library of black flies in Thailand and in a public database indicated a high efficiency for specimen identification for S. nodosum and S. nigrogilvum, but this method was not successful for the S. doipuiense complex. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two divergent lineages in the S. doipuiense complex. Human-biting specimens formed a separate clade from other members of this complex. The results are consistent with the Barcoding Index Number System (BINs) analysis that found six BINs in the S. doipuiense complex. Further taxonomic work is needed to clarify the species status of these human-biting specimens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bite Force Recording Devices - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kumathalli, Kanteshwari Iranagouda; Jain, Vinay; Kumar, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    In dental research, bite force serves as a valuable parameter to evaluate the efficacy of masticatory system. A variety of devices with different design and working principle have been used to record bite force, but no single device is capable to record all the required forces. One may find it difficult to choose a device that will fulfil the purpose of recording bite force for research. So, the present review aims to report and compare the wide range of devices and will help in describing their uses for recording bite force. PMID:29207848

  20. Insect abatement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiro, Clifford Lawrence (Inventor); Burnell, Timothy Brydon (Inventor); Wengrovius, Jeffrey Hayward (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An insect abatement system prevents adhesion of insect debris to surfaces which must be kept substantially free of insect debris. An article is coated with an insect abatement coating comprising polyorganosiloxane with a Shore A hardness of less than 50 and a tensile strength of less than 4 MPa. A method for preventing the adhesion of insect debris to surfaces includes the step of applying an insect abatement coating to a surface which must be kept substantially free of insect debris.

  1. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: an immunopathology review.

    PubMed

    Woda, Bruce A

    2008-02-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HSP) is an immunologically mediated alveolar and interstitial lung disease caused by repeated inhalation of organic dusts and some occupational agents. The pathogenesis of HSP is uncertain. A number of unexplained features of HSP remain, namely (1) why do so few exposed individuals develop clinical HSP, (2) what triggers an acute episode after prolonged periods of previous sensitization, and (3) what leads to disease progression. This article considers these issues and aims to discuss and clarify current concepts in pathogenesis. Pertinent literature review in conjunction with the author's personal interpretive opinion. Current data suggest that individuals with a T(H)1 dominant response are likely to develop clinical disease. There is also some evidence that genetic factors such as polymorphisms in the major histocompatibility complex, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 are associated with the development of or resistance to the disease.

  2. Testing for Drug Hypersensitivity Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Rive, Craig M; Bourke, Jack; Phillips, Elizabeth J

    2013-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions are a common cause of patient morbidity and mortality. Type B drug reactions comprise only 20% of all drug reactions but they tend to be primarily immunologically mediated and less dependent on the drug’s pharmacological action and dose. Common Type B reactions seen in clinical practice are those of the immediate, IgE, Gell-Coombs Type I reactions, and the delayed, T-cell mediated, Type IV reactions. Management of these types of reactions, once they have occurred, requires careful consideration and recognition of the utility of routine diagnostic tests followed by ancillary specialised diagnostic testing. For Type I, IgE mediated reactions this includes prick/intradermal skin testing and oral provocation. For Type IV, T-cell mediated reactions this includes a variety of in vivo (patch testing) and ex vivo tests, many of which are currently mainly used in highly specialised research laboratories. The recent association of many serious delayed (Type IV) hypersensitivity reactions to specific drugs with HLA class I and II alleles has created the opportunity for HLA screening to exclude high risk populations from exposure to the implicated drug and hence prevent clinical reactions. For example, the 100% negative predictive value of HLA-B*5701 for true immunologically mediated abacavir hypersensitivity and the development of feasible, inexpensive DNA-based molecular tests has led to incorporation of HLA-B*5701 screening in routine HIV clinical practice. The mechanism by which drugs specifically interact with HLA has been recently characterised and promises to lead to strategies for pre-clinical screening to inform drug development and design. PMID:23592889

  3. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Nail Biting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Watson, T. Steuart; Kazmerski, Jennifer S.

    2008-01-01

    This study applied functional analysis methodology to nail biting exhibited by a 24-year-old female graduate student. Results from the brief functional analysis indicated variability in nail biting across assessment conditions. Functional analysis data were then used to guide treatment development and implementation. Treatment included a…

  4. Hypersensitivity reactions in patients receiving hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Butani, Lavjay; Calogiuri, Gianfranco

    2017-06-01

    To describe hypersensitivity reactions in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis. PubMed search of articles published during the past 30 years with an emphasis on publications in the past decade. Case reports and review articles describing hypersensitivity reactions in the context of hemodialysis. Pharmacologic agents are the most common identifiable cause of hypersensitivity reactions in patients receiving hemodialysis. These include iron, erythropoietin, and heparin, which can cause anaphylactic or pseudoallergic reactions, and topical antibiotics and anesthetics, which lead to delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Many hypersensitivity reactions are triggered by complement activation and increased bradykinin resulting from contact system activation, especially in the context of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use. Several alternative pharmacologic preparations and dialyzer membranes are available, such that once an etiology for the reaction is established, recurrences can be prevented without affecting the quality of care provided to patients. Although hypersensitivity reactions are uncommon in patients receiving hemodialysis, they can be life-threatening. Moreover, considering the large prevalence of the end-stage renal disease population, the implications of such reactions are enormous. Most reactions are pseudoallergic and not mediated by immunoglobulin E. The multiplicity of potential exposures and the complexity of the environment to which patients on dialysis are exposed make it challenging to identify the precise cause of these reactions. Great diligence is needed to investigate hypersensitivity reactions to avoid recurrence in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hypothesis on how to measure electromagnetic hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Tuengler, Andreas; von Klitzing, Lebrecht

    2013-09-01

    Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is an ill-defined term to describe the fact that people who experience health symptoms in the vicinity of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) regard them as causal for their complaints. Up to now most scientists assume a psychological cause for the suffering of electromagnetic hypersensitive individuals. This paper addresses reasons why most provocation studies could not find any association between EMF exposure and EHS and presents a hypothesis on diagnosis and differentiation of this condition. Simultaneous recordings of heart rate variability, microcirculation and electric skin potentials are used for classification of EHS. Thus, it could be possible to distinguish "genuine" electromagnetic hypersensitive individuals from those who suffer from other conditions.

  6. Hypersensitivity to contrast media and dyes.

    PubMed

    Brockow, Knut; Sánchez-Borges, Mario

    2014-08-01

    This article updates current knowledge on hypersensitivity reactions to diagnostic contrast media and dyes. After application of a single iodinated radiocontrast medium (RCM), gadolinium-based contrast medium, fluorescein, or a blue dye, a hypersensitivity reaction is not a common finding; however, because of the high and still increasing frequency of those procedures, patients who have experienced severe reactions are nevertheless frequently encountered in allergy departments. Evidence on allergologic testing and management is best for iodinated RCM, limited for blue dyes, and insufficient for fluorescein. Skin tests can be helpful in the diagnosis of patients with hypersensitivity reactions to these compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Open bite in prematurely born children.

    PubMed

    Harila, V; Heikkinen, T; Grön, M; Alvesalo, L

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: examine the expression of open bite in prematurely born children and discuss the etiological factors that may lead to bite it. The subjects were 328 prematurely born (<37 gestational weeks) Caucasoid and African American children and 1,804 full-term control children, who participated in the cross-sectional study of the Collaborative Perinatal Project in the 1960s and 1970s. Dental documents, including casts and photographs, were taken once at the age of 6-12 years in the mixed dentition. The occlusion was recorded by examining and measuring the hard stone casts. Vertical open bite was recorded only for full erupted teeth. The statistical method used was chi-square analysis. Significant differences in the incidence of anterior open bite (from left to right canine) was found between the preterm and control groups and between gender and ethnic groups. The prevalence of anterior open bite was nearly 9% in the preterm group and almost 7% in the control group. African Americans (9%) had a significantly greater incidence of open bite than Caucasians (3%; P<.0001). Generally, girls had a greater incidence of open bite than boys (8% vs 6%; P<.11). When the study groups were divided by prematurity, gender, and ethnic group, the prevalence of open bite was increased--especially in preterm African American boys compared to controls (11% vs 8%). The results show differences in the development of anterior open bite between ethnic and gender groups. Premature birth may also influence dental occlusal development. Of importance are the patient's: general health condition; respiratory infections; inadequate nasal- and mouth-breathing; oral habits; and other medical problems. Preterm children may be relatively more predisposed to etiological factors for the development of anterior open bite.

  8. Biting Deterrence and Insecticidal Activity of Hydrazide-Hydrazones and Their Corresponding 3-acetyl-2,5-disubstituted-2,3-dihydro-1,3,4-oxadiazoles Against Aedes aegypti

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-11

    against biting insects and later on new insecticides including pyrethroids have been widely used to control a wide range of insect pests in agriculture and...1 to 20 are shown in Table 1. 2.2 Biological activity 2.2.1 Insects The Ae. aegypti (L.) mosquitoes used in these studies were from a laboratory...sucrose solution. Females (5–9 days old) were selected for bioassays. For larval bioassays, the eggs were hatched 1 day prior to testing, and the

  9. Sympathoinhibition and hypotension in carotid sinus hypersensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. L.; Ellenbogen, K. A.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    Carotid sinus reflex hypersensitivity is a known cause of syncope in humans. The condition is characterized by cardioinhibition and vasodepression, each to varying degrees. The extent and importance of sympathoinhibition has not been determined in patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity. This study reports on the extent of sympathoinhibition measured directly directly during carotid massage with and without atrioventricular sequential pacing, in a patient with symptomatic carotid sinus reflex hypersensitivity. Carotid massage elicited asystole, hypotension and complete inhibition of muscle sympathetic nerve activity. Carotid massage during atrioventricular pacing produced similar sympathoinhibition, but with minimal hypotension. Therefore, sympathoinhibition did not contribute importantly to the hypotension during carotid massage in the supine position in this patient. Further investigations are required to elucidate the relation of sympathoinhibition to hypotension in patients with carotid sinus hypersensitivity in the upright position.

  10. Insects as vectors: systematics and biology.

    PubMed

    Rodhain, F

    2015-04-01

    Among the many complex relationships between insects and microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria and parasites, some have resulted in the establishment of biological systems within which the insects act as a biological vector for infectious agents. It is therefore advisable to understand the identity and biology of these vectors in depth, in order to define procedures for epidemiological surveillance and anti-vector control. The following are successively reviewed in this article: Anoplura (lice), Siphonaptera (fleas), Heteroptera (bugs: Cimicidae, Triatoma, Belostomatidae), Psychodidae (sandflies), Simuliidae (black flies), Ceratopogonidae (biting midges), Culicidae (mosquitoes), Tabanidae (horseflies) and Muscidae (tsetse flies, stable flies and pupipara). The authors provide a rapid overview of the morphology, systematics, development cycle and bio-ecology of each of these groups of vectors. Finally, their medical and veterinary importance is briefly reviewed.

  11. Velocity correlations in laboratory insect swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, R.; Ouellette, N. T.

    2015-12-01

    In contrast to animal groups such as bird flocks or migratory herds that display net, directed motion, insect swarms do not possess global order. Without such order, it is difficult to define and characterize the transition to collective behavior in swarms; nevertheless, visual observation of swarms strongly suggests that swarming insects do behave collectively. It has recently been suggested that correlation rather than order is the hallmark of emergent collective behavior. Here, we report measurements of spatial velocity correlation functions in laboratory mating swarms of the non-biting midge Chironomus riparius. Although we find some correlation at short distances, our swarms are in general only weakly correlated, in contrast to what has been observed in field studies. Our results hint at the potentially important role of environmental conditions on collective behavior, and suggest that general indicators of the collective nature of swarming are still needed.

  12. Classification and pathophysiology of radiocontrast media hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Brockow, Knut; Ring, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to radiocontrast media (RCM) are unpredictable and are a concern for radiologists and cardiologists. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions manifest as anaphylaxis, and an allergic IgE-mediated mechanism has been continuously discussed for decades. Non-immediate reactions clinically are exanthemas resembling other drug-induced non-immediate hypersensitivities. During the past years, evidence is increasing that some of these reactions may be immunological. Repeated reactions after re-exposure, positive skin tests, and presence of specific IgE antibodies as well as positive basophil activation tests in some cases, and positive lymphocyte transformation or lymphocyte activation tests in others, indicate that a subgroup of both immediate and non-immediate reactions are of an allergic origin, although many questions remain unanswered. Recently reported cases highlight that pharmacological premedication is not safe to prevent RCM hypersensitivity in patients with previous severe reactions. These insights may have important consequences. A large multicenter study on the value of skin tests in RCM hypersensitivity concluded that skin testing is a useful tool for diagnosis of RCM allergy. It may have a role for the selection of a safe product in previous reactors, although confirmatory validation data is still scarce. In vitro tests to search for RCM-specific cell activation still are in development. In conclusion, recent data indicate that RCM hypersensitivity may have an allergic mechanism and that allergological testing is useful and may indicate tolerability. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Cockatiel-induced hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, James D; Haight, Robert R; Brooks, Stuart M

    2002-07-01

    Diagnosing an environmental or occupationally related pulmonary disorder often involves a process of elimination. Unlike commonly diagnosed conditions in other specialties, a cause-and-effect relationship may be implied, yet other factors such as temporality and biologic plausibility are lacking. Our patient was referred with a suspected work-related pulmonary disorder. For several years, she had suffered with dyspnea on exertion and repeated flulike illnesses. She worked at an automobile repair garage that performed a large number of emission tests, and there was concern that her workplace exposures were the cause of her symptoms. After a careful review of her history, physical examination, and laboratory testing, we came to the conclusion that she had hypersensitivity pneumonitis related to pet cockatiels in her home. Clinical points of emphasis include the importance of a complete environmental history and careful auscultation of the chest when performing the physical examination. In addition, we encountered an interesting physical diagnostic clue, a respiratory sound that assisted with the eventual diagnosis.

  14. Cockatiel-induced hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

    PubMed Central

    McCluskey, James D; Haight, Robert R; Brooks, Stuart M

    2002-01-01

    Diagnosing an environmental or occupationally related pulmonary disorder often involves a process of elimination. Unlike commonly diagnosed conditions in other specialties, a cause-and-effect relationship may be implied, yet other factors such as temporality and biologic plausibility are lacking. Our patient was referred with a suspected work-related pulmonary disorder. For several years, she had suffered with dyspnea on exertion and repeated flulike illnesses. She worked at an automobile repair garage that performed a large number of emission tests, and there was concern that her workplace exposures were the cause of her symptoms. After a careful review of her history, physical examination, and laboratory testing, we came to the conclusion that she had hypersensitivity pneumonitis related to pet cockatiels in her home. Clinical points of emphasis include the importance of a complete environmental history and careful auscultation of the chest when performing the physical examination. In addition, we encountered an interesting physical diagnostic clue, a respiratory sound that assisted with the eventual diagnosis. PMID:12117652

  15. Rat Bite Fever and Streptobacillus moniliformis

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Sean P.

    2007-01-01

    Rat bite fever, caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis, is a systemic illness classically characterized by fever, rigors, and polyarthralgias. If left untreated, it carries a mortality rate of 10%. Unfortunately, its nonspecific initial presentation combined with difficulties in culturing its causative organism produces a significant risk of delay or failure in diagnosis. The increasing popularity of rats and other rodents as pets, together with the risk of invasive or fatal disease, demands increased attention to rat bite fever as a potential diagnosis. The clinical and biological features of rat bite fever and Streptobacillus moniliformis are reviewed, providing some distinguishing features to assist the clinician and microbiologist in diagnosis. PMID:17223620

  16. An Innovative Miniature Bite Force Recorder

    PubMed Central

    Utreja, Ashok K; Sandhu, Navreet; Dhaliwal, Yadvinder S

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a detailed description of development of a new novel bite force recorder (gnathodynamometer) using solid state components is vividly explained. This state of the art authenticated device can be used to assess the complex function of human bite force, which is the net resultant combination of functional response of various craniomandibular structures consisting of interrelated components, like the muscles of mastication, joints, teeth and the neuromuscular system. The consistency and accuracy of the bite force recorder was reaffirmed by doing a detailed laboratory calibration and clinical testing on 30 adult subjects. PMID:27672249

  17. North American pollinosis due to insect-pollinated plants.

    PubMed

    Lewis, W H; Vinay, P

    1979-05-01

    In warmer regions of North America many newly introduced plants are cultivated widely and others are becoming aggresive naturalized weeds. A large number are insect-pollinated and shed considerable quantities of airborne pollen. Levels of allergenicity based on skin test data, numbers of patients having immediate hypersensitivity and localities where airborne pollen grains have been identified are presented for each genus of entomophilous plants considered incitants of pollinosis. Among the most relevant are Acacia, Brassica, Citrus, Ligustrum, Olea and Schinus.

  18. Structure-activity relationship studies on the mosquito toxicity and biting deterrency of callicarpenal derivatives.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Charles L; Klun, Jerome A; Pridgeon, Julia; Becnel, James; Green, Solomon; Fronczek, Frank R

    2009-04-01

    Callicarpenal (=13,14,15,16-tetranorclerod-3-en-12-al=[(1S,2R,4aR,8aR)-1,2,3,4,4a,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,2,4a,5-tetramethylnaphthalen-1-yl]acetaldehyde; 1) has previously demonstrated significant mosquito bite-deterring activity against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi in addition to repellent activity against host-seeking nymphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. In the present study, structural modifications were performed on callicarpenal (1) in an effort to understand the functional groups necessary for maintaining and/or increasing its activity and to possibly lead to more effective insect control agents. All modifications in this study targeted the C(12) aldehyde or the C(3) alkene functionalities or combinations thereof. Mosquito biting deterrency appeared to be influenced most by C(3) alkene modification as evidenced by catalytic hydrogenation that resulted in a compound having significantly less effectiveness than 1 at a test amount of 25 nmol/cm2. Oxidation and/or reduction of the C(12) aldehyde did not diminish mosquito biting deterrency, but, at the same time, none of the modifications were more effective than 1 in deterring mosquito biting. Toxicities of synthesized compounds towards Ae. aegypti ranged from an LD50 value of 2.36 to 40.11 microg per mosquito. Similarly, LD95 values ranged from a low of 5.59 to a high of 104.9 microg.

  19. Incidence of hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis with sugammadex.

    PubMed

    Min, K Chris; Woo, Tiffany; Assaid, Christopher; McCrea, Jacqueline; Gurner, Deborah M; Sisk, Christine McCrary; Adkinson, Franklin; Herring, W Joseph

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the incidence of hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis after administration of sugammadex. Retrospective analysis. Sugammadex clinical development program and post-marketing experience. Surgical patients and healthy volunteers who received sugammadex or placebo/comparator with anesthesia and/or neuromuscular blockade (NMB). Sugammadex administered as 2.0 mg/kg at reappearance of the second twitch, 4.0 mg/kg at 1-2 post-tetanic count, or 16.0 mg/kg at 3 min after rocuronium 1.2 mg/kg. Three analytical methods were used: 1) automated MedDRA queries; 2) searches of adverse events (AEs) consistent with treatment-related hypersensitivity reactions as diagnosed by the investigator; and 3) a retrospective adjudication of AEs suggestive of hypersensitivity by a blinded, independent adjudication committee (AC). In addition, a search of all post-marketing reports of events of hypersensitivity was performed, and events were retrospectively adjudicated by an independent AC. Anaphylaxis was determined according to Sampson Criterion 1. The pooled dataset included 3519 unique subjects who received sugammadex and 544 who received placebo. The automated MedDRA query method showed no apparent increase in hypersensitivity or anaphylaxis with sugammadex as compared to placebo or neostigmine. Similarly, there was a low overall incidence of AEs of treatment-related hypersensitivity (<1%), with no differences between sugammadex and placebo or neostigmine. Finally, the retrospective adjudication of AEs suggestive of hypersensitivity showed a low incidence of hypersensitivity (0.56% and 0.21% for sugammadex 2 mg/kg and 4 mg/kg, respectively), with an incidence similar to subjects who received placebo (0.55%). There were no confirmed cases of anaphylaxis in the pooled studies. During post-marketing use, spontaneous reports of anaphylaxis occurred with approximately 0.01% of sugammadex doses. Subjects who received sugammadex with general anesthesia and/or NMB had a low

  20. Insect-ual Pursuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallow, David

    1991-01-01

    Explains how insects can be used to stimulate student writing. Describes how students can create their own systems to classify and differentiate insects. Discusses insect morphology and includes three detailed diagrams. The author provides an extension activity where students hypothesize about the niche of an insect based on its anatomy. (PR)

  1. Isolation and Identification of Mosquito (Aedes aegypti) Biting-Deterrent Compounds from the Native American Ethnobotanical Remedy Plant Hierochloë odorata (Sweetgrass).

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Charles L; Jones, A Maxwell P; Ali, Abbas

    2016-11-09

    Hierochloë odorata (L.) P. Beauv. (Poaceae), commonly known as sweetgrass, has documented use as an insect repellent by the Flatheads of Montana and Blackfoot of Alberta. Both the Flatheads of Montana and Blackfoot of Alberta would use braided plant material in a sachet in clothing or burn them from one end as incense, air/clothing freshener, and insect repellent. This study evaluated the insect-repellent properties of this plant using an in vitro mosquito Aedes aegypti feeding bioassay-directed approach to identify the compound(s) responsible for the observed activities. Evaluation of crude extracts produced from H. odorata revealed that the hydrodistillate had the highest level of mosquito biting deterrence. Fractionation of this extract, followed by re-evaluation for mosquito biting deterrence, produced many active fractions, which were evaluated by spectroscopic techniques and determined to contain phytol, coumarin, and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol. Phytol and coumarin were both determined to be responsible for the Ae. aegypti biting deterrency. Scientific evidence reported here validates its traditional use as a biting-insect deterrent.

  2. [Bites of venomous snakes in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Plate, Andreas; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Schneemann, Markus

    2016-06-08

    Although snake bites are rare in Europe, there are a constant number of snake bites in Switzerland. There are two domestic venomous snakes in Switzerland: the aspic viper (Vipera aspis) and the common European adder (Vipera berus). Bites from venomous snakes are caused either by one of the two domestic venomous snakes or by an exotic venomous snake kept in a terrarium. Snake- bites can cause both a local and/or a systemic envenoming. Potentially fatal systemic complications are related to disturbances of the hemostatic- and cardiovascular system as well as the central or peripheral nervous system. Beside a symptomatic therapy the administration of antivenom is the only causal therapy to neutralize the venomous toxins.

  3. Take a Bite Out of Mosquito Stings

    MedlinePlus

    ... a mosquito bite can cause anaphylaxis (an-a-fi-LAK-sis), a potentially life-threatening condition characterized ... Immunology 555 East Wells Street Suite 1100, Milwaukee , WI 53202-3823 (414) 272-6071 Additional Contact Information ...

  4. Lung Transplantation for Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Jonathan P.; Koth, Laura; Mooney, Joshua; Golden, Jeff; Hays, Steven; Greenland, John; Wolters, Paul; Ghio, Emily; Jones, Kirk D.; Leard, Lorriana; Kukreja, Jasleen; Blanc, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is an inhaled antigen-mediated interstitial lung disease (ILD). Advanced disease may necessitate the need for lung transplantation. There are no published studies addressing lung transplant outcomes in HP. We characterized HP outcomes compared with referents undergoing lung transplantation for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). METHODS: To identify HP cases, we reviewed records for all ILD lung transplantation cases at our institution from 2000 to 2013. We compared clinical characteristics, survival, and acute and chronic rejection for lung transplant recipients with HP to referents with IPF. We also reviewed diagnoses of HP discovered only by explant pathology and looked for evidence of recurrent HP after transplant. Survival was compared using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazard modeling. RESULTS: We analyzed 31 subjects with HP and 91 with IPF among 183 cases undergoing lung transplantation for ILD. Survival at 1, 3, and 5 years after lung transplant in HP compared with IPF was 96%, 89%, and 89% vs 86%, 67%, and 49%, respectively. Subjects with HP manifested a reduced adjusted risk for death compared with subjects with IPF (hazard ratio, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.08-0.74; P = .013). Of the 31 cases, the diagnosis of HP was unexpectedly made at explant in five (16%). Two subjects developed recurrent HP in their allografts. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, subjects with HP have excellent medium-term survival after lung transplantation and, relative to IPF, a reduced risk for death. HP may be initially discovered only by review of the explant pathology. Notably, HP may recur in the allograft. PMID:25412059

  5. Fiber Bragg Grating based bite force measurement.

    PubMed

    Umesh, Sharath; Padma, Srivani; Asokan, Sundarrajan; Srinivas, Talabattula

    2016-09-06

    The present study reports an in vivo, novel methodology for the dynamic measurement of the bite force generated by individual tooth using a Fiber Bragg Grating Bite Force Recorder (FBGBFR). Bite force is considered as one of the major indicators of the functional state of the masticatory system, which is dependent on the craniomandibular structure comprising functional components such as muscles of mastication, joints and teeth. The proposed FBGBFR is an intra-oral device, developed for the transduction of the bite force exerted at the occlusal surface, into strain variations on a base plate, which in turn is sensed by the FBG sensor bonded over it. The FBGBFR is calibrated against a Micro Universal Testing Machine (UTM) for 0-900N range and the resolution of the developed FBGBFR is found to be 0.54N. 36 volunteers (20 males and 16 females) performed the bite force measurement test at molar, premolar and incisor tooth on either side of the dental arch and the obtained results show clinically relevant bite forces varying from 176N to 635N. The bite forces obtained from the current study for a substantial sample size, show that the bite forces increases along the dental arch from the incisors towards the molars and are found to be higher in male than in female. The FBG sensor element utilized in FBGBFR is electrically passive, which makes it a safe in vivo intra-oral device. Hence the FBGBFR is viable to be employed in clinical studies on biomechanics of oral function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anterior open bite treatment with magnets.

    PubMed

    Kiliaridis, S; Egermark, I; Thilander, B

    1990-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of repelling magnets on the treatment of anterior open bite and compare them with the effects of acrylic posterior bite-blocks. Twenty patients, aged 9-16 years with skeletal anterior open bite, were randomly divided into two groups. In one group the patients wore posterior repelling magnet splints and in the other they wore acrylic posterior bite-blocks of the same thickness as the magnet splints. The patients were instructed to use their appliance as much as possible (the minimum accepted being 18 hours daily) during a 6-month period. Dental casts, intra-oral photos, and lateral cephalograms were taken before and after treatment, and the patients were also examined regularly to identify the development of any craniomandibular disorders. In the first group, the dental and skeletal vertical relation responded quickly to the magnet treatment. The open bite was generally closed in just under 4 months, especially in patients in early mixed dentition. Spacing in the labial segments decreased in some cases, while slight crowding was induced in others. Transverse problems, i.e. unilateral cross-bite, sometimes followed by scissor-bite on the opposite side, was observed in those patients who were in the early mixed dentition and had used the magnets intensively. The patients who wore acrylic posterior bite-blocks also showed improvement in the dental and skeletal vertical relationships, especially during the first months. This was followed by a 'plateau' period. No transverse problems were found in these patients.

  7. Microbiology of animal bite wound infections.

    PubMed

    Abrahamian, Fredrick M; Goldstein, Ellie J C

    2011-04-01

    The microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans is often polymicrobial, with a broad mixture of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Bacteria recovered from infected bite wounds are most often reflective of the oral flora of the biting animal, which can also be influenced by the microbiome of their ingested prey and other foods. Bacteria may also originate from the victim's own skin or the physical environment at the time of injury. Our review has focused on bite wound infections in humans from dogs, cats, and a variety of other animals such as monkeys, bears, pigs, ferrets, horses, sheep, Tasmanian devils, snakes, Komodo dragons, monitor lizards, iguanas, alligators/crocodiles, rats, guinea pigs, hamsters, prairie dogs, swans, and sharks. The medical literature in this area has been made up mostly of small case series or case reports. Very few studies have been systematic and are often limited to dog or cat bite injuries. Limitations of studies include a lack of established or inconsistent criteria for an infected wound and a failure to utilize optimal techniques in pathogen isolation, especially for anaerobic organisms. There is also a lack of an understanding of the pathogenic significance of all cultured organisms. Gathering information and conducting research in a more systematic and methodical fashion through an organized research network, including zoos, veterinary practices, and rural clinics and hospitals, are needed to better define the microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans.

  8. Microbiology of Animal Bite Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamian, Fredrick M.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans is often polymicrobial, with a broad mixture of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Bacteria recovered from infected bite wounds are most often reflective of the oral flora of the biting animal, which can also be influenced by the microbiome of their ingested prey and other foods. Bacteria may also originate from the victim's own skin or the physical environment at the time of injury. Our review has focused on bite wound infections in humans from dogs, cats, and a variety of other animals such as monkeys, bears, pigs, ferrets, horses, sheep, Tasmanian devils, snakes, Komodo dragons, monitor lizards, iguanas, alligators/crocodiles, rats, guinea pigs, hamsters, prairie dogs, swans, and sharks. The medical literature in this area has been made up mostly of small case series or case reports. Very few studies have been systematic and are often limited to dog or cat bite injuries. Limitations of studies include a lack of established or inconsistent criteria for an infected wound and a failure to utilize optimal techniques in pathogen isolation, especially for anaerobic organisms. There is also a lack of an understanding of the pathogenic significance of all cultured organisms. Gathering information and conducting research in a more systematic and methodical fashion through an organized research network, including zoos, veterinary practices, and rural clinics and hospitals, are needed to better define the microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans. PMID:21482724

  9. Papular dermatitis induced in guinea pigs by the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    O'Toole, D; Pérez de León, A A; Hearne, C; McHolland, L; Yun, L; Tabachnick, W

    2003-01-01

    Histological, ultrastructural, and virological examinations were performed on abdominal skin from guinea pigs after a blood meal by colony-bred biting midges, Culicoides sonorensis. Small, superficial, cutaneous, crateriform ulcers with necrosis of superficial dermis developed at feeding sites and healed within 24-48 hours. Animals developed nonpruritic erythematous papules 5 days after feeding that persisted until the study ended at 12 days after feeding. Papules corresponded histologically to foci of epidermal hyperplasia and superficial interstitial dermatitis with intraepidermal micropustules and scattered intraepidermal polykaryons. The principal ultrastructural changes were spongiosis in germinal epithelium and neutrophilic-histiocytic exocytosis. No viral agents or broken mouthparts were identified in lesions. The dermatitis may represent a host reaction to persisting insect salivary secretion and should be considered as an additional consequence of blood feeding in future studies involving biting midges.

  10. A fossil biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from early Eocene Indian amber with a complex pheromone evaporator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebner, Frauke; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Rühr, Peter T.; Singh, Hukam; Hammel, Jörg U.; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Rust, Jes

    2016-10-01

    The life-like fidelity of organisms captured in amber is unique among all kinds of fossilization and represents an invaluable source for different fields of palaeontological and biological research. One of the most challenging aspects in amber research is the study of traits related to behaviour. Here, indirect evidence for pheromone-mediated mating behaviour is recorded from a biting midge (Ceratopogonidae) in 54 million-year-old Indian amber. Camptopterohelea odora n. sp. exhibits a complex, pocket shaped structure on the wings, which resembles the wing folds of certain moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and scent organs that are only known from butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) so far. Our studies suggests that pheromone releasing structures on the wings have evolved independently in biting midges and might be much more widespread in fossil as well as modern insects than known so far.

  11. A fossil biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from early Eocene Indian amber with a complex pheromone evaporator.

    PubMed

    Stebner, Frauke; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Rühr, Peter T; Singh, Hukam; Hammel, Jörg U; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Rust, Jes

    2016-10-04

    The life-like fidelity of organisms captured in amber is unique among all kinds of fossilization and represents an invaluable source for different fields of palaeontological and biological research. One of the most challenging aspects in amber research is the study of traits related to behaviour. Here, indirect evidence for pheromone-mediated mating behaviour is recorded from a biting midge (Ceratopogonidae) in 54 million-year-old Indian amber. Camptopterohelea odora n. sp. exhibits a complex, pocket shaped structure on the wings, which resembles the wing folds of certain moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and scent organs that are only known from butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) so far. Our studies suggests that pheromone releasing structures on the wings have evolved independently in biting midges and might be much more widespread in fossil as well as modern insects than known so far.

  12. A fossil biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from early Eocene Indian amber with a complex pheromone evaporator

    PubMed Central

    Stebner, Frauke; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Rühr, Peter T.; Singh, Hukam; Hammel, Jörg U.; Kvifte, Gunnar Mikalsen; Rust, Jes

    2016-01-01

    The life-like fidelity of organisms captured in amber is unique among all kinds of fossilization and represents an invaluable source for different fields of palaeontological and biological research. One of the most challenging aspects in amber research is the study of traits related to behaviour. Here, indirect evidence for pheromone-mediated mating behaviour is recorded from a biting midge (Ceratopogonidae) in 54 million-year-old Indian amber. Camptopterohelea odora n. sp. exhibits a complex, pocket shaped structure on the wings, which resembles the wing folds of certain moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and scent organs that are only known from butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) so far. Our studies suggests that pheromone releasing structures on the wings have evolved independently in biting midges and might be much more widespread in fossil as well as modern insects than known so far. PMID:27698490

  13. Reflux Hypersensitivity: A New Functional Esophageal Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Takahisa; Fass, Ronnie

    2017-01-01

    Reflux hypersensitivity, recently introduced by Rome IV as a new functional esophageal disorder, is currently considered as the presence of typical heartburn symptoms in patients with normal upper endoscopy and esophageal biopsies, normal esophageal pH test and with evidence of a close correlation between patients’ heartburn and reflux events. Reflux hypersensitivity is very common and together with functional heartburn accounts for more than 90% of the heartburn patients who failed treatment with proton pump inhibitor twice daily. In addition, reflux hypersensitivity affects primarily young to middle aged women, commonly overlaps with another functional gastrointestinal disorders, and is often associated with some type of psychological comorbidity. Diagnosis is made by using endoscopy with esophageal biopsies, pH-impedance, and high-resolution esophageal manometry. Reflux hypersensitivity is primarily treated with esophageal neuromodulators, such as tricyclic anti-depressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors among others. Surgical anti-reflux management may also play an important role in the treatment of reflux hypersensitivity. PMID:28992673

  14. A diagnostic model for chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Johannson, Kerri A; Elicker, Brett M; Vittinghoff, Eric; Assayag, Deborah; de Boer, Kaïssa; Golden, Jeffrey A; Jones, Kirk D; King, Talmadge E; Koth, Laura L; Lee, Joyce S; Ley, Brett; Wolters, Paul J; Collard, Harold R

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a diagnostic model that allows for a highly specific diagnosis of chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis using clinical and radiological variables alone. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis and other interstitial lung disease cases were retrospectively identified from a longitudinal database. High-resolution CT scans were blindly scored for radiographic features (eg, ground-glass opacity, mosaic perfusion) as well as the radiologist's diagnostic impression. Candidate models were developed then evaluated using clinical and radiographic variables and assessed by the cross-validated C-statistic. Forty-four chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis and eighty other interstitial lung disease cases were identified. Two models were selected based on their statistical performance, clinical applicability and face validity. Key model variables included age, down feather and/or bird exposure, radiographic presence of ground-glass opacity and mosaic perfusion and moderate or high confidence in the radiographic impression of chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Models were internally validated with good performance, and cut-off values were established that resulted in high specificity for a diagnosis of chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Drug metabolism and hypersensitivity reactions to drugs.

    PubMed

    Agúndez, José A G; Mayorga, Cristobalina; García-Martin, Elena

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present review was to discuss recent advances supporting a role of drug metabolism, and particularly of the generation of reactive metabolites, in hypersensitivity reactions to drugs. The development of novel mass-spectrometry procedures has allowed the identification of reactive metabolites from drugs known to be involved in hypersensitivity reactions, including amoxicillin and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs such as aspirin, diclofenac or metamizole. Recent studies demonstrated that reactive metabolites may efficiently bind plasma proteins, thus suggesting that drug metabolites, rather than - or in addition to - parent drugs, may elicit an immune response. As drug metabolic profiles are often determined by variability in the genes coding for drug-metabolizing enzymes, it is conceivable that an altered drug metabolism may predispose to the generation of reactive drug metabolites and hence to hypersensitivity reactions. These findings support the potential for the use of pharmacogenomics tests in hypersensitivity (type B) adverse reactions, in addition to the well known utility of these tests in type A adverse reactions. Growing evidence supports a link between genetically determined drug metabolism, altered metabolic profiles, generation of highly reactive metabolites and haptenization. Additional research is required to developing robust biomarkers for drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions.

  16. A diagnostic model for chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Johannson, Kerri A; Elicker, Brett M; Vittinghoff, Eric; Assayag, Deborah; de Boer, Kaïssa; Golden, Jeffrey A; Jones, Kirk D; King, Talmadge E; Koth, Laura L; Lee, Joyce S; Ley, Brett; Wolters, Paul J; Collard, Harold R

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a diagnostic model that allows for a highly specific diagnosis of chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis using clinical and radiological variables alone. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis and other interstitial lung disease cases were retrospectively identified from a longitudinal database. High-resolution CT scans were blindly scored for radiographic features (eg, ground-glass opacity, mosaic perfusion) as well as the radiologist’s diagnostic impression. Candidate models were developed then evaluated using clinical and radiographic variables and assessed by the cross-validated C-statistic. Forty-four chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis and eighty other interstitial lung disease cases were identified. Two models were selected based on their statistical performance, clinical applicability and face validity. Key model variables included age, down feather and/or bird exposure, radiographic presence of ground-glass opacity and mosaic perfusion and moderate or high confidence in the radiographic impression of chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Models were internally validated with good performance, and cut-off values were established that resulted in high specificity for a diagnosis of chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis. PMID:27245779

  17. Reflux Hypersensitivity: A New Functional Esophageal Disorder.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Takahisa; Fass, Ronnie

    2017-10-30

    Reflux hypersensitivity, recently introduced by Rome IV as a new functional esophageal disorder, is currently considered as the presence of typical heartburn symptoms in patients with normal upper endoscopy and esophageal biopsies, normal esophageal pH test and with evidence of a close correlation between patients' heartburn and reflux events. Reflux hypersensitivity is very common and together with functional heartburn accounts for more than 90% of the heartburn patients who failed treatment with proton pump inhibitor twice daily. In addition, reflux hypersensitivity affects primarily young to middle aged women, commonly overlaps with another functional gastrointestinal disorders, and is often associated with some type of psychological comorbidity. Diagnosis is made by using endoscopy with esophageal biopsies, pH-impedance, and high-resolution esophageal manometry. Reflux hypersensitivity is primarily treated with esophageal neuromodulators, such as tricyclic anti-depressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors among others. Surgical anti-reflux management may also play an important role in the treatment of reflux hypersensitivity.

  18. Glycerol Hypersensitivity in a Drosophila Model for Glycerol Kinase Deficiency Is Affected by Mutations in Eye Pigmentation Genes

    PubMed Central

    Wightman, Patrick J.; Jackson, George R.; Dipple, Katrina M.

    2012-01-01

    Glycerol kinase plays a critical role in metabolism by converting glycerol to glycerol 3-phosphate in an ATP dependent reaction. In humans, glycerol kinase deficiency results in a wide range of phenotypic variability; patients can have severe metabolic and CNS abnormalities, while others possess hyperglycerolemia and glyceroluria with no other apparent phenotype. In an effort to help understand the pathogenic mechanisms underlying the phenotypic variation, we have created a Drosophila model for glycerol kinase deficiency by RNAi targeting of dGyk (CG18374) and dGK (CG7995). As expected, RNAi flies have reduced glycerol kinase RNA expression, reduced phosphorylation activity and elevated glycerol levels. Further investigation revealed these flies to be hypersensitive to fly food supplemented with glycerol. Due to the hygroscopic nature of glycerol, we predict glycerol hypersensitivity is a result of greater susceptibility to desiccation, suggesting glycerol kinase to play an important role in desiccation resistance in insects. To evaluate a role for genetic modifier loci in determining severity of the glycerol hypersensitivity observed in knockdown flies, we performed a preliminary screen of lethal transposon insertion mutant flies using a glycerol hypersensitive survivorship assay. We demonstrate that this type of screen can identify both enhancer and suppressor genetic loci of glycerol hypersensitivity. Furthermore, we found that the glycerol hypersensitivity phenotype can be enhanced or suppressed by null mutations in eye pigmentation genes. Taken together, our data suggest proteins encoded by eye pigmentation genes play an important role in desiccation resistance and that eye pigmentation genes are strong modifiers of the glycerol hypersensitive phenotype identified in our Drosophila model for glycerol kinase deficiency. PMID:22427807

  19. [Stings, bites and other adventures...].

    PubMed

    De Dobbeleer, G

    2000-09-01

    Most of us live in cities and nature seems beneficial. Unfortunately, invertebrates and vertebrates may be aggressive. We will try here a review of the diseases caused by arthropods and other noxious animals. Injuries caused by the following insects will be described: mosquitoes, flies, fleas, bees, wasps and ants, bugs, beetles, butterflies and caterpillars. In the class arachnida: spiders, scopions, ticks and mites. Among invertebrates: leeches, anemons, corals, sea urchins, sponges and mollusca. Noxious or venomous vertebrates will not be forgotten. Basic and practical attitudes are proposed.

  20. For t 2 DNA vaccine prevents Forcipomyia taiwana (biting midge) allergy in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lee, M-F; Song, P-P; Lin, T-M; Chiu, Y-T; Chen, Y-H

    2016-04-01

    Forcipomyia taiwana (biting midge) is the most prevalent allergenic biting insect in Taiwan, and 60% of the exposed subjects develop allergic reactions. Subjects with insect allergy frequently limit their outdoor activities to avoid the annoyingly intense itchy allergic reactions, leading to significant worsening of their quality of life. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only known therapy that provides long-term host immune tolerance to the allergen, but is time-consuming and cumbersome. This study tested whether the For t 2 DNA vaccine can prevent allergic symptoms in For t 2-sensitized mice. Two consecutive shots of For t 2 DNA vaccine were given to mice with a 7-day interval before sensitization with recombinant For t 2 proteins, using the two-step sensitization protocol reported previously. The For t 2 DNA vaccine at 50 μg prevented the production of For t 2-specific IgE (P < 0.05), as well as midge allergen-challenge-induced scratch bouts, midge allergen-induced IL-13 and IL-4 production from splenocytes, and inflammatory cell infiltrations in the lesions 48 h after intradermal challenge. This study is the first to demonstrate that DNA vaccine encoding midge allergen is effective in preventing allergic skin inflammation induced by biting midge. Immunotherapy using For t 2 DNA vaccine can protect mice from being sensitized by midge allergen and may be a promising treatment for biting midge allergy in the future. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Appetite for self-destruction: suicidal biting as a nest defense strategy in Trigona stingless bees.

    PubMed

    Shackleton, Kyle; Al Toufailia, Hasan; Balfour, Nicholas J; Nascimento, Fabio S; Alves, Denise A; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    Self-sacrificial behavior represents an extreme and relatively uncommon form of altruism in worker insects. It can occur, however, when inclusive fitness benefits are high, such as when defending the nest. We studied nest defense behaviors in stingless bees, which live in eusocial colonies subject to predation. We introduced a target flag to nest entrances to elicit defensive responses and quantified four measures of defensivity in 12 stingless bee species in São Paulo State, Brazil. These included three Trigona species, which are locally known for their aggression. Species varied significantly in their attack probability (cross species range = 0-1, P  < 0.001), attack latency (7.0-23.5 s, P  = 0.002), biting duration of individual bees (3.5-508.7 s, P  < 0.001), and number of attackers (1.0-10.8, P  < 0.001). A "suicide" bioassay on the six most aggressive species determined the proportion of workers willing to suffer fatal damage rather than disengage from an intruder. All six species had at least some suicidal individuals (7-83 %, P  < 0.001), reaching 83 % in Trigona hyalinata . Biting pain was positively correlated with an index of overall aggression ( P  = 0.002). Microscopic examination revealed that all three Trigona species had five sharp teeth per mandible, a possible defensive adaptation and cause of increased pain. Suicidal defense via biting is a new example of self-sacrificial altruism and has both parallels and differences with other self-sacrificial worker insects, such as the honey bee. Our results indicate that suicidal biting may be a widespread defense strategy in stingless bees, but it is not universal.

  2. Contact hypersensitivity in hand dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-feng; Wang, Jing

    2002-10-01

    Contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in hand dermatitis (HD) was studied by patch testing (PT) 105 consecutive adult HD patients and 361 cases of suspected non-hand allergic contact dermatitis (NHD). The suspected offending agents were also investigated by a questionnaire. Age and sex distribution was no different between the 2 groups. The total positivity rate of PT in the HD group was much lower than in the control group (46.7% versus 63.2%, p < 0.01, chi2-test). The most common allergens in HD were rubber mix(17.1%), p-phenylenediamine (PPD) (14.3%), fragrance mix (9.5%), nickel (9.5%), colophonium (6.7%) and potassium dichromate (2.9%), while those in the control group, in sequence, were nickel (20.5%), rubber mix (16.9%), PPD (14.1%), fragrance mix (12.7%), potassium dichromate (5.5%) and colophonium (5.0%). The positivity rate to nickel was lower in the HD group (9.5% versus 20.5%, p < 0.05, chi2-test), while there was no significant difference for the other allergens. HD was divided arbitrarily into 5 groups: (1) vesicular form, in which fine papules and vesicles can be detected. 65.7% of the HD was vesicular form and 55.1% of them were PT positive; (2) fissured form, in which dry skin with fine fissures or desquamation is seen. 8.6% of the HD was fissured form and 30% of them were PT positive; (3) hyperkeratotic form, in which the lesions are thick, hyperkeratotic plaques - 6.7% of the HD was this form and no positive reaction was found; (4) hand and foot dermatitis (HFD) - 12.4% of HD was HFD and 53.8% of them were PT positive; (5) pompholyx - 6.7% of the patients had pompholyx and one positive result to nickel was detected. The suspected offending agents were reported in only 13 (12.4%) patients. These results suggest that CHS is less common in HD than in NHD and that other factors, such as skin irritation, may play more of a role in HD. Nickel allergy is less common in HD than in NHD. CHS may play a role in more than 1/2 of vesicular form HD, HFD and in some

  3. Design features of a proposed insecticidal sugar trap for biting midges.

    PubMed

    Cohnstaedt, Lee William; Snyder, Darren

    2016-09-30

    Insecticidal sugar baits for mosquitoes and house ies have proven e cacy to reduce insect populations and consequently, disease transmission rates. The new insecticidal sugar trap (IST) is designed speci cally for controlling biting midge disease vector populations around livestock and near larval habitats. The trap operates by combining light-emitting diode (LED) technology with insecticidal sugar baits. The positive photo attraction of Culicoides elicited by the LEDs, draws the insects to the insecticidal sugar bait, which can be made from various commercial insecticide formulations (pyrethroids, neonicotinoids, etc.) or naturally derived formulations (boric acid, garlic oil, etc.) lethal to Culicoides. Insecticidal sugar trap advantages include: customizable LED lights, they can be used with several di erent oral insecticides that have di erent modes of action to help combat the evolution of pesticide resistance, screening on the trap reduces non-target insect feeding (for example bees and butter ies), targets males and females of the species because both must feed on sugar, and low energy LEDs and a solar panel reduce trap maintenance to re lling sugar baits, rather than replacing batteries. This article discusses key components of an IST, which increase the traps e ectiveness for biting midge control.

  4. The relationship between oral tori and bite force.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chan-Woo; Kim, Kyung-Ho; Jang, Hyo-Won; Kim, Hye-Sun; Huh, Jong-Ki

    2018-01-12

    Objective The relationship between bite force and torus palatinus or mandibularis remains to be explained. The major aim of this study was to determine the correlation between bite force and oral tori. Methods The bite force of 345 patients was measured with a bite force recorder; impressions of the shape and size of the oral tori were taken on plaster models prior to orthodontic treatments. Subsequently, the relationship between oral tori and bite force was analyzed. Results The size, shape, and incidence of torus palatinus was not significantly correlated with bite force. However, the size of torus mandibularis increased significantly in proportion to the bite force (p = 0.020). The occurrence of different types of oral tori was not correlated with the bite force. Discussion The size of torus mandibularis provides information about bite force and can thus be used to clinically assess occlusal stress.

  5. TRPA1 Contributes to Cold Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Camino, Donato del; Murphy, Sarah; Heiry, Melissa; Barrett, Lee B.; Earley, Taryn J.; Cook, Colby A.; Petrus, Matt J.; Zhao, Michael; D'Amours, Marc; Deering, Nate; Brenner, Gary J.; Costigan, Michael; Hayward, Neil J.; Chong, Jayhong A.; Fanger, Christopher M.; Woolf, Clifford J.; Patapoutian, Ardem; Moran, Magdalene M.

    2010-01-01

    TRPA1 is a non-selective cation channel expressed by nociceptors. While it is widely accepted that TRPA1 serves as a broad irritancy receptor for a variety of reactive chemicals, its role in cold sensation remains controversial. Here, we demonstrate that mild cooling markedly increases agonist-evoked rat TRPA1 currents. In the absence of an agonist, even noxious cold only increases current amplitude slightly. These results suggest that TRPA1 is a key mediator of cold hypersensitivity in pathological conditions where reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory activators of the channel are present, but likely plays a comparatively minor role in acute cold sensation. Supporting this, cold hypersensitivity can be induced in wild-type but not Trpa1-/- mice by subcutaneous administration of a TRPA1 agonist. Furthermore, the selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 reduces cold hypersensitivity in rodent models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. PMID:21068322

  6. Periocular dog bite injuries and responsible care.

    PubMed

    Burroughs, John R; Soparkar, Charles N S; Patrinely, James R; Williams, Patrick D; Holck, David E E

    2002-11-01

    To report patients who received dog bite injuries to the periocular area and the incidence of repeat attacks by the biting dog and its disposition. To discuss the demographics of bite attacks, occult injuries, steps to avoid medicolegal problems, and the appropriate options for animal disposition. Single-practice prospective case series of dog attacks on 18 victims. Patients were followed and questioned about any repeat attacks by the offending dog. Of 18 individuals who received dog bites to the perio-ocular area, only 2 were >12 years old. Of the 16 cases available for follow-up (4 months to 3 years; mean, 16 months), 7 of the dogs were euthanized and 1 was sent away from the family. Of the 8 remaining animals, 5 (63%) bit again. All the dogs bit family members or family friends. Although most dogs make wonderful pets, canine bites pose a significant public health concern, and some simple steps may be taken to protect against personal injury and legal fallout from repeat attacks.

  7. Snake Bite in South Asia: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Alirol, Emilie; Sharma, Sanjib Kumar; Bawaskar, Himmatrao Saluba; Kuch, Ulrich; Chappuis, François

    2010-01-01

    Snake bite is one of the most neglected public health issues in poor rural communities living in the tropics. Because of serious misreporting, the true worldwide burden of snake bite is not known. South Asia is the world's most heavily affected region, due to its high population density, widespread agricultural activities, numerous venomous snake species and lack of functional snake bite control programs. Despite increasing knowledge of snake venoms' composition and mode of action, good understanding of clinical features of envenoming and sufficient production of antivenom by Indian manufacturers, snake bite management remains unsatisfactory in this region. Field diagnostic tests for snake species identification do not exist and treatment mainly relies on the administration of antivenoms that do not cover all of the important venomous snakes of the region. Care-givers need better training and supervision, and national guidelines should be fed by evidence-based data generated by well-designed research studies. Poorly informed rural populations often apply inappropriate first-aid measures and vital time is lost before the victim is transported to a treatment centre, where cost of treatment can constitute an additional hurdle. The deficiency of snake bite management in South Asia is multi-causal and requires joint collaborative efforts from researchers, antivenom manufacturers, policy makers, public health authorities and international funders. PMID:20126271

  8. Plants and insect eggs: how do they affect each other?

    PubMed

    Hilker, Monika; Meiners, Torsten

    2011-09-01

    Plant-insect interactions are not just influenced by interactions between plants and the actively feeding stages, but also by the close relationships between plants and insect eggs. Here, we review both effects of plants on insect eggs and, vice versa, effects of eggs on plants. We consider the influence of plants on the production of insect eggs and address the role of phytochemicals for the biosynthesis and release of insect sex pheromones, as well as for insect fecundity. Effects of plants on insect oviposition by contact and olfactory plant cues are summarised. In addition, we consider how the leaf boundary layer influences both insect egg deposition behaviour and development of the embryo inside the egg. The effects of eggs on plants involve egg-induced changes of photosynthetic activity and of the plant's secondary metabolism. Except for gall-inducing insects, egg-induced changes of phytochemistry were so far found to be detrimental to the eggs. Egg deposition can induce hypersensitive-like plant response, formation of neoplasms or production of ovicidal plant substances; these plant responses directly harm the eggs. In addition, egg deposition can induce a change of the plant's odour and leaf surface chemistry which serve indirect plant defence with the help of antagonists of the insect eggs. These egg-induced changes lead to attraction of egg parasitoids and their arrestance on a leaf, respectively. Finally, we summarise knowledge of the elicitors of egg-induced plant changes and address egg-induced effects on the plant's transcriptional pattern. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Insects of the riparian

    Treesearch

    Terrence J. Rogers

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes life histories, defoliation problems and other activities of insects associated with forest tree species growing along high elevation streams and river banks. In addition, examples of insects and diseases associated with lower elevation riparian areas are given.

  10. Insects: An Interdisciplinary Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leger, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The author talks about an interdisciplinary unit on insects, and presents activities that can help students practice communication skills (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational) and learn about insects with hands-on activities.

  11. Respiration in Aquatic Insects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarland, John

    1985-01-01

    This article: (1) explains the respiratory patterns of several freshwater insects; (2) describes the differences and mechanisms of spiracular cutaneous, and gill respiration; and (3) discusses behavioral aspects of selected aquatic insects. (ML)

  12. Allergies to Insect Venom

    MedlinePlus

    ... colored clothing. Dark clothing and clothing with flowery designs is more likely to attract insects.  Use unscented ... keep insecticide available. Treatment tips:  Venom immunotherapy (allergy shots to insect venom(s) is highly effective in preventing ...

  13. Hearing in Insects.

    PubMed

    Göpfert, Martin C; Hennig, R Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Insect hearing has independently evolved multiple times in the context of intraspecific communication and predator detection by transforming proprioceptive organs into ears. Research over the past decade, ranging from the biophysics of sound reception to molecular aspects of auditory transduction to the neuronal mechanisms of auditory signal processing, has greatly advanced our understanding of how insects hear. Apart from evolutionary innovations that seem unique to insect hearing, parallels between insect and vertebrate auditory systems have been uncovered, and the auditory sensory cells of insects and vertebrates turned out to be evolutionarily related. This review summarizes our current understanding of insect hearing. It also discusses recent advances in insect auditory research, which have put forward insect auditory systems for studying biological aspects that extend beyond hearing, such as cilium function, neuronal signal computation, and sensory system evolution.

  14. Search Fermilab Insect Database

    Science.gov Websites

    data reflects observations at Fermilab. Search Clear Choices Find All Insects |Help| |Glossary | |Advanced Search| How it's named and classified: Common Name: Insect Order: equals contains begins with ends

  15. Screening of Oomycete Fungi for Their Potential Role in Reducing the Biting Midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Larval Populations in Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Kirsty; Kurtböke, D. Ipek

    2011-01-01

    Biting midges are globally distributed pests causing significant economic losses and transmitting arbovirus diseases to both animals and humans. Current biological and chemical control strategies for biting midge target destruction of adult forms, but strategies directed at immature stages of the insect have yet to be explored in Australia. In the present study, coastal waters of Hervey Bay region in Queensland, Australia were screened to detect the habitats of biting midge at immature stages. These results were then correlated to local environmental conditions and naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungal flora, in particular the Oomycete fungi, to determine their reducing effect on insect immature stages in the search for biological control agents in the region. The dominant species of biting midge found within this study was Culicoides subimmaculatus occuring between mean high water neaps and mean high water spring tide levels. Within this intertidal zone, the presence of C. subimmaculatus larvae was found to be influenced by both sediment size and distance from shore. Halophytophthora isolates colonized both dead and alive pupae. However, the association was found to be surface colonization rather than invasion causing the death of the host. Lack of aggressive oomycete fungal antagonists towards midge larvae might correlate with increased incidences of biting midge infestations in the region. PMID:21655137

  16. Occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a koji brewer.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Takashi; Kawai, Shoko; Kojima, Ayako; Shimizu, Yoshihiko; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Takayanagi, Noboru

    2018-03-01

    Koji is a fermenting agent used in many traditional Japanese foods , and Aspergillus oryzae is the most frequently used microorganism in koji production. Few cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to A. oryzae have been reported. However, physicians should recognize the disease because of the increasing globalization of food production.

  17. Immediate-type hypersensitivity drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Stone, Shelley F; Phillips, Elizabeth J; Wiese, Michael D; Heddle, Robert J; Brown, Simon G A

    2014-07-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis have been reported for nearly all classes of therapeutic reagents and these reactions can occur within minutes to hours of exposure. These reactions are unpredictable, not directly related to dose or the pharmacological action of the drug and have a relatively high mortality risk. This review will focus on the clinical presentation, immune mechanisms, diagnosis and prevention of the most serious form of immediate onset drug hypersensitivity reaction, anaphylaxis. The incidence of drug-induced anaphylaxis deaths appears to be increasing and our understanding of the multiple and complex reasons for the unpredictable nature of anaphylaxis to drugs is also expanding. This review highlights the importance of enhancing our understanding of the biology of the patient (i.e. immune response, genetics) as well as the pharmacology and chemistry of the drug when investigating, diagnosing and treating drug hypersensitivity. Misdiagnosis of drug hypersensitivity leads to substantial patient risk and cost. Although oral provocation is often considered the gold standard of diagnosis, it can pose a potential risk to the patient. There is an urgent need to improve and standardize diagnostic testing and desensitization protocols as other diagnostic tests currently available for assessment of immediate drug allergy are not highly predictive. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Practical Management of Antibiotic Hypersensitivity in 2017.

    PubMed

    Macy, Eric; Romano, Antonino; Khan, David

    Antibiotics are the most common class of medications that individuals report allergy or intolerance to. Adverse reactions are reported at a predictable rate with all antibiotic use that vary by antibiotic. Antibiotic allergy incidence rates are sex dependent, higher in females than in males. Most of these events are not reproducible or immunologically mediated. Antibiotic allergy prevalence increases with increasing age and is more common in hospitalized populations and in populations that use more antibiotics. Determining potential mechanisms for the observed symptoms of the adverse reactions is the starting point for effective management of antibiotic hypersensitivity. Skin testing and direct challenges are the primary tools used to determine acute tolerance in 2017. Commercially available in vitro testing is not currently clinically useful in determining antibiotic hypersensitivity, with rare exceptions. Desensitization can be used when acute-onset immunologically mediated hypersensitivity is confirmed to safely administer a needed antibiotic. Desensitization is not possible when clinically significant T-cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity is present. Effective management of antibiotic allergy is an important part of a comprehensive antibiotic stewardship program. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Metal Hypersensitivity and Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lachiewicz, Paul F.; Watters, Tyler Steven; Jacobs, Joshua J.

    2015-01-01

    Metal hypersensitivity in patients with a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a controversial topic. The diagnosis is difficult, given the lack of robust clinical validation of the utility of cutaneous and in vitro testing. Metal hypersensitivity after TKA is quite rare and should be considered after eliminating other causes of pain and swelling, such as low-grade infection, instability, component loosening or malrotation, referred pain, and chronic regional pain syndrome. Anecdotal observations suggest that two clinical presentations of metal hypersensitivity may occur after TKA: dermatitis or a persistent painful synovitis of the knee. Patients may or may not have a history of intolerance to metal jewelry. Laboratory studies, including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein level, and knee joint aspiration, are usually negative. Cutaneous and in vitro testing have been reported to be positive, but the sensitivity and specificity of such testing has not been defined. Anecdotal reports suggest that, if metal hypersensitivity is suspected and nonsurgical measures have failed, then revision to components fabricated of titanium alloy or zirconium coating can be successful in relieving symptoms. Revision should be considered as a last resort, however, and patients should be informed that no evidence-based medicine is available to guide the management of these conditions, particularly for decisions regarding revision. Given the limitations of current testing methods, the widespread screening of patients for metal allergies before TKA is not warranted. PMID:26752739

  20. Immediate-type hypersensitivity drug reactions

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Shelley F; Phillips, Elizabeth J; Wiese, Michael D; Heddle, Robert J; Brown, Simon G A

    2014-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis have been reported for nearly all classes of therapeutic reagents and these reactions can occur within minutes to hours of exposure. These reactions are unpredictable, not directly related to dose or the pharmacological action of the drug and have a relatively high mortality risk. This review will focus on the clinical presentation, immune mechanisms, diagnosis and prevention of the most serious form of immediate onset drug hypersensitivity reaction, anaphylaxis. The incidence of drug-induced anaphylaxis deaths appears to be increasing and our understanding of the multiple and complex reasons for the unpredictable nature of anaphylaxis to drugs is also expanding. This review highlights the importance of enhancing our understanding of the biology of the patient (i.e. immune response, genetics) as well as the pharmacology and chemistry of the drug when investigating, diagnosing and treating drug hypersensitivity. Misdiagnosis of drug hypersensitivity leads to substantial patient risk and cost. Although oral provocation is often considered the gold standard of diagnosis, it can pose a potential risk to the patient. There is an urgent need to improve and standardize diagnostic testing and desensitization protocols as other diagnostic tests currently available for assessment of immediate drug allergy are not highly predictive. PMID:24286446

  1. Diagnostic testing of dogs for food hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Jeffers, J G; Shanley, K J; Meyer, E K

    1991-01-15

    Thirteen food-allergic dogs were studied to evaluate the efficacy of feeding a commercially available egg and rice diet, intradermal skin testing, and serologic testing by ELISA for diagnosing and/or characterizing food hypersensitivity. Feeding of a home-cooked whole lamb meat and rice diet for 3 weeks, followed by challenge with each dog's regular diet, served as the standard for diagnosing food hypersensitivity. Each dog underwent provocative testing with 6 individual ingredients to determine as many of its dietary allergens as possible. Prior to skin testing and serologic testing by ELISA, most dogs had been recently exposed to the offending diet and subsequently manifested clinical signs of allergy. All dogs that tolerated the aforementioned commercial diet were exposed to it for at least 7 weeks; 84.6% of food-hypersensitive dogs ate the commercial diet with impunity. Of the 2 reactors to the commercial diet, only 1 became pruritic in response to provocation testing with chicken eggs. Low sensitivity and high specificity were found for skin testing and the ELISA, indicating a lack of true- and false-positive reactions. Neither the positive nor negative predictive values adequately predicted positive and negative reactions, respectively, for either test. On the basis of these results, the commercial diet, skin testing, and anti-IgE ELISA cannot replace an owner-prepared food elimination diet for food hypersensitivity testing in dogs.

  2. Insects and Spiders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of nine Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing teachers and students with informational reading on insects and spiders. The bulletins have these titles: What Good Are Insects, How Insects Benefit Man, Life of the Honey Bee, Ants and Their Fascinating Ways, Mosquitoes and Other Flies, Caterpillars, Spiders and Silk,…

  3. Exploring Sound with Insects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  4. Open bite: diagnosis, treatment and stability.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Mírian Aiko Nakane; Romano, Fábio Lourenço; Ferreira, José Tarcísio Lima; Valério, Rodrigo Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Open bite has fascinated Orthodontics due to the difficulties regarding its treatment and maintenance of results. This anomaly has distinct characteristics that, in addition to the complexity of multiple etiological factors, have aesthetic and functional consequences. Within this etiological context, several types of mechanics have been used in open bite treatment, such as palatal crib, orthopedic forces, occlusal adjustment, orthodontic camouflage with or without extraction, orthodontic intervention using mini-implants or mini-plates, and even orthognathic surgery. An accurate diagnosis and etiological determination are always the best guides to establish the objectives and the ideal treatment plan for such a malocclusion. This report describes two cases of open bite. At the end of the treatment, both patients had their canines and molars in Class I occlusion, normal overjet and overbite, and stability during the posttreatment period.

  5. Treatment of the first bite syndrome.

    PubMed

    Costales-Marcos, María; López Álvarez, Fernando; Fernández-Vañes, Laura; Gómez, Justo; Llorente, José Luis

    First bite syndrome is a potential complication of surgery involving the infratemporal fossa, deep lobe of the parotid gland and parapharyngeal space. It is described as an acute and intense pain in the parotid region caused with the first bite of each meal. It is related to damage to sympathetic innervation of the parotid gland. Parasympathetic hyperactivation is believed to stimulate an exaggerated myoepithelial cell contraction causing pain. Usual analgesic treatments have poor results. Botulinum toxin type A causes parasympathetic nerve paralysis of the parotid gland and this fact would minimize salivation and decrease first bite syndrome. The aim of this study is to show the details of the technique and our outcomes in 5 patients treated with botulinum toxin type A. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  6. The canine model of dietary hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Day, Michael J

    2005-11-01

    IgE-mediated dietary hypersensitivity affects approximately 1% of the canine population. There are no breed associations and < or =50% of the patients are aged <1 year at presentation. The most common causative allergens are beef, chicken, milk, eggs, maize, wheat and soyabean. Affected dogs generally display cutaneous disease and 10-15% of the patients may have concurrent alimentary involvement. Diagnosis is currently based on dietary restriction followed by provocation. Procedures for the detection of serum allergen-specific IgE and IgG antibodies are widely available, but these tests correlate poorly with clinical presentation and dietary testing. Recent studies have demonstrated the allergen specificity of IgE antibodies by immunoblotting and have described blood lymphocyte proliferative responses to food allergens. In addition to investigations of spontaneously-arising dietary hypersensitivity, it has also proved possible to study this disorder experimentally. Small colonies of dogs sensitive to particular dietary proteins have been used to study clinical and serological responses to allergen challenge. Hypersensitivity has been experimentally induced in dogs of an atopic phenotype by repeated subcutaneous injection of alum-adjuvanted dietary allergen during neonatal life. These models have been used to trial a range of modified protein or hydrolysate diets. The dog provides a unique large-animal model for investigation of the immunopathogenesis of human dietary hypersensitivity. The dog is closely related genetically to man and shares environmental disease triggers with man. Spontaneously arising canine dietary hypersensitivity is a good clinical mimic of the human disease, and ability to therapeutically manipulate this adverse response in the dog might lead to benefits for human patients.

  7. Tick Talk: Block Tick Bites and Lyme Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Subscribe May 2014 Print this issue Tick Talk Block Tick Bites and Lyme Disease En español Send ... Health Researchers Examine the Structure of Zika Virus Block the Buzzing, Bites, and Bumps Wise Choices To ...

  8. Taking the Bite out of Bruxism (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Taking the Bite Out of Bruxism KidsHealth / For Kids / Taking the Bite Out of Bruxism Print Do ...

  9. Black widow spider bite: a case study.

    PubMed

    Gaisford, Kristine; Kautz, Donald D

    2011-01-01

    This article is a case study of a patient cared for in the hours before her death. After the patient's death, we learned the patient died of a black widow spider bite. This article sheds light on the potential seriousness of this venom and allows for more rapid detection and treatment of those who are unfortunate enough to be bitten. The authors have documented the sequence of events for the patient, outlined the care the patient received, examined the pathophysiology of the body to a spider bite, and then made a passionate appeal for other nurses who work in critical care to do the same with patients in similar situations.

  10. Aquatic insect predators and mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Shaalan, Essam Abdel-Salam; Canyon, Deon V

    2009-12-01

    Mosquitoes are serious biting pests and obligate vectors of many vertebrate pathogens. Their immature larval and pupal life stages are a common feature in most tropical and many temperate water bodies and often form a significant proportion of the biomass. Control strategies rely primarily on the use of larvicides and environmental modification to reduce recruitment and adulticides during periods of disease transmission. Larvicides are usually chemical but can involve biological toxins, agents or organisms. The use of insect predators in mosquito control has been exploited in a limited fashion and there is much room for further investigation and implementation. Insects that are recognized as having predatorial capacity with regard to mosquito prey have been identified in the Orders Odonata, Coleoptera, Diptera (primarily aquatic predators), and Hemiptera (primarily surface predators). Although their capacity is affected by certain biological and physical factors, they could play a major role in mosquito control. Furthermore, better understanding for the mosquitoes-predators relationship(s) could probably lead to satisfactory reduction of mosquito-borne diseases by utilizing either these predators in control programs, for instance biological and/or integrated control, or their kairomones as mosquitoes' ovipoisting repellents. This review covers the predation of different insect species on mosquito larvae, predator-prey-habitat relationships, co-habitation developmental issues, survival and abundance, oviposition avoidance, predatorial capacity and integrated vector control.

  11. Epidemiologic and clinical aspects of animal bite injuries.

    PubMed

    Kizer, K W

    1979-04-01

    During 1975, 332 animal bite injuries accounted for 1.2% of all surgical problems treated at the UCLA Hospital Emergency Department. Data on 307 bite injuries were available and analyzed for environmental, animal, human, interaction, and clinical factors. More than half of the dog bites and almost three fourths of the cat bites-scratches happened at or near the victims' homes. Dog bites were almost twice as common among men, while cat bites-scratches were twice as common among women. Of the incidents in which ownership information was available, 85% of dog bites and 80% of cat bites-scratches were from an animal belonging to the victim, his family or friends, or another known person. Forty-three percent of dog bites, and 52% of cat bites-scratches were provoked, that is, happened while the victim was interacting with the animal. Of bites of the head and/or neck, 38% injured the upper lip; 17% of dog bites injured the eye or adjacent tissues; 48% were in children less than ten-years-old. On fifth of cat bites-scratches involved the head and/or neck, 60% of these injured orbital or periorbital tissues. Over 2% of patients were hospitalized. Five percent of dog bite victims and 29% of cat bite-scratch victims returned with complications, mostly cellulitis or lymphangitis. Pasteurella multocida was the most common pathogen cultured, as evidenced by the 50% and 80% culture-positive rates for dog and cat bite-scratches respectively in this series.

  12. Cheek-biting disorder: another stereotypic movement disorder?

    PubMed

    Sarkhel, Sujit; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Akhtar, Sayeed

    2011-12-01

    Recurrent cheek biting, a form of self-injurious behavior is a rare entity which presents mostly to dentists and dermatologists. We report a case of recurrent severe cheek biting in an adult male leading to mucosal ulceration. The stereotypic pattern of cheek biting and associated behavior bears striking resemblance to other impulse control disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Insect barcode information system.

    PubMed

    Pratheepa, Maria; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Arokiaraj, Robinson Silvester; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Nagesh, Mandadi; Panda, Madhusmita; Pattar, Sharath

    2014-01-01

    Insect Barcode Information System called as Insect Barcode Informática (IBIn) is an online database resource developed by the National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects, Bangalore. This database provides acquisition, storage, analysis and publication of DNA barcode records of agriculturally important insects, for researchers specifically in India and other countries. It bridges a gap in bioinformatics by integrating molecular, morphological and distribution details of agriculturally important insects. IBIn was developed using PHP/My SQL by using relational database management concept. This database is based on the client- server architecture, where many clients can access data simultaneously. IBIn is freely available on-line and is user-friendly. IBIn allows the registered users to input new information, search and view information related to DNA barcode of agriculturally important insects.This paper provides a current status of insect barcode in India and brief introduction about the database IBIn. http://www.nabg-nbaii.res.in/barcode.

  14. Insect antiviral innate immunity: pathways, effectors, and connections

    PubMed Central

    Kingsolver, Megan B.; Huang, Zhijing; Hardy, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    Insects are infected by a wide array of viruses some of which are insect-restricted and pathogenic, and some of which are transmitted by biting insects to vertebrates. The medical and economic importance of these viruses heightens the need to understand the interaction between the infecting pathogen and the insect immune system in order to develop transmission interventions. The interaction of the virus with the insect host innate immune system plays a critical role in the outcome of infection. The major mechanism of antiviral defense is the siRNA pathway that responds through the detection of virus-derived dsRNA to suppress virus replication. However, other innate antimicrobial pathways such as Imd, Toll, Jak-STAT, and the autophagy pathway have also been shown to play important roles in antiviral immunity. In this review we provide an overview of the current understanding of the main insect antiviral pathways and examine recent findings that further our understanding of the roles of these pathways in facilitating a systemic and specific response to infecting viruses. PMID:24120681

  15. Insect antiviral innate immunity: pathways, effectors, and connections.

    PubMed

    Kingsolver, Megan B; Huang, Zhijing; Hardy, Richard W

    2013-12-13

    Insects are infected by a wide array of viruses some of which are insect restricted and pathogenic, and some of which are transmitted by biting insects to vertebrates. The medical and economic importance of these viruses heightens the need to understand the interaction between the infecting pathogen and the insect immune system in order to develop transmission interventions. The interaction of the virus with the insect host innate immune system plays a critical role in the outcome of infection. The major mechanism of antiviral defense is the small, interfering RNA pathway that responds through the detection of virus-derived double-stranded RNA to suppress virus replication. However, other innate antimicrobial pathways such as Imd, Toll, and Jak-STAT and the autophagy pathway have also been shown to play important roles in antiviral immunity. In this review, we provide an overview of the current understanding of the main insect antiviral pathways and examine recent findings that further our understanding of the roles of these pathways in facilitating a systemic and specific response to infecting viruses. © 2013.

  16. [Repellent activity of plant essential oils against bites of Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae)].

    PubMed

    Nieves, Elsa; Fernández Méndez, Janett; Lias, José; Rondón, Maritza; Briceño, Benito

    2010-12-01

    Natural repellents from plant extracts have demonstrated good efficacy against bites of some insect species. The present study evaluated the repellent effect of essential oils extracted from 8 plants species against bites of Lutzomyia migonei, the Leishmania vector. The essential oils were extracted by steam destillation in Clevenger chamber, from the following plants: Hyptis suaveolens, Pimenta racemosa, Piper marginatum, Monticalia imbricatifolia, Pseudognaphalium caeruleocanum, Espeletia shultzii, Plecthranthus amboinicus and Cinnamomun zeylanicum. Repellency tests were performed under laboratory conditions by the human hand method in cage assays, using female colonies of L. migonei. The more effective oils were tested at variable concentrations on different volunteers. The protection percentage and time were calculated. The results showed what oils of P. caeruleocanum and C. zeylanicum were the most effective. Although P. amboinicus oil also had repellent effect showed an irritant effect. The oils P. marginatum, H. suaveolens and P. racemosa showed no repellent effect, while the rest of oil extracts showed significant repellency in variable degrees. P. caeruleocanum and C. zeylanicum oils provided the 95% protection against bites of L. migonei for 3 h. The P. caeruleocanum oil showed the greatest protection time, with a mean over 4h and 3h at concentrations of 50% and 10% respectively. The results suggest that the P. caeruleocanum oil could represent a potential natural repellent against Leishmania vectors.

  17. Take a Bite Out of Mosquito Stings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide ... Expert Search Search AAAAI Breadcrumb navigation Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Library ▸ Allergy Library ▸ Take a bite out of mosquito stings ...

  18. Simulation of a flow around biting teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narusawa, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Eriko; Kuwahara, Kunio

    2008-11-01

    We simulated a flow around biting teeth. The decayed tooth is a disease that a majority of people are annoyed. These are often generated from a deep groove at occlusal surface. It is known that a person who bites well doesn't suffer from a decayed tooth easily. Biting forces reach as much as 60 kg/cm^2 by an adult male, and when chewing, upper and lower teeth approach to bite by those forces. The crushed food mixed with saliva becomes high viscosity fluid, and is pushed out of ditches of teeth in the direction of the cheek or the tongue. Teeth with complex three dimension curved surface are thought to form venturi at this time, and to generate big pressure partially. An excellent dental articulation will possibly help a natural generation of a flow to remove dental plaque, i.e. the cause of the decayed tooth. Moreover, the relation of this flow with the destruction of the filled metal or the polymer is doubted. In this research, we try to clarify the pressure distributions by this flow generation as well as its dynamics when chewing. One of our goals is to enable an objective design of the shape of the dental fillings and the artificial tooth. Tooth has a very small uneven ground and a bluff body. In this case, to calculate a computational numerical simulation to solve the Navier-Stokes equations three dimension Cartesian coordinate system is employed.

  19. The development of a murine model for Forcipomyia taiwana (biting midge) allergy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mey-Fann; Yang, Kai-Jei; Wang, Nancy M; Chiu, Yung-Tsung; Chen, Pei-Chih; Chen, Yi-Hsing

    2014-01-01

    Forcipomyia taiwana (biting midge) allergy is the most prevalent biting insect allergy in Taiwan. An animal model corresponding to the human immuno-pathologic features of midge allergy is needed for investigating the mechanisms and therapies. This study successfully developed a murine model of Forcipomyia taiwana allergy. BALB/c mice were sensitized intra-peritoneally with midge extract on days 0, 7, 14, 21 then intra-dermally on days 28, 31 and 35. Serum midge-specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a were measured every 14 days by indirect ELISA. The mice were challenged intradermally with midge extract at day 40 and then sacrificed. Proliferation and cytokine production of splenocytes after stimulation with midge extract were determined by MTT assay and ELISA, respectively. The cytokine mRNA expression in response to midge stimulation was analyzed by RT-PCR. Serum IgE, total IgG, and IgG1 antibody levels against midge extract were significantly higher in the midge-sensitized mice than in the control mice. After the two-step sensitization, all mice in the midge-sensitized group displayed immediate itch and plasma extravasation reactions in response to challenge with midge extract. Skin histology from midge-sensitized mice showed marked eosinophil and lymphocyte infiltrations similar to that observed in humans. Stimulation of murine splenocytes with midge extract elicited significant proliferation, IL-4, IL-10, IL-13 and IFN-γ protein production, and up-regulation of mRNA in a dose-dependent manner in the midge-sensitized group, but not in the control group. A murine model of midge bite allergy has been successfully developed using a two-step sensitization protocol. The sensitized mice have very similar clinical and immunologic reactions to challenge with midge proteins as the reactions of human to midge bites. This murine model may be a useful platform for future research and the development of treatment strategies for insect bite allergy.

  20. Tongue Blade Bite Test Predicts Mandible Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Neiner, John; Free, Rachael; Caldito, Gloria; Moore-Medlin, Tara; Nathan, Cherie-Ann

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the utility of a simple tongue blade bite test in predicting mandible fractures and use this test as an alternative screening tool for further workup. This is a retrospective chart review. An institutional review board approved the retrospective review of patients evaluated by the Department of Otolaryngology at a single institution for facial trauma performed from November 1, 2011, to February 27, 2014. Patients who had a bite test documented were included in the study. CT was performed in all cases and was used as the gold standard to diagnose mandible fractures. Variables analyzed included age, sex, fracture type/location on CT, bite test positivity, and operative intervention. A total of 86 patients met the inclusion criteria and of those 12 were pediatric patients. Majority of the patients were male (80.2%) and adult (86.0%; average age: 34.3 years). Fifty-seven patients had a negative bite test and on CT scans had no mandible fracture. Twenty-three patients had a positive bite test and a CT scan confirmed fracture. The bite test revealed a sensitivity of 88.5% (95% CI: 69.8–97.6%), specificity of 95.0% (95% CI:86.1–99%), positive predictive value [PPV] of 88.5% (95% CI: 69.8–97.6%), and negative predictive value [NPV] of 95.0% (95% CI: 86.1–99.0%). Among pediatric patients, the sensitivity was 100% (95% CI: 29.9–100%), specificity was 88.9% (95% CI: 68.4–100%), PPV was 75.0% (95% CI: 19.4–99.4%), and NPV was 100% (95% CI: 63.1–100%). The tongue blade bite test is a quick inexpensive diagnostic tool for the otolaryngologist with high sensitivity and specificity for predicting mandible fractures. In the pediatric population, where avoidance of unnecessary CT scans is of highest priority, a wider range of data collection should be undertaken to better assess its utility. PMID:27162567

  1. Case of immediate hypersensitivity to beer.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomoko; Yagami, Akiko; Shimojo, Naoshi; Hara, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Masashi; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2016-06-01

    We report here a case of immediate hypersensitivity to beer, in which a female patient developed angioedema of the eyelids shortly after consuming beer. In skin prick tests, the patient showed positive reactions to the base ingredients of beer, particularly malt and barley. The specific serum immunoglobulin E antibodies against barley and malt displayed weakly positive reactivity. To identify the immunoreactive antigens, malt and barley proteins were separated by 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoreacted with the patient's serum. The results of mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the main antigen was a protein with similarity to protein z-type serpin. Notably, the identified antigen had a molecular weight of 20-25 kDa, which is markedly smaller than that previously reported for protein Z4 (44 kDa). Taken together, these analyses indicate that a possible new antigen which belongs to the protein Z family elicits immediate hypersensitivity to beer. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  2. Does moonlight influence the biting behaviour of Anopheles funestus?

    PubMed

    Kampango, A; Cuamba, N; Charlwood, J D

    2011-09-01

    The possible effect of moonlight on the biting behaviour of mosquitoes in southern Mozambique, in particular that of Anopheles funestus (Diptera: Culicidae), a primary vector of malaria, was investigated by comparing catches indoors and outdoors using CDC light traps and 'Furvela' tent traps, respectively, for 35 consecutive nights, from 9 September to 15 October 2008. Collections were separated into three 4-hourly samples each night. A total of 17 591 mosquitoes belonging to nine species were collected, 6747 in light traps and 10 844 in tent traps. Anopheles funestus (n = 7634) and Mansonia africana (n = 4859) were the most abundant species. Fluctuations in temperature and humidity were the two environmental variables associated with changes in relative abundance of mosquitoes. Most An. funestus were collected indoors, with the majority collected in the first 4 h of the night. This was most evident on nights when moonlight was present in the early part of the night. A total of 3488 An. funestus were dissected for gonotrophic age determination. Parous rates did not change with lunar phase, but estimated oviposition cycle length was significantly shorter on nights when moonlight was present at the time of oviposition. Moonlight at dusk did not, however, affect the proportion of newly emerged insects with mating plugs collected. Outdoor transmission of malaria, especially on moonlit nights, remains a problem for control programmes. © 2010 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2010 The Royal Entomological Society.

  3. Variation in plant defense against invasive herbivores: evidence for a hypersensitive response in eastern hemlocks (Tsuga canadensis).

    PubMed

    Radville, Laura; Chaves, Arielle; Preisser, Evan L

    2011-06-01

    Herbivores can trigger a wide array of morphological and chemical changes in their host plants. Feeding by some insects induces a defensive hypersensitive response, a defense mechanism consisting of elevated H(2)O(2) levels and tissue death at the site of herbivore feeding. The invasive hemlock woolly adelgid Adelges tsugae ('HWA') and elongate hemlock scale Fiorinia externa ('EHS') feed on eastern hemlocks; although both are sessile sap feeders, HWA causes more damage than EHS. The rapid rate of tree death following HWA infestation has led to the suggestion that feeding induces a hypersensitive response in hemlock trees. We assessed the potential for an herbivore-induced hypersensitive response in eastern hemlocks by measuring H(2)O(2) levels in foliage from HWA-infested, EHS-infested, and uninfested trees. Needles with settled HWA or EHS had higher H(2)O(2) levels than control needles, suggesting a localized hypersensitive plant response. Needles with no direct contact to settled HWA also had high H(2)O(2) levels, suggesting that HWA infestation may induce a systemic defense response in eastern hemlocks. There was no similar systemic defensive response in the EHS treatment. Our results showed that two herbivores in the same feeding guild had dramatically different outcomes on the health of their shared host.

  4. Investigation of Seminal Plasma Hypersensitivity Reactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    the same questionnaire which has been used to screen civilian populations of women with localized and/or systemic seminal plasma hypersensitivity. This...3. If not, how many times have you experienced a reaction with other sexual partners? 4. Did you have the reaction on your first intercourse? A...YES B. NO 5. 6. If the answer above is no, how many years after your first intercourse did the firstreaction occur? Prior to the

  5. Protection against Mycobacterium ulcerans lesion development by exposure to aquatic insect saliva.

    PubMed

    Marsollier, Laurent; Deniaux, Estelle; Brodin, Priscille; Marot, Agnès; Wondje, Christelle Mbondji; Saint-André, Jean-Paul; Chauty, Annick; Johnson, Christian; Tekaia, Fredj; Yeramian, Edouard; Legras, Pierre; Carbonnelle, Bernard; Reysset, Gilles; Eyangoh, Sara; Milon, Geneviève; Cole, Stewart T; Aubry, Jacques

    2007-02-01

    Buruli ulcer is a severe human skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. This disease is primarily diagnosed in West Africa with increasing incidence. Antimycobacterial drug therapy is relatively effective during the preulcerative stage of the disease, but surgical excision of lesions with skin grafting is often the ultimate treatment. The mode of transmission of this Mycobacterium species remains a matter of debate, and relevant interventions to prevent this disease lack (i) the proper understanding of the M. ulcerans life history traits in its natural aquatic ecosystem and (ii) immune signatures that could be correlates of protection. We previously set up a laboratory ecosystem with predatory aquatic insects of the family Naucoridae and laboratory mice and showed that (i) M. ulcerans-carrying aquatic insects can transmit the mycobacterium through bites and (ii) that their salivary glands are the only tissues hosting replicative M. ulcerans. Further investigation in natural settings revealed that 5%-10% of these aquatic insects captured in endemic areas have M. ulcerans-loaded salivary glands. In search of novel epidemiological features we noticed that individuals working close to aquatic environments inhabited by insect predators were less prone to developing Buruli ulcers than their relatives. Thus we set out to investigate whether those individuals might display any immune signatures of exposure to M. ulcerans-free insect predator bites, and whether those could correlate with protection. We took a two-pronged approach in this study, first investigating whether the insect bites are protective in a mouse model, and subsequently looking for possibly protective immune signatures in humans. We found that, in contrast to control BALB/c mice, BALB/c mice exposed to Naucoris aquatic insect bites or sensitized to Naucoris salivary gland homogenates (SGHs) displayed no lesion at the site of inoculation of M. ulcerans coated with Naucoris SGH components. Then using

  6. Dog and cat bites: epidemiologic analyses suggest different prevention strategies.

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, G R; O'Rourke, K M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the characteristics of reported dog and cat bite incidents in El Paso, Texas, and their implications for local bite prevention programs. METHODS: The authors reviewed a random sample of reported dog bites and all reported cat bites in El Paso, Texas, in 1995 using existing animal control surveillance data. RESULTS: The majority of cat bites (89.4%) were provoked, with females (57.5%) and adults (68.3%) more likely to be victims than males or children. In contrast, just under half of dog bites (44.6%) were provoked, with males (65.6%) and children (63%) more likely to be victims than females or adults. Dogs that had not been vaccinated for rabies were involved in 65% of dog bites and cats that had not been vaccinated for rabies were involved in 92% of cat bites. CONCLUSION: Effective bite prevention programs should address the finding that both restrained and unrestrained dogs may bite even when unprovoked and that unrestrained cats usually bite when provoked. PMID:9633872

  7. Drug Hypersensitivity: Pharmacogenetics and Clinical Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Elizabeth J.; Chung, Wen-Hung; Mockenhaupt, Maja; Roujeau, Jean-Claude; Mallal, Simon A.

    2011-01-01

    Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) include syndromes such as drug reaction, eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) or drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN). An important advance has been the discovery of associations between HLA alleles and many of these syndromes including abacavir hypersensitivity reaction, allopurinol DRESS/DIHS and SJS/TEN and SJS/TEN associated with aromatic amine anticonvulsants. These HLA associations have created the promise for prevention through screening and have additionally shed further light on the immunopathogenesis of SCARs. The roll-out of HLA-B*5701 into routine clinical practice as a genetic screening test to prevent abacavir hypersensitivity provides a translational roadmap for other drugs. Numerous hurdles exist in the widespread translation of several other drugs such as carbamazepine where the positive predictive value of HLA-B*1502 is low and the negative predictive value of HLA-B*1502 for SJS/TEN may not be 100% in all ethnic groups. International collaborative consortia have been formed with the goal of developing phenotype standardization and undertaking HLA and genome-wide analyses in diverse populations with these syndromes. PMID:21354501

  8. Insect enemies of birch

    Treesearch

    James G. Conklin

    1969-01-01

    Native birches are subject to attack by insects at all stages of growth from the germinating seedling to the mature tree. All parts of the tree—roots, stem, branches, foliage, and even the developing seed—may be utilized as feeding sites by insects of one kind or another. An enumeration of the many insects recorded in the literature as feeders on...

  9. Cellulolytic systems in insects.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hirofumi; Tokuda, Gaku

    2010-01-01

    Despite the presence of many carbohydrolytic activities in insects, their cellulolytic mechanisms are poorly understood. Whereas cellulase genes are absent from the genomes of Drosophila melanogaster or Bombyx mori, other insects such as termites produce their own cellulases. Recent studies using molecular biological techniques have brought new insights into the mechanisms by which the insects and their microbial symbionts digest cellulose in the small intestine. DNA sequences of cellulase and associated genes, as well as physiological and morphological information about the digestive systems of cellulase-producing insects, may allow the efficient use of cellulosic biomass as a sustainable energy source.

  10. Dog bites in a U.S. county: age, body part and breed in paediatric dog bites.

    PubMed

    Ramgopal, Sriram; Brungo, Lauren Bealafeld; Bykowski, Michael R; Pitetti, Raymond D; Hickey, Robert W

    2018-05-01

    To compare characteristics of gender, age, body part and breed in dog bites. We reviewed 14 956 dog bites (4195 paediatric) reported to the Allegheny County Health Department, USA, between 2007 and 2015. Using predefined age groups, we performed linear regression to assess for subject age and bite frequency and used binary logistic regression to evaluate for differences in gender and body part. We used chi-squared test with Bonferroni correction to evaluate for differences in reported breeds with age. There was a negative correlation (-0.80, r 2 = 0.64) between age and bite frequency. Children 0-3 years had a higher odds ratio (OR) of bites to the face [21.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): 17.61-25.33] and a lower OR of bites to the upper (OR: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.12-0.18) and lower (OR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.14-0.27) extremities. 'Pit bulls' accounted for 27.2% of dog bites and were more common in children 13-18 years (p < 0.01). Shih-Tzu bites were more common in children three years of age and younger (p < 0.01). Dog bites occur with higher frequency at younger ages, and head and neck injuries are more common in younger children. Pit bull bites are more common in adolescents and Shih-Tzu bites more common in younger children. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Antigen-specific histamine release in dogs with food hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Rinei; Masuda, Kenichi; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Kurata, Keigo; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2003-03-01

    An in vitro evidence of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to food allergens was detected by positive results of antigen-specific histamine release in dogs with food hypersensitivity. Eight dogs were diagnosed to have food hypersensitivity based on identification of offending food allergens with food elimination followed by oral food provocation. The percentages of histamine release against the stimulation of offending food allergens in the cases ranged from 2.1% to 70.9%. Six of the 8 cases showed histamine release higher than those of healthy control dogs. Four dogs showed relatively high histamine release at the percentage beyond 10% that was compatible with a positive value of histamine release in humans with food hypersensitivity. These findings would suggest that IgE-mediated hypersensitivity against food allergens could be involved in canine food hypersensitivity.

  12. Early plant defence against insect attack: involvement of reactive oxygen species in plant responses to insect egg deposition.

    PubMed

    Bittner, Norbert; Trauer-Kizilelma, Ute; Hilker, Monika

    2017-05-01

    Pinus sylvestris responds to insect egg deposition by ROS accumulation linked with reduced activity of the ROS scavenger catalase. Egg mortality in needles with hypersensitive response (HR)-like symptoms is enhanced. Aggressive reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in plant defence against biotic stressors, including herbivorous insects. Plants may even generate ROS in response to insect eggs, thus effectively fighting against future larval herbivory. However, so far nothing is known on how ROS-mediated plant defence against insect eggs is enzymatically regulated. Neither do we know how insects cope with egg-induced plant ROS. We addressed these gaps of knowledge by studying the activities of ROS-related enzymes in Pinus sylvestris deposited with eggs of the herbivorous sawfly Diprion pini. This species cuts a slit into pine needles and inserts its eggs into the needle tissue. About a quarter of egg-deposited needles show chlorotic tissue at the oviposition sites, indicating hypersensitive response-like direct defence responses resulting in reduced larval hatching from eggs. Hydrogen peroxide and peroxidase sensitive staining of sections of egg-deposited pine needles revealed the presence of hydrogen peroxide and peroxidase activity in needle tissue close to the eggs. Activity of ROS-producing NADPH-oxidase did not increase after egg deposition. However, the activity of the ROS-detoxifying enzyme catalase decreased after egg deposition and ovipositional wounding of needles. These results show that local ROS accumulation at the oviposition site is not caused by increased NADPH-oxidase activity, but reduced activity of pine needle catalase may contribute to it. However, our data suggest that pine sawflies can counteract the egg deposition-induced hydrogen peroxide accumulation in pine needles by high catalase activity in their oviduct secretion which is released with the eggs into pine tissue.

  13. Bite Forces and Their Measurement in Dogs and Cats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Eun; Arzi, Boaz; Garcia, Tanya C; Verstraete, Frank J M

    2018-01-01

    Bite force is generated by the interaction of the masticatory muscles, the mandibles and maxillae, the temporomandibular joints (TMJs), and the teeth. Several methods to measure bite forces in dogs and cats have been described. Direct in vivo measurement of a bite in dogs has been done; however, bite forces were highly variable due to animal volition, situation, or specific measurement technique. Bite force has been measured in vivo from anesthetized dogs by electrical stimulation of jaw adductor muscles, but this may not be reflective of volitional bite force during natural activity. In vitro bite forces have been estimated by calculation of the force produced using mechanical equations representing the jaw adductor muscles and of the mandible and skull structure Bite force can be estimated in silico using finite element analysis (FEA) of the computed model of the anatomical structures. FEA can estimate bite force in extinct species; however, estimates may be lower than the measurements in live animals and would have to be validated specifically in domestic dogs and cats to be reliable. The main factors affecting the bite forces in dogs and cats are body weight and the skull's morphology and size. Other factors such as oral pain, TMJ disorders, masticatory muscle atrophy, and malocclusion may also affect bite force. Knowledge of bite forces in dogs and cats is essential for various clinical and research fields such as the development of implants, materials, and surgical techniques as well as for forensic medicine. This paper is a summary of current knowledge of bite forces in dogs and cats, including the effect of measurement methods and of other factors.

  14. Annual incidence of snake bite in rural bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ridwanur; Faiz, M Abul; Selim, Shahjada; Rahman, Bayzidur; Basher, Ariful; Jones, Alison; d'Este, Catherine; Hossain, Moazzem; Islam, Ziaul; Ahmed, Habib; Milton, Abul Hasnat

    2010-10-26

    Snake bite is a neglected public health problem in the world and one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in many areas, particularly in the rural tropics. It also poses substantial economic burdens on the snake bite victims due to treatment related expenditure and loss of productivity. An accurate estimate of the risk of snake bite is largely unknown for most countries in the developing world, especially South-East Asia. We undertook a national epidemiological survey to determine the annual incidence density of snake bite among the rural Bangladeshi population. Information on frequency of snake bite and individuals' length of stay in selected households over the preceding twelve months was rigorously collected from the respondents through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Point estimates and confidence intervals of the incidence density of snake bite, weighted and adjusted for the multi-stage cluster sampling design, were obtained. Out of 18,857 study participants, over one year a total of 98 snake bites, including one death were reported in rural Bangladesh. The estimated incidence density of snake bite is 623.4/100,000 person years (95% C I 513.4-789.2/100,000 person years). Biting occurs mostly when individuals are at work. The majority of the victims (71%) receive snake bites to their lower extremities. Eighty-six percent of the victims received some form of management within two hours of snake bite, although only three percent of the victims went directly to either a medical doctor or a hospital. Incidence density of snake bite in rural Bangladesh is substantially higher than previously estimated. This is likely due to better ascertainment of the incidence through a population based survey. Poor access to health services increases snake bite related morbidity and mortality; therefore, effective public health actions are warranted.

  15. Annual Incidence of Snake Bite in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Ridwanur; Faiz, M. Abul; Selim, Shahjada; Rahman, Bayzidur; Basher, Ariful; Jones, Alison; d'Este, Catherine; Hossain, Moazzem; Islam, Ziaul; Ahmed, Habib; Milton, Abul Hasnat

    2010-01-01

    Background Snake bite is a neglected public health problem in the world and one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in many areas, particularly in the rural tropics. It also poses substantial economic burdens on the snake bite victims due to treatment related expenditure and loss of productivity. An accurate estimate of the risk of snake bite is largely unknown for most countries in the developing world, especially South-East Asia. Methodology/Principal Findings We undertook a national epidemiological survey to determine the annual incidence density of snake bite among the rural Bangladeshi population. Information on frequency of snake bite and individuals' length of stay in selected households over the preceding twelve months was rigorously collected from the respondents through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Point estimates and confidence intervals of the incidence density of snake bite, weighted and adjusted for the multi-stage cluster sampling design, were obtained. Out of 18,857 study participants, over one year a total of 98 snake bites, including one death were reported in rural Bangladesh. The estimated incidence density of snake bite is 623.4 / 100,000 person years (95% C I 513.4–789.2 /100,000 person years). Biting occurs mostly when individuals are at work. The majority of the victims (71%) receive snake bites to their lower extremities. Eighty-six percent of the victims received some form of management within two hours of snake bite, although only three percent of the victims went directly to either a medical doctor or a hospital. Conclusions/Significance Incidence density of snake bite in rural Bangladesh is substantially higher than previously estimated. This is likely due to better ascertainment of the incidence through a population based survey. Poor access to health services increases snake bite related morbidity and mortality; therefore, effective public health actions are warranted. PMID:21049056

  16. [Surgical management of animal bites in children].

    PubMed

    Touzet-Roumazeille, S; Jayyosi, L; Plenier, Y; Guyot, E; Guillard, T; François, C

    2016-10-01

    Children represent a population at risk, because of their short size, their naivety and their attraction to animals. The face and hands are the most specific locations in young children. Wounds are often multiple. In more than half the cases, the child knows the animal, which are dogs and cats by frequency argument. The bite episode occurs mostly when the child is alone with the pet without direct supervision, while playing or stroking the animal. As in all bites, pediatric lesions are infectious, functional and aesthetic emergencies, but the goal of this work was primarily to make a point on principles of surgical management of animal bites in children, highlighting pediatric specificities. Animal bites require psychological, anesthetic and surgical treatment, adapted to the child, in a specialized structure. Hospitalization and general anesthesia are more frequent in children. Any suspicion of mistreatment (and/or abuse) should lead to the child's hospitalization, even if wounds do not justify monitoring in a surgical environment. Emergency surgery is essential to limit functional and aesthetic consequences. The healing capacities of the child and the frequent lack of co-morbidity allow a conservative surgical treatment with suture, repositioning skin flaps and controlled healing in the first place. Immobilization, drainage, and antibiotics will complete the surgery. The healing process, however, leads to a specific management during scar remodeling phase and growth. Psychological care of the child and parents should not be forgotten, and has to start at the same time as surgical treatment at in acute phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnetic compasses in insects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of magnetic information for orientation and navigation is a widespread phenomenon in animals. In contrast to navigational systems in vertebrates, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the insect magnetic perception and use of the information is at an early stage. Some insects use ma...

  18. Insects and diseases

    Treesearch

    John W. Couston

    2009-01-01

    Insects and diseases are a natural part of forested ecosystems. Their activity is partially regulated by biotic factors, e.g., host abundance, host quality; physical factors, e.g., soil, climate; and disturbances (Berryman 1986). Insects and diseases can influence both forest patterns and forest processes by causing, for example, defoliation and mortality. These...

  19. Insects: Bugged Out!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piehl, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Insects really need no introduction. They have lived on earth much longer than humans and vastly outnumber people and all other animal species combined. People encounter them daily in their houses and yards. Yet, when children want to investigate insects, books can help them start their explorations. "Paleo Bugs" carries readers back to the time…

  20. Great Basin insect outbreaks

    Treesearch

    Barbara Bentz; Diane Alston; Ted Evans

    2008-01-01

    Outbreaks of native and exotic insects are important drivers of ecosystem dynamics in the Great Basin. The following provides an overview of range, forest, ornamental, and agricultural insect outbreaks occurring in the Great Basin and the associated management issues and research needs.

  1. Sterile Insect Quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter discusses the history of the development of quality control tchnology, the principles and philosophy of assessing insect quality, and the relative importance of the various parameters used to assess insect quality in the context of mass-rearing for the SIT. Quality control is most devel...

  2. Principal Areas of Insect Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carroll M.

    1973-01-01

    Research for insect control has been quite complex. However, recent knowledge of using insect hormones against them has opened new vistas for producing insecticides which may be harmless to human population. Current areas of insect research are outlined. (PS)

  3. T regulatory cells in contact hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Cavani, Andrea

    2008-08-01

    The review summarizes the recent investigations focused on T regulatory cells in hapten diseases. Multiple mechanisms ensure tolerance to small chemicals penetrating the skin. Among these, specific T regulatory cells play a major role in controlling harmful immune responses to environmental antigens. Most of the T regulatory cells involved in this process belongs to the CD4 subset and suppress hapten-specific immune response through the release of IL-10 and through direct interaction with effector T cells, blocking their function. Methods for in-vitro and in-vivo expansion of specific T regulatory cells may represent an innovative approach for the cure of contact hypersensitivity.

  4. Beware of Bug Bites and Stings

    MedlinePlus

    ... dishes. Use insect repellent if nonchemical methods are ineffective and you spend time in tall grass and ... Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas ...

  5. Is extreme bite performance associated with extreme morphologies in sharks?

    PubMed

    Huber, Daniel R; Claes, Julien M; Mallefet, Jérôme; Herrel, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    As top predators in many oceanic communities, sharks are known to eat large prey and are supposedly able to generate high bite forces. This notion has, however, largely gone untested due to the experimental intractability of these animals. For those species that have been investigated, it remains unclear whether their high bite forces are simply a consequence of their large body size or the result of diet-related adaptation. As aquatic poikilotherms, sharks can grow very large, making them ideal subjects with which to investigate the effects of body size on bite force. Relative bite-force capacity is often associated with changes in head shape because taller or wider heads can, for example, accommodate larger jaw muscles. Constraints on bite force in general may also be released by changes in tooth shape. For example, more pointed teeth may allow a predator to penetrate prey more effectively than blunt, pavementlike teeth. Our analyses show that large sharks do not bite hard for their body size, but they generally have larger heads. Head width is the best predictor of bite force across the species included in our study as indicated by a multiple regression model. Contrary to our predictions, sharks with relatively high bite forces for their body size also have relatively more pointed teeth at the front of the tooth row. Moreover, species including hard prey in their diet are characterized by high bite forces and narrow and pointed teeth at the jaw symphysis.

  6. Bite force measurement based on fiber Bragg grating sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padma, Srivani; Umesh, Sharath; Asokan, Sundarrajan; Srinivas, Talabattula

    2017-10-01

    The maximum level of voluntary bite force, which results from the combined action of muscle of mastication, joints, and teeth, i.e., craniomandibular structure, is considered as one of the major indicators for the functional state of the masticatory system. Measurement of voluntary bite force provides useful data for the jaw muscle function and activity along with assessment of prosthetics. This study proposes an in vivo methodology for the dynamic measurement of bite force employing a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor known as bite force measurement device (BFMD). The BFMD developed is a noninvasive intraoral device, which transduces the bite force exerted at the occlusal surface into strain variations on a metal plate. These strain variations are acquired by the FBG sensor bonded over it. The BFMD developed facilitates adjustment of the distance between the biting platform, which is essential to capture the maximum voluntary bite force at three different positions of teeth, namely incisor, premolar, and molar sites. The clinically relevant bite forces are measured at incisor, molar, and premolar position and have been compared against each other. Furthermore, the bite forces measured with all subjects are segregated according to gender and also compared against each other.

  7. Cough reflex hypersensitivity: A role for neurotrophins.

    PubMed

    El-Hashim, Ahmed Z; Jaffal, Sahar M

    2017-03-01

    Cough is one of the most common complaints for which sufferers seek medical assistance. However, currently available drugs are not very effective in treating cough, particularly that which follows an upper respiratory tract infection. Nonetheless, there has been a significant increase in our understanding of the mechanisms and pathways of the defensive cough as well as the hypersensitive/pathophysiological cough, both at airway and central nervous system (CNS) levels. Numerous molecules and signaling pathways have been identified as potential targets for antitussive drugs, including neurotrophins (NTs). NTs belong to a family of trophic factors and are critical for the development and maintenance of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system including sympathetic efferents, sensory neuron afferents, and immune cells. Nerve growth factor (NGF) was the first member of the NT family to be discovered, with wide ranging actions associated with synapse formation, survival, proliferation, apoptosis, axonal and dendritic outgrowth, expression and activity of functionally important proteins such as ion channels, receptors, and neurotransmitters. In addition, NGF has been implicated in several disease states particularly neuropathic pain and most recently in the sensitization of the cough reflex. This review will briefly address the peripheral and central sensitization mechanisms of airway neurons and will then focus on NGF signaling and its role in cough hypersensitivity.

  8. Carboplatin hypersensitivity: evaluation and successful desensitization protocol.

    PubMed

    Bruchim, Ilan; Goldberg, Arnon; Fishman, Ami; Confino-Cohen, Ronit

    2014-01-01

    Carboplatin-induced immediate hypersensitivity reactions are relatively common among patients with gynecological malignancies. Once this occurs, the patient might be at risk for future carboplatin-induced reactions. This study evaluated the efficacy of allergic consultation, carboplatin skin testing and desensitization as a single intervention strategy in this population. Patients with a well-documented immediate reaction to carboplatin were offered allergy consultation, carboplatin skin testing and a desensitization plan in a single visit between scheduled chemotherapy sessions. Fifty-five patients with an immediate reaction were evaluated. After allergist assessment, 44 (89%) of 49 patients skin tested had a positive result. A total of 207 carboplatin desensitization cycles were administered to 49 women. Among them, 10 patients had a mild immediate hypersensitivity reaction during desensitization. Five patients subsequently tolerated carboplatin administered in the prolonged desensitization protocol. In the data presented, we propose a strategy that is both cost effective and very convenient for the patient. The diagnostic procedure, including allergist consultation and skin test, can be completed in less than 2 h. In most cases where carboplatin is indispensable, desensitization can be administered without overnight hospitalization.

  9. Occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis: an EAACI position paper.

    PubMed

    Quirce, S; Vandenplas, O; Campo, P; Cruz, M J; de Blay, F; Koschel, D; Moscato, G; Pala, G; Raulf, M; Sastre, J; Siracusa, A; Tarlo, S M; Walusiak-Skorupa, J; Cormier, Y

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this document was to provide a critical review of the current knowledge on hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by the occupational environment and to propose practical guidance for the diagnosis and management of this condition. Occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis (OHP) is an immunologic lung disease resulting from lymphocytic and frequently granulomatous inflammation of the peripheral airways, alveoli, and surrounding interstitial tissue which develops as the result of a non-IgE-mediated allergic reaction to a variety of organic materials or low molecular weight agents that are present in the workplace. The offending agents can be classified into six broad categories that include bacteria, fungi, animal proteins, plant proteins, low molecular weight chemicals, and metals. The diagnosis of OHP requires a multidisciplinary approach and relies on a combination of diagnostic tests to ascertain the work relatedness of the disease. Both the clinical and the occupational history are keys to the diagnosis and often will lead to the initial suspicion. Diagnostic criteria adapted to OHP are proposed. The cornerstone of treatment is early removal from exposure to the eliciting antigen, although the disease may show an adverse outcome even after avoidance of exposure to the causal agent. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Vision in flying insects.

    PubMed

    Egelhaaf, Martin; Kern, Roland

    2002-12-01

    Vision guides flight behaviour in numerous insects. Despite their small brain, insects easily outperform current man-made autonomous vehicles in many respects. Examples are the virtuosic chasing manoeuvres male flies perform as part of their mating behaviour and the ability of bees to assess, on the basis of visual motion cues, the distance travelled in a novel environment. Analyses at both the behavioural and neuronal levels are beginning to unveil reasons for such extraordinary capabilities of insects. One recipe for their success is the adaptation of visual information processing to the specific requirements of the behavioural tasks and to the specific spatiotemporal properties of the natural input.

  11. 21 CFR 866.5500 - Hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5500 Hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test system. (a) Identification. A... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test...

  12. 21 CFR 866.5500 - Hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... system. 866.5500 Section 866.5500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Systems § 866.5500 Hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test system. (a) Identification. A hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure by...

  13. 21 CFR 866.5500 - Hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... system. 866.5500 Section 866.5500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Systems § 866.5500 Hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test system. (a) Identification. A hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure by...

  14. 21 CFR 866.5500 - Hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... system. 866.5500 Section 866.5500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Systems § 866.5500 Hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test system. (a) Identification. A hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure by...

  15. 21 CFR 866.5500 - Hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... system. 866.5500 Section 866.5500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Systems § 866.5500 Hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test system. (a) Identification. A hypersensitivity pneumonitis immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure by...

  16. Bacteria isolated from conspecific bite wounds in Norway and black rats: implications for rat bite-associated infections in people.

    PubMed

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Zabek, Erin; Tang, Patrick; Parsons, Kirbee L; Koehn, Martha; Jardine, Claire M; Patrick, David M

    2014-02-01

    Bites associated with wild and domestic Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) may have a variety of health consequences in people. Bite-related infections are among the most significant of these consequences; however, there is little data on the infectious agents that can be transmitted from rats to people through biting. This is problematic because without an accurate understanding of bite-related infection risks, it is difficult for health professionals to evaluate the adequacy of existing guidelines for empirical therapy. The objectives of this study were to increase our knowledge of the bacterial species associated with rat bites by studying bite wounds that wild rats inflict upon one another and to review the literature regarding rat bites and bite wound management. Wild Norway and black rats (n=725) were trapped in Vancouver, Canada, and examined for bite wounds in the skin. All apparently infected wounds underwent aerobic and anaerobic culture, and isolated bacteria were identified. Thirty-six rats had bite wound-related infections, and approximately 22 different species of bacteria belonging to 18 genera were identified. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolate; however, the majority of infections (72.5%) were polymicrobial. Rat bites can result in infection with a number of aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In humans, these wounds are best managed through early recognition and cleansing. The benefit of prophylactic antimicrobial treatment is debatable, but given the deep puncturing nature of rodent bites, we suggest that they should be considered a high risk for infection. Antibiotics selected should include coverage for a broad range of bacterial species.

  17. Management of trichomonas vaginalis in women with suspected metronidazole hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Helms, Donna J; Mosure, Debra J; Secor, W Evan; Workowski, Kimberly A

    2008-04-01

    Standard treatment for Trichomonas vaginalis is metronidazole or tinidazole. Hypersensitivity to these drugs has been documented but is poorly understood. Desensitization is an option described in limited reports of women with hypersensitivity to nitroimidazoles. The purpose of this analysis is to improve documentation of management for trichomonas infections among women with metronidazole hypersensitivity. Clinicians who consulted Centers for Disease Control and Prevention concerning patients with suspected hypersensitivity to metronidazole were provided with treatment options and asked to report outcomes. From September 2003-September 2006, complete information was obtained for 59 women. The most common reactions were urticaria (47%) and facial edema (11%). Fifteen of these women (25.4%) were treated with metronidazole desensitization and all had eradication of their infection. Seventeen women (28.8%) were treated with alternative intravaginal drugs, which were less successful; 5 of 17 infections (29.4%) were eradicated. Metronidazole desensitization was effective in the management of women with nitroimidazole hypersensitivity.

  18. Managing hypersensitivity to asparaginase in pediatrics, adolescents, and young adults.

    PubMed

    Shinnick, Sara E; Browning, Mary L; Koontz, Susannah E

    2013-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to chemotherapeutic drugs have been documented for numerous cancer therapies. Clinical hypersensitivity to Escherichia coli asparaginase has been reported to range from 0% to 75%. Throughout the United States, nurses assume frontline responsibility for the assessment of asparaginase-related hypersensitivity reactions. It is essential that nurses educate themselves on the signs and symptoms of asparaginase-related hypersensitivity reactions as well as current supportive care approaches. The purpose of this review is to summarize acute lymphoblastic leukemia and the role of asparaginase and the pathology of allergic reactions. We will also update nurses on the differences in asparaginase preparations including dosing, half-life, rates of hypersensitivity, and routes of administration. A summary of current management and supportive care strategies will be provided as will a discussion of the relationship between allergy, antibodies, and asparaginase activity.

  19. Feeding the insect industry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This article reports the use of insect colloidal artificial diets suitable for the rearing of economically important arthropods, such as Lygus lineolaris, Lygus hesperus, Coleomegilla maculata, and Phytoseiulus persimilis The different diets contain key nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates, vit...

  20. Evolution of the Insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimaldi, David; Engel, Michael S.

    2005-05-01

    This book chronicles the complete evolutionary history of insects--their living diversity and relationships as well as 400 million years of fossils. Introductory sections cover the living species diversity of insects, methods of reconstructing evolutionary relationships, basic insect structure, and the diverse modes of insect fossilization and major fossil deposits. Major sections then explore the relationships and evolution of each order of hexapods. The volume also chronicles major episodes in the evolutionary history of insects from their modest beginnings in the Devonian and the origin of wings hundreds of millions of years before pterosaurs and birds to the impact of mass extinctions and the explosive radiation of angiosperms on insects, and how they evolved into the most complex societies in nature. Whereas other volumes focus on either living species or fossils, this is the first comprehensive synthesis of all aspects of insect evolution. Illustrated with 955 photo- and electron- micrographs, drawings, diagrams, and field photos, many in full color and virtually all of them original, this reference will appeal to anyone engaged with insect diversity--professional entomologists and students, insect and fossil collectors, and naturalists. David Grimaldi and Michael S. Engel have collectively published over 200 scientific articles and monographs on the relationships and fossil record of insects, including 10 articles in the journals Science, Nature, and Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. David Grimaldi is curator in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History and adjunct professor at Cornell University, Columbia University, and the City University of New York. David Grimaldi has traveled in 40 countries on 6 continents, collecting and studying recent species of insects and conducting fossil excavations. He is the author of Amber: Window to the Past (Abrams, 2003). Michael S. Engel is an assistant professor in the

  1. Important Insect Pests of Fruit - Important Insect Pests of Nuts - Field Crop Insect Pests - Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesell, Stanley G.; And Others

    This document consists of four agriculture extension service publications from Pennsylvania State University. The titles are: (1) Important Insect Pests of Fruit; (2) Important Insect Pests of Nuts; (3) Field Crop Insect Pests; and (4) Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops. The first publication gives the hosts, injury, and description of 22 insect…

  2. Ecology of forest insect invasions

    Treesearch

    E.G. Brockerhoff; A.M. Liebhold

    2017-01-01

    Forests in virtually all regions of the world are being affected by invasions of non-native insects. We conducted an in-depth review of the traits of successful invasive forest insects and the ecological processes involved in insect invasions across the universal invasion phases (transport and arrival, establishment, spread and impacts). Most forest insect invasions...

  3. [Case report: Snake bite - an odd case].

    PubMed

    Evers, Bettina; Muth, Claus-Martin; Georgieff, Michael; Dinse-Lambracht, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Emergency medical service is called by a 54-year-old man bitten by his rattlesnake. Upon initial survey we find the patient in a cardiopulmonary stable condition. He has bite marks and pain on his rapidly swelling middle finger of his right hand. Our initial treatment is immobilization of the patient. The snake raiser has already called the poison control center in Munich. By the help of this institution we bring him to a hospital having the right antivenom on hand. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Exploring Insect Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    A fly is buzzing around in the kitchen. You sneak up on it with a flyswatter, but just as you get close to it, it flies away. What makes flies and other insects so good at escaping from danger? The fact that insects have eyesight that can easily detect moving objects is one of the things that help them survive. In this month's Science Shorts,…

  5. Insects and other invertebrates

    Treesearch

    John R. Jones; Norbert V. DeByle; Diane M. Bowers

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen throughout its range appears to be host to several insect and other invertebrate pests (fig. 1). It is a short-lived species that is palatable to a large variety of animals. Furniss and Carolin (1977) listed 33 insect species that use aspen as a food source. Some are quite damaging and may kill otherwise healthy stands of aspen; others feed on weakened or...

  6. Improved reactive nanoparticles to treat dentin hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Toledano-Osorio, Manuel; Osorio, Estrella; Aguilera, Fátima S; Luis Medina-Castillo, Antonio; Toledano, Manuel; Osorio, Raquel

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different nanoparticles-based solutions for dentin permeability reduction and to determine the viscoelastic performance of cervical dentin after their application. Four experimental nanoparticle solutions based on zinc, calcium or doxycycline-loaded polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) were applied on citric acid etched dentin, to facilitate the occlusion and the reduction of the fluid flow at the dentinal tubules. After 24 h and 7 d of storage, cervical dentin was evaluated for fluid filtration. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis, AFM and Nano-DMA analysis were also performed. Complex, storage, loss modulus and tan delta (δ) were assessed. Doxycycline-loaded NPs impaired tubule occlusion and fluid flow reduction trough dentin. Tubules were 100% occluded in dentin treated with calcium-loaded NPs or zinc-loaded NPs, analyzed at 7 d. Dentin treated with both zinc-NPs and calcium-NPs attained the highest reduction of dentinal fluid flow. Moreover, when treating dentin with zinc-NPs, complex modulus values attained at intertubular and peritubular dentin were higher than those obtained after applying calcium-NPs. Zinc-NPs are then supposed to fasten active dentin remodeling, with increased maturity and high mechanical properties. Zinc-based nanoparticles are then proposed for effective dentin remineralization and tubular occlusion. Further research to finally prove for clinical benefits in patients with dentin hypersensitivity using Zn-doped nanoparticles is encouraged. Erosion from acids provokes dentin hypersensitivity (DH) which presents with intense pain of short duration. Open dentinal tubules and demineralization favor DH. Nanogels based on Ca-nanoparticles and Zn-nanoparticles produced an efficient reduction of fluid flow. Dentinal tubules were filled by precipitation of induced calcium-phosphate deposits. When treating dentin with Zn-nanoparticles, complex modulus

  7. Insect immunology and hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Hillyer, Julián F

    2016-05-01

    Insects combat infection by mounting powerful immune responses that are mediated by hemocytes, the fat body, the midgut, the salivary glands and other tissues. Foreign organisms that have entered the body of an insect are recognized by the immune system when pathogen-associated molecular patterns bind host-derived pattern recognition receptors. This, in turn, activates immune signaling pathways that amplify the immune response, induce the production of factors with antimicrobial activity, and activate effector pathways. Among the immune signaling pathways are the Toll, Imd, Jak/Stat, JNK, and insulin pathways. Activation of these and other pathways leads to pathogen killing via phagocytosis, melanization, cellular encapsulation, nodulation, lysis, RNAi-mediated virus destruction, autophagy and apoptosis. This review details these and other aspects of immunity in insects, and discusses how the immune and circulatory systems have co-adapted to combat infection, how hemocyte replication and differentiation takes place (hematopoiesis), how an infection prepares an insect for a subsequent infection (immune priming), how environmental factors such as temperature and the age of the insect impact the immune response, and how social immunity protects entire groups. Finally, this review highlights some underexplored areas in the field of insect immunobiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Insects on flowers

    PubMed Central

    Wardhaugh, Carl W.; Stork, Nigel E.; Edwards, Will; Grimbacher, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    Insect biodiversity peaks in tropical rainforest environments where a large but as yet unknown proportion of species are found in the canopy. While there has been a proliferation of insect biodiversity research undertaken in the rainforest canopy, most studies focus solely on insects that inhabit the foliage. In a recent paper, we examined the distribution of canopy insects across five microhabitats (mature leaves, new leaves, flowers, fruit and suspended dead wood) in an Australian tropical rainforest, showing that the density (per dry weight gram of microhabitat) of insects on flowers were ten to ten thousand times higher than on the leaves. Flowers also supported a much higher number of species than expected based on their contribution to total forest biomass. Elsewhere we show that most of these beetle species were specialized to flowers with little overlap in species composition between different canopy microhabitats. Here we expand our discussion of the implications of our results with respect to specialization and the generation of insect biodiversity in the rainforest canopy. Lastly, we identify future directions for research into the biodiversity and specialization of flower-visitors in complex tropical rainforests. PMID:23802039

  9. Insect--plant adaptations.

    PubMed

    Southwood, T R

    1984-01-01

    The adaptation of insects to plants probably commenced in the early Permian period, though most current associations will be more recent. A major burst of adaptation must have followed the rise of the Angiosperms in the Cretaceous period, though some particular associations are as recent as this century. Living plants form a large proportion of the potential food in most habitats, though insects have had to overcome certain general hurdles to live and feed on them. Insects affect the reproduction and survival of plants, and thus the diversity of plant secondary chemicals may have evolved as a response. Where an insect species has a significant effect on a plant species that is its only host, coevolution may be envisaged. A spectacular example is provided by Heliconius butterflies and passion flower vines, studied by L.E. Gilbert and others. But such cases may be likened to 'vortices in the evolutionary stream': most plant species are influenced by a range of phytophagous insects so that selection will be for general defences--a situation termed diffuse coevolution. Evidence is presented on recent host-plant shifts to illustrate both the restrictions and the flexibility in current insect-plant associations.

  10. Lessons from Studying Insect Symbioses

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Angela E.

    2011-01-01

    As for mammals, insect health is strongly influenced by the composition and activities of resident microorganisms. However, the microbiota of insects is generally less diverse than that of mammals, allowing microbial function in insects to be coupled to individual, identified microbial species. This trait of insect symbioses facilitates our understanding of the mechanisms that promote insect-microbial coexistence and the processes by which the microbiota affect insect wellbeing. As a result, insects are potentially ideal models to study various aspects of interactions between the host and its resident microorganisms that are impractical or unfeasible in mammals and to generate hypotheses for subsequent testing in mammalian models. PMID:22018236

  11. Bullous reactions to bed bug bites reflect cutaneous vasculitis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study evaluates bullous cutaneous reactions and sequential histopathology in an individual sensitized to bed bug bites in an effort to better understand the allergic response and histology associated with these bites. There was a progression of the inflammatory response across time ranging from...

  12. Proximate determinants of bite force in Anolis lizards.

    PubMed

    Wittorski, Antoine; Losos, Jonathan B; Herrel, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Performance measures associated with the vertebrate jaw system may provide important insights into vertebrate ecology and evolution because of their importance in many ecologically relevant tasks. Previous studies have shown that in many taxa, evolution toward higher bite force has gone hand in hand with the evolution of larger body size. However, independent of differences in overall body size, bite force may vary depending on head size and shape as well. Moreover, the underlying musculature may also drive variation in bite force. Here, we investigate the proximate determinants of bite force in lizards of the genus Anolis. We dissected the jaw muscles and quantified muscle mass, fibre length, and cross-sectional area. Data were analysed for both sexes independently given the sexual dimorphism detected in the dataset. Our results show that the traits that explain bite force are similar in both males and females with overall body size and muscle mass being the principal determinants. Among the different muscles examined, the adductor externus and the pseudotemporalis groups were the best determinants of bite force. However, models run for males predicted the variation in bite force better than models for females, suggesting that selection on morphology improving bite force may be stronger in males. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  13. Taking the Bite Out of Vector-Borne Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the 'Bite' Out of Vector-Borne Diseases Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Taking the 'Bite' Out of Vector- ... Science Solving the Sleeping Sickness 'Mystery' This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  14. Are bruxism and the bite causally related?

    PubMed

    Lobbezoo, F; Ahlberg, J; Manfredini, D; Winocur, E

    2012-07-01

    In the dental profession, the belief that bruxism and dental (mal-)occlusion ('the bite') are causally related is widespread. The aim of this review was to critically assess the available literature on this topic. A PubMed search of the English-language literature, using the query 'Bruxism [Majr] AND (Dental Occlusion [Majr] OR Malocclusion [Majr])', yielded 93 articles, of which 46 papers were finally included in the present review*. Part of the included publications dealt with the possible associations between bruxism and aspects of occlusion, from which it was concluded that neither for occlusal interferences nor for factors related to the anatomy of the oro-facial skeleton, there is any evidence available that they are involved in the aetiology of bruxism. Instead, there is a growing awareness of other factors (viz. psychosocial and behavioural ones) being important in the aetiology of bruxism. Another part of the included papers assessed the possible mediating role of occlusion between bruxism and its purported consequences (e.g. tooth wear, loss of periodontal tissues, and temporomandibular pain and dysfunction). Even though most dentists agree that bruxism may have several adverse effects on the masticatory system, for none of these purported adverse effects, evidence for a mediating role of occlusion and articulation has been found to date. Hence, based on this review, it should be concluded that to date, there is no evidence whatsoever for a causal relationship between bruxism and the bite. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Nail Biting; Etiology, Consequences and Management

    PubMed Central

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Nail biting (NB) is a common, but unresolved, problem in psychiatry, psychology, medicine and dentistry. While it seems that NB is a simple behavior that can be stopped easily, many of the children with NB have already tried to stop it, but they have not been successful. The frustrations due to failed attempt involve others such as parents and siblings. The present review aims at providing an overview of prevalence, co-morbidities, education and counseling, and management for NB. Overall, the reviewed literatures suggest that co-morbidities of psychiatric disorders and other stereotypic behaviors in clinical sample of children with NB is more than 80%, and more than half of the parents suffer from psychiatric disorders mainly depression. Treatment of NB, however, is not as easy as it seems. The management of NB is much more complicated than just focusing on stopping it. Nail biting cannot be managed without considering its co-morbidities, antecedents and consequences. It might be concluded form the reviewed literature that children with NB, parents, siblings, and teachers should be educated about what to do and what not to do about NB. Punishment is not effective. Moreover, clinical randomized controlled trials are required to make available evidence-based behavioral and pharmacologic treatment protocols. PMID:23358880

  16. First bite syndrome: our experience of laser tympanic plexus ablation.

    PubMed

    Amin, N; Pelser, A; Weighill, J

    2014-02-01

    First bite syndrome is a condition characterised by severe facial pain brought on by the first bite of each meal. This can severely affect the patient's ability to eat. We present a 70-year-old woman for whom we performed a laser ablation of the left ear tympanic plexus, as treatment of first bite syndrome. A permeatal approach was used to raise a tympanomeatal flap. The tympanic plexus was identified on the promontory and a 4 mm2 area of the plexus was ablated using CO2 laser. The flap was repositioned and a dressing was placed with topical antibiotics. At two-month follow up, there was full resolution of the patient's symptoms. First bite syndrome carries a high morbidity; treatment options are variable, and often unsuccessful. We describe the first documented case of laser tympanic plexus ablation, with a very effective initial response. This procedure represents a useful therapeutic option for first bite syndrome.

  17. [Hypersensitivity reaction to radio contrast media: diagnosis, prevention and treatment].

    PubMed

    Mahlab-Guri, Keren; Herskovitz, Pearl; Sthoeger, Zev

    2012-07-01

    More than 70 million radiographic examinations with radio contrast media are performed worldwide each year. The incidence of adverse reactions to radio contrast media is 5-13%. Adverse reactions include hypersensitivity reactions, chemotoxic reactions and renal toxicity. Hypersensitivity reactions to radio contrast media range from mild pruritus to life-threatening emergency. The differential diagnosis between hypersensitivity reaction to radio contrast media and chemotoxic reaction is challenging. The incidence of chemotoxic reactions is mainly affected by the chemical structure of the radio contrast media and the rate of infusion. The incidence of hypersensitivity radio contrast media reaction is affected by age and by the presence of asthma and other atopic diseases. The diagnosis of hypersensitivity reaction to radio contrast media is based on clinical manifestations. The additional value of laboratory tests is limited and questionable. In case of hypersensitivity radio contrast reaction, the infusion should be stopped immediately, airways should be protected and fluids, oxygen and drugs should be given. Prophylactic treatment before its administration may prevent hypersensitivity reactions to radio contrast media.

  18. Outpatient desensitization in selected patients with platinum hypersensitivity reactions.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, David M; Vetter, Monica Hagan; Cohn, David E; Khan, Ambar; Hays, John L

    2017-06-01

    Platinum-based chemotherapies are a standard treatment for both initial and recurrent gynecologic cancers. Given this widespread use, it is important to be aware of the features of platinum hypersensitivity reactions and the subsequent treatment of these reactions. There is also increasing interest in the development of desensitization protocols to allow patients with a history of platinum hypersensitivity to receive further platinum based therapy. In this review, we describe the management of platinum hypersensitivity reactions and the desensitization protocols utilized at our institution. We also describe the clinical categorizations utilized to triage patients to appropriate desensitization protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment of horses with cypermethrin against the biting flies Culicoides nubeculosus, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, E; Rowlinson, M; Bartram, D; Carpenter, S; Mellor, P; Wall, R

    2010-04-19

    An in vitro assay was used to assess the efficacy of the proprietary pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin applied to horses (Deosect spray, 5.0%, w/v Fort Dodge Animal Health) against the biting midge Culicoides nubeculosus (Meigen) (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti Linneaus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Hair was collected from the back, belly and legs of the horses immediately prior to treatment and 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after treatment, and also from untreated controls. In laboratory assays groups of 10 adult female C. nubeculosus, Ae. aegypti or C. quinquefasciatus were exposed to 0.5g of hair for 3min. In all cases, little or no mortality was observed in insects kept in contact with the pre-treatment samples or the untreated controls. With post-treatment samples for C. nubeculosus, mortality was close to 80% 7 days after treatment and then declined gradually; mean mortality was still at around 50% for hair collected 35 days after treatment. In general, Ae. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus appeared to be less susceptible to cypermethrin than C. nubeculosus and the attenuation of the toxic effect declined more quickly with time after treatment. There were differences in the toxicity of hair from different body regions, with hair from the back consistently inducing the highest mortality and hair from the legs the lowest; this effect was more pronounced for C. nubeculosus than Ae. aegypti or C. quinquefasciatus. The results demonstrate the potential for topical insecticide treatment to offer protection to horses against biting flies; but highlight the major differences that exist in susceptibility between different insect species.

  20. The Insect Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Lovett, Brian; St Leger, Raymond J

    2017-03-01

    Fungi are the most common disease-causing agents of insects; aside from playing a crucial role in natural ecosystems, insect-killing fungi are being used as alternatives to chemical insecticides and as resources for biotechnology and pharmaceuticals. Some common experimentally tractable genera, such as Metarhizium spp., exemplify genetic diversity and dispersal because they contain numerous intraspecific variants with distinct environmental and insect host ranges. The availability of tools for molecular genetics and multiple sequenced genomes has made these fungi ideal experimental models for answering basic questions on the genetic and genomic processes behind adaptive phenotypes. For example, comparative genomics of entomopathogenic fungi has shown they exhibit diverse reproductive modes that often determine rates and patterns of genome evolution and are linked as cause or effect with pathogenic strategies. Fungal-insect pathogens represent lifestyle adaptations that evolved numerous times, and there are significant differences in host range and pathogenic strategies between the major groups. However, typically, spores landing on the cuticle produce appressoria and infection pegs that breach the cuticle using mechanical pressure and cuticle-degrading enzymes. Once inside the insect body cavity, fungal pathogens face a potent and comprehensively studied immune defense by which the host attempts to eliminate or reduce an infection. The Fungal Kingdom stands alone in the range, extent, and complexity of their manipulation of arthropod behavior. In part, this is because most only sporulate on cadavers, so they must ensure the dying host positions itself to allow efficient transmission.

  1. Biting behaviour of Tabanidae on cattle in mountainous summer pastures, Pyrenees, France, and effects of weather variables.

    PubMed

    Baldacchino, F; Puech, L; Manon, S; Hertzog, Lionel R; Jay-Robert, P

    2014-08-01

    In France, during the summer, cattle in mountainous pastures can be highly exposed to tabanid bites. The persistent biting behaviour of tabanids not only causes disturbance, but is also responsible for transmitting diseases, such as bovine besnoitiosis. The purpose of this study was to better identify the level of tabanid annoyance on cattle by means of insect trapping and direct observation of cows. Tabanids were active during the entire daily observation period (10:00-16:00), except for Haematopota sp., which were less active in the morning. The tabanids collected in Nzi traps were generally representative of those that landed on cattle, except for Haematopota sp., as Nzi traps were not very effective for these species. The preferred feeding sites for most species appeared to be cow's legs or udder. Leg stamping was the defensive reaction most related to a tabanid alighting on a host. Generalized linear mixed models showed that the parameters associated with tabanid landings on hosts were related to weather and altitude, but not to landscape structure. Increased landings were mostly associated with the higher temperatures and lower wind speeds at midday, but some differences were observed between species. The results indicate that cattle-protection measures should be taken during the peak of tabanid abundance when climatic conditions favour intense biting activity. Nzi traps set close to livestock were very effective to catch tabanids and could help in reducing the annoyance caused by horse flies.

  2. Behavioral Immunity in Insects

    PubMed Central

    de Roode, Jacobus C.; Lefèvre, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Parasites can dramatically reduce the fitness of their hosts, and natural selection should favor defense mechanisms that can protect hosts against disease. Much work has focused on understanding genetic and physiological immunity against parasites, but hosts can also use behaviors to avoid infection, reduce parasite growth or alleviate disease symptoms. It is increasingly recognized that such behaviors are common in insects, providing strong protection against parasites and parasitoids. We review the current evidence for behavioral immunity in insects, present a framework for investigating such behavior, and emphasize that behavioral immunity may act through indirect rather than direct fitness benefits. We also discuss the implications for host-parasite co-evolution, local adaptation, and the evolution of non-behavioral physiological immune systems. Finally, we argue that the study of behavioral immunity in insects has much to offer for investigations in vertebrates, in which this topic has traditionally been studied. PMID:26466629

  3. Treatment of hyperdivergent growth pattern and anterior open bite with posterior metallic bite planes.

    PubMed

    Ciavarella, Domenico; Lo Russo, Lucio; Nichelini, Jeffrey; Mastrovincenzo, Mario; Barbato, Ersilia; Laurenziello, Michele; Montaruli, Graziano; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo

    2017-12-01

    In the present paper, the authors analyze the effect of the "Swallowing Occlusal Contact Intercept Appliance" (SOCIA) in treatment of children with hyperdivergent Class II malocclusion. This functional appliance has no intra-oral anchorage, but induces a continuous periodontal, muscular, and articular stimulation. Twenty-six patients with hyperdivergent growth and class II malocclusion were selected and treated with SOCIA appliance. Cephalometric analysis was performed before treatment (T1) and immediately after the treatment (T2). After 24 months treatment authors observed a modification of maxillary growth with a reduction of the divergence with an increase of the posterior facial height, a modification of condylar inclination and forward position of the a hyoid. No modifications was observed about the ANB angle. After treatment the open bite was resolved with a reduction of the inclination of the upper incisors. SOCIA is a reliable functional appliance in growing age patients with a hyperdivergent pattern growth, anterior open bite and class II molar malocclusion.

  4. Immunological diagnosis of cutaneous-pulmonary hypersensitivity vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Skjodt, Neil M; Elliot, Tracey L; Puttagunta, Lakshmi; Yacyshyn, Elaine A; Tron, Victor A

    2007-11-01

    A 47-year-old woman had episodic dyspnoea, fatigue, chest radiograph opacifications, and palpable purpura whose biopsy showed leucocytoclastic vasculitis. Negative immunoglobulin A immunofluorescence staining and clinical exclusion of other disorders narrowed her diagnosis to cutaneous pulmonary hypersensitivity vasculitis.

  5. [Food hypersensitivity dermatitis in the dog: diagnostic possibilities].

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, S; Favrot, C

    2005-04-01

    Dogs with food hypersensitivity usually develop chronic pruritic dermatoses virtually indistinguishable from atopic dermatitis. These reactions are often called food allergy but the pathogenesis is poorly characterized. Several studies have addressed the incidence of canine adverse reactions to food but the outcomes were conflicting. The gold standard for the diagnosis of such a condition is the restricted dietary trial and the subsequent provocation challenge. Some attempts have been made to develop serological tests but none of these tests accurately predicted canine food sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to determine the incidence of food hypersensitivity dermatitis and to evaluate a newly developed serological test for the diagnosis of food allergy in dogs. Only 9% of 55 dogs with dermatological signs compatible with food hypersensitivity or atopic dermatitis have been diagnosed as food hypersensitive dogs. The repeatability of the serological test has shown to be insufficient.

  6. Biting rates and developmental substrates for biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Iquitos, Peru.

    PubMed

    Mercer, David R; Spinelli, Gustavo R; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B

    2003-11-01

    Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected at 16 periurban and rural sites around Iquitos, Peru, between 17 October 1996 and 26 May 1997. Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi), the principal vector of Oropouche virus, was the most commonly collected species (9,086 flies) with Culicoides insinuatus Wirth & Blanton second (7,229 flies). Although both species were collected at all sampling sites (linear (distance surveyed approximately 25 km), C. paraensis dominated at northern collection sites (> 90%), whereas C. insinuatus prevailed at southern collection sites (> 60%). C. paraensis were collected from human sentinels at a constant rate throughout daylight hours, at similar rates during wet and dry months, and regardless of rainfall. Larval developmental substrates for C. paraensis included decaying platano (Musa x paradisiaca L. [Musaceae]) stems, stumps, flowers, fruits, and debris beneath platano trees as well as from soil beneath a fruiting mamay (Syzygium malaccense Merr. & Perry [Myrtaceae] ) tree and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline. C. insinuatus adults likewise emerged from decaying platano and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline, but also from debris accumulated in the axils of aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa L. [Palmae]) fronds and decaying citrus fruit. Despite high numbers of biting adults near putative substrates, adults of neither species emerged from other decomposing plant material, soil, phytotelmata, or artificial containers. Because both species of biting midges emerged in high numbers from all parts of platano (ubiquitous in Iquitos), it will be challenging to control them through sanitation.

  7. The radiation hypersensitivity of cells at mitosis.

    PubMed

    Stobbe, C C; Park, S J; Chapman, J D

    2002-12-01

    Mitotic cells are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation, exhibiting single-hit inactivation coefficients near to those of repair deficient cell lines and lymphocytes. To elucidate possible mechanisms for this hypersensitivity, the kinetics of oxygen radiosensitization, the proportion of indirect effect by OH radicals and the kinetics of radiation-induced DNA strand breakage in the chromatin of mitotic cells were investigated. Synchronized populations of >90% mitotic HT-29 cells were obtained by the mitotic shake-off method. Cells were irradiated at < or =4 degrees C with (137)Cs gamma-rays. Cellular oxygen concentration was varied by gassing cell suspensions prior to and during irradiation with mixtures of pure N(2) that contained 5% CO(2) and measured quantities of O(2). The indirect effect of OH radicals was investigated with the radical scavenger, DMSO. DNA strand breakage was measured by the comet assay. Mitotic HT-29 cell inactivation is well described by a single-hit inactivation coefficient (alpha) of 1.14 +/- 0.06 Gy(-1). The oxygen enhancement ratio of mitotic cells (at 10% survival) was found to be approximately 2.0, significantly lower than the value of 2.8 measured for interphase (asynchronous) cells. More than 60% of mitotic cell killing was eliminated when the media contained 2 M DMSO, indicating that indirect effect is as important in the killing of mitotic cells as it is for interphase cells. The chromatin in mitotic cells was found to be ~2.8 times more sensitive to radiation-induced DNA single-strand breakage than the chromatin of interphase cells. The alpha-inactivation coefficient of mitotic HT-29 cells was ~30 times larger than that of interphase cells. Mitotic cell chromatin appears to contain intrinsic DNA breaks that are not lethal. In addition, chromatin in mitotic cells was found to be more susceptible to radiation-induced DNA strand-breakage than the dispersed chromatin of interphase cells. How the enhanced production of these simple DNA

  8. Primary lymph node responses to mosquito bites.

    PubMed

    Mellink, J J; Vos, B J

    1977-03-29

    Post-auricular lymph node responses and changes in fresh weight of thymus and spleen of hamsters and mice at 4 and 8 days after primary exposure of both ears to 20 bites by the mosquito Aedes aegypti were studied quantitatively. In both hosts lymph node changes characteristic of the development of cell-mediated immune responses and those which are believed to lead to antibody production occurred, with the emphasis on the latter phenomena. No reactions of thymus and spleen were observed. The responses recorded are considered to be immunologically specific. In hamsters, but not in mice, the responses related to humoral sensitization coincided in time to a large extent with those of the cell-mediated immune processes. The stronger humoral responses in mice were probably in the first place the result of the relatively higher dosages applied.

  9. Texas coral snake (Micrurus tener) bites.

    PubMed

    Morgan, David L; Borys, Douglas J; Stanford, Rhandi; Kjar, Dean; Tobleman, William

    2007-02-01

    The clinical features of bites from Texas coral snakes (Micrurus tener) have not been well studied. Our goal was to review the largest number of victims of Texas coral snakebites to determine their characteristics, effects, treatment, and outcome. Retrospective case series of Micrurus tener exposures reported to the Texas Poison Center Network from 2000 to 2004. Eighty-two patients were included in the analysis. Most (57.3%) were 18 to 49-year-old men. Almost 90% had local swelling, pain, erythema, or paresthesias. Only 7.3% had systemic effects, and none of these were severe. Over half received coral snake antivenin, and 15.9% were given opioids for pain. No patient died and no patient required mechanical ventilation due to hypoventilation from the snakebite. There were more local findings and less severe systemic effects than previously reported. Antivenin is not needed for most of these patients, and opioids may be administered safely.

  10. Methylphenidate Induced Lip and Tongue Biting.

    PubMed

    Gokcen, Cem; Karadag, Mehmet; Aksoy, Ihsan

    2018-05-31

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a life-long neurodevelopmental disorder and treatment depends on pharmacotherapy because of its biological origin. Stimulant drugs are the most commonly used treatment for ADHD and they have various side effects. Herein, we report a case who bit off the tip of her tongue with Osmotic Release Oral System methylphenidate (OROS MPH) 36 mg/day, bit the tip of her lower lip with immediate release (IR) MPH 10 mg/day and lateral part of her tongue with IR MPH 20 mg/day. A diagnosis of epilepsy was unlikely because of the normal neurological examination and electroencephalography findings. This case was considered as an atypical side effect of MPH such as perseverative/compulsive behaviours and movement disorders. Clinicians should be aware of that stimulant medications may cause lip and tongue biting behavior and this may effect treatment compliance tremendously.

  11. A qualitative investigation of the perceptions of female dog-bite victims and implications for the prevention of dog bites.

    PubMed

    Westgarth, Carri; Watkins, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Preventing dog bites is an increasingly important public health and political issue with implications for both human and animal health and welfare. Expert opinion is that most bites are preventable. Intervention materials have been designed to educate people on how to assess the body language of dogs, evaluate risk, and take appropriate action. The effectiveness of this approach is rarely evaluated and the incidence of dog bites is thought to be increasing. Is the traditional approach to dog bite prevention working as well as it should? In this novel, small scale qualitative study, the perceptions of victims regarding their dog bite experience were explored in-depth. The study recruited 8 female participants who had been bitten by a dog in the past 5 years. In-depth, one-to-one interviews were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings indicate that dog bites may not be as easily preventable as previously presumed, and that education about dog body language may not prevent some types of dog bites. The reasons participants were bitten were multifaceted and complex. In some cases, there was no interaction with the dog before the bite so there was no opportunity to assess the situation and modify behavior around the dog accordingly. Identifying who was to blame, and had responsibility for preventing the bite, was straightforward for the participants in hindsight. Those bitten blamed themselves and/or the dog owner, but not the dog. Most participants already felt they had a theoretical knowledge that would allow them to recognize dog aggression before the dog bite, yet participants, especially those who worked regularly with dogs, routinely believed, "it would not happen to me." We also identified an attitude that bites were "just one of those things," which could also be a barrier prevention initiatives. Rather than being special to the human-canine relationship, the attitudes discovered mirror those found in other areas of injury

  12. Estimation of Dog-Bite Risk and Related Morbidity Among Personnel Working With Military Dogs.

    PubMed

    Schermann, H; Eiges, N; Sabag, A; Kazum, E; Albagli, A; Salai, M; Shlaifer, A

    Soldiers serving in the Israel Defense Force Military Working Dogs (MWD) Unit spend many hours taming dogs' special skills, taking them on combat missions, and performing various dogkeeping activities. During this intensive work with the aggressive military dogs, bites are common, and some of them result in permanent disability. However, this phenomenon has not been quantified or reported as an occupational hazard. This was a retrospective cohort study based on self-administered questionnaires. Information was collected about soldiers' baseline demographics, duration of the experience of working with dogs, total number of bites they had, circumstances of bite events, and complications and medical treatment of each bite. Bite risk was quantified by incidence, mean time to first bite, and a Cox proportional hazards model. Rates of complications and the medical burden of bites were compared between combat soldiers and noncombat dogkeepers. Bite locations were presented graphically. Seventy-eight soldiers participated and reported on 139 bites. Mean time of working with dogs was 16 months (standard deviation, ±9.4 months). Overall bite incidence was 11 bites per 100 person-months; the mean time to first bite event was 6.3 months. The Cox proportional hazards model showed that none of baseline characteristics significantly increased bite hazard. About 90% of bites occurred during routine activities, and 3.3% occurred on combat missions. Only in 9% of bite events did soldiers observed the safety precautions code. Bite complications included fractures, need for intravenous antibiotic treatment and surgical repair, prominent scarring, diminished sensation, and stiffness of proximal joints. Bite complications were similar between combat soldiers and dogkeepers. Most bites (57%) were located on hands and arms. MWD bites are an occupational hazard resulting in significant medical burden. Hands and arms were most common bite locations. Observance of safety precautions may be

  13. Pre-West Nile virus outbreak: perceptions and practices to prevent mosquito bites and viral encephalitis in the United States.

    PubMed

    Herrington, James E

    2003-01-01

    Mosquitoes can transmit over 100 of the viruses that can cause encephalitis, meningitis, and hemorrhagic disease in humans (Chin 2000; Gubler 1996; Monath 1989). While much is known about the ecology, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations of the arboviral encephalitides (Campbell et al. 2002; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1997; Gubler 1998; Hayes 1989; Hubálek and Halouzka 1999), little empirical research exists regarding the U.S. population's knowledge of mosquitoes and arboviral encephalitis, particularly prior to the U.S. outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) in 1999. A nationally representative 55-item survey instrument was successfully administered to 1,500 adults in the United States and an additional 250 adults in six states in the Northeast (Connecticut, Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island) regarding mosquitoes and mosquito-borne viral encephalitis. A summary outcome measure for mosquito bite prevention was created. Analyses revealed that the following were statistically significant predictors of behaviors taken to prevent mosquito bites: being concerned about being bitten by mosquitoes, perceived effectiveness of staying indoors in late afternoon and early evening was protective, perceived effectiveness that mosquito repellent is not harmful to health, owning dogs and/or cats as pets, being married, and being > or = 18-44 years old. Being concerned about being bitten by mosquitoes was the most robust predictor of behavioral action to prevent mosquito bites (OR = 7.3; 95% CI = 4.3, 12.2). Observed misperceptions and inadequate knowledge regarding insect repellents suggest increased promotion of the safety and efficacy of DEET-containing insect repellents is warranted.

  14. Desensitization for Drug Hypersensitivity to Chemotherapy and Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Bonamichi-Santos, Rafael; Castells, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapies drugs and monoclonal antibodies are key components of the treatment of cancer patients and patients with chronic inflammatory conditions to provide increase in life expectancy and quality of life. Their increased use has lead to an increase in drugs hypersensitivity reactions (DHR) worldwide. DHR to those agents prevented their use and promoted the use of second line therapies to protect patients' hypersensitive reactions and anaphylaxis. Second line medications may not fully address the patients' medical condition and it is desirable to keep patients on first line therapy. Drug hypersensitivity symptoms can range from mild cutaneous reactions to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Rapid drug desensitization (RDD) is a novel approach to the management of drug hypersensitivity reactions which are IgE and non-IgE mediated. Through the diferent desensitization protocols patients can receive the full dose of the medications that they have presented a hypersensitive reaction and been protected against anaphylaxis. This review looks at the current literature on hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) to chemotherapy drugs and monoclonal antibodies and the potential use of RDD for their management. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. An Updated Review of the Molecular Mechanisms in Drug Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Riichiro; Pan, Ren-You; Wang, Chuang-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Drug hypersensitivity may manifest ranging from milder skin reactions (e.g., maculopapular exanthema and urticaria) to severe systemic reactions, such as anaphylaxis, drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS)/drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS), or Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS)/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Current pharmacogenomic studies have made important strides in the prevention of some drug hypersensitivity through the identification of relevant genetic variants, particularly for genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and human leukocyte antigens (HLAs). The associations identified by these studies are usually drug, phenotype, and ethnic specific. The drug presentation models that explain how small drug antigens might interact with HLA and T cell receptor (TCR) molecules in drug hypersensitivity include the hapten theory, the p-i concept, the altered peptide repertoire model, and the altered TCR repertoire model. The broad spectrum of clinical manifestations of drug hypersensitivity involving different drugs, as well as the various pathomechanisms involved, makes the diagnosis and management of it more challenging. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the predisposing factors, immune mechanisms, pathogenesis, diagnostic tools, and therapeutic approaches for drug hypersensitivity. PMID:29651444

  16. [Management of dog bite trauma of the external genital organs].

    PubMed

    Dubosq, Francis; Traxer, Olivier; Boublil, Véronique; Gattegno, Bernard; Thibault, Philippe

    2004-04-01

    Animal bites to the scrotum are rare, but potentially serious. In the light of a personal case, the authors discuss the management of these lesions. An animal bite comprises a triple infectious risk: bacterial, tetanus and rabies. Surgical exploration is indicated for assessment of the structures involved and debridement. The morbidity is related to the severity of the bite and the waiting time before consultation, and complications are rare. Orchidectomy is sometimes necessary, as in the case reported here, and the patient must be warned about this possibility. Antibiotic therapy is empirical: tetracycline and anti-anaerobe antibiotic. Rabies and tetanus prophylaxis must be performed according to vaccine guidelines.

  17. Attempted suicide by snake bite: A case study.

    PubMed

    Mallik, Subhendu; Singh, Sudipta Ranjan; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar; Padhy, Niranjan

    2016-07-14

    Snake bite is an important public health issue in India and is almost always accidental in manner. Suicide by snake bite or injection of snake venom is extremely rare. Suicidal ideation and behavior is known to be influenced by various socio-economic and psychological factors. The method employed for suicide is also influenced by the occupation of the victim. We report a case where a snake charmer had attempted suicide by inflicting a bite by a monocled cobra. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Nonimmediate hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Enrique; Ariza, Adriana; Blanca-López, Natalia; Torres, Maria J

    2013-08-01

    To provide a detailed analysis of the latest findings on the mechanisms underlying the nonimmediate reactions to iodinated contrast media and comment on the recent advances in diagnosis, focusing on the roles of the skin test, drug provocation test (DPT), and lymphocyte transformation test (LTT). Several studies have reported new findings supporting an important role for T-lymphocytes in the nonimmediate reactions to iodinated contrast media. The LTT has been used as an in-vitro tool for diagnosis, but with variable results. However, the inclusion of autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells as professional antigen-presenting cells has improved the sensitivity of this test. Regarding in-vivo diagnosis, although skin testing has been routine, it has now been shown that its sensitivity and negative predictive value are low. Recent studies have demonstrated that the DPT is a well tolerated and useful procedure that is necessary to confirm the diagnosis of nonimmediate hypersensitivity reactions to iodinated contrast media. Nonimmediate reactions to contrast media are usually T-cell mediated. Diagnosis is based on skin testing, although its sensitivity and negative predictive value are not optimal. Consequently, drug provocation testing is often needed to confirm the diagnosis and also to seek alternative contrast media that can be tolerated.

  19. Detection of abacavir hypersensitivity by ELISpot method.

    PubMed

    Esser, Stefan; Jablonka, Robert; Heinemann, Falko M; Reuter, Stefan; Jaeger, Hans; von Krosigk, Ariane; Schenk-Westkamp, Pia; Schadendorf, Dirk; Horn, Peter A; Lindemann, Monika

    2012-06-01

    The antiretroviral agent abacavir can cause hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) and the presence of HLA-B*57:01 is predictive of abacavir-HSR in Caucasian HIV-infected patients. However, abacavir-HSR also occurs in HLA-B*57:01 negative patients. In these patients, a safe diagnostic tool to dissect clinically suspected HSR against abacavir from adverse reactions against co-administered drugs is mandatory, and abacavir-ELISpot was evaluated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 87 HIV patients were stimulated by abacavir and the production of interferon-γ to the ELISpot was determined. Abacavir treated patients with HSR [confirmed (n=5) or suspected (n=12)] vs without HSR (n=42) displayed significantly higher numbers of abacavir-specific cells (82.3±23.0 or 10.5±4.5 vs -0.5±1.0 spot forming cells per million PBMC, p < .005 each). In conclusion, we established the first abacavir-specific ELISpot. According to our preliminary data, a negative abacavir-ELISpot nearly excludes HSR against abacavir. Thereby the ELISpot may facilitate the decision to continue or withdraw abacavir treatment.

  20. Visceral pain hypersensitivity in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Farmer, A D; Aziz, Q

    2009-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are a highly prevalent group of heterogeneous disorders whose diagnostic criteria are symptom based in the absence of a demonstrable structural or biochemical abnormality. Chronic abdominal pain or discomfort is a defining characteristic of these disorders and a proportion of patients may display heightened pain sensitivity to experimental visceral stimulation, termed visceral pain hypersensitivity (VPH). We examined the most recent literature in order to concisely review the evidence for some of the most important recent advances in the putative mechanisms concerned in the pathophysiology of VPH. VPH may occur due to anomalies at any level of the visceral nociceptive neuraxis. Important peripheral and central mechanisms of sensitization that have been postulated include a wide range of ion channels, neurotransmitter receptors and trophic factors. Data from functional brain imaging studies have also provided evidence for aberrant central pain processing in cortical and subcortical regions. In addition, descending modulation of visceral nociceptive pathways by the autonomic nervous system, hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and psychological factors have all been implicated in the generation of VPH. Particular areas of controversy have included the development of efficacious treatment of VPH. Therapies have been slow to emerge, mainly due to concerns regarding safety. The burgeoning field of genome wide association studies may provide further evidence for the pleiotropic genetic basis of VPH development. Tangible progress will only be made in the treatment of VPH when we begin to individually characterize patients with FGIDs based on their clinical phenotype, genetics and visceral nociceptive physiology.

  1. Mouse Model of Halogenated Platinum Salt Hypersensitivity ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Occupational exposure to halogenated platinum salts can trigger the development of asthma. Concern for increased asthma risk exists for the general population due to the use of platinum (Pt) in catalytic converters and its emerging use as a diesel fuel additive. To investigate airway responses to Pt, we developed a mouse model of Pt hypersensitivity. Previously, we confirmed the dermal sensitizing potency of ammonium hexachloroplatinate (AHCP) using an ex vivo [3H]methyl thymidine labeling version of the local lymph node assay in BALB/c mice. Here, we investigated the ability of AHCP to induce airway responses in mice sensitized by the dermal route. Mice were sensitized through application of 100 µL 1% AHCP in DMSO to the shaved back on days 0, 5 and 19, and 25 µl to each ear on days 10, 11 and 12. Unsensitized mice received vehicle. On day 24, mice were challenged by oropharyngeal aspiration (OPA) with 0 or 100 µg AHCP in saline. Before and immediately after challenge, airway responses were assessed using whole body plethysmography (WBP). On day 26, changes in ventilatory responses to methacholine (Mch) aerosol were assessed by WBP; dose-dependent increases in Mch responsiveness occurred in sensitized mice. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid harvested from sensitized mice contained an average of 7.5% eosinophils compared to less than 0.5% in control mice (p < 0.05). This model will be useful for assessing both relative sensitizing potency and cross-reacti

  2. Protecting Yourself from Stinging Insects

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk of being stung by flying insects (bees, wasps, and hornets) and fire ants. While most ... by several stinging insects, run to get away. (Bees release a chemical when they sting, which attracts ...

  3. Anaphylaxis and insect allergy.

    PubMed

    Demain, Jeffrey G; Minaei, Ashley A; Tracy, James M

    2010-08-01

    Anaphylaxis is an acute-onset and potentially life-threatening allergic reaction that can be caused by numerous allergic triggers including stinging insects. This review focuses on recent advances, natural history, risk factors and therapeutic considerations. Recent work suggests that concerns over insect allergy diagnosis continue to exist. This is especially true with individuals who have a convincing history of a serious life-threatening anaphylactic event, but lack the necessary diagnostic criteria of venom-specific IgE by skin test or in-vitro diagnostic methods to confirm the diagnosis. The role of occult mastocytosis or increased basophile reactivity may play a role in this subset population. Additionally, epinephrine continues to be underutilized as the primary acute intervention for an anaphylactic reaction in the emergent setting. The incidence of anaphylaxis continues to rise across all demographic groups, especially those less than 20 years of age. Fortunately, the fatalities related to anaphylaxis appear to have decreased over the past decades. Our understanding of various triggers, associated risk factors, as well as an improved understanding and utilization of biological markers such as serum tryptase have improved. Our ability to treat insect anaphylaxis by venom immunotherapy is highly effective. Unfortunately, anaphylaxis continues to be underappreciated and undertreated especially in regard to insect sting anaphylaxis. This includes the appropriate use of injectable epinephrine as the primary acute management tool. These findings suggest that continued education of the general population, primary care healthcare providers and emergency departments is required.

  4. Insect mass production technologies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insects provide a very promising alternative for the future production of animal protein. Their nutritional value in conjunction with their food conversion efficiency and low water requirements, make them a more sustainable choice for the production of food and animal origin. However, to realize the...

  5. Fluorescence in insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Victoria L.; Van Hooijdonk, Eloise; Intrater, Nurit; Vigneron, Jean-Pol

    2012-10-01

    Fluorescent molecules are much in demand for biosensors, solar cells, LEDs and VCSEL diodes, therefore, considerable efforts have been expended in designing and tailoring fluorescence to specific technical applications. However, naturally occurring fluorescence of diverse types has been reported from a wide array of living organisms: most famously, the jellyfish Aequorea victoria, but also in over 100 species of coral and in the cuticle of scorpions, where it is the rule, rather than the exception. Despite the plethora of known insect species, comparatively few quantitative studies have been made of insect fluorescence. Because of the potential applications of natural fluorescence, studies in this field have relevance to both physics and biology. Therefore, in this paper, we review the literature on insect fluorescence, before documenting its occurrence in the longhorn beetles Sternotomis virescens, Sternotomis variabilis var. semi rufescens, Anoplophora elegans and Stellognatha maculata, the tiger beetles Cicindela maritima and Cicindela germanica and the weevil Pachyrrhynchus gemmatus purpureus. Optical features of insect fluorescence, including emitted wavelength, molecular ageing and naturally occurring combinations of fluorescence with bioluminescence and colour-producing structures are discussed.

  6. Forest insect defoliators

    Treesearch

    Philip T. Marshall

    1989-01-01

    Defoliation is the removal of all or part of the foliage from the tree. Forest insects are the primary agents that can cause defoliation. They produce the widespread, noticeable defoliation that forest landowners, foresters, and the general public can easily recognize.

  7. Recycled Insect Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Meyer, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an engaging activity in which high school students use a dichotomous key to guide the creation and classification of model insects from recycled plastic lids and containers. Besides teaching the use of a dichotomous key and the effect of evolutionary descent upon groupings of organisms, this activity focuses on an…

  8. Walnut insects and diseases.

    Treesearch

    USDA FS

    1979-01-01

    Contains 17 papers summarizing up to 5 years of recent study on insect and disease problems of black walnut and butternut given at a workshop sponsored by the USDA Forest Service's North Central Forest Experiment Station and held in Carbondale, Illinois, June 13 and 14, 1978.

  9. Insect damage to oaks

    Treesearch

    Charles O. Rexrode

    1971-01-01

    In terms of mortality caused by insects, defoliators are the most serious enemies of oaks at the present time. An oak leaf tier, Croesia semipurprana, is one of the principal defoliators of trees in the red oak group. Oak leaf rollers, primarily Archips semiferana, have been responsible for widespread mortality in white and...

  10. Colour constancy in insects.

    PubMed

    Chittka, Lars; Faruq, Samia; Skorupski, Peter; Werner, Annette

    2014-06-01

    Colour constancy is the perceptual phenomenon that the colour of an object appears largely unchanged, even if the spectral composition of the illuminating light changes. Colour constancy has been found in all insect species so far tested. Especially the pollinating insects offer a remarkable opportunity to study the ecological significance of colour constancy since they spend much of their adult lives identifying and choosing between colour targets (flowers) under continuously changing ambient lighting conditions. In bees, whose colour vision is best studied among the insects, the compensation provided by colour constancy is only partial and its efficiency depends on the area of colour space. There is no evidence for complete 'discounting' of the illuminant in bees, and the spectral composition of the light can itself be used as adaptive information. In patchy illumination, bees adjust their spatial foraging to minimise transitions between variously illuminated zones. Modelling allows the quantification of the adaptive benefits of various colour constancy mechanisms in the economy of nature. We also discuss the neural mechanisms and cognitive operations that might underpin colour constancy in insects.

  11. Dispersal of forest insects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  12. Investigation--Insects!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Janice

    2000-01-01

    Presents activities on insects for second grade students. In the first activity, students build a butterfly garden. In the second activity, students observe stimuli reactions with mealworms in the larval stage. Describes the assessment process and discusses the effects of pollution on living things. (YDS)

  13. Corn insect pests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Historically, the major corn insect pests in South Dakota have been the larvae of corn rootworms (northern and western), European corn borer, and black cutworm. Bt-corn hybrids are effective against most of these pests. However, there are also minor or sporadic pests of corn in South Dakota includin...

  14. Irradiating insect pests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This is a non-technical article focusing on phytosanitary uses of irradiation. In a series of interview questions, I present information on the scope of the invasive species problem and the contribution of international trade in agricultural products to the movement of invasive insects. This is foll...

  15. Insect (food) allergy and allergens.

    PubMed

    de Gier, Steffie; Verhoeckx, Kitty

    2018-05-03

    Insects represent an alternative for meat and fish in satisfying the increasing demand for sustainable sources of nutrition. Approximately two billion people globally consume insects. They are particularly popular in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Most research on insect allergy has focussed on occupational or inhalation allergy. Research on insect food safety, including allergenicity, is therefore of great importance. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of cases reporting allergy following insect ingestion, studies on food allergy to insects, proteins involved in insect allergy including cross-reactive proteins, and the possibility to alter the allergenic potential of insects by food processing and digestion. Food allergy to insects has been described for silkworm, mealworm, caterpillars, Bruchus lentis, sago worm, locust, grasshopper, cicada, bee, Clanis bilineata, and the food additive carmine, which is derived from female Dactylopius coccus insects. For cockroaches, which are also edible insects, only studies on inhalation allergy have been described. Various insect allergens have been identified including tropomyosin and arginine kinase, which are both pan-allergens known for their cross-reactivity with homologous proteins in crustaceans and house dust mite. Cross-reactivity and/or co-sensitization of insect tropomyosin and arginine kinase has been demonstrated in house dust mite and seafood (e.g. prawn, shrimp) allergic patients. In addition, many other (allergenic) species (various non-edible insects, arachnids, mites, seafoods, mammals, nematoda, trematoda, plants, and fungi) have been identified with sequence alignment analysis to show potential cross-reactivity with allergens of edible insects. It was also shown that thermal processing and digestion did not eliminate insect protein allergenicity. Although purified natural allergens are scarce and yields are low, recombinant allergens from cockroach, silkworm, and Indian mealmoth are

  16. Insect Ferritins: typical or atypical?

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Daphne Q. D.; Winzerling, Joy J.

    2010-01-01

    Insects transmit millions of cases of disease each year, and cost millions of dollars in agricultural losses. The control of insect-borne diseases is vital for numerous developing countries, and the management of agricultural insect pests is a very serious business for developed countries. Control methods should target insect-specific traits in order to avoid non-target effects, especially in mammals. Since insect cells have had a billion years of evolutionary divergence from those of vertebrates, they differ in many ways that might be promising for the insect control field—especially, in iron metabolism because current studies have indicated that significant differences exist between insect and mammalian systems. Insect iron metabolism differs from that of vertebrates in the following respects. Insect ferritins have a heavier mass than mammalian ferritins. Unlike their mammalian counterparts, the insect ferritin subunits are often glycosylated and are synthesized with a signal peptide. The crystal structure of insect ferritin also shows a tetrahedral symmetry consisting of 12 heavy chain and 12 light chain subunits in contrast to that of mammalian ferritin that exhibits an octahedral symmetry made of 24 heavy chain and 24 light chain subunits. Insect ferritins associate primarily with the vacuolar system and serve as iron transporters—quite the opposite of the mammalian ferritins, which are mainly cytoplasmic and serve as iron storage proteins. This review will discuss these differences. PMID:20230873

  17. Insect and disease activity (2003)

    Treesearch

    John W. Coulston

    2007-01-01

    Why Are Insects and Diseases Important? Native insects and diseases are a natural part of ecosystems and are essential to the ecological balance in natural forests (Castello and others 1995). In contrast, nonnative insects and diseases can pose a particular threat because ecosystems often lack natural internal controls of these agents. The activity of both native and...

  18. Determinants of abundance and effects of blood-sucking flying insects in the nest of a hole-nesting bird.

    PubMed

    Tomás, Gustavo; Merino, Santiago; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Moreno, Juan; Morales, Judith; Lobato, Elisa

    2008-05-01

    Compared to non-flying nest-dwelling ectoparasites, the biology of most species of flying ectoparasites and its potential impact on avian hosts is poorly known and rarely, if ever, reported. In this study we explore for the first time the factors that may affect biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) abundances in the nest cavity of a bird, the hole-nesting blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus, and report their effects on adults and nestlings during reproduction. The abundance of biting midges was positively associated with nest mass, parental provisioning effort and abundance of blowflies and black flies, while negatively associated with nestling condition. Furthermore, a medication treatment to reduce blood parasitaemias in adult birds revealed that biting midges were more abundant in nests of females whose blood parasitaemias were experimentally reduced. This finding would be in accordance with these insect vectors attacking preferentially uninfected or less infected hosts to increase their own survival. The abundance of black flies in the population was lower than that of biting midges and increased in nests with later hatching dates. No significant effect of black fly abundance on adult or nestling condition was detected. Blood-sucking flying insects may impose specific, particular selection pressures on their hosts and more research is needed to better understand these host-parasite associations.

  19. Characterization of Viral Communities of Biting Midges and Identification of Novel Thogotovirus Species and Rhabdovirus Genus

    PubMed Central

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Robert, Catherine; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Labas, Noémie; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg; Desnues, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    More than two thirds of emerging viruses are of zoonotic origin, and among them RNA viruses represent the majority. Ceratopogonidae (genus Culicoides) are well-known vectors of several viruses responsible for epizooties (bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, etc.). They are also vectors of the only known virus infecting humans: the Oropouche virus. Female midges usually feed on a variety of hosts, leading to possible transmission of emerging viruses from animals to humans. In this context, we report here the analysis of RNA viral communities of Senegalese biting midges using next-generation sequencing techniques as a preliminary step toward the identification of potential viral biohazards. Sequencing of the RNA virome of three pools of Culicoides revealed the presence of a significant diversity of viruses infecting plants, insects and mammals. Several novel viruses were detected, including a novel Thogotovirus species, related but genetically distant from previously described tick-borne thogotoviruses. Novel rhabdoviruses were also detected, possibly constituting a novel Rhabdoviridae genus, and putatively restricted to insects. Sequences related to the major viruses transmitted by Culicoides, i.e., African horse sickness, bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses were also detected. This study highlights the interest in monitoring the emergence and circulation of zoonoses and epizooties using their arthropod vectors. PMID:26978389

  20. Characterization of Viral Communities of Biting Midges and Identification of Novel Thogotovirus Species and Rhabdovirus Genus.

    PubMed

    Temmam, Sarah; Monteil-Bouchard, Sonia; Robert, Catherine; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Sambou, Masse; Aubadie-Ladrix, Maxence; Labas, Noémie; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg; Desnues, Christelle

    2016-03-11

    More than two thirds of emerging viruses are of zoonotic origin, and among them RNA viruses represent the majority. Ceratopogonidae (genus Culicoides) are well-known vectors of several viruses responsible for epizooties (bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease, etc.). They are also vectors of the only known virus infecting humans: the Oropouche virus. Female midges usually feed on a variety of hosts, leading to possible transmission of emerging viruses from animals to humans. In this context, we report here the analysis of RNA viral communities of Senegalese biting midges using next-generation sequencing techniques as a preliminary step toward the identification of potential viral biohazards. Sequencing of the RNA virome of three pools of Culicoides revealed the presence of a significant diversity of viruses infecting plants, insects and mammals. Several novel viruses were detected, including a novel Thogotovirus species, related but genetically distant from previously described tick-borne thogotoviruses. Novel rhabdoviruses were also detected, possibly constituting a novel Rhabdoviridae genus, and putatively restricted to insects. Sequences related to the major viruses transmitted by Culicoides, i.e., African horse sickness, bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses were also detected. This study highlights the interest in monitoring the emergence and circulation of zoonoses and epizooties using their arthropod vectors.

  1. [Evaluation of the use of repellent against mosquito bite by military personnel in the Amazon Basin].

    PubMed

    Ribas, Jonas; Carreño, Ana Maria

    2010-01-01

    In Brazil, diseases caused by insect bites are frequent. Therefore, it is extremely important that prophylatic measures are adequately carried out, especially in endemic areas such as the Amazon which receives a great number of visitors, for both business and tourism purposes.. To evaluate the use of insect repellents available in the market by military personnel who often go in missions in the middle of the jungle, in the Amazon region. Fifty - one militaries in the Amazon region were selected and they answered a questionnaire in June/2008. 63,7% of the militaries used products that contained Deet in the maximum concentration of only 15% that has minimum repellent action; 36% reported to combine these products with sun protective products which increased the risk of intoxication; 36,4% used a natural repellent during their missions; two of the militaries participants used vitamin B and considered their repellent action ineffective. The repellents that contain Deet and which were used by the group present concentrations that are lower than the concentrations considered safe for using in the jungle. It was frequent the combination of Deet with sun protective products ,which is a potentially toxic association. Natural repellents that have "andiroba" and" copaíba" as components presented a higher perception of protection from the participants.

  2. Rat-bite fever presenting with rash and septic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kanechorn Na Ayuthaya, Rajyani; Niumpradit, Nucha

    2005-11-01

    Rat-bite fever is an uncommon disease known for its endemicity to occur worldwide. Although most patients tend to develop mild symptoms with improvement from conventional antibiotics, it can progress with severe complications with a mortality rate as high as 13% without proper treatment. The authors report a complicated case of rat bite-fever involving a 61-year old woman who presented with fever petechial rash, and septic arthritis following a rat bite. Initially, multiple antibiotics were administered but were not effective. As a consequence, invasive procedures such as arthrotomy and joint debridement were done and prolonged antibiotic was administered until clinical resolution. Since many cases do not have a history of rat bite and may present with fever, rashes, and arthritis it is essential to distinguish it from other diseases. Here, the authors will provide details on the etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management to aid prompt detection and treatment of the disease.

  3. A persistent homology approach to collective behavior in insect swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinhuber, Michael; Ouellette, Nicholas T.

    Various animals from birds and fish to insects tend to form aggregates, displaying self-organized collective swarming behavior. Due to their frequent occurrence in nature and their implications for engineered, collective systems, these systems have been investigated and modeled thoroughly for decades. Common approaches range from modeling them with coupled differential equations on the individual level up to continuum approaches. We present an alternative, topology-based approach for describing swarming behavior at the macroscale rather than the microscale. We study laboratory swarms of Chironomus riparius, a flying, non-biting midge. To obtain the time-resolved three-dimensional trajectories of individual insects, we use a multi-camera stereoimaging and particle-tracking setup. To investigate the swarming behavior in a topological sense, we employ a persistent homology approach to identify persisting structures and features in the insect swarm that elude a direct, ensemble-averaging approach. We are able to identify features of sub-clusters in the swarm that show behavior distinct from that of the remaining swarm members. The coexistence of sub-swarms with different features resembles some non-biological systems such as active colloids or even thermodynamic systems.

  4. Computational biomechanics changes our view on insect head evolution.

    PubMed

    Blanke, Alexander; Watson, Peter J; Holbrey, Richard; Fagan, Michael J

    2017-02-08

    Despite large-scale molecular attempts, the relationships of the basal winged insect lineages dragonflies, mayflies and neopterans, are still unresolved. Other data sources, such as morphology, suffer from unclear functional dependencies of the structures considered, which might mislead phylogenetic inference. Here, we assess this problem by combining for the first time biomechanics with phylogenetics using two advanced engineering techniques, multibody dynamics analysis and finite-element analysis, to objectively identify functional linkages in insect head structures which have been used traditionally to argue basal winged insect relationships. With a biomechanical model of unprecedented detail, we are able to investigate the mechanics of morphological characters under biologically realistic load, i.e. biting. We show that a range of head characters, mainly ridges, endoskeletal elements and joints, are indeed mechanically linked to each other. An analysis of character state correlation in a morphological data matrix focused on head characters shows highly significant correlation of these mechanically linked structures. Phylogenetic tree reconstruction under different data exclusion schemes based on the correlation analysis unambiguously supports a sistergroup relationship of dragonflies and mayflies. The combination of biomechanics and phylogenetics as it is proposed here could be a promising approach to assess functional dependencies in many organisms to increase our understanding of phenotypic evolution. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Tail Biting Trellis Representation of Codes: Decoding and Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao. Rose Y.; Lin, Shu; Fossorier, Marc

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents two new iterative algorithms for decoding linear codes based on their tail biting trellises, one is unidirectional and the other is bidirectional. Both algorithms are computationally efficient and achieves virtually optimum error performance with a small number of decoding iterations. They outperform all the previous suboptimal decoding algorithms. The bidirectional algorithm also reduces decoding delay. Also presented in the paper is a method for constructing tail biting trellises for linear block codes.

  6. Ionic mechanisms of spinal neuronal cold hypersensitivity in ciguatera.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ryan; Brice, Nicola L; Lewis, Richard J; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2015-12-01

    Cold hypersensitivity is evident in a range of neuropathies and can evoke sensations of paradoxical burning cold pain. Ciguatoxin poisoning is known to induce a pain syndrome caused by consumption of contaminated tropical fish that can persist for months and include pruritus and cold allodynia; at present no suitable treatment is available. This study examined, for the first time, the neural substrates and molecular components of Pacific ciguatoxin-2-induced cold hypersensitivity. Electrophysiological recordings of dorsal horn lamina V/VI wide dynamic range neurones were made in non-sentient rats. Subcutaneous injection of 10 nm ciguatoxin-2 into the receptive field increased neuronal responses to innocuous and noxious cooling. In addition, neuronal responses to low-threshold but not noxious punctate mechanical stimuli were also elevated. The resultant cold hypersensitivity was not reversed by 6-({2-[2-fluoro-6-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-methylpropyl}carbamoyl)pyridine-3-carboxylic acid, an antagonist of transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8). Both mechanical and cold hypersensitivity were completely prevented by co-injection with the Nav 1.8 antagonist A803467, whereas the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) antagonist A967079 only prevented hypersensitivity to innocuous cooling and partially prevented hypersensitivity to noxious cooling. In naive rats, neither innocuous nor noxious cold-evoked neuronal responses were inhibited by antagonists of Nav 1.8, TRPA1 or TRPM8 alone. Ciguatoxins may confer cold sensitivity to a subpopulation of cold-insensitive Nav 1.8/TRPA1-positive primary afferents, which could underlie the cold allodynia reported in ciguatera. These data expand the understanding of central spinal cold sensitivity under normal conditions and the role of these ion channels in this translational rat model of ciguatoxin-induced hypersensitivity. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of

  7. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: a complex lung disease.

    PubMed

    Riario Sforza, Gian Galeazzo; Marinou, Androula

    2017-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), also called extrinsic allergic alveolitis, is a respiratory syndrome involving the lung parenchyma and specifically the alveoli, terminal bronchioli, and alveolar interstitium, due to a delayed allergic reaction. Such reaction is secondary to a repeated and prolonged inhalation of different types of organic dusts or other substances to which the patient is sensitized and hyper responsive, primarily consisting of organic dusts of animal or vegetable origin, more rarely from chemicals. The prevalence of HP is difficult to evaluate because of uncertainties in detection and misdiagnosis and lacking of widely accepted diagnostic criteria, and varies considerably depending on disease definition, diagnostic methods, exposure modalities, geographical conditions, agricultural and industrial practices, and host risk factors. HP can be caused by multiple agents that are present in work places and in the home, such as microbes, animal and plant proteins, organic and inorganic chemicals. The number of environment, settings and causative agents is increasing over time. From the clinical point of view HP can be divided in acute/subacute and chronic, depending on the intensity and frequency of exposure to causative antigens. The mainstay in managing HP is the avoidance of the causative antigen, though the complete removal is not always possible due to the difficulties to identify the agent or because its avoidance may lead to major changes in life style or occupational settings. HP is a complex syndrome that needs urgently for more stringent and selective diagnostic criteria and validation, including wider panels of IgG, and a closer collaboration with occupational physicians, as part of a multidisciplinary expertise.

  8. Hypersensitivity myocarditis associated with ephedra use.

    PubMed

    Zaacks, S M; Klein, L; Tan, C D; Rodriguez, E R; Leikin, J B

    1999-01-01

    Ephedrine has previously been described as a causative factor of vasculitis but myocarditis has not yet been associated with either ephedrine or its plant derivative ephedra. A 39-year-old African American male with hypertension presented to Rush Presbyterian St. Luke's Medical Center with a 1-month history of progressive dyspnea on exertion, orthopnea, and dependent edema. He was taking Ma Huang (Herbalife) 1-3 tablets twice daily for 3 months along with other vitamin supplements, pravastatin, and furosemide. Physical examination revealed a male in mild respiratory distress. The lung fields had rales at both bases without audible wheezes. Internal jugular venous pulsations were 5 cm above the sternal notch. Medical therapy with intravenous furosemide and oral enalapril was initiated upon admission. Cardiac catheterization with coronary angiography revealed normal coronary arteries, a dilated left ventricle, moderate pulmonary hypertension, and a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of 34 mm Hg. The patient had right ventricular biopsy performed demonstrating mild myocyte hypertrophy and an infiltrate consisting predominantly of lymphocytes with eosinophils present in significantly increased numbers. Treatment for myocarditis was initiated with azothioprine 200 mg daily and prednisone 60 mg per day with a tapering course over 6 months. Anticoagulation with warfarin and diuretics was initiated and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition was continued. Hydralazine was added later. One month into therapy, an echocardiogram demonstrated improved left ventricular function with only mild global hypokinesis. A repeat right ventricular biopsy 2 months after the first admission showed no evidence of myocarditis. At 6 months, left ventricular ejection fraction was normal (EFN 50%) and the patient asymptomatic. Ephedra (Ma Huang) is the suspected cause of hypersensitivity myocarditis in this patient due to the temporal course of disease and its propensity to induce vasculitis.

  9. Hypersensitivity reactions to metal implants: laboratory options.

    PubMed

    Carossino, Anna Maria; Carulli, Christian; Ciuffi, Simone; Carossino, Roberto; Zappoli Thyrion, Giorgia Donata; Zonefrati, Roberto; Innocenti, Massimo; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2016-11-23

    All implant compounds undergo an electrochemical process when in contact with biological fluids, as well as mechanical corrosion due to abrasive wear, with production of metal debris that may inhibit repair processes. None of the commonly-used methods can diagnose implant allergies when used singly, therefore a panel of tests should be performed on allergic patients as pre-operative screening, or when a postoperative metal sensitisation is suspected. We analysed patients with painful prostheses and subjects prone to allergies using the Patch Test in comparison with the Lymphocyte Transformation Test. Cytokine production was evaluated to identify prognostic markers for early diagnosis of aseptic loosening. Metal debris endocytosis and cytoskeletal rearrangement was visualised by confocal microscopy. Our results demonstrate that the Lymphocyte Transformation Test can identify patients who have a predisposition to develop allergic reactions and can confirm the diagnosis of hypersensitivity in patients with painful prostheses. The prevalence of a Th2-cytokine pattern may be used to identify predisposition to the development of allergic diseases, while the selective presence of osteoclastogenic cytokines may be used as predictor of a negative outcome in patients with painful prosthesis. The hypothesis of the prognostic value of these cytokines as early markers of aseptic loosening is attractive, but its confirmation would require extensive testing. The Lymphocyte Transformation Test is the most suitable method for testing systemic allergies. We suggest that the combined use of the Patch Test and the Lymphocyte Transformation Test, associated with cytokine detection in selected patients, could provide a useful tool for preventive evaluation of immune reactivity in patients undergoing primary joint replacement surgery, and for clinical monitoring of the possible onset of a metal sensitization in patients with implanted devices.

  10. The management of animal bites in the United kingdom.

    PubMed

    Evgeniou, E; Markeson, D; Iyer, S; Armstrong, A

    2013-01-01

    Animal bites represent a significant global health issue. The evidence in the literature regarding their management in many areas is conflicting and unclear. This project attempts to identify current evidence in the literature on the management of animal bites and assess if current practice in the United Kingdom is evidence based. A literature review on the management of animal bites was performed, and a national UK survey was contacted using a questionnaire based on the available evidence in the literature. The results from this survey show that 98% of plastic surgery units routinely use prophylactic antibiotics in all animal bite wounds; 58% close low-risk injuries primarily after initial washout, and there are conflicting opinions regarding the management of associated fractures and soft tissue injuries. The available data in the literature suggest that appropriate wound management is the most important factor for prevention of infection in animal bites. Antibiotic prophylaxis should only be given in high-risk wounds and primary closure should be performed in low-risk wounds. The management protocols of many plastic surgery units often diverge from the available evidence within the literature. On the basis of a thorough literature review, a guideline for the management of animal bites is presented. Future studies should investigate the management of associated fractures and soft tissue injuries.

  11. Chiropractic Manipulation Increases Maximal Bite Force in Healthy Individuals.

    PubMed

    Haavik, Heidi; Özyurt, Mustafa Görkem; Niazi, Imran Khan; Holt, Kelly; Nedergaard, Rasmus Wiberg; Yilmaz, Gizem; Türker, Kemal Sitki

    2018-04-27

    Recent research has shown that chiropractic spinal manipulation can alter central sensorimotor integration and motor cortical drive to human voluntary muscles of the upper and lower limb. The aim of this paper was to explore whether spinal manipulation could also influence maximal bite force. Twenty-eight people were divided into two groups of 14, one that received chiropractic care and one that received sham chiropractic care. All subjects were naive to chiropractic. Maximum bite force was assessed pre- and post-intervention and at 1-week follow up. Bite force in the chiropractic group increased compared to the control group ( p = 0.02) post-intervention and this between-group difference was also present at the 1-week follow-up ( p < 0.01). Bite force in the chiropractic group increased significantly by 11.0% (±18.6%) post-intervention ( p = 0.04) and remained increased by 13.0% (±12.9%, p = 0.04) at the 1 week follow up. Bite force did not change significantly in the control group immediately after the intervention (−2.3 ± 9.0%, p = 0.20), and decreased by 6.3% (±3.4%, p = 0.01) at the 1-week follow-up. These results indicate that chiropractic spinal manipulation can increase maximal bite force.

  12. Sensitivity to bites by the bedbug, Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, K; Kempke, D; Naylor, R A; Siva-Jothy, M T

    2009-06-01

    Bedbugs are a public health problem and can cause significant economic losses, but little is known about the effects of bites on humans. We reviewed case reports and published papers on bedbug bites to assess the empirical basis of the commonly cited figure that only approximately 80% of the population are sensitive to bedbug bites. We found the sensitivity estimate to be based on only one study carried out 80 years ago. However, this study did not account for the now well-established fact that only repeated exposure to external allergens leads to skin reactions. In our sample, 18 of 19 persons showed a skin reaction after bedbug exposure, but in most cases only after repeated controlled exposure. With repeated exposure, the latency between bite and skin reactions decreased from approximately 10 days to a few seconds. Our results are relevant for the hospitality industry, where apparently increasing infestation rates are likely to lead to an increase in the number of tourists and hotel employees exposed to bedbugs. Medical and public health professionals may expect to see an increase in the prevalence of people with bedbug bite sensitivity. The significance of the delayed reaction time of skin to bites may also have implications in litigation cases where people seek compensation.

  13. The impact of snake bite on household economy in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hasan, S M K; Basher, A; Molla, A A; Sultana, N K; Faiz, M A

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to assess the different types of costs for treatment of snake bite patients, to quantify household economic impact and to understand the coping mechanisms required to cover the costs for snake bite patients in Bangladesh. The patients admitted to four tertiary level hospitals in Bangladesh were interviewed using structured questionnaires including health-care-related expenditures and the way in which the expenditures were covered. Of the snakes which bit the patients, 54.2% were non-venomous, 45.8% were venomous and 42.2% of the patients were given polyvalent antivenom. The total expenditure related to snake bite varies from US$4 (US$1 = Taka 72) to US$2294 with a mean of US$124 and the mean income loss was US$93. Expenditure for venomous snake bite was US$231, which is about seven times higher than non-venomous snake bite (US$34). The treatment imposes a major economic burden on affected families, especially in venomous snake bite cases.

  14. First report of clinical presentation of a bite by a running spider, Philodromus sp. (Araneae: Philodromidae), with recommendations for spider bite management.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Maureen; Dippenaar, Ansie; Frean, John; Hunt, Richard H

    2017-06-30

    This article describes the clinical progression of symptoms over a period of 5 days of a bite inflicted by a Philodromus sp. spider. Commonly known as 'running spiders', these are not considered to be harmful to humans. This report, however, is the first description of an actual bite by a member of this group of spiders showing cytotoxic envenomation. Management of the bites should be as recommended for other cytotoxic spider bites.

  15. Dentoskeletal modifications in Class II deep bite malocclusion treatment with anterior bite plane functional appliance

    PubMed Central

    Ciavarella, Domenico; Laurenziello, Michele; Guida, Laura; Montaruli, Graziano; Gallo, Crescenzio; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    Background A treatment modality for Class II division 1 malocclusion is discussed. Orthodontic treatment of patients with deep bite and Class II malocclusion is an important challenge in clinical practice. The aim of this work is to compare the efficacy of anterior bite plane functional appliance (ABPFA) by assessing the changes in different times with untreated patients by literature. Material and Methods The study group comprised 22 subjects with Class II division 1 malocclusion and hypo-divergent. Eligibility criteria for this study were: dental Class II division 1 malocclusion, hypo-divergent skeletal pattern, late mixed or permanent dentition. We analyzed with the use of stable bone structure (ASCB) at two different times: pre-treatment (T0) and post-treatment (T1) after 24 months. Inter-group differences were evaluated with paired samples t-test at the P<0.05 level. Results No statistical significant differences were found in cephalometric skeletal measurements, whereas dental parameters showed a significant different overjet, which was significantly reduced (6 mm at T0 vs. 5 mm at T1) in our series. Conclusions In ABPFA group, the treatment effects were reduce mainly Class II malocclusion, overjet and overbite alteration. This appliance seems to suggest a significant beneficial effect in mandible displacement by reducing the counter clockwise rotation of the mandible, which is further confirmed by the almost absence of modifications of ArGoMe and SNGoMe angles. The ABPFA is particularly suitable to reduce the non-desirable dental effects represented by lower incisors pro inclination, and upper incisors retro-inclination. Key words:Orthodontics, Functional orthodontics, Class II malocclusion, Anterior bite plane functional appliance. PMID:28936295

  16. Tick bites and red meat allergy

    PubMed Central

    Commins, Scott P.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review A novel form of anaphylaxis has been described that is due to IgE antibody (Ab) directed against a mammalian oligosaccharide epitope, galactose-alpha-1, 3-galactose (alpha-gal). Ongoing work regarding the cause and distribution of this IgE response is reviewed. Recent findings Our recent work has identified a novel IgE Ab response that has been associated with two distinct forms of anaphylaxis: immediate-onset anaphylaxis during first exposure to intravenous cetuximab and delayed-onset anaphylaxis 3–6 h after ingestion of mammalian food products (e.g. beef and pork). Further studies strongly suggested that tick bites were a cause, if not the only significant cause, of IgE Ab responses to alpha-gal in the United States and internationally. Summary Large numbers of patients with IgE Ab to alpha-gal continue to be identified in the USA and globally. Clinicians should be aware of this IgE response as the reactions often appear to be idiopathic because of the significant delay between eating mammalian meat and the appearance of symptoms. PMID:23743512

  17. Retrospective review of snake bite victims.

    PubMed

    Nazim, Muhammad H; Gupta, Sanjay; Hashmi, Syed; Zuberi, Jamshed; Wilson, Alison; Roberts, Lawrence; Karimi, Kamran

    2008-01-01

    Venomous snakebites are a rare but dangerous and potentially deadly condition in the U.S.. Most bites in the U. S. result from envenomation with snakes of the family Viperidae, subfamily Crotalinae, which includes rattlesnakes and copperheads. Treatment includes a comprehensive work-up to look for possible hematologic, neurologic, renal, and cardiovascular abnormalities, local wound care, systemic antivenom administration, tetanus prophylaxis, antibiotics in the presence of infection and surgical treatment if needed, which may include debridement, fasciotomy and rarely amputation. All these patients should be observed for a minimum of 8 hours. Any evidence of envenomation mandates a minimum of 24 hours of in-hospital observation. A grading system to classify the severity of envenomation is described. The most commonly used antivenom in the U.S. is CroFab, which has a much lower incidence of acute or delayed allergic reactions compared to the older antivenoms. When allergic reactions do occur, they are usually of mild to moderate severity. With the improved risk-benefit ratio of CroFab, antivenom is indicated with any grade of envenomation. In this a retrospective study, we will review our experience with 25 snakebite victims admitted to the West Virginia University over a five years period.

  18. Interrogating an insect society

    PubMed Central

    Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2009-01-01

    Insect societies such as those of ants, bees, and wasps consist of 1 or a small number of fertile queens and a large number of sterile or nearly sterile workers. While the queens engage in laying eggs, workers perform all other tasks such as nest building, acquisition and processing of food, and brood care. How do such societies function in a coordinated and efficient manner? What are the rules that individuals follow? How are these rules made and enforced? These questions are of obvious interest to us as fellow social animals but how do we interrogate an insect society and seek answers to these questions? In this article I will describe my research that was designed to seek answers from an insect society to a series of questions of obvious interest to us. I have chosen the Indian paper wasp Ropalidia marginata for this purpose, a species that is abundantly distributed in peninsular India and serves as an excellent model system. An important feature of this species is that queens and workers are morphologically identical and physiologically nearly so. How then does an individual become a queen? How does the queen suppress worker reproduction? How does the queen regulate the nonreproductive activities of the workers? What is the function of aggression shown by different individuals? How and when is the queen's heir decided? I will show how such questions can indeed be investigated and will emphasize the need for a whole range of different techniques of observation and experimentation. PMID:19487678

  19. Effect of Premedications in a Murine Model of Asparaginase Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Christian A.; Smith, Colton; Karol, Seth E.; Ramsey, Laura B.; Liu, Chengcheng; Pui, Ching-Hon; Jeha, Sima; Evans, William E.; Finkelman, Fred D.

    2015-01-01

    A murine model was developed that recapitulates key features of clinical hypersensitivity to Escherichia coli asparaginase. Sensitized mice developed high levels of anti-asparaginase IgG antibodies and had immediate hypersensitivity reactions to asparaginase upon challenge. Sensitized mice had complete inhibition of plasma asparaginase activity (P = 4.2 × 10−13) and elevated levels of mouse mast cell protease 1 (P = 6.1 × 10−3) compared with nonsensitized mice. We investigated the influence of pretreatment with triprolidine, cimetidine, the platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist CV-6209 [2-(2-acetyl-6-methoxy-3,9-dioxo-4,8-dioxa-2,10-diazaoctacos-1-yl)-1-ethyl-pyridinium chloride], or dexamethasone on the severity of asparaginase-induced allergies. Combining triprolidine and CV-6209 was best for mitigating asparaginase-induced hypersensitivity compared with nonpretreated, sensitized mice (P = 1.2 × 10−5). However, pretreatment with oral dexamethasone was the only agent capable of mitigating the severity of the hypersensitivity (P = 0.03) and partially restoring asparaginase activity (P = 8.3 × 10−4). To rescue asparaginase activity in sensitized mice without requiring dexamethasone, a 5-fold greater dose of asparaginase was needed to restore enzyme activity to a similar concentration as in nonsensitized mice. Our results suggest a role of histamine and PAF in asparaginase-induced allergies and indicate that mast cell–derived proteases released during asparaginase allergy may be a useful marker of clinical hypersensitivity. PMID:25573198

  20. Estimating maximum bite performance in Tyrannosaurus rex using multi-body dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Bates, K. T.; Falkingham, P. L.

    2012-01-01

    Bite mechanics and feeding behaviour in Tyrannosaurus rex are controversial. Some contend that a modest bite mechanically limited T. rex to scavenging, while others argue that high bite forces facilitated a predatory mode of life. We use dynamic musculoskeletal models to simulate maximal biting in T. rex. Models predict that adult T. rex generated sustained bite forces of 35 000–57 000 N at a single posterior tooth, by far the highest bite forces estimated for any terrestrial animal. Scaling analyses suggest that adult T. rex had a strong bite for its body size, and that bite performance increased allometrically during ontogeny. Positive allometry in bite performance during growth may have facilitated an ontogenetic change in feeding behaviour in T. rex, associated with an expansion of prey range in adults to include the largest contemporaneous animals. PMID:22378742

  1. Estimating maximum bite performance in Tyrannosaurus rex using multi-body dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bates, K T; Falkingham, P L

    2012-08-23

    Bite mechanics and feeding behaviour in Tyrannosaurus rex are controversial. Some contend that a modest bite mechanically limited T. rex to scavenging, while others argue that high bite forces facilitated a predatory mode of life. We use dynamic musculoskeletal models to simulate maximal biting in T. rex. Models predict that adult T. rex generated sustained bite forces of 35 000-57 000 N at a single posterior tooth, by far the highest bite forces estimated for any terrestrial animal. Scaling analyses suggest that adult T. rex had a strong bite for its body size, and that bite performance increased allometrically during ontogeny. Positive allometry in bite performance during growth may have facilitated an ontogenetic change in feeding behaviour in T. rex, associated with an expansion of prey range in adults to include the largest contemporaneous animals.

  2. Edible insects are the future?

    PubMed

    van Huis, Arnold

    2016-08-01

    The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect species are eaten mainly in tropical regions. The role of edible insects in the livelihoods and nutrition of people in tropical countries is discussed, but this food source is threatened. In the Western world, there is an increasing interest in edible insects, and examples are given. Insects as feed, in particular as aquafeed, have a large potential. Edible insects have about the same protein content as conventional meat and more PUFA. They may also have some beneficial health effects. Edible insects need to be processed and turned into palatable dishes. Food safety may be affected by toxicity of insects, contamination with pathogens, spoilage during conservation and allergies. Consumer attitude is a major issue in the Western world and a number of strategies are proposed to encourage insect consumption. We discuss research pathways to make insects a viable sector in food and agriculture: an appropriate disciplinary focus, quantifying its importance, comparing its nutritional value to conventional protein sources, environmental benefits, safeguarding food safety, optimising farming, consumer acceptance and gastronomy.

  3. [Infections after bite wounds : For example rat bite fever due to Streptobacillus moniliformis].

    PubMed

    Hof, Herbert; Binder, Rudolf; Schäfer, Christian; Stuber, Madeleine; Licht, Andreas; Bozenhardt-Stavrakidis, Iris; Bode, Konrad

    2018-04-11

    Rat bite fever due to Streptobacillus moniliformis induces typical but not pathognomonic clinical signs, such as local purulent wound infection followed by maculopapular exanthema, myalgia as well as purulent joint infections. Severe complications, such as osteomyelitis and endocarditis are possible. it seems that this infection is rarely diagnosed but this infection could be much more common because the final diagnostic proof is difficult to achieve. Firstly, the culture of these bacteria is critical because the bacteria are fastidious and secondly the exact differentiation of the isolates is hardly possible by standard laboratory methods. Modern techniques such as mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF) and molecular biology allow a precise clarification. Surgical cleansing of infection sites in combination with a rational antibiotic therapy, for example with beta-lactam antibiotics, are generally able to cure the infection if treatment is started early enough. In addition, vaccinations, for example against tetanus and rabies have to be considered in this situation as for all other bite wound infections.

  4. Dentin Hypersensitivity: Etiology, Diagnosis and Treatment; A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Davari, AR; Ataei, E; Assarzadeh, H

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review is to inform practitioners about dentin hypersensitivity (DH); to provide a brief overview of the diagnosis, etiology and clinical management of dentin hypersensitivity and to discuss technical approaches to relieve sensitivity. This clinical information is described in the context of the underlying biology. The author used PUBMED to find relevant English-language literature published in the period 1999 to 2010. The author used combinations of the search terms “dentin*”, “tooth”, “teeth”, “hypersensit*”, “desensitiz*”. Abstracts and also full text articles to identify studies describing etiology, prevalence, clinical features, controlled clinical trials of treatments and relevant laboratory research on mechanisms of action were used. PMID:24724135

  5. [Adaptive desensitization for acetylsalicylic acid hypersensitivity: A success story?].

    PubMed

    Mühlmeier, G; Hausch, R; Maier, H

    2015-10-01

    Adaptive desensitization still remains the only causative therapy for acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) hypersensitivity and is carried out nearly worldwide. To date there are hardly any data available on disease development under current desensitization therapy and longitudinal data in particular are missing. Out of a large collective of patients with proven hypersensitivity to ASA, 194 patients with initiated desensitization treatment were observed for periods up to 5 years (average 32 months). Patients with immediate reactions to systemic challenge tests revealed a response rate of 77% after 12 months of therapy. In this period 12% reached complete remission, 38% showed a clear reduction in symptoms, 32% reached partial remission, 13% remained unchanged and 5% suffered from disease progression. Adaptive desensitization therapy for hypersensitivity to ASA has been shown to be an effective causative therapy and chronic hyperplastic sinusitis as well as bronchial asthma could be improved. For the determination of maintenance dosages and required time periods more data are needed.

  6. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to flavocoxid: are corticosteroids necessary?

    PubMed

    Panduranga, Veena; Atienza, Jonessa; Kumar, Anupam; Metersky, Mark L

    2013-02-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a rare adverse event with flavocoxid (Limbrel) use. Patients present with nonspecific symptoms after exposure to an inciting agent. A 42-year-old female presented with worsening dyspnea on exertion and pleuritic midsternal chest pain. Her symptoms failed to abate with outpatient azithromycin for a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia. She was seen again at the emergency department (ED) due to symptom progression and exertional hypoxia. Chest reoentgenogram (x-ray) and computed tomography (CT) chest revealed bilateral infiltrates. Her history was significant for initiation of flavocoxid (Limbrel) two weeks prior, and a diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis was made. Once flavocoxid was discontinued, symptoms and radiologic studies improved without requiring biopsy or steroids. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is associated with many pharmacological agents and is challenging to diagnose, given nonspecific symptoms and radiologic findings. In the absence of specific indications to use corticosteroids, symptoms of HP might resolve with cessation of the offending agent, as proven by this case.

  7. Pro and Contra: Provocation Tests in Drug Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Soyer, Ozge; Sahiner, Umit Murat; Sekerel, Bulent Enis

    2017-01-01

    Drug provocation test (DPT) is the controlled administration of a drug to diagnose immune- or non-immune-mediated drug hypersensitivity and the last step for accurate recognition of drug hypersensitivity reactions when the previous diagnostic evaluations are negative or unavailable. A DPT is performed only if other conventional tests fail to yield conclusive results. In each clinical presentation, “to provoke or not to provoke” a patient should be decided after careful assessment of the risk–benefit ratio. Well-defined benefits of DPT include confirmative exclusion of diagnoses of drug hypersensitivity and provision of safe alternatives. However, disadvantages such as safety, difficulty in interpretations of results, lack of objective biomarkers, risks of resensitization, efficiency in daily practice, and lack of standardized protocols, are poorly debated. This review summarizes the current published research concerning DPT, with particular emphasis on the advantages and disadvantages of DPT in an evidence-based manner. PMID:28677662

  8. Management of pediatric snake bites: are we doing too much?

    PubMed

    Correa, Jesus A; Fallon, Sara C; Cruz, Andrea T; Grawe, Glenda H; Vu, Phong V; Rubalcava, Daniel M; Kaziny, Brent; Naik-Mathuria, Bindi J; Brandt, Mary L

    2014-06-01

    The optimal management of children with snake bite injuries is not well defined. The purpose of this study was to review the use of antivenom, diagnostic tests, and antibiotics in children bitten by venomous snakes in a specific geographic region (Southeast Texas). This is a retrospective single-center review of all patients with snake bite injury from 1/2006 to 6/2012. An envenomated bite was defined as causing edema, discoloration of the skin, necrosis, or systemic effects. The severity of injury was scored using a novel 4-point scale based on initial physical examination alone. One hundred fifty-one children (mean age 8.4±4.3years) were treated for a snake bite. There were no mortalities. Lower extremity injuries were most common (60%). Most bites were from copperheads (43%). Envenomation was evident in 82% (average wound score: 2.61±0.81). The median hospital stay for admitted patients (79%) was 2days (range 1-7). Four patients required surgery for complications of the snake bite. Fifty-two children (34%) received CroFab, with one allergic reaction. 22/135 (16%) had evidence of coagulopathy. Seventy-two children (48%) received IV antibiotics. Despite a high rate of envenomated bites in Southeast Texas, significant morbidity is rare. Children with an envenomation score of 1 or 2 are unlikely to be coagulopathic, suggesting that laboratory investigation should be reserved for patients with higher scores. The indications for the administration of CroFab deserve further prospective study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Postnatal Myostatin Inhibition on Bite Mechanics in Mice.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susan H; Lozier, Nicholas R; Montuelle, Stéphane J; de Lacalle, Sonsoles

    2015-01-01

    As a negative regulator of muscle size, myostatin (Mstn) impacts the force-production capabilities of skeletal muscles. In the masticatory system, measures of temporalis-stimulated bite forces in constitutive myostatin KOs suggest an absolute, but not relative, increase in jaw-muscle force. Here, we assess the phenotypic and physiologic impact of postnatal myostatin inhibition on bite mechanics using an inducible conditional KO mouse in which myostatin is inhibited with doxycycline (DOX). Given the increased control over the timing of gene inactivation in this model, it may be more clinically-relevant for developing interventions for age-associated changes in the musculoskeletal system. DOX was administered for 12 weeks starting at age 4 months, during which time food intake was monitored. Sex, age and strain-matched controls were given the same food without DOX. Bite forces were recorded just prior to euthanasia after which muscle and skeletal data were collected. Food intake did not differ between control or DOX animals within each sex. DOX males were significantly larger and had significantly larger masseters than controls, but DOX and control females did not differ. Although there was a tendency towards higher absolute bite forces in DOX animals, this was not significant, and bite forces normalized to masseter mass did not differ. Mechanical advantage for incisor biting increased in the DOX group due to longer masseter moment arms, likely due to a more anteriorly-placed masseter insertion. Despite only a moderate increase in bite force in DOX males and none in DOX females, the increase in masseter mass in males indicates a potentially positive impact on jaw muscles. Our data suggest a sexual dimorphism in the role of mstn, and as such investigations into the sex-specific outcomes is warranted.

  10. ORAL INSECT REPELLENTS - INSECT TASTE RECEPTORS AND THEIR ACTION,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CULICIDAE, * CHEMORECEPTORS ), INSECT REPELLENTS, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, STIMULATION(PHYSIOLOGY), ELECTROLYTES(PHYSIOLOGY), BLOOD, INGESTION(PHYSIOLOGY), REPRODUCTION(PHYSIOLOGY), NUTRITION, ENTOMOLOGY, AEDES, MOUTH

  11. Metal hypersensitivity after knee arthroplasty: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Innocenti, Massimo; Vieri, Berti; Melani, Tommaso; Paoli, Tommaso; Carulli, Christian

    2017-06-07

    Hypersensitivity to metals in the general population has an incidence of about 15%, and in rising also for the higher number of joint replacements in the last decades. Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) represents the most performed orthopaedic procedure during last years, and it seems to be particularly associated with sensitization after surgery. On the other hand, there is a rising amount of patients with painful but well implanted and functioning TKAs: in certain cases, after the exclusion of the most frequent causes of failure, a condition of hypersensitivity may be found, and a revision with anallergic implants is mandatory. The present study is a review of the potential problems related to hypersensitivity in TKA, its possible diagnostic procedures, and the surgical options to date available. Medical history, patch testing, and other specific laboratory assays are useful to assess a status of metals hypersensitivity before surgery in subjects undergoing a knee replacement, or even after TKA in patients complaining pain in otherwise well implanted and aligned prostheses. However, few groups worlwide deal with such condition, and all proposed diagnostic protocols may be considered still today conjectural. On the other hand, these represent the most updated knowledge of this condition, and may be useful for both the patient and the orthopaedic surgeon. Once assessed a possible or ascertained allergy to metals, several options are available for primary andr revision knee surgery, in order to avoid the risk of hypersensitivity. A review of the recent publications on this topic and an overview of the related aspects has been made to understand a condition to date considered negligible. Hypersensitivity to metals has not to be nowadays considered a "fiction", but rather a possible preoperative risk or a postoperative cause of failure of TKA. Crucial is the information of patients and the medical history, associated in suspect cases to laboratory testings. Today in the

  12. Corticosteroid hypersensitivity studies in a skin allergy clinic.

    PubMed

    Berbegal, L; DeLeon, F J; Silvestre, J F

    2015-12-01

    Corticosteroids can cause hypersensitivity reactions, particularly delayed-type allergic reactions. A new classification system for testing hypersensitivity to corticosteroids distributes the drugs into 3 groups according to molecular structure; patients are classified according to whether they are allergic to agents in 1 or more of the groups. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of corticosteroid-allergic patients treated at our clinic and apply the new classification system to them; we also compared these patients' characteristics to those of others treated at our clinic. Retrospective study of cases of delayed-type corticosteroid hypersensitivity treated in the skin allergy clinic of a tertiary level hospital over an 11-year period. We reviewed the records of 2857 patients, finding 33 with at least one positive patch test result showing corticosteroid hypersensitivity. Atopic dermatitis and hand involvement were less common in our corticosteroid-allergic patients. All were allergic to a group 1 corticosteroid (most often, budesonide, the culprit in 87.9%). Testing with a specific corticosteroid series revealed that 14 (42.4%) were also allergic to corticosteroids in group 2 and/or group 3. None were allergic exclusively to group 2 or group 3 agents. Twenty-one patients were exposed to a corticosteroid cream from a group their patch test results indicated allergy to; 13 of them (61.9%) did not develop a hypersensitivity reaction. The Spanish standard series only contains group 1 corticosteroids. In the interest of improving allergy management, we recommend testing with a specific corticosteroid series and a patient's own creams whenever patch testing with a standard series reveals a hypersensitivity reaction to corticosteroids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  13. Insect repellents and sunscreen: implications for personal protection strategies against mosquito-borne disease.

    PubMed

    Webb, Cameron E; Russell, Richard C

    2009-10-01

    To determine the protection times provided by insect repellent and sunscreen in combined formulations against biting mosquitoes. To determine if concurrent use of repellent and sunscreen influenced protection times. Insect repellent containing comparable concentrations of N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET) with and without sunscreen were tested on human skin to determine the mean protection time (MPT) against Aedes aegypti (L.) in the laboratory. Further trials were undertaken to determine the effect on MPT of sunscreen reapplication over repellent every two hours. There was no significant difference in the MPT provided by 80% DEET with (MPT+/-SE=770+/-54.8 minutes) and without (MPT+/-SE=830+/-20.2 minutes) sunscreen or 7.14% DEET with (MPT+/-SE =240+/-15.5 minutes) and 6.98% DEET without (MPT+/-SE =230+/-18.4 minutes) sunscreen. Reapplication of sunscreen resulted in a significantly lower MPT of a 17.0% DEET formulation when sunscreen was reapplied concurrently (MPT+/-SE=330+/-25.2 minutes), compared with DEET alone (MPT+/-SE =400+/-12.7 minutes). When combined in a single formulation with sunscreen, the MPT provided by both high and low concentrations of DEET is not reduced. However, if sunscreen is reapplied over insect repellent, protection times can be reduced significantly. In areas of endemic mosquito-borne disease, the reapplication of a low concentration repellent and sunscreen formulation may provide the most effective protection from biting mosquitoes while minimising the risk of overexposure to DEET.

  14. Association of HLA genotypes with phenobarbital hypersensitivity in children.

    PubMed

    Manuyakorn, Wiparat; Mahasirimongkol, Surakameth; Likkasittipan, Plernpit; Kamchaisatian, Wasu; Wattanapokayakit, Sukanya; Inunchot, Wimala; Visudtibhan, Anannit; Wichukchinda, Nuanjun; Benjaponpitak, Suwat

    2016-10-01

    Phenobarbital hypersensitivity is one of the common drug hypersensitivity syndromes in children. Clinical symptoms of phenobarbital hypersensitivity vary from maculopapular rashes (MPs) to severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCARs) including drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Drug hypersensitivity has been demonstrated to be associated with variations in the HLA genotypes. This study was to investigate the association between the variations of HLA genotypes and phenobarbital hypersensitivity in Thai children. The cases were Thai children, between 0 and 18 years of age, who were diagnosed with phenobarbital hypersensitivity, which included SCARs and MPs. The control patients were Thai children of a corresponding age who had taken phenobarbital for at least 12 weeks without any hypersensitivity reaction. Blood samples were collected for HLA genotyping by using a reverse-sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO) probes method. The carrier rates of HLA alleles were compared between 47 cases (27 SCARs and 20 MPs) and 54 controls. The carrier rates of HLA-A*01:01 and HLA-B*13:01 were significantly higher in the phenobarbital-induced SCARs than in the tolerant controls (18.5% vs. 1.85%, p = 0.01, odds ratio [OR] 11.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-578.19; 37.04% vs. 11.11%, p = 0.009, OR 4.60, 95%CI 1.29-17.98). There was a trend of a higher carrier rate of HLA-C*06:02 in the phenobarbital-induced SCARs when compared with those in the tolerant controls (29.63% vs. 11.11%, p = 0.059, OR 3.31, 95% CI 0.88-13.31). In contrast to the phenobarbital-induced SCARs, only the HLA-A*01:01 carrier rate in the phenobarbital-induced MPs was significantly higher than those in the tolerant controls (20% vs. 1.85%, p = 0.017, OR 12.69, 95% CI 1.15-661.62). An association between phenobarbital hypersensitivity and HLA-A*01:01 and HLA-B*13:01 has been demonstrated in Thai children

  15. Aspirin and Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs Hypersensitivity and Management.

    PubMed

    Modena, Brian; White, Andrew A; Woessner, Katharine M

    2017-11-01

    Aspirin and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used in the United States and throughout the world for a variety of indications. Several unique hypersensitivity syndromes exist to this class of medications, making them one of the common reasons for consultation to the allergist. The lack of any laboratory-based diagnostic studies to assist in identifying the culprits in these reactions make evaluation of aspirin and NSAID hypersensitivity challenging. Identifying patients appropriate for oral challenge and/or desensitization protocols is the standard pragmatic approach to this issue when it arises. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional dyspepsia: The role of visceral hypersensitivity in its pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Keohane, John; Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2006-01-01

    Functional, or non-ulcer, dyspepsia (FD) is one of the most common reasons for referral to gastroenterologists. It is associated with significant morbidity and impaired quality of life. Many authorities believe that functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome represent part of the spectrum of the same disease process. The pathophysiology of FD remains unclear but several theories have been proposed including visceral hypersensitivity, gastric motor dysfunction, Helicobacter pylori infection and psychosocial factors. In this review, we look at the evidence, to date, for the role of visceral hypersensitivity in the aetiology of FD. PMID:16718751

  17. Functional dyspepsia: the role of visceral hypersensitivity in its pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Keohane, John; Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2006-05-07

    Functional, or non-ulcer, dyspepsia (FD) is one of the most common reasons for referral to gastroenterologists. It is associated with significant morbidity and impaired quality of life. Many authorities believe that functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome represent part of the spectrum of the same disease process. The pathophysiology of FD remains unclear but several theories have been proposed including visceral hypersensitivity, gastric motor dysfunction, Helicobacter pylori infection and psychosocial factors. In this review, we look at the evidence, to date, for the role of visceral hypersensitivity in the aetiology of FD.

  18. Differential responses of primary auditory cortex in autistic spectrum disorder with auditory hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Junko; Kagitani-Shimono, Kuriko; Goto, Tetsu; Sanefuji, Wakako; Yamamoto, Tomoka; Sakai, Saeko; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Hirata, Masayuki; Mohri, Ikuko; Yorifuji, Shiro; Taniike, Masako

    2012-01-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differential responses of the primary auditory cortex to auditory stimuli in autistic spectrum disorder with or without auditory hypersensitivity. Auditory-evoked field values were obtained from 18 boys (nine with and nine without auditory hypersensitivity) with autistic spectrum disorder and 12 age-matched controls. Autistic disorder with hypersensitivity showed significantly more delayed M50/M100 peak latencies than autistic disorder without hypersensitivity or the control. M50 dipole moments in the hypersensitivity group were larger than those in the other two groups [corrected]. M50/M100 peak latencies were correlated with the severity of auditory hypersensitivity; furthermore, severe hypersensitivity induced more behavioral problems. This study indicates auditory hypersensitivity in autistic spectrum disorder as a characteristic response of the primary auditory cortex, possibly resulting from neurological immaturity or functional abnormalities in it. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  19. Efficacy of topical permethrin as repellent against Aedes aegypti's bites.

    PubMed

    Miot, Hélio Amante; Ferreira, Daniela Pinho; Mendes, Fabiana Guandalini; Carrenho, Flávia Roberta Hernandes; de Oliveira Amui, Isabela; Carneiro, Carlos Augusto Sá; Madeira, Newton Goulart

    2008-07-15

    Mosquitoes are the most important vectors of infectious diseases and their bites are related to several adverse skin reactions. Permethrin impregnated clothes are an efficient strategy against arthropods' bites; however, its topical efficacy as a repellent has not been well established. We studied the response to permethrin lotion 5 percent and N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) spray 50 percent applied to the unprotected forearms of 10 volunteers. Each arm was exposed to 20 female mosquitoes of Aedes aegypti. We performed 71 bilateral comparative measurements evaluating the timing for the first bites. The average times for the arm without the product, with permethrin 5 percent, and with DEET 50 percent were: 7.9 seconds, 336.2 seconds and 7512.1 seconds. The results showed a significant difference between repellency times between either product and unprotected controls. In addition, there was a significant difference in time to first bite between permethrin and DEET treated arms (p<0.01). Permethrin affords some repellent activity against Aedes aegypti bites in this experimental setting. However, permethrin's profile of repellency was significantly inferior to that of DEET.

  20. Mosquito bite anaphylaxis: immunotherapy with whole body extracts.

    PubMed

    McCormack, D R; Salata, K F; Hershey, J N; Carpenter, G B; Engler, R J

    1995-01-01

    Adverse reactions to mosquito bites have been recognized for some time. These usually consist of large local swellings and redness, generalized urticaria, angioedema and less easily definable responses such as nausea, dizziness, headaches, and lethargy. We report two patients who experienced systemic anaphylaxis from mosquito bites. Both were skin tested and given immunotherapy using whole body mosquito extracts. Skin testing using whole body mosquito extracts was positive to Aedes aegypti at 1/1,000 weight/volume (wt/vol) in one patient and to Aedes aegypti at 1/100,000 wt/vol, and Culex pipiens at 1/10,000 wt/vol in the other. Skin testing of ten volunteers without a history of adverse reactions to mosquito bites was negative. Immunotherapy using these extracts resulted in resolution of adverse reactions to mosquito bites in one patient and a decrease in reactions in the other. Immunotherapy with whole body mosquito extracts is a viable treatment option that can play a role in patients with mosquito bite-induced anaphylaxis. It may also result in severe side effects and one must determine the benefit versus risks for each individual patient.

  1. Bite Injuries to the Hand - Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Pradyumna; Khan, Wasim; Haddad, Behrooz; Mahapatra, Anant Narayan

    2014-01-01

    Patients presenting to the emergency department with bite injuries to the hand sustain them through a number of causes including domesticated as well as stray animal bites, and human bites commonly sustained as a result of violence. The nature of the injuries sustained can be very deceptive. A small tooth mark on the exterior can be a fulminant infection in the tissues deeper down. Tendon injuries, fractures of the metacarpals and phalanges and management of the wound are critical issues faced by a surgeon in dealing with such patients. Similarly the less common bite injuries to the hand, often with disastrous and sometimes fatal complications, do also present to the emergency department. A high incidence of suspicion is needed in dealing with these injuries effectively. In our article we discuss the common as well as uncommon causes of bite injuries to the hand and their management. In addition to reviewing the literature to ascertain the management of such injuries, we also discuss interesting and rare case reports. PMID:25097675

  2. Biting and chewing in overdentures, full dentures, and natural dentitions.

    PubMed

    Fontijn-Tekamp, F A; Slagter, A P; Van Der Bilt, A; Van 'T Hof, M A; Witter, D J; Kalk, W; Jansen, J A

    2000-07-01

    It has been suggested that the provision of dental implants can improve the oral function of subjects with severely resorbed mandibles, possibly restoring function to the level experienced by satisfied wearers of conventional complete dentures. Nevertheless, a quantitative comparison has never been made and can be drawn from the literature only with difficulty, since studies differ greatly in methodology. To make such a comparison, we measured bite force and chewing efficiency by using identical methods in subjects with overdentures, complete full dentures, and natural dentitions. Our results indicated that bite forces achieved with overdentures on dental implants were between those achieved with artificial and natural dentitions. Chewing efficiency was significantly greater than that of subjects with full dentures (low mandible), but was still lower than that of subjects with full dentures (high mandible) and overdentures on bare roots. Differences in the height of the mandible revealed significant differences in chewing efficiency between the two full-denture groups. Furthermore, subjects with a shortened dental arch exerted bite forces similar to those of subjects with a complete-natural dentition, but their chewing efficiency was limited due to the reduced occlusal area. For all groups combined, a significant correlation was found between maximum bite force and chewing efficiency. Nearly half of the variation in chewing efficiency was explained by bite force alone.

  3. Epidemiological aspects of snake bites on a Liberian rubber plantation.

    PubMed

    Stahel, E

    1980-12-01

    During a one-year period 95 patients with a history of snake bite were admitted to the hospital of a Liberian rubber plantation. The population at risk included the field workers (tappers and slashers) with an incidence of 4.2 symptomatic snake bites per thousand per year. The incidence of symptomatic bites was 1.7 per thousand in the group of non-field employees and 0.4 per thousand per year in the group of non-employees. The temporary disability was between 3 and 5 days, and the loss of workings days due to snake bites was one day per 10,000 working days on the plantation. Among the 95 patients 27 did not show any symptoms of envenoming except occasional fang marks. 64 patients developed cytotoxic symptoms alone. In this group, the night adder (Causus maculatus) was the main responsible snake. 4 patients showed signs of systemic envenoming. Two were haematological and two were neurological in nature and caused by Bitis species and Naja species, respectively. No fatalities were noted. A definite maximum of snake bites was observed during October and November which corresponds to the transition from rainy to dry season.

  4. [Prevalence of cross-bite in Mexican children].

    PubMed

    Ojeda León, S; De la Teja Angeles, E

    1990-10-01

    As observed, the problem of lining and accommodation of teeth in the child population is increasingly larger. This fact prompted the authors to attempt determining the prevalence of cross-bite in a sample of Mexican children. A total of 306 patients, aged between two and 17 and attending the Stomatology service of the National Institute of Pediatrics, were evaluated, from which all pertinent data regarding age, sex, molar-temporal relationship (terminal, rectus, distal, messial and exaggerated messial planes), permanent molar status (Angle I, II, III), cross-bite, type of dentition affected (primary, mixed or permanent), cross-bite classification (anterior, posterior or mixed), whether unilateral, bilateral, dental or skeletal, right or left, and number of teeth affected, were duly recorded. Out of 306 evaluated patients (160 males, 146 female), 112 evidenced cross-bite (36.6%), 56 of each sex; in 69.6% the teeth were anterior, in 17.8% they were posterior, and in 15.5% their position was mixed. Their average age was 8 years, and malocclusion was Angle class I. From this experience, it is to be concluded that early detection and correction of any dental occlusion abnormality will permit correcting defects in dentofacial development; it is thus necessary to ascertain the frequency of cross-bite.

  5. Aircraft anti-insect system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiro, Clifford Lawrence (Inventor); Fric, Thomas Frank (Inventor); Leon, Ross Michael (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Insect debris is removed from or prevented from adhering to insect impingement areas of an aircraft, particularly on an inlet cowl of an engine, by heating the area to 180.degree.-500.degree. C. An apparatus comprising a means to bring hot air from the aircraft engine to a plenum contiguous to the insect impingement area provides for the heating of the insect impingement areas to the required temperatures. The plenum can include at least one tube with a plurality of holes contained in a cavity within the inlet cowl. It can also include an envelope with a plurality of holes on its surface contained in a cavity within the inlet cowl.

  6. Factors Associated with Tick Bite Preventive Practices among Farmworkers in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Li Ping; Tay, Sun Tee; Bulgiba, Awang; Zandi, Keivan; Kho, Kai Ling; Koh, Fui Xian; Ong, Bee Lee; Jaafar, Tariq; Hassan Nizam, Quaza Nizamuddin

    2016-01-01

    Background Farmworkers are at high-risk for tick bites, which potentially transmit various tick-borne diseases. Previous studies show that personal prevention against tick bites is key, and certain factors namely, knowledge, experience of tick bites, and health beliefs influence compliance with tick bites preventive behaviour. This study aimed to assess these factors and their associations with tick bite preventive practices among Malaysian farmworkers. Methods A total of eight cattle, goat and sheep farms in six states in Peninsular Malaysia participated in a cross-sectional survey between August and October 2013 Results A total of 151 (72.2%) out of 209 farmworkers answered the questionnaire. More than half of the farmworkers (n = 91) reported an experience of tick bites. Farms with monthly acaricide treatment had significantly (P<0.05) a low report of tick bites. Tick bite exposure rates did not differ significantly among field workers and administrative workers. The mean total knowledge score of ticks for the overall farmworkers was 13.6 (SD±3.2) from 20. The mean total tick bite preventive practices score for all farmworkers was 8.3 (SD±3.1) from 15. Fixed effect model showed the effects of four factors on tick bite prevention: (1) farms, (2) job categories (administrative workers vs. field workers), (3) perceived severity of tick bites, and (4) perceived barriers to tick bite prevention. Conclusions A high proportion of farmworkers, including administrative workers, reported an experience of tick bites. The effectiveness of monthly acaricide treatment was declared by low reports of tick bites on these farms. Tick bite preventive practices were insufficient, particularly in certain farms and for administrative workers. Our findings emphasise the need to have education programmes for all farmworkers and targeting farms with low prevention practices. Education and health programmes should increase the perception of the risk of tick bites and remove perceived

  7. 1977 Kansas Field Crop Insect Control Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Leroy; Gates, Dell E.

    This publication is prepared to aid producers in selecting methods of insect population management that have proved effective under Kansas conditions. Topics covered include insect control on alfalfa, soil insects attacking corn, insects attacking above-ground parts of corn, and sorghum, wheat, and soybean insect control. The insecticides…

  8. 7 CFR 51.2122 - Insect injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insect injury. 51.2122 Section 51.2122 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2122 Insect injury. Insect injury means that the insect, web, or frass is present or there is definite evidence of insect feeding. ...

  9. 7 CFR 51.2290 - Insect injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insect injury. 51.2290 Section 51.2290 Agriculture... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2290 Insect injury. Insect injury means that the insect, web, frass or other evidence of insects is present on the portion of kernel. ...

  10. Hydrodynamics of insect spermatozoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, On Shun; Lauga, Eric

    2010-11-01

    Microorganism motility plays important roles in many biological processes including reproduction. Many microorganisms propel themselves by propagating traveling waves along their flagella. Depending on the species, propagation of planar waves (e.g. Ceratium) and helical waves (e.g. Trichomonas) were observed in eukaryotic flagellar motion, and hydrodynamic models for both were proposed in the past. However, the motility of insect spermatozoa remains largely unexplored. An interesting morphological feature of such cells, first observed in Tenebrio molitor and Bacillus rossius, is the double helical deformation pattern along the flagella, which is characterized by the presence of two superimposed helical flagellar waves (one with a large amplitude and low frequency, and the other with a small amplitude and high frequency). Here we present the first hydrodynamic investigation of the locomotion of insect spermatozoa. The swimming kinematics, trajectories and hydrodynamic efficiency of the swimmer are computed based on the prescribed double helical deformation pattern. We then compare our theoretical predictions with experimental measurements, and explore the dependence of the swimming performance on the geometric and dynamical parameters.

  11. Animal bite injuries to the face : A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Simao, Niverso Rodrigues; Borba, Alexandre Meireles; da Silva, Andre Luis Fernandes; Vieira, Evanice Menezes Marcal; Carvalhosa, Artur Aburad; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Borges, Alvaro Henrique

    2013-08-01

    Traumatic lacerations to the skin are problems frequently seen and treated by emergency centers around the world. Among all wounds, dog and cat bites are commonly seen. As in many mammals, different species of microorganisms are found in dog and cat mouths with a potential pathological effect to humans, as represented by rabies. The injuries have disfiguration effect with possible psychological repercussion to the patient. This article aimed presenting up to date considerations regarding the management of animal bite injuries to the face, exemplified by a case report that should be the interest of all professions that deal with facial tissues, as dentists do. How to cite this article: Simao NR, Borba AM, da Silva ALF, Vieira EMM, Carvalhosa AA, Bandeca MC, Borges AH. Animal bite injuries to the face: A Case Report. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(4):68-72.

  12. Anterior open bite treated with myofunctional therapy and palatal crib.

    PubMed

    Asiry, Moshabab A

    2015-03-01

    This case report demonstrates the treatment effects of palatal crib combined with the myofunctional therapy in a child with anterior open bite (AOB) due to thumb sucking and habitual anterior and low tongue position. The patient, an 11-year-old boy, had an anterior open bite and flared and spaced upper and lower incisors. Palatal cribs in conjunction with myofunctional therapy were used to discourage sucking habit and to adapt normal tongue position. Successful correction of the AOB with adequate overjet and overbite were achieved with total treatment time of 7 months. The importance of myofunctional therapy in adopting normal tongue position and in maintaining the stability of open bite correction is emphasized.

  13. Novel Low-Cost Sensor for Human Bite Force Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Fastier-Wooller, Jarred; Phan, Hoang-Phuong; Dinh, Toan; Nguyen, Tuan-Khoa; Cameron, Andrew; Öchsner, Andreas; Dao, Dzung Viet

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a low cost and reliable maximal voluntary bite force sensor which can be manufactured in-house by using an acrylic laser cutting machine. The sensor has been designed for ease of fabrication, assembly, calibration, and safe use. The sensor is capable of use within an hour of commencing production, allowing for rapid prototyping/modifications and practical implementation. The measured data shows a good linear relationship between the applied force and the electrical resistance of the sensor. The output signal has low drift, excellent repeatability, and a large measurable range of 0 to 700 N. A high signal-to-noise response to human bite forces was observed, indicating the high potential of the proposed sensor for human bite force measurement. PMID:27509496

  14. Animal bite injuries to the face : A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Simao, Niverso Rodrigues; Borba, Alexandre Meireles; da Silva, Andre Luis Fernandes; Vieira, Evanice Menezes Marcal; Carvalhosa, Artur Aburad; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Borges, Alvaro Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic lacerations to the skin are problems frequently seen and treated by emergency centers around the world. Among all wounds, dog and cat bites are commonly seen. As in many mammals, different species of microorganisms are found in dog and cat mouths with a potential pathological effect to humans, as represented by rabies. The injuries have disfiguration effect with possible psychological repercussion to the patient. This article aimed presenting up to date considerations regarding the management of animal bite injuries to the face, exemplified by a case report that should be the interest of all professions that deal with facial tissues, as dentists do. How to cite this article: Simao NR, Borba AM, da Silva ALF, Vieira EMM, Carvalhosa AA, Bandeca MC, Borges AH. Animal bite injuries to the face: A Case Report. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(4):68-72. PMID:24155623

  15. Trichloroethylene Hypersensitivity Syndrome: A Disease of Fatal Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyun Gul; Song, Bong Gun; Kim, Eun Jin

    2012-01-01

    Trichloroethylene is commonly used as an industrial solvent and degreasing agent. The clinical features of acute and chronic intoxication with trichloroethylene are well-known and have been described in many reports, but hypersensitivity syndrome caused by trichloroethylene is rarely encountered. For managing patients with trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome, avoiding trichloroethylene and initiating glucocorticoid have been generally accepted. Generally, glucocorticoid had been tapered as trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome had ameliorated. However, we encountered a typical case of trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome refractory to high dose glucocorticoid treatment. A 54-year-old Korean man developed jaundice, fever, red sore eyes, and generalized erythematous maculopapular rashes. A detailed history revealed occupational exposure to trichloroethylene. After starting intravenous methylprednisolone, his clinical condition improved remarkably, but we could not reduce prednisolone because his liver enzyme and total bilirubin began to rise within 2 days after reducing prednisolone under 60 mg/day. We recommended an extended admission for complete recovery, but the patient decided to leave the hospital against medical advice. The patient visited the emergency department due to pneumonia and developed asystole, which did not respond to resuscitation. PMID:22187259

  16. Trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome: a disease of fatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun Gul; Kim, Hyung Hun; Song, Bong Gun; Kim, Eun Jin

    2012-01-01

    Trichloroethylene is commonly used as an industrial solvent and degreasing agent. The clinical features of acute and chronic intoxication with trichloroethylene are well-known and have been described in many reports, but hypersensitivity syndrome caused by trichloroethylene is rarely encountered. For managing patients with trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome, avoiding trichloroethylene and initiating glucocorticoid have been generally accepted. Generally, glucocorticoid had been tapered as trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome had ameliorated. However, we encountered a typical case of trichloroethylene hypersensitivity syndrome refractory to high dose glucocorticoid treatment. A 54-year-old Korean man developed jaundice, fever, red sore eyes, and generalized erythematous maculopapular rashes. A detailed history revealed occupational exposure to trichloroethylene. After starting intravenous methylprednisolone, his clinical condition improved remarkably, but we could not reduce prednisolone because his liver enzyme and total bilirubin began to rise within 2 days after reducing prednisolone under 60 mg/day. We recommended an extended admission for complete recovery, but the patient decided to leave the hospital against medical advice. The patient visited the emergency department due to pneumonia and developed asystole, which did not respond to resuscitation.

  17. Cyproterone acetate in the treatment of oestrogen hypersensitivity vulvovaginitis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Yvonne; Bradford, Jennifer; Fischer, Gayle

    2018-02-01

    Oestrogen hypersensitivity vulvovaginitis is a rare chronic cyclical vulvovaginitis responsive to oestrogen suppression or antagonism. We present a case series of 16 patients with refractory cyclical vulvovaginitis, all of whom responded to oestrogen suppression with cyproterone acetate. © 2017 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  18. Auditory Hypersensitivity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucker, Jay R.

    2013-01-01

    A review of records was completed to determine whether children with auditory hypersensitivities have difficulty tolerating loud sounds due to auditory-system factors or some other factors not directly involving the auditory system. Records of 150 children identified as not meeting autism spectrum disorders (ASD) criteria and another 50 meeting…

  19. Open bite as a risk factor for orthodontic root resorption.

    PubMed

    Motokawa, Masahide; Terao, Akiko; Kaku, Masato; Kawata, Toshitsugu; Gonzales, Carmen; Darendeliler, M Ali; Tanne, Kazuo

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to clarify the prevalence and degree of root resorption induced by orthodontic treatment in patients with and without open bite. One hundred and eleven patients treated with multibracket appliances were retrospectively selected from the patients and divided into non-open bite (NOB) and open bite (OB) groups. The severity of root resorption and the root shape were classified into five groups on periapical radiographs before and after treatment. Moreover, only in the OB group, all teeth were sub-divided into functional and hypofunctional ones that are occluding and non-occluding. As the results of multiple linear regression analysis of patient characteristics and clinical variables with the number of overall root resorption, the independent variables that were found to contribute significantly to root resorption were bite and abnormal root shape. The prevalences of root resorption evaluated in the number of patients were significantly higher in OB group than in NOB group, and those in the number of teeth were significantly higher in OB group than in NOB group, in particular anterior and premolar teeth. The prevalence of resorbed teeth with abnormal root shapes was also significantly higher in OB group than in NOB group. On the other hand, in OB group, the prevalences of root resorption and teeth with abnormal root shape were significantly greater in hypofunctional teeth than in normal functional teeth. There are more teeth with root resorption and abnormal root shape in open bite cases than in normal bite cases, and more teeth with abnormal root shapes and root resorption in hypofunctional teeth than in functional teeth.

  20. Dog bite injuries to humans and the use of breed-specific legislation: a comparison of bites from legislated and non-legislated dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Creedon, Nanci; Ó'Súilleabháin, Páraic S

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate if differences in dog bite characteristics exist amongst legislated and non-legislated dog breeds listed under breed-specific legislation in Ireland (age when bitten, anatomical bite locations, triggers for biting, victim's relationship with the dog, geographical location and owner presence, history of aggression, reporting bite incident to authorities, medical treatment required following the bite, and type of bite inflicted). A second objective of the current study was to investigate dog control officer's enforcement and perceptions of current legislation. Data for statistical analyses were collated through a nationally advertised survey, with Pearson Chi-square and Fisher's Exact Test statistical methods employed for analyses. A total of 140 incident surveys were assessed comprising of non-legislated ( n  = 100) and legislated ( n  = 40) dog bite incidents. Legislated breeds were significantly more likely to be perceived as aggressive and less fearful as triggers for biting compared to non-legislated breeds ( P  = 0.003). Non-legislated breeds were more likely to inflict a bite with the owner present on own property and on a business premises compared to legislated breeds ( P  = 0.036). Non-legislated breeds were more likely to not be reported to the authorities before ( P  = 0.009), and after ( P  = 0.032) the bite occurred compared to legislated breeds. There were no significant differences observed between both groups for; age when the victim was bitten, bite location, relationship with the dog, history of aggression, outcome for the dog, if the dog bit again, and seeing a professional trainer or behaviourist. No significant difference was observed between both legislated and non-legislated groups for medical treatment required following the bite, and the type of bite inflicted. The present study results did not observe evidence of any differences between legislated and non-legislated for both

  1. Acute hypersensitivity reaction to Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (CroFab) as initial presentation of galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) allergy.

    PubMed

    Rizer, Justin; Brill, Kaitlin; Charlton, Nathan; King, Joshua

    2017-08-01

    Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab antivenom (CroFab), commonly used for the treatment of clinically significant North American crotalinae envenomation, is generally well-tolerated. A novel form of anaphylaxis due to an IgE antibody response to the mammalian oligosaccharide galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-gal) has been established following red-meat consumption as well as IV administration of cetuximab, which contain the α-gal epitope. We present a case of α-gal allergy discovered after acute hypersensitivity reaction to FabAV. A 61-year-old healthy female was bitten on her left ankle by Agkistrodon contortrix. Given the patient's rapid progression of pain and swelling, she was given FabAV. During infusion of FabAV, she developed diffuse hives over her entire body and itching, but denied respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms and her vital signs remained stable. The FabAV was immediately discontinued and she received intravenous diphenhydramine and famotidine with gradual resolution of symptoms. On further discussion, she denied a history of α-gal or papaya allergy but rarely ate red meat and endorsed sustaining frequent tick bites. Subsequent antibody testing was significant for an α-1,3-galactose IgE concentration of 45,000 U/L (normal <3500 U/L), confirming α-gal allergy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of FabAV hypersensitivity associated with an underlying α-gal allergy.

  2. Application of Diode Laser in the Treatment of Dentine Hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Gojkov-Vukelic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Sanja; Zukanovic, Amila; Pasic, Enes; Pavlic, Veriva

    2016-12-01

    Dentine hypersensitivity is characterized by acute, sharp pain arising from the exposed dentine, most commonly in response to thermal, tactile, or chemical stimuli, and which cannot be linked to any other pathological changes in the tooth or the environment. Therapy uses various impregnating agents in the form of solutions or gels and, in more recent times, laser. The aim of this research was to examine the effects of treatment of hypersensitive dental cervix with diode laser. The study included 18 patients with 82 sensitive teeth. The degree of dentine hypersensitivity was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS), and the treatment was carried out by application of low-power diode laser over the span of three visits, which depended on the initial sensitivity. There is a significant difference in VAS values measured at the onset of treatment (baseline) and immediately after the first laser treatment (t=9.275; p=0.000), after 7 days, after the second laser treatment (14 days) (t=7.085, p=0.000), as well as after 14 days and the third laser treatment (t=5.517, p=0.000), which confirms the effectiveness of this therapeutic procedure. The results showed a reduction of hypersensitivity in response to tactile stimulus with a probe after the third treatment, even with teeth whose value on the VAS was very high at the beginning of treatment (baseline). Within the scope of the conducted study, laser therapy has provided extremely safe and effective results in the treatment of cervical dentine hypersensitivity.

  3. Chapter 21: Microsporidia in insects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The science of microsporidiology encompasses a diverse assemblage of pathogens from a large and varied group of hosts. Microsporidia, pathogenic protists related to the Fungi, are considered to be primary pathogens of many aquatic and terrestrial insect species and have important roles in insect po...

  4. Plant Defense against Insect Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar. Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although their development is suboptimal. PMID:23681010

  5. Reader Survey for INSECT ALERTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mason E.; Sauer, Richard J.

    To determine what might be done to improve "Insect Alerts," which is a newsletter that carries "information on insect biology, abundance, activity and interpretation of control need," put out through the Michigan Cooperative Extension Service 26 weeks a year, a survey was conducted. A mail questionnaire was sent to all 120 county extension…

  6. Another scale insect on beech

    Treesearch

    Alex L. Shigo

    1962-01-01

    A scale insect, tentatively identified as Xylococculus betulae (Perg.) Morrison, is responsible for one type of bark roughening that is commonly seen on American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) trees in certain areas of New England. The insect has also been found on paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and...

  7. Polarization Imaging and Insect Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Adam S.; Ohmann, Paul R.; Leininger, Nick E.; Kavanaugh, James A.

    2010-01-01

    For several years we have included discussions about insect vision in the optics units of our introductory physics courses. This topic is a natural extension of demonstrations involving Brewster's reflection and Rayleigh scattering of polarized light because many insects heavily rely on optical polarization for navigation and communication.…

  8. Feeding biomechanics and theoretical calculations of bite force in bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) during ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Habegger, Maria L; Motta, Philip J; Huber, Daniel R; Dean, Mason N

    2012-12-01

    Evaluations of bite force, either measured directly or calculated theoretically, have been used to investigate the maximum feeding performance of a wide variety of vertebrates. However, bite force studies of fishes have focused primarily on small species due to the intractable nature of large apex predators. More massive muscles can generate higher forces and many of these fishes attain immense sizes; it is unclear how much of their biting performance is driven purely by dramatic ontogenetic increases in body size versus size-specific selection for enhanced feeding performance. In this study, we investigated biting performance and feeding biomechanics of immature and mature individuals from an ontogenetic series of an apex predator, the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas (73-285cm total length). Theoretical bite force ranged from 36 to 2128N at the most anterior bite point, and 170 to 5914N at the most posterior bite point over the ontogenetic series. Scaling patterns differed among the two age groups investigated; immature bull shark bite force scaled with positive allometry, whereas adult bite force scaled isometrically. When the bite force of C. leucas was compared to those of 12 other cartilaginous fishes, bull sharks presented the highest mass-specific bite force, greater than that of the white shark or the great hammerhead shark. A phylogenetic independent contrast analysis of anatomical and dietary variables as determinants of bite force in these 13 species indicated that the evolution of large adult bite forces in cartilaginous fishes is linked predominantly to the evolution of large body size. Multiple regressions based on mass-specific standardized contrasts suggest that the evolution of high bite forces in Chondrichthyes is further correlated with hypertrophication of the jaw adductors, increased leverage for anterior biting, and widening of the head. Lastly, we discuss the ecological significance of positive allometry in bite force as a possible

  9. Streptococcus oralis cerebral abscess following monkey bite in a 2-month-old infant.

    PubMed

    Thiagarajan, Srinivasan; Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Raghavan, Renitha; Mahadevan, Subramanian; Madhugiri, Venkatesh S; Sistla, Sujatha

    2016-05-01

    Although cerebral abscesses caused by animal bites have been reported, they are extremely rare in infants and have not been described following monkey bite. A 55-day-old male infant presented with a multi-loculated Streptococcus oralis cerebral abscess following a monkey bite on the scalp. There was a clinical response to antibiotic therapy and repeated surgical aspiration followed by a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. This is the first report of a patient with a brain abscess following a monkey bite.

  10. Diagnostic methods for insect sting allergy.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Robert G

    2004-08-01

    This review overviews advances from mid-2002 to the present in the validation and performance methods used in the diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom-induced immediate-type hypersensitivity. The general diagnostic algorithm for insect sting allergy is initially discussed with an examination of the AAAAI's 2003 revised practice parameter guidelines. Changes as a result of a greater recognition of skin test negative systemic reactors include repeat analysis of all testing and acceptance of serology as a complementary diagnostic test to the skin test. Original data examining concordance of venom-specific IgE results produced by the second-generation Pharmacia CAP System with the Johns Hopkins University radioallergosorbent test are presented. Diagnostic performance of honeybee venom-specific IgE assays used in clinical laboratories in North America is discussed using data from the Diagnostic Allergy Proficiency Survey conducted by the College of American Pathologists. Validity of venom-specific IgE antibody in postmortem blood specimens is demonstrated. The utility of alternative in-vivo (provocation) and in-vitro (basophil-based) diagnostic testing methods is critiqued. This overview supports the following conclusions. Improved practice parameter guidelines include serology and skin test as complementary in supporting a positive clinical history during the diagnostic process. Data are provided which support the analytical performance of commercially available venom-specific IgE antibody serology-based assays. Intentional sting challenge in-vivo provocation, in-vitro basophil flow cytometry (CD63, CD203c) based assays, and in-vitro basophil histamine and sulfidoleukotriene release assays have their utility in the study of difficult diagnostic cases, but their use will remain as supplementary, secondary diagnostic tests.

  11. Advances on polyphenism in insects.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xian-Ci; Yu, Li

    2017-09-20

    Polyphenism denotes that one genome produces two or more distinct phenotypes due to environmental inductions. Many cases have been reported in insects, for example, metamorphosis, seasonal polyphenism, the caste of eusocial insects and so on. Polyphenism is one of the most important reasons for insects to survive and thrive, because insects can adapt and use the environmental cues around them in order to avoid predators and reproduce by changing their phenotypes. Polyphenism has received growing attentions, ranging from the earlier description of this phenomenon to the exploration of possible inducing factors. With the recent advent of the genomic era, more and more studies based on next generation sequencing, gene knockout and RNA interference have been reported to reveal the molecular mechanism of polyphenism. In this review, we summarize the progresses of the polyphenism in insects and envision prospects of future researches.

  12. Insect Immunity to Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Lu, H-L; St Leger, R J

    2016-01-01

    The study of infection and immunity in insects has achieved considerable prominence with the appreciation that their host defense mechanisms share many fundamental characteristics with the innate immune system of vertebrates. Studies on the highly tractable model organism Drosophila in particular have led to a detailed understanding of conserved innate immunity networks, such as Toll. However, most of these studies have used opportunistic human pathogens and may not have revealed specialized immune strategies that have arisen through evolutionary arms races with natural insect pathogens. Fungi are the commonest natural insect pathogens, and in this review, we focus on studies using Metarhizium and Beauveria spp. that have addressed immune system function and pathogen virulence via behavioral avoidance, the use of physical barriers, and the activation of local and systemic immune responses. In particular, we highlight studies on the evolutionary genetics of insect immunity and discuss insect-pathogen coevolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Venomous snake bites, scorpions, and spiders.

    PubMed

    Kularatne, S A M; Senanayake, Nimal

    2014-01-01

    Neurologic dysfunction due to natural neurotoxins is an important, but neglected, public health hazard in many parts of the world, particularly in the tropics. These toxins are produced by or found among a variety of live forms that include venomous snakes, arthropods such as scorpions, spiders, centipedes, stinging insects (Hymenoptera), ticks, certain poisonous fish, shellfish, crabs, cone shells, skin secretions of dart-poison frogs, and bacterial poisons such as botulinum toxin. These toxins commonly act on neuromuscular transmission at the neuromuscular junction where acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter, but in certain situations the toxins interfere with neurotransmitters such as GABA, noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine, and γ-aminobutyrate. Of the toxins, α-toxins and κ-toxins (e.g., Chinese krait, Bungarus multicinctus) act on the postsynaptic membrane, blocking the receptors, whilst β-toxin (e.g., common krait, B. caeruleus) acts on the presynaptic membrane, causing impairment of acetylcholine release. Conversely, dendrotoxins of the African mamba enhance acetylcholine release. The toxins of scorpions and spiders commonly interfere with voltage-gated ion channels. Clinically, the cardinal manifestation is muscle paralysis. In severe cases respiratory paralysis could be fatal. Effective antivenoms are the mainstay of treatment of envenoming, but their lack of availability is the major concern in the regions of the globe where they are desperately needed. Interestingly, some toxins have proved to be valuable pharmaceutical agents, while some others are widely exploited to study neuromuscular physiology and pathology. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Descriptive epidemiology of animal bites in Indiana, 1990-92--a rationale for intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, C L; Zhou, C

    1995-01-01

    Animal bites are a reality of life throughout the world. They arise out of an imperfect relationship with domestic animals and wildlife. Most bite injuries are preventable. The principal approaches to community-wide bite prevention programs include reducing the number of domestic animals roaming in the community (animal control) and teaching people to refrain from behaviors likely to provoke bites. This article addresses the epidemiologic basis and justification for a bite prevention program targeted toward children. Animal bite data from Indiana for the years 1990, 1991, and 1992 were analyzed for trends that might suggest opportunities for preventive intervention. Bites inflicted by humans were not included in this data base. Children of all age groups were disproportionately affected, with the highest incidence in the 5-9 year age group. The dog and the cat were the most commonly reported biting animals. Wild and pet rodents were the next most frequent biting group. The bites most frequently reported from nonrodent wild animals were inflicted by raccoons. The incidence of animal bites in children peaked during the spring (April-June). Boys were bitten at a higher rate than girls, but this difference between the sexes narrows with age and was not noted in the adult population. Residents of urban counties (population greater than 100,000) had higher reported bite rates than residents of nonurban counties. PMID:7838946

  15. Evaluation of Bite Force After Open Reduction and Internal Fixation Using Microplates

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S Tharani; Saraf, Saurabh; Devi, S Prasanna

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study is to determine maximum bite force in molar and incisor regions of healthy individuals, to evaluate the bite force after open reduction and internal fixation of mandibular fractures using micro plates, for a period of up to 6 weeks and to determine the rate of recovery of maximum bite force in an Indian population. PMID:24910656

  16. Insect anaphylaxis: addressing clinical challenges.

    PubMed

    Tracy, James M; Lewis, Elena J; Demain, Jeffrey G

    2011-08-01

    Few allergic reactions are as potentially life-threatening, or frightening to the patient, as anaphylaxis. Food, medications, and insect stings are the three most common triggers of anaphylaxis, but insect allergy provides the best opportunity to understand the biology of anaphylaxis. If the physician can establish a diagnosis of insect allergy, treatment with nearly 98% effectiveness can be initiated. However, sometimes patients have a compelling history of insect sting anaphylaxis, but negative skin and blood tests. This situation presents us with a fascinating opportunity to understand the biology of insect anaphylaxis. Recent and ongoing work shows that occult mast cell disease may be critical in insect anaphylaxis. Mastocytosis, serum tryptase and basophil biology are key elements; genetic markers may potentially help us diagnose at-risk individuals and determine proper treatment. Understanding basophil activation may play an additional role both in diagnosis and knowing when therapy might be terminated. Mast cell disease, serum tryptase and basophil biology are providing an opportunity to better understand and manage insect allergy. This evolving understanding should improve long-term management of insect anaphylaxis and help us to better understand the clinical dilemma of appropriate management of the history-positive patient in which testing is unable to detect venom-specific IgE. Furthermore, omalizumab's immunomodulatory effects may play a role in difficult-to-treat insect allergy and mastocytosis. Finally, unrelated to these, but still important as an ongoing risk factor, is the continued underutilization of epinephrine for both acute and long-term management of insect anaphylaxis.

  17. Sex-related clinical aspects in insect venom anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Nittner-Marszalska, Marita; Liebhart, Jerzy; Dor-Wojnarowska, Anna

    2015-06-01

    Experimental studies, epidemiological data, and clinical observations suggest that the gender factor is involved in the development and manifestation of IgE-dependent allergic diseases. We intend to answer the question if sex-related factors may play a role in Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA). In the majority of recent studies the frequency of HVA symptoms with respect to both LL and SYS reactions is similar for men and women, while proven sensitization to insect venom is less frequent in women. Studies assessing clinical reactivity in HVA indicate that male sex and vespid venom allergy are factors increasing the risk of severe allergic reactions. Regarding the risk of adverse events associated with gender in the course of venom immunotherapy (VIT), the results of two large EAACI multicenter studies are discordant. In the first study, women showed increased risk of VIT adverse events. In the latter, systemic allergic side effects were not associated with gender. Despite theoretical premises and certain clinical observations indicating an important role of estrogens in allergic diseases, their influence on stinging insects' venom hypersensitivity is not unequivocal and remains still open. Further studies on the safety of VIT in females seem to be advisable. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. A placebo controlled clinical trial investigating the efficacy of a homeopathic after-bite gel in reducing mosquito bite induced erythema.

    PubMed

    Hill, N; Stam, C; Tuinder, S; van Haselen, R A

    1995-01-01

    A randomised, placebo controlled clinical trial was conducted to examine the efficacy of a homeopathic after-bite gel in the symptomatic relief of mosquito bites. Sixty eight healthy volunteers were bitten under laboratory conditions by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes at three spots, on the ventral aspect of the forearm. One bite was treated with the homeopathic after-bite gel, another bite with a placebo gel which was identical in appearance and smell to the homeopathic after-bite gel, and the third bite remained untreated. Immediately after the bites and 1, 3, 6, 26 and 31 hours post-bite, the length and width of the erythema were measured with a calliper, and photographs were taken of the bite sites from which the size of the erythema was subsequently determined. This was followed by assessment of the extent of itching with a verbal analogue scale, and finally treatment took place. For each spot the total erythema was calculated as the area under the plotted curve of the erythema at different time points (mm2*h) and the total sum of the itch scores was determined. For the bites treated with the homeopathic after-bite gel the median total erythema was 10.500 mm2*h. For the spots treated with the placebo gel and the untreated spots the median total erythema was 12.900 mm2*h and 13.300 mm2*h, respectively. The difference between the spots treated with the homeopathic after-bite gel and the untreated spots came close to significance (two-tailed P = 0.06), which was not the case for the difference between the spots treated with the homeopathic after-bite gel and the spots treated with placebo gel (P = 0.13). After pooling the data of a very similar previous pilot study and the present study (ntotal = 83), the homeopathic after-bite gel was significantly superior to no treatment (two-tailed P = 0.003) as well as to placebo gel (two-tailed P = 0.03). Comparing itching after the three treatments, no significant differences could be demonstrated. The extent of itching was

  19. [Hypersensitivity to dacarbazine in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma].

    PubMed

    Levy, A; Guitera, P; Kerob, D; Ollivaud, L; Archimbaud, A; Dubertret, L; Basset-Seguin, N

    2006-02-01

    Dacarbazine (DTIC) is the first-line chemotherapy for metastatic malignant melanoma without cerebral metastasis. Its clinical and hematological safety is usually good. Hypersensitivity in hepatic failure patients is the most serious side effect described. This was a retrospective study of the prevalence of hypersensitivity in patients treated with DTIC for metastatic melanoma between 11/01/2002 and 10/31/2003. Hypersensitivity was diagnosed in the event of fever, hypereosinophilia (> 500/mm3) with or without liver dysfunction (> twice pre-therapeutic values). Clinical data, DTIC administration modalities, number of courses and clinical and laboratory safety data were recorded. Twenty patients were included, 11 women and 9 men of median age 58.6 years (22-82 years) with multiple metastases in all cases. DTIC was the first-line treatment for 19 patients, being administered for 4 days to 10 patients and for 1 day to the other 10 patients, depending on their overall health status. Five hypersensitivity-like manifestations were observed, all in the 4-day treatment group. In 3 patients, fever and hypereosinophilia were seen without liver dysfunction at D3 of the second course of treatment. In 2 patients, treatment was stopped after the second course because of disease progression. In the third patient, 4 courses were given with recurrence of symptoms, although the latter were controlled during the fifth course with corticosteroids and antihistamines given 15 minutes before the start of treatment. Two patients experienced severe forms of hypersensitivity with fever, hypereosinophilia, liver dysfunction (cytolysis and cholestasis) and delayed medullar aplasia, after the first and second course respectively. In one patient, bone marrow examination showed a block at the promyelocytic stage consistent with a toxic etiology. Treatment with DTIC was stopped, and all signs regressed with symptomatic treatment. Hypersensitivity with DTIC seems to be frequent, being observed in 20

  20. Sugar-sensitive neurone responses and sugar feeding preferences influence lifespan and biting behaviours of the Afrotropical malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Sébastien; Vlimant, Michèle; Guerin, Patrick M

    2015-03-01

    Floral nectar is the main source of carbohydrates for many insects including mosquitoes. Nonetheless, the physiological mechanisms underlying feeding on carbohydrates by the Afrotropical malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae remain poorly understood. Here, we tested whether sugar sensitivity and sugar feeding preferences correlate with longevity in A. gambiae. We also tested whether feeding females on different sugar diets influences their biting behaviours. Electrophysiological recordings show that sugar neurones on the labella of females are most sensitive to sucrose, mixtures of glucose and fructose, and to melezitose; other sugars tested, including glucose and fructose presented alone, only weakly activate these taste neurones. Mosquitoes survive longest on sucrose, the most preferred sugar. Whereas feeding on a mixture of glucose and fructose is preferred over fructose or glucose alone, fructose supports higher longevity than either glucose or the mixture of the two hexoses. Females that had previously fed on glucose show a stronger biting response than those fed on sucrose, perhaps in an effort to compensate for their lower energetic state. These findings contribute to our understanding of the physiological basis of sugar feeding in A. gambiae and indicate how the sugar diet can affect laboratory-reared A. gambiae biting behaviours.

  1. Extreme skeletal open bite correction with vertical elastics.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Escalante, Marco Antonio; Aliaga-Del Castillo, Aron; Soldevilla, Luciano; Janson, Guilherme; Yatabe, Marilia; Zuazola, Ricardo Voss

    2017-11-01

    Severe skeletal open bites may be ideally treated with a combined surgical-orthodontic approach. Alternatively, compensations may be planned to camouflage the malocclusion with orthodontics alone. This case report describes the treatment of an 18-year-old man who presented with a severe open bite involving the anterior and posterior teeth up to the first molars, increased vertical dimension, bilateral Class III molar relationship, bilateral posterior crossbite, dental midline deviation, and absence of the maxillary right canine and the mandibular left first premolar. A treatment plan including the extraction of the mandibular right first premolar and based on uprighting and vertical control of the posterior teeth, combined with extrusion of the anterior teeth using multiloop edgewise archwire mechanics and elastics was chosen. After 6 months of alignment and 2 months of multiloop edgewise archwire mechanics, the open bite was significantly reduced. After 24 months of treatment, anterior teeth extrusion, posterior teeth intrusion, and counterclockwise mandibular rotation were accomplished. Satisfactory improvement of the overbite, overjet, sagittal malocclusion, and facial appearance were achieved. The mechanics used in this clinical case demonstrated good and stable results for open-bite correction at the 2-year posttreatment follow-up.

  2. Innovation in prediction planning for anterior open bite correction.

    PubMed

    Almuzian, Mohammed; Almukhtar, Anas; O'Neil, Michael; Benington, Philip; Al Anezi, Thamer; Ayoub, Ashraf

    2015-05-01

    This study applies recent advances in 3D virtual imaging for application in the prediction planning of dentofacial deformities. Stereo-photogrammetry has been used to create virtual and physical models, which are creatively combined in planning the surgical correction of anterior open bite. The application of these novel methods is demonstrated through the surgical correction of a case.

  3. Complexity of acetylcholinesterases in biting flies and ticks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors function as pesticides for invertebrates, vertebrate nerve agents, and medicine to reduce cognitive effects of Alzheimer’s disease. Organophosphate (OP) pesticides have been widely used to control biting flies and ticks, however, OP-resistance has compromised c...

  4. Reconstruction of massive facial avulsive injury, secondary to animal bite.

    PubMed

    Motamed, Sadrollah; Niazi, Feizollah; Moosavizadeh, Seyed Mehdi; Gholizade Pasha, Abdolhamid; Motamed, Ali

    2014-02-01

    Management of facial soft tissue trauma requires complex reconstruction surgery. Animal bite on face is a common cause of facial tissue trauma with severe destruction. Evaluation of unit involvement is the first effort, followed by designation of reconstruction. In this case, we performed multiple reconstruction options.

  5. Detection of Elizabethkingia spp. in Culicoides Biting Midges, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Stacey E.; Walker, Peter J.; Melville, Lorna; Duchemin, Jean-Bernard

    2017-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Elizabethkingia is known to exist in certain species of mosquito but was unknown in other arthropods. We report the detection and identification of Elizabethkingia in species of Culicoides biting midge in Australia, raising the possibility of bacterial transmission via this species. PMID:28726605

  6. Convicted by a bite mark, Ted Bundy (1946-1989).

    PubMed

    Riaud, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The identification of a murderer and the eventual conviction was largely due to forensic dentistry and in particular the use of bite marks on the victim compared with casts of the teeth of the accused. The Bundy case has become notorious in American legal circles.

  7. Bite Block Vowel Production in Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacks, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored vowel production and adaptation to articulatory constraints in adults with acquired apraxia of speech (AOS) plus aphasia. Method: Five adults with acquired AOS plus aphasia and 5 healthy control participants produced the vowels [iota], [epsilon], and [ash] in four word-length conditions in unconstrained and bite block…

  8. Treatment of spider bites by high voltage direct current.

    PubMed

    Osborn, C D

    1991-06-01

    Between September 7, 1988, and January 15, 1991, 147 cases of confirmed (19) and suspected spider bites have been treated by high voltage direct current (HVDC) shocks. Venom damage to tissue was arrested at the time of treatment. Pain and systemic symptoms usually improved within 15 minutes. Lesion excision or grafts have not been necessary in any of the 127 cases with completed followup.

  9. Interactive relationship between the mechanical properties of food and the human response during the first bite.

    PubMed

    Dan, Haruka; Kohyama, Kaoru

    2007-05-01

    Biting is an action that results from interplay between food properties and the masticatory system. The mechanical factors of food that cause biting adaptation and the recursive effects of modified biting on the mechanical phenomena of food are largely unknown. We examined the complex interaction between the bite system and the mechanical properties. Nine subjects were each given a cheese sample and instructed to bite it once with their molar teeth. An intra-oral bite force-time profile was measured using a tactile pressure-measurement system with a sheet sensor inserted between the molars. Time, force, and impulse for the first peak were specified as intra-oral parameters of the sample fracture. Mechanical properties of the samples were also examined using a universal testing machine at various test speeds. Besides fracture parameters, initial slope was also determined as a mechanical property possibly sensed shortly after bite onset. The bite profile was then examined based on the mechanical parameters. Sample-specific bite velocities were identified as characteristic responses of a human bite. A negative correlation was found between bite velocity and initial slope of the sample, suggesting that the initial slope is the mechanical factor that modifies the consequent bite velocity. The sample-specific bite velocity had recursive effects on the following fracture event, such that a slow velocity induced a low bite force and high impulse for the intra-oral fracture event. We demonstrated that examination of the physiological and mechanical factors during the first bite can provide valuable information about the food-oral interaction.

  10. Polymicrobial tenosynovitis with Pasteurella multocida and other Gram negative bacilli after a Siberian tiger bite

    PubMed Central

    Isotalo, P; Edgar, D; Toye, B

    2000-01-01

    Mammalian bites present a considerable clinical problem because they are often associated with bacterial infections. Pasteurella multocida is a microorganism that commonly infects both canine and small feline bites. Zoonotic infections developing after large feline bites have been recognised, although their reports are limited. We describe a 35 year old man who was bitten by a Siberian tiger and who developed infectious tenosynovitis secondary to P multocida, Bergeyella (Weeksella) zoohelcum, and Gram negative bacteria most like CDC group EF-4b and comamonas species. The latter three bacteria have not been isolated previously from large feline bite wounds. Key Words: animal bite • zoonotic infection • Pasteurella multocida • Bergeyella zoohelcum PMID:11127273

  11. Cause, setting and ownership analysis of dog bites in Bay County, Florida from 2009 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Matthias, J; Templin, M; Jordan, M M; Stanek, D

    2015-02-01

    Emergency room and hospital discharge data have been used to describe the risk factors and public health impact of dog bites. These data sets are based on financial charges for severe bites and underestimates dog bite burdens within communities. This study expands both the source of information and risk factor data collected to provide demographic analysis of dog bite injury risk factors reported in Bay County, Florida in 2009-2010. Extended data for dog bites reported by various sources from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2010 were collected by Florida Department of Health in Bay County. Data collected included bite victim's age and gender, primary reported cause of bite, setting, dog's restraint status and relationship between the victim and the dog. A total of 799 bites were reported. Most bites (55%) were reported first by healthcare practitioners, particularly bites involving children<6 years. Bites involving unfamiliar dogs and dogs off the owner's property were more likely to be reported by other sources. Boys aged 6-14 years accounted for 2.24 times more bites than same-aged females (P<0.001) and had the highest incidence with 424 bites per 100,000 persons per year. Persons 6 years or older were 3.6 times more likely to be bitten by an unfamiliar dog. Inappropriate behaviour management was the most common cause of bites (26%), followed by protective behaviour (24%). Bites of unknown cause were 2.5 times more likely in children<6 years. Separating dog fights was the most common cause of bites for persons 15 years or older (24%); females were significantly more likely to be bit than males (P=0.01). Bites by unrestrained dogs off the owner's property (32% of all bites) most commonly involved males. Estimates based solely on healthcare discharge data significantly underestimate dog bite burden within a community. Characterizing these risks by age group or gender provides an opportunity to implement targeted interventions to prevent dog bites. © 2014 Blackwell

  12. Zebras and Biting Flies: Quantitative Analysis of Reflected Light from Zebra Coats in Their Natural Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Britten, Kenneth H.; Thatcher, Timothy D.; Caro, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and comparative evidence suggests that the striped coats of zebras deter biting fly attack, but the mechanisms by which flies fail to target black-and-white mammals are still opaque. Two hypotheses have been proposed: stripes might serve either to defeat polarotaxis or to obscure the form of the animal. To test these hypotheses, we systematically photographed free-living plains zebras in Africa. We found that black and white stripes both have moderate polarization signatures with a similar angle, though the degree (magnitude) of polarization in white stripes is lower. When we modeled the visibility of these signals from different distances, we found that polarization differences between stripes are invisible to flies more than 10 m away because they are averaged out by the flies’ low visual resolution. At any distance, however, a positively polarotactic insect would have a distinct signal to guide its visual approach to a zebra because we found that polarization of light reflecting from zebras is higher than from surrounding dry grasses. We also found that the stripes themselves are visible to flies at somewhat greater distances (up to 20 m) than the polarization contrast between stripes. Together, these observations support hypotheses in which zebra stripes defeat visually guided orienting behavior in flies by a mechanism independent of polarotaxis. PMID:27223616

  13. Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Martín García Island, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ronderos, María M; Marino, Pablo I; Díaz, Florentina; Estévez, Ana L

    2011-09-01

    Nearly 230 species of biting midges have been recorded or described from Argentina; 38 of them are known from the Buenos Aires province and only one is cited from Martín García Island. This paper presents the results raised from six collecting trips which took place on the island during spring 2005, summer 2006 and autumn 2009. Diverse sampling sites including permanent and temporary aquatic environments were chosen, most of the ten sampling sites were ponds of diverse origin, some of these environments were covered with floating vegetation as Lemna gibba, Lemna minuscule, Salvinia biloba, Salvinia minima, Azolla filiculoides, Limnobium laevigatum, Pistia stratiotes, Spirodela intermedia, Wolffiella oblonga and Wolffia columbiana. Other sites were placed in urban and suburban areas. Adults were collected with sweep nets at sunrise and sunset and with light traps at intervals of four to five hours at night, depending on electricity availability on the island. Larvae and pupae were collected with different implements depending on characteristics of each surveyed aquatic habitat. In free standing water, they were captured with small sieves or hand pipettes and micropipettes, flotation techniques were utilized for sampling vegetated areas, free and rooted floating hydrophytes were extracted for removing insects among them. Thirteen species of Ceratopogonidae were collected, three of Atrichopogon Kieffer, three of Forcipomyia Meigen, two of Dasyhelea Kieffer, four of Culicoides Latreille, and one of Bezzia Kieffer, all representing new records from the island.

  14. First molar cross-bite is more closely associated with a reverse chewing cycle than anterior or pre-molar cross-bite during mastication.

    PubMed

    Tomonari, H; Ikemori, T; Kubota, T; Uehara, S; Miyawaki, S

    2014-12-01

    A posterior cross-bite is defined as an abnormal bucco-lingual relationship between opposing molars, pre-molars or both in centric occlusion. Although it has been reported that patients with unilateral posterior cross-bite often show unique chewing patterns, the relationship between the form of cross-bite and masticatory jaw movement remains unclear in adult patients. The objective of this study was to investigate masticatory jaw movement among different forms of cross-bite. One hundred and one adults were recruited in this study: 27 had unilateral first molar cross-bite (MC group); 28, unilateral pre-molar cross-bite (PC group); 23, anterior cross-bite (AC group); and 23, normal occlusion (control group). Masticatory jaw movement of the lower incisor point was recorded with six degrees of freedom jaw-tracking system during unilateral mastication. Our results showed that the reverse chewing ratio during deliberate unilateral mastication was significantly larger in the MC group than in the PA (P < 0.001), AC (P < 0.001) and control (P < 0.001) groups. These findings suggest that compared to the anterior or pre-molar cross-bite, the first molar cross-bite is more closely associated with a higher prevalence of a reverse chewing cycle. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Role of Esophageal Hypersensitivity in Functional Esophageal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Adam D; Ruffle, James K; Aziz, Qasim

    2017-02-01

    The Rome IV diagnostic criteria delineates 5 functional esophageal disorders which include functional chest pain, functional heartburn, reflux hypersensitivity, globus, and functional dysphagia. These are a heterogenous group of disorders which, despite having characteristic symptom profiles attributable to esophageal pathology, fail to demonstrate any structural, motility or inflammatory abnormalities on standard clinical testing. These disorders are associated with a marked reduction in patient quality of life, not least considerable healthcare resources. Furthermore, the pathophysiology of these disorders is incompletely understood. In this narrative review we provide the reader with an introductory primer to the structure and function of esophageal perception, including nociception that forms the basis of the putative mechanisms that may give rise to symptoms in functional esophageal disorders. We also discuss the provocative techniques and outcome measures by which esophageal hypersensitivity can be established.

  16. A severe hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir following re-challenge.

    PubMed

    Todd, Sej; Emerson, C R

    2017-03-01

    We report this case to highlight the possibility of a severe hypersensitivity reaction as an important potential consequence of couples, living with HIV, sharing anti-retroviral treatment. An HIV-1 positive and carrier of HLA-B*57:01 allele, treatment experienced man was commenced one pill Regimen Stribild (tenofovir, emtricitabine, elvitegravir and cobicistat) in July 2015. On running short of medication, he admitted to sharing his partner's treatment (Triumeq; abacavir, lamivudine and dolutegravir). On the second occasion, re-introduction resulted in whole body rash 4 h post dose and was associated with fever, respiratory symptoms, headache and vomiting. On examination, he was pyrexic, tachyponeic, tachycardiac and hypotensive. Hypersensitivity to abacavir can cause significant morbidity. Re-challenge can result in a more rapid, severe and potentially life-threatening reaction. This potentially could become an increasing problem with more couples, living with HIV, sharing medication.

  17. Laser-assisted treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Biagi, Roberto; Cossellu, Gianguido; Sarcina, Michele; Pizzamiglio, Ilaria Tina; Farronato, Giampietro

    2015-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate the effectiveness of the laser-assisted treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. A review with inclusion and exclusion criteria was performed from January 2009 to December 2014 with electronic data-bases: MedLine via PubMed, Science Direct and Cochrane Library. Research of paper magazines by hand was not considered. Forty-three articles were selected between literature reviews, in vitro studies, clinical trials, pilot and preliminary studies. The items were divided into laser-used groups for an accurate description, and then the reading of results into various typologies. Laser-assisted treatment reduces dentinal hypersensitivity-related pain, but also a psychosomatic component must be considered, so further studies and more suitable follow-ups are necessary. PMID:26941892

  18. [Anaphylaxis after vaccination due to hypersensitivity to gelatin].

    PubMed

    Kamin, W; Staubach, P; Klär-Hlawatsch, B; Erdnüss, F; Knuf, M

    2006-01-01

    Most allergic reactions after vaccination occur in patients sensitive to egg protein. Therefore this subject is well investigated, and the majority of common vaccines today contain only traces of egg protein. In contrast, there is little knowledge of hypersensitivities to other substances frequently contained in vaccines, e. g. antibiotics, phenol, gelatin and different preservatives. Here we report the case of a boy who had an anaphylactic reaction after being vaccinated against measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), and tick-born encephalitis (TBE) simultaneously. Different tests finally revealed a hypersensitivity to gelatin. This should be kept in mind especially during emergency care, since gelatin containing products like Haemaccel, Gelifundol or Gelofusin are widely used as colloid for resuscitation. If type 1 reactions after vaccination occur, gelatin should be taken into account as the causative agent. A medical alert card is recommended for such patients.

  19. [Castleman's disease: Rapid desensitization for hypersensitivity reaction to rituximab].

    PubMed

    Boin, C; Lambert, S; Thomann, P; Aujoulat, O; Kieffer, P

    2016-06-01

    Rapid desensitization allows secure administration of a drug and is indicated when there is no therapeutic alternative. We report a 49-year-old patient who presented with a hypersensitivity reaction following an infusion of rituximab (375mg/m(2)) in the context of a Castleman's syndrome. After a clinical flare (splenomegaly, adenopathies) despite treatment with tocilizumab, anakinra and valganciclovir, the reintroduction of rituximab was decided, according to the rapid desensitization protocol. Four full dose desensitizations were successfully performed allowing immediate clinical improvement (apyrexia, loss of sweating and lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly partial regression) and biological (negativation of HHV8 viral load, and disappearance of neutropenia, anemia and thrombocytopenia). Rapid desensitization is a promising method for the pursuit of rituximab therapy after a hypersensitivity reaction and should be considered in patients with no acceptable therapeutic alternative. Copyright © 2015 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. [Dentinal hypersensitivity in periodontal disease. Aetiology Aetiology--management].

    PubMed

    Andronikaki-Faldani, A; Kamma, I

    1988-01-01

    The exposure of dentine has a multifactoral aetiology and pain may frequently be elicited by a number of stimuli. Management of dentinal hypersensitivity tends to be empirical because of the lack of knowledge concerning the mechanism of pain transmission through dentine. Nevertheless, whichever theory proves to be correct, occlusion of dentinal tubules would appear an essential prerequisite for an effective desensitising agent. A large number of compounds as well as iontophoresis have been employed in the management of dentinal hypersensitivity. These desensitising agents are: sodium, fluoride, stannous fluoride, sodium monofluorophosphate, strontium chloride, calcium hydroxide, potassium nitrate, silver nitrate, formalin, corticosteroids, resins, varnishes and glass ionomers. The most effective of the compounds mentioned above, are fluorides used as gels, varnishes, mouthwashes or toothpastes, strontium chloride and potassium nitrate.

  1. Ulcerative colitis flair induced by mesalamine suppositories hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hao; Liu, Xiao-Chang; Mei, Qiao; Xu, Jian-Ming; Hu, Xiang-Yang; Hu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Mesalamine suppositories have been used widely for the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis and considered to be safer than systemic administration for its limited systemic absorption. However, previous studies have shown that mesalamine suppository occasionally causes severe hypersensitivity reactions including fever, rashes, colitis exacerbation and acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Here we present a 25-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis with bloody diarrhea accompanied by abdominal pain and fever which were aggravated after introduction of mesalamine suppositories. In light of symptom exacerbation of ulcerative colitis, increased inflammatory injury of colon mucosa shown by colonoscopy and elevated peripheral eosinophil count after mesalamine suppositories administration, and the Naranjo algorithm score of 10, the possibility of hypersensitivity reaction to mesalamine suppositories should be considered, warning us to be aware of this potential reaction after administration of mesalamine formulations even if it is the suppositories. PMID:24707159

  2. Ulcerative colitis flair induced by mesalamine suppositories hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hao; Liu, Xiao-Chang; Mei, Qiao; Xu, Jian-Ming; Hu, Xiang-Yang; Hu, Jing

    2014-04-07

    Mesalamine suppositories have been used widely for the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis and considered to be safer than systemic administration for its limited systemic absorption. However, previous studies have shown that mesalamine suppository occasionally causes severe hypersensitivity reactions including fever, rashes, colitis exacerbation and acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Here we present a 25-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis with bloody diarrhea accompanied by abdominal pain and fever which were aggravated after introduction of mesalamine suppositories. In light of symptom exacerbation of ulcerative colitis, increased inflammatory injury of colon mucosa shown by colonoscopy and elevated peripheral eosinophil count after mesalamine suppositories administration, and the Naranjo algorithm score of 10, the possibility of hypersensitivity reaction to mesalamine suppositories should be considered, warning us to be aware of this potential reaction after administration of mesalamine formulations even if it is the suppositories.

  3. Pharmacogenetics and Predictive Testing of Drug Hypersensitivity Reactions.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Ruwen; Cascorbi, Ingolf

    2016-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions adverse drug reaction (ADR) occur in approximately 17% of patients. Avoiding ADR is thus mandatory from both an ethical and an economic point of view. Whereas, pharmacogenetics changes of the pharmacokinetics may contribute to the explanation of some type A reactions, strong relationships of genetic markers has also been shown for drug hypersensitivity belonging to type B reactions. We present the classifications of ADR, discuss genetic influences and focus on delayed-onset hypersensitivity reactions, i.e., drug-induced liver injury, drug-induced agranulocytosis, and severe cutaneous ADR. A guidance how to read and interpret the contingency table is provided as well as an algorithm whether and how a test for a pharmacogenetic biomarker should be conducted.

  4. Studies of the quenching phenomenon in delayed contact hypersensitivity reactions.

    PubMed

    Basketter, D A; Allenby, C F

    1991-09-01

    Studies in guinea pig and man have shown that eugenol can quench non-specifically contact urticarial responses, whereas limonene seems largely ineffective. In a comprehensive series of studies, there was little evidence of quenching of delayed contact hypersensitivity reactions to cinnamic aldehyde or citral, including in 'pre-quenched' material supplied by a perfume/flavour company, and in a similar mixture prepared in this laboratory, in the guinea pig model. In addition, there was no evidence of the quenching by eugenol of allergic reactions to cinnamic aldehyde in a panel of human subjects with a proven history of cinnamic-aldehyde-induced allergic contact dermatitis. Overall, the results lend little credibility to earlier literature reports of quenching phenomena in delayed contact hypersensitivity responses.

  5. Nail-biting stuff? The effect of N-acetyl cysteine on nail-biting.

    PubMed

    Berk, Michael; Jeavons, Sue; Dean, Olivia M; Dodd, Seetal; Moss, Kirsteen; Gama, Clarissa S; Malhi, Gin S

    2009-07-01

    N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a widely available nutraceutical with a variety of actions. As a precursor of cysteine and glutathione, it has antioxidant properties that may impact on mood and contribute to an effect on impulsivity and obsessive behaviour. Via its additional effect on glutamate via the cystine-glutamate exchange system, NAC has been shown to mediate impulsivity in preclinical models of addiction, reduce craving, and cue extinction. Further, by boosting glutathione, NAC acts as a potent antioxidant and has been shown in two positive, large-scale randomized placebo-controlled trials to affect negative symptoms in schizophrenia and depression in bipolar disorder. We describe three cases in which its actions specifically on nail-biting and associated anxiety may offer a potential treatment. The spontaneous findings are reported as part of an ongoing treatment trial examining the utility of NAC in bipolar disorder. Its actions, if robustly replicated, also point to potential treatment targets in glutathione or glutamate pathways in the brain.

  6. Telangiectatic Matting is Associated with Hypersensitivity and a Bleeding Tendency.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Pooja; Lim, Jerrick; Paver, Ian; Connor, David E; Parsi, Kurosh

    2018-04-01

    The aim was to investigate the pathogenesis of telangiectatic matting (TM) and identify possible risk factors. This study had two parts. The clinical records of consecutive patients were retrospectively analysed to identify risk factors for TM. In the second part, the haemostatic and coagulation profile of the subset of patients with TM were analysed and compared with controls using standard coagulation tests, platelet function and a global assay of coagulation (rotational thromboelastometry, ROTEM). In 352 consecutive patients presenting to a phlebology practice, 25 patients had TM (7.1%). All 25 patients were female with the median age of 45 (27-57) years. A comprehensive medical history was taken. Among 27 possible risk factors assessed, statistically significant associations included recurrent epistaxis, easy bruising, hypersensitivity (eczema, hives, hay fever, and rhinitis), previous treatment with sclerotherapy or endovenous laser for lower limb veins, and a family history of telangiectasias. Variables not associated with TM included oral contraceptive intake, hormone replacement therapy, and age. The haemostatic and coagulation profile of 12 patients (6 male and 6 female) with TM did not differ significantly from those without TM. TM is associated with both hypersensitivity and a bleeding tendency. This study revealed no significant increase in the incidence of haemostatic abnormalities in patients with TM compared with the control group. Given the significant association with hypersensitivity disorders, the underlying mast cell hyper-reactivity may contribute to both hypersensitivity and a bleeding tendency and predispose patients to TM. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Intestinal Membrane Permeability and Hypersensitivity In the Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, QiQi; Zhang, Buyi; Verne, G. Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder in which the underlying pathophysiology is poorly understood; however, increased intestinal permeability in diarrhea-predominant IBS patients has been reported. Here we demonstrate diarrhea-predominant IBS patients (D-IBS) that display increased intestinal permeability. We have also found that increased intestinal membrane permeability is associated with visceral and thermal hypersensitivity in this subset of D-IBS patients. We evaluated 54 D-IBS patients and 22 controls for intestinal membrane permeability using the lactulose / mannitol method. All subjects ingested 5 g laclulose and 2 g mannitol in 100 ml of water after which their urine was collected. We also evaluated the mean mechanical visual analogue (MVAS) pain rating to nociceptive thermal and visceral stimulation in all subjects. All study participants also completed the FBDSI scale. Approximately 39% of diarrhea-predominant IBS patients have increased intestinal membrane permeability as measured by the lactulose / mannitol ratio. These IBS patients also demonstrated higher M-VAS pain intensity reading scale. Interestingly, the IBS patients with hypersensitivity and increased intestinal permeability had a higher FBDSI score (100.8±5.4) compared to IBS patients with normal membrane permeability and sensitivity (51.6±12.7) and controls (6.1 ± 5.6) (p<0.001). A subset of D-IBS patients have increased intestinal membrane permeability that is associated with an increased FBDSI score and increased hypersensitivity to visceral and thermal nociceptive pain stimuli. Thus, increased intestinal membrane permeability in D-IBS patients may lead to more severe IBS symptoms and hypersensitivity to somatic and visceral stimuli. PMID:19595511

  8. Occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a smelter exposed to zinc fumes

    SciTech Connect

    Ameille, J.; Brechot, J.M.; Brochard, P.

    1992-03-01

    A smelter exposed to zinc fumes reported severe recurrent episodes of cough, dyspnea and fever. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed a marked increase in lymphocytes count with predominance of CD8 T-lymphocytes. Presence of zinc in alveolar macrophages was assessed by analytic transmission electron microscopy. This is the first case of recurrent bronchoalveolitis related to zinc exposure in which the clinical picture and BAL results indicate a probable hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

  9. Induction of Hypozincemia and Hepatic Metallothionein Synthesis in Hypersensitivity Reactions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-19

    cells to produce endogenous pyrogen (EP), the mediator of febrile response. Controversial evidence exists, however , concerning the differentiation of LEM...hypersensitivity reactions, Kampschmid t and Pulliam (1) proposed that leukocytic endogenous mediator (LEN) is released from phagocytic cells after... endogenous mediator(s) such as LEN, no conclusive evidence is available to indicate a mRNA requirement for the production of potential mediator(s

  10. In vitro analysis of metabolic predisposition to drug hypersensitivity reactions.

    PubMed Central

    Riley, R J; Leeder, J S

    1995-01-01

    Idiosyncratic hypersensitivity reactions may account for up to 25% of all adverse reactions, and pose a constant problem to physicians because of their unpredictable nature, potentially fatal outcome and resemblance to other disease processes. Current understanding of how drug allergy arises is based largely on the hapten hypothesis: since most drugs are not chemically reactive per se, they must be activated metabolically to reactive species which may become immunogenic through interactions with cellular macromolecules. The role of drug metabolism is thus pivotal to the hapten hypothesis both in activation of the parent compound and detoxification of the reactive species. Although conjugation reactions may occasionally produce potential immunogens (for example, the generation of acylglucuronides from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as diclofenac), bioactivation is catalysed most frequently by cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes. The multifactorial nature of hypersensitivity reactions, particularly the role of often unidentified, reactive drug metabolites in antigen generation, has hampered the routine diagnosis of these disorders by classical immunological methods designed to detect circulating antibodies or sensitized T cells. Similarly, species differences in drug metabolism and immune system regulation have largely precluded the establishment of appropriate animal models with which to examine the immunopathological mechanisms of these toxicities. However, the combined use of in vitro toxicity assays incorporating human tissues and in vivo phenotyping (or, ultimately, in vitro genotyping) methods for drug detoxification pathways may provide the metabolic basis for hypersensitivity reactions to several drugs. This brief review highlights recent efforts to unravel the bases for hypersensitivity reactions to these therapeutic agents (which include anticonvulsants and sulphonamides) using drug metabolism and immunochemical approaches. In particular, examples

  11. Insect mycophagy: a preliminary bibliography.

    Treesearch

    Robert. Fogel

    1975-01-01

    Insects that feed on fungi are primary dispersal agents for many beneficial and pathogenic species. Nearly 300 references on the subject, published since the mid-19th century are listed in this bibliography.

  12. Learning and cognition in insects.

    PubMed

    Giurfa, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Insects possess small brains but exhibit sophisticated behavioral performances. Recent works have reported the existence of unsuspected cognitive capabilities in various insect species, which go beyond the traditional studied framework of simple associative learning. In this study, I focus on capabilities such as attention, social learning, individual recognition, concept learning, and metacognition, and discuss their presence and mechanistic bases in insects. I analyze whether these behaviors can be explained on the basis of elemental associative learning or, on the contrary, require higher-order explanations. In doing this, I highlight experimental challenges and suggest future directions for investigating the neurobiology of higher-order learning in insects, with the goal of uncovering l architectures underlying cognitive processing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Freshwater Biodiversity and Insect Diversification

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Klaas-Douwe B.; Monaghan, Michael T.; Pauls, Steffen U.

    2016-01-01

    Inland waters cover less than one percent of Earth’s surface, but harbor more than six percent of all insect species: nearly 100,000 species from 12 orders spend one or more life stages in freshwater. Little is known about how this remarkable diversity arose, although allopatric speciation and ecological adaptation are thought to be primary mechanisms. Freshwater habitats are exceptionally susceptible to environmental change, and exhibit marked ecological gradients. The amphibiotic lifestyles of aquatic insects result in complex contributions of extinction and allopatric and non-allopatric speciation in species diversification. In contrast to the lack of evolutionary studies, the ecology and habitat preferences of aquatic insects have been intensively studied, in part because of their widespread use as bio-indicators. The combination of phylogenetics with the extensive ecological data provides a promising avenue for future research, making aquatic insects highly suitable models for the study of ecological diversification. PMID:24160433

  14. Radar Observation of Insects - Mosquitoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, E.; Downing, J.

    1979-01-01

    Tests were conducted at several sites over the coastal lowlands of New Jersey and over a region of high plains and low mountains in Oklahoma. In one area, a salt marsh in New Jersey, extensive ground tests were combined with laboratory data on expected insect backscatter to arrive at an extremely convincing model of the insect origin of most Dot Angels. A great deal of insight was studied from radar on the buildup and dispersal of insect swarms, since radar can follow where other means of trapping and observation cannot. Data on large-scale behavior as a function of wind and topography are presented. Displayed techniques which show individual or small swarm motion within some larger cloud or mass, or which can show the overall motion over great distances were developed. The influence of wind and terrain on insect motion and dispersal is determined from radar data.

  15. Insect symbionts in food webs

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Lee M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the bacterial endosymbionts of insects are abundant and diverse, and that they have numerous different effects on their hosts' biology. Here we explore how insect endosymbionts might affect the structure and dynamics of insect communities. Using the obligate and facultative symbionts of aphids as an example, we find that there are multiple ways that symbiont presence might affect food web structure. Many symbionts are now known to help their hosts escape or resist natural enemy attack, and others can allow their hosts to withstand abiotic stress or affect host plant use. In addition to the direct effect of symbionts on aphid phenotypes there may be indirect effects mediated through trophic and non-trophic community interactions. We believe that by using data from barcoding studies to identify bacterial symbionts, this extra, microbial dimension to insect food webs can be better elucidated. This article is part of the themed issue ‘From DNA barcodes to biomes’. PMID:27481779

  16. Insects of bur oak acorns

    Treesearch

    Lester P. Gibson

    1971-01-01

    During 1961-1969, the insects found damaging acorns of bur oak, Quercus macrocarpa Michauxii, in their order of importance were the weevils: Curculio pardalis (Chittenden), C. strictus (Casey), C. sulcatulus (Casey), C. iowensis (Casey), C. proboscideus...

  17. Cough Hypersensitivity Syndrome: A Few More Steps Forward

    PubMed Central

    Song, Woo-Jung

    2017-01-01

    Cough reflex is a vital protective mechanism against aspiration, but when dysregulated, it can become hypersensitive. In fact, chronic cough is a significant medical problem with a high degree of morbidity. Recently, a unifying paradigm of cough hypersensitivity syndrome has been proposed. It represents a clinical entity in which chronic cough is a major presenting problem, regardless of the underlying condition. Although it remains a theoretical construct, emerging evidence suggests that aberrant neurophysiology is the common etiology of this syndrome. Recent success in randomized clinical trials using a P2X3 receptor antagonist is the first major advance in the therapeutics of cough in the past 30 years; it at last provides a strategy for treating intractable cough as well as an invaluable tool for dissecting the mechanism underpinning cough hypersensitivity. Additionally, several cough measurement tools have been validated for use and will help assess the clinical relevance of cough in various underlying conditions. Along with this paradigm shift, our understanding of cough mechanisms has improved during the past decades, allowing us to continue to take more steps forward in the future. PMID:28677352

  18. Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome. In vitro assessment of risk.

    PubMed Central

    Shear, N H; Spielberg, S P

    1988-01-01

    Arene oxide metabolites of aromatic anticonvulsants (phenytoin, phenobarbital, and carbamazepine) may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypersensitivity reactions. We investigated 53 patients with clinical sensitivity to anticonvulsants by exposing their lymphocytes in vitro to drug metabolites generated by a murine hepatic microsomal system. The diagnosis of a hypersensitivity reaction was corroborated by in vitro rechallenge for each drug (phenytoin, n = 34; phenobarbital, n = 22; carbamazepine, n = 25) when cytotoxicity (% dead cells) exceeded 3 SD above the mean result for controls. Cross-reactivity among the drugs was noted. 7 out of 10 patients who had received all three anticonvulsants had adverse reactions to each. 40 out of 50 patients tested to all three drugs in vitro were positive to each. Adverse reactions were indistinguishable among anti-convulsants. Skin rash (87%), fever (94%), hepatitis (51%), and hematologic abnormalities (51%) were common clinical features of each drug. 62% of reactions involved more than two organs. Cells from patients' parents exhibited in vitro toxicity that was intermediate between values for controls and patients. In vitro testing can help diagnose hypersensitivity to anticonvulsants. Cells from patients may also be used for prospective individualization of therapy to decrease risk of adverse reaction. Cross-reactivity among the major anticonvulsants is common and should be considered before deciding on alternative therapy. Images PMID:3198757

  19. Suspected zonisamide-related anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome in a cat.

    PubMed

    Collinet, Audrey; Sammut, Veronique

    2017-12-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 2-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for sudden onset of cluster seizures. CLINICAL FINDINGS At an emergency clinic, the cat had hyperimmunoglobulinemia and thrombocytopenia. On referral, treatment with levetiracetam, zonisamide, and phenobarbital initially provided good control of cluster seizure activity (attributable to epilepsy of unknow origin). Two weeks later, assessments revealed that serum phenobarbital concentration was within the ideal range but serum zonisamide concentration exceeded the recommended therapeutic range. The dosage of zonisamide was therefore decreased. Four days after dosage reduction, the cat developed generalized lymphadenopathy. Cytologic analysis of lymph node aspirate samples revealed a heterogeneous population of well-differentiated lymphocytes, interpreted as marked reactivity. Although neoplasia could not be ruled out, hypersensitivity to phenobarbital was suspected, and this treatment was discontinued. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Despite cessation of phenobarbital administration, generalized peripheral lymphadenopathy progressed and hyperglobulinemia and cytopenias developed. These abnormalities resolved after discontinuation of zonisamide administration. The cat remained seizure free with no recurrence of the aforementioned concerns after reinstitution of phenobarbital treatment. CLINICAL RELEVANCE To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of zonisamide-related lymphadenopathy, hyperglobulinemia, and cytopenias in a cat. Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome is well documented in human medicine, but little information has been published in the veterinary medical literature. Although the effects of anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome in this cat were serious, these effects were reversible with treatment discontinuation.

  20. Linezolid desensitization for a patient with multiple medication hypersensitivity reactions.

    PubMed

    Bagwell, Autumn D; Stollings, Joanna L; White, Katie D; Fadugba, Olajumoke O; Choi, Jane J

    2013-01-01

    To describe a case in which a linezolid desensitization protocol was successfully used for a polymicrobial surgical wound infection in a patient with multiple drug hypersensitivity reactions. A 24-year-old woman with vocal cord dysfunction requiring tracheostomy was admitted for a surgical wound infection following a tracheostomy fistula closure procedure. The patient reported multiple antibiotic allergies including penicillins (rash), sulfonamides (rash), vancomycin (anaphylaxis), azithromycin (rash), cephalosporins (anaphylaxis), levofloxacin (unspecified), clindamycin (unspecified), and carbapenems (unspecified). Gram stain of the purulent wound drainage demonstrated mixed gram-negative and gram-positive flora, and bacterial cultures were overgrown with Proteus mirabilis, which precluded identification of other pathogens. Following failed test doses of linezolid, tigecycline, and daptomycin, all of which resulted in hypersensitivity reactions, a 16-step linezolid desensitization protocol was developed and successfully implemented without adverse reactions. The patient completed a 2-week course of antibiotic therapy that included linezolid upon finishing the desensitization protocol. Linezolid is useful in treating complicated and uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infections caused by gram-positive bacteria. With precautions, including premedication, a monitored nursing unit, and immediate availability of an emergency anaphylaxis kit, drug desensitization allows patients the ability to safely use medications to which they may have an immediate hypersensitivity reaction. Minimal data exist on linezolid desensitization protocols. Linezolid desensitization can be a viable option in patients requiring antimicrobial therapy for complicated gram-positive skin infections.

  1. Genome-wide analysis links NFATC2 with asparaginase hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Christian A.; Smith, Colton; Yang, Wenjian; Mullighan, Charles G.; Qu, Chunxu; Larsen, Eric; Bowman, W. Paul; Liu, Chengcheng; Ramsey, Laura B.; Chang, Tamara; Karol, Seth E.; Loh, Mignon L.; Raetz, Elizabeth A.; Winick, Naomi J.; Hunger, Stephen P.; Carroll, William L.; Jeha, Sima; Pui, Ching-Hon; Evans, William E.; Devidas, Meenakshi

    2015-01-01

    Asparaginase is used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL); however, hypersensitivity reactions can lead to suboptimal asparaginase exposure. Our objective was to use a genome-wide approach to identify loci associated with asparaginase hypersensitivity in children with ALL enrolled on St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital (SJCRH) protocols Total XIIIA (n = 154), Total XV (n = 498), and Total XVI (n = 271), or Children’s Oncology Group protocols POG 9906 (n = 222) and AALL0232 (n = 2163). Germline DNA was genotyped using the Affymetrix 500K, Affymetrix 6.0, or the Illumina Exome BeadChip array. In multivariate logistic regression, the intronic rs6021191 variant in nuclear factor of activated T cells 2 (NFATC2) had the strongest association with hypersensitivity (P = 4.1 × 10−8; odds ratio [OR] = 3.11). RNA-seq data available from 65 SJCRH ALL tumor samples and 52 Yoruba HapMap samples showed that samples carrying the rs6021191 variant had higher NFATC2 expression compared with noncarriers (P = 1.1 × 10−3 and 0.03, respectively). The top ranked nonsynonymous polymorphism was rs17885382 in HLA-DRB1 (P = 3.2 × 10−6; OR = 1.63), which is in near complete linkage disequilibrium with the HLA-DRB1*07:01 allele we previously observed in a candidate gene study. The strongest risk factors for asparaginase allergy are variants within genes regulating the immune response. PMID:25987655

  2. Cracking the egg: An insight into egg hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Dhanapala, Pathum; De Silva, Chamika; Doran, Tim; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to the chicken egg is a widespread disorder mainly affecting 1-2% of children worldwide. It is the second most common food allergy in children, next to cow's milk allergy. Egg allergy is mainly caused by hypersensitivity to four allergens found in the egg white; ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme. However, some research suggests the involvement of allergens exclusively found in the egg yolk such as chicken serum albumin and YGP42, which may play a crucial role in the overall reaction. In egg allergic individuals, these allergens cause conditions such as itching, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, vomiting, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, laryngeal oedema and chronic urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Currently there is no permanent cure for egg allergy. Upon positive diagnosis for egg allergy, strict dietary avoidance of eggs and products containing traces of eggs is the most effective way of avoiding future hypersensitivity reactions. However, it is difficult to fully avoid eggs since they are found in a range of processed food products. An understanding of the mechanisms of allergic reactions, egg allergens and their prevalence, egg allergy diagnosis and current treatment strategies are important for future studies. This review addresses these topics and discusses both egg white and egg yolk allergy as a whole. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Self-report prevalence and associated factors to drug hypersensitivity in Mexican young adults.

    PubMed

    Bedolla-Barajas, Martín; Puente-Fernández, Cecilia; Flores-Merino, Miriam V; Morales-Romero, Jaime; Domínguez-García, Ma Victoria

    2017-07-01

    Drug hypersensitivity is defined as any unfavorable reaction that occurs after the administration of any drug. It may or may not be mediated by the involvement of the immune system. Epidemiological data related to drug hypersensitivity reactions in our country are scarce. To determine the prevalence of drug hypersensitivity in a group of young adults, as well as to identify associated factors. A structured questionnaire was applied to young people aged 18 to 25 years. The instrument was oriented to identify reactions of drug hypersensitivity, as well as the most prevalent drugs involved. In addition, a personal and family history of atopic diseases was included. Analysis for associations between variables was been done through logistic regression. The prevalence of drug hypersensitivity reactions was 12% (144 of 1,200). The antibiotics were the agents most related to hypersensitivity reactions (9.8%) followed by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (1.6%). Factors associated with drug hypersensitivity were a personal history of asthma, odds ratio (OR) 3.15 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.44-6.91), maternal and paternal history of drug hypersensitivity, OR 2.33 (95% CI, 1.21-4.48) and OR 3.11 (95% CI, 1.22-7.92), respectively. The results of this research show that drug hypersensitivity in young adults is a highly prevalent event and it is associated with personal history of asthma and history of drug hypersensitivity in parents.

  4. [Comparison of bite marks and teeth features using 2D and 3D methods].

    PubMed

    Lorkiewicz-Muszyńska, Dorota; Glapiński, Mariusz; Zaba, Czesław; Łabecka, Marzena

    2011-01-01

    The nature of bite marks is complex. They are found at the scene of crime on different materials and surfaces - not only on human body and corpse, but also on food products and material objects. Human bites on skin are sometimes difficult to interpret and to analyze because of the specific character of skin--elastic and distortable--and because different areas of human body have different surfaces and curvatures. A bite mark left at the scene of crime can be a highly helpful way to lead investigators to criminals. The study was performed to establish: 1) whether bite marks exhibit variations in the accuracy of impressions on different materials, 2) whether it is possible to use the 3D method in the process of identifying an individual based on the comparison of bite marks revealed at the scene, and 3D scans of dental casts, 3) whether application of the 3D method allows for elimination of secondary photographic distortion of bite marks. The authors carried out experiments on simulated cases. Five volunteers bit various materials with different surfaces. Experimental bite marks were collected with emphasis on differentiations of materials. Subsequently, dental impressions were taken from five volunteers in order to prepare five sets of dental casts (the maxilla and mandible. The biting edges of teeth were impressed in wax to create an imprint. The samples of dental casts, corresponding wax bite impressions and bite marks from different materials were scanned with 2D and 3D scanners and photographs were taken. All of these were examined in detail and then compared using different methods (2D and 3D). 1) Bite marks exhibit variations in accuracy of impression on different materials. The most legible reproduction of bite marks was seen on cheese. 2) In comparison of bite marks, the 3D method and 3D scans of dental casts are highly accurate. 3) The 3D method helps to eliminate secondary photographic distortion of bite marks.

  5. Environmental RNAi in herbivorous insects.

    PubMed

    Ivashuta, Sergey; Zhang, Yuanji; Wiggins, B Elizabeth; Ramaseshadri, Partha; Segers, Gerrit C; Johnson, Steven; Meyer, Steve E; Kerstetter, Randy A; McNulty, Brian C; Bolognesi, Renata; Heck, Gregory R

    2015-05-01

    Environmental RNAi (eRNAi) is a sequence-specific regulation of endogenous gene expression in a receptive organism by exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Although demonstrated under artificial dietary conditions and via transgenic plant presentations in several herbivorous insects, the magnitude and consequence of exogenous dsRNA uptake and the role of eRNAi remains unknown under natural insect living conditions. Our analysis of coleopteran insects sensitive to eRNAi fed on wild-type plants revealed uptake of plant endogenous long dsRNAs, but not small RNAs. Subsequently, the dsRNAs were processed into 21 nt siRNAs by insects and accumulated in high quantities in insect cells. No accumulation of host plant-derived siRNAs was observed in lepidopteran larvae that are recalcitrant to eRNAi. Stability of ingested dsRNA in coleopteran larval gut followed by uptake and transport from the gut to distal tissues appeared to be enabling factors for eRNAi. Although a relatively large number of distinct coleopteran insect-processed plant-derived siRNAs had sequence complementarity to insect transcripts, the vast majority of the siRNAs were present in relatively low abundance, and RNA-seq analysis did not detect a significant effect of plant-derived siRNAs on insect transcriptome. In summary, we observed a broad genome-wide uptake of plant endogenous dsRNA and subsequent processing of ingested dsRNA into 21 nt siRNAs in eRNAi-sensitive insects under natural feeding conditions. In addition to dsRNA stability in gut lumen and uptake, dosage of siRNAs targeting a given insect transcript is likely an important factor in order to achieve measurable eRNAi-based regulation in eRNAi-competent insects that lack an apparent silencing amplification mechanism. © 2015 Ivashuta et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  6. Preface: Insect Pathology, 2nd ed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insect pathology is an essential component of entomology and provides a non-chemical alternative for insect pest management. There are several groups of organisms that can infect and kill insects including viruses, fungi, microsporidia, bacteria, protists, and nematodes. The dilemma in insect patho...

  7. How Do Insects Help the Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hevel, Gary

    2005-01-01

    There are some 5 to 30 million insect species estimated in the world--and the majority of these have yet to be collected or named by science! Of course, the most well known insects are those that cause disease or compete for human agricultural products, but these insects represent only a small fraction of the world's insect population. In reality,…

  8. 46 CFR 108.215 - Insect screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insect screens. 108.215 Section 108.215 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.215 Insect screens. (a) Accommodation spaces must be protected against the admission of insects. (b) Insect screens must be installed when natural ventilation is...

  9. 46 CFR 108.215 - Insect screens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insect screens. 108.215 Section 108.215 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.215 Insect screens. (a) Accommodation spaces must be protected against the admission of insects. (b) Insect screens must be installed when natural ventilation is...

  10. The Insect SNMP Gene Family

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    The insect SNMP gene family Richard G. Vogt a,*,1, Natalie E. Miller a, Rachel Litvack a, Richard A. Fandino a, Jackson Sparks a, Jon Staples a...Wallace Beltsville Agricultural Research Center Plant Sciences Institute, Invasive Insect Biocontrol and Behavior Laboratory, Bldg. 007, Rm. 030...keywords: Pheromone Receptors Olfactory Gustatory Chemosensory Gustatory Mosquito Fly a b s t r a c t SNMPs are membrane proteins observed to associate with

  11. Social insects inspire human design

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, C. Tate; Clark, Rebecca M.; Moore, Dani; Overson, Rick P.; Penick, Clint A.; Smith, Adrian A.

    2010-01-01

    The international conference ‘Social Biomimicry: Insect Societies and Human Design’, hosted by Arizona State University, USA, 18–20 February 2010, explored how the collective behaviour and nest architecture of social insects can inspire innovative and effective solutions to human design challenges. It brought together biologists, designers, engineers, computer scientists, architects and businesspeople, with the dual aims of enriching biology and advancing biomimetic design. PMID:20392721

  12. An Integrated Molecular Database on Indian Insects.

    PubMed

    Pratheepa, Maria; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Gracy, Gandhi; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Rangheswaran, Rajagopal; Antony, Jomin Cruz; Rai, Anil

    2018-01-01

    MOlecular Database on Indian Insects (MODII) is an online database linking several databases like Insect Pest Info, Insect Barcode Information System (IBIn), Insect Whole Genome sequence, Other Genomic Resources of National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources (NBAIR), Whole Genome sequencing of Honey bee viruses, Insecticide resistance gene database and Genomic tools. This database was developed with a holistic approach for collecting information about phenomic and genomic information of agriculturally important insects. This insect resource database is available online for free at http://cib.res.in. http://cib.res.in/.

  13. The biting performance of Homo sapiens and Homo heidelbergensis.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Ricardo Miguel; Fitton, Laura C; Toro-Ibacache, Viviana; Stringer, Chris B; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Bromage, Timothy G; O'Higgins, Paul

    2018-05-01

    Modern humans have smaller faces relative to Middle and Late Pleistocene members of the genus Homo. While facial reduction and differences in shape have been shown to increase biting efficiency in Homo sapiens relative to these hominins, facial size reduction has also been said to decrease our ability to resist masticatory loads. This study compares crania of Homo heidelbergensis and H. sapiens with respect to mechanical advantages of masticatory muscles, force production efficiency, strains experienced by the cranium and modes of deformation during simulated biting. Analyses utilize X-ray computed tomography (CT) scan-based 3D models of a recent modern human and two H. heidelbergensis. While having muscles of similar cross-sectional area to H. heidelbergensis, our results confirm that the modern human masticatory system is more efficient at converting muscle forces into bite forces. Thus, it can produce higher bite forces than Broken Hill for equal muscle input forces. This difference is the result of alterations in relative in and out-lever arm lengths associated with well-known differences in midfacial prognathism. Apparently at odds with this increased efficiency is the finding that the modern human cranium deforms more, resulting in greater strain magnitudes than Broken Hill when biting at the equivalent tooth. Hence, the facial reduction that characterizes modern humans may not have evolved as a result of selection for force production efficiency. These findings provide further evidence for a degree of uncoupling between form and function in the masticatory system of modern humans. This may reflect the impact of food preparation technologies. These data also support previous suggestions that differences in bite force production efficiency can be considered a spandrel, primarily driven by the midfacial reduction in H. sapiens that occurred for other reasons. Midfacial reduction plausibly resulted in a number of other significant changes in morphology, such

  14. On the study of the transmission networks of blood parasites from SW Spain: diversity of avian haemosporidians in the biting midge Culicoides circumscriptus and wild birds.

    PubMed

    Ferraguti, Martina; Martínez-de la Puente, Josué; Ruiz, Santiago; Soriguer, Ramón; Figuerola, Jordi

    2013-07-15

    Blood-sucking flying insects play a key role in the transmission of pathogens of vector-borne diseases. However, at least for the case of avian malaria parasites, the vast majority of studies focus on the interaction between parasites and vertebrate hosts, but there is a lack of information regarding the interaction between the parasites and the insect vectors. Here, we identified the presence of malaria and malaria-like parasite lineages harbored by the potential vector Culicoides circumscriptus (Kieffer). Also, we identified some nodes of the transmission network connecting parasite lineages, potential insect vectors and avian hosts by comparing Haemoproteus and Plasmodium lineages isolated from insects with those infecting wild birds in this and previous studies. Using a molecular approach, we analysed the presence of blood parasites in a total of 97 biting midges trapped in the Doñana National Park (SW Spain) and surrounding areas. Also, 123 blood samples from 11 bird species were analyzed for the presence of blood parasite infections. Blood parasites Haemoproteus and Plasmodium were identified by amplification of a 478 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gen. Thirteen biting midges harboured blood parasites including six Haemoproteus and two Plasmodium lineages, supporting the potential role of these insects on parasite transmission. Moreover, ten (8.1%) birds carried blood parasites. Seven Plasmodium and one Haemoproteus lineages were isolated from birds. Overall, six new Haemoproteus lineages were described in this study. Also, we identified the transmission networks of some blood parasites. Two Haemoproteus lineages, hCIRCUM03 and GAGLA03, were identical to those isolated from Corvus monedula in southern Spain and Garrulus glandarius in Bulgaria, respectively. Furthermore, the new Haemoproteus lineage hCIRCUM05 showed a 99% similarity with a lineage found infecting captive penguins in Japan. The comparison of the parasite lineages isolated in

  15. HLA- B*5701 Allele in HIV-infected Indian Children and its Association with Abacavir Hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Manglani, Mamta V; Gabhale, Yashwant R; Lala, Mamatha M; Sekhar, Rohini; More, Dipti

    2018-02-15

    To determine the prevalence of HLA-B*5701 allele in HIV-infected children, and to find its association with Abacavir hypersensitivity. Children (2 to 18 y) already on, or to be initiated on Abacavir were included for PCR sequencing to detect HLA-B*5701. proportion with HLA B*5701 allele and hypersensitivity with Abacavir. Abacavir was stopped if patient tested positive for HLA-B*5701 allele. 100 children (median age 11 y) were enrolled; 10 were already on Abacavir. HLA-B*5701 positivity was observed in 11 (11%) children. Two of these 11 children developed hypersensitivity after initiation of Abacavir. Abacavir was thereafter stopped in all who tested HLA-B*5701 positive, irrespective of the development of hypersensitivity reaction. HLA-B*5701 allele was present in 11 (11%) of HIV-infected children, of which two developed Abacavir hypersensitivity. None of the patients without the allele developed hypersensitivity.

  16. Cheek Plumper: An Innovative Anti-cheek Biting Appliance

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Nikhil; Kaushik, Noopur; Panthri, Prerna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT One of the most challenging tasks for a pediatric dentist is the management of deleterious oral habits which adversely affect the dentofacial complex. However, if these habits can be intercepted and diagnosed well in time, they can save the patient from the psychological impact of undergoing long treatment therapies. One such rare deleterious oral habit is cheek biting that affects the buccal mucosa. Presented here is a case report which describes the interception of this deleterious habit in a 15-year-old female child who was a bilateral cheek biter with the help of an innovative intraoral appliance: The cheek plumper. How to cite this article: Rana V, Srivastava N, Kaushik N, Panthri P. Cheek Plumper: An Innovative Anti-cheek Biting Appliance. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):146-148. PMID:27365937

  17. Biting behaviour of African malaria vectors: 1. where do the main vector species bite on the human body?

    PubMed

    Braack, Leo; Hunt, Richard; Koekemoer, Lizette L; Gericke, Anton; Munhenga, Givemore; Haddow, Andrew D; Becker, Piet; Okia, Michael; Kimera, Isaac; Coetzee, Maureen

    2015-02-04

    Malaria control in Africa relies heavily on indoor vector management, primarily indoor residual spraying and insecticide treated bed nets. Little is known about outdoor biting behaviour or even the dynamics of indoor biting and infection risk of sleeping household occupants. In this paper we explore the preferred biting sites on the human body and some of the ramifications regarding infection risk and exposure management. We undertook whole-night human landing catches of Anopheles arabiensis in South Africa and Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles funestus in Uganda, for seated persons wearing short sleeve shirts, short pants, and bare legs, ankles and feet. Catches were kept separate for different body regions and capture sessions. All An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus group individuals were identified to species level by PCR. Three of the main vectors of malaria in Africa (An. arabiensis, An. gambiae s.s. and An. funestus) all have a preference for feeding close to ground level, which is manifested as a strong propensity (77.3% - 100%) for biting on lower leg, ankles and feet of people seated either indoors or outdoors, but somewhat randomly along the lower edge of the body in contact with the surface when lying down. If the lower extremities of the legs (below mid-calf level) of seated people are protected and therefore exclude access to this body region, vector mosquitoes do not move higher up the body to feed at alternate body sites, instead resulting in a high (58.5% - 68.8%) reduction in biting intensity by these three species. Protecting the lower limbs of people outdoors at night can achieve a major reduction in biting intensity by malaria vector mosquitoes. Persons sleeping at floor level bear a disproportionate risk of being bitten at night because this is the preferred height for feeding by the primary vector species. Therefore it is critical to protect children sleeping at floor level (bednets; repellent-impregnated blankets or sheets, etc

  18. Contribution of jaw muscle size and craniofacial morphology to human bite force magnitude.

    PubMed

    Raadsheer, M C; van Eijden, T M; van Ginkel, F C; Prahl-Andersen, B

    1999-01-01

    The existence of an interaction among bite force magnitude, jaw muscle size (e.g., cross-sectional area, thickness), and craniofacial morphology is widely accepted. Bite force magnitude depends on the size of the jaw muscles and the lever arm lengths of bite force and muscle forces, which in turn are dictated by craniofacial morphology. In this study, the relative contributions of craniofacial morphology and jaw muscle thickness to the bite force magnitude were studied. In 121 adult individuals, both magnitude and direction of the maximal voluntary bite force were registered. Craniofacial dimensions were measured by anthropometrics and from lateral radiographs. The thicknesses of the masseter, temporal, and digastric muscles were registered by ultrasonography. After a factor analysis was applied to the anthropometric and cephalometric dimensions, the correlation between bite force magnitude, on the one hand, and the "craniofacial factors" and jaw muscle thicknesses, on the other, was assessed by stepwise multiple regression. Fifty-eight percent of the bite force variance could be explained. From the jaw muscles, only the thickness of the masseter muscle correlated significantly with bite force magnitude. Bite force magnitude also correlated significantly positively with vertical and transverse facial dimensions and the inclination of the midface, and significantly negatively with mandibular inclination and occlusal plane inclination. The contribution of the masseter muscle to the variation in bite force magnitude was higher than that of the craniofacial factors.

  19. A new bite block for panoramic radiographs of anterior edentulous patients: A technical report.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Woong; Symkhampha, Khanthaly; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Lee, Sam-Sun; Choi, Soon-Chul

    2015-06-01

    Panoramic radiographs taken using conventional chin-support devices have often presented problems with positioning accuracy and reproducibility. The aim of this report was to propose a new bite block for panoramic radiographs of anterior edentulous patients that better addresses these two issues. A new panoramic radiography bite block similar to the bite block for dentulous patients was developed to enable proper positioning stability for edentulous patients. The new bite block was designed and implemented in light of previous studies. The height of the new bite block was 18 mm and to compensate for the horizontal edentulous space, its horizontal width was 7 mm. The panoramic radiographs using the new bite block were compared with those using the conventional chin-support device. Panoramic radiographs taken with the new bite block showed better stability and bilateral symmetry than those taken with the conventional chin-support device. Patients also showed less movement and more stable positioning during panoramic radiography with the new bite block. Conventional errors in panoramic radiographs of edentulous patients could be caused by unreliability of the chin-support device. The newly proposed bite block for panoramic radiographs of edentulous patients showed better reliability. Further study is required to evaluate the image quality and reproducibility of images with the new bite block.

  20. Evolutionary plasticity of insect immunity.

    PubMed

    Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2013-02-01

    Many insect genomes have been sequenced and the innate immune responses of several species have been studied by transcriptomics, inviting the comparative analysis of immunity-related genes. Such studies have demonstrated significant evolutionary plasticity, with the emergence of novel proteins and protein domains correlated with insects adapting to both abiotic and biotic environmental stresses. This review article focuses on effector molecules such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and proteinase inhibitors, which display greater evolutionary dynamism than conserved components such as immunity-related signaling molecules. There is increasing evidence to support an extended role for insect AMPs beyond defense against pathogens, including the management of beneficial endosymbionts. The total number of AMPs varies among insects with completed genome sequences, providing intriguing examples of immunity gene expansion and loss. This plasticity is discussed in the context of recent developments in evolutionary ecology suggesting that the maintenance and deployment of immune responses reallocates resources from other fitness-related traits thus requiring fitness trade-offs. Based on our recent studies using both model and non-model insects, I propose that insect immunity genes can be lost when alternative defense strategies with a lower fitness penalty have evolved, such as the so-called social immunity in bees, the chemical sanitation of the microenvironment by some beetles, and the release of antimicrobial secondary metabolites in the hemolymph. Conversely, recent studies provide evidence for the expansion and functional diversification of insect AMPs and proteinase inhibitors to reflect coevolution with a changing pathosphere and/or adaptations to habitats or food associated with microbial contamination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Describing the Relationship between Cat Bites and Human Depression Using Data from an Electronic Health Record

    PubMed Central

    Hanauer, David A.; Ramakrishnan, Naren; Seyfried, Lisa S.

    2013-01-01

    Data mining approaches have been increasingly applied to the electronic health record and have led to the discovery of numerous clinical associations. Recent data mining studies have suggested a potential association between cat bites and human depression. To explore this possible association in more detail we first used administrative diagnosis codes to identify patients with either depression or bites, drawn from a population of 1.3 million patients. We then conducted a manual chart review in the electronic health record of all patients with a code for a bite to accurately determine which were from cats or dogs. Overall there were 750 patients with cat bites, 1,108 with dog bites, and approximately 117,000 patients with depression. Depression was found in 41.3% of patients with cat bites and 28.7% of those with dog bites. Furthermore, 85.5% of those with both cat bites and depression were women, compared to 64.5% of those with dog bites and depression. The probability of a woman being diagnosed with depression at some point in her life if she presented to our health system with a cat bite was 47.0%, compared to 24.2% of men presenting with a similar bite. The high proportion of depression in patients who had cat bites, especially among women, suggests that screening for depression could be appropriate in patients who present to a clinical provider with a cat bite. Additionally, while no causative link is known to explain this association, there is growing evidence to suggest that the relationship between cats and human mental illness, such as depression, warrants further investigation. PMID:23936453

  2. Sexual Dimorphism in Bite Performance Drives Morphological Variation in Chameleons

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Jessica M.; Herrel, Anthony; Measey, G. John; Tolley, Krystal A.

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic performance in different environments is central to understanding the evolutionary and ecological processes that drive adaptive divergence and, ultimately, speciation. Because habitat structure can affect an animal’s foraging behaviour, anti-predator defences, and communication behaviour, it can influence both natural and sexual selection pressures. These selective pressures, in turn, act upon morphological traits to maximize an animal’s performance. For performance traits involved in both social and ecological activities, such as bite force, natural and sexual selection often interact in complex ways, providing an opportunity to understand the adaptive significance of morphological variation with respect to habitat. Dwarf chameleons within the Bradypodion melanocephalum-Bradypodion thamnobates species complex have multiple phenotypic forms, each with a specific head morphology that could reflect its use of either open- or closed-canopy habitats. To determine whether these morphological differences represent adaptations to their habitats, we tested for differences in both absolute and relative bite performance. Only absolute differences were found between forms, with the closed-canopy forms biting harder than their open-canopy counterparts. In contrast, sexual dimorphism was found for both absolute and relative bite force, but the relative differences were limited to the closed-canopy forms. These results indicate that both natural and sexual selection are acting within both habitat types, but to varying degrees. Sexual selection seems to be the predominant force within the closed-canopy habitats, which are more protected from aerial predators, enabling chameleons to invest more in ornamentation for communication. In contrast, natural selection is likely to be the predominant force in the open-canopy habitats, inhibiting the development of conspicuous secondary sexual characteristics and, ultimately, enforcing their overall diminutive body size and

  3. [Maximal isometric bite force and sports. Preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Sannajust, J P; Thiery, C; Poumarat, G; Vanneuville, G; Barthélémy, I; Mondie, J M

    2002-06-01

    The evaluation of the bite forces coupled with EMG activity of masseter muscles allows to point out temporo-mandibular joint disorders. The intense practice of sports induces stress which may affect the mandibular statics, due to an hyperfunction of the elevator masticatory muscles, especially the masseter muscles. This concept has led us to compare the maximum isometric bite forces of sedentary and physically trained subjects. The aim of this experimentation is to study the maximum isometric bite forces of the premolars, with a force transducer, for two groups of physically trained and sedentary volunteers (25 subjects), with distinction between male and female subjects. Subjects with normal denture and no temporo-mandibular joint disorder were retained. EMG and force recording were synchronized and recorded during 10 seconds of maximal contraction. The male subjects developed a maximal bite-force significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to the female subjects. There is no significant difference between subjects practising a sport (at least 6 hours a week) and sedentary ones. The evolution of force during the contraction is different between sexes. EMG activity allowed to control that subjects developed a maximal force and an increase in muscular fatigability of physically active females compared to sedentary ones was noticed. The difference of maximal force between men and women is similar to the one found for the locomotor muscles. The analysis of the evolution of the force according to the contraction duration, might be linked to a different distribution of muscular fibers according to the sex. The practice of a sport might increase the fatigability of the masseter muscles and might be a factor inducing a muscular imbalance of the mandibular posture. But the relatively low number of subjects and the absence of well defined distinctions between different kinds of sport limit our conclusions.

  4. Sexual dimorphism in bite performance drives morphological variation in chameleons.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Jessica M; Herrel, Anthony; Measey, G John; Tolley, Krystal A

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic performance in different environments is central to understanding the evolutionary and ecological processes that drive adaptive divergence and, ultimately, speciation. Because habitat structure can affect an animal's foraging behaviour, anti-predator defences, and communication behaviour, it can influence both natural and sexual selection pressures. These selective pressures, in turn, act upon morphological traits to maximize an animal's performance. For performance traits involved in both social and ecological activities, such as bite force, natural and sexual selection often interact in complex ways, providing an opportunity to understand the adaptive significance of morphological variation with respect to habitat. Dwarf chameleons within the Bradypodion melanocephalum-Bradypodion thamnobates species complex have multiple phenotypic forms, each with a specific head morphology that could reflect its use of either open- or closed-canopy habitats. To determine whether these morphological differences represent adaptations to their habitats, we tested for differences in both absolute and relative bite performance. Only absolute differences were found between forms, with the closed-canopy forms biting harder than their open-canopy counterparts. In contrast, sexual dimorphism was found for both absolute and relative bite force, but the relative differences were limited to the closed-canopy forms. These results indicate that both natural and sexual selection are acting within both habitat types, but to varying degrees. Sexual selection seems to be the predominant force within the closed-canopy habitats, which are more protected from aerial predators, enabling chameleons to invest more in ornamentation for communication. In contrast, natural selection is likely to be the predominant force in the open-canopy habitats, inhibiting the development of conspicuous secondary sexual characteristics and, ultimately, enforcing their overall diminutive body size and

  5. Cardiac Iodine-123-Meta-Iodo-Benzylguanidine Uptake in Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Maw Pin; Murray, Alan; Hawkins, Terry; Chadwick, Thomas J.; Kerr, Simon R. J.; Parry, Steve W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Carotid sinus syndrome is the association of carotid sinus hypersensitivity with syncope, unexplained falls and drop attacks in generally older people. We evaluated cardiac sympathetic innervation in this disorder in individuals with carotid sinus syndrome, asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity and controls without carotid sinus hypersensitivity. Methods Consecutive patients diagnosed with carotid sinus syndrome at a specialist falls and syncope unit were recruited. Asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity and non-carotid sinus hypersensitivity control participants recruited from a community-dwelling cohort. Cardiac sympathetic innervation was determined using Iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123-I-MIBG) scanning. Heart to mediastinal uptake ratio (H:M) were determined for early and late uptake on planar scintigraphy at 20 minutes and 3 hours following intravenous injection of 123-I-MIBG. Results Forty-two subjects: carotid sinus syndrome (n = 21), asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity (n = 12) and no carotid sinus hypersensitivity (n = 9) were included. Compared to the non- carotid sinus hypersensitivity control group, the carotid sinus syndrome group had significantly higher early H:M (estimated mean difference, B = 0.40; 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.13 to 0.67, p = 0.005) and late H:M (B = 0.32; 95%CI = 0.03 to 0.62, p = 0.032). There was, however, no significant difference in early H:M (p = 0.326) or late H:M (p = 0.351) between the asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity group and non- carotid sinus hypersensitivity controls. Conclusions Cardiac sympathetic neuronal activity is increased relative to age-matched controls in individuals with carotid sinus syndrome but not those with asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity. Blood pressure and heart rate measurements alone may therefore represent an over simplification in the assessment for carotid sinus syndrome and the relative increase in cardiac sympathetic innervation

  6. Different immune cells mediate mechanical pain hypersensitivity in male and female mice

    PubMed Central

    Sorge, Robert E.; Mapplebeck, Josiane C.S.; Rosen, Sarah; Beggs, Simon; Taves, Sarah; Alexander, Jessica K.; Martin, Loren J.; Austin, Jean-Sebastien; Sotocinal, Susana G.; Chen, Di; Yang, Mu; Shi, Xiang Qun; Huang, Hao; Pillon, Nicolas J.; Bilan, Philip J.; Tu, Yu Shan; Klip, Amira; Ji, Ru-Rong; Zhang, Ji; Salter, Michael W.; Mogil, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    A large and rapidly increasing body of evidence indicates that microglia-neuron signaling is essential for chronic pain hypersensitivity. Here we show using multiple approaches that microglia are not required for mechanical pain hypersensitivity in female mice; female mice achieve similar levels of pain hypersensitivity using adaptive immune cells, likely T-lymphocytes. This sexual dimorphism suggests that male mice cannot be used as proxies for females in pain research. PMID:26120961

  7. Cardiac Iodine-123-Meta-Iodo-Benzylguanidine Uptake in Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Tan, Maw Pin; Murray, Alan; Hawkins, Terry; Chadwick, Thomas J; Kerr, Simon R J; Parry, Steve W

    2015-01-01

    Carotid sinus syndrome is the association of carotid sinus hypersensitivity with syncope, unexplained falls and drop attacks in generally older people. We evaluated cardiac sympathetic innervation in this disorder in individuals with carotid sinus syndrome, asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity and controls without carotid sinus hypersensitivity. Consecutive patients diagnosed with carotid sinus syndrome at a specialist falls and syncope unit were recruited. Asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity and non-carotid sinus hypersensitivity control participants recruited from a community-dwelling cohort. Cardiac sympathetic innervation was determined using Iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123-I-MIBG) scanning. Heart to mediastinal uptake ratio (H:M) were determined for early and late uptake on planar scintigraphy at 20 minutes and 3 hours following intravenous injection of 123-I-MIBG. Forty-two subjects: carotid sinus syndrome (n = 21), asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity (n = 12) and no carotid sinus hypersensitivity (n = 9) were included. Compared to the non- carotid sinus hypersensitivity control group, the carotid sinus syndrome group had significantly higher early H:M (estimated mean difference, B = 0.40; 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.13 to 0.67, p = 0.005) and late H:M (B = 0.32; 95%CI = 0.03 to 0.62, p = 0.032). There was, however, no significant difference in early H:M (p = 0.326) or late H:M (p = 0.351) between the asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity group and non- carotid sinus hypersensitivity controls. Cardiac sympathetic neuronal activity is increased relative to age-matched controls in individuals with carotid sinus syndrome but not those with asymptomatic carotid sinus hypersensitivity. Blood pressure and heart rate measurements alone may therefore represent an over simplification in the assessment for carotid sinus syndrome and the relative increase in cardiac sympathetic innervation provides additional clues to

  8. Coral snake bites and envenomation in children: a case series.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Jun; Khalil, Paul A; Chegondi, Madhuradhar; Raszynski, Andre; Meyer, Keith G; Totapally, Balagangadhar R

    2014-04-01

    North America is home to 2 families of venomous snakes, Crotalinae (pit viper family) and Elapidae (coral snake family). Although there are several published reports describing and reviewing the management of pit viper snakebites in children, there are no recent similar publications detailing the clinical course and management of coral snake envenomation. Our case series describes the hospital course of children with coral snake bites admitted to our regional pediatric intensive care. We also reviewed prior published case reports of coral snake bites in the United States. We identified 4 patients with either confirmed or suspected coral snake envenomation from our hospital's records. In 2 cases, the snakebite occurred after apparent provocation. Antivenom was administered to 3 patients. The regional venom response team was consulted for management advice and supplied the antivenom. One patient had a prolonged hospital course, which was complicated by respiratory failure, bulbar palsy, and ataxia. All survived to discharge. Admission to pediatric intensive care is warranted after all Eastern coral snake bites. A specialized regional or national venom response team can be a useful resource for management advice and as a source of antivenom.

  9. Maximum Bite Force Analysis in Different Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Takaki, Patricia; Vieira, Marilena; Bommarito, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Maximum bite force (MBF) is the maximum force performed by the subject on the fragmentation of food, directly related with the mastication and determined by many factors. Objective Analyze the MBF of subjects according to age groups. Methods One hundred individuals from the city of São Paulo were equally divided according to age groups and gender. Each individual submitted to a myotherapy evaluation composed of anthropometric measurements of height and weight to obtain body mass index (BMI), using a tape and a digital scale (Magna, G-life, São Paulo), and a dental condition and maximum bite force evaluation, using a digital dynamometer model DDK/M (Kratos, São Paulo, Brazil), on Newton scale. The dental and bite force evaluations were monitored by a professional from the area. Analysis of variance was used with MBF as a dependent variable, age group and gender as random factors, and BMI as a control variable. Results Till the end of adolescence, it was possible to observe a decrease in MBF in both sexes, with the male force greater than the female force. In young adults, the female force became greater the males, then decreased in adulthood. There was no correlation between MBF and BMI. Conclusion There are MBF variations that characterizes the human development stages, according to age groups. PMID:25992105

  10. Facial dog bite injuries in children: treatment and outcome assessment.

    PubMed

    Eppley, Barry L; Schleich, Arno Rene

    2013-03-01

    Dog bite injuries to a child's face are not an infrequent occurrence. They may require primary and revisional surgery. All result in permanent facial scars. This report describes the treatment and outcomes of dog bites of the face, scalp, and neck based on a case series of 107 children over a 10-year period.The average children's age was 5.9 years. In cases where the dog was identified (95%), it was known to the victim and their family. The events leading to the dog bite were categorized as provoked (77%) in the majority of the cases.The majority of wounds could be closed primarily without a significant risk of wound infection. Complex reconstructions were required in more severe cases. The majority of families (77%) opted for scar revision between 9 and 18 months after initial treatment to improve the aesthetic outcome.Lawsuit actions resulted in 39 of the cases making good documentation an essential part of treatment. Dogbite injuries to the face in children frequently require multiple scar revisions to obtain the best possible aesthetic outcome, and the family should be so counseled at the onset of treatment.

  11. Endophagy of biting midges attacking cavity-nesting birds.

    PubMed

    Votýpka, J; Synek, P; Svobodová, M

    2009-09-01

    Feeding behaviour, host preferences and the spectrum of available hosts determine the role of vectors in pathogen transmission. Feeding preferences of blood-feeding Diptera depend on, among others factors, the willingness of flies to attack their hosts either in the open (exophagy) or in enclosed places (endophagy). As far as ornithophilic blood-feeding Diptera are concerned, the biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) are generally considered to be strictly exophagous. We determined which blood-sucking Diptera enter nest cavities and feed on birds by placing sticky foil traps inside artificial nest boxes. A total of 667 females of eight species of biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Latreille, 1809) were captured on traps during 2006-2007, with Culicoides truncorum (Edwards, 1939) being the dominant species. DNA blood analyses of blood-engorged females proved that midges actually fed on birds nesting in the boxes. Three species were identified as endophagous: Culicoides truncorum, Culicoides pictipennis (Staeger, 1839), and Culicoides minutissimus (Zetterstedt, 1855). Our study represents the first evidence that ornithophilic biting midges are endophagous. The fact that we caught no blackflies in the bird boxes supports the exophagy of blackflies. We believe that our findings are important for surveillance programmes focusing on Diptera that transmit various bird pathogens.

  12. New insights into visceral hypersensitivity —clinical implications in IBS

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, QiQi; Verne, G. Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    A subset of patients with IBS have visceral hypersensitivity and/or somatic hypersensitivity. Visceral hypersensitivity might have use as a clinical marker of IBS and could account for symptoms of urgency for bowel movements, bloating and abdominal pain. The mechanisms that lead to chronic visceral hypersensitivity in patients who have IBS are unclear. However, several working models may be considered, including: nociceptive input from the colon that leads to hypersensitivity; increased intestinal permeability that induces a visceral nociceptive drive; and alterations in the expression of microRNAs in gastrointestinal tissue that might be delivered via blood microvesicles to other target organs, such as the peripheral and/or central nervous system. As such, the chronic visceral hypersensitivity that is present in a subset of patients with IBS might be maintained by both peripheral and central phenomena. The theories underlying the development of chronic visceral hypersensitivity in patients with IBS are supported by findings from new animal models in which hypersensitivity follows transient inflammation of the colon. The presence of somatic hypersensitivity and an alteration in the neuroendocrine system in some patients who have IBS suggests that multisystemic factors are involved in the overall disorder. Thus, IBS is similar to other chronic pain disorders, such as fibromyalgia, chronic regional pain disorder and temporomandibular joint disorder, as chronic nociceptive mechanisms are activated in all of these disorders. PMID:21643039

  13. Prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity: A cross-sectional study in rural Punjabi Indians

    PubMed Central

    Dhaliwal, Jagjit Singh; Palwankar, Pooja; Khinda, Paramjit K.; Sodhi, Sachinjeet K.

    2012-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity and related risk factors in rural population of Punjab, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 650 subjects reporting dentine sensitivity were included in the study comprising of 270 males and 380 females. All the subjects completed an interview and the subjects reporting dentine hypersensitivity were examined further using air syringe to put a blast of air to confirm the diagnosis of dentine hypersensitivity. Periodontal attachment loss and gingival recession of all the sensitive teeth were examined and recorded. Results: The prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity was 25% in the oral test. The subjects receiving the treatment of hypersensitivity were only 15.1%. The older group in the 50-59 years had the highest number (98%) of subjects with dentine hypersensitivity. Most commonly affected teeth were mandibular incisors. The other factors related to dentine hypersensitivity were the socioeconomic status, lower education level, and access to dental care. The periodontal factors related to hypersensitivity were gingival recession and poor oral hygiene. Conclusions: The prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity was 25% in the rural population of Punjab. PMID:23162341

  14. Clinical Correlates of Carbon Dioxide Hypersensitivity in Children.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, Lance M; Sheerin, Christina; Carney, Dever M; Towbin, Kenneth E; Leibenluft, Ellen; Pine, Daniel S; Brotman, Melissa A; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Hettema, John M

    2017-12-01

    Hypersensitivity to carbon dioxide (CO 2 )-enriched air may be a promising risk marker for anxiety disorders. Among adult and adolescent samples, heterogeneity in distress response to the CO 2 challenge task indexes 3 underlying classes of individuals, which distinguish between sustained and acute threat response as markers for internalizing disorders, broadly, and anxiety disorders, specifically. The present study examines latent classes in children's response to the CO 2 challenge task to clarify the association of CO 2 hypersensitivity with anxiety and internalizing symptomatology in childhood. Healthy children from a community twin sample (N = 538; age 9-13 years) rated anxious distress every 2 minutes while breathing air enriched to 7.5% CO 2 for 8 minutes. Latent growth mixture modeling evaluated potential classes of individuals with characteristic trajectories of distress during the task to clarify the association with internalizing disorder symptoms and related traits (e.g., anxiety sensitivity, irritability). Although all participants reported increased distress during the task, interindividual heterogeneity in distress indexed 3 underlying classes: a consistently low class ("low"), a consistently high class ("high"), and participants who demonstrated markedly increased acute distress ("acute"). Compared to the low class, the high class reported greater internalizing psychopathology, whereas membership in the acute class was associated with experiencing a panic-like event during the task. As in older individuals, 3 distinct trajectories emerged to capture interindividual heterogeneity in children's distress during the CO 2 challenge task. These classes were distinguished by clinical validators that reinforce the association of CO 2 hypersensitivity and internalizing disorder phenotypes in children. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of basophil activation test in suspected food hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Pignatti, Patrizia; Yacoub, Mona-Rita; Testoni, Claudia; Pala, Gianni; Corsetti, Maura; Colombo, Giselda; Meriggi, Antonio; Moscato, Gianna

    2017-07-01

    Food hypersensitivity is characterized by a wide range of symptoms. The relationship between symptoms and food is more frequently suspected than objectively proven. Basophil activation test (BAT) is based on the evaluation of activation markers on blood basophils in vitro stimulated with drugs or allergens. The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of BAT when introduced in the routine work-up of suspected food hypersensitivity. BAT was requested in subjects with food adverse reactions when a discrepancy existed among history and skin prick test (SPT) and/or specific IgE. Data from 150 subjects were analysed using CD63 as basophil activation marker. Thirty controls were evaluated for cut-offs. Immunoblots was performed with the sera of representative subjects positive for BAT and negative for SPT and sIgE. 1,024 BAT were carried out, the agreement (positive/positive and negative/negative) was 78.5% for BAT vs. SPT and 78.3% for BAT vs. IgE. Atopic patients, but not atopic controls, more frequently had a positive BAT than non-atopic patients (P < 0.0001). Among subjects with positive BAT, those with negative sIgE had lower total IgE, P = 0.001. Nearly 23.3% of all subjects had positive BAT (for at least one tested food) and both negative sIgE and SPT. Immunoblots revealed the presence of sIgE for the tested foods in representative patients with positive BAT, negative SPT and sIgE. Introduction of BAT in routine of food hypersensitivity, limited to subjects with a discrepancy between history and traditional tests, might be useful particularly when total IgE are low. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  16. Multinational experience with hypersensitivity drug reactions in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Jares, Edgardo José; Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Cardona-Villa, Ricardo; Ensina, Luis Felipe; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Gómez, Maximiliano; Barayazarra, Susana; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Serrano, Carlos D; Cuello, Mabel Noemi; Morfin-Maciel, Blanca María; De Falco, Alicia; Cherrez-Ojeda, Iván

    2014-09-01

    Epidemiologic drug allergy data from Latin America are scarce, and there are no studies on specific procedures focusing on this topic in Latin America. To assess the clinical characteristics and management of hypersensitivity drug reactions in different Latin American countries. An European Network of Drug Allergy questionnaire survey was implemented in 22 allergy units in 11 Latin American countries to report on consecutive patients who presented with a suspected hypersensitivity drug reaction. Each unit used its own protocols to investigate patients. Included were 868 hypersensitivity drug reactions in 862 patients (71% of adults and elderly patients were women and 51% of children were girls, P = .0001). Children presented with less severe reactions than adults and elderly patients (P < .0001). Urticaria and angioedema accounted for the most frequent clinical presentations (71%), whereas anaphylaxis was present in 27.3% of cases. There were no deaths reported. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (52.3%), β-lactam antibiotics (13.8%), and other antibiotics (10.1%) were the drugs used most frequently. Skin prick tests (16.7%) and provocation tests (34.2%) were the study procedures most commonly used. A large proportion of patients were treated in the emergency department (62%) with antihistamines (68%) and/or corticosteroids (53%). Only 22.8% of patients presenting with anaphylaxis received epinephrine. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics were the drugs used in at least 75% of patients. More than half the reactions were treated in the emergency department, whereas epinephrine was administered in fewer than 25% of patients with anaphylaxis. Dissemination of guidelines for anaphylaxis among primary and emergency department physicians should be encouraged. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Insects in fluctuating thermal environments.

    PubMed

    Colinet, Hervé; Sinclair, Brent J; Vernon, Philippe; Renault, David

    2015-01-07

    All climate change scenarios predict an increase in both global temperature means and the magnitude of seasonal and diel temperature variation. The nonlinear relationship between temperature and biological processes means that fluctuating temperatures lead to physiological, life history, and ecological consequences for ectothermic insects that diverge from those predicted from constant temperatures. Fluctuating temperatures that remain within permissive temperature ranges generally improve performance. By contrast, those which extend to stressful temperatures may have either positive impacts, allowing repair of damage accrued during exposure to thermal extremes, or negative impacts from cumulative damage during successive exposures. We discuss the mechanisms underlying these differing effects. Fluctuating temperatures could be used to enhance or weaken insects in applied rearing programs, and any prediction of insect performance in the field-including models of climate change or population performance-must account for the effect of fluctuating temperatures.

  18. Insects as unidentified flying objects.

    PubMed

    Callahan, P S; Mankin, R W

    1978-11-01

    Five species of insects were subjected to a large electric field. Each of the insects stimulated in this manner emitted visible glows of various colors and blacklight (uv). It is postulated that the Uintah Basin, Utah, nocturnal UFO display (1965-1968) was partially due to mass swarms of spruce budworms, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens), stimulated to emit this type of St. Elmo's fire by flying into high electric fields caused by thunderheads and high density particulate matter in the air. There was excellent time and spatial correlation between the 1965-1968 UFO nocturnal sightings and spruce budworm infestation. It is suggested that a correlation of nocturnal UFO sightings throughout the U.S. and Canada with spruce budworm infestations might give some insight into nocturnal insect flight patterns.

  19. Flower constancy in insect pollinators

    PubMed Central

    Ratnieks, Francis L.W.

    2011-01-01

    As first noted by Aristotle in honeybee workers, many insect pollinators show a preference to visit flowers of just one species during a foraging trip. This “flower constancy” probably benefits plants, because pollen is more likely to be deposited on conspecific stigmas. But it is less clear why insects should ignore rewarding alternative flowers. Many researchers have argued that flower constancy is caused by constraints imposed by insect nervous systems rather than because flower constancy is itself an efficient foraging method. We argue that this view is unsatisfactory because it both fails to explain why foragers flexibly adjust the degree of flower constancy and does not explain why foragers of closely related species show different degrees of constancy. While limitations of the nervous system exist and are likely to influence flower constancy to some degree, the observed behavioural flexibility suggests that flower constancy is a successful foraging strategy given the insect’s own information about different foraging options. PMID:22446521

  20. Methotrexate Hypersensitivity Reactions in Pediatrics: Evaluation and Management

    PubMed Central

    Dilley, Meredith A.; Lee, Joyce P.; Broyles, Ana Dioun

    2017-01-01

    Reports of hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) to MTX are limited to single case studies. We retrospectively reviewed HSRs to MTX during a 12-year period in our tertiary care pediatric center. Seven patients were evaluated for HSRs to MTX. Skin testing was positive in one of the 4 patients tested. One patient underwent successful graded challenge to MTX. Seventeen desensitizations to MTX were successfully performed in the other 6 patients. Skin testing, graded challenge, and desensitization were safe and effective procedures in the evaluation and management of patients with HSRs to MTX in our pediatric population. PMID:27786403

  1. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis and related conditions in the work environment.

    PubMed

    Zacharisen, Michael C; Fink, Jordan N

    2011-11-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis can occur from a wide variety of occupational exposures. Although uncommon and difficult to recognize, through a detailed work exposure history, physical examination, radiography, pulmonary function studies, and selected laboratory studies using sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, workers can be identified early to effect avoidance of the antigen and institute pharmacologic therapy, if necessary. A lung biopsy may be necessary to rule out other interstitial lung diseases. Despite the varied organic antigen triggers, the presentation is similar with acute, subacute, or chronic forms. Systemic corticosteroids are the only reliable pharmacologic treatment but do not alter the long-term outcome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Biophoton distress flares signal the onset of the hypersensitive reaction.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, John W

    2005-07-01

    Detection of biophoton emission, a natural bioluminescence, has emerged as a non-destructive method to mark the onset of the hypersensitive resistance reaction in Arabidopsis, bean and tomato. Rapid biophoton emission in Arabidopsis requires an intact R-gene signalling network and increased levels of cytosolic calcium and nitric oxide. The burst of biophotons precedes macroscopic symptoms by several hours and its timing is characteristic for specific gene-for-gene interactions. The ability to monitor biophoton emission from whole plants in real time should allow detailed dissection of plant defence responses.

  3. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: The opinion of an observer neurologist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marc-Vergnes, Jean-Pierre

    2010-11-01

    Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is a recent, uncertain and somehow confusing concept. It is now widely agreed that people claiming to be EHS really experience symptoms. However, no evidence for a causal link between the symptoms and electromagnetic fields (EMF) has been reported. Thus, we have to wonder whether EHS constitutes truly a relevant entity. Most of the previous studies suffer from methodological flaws. Owing to the quantification of symptoms, the interdisciplinary assessment of patients, and the use of personal exposimeters, the recent studies are of better quality. A set of convergent associated signs suggests that individual neuropsychic factors take a prominent, but maybe not unique, part in this condition.

  4. Respiratory symptoms in insect breeders.

    PubMed

    Harris-Roberts, J; Fishwick, D; Tate, P; Rawbone, R; Stagg, S; Barber, C M; Adisesh, A

    2011-08-01

    A number of specialist food suppliers in the UK breed and distribute insects and insect larvae as food for exotic pets, such as reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates. To investigate the extent of work-related (WR) symptoms and workplace-specific serum IgE in workers potentially exposed to a variety of biological contaminants, including insect and insect larvae allergens, endotoxin and cereal allergens at a UK specialist insect breeding facility. We undertook a study of respiratory symptoms and exposures at the facility, with subsequent detailed clinical assessment of one worker. All 32 workers were assessed clinically using a respiratory questionnaire and lung function. Eighteen workers consented to provide serum for determination of specific IgE to workplace allergens. Thirty-four per cent (11/32) of insect workers reported WR respiratory symptoms. Sensitization, as judged by specific IgE, was found in 29% (4/14) of currently exposed workers. Total inhalable dust levels ranged from 1.2 to 17.9 mg/m(3) [mean 4.3 mg/m(3) (SD 4.4 mg/m(3)), median 2.0 mg/m(3)] and endotoxin levels of up to 29435 EU/m(3) were recorded. Exposure to organic dusts below the levels for which there are UK workplace exposure limits can result in respiratory symptoms and sensitization. The results should alert those responsible for the health of similarly exposed workers to the potential for respiratory ill-health and the need to provide a suitable health surveillance programme.

  5. Too hard to swallow: a secret secondary defence of an aposematic insect.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu-Yi; Huang, Wen-San; Tang, Hsin-Chieh; Huang, Lung-Chun; Lin, Chung-Ping

    2018-01-25

    Anti-predator strategies are significant components of adaptation in prey species. Aposematic prey are expected to possess effective defences that have evolved simultaneously with their warning colours. This study tested the hypothesis of the defensive function and ecological significance of the hard body in aposematic Pachyrhynchus weevils pioneered by Alfred Russel Wallace nearly 150 years ago. We used predation trials with Japalura tree lizards to assess the survivorship of 'hard' (mature) versus 'soft' (teneral) and 'clawed' (intact) versus 'clawless' (surgically removed) weevils. The ecological significance of the weevil's hard body was evaluated by assessing the hardness of the weevils, the local prey insects, and the bite forces of the lizard populations. The existence of toxins or deterrents in the weevil was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All 'hard' weevils were instantly spat out after being bitten once and survived attacks by the lizards. In contrast, the 'soft' weevils were chewed and subsequently swallowed. The results were the same regardless of the presence or absence of the weevil's tarsal claws. The hardness of 'hard' Pachyrhynchus weevils was significantly higher than the average hardness of other prey insects in the same habitat and the mean bite forces of the local lizards. The four candidate compounds of the weevil identified by GC-MS had no known toxic or repellent functions against vertebrates. These results reveal that the hardness of aposematic prey functions as an effective secondary defence, and they provide a framework for understanding the spatio-temporal interactions between vertebrate predators and aposematic insect prey. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Orthodontic treatment of a complex open-bite malocclusion with temporary anchorage devices: a case report.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Alexander B

    2010-08-01

    Orthodontic temporary anchorage devices provide a novel alternative to orthognathic surgery for the treatment of severe anterior open-bite malocclusions. These implantable devices provide skeletal anchorage for maxillary molar intrusion, allowing for mandibular autorotation and subsequent open-bite closure. This case demonstrates step-by-step treatment of a 41-year-old woman with a severe open-bite malocclusion. Detailed orthodontic mechanics are described at every stage of treatment.

  7. Bite by a dog under provocation: is it free from risk?

    PubMed

    Dutta, J K

    2002-05-01

    There is a common belief that rabid dogs bite without provocation, hence a dog bite under provocation is free from the risk of rabies. This is not always true as is evident from the case report narrated below. Here in this article, a man of 38 years was bitten by a dog under provocation. He developed rabies 4 months after the bite and subsequently died. Autopsy revealed Negri bodies from the brain tissue.

  8. Comparison of Preferred Bite Sites between Mites and Ticks on Humans in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Mi-Sun; Kim, Choon-Mee; Kim, Dong-Min; Yoon, Na Ra; Han, Mi Ah; Kim, Hyun-Kuk; Oh, Won Sup; Yoon, Hee-Jung; Wie, Seong-Heon; Hur, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Identification of mite and tick bite sites provides important clinical information. The predominant mite species in Korea associated with scrub typhus are Leptotrombidium pallidum and Leptotrombidium scutellare. The most abundant tick species is Haemaphysalis longicornis. To date, there has been no comparative study on preferred bite sites between mites and ticks in humans. This study included a review of medical records and a field study. For mite bite sites, eschars were checked on 506 patients with scrub typhus, confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay or nested polymerase chain reaction on the 56-kDa type-specific antigen gene of Orientia tsutsugamushi. Tick bite sites were identified and marked on a diagram for 91 patients who experienced tick bites within the previous year through a field epidemiological investigation. The mite and tick bite sites in Koreans were compared. The most frequently observed mite bite sites were the anterior chest, including the axillae (29.1%) and the abdominal region, including the inguinal area (26.1%). Tick bite sites were most frequent on the lower extremities (33.0%), followed by the abdominal region, including the inguinal area (26.4%), and upper extremities (26.4%). The distribution was significantly different between mite and tick bite sites (P < 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in the mite bite (P = 0.001), but not tick bite sites (P = 0.985), between men and women. This is the first report on the differences between tick and mite bite sites, and may help clinicians reach a rapid diagnosis of mite- or tick-borne infection. PMID:27645781

  9. Prospective audit of 106 consecutive human bite injuries: the importance of history taking

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, C; Robertson, C

    2005-01-01

    Methods: Patients with cutaneous wounds who did not present with a history of human bite were asked a follow up question. Those who then gave a history of human bite were noted. Results: Certain groups of patients with human bites were significantly more likely to provide a factitious history and/or delay presentation. Conclusion: Follow up questioning dramatically increased the case-detection rate, prompting specific management. PMID:16299201

  10. Insect growth regulators and insect control: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed Central

    Siddall, J B

    1976-01-01

    Insect growth regulators (IGRs) of the juvenile hormone type alter physiological processes essential to insect development and appear to act specifically on insects. Three natural juvenile hormones have been found in insects but not in other organisms. Future use of antagonists or inhibitors of hormone synthesis may be technically possible as an advantageous extension of pest control by IGRs. A documented survey of the properties, metabolism, toxicology, and uses of the most commercially advanced chemical, methoprene, shows it to be environmentally acceptable and toxicologically innocuous. Derivation of its current use patterns is discussed and limitations on these are noted. Residue levels and their measurement in the ppb region have allowed exemption from the requirement of tolerances in the EPA registered use of methoprene for mosquito control. Tolerances for foods accompany its fully approved use for control of manure breeding flies through a cattle feed supplement. The human health effects of using this chemical appear to be purely beneficial, but further advances through new IGR chemicals appear unlikely without major changes in regulatory and legislative policy. PMID:976222

  11. Insects as a Nitrogen Source for Plants

    PubMed Central

    Behie, Scott W.; Bidochka, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Many plants have evolved adaptations in order to survive in low nitrogen environments. One of the best-known adaptations is that of plant symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria; this is the major route by which nitrogen is incorporated into plant biomass. A portion of this plant-associated nitrogen is then lost to insects through herbivory, and insects represent a nitrogen reservoir that is generally overlooked in nitrogen cycles. In this review we show three specialized plant adaptations that allow for the recovery of insect nitrogen; that is, plants gaining nitrogen from insects. First, we show specialized adaptations by carnivorous plants in low nitrogen habitats. Insect carnivorous plants such as pitcher plants and sundews (Nepenthaceae/Sarraceniaceae and Drosera respectively) are able to obtain substantial amounts of nitrogen from the insects that they capture. Secondly, numerous plants form associations with mycorrhizal fungi that can provide soluble nitrogen from the soil, some of which may be insect-derived nitrogen, obtained from decaying insects or insect frass. Finally, a specialized group of endophytic, insect-pathogenic fungi (EIPF) provide host plants with insect-derived nitrogen. These soil-inhabiting fungi form a remarkable symbiosis with certain plant species. They can infect a wide range of insect hosts and also form endophytic associations in which they transfer insect-derived nitrogen to the plant. Root colonizing fungi are found in disparate fungal phylogenetic lineages, indicating possible convergent evolutionary strategies between taxa, evolution potentially driven by access to carbon-containing root exudates. PMID:26462427

  12. Snake bite envenomation in Riyadh province of Saudi Arabia over the period (2005-2010).

    PubMed

    Al-Sadoon, Mohammed K

    2015-03-01

    The present investigation is a retrospective review of snake bites in Riyadh province over the period (2005-2010). A total of 1019 cases of bites admitted to the Ministry of Health medical centers in Riyadh province were analyzed on the basis of age, sex, time of bite and its site on the body, outcome of treatment, antiserum dose and type of snake. Bites occurred throughout the six years with the highest frequency in 2005 and least in 2006 where most of the bite cases were mild and all evolved to cure except four patients who died following the administration of antivenom during 24 h after snake bite. Most of the patients were males (81.7%) and the most attacked age was within the range of 11-30 years (51.5%). All the bites were mainly in the exposed limbs and the most frequently bitten anatomical regions were the lower limbs (427 cases, 41.9%), principally the feet. The study incriminates Cerastes cerastes gasperettii in most of the bites indicating it as the snake of medical importance in Riyadh province. Also, the study indicates low degree of threat in spite of high rate of snake bites as a result of the availability of the medical facilities and the antivenin use in medical centers in Riyadh province.

  13. Snake bite envenomation in Riyadh province of Saudi Arabia over the period (2005–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sadoon, Mohammed K.

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation is a retrospective review of snake bites in Riyadh province over the period (2005–2010). A total of 1019 cases of bites admitted to the Ministry of Health medical centers in Riyadh province were analyzed on the basis of age, sex, time of bite and its site on the body, outcome of treatment, antiserum dose and type of snake. Bites occurred throughout the six years with the highest frequency in 2005 and least in 2006 where most of the bite cases were mild and all evolved to cure except four patients who died following the administration of antivenom during 24 h after snake bite. Most of the patients were males (81.7%) and the most attacked age was within the range of 11–30 years (51.5%). All the bites were mainly in the exposed limbs and the most frequently bitten anatomical regions were the lower limbs (427 cases, 41.9%), principally the feet. The study incriminates Cerastes cerastes gasperettii in most of the bites indicating it as the snake of medical importance in Riyadh province. Also, the study indicates low degree of threat in spite of high rate of snake bites as a result of the availability of the medical facilities and the antivenin use in medical centers in Riyadh province. PMID:25737653

  14. Examining evidence on dog bite injuries and their management in children.

    PubMed

    Elizabeth Murray, Gemma

    2017-04-11

    Dog bites are common injuries in children. The effects of such injuries can be devastating for the children concerned and their families. It is therefore important to provide holistic care and to consider psychological well-being as well as physical recovery. There should be clear guidelines for professionals about reporting dog bites and safeguarding. The literature recommends primary closure of the dog bite wound unless an infection is present. Literature also suggests that prophylactic antibiotics are ineffective in preventing infection except in hand injuries, although they are still routinely used in practice. This article recommends further research, support and education on dog bites in children, as well as national guidelines.

  15. Edible insects in China: Utilization and prospects.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Min; He, Zhao; Sun, Long; Wang, Cheng-Ye; Ding, Wei-Feng

    2018-04-01

    The use of edible insects has a long history in China, where they have been consumed for more than 2000 years. In general, the level of acceptance is high for the consumption of insects in China. Many studies on edible insects have been conducted in the last 20 years, and the scope of the research includes the culture of entomophagy and the identification, nutritional value, farming and breeding of edible insects, in addition to food production and safety. Currently, 324 species of insects from 11 orders are documented that are either edible or associated with entomophagy in China, which include the common edible species, some less commonly consumed species and some medicinal insects. However, only approximately 10 to 20 types of insects are regularly consumed. The nutritional values for 174 species are available in China, including edible, feed and medicinal species. Although the nutritional values vary among species, all the insects examined contain protein, fat, vitamins and minerals at levels that meet human nutritional requirements. Edible insects were, and continue to be, consumed by different ethnic groups in many parts of China. People directly consume insects or food products made from insects. The processing of products from insect protein powder, oil and chitin, and the development of healthcare foods has been studied in China. People also consume insects indirectly by eating livestock that were fed insects, which may be a more acceptable pathway to use insects in human diets. Although limited, the data on the food safety of insects indicate that insects are safe for food or feed. Incidences of allergic reactions after consuming silkworm pupae, cicadas and crickets have been reported in China. Insect farming is a unique breeding industry in rural China and is a source of income for local people. Insects are reared and bred for human food, medicine and animal feed using two approaches in China: the insects are either fully domesticated and reared

  16. Rice hypersensitive induced reaction protein 1 (OsHIR1) associates with plasma membrane and triggers hypersensitive cell death.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liang; Cheung, Ming-Yan; Li, Man-Wah; Fu, Yaping; Sun, Zongxiu; Sun, Sai-Ming; Lam, Hon-Ming

    2010-12-30

    In plants, HIR (Hypersensitive Induced Reaction) proteins, members of the PID (Proliferation, Ion and Death) superfamily, have been shown to play a part in the development of spontaneous hypersensitive response lesions in leaves, in reaction to pathogen attacks. The levels of HIR proteins were shown to correlate with localized host cell deaths and defense responses in maize and barley. However, not much was known about the HIR proteins in rice. Since rice is an important cereal crop consumed by more than 50% of the populations in Asia and Africa, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms of disease responses in this plant. We previously identified the rice HIR1 (OsHIR1) as an interacting partner of the OsLRR1 (rice Leucine-Rich Repeat protein 1). Here we show that OsHIR1 triggers hypersensitive cell death and its localization to the plasma membrane is enhanced by OsLRR1. Through electron microscopy studies using wild type rice plants, OsHIR1 was found to mainly localize to the plasma membrane, with a minor portion localized to the tonoplast. Moreover, the plasma membrane localization of OsHIR1 was enhanced in transgenic rice plants overexpressing its interacting protein partner, OsLRR1. Co-localization of OsHIR1 and OsLRR1 to the plasma membrane was confirmed by double-labeling electron microscopy. Pathogen inoculation studies using transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing either OsHIR1 or OsLRR1 showed that both transgenic lines exhibited increased resistance toward the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. However, OsHIR1 transgenic plants produced more extensive spontaneous hypersensitive response lesions and contained lower titers of the invading pathogen, when compared to OsLRR1 transgenic plants. The OsHIR1 protein is mainly localized to the plasma membrane, and its subcellular localization in that compartment is enhanced by OsLRR1. The expression of OsHIR1 may sensitize the plant so that it is more prone to HR and hence can react more

  17. Metalworking fluid-associated hypersensitivity pneumonitis: a workshop summary.

    PubMed

    Kreiss, K; Cox-Ganser, J

    1997-10-01

    A workshop discussing eight clusters of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in the automotive industry among metalworking fluid-exposed workers concluded that a risk exists for this granulomatous lung disease where water-based fluids are used and unusual microbial contaminants predominate. Strong candidates for microbial etiology are nontuberculous mycobacteria and fungi. Cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis occur among cases with other work-related respiratory symptoms and chest diseases. Reversibility of disease has occurred in many cases with exposure cessation, allowing return to work to jobs without metalworking fluid exposures or, in some situations, to jobs without the same metalworking fluid exposures. Cases have been recognized with metalworking fluid exposures generally less than 0.5 mg/m3. The workshop participants identified knowledge gaps regarding risk factors, exposure-response relationships, intervention efficacy, and natural history, as well as surveillance needs to define the extent of the problem in this industry. In the absence of answers to these questions, guidance for prevention is necessarily limited.

  18. Burning mouth syndrome: the role of contact hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Marino, R; Capaccio, P; Pignataro, L; Spadari, F

    2009-05-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a burning sensation or stinging disorder affecting the oral mucosa in the absence of any clinical signs or mucosal lesions. Some studies have suggested that burning mouth syndrome could be caused by the metals used in dental prostheses, as well as by acrylate monomers, additives and flavouring agents, although others have not found any aetiologic role for hypersensitivity to dental materials. To evaluate the extent and severity of adverse reactions to dental materials in a group of patients with burning mouth syndrome, and investigate the possible role of contact allergy in its pathogenesis. We prospectively studied 124 consecutive patients with burning mouth syndrome (108 males; mean age 57 years, range 41-83), all of whom underwent allergen patch testing between 2004 and 2007. Sixteen patients (13%) showed positive patch test reactions and were classified as having burning mouth syndrome type 3 or secondary burning mouth syndrome (Lamey's and Scala's classifications). Although we did not find any significant association between the patients and positive patch test reactions, it would be advisable to include hypersensitivity to dental components when evaluating patients experiencing intermittent oral burning without any clinical signs.

  19. Hypersensitive response of beans to Apion godmani (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Garza, R; Vera, J; Cardona, C; Barcenas, N; Singh, S P

    2001-08-01

    High levels of resistance to Apion godinani Wagner have been reported in bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., landraces from Mexico. We report on the role of hypersensitivity to A. godmani in five resistant and three susceptible bean genotypes. In susceptible genotypes (cultivars 'Canario 107','Jamapa', and 'Zacatecas 45'), the eggs and first instars of A. godmani were embedded in the pod mesocarp and usually were surrounded by healthy tissue. In contrast, in resistant landraces ('Amarillo 154', 'Amarillo 155', 'J-117', 'Puebla 36', and 'Pinto 168'), necrotic tissues developed concentrically around the oviposition site, encapsulating eggs and dead larvae. An inverse relationship between percentage egg and larval encapsulation at the early immature pod stages and percentage of damaged seeds at harvest was found. Results indicate that hypersensitivity in developing pods plays an important role in antibiosis to A. godmani in beans. This information will facilitate future genetic and biochemical research and provide much needed information concerning the phenotypic basis of resistance to A. godmani in bean.

  20. Cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions to freshwater cyanobacteria – human volunteer studies

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Ian; Robertson, Ivan M; Webb, Penelope M; Schluter, Philip J; Shaw, Glen R

    2006-01-01

    Background Pruritic skin rashes associated with exposure to freshwater cyanobacteria are infrequently reported in the medical and scientific literature, mostly as anecdotal and case reports. Diagnostic dermatological investigations in humans are also infrequently described. We sought to conduct a pilot volunteer study to explore the potential for cyanobacteria to elicit hypersensitivity reactions. Methods A consecutive series of adult patients presenting for diagnostic skin patch testing at a hospital outpatient clinic were invited to participate. A convenience sample of volunteers matched for age and sex was also enrolled. Patches containing aqueous suspensions of various cyanobacteria at three concentrations were applied for 48 hours; dermatological assessment was made 48 hours and 96 hours after application. Results 20 outpatients and 19 reference subjects were recruited into the study. A single outpatient produced unequivocal reactions to several cyanobacteria suspensions; this subject was also the only one of the outpatient group with a diagnosis of atopic dermatitis. No subjects in the reference group developed clinically detectable skin reactions to cyanobacteria. Conclusion This preliminary clinical study demonstrates that hypersensitivity reactions to cyanobacteria appear to be infrequent in both the general and dermatological outpatient populations. As cyanobacteria are widely distributed in aquatic environments, a better appreciation of risk factors, particularly with respect to allergic predisposition, may help to refine health advice given to people engaging in recreational activities where nuisance cyanobacteria are a problem. PMID:16584576