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Sample records for insect flight performance

  1. Leg regeneration stunts wing growth and hinders flight performance in a stick insect (Sipyloidea sipylus).

    PubMed

    Maginnis, Tara L

    2006-07-22

    Major morphological structures are sometimes produced not once, but twice. For example, stick insects routinely shed legs to escape a predator or tangled moult, and these legs are subsequently re-grown. Here, I show that in Sipyloidea sipylus, re-growth of a leg during development causes adults to have disproportionately smaller wings and increases wing loading. These morphological consequences of leg regeneration led to significant reductions in several biologically relevant measures of individual flight performance. This previously unrecognized tradeoff between legs and wings reveals the integrated nature of phasmid phenotypes, and I propose how this tradeoff may have shaped phasmid evolution.

  2. Remote radio control of insect flight.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hirotaka; Berry, Christopher W; Peeri, Yoav; Baghoomian, Emen; Casey, Brendan E; Lavella, Gabriel; Vandenbrooks, John M; Harrison, Jon F; Maharbiz, Michel M

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrated the remote control of insects in free flight via an implantable radio-equipped miniature neural stimulating system. The pronotum mounted system consisted of neural stimulators, muscular stimulators, a radio transceiver-equipped microcontroller and a microbattery. Flight initiation, cessation and elevation control were accomplished through neural stimulus of the brain which elicited, suppressed or modulated wing oscillation. Turns were triggered through the direct muscular stimulus of either of the basalar muscles. We characterized the response times, success rates, and free-flight trajectories elicited by our neural control systems in remotely controlled beetles. We believe this type of technology will open the door to in-flight perturbation and recording of insect flight responses.

  3. Power and efficiency of insect flight muscle.

    PubMed

    Ellington, C P

    1985-03-01

    The efficiency and mechanical power output of insect flight muscle have been estimated from a study of hovering flight. The maximum power output, calculated from the muscle properties, is adequate for the aerodynamic power requirements. However, the power output is insufficient to oscillate the wing mass as well unless there is good elastic storage of the inertial energy, and this is consistent with reports of elastic components in the flight system. A comparison of the mechanical power output with the metabolic power input to the flight muscles suggests that the muscle efficiency is quite low: less than 10%.

  4. The aerodynamics of flight in an insect flight-mill.

    PubMed

    Ribak, Gal; Barkan, Shay; Soroker, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Predicting the dispersal of pest insects is important for pest management schemes. Flight-mills provide a simple way to evaluate the flight potential of insects, but there are several complications in relating tethered-flight to natural flight. We used high-speed video to evaluate the effect of flight-mill design on flight of the red palm weevil (Rynchophorous ferruginneus) in four variants of a flight-mill. Two variants had the rotating radial arm pivoted on the main shaft of the rotation axis, allowing freedom to elevate the arm as the insect applied lift force. Two other variants had the pivot point fixed, restricting the radial arm to horizontal motion. Beetles were tethered with their lateral axis horizontal or rotated by 40°, as in a banked turn. Flight-mill type did not affect flight speed or wing-beat frequency, but did affect flapping kinematics. The wingtip internal to the circular trajectory was always moved faster relative to air, suggesting that the beetles were attempting to steer in the opposite direction to the curved trajectory forced by the flight-mill. However, banked beetles had lower flapping asymmetry, generated higher lift forces and lost more of their body mass per time and distance flown during prolonged flight compared to beetles flying level. The results indicate, that flapping asymmetry and low lift can be rectified by tethering the beetle in a banked orientation, but the flight still does not correspond directly to free-flight. This should be recognized and taken into account when designing flight-mills and interoperating their data.

  5. The aerodynamics of flight in an insect flight-mill

    PubMed Central

    Barkan, Shay; Soroker, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Predicting the dispersal of pest insects is important for pest management schemes. Flight-mills provide a simple way to evaluate the flight potential of insects, but there are several complications in relating tethered-flight to natural flight. We used high-speed video to evaluate the effect of flight-mill design on flight of the red palm weevil (Rynchophorous ferruginneus) in four variants of a flight-mill. Two variants had the rotating radial arm pivoted on the main shaft of the rotation axis, allowing freedom to elevate the arm as the insect applied lift force. Two other variants had the pivot point fixed, restricting the radial arm to horizontal motion. Beetles were tethered with their lateral axis horizontal or rotated by 40°, as in a banked turn. Flight-mill type did not affect flight speed or wing-beat frequency, but did affect flapping kinematics. The wingtip internal to the circular trajectory was always moved faster relative to air, suggesting that the beetles were attempting to steer in the opposite direction to the curved trajectory forced by the flight-mill. However, banked beetles had lower flapping asymmetry, generated higher lift forces and lost more of their body mass per time and distance flown during prolonged flight compared to beetles flying level. The results indicate, that flapping asymmetry and low lift can be rectified by tethering the beetle in a banked orientation, but the flight still does not correspond directly to free-flight. This should be recognized and taken into account when designing flight-mills and interoperating their data. PMID:29091924

  6. Biomechanics and biomimetics in insect-inspired flight systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Ravi, Sridhar; Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Tanaka, Hiroto

    2016-09-26

    Insect- and bird-size drones-micro air vehicles (MAV) that can perform autonomous flight in natural and man-made environments are now an active and well-integrated research area. MAVs normally operate at a low speed in a Reynolds number regime of 10(4)-10(5) or lower, in which most flying animals of insects, birds and bats fly, and encounter unconventional challenges in generating sufficient aerodynamic forces to stay airborne and in controlling flight autonomy to achieve complex manoeuvres. Flying insects that power and control flight by flapping wings are capable of sophisticated aerodynamic force production and precise, agile manoeuvring, through an integrated system consisting of wings to generate aerodynamic force, muscles to move the wings and a control system to modulate power output from the muscles. In this article, we give a selective review on the state of the art of biomechanics in bioinspired flight systems in terms of flapping and flexible wing aerodynamics, flight dynamics and stability, passive and active mechanisms in stabilization and control, as well as flapping flight in unsteady environments. We further highlight recent advances in biomimetics of flapping-wing MAVs with a specific focus on insect-inspired wing design and fabrication, as well as sensing systems.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Sensory Coordination of Insect Flight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    us to behaviorally alter the speed of the honey bees using their natural behavioral responses to visual patterns. These results reiterate our... honey bee flight. (9th International Congress of Neuroethology, Salamanca, Spain, August 2010). Sane, SP*. The tale of two mechanosensors: antennal...on the following main projects with reference to our work plan: Antennal positioning in moths and freely flying bees : 1. Latency studies: We had

  8. Biomechanics and biomimetics in insect-inspired flight systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hao; Ravi, Sridhar; Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Tanaka, Hiroto

    2016-01-01

    Insect- and bird-size drones—micro air vehicles (MAV) that can perform autonomous flight in natural and man-made environments are now an active and well-integrated research area. MAVs normally operate at a low speed in a Reynolds number regime of 104–105 or lower, in which most flying animals of insects, birds and bats fly, and encounter unconventional challenges in generating sufficient aerodynamic forces to stay airborne and in controlling flight autonomy to achieve complex manoeuvres. Flying insects that power and control flight by flapping wings are capable of sophisticated aerodynamic force production and precise, agile manoeuvring, through an integrated system consisting of wings to generate aerodynamic force, muscles to move the wings and a control system to modulate power output from the muscles. In this article, we give a selective review on the state of the art of biomechanics in bioinspired flight systems in terms of flapping and flexible wing aerodynamics, flight dynamics and stability, passive and active mechanisms in stabilization and control, as well as flapping flight in unsteady environments. We further highlight recent advances in biomimetics of flapping-wing MAVs with a specific focus on insect-inspired wing design and fabrication, as well as sensing systems. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight’. PMID:27528780

  9. Paddling Mode of Forward Flight in Insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristroph, Leif; Bergou, Attila J.; Guckenheimer, John; Wang, Z. Jane; Cohen, Itai

    2011-04-01

    By analyzing high-speed video of the fruit fly, we discover a swimminglike mode of forward flight characterized by paddling wing motions. We develop a new aerodynamic analysis procedure to show that these insects generate drag-based thrust by slicing their wings forward at low angle of attack and pushing backwards at a higher angle. Reduced-order models and simulations reveal that the law for flight speed is determined by these wing motions but is insensitive to material properties of the fluid. Thus, paddling is as effective in air as in water and represents a common strategy for propulsion through aquatic and aerial environments.

  10. Fish Swimming and Bird/Insect Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Theodore Yaotsu

    2011-01-01

    This expository review is devoted to fish swimming and bird/insect flight. (a) The simple waving motion of an elongated flexible ribbon plate of constant width propagating a wave distally down the plate to swim forward in a fluid, initially at rest, is first considered to provide a fundamental concept on energy conservation. It is generalized to include variations in body width and thickness, with appended dorsal, ventral and caudal fins shedding vortices to closely simulate fish swimming, for which a nonlinear theory is presented for large-amplitude propulsion. (b) For bird flight, the pioneering studies on oscillatory rigid wings are discussed with delineating a fully nonlinear unsteady theory for a two-dimensional flexible wing with arbitrary variations in shape and trajectory to provide a comparative study with experiments. (c) For insect flight, recent advances are reviewed by items on aerodynamic theory and modeling, computational methods, and experiments, for forward and hovering flights with producing leading-edge vortex to yield unsteady high lift. (d) Prospects are explored on extracting prevailing intrinsic flow energy by fish and bird to enhance thrust for propulsion. (e) The mechanical and biological principles are drawn together for unified studies on the energetics in deriving metabolic power for animal locomotion, leading to the surprising discovery that the hydrodynamic viscous drag on swimming fish is largely associated with laminar boundary layers, thus drawing valid and sound evidences for a resounding resolution to the long-standing fish-swim paradox proclaimed by Gray (1936, 1968 ).

  11. Predicting forest insect flight activity: A Bayesian network approach

    PubMed Central

    Pawson, Stephen M.; Marcot, Bruce G.; Woodberry, Owen G.

    2017-01-01

    Daily flight activity patterns of forest insects are influenced by temporal and meteorological conditions. Temperature and time of day are frequently cited as key drivers of activity; however, complex interactions between multiple contributing factors have also been proposed. Here, we report individual Bayesian network models to assess the probability of flight activity of three exotic insects, Hylurgus ligniperda, Hylastes ater, and Arhopalus ferus in a managed plantation forest context. Models were built from 7,144 individual hours of insect sampling, temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, photon flux density, and temporal data. Discretized meteorological and temporal variables were used to build naïve Bayes tree augmented networks. Calibration results suggested that the H. ater and A. ferus Bayesian network models had the best fit for low Type I and overall errors, and H. ligniperda had the best fit for low Type II errors. Maximum hourly temperature and time since sunrise had the largest influence on H. ligniperda flight activity predictions, whereas time of day and year had the greatest influence on H. ater and A. ferus activity. Type II model errors for the prediction of no flight activity is improved by increasing the model’s predictive threshold. Improvements in model performance can be made by further sampling, increasing the sensitivity of the flight intercept traps, and replicating sampling in other regions. Predicting insect flight informs an assessment of the potential phytosanitary risks of wood exports. Quantifying this risk allows mitigation treatments to be targeted to prevent the spread of invasive species via international trade pathways. PMID:28953904

  12. Insect Flight: From Newton's Law to Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. Jane

    2016-03-01

    Why do animals move the way they do? Bacteria, insects, birds, and fish share with us the necessity to move so as to live. Although each organism follows its own evolutionary course, it also obeys a set of common laws. At the very least, the movement of animals, like that of planets, is governed by Newton's law: All things fall. On Earth, most things fall in air or water, and their motions are thus subject to the laws of hydrodynamics. Through trial and error, animals have found ways to interact with fluid so they can float, drift, swim, sail, glide, soar, and fly. This elementary struggle to escape the fate of falling shapes the development of motors, sensors, and mind. Perhaps we can deduce parts of their neural computations by understanding what animals must do so as not to fall. Here I discuss recent developments along this line of inquiry in the case of insect flight. Asking how often a fly must sense its orientation in order to balance in air has shed new light on the role of motor neurons and steering muscles responsible for flight stability.

  13. Recent developments in the remote radio control of insect flight.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hirotaka; Maharbiz, Michel M

    2010-01-01

    The continuing miniaturization of digital circuits and the development of low power radio systems coupled with continuing studies into the neurophysiology and dynamics of insect flight are enabling a new class of implantable interfaces capable of controlling insects in free flight for extended periods. We provide context for these developments, review the state-of-the-art and discuss future directions in this field.

  14. How insect flight steering muscles work.

    PubMed

    Hedenström, Anders

    2014-03-01

    Insights into how exactly a fly powers and controls flight have been hindered by the need to unpick the dynamic complexity of the muscles involved. The wingbeats of insects are driven by two antagonistic groups of power muscles and the force is funneled to the wing via a very complex hinge mechanism. The hinge consists of several hardened and articulated cuticle elements called sclerites. This articulation is controlled by a great number of small steering muscles, whose function has been studied by means of kinematics and muscle activity. The details and partly novel function of some of these steering muscles and their tendons have now been revealed in research published in this issue of PLOS Biology. The new study from Graham Taylor and colleagues applies time-resolved X-ray microtomography to obtain a three-dimensional view of the blowfly wingbeat. Asymmetric power output is achieved by differential wingbeat amplitude on the left and right wing, which is mediated by muscular control of the hinge elements to mechanically block the wing stroke and by absorption of work by steering muscles on one of the sides. This new approach permits visualization of the motion of the thorax, wing muscles, and the hinge mechanism. This very promising line of work will help to reveal the complete picture of the flight motor of a fly. It also holds great potential for novel bio-inspired designs of fly-like micro air vehicles.

  15. Nonlinear flight dynamics and stability of hovering model insects

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Bin; Sun, Mao

    2013-01-01

    Current analyses on insect dynamic flight stability are based on linear theory and limited to small disturbance motions. However, insects' aerial environment is filled with swirling eddies and wind gusts, and large disturbances are common. Here, we numerically solve the equations of motion coupled with the Navier–Stokes equations to simulate the large disturbance motions and analyse the nonlinear flight dynamics of hovering model insects. We consider two representative model insects, a model hawkmoth (large size, low wingbeat frequency) and a model dronefly (small size, high wingbeat frequency). For small and large initial disturbances, the disturbance motion grows with time, and the insects tumble and never return to the equilibrium state; the hovering flight is inherently (passively) unstable. The instability is caused by a pitch moment produced by forward/backward motion and/or a roll moment produced by side motion of the insect. PMID:23697714

  16. Flight investigation of insect contamination and its alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, J. B., Jr.; Fisher, D. F.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation of leading edge contamination by insects was conducted with a JetStar airplane instrumented to detect transition on the outboard leading edge flap and equipped with a system to spray the leading edge in flight. The results of airline type flights with the JetStar indicated that insects can contaminate the leading edge during takeoff and climbout. The results also showed that the insects collected on the leading edges at 180 knots did not erode at cruise conditions for a laminar flow control airplane and caused premature transition of the laminar boundary layer. None of the superslick and hydrophobic surfaces tested showed any significant advantages in alleviating the insect contamination problem. While there may be other solutions to the insect contamination problem, the results of these tests with a spray system showed that a continouous water spray while encountering the insects is effective in preventing insect contamination of the leading edges.

  17. Insect flight on fluid interfaces: a chaotic interfacial oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukundarajan, Haripriya; Prakash, Manu

    2013-11-01

    Flight is critical to the dominance of insect species on our planet, with about 98 percent of insect species having wings. How complex flight control systems developed in insects is unknown, and arboreal or aquatic origins have been hypothesized. We examine the biomechanics of aquatic origins of flight. We recently reported discovery of a novel mode of ``2D flight'' in Galerucella beetles, which skim along an air-water interface using flapping wing flight. This unique flight mode is characterized by a balance between capillary forces from the interface and biomechanical forces exerted by the flapping wings. Complex interactions on the fluid interface form capillary wave trains behind the insect, and produce vertical oscillations at the surface due to non-linear forces arising from deformation of the fluid meniscus. We present both experimental observations of 2D flight kinematics and a dynamic model explaining the observed phenomena. Careful examination of this interaction predicts the chaotic nature of interfacial flight and takeoff from the interface into airborne flight. The role of wingbeat frequency, stroke plane angle and body angle in determining transition between interfacial and fully airborne flight is highlighted, shedding light on the aquatic theory of flight evolution.

  18. A Simple Flight Mill for the Study of Tethered Flight in Insects.

    PubMed

    Attisano, Alfredo; Murphy, James T; Vickers, Andrew; Moore, Patricia J

    2015-12-10

    Flight in insects can be long-range migratory flights, intermediate-range dispersal flights, or short-range host-seeking flights. Previous studies have shown that flight mills are valuable tools for the experimental study of insect flight behavior, allowing researchers to examine how factors such as age, host plants, or population source can influence an insects' propensity to disperse. Flight mills allow researchers to measure components of flight such as speed and distance flown. Lack of detailed information about how to build such a device can make their construction appear to be prohibitively complex. We present a simple and relatively inexpensive flight mill for the study of tethered flight in insects. Experimental insects can be tethered with non-toxic adhesives and revolve around an axis by means of a very low friction magnetic bearing. The mill is designed for the study of flight in controlled conditions as it can be used inside an incubator or environmental chamber. The strongest points are the very simple electronic circuitry, the design that allows sixteen insects to fly simultaneously allowing the collection and analysis of a large number of samples in a short time and the potential to use the device in a very limited workspace. This design is extremely flexible, and we have adjusted the mill to accommodate different species of insects of various sizes.

  19. Recent Developments in the Remote Radio Control of Insect Flight

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hirotaka; Maharbiz, Michel M.

    2010-01-01

    The continuing miniaturization of digital circuits and the development of low power radio systems coupled with continuing studies into the neurophysiology and dynamics of insect flight are enabling a new class of implantable interfaces capable of controlling insects in free flight for extended periods. We provide context for these developments, review the state-of-the-art and discuss future directions in this field. PMID:21629761

  20. Predicting forest insect flight activity: A Bayesian network approach

    Treesearch

    Stephen M. Pawson; Bruce G. Marcot; Owen G. Woodberry

    2017-01-01

    Daily flight activity patterns of forest insects are influenced by temporal and meteorological conditions. Temperature and time of day are frequently cited as key drivers of activity; however, complex interactions between multiple contributing factors have also been proposed. Here, we report individual Bayesian network models to assess the probability of flight...

  1. Insect vision: a few tricks to regulate flight altitude.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Zufferey, Jean-Christophe

    2010-10-12

    A recent study sheds new light on the visual cues used by Drosophila to regulate flight altitude. The striking similarity with previously identified steering mechanisms provides a coherent basis for novel models of vision-based flight control in insects and robots. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Insect-Inspired Flight Control for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita; Stange, G.; Srinivasan, M.; Chahl, Javaan; Hine, Butler; Zornetzer, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Flight-control and navigation systems inspired by the structure and function of the visual system and brain of insects have been proposed for a class of developmental miniature robotic aircraft called "biomorphic flyers" described earlier in "Development of Biomorphic Flyers" (NPO-30554), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 54. These form a subset of biomorphic explorers, which, as reported in several articles in past issues of NASA Tech Briefs ["Biomorphic Explorers" (NPO-20142), Vol. 22, No. 9 (September 1998), page 71; "Bio-Inspired Engineering of Exploration Systems" (NPO-21142), Vol. 27, No. 5 (May 2003), page 54; and "Cooperative Lander-Surface/Aerial Microflyer Missions for Mars Exploration" (NPO-30286), Vol. 28, No. 5 (May 2004), page 36], are proposed small robots, equipped with microsensors and communication systems, that would incorporate crucial functions of mobility, adaptability, and even cooperative behavior. These functions are inherent to biological organisms but are challenging frontiers for technical systems. Biomorphic flyers could be used on Earth or remote planets to explore otherwise difficult or impossible to reach sites. An example of an exploratory task of search/surveillance functions currently being tested is to obtain high-resolution aerial imagery, using a variety of miniaturized electronic cameras. The control functions to be implemented by the systems in development include holding altitude, avoiding hazards, following terrain, navigation by reference to recognizable terrain features, stabilization of flight, and smooth landing. Flying insects perform these and other functions remarkably well, even though insect brains contains fewer than 10(exp -4) as many neurons as does the human brain. Although most insects have immobile, fixed-focus eyes and lack stereoscopy (and hence cannot perceive depth directly), they utilize a number of ingenious strategies for perceiving, and navigating in, three dimensions. Despite

  3. Flight evaluation of an insect contamination protection system for laminar flow wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croom, C. C.; Holmes, B. J.

    1985-01-01

    The maintenance of minimum wing leading edge contamination is critical to the preservation of drag-reducing laminar flow; previous methods for the prevention of leading edge contamination by insects have, however, been rendered impractical by their excessive weight, cost, or inconvenience. Attention is presently given to the results of a NASA flight experiment which evaluated the performance of a porous leading edge fluid-discharge ice protection system in the novel role of insect contamination removal; high insect contamination conditions were also noted in the experiment. Very small amounts of the fluid are found to be sufficient for insect contamination protection.

  4. Design of a Computerised Flight Mill Device to Measure the Flight Potential of Different Insects.

    PubMed

    Martí-Campoy, Antonio; Ávalos, Juan Antonio; Soto, Antonia; Rodríguez-Ballester, Francisco; Martínez-Blay, Victoria; Malumbres, Manuel Pérez

    2016-04-07

    Several insect species pose a serious threat to different plant species, sometimes becoming a pest that produces significant damage to the landscape, biodiversity, and/or the economy. This is the case of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), Semanotus laurasii Lucas (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), and Monochamus galloprovincialis Olivier (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), which have become serious threats to ornamental and productive trees all over the world such as palm trees, cypresses, and pines. Knowledge about their flight potential is very important for designing and applying measures targeted to reduce the negative effects from these pests. Studying the flight capability and behaviour of some insects is difficult due to their small size and the large area wherein they can fly, so we wondered how we could obtain information about their flight capabilities in a controlled environment. The answer came with the design of flight mills. Relevant data about the flight potential of these insects may be recorded and analysed by means of a flight mill. Once an insect is attached to the flight mill, it is able to fly in a circular direction without hitting walls or objects. By adding sensors to the flight mill, it is possible to record the number of revolutions and flight time. This paper presents a full description of a computer monitored flight mill. The description covers both the mechanical and the electronic parts in detail. The mill was designed to easily adapt to the anatomy of different insects and was successfully tested with individuals from three species R. ferrugineus, S. laurasii, and M. galloprovincialis.

  5. Insect Flight: Computation and Biomimetic Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-31

    Mechanics, 37, 183-210 (2005). • Z. Jane Wang, ”Insect Flight”, McGraw Hill Year Book of Science and Technology, 2006. • Anders Andersen, Umberto Pesavento ...Umberto Pesavento , and Z. Jane Wang, ’Analysis of transitions between fluttering, tumbling and steady descent of falling cards’, Journal of Fluid

  6. Surface tension dominates insect flight on fluid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Mukundarajan, Haripriya; Bardon, Thibaut C; Kim, Dong Hyun; Prakash, Manu

    2016-03-01

    Flight on the 2D air-water interface, with body weight supported by surface tension, is a unique locomotion strategy well adapted for the environmental niche on the surface of water. Although previously described in aquatic insects like stoneflies, the biomechanics of interfacial flight has never been analysed. Here, we report interfacial flight as an adapted behaviour in waterlily beetles (Galerucella nymphaeae) which are also dexterous airborne fliers. We present the first quantitative biomechanical model of interfacial flight in insects, uncovering an intricate interplay of capillary, aerodynamic and neuromuscular forces. We show that waterlily beetles use their tarsal claws to attach themselves to the interface, via a fluid contact line pinned at the claw. We investigate the kinematics of interfacial flight trajectories using high-speed imaging and construct a mathematical model describing the flight dynamics. Our results show that non-linear surface tension forces make interfacial flight energetically expensive compared with airborne flight at the relatively high speeds characteristic of waterlily beetles, and cause chaotic dynamics to arise naturally in these regimes. We identify the crucial roles of capillary-gravity wave drag and oscillatory surface tension forces which dominate interfacial flight, showing that the air-water interface presents a radically modified force landscape for flapping wing flight compared with air. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Surface tension dominates insect flight on fluid interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Mukundarajan, Haripriya; Bardon, Thibaut C.; Kim, Dong Hyun; Prakash, Manu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Flight on the 2D air–water interface, with body weight supported by surface tension, is a unique locomotion strategy well adapted for the environmental niche on the surface of water. Although previously described in aquatic insects like stoneflies, the biomechanics of interfacial flight has never been analysed. Here, we report interfacial flight as an adapted behaviour in waterlily beetles (Galerucella nymphaeae) which are also dexterous airborne fliers. We present the first quantitative biomechanical model of interfacial flight in insects, uncovering an intricate interplay of capillary, aerodynamic and neuromuscular forces. We show that waterlily beetles use their tarsal claws to attach themselves to the interface, via a fluid contact line pinned at the claw. We investigate the kinematics of interfacial flight trajectories using high-speed imaging and construct a mathematical model describing the flight dynamics. Our results show that non-linear surface tension forces make interfacial flight energetically expensive compared with airborne flight at the relatively high speeds characteristic of waterlily beetles, and cause chaotic dynamics to arise naturally in these regimes. We identify the crucial roles of capillary–gravity wave drag and oscillatory surface tension forces which dominate interfacial flight, showing that the air–water interface presents a radically modified force landscape for flapping wing flight compared with air. PMID:26936640

  8. Early Metamorphic Insertion Technology for Insect Flight Behavior Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Alper

    2014-01-01

    Early Metamorphosis Insertion Technology (EMIT) is a novel methodology for integrating microfabricated neuromuscular recording and actuation platforms on insects during their metamorphic development. Here, the implants are fused within the structure and function of the neuromuscular system as a result of metamorphic tissue remaking. The implants emerge with the insect where the development of tissue around the electronics during pupal development results in a bioelectrically and biomechanically enhanced tissue interface. This relatively more reliable and stable interface would be beneficial for many researchers exploring the neural basis of the insect locomotion with alleviated traumatic effects caused during adult stage insertions. In this article, we implant our electrodes into the indirect flight muscles of Manduca sexta. Located in the dorsal-thorax, these main flight powering dorsoventral and dorsolongitudinal muscles actuate the wings and supply the mechanical power for up and down strokes. Relative contraction of these two muscle groups has been under investigation to explore how the yaw maneuver is neurophysiologically coordinated. To characterize the flight dynamics, insects are often tethered with wires and their flight is recorded with digital cameras. We also developed a novel way to tether Manduca sexta on a magnetically levitating frame where the insect is connected to a commercially available wireless neural amplifier. This set up can be used to limit the degree of freedom to yawing “only” while transmitting the related electromyography signals from dorsoventral and dorsolongitudinal muscle groups. PMID:25079130

  9. Nocturnal insects use optic flow for flight control

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Emily; Kreiss, Eva; Wcislo, William; Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

    2011-01-01

    To avoid collisions when navigating through cluttered environments, flying insects must control their flight so that their sensory systems have time to detect obstacles and avoid them. To do this, day-active insects rely primarily on the pattern of apparent motion generated on the retina during flight (optic flow). However, many flying insects are active at night, when obtaining reliable visual information for flight control presents much more of a challenge. To assess whether nocturnal flying insects also rely on optic flow cues to control flight in dim light, we recorded flights of the nocturnal neotropical sweat bee, Megalopta genalis, flying along an experimental tunnel when: (i) the visual texture on each wall generated strong horizontal (front-to-back) optic flow cues, (ii) the texture on only one wall generated these cues, and (iii) horizontal optic flow cues were removed from both walls. We find that Megalopta increase their groundspeed when horizontal motion cues in the tunnel are reduced (conditions (ii) and (iii)). However, differences in the amount of horizontal optic flow on each wall of the tunnel (condition (ii)) do not affect the centred position of the bee within the flight tunnel. To better understand the behavioural response of Megalopta, we repeated the experiments on day-active bumble-bees (Bombus terrestris). Overall, our findings demonstrate that despite the limitations imposed by dim light, Megalopta—like their day-active relatives—rely heavily on vision to control flight, but that they use visual cues in a different manner from diurnal insects. PMID:21307047

  10. Nocturnal insects use optic flow for flight control.

    PubMed

    Baird, Emily; Kreiss, Eva; Wcislo, William; Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

    2011-08-23

    To avoid collisions when navigating through cluttered environments, flying insects must control their flight so that their sensory systems have time to detect obstacles and avoid them. To do this, day-active insects rely primarily on the pattern of apparent motion generated on the retina during flight (optic flow). However, many flying insects are active at night, when obtaining reliable visual information for flight control presents much more of a challenge. To assess whether nocturnal flying insects also rely on optic flow cues to control flight in dim light, we recorded flights of the nocturnal neotropical sweat bee, Megalopta genalis, flying along an experimental tunnel when: (i) the visual texture on each wall generated strong horizontal (front-to-back) optic flow cues, (ii) the texture on only one wall generated these cues, and (iii) horizontal optic flow cues were removed from both walls. We find that Megalopta increase their groundspeed when horizontal motion cues in the tunnel are reduced (conditions (ii) and (iii)). However, differences in the amount of horizontal optic flow on each wall of the tunnel (condition (ii)) do not affect the centred position of the bee within the flight tunnel. To better understand the behavioural response of Megalopta, we repeated the experiments on day-active bumble-bees (Bombus terrestris). Overall, our findings demonstrate that despite the limitations imposed by dim light, Megalopta-like their day-active relatives-rely heavily on vision to control flight, but that they use visual cues in a different manner from diurnal insects. This journal is © 2011 The Royal Society

  11. Controlled flight of a biologically inspired, insect-scale robot.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kevin Y; Chirarattananon, Pakpong; Fuller, Sawyer B; Wood, Robert J

    2013-05-03

    Flies are among the most agile flying creatures on Earth. To mimic this aerial prowess in a similarly sized robot requires tiny, high-efficiency mechanical components that pose miniaturization challenges governed by force-scaling laws, suggesting unconventional solutions for propulsion, actuation, and manufacturing. To this end, we developed high-power-density piezoelectric flight muscles and a manufacturing methodology capable of rapidly prototyping articulated, flexure-based sub-millimeter mechanisms. We built an 80-milligram, insect-scale, flapping-wing robot modeled loosely on the morphology of flies. Using a modular approach to flight control that relies on limited information about the robot's dynamics, we demonstrated tethered but unconstrained stable hovering and basic controlled flight maneuvers. The result validates a sufficient suite of innovations for achieving artificial, insect-like flight.

  12. Numerical study of insect free hovering flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Yeo, Khoon Seng; Lim, Tee Tai; Fluid lab, Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore Team

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we present the computational fluid dynamics study of three-dimensional flow field around a free hovering fruit fly integrated with unsteady FSI analysis and the adaptive flight control system for the first time. The FSI model being specified for fruitfly hovering is achieved by coupling a structural problem based on Newton's second law with a rigorous CFD solver concerning generalized finite difference method. In contrast to the previous hovering flight research, the wing motion employed here is not acquired from experimental data but governed by our proposed control systems. Two types of hovering control strategies i.e. stroke plane adjustment mode and paddling mode are explored, capable of generating the fixed body position and orientation characteristic of hovering flight. Hovering flight associated with multiple wing kinematics and body orientations are shown as well, indicating the means by which fruitfly actually maintains hovering may have considerable freedom and therefore might be influenced by many other factors beyond the physical and aerodynamic requirements. Additionally, both the near- and far-field flow and vortex structure agree well with the results from other researchers, demonstrating the reliability of our current model.

  13. Predicting fruit fly's sensing rate with insect flight simulations.

    PubMed

    Chang, Song; Wang, Z Jane

    2014-08-05

    Without sensory feedback, flies cannot fly. Exactly how various feedback controls work in insects is a complex puzzle to solve. What do insects measure to stabilize their flight? How often and how fast must insects adjust their wings to remain stable? To gain insights into algorithms used by insects to control their dynamic instability, we develop a simulation tool to study free flight. To stabilize flight, we construct a control algorithm that modulates wing motion based on discrete measurements of the body-pitch orientation. Our simulations give theoretical bounds on both the sensing rate and the delay time between sensing and actuation. Interpreting our findings together with experimental results on fruit flies' reaction time and sensory motor reflexes, we conjecture that fruit flies sense their kinematic states every wing beat to stabilize their flight. We further propose a candidate for such a control involving the fly's haltere and first basalar motor neuron. Although we focus on fruit flies as a case study, the framework for our simulation and discrete control algorithms is applicable to studies of both natural and man-made fliers.

  14. Active and passive stabilization of body pitch in insect flight

    PubMed Central

    Ristroph, Leif; Ristroph, Gunnar; Morozova, Svetlana; Bergou, Attila J.; Chang, Song; Guckenheimer, John; Wang, Z. Jane; Cohen, Itai

    2013-01-01

    Flying insects have evolved sophisticated sensory–motor systems, and here we argue that such systems are used to keep upright against intrinsic flight instabilities. We describe a theory that predicts the instability growth rate in body pitch from flapping-wing aerodynamics and reveals two ways of achieving balanced flight: active control with sufficiently rapid reactions and passive stabilization with high body drag. By glueing magnets to fruit flies and perturbing their flight using magnetic impulses, we show that these insects employ active control that is indeed fast relative to the instability. Moreover, we find that fruit flies with their control sensors disabled can keep upright if high-drag fibres are also attached to their bodies, an observation consistent with our prediction for the passive stability condition. Finally, we extend this framework to unify the control strategies used by hovering animals and also furnish criteria for achieving pitch stability in flapping-wing robots. PMID:23697713

  15. Estimating insect flight densities from attractive trap catches and flight height distributions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insect species often exhibit a specific mean flight height and vertical flight distribution that approximates a normal distribution with a characteristic standard deviation (SD). Many studies in the literature report catches on passive (non-attractive) traps at several heights. These catches were us...

  16. Design of a Computerised Flight Mill Device to Measure the Flight Potential of Different Insects

    PubMed Central

    Martí-Campoy, Antonio; Ávalos, Juan Antonio; Soto, Antonia; Rodríguez-Ballester, Francisco; Martínez-Blay, Victoria; Malumbres, Manuel Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Several insect species pose a serious threat to different plant species, sometimes becoming a pest that produces significant damage to the landscape, biodiversity, and/or the economy. This is the case of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), Semanotus laurasii Lucas (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), and Monochamus galloprovincialis Olivier (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), which have become serious threats to ornamental and productive trees all over the world such as palm trees, cypresses, and pines. Knowledge about their flight potential is very important for designing and applying measures targeted to reduce the negative effects from these pests. Studying the flight capability and behaviour of some insects is difficult due to their small size and the large area wherein they can fly, so we wondered how we could obtain information about their flight capabilities in a controlled environment. The answer came with the design of flight mills. Relevant data about the flight potential of these insects may be recorded and analysed by means of a flight mill. Once an insect is attached to the flight mill, it is able to fly in a circular direction without hitting walls or objects. By adding sensors to the flight mill, it is possible to record the number of revolutions and flight time. This paper presents a full description of a computer monitored flight mill. The description covers both the mechanical and the electronic parts in detail. The mill was designed to easily adapt to the anatomy of different insects and was successfully tested with individuals from three species R. ferrugineus, S. laurasii, and M. galloprovincialis. PMID:27070600

  17. Comparison of Visually Guided Flight in Insects and Birds.

    PubMed

    Altshuler, Douglas L; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2018-01-01

    Over the last half century, work with flies, bees, and moths have revealed a number of visual guidance strategies for controlling different aspects of flight. Some algorithms, such as the use of pattern velocity in forward flight, are employed by all insects studied so far, and are used to control multiple flight tasks such as regulation of speed, measurement of distance, and positioning through narrow passages. Although much attention has been devoted to long-range navigation and homing in birds, until recently, very little was known about how birds control flight in a moment-to-moment fashion. A bird that flies rapidly through dense foliage to land on a branch-as birds often do-engages in a veritable three-dimensional slalom, in which it has to continually dodge branches and leaves, and find, and possibly even plan a collision-free path to the goal in real time. Each mode of flight from take-off to goal could potentially involve a different visual guidance algorithm. Here, we briefly review strategies for visual guidance of flight in insects, synthesize recent work from short-range visual guidance in birds, and offer a general comparison between the two groups of organisms.

  18. How Insects Initiate Flight: Computational Analysis of a Damselfly in Takeoff Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bode-Oke, Ayodeji; Zeyghami, Samane; Dong, Haibo; Flow Simulation Research Group Team

    2017-11-01

    Flight initiation is essential for survival in biological fliers and can be classified into jumping and non-jumping takeoffs. During jumping takeoffs, the legs generate most of the initial impulse. Whereas the wings generate most of the forces in non-jumping takeoffs, which are usually voluntary, slow, and stable. It is of interest to understand how non-jumping takeoffs occur and what strategies insects use to generate the required forces. Using a high fidelity computational fluid dynamics simulation, we identify the flow features and compute the wing aerodynamic forces to elucidate how flight forces are generated by a damselfly performing a non-jumping takeoff. Our results show that a damselfly generates about three times its bodyweight during the first half-stroke for liftoff while flapping through a steeply inclined stroke plane and slicing the air at high angles of attack. Consequently, a Leading Edge Vortex (LEV) is formed during both the downstroke and upstroke on all the four wings. The formation of the LEV, however, is inhibited in the subsequent upstrokes following takeoff. Accordingly, we observe a drastic reduction in the magnitude of the aerodynamic force, signifying the importance of LEV in augmenting force production. This work was supported by National Science Foundation [CBET-1313217] and Air Force Research Laboratory [FA9550-12-1-007].

  19. Dipteran insect flight dynamics. Part 1 Longitudinal motion about hover.

    PubMed

    Faruque, Imraan; Sean Humbert, J

    2010-05-21

    This paper presents a reduced-order model of longitudinal hovering flight dynamics for dipteran insects. The quasi-steady wing aerodynamics model is extended by including perturbation states from equilibrium and paired with rigid body equations of motion to create a nonlinear simulation of a Drosophila-like insect. Frequency-based system identification tools are used to identify the transfer functions from biologically inspired control inputs to rigid body states. Stability derivatives and a state space linear system describing the dynamics are also identified. The vehicle control requirements are quantified with respect to traditional human pilot handling qualities specification. The heave dynamics are found to be decoupled from the pitch/fore/aft dynamics. The haltere-on system revealed a stabilized system with a slow (heave) and fast subsidence mode, and a stable oscillatory mode. The haltere-off (bare airframe) system revealed a slow (heave) and fast subsidence mode and an unstable oscillatory mode, a modal structure in agreement with CFD studies. The analysis indicates that passive aerodynamic mechanisms contribute to stability, which may help explain how insects are able to achieve stable locomotion on a very small computational budget. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Details of insect wing design and deformation enhance aerodynamic function and flight efficiency.

    PubMed

    Young, John; Walker, Simon M; Bomphrey, Richard J; Taylor, Graham K; Thomas, Adrian L R

    2009-09-18

    Insect wings are complex structures that deform dramatically in flight. We analyzed the aerodynamic consequences of wing deformation in locusts using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation based on detailed wing kinematics. We validated the simulation against smoke visualizations and digital particle image velocimetry on real locusts. We then used the validated model to explore the effects of wing topography and deformation, first by removing camber while keeping the same time-varying twist distribution, and second by removing camber and spanwise twist. The full-fidelity model achieved greater power economy than the uncambered model, which performed better than the untwisted model, showing that the details of insect wing topography and deformation are important aerodynamically. Such details are likely to be important in engineering applications of flapping flight.

  1. The Aerodynamics of Hovering Insect Flight. III. Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellington, C. P.

    1984-02-01

    Insects in free flight were filmed at 5000 frames per second to determine the motion of their wings and bodies. General comments are offered on flight behaviour and manoeuvrability. Changes in the tilt of the stroke plane with respect to the horizontal provides kinematic control of manoeuvres, analogous to the type of control used for helicopters. A projection analysis technique is described that solves for the orientation of the animal with respect to a camera-based coordinate system, giving full kinematic details for the longitudinal wing and body axes from single-view films. The technique can be applied to all types of flight where the wing motions are bilaterally symmetrical: forward, backward and hovering flight, as well as properly banked turns. An analysis of the errors of the technique is presented, and shows that the reconstructed angles for wing position should be accurate to within 1-2^circ in general. Although measurement of the angles of attack was not possible, visual estimations are given. Only 11 film sequences show flight velocities and accelerations that are small enough for the flight to be considered as `hovering'. Two sequences are presented for a hover-fly using an inclined stroke plane, and nine sequences of hovering with a horizontal stroke plane by another hover-fly, two crane-flies, a drone-fly, a ladybird beetle, a honey bee, and two bumble bees. In general, oscillations in the body position from its mean motion are within measurement error, about 1-2% of the wing length. The amplitudes of oscillation for the body angle are only a few degrees, but the phase relation of this oscillation to the wingbeat cycle could be determined for a few sequences. The phase indicates that the pitching moments governing the oscillations result from the wing lift at the ends of the wingbeat, and not from the wing drag or inertial forces. The mean pitching moment of the wings, which determines the mean body angle, is controlled by shifting the centre of lift

  2. Temporal Statistics of Natural Image Sequences Generated by Movements with Insect Flight Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Schwegmann, Alexander; Lindemann, Jens Peter; Egelhaaf, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Many flying insects, such as flies, wasps and bees, pursue a saccadic flight and gaze strategy. This behavioral strategy is thought to separate the translational and rotational components of self-motion and, thereby, to reduce the computational efforts to extract information about the environment from the retinal image flow. Because of the distinguishing dynamic features of this active flight and gaze strategy of insects, the present study analyzes systematically the spatiotemporal statistics of image sequences generated during saccades and intersaccadic intervals in cluttered natural environments. We show that, in general, rotational movements with saccade-like dynamics elicit fluctuations and overall changes in brightness, contrast and spatial frequency of up to two orders of magnitude larger than translational movements at velocities that are characteristic of insects. Distinct changes in image parameters during translations are only caused by nearby objects. Image analysis based on larger patches in the visual field reveals smaller fluctuations in brightness and spatial frequency composition compared to small patches. The temporal structure and extent of these changes in image parameters define the temporal constraints imposed on signal processing performed by the insect visual system under behavioral conditions in natural environments. PMID:25340761

  3. Flight behavior and performance of Rhodnius pallescens (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) on a tethered flight mill.

    PubMed

    Castro, Lauren A; Peterson, Jennifer K; Saldana, Azael; Perea, Milixa Y; Calzada, Jose E; Pineda, Vanessa; Dobson, Andrew P; Gottdenker, Nicole L

    2014-09-01

    ABSTRACT Flight dispersal of the triatomine bug species Rhodnius pallescens Barber, the principal vector of Chagas disease in Panama, is an important mechanism for spreading Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease. This study measures R. pallescens flight performance using a tethered flight mill both when uninfected, and when infected with T. cruzi or Trypanosoma rangeli. Forty-four out of the 48 (91.7%) insects initiated flight across all treatments, and trypanosome infection did not significantly impact flight initiation. Insects from all treatments flew a cumulative distance ranging from 0.5 to 5 km before fatiguing. The median cumulative distance flown before insect fatigue was higher in T. cruzi- and T. rangeli-infected insects than in control insects; however, this difference was not statistically significant. There was a positive relationship between parasite load ingested and time until flight initiation in T. rangeli-infected bugs, and T. rangeli- and T. cruzi-infected females flew significantly faster than males at different time points. These novel findings allow for a better understanding of R. pallescens dispersal ability and peridomestic management strategies for the prevention of Chagas disease in Panama.

  4. Flight Testing Surfaces Engineered for Mitigating Insect Adhesion on a Falcon HU-25C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanahan, Michelle; Wohl, Chris J.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Connell, John W.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Doss, Jereme R.; Penner, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    Insect residue contamination on aircraft wings can decrease fuel efficiency in aircraft designed for natural laminar flow. Insect residues can cause a premature transition to turbulent flow, increasing fuel burn and making the aircraft less environmentally friendly. Surfaces, designed to minimize insect residue adhesion, were evaluated through flight testing on a Falcon HU-25C aircraft flown along the coast of Virginia and North Carolina. The surfaces were affixed to the wing leading edge and the aircraft remained at altitudes lower than 1000 feet throughout the flight to assure high insect density. The number of strikes on the engineered surfaces was compared to, and found to be lower than, untreated aluminum control surfaces flown concurrently. Optical profilometry was used to determine insect residue height and areal coverage. Differences in results between flight and laboratory tests suggest the importance of testing in realistic use environments to evaluate the effectiveness of engineered surface designs.

  5. Positive and relaxed selection associated with flight evolution and loss in insect transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    Mitterboeck, T. Fatima; Liu, Shanlin; Adamowicz, Sarah J.; Fu, Jinzhong; Zhang, Rui; Song, Wenhui; Meusemann, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The evolution of powered flight is a major innovation that has facilitated the success of insects. Previously, studies of birds, bats, and insects have detected molecular signatures of differing selection regimes in energy-related genes associated with flight evolution and/or loss. Here, using DNA sequences from more than 1000 nuclear and mitochondrial protein-coding genes obtained from insect transcriptomes, we conduct a broader exploration of which gene categories display positive and relaxed selection at the origin of flight as well as with multiple independent losses of flight. We detected a number of categories of nuclear genes more often under positive selection in the lineage leading to the winged insects (Pterygota), related to catabolic processes such as proteases, as well as splicing-related genes. Flight loss was associated with relaxed selection signatures in splicing genes, mirroring the results for flight evolution. Similar to previous studies of flight loss in various animal taxa, we observed consistently higher nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitution ratios in mitochondrial genes of flightless lineages, indicative of relaxed selection in energy-related genes. While oxidative phosphorylation genes were not detected as being under selection with the origin of flight specifically, they were most often detected as being under positive selection in holometabolous (complete metamorphosis) insects as compared with other insect lineages. This study supports some convergence in gene-specific selection pressures associated with flight ability, and the exploratory analysis provided some new insights into gene categories potentially associated with the gain and loss of flight in insects. PMID:29020740

  6. Positive and relaxed selection associated with flight evolution and loss in insect transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Mitterboeck, T Fatima; Liu, Shanlin; Adamowicz, Sarah J; Fu, Jinzhong; Zhang, Rui; Song, Wenhui; Meusemann, Karen; Zhou, Xin

    2017-10-01

    The evolution of powered flight is a major innovation that has facilitated the success of insects. Previously, studies of birds, bats, and insects have detected molecular signatures of differing selection regimes in energy-related genes associated with flight evolution and/or loss. Here, using DNA sequences from more than 1000 nuclear and mitochondrial protein-coding genes obtained from insect transcriptomes, we conduct a broader exploration of which gene categories display positive and relaxed selection at the origin of flight as well as with multiple independent losses of flight. We detected a number of categories of nuclear genes more often under positive selection in the lineage leading to the winged insects (Pterygota), related to catabolic processes such as proteases, as well as splicing-related genes. Flight loss was associated with relaxed selection signatures in splicing genes, mirroring the results for flight evolution. Similar to previous studies of flight loss in various animal taxa, we observed consistently higher nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitution ratios in mitochondrial genes of flightless lineages, indicative of relaxed selection in energy-related genes. While oxidative phosphorylation genes were not detected as being under selection with the origin of flight specifically, they were most often detected as being under positive selection in holometabolous (complete metamorphosis) insects as compared with other insect lineages. This study supports some convergence in gene-specific selection pressures associated with flight ability, and the exploratory analysis provided some new insights into gene categories potentially associated with the gain and loss of flight in insects. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Colors of attraction: Modeling insect flight to light behavior.

    PubMed

    Donners, Maurice; van Grunsven, Roy H A; Groenendijk, Dick; van Langevelde, Frank; Bikker, Jan Willem; Longcore, Travis; Veenendaal, Elmar

    2018-06-26

    Light sources attract nocturnal flying insects, but some lamps attract more insects than others. The relation between the properties of a light source and the number of attracted insects is, however, poorly understood. We developed a model to quantify the attractiveness of light sources based on the spectral output. This model is fitted using data from field experiments that compare a large number of different light sources. We validated this model using two additional datasets, one for all insects and one excluding the numerous Diptera. Our model facilitates the development and application of light sources that attract fewer insects without the need for extensive field tests and it can be used to correct for spectral composition when formulating hypotheses on the ecological impact of artificial light. In addition, we present a tool allowing the conversion of the spectral output of light sources to their relative insect attraction based on this model. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The effect of morphologically representative corrugation on hovering insect flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feaster, Jeffrey; Battaglia, Francine; Bayandor, Javid

    2017-11-01

    The present work explores the influence of morphologically representative wing corrugation in three-dimensional symmetric hovering. The kinematics are applied to a processed μCT scan of a Bombus pensylvanicus and compared with a wing utilizing the same planform but a flat, rectangular cross-section. The Bombus pensylvanicus wing used in the present study was captured in Virginia, killed with Ethyl acetate dying with wings extended with the fore and hind wings connected by the wing humuli. The aerodynamics resulting from geometric differences between the true wing and flat plate are quantified using CL and CD, and qualified using slices of vorticity and pressure. Three-dimensional flow structures are visualized using vorticity magnitude and streamlines. The present analysis is to begin to determine and understand the effects of insect wing venation on aerodynamic performance and further, to better understand the effects of assuming a simplified cross-sectional geometry.

  9. Pilot Fullerton examines SE-81-8 Insect Flight Motion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Pilot Fullerton examines Student Experiment 81-8 (SE-81-8) Insect Flight Motion Study taped to the airlock on aft middeck. Todd Nelson, a high school senior from Minnesota, won a national contest to fly his experiment on this particular flight. Moths, flies, and bees were studied in the near weightless environment.

  10. A computational study on the influence of insect wing geometry on bee flight mechanics.

    PubMed

    Feaster, Jeffrey; Battaglia, Francine; Bayandor, Javid

    2017-12-15

    Two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is applied to better understand the effects of wing cross-sectional morphology on flow field and force production. This study investigates the influence of wing cross-section on insect scale flapping flight performance, for the first time, using a morphologically representative model of a bee ( Bombus pensylvanicus ) wing. The bee wing cross-section was determined using a micro-computed tomography scanner. The results of the bee wing are compared with flat and elliptical cross-sections, representative of those used in modern literature, to determine the impact of profile variation on aerodynamic performance. The flow field surrounding each cross-section and the resulting forces are resolved using CFD for a flight speed range of 1 to 5 m/s. A significant variation in vortex formation is found when comparing the ellipse and flat plate with the true bee wing. During the upstroke, the bee and approximate wing cross-sections have a much shorter wake structure than the flat plate or ellipse. During the downstroke, the flat plate and elliptical cross-sections generate a single leading edge vortex, while the approximate and bee wings generate numerous, smaller structures that are shed throughout the stroke. Comparing the instantaneous aerodynamic forces on the wing, the ellipse and flat plate sections deviate progressively with velocity from the true bee wing. Based on the present findings, a simplified cross-section of an insect wing can misrepresent the flow field and force production. We present the first aerodynamic study using a true insect wing cross-section and show that the wing corrugation increases the leading edge vortex formation frequency for a given set of kinematics. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. A computational study on the influence of insect wing geometry on bee flight mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Feaster, Jeffrey; Bayandor, Javid

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is applied to better understand the effects of wing cross-sectional morphology on flow field and force production. This study investigates the influence of wing cross-section on insect scale flapping flight performance, for the first time, using a morphologically representative model of a bee (Bombus pensylvanicus) wing. The bee wing cross-section was determined using a micro-computed tomography scanner. The results of the bee wing are compared with flat and elliptical cross-sections, representative of those used in modern literature, to determine the impact of profile variation on aerodynamic performance. The flow field surrounding each cross-section and the resulting forces are resolved using CFD for a flight speed range of 1 to 5 m/s. A significant variation in vortex formation is found when comparing the ellipse and flat plate with the true bee wing. During the upstroke, the bee and approximate wing cross-sections have a much shorter wake structure than the flat plate or ellipse. During the downstroke, the flat plate and elliptical cross-sections generate a single leading edge vortex, while the approximate and bee wings generate numerous, smaller structures that are shed throughout the stroke. Comparing the instantaneous aerodynamic forces on the wing, the ellipse and flat plate sections deviate progressively with velocity from the true bee wing. Based on the present findings, a simplified cross-section of an insect wing can misrepresent the flow field and force production. We present the first aerodynamic study using a true insect wing cross-section and show that the wing corrugation increases the leading edge vortex formation frequency for a given set of kinematics. PMID:29061734

  12. Identification of optimal feedback control rules from micro-quadrotor and insect flight trajectories.

    PubMed

    Faruque, Imraan A; Muijres, Florian T; Macfarlane, Kenneth M; Kehlenbeck, Andrew; Humbert, J Sean

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents "optimal identification," a framework for using experimental data to identify the optimality conditions associated with the feedback control law implemented in the measurements. The technique compares closed loop trajectory measurements against a reduced order model of the open loop dynamics, and uses linear matrix inequalities to solve an inverse optimal control problem as a convex optimization that estimates the controller optimality conditions. In this study, the optimal identification technique is applied to two examples, that of a millimeter-scale micro-quadrotor with an engineered controller on board, and the example of a population of freely flying Drosophila hydei maneuvering about forward flight. The micro-quadrotor results show that the performance indices used to design an optimal flight control law for a micro-quadrotor may be recovered from the closed loop simulated flight trajectories, and the Drosophila results indicate that the combined effect of the insect longitudinal flight control sensing and feedback acts principally to regulate pitch rate.

  13. NSTA-NASA Shuttle Student Involvement Project. Experiment Results: Insect Flight Observation at Zero Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, T. E.; Peterson, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The flight responses of common houseflies, velvetbean caterpillar moths, and worker honeybees were observed and filmed for a period of about 25 minutes in a zero-g environment during the third flight of the Space Shuttle Vehicle (flight number STS-3; March 22-30, 1982). Twelve fly puparia, 24 adult moths, 24 moth pupae, and 14 adult bees were loaded into an insect flight box, which was then stowed aboard the Shuttle Orbiter, the night before the STS-3 launch at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The main purpose of the experiment was to observe and compare the flight responses of the three species of insects, which have somewhat different flight control mechanisms, under zero-g conditions.

  14. Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Diffraction Techniques Applied to Insect Flight Muscle.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Hiroyuki

    2018-06-13

    X-ray fiber diffraction is a powerful tool used for investigating the molecular structure of muscle and its dynamics during contraction. This technique has been successfully applied not only to skeletal and cardiac muscles of vertebrates but also to insect flight muscle. Generally, insect flight muscle has a highly ordered structure and is often capable of high-frequency oscillations. The X-ray diffraction studies on muscle have been accelerated by the advent of 3rd-generation synchrotron radiation facilities, which can generate brilliant and highly oriented X-ray beams. This review focuses on some of the novel experiments done on insect flight muscle by using synchrotron radiation X-rays. These include diffraction recordings from single myofibrils within a flight muscle fiber by using X-ray microbeams and high-speed diffraction recordings from the flight muscle during the wing-beat of live insects. These experiments have provided information about the molecular structure and dynamic function of flight muscle in unprecedented detail. Future directions of X-ray diffraction studies on muscle are also discussed.

  15. Pilot Fullerton examines SE-81-8 Insect Flight Motion Study

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1982-03-30

    STS003-23-178 (22-30 March 1982) --- Astronaut C. Gordon Fullerton, STS-3 pilot, examines Student Experiment 81-8 (SE-81-8) Insect Flight Motion Study taped to the airlock on aft middeck. Todd Nelson, a high school senior from Minnesota, won a national contest to fly his experiment on this particular flight. Moths, flies, and bees were studied in the near weightless environment. Photo credit: NASA

  16. Orion Flight Performance Design Trades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Mark C.; Straube, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    A significant portion of the Orion pre-PDR design effort has focused on balancing mass with performance. High level performance metrics include abort success rates, lunar surface coverage, landing accuracy and touchdown loads. These metrics may be converted to parameters that affect mass, such as ballast for stabilizing the abort vehicle, propellant to achieve increased lunar coverage or extended missions, or ballast to increase the lift-to-drag ratio to improve entry and landing performance. The Orion Flight Dynamics team was tasked to perform analyses to evaluate many of these trades. These analyses not only provide insight into the physics of each particular trade but, in aggregate, they illustrate the processes used by Orion to balance performance and mass margins, and thereby make design decisions. Lessons learned can be gleaned from a review of these studies which will be useful to other spacecraft system designers. These lessons fall into several categories, including: appropriate application of Monte Carlo analysis in design trades, managing margin in a highly mass-constrained environment, and the use of requirements to balance margin between subsystems and components. This paper provides a review of some of the trades and analyses conducted by the Flight Dynamics team, as well as systems engineering lessons learned.

  17. An aerodynamic model for insect flapping wings in forward flight.

    PubMed

    Han, Jong-Seob; Chang, Jo Won; Han, Jae-Hung

    2017-03-31

    This paper proposes a semi-empirical quasi-steady aerodynamic model of a flapping wing in forward flight. A total of 147 individual cases, which consisted of advance ratios J of 0 (hovering), 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1 and  ∞, and angles of attack α of  -5 to 95° at intervals of 5°, were examined to extract the aerodynamic coefficients. The Polhamus leading-edge suction analogy and power functions were then employed to establish the aerodynamic model. In order to preserve the existing level of simplicity, K P and K V , the correction factors of the potential and vortex force models, were rebuilt as functions of J and α. The estimations were nearly identical to direct force/moment measurements which were obtained from both artificial and practical wingbeat motions of a hawkmoth. The model effectively compensated for the influences of J, particularly showing outstanding moment estimation capabilities. With this model, we found that using a lower value of α during the downstroke would be an effective strategy for generating adequate lift in forward flight. The rotational force and moment components had noticeable portions generating both thrust and counteract pitching moment during pronation. In the upstroke phase, the added mass component played a major role in generating thrust in forward flight. The proposed model would be useful for a better understanding of flight stability, control, and the dynamic characteristics of flapping wing flyers, and for designing flapping-wing micro air vehicles.

  18. Analysis of vertical distributions and effective flight layers of insects: three-dimensional simulation of flying insects and catch at trap heights

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mean height and standard deviation (SD) of flight is calculated for over 100 insect species from their catches on trap heights reported in the literature. The iterative equations for calculating mean height and SD are presented. The mean flight height for 95% of the studies varied from 0.17 to 5...

  19. Neuromechanism study of insect-machine interface: flight control by neural electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huixia; Zheng, Nenggan; Ribi, Willi A; Zheng, Huoqing; Xue, Lei; Gong, Fan; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Hu, Fuliang

    2014-01-01

    The insect-machine interface (IMI) is a novel approach developed for man-made air vehicles, which directly controls insect flight by either neuromuscular or neural stimulation. In our previous study of IMI, we induced flight initiation and cessation reproducibly in restrained honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) via electrical stimulation of the bilateral optic lobes. To explore the neuromechanism underlying IMI, we applied electrical stimulation to seven subregions of the honeybee brain with the aid of a new method for localizing brain regions. Results showed that the success rate for initiating honeybee flight decreased in the order: α-lobe (or β-lobe), ellipsoid body, lobula, medulla and antennal lobe. Based on a comparison with other neurobiological studies in honeybees, we propose that there is a cluster of descending neurons in the honeybee brain that transmits neural excitation from stimulated brain areas to the thoracic ganglia, leading to flight behavior. This neural circuit may involve the higher-order integration center, the primary visual processing center and the suboesophageal ganglion, which is also associated with a possible learning and memory pathway. By pharmacologically manipulating the electrically stimulated honeybee brain, we have shown that octopamine, rather than dopamine, serotonin and acetylcholine, plays a part in the circuit underlying electrically elicited honeybee flight. Our study presents a new brain stimulation protocol for the honeybee-machine interface and has solved one of the questions with regard to understanding which functional divisions of the insect brain participate in flight control. It will support further studies to uncover the involved neurons inside specific brain areas and to test the hypothesized involvement of a visual learning and memory pathway in IMI flight control.

  20. Insect gravitational biology: ground-based and shuttle flight experiments using the beetle Tribolium castaneum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, R. L.; Abbott, M. K.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Many of the traditional experimental advantages of insects recommend their use in studies of gravitational and space biology. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is an obvious choice for studies of the developmental significance of gravity vectors because of the unparalleled description of regulatory mechanisms controlling oogenesis and embryogenesis. However, we demonstrate that Drosophila could not survive the conditions mandated for particular flight opportunities on the Space Shuttle. With the exception of Drosophila, the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is the insect best characterized with respect to molecular embryology and most frequently utilized for past space flights. We show that Tribolium is dramatically more resistant to confinement in small sealed volumes. In preparation for flight experiments we characterize the course and timing of the onset of oogenesis in newly eclosed adult females. Finally, we present results from two shuttle flights which indicate that a number of aspects of the development and function of the female reproductive system are not demonstrably sensitive to microgravity. Available information supports the utility of this insect for future studies of gravitational biology.

  1. History dependence in insect flight decisions during odor tracking.

    PubMed

    Pang, Rich; van Breugel, Floris; Dickinson, Michael; Riffell, Jeffrey A; Fairhall, Adrienne

    2018-02-01

    Natural decision-making often involves extended decision sequences in response to variable stimuli with complex structure. As an example, many animals follow odor plumes to locate food sources or mates, but turbulence breaks up the advected odor signal into intermittent filaments and puffs. This scenario provides an opportunity to ask how animals use sparse, instantaneous, and stochastic signal encounters to generate goal-oriented behavioral sequences. Here we examined the trajectories of flying fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) navigating in controlled plumes of attractive odorants. While it is known that mean odor-triggered flight responses are dominated by upwind turns, individual responses are highly variable. We asked whether deviations from mean responses depended on specific features of odor encounters, and found that odor-triggered turns were slightly but significantly modulated by two features of odor encounters. First, encounters with higher concentrations triggered stronger upwind turns. Second, encounters occurring later in a sequence triggered weaker upwind turns. To contextualize the latter history dependence theoretically, we examined trajectories simulated from three normative tracking strategies. We found that neither a purely reactive strategy nor a strategy in which the tracker learned the plume centerline over time captured the observed history dependence. In contrast, "infotaxis", in which flight decisions maximized expected information gain about source location, exhibited a history dependence aligned in sign with the data, though much larger in magnitude. These findings suggest that while true plume tracking is dominated by a reactive odor response it might also involve a history-dependent modulation of responses consistent with the accumulation of information about a source over multi-encounter timescales. This suggests that short-term memory processes modulating decision sequences may play a role in

  2. History dependence in insect flight decisions during odor tracking

    PubMed Central

    van Breugel, Floris; Dickinson, Michael; Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Fairhall, Adrienne

    2018-01-01

    Natural decision-making often involves extended decision sequences in response to variable stimuli with complex structure. As an example, many animals follow odor plumes to locate food sources or mates, but turbulence breaks up the advected odor signal into intermittent filaments and puffs. This scenario provides an opportunity to ask how animals use sparse, instantaneous, and stochastic signal encounters to generate goal-oriented behavioral sequences. Here we examined the trajectories of flying fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti) navigating in controlled plumes of attractive odorants. While it is known that mean odor-triggered flight responses are dominated by upwind turns, individual responses are highly variable. We asked whether deviations from mean responses depended on specific features of odor encounters, and found that odor-triggered turns were slightly but significantly modulated by two features of odor encounters. First, encounters with higher concentrations triggered stronger upwind turns. Second, encounters occurring later in a sequence triggered weaker upwind turns. To contextualize the latter history dependence theoretically, we examined trajectories simulated from three normative tracking strategies. We found that neither a purely reactive strategy nor a strategy in which the tracker learned the plume centerline over time captured the observed history dependence. In contrast, “infotaxis”, in which flight decisions maximized expected information gain about source location, exhibited a history dependence aligned in sign with the data, though much larger in magnitude. These findings suggest that while true plume tracking is dominated by a reactive odor response it might also involve a history-dependent modulation of responses consistent with the accumulation of information about a source over multi-encounter timescales. This suggests that short-term memory processes modulating decision sequences may play a role in

  3. Greased Lightning (GL-10) Performance Flight Research: Flight Data Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McSwain, Robert G.; Glaab, Louis J.; Theodore, Colin R.; Rhew, Ray D. (Editor); North, David D. (Editor)

    2017-01-01

    Modern aircraft design methods have produced acceptable designs for large conventional aircraft performance. With revolutionary electronic propulsion technologies fueled by the growth in the small UAS (Unmanned Aerial Systems) industry, these same prediction models are being applied to new smaller, and experimental design concepts requiring a VTOL (Vertical Take Off and Landing) capability for ODM (On Demand Mobility). A 50% sub-scale GL-10 flight model was built and tested to demonstrate the transition from hover to forward flight utilizing DEP (Distributed Electric Propulsion)[1][2]. In 2016 plans were put in place to conduct performance flight testing on the 50% sub-scale GL-10 flight model to support a NASA project called DELIVER (Design Environment for Novel Vertical Lift Vehicles). DELIVER was investigating the feasibility of including smaller and more experimental aircraft configurations into a NASA design tool called NDARC (NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft)[3]. This report covers the performance flight data collected during flight testing of the GL-10 50% sub-scale flight model conducted at Beaver Dam Airpark, VA. Overall the flight test data provides great insight into how well our existing conceptual design tools predict the performance of small scale experimental DEP concepts. Low fidelity conceptual design tools estimated the (L/D)( sub max)of the GL-10 50% sub-scale flight model to be 16. Experimentally measured (L/D)( sub max) for the GL-10 50% scale flight model was 7.2. The aerodynamic performance predicted versus measured highlights the complexity of wing and nacelle interactions which is not currently accounted for in existing low fidelity tools.

  4. Optimal strategies for insects migrating in the flight boundary layer: mechanisms and consequences.

    PubMed

    Srygley, Robert B; Dudley, Robert

    2008-07-01

    Directed aerial displacement requires that a volant organism's airspeed exceeds ambient wind speed. For biologically relevant altitudes, wind speed increases exponentially with increased height above the ground. Thus, dispersal of most insects is influenced by atmospheric conditions. However, insects that fly close to the Earth's surface displace within the flight boundary layer where insect airspeeds are relatively high. Over the past 17 years, we have studied boundary-layer insects by following individuals as they migrate across the Caribbean Sea and the Panama Canal. Although most migrants evade either drought or cold, nymphalid and pierid butterflies migrate across Panama near the onset of the rainy season. Dragonflies of the genus Pantala migrate in October concurrently with frontal weather systems. Migrating the furthest and thereby being the most difficult to study, the diurnal moth Urania fulgens migrates between Central and South America. Migratory butterflies and dragonflies are capable of directed movement towards a preferred compass direction in variable winds, whereas the moths drift with winds over water. Butterflies orient using both global and local cues. Consistent with optimal migration theory, butterflies and dragonflies adjust their flight speeds in ways that maximize migratory distance traveled per unit fuel, whereas the moths do not. Moreover, only butterflies adjust their flight speed in relation to endogenous fat reserves. It is likely that these insects use optic flow to gauge their speed and drift, and thus must migrate where sufficient detail in the Earth's surface is visible to them. The abilities of butterflies and dragonflies to adjust their airspeed over water indicate sophisticated control and guidance systems pertaining to migration.

  5. A radar study of emigratory flight and layer formation by insects at dawn over southern Britain.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, D R; Smith, A D; Chapman, J W

    2008-02-01

    Radar observations have consistently shown that high-altitude migratory flight in insects generally occurs after mass take-off at dusk or after take-off over a more extended period during the day (in association with the growth of atmospheric convection). In this paper, we focus on a less-studied third category of emigration - the 'dawn take-off' - as recorded by insect-monitoring radars during the summer months in southern England. In particular, we describe occasions when dawn emigrants formed notable layer concentrations centred at altitudes ranging from ca. 240 m to 700 m above ground, very probably due to the insects responding to local temperature maxima in the atmosphere, such as the tops of inversions. After persisting for several hours through the early morning, the layers eventually merged into the insect activity building up later in the morning (from 06.00-08.00 h onwards) in conjunction with the development of daytime convection. The species forming the dawn layers have not been positively identified, but their masses lay predominantly in the 16-32 mg range, and they evidently formed a fauna quite distinct from that in flight during the previous night. The displacement and common orientation (mutual alignment) characteristics of the migrants are described.

  6. Flight performance of Macdunnoughia crassisigna (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Fu, X-W; Chang, H; He, L-M; Zhao, S-Y; Wu, K-M

    2017-12-01

    Macdunnoughia crassisigna Warren (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a highly destructive herbivore that poses a serious risk to cotton, maize, soybean, and cruciferous vegetables in East Asia. Examining the effects of various biotic and abiotic factors on the flight performance of M. crassisigna is crucial for a better understanding of its trans-regional migration. In this study, the flight activity of M. crassisignai moths of different ages, under different temperatures and relative humidity (RH) levels, was evaluated by tethering individuals to computerized flight mills for a 24-h trial period. The results showed that M. crassisignai had the capacity for sustained flight and the flight ability was strongest in 3-day-old individuals, and then their flight performance decreased significantly in older moths. For both sexes, temperature had a significant effect on their flight performance, and the flight activity was relatively higher at 24-28°C than other temperatures. There was a significant effect of RH on all flight parameters of the tested moths, and the flight activity was relatively higher at RH of 60-75% than other RH levels. For 3-day-old moths under the optimum conditions (24°C and 75% RH) throughout the 24 h scotophase, their mean flight distance reached 66 km, and the mean flight duration reached 13.5 h, suggesting M. crassisigna possess strong potential to undertake long-distance migration. These findings will be helpful for developing sound forecasting systems of this pest species.

  7. Insect cyborgs: a new frontier in flight control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reissman, Timothy; Crawford, Jackie H.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2007-04-01

    The development of a micro-UAV via a cybernetic organism, primarily the Manduca sexta moth, is presented. An observer to gather output data of the system response of the moth is given by means of an image following system. The visual tracking was implemented to gather the required information about the time history of the moth's six degrees of freedom. This was performed with three cameras tracking a white line as a marker on the moth's thorax to maximize contrast between the moth and the marker. Evaluation of the implemented six degree of freedom visual tracking system finds precision greater than 0.1 mm within three standard deviations and accuracy on the order of 1 mm. Acoustic and visual response systems are presented to lay the groundwork for creating a stochastic response catalog of the organisms to varied stimuli.

  8. Aerodynamics, sensing and control of insect-scale flapping-wing flight.

    PubMed

    Shyy, Wei; Kang, Chang-Kwon; Chirarattananon, Pakpong; Ravi, Sridhar; Liu, Hao

    2016-02-01

    There are nearly a million known species of flying insects and 13 000 species of flying warm-blooded vertebrates, including mammals, birds and bats. While in flight, their wings not only move forward relative to the air, they also flap up and down, plunge and sweep, so that both lift and thrust can be generated and balanced, accommodate uncertain surrounding environment, with superior flight stability and dynamics with highly varied speeds and missions. As the size of a flyer is reduced, the wing-to-body mass ratio tends to decrease as well. Furthermore, these flyers use integrated system consisting of wings to generate aerodynamic forces, muscles to move the wings, and sensing and control systems to guide and manoeuvre. In this article, recent advances in insect-scale flapping-wing aerodynamics, flexible wing structures, unsteady flight environment, sensing, stability and control are reviewed with perspective offered. In particular, the special features of the low Reynolds number flyers associated with small sizes, thin and light structures, slow flight with comparable wind gust speeds, bioinspired fabrication of wing structures, neuron-based sensing and adaptive control are highlighted.

  9. Aerodynamics, sensing and control of insect-scale flapping-wing flight

    PubMed Central

    Shyy, Wei; Kang, Chang-kwon; Chirarattananon, Pakpong; Ravi, Sridhar; Liu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    There are nearly a million known species of flying insects and 13 000 species of flying warm-blooded vertebrates, including mammals, birds and bats. While in flight, their wings not only move forward relative to the air, they also flap up and down, plunge and sweep, so that both lift and thrust can be generated and balanced, accommodate uncertain surrounding environment, with superior flight stability and dynamics with highly varied speeds and missions. As the size of a flyer is reduced, the wing-to-body mass ratio tends to decrease as well. Furthermore, these flyers use integrated system consisting of wings to generate aerodynamic forces, muscles to move the wings, and sensing and control systems to guide and manoeuvre. In this article, recent advances in insect-scale flapping-wing aerodynamics, flexible wing structures, unsteady flight environment, sensing, stability and control are reviewed with perspective offered. In particular, the special features of the low Reynolds number flyers associated with small sizes, thin and light structures, slow flight with comparable wind gust speeds, bioinspired fabrication of wing structures, neuron-based sensing and adaptive control are highlighted. PMID:27118897

  10. Centripetal Acceleration Reaction: An Effective and Robust Mechanism for Flapping Flight in Insects

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Hedrick, Tyson L.; Mittal, Rajat

    2015-01-01

    Despite intense study by physicists and biologists, we do not fully understand the unsteady aerodynamics that relate insect wing morphology and kinematics to lift generation. Here, we formulate a force partitioning method (FPM) and implement it within a computational fluid dynamic model to provide an unambiguous and physically insightful division of aerodynamic force into components associated with wing kinematics, vorticity, and viscosity. Application of the FPM to hawkmoth and fruit fly flight shows that the leading-edge vortex is the dominant mechanism for lift generation for both these insects and contributes between 72–85% of the net lift. However, there is another, previously unidentified mechanism, the centripetal acceleration reaction, which generates up to 17% of the net lift. The centripetal acceleration reaction is similar to the classical inviscid added-mass in that it depends only on the kinematics (i.e. accelerations) of the body, but is different in that it requires the satisfaction of the no-slip condition, and a combination of tangential motion and rotation of the wing surface. Furthermore, the classical added-mass force is identically zero for cyclic motion but this is not true of the centripetal acceleration reaction. Furthermore, unlike the lift due to vorticity, centripetal acceleration reaction lift is insensitive to Reynolds number and to environmental flow perturbations, making it an important contributor to insect flight stability and miniaturization. This force mechanism also has broad implications for flow-induced deformation and vibration, underwater locomotion and flows involving bubbles and droplets. PMID:26252016

  11. Centripetal Acceleration Reaction: An Effective and Robust Mechanism for Flapping Flight in Insects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Hedrick, Tyson L; Mittal, Rajat

    2015-01-01

    Despite intense study by physicists and biologists, we do not fully understand the unsteady aerodynamics that relate insect wing morphology and kinematics to lift generation. Here, we formulate a force partitioning method (FPM) and implement it within a computational fluid dynamic model to provide an unambiguous and physically insightful division of aerodynamic force into components associated with wing kinematics, vorticity, and viscosity. Application of the FPM to hawkmoth and fruit fly flight shows that the leading-edge vortex is the dominant mechanism for lift generation for both these insects and contributes between 72-85% of the net lift. However, there is another, previously unidentified mechanism, the centripetal acceleration reaction, which generates up to 17% of the net lift. The centripetal acceleration reaction is similar to the classical inviscid added-mass in that it depends only on the kinematics (i.e. accelerations) of the body, but is different in that it requires the satisfaction of the no-slip condition, and a combination of tangential motion and rotation of the wing surface. Furthermore, the classical added-mass force is identically zero for cyclic motion but this is not true of the centripetal acceleration reaction. Furthermore, unlike the lift due to vorticity, centripetal acceleration reaction lift is insensitive to Reynolds number and to environmental flow perturbations, making it an important contributor to insect flight stability and miniaturization. This force mechanism also has broad implications for flow-induced deformation and vibration, underwater locomotion and flows involving bubbles and droplets.

  12. Effects of Moth Age and Rearing Temperature on the Flight Performance of the Loreyi Leafworm, Mythimna loreyi (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in Tethered and Free Flight.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jianyang; Liu, Yueqiu; Zhang, Lei; Cheng, Yunxia; Sappington, Thomas W; Jiang, Xingfu

    2018-05-28

    To understand the migratory flight behaviors of the loreyi leafworm, Mythimna loreyi Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), both tethered (flight distance, time, and velocity) and free-flight activity (flight action, duration, and frequency) of adults at different ages, sexes, and temperatures were investigated using computer-controlled insect flight mills and an autonomous flight monitoring system. Tethered flight activity differed significantly among ages and rearing temperature, but not sex. Newly emerged adults (the first day after emergence) displayed the lowest flight time, distance, and speed. However, flight performance increased with age, peaking at 3 d. Relatively strong flight performance was maintained up to 5 d postemergence and then declined significantly by day 6. There was no significant difference in flight performance between sexes for 3-d-old moths. Adults reared as larvae at 24°C averaged significantly longer flight duration and distance than those reared at other temperatures. Both lower and higher rearing temperatures negatively affected tethered flight. Similar results among age and rearing temperature treatments were observed in autonomous free-flight tests. During 12-h free-flight tests, flight activity peaked from 6 to 10 h after beginning of darkness. Free-flight activity of 1- and 6-d-old adults was significantly less than that of 3-, 4-, and 5-d-old adults. Adults reared at 24°C showed significantly greater free-flight action, duration, and frequency than those reared at other temperatures. The results suggest that M. loreyi may be a migratory species.

  13. A framework for standardizing flight characteristics for separating biology from meteorology in long-range insect transport

    Treesearch

    Gary L. Achtemeier

    1998-01-01

    Once airborne during long-range transport, to what extent is the final destination determined by the biota? It is well known that a biological mechanism initiates flight and another biological mechanism terminates flight. Therefore, efforts to answer the above question should be focused on en route insect behavior. A strategy is proposed to isolate biology...

  14. A Genetic RNAi Screen for IP3/Ca2+ Coupled GPCRs in Drosophila Identifies the PdfR as a Regulator of Insect Flight

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Tarjani; Sadaf, Sufia; Hasan, Gaiti

    2013-01-01

    Insect flight is regulated by various sensory inputs and neuromodulatory circuits which function in synchrony to control and fine-tune the final behavioral outcome. The cellular and molecular bases of flight neuromodulatory circuits are not well defined. In Drosophila melanogaster, it is known that neuronal IP3 receptor mediated Ca2+ signaling and store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) are required for air-puff stimulated adult flight. However, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that activate intracellular Ca2+ signaling in the context of flight are unknown in Drosophila. We performed a genetic RNAi screen to identify GPCRs that regulate flight by activating the IP3 receptor. Among the 108 GPCRs screened, we discovered 5 IP3/Ca2+ linked GPCRs that are necessary for maintenance of air-puff stimulated flight. Analysis of their temporal requirement established that while some GPCRs are required only during flight circuit development, others are required both in pupal development as well as during adult flight. Interestingly, our study identified the Pigment Dispersing Factor Receptor (PdfR) as a regulator of flight circuit development and as a modulator of acute flight. From the analysis of PdfR expressing neurons relevant for flight and its well-defined roles in other behavioral paradigms, we propose that PdfR signaling functions systemically to integrate multiple sensory inputs and modulate downstream motor behavior. PMID:24098151

  15. Flight Performance of Ctenoplusia agnata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaowei; Zhao, Shengyuan; Li, Chao; Wu, Xiao; Guo, Jianglong; Wu, Kongming

    2017-06-01

    Ctenoplusia agnata (Staudinger) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a highly destructive polyphagous pest of cotton, maize, soybean, and cruciferous vegetables in East Asia. The effect of various biotic and abiotic factors on the flight performance of C. agnata is crucial for a better understanding of its transregional migration. In this study, the flight performance of C. agnata moths at different ages, temperatures, and relative humidity (RH) levels, was examined by tethering individual moths to computerized flight mills for a 24-h scotophase. The results showed that 1) C. agnata had the capacity for sustained flight and the flight ability was most pronounced in 3-d-old individuals, and then their flight performance decreased significantly as the moth got older. 2) For both sexes, temperature had a significant effect on their flight performance, and the flight activity was most pronounced at 24-28 °C. 3) There was a significant effect of RH on all flight parameters of the tested moths, and the flight activity was most pronounced at RH of 60-75%. 4) For 3-d-old moths under the optimum conditions (24 °C and 75% RH) throughout the 24-h scotophase, the total flight distance reached 69.01 ± 2.13 km (females) and 62.15 ± 2.31 km (males), and the total flight duration reached 14.11 ± 0.79 h (females) and 13.08 ± 0.70 h (males), which suggests that C. agnata has a strong potential to undertake long-distance migration. These findings will be helpful for developing sound forecasting systems of this pest species. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Flight Services and Aircraft Access: Active Flow Control Vertical Tail and Insect Accretion and Mitigation Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    This document serves as the final report for the Flight Services and Aircraft Access task order NNL14AA57T as part of NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project ITD12A+. It includes descriptions of flight test preparations and execution for the Active Flow Control (AFC) Vertical Tail and Insect Accretion and Mitigation (IAM) experiments conducted on the 757 ecoDemonstrator. For the AFC Vertical Tail, this is the culmination of efforts under two task orders. The task order was managed by Boeing Research & Technology and executed by an enterprise-wide Boeing team that included Boeing Research & Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Boeing Defense and Space and Boeing Test and Evaluation. Boeing BR&T in St. Louis was responsible for overall Boeing project management and coordination with NASA. The 757 flight test asset was provided and managed by the BCA ecoDemonstrator Program, in partnership with Stifel Aircraft Leasing and the TUI Group. With this report, all of the required deliverables related to management of this task order have been met and delivered to NASA as summarized in Table 1. In addition, this task order is part of a broader collaboration between NASA and Boeing.

  17. CHANGES IN FLIGHT TRAINEE PERFORMANCE FOLLOWING SYNTHETIC HELICOPTER FLIGHT TRAINING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARO, PAUL W., JR.; ISLEY, ROBERT N.

    A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED AT THE U.S. ARMY PRIMARY HELICOPTER SCHOOL, FORT WOLTERS, TEXAS, TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE USE OF A HELICOPTER TRAINING DEVICE WOULD IMPROVE STUDENT PERFORMANCE DURING SUBSEQUENT HELICOPTER CONTACT FLIGHT TRAINING. SUBJECTS WERE TWO EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS AND TWO CONTROL GROUPS OF WARRANT OFFICER CANDIDATES ENROLLED FOR A…

  18. Charting the Visual Space of Insect Eyes - Delineating the Guidance, Navigation and Control of Insect Flight by Their Optical Sensor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    B. Beetle wing colors Whereas most insect wings are rather thin and flexible chitinous structures, in beetles this holds for only one wing pair...symbols). The black line is the dispersion curve for insect chitin . D. Insect photoreceptors Insect vision starts with the absorption of light by the...BD (2012) Sexual dichromatism of the damselfly Calopteryx japonica caused by a melanin- chitin multilayer in the male wing veins. PLoS ONE 7: e49743

  19. Near- and far-field aerodynamics in insect hovering flight: an integrated computational study.

    PubMed

    Aono, Hikaru; Liang, Fuyou; Liu, Hao

    2008-01-01

    We present the first integrative computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study of near- and far-field aerodynamics in insect hovering flight using a biology-inspired, dynamic flight simulator. This simulator, which has been built to encompass multiple mechanisms and principles related to insect flight, is capable of 'flying' an insect on the basis of realistic wing-body morphologies and kinematics. Our CFD study integrates near- and far-field wake dynamics and shows the detailed three-dimensional (3D) near- and far-field vortex flows: a horseshoe-shaped vortex is generated and wraps around the wing in the early down- and upstroke; subsequently, the horseshoe-shaped vortex grows into a doughnut-shaped vortex ring, with an intense jet-stream present in its core, forming the downwash; and eventually, the doughnut-shaped vortex rings of the wing pair break up into two circular vortex rings in the wake. The computed aerodynamic forces show reasonable agreement with experimental results in terms of both the mean force (vertical, horizontal and sideslip forces) and the time course over one stroke cycle (lift and drag forces). A large amount of lift force (approximately 62% of total lift force generated over a full wingbeat cycle) is generated during the upstroke, most likely due to the presence of intensive and stable, leading-edge vortices (LEVs) and wing tip vortices (TVs); and correspondingly, a much stronger downwash is observed compared to the downstroke. We also estimated hovering energetics based on the computed aerodynamic and inertial torques, and powers.

  20. X-29A flight control system performance during flight test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, J.; Chacon, V.; Gera, J.

    1987-01-01

    An account is given of flight control system performance results for the X-29A forward-swept wing 'Advanced Technology Demonstrator' fighter aircraft, with attention to its software and hardware components' achievement of the requisite levels of system stability and desirable aircraft handling qualities. The Automatic Camber Control Logic is found to be well integrated with the stability loop of the aircraft. A number of flight test support software programs developed by NASA facilitated monitoring of the X-29A's stability in real time, and allowed the test team to clear the envelope with confidence.

  1. Controlling free flight of a robotic fly using an onboard vision sensor inspired by insect ocelli

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Sawyer B.; Karpelson, Michael; Censi, Andrea; Ma, Kevin Y.; Wood, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Scaling a flying robot down to the size of a fly or bee requires advances in manufacturing, sensing and control, and will provide insights into mechanisms used by their biological counterparts. Controlled flight at this scale has previously required external cameras to provide the feedback to regulate the continuous corrective manoeuvres necessary to keep the unstable robot from tumbling. One stabilization mechanism used by flying insects may be to sense the horizon or Sun using the ocelli, a set of three light sensors distinct from the compound eyes. Here, we present an ocelli-inspired visual sensor and use it to stabilize a fly-sized robot. We propose a feedback controller that applies torque in proportion to the angular velocity of the source of light estimated by the ocelli. We demonstrate theoretically and empirically that this is sufficient to stabilize the robot's upright orientation. This constitutes the first known use of onboard sensors at this scale. Dipteran flies use halteres to provide gyroscopic velocity feedback, but it is unknown how other insects such as honeybees stabilize flight without these sensory organs. Our results, using a vehicle of similar size and dynamics to the honeybee, suggest how the ocelli could serve this role. PMID:24942846

  2. Fine-tuned echolocation and capture-flight of Myotis capaccinii when facing different-sized insect and fish prey.

    PubMed

    Aizpurua, Ostaizka; Aihartza, Joxerra; Alberdi, Antton; Baagøe, Hans J; Garin, Inazio

    2014-09-15

    Formerly thought to be a strictly insectivorous trawling bat, recent studies have shown that Myotis capaccinii also preys on fish. To determine whether differences exist in bat flight behaviour, prey handling and echolocation characteristics when catching fish and insects of different size, we conducted a field experiment focused on the last stage of prey capture. We used synchronized video and ultrasound recordings to measure several flight and dip features as well as echolocation characteristics, focusing on terminal buzz phase I, characterized by a call rate exceeding 100 Hz, and buzz phase II, characterized by a drop in the fundamental well below 20 kHz and a repetition rate exceeding 150 Hz. When capturing insects, bats used both parts of the terminal phase to the same extent, and performed short and superficial drags on the water surface. In contrast, when preying on fish, buzz I was longer and buzz II shorter, and the bats made longer and deeper dips. These variations suggest that lengthening buzz I and shortening buzz II when fishing is beneficial, probably because buzz I gives better discrimination ability and the broader sonar beam provided by buzz II is useless when no evasive flight of the prey is expected. Additionally, bats continued emitting calls beyond the theoretical signal-overlap zone, suggesting that they might obtain information even when they have surpassed that threshold, at least initially. This study shows that M. capaccinii can regulate the temporal components of its feeding buzzes and modify prey capture technique according to the target. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. A Quasi-Steady Lifting Line Theory for Insect-Like Hovering Flight

    PubMed Central

    Nabawy, Mostafa R. A.; Crowthe, William J.

    2015-01-01

    A novel lifting line formulation is presented for the quasi-steady aerodynamic evaluation of insect-like wings in hovering flight. The approach allows accurate estimation of aerodynamic forces from geometry and kinematic information alone and provides for the first time quantitative information on the relative contribution of induced and profile drag associated with lift production for insect-like wings in hover. The main adaptation to the existing lifting line theory is the use of an equivalent angle of attack, which enables capture of the steady non-linear aerodynamics at high angles of attack. A simple methodology to include non-ideal induced effects due to wake periodicity and effective actuator disc area within the lifting line theory is included in the model. Low Reynolds number effects as well as the edge velocity correction required to account for different wing planform shapes are incorporated through appropriate modification of the wing section lift curve slope. The model has been successfully validated against measurements from revolving wing experiments and high order computational fluid dynamics simulations. Model predicted mean lift to weight ratio results have an average error of 4% compared to values from computational fluid dynamics for eight different insect cases. Application of an unmodified linear lifting line approach leads on average to a 60% overestimation in the mean lift force required for weight support, with most of the discrepancy due to use of linear aerodynamics. It is shown that on average for the eight insects considered, the induced drag contributes 22% of the total drag based on the mean cycle values and 29% of the total drag based on the mid half-stroke values. PMID:26252657

  4. Control for small-speed lateral flight in a model insect.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan Lai; Sun, Mao

    2011-09-01

    Controls required for small-speed lateral flight of a model insect were studied using techniques based on the linear theories of stability and control (the stability and control derivatives were computed by the method of computational fluid dynamics). The main results are as follows. (1) Two steady-state lateral motions can exist: one is a horizontal side translation with the body rolling to the same side of the translation by a small angle, and the other is a constant-rate yaw rotation (rotation about the vertical axis). (2) The side translation requires an anti-symmetrical change in the stroke amplitudes of the contralateral wings, and/or an anti-symmetrical change in the angles of attack of the contralateral wings, with the down- and upstroke angles of attack of a wing having equal change. The constant-rate yaw rotation requires an anti-symmetrical change in the angles of attack of the contralateral wings, with the down- and upstroke angles of attack of a wing having differential change. (3) For the control of the horizontal side translation, control input required for the steady-state motion has an opposite sign to that needed for initiating the motion. For example, to have a steady-state left side-translation, the insect needs to increase the stroke amplitude of the left wing and decrease that of the right wing to maintain the steady-state flight, but it needs an opposite change in stroke amplitude (decreasing the stroke amplitude of the left wing and increasing that of the right wing) to enter the flight.

  5. Comprehensive analysis of transport aircraft flight performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2008-04-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the art in comprehensive performance codes for fixed-wing aircraft. The importance of system analysis in flight performance is discussed. The paper highlights the role of aerodynamics, propulsion, flight mechanics, aeroacoustics, flight operation, numerical optimisation, stochastic methods and numerical analysis. The latter discipline is used to investigate the sensitivities of the sub-systems to uncertainties in critical state parameters or functional parameters. The paper discusses critically the data used for performance analysis, and the areas where progress is required. Comprehensive analysis codes can be used for mission fuel planning, envelope exploration, competition analysis, a wide variety of environmental studies, marketing analysis, aircraft certification and conceptual aircraft design. A comprehensive program that uses the multi-disciplinary approach for transport aircraft is presented. The model includes a geometry deck, a separate engine input deck with the main parameters, a database of engine performance from an independent simulation, and an operational deck. The comprehensive code has modules for deriving the geometry from bitmap files, an aerodynamics model for all flight conditions, a flight mechanics model for flight envelopes and mission analysis, an aircraft noise model and engine emissions. The model is validated at different levels. Validation of the aerodynamic model is done against the scale models DLR-F4 and F6. A general model analysis and flight envelope exploration are shown for the Boeing B-777-300 with GE-90 turbofan engines with intermediate passenger capacity (394 passengers in 2 classes). Validation of the flight model is done by sensitivity analysis on the wetted area (or profile drag), on the specific air range, the brake-release gross weight and the aircraft noise. A variety of results is shown, including specific air range charts, take-off weight-altitude charts, payload-range performance

  6. New Insights on Insect's Silent Flight. Part I: Vortex Dynamics and Wing Morphing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yan; Liu, Geng; Dong, Haibo; Geng, Biao; Zheng, Xudong; Xue, Qian

    2016-11-01

    Insects are capable of conducting silent flights. This is attributed to its specially designed wing material properties for the control of vibration and surface morphing during the flapping flight. In current work, we focus on the roles of dynamic wing morphing on the unsteady vortex dynamics of a cicada in steady flight. A 3D image-based surface reconstruction method is used to obtain kinematical and morphological data of cicada wings from high-quality high-speed videos. The observed morphing wing kinematics is highly complex and a singular value decomposition method is used to decompose the wing motion to several dominant modes with distinct motion features. A high-fidelity immersed-boundary-based flow solver is then used to study the vortex dynamics in details. The results show that vortical structures closely relate to the morphing mode, which plays key role in the development and attachment of leading-edge vortex (LEV), thus helps the silent flapping of the cicada wings. This work is supported by AFOSR FA9550-12-1-0071 and NSF CBET-1313217.

  7. Design and evaluation of a deformable wing configuration for economical hovering flight of an insect-like tailless flying robot.

    PubMed

    Phan, Hoang Vu; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2018-04-18

    Studies on wing kinematics indicate that flapping insect wings operate at higher angles of attack (AoAs) than conventional rotary wings. Thus, effectively flying an insect-like flapping-wing micro air vehicle (FW-MAV) requires appropriate wing design for achieving low power consumption and high force generation. Even though theoretical studies can be performed to identify appropriate geometric AoAs for a wing for achieving efficient hovering flight, designing an actual wing by implementing these angles into a real flying robot is challenging. In this work, we investigated the wing morphology of an insect-like tailless FW-MAV, which was named KUBeetle, for obtaining high vertical force/power ratio or power loading. Several deformable wing configurations with various vein structures were designed, and their characteristics of vertical force generation and power requirement were theoretically and experimentally investigated. The results of the theoretical study based on the unsteady blade element theory (UBET) were validated with reference data to prove the accuracy of power estimation. A good agreement between estimated and measured results indicated that the proposed UBET model can be used to effectively estimate the power requirement and force generation of an FW-MAV. Among the investigated wing configurations operating at flapping frequencies of 23 Hz to 29 Hz, estimated results showed that the wing with a suitable vein placed outboard exhibited an increase of approximately 23.7%  ±  0.5% in vertical force and approximately 10.2%  ±  1.0% in force/power ratio. The estimation was supported by experimental results, which showed that the suggested wing enhanced vertical force by approximately 21.8%  ±  3.6% and force/power ratio by 6.8%  ±  1.6%. In addition, wing kinematics during flapping motion was analyzed to determine the reason for the observed improvement.

  8. Northrop Grumman HEC flight coaxial cryocoolers performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, T.; Russo, J.; Basel, G.; Chi, D.; Abelson, L.

    2018-05-01

    The Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS) has expanded the cryocooler product line to include a single stage High Efficiency Cryocooler (HEC) cooler with a coaxial pulse tube cold head that operates at temperatures down to 45K. The HEC coaxial pulse tube cooler has been adopted by several customers, and has completed acceptance testing to meet program flight requirements. The NGAS TRL 9 HEC is a pulse tube cryocooler with a flexure bearing compressor which has been delivered for a number of flight payloads that are currently operating in space. To date, NGAS has delivered space cryocoolers in several configurations including single stage with a linear cold head and two stage with both linear and coaxial cold heads. The new HEC coaxial cooler uses the same TRL9 HEC compressor with a passive pulse tube cold head, to maintain the flight heritage of the HEC linear cooler. In this paper, we present the flight acceptance test data of the HEC coaxial cryocooler, which includes thermal performance, launch vibration and thermal cycling. The HEC coaxial cooler has demonstrated excellent performance in family with the flight qualified HEC linear cooler. The HEC coaxial cooler provides users with additional flexibility in selecting the cold head configuration to meet their particular applications.

  9. Astronaut Walter Cunningham photographed performing flight tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Astronaut Walter Cunningham, Apollo 7 lunar module pilot, writes with space pen as he is photographed performing flight tasks on the ninth day of the Apollo 7 mission. Note the 70mm Hasselblad camera film magazine just above Cunningham's right hand floating in the weightless (zero gravity) environment of the spacecraft.

  10. Astronaut Walter Cunningham photographed performing flight tasks

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1968-10-20

    AS07-04-1586 (20 Oct. 1968) --- Astronaut Walter Cunningham, Apollo 7 lunar module pilot, writes with space pen as he is photographed performing flight tasks on the ninth day of the Apollo 7 mission. Note the 70mm Hasselblad camera film magazine just above Cunningham's right hand floating in the weightless (zero gravity) environment of the spacecraft.

  11. Phototaxis and polarotaxis hand in hand: night dispersal flight of aquatic insects distracted synergistically by light intensity and reflection polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boda, Pál; Horváth, Gábor; Kriska, György; Blahó, Miklós; Csabai, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    Based on an earlier observation in the field, we hypothesized that light intensity and horizontally polarized reflected light may strongly influence the flight behaviour of night-active aquatic insects. We assumed that phototaxis and polarotaxis together have a more harmful effect on the dispersal flight of these insects than they would have separately. We tested this hypothesis in a multiple-choice field experiment using horizontal test surfaces laid on the ground. We offered simultaneously the following visual stimuli for aerial aquatic insects: (1) lamplit matte black canvas inducing phototaxis alone, (2) unlit shiny black plastic sheet eliciting polarotaxis alone, (3) lamplit shiny black plastic sheet inducing simultaneously phototaxis and polarotaxis, and (4) unlit matte black canvas as a visually unattractive control. The unlit matte black canvas trapped only a negligible number (13) of water insects. The sum (16,432) of the total numbers of water beetles and bugs captured on the lamplit matte black canvas (7,922) and the unlit shiny black plastic sheet (8,510) was much smaller than the total catch (29,682) caught on the lamplit shiny black plastic sheet. This provides experimental evidence for the synergistic interaction of phototaxis (elicited by the unpolarized direct lamplight) and polarotaxis (induced by the strongly and horizontally polarized plastic-reflected light) in the investigated aquatic insects. Thus, horizontally polarizing artificial lamplit surfaces can function as an effective ecological trap due to this synergism of optical cues, especially in the urban environment.

  12. Phototaxis and polarotaxis hand in hand: night dispersal flight of aquatic insects distracted synergistically by light intensity and reflection polarization.

    PubMed

    Boda, Pál; Horváth, Gábor; Kriska, György; Blahó, Miklós; Csabai, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    Based on an earlier observation in the field, we hypothesized that light intensity and horizontally polarized reflected light may strongly influence the flight behaviour of night-active aquatic insects. We assumed that phototaxis and polarotaxis together have a more harmful effect on the dispersal flight of these insects than they would have separately. We tested this hypothesis in a multiple-choice field experiment using horizontal test surfaces laid on the ground. We offered simultaneously the following visual stimuli for aerial aquatic insects: (1) lamplit matte black canvas inducing phototaxis alone, (2) unlit shiny black plastic sheet eliciting polarotaxis alone, (3) lamplit shiny black plastic sheet inducing simultaneously phototaxis and polarotaxis, and (4) unlit matte black canvas as a visually unattractive control. The unlit matte black canvas trapped only a negligible number (13) of water insects. The sum (16,432) of the total numbers of water beetles and bugs captured on the lamplit matte black canvas (7,922) and the unlit shiny black plastic sheet (8,510) was much smaller than the total catch (29,682) caught on the lamplit shiny black plastic sheet. This provides experimental evidence for the synergistic interaction of phototaxis (elicited by the unpolarized direct lamplight) and polarotaxis (induced by the strongly and horizontally polarized plastic-reflected light) in the investigated aquatic insects. Thus, horizontally polarizing artificial lamplit surfaces can function as an effective ecological trap due to this synergism of optical cues, especially in the urban environment.

  13. Orion Entry Flight Control Stability and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahan, Alan L.; Loe, Greg R.; Seiler, Pete

    2007-01-01

    The Orion Spacecraft will be required to perform entry and landing functions for both Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Lunar return missions, utilizing only the Command Module (CM) with its unique systems and GN&C design. This paper presents the current CM Flight Control System (FCS) design to support entry and landing, with a focus on analyses that have supported its development to date. The CM FCS will have to provide for spacecraft stability and control while following guidance or manual commands during exo-atmospheric flight, after Service Module separation, translational powered flight required of the CM, atmospheric flight supporting both direct entry and skip trajectories down to drogue chute deploy, and during roll attitude reorientation just prior to touchdown. Various studies and analyses have been performed or are on-going supporting an overall FCS design with reasonably sized Reaction Control System (RCS) jets, that minimizes fuel usage, that provides appropriate command following but with reasonable stability and control margin. Results from these efforts to date are included, with particular attention on design issues that have emerged, such as the struggle to accommodate sub-sonic pitch and yaw control without using excessively large jets that could have a detrimental impact on vehicle weight. Apollo, with a similar shape, struggled with this issue as well. Outstanding CM FCS related design and analysis issues, planned for future effort, are also briefly be discussed.

  14. Oxygen and energy availability interact to determine flight performance in the Glanville fritillary butterfly.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Toby; Melvin, Richard G; Ikonen, Suvi; Ruokolainen, Annukka; Woestmann, Luisa; Hietakangas, Ville; Hanski, Ilkka

    2016-05-15

    Flying insects have the highest known mass-specific demand for oxygen, which makes it likely that reduced availability of oxygen might limit sustained flight, either instead of or in addition to the limitation due to metabolite resources. The Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) occurs as a large metapopulation in which adult butterflies frequently disperse between small local populations. Here, we examine how the interaction between oxygen availability and fuel use affects flight performance in the Glanville fritillary. Individuals were flown under either normoxic (21 kPa O2) or hypoxic (10 kPa O2) conditions and their flight metabolism was measured. To determine resource use, levels of circulating glucose, trehalose and whole-body triglyceride were recorded after flight. Flight performance was significantly reduced in hypoxic conditions. When flown under normoxic conditions, we observed a positive correlation among individuals between post-flight circulating trehalose levels and flight metabolic rate, suggesting that low levels of circulating trehalose constrains flight metabolism. To test this hypothesis experimentally, we measured the flight metabolic rate of individuals injected with a trehalase inhibitor. In support of the hypothesis, experimental butterflies showed significantly reduced flight metabolic rate, but not resting metabolic rate, in comparison to control individuals. By contrast, under hypoxia there was no relationship between trehalose and flight metabolic rate. Additionally, in this case, flight metabolic rate was reduced in spite of circulating trehalose levels that were high enough to support high flight metabolic rate under normoxic conditions. These results demonstrate a significant interaction between oxygen and energy availability for the control of flight performance. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Group interaction and flight crew performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, H. Clayton; Helmreich, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    The application of human-factors analysis to the performance of aircraft-operation tasks by the crew as a group is discussed in an introductory review and illustrated with anecdotal material. Topics addressed include the function of a group in the operational environment, the classification of group performance factors (input, process, and output parameters), input variables and the flight crew process, and the effect of process variables on performance. Consideration is given to aviation safety issues, techniques for altering group norms, ways of increasing crew effort and coordination, and the optimization of group composition.

  16. Flight performance in night-flying sweat bees suffers at low light levels.

    PubMed

    Theobald, Jamie Carroll; Coates, Melissa M; Wcislo, William T; Warrant, Eric J

    2007-11-01

    The sweat bee Megalopta (Hymenoptera: Halictidae), unlike most bees, flies in extremely dim light. And although nocturnal insects are often equipped with superposition eyes, which greatly enhance light capture, Megalopta performs visually guided flight with apposition eyes. We examined how light limits Megalopta's flight behavior by measuring flight times and corresponding light levels and comparing them with flight trajectories upon return to the nest. We found the average time to land increased in dim light, an effect due not to slow approaches, but to circuitous approaches. Some landings, however, were quite fast even in the dark. To explain this, we examined the flight trajectories and found that in dim light, landings became increasingly error prone and erratic, consistent with repeated landing attempts. These data agree well with the premise that Megalopta uses visual summation, sacrificing acuity in order to see and fly at the very dimmest light intensities that its visual system allows.

  17. The redder the better: wing color predicts flight performance in monarch butterflies.

    PubMed

    Davis, Andrew K; Chi, Jean; Bradley, Catherine; Altizer, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The distinctive orange and black wings of monarchs (Danaus plexippus) have long been known to advertise their bitter taste and toxicity to potential predators. Recent work also showed that both the orange and black coloration of this species can vary in response to individual-level and environmental factors. Here we examine the relationship between wing color and flight performance in captive-reared monarchs using a tethered flight mill apparatus to quantify butterfly flight speed, duration and distance. In three different experiments (totaling 121 individuals) we used image analysis to measure body size and four wing traits among newly-emerged butterflies prior to flight trials: wing area, aspect ratio (length/width), melanism, and orange hue. Results showed that monarchs with darker orange (approaching red) wings flew longer distances than those with lighter orange wings in analyses that controlled for sex and other morphometric traits. This finding is consistent with past work showing that among wild monarchs, those sampled during the fall migration are darker in hue (redder) than non-migratory monarchs. Together, these results suggest that pigment deposition onto wing scales during metamorphosis could be linked with traits that influence flight, such as thorax muscle size, energy storage or metabolism. Our results reinforce an association between wing color and flight performance in insects that is suggested by past studies of wing melansim and seasonal polyphenism, and provide an important starting point for work focused on mechanistic links between insect movement and color.

  18. Foraging in an unsteady world: bumblebee flight performance in field-realistic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Crall, J D; Chang, J J; Oppenheimer, R L; Combes, S A

    2017-02-06

    Natural environments are characterized by variable wind that can pose significant challenges for flying animals and robots. However, our understanding of the flow conditions that animals experience outdoors and how these impact flight performance remains limited. Here, we combine laboratory and field experiments to characterize wind conditions encountered by foraging bumblebees in outdoor environments and test the effects of these conditions on flight. We used radio-frequency tags to track foraging activity of uniquely identified bumblebee ( Bombus impatiens ) workers, while simultaneously recording local wind flows. Despite being subjected to a wide range of speeds and turbulence intensities, we find that bees do not avoid foraging in windy conditions. We then examined the impacts of turbulence on bumblebee flight in a wind tunnel. Rolling instabilities increased in turbulence, but only at higher wind speeds. Bees displayed higher mean wingbeat frequency and stroke amplitude in these conditions, as well as increased asymmetry in stroke amplitude-suggesting that bees employ an array of active responses to enable flight in turbulence, which may increase the energetic cost of flight. Our results provide the first direct evidence that moderate, environmentally relevant turbulence affects insect flight performance, and suggest that flying insects use diverse mechanisms to cope with these instabilities.

  19. Foraging in an unsteady world: bumblebee flight performance in field-realistic turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Chang, J. J.; Oppenheimer, R. L.; Combes, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Natural environments are characterized by variable wind that can pose significant challenges for flying animals and robots. However, our understanding of the flow conditions that animals experience outdoors and how these impact flight performance remains limited. Here, we combine laboratory and field experiments to characterize wind conditions encountered by foraging bumblebees in outdoor environments and test the effects of these conditions on flight. We used radio-frequency tags to track foraging activity of uniquely identified bumblebee (Bombus impatiens) workers, while simultaneously recording local wind flows. Despite being subjected to a wide range of speeds and turbulence intensities, we find that bees do not avoid foraging in windy conditions. We then examined the impacts of turbulence on bumblebee flight in a wind tunnel. Rolling instabilities increased in turbulence, but only at higher wind speeds. Bees displayed higher mean wingbeat frequency and stroke amplitude in these conditions, as well as increased asymmetry in stroke amplitude—suggesting that bees employ an array of active responses to enable flight in turbulence, which may increase the energetic cost of flight. Our results provide the first direct evidence that moderate, environmentally relevant turbulence affects insect flight performance, and suggest that flying insects use diverse mechanisms to cope with these instabilities. PMID:28163878

  20. The Redder the Better: Wing Color Predicts Flight Performance in Monarch Butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Andrew K.; Chi, Jean; Bradley, Catherine; Altizer, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The distinctive orange and black wings of monarchs (Danaus plexippus) have long been known to advertise their bitter taste and toxicity to potential predators. Recent work also showed that both the orange and black coloration of this species can vary in response to individual-level and environmental factors. Here we examine the relationship between wing color and flight performance in captive-reared monarchs using a tethered flight mill apparatus to quantify butterfly flight speed, duration and distance. In three different experiments (totaling 121 individuals) we used image analysis to measure body size and four wing traits among newly-emerged butterflies prior to flight trials: wing area, aspect ratio (length/width), melanism, and orange hue. Results showed that monarchs with darker orange (approaching red) wings flew longer distances than those with lighter orange wings in analyses that controlled for sex and other morphometric traits. This finding is consistent with past work showing that among wild monarchs, those sampled during the fall migration are darker in hue (redder) than non-migratory monarchs. Together, these results suggest that pigment deposition onto wing scales during metamorphosis could be linked with traits that influence flight, such as thorax muscle size, energy storage or metabolism. Our results reinforce an association between wing color and flight performance in insects that is suggested by past studies of wing melansim and seasonal polyphenism, and provide an important starting point for work focused on mechanistic links between insect movement and color. PMID:22848463

  1. Real-time in-flight engine performance and health monitoring techniques for flight research application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Ronald J.; Hicks, John W.; Wichman, Keith D.

    1992-01-01

    Various engine related performance and health monitoring techniques developed in support of flight research are described. Techniques used during flight to enhance safety and to increase flight test productivity are summarized. A description of the NASA range facility is given along with a discussion of the flight data processing. Examples of data processed and the flight data displays are shown. A discussion of current trends and future capabilities is also included.

  2. Flight test of takeoff performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B.; Srivatsan, Raghavachari; Person, Lee H., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The Takeoff Performance Monitoring System (TOPMS) is a computer software and hardware graphics system that visually displays current runway position, acceleration performance, engine status, and other situation advisory information to aid pilots in their decision to continue or to abort a takeoff. The system was developed at the Langley Research Center using the fixed-base Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) simulator. (The TSRV is a highly modified Boeing 737-100 research airplane.) Several versions of the TOPMS displays were evaluated on the TSRV B-737 simulator by more than 40 research, United States Air Force, airline and industry and pilots who rated the system satisfactory and recommended further development and testing. In this study, the TOPMS was flight tested on the TSRV. A total of 55 takeoff and 30 abort situations were investigated at 5 airfields. TOPMS displays were observed on the navigation display screen in the TSRV research flight deck during various nominal and off-nominal situations, including normal takeoffs; reduced-throttle takeoffs; induced-acceleration deficiencies; simulated-engine failures; and several gross-weight, runway-geometry, runway-surface, and ambient conditions. All tests were performed on dry runways. The TOPMS software executed accurately during the flight tests and the displays correctly depicted the various test conditions. Evaluation pilots found the displays easy to monitor and understand. The algorithm provides pretakeoff predictions of the nominal distances that are needed to accelerate the airplane to takeoff speed and to brake it to a stop; these predictions agreed reasonably well with corresponding values measured during several fully executed and aborted takeoffs. The TOPMS is operational and has been retained on the TSRV for general use and demonstration.

  3. Electron Tomography of Cryofixed, Isometrically Contracting Insect Flight Muscle Reveals Novel Actin-Myosin Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shenping; Liu, Jun; Reedy, Mary C.

    2010-10-22

    Isometric muscle contraction, where force is generated without muscle shortening, is a molecular traffic jam in which the number of actin-attached motors is maximized and all states of motor action are trapped with consequently high heterogeneity. This heterogeneity is a major limitation to deciphering myosin conformational changes in situ. We used multivariate data analysis to group repeat segments in electron tomograms of isometrically contracting insect flight muscle, mechanically monitored, rapidly frozen, freeze substituted, and thin sectioned. Improved resolution reveals the helical arrangement of F-actin subunits in the thin filament enabling an atomic model to be built into the thin filamentmore » density independent of the myosin. Actin-myosin attachments can now be assigned as weak or strong by their motor domain orientation relative to actin. Myosin attachments were quantified everywhere along the thin filament including troponin. Strong binding myosin attachments are found on only four F-actin subunits, the 'target zone', situated exactly midway between successive troponin complexes. They show an axial lever arm range of 77{sup o}/12.9 nm. The lever arm azimuthal range of strong binding attachments has a highly skewed, 127{sup o} range compared with X-ray crystallographic structures. Two types of weak actin attachments are described. One type, found exclusively in the target zone, appears to represent pre-working-stroke intermediates. The other, which contacts tropomyosin rather than actin, is positioned M-ward of the target zone, i.e. the position toward which thin filaments slide during shortening. We present a model for the weak to strong transition in the myosin ATPase cycle that incorporates azimuthal movements of the motor domain on actin. Stress/strain in the S2 domain may explain azimuthal lever arm changes in the strong binding attachments. The results support previous conclusions that the weak attachments preceding force generation are very

  4. Design and stable flight of a 21 g insect-like tailless flapping wing micro air vehicle with angular rates feedback control.

    PubMed

    Phan, Hoang Vu; Kang, Taesam; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2017-04-04

    An insect-like tailless flapping wing micro air vehicle (FW-MAV) without feedback control eventually becomes unstable after takeoff. Flying an insect-like tailless FW-MAV is more challenging than flying a bird-like tailed FW-MAV, due to the difference in control principles. This work introduces the design and controlled flight of an insect-like tailless FW-MAV, named KUBeetle. A combination of four-bar linkage and pulley-string mechanisms was used to develop a lightweight flapping mechanism that could achieve a high flapping amplitude of approximately 190°. Clap-and-flings at dorsal and ventral stroke reversals were implemented to enhance vertical force. In the absence of a control surface at the tail, adjustment of the location of the trailing edges at the wing roots to modulate the rotational angle of the wings was used to generate control moments for the attitude control. Measurements by a 6-axis load cell showed that the control mechanism produced reasonable pitch, roll and yaw moments according to the corresponding control inputs. The control mechanism was integrated with three sub-micro servos to realize the pitch, roll and yaw controls. A simple PD feedback controller was implemented for flight stability with an onboard microcontroller and a gyroscope that sensed the pitch, roll and yaw rates. Several flight tests demonstrated that the tailless KUBeetle could successfully perform a vertical climb, then hover and loiter within a 0.3 m ground radius with small variations in pitch and roll body angles.

  5. Thermal control surfaces experiment flight system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Donald R.; Hummer, Leigh L.; Zwiener, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment (TCSE) is the most complex system, other than the LDEF, retrieved after long term space exposure. The TCSE is a microcosm of complex electro-optical payloads being developed and flow by NASA and the DoD including SDI. The objective of TCSE was to determine the effects of the near-Earth orbital environment and the LDEF induced environment on spacecraft thermal control surfaces. The TCSE was a comprehensive experiment that combined in-space measurements with extensive post flight analyses of thermal control surfaces to determine the effects of exposure to the low earth orbit space environment. The TCSE was the first space experiment to measure the optical properties of thermal control surfaces the way they are routinely measured in a lab. The performance of the TCSE confirms that low cost, complex experiment packages can be developed that perform well in space.

  6. Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test 1 - Post-Flight Assessment of Simulation Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Soumyo; Bowes, Angela L.; Striepe, Scott A.; Davis, Jody L.; Queen, Eric M.; Blood, Eric M.; Ivanov, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) project conducted its first Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT-1) on June 28, 2014. Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) was one of the flight dynamics codes used to simulate and predict the flight performance and Monte Carlo analysis was used to characterize the potential flight conditions experienced by the test vehicle. This paper compares the simulation predictions with the reconstructed trajectory of SFDT-1. Additionally, off-nominal conditions seen during flight are modeled in post-flight simulations to find the primary contributors that reconcile the simulation with flight data. The results of these analyses are beneficial for the pre-flight simulation and targeting of the follow-on SFDT flights currently scheduled for summer 2015.

  7. The bat-bird-bug battle: daily flight activity of insects and their predators over a rice field revealed by high-resolution Scheimpflug Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malmqvist, Elin; Jansson, Samuel; Zhu, Shiming; Li, Wansha; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune; Rydell, Jens; Song, Ziwei; Bood, Joakim; Brydegaard, Mikkel; Åkesson, Susanne

    2018-04-01

    We present the results of, to our knowledge, the first Lidar study applied to continuous and simultaneous monitoring of aerial insects, bats and birds. It illustrates how common patterns of flight activity, e.g. insect swarming around twilight, depend on predation risk and other constraints acting on the faunal components. Flight activity was monitored over a rice field in China during one week in July 2016, using a high-resolution Scheimpflug Lidar system. The monitored Lidar transect was about 520 m long and covered approximately 2.5 m3. The observed biomass spectrum was bimodal, and targets were separated into insects and vertebrates in a categorization supported by visual observations. Peak flight activity occurred at dusk and dawn, with a 37 min time difference between the bat and insect peaks. Hence, bats started to feed in declining insect activity after dusk and stopped before the rise in activity before dawn. A similar time difference between insects and birds may have occurred, but it was not obvious, perhaps because birds were relatively scarce. Our observations are consistent with the hypothesis that flight activity of bats is constrained by predation in bright light, and that crepuscular insects exploit this constraint by swarming near to sunset/sunrise to minimize predation from bats.

  8. Novitskiy performs in-flight maintenance on the TVIS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-23

    ISS034-E-033549 (23 Jan. 2013) --- Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy, Expedition 34 flight engineer, performs routine in-flight maintenance on the Treadmill Vibration Isolation System (TVIS) in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  9. FE Fossum performs aRED In-Flight Maintenance

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-28

    ISS028-E-019392 (28 July 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Expedition 28 flight engineer, performs in-flight maintenance on the advanced Resistive Exercise Device (aRED) in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station.

  10. FE Fossum performs aRED In-Flight Maintenance

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-28

    ISS028-E-019399 (28 July 2011) --- NASA astronaut Mike Fossum, Expedition 28 flight engineer, performs in-flight maintenance on the advanced Resistive Exercise Device (aRED) in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station.

  11. Flight Attendant Fatigue Recommendation 2: Flight Attendant Work/Rest Patterns, Alertness, and Performance Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Recommendation II: Flight Attendant Work/Rest Patterns, Alertness, and Performance Assessment DOT/FAA/AM-10/22 Office of Aerospace Medicine Washington, DC...Recipient’s Catalog No. DOT/FAA/AM-10/22 4. Title and Subtitle 5. Report Date December 2010 6. Performing Organization Code Flight...Attendant Fatigue Recommendation II: Flight Attendant Work/Rest Patterns, Alertness, and Performance Assessment 7. Author(s) 8. Performing

  12. Male bumblebees perform learning flights on leaving a flower but not when leaving their nest.

    PubMed

    Robert, Théo; Frasnelli, Elisa; Collett, Thomas S; Hempel de Ibarra, Natalie

    2017-03-01

    Female bees and wasps demonstrate, through their performance of elaborate learning flights, when and where they memorise features of a significant site. An important feature of these flights is that the insects look back to fixate the site that they are leaving. Females, which forage for nectar and pollen and return with it to the nest, execute learning flights on their initial departure from both their nest and newly discovered flowers. To our knowledge, these flights have so far only been studied in females. Here, we describe and analyse putative learning flights observed in male bumblebees Bombus terrestris L. Once male bumblebees are mature, they leave their nest for good and fend for themselves. We show that, unlike female foragers, males always fly directly away from their nest, without looking back, in keeping with their indifference to their natal nest. In contrast, after males have drunk from artificial flowers, their flights on first leaving the flowers resemble the learning flights of females, particularly in their fixation of the flowers. These differences in the occurrence of female and male learning flights seem to match the diverse needs of the two sexes to learn about disparate, ecologically relevant places in their surroundings. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Structural Changes in Isometrically Contracting Insect Flight Muscle Trapped following a Mechanical Perturbation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shenping; Liu, Jun; Perz-Edwards, Robert J.; Tregear, Richard T.; Winkler, Hanspeter; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Goldman, Yale E.; Reedy, Michael K.; Taylor, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    The application of rapidly applied length steps to actively contracting muscle is a classic method for synchronizing the response of myosin cross-bridges so that the average response of the ensemble can be measured. Alternatively, electron tomography (ET) is a technique that can report the structure of the individual members of the ensemble. We probed the structure of active myosin motors (cross-bridges) by applying 0.5% changes in length (either a stretch or a release) within 2 ms to isometrically contracting insect flight muscle (IFM) fibers followed after 5–6 ms by rapid freezing against a liquid helium cooled copper mirror. ET of freeze-substituted fibers, embedded and thin-sectioned, provides 3-D cross-bridge images, sorted by multivariate data analysis into ∼40 classes, distinct in average structure, population size and lattice distribution. Individual actin subunits are resolved facilitating quasi-atomic modeling of each class average to determine its binding strength (weak or strong) to actin. ∼98% of strong-binding acto-myosin attachments present after a length perturbation are confined to “target zones” of only two actin subunits located exactly midway between successive troponin complexes along each long-pitch helical repeat of actin. Significant changes in the types, distribution and structure of actin-myosin attachments occurred in a manner consistent with the mechanical transients. Most dramatic is near disappearance, after either length perturbation, of a class of weak-binding cross-bridges, attached within the target zone, that are highly likely to be precursors of strong-binding cross-bridges. These weak-binding cross-bridges were originally observed in isometrically contracting IFM. Their disappearance following a quick stretch or release can be explained by a recent kinetic model for muscle contraction, as behaviour consistent with their identification as precursors of strong-binding cross-bridges. The results provide a detailed model

  14. New insights into insect's silent flight. Part II: sound source and noise control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Qian; Geng, Biao; Zheng, Xudong; Liu, Geng; Dong, Haibo

    2016-11-01

    The flapping flight of aerial animals has excellent aerodynamic performance but meanwhile generates low noise. In this study, the unsteady flow and acoustic characteristics of the flapping wing are numerically investigated for three-dimensional (3D) models of Tibicen linnei cicada at free forward flight conditions. Single cicada wing is modelled as a membrane with prescribed motion reconstructed by Wan et al. (2015). The flow field and acoustic field around the flapping wing are solved with immersed-boundary-method based incompressible flow solver and linearized-perturbed-compressible-equations based acoustic solver. The 3D simulation allows examination of both directivity and frequency composition of the produced sound in a full space. The mechanism of sound generation of flapping wing is analyzed through correlations between acoustic signals and flow features. Along with a flexible wing model, a rigid wing model is also simulated. The results from these two cases will be compared to investigate the effects of wing flexibility on sound generation. This study is supported by NSF CBET-1313217 and AFOSR FA9550-12-1-0071.

  15. Vision in flying insects.

    PubMed

    Egelhaaf, Martin; Kern, Roland

    2002-12-01

    Vision guides flight behaviour in numerous insects. Despite their small brain, insects easily outperform current man-made autonomous vehicles in many respects. Examples are the virtuosic chasing manoeuvres male flies perform as part of their mating behaviour and the ability of bees to assess, on the basis of visual motion cues, the distance travelled in a novel environment. Analyses at both the behavioural and neuronal levels are beginning to unveil reasons for such extraordinary capabilities of insects. One recipe for their success is the adaptation of visual information processing to the specific requirements of the behavioural tasks and to the specific spatiotemporal properties of the natural input.

  16. ATV GNC flight performance and lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mongrard, O.; Cavrois, B.; Ankersen, F.; Dubois-Matra, O.; Zink, M.; Vergnol, A.; Piquemal, E.; Pionnier, G.; Southivong, U.

    2018-06-01

    ESA's fifth and final Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), Georges Lemaître, performed its fully automated rendezvous and docking with the International Space Station (ISS) on August 12, 2014. The ATV's navigation sensors have shown their worth docking the 20-ton vehicles with aft port of the Space Station, manoeuvring into position and docking with an excellent accuracy. For the second consecutive time after ATV-4, the accuracy at docking was such that the ATV probe head was directly captured inside the Zvezda docking mechanism without contact with the receiving cone. From 30 km and down to a distance of 250 m, ATV uses GPS (Global Positioning System) information from its own receiver and the Station's that is transmitted over a radiofrequency link. As it moves closer, ATV switches to laser navigation, using the reflection of laser pulses on reflectors mounted on the Space Station. This paper presents the achievements and performance of ATV GNC (Guidance, Navigation, and Control) across the 5 missions for both types of navigation. It will also discuss the observations made during the various flights regarding unforeseen conditions such as space environment or target pattern contamination having a potential impact on performance and how they were resolved.

  17. Poor flight performance in deep-diving cormorants.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yuuki Y; Takahashi, Akinori; Sato, Katsufumi; Viviant, Morgane; Bost, Charles-André

    2011-02-01

    Aerial flight and breath-hold diving present conflicting morphological and physiological demands, and hence diving seabirds capable of flight are expected to face evolutionary trade-offs regarding locomotory performances. We tested whether Kerguelen shags Phalacrocorax verrucosus, which are remarkable divers, have poor flight capability using newly developed tags that recorded their flight air speed (the first direct measurement for wild birds) with propeller sensors, flight duration, GPS position and depth during foraging trips. Flight air speed (mean 12.7 m s(-1)) was close to the speed that minimizes power requirement, rather than energy expenditure per distance, when existing aerodynamic models were applied. Flights were short (mean 92 s), with a mean summed duration of only 24 min day(-1). Shags sometimes stayed at the sea surface without diving between flights, even on the way back to the colony, and surface durations increased with the preceding flight durations; these observations suggest that shags rested after flights. Our results indicate that their flight performance is physiologically limited, presumably compromised by their great diving capability (max. depth 94 m, duration 306 s) through their morphological adaptations for diving, including large body mass (enabling a large oxygen store), small flight muscles (to allow for large leg muscles for underwater propulsion) and short wings (to decrease air volume in the feathers and hence buoyancy). The compromise between flight and diving, as well as the local bathymetry, shape the three-dimensional foraging range (<26 km horizontally, <94 m vertically) in this bottom-feeding cormorant.

  18. In-flight disinsection as an efficacious procedure for preventing international transport of insects of public health importance.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, R. C.; Paton, R.

    1989-01-01

    Aircraft disinsection with aerosol insecticides during flight has generally been held to be inadvisable because it was assumed that the insecticides would be rapidly removed by the cabin air-conditioning system. We have developed protocols to deliver 2% d-phenothrin at a dose of 35 g per 100 m3 in various aircraft, and trials undertaken on Boeing 747 and 767 aircraft showed that their air-conditioning systems do not preclude effective disinsection. Mortality levels of 100% for Culex quinquefasciatus and Musca domestica test insects were recorded under normal operating conditions during routine scheduled passenger flights with disinsection procedures undertaken at "blocks-away" or at "top-of-descent". As a result, "top-of-descent" disinsection has been introduced as the recommended procedure for aircraft landing in Australia. PMID:2611975

  19. In-flight disinsection as an efficacious procedure for preventing international transport of insects of public health importance.

    PubMed

    Russell, R C; Paton, R

    1989-01-01

    Aircraft disinsection with aerosol insecticides during flight has generally been held to be inadvisable because it was assumed that the insecticides would be rapidly removed by the cabin air-conditioning system. We have developed protocols to deliver 2% d-phenothrin at a dose of 35 g per 100 m3 in various aircraft, and trials undertaken on Boeing 747 and 767 aircraft showed that their air-conditioning systems do not preclude effective disinsection. Mortality levels of 100% for Culex quinquefasciatus and Musca domestica test insects were recorded under normal operating conditions during routine scheduled passenger flights with disinsection procedures undertaken at "blocks-away" or at "top-of-descent". As a result, "top-of-descent" disinsection has been introduced as the recommended procedure for aircraft landing in Australia.

  20. WFC3: In-Flight Performance Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimble, Randy A.; MacKenty, J. W.; O'Connell, R. W.; Townsend, J. A.; WFC3 Team

    2010-01-01

    Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3), a powerful new imager for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), was successfully installed in the telescope in May 2009 during the first dramatic spacewalk of space shuttle flight STS-125, also known as HST Servicing Mission 4. This new camera offers unique observing capabilities in two channels spanning a broad wavelength range from the near ultraviolet to the near infrared (200-1000nm in the UV/Visible [UVIS] channel; 850-1700nm in the IR channel). After an initial outgassing period, WFC3 was cooled to its observing configuration in June. In the following months, a highly successful Servicing Mission Observatory Verification (SMOV4) program was executed, which has confirmed the exciting scientific potential of the instrument. Detailed performance results from the SMOV4 program are presented in a number of papers in this session. In this paper, we highlight some top-level performance assessments (throughput, limiting magnitudes, survey speeds) for WFC3, which is now actively engaged in the execution of forefront astronomical observing programs.

  1. Nectar resource limitation affects butterfly flight performance and metabolism differently in intensive and extensive agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A; Van Dyck, Hans

    2016-05-11

    Flight is an essential biological ability of many insects, but is energetically costly. Environments under rapid human-induced change are characterized by habitat fragmentation and may impose constraints on the energy income budget of organisms. This may, in turn, affect locomotor performance and willingness to fly. We tested flight performance and metabolic rates in meadow brown butterflies (Maniola jurtina) of two contrasted agricultural landscapes: intensively managed, nectar-poor (IL) versus extensively managed, nectar-rich landscapes (EL). Young female adults were submitted to four nectar treatments (i.e. nectar quality and quantity) in outdoor flight cages. IL individuals had better flight capacities in a flight mill and had lower resting metabolic rates (RMR) than EL individuals, except under the severest treatment. Under this treatment, RMR increased in IL individuals, but decreased in EL individuals; flight performance was maintained by IL individuals, but dropped by a factor 2.5 in EL individuals. IL individuals had more canalized (i.e. less plastic) responses relative to the nectar treatments than EL individuals. Our results show significant intraspecific variation in the locomotor and metabolic response of a butterfly to different energy income regimes relative to the landscape of origin. Ecophysiological studies help to improve our mechanistic understanding of the eco-evolutionary impact of anthropogenic environments on rare and widespread species. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Nectar resource limitation affects butterfly flight performance and metabolism differently in intensive and extensive agricultural landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A.; Van Dyck, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Flight is an essential biological ability of many insects, but is energetically costly. Environments under rapid human-induced change are characterized by habitat fragmentation and may impose constraints on the energy income budget of organisms. This may, in turn, affect locomotor performance and willingness to fly. We tested flight performance and metabolic rates in meadow brown butterflies (Maniola jurtina) of two contrasted agricultural landscapes: intensively managed, nectar-poor (IL) versus extensively managed, nectar-rich landscapes (EL). Young female adults were submitted to four nectar treatments (i.e. nectar quality and quantity) in outdoor flight cages. IL individuals had better flight capacities in a flight mill and had lower resting metabolic rates (RMR) than EL individuals, except under the severest treatment. Under this treatment, RMR increased in IL individuals, but decreased in EL individuals; flight performance was maintained by IL individuals, but dropped by a factor 2.5 in EL individuals. IL individuals had more canalized (i.e. less plastic) responses relative to the nectar treatments than EL individuals. Our results show significant intraspecific variation in the locomotor and metabolic response of a butterfly to different energy income regimes relative to the landscape of origin. Ecophysiological studies help to improve our mechanistic understanding of the eco-evolutionary impact of anthropogenic environments on rare and widespread species. PMID:27147100

  3. An unstructured mesh arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian unsteady incompressible flow solver and its application to insect flight aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xiaohui; Cao, Yuanwei; Zhao, Yong

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an unstructured mesh Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) incompressible flow solver is developed to investigate the aerodynamics of insect hovering flight. The proposed finite-volume ALE Navier-Stokes solver is based on the artificial compressibility method (ACM) with a high-resolution method of characteristics-based scheme on unstructured grids. The present ALE model is validated and assessed through flow passing over an oscillating cylinder. Good agreements with experimental results and other numerical solutions are obtained, which demonstrates the accuracy and the capability of the present model. The lift generation mechanisms of 2D wing in hovering motion, including wake capture, delayed stall, rapid pitch, as well as clap and fling are then studied and illustrated using the current ALE model. Moreover, the optimized angular amplitude in symmetry model, 45°, is firstly reported in details using averaged lift and the energy power method. Besides, the lift generation of complete cyclic clap and fling motion, which is simulated by few researchers using the ALE method due to large deformation, is studied and clarified for the first time. The present ALE model is found to be a useful tool to investigate lift force generation mechanism for insect wing flight.

  4. Post-Flight Analysis of GPSR Performance During Orion Exploration Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Lee; Mamich, Harvey; McGregor, John

    2016-01-01

    On 5 December 2014, the first test flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle executed a unique and challenging flight profile including an elevated re-entry velocity and steeper flight path angle to envelope lunar re-entry conditions. A new navigation system including a single frequency (L1) GPS receiver was evaluated for use as part of the redundant navigation system required for human space flight. The single frequency receiver was challenged by a highly dynamic flight environment including flight above low Earth orbit, as well as single frequency operation with ionospheric delay present. This paper presents a brief description of the GPS navigation system, an independent analysis of flight telemetry data, and evaluation of the GPSR performance, including evaluation of the ionospheric model employed to supplement the single frequency receiver. Lessons learned and potential improvements will be discussed.

  5. A predictive model of flight crew performance in automated air traffic control and flight management operations

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-01-01

    Prepared ca. 1995. This paper describes Air-MIDAS, a model of pilot performance in interaction with varied levels of automation in flight management operations. The model was used to predict the performance of a two person flight crew responding to c...

  6. Surpassing Mt. Everest: extreme flight performance of alpine bumble-bees.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Michael E; Dudley, Robert

    2014-02-01

    Animal flight at altitude involves substantial aerodynamic and physiological challenges. Hovering at high elevations is particularly demanding from the dual perspectives of lift and power output; nevertheless, some volant insects reside and fly at elevations in excess of 4000 m. Here, we demonstrate that alpine bumble-bees possess substantial aerodynamic reserves, and can sustain hovering flight under hypobaria at effective elevations in excess of 9000 m, i.e. higher than Mt. Everest. Modulation of stroke amplitude and not wingbeat frequency is the primary means of compensation for overcoming the aerodynamic challenge. The presence of such excess capacity in a high-altitude bumble-bee is surprising and suggests intermittent behavioural demands for extreme flight performance supplemental to routine foraging.

  7. Calculating Launch Vehicle Flight Performance Reserve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Pinson, Robin M.; Beard, Bernard B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses different methods for determining the amount of extra propellant (flight performance reserve or FPR) that is necessary to reach orbit with a high probability of success. One approach involves assuming that the various influential parameters are independent and that the result behaves as a Gaussian. Alternatively, probabilistic models may be used to determine the vehicle and environmental models that will be available (estimated) for a launch day go/no go decision. High-fidelity closed-loop Monte Carlo simulation determines the amount of propellant used with each random combination of parameters that are still unknown at the time of launch. Using the results of the Monte Carlo simulation, several methods were used to calculate the FPR. The final chosen solution involves determining distributions for the pertinent outputs and running a separate Monte Carlo simulation to obtain a best estimate of the required FPR. This result differs from the result obtained using the other methods sufficiently that the higher fidelity is warranted.

  8. Crepuscular flight activity of an invasive insect governed by interacting abiotic factors

    Treesearch

    Yigen Chen; Steven J. Seybold

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal and diurnal flight patterns of the invasive walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, were assessed between 2011 and 2014 in northern California, USA in the context of the effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, wind speed, and barometric pressure. Pityophthorus juglandis generally initiated flight in late...

  9. Should I fight or should I flight? How studying insect aggression can help integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Aggression plays a key role all across the animal kingdom, as it allows the acquisition and/or defence of limited resources (food, mates and territories) in a huge number of species. A large part of our knowledge on aggressive behaviour has been developed on insects of economic importance. How can this knowledge be exploited to enhance integrated pest management? Here, I highlight how knowledge on intraspecific aggression can help IPM both in terms of insect pests (with a focus on the enhancement of the sterile insect technique) and in terms of biological control agents (with a focus on mass-rearing optimisation). Then, I examine what implications for IPM can be outlined from knowledge about interspecific aggressive behaviour. Besides predator-pest aggressive interactions predicted by classic biological control, I focus on what IPM can learn from (i) interspecific aggression among pest species (with special reference to competitive displacement), (ii) defensive behaviour exhibited by prey against predaceous insects and (iii) conflicts among predaceous arthropods sharing the same trophic niche (with special reference to learning/sensitisation practices and artificial manipulation of chemically mediated interactions). © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Flight performance of bumble bee as a possible pollinator in space agriculture under partial gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Mitsuhata, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masami; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Space agriculture is an advanced life support concept for habitation on extraterrestrial bodies based on biological and ecological function. Flowering plant species are core member of space agriculture to produce food and revitalize air and water. Selection of crop plant species is made on the basis of nutritional requirements to maintain healthy life of space crew. Species selected for space agriculture have several mode of reproduction. For some of plant species, insect pollination is effective to increase yield and quality of food. In terrestrial agriculture, bee is widely introduced to pollinate flower. For pollinator insect on Mars, working environment is different from Earth. Magnitude of gravity is 0.38G on Mars surface. In order to confirm feasibility of insect pollination for space agriculture, capability of flying pollinator insect under such exotic condition should be examined. Even bee does not possess evident gravity sensory system, gravity dominates flying performance and behavior. During flight or hovering, lifting force produced by wing beat sustains body weight, which is the product of body mass and gravitational acceleration. Flying behavior of bumble bee, Bombus ignitus, was documented under partial or micro-gravity produced by parabolic flight of jet plane. Flying behavior at absence of gravity differed from that under normal gravity. Ability of bee to fly under partial gravity was examined at the level of Mars, Moon and the less, to determine the threshold level of gravity for bee flying maneuver. Adaptation process of bee flying under different gravity level was evaluated as well by successive documentation of parabolic flight experiment.

  11. Flight performance of the orange wheat blossom midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Hao, Ya-Nan; Miao, Jin; Wu, Yu-Qing; Gong, Zhong-Jun; Jiang, Yue-Li; Duan, Yun; Li, Tong; Cheng, Wei-Ning; Cui, Jian-Xin

    2013-10-01

    The orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Géhin) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a chronic wheat pest worldwide. Adult S. mosellana engage in short-distance flight, but also exploit weather patterns for long-distance dispersal. However, little is known about the flight performance of S. mosellana, and the effects of the biotic and abiotic factors that influence its flight activity. In this study, we explored the active flight potential of S. mosellana under various environmental factors using a 26-channel computer-monitored flight mill system. The most suitable temperature for flight and flight distance was 16-24 degrees C; flight duration peaked at 16 degrees C while speed peaked at 28 degrees C. Flight performance gradually declined between 10 and 400 lux light intensity. More than 50% individuals of 1-d-old females flew > 500 m, while only 24% of males flew > 500 m. One-day-old S. mosellana had stronger flight ability than that of 2-d-old individuals. This research showed that S. mosellana possessed strong enough flight ability that they can fly to a high altitude and then disperse via moving air currents. These results can aid in forecasting S. mosellana outbreak.

  12. System identification and sensorimotor determinants of flight maneuvers in an insect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sponberg, Simon; Hall, Robert; Roth, Eatai

    Locomotor maneuvers are inherently closed-loop processes. They are generally characterized by the integration of multiple sensory inputs and adaptation or learning over time. To probe sensorimotor processing we take a system identification approach treating the underlying physiological systems as dynamic processes and altering the feedback topology in experiment and analysis. As a model system, we use agile hawk moths (Manduca sexta), which feed from real and robotic flowers while hovering in mid air. Moths rely on vision and mechanosensation to track floral targets and can do so at exceptionally low luminance levels despite hovering being a mechanically unstable behavior that requires neural feedback to stabilize. By altering the sensory environment and placing mechanical and visual signals in conflict we show a surprisingly simple linear summation of visual and mechanosensation produces a generative prediction of behavior to novel stimuli. Tracking performance is also limited more by the mechanics of flight than the magnitude of the sensory cue. A feedback systems approach to locomotor control results in new insights into how behavior emerges from the interaction of nonlinear physiological systems.

  13. Hypoxia and flight performance of military instructor pilots in a flight simulator.

    PubMed

    Temme, Leonard A; Still, David L; Acromite, Michael T

    2010-07-01

    Military aircrew and other operational personnel frequently perform their duties at altitudes posing a significant hypoxia risk, often with limited access to supplemental oxygen. Despite the significant risk hypoxia poses, there are few studies relating it to primary flight performance, which is the purpose of the present study. Objective, quantitative measures of aircraft control were collected from 14 experienced, active duty instructor pilot volunteers as they breathed an air/nitrogen mix that provided an oxygen partial pressure equivalent to the atmosphere at 18,000 ft (5486.4 m) above mean sea level. The flight task required holding a constant airspeed, altitude, and heading at an airspeed significantly slower than the aircraft's minimum drag speed. The simulated aircraft's inherent instability at the target speed challenged the pilot to maintain constant control of the aircraft in order to minimize deviations from the assigned flight parameters. Each pilot's flight performance was evaluated by measuring all deviations from assigned target values. Hypoxia degraded the pilot's precision of altitude and airspeed control by 53%, a statistically significant decrease in flight performance. The effect on heading control effects was not statistically significant. There was no evidence of performance differences when breathing room air pre- and post-hypoxia. Moderate levels of hypoxia degraded the ability of military instructor pilots to perform a precision slow flight task. This is one of a small number of studies to quantify an effect of hypoxia on primary flight performance.

  14. PTS performance by flight- and control-group macaques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M.; Richardson, W. K.; Gulledge, J. P.; Shlyk, G. G.; Vasilieva, O. N.

    2000-01-01

    A total of 25 young monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained with the Psychomotor Test System, a package of software tasks and computer hardware developed for spaceflight research with nonhuman primates. Two flight monkeys and two control monkeys were selected from this pool and performed a psychomotor task before and after the Bion 11 flight or a ground-control period. Monkeys from both groups showed significant disruption in performance after the 14-day flight or simulation (plus one anesthetized day of biopsies and other tests), and this disruption appeared to be magnified for the flight animal.

  15. Stress training improves performance during a stressful flight.

    PubMed

    McClernon, Christopher K; McCauley, Michael E; O'Connor, Paul E; Warm, Joel S

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated whether stress training introduced during the acquisition of simulator-based flight skills enhances pilot performance during subsequent stressful flight operations in an actual aircraft. Despite knowledge that preconditions to aircraft accidents can be strongly influenced by pilot stress, little is known about the effectiveness of stress training and how it transfers to operational flight settings. For this study, 30 participants with no flying experience were assigned at random to a stress-trained treatment group or a control group. Stress training consisted of systematic pairing of skill acquisition in a flight simulator with stress coping mechanisms in the presence of a cold pressor. Control participants received identical flight skill acquisition training but without stress training. Participants then performed a stressful flying task in a Piper Archer aircraft. Stress-trained research participants flew the aircraft more smoothly, as recorded by aircraft telemetry data, and generally better, as recorded by flight instructor evaluations, than did control participants. Introducing stress coping mechanisms during flight training improved performance in a stressful flying task. The results of this study indicate that stress training during the acquisition of flight skills may serve to enhance pilot performance in stressful operational flight and, therefore, might mitigate the contribution of pilot stress to aircraft mishaps.

  16. Control Design and Performance Analysis for Autonomous Formation Flight Experimentss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Caleb Michael

    Autonomous Formation Flight is a key approach for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and managing traffic in future high density airspace. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV's) have made it possible for the physical demonstration and validation of autonomous formation flight concepts inexpensively and eliminates the flight risk to human pilots. This thesis discusses the design, implementation, and flight testing of three different formation flight control methods, Proportional Integral and Derivative (PID); Fuzzy Logic (FL); and NonLinear Dynamic Inversion (NLDI), and their respective performance behavior. Experimental results show achievable autonomous formation flight and performance quality with a pair of low-cost unmanned research fixed wing aircraft and also with a solo vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) quadrotor.

  17. Flight Performance During Exposure to Acute Hypobaric Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Steinman, Yuval; van den Oord, Marieke H A H; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith K

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of hypobaric hypoxia (HH) on a pilot's flight performance during exposure to simulated altitudes of 91, 3048, and 4572 m (300, 10,000, and 15,000 ft) and to monitor the pilot's physiological reactions. In a single-blinded counter-balanced design, 12 male pilots were exposed to HH while flying in a flight simulator that had been placed in a hypobaric chamber. Flight performance of the pilots, pilot's alertness level, Spo2, heart rate (HR), minute ventilation (VE), and breathing frequency (BF) were measured. A significant difference was found in Flight Profile Accuracy (FPA) between the three altitudes. Post hoc analysis showed no significant difference in performance between 91 m and 3048 m. A trend was observed at 4572 m, suggesting a decrease in flight performance at that altitude. Significantly lower alertness levels were observed at the start of the flight at 4572 m compared to 91 m, and at the end of the flight at 4572 m compared to the start at that altitude. Spo2 and BF decreased, and HR increased significantly with altitude. The present study did not provide decisive evidence for a decrease in flight performance during exposure to simulated altitudes of 3048 and 4572 m. However, large interindividual variation in pilots' flight performance combined with a gradual decrease in alertness levels observed in the present study puts into question the ability of pilots to safely fly an aircraft while exposed to these altitudes without supplemental oxygen.Steinman Y, van den Oord MHAH, Frings-Dresen MHW, Sluiter JK. Flight performance during exposure to acute hypobaric hypoxia. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(8):760-767.

  18. Flight Test Techniques Used to Evaluate Performance Benefits During Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Ronald J.; Cobleigh, Brent R.; Vachon, M. Jake; SaintJohn, Clinton

    2002-01-01

    The Autonomous Formation Flight research project has been implemented at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center to demonstrate the benefits of formation flight and develop advanced technologies to facilitate exploiting these benefits. Two F/A-18 aircraft have been modified to precisely control and monitor relative position, and to determine performance of the trailing airplane. Flight test maneuvers and analysis techniques have been developed to determine the performance advantages, including drag and fuel flow reductions and improvements in range factor. By flying the trailing airplane through a matrix of lateral, longitudinal, and vertical offset positions, a detailed map of the performance benefits has been obtained at two flight conditions. Significant performance benefits have been obtained during this flight test phase. Drag reductions of more than 20 percent and fuel flow reductions of more than 18 percent have been measured at flight conditions of Mach 0.56 and an altitude of 25,000 ft. The results show favorable agreement with published theory and generic predictions. An F/A-18 long-range cruise mission at Mach 0.8 and an altitude of 40,000 ft has been simulated in the optimum formation position and has demonstrated a 14-percent fuel reduction when compared with a controlled chase airplane of similar configuration.

  19. Dietary Effects on Cognition and Pilots' Flight Performance.

    PubMed

    Lindseth, Glenda N; Lindseth, Paul D; Jensen, Warren C; Petros, Thomas V; Helland, Brian D; Fossum, Debra L

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of diet on cognition and flight performance of 45 pilots. Based on a theory of self-care, this clinical study used a repeated-measure, counterbalanced crossover design. Pilots were randomly rotated through 4-day high-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat, and control diets. Cognitive flight performance was evaluated using a GAT-2 full-motion flight simulator. The Sternberg short-term memory test and Vandenberg's mental rotation test were used to validate cognitive flight test results. Pilots consuming a high-protein diet had significantly poorer ( p < .05) overall flight performance scores than pilots consuming high-fat and high-carbohydrate diets.

  20. Dietary Effects on Cognition and Pilots’ Flight Performance

    PubMed Central

    Lindseth, Glenda N.; Lindseth, Paul D.; Jensen, Warren C.; Petros, Thomas V.; Helland, Brian D.; Fossum, Debra L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of diet on cognition and flight performance of 45 pilots. Based on a theory of self-care, this clinical study used a repeated-measure, counterbalanced crossover design. Pilots were randomly rotated through 4-day high-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat, and control diets. Cognitive flight performance was evaluated using a GAT-2 full-motion flight simulator. The Sternberg short-term memory test and Vandenberg’s mental rotation test were used to validate cognitive flight test results. Pilots consuming a high-protein diet had significantly poorer (p < .05) overall flight performance scores than pilots consuming high-fat and high-carbohydrate diets. PMID:29353985

  1. From damselflies to pterosaurs: how burst and sustainable flight performance scale with size.

    PubMed

    Marden, J H

    1994-04-01

    Recent empirical data for short-burst lift and power production of flying animals indicate that mass-specific lift and power output scale independently (lift) or slightly positively (power) with increasing size. These results contradict previous theory, as well as simple observation, which argues for degradation of flight performance with increasing size. Here, empirical measures of lift and power during short-burst exertion are combined with empirically based estimates of maximum muscle power output in order to predict how burst and sustainable performance scale with body size. The resulting model is used to estimate performance of the largest extant flying birds and insects, along with the largest flying animals known from fossils. These estimates indicate that burst flight performance capacities of even the largest extinct fliers (estimated mass 250 kg) would allow takeoff from the ground; however, limitations on sustainable power output should constrain capacity for continuous flight at body sizes exceeding 0.003-1.0 kg, depending on relative wing length and flight muscle mass.

  2. Wing-kinematics measurement and aerodynamics in a small insect in hovering flight

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xin; Sun, Mao

    2016-01-01

    Wing-motion of hovering small fly Liriomyza sativae was measured using high-speed video and flows of the wings calculated numerically. The fly used high wingbeat frequency (≈265 Hz) and large stroke amplitude (≈182°); therefore, even if its wing-length (R) was small (R ≈ 1.4 mm), the mean velocity of wing reached ≈1.5 m/s, the same as that of an average-size insect (R ≈ 3 mm). But the Reynolds number (Re) of wing was still low (≈40), owing to the small wing-size. In increasing the stroke amplitude, the outer parts of the wings had a “clap and fling” motion. The mean-lift coefficient was high, ≈1.85, several times larger than that of a cruising airplane. The partial “clap and fling” motion increased the lift by ≈7%, compared with the case of no aerodynamic interaction between the wings. The fly mainly used the delayed stall mechanism to generate the high-lift. The lift-to-drag ratio is only 0.7 (for larger insects, Re being about 100 or higher, the ratio is 1–1.2); that is, although the small fly can produce enough lift to support its weight, it needs to overcome a larger drag to do so. PMID:27168523

  3. Wing-kinematics measurement and aerodynamics in a small insect in hovering flight.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xin; Sun, Mao

    2016-05-11

    Wing-motion of hovering small fly Liriomyza sativae was measured using high-speed video and flows of the wings calculated numerically. The fly used high wingbeat frequency (≈265 Hz) and large stroke amplitude (≈182°); therefore, even if its wing-length (R) was small (R ≈ 1.4 mm), the mean velocity of wing reached ≈1.5 m/s, the same as that of an average-size insect (R ≈ 3 mm). But the Reynolds number (Re) of wing was still low (≈40), owing to the small wing-size. In increasing the stroke amplitude, the outer parts of the wings had a "clap and fling" motion. The mean-lift coefficient was high, ≈1.85, several times larger than that of a cruising airplane. The partial "clap and fling" motion increased the lift by ≈7%, compared with the case of no aerodynamic interaction between the wings. The fly mainly used the delayed stall mechanism to generate the high-lift. The lift-to-drag ratio is only 0.7 (for larger insects, Re being about 100 or higher, the ratio is 1-1.2); that is, although the small fly can produce enough lift to support its weight, it needs to overcome a larger drag to do so.

  4. Human Respiratory Responses during High Performance Flight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    of walking in chemical defence clothing. RAF Institute of Aviation Medicine Aircrew Equipment Group Report No 347 , 1975. 95 Gibson T M, Anton D...1.05 1.01 1.15 1.07 0.0391 0.6223 0.C243 2 Taxy (pre-flight) . 1.00 1.01 1.05 1.08 1.02 0.0296 0.4187 0.0124 1 Jako -oft . 1.09 - 1.13 1.15 1.55 1.14

  5. Design and Performance of Insect-Scale Flapping-Wing Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, John Peter

    Micro-air vehicles (MAVs)---small versions of full-scale aircraft---are the product of a continued path of miniaturization which extends across many fields of engineering. Increasingly, MAVs approach the scale of small birds, and most recently, their sizes have dipped into the realm of hummingbirds and flying insects. However, these non-traditional biologically-inspired designs are without well-established design methods, and manufacturing complex devices at these tiny scales is not feasible using conventional manufacturing methods. This thesis presents a comprehensive investigation of new MAV design and manufacturing methods, as applicable to insect-scale hovering flight. New design methods combine an energy-based accounting of propulsion and aerodynamics with a one degree-of-freedom dynamic flapping model. Important results include analytical expressions for maximum flight endurance and range, and predictions for maximum feasible wing size and body mass. To meet manufacturing constraints, the use of passive wing dynamics to simplify vehicle design and control was investigated; supporting tests included the first synchronized measurements of real-time forces and three-dimensional kinematics generated by insect-scale flapping wings. These experimental methods were then expanded to study optimal wing shapes and high-efficiency flapping kinematics. To support the development of high-fidelity test devices and fully-functional flight hardware, a new class of manufacturing methods was developed, combining elements of rigid-flex printed circuit board fabrication with "pop-up book" folding mechanisms. In addition to their current and future support of insect-scale MAV development, these new manufacturing techniques are likely to prove an essential element to future advances in micro-optomechanics, micro-surgery, and many other fields.

  6. High temperature and performance in a flight task simulator.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1972-05-01

    The effects of high cockpit temperature on physiological responses and performance were determined on pilots in a general aviation simulator. The pilots (all instrument rated) 'flew' an instrument flight while exposed to each of three cockpit tempera...

  7. Burbank performs routine in-flight maintenance on the EMU

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-13

    ISS030-E-148280 (13 March 2012) --- NASA astronaut Dan Burbank, Expedition 30 commander, performs routine in-flight maintenance on Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) equipment in the Quest airlock of the International Space Station.

  8. Burbank performs routine in-flight maintenance on the EMU

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-14

    ISS030-E-148276 (13 March 2012) --- NASA astronaut Dan Burbank, Expedition 30 commander, performs routine in-flight maintenance on Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) equipment in the Quest airlock of the International Space Station.

  9. Burbank performs routine in-flight maintenance on the EMU

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-14

    ISS030-E-148275 (13 March 2012) --- NASA astronaut Dan Burbank, Expedition 30 commander, performs routine in-flight maintenance on Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) equipment in the Quest airlock of the International Space Station.

  10. Characterization of in-flight performance of ion propulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sovey, James S.; Rawlin, Vincent K.

    1993-06-01

    In-flight measurements of ion propulsion performance, ground test calibrations, and diagnostic performance measurements were reviewed. It was found that accelerometers provided the most accurate in-flight thrust measurements compared with four other methods that were surveyed. An experiment has also demonstrated that pre-flight alignment of the thrust vector was sufficiently accurate so that gimbal adjustments and use of attitude control thrusters were not required to counter disturbance torques caused by thrust vector misalignment. The effects of facility background pressure, facility enhanced charge-exchange reactions, and contamination on ground-based performance measurements are also discussed. Vacuum facility pressures for inert-gas ion thruster life tests and flight qualification tests will have to be less than 2 mPa to ensure accurate performance measurements.

  11. Characterization of in-flight performance of ion propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Rawlin, Vincent K.

    1993-01-01

    In-flight measurements of ion propulsion performance, ground test calibrations, and diagnostic performance measurements were reviewed. It was found that accelerometers provided the most accurate in-flight thrust measurements compared with four other methods that were surveyed. An experiment has also demonstrated that pre-flight alignment of the thrust vector was sufficiently accurate so that gimbal adjustments and use of attitude control thrusters were not required to counter disturbance torques caused by thrust vector misalignment. The effects of facility background pressure, facility enhanced charge-exchange reactions, and contamination on ground-based performance measurements are also discussed. Vacuum facility pressures for inert-gas ion thruster life tests and flight qualification tests will have to be less than 2 mPa to ensure accurate performance measurements.

  12. Flight performance measurement utilizing a figure of merit (FOM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosier, Kathleen L.; Zacharias, Greg L.

    1993-01-01

    One of the goals of the NASA Strategic Behavior/Workload Management Program is to develop standardized procedures for constructing figures of merit (FOMs) that describe minimal criteria for flight task performance, as well as summarize overall performance quality. Such a measure could be utilized for evaluating flight crew performance, for assessing the effectiveness of new equipment or technological innovations, or for measuring performance at a particular airport. In this report, we describe the initial phases in the creation of a FOM to be employed in examining crew performance in NASA-Ames Air Ground Compatibility and Strategic Behavior/Workload Management programs.

  13. Expedition 16 Flight Engineer Tani Performs EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Astronaut Daniel Tani (top center), Expedition 16 flight engineer, participates in the second of five scheduled sessions of extravehicular activity (EVA) as construction continues on the International Space Station (ISS). During the 6-hour and 33-minute space walk, Tani and STS-120 mission specialist Scott Parazynski (out of frame), worked in tandem to disconnect cables from the P6 truss, allowing it to be removed from the Z1 truss. Tani also visually inspected the station's starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) and gathered samples of 'shavings' he found under the joint's multilayer insulation covers. The space walkers also outfitted the Harmony module, mated the power and data grapple fixture and reconfigured connectors on the starboard 1 (S1) truss that will allow the radiator on S1 to be deployed from the ground later. The moon is visible at lower center. The STS-120 mission launched from Kennedy Space Center's launch pad 39A at 11:38:19 a.m. (EDT) on October 23, 2007.

  14. Helicopter Pilot Performance for Discrete-maneuver Flight Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffley, R. K.; Bourne, S. M.; Hindson, W. S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a current study of several basic helicopter flight maneuvers. The data base consists of in-flight measurements from instrumented helicopters using experienced pilots. The analysis technique is simple enough to apply without automatic data processing, and the results can be used to build quantitative matah models of the flight task and some aspects of the pilot control strategy. In addition to describing the performance measurement technqiue, some results are presented which define the aggressiveness and amplitude of maneuvering for several lateral maneuvers including turns and sidesteps.

  15. Space Shuttle propulsion performance reconstruction from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    The aplication of extended Kalman filtering to estimating Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) performance, specific impulse, from flight data in a post-flight processing computer program. The flight data used includes inertial platform acceleration, SRB head pressure, and ground based radar tracking data. The key feature in this application is the model used for the SRBs, which represents a reference quasi-static internal ballistics model normalized to the propellant burn depth. Dynamic states of mass overboard and propellant burn depth are included in the filter model to account for real-time deviations from the reference model used. Aerodynamic, plume, wind and main engine uncertainties are included.

  16. Dynamics and flight control of a flapping-wing robotic insect in the presence of wind gusts.

    PubMed

    Chirarattananon, Pakpong; Chen, Yufeng; Helbling, E Farrell; Ma, Kevin Y; Cheng, Richard; Wood, Robert J

    2017-02-06

    With the goal of operating a biologically inspired robot autonomously outside of laboratory conditions, in this paper, we simulated wind disturbances in a laboratory setting and investigated the effects of gusts on the flight dynamics of a millimetre-scale flapping-wing robot. Simplified models describing the disturbance effects on the robot's dynamics are proposed, together with two disturbance rejection schemes capable of estimating and compensating for the disturbances. The proposed methods are experimentally verified. The results show that these strategies reduced the root-mean-square position errors by more than 50% when the robot was subject to 80 cm s -1 horizontal wind. The analysis of flight data suggests that modulation of wing kinematics to stabilize the flight in the presence of wind gusts may indirectly contribute an additional stabilizing effect, reducing the time-averaged aerodynamic drag experienced by the robot. A benchtop experiment was performed to provide further support for this observed phenomenon.

  17. Dynamics and flight control of a flapping-wing robotic insect in the presence of wind gusts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yufeng; Helbling, E. Farrell; Ma, Kevin Y.; Cheng, Richard; Wood, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    With the goal of operating a biologically inspired robot autonomously outside of laboratory conditions, in this paper, we simulated wind disturbances in a laboratory setting and investigated the effects of gusts on the flight dynamics of a millimetre-scale flapping-wing robot. Simplified models describing the disturbance effects on the robot's dynamics are proposed, together with two disturbance rejection schemes capable of estimating and compensating for the disturbances. The proposed methods are experimentally verified. The results show that these strategies reduced the root-mean-square position errors by more than 50% when the robot was subject to 80 cm s−1 horizontal wind. The analysis of flight data suggests that modulation of wing kinematics to stabilize the flight in the presence of wind gusts may indirectly contribute an additional stabilizing effect, reducing the time-averaged aerodynamic drag experienced by the robot. A benchtop experiment was performed to provide further support for this observed phenomenon. PMID:28163872

  18. The role of flight planning in aircrew decision performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepitone, Dave; King, Teresa; Murphy, Miles

    1989-01-01

    The role of flight planning in increasing the safety and decision-making performance of the air transport crews was investigated in a study that involved 48 rated airline crewmembers on a B720 simulator with a model-board-based visual scene and motion cues with three degrees of freedom. The safety performance of the crews was evaluated using videotaped replays of the flight. Based on these evaluations, the crews could be divided into high- and low-safety groups. It was found that, while collecting information before flights, the high-safety crews were more concerned with information about alternative airports, especially the fuel required to get there, and were characterized by making rapid and appropriate decisions during the emergency part of the flight scenario, allowing these crews to make an early diversion to other airports. These results suggest that contingency planning that takes into account alternative courses of action enhances rapid and accurate decision-making under time pressure.

  19. Mariner Mars 1971 attitude control subsystem flight performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumacher, L.

    1973-01-01

    The flight performance of the Mariner 71 attitude control subsystem is discussed. Each phase of the mission is delineated and the attitude control subsystem is evaluated within the observed operational environment. Performance anomalies are introduced and discussed within the context of general performance. Problems such as the sun sensor interface incompatibility, gas valve leaks, and scan platform dynamic coupling effects are given analytical considerations.

  20. Nicotine deprivation and pilot performance during simulated flight.

    PubMed

    Mumenthaler, Martin S; Benowitz, Neal L; Taylor, Joy L; Friedman, Leah; Noda, Art; Yesavage, Jerome A

    2010-07-01

    Most airlines enforce no-smoking policies, potentially causing flight performance decrements in pilots who are smokers. We tested the hypotheses that nicotine withdrawal affects aircraft pilot performance within 12 h of smoking cessation and that chewing nicotine gum leads to significant relief of these withdrawal effects. There were 29 pilots, regular smokers, who were tested in a Frasca 141 flight simulator on two 13-h test days, each including three 75-min flights (0 hr, 6 hr, 12 hr) in a randomized, controlled trial. On the first day (baseline), all pilots smoked one cigarette per hour. On the second day, pilots were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (1) nicotine cigarettes; (2) nicotine gum; (3) placebo gum; (4) no cigarettes/no gum. Flight Summary Scores (FSS) were compared between groups with repeated measures ANOVAs. No statistically significant differences in overall simulator flight performance were revealed between pilots who smoked cigarettes and pilots who were not allowed to smoke cigarettes or chew nicotine gum, but there was a trend for pilots who were not allowed to smoke to perform worse. However, pilots who chewed placebo gum performed significantly worse during the 6-h (FSS = -0.03) as well as during the 12-h flight (FSS = -0.08) than pilots who chewed nicotine gum (FSS = 0.15 / 0.30, respectively). Results suggest that nicotine withdrawal effects can impair aircraft pilot performance within 12 h of smoking cessation and that during smoking abstinence chewing one stick of 4-mg nicotine gum per hour may lead to significantly better overall flight performance compared to chewing placebo gum.

  1. Performance of high mach number scramjets - Tunnel vs flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsberg, Will O.; Wheatley, Vincent; Smart, Michael K.; Veeraragavan, Ananthanarayanan

    2018-05-01

    While typically analysed through ground-based impulse facilities, scramjets experience significant heating loads in flight, raising engine wall temperatures and the fuel used to cool them beyond standard laboratory conditions. Hence, the present work numerically compares an access-to-space scramjet's performance at both these conditions. The Mach 12 Rectangular-to-Elliptical Shape-Transitioning scramjet flow path is examined via three-dimensional and chemically reacting Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions. Flight operation is modelled through 800 K and 1800 K inlet and combustor walls respectively, while fuel is injected at both inlet- and combustor-based stations at 1000 K stagnation temperature. Room temperature walls and fuel plena model shock tunnel conditions. Mixing and combustion performance indicates that while flight conditions promote rapid mixing, high combustor temperatures inhibit the completion of reaction pathways, with reactant dissociation reducing chemical heat release by 16%. However, the heated walls in flight ensured 28% less energy was absorbed by the walls. While inlet fuel injection promotes robust burning of combustor-injected fuel, premature ignition upon the inlet in flight suggests these injectors should be moved further downstream. Coupled with counteracting differences in heat release and loss to the walls, the optimal engine design for flight may differ considerably from that which gives the best performance in the tunnel.

  2. Pilot age and expertise predict flight simulator performance

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Quinn; Noda, Art; Yesavage, Jerome A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Expert knowledge may compensate for age-related declines in basic cognitive and sensory-motor abilities in some skill domains. We investigated the influence of age and aviation expertise (indexed by Federal Aviation Administration pilot ratings) on longitudinal flight simulator performance. Methods Over a 3-year period, 118 general aviation pilots aged 40 to 69 years were tested annually, in which their flight performance was scored in terms of 1) executing air-traffic controller communications; 2) traffic avoidance; 3) scanning cockpit instruments; 4) executing an approach to landing; and 5) a flight summary score. Results More expert pilots had better flight summary scores at baseline and showed less decline over time. Secondary analyses revealed that expertise effects were most evident in the accuracy of executing aviation communications, the measure on which performance declined most sharply over time. Regarding age, even though older pilots initially performed worse than younger pilots, over time older pilots showed less decline in flight summary scores than younger pilots. Secondary analyses revealed that the oldest pilots did well over time because their traffic avoidance performance improved more vs younger pilots. Conclusions These longitudinal findings support previous cross-sectional studies in aviation as well as non-aviation domains, which demonstrated the advantageous effect of prior experience and specialized expertise on older adults’ skilled cognitive performances. PMID:17325270

  3. Challenges in modeling the X-29 flight test performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, John W.; Kania, Jan; Pearce, Robert; Mills, Glen

    1987-01-01

    Presented are methods, instrumentation, and difficulties associated with drag measurement of the X-29A aircraft. The initial performance objective of the X-29A program emphasized drag polar shapes rather than absolute drag levels. Priorities during the flight envelope expansion restricted the evaluation of aircraft performance. Changes in aircraft configuration, uncertainties in angle-of-attack calibration, and limitations in instrumentation complicated the analysis. Limited engine instrumentation with uncertainties in overall in-flight thrust accuracy made it difficult to obtain reliable values of coefficient of parasite drag. The aircraft was incapable of tracking the automatic camber control trim schedule for optimum wing flaperon deflection during typical dynamic performance maneuvers; this has also complicated the drag polar shape modeling. The X-29A was far enough off the schedule that the developed trim drag correction procedure has proven inadequate. However, good drag polar shapes have been developed throughout the flight envelope. Preliminary flight results have compared well with wind tunnel predictions. A more comprehensive analysis must be done to complete performance models. The detailed flight performance program with a calibrated engine will benefit from the experience gained during this preliminary performance phase.

  4. Challenges in modeling the X-29A flight test performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, John W.; Kania, Jan; Pearce, Robert; Mills, Glen

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the methods, instrumentation, and difficulties associated with drag measurement of the X-29A aircraft. The initial performance objective of the X-29A program emphasized drag polar shapes rather than absolute drag levels. Priorities during the flight envelope expansion restricted the evaluation of aircraft performance. Changes in aircraft configuration, uncertainties in angle-of-attack calibration, and limitations in instrumentation complicated the analysis. Limited engine instrumentation with uncertainties in overall in-flight thrust accuracy made it difficult to obtain reliable values of coefficient of parasite drag. The aircraft was incapable of tracking the automatic camber control trim schedule for optimum wing flaperon deflection during typical dynamic performance maneuvers; this has also complicated the drag polar shape modeling. The X-29A was far enough off the schedule that the developed trim drag correction procedure has proven inadequate. Despite these obstacles, good drag polar shapes have been developed throughout the flight envelope. Preliminary flight results have compared well with wind tunnel predictions. A more comprehensive analysis must be done to complete the performance models. The detailed flight performance program with a calibrated engine will benefit from the experience gained during this preliminary performance phase.

  5. X-ray diffraction evidence for myosin-troponin connections and tropomyosin movement during stretch activation of insect flight muscle

    PubMed Central

    Perz-Edwards, Robert J.; Irving, Thomas C.; Baumann, Bruce A. J.; Gore, David; Hutchinson, Daniel C.; Kržič, Uroš; Porter, Rebecca L.; Ward, Andrew B.; Reedy, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    Stretch activation is important in the mechanical properties of vertebrate cardiac muscle and essential to the flight muscles of most insects. Despite decades of investigation, the underlying molecular mechanism of stretch activation is unknown. We investigated the role of recently observed connections between myosin and troponin, called “troponin bridges,” by analyzing real-time X-ray diffraction “movies” from sinusoidally stretch-activated Lethocerus muscles. Observed changes in X-ray reflections arising from myosin heads, actin filaments, troponin, and tropomyosin were consistent with the hypothesis that troponin bridges are the key agent of mechanical signal transduction. The time-resolved sequence of molecular changes suggests a mechanism for stretch activation, in which troponin bridges mechanically tug tropomyosin aside to relieve tropomyosin’s steric blocking of myosin–actin binding. This enables subsequent force production, with cross-bridge targeting further enhanced by stretch-induced lattice compression and thick-filament twisting. Similar linkages may operate in other muscle systems, such as mammalian cardiac muscle, where stretch activation is thought to aid in cardiac ejection. PMID:21148419

  6. Forward flight of birds revisited. Part 1: aerodynamics and performance.

    PubMed

    Iosilevskii, G

    2014-10-01

    This paper is the first part of the two-part exposition, addressing performance and dynamic stability of birds. The aerodynamic model underlying the entire study is presented in this part. It exploits the simplicity of the lifting line approximation to furnish the forces and moments acting on a single wing in closed analytical forms. The accuracy of the model is corroborated by comparison with numerical simulations based on the vortex lattice method. Performance is studied both in tethered (as on a sting in a wind tunnel) and in free flights. Wing twist is identified as the main parameter affecting the flight performance-at high speeds, it improves efficiency, the rate of climb and the maximal level speed; at low speeds, it allows flying slower. It is demonstrated that, under most circumstances, the difference in performance between tethered and free flights is small.

  7. The mariner 9 power subsystem design and flight performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Josephs, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    The design and flight performance of the Mariner Mars 1971 power subsystem are presented. Mariner 9 was the first spacecraft to orbit another planet, and some of the power management techniques employed to support an orbital mission far from earth with marginal sunlight for its photovoltaic-battery power source are described. The performance of its nickel-cadmium battery during repetitive sun occultation phases of the mission, and the results of unique tests in flight to assess the performance capability of its solar array are reported.

  8. Evolution of avian flight: muscles and constraints on performance

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Competing hypotheses about evolutionary origins of flight are the ‘fundamental wing-stroke’ and ‘directed aerial descent’ hypotheses. Support for the fundamental wing-stroke hypothesis is that extant birds use flapping of their wings to climb even before they are able to fly; there are no reported examples of incrementally increasing use of wing movements in gliding transitioning to flapping. An open question is whether locomotor styles must evolve initially for efficiency or if they might instead arrive due to efficacy. The proximal muscles of the avian wing output work and power for flight, and new research is exploring functions of the distal muscles in relation to dynamic changes in wing shape. It will be useful to test the relative contributions of the muscles of the forearm compared with inertial and aerodynamic loading of the wing upon dynamic morphing. Body size has dramatic effects upon flight performance. New research has revealed that mass-specific muscle power declines with increasing body mass among species. This explains the constraints associated with being large. Hummingbirds are the only species that can sustain hovering. Their ability to generate force, work and power appears to be limited by time for activation and deactivation within their wingbeats of high frequency. Most small birds use flap-bounding flight, and this flight style may offer an energetic advantage over continuous flapping during fast flight or during flight into a headwind. The use of flap-bounding during slow flight remains enigmatic. Flap-bounding birds do not appear to be constrained to use their primary flight muscles in a fixed manner. To improve understanding of the functional significance of flap-bounding, the energetic costs and the relative use of alternative styles by a given species in nature merit study. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight’. PMID:27528773

  9. Preliminary supersonic flight test evaluation of performance seeking control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Gilyard, Glenn B.

    1993-01-01

    Digital flight and engine control, powerful onboard computers, and sophisticated controls techniques may improve aircraft performance by maximizing fuel efficiency, maximizing thrust, and extending engine life. An adaptive performance seeking control system for optimizing the quasi-steady state performance of an F-15 aircraft was developed and flight tested. This system has three optimization modes: minimum fuel, maximum thrust, and minimum fan turbine inlet temperature. Tests of the minimum fuel and fan turbine inlet temperature modes were performed at a constant thrust. Supersonic single-engine flight tests of the three modes were conducted using varied after burning power settings. At supersonic conditions, the performance seeking control law optimizes the integrated airframe, inlet, and engine. At subsonic conditions, only the engine is optimized. Supersonic flight tests showed improvements in thrust of 9 percent, increases in fuel savings of 8 percent, and reductions of up to 85 deg R in turbine temperatures for all three modes. The supersonic performance seeking control structure is described and preliminary results of supersonic performance seeking control tests are given. These findings have implications for improving performance of civilian and military aircraft.

  10. Orion Launch Abort System Performance During Exploration Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCauley, Rachel; Davidson, John; Gonzalez, Guillo

    2015-01-01

    The Orion Launch Abort System Office is taking part in flight testing to enable certification that the system is capable of delivering the astronauts aboard the Orion Crew Module to a safe environment during both nominal and abort conditions. Orion is a NASA program, Exploration Flight Test 1 is managed and led by the Orion prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, and launched on a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket. Although the Launch Abort System Office has tested the critical systems to the Launch Abort System jettison event on the ground, the launch environment cannot be replicated completely on Earth. During Exploration Flight Test 1, the Launch Abort System was to verify the function of the jettison motor to separate the Launch Abort System from the crew module so it can continue on with the mission. Exploration Flight Test 1 was successfully flown on December 5, 2014 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's Space Launch Complex 37. This was the first flight test of the Launch Abort System preforming Orion nominal flight mission critical objectives. The abort motor and attitude control motors were inert for Exploration Flight Test 1, since the mission did not require abort capabilities. Exploration Flight Test 1 provides critical data that enable engineering to improve Orion's design and reduce risk for the astronauts it will protect as NASA continues to move forward on its human journey to Mars. The Exploration Flight Test 1 separation event occurred at six minutes and twenty seconds after liftoff. The separation of the Launch Abort System jettison occurs once Orion is safely through the most dynamic portion of the launch. This paper will present a brief overview of the objectives of the Launch Abort System during a nominal Orion flight. Secondly, the paper will present the performance of the Launch Abort System at it fulfilled those objectives. The lessons learned from Exploration Flight Test 1 and the other Flight Test Vehicles will certainly

  11. Orion Launch Abort System Performance on Exploration Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCauley, R.; Davidson, J.; Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    This paper will present an overview of the flight test objectives and performance of the Orion Launch Abort System during Exploration Flight Test-1. Exploration Flight Test-1, the first flight test of the Orion spacecraft, was managed and led by the Orion prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, and launched atop a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket. This flight test was a two-orbit, high-apogee, high-energy entry, low-inclination test mission used to validate and test systems critical to crew safety. This test included the first flight test of the Launch Abort System preforming Orion nominal flight mission critical objectives. NASA is currently designing and testing the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Orion will serve as NASA's new exploration vehicle to carry astronauts to deep space destinations and safely return them to earth. The Orion spacecraft is composed of four main elements: the Launch Abort System, the Crew Module, the Service Module, and the Spacecraft Adapter (Fig. 1). The Launch Abort System (LAS) provides two functions; during nominal launches, the LAS provides protection for the Crew Module from atmospheric loads and heating during first stage flight and during emergencies provides a reliable abort capability for aborts that occur within the atmosphere. The Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) consists of an Abort Motor to provide the abort separation from the Launch Vehicle, an Attitude Control Motor to provide attitude and rate control, and a Jettison Motor for crew module to LAS separation (Fig. 2). The jettison motor is used during a nominal launch to separate the LAS from the Launch Vehicle (LV) early in the flight of the second stage when it is no longer needed for aborts and at the end of an LAS abort sequence to enable deployment of the crew module's Landing Recovery System. The LAS also provides a Boost Protective Cover fairing that shields the crew module from debris and the aero-thermal environment during ascent. Although the

  12. Preliminary flight evaluation of an engine performance optimization algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, H. H.; Gilyard, G. B.; Chisholm, J. D.; Kerr, L. J.

    1991-01-01

    A performance seeking control (PSC) algorithm has undergone initial flight test evaluation in subsonic operation of a PW 1128 engined F-15. This algorithm is designed to optimize the quasi-steady performance of an engine for three primary modes: (1) minimum fuel consumption; (2) minimum fan turbine inlet temperature (FTIT); and (3) maximum thrust. The flight test results have verified a thrust specific fuel consumption reduction of 1 pct., up to 100 R decreases in FTIT, and increases of as much as 12 pct. in maximum thrust. PSC technology promises to be of value in next generation tactical and transport aircraft.

  13. Into rude air: hummingbird flight performance in variable aerial environments.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Jimenez, V M; Badger, M; Wang, H; Dudley, R

    2016-09-26

    Hummingbirds are well known for their ability to sustain hovering flight, but many other remarkable features of manoeuvrability characterize the more than 330 species of trochilid. Most research on hummingbird flight has been focused on either forward flight or hovering in otherwise non-perturbed air. In nature, however, hummingbirds fly through and must compensate for substantial environmental perturbation, including heavy rain, unpredictable updraughts and turbulent eddies. Here, we review recent studies on hummingbirds flying within challenging aerial environments, and discuss both the direct and indirect effects of unsteady environmental flows such as rain and von Kármán vortex streets. Both perturbation intensity and the spatio-temporal scale of disturbance (expressed with respect to characteristic body size) will influence mechanical responses of volant taxa. Most features of hummingbird manoeuvrability remain undescribed, as do evolutionary patterns of flight-related adaptation within the lineage. Trochilid flight performance under natural conditions far exceeds that of microair vehicles at similar scales, and the group as a whole presents many research opportunities for understanding aerial manoeuvrability.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Aging Enhances Indirect Flight Muscle Fiber Performance yet Decreases Flight Ability in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Mark S.; Lekkas, Panagiotis; Braddock, Joan M.

    2008-10-02

    We investigated the effects of aging on Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle from the whole organism to the actomyosin cross-bridge. Median-aged (49-day-old) flies were flight impaired, had normal myofilament number and packing, barely longer sarcomeres, and slight mitochondrial deterioration compared with young (3-day-old) flies. Old (56-day-old) flies were unable to beat their wings, had deteriorated ultrastructure with severe mitochondrial damage, and their skinned fibers failed to activate with calcium. Small-amplitude sinusoidal length perturbation analysis showed median-aged indirect flight muscle fibers developed greater than twice the isometric force and power output of young fibers, yet cross-bridge kinetics were similar. Large increasesmore » in elastic and viscous moduli amplitude under active, passive, and rigor conditions suggest that median-aged fibers become stiffer longitudinally. Small-angle x-ray diffraction indicates that myosin heads move increasingly toward the thin filament with age, accounting for the increased transverse stiffness via cross-bridge formation. We propose that the observed protein composition changes in the connecting filaments, which anchor the thick filaments to the Z-disk, produce compensatory increases in longitudinal stiffness, isometric tension, power and actomyosin interaction in aging indirect flight muscle. We also speculate that a lack of MgATP due to damaged mitochondria accounts for the decreased flight performance.« less

  15. PHARAO laser source flight model: Design and performances

    SciTech Connect

    Lévèque, T., E-mail: thomas.leveque@cnes.fr; Faure, B.; Esnault, F. X.

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, we describe the design and the main performances of the PHARAO laser source flight model. PHARAO is a laser cooled cesium clock specially designed for operation in space and the laser source is one of the main sub-systems. The flight model presented in this work is the first remote-controlled laser system designed for spaceborne cold atom manipulation. The main challenges arise from mechanical compatibility with space constraints, which impose a high level of compactness, a low electric power consumption, a wide range of operating temperature, and a vacuum environment. We describe the main functions of the lasermore » source and give an overview of the main technologies developed for this instrument. We present some results of the qualification process. The characteristics of the laser source flight model, and their impact on the clock performances, have been verified in operational conditions.« less

  16. Hypersonic flight performance improvements by overfueled ramjet combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, G.; Bayer, R.; Lederer, R.; Schaber, R.

    1991-12-01

    The performance characteristics of hypersonic airbreathing engines are examined with emphasis on the effect of overfueled combustion on thrust and specific fuel-consumption, as well as on the combustion temperature, real gas effects, and pollution due to exhaust gas. It is shown that overfueled ramjet combustion can provide a means for improving flight performance at hypersonic speed and, consequently, reduce the mission fuel burn and the propulsion system weight. It is also shown that, in the separation flight maneuver, the separation condition for the upper stage can be improved by overfueled ramjet combustion of the first stage, making it possible to increase the payload which the upper stage can deliver into orbit. The flight mechanics modeling considerations are presented.

  17. Mariner Mars 1971 battery design, test, and flight performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogner, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    The design, integration, fabrication, test results, and flight performance of the battery system for the Mariner Mars spacecraft launched in May 1971 are presented. The battery consists of 26 20-Ah hermetically sealed nickel-cadmium cells housed in a machined magnesium chassis. The battery package weighs 29.5 kg and is unique in that the chassis also serves as part of the spacecraft structure. Active thermal control is accomplished by louvers mounted to the battery baseplate. Battery charge is accomplished by C/10 and C/30 constant current chargers. The switch from the high-rate to low-rate charge is automatic, based on terminal voltage. Additional control is possible by ground command or onboard computer. The performance data from the flight battery is compared to the data from various battery tests in the laboratory. Flight battery data was predictable based on ground test data.

  18. Shuttle orbiter flash evaporator operational flight test performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nason, J. R.; Behrend, A. F., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Flash evaporator System (FES is part of the Shuttle Orbiter Active Thermal Control Subsystem. The FES provides total heat rejection for the vehicle Freon Coolant Loops during ascent and entry and supplementary heat rejection during orbital mission phases. This paper reviews the performance of the FES during the first two Shuttle orbital missions (STS-1 and STS-2). A comparison of actual mission performance against design requirements is presented. Mission profiles (including Freon inlet temperature and feedwater pressure transients), control temperature, and heat load variations are evaluated. Anomalies that occurred during STS-2 are discussed along with the procedures conducted, both in-flight and post-flight, to isolate the causes. Finally, the causes of the anomalies and resulting corrective action taken for STS-3 and subsequent flights are presented.

  19. Effects of alcohol on pilot performance in simulated flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Demosthenes, T.; White, T. R.; O'Hara, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    Ethyl alcohol's known ability to produce reliable decrements in pilot performance was used in a study designed to evaluate objective methods for assessing pilot performance. Four air carrier pilot volunteers were studied during eight simulated flights in a B727 simulator. Total errors increased linearly and significantly with increasing blood alcohol. Planning and performance errors, procedural errors and failures of vigilance each increased significantly in one or more pilots and in the group as a whole.

  20. 3D Unsteady Computations of Flapping Flight in Insects and Fish

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    repeatable, and inexpensive to produce. Technical Approach: The growth of the Ga2O3 nanowires was performed by vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth in a...SERS sensitivity of the nanowire substrates has been determined using Rhodamine 6G/methanol and DNT/methanol dilutions. The Ga2O3 /Ag nanowire...sphere whose diameter is the length of the longest wire, which is a 2007 NRL REVIEW 179 MATERIALS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FIGURE 8 (a) Ga2O3 core/Ag

  1. Preservation of human performance capacity under prolonged space flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeremin, A. V.; Bogdashevskiy, R. M.; Baburin, Y. F.

    1975-01-01

    Prophylactic measures directed toward preservation of health and maintenance of the performance ability of a man during prolonged space flight stress center on the selection of optimum work and rest cycles, physical exercises, the use of pharmacological agents, conditioning of the cardiovascular apparatus, etc. A specially selected set of hormone and pharmacological preparations is recommended to stimulate hemopoiesis.

  2. Jump-Down Performance Alterations after Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kofman, I. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Fisher, E. A.; Peters, B. T.; Miller, C. A.; Harm, D. L.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Successful jump performance requires functional coordination of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems, which are affected by prolonged exposure to microgravity. Astronauts returning from space flight exhibit impaired ability to coordinate effective landing strategies when jumping from a platform to the ground. This study compares jump strategies used by astronauts before and after flight, changes to those strategies within a test session, and recoveries in jump-down performance parameters across several postflight test sessions. These data were obtained as part of an ongoing interdisciplinary study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. METHODS: Seven astronauts from short-duration (Shuttle) and three from long-duration (International Space Station) flights performed 3 two-footed jumps from a platform 30 cm high onto a force plate that measured the ground reaction forces and center-of-pressure displacement from the landings. Neuromuscular activation data were collected from the medial gastrocnemius and anterior tibialis of both legs using surface electromyography electrodes. Two load cells in the platform measured the load exerted by each foot during the takeoff phase of the jump. Data were collected in 2 preflight sessions, on landing day (Shuttle only), and 1, 6, and 30 days after flight. RESULTS: Postural settling time was significantly increased on the first postflight test session and many of the astronauts tested were unable to maintain balance on their first jump landing but recovered by the third jump, showing a learning progression in which performance improvements could be attributed to adjustments in takeoff or landing strategy. Jump strategy changes were evident in reduced air time (time between takeoff and landing) and also in increased asymmetry in foot latencies on takeoff. CONCLUSIONS: The test results revealed significant decrements

  3. Hawkmoth flight performance in tornado-like whirlwind vortices.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Jimenez, Victor Manuel; Mittal, Rajat; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2014-06-01

    Vertical vortex systems such as tornadoes dramatically affect the flight control and stability of aircraft. However, the control implications of smaller scale vertically oriented vortex systems for small fliers such as animals or micro-air vehicles are unknown. Here we examined the flapping kinematics and body dynamics of hawkmoths performing hovering flights (controls) and maintaining position in three different whirlwind intensities with transverse horizontal velocities of 0.7, 0.9 and 1.2 m s(-1), respectively, generated in a vortex chamber. The average and standard deviation of yaw and pitch were respectively increased and reduced in comparison with hovering flights. Average roll orientation was unchanged in whirlwind flights but was more variable from wingbeat to wingbeat than in hovering. Flapping frequency remained unchanged. Wingbeat amplitude was lower and the average stroke plane angle was higher. Asymmetry was found in the angle of attack between right and left wings during both downstroke and upstroke at medium and high vortex intensities. Thus, hawkmoth flight control in tornado-like vortices is achieved by a suite of asymmetric and symmetric changes to wingbeat amplitude, stroke plane angle and principally angle of attack.

  4. Into rude air: hummingbird flight performance in variable aerial environments

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Jimenez, V. M.; Badger, M.; Wang, H.; Dudley, R.

    2016-01-01

    Hummingbirds are well known for their ability to sustain hovering flight, but many other remarkable features of manoeuvrability characterize the more than 330 species of trochilid. Most research on hummingbird flight has been focused on either forward flight or hovering in otherwise non-perturbed air. In nature, however, hummingbirds fly through and must compensate for substantial environmental perturbation, including heavy rain, unpredictable updraughts and turbulent eddies. Here, we review recent studies on hummingbirds flying within challenging aerial environments, and discuss both the direct and indirect effects of unsteady environmental flows such as rain and von Kármán vortex streets. Both perturbation intensity and the spatio-temporal scale of disturbance (expressed with respect to characteristic body size) will influence mechanical responses of volant taxa. Most features of hummingbird manoeuvrability remain undescribed, as do evolutionary patterns of flight-related adaptation within the lineage. Trochilid flight performance under natural conditions far exceeds that of microair vehicles at similar scales, and the group as a whole presents many research opportunities for understanding aerial manoeuvrability. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight’. PMID:27528777

  5. Mir Cooperative Solar Array Flight Performance Data and Computational Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hoffman, David J.

    1997-01-01

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) was developed jointly by the United States (US) and Russia to provide approximately 6 kW of photovoltaic power to the Russian space station Mir. The MCSA was launched to Mir in November 1995 and installed on the Kvant-1 module in May 1996. Since the MCSA photovoltaic panel modules (PPMs) are nearly identical to those of the International Space Station (ISS) photovoltaic arrays, MCSA operation offered an opportunity to gather multi-year performance data on this technology prior to its implementation on ISS. Two specially designed test sequences were executed in June and December 1996 to measure MCSA performance. Each test period encompassed 3 orbital revolutions whereby the current produced by the MCSA channels was measured. The temperature of MCSA PPMs was also measured. To better interpret the MCSA flight data, a dedicated FORTRAN computer code was developed to predict the detailed thermal-electrical performance of the MCSA. Flight data compared very favorably with computational performance predictions. This indicated that the MCSA electrical performance was fully meeting pre-flight expectations. There were no measurable indications of unexpected or precipitous MCSA performance degradation due to contamination or other causes after 7 months of operation on orbit. Power delivered to the Mir bus was lower than desired as a consequence of the retrofitted power distribution cabling. The strong correlation of experimental and computational results further bolsters the confidence level of performance codes used in critical ISS electric power forecasting. In this paper, MCSA flight performance tests are described as well as the computational modeling behind the performance predictions.

  6. Flight performance and teneral energy reserves of two genetically-modified and one wild-type strain of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Bargielowski, Irka; Kaufmann, Christian; Alphey, Luke; Reiter, Paul; Koella, Jacob

    2012-12-01

    The ability of sterile males to survive, disperse, find, and mate with wild females is key to the success of sterile insect technique (SIT). The Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal (RIDL) system is a genetics-based SIT strategy for Aedes aegypti. We examine two aspects of insect performance, flight potential (dispersal ability) and teneral energy reserves, by comparing wild-type (WT) males with genetically-modified lines carrying the tetracycline-repressible constructs OX513A and OX3604C. Our results show significant differences in the flight capacity of the modified lines. OX513A males bred with tetracycline covered 38% less distance, while OX3604C males reared without tetracycline spent 21% less time in flight than their WT counterparts. Such differences in flight performance should be considered when designing release programs (e.g., by placing release sites sufficiently close together to achieve adequate coverage). All mosquito lines had similar teneral carbohydrate contents, though males of the OX3604C line contained more lipids. The addition of tetracycline to the larval diet did not influence the flight potential of the males; however, it did change the teneral sugar reserves of the WT and the lipid reserves of both the WT and the OX3604C lines.

  7. Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) Flight Experiment-Reflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.

    1997-01-01

    The Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) is a flight experiment to demonstrate and validate in a microgravity environment the Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE) concept which was selected for the use aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for oxygen (O2) generation. It also is to investigate the impact of microgravity on electrochemical cell performance. Electrochemical cells are important to the space program because they provide an efficient means of generating O2 and hydrogen (H2) in space. Oxygen and H2 are essential not only for the survival of humans in space but also for the efficient and economical operation of various space systems. Electrochemical cells can reduce the mass, volume and logistical penalties associated with resupply and storage by generating and/or consuming these gases in space. An initial flight of the EPICS was conducted aboard STS-69 from September 7 to 8, 1995. A temperature sensor characteristics shift and a missing line of software code resulted in only partial success of this initial flight. Based on the review and recommendations of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) review team a reflight activity was initiated to obtain the remaining desired results, not achieved during the initial flight.

  8. Description and Flight Performance Results of the WASP Sounding Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Pauw, J. F.; Steffens, L. E.; Yuska, J. A.

    1968-01-01

    A general description of the design and construction of the WASP sounding rocket and of the performance of its first flight are presented. The purpose of the flight test was to place the 862-pound (391-kg) spacecraft above 250 000 feet (76.25 km) on free-fall trajectory for at least 6 minutes in order to study the effect of "weightlessness" on a slosh dynamics experiment. The WASP sounding rocket fulfilled its intended mission requirements. The sounding rocket approximately followed a nominal trajectory. The payload was in free fall above 250 000 feet (76.25 km) for 6.5 minutes and reached an apogee altitude of 134 nautical miles (248 km). Flight data including velocity, altitude, acceleration, roll rate, and angle of attack are discussed and compared to nominal performance calculations. The effect of residual burning of the second stage motor is analyzed. The flight vibration environment is presented and analyzed, including root mean square (RMS) and power spectral density analysis.

  9. Real-time in-flight engine performance and health monitoring techniques for flight research application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Ronald J.; Hicks, John W.; Wichman, Keith D.

    1991-01-01

    Procedures for real time evaluation of the inflight health and performance of gas turbine engines and related systems were developed to enhance flight test safety and productivity. These techniques include the monitoring of the engine, the engine control system, thrust vectoring control system health, and the detection of engine stalls. Real time performance techniques were developed for the determination and display of inflight thrust and for aeroperformance drag polars. These new methods were successfully shown on various research aircraft at NASA-Dryden. The capability of NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range and the advanced data acquisition systems were key factors for implementation and real time display of these methods.

  10. Direct and indirect effects of light pollution on the performance of an herbivorous insect.

    PubMed

    Grenis, Kylee; Murphy, Shannon M

    2018-02-09

    Light pollution is a global disturbance with resounding impacts on a wide variety of organisms, but our understanding of these impacts is restricted to relatively few higher vertebrate species. We tested the direct effects of light pollution on herbivore performance as well as indirect effects mediated by host plant quality. We found that artificial light from streetlights alters plant toughness. Additionally, we found evidence of both direct and indirect effects of light pollution on the performance of an herbivorous insect, which indicates that streetlights can have cascading impacts on multiple trophic levels. Our novel findings suggest that light pollution can alter plant-insect interactions and thus may have important community-wide consequences. © 2018 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  11. APMS 3.0 Flight Analyst Guide: Aviation Performance Measuring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jay, Griff; Prothero, Gary; Romanowski, Timothy; Lynch, Robert; Lawrence, Robert; Rosenthal, Loren

    2004-01-01

    The Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS) is a method-embodied in software-that uses mathematical algorithms and related procedures to analyze digital flight data extracted from aircraft flight data recorders. APMS consists of an integrated set of tools used to perform two primary functions: a) Flight Data Importation b) Flight Data Analysis.

  12. Post-Flight Analysis of the Guidance, Navigation, and Control Performance During Orion Exploration Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Andrew; Mamich, Harvey; Hoelscher, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The first test flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle presented additional challenges for guidance, navigation and control as compared to a typical re-entry from the International Space Station or other Low Earth Orbit. An elevated re-entry velocity and steeper flight path angle were chosen to achieve aero-thermal flight test objectives. New IMU's, a GPS receiver, and baro altimeters were flight qualified to provide the redundant navigation needed for human space flight. The guidance and control systems must manage the vehicle lift vector in order to deliver the vehicle to a precision, coastal, water landing, while operating within aerodynamic load, reaction control system, and propellant constraints. Extensive pre-flight six degree-of-freedom analysis was performed that showed mission success for the nominal mission as well as in the presence of sensor and effector failures. Post-flight reconstruction analysis of the test flight is presented in this paper to show whether that all performance metrics were met and establish how well the pre-flight analysis predicted the in-flight performance.

  13. In-flight performance optimization for rotorcraft with redundant controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, Gurbuz Taha

    A conventional helicopter has limits on performance at high speeds because of the limitations of main rotor, such as compressibility issues on advancing side or stall issues on retreating side. Auxiliary lift and thrust components have been suggested to improve performance of the helicopter substantially by reducing the loading on the main rotor. Such a configuration is called the compound rotorcraft. Rotor speed can also be varied to improve helicopter performance. In addition to improved performance, compound rotorcraft and variable RPM can provide a much larger degree of control redundancy. This additional redundancy gives the opportunity to further enhance performance and handling qualities. A flight control system is designed to perform in-flight optimization of redundant control effectors on a compound rotorcraft in order to minimize power required and extend range. This "Fly to Optimal" (FTO) control law is tested in simulation using the GENHEL model. A model of the UH-60, a compound version of the UH-60A with lifting wing and vectored thrust ducted propeller (VTDP), and a generic compound version of the UH-60A with lifting wing and propeller were developed and tested in simulation. A model following dynamic inversion controller is implemented for inner loop control of roll, pitch, yaw, heave, and rotor RPM. An outer loop controller regulates airspeed and flight path during optimization. A Golden Section search method was used to find optimal rotor RPM on a conventional helicopter, where the single redundant control effector is rotor RPM. The FTO builds off of the Adaptive Performance Optimization (APO) method of Gilyard by performing low frequency sweeps on a redundant control for a fixed wing aircraft. A method based on the APO method was used to optimize trim on a compound rotorcraft with several redundant control effectors. The controller can be used to optimize rotor RPM and compound control effectors through flight test or simulations in order to

  14. Pilot physiology, cognition and flight performance during flight simulation exposed to a 3810-m hypoxic condition.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Corey A; Weber, Raymond; Sanders, Gabriel J; Seo, Yongsuk; Kean, David; Pollock, Brandon S; Burns, Keith J; Cain, Mark; LaScola, Phillip; Glickman, Ellen L

    2017-03-01

    Hypoxia is a physiological state defined as a reduction in the distribution of oxygen to the tissues of the body. It has been considered a major factor in aviation safety worldwide because of its potential for pilot disorientation. Pilots are able to operate aircrafts up to 3810 m without the use of supplemental oxygen and may exhibit symptoms associated with hypoxia. To determine the effects of 3810 m on physiology, cognition and performance in pilots during a flight simulation. Ten healthy male pilots engaged in a counterbalanced experimental protocol comparing a 0-m normoxic condition (NORM) with a 3810-m hypoxic condition (HYP) on pilot physiology, cognition and flight performance. Repeated-measures analysis of variance demonstrated a significant (p ≤ 0.05) time by condition interaction for physiological and cognitive alterations during HYP. A paired-samples t test demonstrated no differences in pilot performance (p ≥ 0.05) between conditions. Pilots exhibited physiological and cognitive impairments; however, pilot performance was not affected by HYP.

  15. High performance real-time flight simulation at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleveland, Jeff I., II

    1994-01-01

    In order to meet the stringent time-critical requirements for real-time man-in-the-loop flight simulation, computer processing operations must be deterministic and be completed in as short a time as possible. This includes simulation mathematical model computational and data input/output to the simulators. In 1986, in response to increased demands for flight simulation performance, personnel at NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC), working with the contractor, developed extensions to a standard input/output system to provide for high bandwidth, low latency data acquisition and distribution. The Computer Automated Measurement and Control technology (IEEE standard 595) was extended to meet the performance requirements for real-time simulation. This technology extension increased the effective bandwidth by a factor of ten and increased the performance of modules necessary for simulator communications. This technology is being used by more than 80 leading technological developers in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Included among the commercial applications of this technology are nuclear process control, power grid analysis, process monitoring, real-time simulation, and radar data acquisition. Personnel at LaRC have completed the development of the use of supercomputers for simulation mathematical model computational to support real-time flight simulation. This includes the development of a real-time operating system and the development of specialized software and hardware for the CAMAC simulator network. This work, coupled with the use of an open systems software architecture, has advanced the state of the art in real time flight simulation. The data acquisition technology innovation and experience with recent developments in this technology are described.

  16. Integrated Flight Performance Analysis of a Launch Abort System Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tartabini, Paul V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes initial flight performance analyses conducted early in the Orion Project to support concept feasibility studies for the Crew Exploration Vehicle s Launch Abort System (LAS). Key performance requirements that significantly affect abort capability are presented. These requirements have implications on sizing the Abort Motor, tailoring its thrust profile to meet escape requirements for both launch pad and high drag/high dynamic pressure ascent aborts. Additional performance considerations are provided for the Attitude Control Motor, a key element of the Orion LAS design that eliminates the need for ballast and provides performance robustness over a passive control approach. Finally, performance of the LAS jettison function is discussed, along with implications on Jettison Motor sizing and the timing of the jettison event during a nominal mission. These studies provide an initial understanding of LAS performance that will continue to evolve as the Orion design is matured.

  17. Flight Performance of the Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillman, Robert; DiNonno, John; Bodkin, Richard; Gsell, Valerie; Miller, Nathanael; Olds, Aaron; Bruce, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment 3 (IRVE-3) launched July 23, 2012, from NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on a Black Brant XI suborbital sounding rocket and successfully performed its mission, demonstrating the survivability of a hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerator (HIAD) in the reentry heating environment and also illustrating the effect of an offset center of gravity on the HIAD's lift-to-drag ratio. IRVE-3 was a follow-on to 2009's IRVE-II mission, which demonstrated exo-atmospheric inflation, reentry survivability - without significant heating - and the aerodynamic stability of a HIAD down to subsonic flight conditions. NASA Langley Research Center is leading the development of HIAD technology for use on future interplanetary and Earth reentry missions.

  18. Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) Absolute Navigation Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanetti, Renato

    2015-01-01

    The Orion vehicle, being design to take men back to the Moon and beyond, successfully completed its first flight test, EFT-1 (Exploration Flight Test-1), on December 5th, 2014. The main objective of the test was to demonstrate the capability of re-enter into the Earth's atmosphere and safely splash-down into the pacific ocean. This un-crewed mission completes two orbits around Earth, the second of which is highly elliptical with an apogee of approximately 5908 km, higher than any vehicle designed for humans has been since the Apollo program. The trajectory was designed in order to test a high-energy re-entry similar to those crews will undergo during lunar missions. The mission overview is shown in Figure 1. The objective of this paper is to document the performance of the absolute navigation system during EFT-1 and to present its design.

  19. Flight Test Performance of a High Precision Navigation Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierrottet, Diego; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Petway, Larry; Barnes, Bruce; Lockard, George

    2009-01-01

    A navigation Doppler Lidar (DL) was developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) for high precision velocity measurements from a lunar or planetary landing vehicle in support of the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project. A unique feature of this DL is that it has the capability to provide a precision velocity vector which can be easily separated into horizontal and vertical velocity components and high accuracy line of sight (LOS) range measurements. This dual mode of operation can provide useful information, such as vehicle orientation relative to the direction of travel, and vehicle attitude relative to the sensor footprint on the ground. System performance was evaluated in a series of helicopter flight tests over the California desert. This paper provides a description of the DL system and presents results obtained from these flight tests.

  20. Expected Navigation Flight Performance for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Corwin; Wright, Cinnamon; Long, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission consists of four formation-flying spacecraft placed in highly eccentric elliptical orbits about the Earth. The primary scientific mission objective is to study magnetic reconnection within the Earth s magnetosphere. The baseline navigation concept is the independent estimation of each spacecraft state using GPS pseudorange measurements (referenced to an onboard Ultra Stable Oscillator) and accelerometer measurements during maneuvers. State estimation for the MMS spacecraft is performed onboard each vehicle using the Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System, which is embedded in the Navigator GPS receiver. This paper describes the latest efforts to characterize expected navigation flight performance using upgraded simulation models derived from recent analyses.

  1. Space shuttle orbiter leading-edge flight performance compared to design goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, D. M.; Johnson, D. W.; Kelly, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Thermo-structural performance of the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia's leading-edge structural subsystem for the first five (5) flights is compared with the design goals. Lessons learned from thse initial flights of the first reusable manned spacecraft are discussed in order to assess design maturity, deficiencies, and modifications required to rectify the design deficiencies. Flight data and post-flight inspections support the conclusion that the leading-edge structural subsystem hardware performance was outstanding for the initial five (5) flights.

  2. Insect contamination protection for laminar flow surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croom, Cynthia C.; Holmes, Bruce J.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of modern aircraft surfaces to achieve laminar flow was well-accepted in recent years. Obtaining the maximum benefit of laminar flow for aircraft drag reduction requires maintaining minimum leading-edge contamination. Previously proposed insect contamination prevention methods have proved impractical due to cost, weight, or inconvenience. Past work has shown that insects will not adhere to water-wetted surfaces, but the large volumes of water required for protection rendered such a system impractical. The results of a flight experiment conducted by NASA to evaluate the performance of a porous leading-edge fluid discharge ice protection system operated as an insect contamination protections system are presented. In addition, these flights explored the environmental and atmospheric conditions most suitable for insect accumulation.

  3. Flight controller alertness and performance during MOD shiftwork operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Rosekind, Mark R.; Dinges, David F.; Miller, Donna L.; Gillen, Kelly A.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Aguilar, Ronald D.; Smith, Roy M.

    1994-01-01

    Decreased alertness and performance associated with fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption are issues faced by a diverse range of shiftwork operations. During STS operations, MOD personnel provide 24 hr. coverage of critical tasks. A joint JSC and ARC project was undertaken to examine these issues in flight controllers during MOD shiftwork operations. An initial operational test of procedures and measures was conducted during STS-53 in Dec. 1992. The study measures included a background questionnaire, a subjective daily logbook completed on a 24 hr. basis (to report sleep patterns, work periods, etc.), and an 8 minute performance and mood test battery administered at the beginning, middle, and end of each shift period. Seventeen Flight controllers representing the 3 Orbit shifts participated. The initial results clearly support further data collection during other STS missions to document baseline levels of alertness and performance during MOD shiftwork operations. These issues are especially pertinent for the night shift operations and the acute phase advance required for the transition of day shift personnel into the night for shuttle launch. Implementation and evaluation of the countermeasure strategies to maximize alertness and performance is planned. As STS missions extend to further extended duration orbiters, timelines and planning for 24 circadian disruption will remain highly relevant in the MOD environment.

  4. Performance of NICER flight x-ray concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okajima, Takashi; Soong, Yang; Balsamo, Erin R.; Enoto, Teruaki; Olsen, Larry; Koenecke, Richard; Lozipone, Larry; Kearney, John; Fitzsimmons, Sean; Numata, Ai; Kenyon, Steven J.; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gendreau, Keith

    2016-07-01

    Neutron star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER) is a NASA instrument to be onboard International Space Station, which is equipped with 56 pairs of an X-ray concentrator (XRC) and a silicon drift detector for high timing observations. The XRC is based on an epoxy replicated thin aluminum foil X-ray mirror, similar to those of Suzaku and ASTRO-H (Hitomi), but only a single stage parabolic grazing incidence optic. Each has a focal length of 1.085m and a diameter of 105 mm, with 24 confocally aligned parabolic shells. Grazing incident angles to individual shells range from 0.4 to 1.4 deg. The flight 56 XRCs have been completed and successfully delivered to the payload integration. All the XRC was characterized at the NASA/GSFC 100-m X-ray beamline using 1.5 keV X-rays (some of them are also at 4.5 keV). The XRC performance, effective area and point spread function, was measured by a CCD camera and a proportional counter. The average effective area is about 44 cm2 at 1.5 keV and about 18 cm2 at 4.5 keV, which is consistent with a micro-roughness of 0.5nm from individual shell reflectivity measurements. The XRC focuses about 91% of X-rays into a 2mm aperture at the focal plane, which is the NICER detector window size. Each XRC weighs only 325 g. These performance met the project requirement. In this paper, we will present summary of the flight XRC performance as well as co-alignment results of the 56 XRCs on the flight payload as it is important to estimate the total effective for astronomical observations.

  5. Defining Exercise Performance Metrics for Flight Hardware Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyene, Nahon M.

    2004-01-01

    The space industry has prevailed over numerous design challenges in the spirit of exploration. Manned space flight entails creating products for use by humans and the Johnson Space Center has pioneered this effort as NASA's center for manned space flight. NASA Astronauts use a suite of flight exercise hardware to maintain strength for extravehicular activities and to minimize losses in muscle mass and bone mineral density. With a cycle ergometer, treadmill, and the Resistive Exercise Device available on the International Space Station (ISS), the Space Medicine community aspires to reproduce physical loading schemes that match exercise performance in Earth s gravity. The resistive exercise device presents the greatest challenge with the duty of accommodating 20 different exercises and many variations on the core set of exercises. This paper presents a methodology for capturing engineering parameters that can quantify proper resistive exercise performance techniques. For each specified exercise, the method provides engineering parameters on hand spacing, foot spacing, and positions of the point of load application at the starting point, midpoint, and end point of the exercise. As humans vary in height and fitness levels, the methodology presents values as ranges. In addition, this method shows engineers the proper load application regions on the human body. The methodology applies to resistive exercise in general and is in use for the current development of a Resistive Exercise Device. Exercise hardware systems must remain available for use and conducive to proper exercise performance as a contributor to mission success. The astronauts depend on exercise hardware to support extended stays aboard the ISS. Future plans towards exploration of Mars and beyond acknowledge the necessity of exercise. Continuous improvement in technology and our understanding of human health maintenance in space will allow us to support the exploration of Mars and the future of space

  6. Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 Post-Flight Navigation Performance Assessment Relative to the Best Estimated Trajectory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gay, Robert S.; Holt, Greg N.; Zanetti, Renato

    2016-01-01

    This paper details the post-flight navigation performance assessment of the Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). Results of each flight phase are presented: Ground Align, Ascent, Orbit, and Entry Descent and Landing. This study examines the on-board Kalman Filter uncertainty along with state deviations relative to the Best Estimated Trajectory (BET). Overall the results show that the Orion Navigation System performed as well or better than expected. Specifically, the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurement availability was significantly better than anticipated at high altitudes. In addition, attitude estimation via processing GPS measurements along with Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) data performed very well and maintained good attitude throughout the mission.

  7. Habitability and Performance Issues for Long Duration Space Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; McQuilkin, Meredith L.; Woolford, Barbara J.

    1997-01-01

    Advancing technology, coupled with the desire to explore space has resulted in increasingly longer manned space missions. Although the Long Duration Space Flights (LDSF) have provided a considerable amount of scientific research on human ability to function in extreme environments, findings indicate long duration missions take a toll on the individual, both physiologically and psychologically. These physiological and psychological issues manifest themselves in performance decrements; and could lead to serious errors endangering the mission, spacecraft and crew. The purpose of this paper is to document existing knowledge of the effects of LDSF on performance, habitability, and workload and to identify and assess potential tools designed to address these decrements as well as propose an implementation plan to address the habitability, performance and workload issues.

  8. PHARAO flight model: optical on ground performance tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lévèque, T.; Faure, B.; Esnault, F. X.; Grosjean, O.; Delaroche, C.; Massonnet, D.; Escande, C.; Gasc, Ph.; Ratsimandresy, A.; Béraud, S.; Buffe, F.; Torresi, P.; Larivière, Ph.; Bernard, V.; Bomer, T.; Thomin, S.; Salomon, C.; Abgrall, M.; Rovera, D.; Moric, I.; Laurent, Ph.

    2017-11-01

    PHARAO (Projet d'Horloge Atomique par Refroidissement d'Atomes en Orbite), which has been developed by CNES, is the first primary frequency standard specially designed for operation in space. PHARAO is the main instrument of the ESA mission ACES (Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space). ACES payload will be installed on-board the International Space Station (ISS) to perform fundamental physics experiments. All the sub-systems of the Flight Model (FM) have now passed the qualification process and the whole FM of the cold cesium clock, PHARAO, is being assembled and will undergo extensive tests. The expected performances in space are frequency accuracy less than 3.10-16 (with a final goal at 10-16) and frequency stability of 10-13 τ-1/2. In this paper, we focus on the laser source performances and the main results on the cold atom manipulation.

  9. Habitability and performance issues for long duration space flights.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, M; McQuilkin, M L; Woolford, B J

    1998-09-01

    Advancing technology, coupled with the desire to explore space has resulted in increasingly longer manned space missions. Although the Long Duration Space Flights (LDSF) have provided a considerable amount of scientific research on human ability to function in extreme environments, findings indicate long duration missions take a toll on the individual, both physiologically and psychologically. These physiological and psychological issues manifest themselves in performance decrements; and could lead to serious errors endangering the mission, spacecraft and crew. The purpose of this paper is threefold: 1) to document existing knowledge of the effects of LDSF on performance, habitability, and workload, 2) to identify and assess potential tools designed to address these decrements, and 3) to propose an implementation plan to address these habitability, performance and workload issues.

  10. Insect food for astronauts: gas exchange in silkworms fed on mulberry and lettuce and the nutritional value of these insects for human consumption during deep space flights.

    PubMed

    Tong, L; Yu, X; Liu, H

    2011-10-01

    In this study, silkworm moth (Bombyx mori L.) larvae were regarded as an animal protein source for astronauts in the bioregenerative life support system during long-term deep space exploration in the future. They were fed with mulberry and stem lettuce leaves during the first three instars and the last two instars, respectively. In addition, this kind of environmental approach, which utilised inedible biomass of plants to produce animal protein of high quality, can likewise be applied terrestrially to provide food for people living in extreme environments and/or impoverished agro-ecosystems, such as in polar regions, isolated military bases, ships, submarines, etc. Respiration characteristics of the larvae during development under two main physiological conditions, namely eating and not-eating of leaves, were studied. Nutrient compositions of silkworm powder (SP), ground and freeze-dried silkworms on the 3rd day of the 5th instar larvae, including protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and fatty acids, were measured using international standard methods. Silkworms' respiration rates, measured when larvae were eating mulberry leaves, were higher than those of similar larvae that hadn't eaten such leaves. There was a significant difference between silkworms fed on mulberry leaves and those fed on stem lettuce in the 4th and 5th instars (P<0.01). Amounts of CO2 exhaled by the silkworms under the two physiological regimes differed from each other (P<0.01). There was also a significant difference between the amount of O2 inhaled when the insects were under the two physiological statuses (P<0.01). Moreover, silkworms' respiration quotient under the eating regime was larger than when under the not-eating regime. The SP was found to be rich in protein and amino acids in total; 12 essential vitamins, nine minerals and twelve fatty acids were detected. Moreover, 359 kcal could be generated per 100 gram of SP (dry weight).

  11. Insect-Based Vision for Autonomous Vehicles: A Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Mandyam V.

    1999-01-01

    The aims of the project were to use a high-speed digital video camera to pursue two questions: (1) To explore the influence of temporal imaging constraints on the performance of vision systems for autonomous mobile robots; (2) To study the fine structure of insect flight trajectories in order to better understand the characteristics of flight control, orientation and navigation.

  12. Insect-Based Vision for Autonomous Vehicles: A Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Mandyam V.

    1999-01-01

    The aims of the project were to use a high-speed digital video camera to pursue two questions: i) To explore the influence of temporal imaging constraints on the performance of vision systems for autonomous mobile robots; To study the fine structure of insect flight trajectories with in order to better understand the characteristics of flight control, orientation and navigation.

  13. Flight Performance Feasibility Studies for the Max Launch Abort System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarabini, Paul V.; Gilbert, Michael G.; Beaty, James R.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) initiated the Max Launch Abort System Project to explore crew escape system concepts designed to be fully encapsulated within an aerodynamic fairing and smoothly integrated onto a launch vehicle. One objective of this design was to develop a more compact launch escape vehicle that eliminated the need for an escape tower, as was used in the Mercury and Apollo escape systems and what is planned for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The benefits for the launch vehicle of eliminating a tower from the escape vehicle design include lower structural weights, reduced bending moments during atmospheric flight, and a decrease in induced aero-acoustic loads. This paper discusses the development of encapsulated, towerless launch escape vehicle concepts, especially as it pertains to the flight performance and systems analysis trade studies conducted to establish mission feasibility and assess system-level performance. Two different towerless escape vehicle designs are discussed in depth: one with allpropulsive control using liquid attitude control thrusters, and a second employing deployable aft swept grid fins to provide passive stability during coast. Simulation results are presented for a range of nominal and off-nominal escape conditions.

  14. Flight controller alertness and performance during spaceflight shiftwork operations.

    PubMed

    Kelly, S M; Rosekind, M R; Dinges, D F; Miller, D L; Gillen, K A; Gregory, K B; Aguilar, R D; Smith, R M

    1998-09-01

    Decreased alertness and performance associated with fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption are issues faced by a diverse range of shiftwork operations personnel. During Space Transportation System (STS) operations, Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) personnel provide 24-hr. coverage of critical tasks. A joint NASA Johnson Space Center and NASA Ames Research Center project was undertaken to examine these issues in flight controllers during MOD shiftwork operations. An initial operational test of procedures and measures was conducted during the STS-53 mission in December 1992. The study measures included a Background Questionnaire, a subjective daily logbook completed on a 24-hour basis (to report sleep patterns, work periods, etc.), and an 8 minute performance and mood test battery administered at the beginning, middle, and end of each shift period. Seventeen flight controllers representing the 3 Orbit shifts participated. The initial results clearly support the need for further data collection during other STS missions to document baseline levels of alertness and performance during MOD shiftwork operations. Countermeasure strategies specific to the MOD environment are being developed to minimize the adverse effects of fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption engendered by shiftwork operations. These issues are especially pertinent for the night shift operations and the acute phase advance required for the transition of day shift personnel into the night for shuttle launch. Implementation and evaluation of the countermeasure strategies to maximize alertness and performance is planned. As STS missions extend to further EDO (extended duration orbiters), and timelines and planning for 24-hour Space Station operations continue, alertness and performance issues related to sleep and circadian disruption will remain highly relevant in the MOD environment.

  15. Restraint harness performance during flight maneuvers: a parametric study.

    PubMed

    Du, Cheng-Fei; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Li-Zhen; Liu, Song-Yang; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2015-05-01

    Modern super agile fighter aircraft are capable of producing an increasing multiaxial acceleration environment which can adversely affect the pilot. An evaluation of the performance of the restraint system during flight maneuvers will benefit restraint designs and, thus, the safety of pilots. A finite element model of a mannequin with PCU-15/P harness restraint was used in this study to investigate how the factors, such as strap material stiffness, friction, and belt tension, affect the performance of restraint systems during impact along the -Gx, -Gy, and -Gz directions. The corresponding maximum displacement of the mannequin's torso was computed. The mannequin moved beyond 74 mm sideways. The change in friction coefficient (FC) from 0.1 to 0.4 decreased the displacement of the lower torso by less than 6.7%. The displacement of the torso decreased as the stiffness of the strap or tension increased. Displacement decreased by 9.3%, 6.0%, and 2.7% for the lower torso under the Gx impact, as the tightening force increased from 20 N to 80 N gradually. However, this changed slightly when the stiffness arrived at 1 E or the tension increased to 60 N. PCU-15/P harness has the poorest performance during side impact and friction plays an unimportant role in affecting its performance. The stiffness of the webbing used in the PCU-15/P harness is sufficiently high. The lap belt has more effect on limiting the movement of the pilot than the shoulder straps, and a tension of 60 N during the adjustment may be enough for conventional flight maneuvers.

  16. Perception and performance in flight simulators: The contribution of vestibular, visual, and auditory information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The pilot's perception and performance in flight simulators is examined. The areas investigated include: vestibular stimulation, flight management and man cockpit information interfacing, and visual perception in flight simulation. The effects of higher levels of rotary acceleration on response time to constant acceleration, tracking performance, and thresholds for angular acceleration are examined. Areas of flight management examined are cockpit display of traffic information, work load, synthetic speech call outs during the landing phase of flight, perceptual factors in the use of a microwave landing system, automatic speech recognition, automation of aircraft operation, and total simulation of flight training.

  17. Kuipers performs routine in-flight maintenance on EMU in the A/L

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-13

    ISS030-E-148284 (13 March 2012) --- European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers, Expedition 30 flight engineer, performs routine in-flight maintenance on Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) equipment in the Quest airlock of the International Space Station.

  18. Pettit performs an in-flight maintenenace on the PWD in the U.S. Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-12

    ISS030-E-074046 (12 Feb. 2012) --- NASA astronaut Don Pettit, Expedition 30 flight engineer, performs in-flight maintenance on the Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  19. Pettit performs an in-flight maintenenace on the PWD in the U.S. Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-12

    ISS030-E-074045 (12 Feb. 2012) --- NASA astronaut Don Pettit, Expedition 30 flight engineer, performs in-flight maintenance on the Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  20. Pettit performs an in-flight maintenenace on the PWD in the U.S. Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-12

    ISS030-E-074042 (12 Feb. 2012) --- NASA astronaut Don Pettit, Expedition 30 flight engineer, performs in-flight maintenance on the Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  1. Pettit performs an in-flight maintenenace on the PWD in the U.S. Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-12

    ISS030-E-074044 (12 Feb. 2012) --- NASA astronaut Don Pettit, Expedition 30 flight engineer, performs in-flight maintenance on the Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  2. Flight Performance of the HEROES Solar Aspect System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Albert Y.; Christe, Steven; Rodriguez, Marcello; Gregory, Kyle; Cramer, Alexander; Edgerton, Melissa; Gaskin, Jessica; O'Connor, Brian; Sobey, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    Hard X-ray (HXR) observations of solar flares reveal the signatures of energetic electrons, and HXR images with high dynamic range and high sensitivity can distinguish between where electrons are accelerated and where they stop. Furthermore, high-sensitivity HXR measurements may be able to detect the presence of electron acceleration in the non-flaring corona. The High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) balloon mission added the capability of solar observations to an existing astrophysics balloon payload, HERO, which used grazing-incidence optics for direct HXR imaging. The HEROES Solar Aspect System (SAS) was developed and built to provide pointing knowledge during solar observations to better than the ~20 arcsec FWHM angular resolution of the HXR instrument. The SAS consists of two separate systems: the Pitch-Yaw aspect System (PYAS) and the Roll Aspect System (RAS). The PYAS compares the position of an optical image of the Sun relative to precise fiducials to determine the pitch and yaw pointing offsets from the desired solar target. The RAS images the Earth's horizon in opposite directions simultaneously to determine the roll of the gondola. HEROES launched in September 2013 from Fort Sumner, New Mexico, and had a successful one-day flight. We present the detailed analysis of the performance of the SAS for that flight.

  3. Stability and Performance Metrics for Adaptive Flight Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Nguyen, Nhan; VanEykeren, Luarens

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of verifying adaptive control techniques for enabling safe flight in the presence of adverse conditions. Since the adaptive systems are non-linear by design, the existing control verification metrics are not applicable to adaptive controllers. Moreover, these systems are in general highly uncertain. Hence, the system's characteristics cannot be evaluated by relying on the available dynamical models. This necessitates the development of control verification metrics based on the system's input-output information. For this point of view, a set of metrics is introduced that compares the uncertain aircraft's input-output behavior under the action of an adaptive controller to that of a closed-loop linear reference model to be followed by the aircraft. This reference model is constructed for each specific maneuver using the exact aerodynamic and mass properties of the aircraft to meet the stability and performance requirements commonly accepted in flight control. The proposed metrics are unified in the sense that they are model independent and not restricted to any specific adaptive control methods. As an example, we present simulation results for a wing damaged generic transport aircraft with several existing adaptive controllers.

  4. Heart rate and performance during combat missions in a flight simulator.

    PubMed

    Lahtinen, Taija M M; Koskelo, Jukka P; Laitinen, Tomi; Leino, Tuomo K

    2007-04-01

    The psychological workload of flying has been shown to increase heart rate (HR) during flight simulator operation. The association between HR changes and flight performance remains unclear. There were 15 pilots who performed a combat flight mission in a Weapons Tactics Trainer simulator of an F-18 Hornet. An electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded, and individual incremental heart rates (deltaHR) from the HR during rest were calculated for each flight phase and used in statistical analyses. The combat flight period was divided into 13 phases, which were evaluated on a scale of 1 to 5 by the flight instructor. HR increased during interceptions (from a mean resting level of 79.0 to mean value of 96.7 bpm in one of the interception flight phases) and decreased during the return to base and slightly increased during the ILS approach and landing. DeltaHR appeared to be similar among experienced and less experienced pilots. DeltaHR responses during the flight phases did not correlate with simulator flight performance scores. Overall simulator flight performance correlated statistically significantly (r = 0.50) with the F-18 Hornet flight experience. HR reflected the amount of cognitive load during the simulated flight. Hence, HR analysis can be used in the evaluation of the psychological workload of military simulator flight phases. However, more detailed flight performance evaluation methods are needed for this kind of complex flight simulation to replace the traditional but rough interval scales. Use of a visual analog scale by the flight instructors is suggested for simulator flight performance evaluation.

  5. Performance optimization for rotors in hover and axial flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quackenbush, T. R.; Wachspress, D. A.; Kaufman, A. E.; Bliss, D. B.

    1989-01-01

    Performance optimization for rotors in hover and axial flight is a topic of continuing importance to rotorcraft designers. The aim of this Phase 1 effort has been to demonstrate that a linear optimization algorithm could be coupled to an existing influence coefficient hover performance code. This code, dubbed EHPIC (Evaluation of Hover Performance using Influence Coefficients), uses a quasi-linear wake relaxation to solve for the rotor performance. The coupling was accomplished by expanding of the matrix of linearized influence coefficients in EHPIC to accommodate design variables and deriving new coefficients for linearized equations governing perturbations in power and thrust. These coefficients formed the input to a linear optimization analysis, which used the flow tangency conditions on the blade and in the wake to impose equality constraints on the expanded system of equations; user-specified inequality contraints were also employed to bound the changes in the design. It was found that this locally linearized analysis could be invoked to predict a design change that would produce a reduction in the power required by the rotor at constant thrust. Thus, an efficient search for improved versions of the baseline design can be carried out while retaining the accuracy inherent in a free wake/lifting surface performance analysis.

  6. Ecotypic differentiation matters for latitudinal variation in energy metabolism and flight performance in a butterfly under climate change

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyck, Hans; Holveck, Marie-Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Life histories of organisms may vary with latitude as they experience different thermal constraints and challenges. This geographic, intraspecific variation could be of significance for range dynamics under climate change beyond edge-core comparisons. In this study, we did a reciprocal transplant experiment between the temperature-regimes of two latitudes with an ectotherm insect, examining the effects on energy metabolism and flight performance. Pararge aegeria expanded its ecological niche from cool woodland (ancestral) to warmer habitat in agricultural landscape (novel ecotype). Northern males had higher standard metabolic rates than southern males, but in females these rates depended on their ecotype. Southern males flew for longer than northern ones. In females, body mass-corrected flight performance depended on latitude and thermal treatment during larval development and in case of the southern females, their interaction. Our experimental study provides evidence for the role of ecological differentiation at the core of the range to modulate ecophysiology and flight performance at different latitudes, which in turn may affect the climatic responsiveness of the species. PMID:27845372

  7. Ecotypic differentiation matters for latitudinal variation in energy metabolism and flight performance in a butterfly under climate change.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Hans; Holveck, Marie-Jeanne

    2016-11-15

    Life histories of organisms may vary with latitude as they experience different thermal constraints and challenges. This geographic, intraspecific variation could be of significance for range dynamics under climate change beyond edge-core comparisons. In this study, we did a reciprocal transplant experiment between the temperature-regimes of two latitudes with an ectotherm insect, examining the effects on energy metabolism and flight performance. Pararge aegeria expanded its ecological niche from cool woodland (ancestral) to warmer habitat in agricultural landscape (novel ecotype). Northern males had higher standard metabolic rates than southern males, but in females these rates depended on their ecotype. Southern males flew for longer than northern ones. In females, body mass-corrected flight performance depended on latitude and thermal treatment during larval development and in case of the southern females, their interaction. Our experimental study provides evidence for the role of ecological differentiation at the core of the range to modulate ecophysiology and flight performance at different latitudes, which in turn may affect the climatic responsiveness of the species.

  8. In-flight performances of the PAMELA satellite experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papini, P.; Adriani, O.; Ambriola, M.; Barbarino, G. C.; Basili, A.; Bazilevskaja, G. A.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bonechi, L.; Bongi, M.; Bongiorno, L.; Bonvicini, V.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Carlson, P.; Casolino, M.; Castellini, G.; Conrad, J.; De Marzo, C.; De Pascale, M. P.; De Rosa, G.; Di Felice, V.; Fedele, D.; Galper, A. M.; Hofverberg, P.; Koldashov, S. V.; Krutkov, S. Yu.; Kvashnin, A. N.; Lund, J.; Lundquist, J.; Maksumov, O.; Malvezzi, V.; Marcelli, L.; Menn, W.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Minori, M.; Misin, S.; Mocchiutti, E.; Morselli, A.; Nikonov, N. N.; Orsi, S.; Osteria, G.; Pearce, M.; Picozza, P.; Ricci, M.; Ricciarini, S. B.; Runtso, M. F.; Russo, S.; Simon, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Spillantini, P.; Stozhkov, Yu. I.; Taddei, E.; Vacchi, A.; Vannuccini, E.; Voronov, S. A.; Yurkin, Y. T.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Zverev, V. G.

    2008-04-01

    PAMELA is a satellite-borne experiment designed to study with great accuracy charged particles in the cosmic radiation with a particular focus on antiparticles. The experiment, housed on board the Russian Resurs-DK1 satellite, was launched on June 15, 2006 in a 350 × 600 km orbit with an inclination of 70∘. The apparatus comprises a time-of-flight system, a silicon-microstrip magnetic spectrometer, a silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter, an anticoincidence system, a shower tail catcher scintillator and a neutron detector. The combination of these devices allows charged particle identification over a wide energy range. In this work, the detector design is reviewed and the in-orbit performances in the first months after the launch are presented.

  9. High performance flight computer developed for deep space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunker, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    The development of an advanced space flight computer for real time embedded deep space applications which embodies the lessons learned on Galileo and modern computer technology is described. The requirements are listed and the design implementation that meets those requirements is described. The development of SPACE-16 (Spaceborne Advanced Computing Engine) (where 16 designates the databus width) was initiated to support the MM2 (Marine Mark 2) project. The computer is based on a radiation hardened emulation of a modern 32 bit microprocessor and its family of support devices including a high performance floating point accelerator. Additional custom devices which include a coprocessor to improve input/output capabilities, a memory interface chip, and an additional support chip that provide management of all fault tolerant features, are described. Detailed supporting analyses and rationale which justifies specific design and architectural decisions are provided. The six chip types were designed and fabricated. Testing and evaluation of a brass/board was initiated.

  10. Flight performance using a hyperstereo helmet-mounted display: post-flight debriefing questionnaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalich, Melvyn E.; Rash, Clarence E.; Harding, Thomas H.; Jennings, Sion; Craig, Gregory; Stuart, Geoffrey W.

    2009-05-01

    Helmet-mounted display (HMD) designs have faced persistent head-supported mass and center of mass (CM) problems, especially HMD designs like night vision goggles (NVG) that utilize image intensification (I2) sensors mounted forward in front of the user's eyes. Relocating I2 sensors from the front to the sides of the helmet, at or below the transverse plane through the user's head CM, can resolve most of the CM problems. However, the resulting increase in the separation between the two I2 channels effectively increases the user's interpupillary distance (IPD). This HMD design is referred to as a hyperstero design and introduces the phenomenon of hyperstereopsis, a type of visual distortion where stereoscopic depth perception is exaggerated, particularly at distances under 200 feet (~60 meters). The presence of hyperstereopsis has been a concern regarding implementation of hyperstereo HMDs for rotary-wing aircraft. To address this concern, a flight study was conducted to assess the impact of hyperstereopsis on aircraft handling proficiency and pilot acceptance. Three rated aviators with differing levels of I2 and hyperstereo HMD experience conducted a series of flights that concentrated on low-level maneuvers over a two-week period. Initial and final flights were flown with a standard issue I2 device and a production hyperstereo design HMD. Interim flights were flown only with the hyperstereo HMD. Two aviators accumulated 8 hours of flight time with the hyperstereo HMD, while the third accumulated 6.9 hours. This paper presents data collected via written questionnaires completed by the aviators during the post-flight debriefings. These data are compared to questionnaire data from a previous flight investigation in which aviators in a copilot capacity, hands not on the flight controls, accumulated 8 flight hours of flight time using a hyperstereo HMD.

  11. Flight test evaluation of a method to determine the level flight performance propeller-driven aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, E. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A procedure is developed for deriving the level flight drag and propulsive efficiency of propeller-driven aircraft. This is a method in which the overall drag of the aircraft is expressed in terms of the measured increment of power required to overcome a corresponding known increment of drag. The aircraft is flown in unaccelerated, straight and level flight, and thus includes the effects of the propeller drag and slipstream. Propeller efficiency and airplane drag are computed on the basis of data obtained during flight test and do not rely on the analytical calculations of inadequate theory.

  12. Size effects on insect hovering aerodynamics: an integrated computational study.

    PubMed

    Liu, H; Aono, H

    2009-03-01

    Hovering is a miracle of insects that is observed for all sizes of flying insects. Sizing effect in insect hovering on flapping-wing aerodynamics is of interest to both the micro-air-vehicle (MAV) community and also of importance to comparative morphologists. In this study, we present an integrated computational study of such size effects on insect hovering aerodynamics, which is performed using a biology-inspired dynamic flight simulator that integrates the modelling of realistic wing-body morphology, the modelling of flapping-wing and body kinematics and an in-house Navier-Stokes solver. Results of four typical insect hovering flights including a hawkmoth, a honeybee, a fruit fly and a thrips, over a wide range of Reynolds numbers from O(10(4)) to O(10(1)) are presented, which demonstrate the feasibility of the present integrated computational methods in quantitatively modelling and evaluating the unsteady aerodynamics in insect flapping flight. Our results based on realistically modelling of insect hovering therefore offer an integrated understanding of the near-field vortex dynamics, the far-field wake and downwash structures, and their correlation with the force production in terms of sizing and Reynolds number as well as wing kinematics. Our results not only give an integrated interpretation on the similarity and discrepancy of the near- and far-field vortex structures in insect hovering but also demonstrate that our methods can be an effective tool in the MAVs design.

  13. Effect of caffeine on simulator flight performance in sleep-deprived military pilot students.

    PubMed

    Lohi, Jouni J; Huttunen, Kerttu H; Lahtinen, Taija M M; Kilpeläinen, Airi A; Muhli, Arto A; Leino, Tuomo K

    2007-09-01

    Caffeine has been suggested to act as a countermeasure against fatigue in military operations. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the effect of caffeine on simulator flight performance was examined in 13 military pilots during 37 hours of sleep deprivation. Each subject performed a flight mission in simulator four times. The subjects received either a placebo (six subjects) or 200 mg of caffeine (seven subjects) 1 hour before the simulated flights. A moderate 200 mg intake of caffeine was associated with higher axillary temperatures, but it did not affect subjectively assessed sleepiness. Flight performance was similar in both groups during the four rounds flown under sleep deprivation. However, subjective evaluation of overall flight performance in the caffeine group tended to be too optimistic, indicating a potential flight safety problem. Based on our results, we do not recommend using caffeine pills in military flight operations.

  14. Combining control input with flight path data to evaluate pilot performance in transport aircraft.

    PubMed

    Ebbatson, Matt; Harris, Don; Huddlestone, John; Sears, Rodney

    2008-11-01

    When deriving an objective assessment of piloting performance from flight data records, it is common to employ metrics which purely evaluate errors in flight path parameters. The adequacy of pilot performance is evaluated from the flight path of the aircraft. However, in large jet transport aircraft these measures may be insensitive and require supplementing with frequency-based measures of control input parameters. Flight path and control input data were collected from pilots undertaking a jet transport aircraft conversion course during a series of symmetric and asymmetric approaches in a flight simulator. The flight path data were analyzed for deviations around the optimum flight path while flying an instrument landing approach. Manipulation of the flight controls was subject to analysis using a series of power spectral density measures. The flight path metrics showed no significant differences in performance between the symmetric and asymmetric approaches. However, control input frequency domain measures revealed that the pilots employed highly different control strategies in the pitch and yaw axes. The results demonstrate that to evaluate pilot performance fully in large aircraft, it is necessary to employ performance metrics targeted at both the outer control loop (flight path) and the inner control loop (flight control) parameters in parallel, evaluating both the product and process of a pilot's performance.

  15. Energy extraction from atmospheric turbulence to improve flight vehicle performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Chinmay Karsandas

    Small 'bird-sized' Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have now become practical due to technological advances in embedded electronics, miniature sensors and actuators, and propulsion systems. Birds are known to take advantage of wind currents to conserve energy and fly long distances without flapping their wings. This dissertation explores the possibility of improving the performance of small UAVs by extracting the energy available in atmospheric turbulence. An aircraft can gain energy from vertical gusts by increasing its lift in regions of updraft and reducing its lift in downdrafts - a concept that has been known for decades. Starting with a simple model of a glider flying through a sinusoidal gust, a parametric optimization approach is used to compute the minimum gust amplitude and optimal control input required for the glider to sustain flight without losing energy. For small UAVs using optimal control inputs, sinusoidal gusts with amplitude of 10--15% of the cruise speed are sufficient to keep the aircraft aloft. The method is then modified and extended to include random gusts that are representative of natural turbulence. A procedure to design optimal control laws for energy extraction from realistic gust profiles is developed using a Genetic Algorithm (GA). A feedback control law is designed to perform well over a variety of random gusts, and not be tailored for one particular gust. A small UAV flying in vertical turbulence is shown to obtain average energy savings of 35--40% with the use of a simple control law. The design procedure is also extended to determine optimal control laws for sinusoidal as well as turbulent lateral gusts. The theoretical work is complemented by experimental validation using a small autonomous UAV. The development of a lightweight autopilot and UAV platform is presented. Flight test results show that active control of the lift of an autonomous glider resulted in approximately 46% average energy savings compared to glides with fixed

  16. Performance of the Tachyon Time-of-Flight PET Camera.

    PubMed

    Peng, Q; Choong, W-S; Vu, C; Huber, J S; Janecek, M; Wilson, D; Huesman, R H; Qi, Jinyi; Zhou, Jian; Moses, W W

    2015-02-01

    We have constructed and characterized a time-of-flight Positron Emission Tomography (TOF PET) camera called the Tachyon. The Tachyon is a single-ring Lutetium Oxyorthosilicate (LSO) based camera designed to obtain significantly better timing resolution than the ~ 550 ps found in present commercial TOF cameras, in order to quantify the benefit of improved TOF resolution for clinically relevant tasks. The Tachyon's detector module is optimized for timing by coupling the 6.15 × 25 mm 2 side of 6.15 × 6.15 × 25 mm 3 LSO scintillator crystals onto a 1-inch diameter Hamamatsu R-9800 PMT with a super-bialkali photocathode. We characterized the camera according to the NEMA NU 2-2012 standard, measuring the energy resolution, timing resolution, spatial resolution, noise equivalent count rates and sensitivity. The Tachyon achieved a coincidence timing resolution of 314 ps +/- ps FWHM over all crystal-crystal combinations. Experiments were performed with the NEMA body phantom to assess the imaging performance improvement over non-TOF PET. The results show that at a matched contrast, incorporating 314 ps TOF reduces the standard deviation of the contrast by a factor of about 2.3.

  17. Performance of the Tachyon Time-of-Flight PET Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Q.; Choong, W.-S.; Vu, C.; Huber, J. S.; Janecek, M.; Wilson, D.; Huesman, R. H.; Qi, Jinyi; Zhou, Jian; Moses, W. W.

    2015-02-01

    We have constructed and characterized a time-of-flight Positron Emission Tomography (TOF PET) camera called the Tachyon. The Tachyon is a single-ring Lutetium Oxyorthosilicate (LSO) based camera designed to obtain significantly better timing resolution than the 550 ps found in present commercial TOF cameras, in order to quantify the benefit of improved TOF resolution for clinically relevant tasks. The Tachyon's detector module is optimized for timing by coupling the 6.15 ×25 mm2 side of 6.15 ×6.15 ×25 mm3 LSO scintillator crystals onto a 1-inch diameter Hamamatsu R-9800 PMT with a super-bialkali photocathode. We characterized the camera according to the NEMA NU 2-2012 standard, measuring the energy resolution, timing resolution, spatial resolution, noise equivalent count rates and sensitivity. The Tachyon achieved a coincidence timing resolution of 314 ps +/- 20 ps FWHM over all crystal-crystal combinations. Experiments were performed with the NEMA body phantom to assess the imaging performance improvement over non-TOF PET. The results show that at a matched contrast, incorporating 314 ps TOF reduces the standard deviation of the contrast by a factor of about 2.3.

  18. Performance of the Tachyon Time-of-Flight PET Camera

    DOE PAGES

    Peng, Q.; Choong, W. -S.; Vu, C.; ...

    2015-01-23

    We have constructed and characterized a time-of-flight Positron Emission Tomography (TOF PET) camera called the Tachyon. The Tachyon is a single-ring Lutetium Oxyorthosilicate (LSO) based camera designed to obtain significantly better timing resolution than the ~ 550 ps found in present commercial TOF cameras, in order to quantify the benefit of improved TOF resolution for clinically relevant tasks. The Tachyon's detector module is optimized for timing by coupling the 6.15 ×25 mm 2 side of 6.15 ×6.15 ×25 mm 3 LSO scintillator crystals onto a 1-inch diameter Hamamatsu R-9800 PMT with a super-bialkali photocathode. We characterized the camera according tomore » the NEMA NU 2-2012 standard, measuring the energy resolution, timing resolution, spatial resolution, noise equivalent count rates and sensitivity. The Tachyon achieved a coincidence timing resolution of 314 ps +/- 20 ps FWHM over all crystal-crystal combinations. Experiments were performed with the NEMA body phantom to assess the imaging performance improvement over non-TOF PET. We find that the results show that at a matched contrast, incorporating 314 ps TOF reduces the standard deviation of the contrast by a factor of about 2.3.« less

  19. Performance of the Tachyon Time-of-Flight PET Camera

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Q.; Choong, W.-S.; Vu, C.; Huber, J. S.; Janecek, M.; Wilson, D.; Huesman, R. H.; Qi, Jinyi; Zhou, Jian; Moses, W. W.

    2015-01-01

    We have constructed and characterized a time-of-flight Positron Emission Tomography (TOF PET) camera called the Tachyon. The Tachyon is a single-ring Lutetium Oxyorthosilicate (LSO) based camera designed to obtain significantly better timing resolution than the ~ 550 ps found in present commercial TOF cameras, in order to quantify the benefit of improved TOF resolution for clinically relevant tasks. The Tachyon’s detector module is optimized for timing by coupling the 6.15 × 25 mm2 side of 6.15 × 6.15 × 25 mm3 LSO scintillator crystals onto a 1-inch diameter Hamamatsu R-9800 PMT with a super-bialkali photocathode. We characterized the camera according to the NEMA NU 2-2012 standard, measuring the energy resolution, timing resolution, spatial resolution, noise equivalent count rates and sensitivity. The Tachyon achieved a coincidence timing resolution of 314 ps +/− ps FWHM over all crystal-crystal combinations. Experiments were performed with the NEMA body phantom to assess the imaging performance improvement over non-TOF PET. The results show that at a matched contrast, incorporating 314 ps TOF reduces the standard deviation of the contrast by a factor of about 2.3. PMID:26594057

  20. A comparison of the distribution of enzymatically and non-enzymatically produced lead phosphate in insect flight muscle.

    PubMed

    Tice, L W

    1969-01-01

    Lead phosphate precipitates were produced in indirect flight muscles of Phormia regina by sequential incubation in solutions containing lead and inorganic phosphate and their distribution was compared with those produced by ATP hydrolysis in the presence of lead. Enzymatically produced precipitates were associated almost exclusively with thick filaments. Non-enzymatically produced precipitates were associated with thick filaments but were also found associated with thin filaments in significant numbers.

  1. MAP Attitude Control System Design and Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, S. F.; ODonnell, J. R.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) is a follow-on to the Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft. To make a full-sky map of cosmic microwave background fluctuations, a combination fast spin and slow precession motion will be used that will cover the entire celestial sphere in six months. The spin rate should be an order of magnitude higher than the precession rate, and each rate should be tightly controlled. The sunline angle should be 22.5 +/- 0.25 deg. Sufficient attitude knowledge must be provided to yield instrument pointing to a standard deviation of 1.3 arc-minutes RSS three axes. In addition, the spacecraft must be able to acquire and hold the sunline at initial acquisition, and in the event of a failure. Finally. the spacecraft must be able to slew to the proper burn orientations and to the proper off-sunline attitude to start the compound spin. The design and flight performance of the Attitude Control System on MAP that meets these requirements will be discussed.

  2. Performance of active vibration control technology: the ACTEX flight experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, T. W.; Manning, R. A.; Qassim, K.

    1999-12-01

    This paper discusses the development and results of two intelligent structures space-flight experiments, each of which could affect architecture designs of future spacecraft. The first, the advanced controls technology experiment I (ACTEX I), is a variable stiffness tripod structure riding as a secondary payload on a classified spacecraft. It has been operating well past its expected life since becoming operational in 1996. Over 60 on-orbit experiments have been run on the ACTEX I flight experiment. These experiments form the basis for in-space controller design problems and for concluding lifetime/reliability data on the active control components. Transfer functions taken during the life of ACTEX I have shown consistent predictability and stability in structural behavior, including consistency with those measurements taken on the ground prior to a three year storage period and the launch event. ACTEX I can change its modal characteristics by employing its dynamic change mechanism that varies preloads in portions of its structure. Active control experiments have demonstrated maximum vibration reductions of 29 dB and 16 dB in the first two variable modes of the system, while operating over a remarkable on-orbit temperature range of -80 °C to 129 °C. The second experiment, ACTEX II, was successfully designed, ground-tested, and integrated on an experimental Department of Defense satellite prior to its loss during a launch vehicle failure in 1995. ACTEX II also had variable modal behavior by virtue of a two-axis gimbal and added challenges of structural flexibility by being a large deployable appendage. Although the loss of ACTEX II did not provide space environment experience, ground testing resulted in space qualifying the hardware and demonstrated 21 dB, 14 dB, and 8 dB reductions in amplitude of the first three primary structural modes. ACTEX II could use either active and/or passive techniques to affect vibration suppression. Both experiments trailblazed

  3. Enroute flight-path planning - Cooperative performance of flight crews and knowledge-based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip J.; Mccoy, Elaine; Layton, Chuck; Galdes, Deb

    1989-01-01

    Interface design issues associated with the introduction of knowledge-based systems into the cockpit are discussed. Such issues include not only questions about display and control design, they also include deeper system design issues such as questions about the alternative roles and responsibilities of the flight crew and the computer system. In addition, the feasibility of using enroute flight path planning as a context for exploring such research questions is considered. In particular, the development of a prototyping shell that allows rapid design and study of alternative interfaces and system designs is discussed.

  4. Orion Launch Abort System Jettison Motor Performance During Exploration Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCauley, Rachel J.; Davidson, John B.; Winski, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the flight test objectives and performance of the Orion Launch Abort System during Exploration Flight Test-1. Exploration Flight Test-1, the first flight test of the Orion spacecraft, was managed and led by the Orion prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, and launched atop a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket. This flight test was a two-orbit, high-apogee, high-energy entry, low-inclination test mission used to validate and test systems critical to crew safety. This test included the first flight test of the Launch Abort System performing Orion nominal flight mission critical objectives. Although the Orion Program has tested a number of the critical systems of the Orion spacecraft on the ground, the launch environment cannot be replicated completely on Earth. Data from this flight will be used to verify the function of the jettison motor to separate the Launch Abort System from the crew module so it can continue on with the mission. Selected Launch Abort System flight test data is presented and discussed in the paper. Through flight test data, Launch Abort System performance trends have been derived that will prove valuable to future flights as well as the manned space program.

  5. The effects of alcohol on pilot performance during instrument flight.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1972-01-01

    Sixteen instrument-rated pilots, eight of whom were very experienced professional aviators, flew instrument landing system approaches in a Cessna 172 under simulated instrument flight conditions while sober and while under the influence of 40, 80, an...

  6. NASA's F-15B testbed aircraft undergoes pre-flight checks before performing the first flight of the Quiet Spike project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-08-10

    NASA's F-15B testbed aircraft undergoes pre-flight checks before performing the first flight of the Quiet Spike project. The first flight was performed for evaluation purposes, and the spike was not extended. The Quiet Spike was developed as a means of controlling and reducing the sonic boom caused by an aircraft 'breaking' the sound barrier.

  7. Laboratory Verification of Occulter Contrast Performance and Formation Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirbu, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Direct imaging of an exo-Earth is a difficult technical challenge. First, the intensity ratio between the parent star and its dim, rocky planetary companion is expected to be ten billion times. Additionally, for a planetary companion in the habitable zone the angular separation to the star is very small, such that only nearby stars are feasible targets. An external occulter is a spacecraft that is flown in formation with the observing space telescope and blocks starlight prior to the entrance pupil. Its shape must be specially designed to control for diffraction and be tolerant of errors such as misalignment, manufacturing, and deformations. In this dissertation, we present laboratory results pertaining to the optical verification of the contrast performance of a scaled occulter and implementation of an algorithm for the alignment of the telescope in the shadow of the occulter. The experimental testbed is scaled from space dimensions to the laboratory by maintaining constant Fresnel numbers while preserving an identical diffraction integral. We present monochromatic results in the image plane showing contrast better than 10 orders of magnitude, consistent with the level required for imaging an Exo-earth, and obtained using an optimized occulter shape. We compare these results to a baseline case using a circular occulter and to the theoretical predictions. Additionally, we address the principal technical challenge in the formation flight problem through demonstration of an alignment algorithm that is based on out-of-band leaked light. Such leaked light can be used a map to estimate the location of the telescope in the shadow and perform fine alignment during science observations.

  8. Bumblebee flight performance in environments of different proximity.

    PubMed

    Linander, Nellie; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie

    2016-02-01

    Flying animals are capable of navigating through environments of different complexity with high precision. To control their flight when negotiating narrow tunnels, bees and birds use the magnitude of apparent image motion (known as optic flow) generated by the walls. In their natural habitat, however, these animals would encounter both cluttered and open environments. Here, we investigate how large changes in the proximity of nearby surfaces affect optic flow-based flight control strategies. We trained bumblebees to fly along a flight and recorded how the distance between the walls--from 60 cm to 240 cm--affected their flight control. Our results reveal that, as tunnel width increases, both lateral position and ground speed become increasingly variable. We also find that optic flow information from the ground has an increasing influence on flight control, suggesting that bumblebees measure optic flow flexibly over a large lateral and ventral field of view, depending on where the highest magnitude of optic flow occurs. A consequence of this strategy is that, when flying in narrow spaces, bumblebees use optic flow information from the nearby obstacles to control flight, while in more open spaces they rely primarily on optic flow cues from the ground.

  9. Effects of headset, flight workload, hearing ability, and communications message quality on pilot performance.

    PubMed

    Casto, Kristen L; Casali, John G

    2013-06-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of hearing loss, aviation headset type, flight workload complexity, and communication signal quality on pilots' performance in an army rotary-wing flight simulator. To maintain flight status, army aviators who do not meet current audiometric standards require a hearing loss waiver, which is based on speech intelligibility in quiet conditions. Because hearing loss characteristics of hearing-impaired aviators can vary greatly, and because performance is likely also influenced by degree of flight workload and communication demand, it was expected that performance among hearing-impaired aviators would also vary. Participants were 20 army helicopter pilots. Pilots flew three flights in a full motion-based helicopter simulator,with a different headset configuration and varying flight workload levels and communication signal quality characterizing each flight. Objective flight performance parameters of heading, altitude, and airspeed deviation and air traffic control command read-backs were measured. Statistically significant results suggest that high levels of flight workload, especially in combination with poor communications signal quality, lead to deficits in flight performance and speech intelligibility. These results support a conclusion that factors other than hearing thresholds and speech intelligibility in quiet should be considered when evaluating helicopter pilots' flight safety. The results also support a recommendation that hearing-impaired pilots use assistive communication technology and not fly with strictly passive headsets. The combined effects of flight environment with individual hearing levels should be considered when making recommendations concerning continued aviation flight status and those concerning communications headsets used in high-noise cockpits.

  10. 75 FR 47592 - Final Test Guideline; Product Performance of Skin-applied Insect Repellents of Insect and Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... considerations affecting the design and conduct of repellent studies when human subjects are involved. Any... recommendations for the design and execution of studies to evaluate the performance of pesticide products intended... recommends appropriate study designs and methods for selecting subjects, statistical analysis, and reporting...

  11. Visual and flight performance recovery after PRK or LASIK in helicopter pilots.

    PubMed

    Van de Pol, Corina; Greig, Joanna L; Estrada, Art; Bissette, Gina M; Bower, Kraig S

    2007-06-01

    Refractive surgery, specifically photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), is becoming more accepted in the military environment. Determination of the impact on visual performance in the more demanding aviation environment was the impetus for this study. A prospective evaluation of 20 Black Hawk pilots pre-surgically and at 1 wk, 1 mo, and 6 mo postsurgery was conducted to assess both PRK and LASIK visual and flight performance outcomes on the return of aviators to duty. Of 20 pilots, 19 returned to flight status at 1 mo after surgery; 1 PRK subject was delayed due to corneal haze and subjective visual symptoms. Improvements were seen under simulator night and night vision goggle flight after LASIK; no significant changes in flight performance were measured in the aircraft. Results indicated a significantly faster recovery of all visual performance outcomes 1 wk after LASIK vs. PRK, with no difference between procedures at 1 and 6 mo. Low contrast acuity and contrast sensitivity only weakly correlated to flight performance in the early post-operative period. Overall flight performance assessed in this study after PRK and LASIK was stable or improved from baseline, indicating a resilience of performance despite measured decrements in visual performance, especially in PRK. More visually demanding flight tasks may be impacted by subtle changes in visual performance. Contrast tests are more sensitive to the effects of refractive surgical intervention and may prove to be a better indicator of visual recovery for return to flight status.

  12. Intraindividual variability in basic reaction time predicts middle-aged and older pilots' flight simulator performance.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Quinn; Taylor, Joy; Heraldez, Daniel; Noda, Art; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Yesavage, Jerome

    2013-07-01

    Intraindividual variability (IIV) is negatively associated with cognitive test performance and is positively associated with age and some neurological disorders. We aimed to extend these findings to a real-world task, flight simulator performance. We hypothesized that IIV predicts poorer initial flight performance and increased rate of decline in performance among middle-aged and older pilots. Two-hundred and thirty-six pilots (40-69 years) completed annual assessments comprising a cognitive battery and two 75-min simulated flights in a flight simulator. Basic and complex IIV composite variables were created from measures of basic reaction time and shifting and divided attention tasks. Flight simulator performance was characterized by an overall summary score and scores on communication, emergencies, approach, and traffic avoidance components. Although basic IIV did not predict rate of decline in flight performance, it had a negative association with initial performance for most flight measures. After taking into account processing speed, basic IIV explained an additional 8%-12% of the negative age effect on initial flight performance. IIV plays an important role in real-world tasks and is another aspect of cognition that underlies age-related differences in cognitive performance.

  13. Intraindividual Variability in Basic Reaction Time Predicts Middle-Aged and Older Pilots’ Flight Simulator Performance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Intraindividual variability (IIV) is negatively associated with cognitive test performance and is positively associated with age and some neurological disorders. We aimed to extend these findings to a real-world task, flight simulator performance. We hypothesized that IIV predicts poorer initial flight performance and increased rate of decline in performance among middle-aged and older pilots. Method. Two-hundred and thirty-six pilots (40–69 years) completed annual assessments comprising a cognitive battery and two 75-min simulated flights in a flight simulator. Basic and complex IIV composite variables were created from measures of basic reaction time and shifting and divided attention tasks. Flight simulator performance was characterized by an overall summary score and scores on communication, emergencies, approach, and traffic avoidance components. Results. Although basic IIV did not predict rate of decline in flight performance, it had a negative association with initial performance for most flight measures. After taking into account processing speed, basic IIV explained an additional 8%–12% of the negative age effect on initial flight performance. Discussion. IIV plays an important role in real-world tasks and is another aspect of cognition that underlies age-related differences in cognitive performance. PMID:23052365

  14. Instrumentation and Performance Analysis Plans for the HIFiRE Flight 2 Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, Mark; Barhorst, Todd; Jackson, Kevin; Eklund, Dean; Hass, Neal; Storch, Andrea M.; Liu, Jiwen

    2009-01-01

    Supersonic combustion performance of a bi-component gaseous hydrocarbon fuel mixture is one of the primary aspects under investigation in the HIFiRE Flight 2 experiment. In-flight instrumentation and post-test analyses will be two key elements used to determine the combustion performance. Pre-flight computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses provide valuable information that can be used to optimize the placement of a constrained set of wall pressure instrumentation in the experiment. The simulations also allow pre-flight assessments of performance sensitivities leading to estimates of overall uncertainty in the determination of combustion efficiency. Based on the pre-flight CFD results, 128 wall pressure sensors have been located throughout the isolator/combustor flowpath to minimize the error in determining the wall pressure force at Mach 8 flight conditions. Also, sensitivity analyses show that mass capture and combustor exit stream thrust are the two primary contributors to uncertainty in combustion efficiency.

  15. Detrimental and Neutral Effects of a Wild Grass-Fungal Endophyte Symbiotum on Insect Preference and Performance

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Stephen L.; Hu, Jinguo; Stewart, Alan V.; Wang, Bingrui; Elberson, Leslie R.

    2011-01-01

    Seed-borne Epichloë/Neotyphodium Glenn, Bacon, Hanlin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) fungal endophytes in temperate grasses can provide protection against insect attack with the degree of host resistance related to the grass—endophyte symbiotum and the insect species involved in an interaction. Few experimental studies with wild grass—endophyte symbiota, compared to endophyte-infected agricultural grasses, have tested for anti-insect benefits, let alone for resistance against more than one insect species. This study quantified the preference and performance of the bird cherry oat-aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), two important pests of forage and cereal grasses, on Neotyphodium-infected (E+) and uninfected (E-) plants of the wild grass Alpine timothy, Phleum alpinum L. (Poales: Poaceae). The experiments tested for both constitutive and wound-induced resistance in E+ plants to characterize possible plasticity of defense responses by a wild E+ grass. The aphid, R. padi preferred E- over E+ test plants in choice experiments and E+ undamaged test plants constitutively expressed antibiosis resistance to this aphid by suppressing population growth. Prior damage of E+ test plants did not induce higher levels of resistance to R. padi. By contrast, the beetle, O. melanopus showed no preference for E+ or E- test plants and endophyte infection did not adversely affect the survival and development of larvae. These results extend the phenomenon of variable effects of E+ wild grasses on the preference and performance of phytophagous insects. The wild grass— Neotyphodium symbiotum in this study broadens the number of wild E+ grasses available for expanded explorations into the effects of endophyte metabolites on insect herbivory. PMID:21867443

  16. Detrimental and neutral effects of a wild grass-fungal endophyte symbiotum on insect preference and performance.

    PubMed

    Clement, Stephen L; Hu, Jinguo; Stewart, Alan V; Wang, Bingrui; Elberson, Leslie R

    2011-01-01

    Seed-borne Epichloë/Neotyphodium Glenn, Bacon, Hanlin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) fungal endophytes in temperate grasses can provide protection against insect attack with the degree of host resistance related to the grass-endophyte symbiotum and the insect species involved in an interaction. Few experimental studies with wild grass-endophyte symbiota, compared to endophyte-infected agricultural grasses, have tested for anti-insect benefits, let alone for resistance against more than one insect species. This study quantified the preference and performance of the bird cherry oat-aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), two important pests of forage and cereal grasses, on Neotyphodium-infected (E+) and uninfected (E-) plants of the wild grass Alpine timothy, Phleum alpinum L. (Poales: Poaceae). The experiments tested for both constitutive and wound-induced resistance in E+ plants to characterize possible plasticity of defense responses by a wild E+ grass. The aphid, R. padi preferred E- over E+ test plants in choice experiments and E+ undamaged test plants constitutively expressed antibiosis resistance to this aphid by suppressing population growth. Prior damage of E+ test plants did not induce higher levels of resistance to R. padi. By contrast, the beetle, O. melanopus showed no preference for E+ or E- test plants and endophyte infection did not adversely affect the survival and development of larvae. These results extend the phenomenon of variable effects of E+ wild grasses on the preference and performance of phytophagous insects. The wild grass- Neotyphodium symbiotum in this study broadens the number of wild E+ grasses available for expanded explorations into the effects of endophyte metabolites on insect herbivory.

  17. Distributed power and control actuation in the thoracic mechanics of a robotic insect.

    PubMed

    Finio, Benjamin M; Wood, Robert J

    2010-12-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of biological flight have inspired roboticists to create flapping-wing vehicles on the scale of insects and small birds. While our understanding of the wing kinematics, flight musculature and neuromotor control systems of insects has expanded, in practice it has proven quite difficult to construct an at-scale mechanical device capable of similar flight performance. One of the key challenges is the development of an effective and efficient transmission mechanism to control wing motions. Here we present multiple insect-scale robotic thorax designs capable of producing asymmetric wing kinematics similar to those observed in nature and utilized by dipteran insects to maneuver. Inspired by the thoracic mechanics of dipteran insects, which entail a morphological separation of power and control muscles, these designs show that such distributed actuation can also modulate wing motion in a robotic design.

  18. Flight performance of Skylab attitude and pointing control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, W. B.; Kennel, H. F.; Rupp, C. C.; Seltzer, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    The Skylab attitude and pointing control system (APCS) requirements are briefly reviewed and the way in which they became altered during the prelaunch phase of development is noted. The actual flight mission (including mission alterations during flight) is described. The serious hardware failures that occurred, beginning during ascent through the atmosphere, also are described. The APCS's ability to overcome these failures and meet mission changes are presented. The large around-the-clock support effort on the ground is discussed. Salient design points and software flexibility that should afford pertinent experience for future spacecraft attitude and pointing control system designs are included.

  19. Effect of video-game experience and position of flight stick controller on simulated-flight performance.

    PubMed

    Cho, Bo-Keun; Aghazadeh, Fereydoun; Al-Qaisi, Saif

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of video-game experience and flight-stick position on flying performance. The study divided participants into 2 groups; center- and side-stick groups, which were further divided into high and low level of video-game experience subgroups. The experiment consisted of 7 sessions of simulated flying, and in the last session, the flight stick controller was switched to the other position. Flight performance was measured in terms of the deviation of heading, altitude, and airspeed from their respective requirements. Participants with high experience in video games performed significantly better (p < .001) than the low-experienced group. Also, participants performed significantly better (p < .001) with the center-stick than the side-stick. When the side-stick controller was switched to the center-stick position, performance scores continued to increase (0.78 %). However, after switching from a center- to a side-stick controller, performance scores decreased (4.8%).

  20. Apollo experience report. Crew-support activities for experiments performed during manned space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckee, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments are performed during manned space flights in an attempt to acquire knowledge that can advance science and technology or that can be applied to operational techniques for future space flights. A description is given of the procedures that the personnel who are directly assigned to the function of crew support at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center use to prepare for and to conduct experiments during space flight.

  1. How does synchrony with host plant affect the performance of an outbreaking insect defoliator?

    PubMed

    Fuentealba, Alvaro; Pureswaran, Deepa; Bauce, Éric; Despland, Emma

    2017-08-01

    Phenological mismatch has been proposed as a key mechanism by which climate change can increase the severity of insect outbreaks. Spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) is a serious defoliator of North American conifers that feeds on buds in the early spring. Black spruce (Picea mariana) has traditionally been considered a poor-quality host plant since its buds open later than those of the preferred host, balsam fir (Abies balsamea). We hypothesize that advancing black spruce budbreak phenology under a warmer climate would improve its phenological synchrony with budworm and hence increase both its suitability as a host plant and resulting defoliation damage. We evaluated the relationship between tree phenology and both budworm performance and tree defoliation by placing seven cohorts of budworm larvae on black spruce and balsam fir branches at different lags with tree budburst. Our results show that on both host plants, spruce budworm survival and pupal mass decrease sharply when budbreak occurs prior to larval emergence. By contrast, emergence before budbreak decreases survival, but does not negatively impact growth or reproductive output. We also document phytochemical changes that occur as needles mature and define a window of opportunity for the budworm. Finally, larvae that emerged in synchrony with budbreak had the greatest defoliating effect on black spruce. Our results suggest that in the event of advanced black spruce phenology due to climate warming, this host species will support better budworm survival and suffer increased defoliation.

  2. Comparative aerodynamic performance of flapping flight in two bat species using time-resolved wake visualization

    PubMed Central

    Muijres, Florian T.; Johansson, L. Christoffer; Winter, York; Hedenström, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Bats are unique among extant actively flying animals in having very flexible wings, controlled by multi-jointed fingers. This gives the potential for fine-tuned active control to optimize aerodynamic performance throughout the wingbeat and thus a more efficient flight. But how bat wing performance scales with size, morphology and ecology is not yet known. Here, we present time-resolved fluid wake data of two species of bats flying freely across a range of flight speeds using stereoscopic digital particle image velocimetry in a wind tunnel. From these data, we construct an average wake for each bat species and speed combination, which is used to estimate the flight forces throughout the wingbeat and resulting flight performance properties such as lift-to-drag ratio (L/D). The results show that the wake dynamics and flight performance of both bat species are similar, as was expected since both species operate at similar Reynolds numbers (Re) and Strouhal numbers (St). However, maximum L/D is achieved at a significant higher flight speed for the larger, highly mobile and migratory bat species than for the smaller non-migratory species. Although the flight performance of these bats may depend on a range of morphological and ecological factors, the differences in optimal flight speeds between the species could at least partly be explained by differences in their movement ecology. PMID:21367776

  3. A flight investigation of basic performance characteristics of a teetering-rotor attack helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. E. K., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Flight data were obtained with an instrumented AH-16 helicopter having uninstrumented, standard main-rotor blades. The data are presented to facilitate the analysis of data taken when the same vehicle was flown with instrumented main-rotor blades built with new airfoils. Test results include data on performance, flight-state parameters, pitch-link loads and blade angles for level flight, descending turns and pull-ups. Flight test procedures and the effects of both trim variations and transient phenomena on the data are discussed.

  4. Optimum Wing Shape Determination of Highly Flexible Morphing Aircraft for Improved Flight Performance.

    PubMed

    Su, Weihua; Swei, Sean Shan-Min; Zhu, Guoming G

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, optimum wing bending and torsion deformations are explored for a mission adaptive, highly flexible morphing aircraft. The complete highly flexible aircraft is modeled using a strain-based geometrically nonlinear beam formulation, coupled with unsteady aerodynamics and 6-dof rigid-body motions. Since there are no conventional discrete control surfaces for trimming the flexible aircraft, the design space for searching the optimum wing geometries is enlarged. To achieve high performance flight, the wing geometry is best tailored according to the specific flight mission needs. In this study, the steady level flight and the coordinated turn flight are considered, and the optimum wing deformations with the minimum drag at these flight conditions are searched by utilizing a modal-based optimization procedure, subject to the trim and other constraints. The numerical study verifies the feasibility of the modal-based optimization approach, and shows the resulting optimum wing configuration and its sensitivity under different flight profiles.

  5. Optimum Wing Shape Determination of Highly Flexible Morphing Aircraft for Improved Flight Performance

    PubMed Central

    Su, Weihua; Swei, Sean Shan-Min; Zhu, Guoming G.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, optimum wing bending and torsion deformations are explored for a mission adaptive, highly flexible morphing aircraft. The complete highly flexible aircraft is modeled using a strain-based geometrically nonlinear beam formulation, coupled with unsteady aerodynamics and 6-dof rigid-body motions. Since there are no conventional discrete control surfaces for trimming the flexible aircraft, the design space for searching the optimum wing geometries is enlarged. To achieve high performance flight, the wing geometry is best tailored according to the specific flight mission needs. In this study, the steady level flight and the coordinated turn flight are considered, and the optimum wing deformations with the minimum drag at these flight conditions are searched by utilizing a modal-based optimization procedure, subject to the trim and other constraints. The numerical study verifies the feasibility of the modal-based optimization approach, and shows the resulting optimum wing configuration and its sensitivity under different flight profiles. PMID:29348697

  6. Optimum Wing Shape of Highly Flexible Morphing Aircraft for Improved Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Weihua; Swei, Sean Shan-Min; Zhu, Guoming G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, optimum wing bending and torsion deformations are explored for a mission adaptive, highly flexible morphing aircraft. The complete highly flexible aircraft is modeled using a strain-based geometrically nonlinear beam formulation, coupled with unsteady aerodynamics and six-degrees-of-freedom rigid-body motions. Since there are no conventional discrete control surfaces for trimming the flexible aircraft, the design space for searching the optimum wing geometries is enlarged. To achieve high performance flight, the wing geometry is best tailored according to the specific flight mission needs. In this study, the steady level flight and the coordinated turn flight are considered, and the optimum wing deformations with the minimum drag at these flight conditions are searched by utilizing a modal-based optimization procedure, subject to the trim and other constraints. The numerical study verifies the feasibility of the modal-based optimization approach, and shows the resulting optimum wing configuration and its sensitivity under different flight profiles.

  7. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Flight Training Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Flight Training Devices D Appendix D to Part 60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE Pt. 60, App...

  8. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Full Flight Simulators

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Full Flight Simulators C Appendix C to Part 60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE Pt. 60, App....

  9. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Flight Training Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Flight Training Devices D Appendix D to Part 60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE Pt. 60, App...

  10. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Flight Training Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Flight Training Devices D Appendix D to Part 60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE Pt. 60, App...

  11. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Flight Training Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Flight Training Devices D Appendix D to Part 60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE Pt. 60, App...

  12. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Full Flight Simulators

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Full Flight Simulators C Appendix C to Part 60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE Pt. 60, App....

  13. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Full Flight Simulators

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Full Flight Simulators C Appendix C to Part 60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE Pt. 60, App....

  14. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Full Flight Simulators

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Full Flight Simulators C Appendix C to Part 60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE Pt. 60, App....

  15. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Full Flight Simulators

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Full Flight Simulators C Appendix C to Part 60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE Pt. 60, App....

  16. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Flight Training Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Flight Training Devices D Appendix D to Part 60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING DEVICE INITIAL AND CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND USE Pt. 60, App...

  17. Chiao performs in-flight maintenance on the TVIS in the SM during Expedition 10

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-02-15

    ISS010-E-17815 (15 February 2005) --- Cosmonaut Salizhan S. Sharipov, Expedition 10 flight engineer representing Russia's Federal Space Agency, performs in-flight maintenance on the Treadmill Vibration Isolation System (TVIS) in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station (ISS).

  18. Marshburn performs in-flight maintenance to APS in the U.S. Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-01

    ISS034-E-038131 (1 Feb. 2013) --- NASA astronaut Tom Marshburn, Expedition 34 flight engineer, performs in-flight maintenance in the International Space Station’s Destiny laboratory, making some upgrades to automated payload switches (APS) for various racks and experiments.

  19. Marshburn performs in-flight maintenance to APS in the U.S. Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-01

    ISS034-E-038128 (1 Feb. 2013) --- NASA astronaut Tom Marshburn, Expedition 34 flight engineer, performs in-flight maintenance in the International Space Station’s Destiny laboratory, making some upgrades to automated payload switches (APS) for various racks and experiments.

  20. Ride qualities criteria validation/pilot performance study: Flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nardi, L. U.; Kawana, H. Y.; Greek, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    Pilot performance during a terrain following flight was studied for ride quality criteria validation. Data from manual and automatic terrain following operations conducted during low level penetrations were analyzed to determine the effect of ride qualities on crew performance. The conditions analyzed included varying levels of turbulence, terrain roughness, and mission duration with a ride smoothing system on and off. Limited validation of the B-1 ride quality criteria and some of the first order interactions between ride qualities and pilot/vehicle performance are highlighted. An earlier B-1 flight simulation program correlated well with the flight test results.

  1. A Model for the Detection of Moving Targets in Visual Clutter Inspired by Insect Physiology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    paper: SDW PS DCO. References 1. Wagner H (1986) Flight performance and visual control of flight of the free- flying housefly (Musca domestica L) 3...differences in the chasing behaviour of houseflies (musca). Biol Cybern 32: 239–241. 3. Land MF (1997) Visual acuity in insects. Annu Rev Entomol 42: 147

  2. Verification and Validation Plan for Flight Performance Requirements on the CEV Parachute Assembly System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Aaron L.; Olson, Leah M.

    2011-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) is engaged in a multi-year design and test campaign aimed at qualifying a parachute recovery system for human use on the Orion Spacecraft. Orion has parachute flight performance requirements that will ultimately be verified through the use of Monte Carlo multi-degree of freedom flight simulations. These simulations will be anchored by real world flight test data and iteratively improved to provide a closer approximation to the real physics observed in the inherently chaotic inflation and steady state flight of the CPAS parachutes. This paper will examine the processes necessary to verify the flight performance requirements of the human rated spacecraft. The focus will be on the requirements verification and model validation planned on CPAS.

  3. Can a glass cockpit display help (or hinder) performance of novices in simulated flight training?

    PubMed

    Wright, Stephen; O'Hare, David

    2015-03-01

    The analog dials in traditional GA aircraft cockpits are being replaced by integrated electronic displays, commonly referred to as glass cockpits. Pilots may be trained on glass cockpit aircraft or encounter them after training on traditional displays. The effects of glass cockpit displays on initial performance and potential transfer effects between cockpit display configurations have yet to be adequately investigated. Flight-naïve participants were trained on either a simulated traditional display cockpit or a simulated glass display cockpit. Flight performance was measured in a test flight using either the same or different cockpit display. Loss of control events and accuracy in controlling altitude, airspeed and heading, workload, and situational awareness were assessed. Preferences for cockpit display configurations and opinions on ease of use were also measured. The results revealed consistently poorer performance on the test flight for participants using the glass cockpit compared to the traditional cockpit. In contrast the post-flight questionnaire data revealed a strong subjective preference for the glass cockpit over the traditional cockpit displays. There was only a weak effect of prior training. The specific glass cockpit display used in this study was subjectively appealing but yielded poorer flight performance in participants with no previous flight experience than a traditional display. Performance data can contradict opinion data. The design of glass cockpit displays may present some difficulties for pilots in the very early stages of training. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Summary of shuttle data processing and aerodynamic performance comparisons for the first 11 flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Findlay, J. T.; Kelly, G. M.; Heck, M. L.; Mcconnell, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    NASA Space Shuttle aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic research is but one part of the most comprehensive end-to-end flight test program ever undertaken considering: the extensive pre-flight experimental data base development; the multitude of spacecraft and remote measurements taken during entry flight; the complexity of the Orbiter aerodynamic configuration; the variety of flight conditions available across the entire speed regime; and the efforts devoted to flight data reduction throughout the aerospace community. Shuttle entry flights provide a wealth of research quality data, in essence a veritable flying wind tunnel, for use by researchers to verify and improve the operational capability of the Orbiter and provide data for evaluations of experimental facilities as well as computational methods. This final report merely summarizes the major activities conducted by the AMA, Inc. under NASA Contract NAS1-16087 as part of that interesting research. Investigators desiring more detailed information can refer to the glossary of AMA publications attached herein as Appendix A. Section I provides background discussion of software and methodology development to enable Best Estimate Trajectory (BET) generation. Actual products generated are summarized in Section II as tables which completely describe the post-flight products available from the first three-year Shuttle flight history. Summary results are presented in Section III, with longitudinal performance comparisons included as Appendices for each of the flights.

  5. Flight test evaluation of a method to determine the level flight performance of a propeller-driven aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, P. G.; Cross, E. J., Jr.; Boatwright, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    The overall drag of the aircraft is expressed in terms of the measured increment of power required to overcome a corresponding known increment of drag, which is generated by a towed drogue. The simplest form of the governing equations, D = delta D SHP/delta SHP, is such that all of the parameters on the right side of the equation can be measured in flight. An evaluation of the governing equations has been performed using data generated by flight test of a Beechcraft T-34B. The simplicity of this technique and its proven applicability to sailplanes and small aircraft is well known. However, the method fails to account for airframe-propulsion system.

  6. Flight test report of the NASA icing research airplane: Performance, stability, and control after flight through natural icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J. L.; Platz, S. J.; Schinstock, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Flight test results are presented documenting the effect of airframe icing on performance and stability and control of a NASA DHC-6 icing research aircraft. Kohlman System Research, Inc., provided the data acquisition system and data analysis under contract to NASA. Performance modeling methods and MMLE techniques were used to determine the effects of natural ice on the aircraft. Results showed that ice had a significant effect on the drag coefficient of the aircraft and a modest effect on the MMLE derived longitudinal stability coefficients (code version MMLE). Data is also presented on asymmetric power sign slip maneuvers showing rudder floating characteristics with and without ice on the vertical stabilizer.

  7. Relationship between foliar chemistry and insect performance: the forest tent caterpillar

    Treesearch

    Francois Lorenzetti; Yves Mauffette; Eric Bauce

    1999-01-01

    Forest tent caterpillar (FTC) feeds on several species of deciduous trees (Stehr and Cook 1968), in northeastern North America, quaking aspen is the preferred host of this spring-feeding insect. FTC commonly defoliates several thousands of hectares of aspen stands each year in Quebec (Bordeleau 1990), although its secondary hosts seldom are attacked.

  8. Performance of transform against selected cotton insects in laboratory and field studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), has become a major pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), within the Mid-Southern United States over the last several years. Tarnished plant bug has become the target of more insecticide applications than any other insect pest of c...

  9. Synthetic and Enhanced Vision Systems for NextGen (SEVS) Simulation and Flight Test Performance Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Kevin J.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Ellis,Kyle K.; Rehfeld, Sherri A.

    2012-01-01

    The Synthetic and Enhanced Vision Systems for NextGen (SEVS) simulation and flight tests are jointly sponsored by NASA's Aviation Safety Program, Vehicle Systems Safety Technology project and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The flight tests were conducted by a team of Honeywell, Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation and NASA personnel with the goal of obtaining pilot-in-the-loop test data for flight validation, verification, and demonstration of selected SEVS operational and system-level performance capabilities. Nine test flights (38 flight hours) were conducted over the summer and fall of 2011. The evaluations were flown in Gulfstream.s G450 flight test aircraft outfitted with the SEVS technology under very low visibility instrument meteorological conditions. Evaluation pilots flew 108 approaches in low visibility weather conditions (600 ft to 2400 ft visibility) into various airports from Louisiana to Maine. In-situ flight performance and subjective workload and acceptability data were collected in collaboration with ground simulation studies at LaRC.s Research Flight Deck simulator.

  10. NASA's SOFIA infrared observatory in flight for the first of a series of test flights to verify the flight performance of the highly modified Boeing 747SP

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-10-11

    NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, arrived at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. on May 31, 2007. The heavily modified Boeing 747SP was ferried to Dryden from Waco, Texas, where L-3 Communications Integrated Systems installed a German-built 2.5-meter infrared telescope and made other major modifications over the past several years. SOFIA is scheduled to undergo installation and integration of mission systems and a multi-phase flight test program at Dryden over the next three years that is expected to lead to a full operational capability to conduct astronomy missions in about 2010. During its expected 20-year lifetime, SOFIA will be capable of "Great Observatory" class astronomical science, providing astronomers with access to the visible, infrared and sub-millimeter spectrum with optimized performance in the mid-infrared to sub-millimeter range.

  11. Burbank performs in-flight maintenance on the WRS-2 in the Node 3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-28

    ISS030-E-051116 (28 Jan. 2012) --- NASA astronaut Dan Burbank, Expedition 30 commander, performs in-flight maintenance on the Water Recovery System 2 (WRS-2) in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station.

  12. Visual Earth observation performance in the space environment. Human performance measurement 4: Flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, John F.; Whiteley, James D.; Hawker, John E.

    1993-01-01

    A wide variety of secondary payloads have flown on the Space Transportation System (STS) since its first flight in the 1980's. These experiments have typically addressed specific issues unique to the zero-gravity environment. Additionally, the experiments use the experience and skills of the mission and payload specialist crew members to facilitate data collection and ensure successful completion. This paper presents the results of the Terra Scout experiment, which flew aboard STS-44 in November 1991. This unique Earth Observation experiment specifically required a career imagery analyst to operate the Spaceborne Direct-View Optical System (SpaDVOS), a folded optical path telescope system designed to mount inside the shuttle on the overhead aft flight deck windows. Binoculars and a small telescope were used as backup optics. Using his imagery background, coupled with extensive target and equipment training, the payload specialist was tasked with documenting the following: (1) the utility of the equipment; (2) his ability to acquire and track ground targets; (3) the level of detail he could discern; (4) the atmospheric conditions; and (5) other in-situ elements which contributed to or detracted from his ability to analyze targets. Special emphasis was placed on the utility of a manned platform for research and development of future spaceborne sensors. The results and lessons learned from Terra Scout will be addressed including human performance and equipment design issues.

  13. Shuttle 'Challenger' aerodynamic performance from flight data - Comparisons with predicted values and 'Columbia' experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Findlay, J. T.; Kelly, G. M.; Mcconnell, J. G.; Compton, H. R.

    1984-01-01

    Longitudinal aerodynamic performance comparisons between flight extracted and predicted values are presented for the first eight NASA Space Shuttle entry missions. Challenger results are correlated with the ensemble five flight Columbia experience and indicate effects due to differing angle-of-attack and body flap deflection profiles. An Appendix is attached showing the results of each flight using both the LaRC LAIRS and NOAA atmospheres. Discussions are presented which review apparent density anomalies observed in the flight data, with particular emphasis on the suggested shears and turbulence encountered during STS-2 and STS-4. Atmospheres derived from Shuttle data are presented which show structure different than that remotely sensed and imply regions of unstable air masses as a plausible explanation. Though additional aerodynamic investigations are warranted, an added benefit of Shuttle flight data for atmospheric research is discussed, in particular, as applicable to future NASA space vehicles such as AOTVs and tethered satellites.

  14. Lockheed L-1011 Test Station installation in support of the Adaptive Performance Optimization flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Technicians John Huffman, Phil Gonia and Mike Kerner of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, carefully insert a monitor into the Research Engineering Test Station during installation of equipment for the Adaptive Performance Optimization experiment aboard Orbital Sciences Corporation's Lockheed L-1011 in Bakersfield, California, May, 6, 1997. The Adaptive Performance Optimization project is designed to reduce the aerodynamic drag of large subsonic transport aircraft by varying the camber of the wing through real-time adjustment of flaps or ailerons in response to changing flight conditions. Reducing the drag will improve aircraft efficiency and performance, resulting in signifigant fuel savings for the nation's airlines worth hundreds of millions of dollars annually. Flights for the NASA experiment will occur periodically over the next couple of years on the modified wide-bodied jetliner, with all flights flown out of Bakersfield's Meadows Field. The experiment is part of Dryden's Advanced Subsonic Transport Aircraft Research program.

  15. Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism and flight performance by a hypertrehalosaemic hormone in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Christian; Brown, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    The role of adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) in the regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and flight performance was evaluated for females of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Injection of various dosages of synthetic Anoga-AKH-I increased carbohydrate levels in the haemolymph and reduced glycogen reserves in sugar-fed females but did not affect lipid levels. Anoga-AKH-I enhanced the flight performance of both intact and decapitated sugar-fed females, during a 4 hour flight period. Anoga-AKH-II had no effect on carbohydrate or lipid levels or flight performance, thus its function remains unknown. Targeted RNA-interference lowered Anoga-AKH receptor expression in sugar-fed females, consequently injections of Anoga-AKH-I failed to mobilize glycogen reserves. Taken together, these results show that a primary role for the neurohormone, Anoga-AKH-I, is to elevate trehalose levels in the haemolymph of female mosquitoes. PMID:18062987

  16. Homing pigeons externally exposed to Deepwater Horizon crude oil change flight performance and behavior.

    PubMed

    Perez, Cristina R; Moye, John K; Cacela, Dave; Dean, Karen M; Pritsos, Chris A

    2017-11-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was the largest in U.S. history, contaminating thousands of miles of coastal habitat and affecting the lives of many avian species. The Gulf of Mexico is a critical bird migration route area and migrants that were oiled but did not suffer mortality as a direct result of the spill faced unpredictable fates. This study utilized homing pigeons as a surrogate species for migratory birds to investigate the effects a single low level external oiling event has on the flight performance and behavior of birds flying repeated 161 km flights. Data from GPS data loggers showed that lightly oiled pigeons changed their flight paths, increased their flight durations by 2.6 fold, increased their flight distances by 28 km and subsequently decreased their route efficiencies. Oiled birds also exhibited reduced rate of weight gain between flights. Our data suggest that contaminated birds surviving the oil spill may have experienced flight impairment and reduced refueling abilities, likely reducing overall migration speed. Our findings contribute new information on how oil spills affect avian species, as the effects of oil on the flight behavior of long distance free-flying birds have not been previously described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dispersal of forest insects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  18. Correlation of Space Shuttle Landing Performance with Post-Flight Cardiovascular Dysfunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCluskey, R.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Microgravity induces cardiovascular adaptations resulting in orthostatic intolerance on re-exposure to normal gravity. Orthostasis could interfere with performance of complex tasks during the re-entry phase of Shuttle landings. This study correlated measures of Shuttle landing performance with post-flight indicators of orthostatic intolerance. Methods: Relevant Shuttle landing performance parameters routinely recorded at touchdown by NASA included downrange and crossrange distances, airspeed, and vertical speed. Measures of cardiovascular changes were calculated from operational stand tests performed in the immediate post-flight period on mission commanders from STS-41 to STS-66. Stand test data analyzed included maximum standing heart rate, mean increase in maximum heart rate, minimum standing systolic blood pressure, and mean decrease in standing systolic blood pressure. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated with the null hypothesis that there was no statistically significant linear correlation between stand test results and Shuttle landing performance. A correlation coefficient? 0.5 with a p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: There were no significant linear correlations between landing performance and measures of post-flight cardiovascular dysfunction. Discussion: There was no evidence that post-flight cardiovascular stand test data correlated with Shuttle landing performance. This implies that variations in landing performance were not due to space flight-induced orthostatic intolerance.

  19. Sensory Coordination of Insect Flight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-22

    sources in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. 3) Wing-haltere coordination in the soldier fly, Hermetia illucens. 4) Landing behavior in the housefly ...modular behaviors (e.g. a territorial chase between houseflies is composed of a take-off followed by many sharp turns). In pursuing this goal, we have...coordination in the soldier fly, Hermetia illucens. 4) Landing behavior in the housefly , Musca domestica. We have also recently established an

  20. Sensory Coordination of Insect Flight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-29

    begun to study how fruit flies pinpoint the location of an odor source ( banana mash placed within a black pole, a strong visual landmark against a...hover feeding, flower tracking, odor tracking etc. Figure 4: Extracting wing and body kinematics from freely flying Drosophila melanogaster. (A

  1. Statistical Analysis of Helicopter Pilot Performance during Instrument Flight Across Repeated Flights.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-15

    there is obvious dif- ficulty in intepreting these results. In the absence of degradation in system performance, it would be difficult to argue that...standard deviation during instru- 2 .441 ment take-off 3 -.218 4 .596 5 .831 6 -.916 0 44 0~i FILMED 3-85 DTIC

  2. Inoculation of tomato plants with rhizobacteria enhances the performance of the phloem-feeding insect Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Shavit, Roee; Ofek-Lalzar, Maya; Burdman, Saul; Morin, Shai

    2013-01-01

    In their natural environment, plants experience multiple biotic interactions and respond to this complexity in an integrated manner. Therefore, plant responses to herbivory are flexible and depend on the context and complexity in which they occur. For example, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can enhance plant growth and induce resistance against microbial pathogens and herbivorous insects by a phenomenon termed induced systemic resistance (ISR). In the present study, we investigated the effect of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) pre-inoculation with the PGPR Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS417r, on the performance of the generalist phloem-feeding insect Bemisia tabaci. Based on the ability of P. fluorescens WCS417r to prime for ISR against generalists chewing insects and necrotrophic pathogens, we hypothesized that pre-inoculated plants will strongly resist B. tabaci infestation. In contrast, we discovered that the pre-inoculation treatment increased the tomato plant suitability for B. tabaci which was emphasized both by faster developmental rate and higher survivability of nymph stages on pre-inoculated plants. Our molecular and chemical analyses suggested that the phenomenon is likely to be related to: (I) the ability of the bacteria to reduce the activity of the plant induced defense systems; (II) a possible manipulation by P. fluorescens of the plant quality (in terms of suitability for B. tabaci) through an indirect effect on the rhizosphere bacterial community. The contribution of our study to the pattern proposed for other belowground rhizobacteria and mycorrhizal fungi and aboveground generalist phloem-feeders is discussed. PMID:23964283

  3. A Methodology to Determine the Psychomotor Performance of Helicopter Pilots During Flight Maneuvers.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Terry W; Newman, David G

    2015-07-01

    Helicopter flying is a complex psychomotor task requiring continuous control inputs to maintain stable flight and conduct maneuvers. Flight safety is impaired when this psychomotor performance is compromised. A comprehensive understanding of the psychomotor performance of helicopter pilots, under various operational and physiological conditions, remains to be developed. The purpose of this study was to develop a flight simulator-based technique for capturing psychomotor performance data of helicopter pilots. Three helicopter pilots conducted six low-level flight sequences in a helicopter simulator. Accelerometers applied to each flight control recorded the frequency and magnitude of movements. The mean (± SEM) number of control inputs per flight was 2450 (± 136). The mean (± SEM) number of control inputs per second was 1.96 (± 0.15). The mean (± SEM) force applied was 0.44 G (± 0.05 G). No significant differences were found between pilots in terms of flight completion times or number of movements per second. The number of control inputs made by the hands was significantly greater than the number of foot movements. The left hand control input forces were significantly greater than all other input forces. This study shows that the use of accelerometers in flight simulators is an effective technique for capturing accurate, reliable data on the psychomotor performance of helicopter pilots. This technique can be applied in future studies to a wider range of operational and physiological conditions and mission types in order to develop a greater awareness and understanding of the psychomotor performance demands on helicopter pilots.

  4. SFDT-1 Camera Pointing and Sun-Exposure Analysis and Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Joseph; Dutta, Soumyo; Striepe, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) vehicle was developed to advance and test technologies of NASA's Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Technology Demonstration Mission. The first flight test (SFDT-1) occurred on June 28, 2014. In order to optimize the usefulness of the camera data, analysis was performed to optimize parachute visibility in the camera field of view during deployment and inflation and to determine the probability of sun-exposure issues with the cameras given the vehicle heading and launch time. This paper documents the analysis, results and comparison with flight video of SFDT-1.

  5. A Multiple Agent Model of Human Performance in Automated Air Traffic Control and Flight Management Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin; Pisanich, Gregory; Condon, Gregory W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A predictive model of human operator performance (flight crew and air traffic control (ATC)) has been developed and applied in order to evaluate the impact of automation developments in flight management and air traffic control. The model is used to predict the performance of a two person flight crew and the ATC operators generating and responding to clearances aided by the Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS). The purpose of the modeling is to support evaluation and design of automated aids for flight management and airspace management and to predict required changes in procedure both air and ground in response to advancing automation in both domains. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Performance assessment in a flight simulator test—Validation of a space psychology methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannes, B.; Salnitski, Vyacheslav; Soll, Henning; Rauch, Melina; Goeters, Klaus-Martin; Maschke, Peter; Stelling, Dirk; Eißfeldt, Hinnerk

    2007-02-01

    The objective assessment of operator performance in hand controlled docking of a spacecraft on a space station has 30 years of tradition and is well established. In the last years the performance assessment was successfully combined with a psycho-physiological approach for the objective assessment of the levels of physiological arousal and psychological load. These methods are based on statistical reference data. For the enhancement of the statistical power of the evaluation methods, both were actually implemented into a comparable terrestrial task: the flight simulator test of DLR in the selection procedure for ab initio pilot applicants for civil airlines. In the first evaluation study 134 male subjects were analysed. Subjects underwent a flight simulator test including three tasks, which were evaluated by instructors applying well-established and standardised rating scales. The principles of the performance algorithms of the docking training were adapted for the automated flight performance assessment. They are presented here. The increased human errors under instrument flight conditions without visual feedback required a manoeuvre recognition algorithm before calculating the deviation of the flown track from the given task elements. Each manoeuvre had to be evaluated independently of former failures. The expert rated performance showed a highly significant correlation with the automatically calculated performance for each of the three tasks: r=.883, r=.874, r=.872, respectively. An automated algorithm successfully assessed the flight performance. This new method will possibly provide a wide range of other future applications in aviation and space psychology.

  7. In-Flight performance of MESSENGER's Mercury dual imaging system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawkins, S.E.; Murchie, S.L.; Becker, K.J.; Selby, C.M.; Turner, F.S.; Noble, M.W.; Chabot, N.L.; Choo, T.H.; Darlington, E.H.; Denevi, B.W.; Domingue, D.L.; Ernst, C.M.; Holsclaw, G.M.; Laslo, N.R.; Mcclintock, W.E.; Prockter, L.M.; Robinson, M.S.; Solomon, S.C.; Sterner, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Mercury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, launched in August 2004 and planned for insertion into orbit around Mercury in 2011, has already completed two flybys of the innermost planet. The Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) acquired nearly 2500 images from the first two flybys and viewed portions of Mercury's surface not viewed by Mariner 10 in 1974-1975. Mercury's proximity to the Sun and its slow rotation present challenges to the thermal design for a camera on an orbital mission around Mercury. In addition, strict limitations on spacecraft pointing and the highly elliptical orbit create challenges in attaining coverage at desired geometries and relatively uniform spatial resolution. The instrument designed to meet these challenges consists of dual imagers, a monochrome narrow-angle camera (NAC) with a 1.5?? field of view (FOV) and a multispectral wide-angle camera (WAC) with a 10.5?? FOV, co-aligned on a pivoting platform. The focal-plane electronics of each camera are identical and use a 1024??1024 charge-coupled device detector. The cameras are passively cooled but use diode heat pipes and phase-change-material thermal reservoirs to maintain the thermal configuration during the hot portions of the orbit. Here we present an overview of the instrument design and how the design meets its technical challenges. We also review results from the first two flybys, discuss the quality of MDIS data from the initial periods of data acquisition and how that compares with requirements, and summarize how in-flight tests are being used to improve the quality of the instrument calibration. ?? 2009 SPIE.

  8. Rocket flight performance of a preprototype Apollo 17 UV spectrometer S-169

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fastie, W. G.

    1971-01-01

    The design, construction, testing, calibration, flight performance and flight data of an Ebert ultraviolet spectrometer are described which is an accurate representation of the conceptual design of the Apollo 17 UV spectrometer. The instrument was flown in an Aerobee 350 rocket from Wallops Island, Va., at 7:10 p.m. EDT on June 10, 1971 to an altitude of 328 km with a solar elevation angle of about 11 deg.

  9. Psychophysiological Assessment in Pilots Performing Challenging Simulated and Real Flight Maneuvers.

    PubMed

    Johannes, Bernd; Rothe, Stefanie; Gens, André; Westphal, Soeren; Birkenfeld, Katja; Mulder, Edwin; Rittweger, Jörn; Ledderhos, Carla

    2017-09-01

    The objective assessment of psychophysiological arousal during challenging flight maneuvers is of great interest to aerospace medicine, but remains a challenging task. In the study presented here, a vector-methodological approach was used which integrates different psychophysiological variables, yielding an integral arousal index called the Psychophysiological Arousal Value (PAV). The arousal levels of 15 male pilots were assessed during predetermined, well-defined flight maneuvers performed under simulated and real flight conditions. The physiological data, as expected, revealed inter- and intra-individual differences for the various measurement conditions. As indicated by the PAV, air-to-air refueling (AAR) turned out to be the most challenging task. In general, arousal levels were comparable between simulator and real flight conditions. However, a distinct difference was observed when the pilots were divided by instructors into two groups based on their proficiency in AAR with AWACS (AAR-Novices vs. AAR-Professionals). AAR-Novices had on average more than 2000 flight hours on other aircrafts. They showed higher arousal reactions to AAR in real flight (contact: PAV score 8.4 ± 0.37) than under simulator conditions (7.1 ± 0.30), whereas AAR-Professionals did not (8.5 ± 0.46 vs. 8.8 ± 0.80). The psychophysiological arousal value assessment was tested in field measurements, yielding quantifiable arousal differences between proficiency groups of pilots during simulated and real flight conditions. The method used in this study allows an evaluation of the psychophysiological cost during a certain flying performance and thus is possibly a valuable tool for objectively evaluating the actual skill status of pilots.Johannes B, Rothe S, Gens A, Westphal S, Birkenfeld K, Mulder E, Rittweger J, Ledderhos C. Psychophysiological assessment in pilots performing challenging simulated and real flight maneuvers. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(9):834-840.

  10. Pilot age and expertise predict flight simulator performance: a 3-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Joy L; Kennedy, Quinn; Noda, Art; Yesavage, Jerome A

    2007-02-27

    Expert knowledge may compensate for age-related declines in basic cognitive and sensory-motor abilities in some skill domains. We investigated the influence of age and aviation expertise (indexed by Federal Aviation Administration pilot ratings) on longitudinal flight simulator performance. Over a 3-year period, 118 general aviation pilots aged 40 to 69 years were tested annually, in which their flight performance was scored in terms of 1) executing air-traffic controller communications; 2) traffic avoidance; 3) scanning cockpit instruments; 4) executing an approach to landing; and 5) a flight summary score. More expert pilots had better flight summary scores at baseline and showed less decline over time. Secondary analyses revealed that expertise effects were most evident in the accuracy of executing aviation communications, the measure on which performance declined most sharply over time. Regarding age, even though older pilots initially performed worse than younger pilots, over time older pilots showed less decline in flight summary scores than younger pilots. Secondary analyses revealed that the oldest pilots did well over time because their traffic avoidance performance improved more vs younger pilots. These longitudinal findings support previous cross-sectional studies in aviation as well as non-aviation domains, which demonstrated the advantageous effect of prior experience and specialized expertise on older adults' skilled cognitive performances.

  11. In-flight sleep, pilot fatigue and Psychomotor Vigilance Task performance on ultra-long range versus long range flights.

    PubMed

    Gander, Philippa H; Signal, T Leigh; van den Berg, Margo J; Mulrine, Hannah M; Jay, Sarah M; Jim Mangie, Captain

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated whether pilot fatigue was greater on ultra-long range (ULR) trips (flights >16 h on 10% of trips in a 90-day period) than on long range (LR) trips. The within-subjects design controlled for crew complement, pattern of in-flight breaks, flight direction and departure time. Thirty male Captains (mean age = 54.5 years) and 40 male First officers (mean age = 48.0 years) were monitored on commercial passenger flights (Boeing 777 aircraft). Sleep was monitored (actigraphy, duty/sleep diaries) from 3 days before the first study trip to 3 days after the second study trip. Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, Samn-Perelli fatigue ratings and a 5-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task were completed before, during and after every flight. Total sleep in the 24 h before outbound flights and before inbound flights after 2-day layovers was comparable for ULR and LR flights. All pilots slept on all flights. For each additional hour of flight time, they obtained an estimated additional 12.3 min of sleep. Estimated mean total sleep was longer on ULR flights (3 h 53 min) than LR flights (3 h 15 min; P(F) = 0.0004). Sleepiness ratings were lower and mean reaction speed was faster at the end of ULR flights. Findings suggest that additional in-flight sleep mitigated fatigue effectively on longer flights. Further research is needed to clarify the contributions to fatigue of in-flight sleep versus time awake at top of descent. The study design was limited to eastward outbound flights with two Captains and two First Officers. Caution must be exercised when extrapolating to different operations. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  12. Continuous performance measurement in flight systems. [sequential control model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connelly, E. M.; Sloan, N. A.; Zeskind, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    The desired response of many man machine control systems can be formulated as a solution to an optimal control synthesis problem where the cost index is given and the resulting optimal trajectories correspond to the desired trajectories of the man machine system. Optimal control synthesis provides the reference criteria and the significance of error information required for performance measurement. The synthesis procedure described provides a continuous performance measure (CPM) which is independent of the mechanism generating the control action. Therefore, the technique provides a meaningful method for online evaluation of man's control capability in terms of total man machine performance.

  13. Integrated flight/propulsion control - Subsystem specifications for performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neighbors, W. K.; Rock, Stephen M.

    1993-01-01

    A procedure is presented for calculating multiple subsystem specifications given a number of performance requirements on the integrated system. This procedure applies to problems where the control design must be performed in a partitioned manner. It is based on a structured singular value analysis, and generates specifications as magnitude bounds on subsystem uncertainties. The performance requirements should be provided in the form of bounds on transfer functions of the integrated system. This form allows the expression of model following, command tracking, and disturbance rejection requirements. The procedure is demonstrated on a STOVL aircraft design.

  14. Static performance tests of a flight-type STOVL ejector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barankiewicz, Wendy S.

    1991-01-01

    The design and development of thrust augmenting STOVL ejectors has typically been based on experimental iteration (i.e., trial and error). Static performance tests of a full scale vertical lift ejector were performed at primary flow temperatures up to 1560 R (1100 F). Flow visualization (smoke generators and yarn tufts) were used to view the inlet air flow, especially around the primary nozzle and end plates. Performance calculations are presented for ambient temperatures close to 480 R (20 F) and 535 R (75 F) which simulate seasonal aircraft operating conditions. Resulting thrust augmentation ratios are presented as functions of nozzle pressure ratio and temperature.

  15. Thermal Performance of LANDSAT-7 ETM+ Instruments During First Year in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2000-01-01

    Landsat-7 was successfully launched into orbit on April 15, 1999. After devoting three months to the t bakeout and cool-down of the radiative cooler, and on- t orbit checkout, the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) began the normal imaging phase of the mission in mid-July 1999. This paper presents the thermal performance of the ETM+ from mid-July 1999 to mid-May 2000. The flight temperatures are compared to the yellow temperature limits, and worst cold case and worst hot case flight temperature predictions in the 15-orbit mission design profile. The flight temperature predictions were generated by a thermal model, which was correlated to the observatory thermal balance test data. The yellow temperature limits were derived from the flight temperature predictions, plus some margins. The yellow limits work well in flight, so that only several minor changes to them were needed. Overall, the flight temperatures and flight temperature predictions have good agreement. Based on the ETM+ thermal vacuum qualification test, new limits on the imaging time are proposed to increase the average duty cycle, and to resolve the problems experienced by the Mission Operation Team.

  16. Flight performance of actively foraging honey bees is reduced by a common pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Trish; Wolf, Stephan; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Groll, Helga; Lim, Ka S.; Clark, Suzanne J.; Swain, Jennifer; Osborne, Juliet L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Sudden and severe declines in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colony health in the US and Europe have been attributed, in part, to emergent microbial pathogens, however, the mechanisms behind the impact are unclear. Using roundabout flight mills, we measured the flight distance and duration of actively foraging, healthy‐looking honey bees sampled from standard colonies, before quantifying the level of infection by Nosema ceranae and Deformed Wing Virus complex (DWV) for each bee. Neither the presence nor the quantity of N. ceranae were at low, natural levels of infection had any effect on flight distance or duration, but presence of DWV reduced flight distance by two thirds and duration by one half. Quantity of DWV was shown to have a significant, but weakly positive relation with flight distance and duration, however, the low amount of variation that was accounted for suggests further investigation by dose‐response assays is required. We conclude that widespread, naturally occurring levels of infection by DWV weaken the flight ability of honey bees and high levels of within‐colony prevalence are likely to reduce efficiency and increase the cost of resource acquisition. Predictions of implications of pathogens on colony health and function should take account of sublethal effects on flight performance. PMID:27337097

  17. Quantifying interspecific variation in dispersal ability of noctuid moths using an advanced tethered flight technique.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hayley B C; Lim, Ka S; Bell, James R; Hill, Jane K; Chapman, Jason W

    2016-01-01

    Dispersal plays a crucial role in many aspects of species' life histories, yet is often difficult to measure directly. This is particularly true for many insects, especially nocturnal species (e.g. moths) that cannot be easily observed under natural field conditions. Consequently, over the past five decades, laboratory tethered flight techniques have been developed as a means of measuring insect flight duration and speed. However, these previous designs have tended to focus on single species (typically migrant pests), and here we describe an improved apparatus that allows the study of flight ability in a wide range of insect body sizes and types. Obtaining dispersal information from a range of species is crucial for understanding insect population dynamics and range shifts. Our new laboratory tethered flight apparatus automatically records flight duration, speed, and distance of individual insects. The rotational tethered flight mill has very low friction and the arm to which flying insects are attached is extremely lightweight while remaining rigid and strong, permitting both small and large insects to be studied. The apparatus is compact and thus allows many individuals to be studied simultaneously under controlled laboratory conditions. We demonstrate the performance of the apparatus by using the mills to assess the flight capability of 24 species of British noctuid moths, ranging in size from 12-27 mm forewing length (~40-660 mg body mass). We validate the new technique by comparing our tethered flight data with existing information on dispersal ability of noctuids from the published literature and expert opinion. Values for tethered flight variables were in agreement with existing knowledge of dispersal ability in these species, supporting the use of this method to quantify dispersal in insects. Importantly, this new technology opens up the potential to investigate genetic and environmental factors affecting insect dispersal among a wide range of species.

  18. First Test Flight Thermal Performance of the Low Density Supersonic Decelerator (LDSD) Supersonic Flight Dynamics Test (SFDT) Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastropietro, A.J.; Kempenaar, Jason; Redmond, Matthew; Pauken, Michael; Ancarrow, Walt

    2015-01-01

    The thermal telemetry from the first test flight, an assessment of post-flight inspections of the recovered vehicle, and a review of the thermal design and model of the vehicle will be presented along with several lessons learned.

  19. Performance analysis of mini-propellers based on FlightGear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogeltanz, Tomáš

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a performance analysis of three mini-propellers based on the FlightGear flight simulator. Although a basic propeller analysis has to be performed before the use of FlightGear, for a complex and more practical performance analysis, it is advantageous to use a propeller model in cooperation with a particular aircraft model. This approach may determine whether the propeller has sufficient quality in respect of aircraft requirements. In the first section, the software used for the analysis is illustrated. Then, the parameters of the analyzed mini-propellers and the tested UAV are described. Finally, the main section shows and discusses the results of the performance analysis of the mini-propellers.

  20. Nutritional stress reduces flight performance and exploratory behavior in a butterfly.

    PubMed

    Reim, Elisabeth; Eichhorn, Danny; Roy, Jan D; Steinhoff, Philip O M; Fischer, Klaus

    2018-04-16

    Anthropogenic global change, including agricultural intensification and climate change, poses a substantial challenge to many herbivores due to a reduced availability of feeding resources. The concomitant food stress is expected to detrimentally affect performance, amongst others in dispersal-related traits. Thus, while dispersal is of utmost importance to escape from deteriorating habitat conditions, such conditions may negatively feedback on the ability to do so. Therefore, we here investigate the impact of larval and adult food stress on traits related to dispersal ability, including morphology, physiology, flight performance, and exploratory behavior, in a butterfly. We show that inadequate nutrition during development and in the adult stage diminishes flight performance, despite some re-allocation of somatic resources. Detrimental effects of food stress on flight performance were mainly caused by reductions in body mass and storage reserves. Similar results were found for exploratory behavior. Furthermore, exploratory behavior was found to be (moderately) repeatable at the individual level, which might indicate the existence of a personality trait. This notion is further supported by the fact that flight performance and exploratory behavior were positively correlated, potentially suggesting the existence of a dispersal syndrome. In summary, our findings may have important implications for dispersal in natural environments, as the conditions requiring dispersal the most impair flight ability and thereby likely dispersal rates. © 2018 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Flight performance of western sandpipers, Calidris mauri, remains uncompromised when mounting an acute phase immune response.

    PubMed

    Nebel, Silke; Buehler, Deborah M; MacMillan, Alexander; Guglielmo, Christopher G

    2013-07-15

    Migratory birds have been implicated in the spread of some zoonotic diseases, but how well infected individuals can fly remains poorly understood. We used western sandpipers, Calidris mauri, to experimentally test whether flight is affected when long-distance migrants are mounting an immune response and whether migrants maintain immune defences during a flight in a wind tunnel. We measured five indicators of innate immunity in 'flown-healthy' birds (flying in a wind tunnel without mounting an immune response), 'flown-sick' birds (flying while mounting an acute phase response, which is part of induced innate immunity), and a non-flying control group ('not-flown'). Voluntary flight duration did not differ between flown-healthy and flown-sick birds, indicating that mounting an acute phase response to simulated infection did not hamper an individual's ability to fly for up to 3 h. However, in comparison to not-flown birds, bacterial killing ability of plasma was significantly reduced after flight in flown-sick birds. In flown-healthy birds, voluntary flight duration was positively correlated with bacterial killing ability and baseline haptoglobin concentration of the blood plasma measured 1-3 weeks before experimental flights, suggesting that high quality birds had strong immune systems and greater flight capacity. Our findings indicate that flight performance is not diminished by prior immune challenge, but that flight while mounting an acute phase response negatively affects other aspects of immune function. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the transmission of avian diseases, as they suggest that birds can still migrate while fighting an infection.

  2. Mariner 9 data storage subsystem flight performance summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, N. E.; Larman, B. T.

    1973-01-01

    The performance is summarized of the Mariner 9 Data Storage Subsystem (DSS) throughout the primary and extended missions. Information presented is limited to reporting of anomalies which occurred during the playback sequences. Tables and figures describe the anomalies (dropouts, missing and added bits, in the imaging data) as a function of time (accumulated tape passes). The data results indicate that the performance of the DSS was satisfactory and within specification throughout the mission. The data presented is taken from the Spacecraft Team Incident/Surprise Anomaly Log recorded during the mission. Pertinent statistics concerning the tape transport performance are given. Also presented is a brief description of DSS operation, particularly that related to the recorded anomalies. This covers the video data encoding and how it is interpreted/decoded by ground data processing and the functional operation of the DSS in abnormal conditions such as loss of lock to the playback signal.

  3. Flight performance in the altricial zebra finch: Developmental effects and reproductive consequences.

    PubMed

    Crino, Ondi L; Klaassen van Oorschot, Brett; Crandell, Kristen E; Breuner, Creagh W; Tobalske, Bret W

    2017-04-01

    The environmental conditions animals experience during development can have sustained effects on morphology, physiology, and behavior. Exposure to elevated levels of stress hormones (glucocorticoids, GCs) during development is one such condition that can have long-term effects on animal phenotype. Many of the phenotypic effects of GC exposure during development (developmental stress) appear negative. However, there is increasing evidence that developmental stress can induce adaptive phenotypic changes. This hypothesis can be tested by examining the effect of developmental stress on fitness-related traits. In birds, flight performance is an ideal metric to assess the fitness consequences of developmental stress. As fledglings, mastering takeoff is crucial to avoid bodily damage and escape predation. As adults, takeoff can contribute to mating and foraging success as well as escape and, thus, can affect both reproductive success and survival. We examined the effects of developmental stress on flight performance across life-history stages in zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata ). Specifically, we examined the effects of oral administration of corticosterone (CORT, the dominant avian glucocorticoid) during development on ground-reaction forces and velocity during takeoff. Additionally, we tested for associations between flight performance and reproductive success in adult male zebra finches. Developmental stress had no effect on flight performance at all ages. In contrast, brood size (an unmanipulated variable) had sustained, negative effects on takeoff performance across life-history stages with birds from small broods performing better than birds from large broods. Flight performance at 100 days posthatching predicted future reproductive success in males; the best fliers had significantly higher reproductive success. Our results demonstrate that some environmental factors experienced during development (e.g. clutch size) have stronger, more sustained effects than

  4. Lockheed L-1011 TriStar first flight to support Adaptive Performance Optimization study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Bearing the logos of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Orbital Sciences Corporation, Orbital's L-1011 Tristar lifts off the Meadows Field Runway at Bakersfield, California, on its first flight May 21, 1997, in NASA's Adaptive Performance Optimization project. Developed by engineers at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the experiment seeks to reduce fuel consumption of large jetliners by improving the aerodynamic efficency of their wings at cruise conditions. A research computer employing a sophisticated software program adapts to changing flight conditions by commanding small movements of the L-1011's outboard ailerons to give the wings the most efficient - or optimal - airfoil. Up to a dozen research flights will be flown in the current and follow-on phases of the project over the next couple years.

  5. Research on flight stability performance of rotor aircraft based on visual servo control method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yanan; Chen, Jing

    2016-11-01

    control method based on visual servo feedback is proposed, which is used to improve the attitude of a quad-rotor aircraft and to enhance its flight stability. Ground target images are obtained by a visual platform fixed on aircraft. Scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorism is used to extract image feature information. According to the image characteristic analysis, fast motion estimation is completed and used as an input signal of PID flight control system to realize real-time status adjustment in flight process. Imaging tests and simulation results show that the method proposed acts good performance in terms of flight stability compensation and attitude adjustment. The response speed and control precision meets the requirements of actual use, which is able to reduce or even eliminate the influence of environmental disturbance. So the method proposed has certain research value to solve the problem of aircraft's anti-disturbance.

  6. Effect of steady flight loads on JT9D-7 performance deterioration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jay, A.; Todd, E. S.

    1978-01-01

    Short term engine deterioration occurs in less than 250 flights on a new engine and in the first flights following engine repair; while long term deterioration involves primarily hot section distress and compression system losses which occur at a somewhat slower rate. The causes for short-term deterioration are associated with clearance changes which occur in the flight environment. Analytical techniques utilized to examine the effects of flight loads and engine operating conditions on performance deterioration are presented. The role of gyroscopic, gravitational, and aerodynamic loads are discussed along with the effect of variations in engine build clearances. These analytical results are compared to engine test data along with the correlation between analytically predicted and measured clearances and rub patterns. Conclusions are drawn and important issues are discussed.

  7. Asymmetry costs: effects of wing damage on hovering flight performance in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María José; Driver, Marion E; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2017-10-15

    Flight performance is fundamental to the fitness of flying organisms. Whilst airborne, flying organisms face unavoidable wing wear and wing area loss. Many studies have tried to quantify the consequences of wing area loss to flight performance with varied results, suggesting that not all types of damage are equal and different species may have different means to compensate for some forms of wing damage with little to no cost. Here, we investigated the cost of control during hovering flight with damaged wings, specifically wings with asymmetric and symmetric reductions in area, by measuring maximum load lifting capacity and the metabolic power of hovering flight in hawkmoths ( Manduca sexta ). We found that while asymmetric and symmetric reductions are both costly in terms of maximum load lifting and hovering efficiency, asymmetric reductions are approximately twice as costly in terms of wing area lost. The moths also did not modulate flapping frequency and amplitude as predicted by a hovering flight model, suggesting that the ability to do so, possibly tied to asynchronous versus synchronous flight muscles, underlies the varied responses found in different wing clipping experiments. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. The Effects of Ultra-Long-Range Flights on the Alertness and Performance of Aviators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, John A.; Mallis, Melissa M.; Colletti, Laura M.; Oyung, Raymond L.; Brandt, Summer L.; Arsintescu, Lucia; DeRoshia, Charlie W.; Reduta-Rojas, Dinah D.; Chapman, Patrick M.

    2006-01-01

    This investigation assessed the impact of ultra-long-range (ULR) simulator flights, departing either in the morning or late evening, on the alertness and performance of 17 commercial aviators. Immediately prior to and throughout each flight, alertness and performance were assessed via a computerized test of sustained attention, subjective questionnaires, and "hand-flying" tasks. There were fatigue-related effects on the majority of assessments, and the nature of these effects was consistent across the vigilance and self-report measures. However, the operational "hand-flying" manuevers proved insensitive to the impact of fatigue probably due to procedural factors. Regardless, the results of the present study suggest that fatigue associated with prolonged wakefulness in ULR flight operations will interact with flight schedules due to circadian and homeostatic influences. In this study, the pilots departing at night were at a greater initial disadvantage (during cruise) than pilots who departed earlier in the day; whereas those who departed earlier tended to be most impaired towards the end of the flight prior to landing. In real-world operations, airlines should consider the ramifications of flight schedules and what is known about human sleep and circadian rhythms to optimize safety.

  9. Effects of Scene-Linked Symbology on Flight Performance

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-01-01

    Previous research has shown that the presence of aircraft head-up display (HUD) : symbology indicating altitude improves maintenance of altitude, but at a cost : to (ground) path-following ability. We term this the altitude/path performance : trade-o...

  10. Predictability of Pilot Performance from Simulated to Real Flight in the UH-60 (Black Hawk) Helicopter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    keratectomy ( PRK ) and laser in-situ keratomileusis ( LASIK ) procedures to determine compatibility, safety, and efficacy of these procedures for rated Army...performance data. Table B- 1. Simulator and aircraft mean flight performance. LASIK PRK Simulator Aircraft Simulator Aircraft Pre-op 60.81 (2.65) 56.41...12 7. Aircraft vs . Simulator scatter plot, hover turn maneuvers

  11. Performance analysis of a fault inferring nonlinear detection system algorithm with integrated avionics flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Godiwala, P. M.; Morrell, F. R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the performance analysis results of a fault inferring nonlinear detection system (FINDS) using integrated avionics sensor flight data for the NASA ATOPS B-737 aircraft in a Microwave Landing System (MLS) environment. First, an overview of the FINDS algorithm structure is given. Then, aircraft state estimate time histories and statistics for the flight data sensors are discussed. This is followed by an explanation of modifications made to the detection and decision functions in FINDS to improve false alarm and failure detection performance. Next, the failure detection and false alarm performance of the FINDS algorithm are analyzed by injecting bias failures into fourteen sensor outputs over six repetitive runs of the five minutes of flight data. Results indicate that the detection speed, failure level estimation, and false alarm performance show a marked improvement over the previously reported simulation runs. In agreement with earlier results, detection speed is faster for filter measurement sensors such as MLS than for filter input sensors such as flight control accelerometers. Finally, the progress in modifications of the FINDS algorithm design to accommodate flight computer constraints is discussed.

  12. Influence of the menstrual cycle on flight simulator performance after alcohol ingestion.

    PubMed

    Mumenthaler, M S; O'Hara, R; Taylor, J L; Friedman, L; Yesavage, J A

    2001-07-01

    Previous studies investigating the influence of the menstrual cycle on cognitive functioning of women after alcohol ingestion have obtained inconsistent results. The present study tested the hypothesis that flight simulator performance during acute alcohol intoxication and 8 hours after drinking differs between the menstrual and the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. White female pilots (N = 24) were tested during the menstrual and the luteal phases of their menstrual cycles. On each test day they performed a baseline simulator flight, consumed 0.67 g/kg ethanol, and performed an acute-intoxication and an 8-hour-carryover simulator flight. Subjects reached highly significant increases in estradiol (E2) as well as progesterone (P) levels during the luteal test day. Yet, there were no significant differences in overall flight performance after alcohol ingestion between the menstrual and luteal phases during acute intoxication or at 8-hour carryover. We found no correlations between E, or P levels and overall flight performance. However, there was a statistically significant Phase x Order interaction: Pilots who started the experiment with their menstrual day were less susceptible to the effects of alcohol during the second test day than were pilots who started with their luteal day. The tested menstrual cycle phases and varying E2 and P levels did not significantly influence postdrink flight performance. Because the present study included a comparatively large sample size and because it involved complex "real world" tasks (piloting an aircraft), we believe that the present findings are important. We hope that our failure to detect menstrual cycle effects will encourage researchers to include women in their investigations of alcohol effects and human performance.

  13. In-flight spectral performance monitoring of the Airborne Prism Experiment.

    PubMed

    D'Odorico, Petra; Alberti, Edoardo; Schaepman, Michael E

    2010-06-01

    Spectral performance of an airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer cannot be assumed to be stable over a whole flight season given the environmental stresses present during flight. Spectral performance monitoring during flight is commonly accomplished by looking at selected absorption features present in the Sun, atmosphere, or ground, and their stability. The assessment of instrument performance in two different environments, e.g., laboratory and airborne, using precisely the same calibration reference, has not been possible so far. The Airborne Prism Experiment (APEX), an airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer, uses an onboard in-flight characterization (IFC) facility, which makes it possible to monitor the sensor's performance in terms of spectral, radiometric, and geometric stability in flight and in the laboratory. We discuss in detail a new method for the monitoring of spectral instrument performance. The method relies on the monitoring of spectral shifts by comparing instrument-induced movements of absorption features on ground and in flight. Absorption lines originate from spectral filters, which intercept the full field of view (FOV) illuminated using an internal light source. A feature-fitting algorithm is used for the shift estimation based on Pearson's correlation coefficient. Environmental parameter monitoring, coregistered on board with the image and calibration data, revealed that differential pressure and temperature in the baffle compartment are the main driving parameters explaining the trend in spectral performance deviations in the time and the space (across-track) domains, respectively. The results presented in this paper show that the system in its current setup needs further improvements to reach a stable performance. Findings provided useful guidelines for the instrument revision currently under way. The main aim of the revision is the stabilization of the instrument for a range of temperature and pressure conditions

  14. The Microscope Mission and Pre-Flight Performance Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, D.; Touboul, P.; Rodrigues, M.

    2006-04-01

    Recent developments in fundamental physics have renewed interest in disproving the equivalence principle. The MICROSCOPE mission will be the first test to capitalize on the advantages of space to achieve an accuracy of 10-15, more than two orders of magnitude better than current ground based results. It is a joint CNES, ONERA, and Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur mission in the CNES Myriade microsatellite program. The principle of the test is to place two masses of different material on precisely the same orbit and measure any difference in the forces required to maintain the common orbit. The test is performed by a differential electrostatic accelerometer containing two concentric cylindrical test masses. This paper will present both an overview of the mission, and a description of the accelerometer development and performance verification.

  15. Effects of CO{sub 2} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} availability on deciduous trees: Phytochemistry and insect performance

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, K.K.; Lindroth, R.L.; Jung, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} will interact with other environmental factors to influence the physiology and ecology of trees. This research evaluated how plant phytochemical responses to enriched atmospheric CO{sub 2} are affected by the availability of soil nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) and how these chemical changes alter performance of a tree-feeding folivore. Seedlings of three deciduous tree species were grown in ambient or elevated CO{sub 2} in combination with low or high soil NO{sub 3}{sup -} availability. Lymantria dispar larvae were reared on foliage (aspen and maple). Concentrations of nitrogen and soluble protein decreased, whereas concentrations of starch,more » condensed tannins, and ellagitannins increased, in response to elevated CO{sub 2} and/or low NO{sub 3}{sup -}. Responses of simple carbohydrates and phenolic glycosides were variable absolute (net) changes in foliar C:N ratios were greatest for aspen and least for oak, whereas relative changes were greatest for maple and least for aspen. Elevated CO{sub 2} treatments had little effect on gypsy moth development time, growth rate, or larval mass. Larvae reared on aspen foliage grown under elevated CO{sub 2} exhibited increased consumption but decreased conversion efficiencies. Gypsy moth responses to NO{sub 3}{sup -} were strongly host specific. The magnitude of insect response elicited by resource-mediated shifts in host chemistry will depend on how levels of compounds with specific importance to insect fitness are affected. Relatively few true interactions occured between carbon and nitrogen availability and insect performance. Tree species frequently interacted with CO{sub 2} and/or NO{sub 3}{sup -} availability to affect both parameters. The effects of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} on terrestrial plant communities will depend on species composition and soil nutrient availability. 54 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.« less

  16. Performance degradation of helicopter rotor in forward flight due to ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korkan, K. D.; Dadone, L.; Shaw, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    This study addresses the analytical assessment of the degradation in the forward flight performance of the front rotor Boeing Vertol CH47D helicopter in a rime ice natural icing encounter. The front rotor disk was divided into 24 15-deg sections and the local Mach number and angle of attack were evaluated as a function of azimuthal and radial location for a specified flight condition. Profile drag increments were then calculated as a function of azimuthal and radial position for different times of exposure to icing, and the rotor performance was re-evaluated including these drag increments. The results of the analytical prediction method, such as horsepower required to maintain a specific flight condition, as a function of icing time have been generated. The method to illustrate the value of such an approach in assessing performance changes experienced by a helicopter rotor as a result of rime ice accretion is described.

  17. Fixed Wing Performance. Theory and Flight Test Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-01

    L , J JA , iii hit I.IbS*I u Se t UX 1-4, Xl -4 TEST PROCEDURES AND TECHTNIUE,_ Pertinent Particulars a. At the time these tests are performed, the...7 , - • • . • • • • ••: • - • • -V• ,• • • • . . . REFERENCES Section XV 1. Anthropometry of Naval Aviators, 1964, NAEC-ACEL--533. 2. Cockpit...glare shlelds, etc. Htuman e~gineering persokmet are prepared to se particuiar equipments to attain quarititative data in cockpi’ anthropometry N NOT

  18. Analytical Study on Flight Performance of a RP Laser Launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsurayama, H.; Ushio, M.; Komurasaki, K.; Arakawa, Y.

    2005-04-01

    An air-breathing RP Laser Launcher has been proposed as the alternative to conventional chemical launch systems. This paper analytically examines the feasibility of SSTO system powered by RP lasers. The trajectory from the ground to the geosynchronous orbit is computed and the launch cost including laser-base development is estimated. The engine performance is evaluated by CFD computations and a cycle analysis. The results show that the beam power of 2.3MW per unit initial vehicle mass is optimum to reach a geo-synchronous transfer orbit, and 3,000 launches are necessary to redeem the cost for laser transmitter.

  19. Changes in Jump-Down Performance After Space Flight: Short- and Long-Term Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofman, I. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Fisher, E. A.; Lawrence, E. L.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Successful jump performance requires functional coordination of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems, which are affected by prolonged exposure to microgravity. Astronauts returning from space flight exhibit impaired ability to coordinate effective landing strategies when jumping from a platform to the ground. This study compares the jump strategies used by astronauts before and after flight, the changes to those strategies within a test session, and the recoveries in jump-down performance parameters across several postflight test sessions. These data were obtained as part of an ongoing interdisciplinary study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. METHODS Six astronauts from short-duration (Shuttle) and three from long-duration (International Space Station) flights performed 3 two-footed jumps from a platform 30 cm high. A force plate measured the ground reaction forces and center-of-pressure displacement from the landings. Muscle activation data were collected from the medial gastrocnemius and anterior tibialis of both legs using surface electromyography electrodes. Two load cells in the platform measured the load exerted by each foot during the takeoff phase of the jump. Data were collected in 2 preflight sessions, on landing day (Shuttle only), and 1, 6, and 30 days after flight. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION Many of the astronauts tested were unable to maintain balance on their first postflight jump landing but recovered by the third jump, showing a learning progression in which the performance improvement could be attributed to adjustments of strategy on takeoff, landing, or both. Takeoff strategy changes were evident in air time (time between takeoff and landing), which was significantly reduced after flight, and also in increased asymmetry in foot latencies on takeoff. Landing modifications were seen in changes in ground reaction force curves. The

  20. 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training Devices E Appendix E to Part 60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN FLIGHT SIMULATION...—Qualification Performance Standards for Quality Management Systems for Flight Simulation Training Devices Begin...

  1. The flight performance of the Galileo orbiter USO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morabito, D. D.; Krisher, T. P.; Asmar, S. W.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of radio metric data received by the DSN stations from the Galileo spacecraft using an Ultrastable Oscillator (USO) as a signal source. These results allow the health and performance of the Galileo USO to be evaluated, and are used to calibrate this Radio Science instrument and the data acquired for Radio Science experiments such as the Red-shift Observation, Solar Conjunction, and Jovian occultations. Estimates for the USO-referenced spacecraft-transmitted frequency and frequency stability were made for 82 data acquisition passes conducted between launch (October 1989) and November 1991. Analyses of the spacecraft-transmitted frequencies show that the USO is behaving as expected. The USO was powered off and then back on in August 1991 with no adverse effect on its performance. The frequency stabilities measured by Allan deviation are consistent with expected values due to thermal wideband noise and the USO itself at the appropriate time intervals. The Galileo USO appears to be healthy and functioning normally in a reasonable manner.

  2. The flight performance of the Galileo orbiter USO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morabito, D. D.; Krisher, T. P.; Asmar, S. W.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented in this article from an analysis of radio metric data received by the DSN stations from the Galileo spacecraft using an Ultrastable Oscillator (USO) as a signal source. These results allow the health and performance of the Galileo USO to be evaluated, and are used to calibrate this Radio Science instrument and the data acquired for Radio Science experiments such as the Redshift Observation, Solar Conjunction, and Jovian occultations. Estimates for the USO-referenced, spacecraft-transmitted frequency and frequency stability were made for 82 data acquisition passes conducted between launch (Oct. 1989) and Nov. 1991. Analyses of the spacecraft-transmitted frequencies show that the USO is behaving as expected. The USO was powered off and then back on in Aug. 1991 with no adverse effect on its performance. The frequency stabilities measured by Allan deviation are consistent with expected values due to thermal wideband noise and the USO itself at the appropriate time intervals. The Galileo USO appears to be healthy and functioning normally in a reasonable manner.

  3. Flight mill performance of the lacewing Chrysoperla sinica (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) as a function of age, temperature, and relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongfang; McNeil, Jeremy N; Wu, Kongming

    2011-02-01

    The lacewing Chrysoperla sinica (Tjeder) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) is an important predator of several insect pests in China and has considerable potential as a biological control agent. An inoculative approach would be the releasing adults early in the season to ensure that populations are present before pest densities increase. However, an understanding of adult flight activity under different conditions is necessary to develop appropriate release strategies. Therefore, we used a 32-channel, computer-monitored flight mill system to determine the effect of age on the flight activity of unmated female and male adults. Both sexes had high total flight activity levels as well as the longest individual flight bouts 2 and 3 d after emergence. The effects of temperature (between 13 and 33 degrees C at 75% RH) and relative humidity (between 30 and 90% RH at 23 degrees C) on the flight activity of 3-d-old unmated adults also were determined. Flight activity declined at the lowest (13 degrees C) and highest (33 degrees C) temperatures tested, as well as at the lowest relative humidity (30% RH). These findings are discussed within the context of selecting the appropriate environmental conditions for releasing C. sinica.

  4. Evidence for -Gz Adaptation Observed with Wearable Biosensors During High Performance Jet Flight.

    PubMed

    Rice, G Merrill; Snider, Dallas; Moore, Jeffrey L; Lavan, J Timothy; Folga, Rich; VanBrunt, Thomas B

    2016-12-01

    Few studies have evaluated physiological responses to high acceleration forces during actual flight and to our knowledge no normative data has been acquired by technologies such as wearable biosensors during high performance jet aircraft operations. In-flight physiological data from an FDA cleared portable triaxial accelerometer and bio-sensor were observed from five active duty F-18 pilots of the Naval Flight Demonstration Squadron (Blue Angels). Of the five pilots, three were formation pilots who flew lower G profiles and two were solo pilots who flew higher G profiles. Physiological parameters monitored were heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature, caloric expenditure, and duration of exposure to levels of acceleration. Evaluated were 25 practice demonstration flights; 9 flights were excluded secondary to incomplete or inaccurate physiological data. We observed no significant bradycardia during a total of 189 maneuvers which met inclusion criteria for push-pull events (PPE) or isolated -Gz exposures. Further analysis of 73 PPE revealed an overall significant rise in HR following the PPE, where mean heart rate was 106 (95% CI, 100:112) at the beginning of the push and 129 (95% CI, 123:135) following the pull. A majority of the flights monitored provided reliable physiological data. Initial data suggests, contrary to currently held aeromedical doctrine, maneuvers such as the "push-pull" do not evoke vasovagal based bradycardic responses in aerobatic pilots. Possible explanations for these findings are sympathetic nervous system activation through adaptation and/or sustained isometric resistance from control inputs, both of which are areas of future research for our team.Rice GM, Snider D, Moore JL, Lavan JT, Folga R, VanBrunt TB. Evidence for -Gz adaptation observed with wearable biosensors during high performance jet flight. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(12):996-1003.

  5. Control-oriented reduced order modeling of dipteran flapping flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faruque, Imraan

    Flying insects achieve flight stabilization and control in a manner that requires only small, specialized neural structures to perform the essential components of sensing and feedback, achieving unparalleled levels of robust aerobatic flight on limited computational resources. An engineering mechanism to replicate these control strategies could provide a dramatic increase in the mobility of small scale aerial robotics, but a formal investigation has not yet yielded tools that both quantitatively and intuitively explain flapping wing flight as an "input-output" relationship. This work uses experimental and simulated measurements of insect flight to create reduced order flight dynamics models. The framework presented here creates models that are relevant for the study of control properties. The work begins with automated measurement of insect wing motions in free flight, which are then used to calculate flight forces via an empirically-derived aerodynamics model. When paired with rigid body dynamics and experimentally measured state feedback, both the bare airframe and closed loop systems may be analyzed using frequency domain system identification. Flight dynamics models describing maneuvering about hover and cruise conditions are presented for example fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and blowflies (Calliphorids). The results show that biologically measured feedback paths are appropriate for flight stabilization and sexual dimorphism is only a minor factor in flight dynamics. A method of ranking kinematic control inputs to maximize maneuverability is also presented, showing that the volume of reachable configurations in state space can be dramatically increased due to appropriate choice of kinematic inputs.

  6. Performance deterioration due to acceptance testing and flight loads; JT90 jet engine diagnostic program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsson, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a flight loads test of the JT9D-7 engine are presented. The goals of this test program were to: measure aerodynamic and inertia loads on the engine during flight, explore the effects of airplane gross weight and typical maneuvers on these flight loads, simultaneously measure the changes in engine running clearances and performance resulting from the maneuvers, make refinements of engine performance deterioration prediction models based on analytical results of the tests, and make recommendations to improve propulsion system performance retention. The test program included a typical production airplane acceptance test plus additional flights and maneuvers to encompass the range of flight loads in revenue service. The test results indicated that aerodynamic loads, primarily at take-off, were the major cause of rub-indicated that aerodynamic loads, primarily at take-off, were the major cause of rub-induced deterioration in the cold sectin of the engine. Differential thermal expansion between rotating and static parts plus aerodynamic loads combined to cause blade-to-seal rubs in the turbine.

  7. Combustor Operability and Performance Verification for HIFiRE Flight 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storch, Andrea M.; Bynum, Michael; Liu, Jiwen; Gruber, Mark

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Hypersonic International Flight Research Experimentation (HIFiRE) Direct-Connect Rig (HDCR) test and analysis activity, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed using two Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes solvers. Measurements obtained from ground testing in the NASA Langley Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility (AHSTF) were used to specify inflow conditions for the simulations and combustor data from four representative tests were used as benchmarks. Test cases at simulated flight enthalpies of Mach 5.84, 6.5, 7.5, and 8.0 were analyzed. Modeling parameters (e.g., turbulent Schmidt number and compressibility treatment) were tuned such that the CFD results closely matched the experimental results. The tuned modeling parameters were used to establish a standard practice in HIFiRE combustor analysis. Combustor performance and operating mode were examined and were found to meet or exceed the objectives of the HIFiRE Flight 2 experiment. In addition, the calibrated CFD tools were then applied to make predictions of combustor operation and performance for the flight configuration and to aid in understanding the impacts of ground and flight uncertainties on combustor operation.

  8. Evaluating Nextgen Closely Spaced Parallel Operations Concepts with Validated Human Performance Models: Flight Deck Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooey, Becky Lee; Gore, Brian Francis; Mahlstedt, Eric; Foyle, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the current research were to develop valid human performance models (HPMs) of approach and land operations; use these models to evaluate the impact of NextGen Closely Spaced Parallel Operations (CSPO) on pilot performance; and draw conclusions regarding flight deck display design and pilot-ATC roles and responsibilities for NextGen CSPO concepts. This document presents guidelines and implications for flight deck display designs and candidate roles and responsibilities. A companion document (Gore, Hooey, Mahlstedt, & Foyle, 2013) provides complete scenario descriptions and results including predictions of pilot workload, visual attention and time to detect off-nominal events.

  9. Cryogenic Optical Performance of the Cassini Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) Flight Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Losch, Patricia; Lyons, James J., III; Hagopian, John

    1998-01-01

    The CIRS half-meter diameter beryllium flight telescope's optical performance was tested at the instrument operating temperature of 170 Kelvin. The telescope components were designed at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) but fabricated out of house and then assembled, aligned and tested upon receipt at GSFC. A 24 inch aperture cryogenic test facility utilizing a 1024 x 1024 CCD array was developed at GSFC specifically for this test. The telescope,s image quality (measured as encircled energy), boresight stability and focus stability were measured. The gold coated beryllium design exceeded the cold image performance requirement of 80% encircled energy within a 460 micron diameter circle.

  10. Ground-to-Flight Handling Qualities Comparisons for a High Performance Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Jay M.; Glaab, Louis J.; Brown, Philip W.; Phillips, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    A flight test program was conducted in conjunction with a ground-based piloted simulation study to enable a comparison of handling qualities ratings for a variety of maneuvers between flight and simulation of a modern high performance airplane. Specific objectives included an evaluation of pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) tendencies and a determination of maneuver types which result in either good or poor ground-to-flight pilot handling qualities ratings. A General Dynamics F-16XL aircraft was used for the flight evaluations, and the NASA Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator was employed for the ground based evaluations. Two NASA research pilots evaluated both the airplane and simulator characteristics using tasks developed in the simulator. Simulator and flight tests were all conducted within approximately a one month time frame. Maneuvers included numerous fine tracking evaluations at various angles of attack, load factors and speed ranges, gross acquisitions involving longitudinal and lateral maneuvering, roll angle captures, and an ILS task with a sidestep to landing. Overall results showed generally good correlation between ground and flight for PIO tendencies and general handling qualities comments. Differences in pilot technique used in simulator evaluations and effects of airplane accelerations and motions are illustrated.

  11. Closed-Loop HIRF Experiments Performed on a Fault Tolerant Flight Control Computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Celeste M.

    1997-01-01

    ABSTRACT Closed-loop HIRF experiments were performed on a fault tolerant flight control computer (FCC) at the NASA Langley Research Center. The FCC used in the experiments was a quad-redundant flight control computer executing B737 Autoland control laws. The FCC was placed in one of the mode-stirred reverberation chambers in the HIRF Laboratory and interfaced to a computer simulation of the B737 flight dynamics, engines, sensors, actuators, and atmosphere in the Closed-Loop Systems Laboratory. Disturbances to the aircraft associated with wind gusts and turbulence were simulated during tests. Electrical isolation between the FCC under test and the simulation computer was achieved via a fiber optic interface for the analog and discrete signals. Closed-loop operation of the FCC enabled flight dynamics and atmospheric disturbances affecting the aircraft to be represented during tests. Upset was induced in the FCC as a result of exposure to HIRF, and the effect of upset on the simulated flight of the aircraft was observed and recorded. This paper presents a description of these closed- loop HIRF experiments, upset data obtained from the FCC during these experiments, and closed-loop effects on the simulated flight of the aircraft.

  12. Flight Dynamics Performances of the MetOp A Satellite during the First Months of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righetti, Pier Luigi; Meixner, Hilda; Sancho, Francisco; Damiano, Antimo; Lazaro, David

    2007-01-01

    The 19th of October 2006 at 16:28 UTC the first MetOp satellite (MetOp A) was successfully launched from the Baykonur cosmodrome by a Soyuz/Fregat launcher. After only three days of LEOP operations, performed by ESOC, the satellite was handed over to EUMETSAT, who is since then taking care of all satellite operations. MetOp A is the first European operational satellite for meteorology flying in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO), all previous satellites operated by EUMETSAT, belonging to the METEOSAT family, being located in the Geo-stationary orbit. To ensure safe operations for a LEO satellite accurate and continuous commanding from ground of the on-board AOCS is required. That makes the operational transition at the end of the LEOP quite challenging, as the continuity of the Flight Dynamics operations is to be maintained. That means that the main functions of the Flight Dynamics have to be fully validated on-flight during the LEOP, before taking over the operational responsibility on the spacecraft, and continuously monitored during the entire mission. Due to the nature of a meteorological operational mission, very stringent requirements in terms of overall service availability (99 % of the collected data), timeliness of processing of the observation data (3 hours after sensing) and accuracy of the geo-location of the meteorological products (1 km) are to be fulfilled. That translates in tight requirements imposed to the Flight Dynamics facility (FDF) in terms of accuracy, timeliness and availability of the generated orbit and clock solutions; a detailed monitoring of the quality of these products is thus mandatory. Besides, being the accuracy of the image geo-location strongly related with the pointing performance of the platform and with the on-board timing stability, monitoring from ground of the behaviour of the on-board sensors and clock is needed. This paper presents an overview of the Flight Dynamics operations performed during the different phases of the MetOp A

  13. Design and Flight Performance of NOAA-K Spacecraft Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Chetty, P. R. K.; Spitzer, Tom; Chilelli, P.

    1999-01-01

    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) operates the Polar Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) spacecraft (among others) to support weather forecasting, severe storm tracking, and meteorological research by the National Weather Service (NWS). The latest in the POES series of spacecraft, named as NOAA-KLMNN, is in orbit and four more are in various phases of development. The NOAA-K spacecraft was launched on May 13, 1998. Each of these spacecraft carry three Nickel-Cadmium batteries designed and manufactured by Lockheed Martin. The battery, which consists of seventeen 40 Ah cells manufactured by SAFT, provides the spacecraft power during the ascent phase, orbital eclipse and when the power demand is in excess of the solar array capability. The NOAA-K satellite is in a 98 degree inclination, 7:30AM ascending node orbit. In this orbit the satellite experiences earth occultation only 25% of the year. This paper provides a brief overview of the power subsystem, followed by the battery design and qualification, the cell life cycle test data, and the performance during launch and in orbit.

  14. Design and Flight Performance of NOAA-K Spacecraft Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Chetty, P. R. K.; Spitzer, Tom; Chilelli, P.

    1998-01-01

    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) operates the Polar Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) spacecraft (among others) to support weather forecasting, severe storm tracking, and meteorological research by the National Weather Service (NWS). The latest in the POES series of spacecraft, named as NOAA-KLMNN', one is in orbit and four more are in various phases of development. The NOAA-K spacecraft was launched on May 13, 1998. Each of these spacecraft carry three Nickel-Cadmium batteries designed and manufactured by Lockheed Martin. The battery, which consists of seventeen 40 Ah cells manufactured by SAFT, provides the spacecraft power during the ascent phase, orbital eclipse and when the power demand is in excess of the solar array capability. The NOAA-K satellite is in a 98 degree inclination, 7:30AM ascending node orbit. In this orbit the satellite experiences earth occultation only 25% of the year. This paper provides a brief overview of the power subsystem, followed by the battery design and qualification, the cell life cycle test data, and the performance during launch and in orbit.

  15. Study on bird's & insect's wing aerodynamics and comparison of its analytical value with standard airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Md. Nesar; Alam, Mahbubul; Hossain, Md. Abed; Ahmed, Md. Imteaz

    2017-06-01

    Flight is the main mode of locomotion used by most of the world's bird & insect species. This article discusses the mechanics of bird flight, with emphasis on the varied forms of bird's & insect's wings. The fundamentals of bird flight are similar to those of aircraft. Flying animals flap their wings to generate lift and thrust as well as to perform remarkable maneuvers with rapid accelerations and decelerations. Insects and birds provide illuminating examples of unsteady aerodynamics. Lift force is produced by the action of air flow on the wing, which is an airfoil. The airfoil is shaped such that the air provides a net upward force on the wing, while the movement of air is directed downward. Additional net lift may come from airflow around the bird's & insect's body in some species, especially during intermittent flight while the wings are folded or semi-folded. Bird's & insect's flight in nature are sub-divided into two stages. They are Unpowered Flight: Gliding and Soaring & Powered Flight: Flapping. When gliding, birds and insects obtain both a vertical and a forward force from their wings. When a bird & insect flaps, as opposed to gliding, its wings continue to develop lift as before, but the lift is rotated forward to provide thrust, which counteracts drag and increases its speed, which has the effect of also increasing lift to counteract its weight, allowing it to maintain height or to climb. Flapping flight is more complicated than flight with fixed wings because of the structural movement and the resulting unsteady fluid dynamics. Flapping involves two stages: the down-stroke, which provides the majority of the thrust, and the up-stroke, which can also (depending on the bird's & insect's wings) provide some thrust. Most kinds of bird & insect wing can be grouped into four types, with some falling between two of these types. These types of wings are elliptical wings, high speed wings, high aspect ratio wings and soaring wings with slots. Hovering is used

  16. Development and in-flight performance of the Mariner 9 spacecraft propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. D.; Cannova, R. D.; Cork, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    On November 14, 1971, Mariner 9 was decelerated into orbit about Mars by a 1334 N (300 lbf) liquid bipropellant propulsion system. This paper describes and summarizes the development and in-flight performance of this pressure-fed, nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine bipropellant system. The design of all Mariner propulsion subsystems has been predicted upon the premise that simplicity of approach, coupled with thorough qualification and margin-limits testing, is the key to cost-effective reliability. The qualification test program and analytical modeling are also discussed. Since the propulsion subsystem is modular in nature, it was completely checked, serviced, and tested independent of the spacecraft. Proper prediction of in-flight performance required the development of three significant modeling tools to predict and account for nitrogen saturation of the propellant during the six-month coast period and to predict and statistically analyze in-flight data.

  17. Thermal biology of flight in a butterfly: genotype, flight metabolism, and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Anniina L K

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the effects of thermal conditions on animal movement and dispersal is necessary for a mechanistic understanding of the consequences of climate change and habitat fragmentation. In particular, the flight of ectothermic insects such as small butterflies is greatly influenced by ambient temperature. Here, variation in body temperature during flight is investigated in an ecological model species, the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia). Attention is paid on the effects of flight metabolism, genotypes at candidate loci, and environmental conditions. Measurements were made under a natural range of conditions using infrared thermal imaging. Heating of flight muscles by flight metabolism has been presumed to be negligible in small butterflies. However, the results demonstrate that Glanville fritillary males with high flight metabolic rate maintain elevated body temperature better during flight than males with a low rate of flight metabolism. This effect is likely to have a significant influence on the dispersal performance and fitness of butterflies and demonstrates the possible importance of intraspecific physiological variation on dispersal in other similar ectothermic insects. The results also suggest that individuals having an advantage in low ambient temperatures can be susceptible to overheating at high temperatures. Further, tolerance of high temperatures may be important for flight performance, as indicated by an association of heat-shock protein (Hsp70) genotype with flight metabolic rate and body temperature at takeoff. The dynamics of body temperature at flight and factors affecting it also differed significantly between female and male butterflies, indicating that thermal dynamics are governed by different mechanisms in the two sexes. This study contributes to knowledge about factors affecting intraspecific variation in dispersal-related thermal performance in butterflies and other insects. Such information is needed for predictive

  18. The calibration and flight test performance of the space shuttle orbiter air data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, A. S.; Mena, A. L.

    1983-01-01

    The Space Shuttle air data system (ADS) is used by the guidance, navigation and control system (GN&C) to guide the vehicle to a safe landing. In addition, postflight aerodynamic analysis requires a precise knowledge of flight conditions. Since the orbiter is essentially an unpowered vehicle, the conventional methods of obtaining the ADS calibration were not available; therefore, the calibration was derived using a unique and extensive wind tunnel test program. This test program included subsonic tests with a 0.36-scale orbiter model, transonic and supersonic tests with a smaller 0.2-scale model, and numerous ADS probe-alone tests. The wind tunnel calibration was further refined with subsonic results from the approach and landing test (ALT) program, thus producing the ADS calibration for the orbital flight test (OFT) program. The calibration of the Space Shuttle ADS and its performance during flight are discussed in this paper. A brief description of the system is followed by a discussion of the calibration methodology, and then by a review of the wind tunnel and flight test programs. Finally, the flight results are presented, including an evaluation of the system performance for on-board systems use and a description of the calibration refinements developed to provide the best possible air data for postflight analysis work.

  19. In-flight adaptive performance optimization (APO) control using redundant control effectors of an aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, Glenn B. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Practical application of real-time (or near real-time) Adaptive Performance Optimization (APO) is provided for a transport aircraft in steady climb, cruise, turn descent or other flight conditions based on measurements and calculations of incremental drag from a forced response maneuver of one or more redundant control effectors defined as those in excess of the minimum set of control effectors required to maintain the steady flight condition in progress. The method comprises the steps of applying excitation in a raised-cosine form over an interval of from 100 to 500 sec. at the rate of 1 to 10 sets/sec of excitation, and data for analysis is gathered in sets of measurements made during the excitation to calculate lift and drag coefficients C.sub.L and C.sub.D from two equations, one for each coefficient. A third equation is an expansion of C.sub.D as a function of parasitic drag, induced drag, Mach and altitude drag effects, and control effector drag, and assumes a quadratic variation of drag with positions .delta..sub.i of redundant control effectors i=1 to n. The third equation is then solved for .delta..sub.iopt the optimal position of redundant control effector i, which is then used to set the control effector i for optimum performance during the remainder of said steady flight or until monitored flight conditions change by some predetermined amount as determined automatically or a predetermined minimum flight time has elapsed.

  20. Use of a Commercially Available Flight Simulator during Aircrew Performance Testing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    Automiated Battery of Performance-based Tests, NAMRL 1354, Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Pensacola, FL, 1990. 13. Human Performance...ability of an aircraft to remain airborne well beyond the limits of its human operator. This capacity for longer flights, coupled with a tendency for short...Measurement, Final Report, Air Force Human Resources Laboratory, Brooks AFB, TX, 1983. 5. Stein, E.S., Measurement of Pilot Performance: A Master Journeyman

  1. Motion Perception and Manual Control Performance During Passive Tilt and Translation Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Gilles; Wood, Scott J.

    2010-01-01

    This joint ESA-NASA study is examining changes in motion perception following Space Shuttle flights and the operational implications of post-flight tilt-translation ambiguity for manual control performance. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt orientation is also being evaluated as a countermeasure to improve performance during a closed-loop nulling task. METHODS. Data has been collected on 5 astronaut subjects during 3 preflight sessions and during the first 8 days after Shuttle landings. Variable radius centrifugation (216 deg/s) combined with body translation (12-22 cm, peak-to-peak) is utilized to elicit roll-tilt perception (equivalent to 20 deg, peak-to-peak). A forward-backward moving sled (24-390 cm, peak-to-peak) with or without chair tilting in pitch is utilized to elicit pitch tilt perception (equivalent to 20 deg, peak-to-peak). These combinations are elicited at 0.15, 0.3, and 0.6 Hz for evaluating the effect of motion frequency on tilt-translation ambiguity. In both devices, a closed-loop nulling task is also performed during pseudorandom motion with and without vibrotactile feedback of tilt. All tests are performed in complete darkness. PRELIMINARY RESULTS. Data collection is currently ongoing. Results to date suggest there is a trend for translation motion perception to be increased at the low and medium frequencies on landing day compared to pre-flight. Manual control performance is improved with vibrotactile feedback. DISCUSSION. The results of this study indicate that post-flight recovery of motion perception and manual control performance is complete within 8 days following short-duration space missions. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt improves manual control performance both before and after flight.

  2. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Airplane Full Flight Simulators

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Qualification Performance Standards (§ 60.4). 5. Quality Management System (§ 60.5). 6. Sponsor Qualification... inquiries on system compatibility, and minimum system requirements are also included on the NSP Web site. d... Flight Guidance Systems. (15) AC 120-57, as amended, Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (SMGCS...

  3. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Airplane Flight Training Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualification Performance Standards for Airplane Flight Training Devices B Appendix B to Part 60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... encourages the use of electronic media for all communication, including any record, report, request, test, or...

  4. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Airplane Flight Training Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualification Performance Standards for Airplane Flight Training Devices B Appendix B to Part 60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... encourages the use of electronic media for all communication, including any record, report, request, test, or...

  5. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Airplane Flight Training Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualification Performance Standards for Airplane Flight Training Devices B Appendix B to Part 60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... encourages the use of electronic media for all communication, including any record, report, request, test, or...

  6. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Airplane Flight Training Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Qualification Performance Standards for Airplane Flight Training Devices B Appendix B to Part 60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... encourages the use of electronic media for all communication, including any record, report, request, test, or...

  7. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Airplane Flight Training Devices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualification Performance Standards for Airplane Flight Training Devices B Appendix B to Part 60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... encourages the use of electronic media for all communication, including any record, report, request, test, or...

  8. Development and in-flight performance of the Mariner 9 spacecraft propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. D.; Cannova, R. D.; Cork, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    On November 14, 1971, Mariner 9 was decelerated into orbit about Mars by a 1334-newton (300-lbf) liquid bipropellant propulsion system. The development and in-flight performance are described and summarized of this pressure-fed, nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine bipropellant system. The design of all Mariner propulsion subsystems has been predicated upon the premise that simplicity of approach, coupled with thorough qualification and margin-limits testing, is the key to cost-effective reliability. The qualification test program and analytical modeling of the Mariner 9 subsystem are discussed. Since the propulsion subsystem is modular in nature, it was completely checked, serviced, and tested independent of the spacecraft. Proper prediction of in-flight performance required the development of three significant modeling tools to predict and account for nitrogen saturation of the propellant during the six-month coast period and to predict and statistically analyze in-flight data. The flight performance of the subsystem was excellent, as were the performance prediction correlations. These correlations are presented.

  9. Flight Performance of an Advanced Thermal Protection Material: Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel B.; Gordon, Michael P.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The flight performance of a new class of low density, high temperature thermal protection materials (TPM) is described and compared to "standard" Space Shuttle TPM. This new functionally gradient material designated as Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation (TUFI), was bonded on a removable panel attached to the base heat shield of Orbiter 105, Endeavour.

  10. Flight Performance of an Advanced Thermal Protection Material: Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel B.; Gordon, Michael P.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The flight performance of a new class of low density, high temperature, thermal protection materials (TPM), is described and compared to "standard" Space Shuttle TPM. This new functionally gradient material designated as Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation (TUFI), was bonded on a removable panel attached to the base heatshield of Orbiter 105, Endeavor.

  11. Design and Flight Performance of the Orion Pre-Launch Navigation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanetti, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Launched in December 2014 atop a Delta IV Heavy from the Kennedy Space Center, the Orion vehicle's Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) successfully completed the objective to test the prelaunch and entry components of the system. Orion's pre-launch absolute navigation design is presented, together with its EFT-1 performance.

  12. Markov Jump-Linear Performance Models for Recoverable Flight Control Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Hong; Gray, W. Steven; Gonzalez, Oscar R.

    2004-01-01

    Single event upsets in digital flight control hardware induced by atmospheric neutrons can reduce system performance and possibly introduce a safety hazard. One method currently under investigation to help mitigate the effects of these upsets is NASA Langley s Recoverable Computer System. In this paper, a Markov jump-linear model is developed for a recoverable flight control system, which will be validated using data from future experiments with simulated and real neutron environments. The method of tracking error analysis and the plan for the experiments are also described.

  13. Effect of wing loading, aspect ratio, and span loading of flight performances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gothert, B

    1940-01-01

    An investigation is made of the possible improvements in maximum, cruising, and climbing speeds attainable through increase in the wing loading. The decrease in wing area was considered for the two cases of constant aspect ratio and constant span loading. For a definite flight condition, an investigation is made to determine what loss in flight performance must be sustained if, for given reasons, certain wing loadings are not to be exceeded. With the aid of these general investigations, the trend with respect to wing loading is indicated and the requirements to be imposed on the landing aids are discussed

  14. In-Flight Thermal Performance of the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grob, Eric; Baker, Charles; McCarthy, Tom

    2003-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) instrument is NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's first application of Loop Heat Pipe technology that provides selectable/stable temperature levels for the lasers and other electronics over a widely varying mission environment. GLAS was successfully launched as the sole science instrument aboard the Ice, Clouds, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) from Vandenberg AFB at 4:45pm PST on January 12, 2003. After SC commissioning, the LHPs started easily and have provided selectable and stable temperatures for the lasers and other electronics. This paper discusses the thermal development background and testing, along with details of early flight thermal performance data.

  15. Superior visual performance in nocturnal insects: neural principles and bio-inspired technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrant, Eric J.

    2016-04-01

    At night, our visual capacities are severely reduced, with a complete loss in our ability to see colour and a dramatic loss in our ability to see fine spatial and temporal details. This is not the case for many nocturnal animals, notably insects. Our recent work, particularly on fast-flying moths and bees and on ball-rolling dung beetles, has shown that nocturnal animals are able to distinguish colours, to detect faint movements, to learn visual landmarks, to orient to the faint pattern of polarised light produced by the moon and to navigate using the stars. These impressive visual abilities are the result of exquisitely adapted eyes and visual systems, the product of millions of years of evolution. Nocturnal animals typically have highly sensitive eye designs and visual neural circuitry that is optimised for extracting reliable information from dim and noisy visual images. Even though we are only at the threshold of understanding the neural mechanisms responsible for reliable nocturnal vision, growing evidence suggests that the neural summation of photons in space and time is critically important: even though vision in dim light becomes necessarily coarser and slower, it also becomes significantly more reliable. We explored the benefits of spatiotemporal summation by creating a computer algorithm that mimicked nocturnal visual processing strategies. This algorithm dramatically increased the reliability of video collected in dim light, including the preservation of colour, strengthening evidence that summation strategies are essential for nocturnal vision.

  16. Development and Evaluation of a Performance Modeling Flight Test Approach Based on Quasi Steady-State Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yechout, T. R.; Braman, K. B.

    1984-01-01

    The development, implementation and flight test evaluation of a performance modeling technique which required a limited amount of quasisteady state flight test data to predict the overall one g performance characteristics of an aircraft. The concept definition phase of the program include development of: (1) the relationship for defining aerodynamic characteristics from quasi steady state maneuvers; (2) a simplified in flight thrust and airflow prediction technique; (3) a flight test maneuvering sequence which efficiently provided definition of baseline aerodynamic and engine characteristics including power effects on lift and drag; and (4) the algorithms necessary for cruise and flight trajectory predictions. Implementation of the concept include design of the overall flight test data flow, definition of instrumentation system and ground test requirements, development and verification of all applicable software and consolidation of the overall requirements in a flight test plan.

  17. Insect Allergy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hobart; Halverson, Sara; Mackey, Regina

    2016-09-01

    Insect bites and stings are common. Risk factors are mostly associated with environmental exposure. Most insect bites and stings result in mild, local, allergic reactions. Large local reactions and systemic reactions like anaphylaxis are possible. Common insects that bite or sting include mosquitoes, ticks, flies, fleas, biting midges, bees, and wasps. The diagnosis is made clinically. Identification of the insect should occur when possible. Management is usually supportive. For anaphylaxis, patients should be given epinephrine and transported to the emergency department for further evaluation. Venom immunotherapy (VIT) has several different protocols. VIT is highly effective in reducing systemic reactions and anaphylaxis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessing Impact of Dual Sensor Enhanced Flight Vision Systems on Departure Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Etherington, Timothy J.; Severance, Kurt; Bailey, Randall E.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic Vision (SV) and Enhanced Flight Vision Systems (EFVS) may serve as game-changing technologies to meet the challenges of the Next Generation Air Transportation System and the envisioned Equivalent Visual Operations (EVO) concept - that is, the ability to achieve the safety and operational tempos of current-day Visual Flight Rules operations irrespective of the weather and visibility conditions. One significant obstacle lies in the definition of required equipage on the aircraft and on the airport to enable the EVO concept objective. A motion-base simulator experiment was conducted to evaluate the operational feasibility and pilot workload of conducting departures and approaches on runways without centerline lighting in visibility as low as 300 feet runway visual range (RVR) by use of onboard vision system technologies on a Head-Up Display (HUD) without need or reliance on natural vision. Twelve crews evaluated two methods of combining dual sensor (millimeter wave radar and forward looking infrared) EFVS imagery on pilot-flying and pilot-monitoring HUDs. In addition, the impact of adding SV to the dual sensor EFVS imagery on crew flight performance and workload was assessed. Using EFVS concepts during 300 RVR terminal operations on runways without centerline lighting appears feasible as all EFVS concepts had equivalent (or better) departure performance and landing rollout performance, without any workload penalty, than those flown with a conventional HUD to runways having centerline lighting. Adding SV imagery to EFVS concepts provided situation awareness improvements but no discernible improvements in flight path maintenance.

  19. Development of Flight-Test Performance Estimation Techniques for Small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrink, Matthew Henry

    This dissertation provides a flight-testing framework for assessing the performance of fixed-wing, small-scale unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) by leveraging sub-system models of components unique to these vehicles. The development of the sub-system models, and their links to broader impacts on sUAS performance, is the key contribution of this work. The sub-system modeling and analysis focuses on the vehicle's propulsion, navigation and guidance, and airframe components. Quantification of the uncertainty in the vehicle's power available and control states is essential for assessing the validity of both the methods and results obtained from flight-tests. Therefore, detailed propulsion and navigation system analyses are presented to validate the flight testing methodology. Propulsion system analysis required the development of an analytic model of the propeller in order to predict the power available over a range of flight conditions. The model is based on the blade element momentum (BEM) method. Additional corrections are added to the basic model in order to capture the Reynolds-dependent scale effects unique to sUAS. The model was experimentally validated using a ground based testing apparatus. The BEM predictions and experimental analysis allow for a parameterized model relating the electrical power, measurable during flight, to the power available required for vehicle performance analysis. Navigation system details are presented with a specific focus on the sensors used for state estimation, and the resulting uncertainty in vehicle state. Uncertainty quantification is provided by detailed calibration techniques validated using quasi-static and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) ground based testing. The HIL methods introduced use a soft real-time flight simulator to provide inertial quality data for assessing overall system performance. Using this tool, the uncertainty in vehicle state estimation based on a range of sensors, and vehicle operational environments is

  20. Relationship of CogScreen-AE to flight simulator performance and pilot age.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J L; O'Hara, R; Mumenthaler, M S; Yesavage, J A

    2000-04-01

    We report on the relationship between CogScreen-Aeromedical Edition (AE) factor scores and flight simulator performance in aircraft pilots aged 50-69. Some 100 licensed, civilian aviators (average age 58+/-5.3 yr) performed aviation tasks in a Frasca model 141 flight simulator and the CogScreen-AE battery. The aviation performance indices were: a) staying on course; b) dialing in communication frequencies; c) avoiding conflicting traffic; d) monitoring cockpit instruments; e) executing the approach; and f) a summary score, which was the mean of these scores. The CogScreen predictors were based on a factor structure reported by Kay (11), which comprised 28 CogScreen scores. Through principal components analysis of Kay's nine factors, we reduced the number of predictors to five composite CogScreen scores: Speed/Working Memory (WM), Visual Associative Memory, Motor Coordination, Tracking, and Attribute Identification. Speed/WM scores had the highest correlation with the flight summary score, Spearman r(rho) = 0.57. A stepwise-forward multiple regression analysis indicated that four CogScreen variables could explain 45% of the variance in flight summary scores. Significant predictors, in order of entry, were: Speed/WM, Visual Associative Memory, Motor Coordination, and Tracking (p<0.05). Pilot age was found to significantly improve prediction beyond that which could be predicted by the four cognitive variables. In addition, there was some evidence for specific ability relationships between certain flight component scores and CogScreen scores, such as approach performance and tracking errors. These data support the validity of CogScreen-AE as a cognitive battery that taps skills relevant to piloting.

  1. Flight mechanics and control of escape manoeuvres in hummingbirds. II. Aerodynamic force production, flight control and performance limitations.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bo; Tobalske, Bret W; Powers, Donald R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Wang, Yi; Wethington, Susan M; Chiu, George T-C; Deng, Xinyan

    2016-11-15

    The superior manoeuvrability of hummingbirds emerges from complex interactions of specialized neural and physiological processes with the unique flight dynamics of flapping wings. Escape manoeuvring is an ecologically relevant, natural behaviour of hummingbirds, from which we can gain understanding into the functional limits of vertebrate locomotor capacity. Here, we extend our kinematic analysis of escape manoeuvres from a companion paper to assess two potential limiting factors of the manoeuvring performance of hummingbirds: (1) muscle mechanical power output and (2) delays in the neural sensing and control system. We focused on the magnificent hummingbird (Eugenes fulgens, 7.8 g) and the black-chinned hummingbird (Archilochus alexandri, 3.1 g), which represent large and small species, respectively. We first estimated the aerodynamic forces, moments and the mechanical power of escape manoeuvres using measured wing kinematics. Comparing active-manoeuvring and passive-damping aerodynamic moments, we found that pitch dynamics were lightly damped and dominated by the effect of inertia, while roll dynamics were highly damped. To achieve observed closed-loop performance, pitch manoeuvres required faster sensorimotor transduction, as hummingbirds can only tolerate half the delay allowed in roll manoeuvres. Accordingly, our results suggested that pitch control may require a more sophisticated control strategy, such as those based on prediction. For the magnificent hummingbird, we estimated that escape manoeuvres required muscle mass-specific power 4.5 times that during hovering. Therefore, in addition to the limitation imposed by sensorimotor delays, muscle power could also limit the performance of escape manoeuvres. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Body Unloading Associated with Space Flight and Bed-rest Impacts Functional Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Ballard, K. L.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Functional Task Test study is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We are currently conducting studies on both ISS crewmembers and on subjects experiencing 70 days of 6 degrees head-down bed-rest as an analog for space flight. Bed-rest provides the opportunity for us to investigate the role of prolonged axial body unloading in isolation from the other physiological effects produced by exposure to the microgravity environment of space flight. This allows us to parse out the contribution of the body unloading component on functional performance. In this on-going study both ISS crewmembers and bed-rest subjects were tested using an interdisciplinary protocol that evaluated functional performance and related physiological changes before and after 6 months in space and 70 days of 6? head-down bed-rest, respectively. Functional tests included ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, seat egress and obstacle avoidance, recovery from a fall, and object translation tasks. Crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6 and 30 days after landing. Bed-rest subjects were tested three times before bed-rest and immediately after getting up from bed-rest as well as 1, 6 and 12 days after reambulation. A comparison of bed-rest and space flight data showed a significant concordance in performance changes across all functional tests. Tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with

  3. Entry Atmospheric Flight Control Authority Impacts on GN and C and Trajectory Performance for Orion Exploration Flight Test 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, Luke W.

    2012-01-01

    One of the key design objectives of NASA's Orion Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1) is to execute a guided entry trajectory demonstrating GN&C capability. The focus of this paper is the ight control authority of the vehicle throughout the atmospheric entry ight to the target landing site and its impacts on GN&C, parachute deployment, and integrated performance. The vehicle's attitude control authority is obtained from thrusting 12 Re- action Control System (RCS) engines, with four engines to control yaw, four engines to control pitch, and four engines to control roll. The static and dynamic stability derivatives of the vehicle are determined to assess the inherent aerodynamic stability. The aerodynamic moments at various locations in the entry trajectory are calculated and compared to the available torque provided by the RCS system. Interaction between the vehicle's RCS engine plumes and the aerodynamic conditions are considered to assess thruster effectiveness. This document presents an assessment of Orion's ight control authority and its effectiveness in controlling the vehicle during critical events in the atmospheric entry trajectory.

  4. Powered Flight Design and Reconstructed Performance Summary for the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sell, Steven; Chen, Allen; Davis, Jody; San Martin, Miguel; Serricchio, Frederick; Singh, Gurkirpal

    2013-01-01

    The Powered Flight segment of Mars Science Laboratory's (MSL) Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) system extends from backshell separation through landing. This segment is responsible for removing the final 0.1% of the kinetic energy dissipated during EDL and culminating with the successful touchdown of the rover on the surface of Mars. Many challenges exist in the Powered Flight segment: extraction of Powered Descent Vehicle from the backshell, performing a 300m divert maneuver to avoid the backshell and parachute, slowing the descent from 85 m/s to 0.75 m/s and successfully lowering the rover on a 7.5m bridle beneath the rocket-powered Descent Stage and gently placing it on the surface using the Sky Crane Maneuver. Finally, the nearly-spent Descent Stage must execute a Flyaway maneuver to ensure surface impact a safe distance from the Rover. This paper provides an overview of the powered flight design, key features, and event timeline. It also summarizes Curiosity's as flown performance on the night of August 5th as reconstructed by the flight team.

  5. Performance improvements of an F-15 airplane with an integrated engine-flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Lawrence P.; Walsh, Kevin R.

    1988-01-01

    An integrated flight and propulsion control system has been developed and flight demonstrated on the NASA Ames-Dryden F-15 research aircraft. The highly integrated digital control (HIDEC) system provides additional engine thrust by increasing engine pressure ratio (EPR) at intermediate and afterburning power. The amount of EPR uptrim is modulated based on airplane maneuver requirements, flight conditions, and engine information. Engine thrust was increased as much as 10.5 percent at subsonic flight conditions by uptrimming EPR. The additional thrust significantly improved aircraft performance. Rate of climb was increased 14 percent at 40,000 ft and the time to climb from 10,000 to 40,000 ft was reduced 13 percent. A 14 and 24 percent increase in acceleration was obtained at intermediate and maximum power, respectively. The HIDEC logic performed fault free. No engine anomalies were encountered for EPR increases up to 12 percent and for angles of attack and sideslip of 32 and 11 deg, respectively.

  6. Disrupting the Myosin Converter-Relay Interface Impairs Drosophila Indirect Flight Muscle Performance

    PubMed Central

    Ramanath, Seemanti; Wang, Qian; Bernstein, Sanford I.; Swank, Douglas M.

    2011-01-01

    Structural interactions between the myosin converter and relay domains have been proposed to be critical for the myosin power stroke and muscle power generation. We tested this hypothesis by mutating converter residue 759, which interacts with relay residues I508, N509, and D511, to glutamate (R759E) and determined the effect on Drosophila indirect flight muscle mechanical performance. Work loop analysis of mutant R759E indirect flight muscle fibers revealed a 58% and 31% reduction in maximum power generation (PWL) and the frequency at which maximum power (fWL) is generated, respectively, compared to control fibers at 15°C. Small amplitude sinusoidal analysis revealed a 30%, 36%, and 32% reduction in mutant elastic modulus, viscous modulus, and mechanical rate constant 2πb, respectively. From these results, we infer that the mutation reduces rates of transitions through work-producing cross-bridge states and/or force generation during strongly bound states. The reductions in muscle power output, stiffness, and kinetics were physiologically relevant, as mutant wing beat frequency and flight index decreased about 10% and 45% compared to control flies at both 15°C and 25°C. Thus, interactions between the relay loop and converter domain are critical for lever-arm and catalytic domain coordination, high muscle power generation, and optimal Drosophila flight performance. PMID:21889448

  7. Performance improvements of an F-15 airplane with an integrated engine-flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Lawrence P.; Walsh, Kevin R.

    1988-01-01

    An integrated flight and propulsion control system has been developed and flight demonstrated on the NASA Ames-Dryden F-15 research aircraft. The highly integrated digital control (HIDEC) system provides additional engine thrust by increasing engine pressure ratio (EPR) at intermediate and afterburning power. The amount of EPR uptrim is modulated based on airplane maneuver requirements, flight conditions, and engine information. Engine thrust was increased as much as 10.5 percent at subsonic flight conditions by uptrimming EPR. The additional thrust significantly improved aircraft performance. Rate of climb was increased 14 percent at 40,000 ft and the time to climb from 10,000 to 40,000 ft was reduced 13 percent. A 14 and 24 percent increase in acceleration was obtained at intermediate and maximum power, respectively. The HIDEC logic performed fault free. No engine anomalies were encountered for EPR increases up to 12 percent and for angles of attack and sideslip of 32 and 11 degrees, respectively.

  8. SHOOT performance testing. [Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer Flight Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dipirro, M. J.; Shirron, P. J.; Volz, S. M.; Schein, M. E.

    1991-01-01

    The Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) Flight Demonstration is a shuttle attached payload designed to demonstrate the technology necessary to resupply liquid helium dewars in space. Many SHOOT components will also have use in other aerospace cryogenic systems. The first of two SHOOT dewar systems has been fabricated. The ground performance testing of this dewar is described. The performance tests include measurements of heat leak, impedances of the two vent lines, heat pulse mass gauging accuracy, and superfluid transfer parameters such as flow rate and efficiency. A laboratory dewar was substituted for the second flight dewar for the transfer tests. These tests enable a precise analytical model of the transfer process to be verified. SHOOT performance is thus quantified, except for components such as the liquid acquisition devices and a phase separator which cannot be verified in one gravity.

  9. Comparisons of pilot performance in simulated and actual flight. [effects of ingested barbiturates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Gerke, R. J.; Wick, R. L., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Five highly experienced professional pilots performed instrument landing system approaches under simulated instrument flight conditions in a Cessna 172 airplane and in a Link-Singer GAT-1 simulator while under the influence of orally administered secobarbital (0, 100, and 200 mg). Tracking performance in two axes and airspeed control were evaluated continuously during each approach. Error and RMS variability were about half as large in the simulator as in the airplane. The observed data were more strongly associated with the drug level in the simulator than in the airplane. Further, the drug-related effects were more consistent in the simulator. Improvement in performance suggestive of learning effects were seen in the simulator, but not in actual flight.

  10. Optimization of an Active Twist Rotor Blade Planform for Improved Active Response and Forward Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekula, Martin K; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the optimum blade tip planform for a model-scale active twist rotor. The analysis identified blade tip design traits which simultaneously reduce rotor power of an unactuated rotor while leveraging aeromechanical couplings to tailor the active response of the blade. Optimizing the blade tip planform for minimum rotor power in forward flight provided a 5 percent improvement in performance compared to a rectangular blade tip, but reduced the vibration control authority of active twist actuation by 75 percent. Optimizing for maximum blade twist response increased the vibration control authority by 50 percent compared to the rectangular blade tip, with little effect on performance. Combined response and power optimization resulted in a blade tip design which provided similar vibration control authority to the rectangular blade tip, but with a 3.4 percent improvement in rotor performance in forward flight.

  11. Insect Keepers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Virginia J.; Chessin, Debby A.; Theobald, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Insects are fascinating creatures--especially when you and your students get up close and personal with them! To that end, the authors facilitated an inquiry-based investigation with an emphasis on identification of the different types of insects found in the school yard, their characteristics, their habitat, and what they eat, while engaging the…

  12. III. Insects

    Treesearch

    Jose F. Negron

    2011-01-01

    RMRS research on insect pests focuses mostly on conifer pests. There is a long history of invasive insects causing significant impacts, mortality, and changes in forest ecosystem structure in North America. Perhaps the most evident example is the introduction of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, into eastern North America in the 1860s (Forbush and Frenald 1896)....

  13. Subsonic Longitudinal Performance Coefficient Extraction from Shuttle Flight Data: an Accuracy Assessment for Determination of Data Base Updates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Findlay, J. T.; Kelly, G. M.; Mcconnell, J. G.; Compton, H. R.

    1983-01-01

    Longitudinal performance comparisons between flight derived and predicted values are presented for the first five NASA Space Shuttle Columbia flights. Though subsonic comparisons are emphasized, comparisons during the transonic and low supersonic regions of flight are included. Computed air data information based on the remotely sensed atmospheric measurements as well as in situ Orbiter Air Data System (ADS) measurements were incorporated. Each air data source provides for comparisons versus the predicted values from the LaRC data base. Principally, L/D, C sub L, and C sub D, comparisons are presented, though some pitching moment results are included. Similarities in flight conditions and spacecraft configuration during the first five flights are discussed. Contributions from the various elements of the data base are presented and the overall differences observed between the flight and predicted values are discussed in terms of expected variations. A discussion on potential data base updates is presented based on the results from the five flights to date.

  14. F/A-18 Performance Benefits Measured During the Autonomous Formation Flight Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachon, M. Jake; Ray, Ronald J.; Walsh, Kevin R.; Ennix, Kimberly

    2003-01-01

    The Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) project at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) investigated performance benefits resulting from formation flight, such as reduced aerodynamic drag and fuel consumption. To obtain data on performance benefits, a trailing F/A-18 airplane flew within the wing tip-shed vortex of a leading F/A-18 airplane. The pilot of the trail airplane used advanced station-keeping technology to aid in positioning the trail airplane at precise locations behind the lead airplane. The specially instrumented trail airplane was able to obtain accurate fuel flow measurements and to calculate engine thrust and vehicle drag. A maneuver technique developed for this test provided a direct comparison of performance values while flying in and out of the vortex. Based on performance within the vortex as a function of changes in vertical, lateral, and longitudinal positioning, these tests explored design-drivers for autonomous stationkeeping control systems. Observations showed significant performance improvements over a large range of trail positions tested. Calculations revealed maximum drag reductions of over 20 percent, and demonstrated maximum reductions in fuel flow of just over 18 percent.

  15. Astronaut Biography Project for Countermeasures of Human Behavior and Performance Risks in Long Duration Space Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Akeem

    2012-01-01

    This final report will summarize research that relates to human behavioral health and performance of astronauts and flight controllers. Literature reviews, data archival analyses, and ground-based analog studies that center around the risk of human space flight are being used to help mitigate human behavior and performance risks from long duration space flights. A qualitative analysis of an astronaut autobiography was completed. An analysis was also conducted on exercise countermeasure publications to show the positive affects of exercise on the risks targeted in this study. The three main risks targeted in this study are risks of behavioral and psychiatric disorders, risks of performance errors due to poor team performance, cohesion, and composition, and risks of performance errors due to sleep deprivation, circadian rhythm. These three risks focus on psychological and physiological aspects of astronauts who venture out into space on long duration space missions. The purpose of this research is to target these risks in order to help quantify, identify, and mature countermeasures and technologies required in preventing or mitigating adverse outcomes from exposure to the spaceflight environment

  16. Methods of Constructing a Blended Performance Function Suitable for Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, John J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents two methods for constructing an approximate performance function of a desired parameter using correlated parameters. The methods are useful when real-time measurements of a desired performance function are not available to applications such as extremum-seeking control systems. The first method approximates an a priori measured or estimated desired performance function by combining real-time measurements of readily available correlated parameters. The parameters are combined using a weighting vector determined from a minimum-squares optimization to form a blended performance function. The blended performance function better matches the desired performance function mini- mum than single-measurement performance functions. The second method expands upon the first by replacing the a priori data with near-real-time measurements of the desired performance function. The resulting blended performance function weighting vector is up- dated when measurements of the desired performance function are available. Both methods are applied to data collected during formation- flight-for-drag-reduction flight experiments.

  17. Engineered Surfaces for Mitigation of Insect Residue Adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siochi, Emilie J.; Smith, Joseph G.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Gardner, J. M.; Penner, Ronald K.; Connell, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance of laminar flow under operational flight conditions is being investigated under NASA s Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Program. Among the challenges with natural laminar flow is the accretion of residues from insect impacts incurred during takeoff or landing. Depending on air speed, temperature, and wing structure, the critical residue height for laminar flow disruption can be as low as 4 microns near the leading edge. In this study, engineered surfaces designed to minimize insect residue adhesion were examined. The coatings studied included chemical compositions containing functional groups typically associated with abhesive (non-stick) surfaces. To reduce surface contact by liquids and enhance abhesion, the engineered surfaces consisted of these coatings doped with particulate additives to generate random surface topography, as well as coatings applied to laser ablated surfaces having precision patterned topographies. Performance evaluation of these surfaces included contact angle goniometry of pristine coatings and profilometry of surfaces after insect impacts were incurred in laboratory scale tests, wind tunnel tests and flight tests. The results illustrate the complexity of designing antifouling surfaces for effective insect contamination mitigation under dynamic conditions and suggest that superhydrophobic surfaces may not be the most effective solution for preventing insect contamination on aircraft wing leading edges.

  18. AVIRIS performance during the 1987 flight season: An AVIRIS project assessment and summary of the NASA-sponsored performance evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg; Porter, Wallace M.; Reimer, John H.; Chrien, Thomas G.; Green, Robert O.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented of the assessment of AVIRIS performance during the 1987 flight season by the AVIRIS project and the earth scientists who were chartered by NASA to conduct an independent data quality and sensor performance evaluation. The AVIRIS evaluation program began in late June 1987 with the sensor meeting most of its design requirements except for signal-to-noise ratio in the fourth spectrometer, which was about half of the required level. Several events related to parts failures and design flaws further reduced sensor performance over the flight season. Substantial agreement was found between the assessments by the project and the independent investigators of the effects of these various factors. A summary of the engineering work that is being done to raise AVIRIS performance to its required level is given. In spite of degrading data quality over the flight season, several exciting scientific results were obtained from the data. These include the mapping of the spatial variation of atmospheric precipitable water, detection of environmentally-induced shifts in the spectral red edge of stressed vegetation, detection of spectral features related to pigment, leaf water and ligno-cellulose absorptions in plants, and the identification of many diagnostic mineral absorption features in a variety of geological settings.

  19. Evaluation of a recombinant insect-derived amylase performance in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process with industrial yeasts.

    PubMed

    Celińska, Ewelina; Borkowska, Monika; Białas, Wojciech

    2016-03-01

    Starch is the dominant feedstock consumed for the bioethanol production, accounting for 60 % of its global production. Considering the significant contribution of bioethanol to the global fuel market, any improvement in its major operating technologies is economically very attractive. It was estimated that up to 40 % of the final ethanol unit price is derived from the energy input required for the substrate pre-treatment. Application of raw starch hydrolyzing enzymes (RSHE), combined with operation of the process according to a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) strategy, constitutes the most promising solutions to the current technologies limitations. In this study, we expressed the novel RSHE derived from an insect in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain dedicated for the protein overexpression. Afterwards, the enzyme performance was assessed in SSF process conducted by industrial ethanologenic or thermotolerant yeast species. Comparison of the insect-derived RSHE preparation with commercially available amylolytic RSH preparation was conducted. Our results demonstrate that the recombinant alpha-amylase from rice weevil can be efficiently expressed and secreted with its native signal peptide in S. cerevisiae INVSc-pYES2-Amy1 expression system (accounting for nearly 72 % of the strain's secretome). Application of the recombinant enzyme-based preparation in SSF process secured sufficient amylolytic activity for the yeast cell propagation and ethanol formation from raw starch. (Oligo)saccharide profiles generated by the compared preparations differed with respect to homogeneity of the sugar mixtures. Concomitantly, as demonstrated by a kinetic model developed in this study, the kinetic parameters describing activity of the compared preparations were different.

  20. Performance Testing of the Astro-H Flight Model 3-Stage ADR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Kimball, Mark Oliver; DiPirro, Michael; Bialas, Tom G.

    2014-01-01

    The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) is one of four instruments that will be flown on the Japanese Astro-H satellite, planned for launch in late 2015early 2016. The SXS will perform imaging spectroscopy in the soft x-ray band using a 6x6 array of silicon micro calorimeters operated at 50 mK, cooled by an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). NASAGSFC is providing the detector array and ADR, and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Inc. is providing the remainder of the cryogenic system (superfluid helium dewar (1.3 K), Stirling cryocoolers and a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler). The ADR is unique in that it is designed to use both the liquid helium and the JT cryocooler as it heat sink. The flight detector and ADR assembly have successfully undergone vibration and performance testing at GSFC, and have now undergone initial performance testing with the flight dewar at Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Inc. in Japan. This presentation summarizes the performance of the flight ADR in both cryogen-based and cryogen-free operating modes.

  1. Performance Testing of the Astro-H Flight Model 3-stage ADR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Kimball, Mark O.; DiPirro, Michael J.; Bialas, Thomas G.

    The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) is one of four instruments that will be flown on the Japanese Astro-H satellite, planned for launch in late 2015/early 2016. The SXS will perform imaging spectroscopy in the soft x-ray band using a 6x6 array of silicon microcalorimeters operated at 50 mK, cooled by an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). NASA/GSFC is providing the detector array and ADR, and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Inc. is providing the remainder of the cryogenic system (superfluid helium dewar (<1.3 K), Stirling cryocoolers and a 4.5 K Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler). The ADR is unique in that it is designed to use both the liquid helium and the JT cryocooler as it heat sink. The flight detector and ADR assembly have successfully undergone vibration and performance testing at GSFC, and have now undergone initial performance testing with the flight dewar at Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Inc. in Japan. This paper summaries the performance of the flight ADR in both cryogen-based and cryogen-free operating modes.

  2. Hover and forward flight acoustics and performance of a small-scale helicopter rotor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitaplioglu, C.; Shinoda, P.

    1985-01-01

    A 2.1-m diam., 1/6-scale model helicopter main rotor was tested in hover in the test section of the NASA Ames 40- by 80- Foot Wind Tunnel. Subsequently, it was tested in forward flight in the Ames 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel. The primary objective of the tests was to obtain performance and noise data on a small-scale rotor at various thrust coefficients, tip Mach numbers, and, in the later case, various advance ratios, for comparisons with similar existing data on full-scale helicopter rotors. This comparison yielded a preliminary evaluation of the scaling of helicopter rotor performance and acoustic radiation in hover and in forward flight. Correlation between model-scale and full-scale performance and acoustics was quite good in hover. In forward flight, however, there were significant differences in both performance and acoustic characteristics. A secondary objective was to contribute to a data base that will permit the estimation of facility effects on acoustic testing.

  3. Medicago truncatula-derived calcium oxalate crystals have a negative impact on chewing insect performance via their physical properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant structural traits often act as defenses against herbivorous insects, causing them to avoid feeding on a given plant or tissue. Mineral crystals of calcium oxalate in Medicago truncatula Gaertn. (Fabaceae) leaves have previously been shown to be effective deterrents of lepidopteran insect feedi...

  4. Flight speed and performance of the wandering albatross with respect to wind.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Philip L; Wakefield, Ewan D; Phillips, Richard A

    2018-01-01

    Albatrosses and other large seabirds use dynamic soaring to gain sufficient energy from the wind to travel large distances rapidly and with little apparent effort. The recent development of miniature bird-borne tracking devices now makes it possible to explore the physical and biological implications of this means of locomotion in detail. Here we use GPS tracking and concurrent reanalyzed wind speed data to model the flight performance of wandering albatrosses Diomedea exulans soaring over the Southern Ocean. We investigate the extent to which flight speed and performance of albatrosses is facilitated or constrained by wind conditions encountered during foraging trips. We derived simple equations to model observed albatross ground speed as a function of wind speed and relative wind direction. Ground speeds of the tracked birds in the along-wind direction varied primarily by wind-induced leeway, which averaged 0.51 (± 0.02) times the wind speed at a reference height of 5 m. By subtracting leeway velocity from ground velocity, we were able to estimate airspeed (the magnitude of the bird's velocity through the air). As wind speeds increased from 3 to 18 m/s, the airspeed of wandering albatrosses flying in an across-wind direction increased by 0.42 (± 0.04) times the wind speed (i.e. ~ 6 m/s). At low wind speeds, tracked birds increased their airspeed in upwind flight relative to that in downwind flight. At higher wind speeds they apparently limited their airspeeds to a maximum of around 20 m/s, probably to keep the forces on their wings in dynamic soaring well within tolerable limits. Upwind airspeeds were nearly constant and downwind leeway increased with wind speed. Birds therefore achieved their fastest upwind ground speeds (~ 9 m/s) at low wind speeds (~ 3 m/s). This study provides insights into which flight strategies are optimal for dynamic soaring. Our results are consistent with the prediction that the optimal range speed of albatrosses is higher

  5. Use of high performance networks and supercomputers for real-time flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleveland, Jeff I., II

    1993-01-01

    In order to meet the stringent time-critical requirements for real-time man-in-the-loop flight simulation, computer processing operations must be consistent in processing time and be completed in as short a time as possible. These operations include simulation mathematical model computation and data input/output to the simulators. In 1986, in response to increased demands for flight simulation performance, NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC), working with the contractor, developed extensions to the Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) technology which resulted in a factor of ten increase in the effective bandwidth and reduced latency of modules necessary for simulator communication. This technology extension is being used by more than 80 leading technological developers in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Included among the commercial applications are nuclear process control, power grid analysis, process monitoring, real-time simulation, and radar data acquisition. Personnel at LaRC are completing the development of the use of supercomputers for mathematical model computation to support real-time flight simulation. This includes the development of a real-time operating system and development of specialized software and hardware for the simulator network. This paper describes the data acquisition technology and the development of supercomputing for flight simulation.

  6. In-Flight Performance of the Water Vapor Monitor Onboard the Sofia Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roellig, Thomas L.; Yuen, Lunming; Sisson, David; Hang, Richard

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) airborne observatory flies in a modified B747-SP aircraft in the lower stratosphere above more than 99.9% of the Earth's water vapor. As low as this residual water vapor is, it will still affect SOFIA's infrared and sub-millimeter astronomical observations. As a result, a heterodyne instrument has been developed to observe the strength and shape of the 1830Hz rotational line of water, allowing measurements of the integrated water vapor overburden in flight. In order to be useful in correcting the astronomical signals, the required measured precipitable water vapor accuracy must be 2 microns or better, 3 sigma, and measured at least once a minute. The Water Vapor Monitor has flown 22 times during the SOFIA Early Science shared-risk period. The instrument water vapor overburden data obtained were then compared with concurrent data from GOES-V satellites to perform a preliminary calibration of the measurements. This presentation will cover the.results of these flights. The final flight calibration necessary to reach the required accuracy will await subsequent flights following the SOFIA observatory upgrade that is taking place during the spring and summer of 2012.

  7. Propulsion system performance resulting from an integrated flight/propulsion control design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattern, Duane; Garg, Sanjay

    1992-01-01

    Propulsion-system-specific results are presented from the application of the integrated methodology for propulsion and airframe control (IMPAC) design approach to integrated flight/propulsion control design for a 'short takeoff and vertical landing' (STOVL) aircraft in transition flight. The IMPAC method is briefly discussed and the propulsion system specifications for the integrated control design are examined. The structure of a linear engine controller that results from partitioning a linear centralized controller is discussed. The details of a nonlinear propulsion control system are presented, including a scheme to protect the engine operational limits: the fan surge margin and the acceleration/deceleration schedule that limits the fuel flow. Also, a simple but effective multivariable integrator windup protection scheme is examined. Nonlinear closed-loop simulation results are presented for two typical pilot commands for transition flight: acceleration while maintaining flightpath angle and a change in flightpath angle while maintaining airspeed. The simulation nonlinearities include the airframe/engine coupling, the actuator and sensor dynamics and limits, the protection scheme for the engine operational limits, and the integrator windup protection. Satisfactory performance of the total airframe plus engine system for transition flight, as defined by the specifications, was maintained during the limit operation of the closed-loop engine subsystem.

  8. The LPSP instrument on OSO 8. II - In-flight performance and preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonnet, R. M.; Lemaire, P.; Vial, J. C.; Artzner, G.; Gouttebroze, P.; Jouchoux, A.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Leibacher, J. W.; Skumanich, A.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the in-flight performance for the first 18 months of operation of the LPSP (Laboratoire de Physique Stellaire et Planetaire) instrument incorporated in the OSO 8 launched June 1975. By means of the instrument, an absolute pointing accuracy of nearly one second was achieved in orbit during real-time operations. The instrument uses a Cassegrain telescope and a spectrometer simultaneously observing six wavelengths. In-flight performance is discussed with attention to angular resolution, spectral resolution, dispersion and grating mechanism (spectral scanner) stability, scattered light background and dark current, photometric standardization, and absolute calibration. Real-time operation and problems are considered with reference to pointing system problems, target acquisition, and L-alpha modulation. Preliminary results involving the observational program, quiet sun and chromospheric studies, quiet chromospheric oscillation and transients, sunspots and active regions, prominences, and aeronomy investigations are reported.

  9. Failure rate analysis of Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft performance during orbital life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, H. P.; Timmins, A. R.

    1976-01-01

    Space life performance data on 57 Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft are analyzed from the standpoint of determining an appropriate reliability model and the associated reliability parameters. Data from published NASA reports, which cover the space performance of GSFC spacecraft launched in the 1960-1970 decade, form the basis of the analyses. The results of the analyses show that the time distribution of 449 malfunctions, of which 248 were classified as failures (not necessarily catastrophic), follow a reliability growth pattern that can be described with either the Duane model or a Weibull distribution. The advantages of both mathematical models are used in order to: identify space failure rates, observe chronological trends, and compare failure rates with those experienced during the prelaunch environmental tests of the flight model spacecraft.

  10. Pose Measurement Performance of the Argon Relative Navigation Sensor Suite in Simulated Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galante, Joseph M.; Eepoel, John Van; Strube, Matt; Gill, Nat; Gonzalez, Marcelo; Hyslop, Andrew; Patrick, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Argon is a flight-ready sensor suite with two visual cameras, a flash LIDAR, an on- board flight computer, and associated electronics. Argon was designed to provide sensing capabilities for relative navigation during proximity, rendezvous, and docking operations between spacecraft. A rigorous ground test campaign assessed the performance capability of the Argon navigation suite to measure the relative pose of high-fidelity satellite mock-ups during a variety of simulated rendezvous and proximity maneuvers facilitated by robot manipulators in a variety of lighting conditions representative of the orbital environment. A brief description of the Argon suite and test setup are given as well as an analysis of the performance of the system in simulated proximity and rendezvous operations.

  11. S.S.T.O. performance assessment with in-flight lox collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenkerckhove, J.; Czysz, P.

    1995-10-01

    Much attention has recently been given, up to harware development to in-flight oxygen collection as a means to improve considerably the performance of both TSTO & SSTO vehicles. A first assessment suggests that it permits simultaneously to improve much both gross take-off weight (by more than 30%) & dry weight (by more than 15%) of an SSTO and to lower significantly the Mach number of transition scramjet → rocket, from 15 down below 10, thereby reducing dramatically the programmatic development risks. After having compared in-flight lox collection with other SSTO concepts, this paper provides a tentative assessment of the performance of SSTO vehicles taking advantage of it, in particular their sensitivity to changes in system characteristics such as transition Mach number, vehicle slenderness (i.e. Küchemann's parameter τ) or planform loading at take-off and in collection characteristics, in particular collection ratio & specific collection plant weight.

  12. Comparative Flight Performance with an NACA Roots Supercharger and a Turbocentrifugal Supercharger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Young, Alfred W

    1931-01-01

    This report presents the comparative flight results of a roots supercharger and a turbocentrifugal supercharger. The tests were conducted using a modified DH-4M2 airplane. The rate of climb and the high speed in level flight of the airplane were obtained for each supercharger from sea level to the ceiling. The unsupercharged performance with each supercharger mounted in place was also determined. The results of these tests show that the ceiling and rate of climb obtained were nearly the same for each supercharger, but that the high speed obtained with the turbocentrifugal was better than that obtained with the roots. The high-speed performance at 21,000 feet was 122 and 142 miles per hour for the roots and turbocentrifugal, respectively.

  13. The Effects of Asynchronous Visual Delays on Simulator Flight Performance and the Development of Simulator Sickness Symptomatology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-26

    NAVAL TRAINING SYSTEMS CENTER ORLANDO. FLORIDA IT FILE COPY THE EFFECTS OF ASYNCHRONOUS VISUAL DELAYS ON SIMULATOR FLIGHT PERFORMANCE AND THE...ASYNCHRONOUS VISUAL. DELAYS ON SI.WLATOR FLIGHT PERF OMANCE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF SIMLATOR SICKNESS SYMPTOMATOLOGY K. C. Uliano, E. Y. Lambert, R. S. Kennedy...ACCESSION NO. N63733N SP-01 0785-7P6 I. 4780 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) The Effects of Asynchronous Visual Delays on Simulator Flight

  14. Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing System Development Challenges and Preliminary Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steltzner, Adam D.; San Martin, A. Miguel; Rivellini, Tommaso P.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory project recently landed the Curiosity rover on the surface of Mars. With the success of the landing system, the performance envelope of entry, descent, and landing capabilities has been extended over the previous state of the art. This paper will present an overview of the MSL entry, descent, and landing system, a discussion of a subset of its development challenges, and include a discussion of preliminary results of the flight reconstruction effort.

  15. Flight performance of the TCV B-737 airplane at Kennedy Airport using TRSB/MLS guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. F.; Clark, L. V.

    1979-01-01

    The terminal configured vehicle (TCV) B 737 was flown in demonstration of the time reference scanning beam/microwave landing system (TRSB/MLS). The flight performance of the TCV airplane during the demonstration automatic approaches and landings while utilizing TRSB/MLS guidance is reported. The TRSB/MLS is shown to provide the terminal area guidance necessary for flying curved automatic approaches with short finals.

  16. The Primary Flight Display and Its Pathway Guidance: Workload, Performance, and Situation Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher D.; Alexander, Amy L.; Hardy, Thomas J.

    2003-01-01

    In two experiments carried out in a high fidelity general aviation flight simulator, 42 instrument rated pilots flew a pathway-in-the-sky (tunnel) display through a series of multi-leg curved stepdown approaches through mountainous terrain. Both experiments examined how properties of the tunnel influenced flight path tracking performance, traffic awareness, terrain awareness and workload (assessed both by subjective and secondary task performance measures). Experiment 1, flown in simulated VMC, compared high and low intensity tunnels, with a less cluttered follow-me-airplane (FMA). The results revealed that both tunnels supported better flight path tracking than the FMA, because of the availability of more preview information. Increasing tunnel intensity, while reducing subjective workload, had no benefit on tracking, and degraded traffic detection performance. In Experiment 2, flown mostly in IMC, the low intensity tunnel was flown with a large (10 inch x 8 inch) and small (8 inch x 6.5 inch) display, representing a geometric field of view (GFOV) of either 30 degrees or 60 degrees. Most measures of flight path tracking performance favored the smaller display, and particularly the 60 degree GFOV, which presented a smaller appearing tunnel, and a wider range of terrain depiction. The larger GFOV also supported better terrain awareness, and yielded a lower secondary task assessment of workload. In both experiments, the final landing approach was terminated by a runway obstruction, and the tunnel guided pilots on a missed approach. In nearly all cases, pilots failed to notice an air hazard that lay in the missed approach path, but was only depicted in the outside view.

  17. The tracking performance of distributed recoverable flight control systems subject to high intensity radiated fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui

    It is known that high intensity radiated fields (HIRF) can produce upsets in digital electronics, and thereby degrade the performance of digital flight control systems. Such upsets, either from natural or man-made sources, can change data values on digital buses and memory and affect CPU instruction execution. HIRF environments are also known to trigger common-mode faults, affecting nearly-simultaneously multiple fault containment regions, and hence reducing the benefits of n-modular redundancy and other fault-tolerant computing techniques. Thus, it is important to develop models which describe the integration of the embedded digital system, where the control law is implemented, as well as the dynamics of the closed-loop system. In this dissertation, theoretical tools are presented to analyze the relationship between the design choices for a class of distributed recoverable computing platforms and the tracking performance degradation of a digital flight control system implemented on such a platform while operating in a HIRF environment. Specifically, a tractable hybrid performance model is developed for a digital flight control system implemented on a computing platform inspired largely by the NASA family of fault-tolerant, reconfigurable computer architectures known as SPIDER (scalable processor-independent design for enhanced reliability). The focus will be on the SPIDER implementation, which uses the computer communication system known as ROBUS-2 (reliable optical bus). A physical HIRF experiment was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center in order to validate the theoretical tracking performance degradation predictions for a distributed Boeing 747 flight control system subject to a HIRF environment. An extrapolation of these results for scenarios that could not be physically tested is also presented.

  18. STS-43 crewmembers perform various tasks on OV-104's aft flight deck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-08-11

    STS043-37-012 (2-11 Aug 1991) --- Three STS-43 astronauts are busy at work onboard the earth-orbiting space shuttle Atlantis. Astronaut Shannon W. Lucid is pictured performing one of several tests on Computer hardware with space station applications in mind. Sharing the aft flight deck with Lucid are Michael A. Baker (left), pilot and John E. Blaha, mission commander.

  19. Development of low-shock pyrotechnic separation nuts. [design performance of flight type nuts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Neubert, V. H.

    1973-01-01

    Performance demonstrations and comparisons were made on six flight type pyrotechnic separation nut designs, two of which are standard designs in current use, and four of which were designed to produce low shock on actuation. Although the shock performances of the four low shock designs are considerably lower than the standard designs, some penalties may be incurred in increased volume, weight, or complexity. These nuts, and how they are installed, can significantly influence the pyrotechnic shock created in spacecraft structures. A high response monitoring system has been developed and demonstrated to provide accurate performance comparisons for pyrotechnic separation nuts.

  20. What ASRS incident data tell about flight crew performance during aircraft malfunctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumwalt, Robert L.; Watson, Alan W.

    1995-01-01

    This research examined 230 reports in NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System's (ASRS) database to develop a better understanding of factors that can affect flight crew performance when crew are faced with inflight aircraft malfunctions. Each report was placed into one of two categories, based on severity of the malfunction. Report analysis was then conducted to extract information regarding crew procedural issues, crew communications and situational awareness. A comparison of these crew factors across malfunction type was then performed. This comparison revealed a significant difference in ways that crews dealt with serious malfunctions compared to less serious malfunctions. The authors offer recommendations toward improving crew performance when faced with inflight aircraft malfunctions.

  1. Insect allergy.

    PubMed

    Tracy, James M

    2011-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening allergic condition. The 3 most common triggers for anaphylaxis are food, medications, and insects. All of these triggers are the sources of considerable morbidity and mortality, but of the 3, only insect allergy is treatable through means other than trigger avoidance. Because ≥ 40 deaths per year are attributed to insect stings, it is critical that healthcare providers and the public understand the proper diagnosis as well as the long-term treatment of this potentially life-threatening allergy. Unlike food and medication allergy, which are managed primarily by allergen avoidance, Hymenoptera allergy is managed prospectively using venom immunotherapy; this results in a protective level of up to 98%. Insects of the order Hymenoptera include bees, wasps, hornets, yellowjackets, and ants. They are responsible for the majority of the fatal and near-fatal sting events. Understanding the biology and habitat of the various Hymenoptera species is helpful in recommending insect-avoidance strategies. The diagnosis of insect allergy relies on a history of a systemic allergic reaction with appropriate testing for venom-specific immunoglobulin E. If the history of a systemic reaction to an insect sting and the presence of venom specific immunoglobulin E is confirmed, venom immunotherapy is indicated. The proper and primary means of treating acute anaphylaxis is immediate epinephrine-and studies suggest that it is underutilized in the acute setting. However, it is venom immunotherapy, a disease-modifying therapy, that provides the affected individual with the most effective protection against future sting reactions. Long-term management of insect allergy and anaphylaxis includes appropriate referral to an allergist familiar with insect allergy and, if indicated, venom immunotherapy. © 2011 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  2. An Aerodynamic Performance Evaluation of the NASA/Ames Research Center Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, Paul F.

    1987-01-01

    The results of an aerodynamic performance evaluation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Ames Research Center Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator (ACFS), conducted in association with the Navy-NASA Joint Institute of Aeronautics, are presented. The ACFS is a full-mission flight simulator which provides an excellent platform for the critical evaluation of emerging flight systems and aircrew performance. The propulsion and flight dynamics models were evaluated using classical flight test techniques. The aerodynamic performance model of the ACFS was found to realistically represent that of current day, medium range transport aircraft. Recommendations are provided to enhance the capabilities of the ACFS to a level forecast for 1995 transport aircraft. The graphical and tabular results of this study will establish a performance section of the ACFS Operation's Manual.

  3. Performance of hybrids between weedy rice and insect-resistant transgenic rice under field experiments: implication for environmental biosafety assessment.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qian-Jin; Xia, Hui; Yang, Xiao; Lu, Bao-Rong

    2009-12-01

    Transgene escape from genetically modified (GM) rice into weedy rice via gene flow may cause undesired environmental consequences. Estimating the field performance of crop-weed hybrids will facilitate our understanding of potential introgression of crop genes (including transgenes) into weedy rice populations, allowing for effective biosafety assessment. Comparative studies of three weedy rice strains and their hybrids with two GM rice lines containing different insect-resistance transgenes (CpTI or Bt/CpTI) indicated an enhanced relative performance of the crop-weed hybrids, with taller plants, more tillers, panicles, and spikelets per plant, as well as higher 1 000-seed weight, compared with the weedy rice parents, although the hybrids produced less filled seeds per plant than their weedy parents. Seeds from the F(1) hybrids had higher germination rates and produced more seedlings than the weedy parents, which correlated positively with 1 000-seed weight. The crop-weed hybrids demonstrated a generally enhanced relative performance than their weedy rice parents in our field experiments. These findings indicate that transgenes from GM rice can persist to and introgress into weedy rice populations through recurrent crop-to-weed gene flow with the aid of slightly increased relative fitness in F(1) hybrids.

  4. Detrimental effects of west to east transmeridian flight on jump performance.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Dale W; Bullock, Nicola; Ross, Angus; Rosemond, Doug; Martin, David T

    2012-05-01

    It is perceived that long haul travel, comprising of rapid movement across several time zones is detrimental to performance in elite athletes. However, available data is equivocal on the impact of long haul travel on maximal explosive movements. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of long haul travel on lower body muscle performance. Five elite Australian skeleton athletes (1 M, 4 F) undertook long haul flight from Australia to Canada (LH(travel)), while seven national team Canadian skeleton athletes (1 M, 6 F) acted as controls (NO(travel)). Lower body power assessments were performed once per day between 09:30 and 11:00 h local time for 11 days. Lower body power tests comprised of box drop jumps, squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jumps (CMJ). The LH(travel) significantly decreased peak and mean SJ velocity but not CMJ velocity in the days following long haul flight. CMJ height but not SJ height decreased significantly in the LH(travel) group. The peak velocity, mean velocity and jump power eccentric utilisation ratio for the LH(travel) group all significantly increased 48 h after long haul flight. Anecdotally athletes perceived themselves as 'jet-lagged' and this corresponded with disturbances observed in 'one-off' daily jumping ability between 09:30 and 11:00 h after eastward long haul travel from Australia to North America when compared to non-travel and baseline controls.

  5. Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) flight experiment phase C/D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Lee, M. G.

    1995-01-01

    The overall purpose of the Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study flight experiment is to demonstrate and validate in a microgravity environment the Static Feed Electrolyzer concept as well as investigate the effect of microgravity on water electrolysis performance. The scope of the experiment includes variations in microstructural characteristics of electrodes and current densities in a static feed electrolysis cell configuration. The results of the flight experiment will be used to improve efficiency of the static feed electrolysis process and other electrochemical regenerative life support processes by reducing power and expanding the operational range. Specific technologies that will benefit include water electrolysis for propulsion, energy storage, life support, extravehicular activity, in-space manufacturing and in-space science in addition to other electrochemical regenerative life support technologies such as electrochemical carbon dioxide and oxygen separation, electrochemical oxygen compression and water vapor electrolysis. The Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study flight experiment design incorporates two primary hardware assemblies: the Mechanical/Electrochemical Assembly and the Control/Monitor Instrumentation. The Mechanical/Electrochemical Assembly contains three separate integrated electrolysis cells along with supporting pressure and temperature control components. The Control/Monitor Instrumentation controls the operation of the experiment via the Mechanical/Electrochemical Assembly components and provides for monitoring and control of critical parameters and storage of experimental data.

  6. Onset of Oviposition Triggers Abrupt Reduction in Migratory Flight Behavior and Flight Muscle in the Female Beet Webworm, Loxostege sticticalis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yunxia; Luo, Lizhi; Sappington, Thomas W.; Jiang, Xingfu; Zhang, Lei; Frolov, Andrei N.

    2016-01-01

    Flight and reproduction are usually considered as two life history traits that compete for resources in a migratory insect. The beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L., manages the costs of migratory flight and reproduction through a trade-off in timing of these two life history traits, where migratory behavior occurs during the preoviposition period. To gain insight into how migratory flight and reproduction are coordinated in the female beet webworm, we conducted experiments beginning at the end of the preoviposition period. We used flight mills to test whether flight performance and supportive flight musculature and fuel are affected by the number of eggs oviposited, or by the age of mated and unmated females after onset of oviposition by the former. The results showed that flight distance, flight velocity, flight duration, and flight muscle mass decreased abruptly at the onset of oviposition, compared to that of virgin females of the same age which did not change over the next 7 d. These results indicate that onset of oviposition triggers a decrease in flight performance and capacity in female beet webworms, as a way of actively managing reallocation of resources away from migratory flight and into egg production. In addition to the abrupt switch, there was a gradual, linear decline in flight performance, flight muscle mass, and flight fuel relative to the number of eggs oviposited. The histolysis of flight muscle and decrease of triglyceride content indicate a progressive degradation in the ability of adults to perform additional migratory flights after onset of oviposition. Although the results show that substantial, albeit reduced, long-duration flights remain possible after oviposition begins, additional long-distance migratory flights probably are not launched after the initiation of oviposition. PMID:27893835

  7. Onset of Oviposition Triggers Abrupt Reduction in Migratory Flight Behavior and Flight Muscle in the Female Beet Webworm, Loxostege sticticalis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yunxia; Luo, Lizhi; Sappington, Thomas W; Jiang, Xingfu; Zhang, Lei; Frolov, Andrei N

    2016-01-01

    Flight and reproduction are usually considered as two life history traits that compete for resources in a migratory insect. The beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L., manages the costs of migratory flight and reproduction through a trade-off in timing of these two life history traits, where migratory behavior occurs during the preoviposition period. To gain insight into how migratory flight and reproduction are coordinated in the female beet webworm, we conducted experiments beginning at the end of the preoviposition period. We used flight mills to test whether flight performance and supportive flight musculature and fuel are affected by the number of eggs oviposited, or by the age of mated and unmated females after onset of oviposition by the former. The results showed that flight distance, flight velocity, flight duration, and flight muscle mass decreased abruptly at the onset of oviposition, compared to that of virgin females of the same age which did not change over the next 7 d. These results indicate that onset of oviposition triggers a decrease in flight performance and capacity in female beet webworms, as a way of actively managing reallocation of resources away from migratory flight and into egg production. In addition to the abrupt switch, there was a gradual, linear decline in flight performance, flight muscle mass, and flight fuel relative to the number of eggs oviposited. The histolysis of flight muscle and decrease of triglyceride content indicate a progressive degradation in the ability of adults to perform additional migratory flights after onset of oviposition. Although the results show that substantial, albeit reduced, long-duration flights remain possible after oviposition begins, additional long-distance migratory flights probably are not launched after the initiation of oviposition.

  8. Colloid Microthruster Flight Performance Results from Space Technology 7 Disturbance Reduction System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziemer, John; Marrese-Reading, Colleen; Dunn, Charley; Romero-Wolf, Andrew; Cutler, Curt; Javidnia, Shahram; Li, Thanh; Li, Irena; Franklin, Garth; Barela, Phil; hide

    2017-01-01

    Space Technology 7 Disturbance Reduction System (ST7-DRS) is a NASA technology demonstration payload as part of the ESA LISA Pathfinder (LPF) mission, which launched on December 3, 2015. The ST7-DRS payload includes colloid microthrusters as part of a drag-free dynamic control system (DCS) hosted on an integrated avionics unit (IAU) with spacecraft attitude and test mass position provided by the LPF spacecraft computer and the highly sensitive gravitational reference sensor (GRS) as part of the LISA Technology Package (LTP). The objective of the DRS was to validate two technologies: colloid micro-Newton thrusters (CMNT) to provide low-noise control capability of the spacecraft, and drag-free flight control. The CMNT were developed by Busek Co., Inc., in a partnership with NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and the DCS algorithms and flight software were developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). ST7-DRS demonstrated drag-free operation with 10nmHz level precision spacecraft position control along the primary axis of the LTP using eight CMNTs that provided 5-30 N each with 0.1 N precision. The DCS and CMNTs performed as required and as expected from ground test results, meeting all Level 1 requirements based on on-orbit data and analysis. DRS microthrusters operated for 2400 hours in flight during commissioning activities, a 90-day experiment and the extended mission. This mission represents the first validated demonstration of electrospray thrusters in space, providing precision spacecraft control and drag-free operation in a flight environment with applications to future gravitational wave observatories like LISA.

  9. Treadmill Exercise with Increased Body Loading Enhances Post Flight Functional Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Laurie, S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The goals of the Functional Task Test (FTT) study were to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We have previously shown that for Shuttle, ISS and bed rest subjects functional tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with reduced requirements for postural stability (i.e. hatch opening, ladder climb, manual manipulation of objects and tool use) showed little reduction in performance. These changes in functional performance were paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests designed to specifically assess postural equilibrium and dynamic gait control. The bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of axial body unloading in isolation on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrements in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. These results indicate that body support unloading experienced during space flight plays a central role in postflight alteration of functional task performance. Given the importance of body-support loading we set out to determine if there is a relationship between the load experienced during inflight treadmill exercise (produced by a harness and bungee system) and postflight functional performance. ISS crewmembers (n=13) were tested using the FTT protocol before and after 6 months in space. Crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. To determine how differences in body

  10. Expanded study of feasibility of measuring in-flight 747/JT9D loads, performance, clearance, and thermal data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallee, G. P.; Martin, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The JT9D jet engine exhibits a TSFC loss of about 1 percent in the initial 50 flight cycles of a new engine. These early losses are caused by seal-wear induced opening of running clearances in the engine gas path. The causes of this seal wear have been identified as flight induced loads which deflect the engine cases and rotors, causing the rotating blades to rub against the seal surfaces, producing permanent clearance changes. The real level of flight loads encountered during airplane acceptance testing and revenue service and the engine's response in the dynamic flight environment were investigated. The feasibility of direct measurement of these flight loads and their effects by concurrent measurement of 747/JT9D propulsion system aerodynamic and inertia loads and the critical engine clearance and performance changes during 747 flight and ground operations was evaluated. A number of technical options were examined in relation to the total estimated program cost to facilitate selection of the most cost effective option. It is concluded that a flight test program meeting the overall objective of determining the levels of aerodynamic and inertia load levels to which the engine is exposed during the initial flight acceptance test and normal flight maneuvers is feasible and desirable. A specific recommended flight test program, based on the evaluation of cost effectiveness, is defined.

  11. Understanding the Effects of Long-duration Space Flight on Astronant Functional Task Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Batson, Crystal D.; Buxton, Roxanne E.; Feiveson, Al H.; Kofman, Igor S.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Miller, Chris A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Peters, Brian T.; Phillips, Tiffany; hide

    2014-01-01

    Space flight is known to cause alterations in multiple physiological systems including changes in sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular systems. These physiological changes cause balance, gait and visual disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning, and loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes may affect a crewmember's ability to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. To understand how changes in physiological function affect functional performance, an interdisciplinary pre- and postflight testing regimen, Functional Task Test (FTT), was developed to systematically evaluate both astronaut functional performance and related physiological changes. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We are currently conducting the FTT study on International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers before and after 6-month expeditions. Additionally, in a corresponding study we are using the FTT protocol on subjects before and after 70 days of 6deg head-down bed-rest as an analog for space flight. Bed-rest provides the opportunity for us to investigate the role of prolonged axial body unloading in isolation from the other physiological effects produced by exposure to the microgravity environment of space flight. Therefore, the bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of body unloading on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrement in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. Functional tests included ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, seat egress and obstacle avoidance, recovery from a fall and object translation tasks. Physiological measures included assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, heart rate, blood pressure

  12. Wing motion transformation to evaluate aerodynamic coupling in flapping wing flight.

    PubMed

    Faruque, Imraan A; Humbert, J Sean

    2014-12-21

    Whether the remarkable flight performance of insects is because the animals leverage inherent physics at this scale or because they employ specialized neural feedback mechanisms is an active research question. In this study, an empirically derived aerodynamics model is used with a transformation involving a delay and a rotation to identify a class of kinematics that provide favorable roll-yaw coupling. The transformation is also used to transform both synthetic and experimentally measured wing motions onto the manifold representing proverse yaw and to quantify the degree to which freely flying insects make use of passive aerodynamic mechanisms to provide proverse roll-yaw turn coordination. The transformation indicates that recorded insect kinematics do act to provide proverse yaw for a variety of maneuvers. This finding suggests that passive aerodynamic mechanisms can act to reduce the neural feedback demands of an insect׳s flight control strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Test-engine and inlet performance of an aircraft used for investigating flight effects on fan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, R. A.; Preisser, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    As part of the NASA Flight Effects on Fan Noise Program, a Grumman OV-1B Mohawk aircraft was modified to carry a modified and instrumented Pratt & Whitney JT15D-1 turbofan engine. Onboard flight data, together with simultaneously measured farfield acoustic data, comprise a flight data base to which JT15D-1 static and wind-tunnel data are compared. The overall objective is to improve the ability to use ground-based facilities for the prediction of flight inlet radiated noise. This report describes the hardware and presents performance results for the research engine.

  14. The influence of flight speed on the ranging performance of bats using frequency modulated echolocation pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonman, Arjan M.; Parsons, Stuart; Jones, Gareth

    2003-01-01

    Many species of bat use ultrasonic frequency modulated (FM) pulses to measure the distance to objects by timing the emission and reception of each pulse. Echolocation is mainly used in flight. Since the flight speed of bats often exceeds 1% of the speed of sound, Doppler effects will lead to compression of the time between emission and reception as well as an elevation of the echo frequencies, resulting in a distortion of the perceived range. This paper describes the consequences of these Doppler effects on the ranging performance of bats using different pulse designs. The consequences of Doppler effects on ranging performance described in this paper assume bats to have a very accurate ranging resolution, which is feasible with a filterbank receiver. By modeling two receiver types, it was first established that the effects of Doppler compression are virtually independent of the receiver type. Then, used a cross-correlation model was used to investigate the effect of flight speed on Doppler tolerance and range-Doppler coupling separately. This paper further shows how pulse duration, bandwidth, function type, and harmonics influence Doppler tolerance and range-Doppler coupling. The influence of each signal parameter is illustrated using calls of several bat species. It is argued that range-Doppler coupling is a significant source of error in bat echolocation, and various strategies bats could employ to deal with this problem, including the use of range rate information are discussed.

  15. Wing flexibility improves bumblebee flight stability.

    PubMed

    Mistick, Emily A; Mountcastle, Andrew M; Combes, Stacey A

    2016-11-01

    Insect wings do not contain intrinsic musculature to change shape, but rather bend and twist passively during flight. Some insect wings feature flexible joints along their veins that contain patches of resilin, a rubber-like protein. Bumblebee wings exhibit a central resilin joint (1m-cu) that has previously been shown to improve vertical force production during hovering flight. In this study, we artificially stiffened bumblebee (Bombus impatiens) wings in vivo by applying a micro-splint to the 1m-cu joint, and measured the consequences for body stability during forward flight in both laminar and turbulent airflow. In laminar flow, bees with stiffened wings exhibited significantly higher mean rotation rates and standard deviation of orientation about the roll axis. Decreasing the wing's flexibility significantly increased its projected surface area relative to the oncoming airflow, likely increasing the drag force it experienced during particular phases of the wing stroke. We hypothesize that higher drag forces on stiffened wings decrease body stability when the left and right wings encounter different flow conditions. Wing splinting also led to a small increase in body rotation rates in turbulent airflow, but this change was not statistically significant, possibly because bees with stiffened wings changed their flight behavior in turbulent flow. Overall, we found that wing flexibility improves flight stability in bumblebees, adding to the growing appreciation that wing flexibility is not merely an inevitable liability in flapping flight, but can enhance flight performance. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Enzyme polymorphism, oxygen and injury: a lipidomic analysis of flight-induced oxidative damage in a succinate dehydrogenase d (Sdhd)-polymorphic insect.

    PubMed

    Pekny, Julianne E; Smith, Philip B; Marden, James H

    2018-03-23

    When active tissues receive insufficient oxygen to meet metabolic demand, succinate accumulates and has two fundamental effects: it causes ischemia-reperfusion injury while also activating the hypoxia-inducible factor pathway (HIF). The Glanville fritillary butterfly ( Melitaea cinxia ) possesses a balanced polymorphism in Sdhd , shown previously to affect HIF pathway activation and tracheal morphology and used here to experimentally test the hypothesis that variation in succinate dehydrogenase affects oxidative injury . We stimulated butterflies to fly continuously in a respirometer (3 min duration), which typically caused episodes of exhaustion and recovery, suggesting a potential for cellular injury from hypoxia and reoxygenation in flight muscles. Indeed, flight muscle from butterflies flown on consecutive days had lipidome profiles similar to those of rested paraquat-injected butterflies, but distinct from those of rested untreated butterflies. Many butterflies showed a decline in flight metabolic rate (FMR) on day 2, and there was a strong inverse relationship between the ratio of day 2 to day 1 FMR and the abundance of sodiated adducts of phosphatidylcholines and co-enzyme Q (CoQ). This result is consistent with elevation of sodiated lipids caused by disrupted intracellular ion homeostasis in mammalian tissues after hypoxia-reperfusion. Butterflies carrying the Sdhd M allele had a higher abundance of lipid markers of cellular damage, but the association was reversed in field-collected butterflies, where focal individuals typically flew for seconds at a time rather than continuously. These results indicate that Glanville fritillary flight muscles can be injured by episodes of high exertion, but injury severity appears to be determined by an interaction between SDH genotype and behavior (prolonged versus intermittent flight). © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Predicted and flight test results of the performance, stability and control of the space shuttle from reentry to landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsten, P. W.; Richardson, D. F.; Wilson, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    Aerodynaic performance, stability and control data obtained from the first five reentries of the Space Shuttle orbiter are given. Flight results are compared to pedicted data from Mach 26.4 to Mach 0.4. Differences between flight and predicted data as well as probable causes for the discrepancies are given.

  18. Open-Loop HIRF Experiments Performed on a Fault Tolerant Flight Control Computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koppen, Daniel M.

    1997-01-01

    During the third quarter of 1996, the Closed-Loop Systems Laboratory was established at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to study the effects of High Intensity Radiated Fields on complex avionic systems and control system components. This new facility provided a link and expanded upon the existing capabilities of the High Intensity Radiated Fields Laboratory at LaRC that were constructed and certified during 1995-96. The scope of the Closed-Loop Systems Laboratory is to place highly integrated avionics instrumentation into a high intensity radiated field environment, interface the avionics to a real-time flight simulation that incorporates aircraft dynamics, engines, sensors, actuators and atmospheric turbulence, and collect, analyze, and model aircraft performance. This paper describes the layout and functionality of the Closed-Loop Systems Laboratory, and the open-loop calibration experiments that led up to the commencement of closed-loop real-time flight experiments.

  19. A new raptorial dinosaur with exceptionally long feathering provides insights into dromaeosaurid flight performance.

    PubMed

    Han, Gang; Chiappe, Luis M; Ji, Shu-An; Habib, Michael; Turner, Alan H; Chinsamy, Anusuya; Liu, Xueling; Han, Lizhuo

    2014-07-15

    Microraptorines are a group of predatory dromaeosaurid theropod dinosaurs with aerodynamic capacity. These close relatives of birds are essential for testing hypotheses explaining the origin and early evolution of avian flight. Here we describe a new 'four-winged' microraptorine, Changyuraptor yangi, from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota of China. With tail feathers that are nearly 30 cm long, roughly 30% the length of the skeleton, the new fossil possesses the longest known feathers for any non-avian dinosaur. Furthermore, it is the largest theropod with long, pennaceous feathers attached to the lower hind limbs (that is, 'hindwings'). The lengthy feathered tail of the new fossil provides insight into the flight performance of microraptorines and how they may have maintained aerial competency at larger body sizes. We demonstrate how the low-aspect-ratio tail of the new fossil would have acted as a pitch control structure reducing descent speed and thus playing a key role in landing.

  20. More oxygen during development enhanced flight performance but not thermal tolerance of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Shiehzadegan, Shayan; Le Vinh Thuy, Jacqueline; Szabla, Natalia; Angilletta, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    High temperatures can stress animals by raising the oxygen demand above the oxygen supply. Consequently, animals under hypoxia could be more sensitive to heating than those exposed to normoxia. Although support for this model has been limited to aquatic animals, oxygen supply might limit the heat tolerance of terrestrial animals during energetically demanding activities. We evaluated this model by studying the flight performance and heat tolerance of flies (Drosophila melanogaster) acclimated and tested at different concentrations of oxygen (12%, 21%, and 31%). We expected that flies raised at hypoxia would develop into adults that were more likely to fly under hypoxia than would flies raised at normoxia or hyperoxia. We also expected flies to benefit from greater oxygen supply during testing. These effects should have been most pronounced at high temperatures, which impair locomotor performance. Contrary to our expectations, we found little evidence that flies raised at hypoxia flew better when tested at hypoxia or tolerated extreme heat better than did flies raised at normoxia or hyperoxia. Instead, flies raised at higher oxygen levels performed better at all body temperatures and oxygen concentrations. Moreover, oxygen supply during testing had the greatest effect on flight performance at low temperature, rather than high temperature. Our results poorly support the hypothesis that oxygen supply limits performance at high temperatures, but do support the idea that hyperoxia during development improves performance of flies later in life. PMID:28542380

  1. More oxygen during development enhanced flight performance but not thermal tolerance of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Shiehzadegan, Shayan; Le Vinh Thuy, Jacqueline; Szabla, Natalia; Angilletta, Michael J; VandenBrooks, John M

    2017-01-01

    High temperatures can stress animals by raising the oxygen demand above the oxygen supply. Consequently, animals under hypoxia could be more sensitive to heating than those exposed to normoxia. Although support for this model has been limited to aquatic animals, oxygen supply might limit the heat tolerance of terrestrial animals during energetically demanding activities. We evaluated this model by studying the flight performance and heat tolerance of flies (Drosophila melanogaster) acclimated and tested at different concentrations of oxygen (12%, 21%, and 31%). We expected that flies raised at hypoxia would develop into adults that were more likely to fly under hypoxia than would flies raised at normoxia or hyperoxia. We also expected flies to benefit from greater oxygen supply during testing. These effects should have been most pronounced at high temperatures, which impair locomotor performance. Contrary to our expectations, we found little evidence that flies raised at hypoxia flew better when tested at hypoxia or tolerated extreme heat better than did flies raised at normoxia or hyperoxia. Instead, flies raised at higher oxygen levels performed better at all body temperatures and oxygen concentrations. Moreover, oxygen supply during testing had the greatest effect on flight performance at low temperature, rather than high temperature. Our results poorly support the hypothesis that oxygen supply limits performance at high temperatures, but do support the idea that hyperoxia during development improves performance of flies later in life.

  2. Laboratory and balloon flight performance of the liquid xenon gamma ray imaging telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curioni, Alessandro

    2004-10-01

    This thesis presents the laboratory calibration and in- flight performance of the liquid xenon γ-ray imaging telescope (LXeGRIT). LXeGRIT is the prototype of a novel concept of Compton telescope, based on a liquid xenon time projection chamber (LXeTPC), developed through several years by Prof. Aprile and collaborators at Columbia. When I joined the collaboration in Spring 1999, LXeGRIT was getting ready for a balloon borne experiment with the goal of performing the key measurement of the background at balloon altitude. After the 1999 balloon flight, a good deal of work was devoted to a thorough calibration of LXeGRIT, both through several tests in the laboratory and through improving the analysis software and developing Monte Carlo simulations. After substantial advancements in our understanding of the detector performance, LXeGRIT was improved and calibrated before a long duration balloon campaign in the Fall of 2000. Data gathered in this flight have allowed a detailed study of the background at balloon altitude and of the sensitivity to celestial γ-ray sources, the focus of the second part of my thesis. As this dissertation is intended to show, “the LXeGRIT phase”—defined as the prototype work, the experimental demonstration of the LXeTPC concept as a Compton telescope, the measurement of the background and of the detection sensitivity—has been now successfully completed. We are now ready for future implementations of the LXeTPC technology for astrophysics observations. The detailed calibration of LXeGRIT, both as an imaging calorimeter and as a Compton telescope is described in Chapters 2, 3 and 4. In Chapter 5 more details are given of LXeGRIT as a balloon borne instrument and its flight performance in year 2000. The measurement of the background at balloon altitude, based on the data collected in year 2000, is presented in Chapter 6 and the sensitivity of the instrument is derived in Chapter 7. An overview of future developments for the LXe

  3. The effects of wing flexibility on the flight performance and stability of flapping wing micro air vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluman, James Edward

    Insect wings are flexible. However, the influence of wing flexibility on the flight dynamics of insects and flapping wing micro air vehicles is unknown. Most studies in the literature consider rigid wings and conclude that the hover equilibrium is unstable. This dissertation shows that a flapping wing flyer with flexible wings exhibits stable natural modes of the open loop system in hover, never reported before. The free-flight insect flight dynamics is modeled for both flexible and rigid wings. Wing mass and inertia are included in the nonlinear equations of motion. The flapping wing aerodynamics are modeled using a quasi-steady model, a well-validated two dimensional Navier Stokes model, and a coupled, two dimensional Navier Stokes - Euler Bernoulli beam model that accurately models the fluid-structure interaction of flexible wings. Hover equilibrium is systematically and efficiently determined with a coupled quasi-steady and Navier-Stokes equation trimmer. The power and stability are reported at hover while parametrically varying the pitch axis location for rigid wings and the structural stiffness for flexible wings. The results indicate that the rigid wings possess an unstable oscillatory mode mainly due to their pitch sensitivity to horizontal velocity perturbations. The flexible wings stabilize this mode primarily by adjusting their wing shape in the presence of perturbations. The wing's response to perturbations generates significantly more horizontal velocity damping and pitch rate damping than in rigid wings. Furthermore, the flexible wings experience substantially less wing wake interaction, which, for rigid wings, is destabilizing. The power required to hover a fruit fly with actively rotating rigid wings varies between 16.9 and 34.2 W/kg. The optimal power occurs when the pitch axis is located at 30% chord, similar to some biological observations. Flexible wings require 23.1 to 38.5 W/kg. However, flexible wings exhibit more stable system dynamics and

  4. Flapping wing aerodynamics: from insects to vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David

    2016-04-01

    More than a million insects and approximately 11,000 vertebrates utilize flapping wings to fly. However, flapping flight has only been studied in a few of these species, so many challenges remain in understanding this form of locomotion. Five key aerodynamic mechanisms have been identified for insect flight. Among these is the leading edge vortex, which is a convergent solution to avoid stall for insects, bats and birds. The roles of the other mechanisms - added mass, clap and fling, rotational circulation and wing-wake interactions - have not yet been thoroughly studied in the context of vertebrate flight. Further challenges to understanding bat and bird flight are posed by the complex, dynamic wing morphologies of these species and the more turbulent airflow generated by their wings compared with that observed during insect flight. Nevertheless, three dimensionless numbers that combine key flow, morphological and kinematic parameters - the Reynolds number, Rossby number and advance ratio - govern flapping wing aerodynamics for both insects and vertebrates. These numbers can thus be used to organize an integrative framework for studying and comparing animal flapping flight. Here, we provide a roadmap for developing such a framework, highlighting the aerodynamic mechanisms that remain to be quantified and compared across species. Ultimately, incorporating complex flight maneuvers, environmental effects and developmental stages into this framework will also be essential to advancing our understanding of the biomechanics, movement ecology and evolution of animal flight. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. The Relationship Between Visual Sensor Equipment in Flying Insects and their Flight Performance -- a Neurobio-Engineering Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-16

    College in the Department of Bioengineering with: Dr Martyn Boutelle (Biosensors), Dr Simon Schultz (Neural Coding), Dr Manos Drakakis (Low-power VLSI...in the fly gaze stabilization system. PLoS Biology, 6(7):e173 (2008). O27. Saleem A, Krapp H.G., and Schultz S.R.: Spike-triggered independent...D., Krapp H.G., Schultz S.R.: Bimodal optomotor response to plaids in blowflies: mechanisms of component selectivity and evidence for pattern

  6. Design and performance of a high spatial resolution, time-of-flight PET detector

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Srilalan; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Werner, Matthew E.; Kaul, Madhuri; Newcomer, F. M.; Karp, Joel S.; Surti, Suleman

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a high spatial resolution PET detector with time-of-flight capabilities. With an emphasis on high spatial resolution and sensitivity, we initially evaluated the performance of several 1.5 × 1.5 and 2.0 × 2.0 mm2 and 12–15 mm long LYSO crystals read out by several appropriately sized PMTs. Experiments to evaluate the impact of reflector on detector performance were performed and the final detector consisted of a 32 × 32 array of 1.5 × 1.5 × 15 mm3 LYSO crystals packed with a diffuse reflector and read out by a single Hamamatsu 64 channel multi-anode PMT. Such a design made it compact, modular and offered a cost-effective solution to obtaining excellent energy and timing resolution. To minimize the number of readout signals, a compact front-end readout electronics that summed anode signals along each of the orthogonal directions was also developed. Experimental evaluation of detector performance demonstrates clear discrimination of the crystals within the detector. An average energy resolution (FWHM) of 12.7 ± 2.6% and average coincidence timing resolution (FWHM) of 348 ps was measured, demonstrating suitability for use in the development of a high spatial resolution time-of-flight scanner for dedicated breast PET imaging. PMID:25246711

  7. Fighter pilots' heart rate, heart rate variation and performance during an instrument flight rules proficiency test.

    PubMed

    Mansikka, Heikki; Virtanen, Kai; Harris, Don; Simola, Petteri

    2016-09-01

    Increased task demand will increase the pilot mental workload (PMWL). When PMWL is increased, mental overload may occur resulting in degraded performance. During pilots' instrument flight rules (IFR) proficiency test, PMWL is typically not measured. Therefore, little is known about workload during the proficiency test and pilots' potential to cope with higher task demands than those experienced during the test. In this study, fighter pilots' performance and PMWL was measured during a real IFR proficiency test in an F/A-18 simulator. PMWL was measured using heart rate (HR) and heart rate variation (HRV). Performance was rated using Finnish Air Force's official rating scales. Results indicated that HR and HRV differentiate varying task demands in situations where variations in performance are insignificant. It was concluded that during a proficiency test, PMWL should be measured together with the task performance measurement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Insect Repellents: Reducing Insect Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Labs and Research Centers Contact Us Share Repellents: Protection against Mosquitoes, Ticks and Other Arthropods About Insect ... Snapshot No FEAR Act Data Privacy Privacy and Security Notice Connect. Data.gov Inspector General Jobs Newsroom ...

  9. Program for establishing long-time flight service performance of composite materials in the center wing structure of C-130 aircraft. Phase 5: Flight service and inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizer, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Inspections of the C-130 composite-reinforced center wings were conducted over the flight service monitoring period of more than six years. Twelve inspections were conducted on each of the two C-130H airplanes having composite reinforced center wing boxes. Each inspection consisted of visual and ultrasonic inspection of the selective boron-epoxy reinforced center wings which included the inspection of the boron-epoxy laminates and the boron-epoxy reinforcement/aluminum structure adhesive bondlines. During the flight service monitoring period, the two C-130H aircraft accumulated more than 10,000 flight hours and no defects were detected in the inspections over this period. The successful performance of the C-130H aircraft with composite-reinforced center wings allowed the transfer of the responsibilities of inspecting and maintaining these two aircraft to the U. S. Air Force.

  10. Does lignin modification affect feeding preference or growth performance of insect herbivores in transgenic silver birch (Betula pendula Roth)?

    PubMed

    Tiimonen, Heidi; Aronen, Tuija; Laakso, Tapio; Saranpää, Pekka; Chiang, Vincent; Ylioja, Tiina; Roininen, Heikki; Häggman, Hely

    2005-11-01

    Transgenic silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) lines were produced in order to modify lignin biosynthesis. These lines carry COMT (caffeate/5-hydroxyferulate O-methyltransferase) gene from Populus tremuloides driven by constitutive promoter 35S CaMV (cauliflower mosaic virus) or UbB1 (ubiquitin promoter from sunflower). The decreased syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) ratio was found in stem and leaf lignin of 35S CaMV-PtCOMT transgenic silver birch lines when compared to non-transformed control or UbB1-PtCOMT lines. In controlled feeding experiments the leaves of transgenic birch lines as well as controls were fed to insect herbivores common in boreal environment, i.e., larvae of Aethalura punctulata, Cleora cinctaria and Trichopteryx carpinata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) as well as the adults of birch leaf-feeding beetles Agelastica alni (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Phyllobius spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The feeding preferences of these herbivores differed in some cases among the tested birch lines, but these differences could not be directly associated to lignin modification. They could as well be explained by other characteristics of leaves, either natural or caused by transgene site effects. Growth performance of lepidopteran larvae fed on transgenic or control leaves did not differ significantly.

  11. Ball flight kinematics, release variability and in-season performance in elite baseball pitching.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, D; McGinnis, R S; Deneweth, J M; Zernicke, R F; Goulet, G C

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify ball flight kinematics (ball speed, spin rate, spin axis orientation, seam orientation) and release location variability in the four most common pitch types in baseball and relate them to in-season pitching performance. Nine NCAA Division I pitchers threw four pitching variations (fastball, changeup, curveball, and slider) while a radar gun measured ball speed and a 600-Hz video camera recorded the ball trajectory. Marks on the ball were digitized to measure ball flight kinematics and release location. Ball speed was highest in the fastball, though spin rate was similar in the fastball and breaking pitches. Two distinct spin axis orientations were noted: one characterizing the fastball and changeup, and another, the curveball and slider. The horizontal release location was significantly more variable than the vertical release location. In-season pitching success was not correlated to any of the measured variables. These findings are instructive for inferring appropriate hand mechanics and spin types in each of the four pitches. Coaches should also be aware that ball flight kinematics might not directly relate to pitching success at the collegiate level. Therefore, talent identification and pitching evaluations should encompass other (e.g., cognitive, psychological, and physiological) factors. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Initial Flight Test Evaluation of the F-15 ACTIVE Axisymmetric Vectoring Nozzle Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Hathaway, Ross; Ferguson, Michael D.

    1998-01-01

    A full envelope database of a thrust-vectoring axisymmetric nozzle performance for the Pratt & Whitney Pitch/Yaw Balance Beam Nozzle (P/YBBN) is being developed using the F-15 Advanced Control Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) aircraft. At this time, flight research has been completed for steady-state pitch vector angles up to 20' at an altitude of 30,000 ft from low power settings to maximum afterburner power. The nozzle performance database includes vector forces, internal nozzle pressures, and temperatures all of which can be used for regression analysis modeling. The database was used to substantiate a set of nozzle performance data from wind tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamic analyses. Findings from initial flight research at Mach 0.9 and 1.2 are presented in this paper. The results show that vector efficiency is strongly influenced by power setting. A significant discrepancy in nozzle performance has been discovered between predicted and measured results during vectoring.

  13. Pilot expertise and hippocampal size: associations with longitudinal flight simulator performance.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Maheen M; Bayley, Peter J; Scanlon, Blake K; Farrell, Michelle E; Hernandez, Beatriz; Weiner, Michael W; Yesavage, Jerome A; Taylor, Joy L

    2012-09-01

    Previous research suggests that the size of the hippocampus can vary in response to intensive training (e.g., during the acquisition of expert knowledge). However, the role of the hippocampus in maintenance of skilled performance is not well understood. The Stanford/Veterans Affairs Aviation MRI Study offers a unique opportunity to observe the interaction of brain structure and multiple levels of expertise on longitudinal flight simulator performance. The current study examined the relationship between hippocampal volume and three levels of aviation expertise, defined by pilot proficiency ratings issued by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (11). At 3 annual time points, 60 pilots who varied in their level of aviation expertise (ages ranging from 45 to 69 yr) were tested. At baseline, higher expertise was associated with better flight simulator performance, but not with hippocampal volume. Longitudinally, there was an Expertise x Hippocampal volume interaction, in the direction that a larger hippocampus was associated with better performance at higher levels of expertise. These results are consistent with the notion that expertise in a cognitively demanding domain involves the interplay of acquired knowledge ('mental schemas') and basic hippocampal-dependent processes.

  14. Subsonic flight test evaluation of a performance seeking control algorithm on an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, Glenn B.; Orme, John S.

    1992-01-01

    The subsonic flight test evaluation phase of the NASA F-15 (powered by F 100 engines) performance seeking control program was completed for single-engine operation at part- and military-power settings. The subsonic performance seeking control algorithm optimizes the quasi-steady-state performance of the propulsion system for three modes of operation. The minimum fuel flow mode minimizes fuel consumption. The minimum thrust mode maximizes thrust at military power. Decreases in thrust-specific fuel consumption of 1 to 2 percent were measured in the minimum fuel flow mode; these fuel savings are significant, especially for supersonic cruise aircraft. Decreases of up to approximately 100 degree R in fan turbine inlet temperature were measured in the minimum temperature mode. Temperature reductions of this magnitude would more than double turbine life if inlet temperature was the only life factor. Measured thrust increases of up to approximately 15 percent in the maximum thrust mode cause substantial increases in aircraft acceleration. The system dynamics of the closed-loop algorithm operation were good. The subsonic flight phase has validated the performance seeking control technology, which can significantly benefit the next generation of fighter and transport aircraft.

  15. Insect-machine interface based neurocybernetics.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Alper; Gilmour, Robert F; Sinha, Ayesa; Stern, David; Lal, Amit

    2009-06-01

    We present details of a novel bioelectric interface formed by placing microfabricated probes into insect during metamorphic growth cycles. The inserted microprobes emerge with the insect where the development of tissue around the electronics during the pupal development allows mechanically stable and electrically reliable structures coupled to the insect. Remarkably, the insects do not react adversely or otherwise to the inserted electronics in the pupae stage, as is true when the electrodes are inserted in adult stages. We report on the electrical and mechanical characteristics of this novel bioelectronic interface, which we believe would be adopted by many investigators trying to investigate biological behavior in insects with negligible or minimal traumatic effect encountered when probes are inserted in adult stages. This novel insect-machine interface also allows for hybrid insect-machine platforms for further studies. As an application, we demonstrate our first results toward navigation of flight in moths. When instrumented with equipment to gather information for environmental sensing, such insects potentially can assist man to monitor the ecosystems that we share with them for sustainability. The simplicity of the optimized surgical procedure we invented allows for batch insertions to the insect for automatic and mass production of such hybrid insect-machine platforms. Therefore, our bioelectronic interface and hybrid insect-machine platform enables multidisciplinary scientific and engineering studies not only to investigate the details of insect behavioral physiology but also to control it.

  16. Microgeographic differentiation in thermal performance curves between rural and urban populations of an aquatic insect.

    PubMed

    Tüzün, Nedim; Op de Beeck, Lin; Brans, Kristien I; Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2017-12-01

    The rapidly increasing rate of urbanization has a major impact on the ecology and evolution of species. While increased temperatures are a key aspect of urbanization ("urban heat islands"), we have very limited knowledge whether this generates differentiation in thermal responses between rural and urban populations. In a common garden experiment, we compared the thermal performance curves (TPCs) for growth rate and mortality in larvae of the damselfly Coenagrion puella from three urban and three rural populations. TPCs for growth rate shifted vertically, consistent with the faster-slower theoretical model whereby the cold-adapted rural larvae grew faster than the warm-adapted urban larvae across temperatures. In line with costs of rapid growth, rural larvae showed lower survival than urban larvae across temperatures. The relatively lower temperatures hence expected shorter growing seasons in rural populations compared to the populations in the urban heat islands likely impose stronger time constraints to reach a certain developmental stage before winter, thereby selecting for faster growth rates. In addition, higher predation rates at higher temperature may have contributed to the growth rate differences between urban and rural ponds. A faster-slower differentiation in TPCs may be a widespread pattern along the urbanization gradient. The observed microgeographic differentiation in TPCs supports the view that urbanization may drive life-history evolution. Moreover, because of the urban heat island effect, urban environments have the potential to aid in developing predictions on the impact of climate change on rural populations.

  17. Functional Task Test: 3. Skeletal Muscle Performance Adaptations to Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Wickwire, P. J.; Buxton, R. E.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.

    2011-01-01

    The functional task test is a multi-disciplinary study investigating how space-flight induced changes to physiological systems impacts functional task performance. Impairment of neuromuscular function would be expected to negatively affect functional performance of crewmembers following exposure to microgravity. This presentation reports the results for muscle performance testing in crewmembers. Functional task performance will be presented in the abstract "Functional Task Test 1: sensory motor adaptations associated with postflight alternations in astronaut functional task performance." METHODS: Muscle performance measures were obtained in crewmembers before and after short-duration space flight aboard the Space Shuttle and long-duration International Space Station (ISS) missions. The battery of muscle performance tests included leg press and bench press measures of isometric force, isotonic power and total work. Knee extension was used for the measurement of central activation and maximal isometric force. Upper and lower body force steadiness control were measured on the bench press and knee extension machine, respectively. Tests were implemented 60 and 30 days before launch, on landing day (Shuttle crew only), and 6, 10 and 30 days after landing. Seven Space Shuttle crew and four ISS crew have completed the muscle performance testing to date. RESULTS: Preliminary results for Space Shuttle crew reveal significant reductions in the leg press performance metrics of maximal isometric force, power and total work on R+0 (p<0.05). Bench press total work was also significantly impaired, although maximal isometric force and power were not significantly affected. No changes were noted for measurements of central activation or force steadiness. Results for ISS crew were not analyzed due to the current small sample size. DISCUSSION: Significant reductions in lower body muscle performance metrics were observed in returning Shuttle crew and these adaptations are likely

  18. Flight of the dragonflies and damselflies.

    PubMed

    Bomphrey, Richard J; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Henningsson, Per; Lin, Huai-Ti

    2016-09-26

    This work is a synthesis of our current understanding of the mechanics, aerodynamics and visually mediated control of dragonfly and damselfly flight, with the addition of new experimental and computational data in several key areas. These are: the diversity of dragonfly wing morphologies, the aerodynamics of gliding flight, force generation in flapping flight, aerodynamic efficiency, comparative flight performance and pursuit strategies during predatory and territorial flights. New data are set in context by brief reviews covering anatomy at several scales, insect aerodynamics, neuromechanics and behaviour. We achieve a new perspective by means of a diverse range of techniques, including laser-line mapping of wing topographies, computational fluid dynamics simulations of finely detailed wing geometries, quantitative imaging using particle image velocimetry of on-wing and wake flow patterns, classical aerodynamic theory, photography in the field, infrared motion capture and multi-camera optical tracking of free flight trajectories in laboratory environments. Our comprehensive approach enables a novel synthesis of datasets and subfields that integrates many aspects of flight from the neurobiology of the compound eye, through the aeromechanical interface with the surrounding fluid, to flight performance under cruising and higher-energy behavioural modes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. © 2016 The Authors.

  19. Flight Investigation of the Performance of a Two-stage Solid-propellant Nike-deacon (DAN) Meteorological Sounding Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heitkotter, Robert H

    1956-01-01

    A flight investigation of two Nike-Deacon (DAN) two-stage solid-propellant rocket vehicles indicated satisfactory performance may be expected from the DAN meteorological sounding rocket. Peak altitudes of 356,000 and 350,000 feet, respectively, were recorded for the two flight tests when both vehicles were launched from sea level at an elevation angle of 75 degrees. Performance calculations based on flight-test results show that altitudes between 358,000 feet and 487,000 feet may be attained with payloads varying between 60 pounds and 10 pounds.

  20. Intelligent adaptive nonlinear flight control for a high performance aircraft with neural networks.

    PubMed

    Savran, Aydogan; Tasaltin, Ramazan; Becerikli, Yasar

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes the development of a neural network (NN) based adaptive flight control system for a high performance aircraft. The main contribution of this work is that the proposed control system is able to compensate the system uncertainties, adapt to the changes in flight conditions, and accommodate the system failures. The underlying study can be considered in two phases. The objective of the first phase is to model the dynamic behavior of a nonlinear F-16 model using NNs. Therefore a NN-based adaptive identification model is developed for three angular rates of the aircraft. An on-line training procedure is developed to adapt the changes in the system dynamics and improve the identification accuracy. In this procedure, a first-in first-out stack is used to store a certain history of the input-output data. The training is performed over the whole data in the stack at every stage. To speed up the convergence rate and enhance the accuracy for achieving the on-line learning, the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method with a trust region approach is adapted to train the NNs. The objective of the second phase is to develop intelligent flight controllers. A NN-based adaptive PID control scheme that is composed of an emulator NN, an estimator NN, and a discrete time PID controller is developed. The emulator NN is used to calculate the system Jacobian required to train the estimator NN. The estimator NN, which is trained on-line by propagating the output error through the emulator, is used to adjust the PID gains. The NN-based adaptive PID control system is applied to control three angular rates of the nonlinear F-16 model. The body-axis pitch, roll, and yaw rates are fed back via the PID controllers to the elevator, aileron, and rudder actuators, respectively. The resulting control system has learning, adaptation, and fault-tolerant abilities. It avoids the storage and interpolation requirements for the too many controller parameters of a typical flight control

  1. Flight Performance of a Functionally Gradient Material, TUFI, on Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leister, Daniel B.; Stewart, David A.; DiFiore, Robert; Tipton, Bradford; Gordon, Michael P.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    TUFI (Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation), a functionally gradient material has been successfully flying on the Shuttle Orbiters in several locations on two insulation substrates over the past few years. TUFI is composed of insulation and a gradated surface treatment. The locations it has flown include the base heat shield where damage had been observed after every flight before its application. It was also applied to the body flap, the bottom of the body flap and around selected windows and doors where damage had been observed in the past. A description of the types of processing used including substrates will be presented and its overall performance will be reviewed.

  2. A Flight Prediction for Performance of the SWAS Solar Array Deployment Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seniderman, Gary; Daniel, Walter K.

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this paper is a comparison of ground-based solar array deployment tests with the on-orbit deployment. The discussion includes a summary of the mechanisms involved and the correlation of a dynamics model with ground based test results. Some of the unique characteristics of the mechanisms are explained through the analysis of force and angle data acquired from the test deployments. The correlated dynamics model is then used to predict the performance of the system in its flight application.

  3. Performance testing of thermoelectric generators including Voyager and LES 8/9 flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garvey, L.; Stapfer, G.

    1979-01-01

    Several thermoelectric generators ranging in output power from 0.5 to 155 W have been completed or are undergoing testing at JPL. These generators represent a wide range of technologies, using Bi2Te3, PbTe and SiGe thermoelectric materials. Several of these generators are of a developmental type, such as HPG S/N2, and others are representative of Transit and Multi-Hundred Watt (MHW) Technology. Representative flight performance data of LES 8/9 and Voyager RTG's are presented and compared with the DEGRA computer program based on the data observed from tests of SiGe couples, modules and MHW generators.

  4. Effects of Ice Formations on Airplane Performance in Level Cruising Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, G. Merritt; Blackman, Calvin C.

    1948-01-01

    A flight investigation in natural icing conditions was conducted by the NACA to determine the effect of ice accretion on airplane performance. The maximum loss in propeller efficiency encountered due to ice formation on the propeller blades was 19 percent. During 87 percent of the propeller icing encounters, losses of 10 percent or less were observed. Ice formations on all of the components of the airplane except the propellers during one icing encounter resulted in an increase in parasite drag of the airplane of 81 percent. The control response of the airplane in this condition was marginal.

  5. Final Phase Flight Performance and Touchdown Time Assessment of TDV in RLV-TD HEX-01 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Sandeep; Jayakumar, M.; Nizin, Aziya; Kesavabrahmaji, K.; Shyam Mohan, N.

    2017-12-01

    RLV-TD HEX-01 mission was configured as a precursor flight to actual two stages to orbit vehicle. In this mission RLV-TD was designed as a two stage vehicle for demonstrating the hypersonic flight of a winged body vehicle at Mach No. 5. One of the main objectives of this mission was to generate data for better understanding of new technologies required to design the future vehicle. In this mission, the RLV-TD vehicle was heavily instrumented to get data related to performance of different subsystems. As per the mission design, RLV-TD will land in sea after flight duration of 700 s and travelling a distance of nearly 500 km in Bay of Bengal from the launch site for a nominal trajectory. The visibility studies for telemetry data of vehicle for the nominal and off nominal trajectories were carried out. Based on that, three ground stations were proposed for the telemetry data reception (including one in sea). Even with this scheme it was seen that during the final phase of the flight there will not be any ground station visible to the flight due to low elevation. To have the mission critical data during final phase of the flight, telemetry through INSAT scheme was introduced. During the end of the mission RLV-TD will be landing in the sea on a hypothetical runway. To know the exact time of touchdown for the flight in sea, there was no direct measurement available. Simultaneously there were all chances of losing ground station visibility just before touchdown, making it difficult to assess flight performance during that phase. In this work, telemetry and instrumentation scheme of RLV-TD HEX-01 mission is discussed with an objective to determine the flight performance during the final phase. Further, using various flight sensor data the touchdown time of TDV is assessed for this mission.

  6. Sleep, performance, circadian rhythms, and light-dark cycles during two space shuttle flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dijk, D. J.; Neri, D. F.; Wyatt, J. K.; Ronda, J. M.; Riel, E.; Ritz-De Cecco, A.; Hughes, R. J.; Elliott, A. R.; Prisk, G. K.; West, J. B.; hide

    2001-01-01

    Sleep, circadian rhythm, and neurobehavioral performance measures were obtained in five astronauts before, during, and after 16-day or 10-day space missions. In space, scheduled rest-activity cycles were 20-35 min shorter than 24 h. Light-dark cycles were highly variable on the flight deck, and daytime illuminances in other compartments of the spacecraft were very low (5.0-79.4 lx). In space, the amplitude of the body temperature rhythm was reduced and the circadian rhythm of urinary cortisol appeared misaligned relative to the imposed non-24-h sleep-wake schedule. Neurobehavioral performance decrements were observed. Sleep duration, assessed by questionnaires and actigraphy, was only approximately 6.5 h/day. Subjective sleep quality diminished. Polysomnography revealed more wakefulness and less slow-wave sleep during the final third of sleep episodes. Administration of melatonin (0.3 mg) on alternate nights did not improve sleep. After return to earth, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was markedly increased. Crewmembers on these flights experienced circadian rhythm disturbances, sleep loss, decrements in neurobehavioral performance, and postflight changes in REM sleep.

  7. Flight model performances of HISUI hyperspectral sensor onboard ISS (International Space Station)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanii, Jun; Kashimura, Osamu; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Iwasaki, Akira

    2016-10-01

    Hyperspectral Imager Suite (HISUI) is a next-generation Japanese sensor that will be mounted on Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of ISS (International Space Station) in 2019 as timeframe. HISUI hyperspectral sensor obtains spectral images of 185 bands with the ground sampling distance of 20x31 meter from the visible to shortwave-infrared region. The sensor system is the follow-on mission of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) in the visible to shortwave infrared region. The critical design review of the instrument was accomplished in 2014. Integration and tests of an flight model of HISUI hyperspectral sensor is being carried out. Simultaneously, the development of JEM-External Facility (EF) Payload system for the instrument started. The system includes the structure, the thermal control system, the electrical system and the pointing mechanism. The development status and the performances including some of the tests results of Instrument flight model, such as optical performance, optical distortion and radiometric performance are reported.

  8. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Using NASA Sensors to Perform Crop Type Assessment for Monitoring Insect Resistance in Corn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, David; Copenhaver, Ken; Anderson, Daniel; Hilbert, Kent

    2007-01-01

    The EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) is tasked to monitor for insect pest resistance to transgenic crops. Several models have been developed to understand the resistance properties of insects. The Population Genetics Simulator model is used in the EPA PIRDSS (Pest Infestation and Resistance Decision Support System). The EPA Office of Pesticide Programs uses the DSS to help understand the potential for insect pest resistance development and the likelihood that insect pest resistance will negatively affect transgenic corn. Once the DSS identifies areas of concern, crews are deployed to collect insect pest samples, which are tested to identify whether they have developed resistance to the toxins in transgenic corn pesticides. In this candidate solution, VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) vegetation index products will be used to build hypertemporal layerstacks for crop type and phenology assessment. The current phenology attribute is determined by using the current time of year to index the expected growth stage of the crop. VIIRS might provide more accurate crop type assessment and also might give a better estimate on the crop growth stage.

  9. Generic icing effects on forward flight performance of a model helicopter rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinetti, Ana F.; Korkan, Kenneth D.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental program using a commercially available model helicopter has been conducted in the TAMU 7 ft x 10 ft Subsonic Wind Tunnel to investigate main rotor performance degradation due to generic ice adhesion. Base and iced performance data were gathered as functions of fuselage incidence, blade collective pitch, main rotor rotational velocity, and freestream velocity. The experimental values have shown that, in general, the presence of generic ice introduces decrements in performance caused by leading edge separation regions and increased surface roughness. In addition to the expected changes in aerodynamic forces caused by variations in test Reynolds number, forward flight data seemed to be influenced by changes in freestream and rotational velocity. The dependence of the data upon such velocity variations was apparently enhanced by increases in blade chord.

  10. Formation Flight System Extremum-Seeking-Control Using Blended Performance Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, John J. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    An extremum-seeking control system for formation flight that uses blended performance parameters in a conglomerate performance function that better approximates drag reduction than performance functions formed from individual measurements. Generally, a variety of different measurements are taken and fed to a control system, the measurements are weighted, and are then subjected to a peak-seeking control algorithm. As measurements are continually taken, the aircraft will be guided to a relative position which optimizes the drag reduction of the formation. Two embodiments are discussed. Two approaches are shown for determining relative weightings: "a priori" by which they are qualitatively determined (by minimizing the error between the conglomerate function and the drag reduction function), and by periodically updating the weightings as the formation evolves.

  11. Performance of Swashplateless Ultralight Helicopter Rotor with Trailing-edge Flaps for Primary Flight Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Jin-Wei; Chopra, Inderjit

    2003-01-01

    The objective of present study is to evaluate the rotor performance, trailing-edge deflections and actuation requirement of a helicopter rotor with trailing-edge flap system for primary flight control. The swashplateless design is implemented by modifying a two-bladed teetering rotor of an production ultralight helicopter through the use of plain flaps on the blades, and by replacing the pitch link to fixed system control system assembly with a root spring. A comprehensive rotorcraft analysis based on UMARC is carried out to obtain the results for both the swashplateless and a conventional baseline rotor configuration. The predictions show swashplateless configuration achieve superior performance than the conventional rotor attributed from reduction of parasite drag by eliminating swashplate mechanic system. It is indicated that optimal selection of blade pitch index angle, flap location, length, and chord ratio reduces flap deflections and actuation requirements, however, has virtually no effect on rotor performance.

  12. Comparison of Controller and Flight Deck Algorithm Performance During Interval Management with Dynamic Arrival Trees (STARS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battiste, Vernol; Lawton, George; Lachter, Joel; Brandt, Summer; Koteskey, Robert; Dao, Arik-Quang; Kraut, Josh; Ligda, Sarah; Johnson, Walter W.

    2012-01-01

    Managing the interval between arrival aircraft is a major part of the en route and TRACON controller s job. In an effort to reduce controller workload and low altitude vectoring, algorithms have been developed to allow pilots to take responsibility for, achieve and maintain proper spacing. Additionally, algorithms have been developed to create dynamic weather-free arrival routes in the presence of convective weather. In a recent study we examined an algorithm to handle dynamic re-routing in the presence of convective weather and two distinct spacing algorithms. The spacing algorithms originated from different core algorithms; both were enhanced with trajectory intent data for the study. These two algorithms were used simultaneously in a human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation where pilots performed weather-impacted arrival operations into Louisville International Airport while also performing interval management (IM) on some trials. The controllers retained responsibility for separation and for managing the en route airspace and some trials managing IM. The goal was a stress test of dynamic arrival algorithms with ground and airborne spacing concepts. The flight deck spacing algorithms or controller managed spacing not only had to be robust to the dynamic nature of aircraft re-routing around weather but also had to be compatible with two alternative algorithms for achieving the spacing goal. Flight deck interval management spacing in this simulation provided a clear reduction in controller workload relative to when controllers were responsible for spacing the aircraft. At the same time, spacing was much less variable with the flight deck automated spacing. Even though the approaches taken by the two spacing algorithms to achieve the interval management goals were slightly different they seem to be simpatico in achieving the interval management goal of 130 sec by the TRACON boundary.

  13. Flight Performance Evaluation of Three GPS Receivers for Sounding Rocket Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton; Diehl, James; Montenbruck, Oliver; Markgraf, Markus; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In preparation for the European Space Agency Maxus-4 mission, a sounding rocket test flight was carried out at Esrange, near Kiruna, Sweden on February 19, 2001 to validate existing ground facilities and range safety installations. Due to the absence of a dedicated scientific payload, the flight offered the opportunity to test multiple GPS receivers and assess their performance for the tracking of sounding rockets. The receivers included an Ashtech G12 HDMA receiver, a BAE (Canadian Marconi) Allstar receiver and a Mitel Orion receiver. All of them provide C/A code tracking on the L1 frequency to determine the user position and make use of Doppler measurements to derive the instantaneous velocity. Among the receivers, the G12 has been optimized for use under highly dynamic conditions and has earlier been flown successfully on NASA sounding rockets. The Allstar is representative of common single frequency receivers for terrestrial applications and received no particular modification, except for the disabling of the common altitude and velocity constraints that would otherwise inhibit its use for space application. The Orion receiver, finally, employs the same Mitel chipset as the Allstar, but has received various firmware modifications by DLR to safeguard it against signal losses and improve its tracking performance. While the two NASA receivers were driven by a common wrap-around antenna, the DLR experiment made use of a switchable antenna system comprising a helical antenna in the tip of the rocket and two blade antennas attached to the body of the vehicle. During the boost a peak acceleration of roughly l7g's was achieved which resulted in a velocity of about 1100 m/s at the end of the burn. At apogee, the rocket reached an altitude of over 80 km. A detailed analysis of the attained flight data is given together with a evaluation of different receiver designs and antenna concepts.

  14. Flight Performance Evaluation of Three GPS Receivers for Sounding Rocket Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, Barton; Diehl, James; Montenbruck, Oliver; Markgraf, Markus; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In preparation for the European Space Agency Maxus-4 mission, a sounding rocket test flight was carried out at Esrange,, near Kiruna, Sweden on February 19, 2001 to validate existing ground facilities and range safety installations. Due to the absence of a dedicated scientific payload, the flight offered the opportunity to test multiple GPS receivers and assess their performance for the tracking of sounding rockets. The receivers included an Ashtech G12 HDMA receiver, a BAE (Canadian Marconi) Allstar receiver and a Mitel Orion receiver. All of them provide CIA code tracking on the L1 frequency to determine the user position and make use of Doppler measurements to derive the instantaneous velocity. Among the receivers, the G12 has been optimized for use under highly dynamic conditions and has earlier been flown successfully on NASA sounding rockets [Bull, ION-GPS-2000]. The Allstar is representative of common single frequency receivers for terrestrial applications and received no particular modification, except for the disabling of the common altitude and velocity constraints that would otherwise inhibit its use for space application. The Orion receiver, finally, employs the same Mitel chipset as the Allstar, but has received various firmware modifications by DLR to safeguard it against signal losses and improve its tracking performance [Montenbruck et al., ION-GPS-2000]. While the two NASA receivers were driven by a common wrap-around antenna, the DLR experiment made use of a switchable antenna system comprising a helical antenna in the tip of the rocket and two blade antennas attached to the body of the vehicle. During the boost a peak acceleration of roughly 17g's was achieved which resulted in a velocity of about 1100 m/s at the end of the burn. At apogee, the rocket reached a maximum altitude of over 80 km. A detailed analysis of the attained flight data will be given in the paper together with a evaluation of different receiver designs and antenna concepts.

  15. The effect of aircraft control forces on pilot performance during instrument landings in a flight simulator.

    PubMed

    Hewson, D J; McNair, P J; Marshall, R N

    2001-07-01

    Pilots may have difficulty controlling aircraft at both high and low force levels due to larger variability in force production at these force levels. The aim of this study was to measure the force variability and landing performance of pilots during an instrument landing in a flight simulator. There were 12 pilots who were tested while performing 5 instrument landings in a flight simulator, each of which required different control force inputs. Pilots can produce the least force when pushing the control column to the right, therefore the force levels for the landings were set relative to each pilot's maximum aileron-right force. The force levels for the landings were 90%, 60%, and 30% of maximal aileron-right force, normal force, and 25% of normal force. Variables recorded included electromyographic activity (EMG), aircraft control forces, aircraft attitude, perceived exertion and deviation from glide slope and heading. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to test for differences between landings. Pilots were least accurate in landing performance during the landing at 90% of maximal force (p < 0.05). There was also a trend toward decreased landing performance during the landing at 25% of normal force. Pilots were more variable in force production during the landings at 60% and 90% of maximal force (p < 0.05). Pilots are less accurate at performing instrument landings when control forces are high due to the increased variability of force production. The increase in variability at high force levels is most likely associated with motor unit recruitment, rather than rate coding. Aircraft designers need to consider the reduction in pilot performance at high force levels, as well as pilot strength limits when specifying new standards.

  16. On-Orbit Constraints Test - Performing Pre-Flight Tests with Flight Hardware, Astronauts and Ground Support Equipment to Assure On-Orbit Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    On-Orbit Constraints Test (OOCT's) refers to mating flight hardware together on the ground before they will be mated on-orbit. The concept seems simple but it can be difficult to perform operations like this on the ground when the flight hardware is being designed to be mated on-orbit in a zero-g and/or vacuum environment of space. Also some of the items are manufactured years apart so how are mating tasks performed on these components if one piece is on-orbit before its mating piece is planned to be built. Both the Internal Vehicular Activity (IVA) and Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) OOCT's performed at Kennedy Space Center will be presented in this paper. Details include how OOCT's should mimic on-orbit operational scenarios, a series of photographs will be shown that were taken during OOCT's performed on International Space Station (ISS) flight elements, lessons learned as a result of the OOCT's will be presented and the paper will conclude with possible applications to Moon and Mars Surface operations planned for the Constellation Program.

  17. Optimal Control Allocation with Load Sensor Feedback for Active Load Suppression, Flight-Test Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher J.; Goodrick, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The problem of control command and maneuver induced structural loads is an important aspect of any control system design. The aircraft structure and the control architecture must be designed to achieve desired piloted control responses while limiting the imparted structural loads. The classical approach is to utilize high structural margins, restrict control surface commands to a limited set of analyzed combinations, and train pilots to follow procedural maneuvering limitations. With recent advances in structural sensing and the continued desire to improve safety and vehicle fuel efficiency, it is both possible and desirable to develop control architectures that enable lighter vehicle weights while maintaining and improving protection against structural damage. An optimal control technique has been explored and shown to achieve desirable vehicle control performance while limiting sensed structural loads to specified values. This technique has been implemented and flown on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Full-scale Advanced Systems Testbed aircraft. The flight tests illustrate that the approach achieves the desired performance and show promising potential benefits. The flights also uncovered some important issues that will need to be addressed for production application.

  18. Performance of light sources and radiation sensors under low gravity realized by parabolic airplane flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Hirai, Takehiro

    A fundamental study was conducted to establish an experimental system for space farming. Since to ensure optimal light for plant cultivation in space is of grave importance, this study examined the performance of light sources and radiation sensors under microgravity conditions created during the parabolic airplane flight. Three kinds of light sources, a halogen bulb, a fluorescent tube, and blue and red LEDs, and ten models of radiation sensors available in the market were used for the experiment. Surface temperature of the light sources, output signals from the radiation sensors, spectroscopic characteristics were measured at the gravity levels of 0.01, 1.0 and 1.8 G for 20 seconds each during parabolic airplane flights. As a result, the performance of the halogen lamp was affected the most by the gravity level among the three light sources. Under the microgravity conditions which do not raise heat convection, the temperature of the halogen lamp rose and the output of the radiation sensors increased. Spectral distributions of the halogen lamp indicated that peak wavelength appeared the highest at the level of 0.01G, which contributed to the increase in light intensity. In the case of red and blue LEDs, which are promising light sources in space farming, the temperature of both LED chips rose but irradiance from red LED increased and that from blue LED decreased under microgravity conditions due to the different thermal characteristics.

  19. Effect of blade planform variation on the forward-flight performance of small-scale rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noonan, Kevin W.; Althoff, Susan L.; Samak, Dhananjay K.; Green, Michael D.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Glenn L. Martin Wind Tunnel to determine the effect of blade planform variation on the forward-flight performance of four small-scale rotors. The rotors were 5.417 ft in diameter and differed only in blade planform geometry. The four planforms were: (1) rectangular; (2) 3:1 linear taper starting at 94 percent radius; (3) 3:1 linear taper starting at 75 percent radius; and (4) 3:1 linear taper starting at 50 percent radius. Each planform had a thrust-weighted solidity of 0.098. The investigation included forward-flight simulation at advance ratios from 0.14 to 0.43 for a range of rotor lift and drag coefficients. Among the four rotors, the rectangular rotor required the highest torque for the entire range of rotor drag coefficients attained at advanced ratios greater than 0.14 for rotor lift coefficients C sub L from 0.004 to 0.007. Among the rotors with tapered blades and for C sub L = 0.004 to 0.007, either the 75 percent tapered rotor or the 50 percent tapered rotor required the least amount of torque for the full range of rotor drag coefficients attained at each advance ratio. The performance of the 94 percent tapered rotor was generally between that of the rectangular rotor and the 75 and 50 percent tapered rotors at each advance ratio for this range of rotor lift coefficients.

  20. Insect Resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insect pests exhibit a diverse array of genetic-based responses when interacting with crop systems; these changes can be in response to pathogens, symbiotic microbes, host plants, chemicals, and the environment. Agricultural research has for decades focused on gathering crucial information on the bi...

  1. Pre-Launch Performance Testing of the ICESat-2/ATLAS Flight Science Receiver Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcgarry, J.; Carabajal, C. C.; Saba, J. L.; Rackley, A.; Holland, S.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) will be the single instrument on the ICESat-2 spacecraft which is expected to launch in late 2017 with a 3 year mission lifetime. The ICESat-2 planned orbital altitude is 500 km with a 92 degree inclination and 91-day repeat tracks. ATLAS is a single-photon detection system transmitting at 532nm with a laser repetition rate of 10 kHz and a 6 spot pattern on the Earth's surface. Without some method of reducing the received data, the volume of ATLAS telemetry would far exceed the normal X-band downlink capability. To reduce the data volume to an acceptable level a set of onboard Receiver Algorithms has been developed. These Algorithms limit the daily data volume by distinguishing surface echoes from the background noise and allowing the instrument to telemeter data from only a small vertical region about the signal. This is accomplished through the use of an onboard Digital Elevation Model (DEM), signal processing techniques, and onboard relief and surface reference maps. The ATLAS Receiver Algorithms have been completed and have been verified during Instrument testing in the spacecraft assembly area at the Goddard Space Flight Center in late 2015 and early 2016. Testing has been performed at ambient temperature with a pressure of one atmosphere as well as at the expected hot and cold temperatures in a vacuum. Results from testing to date show the Receiver Algorithms have the ability to handle a wide range of signal and noise levels with a very good sensitivity at relatively low signal to noise ratios. Testing with the ATLAS instrument and flight software shows very good agreement with previous Simulator testing and all of the requirements for ATLAS Receiver Algorithms were successfully verified during Run for the Record Testing in December 2015. This poster will describe the performance of the ATLAS Flight Science Receiver Algorithms during the Run for Record and Comprehensive Performance Testing performed

  2. Effects of helicopter noise and vibration on pilot performance (as measured in a fixed-base flight simulator)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stave, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of noise and vibration on pilot performance are described. Pilot subjects were required to fly VTOL commercial IFR schedules using the computer simulation facilities. The routes flown simulated closely metropolitan routes flown currently by a helicopter airline. The duration of simulator flights ranged from 3 to 8 hours. Subjects were exposed to noise sound pressure levels ranging from 74dB (ambient) to 100dB and 17 Hz vibration stimuli ranging from .1 g to .3 g measured at the floor directly beneath the pilot's seat. Despite subject reports of extreme fatigue in these long flights, performance did not degrade. A curve of performance shows a slow improvement for the first three hours of exposure and a slight loss in performance during the remainder of the flight. As environmental stress conditions (noise, vibration, and time in the simulator) increased, subject performance improved. Within the limits of this study, the higher the stress the better the performance.

  3. Drinking and Flying: Does Alcohol Consumption Affect the Flight and Echolocation Performance of Phyllostomid Bats?

    PubMed Central

    Orbach, Dara N.; Veselka, Nina; Dzal, Yvonne; Lazure, Louis; Fenton, M. Brock

    2010-01-01

    Background In the wild, frugivorous and nectarivorous bats often eat fermenting fruits and nectar, and thus may consume levels of ethanol that could induce inebriation. To understand if consumption of ethanol by bats alters their access to food and general survival requires examination of behavioural responses to its ingestion, as well as assessment of interspecific variation in those responses. We predicted that bats fed ethanol would show impaired flight and echolocation behaviour compared to bats fed control sugar water, and that there would be behavioural differences among species. Methodology/Principal Findings We fed wild caught Artibeus jamaicensis, A. lituratus, A. phaeotis, Carollia sowelli, Glossophaga soricina, and Sturnira lilium (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) sugar water (44 g of table sugar in 500 ml of water) or sugar water with ethanol before challenging them to fly through an obstacle course while we simultaneously recorded their echolocation calls. We used bat saliva, a non-invasive proxy, to measure blood ethanol concentrations ranging from 0 to >0.3% immediately before flight trials. Flight performance and echolocation behaviour were not significantly affected by consumption of ethanol, but species differed in their blood alcohol concentrations after consuming it. Conclusions/Significance The bats we studied display a tolerance for ethanol that could have ramifications for the adaptive radiation of frugivorous and nectarivorous bats by allowing them to use ephemeral food resources over a wide span of time. By sampling across phyllostomid genera, we show that patterns of apparent ethanol tolerance in New World bats are broad, and thus may have been an important early step in the evolution of frugivory and nectarivory in these animals. PMID:20126552

  4. Performance Results from In-Flight Commissioning of the Juno Ultraviolet Spectrograph (Juno-UVS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greathouse, Thomas K.; Gladstone, G. R.; Davis, M. W.; Slater, D. C.; Versteeg, M. H.; Persson, K. B.; Winters, G. S.; Persyn, S. C.; Eterno, J. S.

    2012-10-01

    We present a description of the Juno ultraviolet spectrograph (Juno-UVS), results from the successful in-flight commissioning performed between December 5th and 13th 2011, and some predictions of future Jupiter observations. Juno-UVS is a modest power (9.0 W) ultraviolet spectrograph based on the Alice instruments now in flight aboard the European Space Agency’s Rosetta spacecraft, NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft, and the LAMP instrument aboard NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. However, unlike the other Alice spectrographs, Juno-UVS sits aboard a rotationally stabilized spacecraft. The planned 2 rpm rotation rate for the primary mission results in integration times per spatial resolution element per spin of only 17 ms. Thus, data was retrieved from many spins and then remapped and co-added to build up integration times on bright stars to measure the effective area, spatial resolution, map out scan mirror pointing positions, etc. The Juno-UVS scan mirror allows for pointing of the slit approximately ±30° from the spacecraft spin plane. This ability gives Juno-UVS access to half the sky at any given spacecraft orientation. We will describe our process for solving for the pointing of the scan mirror relative to the Juno spacecraft and present our initial half sky survey of UV bright stars complete with constellation overlays. The primary job of Juno-UVS will be to characterize Jupiter’s UV auroral emissions and relate them to in situ particle measurements. The ability to point the slit will facilitate these measurements, allowing Juno-UVS to observe the surface positions of magnetic field lines Juno is flying through giving a direct connection between the particle measurements on the spacecraft to the observed reaction of Jupiter’s atmosphere to those particles. Finally, we will describe planned observations to be made during Earth flyby in October 2013 that will complete the in-flight characterization.

  5. Artificial insect wings of diverse morphology for flapping-wing micro air vehicles.

    PubMed

    Shang, J K; Combes, S A; Finio, B M; Wood, R J

    2009-09-01

    The development of flapping-wing micro air vehicles (MAVs) demands a systematic exploration of the available design space to identify ways in which the unsteady mechanisms governing flapping-wing flight can best be utilized for producing optimal thrust or maneuverability. Mimicking the wing kinematics of biological flight requires examining the potential effects of wing morphology on flight performance, as wings may be specially adapted for flapping flight. For example, insect wings passively deform during flight, leading to instantaneous and potentially unpredictable changes in aerodynamic behavior. Previous studies have postulated various explanations for insect wing complexity, but there lacks a systematic approach for experimentally examining the functional significance of components of wing morphology, and for determining whether or not natural design principles can or should be used for MAVs. In this work, a novel fabrication process to create centimeter-scale wings of great complexity is introduced; via this process, a wing can be fabricated with a large range of desired mechanical and geometric characteristics. We demonstrate the versatility of the process through the creation of planar, insect-like wings with biomimetic venation patterns that approximate the mechanical properties of their natural counterparts under static loads. This process will provide a platform for studies investigating the effects of wing morphology on flight dynamics, which may lead to the design of highly maneuverable and efficient MAVs and insight into the functional morphology of natural wings.

  6. Dietary mercury exposure causes decreased escape takeoff flight performance and increased molt rate in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Carlson, Jenna R; Cristol, Daniel; Swaddle, John P

    2014-10-01

    Mercury is a widespread and persistent environmental contaminant that occurs in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Recently, songbirds that forage from primarily terrestrial sources have shown evidence of bioaccumulation of mercury, but little research has assessed the effects of mercury on their health and fitness. There are many indications that mercury negatively affects neurological functioning, bioenergetics, and behavior through a variety of mechanisms and in a wide array of avian taxa. Effective flight is crucial to avian fitness and feather molt is an energetically expensive life history trait. Therefore, we investigated whether mercury exposure influenced flight performance and molt in a common songbird, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris). Specifically, we dosed the diet of captive starlings with methylmercury cysteine at 0.0, 0.75, or 1.5 μg/g wet weight and recorded changes in flight performance after 1 year of dietary mercury exposure. We also recorded the annual molt of wing feathers. We found that individuals dosed with mercury exhibited decreased escape takeoff flight performance compared with controls and blood mercury was also correlated with an increased rate of molt, which can reduce flight performance and thermoregulatory ability. This study reveals two novel endpoints, flight performance and molt, that may be affected by dietary mercury exposure. These findings suggest a potential impact on wild songbirds exposed to mercury levels comparable to the high dosage levels in the present study. Any decrease in flight efficiency could reduce fitness due to a direct impact on survival during predation events or by decreased efficiency in other critical activities (such as foraging or migration) that require efficient flight.

  7. Status and performance of the ALICE MRPC-based Time-Of-Flight detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alici, A.

    2012-10-01

    ALICE is the dedicated heavy-ion experiment at the CERN LHC. One of the main detectors devoted to charged hadron identification in the ALICE central barrel is a large Time-Of-Flight (TOF) array; it allows separation among pions, kaons and protons up to a few GeV/c, covering the full azimuthal angle and -0.9 < η < 0.9. The very good performance required for such a system has been achieved by means of the Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) whose intrinsic time resolution is better than 50 ps with an overall efficiency close to 100% and a large operational plateau; the full array consists of 1593 MRPCs covering a cylindrical surface of 141 m2. In this report, the status of the TOF detector and the performance achieved during the 2010 and 2011 data taking periods are reported together with selected physics results obtained with pp and Pb-Pb collisions.

  8. Objective techniques for psychological assessment, phase 2. [techniques for measuring human performance during space flight stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortz, E. C.; Saur, A. J.; Nowlis, D. P.; Kendall, M. P.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of an initial experiment in a research program designed to develop objective techniques for psychological assessment of individuals and groups participating in long-duration space flights. Specifically examined is the rationale for utilizing measures of attention as an objective assessment technique. Subjects participating in the experiment performed various tasks (eg, playing matrix games which appeared on a display screen along with auditory stimuli). The psychophysiological reactions of the subjects were measured and are given. Previous research of various performance and psychophysiological methods of measuring attention is also discussed. The experiment design (independent and dependent variables) and apparatus (computers and display devices) are described and shown. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  9. Crew Alertness Management on the Flight Deck: Cognitive and Vigilance Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinges, David F.

    1998-01-01

    This project had three broad goals: (1) to identify environmental and organismic risks to performance of long-haul cockpit crews; (2) to assess how cognitive and psychomotor vigilance performance, and subjective measures of alertness, were affected by work-rest schedules typical of long-haul cockpit crews; and (3) to determine the alertness-promoting effectiveness of behavioral and technological countermeasures to fatigue on the flight deck. During the course of the research, a number of studies were completed in cooperation with the NASA Ames Fatigue Countermeasures Program. The publications emerging from this project are listed in a bibliography in the appendix. Progress toward these goals will be summarized below according to the period in which it was accomplished.

  10. Flight performance using a hyperstereo helmet-mounted display: aircraft handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Sion A.; Craig, Gregory L.; Stuart, Geoffrey W.; Kalich, Melvyn E.; Rash, Clarence E.; Harding, Thomas H.

    2009-05-01

    A flight study was conducted to assess the impact of hyperstereopsis on helicopter handling proficiency, workload and pilot acceptance. Three pilots with varying levels of night vision goggle and hyperstereo helmet-mounted display experience participated in the test. The pilots carried out a series of flights consisting of low-level maneuvers over a period of two weeks. Four of the test maneuvers, The turn around the tail, the hard surface landing, the hover height estimation and the tree-line following were analysed in detail. At the end of the testing period, no significant difference was observed in the performance data, between maneuvers performed with the TopOwl helmet and maneuvers performed with the standard night vision goggle. This study addressed only the image intensification display aspects of the TopOwl helmet system. The tests did not assess the added benefits of overlaid symbology or head slaved infrared camera imagery. These capabilities need to be taken into account when assessing the overall usefulness of the TopOwl system. Even so, this test showed that pilots can utilize the image intensification imagery displayed on the TopOwl to perform benign night flying tasks to an equivalent level as pilots using ANVIS. The study should be extended to investigate more dynamic and aggressive low level flying, slope landings and ship deck landings. While there may be concerns regarding the effect of hyperstereopsis on piloting, this initial study suggests that pilots can either adapt or compensate for hyperstereo effects with sufficient exposure and training. Further analysis and testing is required to determine the extent of training required.

  11. Sensorimotor Integration of Antennal Positioning in Flying Insects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-23

    eclectic approach is necessary for a deeper understanding of the physics and biology of insect flight, its role in evolution and its influence upon ecology ...Sane, in preparation; Saxena, Natesan and Sane, in preparation) Natural history of plant -insect interactions in the oleander hawk moth, Daphnis...distances. We are interested in the following broad questions relating migration to insect- plant interactions : 1. How do small insects, with a limited fuel

  12. The roles of COMT val158met status and aviation expertise in flight simulator performance and cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Q; Taylor, J L; Noda, A; Adamson, M; Murphy, G M; Zeitzer, J M; Yesavage, J A

    2011-09-01

    The polymorphic variation in the val158met position of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is associated with differences in executive performance, processing speed, and attention. The purpose of this study is: (1) replicate previous COMT val158met findings on cognitive performance; (2) determine whether COMT val158met effects extend to a real-world task, aircraft navigation performance in a flight simulator; and (3) determine if aviation expertise moderates any effect of COMT val158met status on flight simulator performance. One hundred seventy two pilots aged 41-69 years, who varied in level of aviation training and experience, completed flight simulator, cognitive, and genetic assessments. Results indicate that although no COMT effect was found for an overall measure of flight performance, a positive effect of the met allele was detected for two aspects of cognitive ability: executive functioning and working memory performance. Pilots with the met/met genotype benefited more from increased levels of expertise than other participants on a traffic avoidance measure, which is a component of flight simulator performance. These preliminary results indicate that COMT val158met polymorphic variation can affect a real-world task.

  13. The Roles of COMT val158met Status and Aviation Expertise in Flight Simulator Performance and Cognitive Ability

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, J. L.; Noda, A.; Adamson, M.; Murphy, G. M.; Zeitzer, J. M.; Yesavage, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The polymorphic variation in the val158met position of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is associated with differences in executive performance, processing speed, and attention. The purpose of this study is: (1) replicate previous COMT val158met findings on cognitive performance; (2) determine whether COMT val158met effects extend to a real-world task, aircraft navigation performance in a flight simulator; and (3) determine if aviation expertise moderates any effect of COMT val158met status on flight simulator performance. One hundred seventy two pilots aged 41–69 years, who varied in level of aviation training and experience, completed flight simulator, cognitive, and genetic assessments. Results indicate that although no COMT effect was found for an overall measure of flight performance, a positive effect of the met allele was detected for two aspects of cognitive ability: executive functioning and working memory performance. Pilots with the met/met genotype benefited more from increased levels of expertise than other participants on a traffic avoidance measure, which is a component of flight simulator performance. These preliminary results indicate that COMT val158met polymorphic variation can affect a real-world task. PMID:21193954

  14. Uncontrolled Stability in Freely Flying Insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melfi, James, Jr.; Wang, Z. Jane

    2015-11-01

    One of the key flight modes of a flying insect is longitudinal flight, traveling along a localized two-dimensional plane from one location to another. Past work on this topic has shown that flying insects, unless stabilized by some external stimulus, are typically unstable to a well studied pitching instability. In our work, we examine this instability in a computational study to understand whether it is possible for either evolution or an aero-vehicle designer to stabilize longitudinal flight through changes to insect morphology, kinematics, or aerodynamic quantities. A quasi-steady wingbeat averaged flapping flight model is used to describe the insect. From this model, a number of non-dimensional parameters are identified. The effect of these parameters was then quantified using linear stability analysis, applied to various translational states of the insect. Based on our understanding of these parameters, we demonstrate how to find an intrinsically stable flapping flight sequence for a dragonfly-like flapping flier in an instantaneous flapping flight model.

  15. Flight of the dragonflies and damselflies

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Toshiyuki; Henningsson, Per; Lin, Huai-Ti

    2016-01-01

    This work is a synthesis of our current understanding of the mechanics, aerodynamics and visually mediated control of dragonfly and damselfly flight, with the addition of new experimental and computational data in several key areas. These are: the diversity of dragonfly wing morphologies, the aerodynamics of gliding flight, force generation in flapping flight, aerodynamic efficiency, comparative flight performance and pursuit strategies during predatory and territorial flights. New data are set in context by brief reviews covering anatomy at several scales, insect aerodynamics, neuromechanics and behaviour. We achieve a new perspective by means of a diverse range of techniques, including laser-line mapping of wing topographies, computational fluid dynamics simulations of finely detailed wing geometries, quantitative imaging using particle image velocimetry of on-wing and wake flow patterns, classical aerodynamic theory, photography in the field, infrared motion capture and multi-camera optical tracking of free flight trajectories in laboratory environments. Our comprehensive approach enables a novel synthesis of datasets and subfields that integrates many aspects of flight from the neurobiology of the compound eye, through the aeromechanical interface with the surrounding fluid, to flight performance under cruising and higher-energy behavioural modes. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight’. PMID:27528779

  16. Lift vs. drag based mechanisms for vertical force production in the smallest flying insects.

    PubMed

    Jones, S K; Laurenza, R; Hedrick, T L; Griffith, B E; Miller, L A

    2015-11-07

    We used computational fluid dynamics to determine whether lift- or drag-based mechanisms generate the most vertical force in the flight of the smallest insects. These insects fly at Re on the order of 4-60 where viscous effects are significant. Detailed quantitative data on the wing kinematics of the smallest insects is not available, and as a result both drag- and lift-based strategies have been suggested as the mechanisms by which these insects stay aloft. We used the immersed boundary method to solve the fully-coupled fluid-structure interaction problem of a flexible wing immersed in a two-dimensional viscous fluid to compare three idealized hovering kinematics: a drag-based stroke in the vertical plane, a lift-based stroke in the horizontal plane, and a hybrid stroke on a tilted plane. Our results suggest that at higher Re, a lift-based strategy produces more vertical force than a drag-based strategy. At the Re pertinent to small insect hovering, however, there is little difference in performance between the two strategies. A drag-based mechanism of flight could produce more vertical force than a lift-based mechanism for insects at Re<5; however, we are unaware of active fliers at this scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Insects: A nutritional alternative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.

  18. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Payload Development and Performance in Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Shirley, Mark; Colaprete, Anthony; Osetinsky, Leonid

    2012-05-01

    The primary objective of the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) was to confirm the presence or absence of water ice in a permanently shadowed region (PSR) at a lunar pole. LCROSS was classified as a NASA Class D mission. Its payload, the subject of this article, was designed, built, tested and operated to support a condensed schedule, risk tolerant mission approach, a new paradigm for NASA science missions. All nine science instruments, most of them ruggedized commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS), successfully collected data during all in-flight calibration campaigns, and most importantly, during the final descent to the lunar surface on October 9, 2009, after 112 days in space. LCROSS demonstrated that COTS instruments and designs with simple interfaces, can provide high-quality science at low-cost and in short development time frames. Building upfront into the payload design, flexibility, redundancy where possible even with the science measurement approach, and large margins, played important roles for this new type of payload. The environmental and calibration approach adopted by the LCROSS team, compared to existing standard programs, is discussed. The description, capabilities, calibration and in-flight performance of each instrument are summarized. Finally, this paper goes into depth about specific areas where the instruments worked differently than expected and how the flexibility of the payload team, the knowledge of instrument priority and science trades, and proactive margin maintenance, led to a successful science measurement by the LCROSS payload's instrument complement.

  19. TOPEX/POSEIDON microwave radiometer performance and in-flight calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, C. S.; Keihm, Stephen J.; Subramanya, B.; Janssen, Michael A.

    1994-01-01

    Results of the in-flight calibration and performance evaluation campaign for the TOPEX/POSEIDON microwave radiometer (TMR) are presented. Intercomparisons are made between TMR and various sources of ground truth, including ground-based microwave water vapor radiometers, radiosondes, global climatological models, special sensor microwave imager data over the Amazon rain forest, and models of clear, calm, subpolar ocean regions. After correction for preflight errors in the processing of thermal/vacuum data, relative channel offsets in the open ocean TMR brightness temperatures were noted at the approximately = 1 K level for the three TMR frequencies. Larger absolute offsets of 6-9 K over the rain forest indicated a approximately = 5% gain error in the three channel calibrations. This was corrected by adjusting the antenna pattern correction (APC) algorithm. AS 10% scale error in the TMR path delay estimates, relative to coincident radiosondes, was corrected in part by the APC adjustment and in part by a 5% modification to the value assumed for the 22.235 FGHz water vapor line strength in the path delay retrieval algorithm. After all in-flight corrections to the calibration, TMR global retrieval accuracy for the wet tropospheric range correction is estimated at 1.1 cm root mean square (RMS) with consistent peformance under clear, cloudy, and windy conditions.

  20. Insect Wing Displacement Measurement Using Digital Holography

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo, Daniel D.; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando; Torre I, Manuel H. de la

    2008-04-15

    Insects in flight have been studied with optical non destructive techniques with the purpose of using meaningful results in aerodynamics. With the availability of high resolution and large dynamic range CCD sensors the so called interferometric digital holographic technique was used to measure the surface displacement of in flight insect wings, such as butterflies. The wings were illuminated with a continuous wave Verdi laser at 532 nm, and observed with a CCD Pixelfly camera that acquire images at a rate of 11.5 frames per second at a resolution of 1392x1024 pixels and 12 Bit dynamic range. At this frame ratemore » digital holograms of the wings were captured and processed in the usual manner, namely, each individual hologram is Fourier processed in order to find the amplitude and phase corresponding to the digital hologram. The wings displacement is obtained when subtraction between two digital holograms is performed for two different wings position, a feature applied to all consecutive frames recorded. The result of subtracting is seen as a wrapped phase fringe pattern directly related to the wing displacement. The experimental data for different butterfly flying conditions and exposure times are shown as wire mesh plots in a movie of the wings displacement.« less