Science.gov

Sample records for insertable b-layer ibl

  1. The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilbao de Mendizabal, J.

    2013-12-01

    Preparing for the high luminosity LHC phase, the ATLAS experiment will upgrade its Pixel Detector with the installation of a new pixel layer. The new sub detector, called the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be installed during the LHC first shut down in 2013-2014, in between the innermost current pixel layer and the beampipe. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new readout chip FE-I4 and two different silicon sensor technologies, planar and 3D have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance should be improved through the reduction of pixel size and a new mechanical support using lightweight staves. Two pre-series staves were made in order to qualify the assembly procedure, the loaded module electrical integrity and the readout chain before going into production.

  2. ``The Read-Out Driver'' ROD card for the Insertable B-layer (IBL) detector of the ATLAS experiment: commissioning and upgrade studies for the Pixel Layers 1 and 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbi, G.; Bindi, M.; Chen, S. P.; Falchieri, D.; Flick, T.; Gabrielli, A.; Hauck, S.; Hsu, S. C.; Kretz, M.; Kugel, A.; Lama, L.; Morettini, P.; Travaglini, R.; Wensing, M.

    2014-01-01

    The upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at LHC foresees the insertion of an innermost silicon layer, called the Insertable B-layer (IBL). The IBL read-out system will be equipped with new electronics. The Readout-Driver card (ROD) is a VME board devoted to data processing, configuration and control. A pre-production batch has been delivered for testing with instrumented slices of the overall acquisition chain, aiming to finalize strategies for system commissioning. In this paper system setups and results will be described, as well as preliminary studies on changes needed to adopt the ROD for the ATLAS Pixel Layers 1 and 2.

  3. The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer: from construction to operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Rosa, A.

    2016-12-01

    The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is the innermost layer of pixel detectors, and was installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm from the beam axis, between the existing Pixel detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with high radiation and occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D sensors and CMOS 130 nm technology. The IBL detector construction was completed within about two years (2012 - 2014), and the key features and challenges met during the IBL project are presented, as well as its commissioning and operational experience at the LHC.

  4. Characterization of new hybrid pixel module concepts for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backhaus, M.

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) collaboration plans to insert a fourth pixel layer inside the present Pixel Detector to recover from eventual failures in the current pixel system, especially the b-layer. Additionally the IBL will ensure excellent tracking, vertexing and b-tagging performance during the LHC phase I and add robustness in tracking with high luminosity pile-up. The expected peak luminosity for IBL is 2 to 3·1034 cm-2s-1 and IBL is designed for an integrated luminosity of 700 fb-1. This corresponds to an expected fluence of 5·1015 1 MeV neqcm-2 and a total ionizing dose of 250 MRad. In order to cope with these requirements, two new module concepts are under investigation, both based on a new front end IC, called FE-I4. This IC was designed as readout chip for future ATLAS Pixel Detectors and its first application will be the IBL. The planar pixel sensor (PPS) based module concept benefits from its well understood design, which is kept as similar as possible to the design of the current ATLAS Pixel Detector sensor. The second approach of the new three dimensional (3D) silicon sensor technology benefits from the shorter charge carrier drift distance to the electrodes, which completely penetrate the sensor bulk. Prototype modules of both sensor concepts have been build and tested in laboratory and test beam environment before and after irradiation. Both concepts show very high performance even after irradiation to 5·1015 1 MeV neqcm-2 and meet the IBL specifications in terms of hit efficiency being larger than 97%. Lowest operational threshold studies have been effected and prove independent of the used sensor concept the excellent performance of FE-I4 based module concepts in terms of noise hit occupancy at low thresholds.

  5. Characterization of the FE-I4B pixel readout chip production run for the ATLAS Insertable B-layer upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backhaus, M.

    2013-03-01

    The Insertable B-layer (IBL) is a fourth pixel layer that will be added inside the existing ATLAS pixel detector during the long LHC shutdown of 2013 and 2014. The new four layer pixel system will ensure excellent tracking, vertexing and b-tagging performance in the high luminosity pile-up conditions projected for the next LHC run. The peak luminosity is expected to reach 3·1034 cm-2s-1with an integrated luminosity over the IBL lifetime of 300 fb-1 corresponding to a design lifetime fluence of 5·1015 neqcm-2 and ionizing dose of 250 Mrad including safety factors. The production front-end electronics FE-I4B for the IBL has been fabricated at the end of 2011 and has been extensively characterized on diced ICs as well as at the wafer level. The production tests at the wafer level were performed during 2012. Selected results of the diced IC characterization are presented, including measurements of the on-chip voltage regulators. The IBL powering scheme, which was chosen based on these results, is described. Preliminary wafer to wafer distributions as well as yield calculations are given.

  6. ATLAS IBL Pixel Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Rosa, A.; Atlas Ibl Collaboration

    2011-06-01

    The upgrade for ATLAS detector will undergo different phases towards super-LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel detector will consist of the construction of a new pixel layer which will be installed during the first shutdown of the LHC machine (LHC phase-I upgrade). The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing pixel detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. The IBL will require the development of several new technologies to cope with increase of radiation or pixel occupancy and also to improve the physics performance which will be achieved by reducing the pixel size and of the material budget. Three different promising sensor technologies (planar-Si, 3D-Si and diamond) are currently under investigation for the pixel detector. An overview of the project with particular emphasis on the pixel module is presented in this paper.

  7. Firmware development and testing of the ATLAS Pixel Detector / IBL ROD card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielli, A.; Backhaus, M.; Balbi, G.; Bindi, M.; Chen, S. P.; Falchieri, D.; Flick, T.; Hauck, S.; Hsu, S. C.; Kretz, M.; Kugel, A.; Lama, L.; Travaglini, R.; Wensing, M.

    2015-03-01

    The ATLAS Experiment is reworking and upgrading systems during the current LHC shut down. In particular, the Pixel detector has inserted an additional inner layer called the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The Readout-Driver card (ROD), the Back-of-Crate card (BOC), and the S-Link together form the essential frontend data path of the IBL's off-detector DAQ system. The strategy for IBL ROD firmware development was three-fold: keeping as much of the Pixel ROD datapath firmware logic as possible, employing a complete new scheme of steering and calibration firmware, and designing the overall system to prepare for a future unified code version integrating IBL and Pixel layers. Essential features such as data formatting, frontend-specific error handling, and calibration are added to the ROD data path. An IBL DAQ test bench using a realistic front-end chip model was created to serve as an initial framework for full offline electronic system simulation. In this document, major firmware achievements concerning the IBL ROD data path implementation, test on the test bench and ROD prototypes, will be reported. Recent Pixel collaboration efforts focus on finalizing hardware and firmware tests for the IBL. The plan is to approach a complete IBL DAQ hardware-software installation by the end of 2014.

  8. The ATLAS IBL CO2 cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verlaat, B.; Ostrega, M.; Zwalinski, L.; Bortolin, C.; Vogt, S.; Godlewski, J.; Crespo-Lopez, O.; Van Overbeek, M.; Blaszcyk, T.

    2017-02-01

    The ATLAS Pixel detector has been equipped with an extra pixel layer in the space obtained by a smaller radius beam pipe. This new pixel layer called the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) was installed in 2014 and is operational in the current ATLAS data taking. The IBL detector is cooled with evaporative CO2 and is the first of its kind in ATLAS. The ATLAS IBL CO2 cooling system is designed for lower temperature operation (< ‑35oC) than the previous developed CO2 cooling systems in High Energy Physics experiments. The cold temperatures are required to protect the pixel sensors for the expected high radiation dose received at an integrated luminosity of 550 fb1. This paper describes the design, development, construction and commissioning of the IBL CO2 cooling system. It describes the challenges overcome and the important lessons learned for the development of future systems which are now under design for the Phase-II upgrade detectors.

  9. Planar n +-in-n silicon pixel sensors for the ATLAS IBL upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goessling, C.; Klingenberg, R.; Muenstermann, D.; Rummler, A.; Troska, G.; Wittig, T.

    2011-09-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC is planning to upgrade its pixel detector by the installation of a 4th pixel layer, the insertable b-layer IBL with a mean sensor radius of only 32 mm from the beam axis. Being very close to the beam, the radiation damage of the IBL sensors might be as high as 5×10 15 n eq cm -2 at their end-of-life. To investigate the radiation hardness and suitability of the current ATLAS pixel sensors for IBL fluences, n +-in-n silicon pixel sensors from the ATLAS Pixel production have been irradiated by reactor neutrons to the IBL design fluence and been tested with pions at the SPS and with electrons from a 90Sr source in the laboratory. The collected charge was found to exceed 10 000 electrons per MIP at 1 kV of bias voltage which is in agreement with data collected with strip sensors. With an expected threshold of 3000-4000 electrons, this result suggests that planar n +-in-n pixel sensors are radiation hard enough to be used as IBL sensor technology.

  10. The FE-I4 Pixel Readout Chip and the IBL Module

    SciTech Connect

    Barbero, Marlon; Arutinov, David; Backhaus, Malte; Fang, Xiao-Chao; Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Karagounis, Michael; Hans, Kruger; Kruth, Andre; Wermes, Norbert; Breugnon, Patrick; Fougeron, Denis; Gensolen, Fabrice; Menouni, Mohsine; Rozanov, Alexander; Beccherle, Roberto; Darbo, Giovanni; Caminada, Lea; Dube, Sourabh; Fleury, Julien; Gnani, Dario; /LBL, Berkeley /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Gottingen U. /SLAC

    2012-05-01

    FE-I4 is the new ATLAS pixel readout chip for the upgraded ATLAS pixel detector. Designed in a CMOS 130 nm feature size process, the IC is able to withstand higher radiation levels compared to the present generation of ATLAS pixel Front-End FE-I3, and can also cope with higher hit rate. It is thus suitable for intermediate radii pixel detector layers in the High Luminosity LHC environment, but also for the inserted layer at 3.3 cm known as the 'Insertable B-Layer' project (IBL), at a shorter timescale. In this paper, an introduction to the FE-I4 will be given, focusing on test results from the first full size FE-I4A prototype which has been available since fall 2010. The IBL project will be introduced, with particular emphasis on the FE-I4-based module concept.

  11. ATLAS pixel IBL modules construction experience and developments for future upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudiello, A.

    2015-10-01

    The first upgrade of the ATLAS Pixel Detector is the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), installed in May 2014 in the core of ATLAS. Two different silicon sensor technologies, planar n-in-n and 3D, are used. Sensors are connected with the new generation 130 nm IBM CMOS FE-I4 read-out chip via solder bump-bonds. Production quality control tests were set up to verify and rate the performance of the modules before integration into staves. An overview of module design and construction, the quality control results and production yield will be discussed, as well as future developments foreseen for future detector upgrades.

  12. Performance Evaluation of the ATLAS IBL Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretz, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Insertable-B-Layer (IBL) has recently been commissioned at the ATLAS Experiment, adding 12 million channels to the existing Pixel Detector. The front-end chips (FE-I4) are connected to newly designed readout hardware situated in a VME crate. In order to take data under uniform conditions, one needs to periodically tune the detector in short breaks between data-taking sessions to accommodate for radiation damage and aging effects. Tuning involves a variety of components, ranging from high-level steering and analysis software (PixLib) running on commodity hardware, to embedded components situated inside the VME crate that feature only a minimal or no operating system at all. Understanding the interactions between these components is key in debugging and optimizing the tuning procedures to become more efficient. We therefore implement an instrumentation framework aimed at all major components. It features a uniform interface to the user and is able to take instrumentation data with µs- precision. A central server application is used to gather the instrumentation data of a tuning session. It processes the data and saves it into an SQLite database for later analysis.

  13. 3D active edge silicon sensors: Device processing, yield and QA for the ATLAS-IBL production

    SciTech Connect

    Da Vià, Cinzia; Boscardil, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, GianFranco; Darbo, Giovanni; Fleta, Celeste; Gemme, Claudia; Giacomini, Gabriele; Grenier, Philippe; Grinstein, Sebastian; Hansen, Thor-Erik; Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Christopher; Kok, Angela; La Rosa, Alessandro; Micelli, Andrea; Parker, Sherwood; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pohl, David-Leon; Povoli, Marco; Vianello, Elisa; Zorzi, Nicola; Watts, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    3D silicon sensors, where plasma micromachining is used to etch deep narrow apertures in the silicon substrate to form electrodes of PIN junctions, were successfully manufactured in facilities in Europe and USA. In 2011 the technology underwent a qualification process to establish its maturity for a medium scale production for the construction of a pixel layer for vertex detection, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) at the CERN-LHC ATLAS experiment. The IBL collaboration, following that recommendation from the review panel, decided to complete the production of planar and 3D sensors and endorsed the proposal to build enough modules for a mixed IBL sensor scenario where 25% of 3D modules populate the forward and backward part of each stave. The production of planar sensors will also allow coverage of 100% of the IBL, in case that option was required. This paper will describe the processing strategy which allowed successful 3D sensor production, some of the Quality Assurance (QA) tests performed during the pre-production phase and the production yield to date.

  14. Commissioning of the read-out driver (ROD) card for the ATLAS IBL detector and upgrade studies for the pixel Layers 1 and 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbi, G.; Bindi, M.; Falchieri, D.; Gabrielli, A.; Travaglini, R.; Chen, S.-P.; Hsu, S.-C.; Hauck, S.; Kugel, A.

    2014-11-01

    The higher luminosity that is expected for the LHC after future upgrades will require better performance by the data acquisition system, especially in terms of throughput. In particular, during the first shutdown of the LHC collider in 2013/14, the ATLAS Pixel Detector will be equipped with a fourth layer - the Insertable B-Layer or IBL - located at a radius smaller than the present three layers. Consequently, a new front end ASIC (FE-I4) was designed as well as a new off-detector chain. The latter is composed mainly of two 9U-VME cards called the Back-Of-Crate (BOC) and Read-Out Driver (ROD). The ROD is used for data and event formatting and for configuration and control of the overall read-out electronics. After some prototyping samples were completed, a pre-production batch of 5 ROD cards was delivered with the final layout. Actual production of another 15 ROD cards is ongoing in Fall 2013, and commissioning is scheduled in 2014. Altogether 14 cards are necessary for the 14 staves of the IBL detector, one additional card is required by the Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM), and additional spare ROD cards will be produced for a total of 20 boards. This paper describes some integration tests that were performed and our plan to test the production of the ROD cards. Slices of the IBL read-out chain have been instrumented, and ROD performance is verified on a test bench mimicking a small-sized final setup. This contribution will report also one view on the possible adoption of the IBL ROD for ATLAS Pixel Detector Layer 2 (firstly) and, possibly, in the future, for Layer 1.

  15. Firmware development and testing of the ATLAS IBL Back Of Crate card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stramaglia, M. E.

    2015-02-01

    ATLAS is one of the four big LHC experiments and recently its Pixel Detector was upgraded with a new innermost 4th layer: the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) . The upgrade will result in better tracking efficiency, improved precision of measurements and, in the future, compensation for radiation damage of the Pixel-Detector. Newly developed front-end electronics and the higher than originally planned LHC luminosity required a complete re-design of the Off Detector Electronics consisting of the Back Of Crate card (BOC) and the Read Out Driver (ROD) . The main purposes of the BOC card are the distribution of the LHC clock to all Pixel Detector components as well as interfacing the detector and the higher level readout optically. The data-path to the detector runs a 40 MHz bi phase mark (BPM) encoded stream. The 160 MHz 8b10b encoded data path from the detector is phase and word aligned in the firmware and then forwarded to the ROD after decoding. The ROD will send out the processed data that is then forwarded to the higher level readout by the BOC card. An overview of the newly developed firmware will be presented together with the results from production tests and the system test at CERN . Focus is put on the partial reconfiguration and results of the fine delay measurements.

  16. 3D silicon sensors: Design, large area production and quality assurance for the ATLAS IBL pixel detector upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Via, Cinzia; Boscardin, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Darbo, Giovanni; Fleta, Celeste; Gemme, Claudia; Grenier, Philippe; Grinstein, Sebastian; Hansen, Thor-Erik; Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Chris; Kok, Angela; Parker, Sherwood; Pellegrini, Giulio; Vianello, Elisa; Zorzi, Nicola

    2012-12-01

    3D silicon sensors, where electrodes penetrate the silicon substrate fully or partially, have successfully been fabricated in different processing facilities in Europe and USA. The key to 3D fabrication is the use of plasma micro-machining to etch narrow deep vertical openings allowing dopants to be diffused in and form electrodes of pin junctions. Similar openings can be used at the sensor's edge to reduce the perimeter's dead volume to as low as ˜4 μm. Since 2009 four industrial partners of the 3D ATLAS R&D Collaboration started a joint effort aimed at one common design and compatible processing strategy for the production of 3D sensors for the LHC Upgrade and in particular for the ATLAS pixel Insertable B-Layer (IBL). In this project, aimed for installation in 2013, a new layer will be inserted as close as 3.4 cm from the proton beams inside the existing pixel layers of the ATLAS experiment. The detector proximity to the interaction point will therefore require new radiation hard technologies for both sensors and front end electronics. The latter, called FE-I4, is processed at IBM and is the biggest front end of this kind ever designed with a surface of ˜4 cm2. The performance of 3D devices from several wafers was evaluated before and after bump-bonding. Key design aspects, device fabrication plans and quality assurance tests during the 3D sensors prototyping phase are discussed in this paper.

  17. Performance tests during the ATLAS IBL Stave Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jentzsch, J.

    2015-04-01

    In preparation of the ATLAS Pixel Insertable B-Layer integration, detector components, so called staves, were mounted around the Beryllium ATLAS beam pipe and tested using production quality assurance measurements as well as dedicated data taking runs to validate a correct grounding and shielding schema. Each stave consists of 32 new generation readout chips which sum up to over 860k pixels per stave. The integration tests include verification that neither the silicon planar n+-in-n nor the silicon 3D sensors were damaged by mechanical stress, and that their readout chips, including their bump-bond and wire-bond connections, did not suffer from the integration process. Evolution of the detector performance during its integration will be discussed as well as its final performance before installation.

  18. Defining the IBL and Gamma-Ray Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the intensity and photon spectrum of the intergalactic background light (IBL) as a function of redshift using an approach based on observational data obtained in many different wavelength bands from local to deep galaxy surveys. Our empirically based approach allows us, for the first time, to obtain a completely model independent determination of the IBL and to quantify its uncertainties. Using our results on the IBL, we then place 68% confidence upper and lower limits on the opacity of the universe to gamma-rays, independent of previous constraints that were obtained by making theoretical assumptions. We then compare our results with measurements of the extragalactic background light and upper limits obtained from observations made by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.

  19. Modeling of ΔIBL due to random telegraph noise with considering bit-line interference in NAND flash memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joe, Sung-Min; Bae, Jong-Ho; Park, Chan Hyeong; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2014-12-01

    Bit-line (BL) current fluctuation (ΔIBL = high IBL - low IBL) of the trap position is modeled as a parameter of the state (program or erase) of adjacent BL cells which affects the current density distribution appreciably. To model ΔIBL, we extracted the integrated electron current density (J0 = f(z)) and the electric blockade length (Lt) by considering the effect of the interference of adjacent cells. A characteristic function (g(z)) which has a Gaussian functional form is defined based on Lt and the trap position within the tunneling oxide from the channel surface (xT). Finally, ΔIBL is extracted through the integration of f(z) and g(z). Our model predicts accurately the ΔIBL with the trap position as a parameter of the state of BL cells, showing good agreement with 3D simulation data.

  20. B Layers and Adhesion on Armco Iron Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias-Espinosa, M.; Ortiz-Domínguez, M.; Keddam, M.; Flores-Rentería, M. A.; Damián-Mejía, O.; Zuno-Silva, J.; Hernández-Ávila, J.; Cardoso-Legorreta, E.; Arenas-Flores, A.

    2014-08-01

    In this work, a kinetic model was suggested to evaluate the boron diffusion coefficient in the Fe2B layers grown on the Armco iron substrate by the powder-pack boriding. This thermochemical treatment was carried out in the temperature range of 1123-1273 K for treatment times ranging from 2 to 8 h. The boron diffusion coefficient in the Fe2B layers was estimated by solving the mass balance equation at the (Fe2B/substrate) interface with an inclusion of boride incubation time. To validate the present model, the simulated value of Fe2B layer thickness was compared with the experimental value obtained at 1253 K for a treatment time of 5 h. The morphology of Fe2B layers was observed by SEM and optical microscopy. Metallographic studies showed that the boride layer has a saw-tooth morphology in all the samples. The layer thickness measurements were done with the help of MSQ PLUS software. The Fe2B phase was identified by x-ray diffraction method. Finally, the adherence of Fe2B layers on the Armco iron substrate was qualitatively evaluated by using the Daimler-Benz Rockwell-C indentation technique. In addition, the estimated value of boron activation energy was compared to the literature data.

  1. The MV formalism for {IBL}_∞- and {BV}_∞-algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markl, Martin; Voronov, Alexander A.

    2017-03-01

    We develop a new formalism for the quantum master equation Δ e^{S/\\hbar } = 0 and the category of IBL_∞-algebras and simplify some homotopical algebra arising in the context of oriented surfaces with boundary. We introduce and study a category of MV-algebras, which, on the one hand, contains such important categories as those of IBL_∞-algebras and L_∞-algebras and, on the other hand, is homotopically trivial, in particular allowing for a simple solution of the quantum master equation. We also present geometric interpretation of our results.

  2. Chop Wood, Carry Water, Use Definitions: Survival Lessons of an IBL Rookie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retsek, Dylan Q.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the author's pedagogical transformation from "traditional" lecture-based instruction to Inquiry Based Learning (IBL) instruction of an introductory proofs class for sophomore mathematics majors. The story of the course overhaul follows from inception, through implementation, and ultimately to reflection.…

  3. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube insertion; G-tube insertion; PEG tube insertion; Stomach tube insertion; Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube insertion ... and down the esophagus, which leads to the stomach. After the endoscopy tube is inserted, the skin ...

  4. Enhanced decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80 textile dye by an indigenous white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune IBL-06.

    PubMed

    Asgher, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Qamar; Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir

    2013-10-01

    An indigenously isolated white rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune IBL-06 was used to decolorize Solar brilliant red 80 direct dye in Kirk's basal salts medium. In initial screening study, the maximum decolorization (84.8%) of Solar brilliant red 80 was achieved in 7 days shaking incubation period at pH 4.5 and 30 °C. Different physical and nutritional factors including pH, temperature and fungal inoculum density were statistically optimized through Completely Randomized Design (CRD), to enhance the efficiency of S. commune IBL-06 for maximum decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80 dye. The effects of inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources were also investigated. Percent dye decolorization was determined by a reduction in optical density at the wavelength of maximum absorbance (λ max, 590 nm). Under optimum conditions, the S. commune IBL-06 completely decolorized (100%) the Solar brilliant red 80 dye using maltose and ammonium sulfate as inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively in 3 days. S. commune IBL-06 produced the three major ligninolytic enzymes lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganase peroxidase (MnP) and lacaase (Lac) during the decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80. LiP was the major enzyme (944 U/mL) secreted by S. commune IBL-06 along with comparatively lower activities of MnP and Laccase.

  5. Enhanced decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80 textile dye by an indigenous white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune IBL-06

    PubMed Central

    Asgher, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Qamar; Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir

    2013-01-01

    An indigenously isolated white rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune IBL-06 was used to decolorize Solar brilliant red 80 direct dye in Kirk’s basal salts medium. In initial screening study, the maximum decolorization (84.8%) of Solar brilliant red 80 was achieved in 7 days shaking incubation period at pH 4.5 and 30 °C. Different physical and nutritional factors including pH, temperature and fungal inoculum density were statistically optimized through Completely Randomized Design (CRD), to enhance the efficiency of S. commune IBL-06 for maximum decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80 dye. The effects of inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources were also investigated. Percent dye decolorization was determined by a reduction in optical density at the wavelength of maximum absorbance (λmax, 590 nm). Under optimum conditions, the S. commune IBL-06 completely decolorized (100%) the Solar brilliant red 80 dye using maltose and ammonium sulfate as inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively in 3 days. S. commune IBL-06 produced the three major ligninolytic enzymes lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganase peroxidase (MnP) and lacaase (Lac) during the decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80. LiP was the major enzyme (944 U/mL) secreted by S. commune IBL-06 along with comparatively lower activities of MnP and Laccase. PMID:24235871

  6. Scientific evaluation of an intra-curricular educational kit to foster inquiry-based learning (IBL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debaes, Nathalie; Cords, Nina; Prasad, Amrita; Fischer, Robert; Euler, Manfred; Thienpont, Hugo

    2014-07-01

    Society becomes increasingly dependent on photonics technologies; however there is an alarming lack of technological awareness among secondary school students. They associate photonics with experiments and components in the class room that seem to bear little relevance to their daily life. The Rocard Report [5] highlights the need for fostering students' scientific skills and technological awareness and identifies inquiry based learning (IBL) as a means to achieve this. Students need to actively do science rather than be silent spectators. The `Photonics Explorer' kit was developed as an EU funded project to equip teachers, free-of-charge, with educational material designed to excite, engage and educate European secondary school students using guided inquiry based learning techniques. Students put together their own experiments using up-to-date versatile components, critically interpret results and relate the conclusions to relevant applications in their daily life. They work hands-on with the material, thus developing and honing their scientific and analytical skills that are otherwise latent in a typical class room situation. A qualitative and quantitative study of the impact of the kit in the classroom was undertaken with 50 kits tested in 7 EU countries with over 1500 students in the local language. This paper reports on the results of the EU wide field tests that show the positive impact of the kit in raising the self-efficacy, scientific skills and interest in science among students and the effectiveness of the kit in implementing IBL strategies in classrooms across EU.

  7. Insertion Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Mahillon, Jacques; Chandler, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Insertion sequences (ISs) constitute an important component of most bacterial genomes. Over 500 individual ISs have been described in the literature to date, and many more are being discovered in the ongoing prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome-sequencing projects. The last 10 years have also seen some striking advances in our understanding of the transposition process itself. Not least of these has been the development of various in vitro transposition systems for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic elements and, for several of these, a detailed understanding of the transposition process at the chemical level. This review presents a general overview of the organization and function of insertion sequences of eubacterial, archaebacterial, and eukaryotic origins with particular emphasis on bacterial elements and on different aspects of the transposition mechanism. It also attempts to provide a framework for classification of these elements by assigning them to various families or groups. A total of 443 members of the collection have been grouped in 17 families based on combinations of the following criteria: (i) similarities in genetic organization (arrangement of open reading frames); (ii) marked identities or similarities in the enzymes which mediate the transposition reactions, the recombinases/transposases (Tpases); (iii) similar features of their ends (terminal IRs); and (iv) fate of the nucleotide sequence of their target sites (generation of a direct target duplication of determined length). A brief description of the mechanism(s) involved in the mobility of individual ISs in each family and of the structure-function relationships of the individual Tpases is included where available. PMID:9729608

  8. Dihalocarbene Insertion Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, S. H.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the insertion reaction using the insertion of carbenes into carbon-hydrogen bonds as an example. Outlines an experiment that will illustrate dihalocarbene insertions into diisopropyl ether. (GS)

  9. Chest tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    Chest drainage tube insertion; Insertion of tube into chest; Tube thoracostomy; Pericardial drain ... When your chest tube is inserted, you will lie on your side or sit partly upright, with one arm over your head. Sometimes, ...

  10. CoFeB Inserted Perpendicular Magnetic Tunnel Junctions with CoFe/Pd Multilayers for High Tunnel Magnetoresistance Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizunuma, Kotaro; Ikeda, Shoji; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Gan, Hua Dong; Miura, Katsuya; Hasegawa, Haruhiro; Hayakawa, Jun; Ito, Kenchi; Matsukura, Fumihiro; Ohno, Hideo

    2010-04-01

    The effect of Co20Fe60B20 insertion on tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) properties of MgO barrier magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) was studied with Co90Fe10/Pd multilayer electrodes showing perpendicular anisotropy. The TMR ratio, which depended on the sputtering power density of the CoFeB layer, reached 43% at 1.77 W/cm2 in MTJs with a 1.8-nm-thick CoFeB layer inserted on both sides of the MgO barrier. With increasing CoFeB layer thickness, the optimal annealing temperature (Ta) realizing the maximum TMR ratio increased along with the TMR ratio. The MTJs with 3.0-nm-thick CoFeB deposited at 1.77 W/cm2 showed a TMR ratio of 91% at Ta = 250 °C, where the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is maintained.

  11. Grommet Having Metal Insert

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-28

    axially with respect to the body. The 1 means for releasably securing a tool to the insert comprises 2 female threads formed on an inner surface of the...below 10 the flange 32. These surfaces 34, 36 are threaded ( female 11 threads) so that the end of a tool 38 having male threads can 12 engage the...further includes a rigid insert secured to the body in the 12 centrally located aperture. The insert has female threads formed 13 therein for releasably

  12. Plastic pipe insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Diskin, J.

    1987-05-01

    In March 1987 KPL changed all that when the utility inserted 1,000 ft of 16-in. SDR 15.5 Phillips Driscopipe 8000 pipe with a wall thickness of 1.032-in., into an abandoned 24-in. cast-iron line in downtown Kansas City. This is believed to be the largest diameter insert removal job ever done for gas distribution in the U.S. For KPL it was a natural progression from the smaller sizes used earlier. The procedure is the same, and the operation was quick and comparatively simple. Lower construction costs were the bottom line because with insert renewal there is no need to cut up the streets, a major expense in any urban pipeline work. There are other significant costs savings as well because the insert renewal construction process is faster than other techniques.

  13. Ear tube insertion - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100045.htm Ear tube insertion - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... 4 Overview The eardrum (tympanic membrane) separates the ear canal from the middle ear. Review Date 8/ ...

  14. ALS insertion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, E.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hassenzahl, W. V.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Lancaster, H.; Plate, D.

    1991-08-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), the first US third generation synchrotron radiation source, is currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The low-emittance, 1.5 GeV electron storage ring and the insertion devices are specifically designed to produce high brightness beams in the UV to soft X-Ray range. The planned initial complement of insertion devices includes four 4.6 m long undulators, with period lengths of 3.9 cm, 5.0 cm (2) and 8.0 cm, and a 2.9 m long wiggler of 16 cm period length. Undulator design is well advanced and fabrication has begun on the 5.0 cm and 8.0 cm period length undulators. This paper discusses ALS insertion device requirements; general design philosophy; and design of the magnetic structure, support structure/drive systems, control system and vacuum system.

  15. Thought Insertion Clarified

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliffe, Matthew; Wilkinson, Sam

    2016-01-01

    ‘Thought insertion’ in schizophrenia involves somehow experiencing one’s own thoughts as someone else’s. Some philosophers try to make sense of this by distinguishing between ownership and agency: one still experiences oneself as the owner of an inserted thought but attributes it to another agency. In this paper, we propose that thought insertion involves experiencing thought contents as alien, rather than episodes of thinking. To make our case, we compare thought insertion to certain experiences of ‘verbal hallucination’ and show that they amount to different descriptions of the same phenomenon: a quasi-perceptual experience of thought content. We add that the agency/ownership distinction is unhelpful here. What requires explanation is not why a person experiences a type of intentional state without the usual sense of agency, but why she experiences herself as the agent of one type of intentional state rather than another. We conclude by sketching an account of how this might happen. PMID:28123340

  16. Inserts Automatically Lubricate Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Inserts on ball-separator ring of ball bearings provide continuous film of lubricant on ball surfaces. Inserts are machined or molded. Small inserts in ball pockets provide steady supply of lubricant. Technique is utilized on equipment for which maintenance is often poor and lubrication interval is uncertain, such as household appliances, automobiles, and marine engines.

  17. Characterization of purified and Xerogel immobilized Novel Lignin Peroxidase produced from Trametes versicolor IBL-04 using solid state medium of Corncobs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cost-effective production of industrially important enzymes is a key for their successful exploitation on industrial scale. Keeping in view the extensive industrial applications of lignin peroxidase (LiP), this study was performed to purify and characterize the LiP from an indigenous strain of Trametes versicolor IBL-04. Xerogel matrix enzyme immobilization technique was applied to improve the kinetic and thermo-stability characteristics of LiP to fulfil the requirements of the modern enzyme consumer sector of biotechnology. Results A novel LiP was isolated from an indigenous T. versicolor IBL-04 strain. T. versicolor IBL-04 was cultured in solid state fermentation (SSF) medium of corn cobs and maximum LiP activity of 592 ± 6 U/mL was recorded after five days of incubation under optimum culture conditions. The crude LiP was 3.3-fold purified with specific activity of 553 U/mg after passing through the DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex-G-100 chromatography columns. The purified LiP exhibited a relatively low molecular weight (30 kDa) homogenous single band on native and SDS-PAGE. The LiP was immobilized by entrapping in xerogel matrix of trimethoxysilane (TMOS) and proplytetramethoxysilane (PTMS) and maximum immobilization efficiency of 88.6% was achieved. The free and immobilized LiPs were characterized and the results showed that the free and immobilized LiPs had optimum pH 6 and 5 while optimum temperatures were 60°C and 80°C, respectively. Immobilization was found to enhance the activity and thermo-stability potential of LiP significantly and immobilized LiP remained stable over broad pH and temperature range as compare to free enzyme. Kinetic constants Km and Vmax were 70 and 56 μM and 588 and 417 U/mg for the free and immobilized LiPs, respectively. Activity of this novel extra thermo-stable LiP was stimulated to variable extents by Cu2+, Mn2+ and Fe2+ whereas, Cystein, EDTA and Ag+ showed inhibitory effects. Conclusions The indigenously

  18. Optimization of perpendicular anisotropy of Ta-inserted double CoFeB/MgO interface MTJ's for STT-MRAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Billy D.; Paul, Soumalya; Schwarm, Samuel C.; Singh, Amritpal; Natarajarathinam, Anusha; Gupta, Subhadra

    2016-01-01

    Ta inserts in double magnetic tunnel junctions have been shown to induce perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. We fabricated the central layers of a CoFeB/MgO based double magnetic tunnel junction with a Ta insertion layer between the free layers of the magnetic tunnel junctions. The thickness of the Ta insert and CoFeB layer were varied from 0.5 to 1.1 nm and 0.9 to 1.7 nm respectively, to find which minimum thickness of Ta will induce perpendicular anisotropy in the MTJ. FMR studies were performed to measure the interfacial anisotropy Ku,i. We demonstrated that the most effective stack minimized the CoFeB thickness while maximizing the Ta thickness. This was balanced with the need to keep both CoFeB layers from decoupling or becoming magnetically dead.

  19. Facility target insert shielding assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mocko, Michal

    2015-10-06

    Main objective of this report is to assess the basic shielding requirements for the vertical target insert and retrieval port. We used the baseline design for the vertical target insert in our calculations. The insert sits in the 12”-diameter cylindrical shaft extending from the service alley in the top floor of the facility all the way down to the target location. The target retrieval mechanism is a long rod with the target assembly attached and running the entire length of the vertical shaft. The insert also houses the helium cooling supply and return lines each with 2” diameter. In the present study we focused on calculating the neutron and photon dose rate fields on top of the target insert/retrieval mechanism in the service alley. Additionally, we studied a few prototypical configurations of the shielding layers in the vertical insert as well as on the top.

  20. Impedance calculation for ferrite inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Breitzmann, S.C.; Lee, S.Y.; Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    Passive ferrite inserts were used to compensate the space charge impedance in high intensity space charge dominated accelerators. They study the narrowband longitudinal impedance of these ferrite inserts. they find that the shunt impedance and the quality factor for ferrite inserts are inversely proportional to the imaginary part of the permeability of ferrite materials. They also provide a recipe for attaining a truly passive space charge impedance compensation and avoiding narrowband microwave instabilities.

  1. Mechanisms for Complex Chromosomal Insertions

    PubMed Central

    Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Akdemir, Zeynep Coban; Yuan, Bo; Cooper, Mitchell L.; Magriñá, Maria A.; Bacino, Carlos A.; Lalani, Seema R.; Patel, Ankita; Song, Rodger H.; Bi, Weimin; Cheung, Sau Wai; Carvalho, Claudia M. B.; Lupski, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal insertions are genomic rearrangements with a chromosome segment inserted into a non-homologous chromosome or a non-adjacent locus on the same chromosome or the other homologue, constituting ~2% of nonrecurrent copy-number gains. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of their formation. We identified 16 individuals with complex insertions among 56,000 individuals tested at Baylor Genetics using clinical array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Custom high-density aCGH was performed on 10 individuals with available DNA, and breakpoint junctions were fine-mapped at nucleotide resolution by long-range PCR and DNA sequencing in 6 individuals to glean insights into potential mechanisms of formation. We observed microhomologies and templated insertions at the breakpoint junctions, resembling the breakpoint junction signatures found in complex genomic rearrangements generated by replication-based mechanism(s) with iterative template switches. In addition, we analyzed 5 families with apparently balanced insertion in one parent detected by FISH analysis and found that 3 parents had additional small copy-number variants (CNVs) at one or both sides of the inserting fragments as well as at the inserted sites. We propose that replicative repair can result in interchromosomal complex insertions generated through chromothripsis-like chromoanasynthesis involving two or three chromosomes, and cause a significant fraction of apparently balanced insertions harboring small flanking CNVs. PMID:27880765

  2. Physics performance of the ATLAS pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuno, S.

    2017-01-01

    In preparation for LHC Run-2 the ATLAS detector introduced a new pixel detector, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). This detector is located between the beampipe and what was the innermost pixel layer. The tracking and vertex reconstruction are significantly improved and good performance is expected in high level objects such a b-quark jet tagging. This in turn, leads to better physics results. This note summarizes the impact of the IBL detector on physics results, especially focusing on the analyses using b-quark jets throughout 2016 summer physics program.

  3. Sink Inserts for Flood Prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Fraser F.; Bodnar, Daniel J.; Hardesty, David L.

    2004-09-01

    A simple, inexpensive insert is described for preventing flooding in lab sinks. The insert is essentially a tube with slots cut into the side that fits snugly into the drain outlet, preventing water buildup and providing additional drainage sites to avoid constriction by small lab items and paper towels.

  4. Percutaneously inserted central catheter - infants

    MedlinePlus

    PICC - infants; PQC - infants; Pic line - infants; Per-Q cath - infants ... A percutaneously inserted central catheter (PICC) is a long, very thin, soft plastic tube that is put into a small blood vessel. This article addresses PICCs in ...

  5. Tool Removes Coil-Spring Thread Inserts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Gerald J., Jr.; Swenson, Gary J.; Mcclellan, J. Scott

    1991-01-01

    Tool removes coil-spring thread inserts from threaded holes. Threads into hole, pries insert loose, grips insert, then pulls insert to thread it out of hole. Effects essentially reverse of insertion process to ease removal and avoid further damage to threaded inner surface of hole.

  6. Gene Insertion Patterns and Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vain, Philippe; Thole, Vera

    During the past 25 years, the molecular analysis of transgene insertion patterns and sites in plants has greatly contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying transgene integration, expression, and stability in the nuclear genome. Molecular characterization is also an essential step in the safety assessment of genetically modified crops. This chapter describes the standard experimental procedures used to analyze transgene insertion patterns and loci in cereals and grasses transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens or direct transfer of DNA. Methods and protocols enabling the determination of the number and configuration of transgenic loci via a combination of inheritance studies, polymerase chain reaction, and Southern analyses are presented. The complete characterization of transgenic inserts in plants is, however, a holistic process relying on a wide variety of experimental approaches. In this chapter, these additional approaches are not detailed but references to relevant bibliographic records are provided.

  7. Evidence of a reduction reaction of oxidized iron/cobalt by boron atoms diffused toward naturally oxidized surface of CoFeB layer during annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Soshi Honjo, Hiroaki; Niwa, Masaaki; Ikeda, Shoji; Ohno, Hideo; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2015-04-06

    We have investigated the redox reaction on the surface of Ta/CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junction stack samples after annealing at 300, 350, and 400 °C for 1 h using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for precise analysis of the chemical bonding states. At a capping tantalum layer thickness of 1 nm, both the capping tantalum layer and the surface of the underneath CoFeB layer in the as-deposited stack sample were naturally oxidized. By comparison of the Co 2p and Fe 2p spectra among the as-deposited and annealed samples, reduction of the naturally oxidized cobalt and iron atoms occurred on the surface of the CoFeB layer. The reduction reaction was more significant at higher annealing temperature. Oxidized cobalt and iron were reduced by boron atoms that diffused toward the surface of the top CoFeB layer. A single CoFeB layer was prepared on SiO{sub 2}, and a confirmatory evidence of the redox reaction with boron diffusion was obtained by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the naturally oxidized surface of the CoFeB single layer after annealing. The redox reaction is theoretically reasonable based on the Ellingham diagram.

  8. Ultrasound guided spine needle insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Elvis C. S.; Mousavi, Parvin; Gill, Sean; Fichtinger, Gabor; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2010-02-01

    An ultrasound (US) guided, CT augmented, spine needle insertion navigational system is introduced. The system consists of an electromagnetic (EM) sensor, an US machine, and a preoperative CT volume of the patient anatomy. Three-dimensional (3D) US volume is reconstructed intraoperatively from a set of two-dimensional (2D) freehand US slices, and is coregistered with the preoperative CT. This allows the preoperative CT volume to be used in the intraoperative clinical coordinate. The spatial relationship between the patient anatomy, surgical tools, and the US transducer are tracked using the EM sensor, and are displayed with respect to the CT volume. The pose of the US transducer is used to interpolate the CT volume, providing the physician with a 2D "x-ray vision" to guide the needle insertion. Many of the system software components are GPU-accelerated, allowing real-time performance of the guidance system in a clinical setting.

  9. Insertion device calculations with mathematica

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, R.; Lidia, S.

    1995-02-01

    The design of accelerator insertion devices such as wigglers and undulators has usually been aided by numerical modeling on digital computers, using code in high level languages like Fortran. In the present era, there are higher level programming environments like IDL{reg_sign}, MatLab{reg_sign}, and Mathematica{reg_sign} in which these calculations may be performed by writing much less code, and in which standard mathematical techniques are very easily used. The authors present a suite of standard insertion device modeling routines in Mathematica to illustrate the new techniques. These routines include a simple way to generate magnetic fields using blocks of CSEM materials, trajectory solutions from the Lorentz force equations for given magnetic fields, Bessel function calculations of radiation for wigglers and undulators and general radiation calculations for undulators.

  10. Inserting Agility in System Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Agile IT Acquisition, IT Box, Scrum Inserting Agility in System Development Matthew R. Kennedy and Lt Col Dan Ward, USAF With the fast-paced nature...1,700 individuals and 71 countries, found Scrum and eXtreme Programming to be the most widely followed method- ologies (VersionOne, 2007). Other...University http://www.dau.mil 259 Defense ARJ, July 2012, Vol. 19 No. 3 : 249–264 Scrum Scrum is a framework used for project management, which is

  11. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed.

  12. Insert metering plates for gas turbine nozzles

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven S.; Itzel, Gary; Chopra, Sanjay; Abuaf, Nesim; Correia, Victor H.

    2004-05-11

    The invention comprises a metering plate which is assembled to an impingement insert for use in the nozzle of a gas turbine. The metering plate can have one or more metering holes and is used to balance the cooling flow within the nozzle. A metering plate with multiple holes reduces static pressure variations which result from the cooling airflow through the metering plate. The metering plate can be assembled to the insert before or after the insert is inserted into the nozzle.

  13. JT/LJT connector insert material evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, J.R.F.

    1991-10-01

    Different insert (insulator) materials are undergoing evaluation to replace the Fiberite E-3938 BE96 material currently used. Also being evaluated is the reconfiguration of the insert and metal shell-edge geometries for the purpose of reducing the alleged interference principally responsible for insert damage.

  14. Quench Module Insert (QMI) and the Diffusion Module Insert (DMI) Furnace Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, Myscha; Carswell, William; Farmer, Jeff; Rose, Fred; Tidwell, Paul

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents, in viewgraph form, QMI (Quench Module Insert) and DMI (Diffusion Module Insert) furnace development. The topics include: 1) Furnace Module in Rack; 2) Quench Module Insert; 3) QMI in MSL Core; 4) Diffusion Module Insert; 5) QMI; and 6) QMI Development and Testing.

  15. Mars Observer Orbit Insertion Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Steve Wall is the host of this video entitled, "Return to the Red Planet". Live animation of the Mars Observer orbiting Mars is presented. Steve Wall explains the spacecraft insertion maneuver and also explains the purpose for the Mars Observer launch. Live coverage of the Cape Canaveral launch of the Mars Observer is also presented. Suzanne Dodd, Chief of the Mission Planning team describes the burn start and how the spacecraft will be captured by Mars' gravity. Glenn Cunningham, Mars Observer Project Manager, gives background information on the Mars Observer and describes the organizations behind the Mars Observer Spacecraft, such as the Deep Space Network, the Mission Operation Support Office, Science Investigators, the Flight Engineering Office, Operations Office, and the Ground Data System Office. Dr. William Piotrowski, Acting Director, Solar System Exploration Division, NASA, talks about the purpose of the Mars Pathfinder which is to develop the technology and systems for landing small science packages on Mars. Mr. Roger Gibbs, Former Mars Observer Spacecraft Systems Engineer, tells us how the Mars Observer was built and describes the structural elements on the Mars Observer. The 11-month cruise period for the spacecraft is given by Joseph Beerer, Manager of the Engineering office. The thrust for the Mars Orbit Insertion is described by Ronald Klemetson, Technical Manager, Propulsion Subsystem Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). George Chen, Lead Engineer Attitude and Articulation Subsystem Spacecraft Team, explains the importance of the attitude control engines on the Spacecraft. Marvin Traxler, Manager of Tracking and Data Acquisition, describes how searching for a signal from the Mars Observer works. See NONP-NASA-VT-2000081555 for a continuation of this discussion with Marvin Traxler.

  16. Insertion devices at the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Moog, E.R.

    1996-07-01

    The insertion devices being installed at the Advanced Photon Source cause the stored particle beam to wiggle, emitting x-rays with each wiggle. These x-rays combine to make an intense beam of radiation. Both wiggler and undulator types of insertion devices are being installed; the characteristics of the radiation produced by these two types of insertion devices are discussed, along with the reasons for those characteristics.

  17. Nozzle insert for mixed mode fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, Keith E.

    2006-11-21

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by first and second needle valve members. The homogeneous charged nozzle outlet set is defined by a nozzle insert that is attached to an injector body, which defines the conventional nozzle outlet set. The nozzle insert is a one piece metallic component with a large diameter segment separated from a small diameter segment by an annular engagement surface. One of the needle valve members is guided on an outer surface of the nozzle insert, and the nozzle insert has an interference fit attachment to the injector body.

  18. Properties of a symmetric RHIC insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.

    1991-07-01

    This report evaluates the lattice functions of the symmetric insertion proposed by A.G. Ruggiero for the RHIC insertion. The crossing geometry, Inner and Outer matching sections, and chromatic properties are studied in detail. Some properties of the missing dipole dispersion correction scheme are also discussed. We found that the chromatic properties of the symmetric insertion is not better than the antisymmetric insertion. The problem is that the four family sextupole correction scheme seems not able to improve the chromatic distortion. Analytic understanding of the failure of the four family sextupole correction scheme will be very useful. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Multipurpose Transposon-Insertion Libraries in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anuj

    2016-06-01

    Libraries of transposon-insertion alleles constitute powerful and versatile tools for large-scale analysis of yeast gene function. Transposon-insertion libraries are constructed most simply through mutagenesis of a plasmid-based genomic DNA library; modification of the mutagenizing transposon by incorporation of yeast selectable markers, recombination sites, and an epitope tag enables the application of insertion alleles for phenotypic screening and protein localization. In particular, yeast genomic DNA libraries have been mutagenized with modified bacterial transposons carrying the URA3 marker, lox recombination sites, and sequence encoding multiple copies of the hemagglutinin (HA) epitope. Mutagenesis with these transposons has yielded a large resource of insertion alleles affecting nearly 4000 yeast genes in total. Through well-established protocols, these insertion libraries can be introduced into the desired strain backgrounds and the resulting insertional mutants can be screened or systematically analyzed. Relative to alternative methods of UV irradiation or chemical mutagenesis, transposon-insertion alleles can be easily identified by PCR-based approaches or high-throughput sequencing. Transposon-insertion libraries also provide a cost-effective alternative to targeted deletion approaches, although, in contrast to start-codon to stop-codon deletions, insertion alleles might not represent true null-mutants. For protein-localization studies, transposon-insertion alleles can provide encoded epitope tags in-frame with internal codons; in many cases, these transposon-encoded epitope tags can provide a more accurate localization for proteins in which terminal sequences are crucial for intracellular targeting. Thus, overall, transposon-insertion libraries can be used quickly and economically and have a particular utility in screening for desired phenotypes and localization patterns in nonstandard genetic backgrounds.

  20. Turbine vane segment and impingement insert configuration for fail-safe impingement insert retention

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Kellock, Iain Robertson

    2003-05-13

    An impingement insert sleeve is provided that is adapted to be disposed in a coolant cavity defined through a stator vane. The insert has a generally open inlet end and first and second pairs of diametrically opposed side walls, and at least one fail-safe tab defined at a longitudinal end of the insert for limiting radial displacement of the insert with respect to the stator vane.

  1. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N; Smirnov, Alexandre

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  2. Insertion sequence elements in Lactococcus garvieae.

    PubMed

    Eraclio, Giovanni; Ricci, Giovanni; Fortina, Maria Grazia

    2015-01-25

    Insertion sequences are the simplest intracellular Mobile Genetic Elements which can occur in very high numbers in prokaryotic genomes, where they play an important evolutionary role by promoting genome plasticity. As such, the studies on the diversity and distribution of insertion sequences in genomes not yet investigated can contribute to improve the knowledge on a bacterial species and to identify new transposable elements. The present work describes the occurrence of insertion sequences in Lactococcus garvieae, an opportunistic emerging zoonotic and human pathogen, also associated with different food matrices. To date, no insertion elements have been described for L. garvieae in the IS element database. The analysis of the twelve published L. garvieae genomes identified 15 distinct insertion sequences that are members of the IS3, IS982, IS6, IS21 and IS256 families, including five new elements. Most of the insertion sequences in L. garvieae show substantial homology to the Lactococcus lactis elements, suggesting the movement of IS between these two species phylogenetically closely related. ISLL6 elements belonging to IS3 family were most abundant, with several copies distributed in 9 of the 12 genomes analyzed. An alignment analysis of two complete genomes carrying multi-copies of this insertion sequence indicates a possible involvement of ISLL6 in chromosomal rearrangement.

  3. Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Russell B; Krueger, Judson J; Plank, William L

    2014-04-01

    A sequential impingement cooling insert for a turbine stator vane that forms a double impingement for the pressure and suction sides of the vane or a triple impingement. The insert is formed from a sheet metal formed in a zigzag shape that forms a series of alternating impingement cooling channels with return air channels, where pressure side and suction side impingement cooling plates are secured over the zigzag shaped main piece. Another embodiment includes the insert formed from one or two blocks of material in which the impingement channels and return air channels are machined into each block.

  4. Elliptically polarizing adjustable phase insertion device

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Roger

    1995-01-01

    An insertion device for extracting polarized electromagnetic energy from a beam of particles is disclosed. The insertion device includes four linear arrays of magnets which are aligned with the particle beam. The magnetic field strength to which the particles are subjected is adjusted by altering the relative alignment of the arrays in a direction parallel to that of the particle beam. Both the energy and polarization of the extracted energy may be varied by moving the relevant arrays parallel to the beam direction. The present invention requires a substantially simpler and more economical superstructure than insertion devices in which the magnetic field strength is altered by changing the gap between arrays of magnets.

  5. Insertion Profiles of 4 Headless Compression Screws

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Adam; Harvey, Edward J.; Lefebvre, Louis-Philippe; Barthelat, Francois; Rabiei, Reza; Martineau, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In practice, the surgeon must rely on screw position (insertion depth) and tactile feedback from the screwdriver (insertion torque) to gauge compression. In this study, we identified the relationship between interfragmentary compression and these 2 factors. Methods The Acutrak Standard, Acutrak Mini, Synthes 3.0, and Herbert-Whipple implants were tested using a polyurethane foam scaphoid model. A specialized testing jig simultaneously measured compression force, insertion torque, and insertion depth at half-screw-turn intervals until failure occurred. Results The peak compression occurs at an insertion depth of −3.1 mm, −2.8 mm, 0.9 mm, and 1.5 mm for the Acutrak Mini, Acutrak Standard, Herbert-Whipple, and Synthes screws respectively (insertion depth is positive when the screw is proud above the bone and negative when buried). The compression and insertion torque at a depth of −2 mm were found to be 113 ± 18 N and 0.348 ± 0.052 Nm for the Acutrak Standard, 104 ± 15 N and 0.175 ± 0.008 Nm for the Acutrak Mini, 78 ± 9 N and 0.245 ± 0.006 Nm for the Herbert-Whipple, and 67 ± 2N, 0.233 ± 0.010 Nm for the Synthes headless compression screws. Conclusions All 4 screws generated a sizable amount of compression (> 60 N) over a wide range of insertion depths. The compression at the commonly recommended insertion depth of −2 mm was not significantly different between screws; thus, implant selection should not be based on compression profile alone. Conically shaped screws (Acutrak) generated their peak compression when they were fully buried in the foam whereas the shanked screws (Synthes and Herbert-Whipple) reached peak compression before they were fully inserted. Because insertion torque correlated poorly with compression, surgeons should avoid using tactile judgment of torque as a proxy for compression. Clinical relevance Knowledge of the insertion profile may improve our understanding of the implants, provide a better basis for comparing screws

  6. Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Russel B; Krueger, Judson J; Plank, William L

    2014-11-04

    A sequential impingement cooling insert for a turbine stator vane that forms a double impingement for the pressure and suction sides of the vane or a triple impingement. The insert is formed from a sheet metal formed in a zigzag shape that forms a series of alternating impingement cooling channels with return air channels, where pressure side and suction side impingement cooling plates are secured over the zigzag shaped main piece. Another embodiment includes the insert formed from one or two blocks of material in which the impingement channels and return air channels are machined into each block.

  7. Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.

  8. Utility Bill Insert for Wastewater Services

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Intended for use by wastewater and water supply utilities, one side of the utility bill insert has information for customers that discharge to sanitary sewer systems; the other side is for customers with septic systems.

  9. Peripherally inserted central catheter - dressing change

    MedlinePlus

    PICC - dressing change ... You have a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). This is a tube that goes into a vein in your arm. It carries nutrients and medicines into your body. It may also ...

  10. Small Unit Space Transport and Insertion (SUSTAIN)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Small Unit Space Transport and Insertion ( SUSTAIN ) Study prepared for: LTC Paul E. Damphousse, USMC National Security Space Office Chief of...failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2009 2. REPORT TYPE N/A...3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Small Unit Space Transport and Insertion ( SUSTAIN ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  11. Efficient instruction sequencing with Inline Target Insertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Wen-Mei W.; Chang, Pohua P.

    1992-01-01

    Inline target insertion, a specific compiler and pipeline implementation method for delayed branches with squashing, is defined. The method is shown to offer two important features not discovered in previous studies. First, branches inserted into branch slots are correctly executed. Second, the execution returns correctly from interrupts or exceptions with only one program counter. These two features result in better performance and less software/hardware complexity than conventional delayed branching mechanisms.

  12. Shrink-Fit Solderable Inserts Seal Hermetically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croucher, William C.

    1992-01-01

    Shrink-fit stainless-steel insert in aluminum equipment housing allows electrical connectors to be replaced by soldering, without degrading hermeticity of housing or connector. Welding could destroy electrostatic-sensitive components and harm housing and internal cables. Steel insert avoids problems because connector soldered directly to it rather than welded to housing. Seals between flange and housing, and between connector and flange resistant to leaks, even after mechanical overloading and thermal shocking.

  13. Z-2 Threaded Insert Design and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy; Rhodes, Richard; Jones, Robert J.; Graziosi, David; Ferl, Jinny; Sweeny, Mitch; Scarborough, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit contains several components fabricated from an advanced hybrid composite laminate consisting of IM10 carbon fiber and fiber glass. One requirement was to have removable, replaceable helicoil inserts to which other suit components would be fastened. An approach utilizing bonded in inserts with helicoils inside of them was implemented. During initial assembly, cracking sounds were heard followed by the lifting of one of the blind inserts out of its hole when the screws were torqued. A failure investigation was initiated to understand the mechanism of the failure. Ultimately, it was determined that the pre-tension caused by torqueing the fasteners is a much larger force than induced from the pressure loads of the suit which was not considered in the insert design. Bolt tension is determined by dividing the torque on the screw by a k value multiplied by the thread diameter of the bolt. The k value is a factor that accounts for friction in the system. A common value used for k for a non-lubricated screw is 0.2. The k value can go down by as much as 0.1 if the screw is lubricated which means for the same torque, a much larger tension could be placed on the bolt and insert. This paper summarizes the failure investigation that was performed to identify the root cause of the suit failure and details how the insert design was modified to resist a higher pull out tension.

  14. Strength of inserts in titanium alloy machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, V.; Huang, Z.; Zhang, J.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a stressed state of a non-worn cutting wedge in a machined titanium alloy (Ti6Al2Mo2Cr) is analyzed. The distribution of contact loads on the face of a cutting tool was obtained experimentally with the use of a ‘split cutting tool’. Calculation of internal stresses in the indexable insert made from cemented carbide (WC8Co) was carried out with the help of ANSYS 14.0 software. Investigations showed that a small thickness of the cutting insert leads to extremely high compressive stresses near the cutting edge, stresses that exceed the ultimate compressive strength of cemented carbide. The face and the base of the insert experience high tensile stresses, which approach the ultimate tensile strength of cemented carbide and increase a probability of cutting insert destruction. If the thickness of the cutting insert is bigger than 5 mm, compressive stresses near the cutting edge decrease, and tensile stresses on the face and base decrease to zero. The dependences of the greatest normal and tangential stresses on thickness of the cutting insert were found. Abbreviation and symbols: m/s - meter per second (cutting speed v); mm/r - millimeter per revolution (feed rate f); MPa - mega Pascal (dimension of specific contact loads and stresses); γ - rake angle of the cutting tool [°] α - clearance angle of the sharp cutting tool [°].

  15. Rectal suppository: commonsense and mode of insertion.

    PubMed

    Abd-el-Maeboud, K H; el-Naggar, T; el-Hawi, E M; Mahmoud, S A; Abd-el-Hay, S

    1991-09-28

    Rectal suppository is a well-known form of medication and its use is increasing. The commonest shape is one with an apex (pointed end) tapering to a base (blunt end). Because of a general lack of information about mode of insertion, we asked 360 lay subjects (Egyptians and non-Egyptians) and 260 medical personnel (physicians, pharmacists, and nurses) by questionnaire which end they inserted foremost. Apart from 2 individuals, all subjects suggested insertion with the apex foremost. Commonsense was the most frequent basis for this practice (86.9% of lay subjects and 84.6% of medical personnel) followed by information from a relative, a friend, or medical personnel, or from study at medical school. Suppository insertion with the base or apex foremost was compared in 100 subjects (60 adults, 40 infants and children). Retention with the former method was more easily achieved in 98% of the cases, with no need to introduce a finger in the anal canal (1% vs 83%), and lower expulsion rate (0% vs 3%). The designer of the "torpedo-shaped" suppository suggested its insertion with apex foremost. Our data suggest that a suppository is better inserted with the base foremost. Reversed vermicular contractions or pressure gradient of the anal canal might press it inwards.

  16. Peptide partitioning properties from direct insertion studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmschneider, Martin; Smith, Jeremy C; Ulmschneider, Jakob

    2010-06-01

    Partitioning properties of polypeptides are at the heart of biological membrane phenomena and their precise quantification is vital for ab-initio structure prediction and the accurate simulation of membrane protein folding and function. Recently the cellular translocon machinery has been employed to determine membrane insertion propensities and transfer energetics for a series of polyleucine segments embedded in a carrier sequence. We show here that the insertion propensity, pathway, and transfer energetics into synthetic POPC bilayers can be fully described by direct atomistic peptide partitioning simulations. The insertion probability as a function of peptide length follows two-state Boltzmann statistics, in agreement with the experiments. The simulations expose a systematic offset between translocon-mediated and direct insertion free energies. Compared to the experiment the insertion threshold is shifted toward shorter peptides by 2 leucine residues. The simulations reveal many hitherto unknown atomic-resolution details about the partitioning process and promise to provide a powerful tool for urgently needed calibration of lipid parameters to match experimentally observed peptide transfer energies.

  17. Nozzle cavity impingement/area reduction insert

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Yufeng Phillip; Itzel, Gary Michael; Osgood, Sarah Jane

    2002-01-01

    A turbine vane segment is provided that has inner and outer walls spaced from one another, a vane extending between the inner and outer walls and having leading and trailing edges and pressure and suction sides, the vane including discrete leading edge, intermediate, aft and trailing edge cavities between the leading and trailing edges and extending lengthwise of the vane for flowing a cooling medium; and an insert sleeve within at least one of the cavities and spaced from interior wall surfaces thereof. The insert sleeve has an inlet for flowing the cooling medium into the insert sleeve and has impingement holes defined in first and second walls thereof that respectively face the pressure and suction sides of the vane. The impingement holes of at least one of those first and second walls are defined along substantially only a first, upstream portion thereof, whereby the cooling flow is predominantly impingement cooling along a first region of the insert wall corresponding to the first, upstream portion and the cooling flow is predominantly convective cooling along a second region corresponding to a second, downstream portion of the at least one wall of the insert sleeve.

  18. Reactivity of methacrylates in insertion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Rünzi, Thomas; Guironnet, Damien; Göttker-Schnetmann, Inigo; Mecking, Stefan

    2010-11-24

    Polymerization of ethylene by complexes [{(P^O)PdMe(L)}] (P^O = κ(2)-(P,O)-2-(2-MeOC(6)H(4))(2)PC(6)H(4)SO(3))) affords homopolyethylene free of any methyl methacrylate (MMA)-derived units, even in the presence of substantial concentrations of MMA. In stoichiometric studies, reactive {(P^O)Pd(Me)L} fragments generated by halide abstraction from [({(P^O)Pd(Me)Cl}μ-Na)(2)] insert MMA in a 1,2- as well as 2,1-mode. The 1,2-insertion product forms a stable five-membered chelate by coordination of the carbonyl group. Thermodynamic parameters for MMA insertion are ΔH(++) = 69.0(3.1) kJ mol(-1) and ΔS(++) = -103(10) J mol(-1) K(-1) (total average for 1,2- and 2,1-insertion), in comparison to ΔH(++) = 48.5(3.0) kJ mol(-1) and ΔS(++) = -138(7) J mol(-1) K(-1) for methyl acrylate (MA) insertion. These data agree with an observed at least 10(2)-fold preference for MA incorporation vs MMA incorporation (not detected) under polymerization conditions. Copolymerization of ethylene with a bifunctional acrylate-methacrylate monomer yields linear polyethylenes with intact methacrylate substituents. Post-polymerization modification of the latter was exemplified by free-radical thiol addition and by cross-metathesis.

  19. The LORE1 insertion mutant resource.

    PubMed

    Małolepszy, Anna; Mun, Terry; Sandal, Niels; Gupta, Vikas; Dubin, Manu; Urbański, Dorian; Shah, Niraj; Bachmann, Asger; Fukai, Eigo; Hirakawa, Hideki; Tabata, Satoshi; Nadzieja, Marcin; Markmann, Katharina; Su, Junyi; Umehara, Yosuke; Soyano, Takashi; Miyahara, Akira; Sato, Shusei; Hayashi, Makoto; Stougaard, Jens; Andersen, Stig U

    2016-10-01

    Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are closely related to retroviruses, and their activities shape eukaryotic genomes. Here, we present a complete Lotus japonicus insertion mutant collection generated by identification of 640 653 new insertion events following de novo activation of the LTR element Lotus retrotransposon 1 (LORE1) (http://lotus.au.dk). Insertion preferences are critical for effective gene targeting, and we exploit our large dataset to analyse LTR element characteristics in this context. We infer the mechanism that generates the consensus palindromes typical of retroviral and LTR retrotransposon insertion sites, identify a short relaxed insertion site motif, and demonstrate selective integration into CHG-hypomethylated genes. These characteristics result in a steep increase in deleterious mutation rate following activation, and allow LORE1 active gene targeting to approach saturation within a population of 134 682 L. japonicus lines. We suggest that saturation mutagenesis using endogenous LTR retrotransposons with germinal activity can be used as a general and cost-efficient strategy for generation of non-transgenic mutant collections for unrestricted use in plant research.

  20. The upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for Run 2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backhaus, M.

    2016-09-01

    During Run 1 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the ATLAS Pixel Detector has shown excellent performance. The ATLAS collaboration took advantage of the first long shutdown of the LHC during 2013 and 2014 and extracted the ATLAS Pixel Detector from the experiment, brought it to surface and maintained the services. This included the installation of new service quarter panels, the repair of cables, and the installation of the new Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM). Additionally, a completely new innermost pixel detector layer, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), was constructed and installed in May 2014 between a new smaller beam pipe and the existing Pixel Detector. With a radius of 3.3 cm the IBL is located extremely close to the interaction point. Therefore, a new readout chip and two new sensor technologies (planar and 3D) are used in the IBL. In order to achieve best possible physics performance the material budget was improved with respect to the existing Pixel Detector. This is realized using lightweight staves for mechanical support and a CO2 based cooling system. This paper describes the improvements achieved during the maintenance of the existing Pixel Detector as well as the performance of the IBL during the construction and commissioning phase. Additionally, first results obtained during the LHC Run 2 demonstrating the distinguished tracking performance of the new Four Layer ATLAS Pixel Detector are presented.

  1. Interactive simulation of needle insertion models.

    PubMed

    DiMaio, Simon P; Salcudean, Septimiu E

    2005-07-01

    A novel interactive virtual needle insertion simulation is presented. The simulation models are based on measured planar tissue deformations and needle insertion forces. Since the force-displacement relationship is only of interest along the needle shaft, a condensation technique is shown to reduce the computational complexity of linear simulation models significantly. As the needle penetrates or is withdrawn from the tissue model, the boundary conditions that determine the tissue and needle motion change. Boundary condition and local material coordinate changes are facilitated by fast low-rank matrix updates. A large-strain elastic needle model is coupled to the tissue models to account for needle deflection and bending during simulated insertion. A haptic environment, based on these novel interactive simulation techniques, allows users to manipulate a three-degree-of-freedom virtual needle as it penetrates virtual tissue models, while experiencing steering torques and lateral needle forces through a planar haptic interface.

  2. Rack Insertion End Effector (RIEE) automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malladi, Narasimha

    1993-01-01

    NASA is developing a mechanism to manipulate and insert Racks into the Space Station Logistic modules. The mechanism consists of the following: a base with three motorized degrees of freedom, a 3 section motorized boom that goes from 15 to 44 feet in length, and a Rack Insertion End Effector (RIEE) with 5 hand wheels for precise alignment. The robotics section was tasked with the automation of the RIEE unit. In this report, for the automation of the RIEE unit, application of the Perceptics Vision System was conceptually developed to determine the position and orientation of the RIEE relative to the logistic module, and a MathCad program is written to display the needed displacements for precise alignment and final insertion of the Rack. The uniqueness of this report is that the whole report is in fact a MathCad program including text, derivations, and executable equations with example inputs and outputs.

  3. Elliptically polarizing adjustable phase insertion device

    DOEpatents

    Carr, R.

    1995-01-17

    An insertion device for extracting polarized electromagnetic energy from a beam of particles is disclosed. The insertion device includes four linear arrays of magnets which are aligned with the particle beam. The magnetic field strength to which the particles are subjected is adjusted by altering the relative alignment of the arrays in a direction parallel to that of the particle beam. Both the energy and polarization of the extracted energy may be varied by moving the relevant arrays parallel to the beam direction. The present invention requires a substantially simpler and more economical superstructure than insertion devices in which the magnetic field strength is altered by changing the gap between arrays of magnets. 3 figures.

  4. Study of Uranium Oxide Insertion Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    band gap (AE) for U0 3 polymorphs is in the range 2.52 - 2.68 eV (20,325 - • 21,616 cm-1) and the activation energy (Es) for U30 8 is 1.10 eV (8,872...with uranium ions and move by a phonon- activated 0 hopping mechanism. Electrons introduced into the uranium oxide during insertion A - Aj" + e’u (1.7...insertion into a-U 30 8 at - 25"C in 1M LiBF4 in propylene carbonate /1,2- dimethoxyethane Lithium insertion into a-U 30 8 causes very little change in

  5. Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Baertsch, Robert; Zemann, Anja; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2009-05-01

    One and a half centuries after Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace outlined our current understanding of evolution, a new scientific era is dawning that enables direct observations of genetic variation. However, pure sequence-based molecular attempts to resolve the basal origin of placental mammals have so far resulted only in apparently conflicting hypotheses. By contrast, in the mammalian genomes where they were highly active, the insertion of retroelements and their comparative insertion patterns constitute a neutral, virtually homoplasy-free archive of evolutionary histories. The "presence" of a retroelement at an orthologous genomic position in two species indicates their common ancestry in contrast to its "absence" in more distant species. To resolve the placental origin controversy we extracted approximately 2 million potentially phylogenetically informative, retroposon-containing loci from representatives of the major placental mammalian lineages and found highly significant evidence challenging all current single hypotheses of their basal origin. The Exafroplacentalia hypothesis (Afrotheria as the sister group to all remaining placentals) is significantly supported by five retroposon insertions, the Epitheria hypothesis (Xenarthra as the sister group to all remaining placentals) by nine insertion patterns, and the Atlantogenata hypothesis (a monophyletic clade comprising Xenarthra and Afrotheria as the sister group to Boreotheria comprising all remaining placentals) by eight insertion patterns. These findings provide significant support for a "soft" polytomy of the major mammalian clades. Ancestral successive hybridization events and/or incomplete lineage sorting associated with short speciation intervals are viable explanations for the mosaic retroposon insertion patterns of recent placental mammals and for the futile search for a clear root dichotomy.

  6. Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals

    PubMed Central

    Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Baertsch, Robert; Zemann, Anja; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    One and a half centuries after Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace outlined our current understanding of evolution, a new scientific era is dawning that enables direct observations of genetic variation. However, pure sequence-based molecular attempts to resolve the basal origin of placental mammals have so far resulted only in apparently conflicting hypotheses. By contrast, in the mammalian genomes where they were highly active, the insertion of retroelements and their comparative insertion patterns constitute a neutral, virtually homoplasy-free archive of evolutionary histories. The “presence” of a retroelement at an orthologous genomic position in two species indicates their common ancestry in contrast to its “absence” in more distant species. To resolve the placental origin controversy we extracted ∼2 million potentially phylogenetically informative, retroposon-containing loci from representatives of the major placental mammalian lineages and found highly significant evidence challenging all current single hypotheses of their basal origin. The Exafroplacentalia hypothesis (Afrotheria as the sister group to all remaining placentals) is significantly supported by five retroposon insertions, the Epitheria hypothesis (Xenarthra as the sister group to all remaining placentals) by nine insertion patterns, and the Atlantogenata hypothesis (a monophyletic clade comprising Xenarthra and Afrotheria as the sister group to Boreotheria comprising all remaining placentals) by eight insertion patterns. These findings provide significant support for a “soft” polytomy of the major mammalian clades. Ancestral successive hybridization events and/or incomplete lineage sorting associated with short speciation intervals are viable explanations for the mosaic retroposon insertion patterns of recent placental mammals and for the futile search for a clear root dichotomy. PMID:19261842

  7. True anteroposterior view pedicle screw insertion technique

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jia-yue; Zhang, Wei; An, Ji-long; Sun, Ya-peng; Ding, Wen-yuan; Shen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background The wide use of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) surgery in the treatment of degenerative disc disease of lumbar spine in spinal surgery highlights the gradual decrease in the use of traditional pedicle screw insertion technology. This study aims to analyze the accuracy of the true anteroposterior view pedicle screw insertion technique in MIS-TLIF surgery, compare it with conventional pedicle screw insertion technology, and discuss its clinical application value. Methods Fifty-two patients undergoing true anteroposterior view (group A) and 87 patients undergoing conventional pedicle screw insertion (group B) were diagnosed with lumbar disc herniation or lumbar spinal stenosis. Time for screw placement, intraoperative irradiation exposure, accuracy rate of pedicle screw insertion, and incidence of neurovascular injury were compared between the two groups. Results The time for screw placement and intraoperative irradiation exposure was significantly less in group A. Penetration rates of the paries lateralis of vertebral pedicle, medial wall of vertebral pedicle, and anterior vertebral wall were 1.44%, 0%, and 2.40%, respectively, all of which were significantly lower than that in group B. No additional serious complications caused by the placement of screw were observed during the follow-up period in patients in group A, but two patients with medial penetration underwent revision for unbearable radicular pain. Conclusion The application of true anteroposterior view pedicle screw insertion technique in MIS-TLIF surgery shortens time for screw placement and reduces the intraoperative irradiation exposure along with a higher accuracy rate of screw placement, which makes it a safe, accurate, and efficient technique. PMID:27418828

  8. Novel time-dependent alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector in the LHC Run 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez Peña, J.

    2016-11-01

    ATLAS is a multipurpose experiment at the LHC proton-proton collider. Its physics goals require an unbiased and high resolution measurement of the charged particle kinematic parameters. These critically depend on the layout and performance of the tracking system and the quality of the alignment of its components. For the LHC Run 2, the system has been upgraded with the installation of a new pixel layer, the Insertable B-layer (IBL) . ATLAS Inner Detector alignment framework has been adapted and upgraded to correct very short time scale movements of the sub-detectors. In particular, a mechanical distortion of the IBL staves up to 20 μm and a vertical displacement of the Pixel detector of ~ 6 μm have been observed during data-taking. The techniques used to correct for these effects and to match the required Inner Detector performance will be presented.

  9. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    SciTech Connect

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2013-04-16

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  10. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2008-06-24

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  11. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2013-02-12

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  12. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2011-06-14

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  13. 21 CFR 886.5420 - Contact lens inserter/remover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Contact lens inserter/remover. 886.5420 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5420 Contact lens inserter/remover. (a) Identification. A contact lens inserter/remover is a handheld device intended to insert or...

  14. 21 CFR 886.5420 - Contact lens inserter/remover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Contact lens inserter/remover. 886.5420 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5420 Contact lens inserter/remover. (a) Identification. A contact lens inserter/remover is a handheld device intended to insert or...

  15. 21 CFR 886.5420 - Contact lens inserter/remover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Contact lens inserter/remover. 886.5420 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5420 Contact lens inserter/remover. (a) Identification. A contact lens inserter/remover is a handheld device intended to insert or...

  16. 21 CFR 886.5420 - Contact lens inserter/remover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contact lens inserter/remover. 886.5420 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5420 Contact lens inserter/remover. (a) Identification. A contact lens inserter/remover is a handheld device intended to insert or...

  17. 21 CFR 886.5420 - Contact lens inserter/remover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contact lens inserter/remover. 886.5420 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5420 Contact lens inserter/remover. (a) Identification. A contact lens inserter/remover is a handheld device intended to insert or...

  18. Patients' experiences of the PICC insertion procedure.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Jackie; Davies, Louise

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are a type of central venous access device used to deliver a variety of intravenous therapies, including chemotherapy. PICCs may be placed by interventional radiologists, anaesthetists or, as is increasingly common, by specialist nurses in the hospital setting. However, little is known about how patients feel regarding the PICC insertion procedure. The aim of this study was to interview patients who had undergone a recent PICC insertion in the chemotherapy day unit to identify their experiences. On analysis of the qualitative data obtained from the semi-structured interview, five themes emerged: the context of cancer; expectations; levels of pain and anxiety; coping strategies; and explanation. The findings of this study support some previously described elements of procedural experiences; however, new understanding has provided implications for practice in the areas of expectations, allaying anxiety levels, supporting individual coping strategies and providing explanation. The major limitation of the study was the homogenous sample of oncology patients with a clear link between the patient experience of the PICC insertion and the context of cancer. The main recommendation for further research would be to repeat this study with a broader patient population.

  19. Thermal Performance of the XRS Helium Insert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breon, Susan R.; DiPirro, Michael J.; Tuttle, James G.; Shirron, Peter J.; Warner, Brent A.; Boyle, Robert F.; Canavan, Edgar R.

    1999-01-01

    The X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) is an instrument on the Japanese Astro-E satellite, scheduled for launch early in the year 2000. The XRS Helium Insert comprises a superfluid helium cryostat, an Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR), and the XRS calorimeters with their cold electronics. The calorimeters are capable of detecting X-rays over the energy range 0.1 to 10 keV with a resolution of 12 eV. The Helium Insert completed its performance and verification testing at Goddard in January 1999. It was shipped to Japan, where it has been integrated with the neon dewar built by Sumitomo Heavy Industries. The Helium Insert was given a challenging lifetime requirement of 2.0 years with a goal of 2.5 years. Based on the results of the thermal performance tests, the predicted on-orbit lifetime is 2.6 years with a margin of 30%. This is the result of both higher efficiency in the ADR cycle and the low temperature top-off, more than compensating for an increase in the parasitic heat load. This paper presents a summary of the key design features and the results of the thermal testing of the XRS Helium Insert.

  20. Insertion Loss of Personal Protective Clothing

    SciTech Connect

    Shull D.J.; Biesel, V.B.; Cunefare, K.A.

    1999-05-13

    'The use of personal protective clothing that covers the head is a common practice in many industries. Such personal protective clothing will impact the sound pressure level and the frequency content of sounds to which the wearer will be exposed. The use of such clothing, then, may impact speech and alarm audibility. A measure of the impact of such clothing is its insertion loss. Insertion loss measurements were performed on four types of personal protective clothing in use by Westinghouse Savannah River Company personnel which utilize cloth and plastic hood configurations to protect the head. All clothing configurations tested at least partially cover the ears. The measurements revealed that insertion loss of the items tested was notable at frequencies above 1000 Hz only and was a function of material stiffness and acoustic flanking paths to the ear. Further, an estimate of the clothing''s noise reduction rating reveals poor performance in that regard, even though the insertion loss of the test articles was significant at frequencies at and above 1000 Hz.'

  1. A design for vertical crossing insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Garren, A.

    1985-10-01

    A crossing insertion designed for an SSC with vertically separated 1-in-1 beam lines is presented in this note. The author supposes that the beam lines consist of separate magnets in separate cryostats separated by about 70 cm. He then describes the design, where vertical separation is done with four vertical dipoles producing a steplike beam line.

  2. Frequency, Gradience, and Variation in Consonant Insertion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Young-ran

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the extent to which linguistic behavior can be described in terms of the projection of patterns from existing lexical items, through an investigation of Korean reduplication. Korean has a productive pattern of reduplication in which a consonant is inserted in a vowel-initial base, illustrated by forms such as "alok"--"t…

  3. Peripherally inserted central catheters. Intravenous Nurses Society.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    The Intravenous Nurses Society (INS) recognizes the need for uniform terminology for peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) to encourage standardization for indications, care, and maintenance strategies for these devices. It also recognizes the need for recommendations regarding the choice, use, management, and discontinuation of PICCs to promote positive patient outcomes and enhance patient comfort, safety, and satisfaction.

  4. Lymphatic Leak Complicating Central Venous Catheter Insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Barnacle, Alex M. Kleidon, Tricia M.

    2005-12-15

    Many of the risks associated with central venous access are well recognized. We report a case of inadvertent lymphatic disruption during the insertion of a tunneled central venous catheter in a patient with raised left and right atrial pressures and severe pulmonary hypertension, which led to significant hemodynamic instability. To our knowledge, this rare complication is previously unreported.

  5. Embedded Multiprocessor Technology for VHSIC Insertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Paul J.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on embedded multiprocessor technology for VHSIC insertion are presented. The objective was to develop multiprocessor system technology providing user-selectable fault tolerance, increased throughput, and ease of application representation for concurrent operation. The approach was to develop graph management mapping theory for proper performance, model multiprocessor performance, and demonstrate performance in selected hardware systems.

  6. Inserting new technology into small missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, L. J.

    2001-01-01

    Part of what makes small missions small is that they have less money. Executing missions at low cost implies extensive use of cost sharing with other missions or use of existing solutions. Luckily, there are methods for creating new technology and inserting it into faster-better-cheaper missions.

  7. Consolidation and disposal of PWR fuel inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeman, B.H. )

    1992-08-01

    Design and licensing of the Surry Power Station Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation was initiated in 1982 by Virginia Power as part of a comprehensive strategy to increase spent fuel storage capacity at the Station. Designed to use large, metal dry storage casks, the Surry Installation will accommodate 84 such casks with a total storage capacity of 811 MTU of spent pressurized water reactor fuel assemblies. Virginia Power provided three storage casks for testing at the Idaho National Engineerinq Laboratory's Test Area North and the testing results have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute. Sixty-nine spent fuel assemblies were transported in truck casks from the Surry Power Station to Test Area North for testing in the three casks. Because of restrictions imposed by the cask testing equipment at Test Area North, the irradiated insert components stored in these fuel assemblies at Surry were removed prior to transport of the fuel assemblies. Retaining these insert components proved to be a problem because of a shortage of spent fuel assemblies in the spent fuel storage pool that did not already contain insert components. In 1987 Virginia Power contracted with Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. to process and dispose of 136 irradiated insert components consisting of 125 burnable poison rod assemblies, 10 thimble plugging devices and 1 part-length rod cluster control assembly. This work was completed in August and September 1987, culminating in the disposal at the Barnwell, SC low-level radioactive waste facility of two CNS 3-55 liners containing the consolidated insert components.

  8. Distal Insertions of the Biceps Femoris

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Eric A.; Anz, Adam W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Avulsion of the biceps femoris from the fibula and proximal tibia is encountered in clinical practice. While the anatomy of the primary posterolateral corner structures has been qualitatively and quantitatively described, a quantitative analysis regarding the insertions of the biceps femoris on the fibula and proximal tibia is lacking. Purpose: To quantitatively assess the insertions of the biceps femoris, fibular collateral ligament (FCL), and anterolateral ligament (ALL) on the fibula and proximal tibia as well as establish relationships among these structures and to pertinent surgical anatomy. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Dissections were performed on 12 nonpaired, fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens identifying the biceps femoris, FCL, and ALL, and their insertions on the proximal tibia and fibula. The footprint areas, orientations, and distances from relevant osseous landmarks were measured using a 3-dimensional coordinate measurement device. Results: Dissection produced 6 easily identifiable and reproducible anatomic footprints. Tibial footprints included the insertion of the ALL and an insertion of the biceps femoris (TBF). Fibular footprints included the insertion of the FCL, a distal insertion of the biceps femoris (DBF), a medial footprint of the biceps femoris (MBF), and a proximal footprint of the biceps femoris (PBF). The mean area of these footprints (95% CI) was as follows: ALL, 53.0 mm2 (38.4-67.6); TBF, 93.9 mm2 (72.0-115.8); FCL, 86.8 mm2 (72.3-101.2); DBF, 119 mm2 (91.1-146.9); MBF, 46.8 mm2 (29.0-64.5); and PBF, 215 mm2 (192.4-237.5). The mean distance (95% CI) from the Gerdy tubercle to the center of the ALL footprint was 24.3 mm (21.6-27.0) and to the center of the TBF was 22.5 mm (21.0-24.0). The center of the DBF was 8.68 mm (7.0-10.3) from the anterior border of the fibula, the center of the FCL was 14.6 mm (12.5-16.7) from the anterior border of the fibula and 20.7 mm (19.0-22.4) from the tip of the fibular

  9. Effect of Off-Axis Screw Insertion, Insertion Torque, and Plate Contouring on Locked Screw Strength

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Bethany; Silva, Matthew J.; Ricci, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study quantifies the effects of insertion torque, off-axis screw angulation, and plate contouring on the strength of locking plate constructs. Methods Groups of locking screws (n = 6–11 screws) were inserted at 50%, 100%, 150%, and 200% of the manufacturer-recommended torque (3.2 Nm) into locking compression plates at various angles: orthogonal (control), 5-degree angle off-axis, and 10-degree angle off-axis. Screws were loaded to failure by a transverse force (parallel to the plate) either in the same (“+”) or opposite direction (“−”) of the initial screw angulation. Separately, locking plates were bent to 5 and 10-degree angles, with the bend apex at a screw hole. Locking screws inserted orthogonally into the apex hole at 100% torque were loaded to failure. Results Orthogonal insertion resulted in the highest average load to failure, 2577 ± 141 N (range, 2413–2778 N), whereas any off-axis insertion significantly weakened constructs (165–1285 N, at 100% torque) (P < 0.05). For “+” loading, torque beyond 100% did not increase strength, but 50% torque reduced screw strength (P < 0.05). Loading in the “−” direction consistently resulted in higher strengths than “+” loading (P < 0.05). Plate contouring of 5-degree angle did not significantly change screw strength compared with straight plates but contouring of 10-degree angle significantly reduced load to failure (P < 0.05). Conclusions To maximize the screw plate interface strength, locking screws should be inserted without cross-threading. The mechanical stability of locked screws is significantly compromised by loose insertion, off-axis insertion, or severe distortion of the locking mechanism. PMID:24343255

  10. Descemet's Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty Tissue Insertion Devices

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Salman Nasir; Shiakolas, Panos S.; Mootha, Venkateswara Vinod

    2015-01-01

    This review study provides information regarding the construction, design, and use of six commercially available endothelial allograft insertion devices applied for Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK). We also highlight issues being faced in DSAEK and discuss the methods through which medical devices such as corneal inserters may alleviate these issues. Inserter selection is of high importance in the DSAEK procedure since overcoming the learning curve associated with the use of an insertion device is a time and energy consuming process. In the present review, allograft insertion devices were compared in terms of design, construction material, insertion technique, dimensions, incision requirements and endothelial cell loss to show their relative merits and capabilities based on available data in the literature. Moreover, the advantages/disadvantages of various insertion devices used for allograft insertion in DSAEK are reviewed and compared. The information presented in this review can be utilized for better selection of an insertion device for DSAEK. PMID:27051492

  11. Perception and Action in Teleoperated Needle Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Nisky, Ilana; Pressman, Assaf; Pugh, Carla M.; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A.; Karniel, Amir

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of delay on perception and action in contact with a force field that emulates elastic soft tissue with a rigid nonlinear boundary. Such field is similar to forces exerted on a needle during teleoperated needle insertion. We found that delay causes motor underestimation of the stiffness of this nonlinear soft tissue, without perceptual change. These experimental results are supported by simulation of a simplified mechanical model of the arm and neural controller, and a model for perception of stiffness, which is based on regression in the force-position space. In addition, we show that changing the gain of the teleoperation channel cancels the motor effect of delay without adding perceptual distortion. We conclude that it is possible to achieve perceptual and motor transparency in virtual one-dimensional remote needle insertion task. PMID:26379813

  12. A small, insertable oven for boronization

    SciTech Connect

    Brouchous, D.A.; Diebold, D.A.; Doczy, M.L.

    1996-04-01

    A small insertable oven for benchmarking the boronizing characteristics of solid compounds, such as decaborane and carborane, has been developed for the Phaedrus-T tokamak. Assembly and installation of the oven are relatively easy as the oven design utilizes a Langmuir probe drive assembly, which is standard equipment on most tokamaks and allows the oven to be inserted into the tokamak without requiring a vent. Films deposited by heating carborane into the vapor state with the oven are found to be spatially nonuniform in both thickness and in the ratio of boron to carbon as compared to films deposited with trimethylboron, a gaseous compound. Overall plasma performance is not found to be greatly affected by whether decaborane, carborane or trimethylboron is used for boronization in Phaedrus-T. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.} {lt}ii;010512{gt}

  13. INSERTION DEVICE ACTIVITIES FOR NSLS-II.

    SciTech Connect

    TANABE,T.; HARDER, D.A.; HULBERT, S.; RAKOWSKI, G.; SKARITKA, J.

    2007-06-25

    National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II) will be a medium energy storage ring of 3GeV electron beam energy with sub-nm.rad horizontal emittance and top-off capability at 500mA. Damping wigglers will be used not only to reduce the beam emittance but also used as broadband sources for users. Cryo-Permanent Magnet Undulators (CPMUs) are considered for hard X-ray linear device, and permanent magnet based elliptically polarized undulators (EPUs) for variable polarization devices for soft X-ray. 6T superconducting wiggler with minimal fan angle will be installed in the second phase as well as quasi-periodic EPU for VUV and possibly high-temperature superconducting undulator. R&D plans have been established to pursue the performance enhancement of the baseline devices and to design new types of insertion devices. A new insertion device development laboratory will also be established.

  14. Umbilical cord insertion: normal location in neonates.

    PubMed

    Salgado, L; Paz, J E

    1992-12-01

    The distances between the xyphoid appendix and the insertion point of the umbilical cord (XU) and between the xyphoid appendix and upper edge of the pubic symphysis (XP) were measured in 201 newborn infants. The mean ratio XU/XP was 0.62 (S.D. 0.044) with no differences between sexes nor correlations with weight or length. Ratios lying between 0.53 and 0.71 can be considered as within the normal range.

  15. J85 Rejuvenation Through Technology Insertion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    and Sabre 75 business addition to military production, the J85 was jets . Number Model Produced Aircraft Type(s) Engine Type Thrust (lbs) J85-GE-4 740...REJUVENATION THROUGH TECHNOLOGY INSERTION T.A. Brisken, P.N. Howell, A.C. Ewing Military Engines Operation GE Aircraft Engines 1 Neumann Way Cincinnati...OH 45215, USA Summary thrust to weight ratio turbojet engines with potential application to early cruise missiles and drones. The history of the

  16. Thermally Activated Retainers For Insertion In Gaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimaldi, Margaret E.; Hartz, Leslie S.

    1992-01-01

    Mechanical retainers of new type for use with gap filler easy to install and to attach themselves securely. Concept based on shape-memory properties of metal alloy Nitinol, alloy of nickel and titanium. Retainers conceived for use with Space Shuttle insulating tiles but used on other assemblies of blocks or tiles configured similarly. Tabs bent outward made flush by cooling below memory transition temperature. After insertion in gap and reheating, tabs spring outward.

  17. Anionic phospholipids modulate peptide insertion into membranes.

    PubMed

    Liu, L P; Deber, C M

    1997-05-06

    While the insertion of a hydrophobic peptide or membrane protein segment into the bilayer can be spontaneous and driven mainly by the hydrophobic effect, anionic lipids, which comprise ca. 20% of biological membranes, provide a source of electrostatic attractions for binding of proteins/peptides into membranes. To unravel the interplay of hydrophobicity and electrostatics in the binding of peptides into membranes, we designed peptides de novo which possess the typical sequence Lys-Lys-Ala-Ala-Ala-X-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala-Ala-X-Ala-Ala-Trp-Ala-Ala-X-Ala-Al a-Ala-Lys-Lys-Lys-Lys-amide, where X residues correspond to "guest" residues which encompass a range of hydrophobicity (Leu, Ile, Gly, and Ser). Circular dichroism spectra demonstrated that peptides were partially (40-90%) random in aqueous buffer but were promoted to form 100% alpha-helical structures by anionic lipid micelles. In neutral lipid micelles, only the relatively hydrophobic peptides (X = L and I) spontaneously adopted the alpha-helical conformation, but when 25% of negatively charged lipids were mixed in to mimic the content of anionic lipids in biomembranes, the less hydrophobic (X = S and G) peptides then formed alpha-helical conformations. Consistent with these findings, fluorescence quenching by the aqueous-phase quencher iodide indicated that in anionic (dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol) vesicles, the peptide Trp residue was buried in the lipid vesicle hydrophobic core, while in neutral (dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine) vesicles, only hydrophobic (X = L and I) peptides were shielded from the aqueous solution. Trp emission spectra of peptides in the presence of phospholipids doxyl-labeled at the 5-, 7-, 10-, 12-, and 16-fatty acid positions implied not only a transbilayer orientation for inserted peptides but also that mixed peptide populations (transbilayer + surface-associated) may arise. Overall results suggest that for hydrophobic peptides with segmental threshold hydrophobicity below that which

  18. Probe Insertion Apparatus with Inflatable Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimarchi, Paul A.

    1991-01-01

    A sealing apparatus for inserting a probe into a pressure vessel having an elongated opening includes Ii pair of resiliently defQrmable seals opposingly disposed in sealing engagement with each other. A retainer is connected to the pressure vessel around the elongated opening and holds the pair of seals rigidly to the pressure vessel. A wedge is engageable with the pair of seals and carries the probe, for longitudinally translating the probe in the pressure vessel.

  19. Inserting new technology into small missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, L. J.

    2001-01-01

    Part of what makes small missions small is that they have less money. Executing missions at low cost implies extensive use of cost sharing with other missions or use of existing solutions. However, in order to create many small missions, new technology must be developed, applied, and assimilated. Luckily, there are methods for creating new technology and inserting it into faster-better-cheaper (FBC) missions.

  20. Beamline Insertions Manager at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Michael C.

    2015-09-01

    The beam viewer system at Jefferson Lab provides operators and beam physicists with qualitative and quantitative information on the transverse electron beam properties. There are over 140 beam viewers installed on the 12 GeV CEBAF accelerator. This paper describes an upgrade consisting of replacing the EPICS-based system tasked with managing all viewers with a mixed system utilizing EPICS and high-level software. Most devices, particularly the beam viewers, cannot be safely inserted into the beam line during high-current beam operations. Software is partly responsible for protecting the machine from untimely insertions. The multiplicity of beam-blocking and beam-vulnerable devices motivates us to try a data-driven approach. The beamline insertions application components are centrally managed and configured through an object-oriented software framework created for this purpose. A rules-based engine tracks the configuration and status of every device, along with the beam status of the machine segment containing the device. The application uses this information to decide on which device actions are allowed at any given time.

  1. Rack Insertion End Effector (RIEE) guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malladi, Narasimha S.

    1994-01-01

    NASA-KSC has developed a mechanism to handle and insert Racks into the Space Station Logistic Modules. This mechanism consists of a Base with 3 motorized degrees of freedom, a 3 section motorized Boom that goes from 15 to 44 feet in length, and a Rack Insertion End Effector (RIEE) with 5 hand wheels for precise alignment. During the 1993 NASA-ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program at KSC, I designed an Active Vision (Camera) Arrangement and developed an algorithm to determine (1) the displacements required by the Room for its initial positioning and (2) the rotations required at the five hand-wheels of the RIEE, for the insertion of the Rack, using the centroids fo the Camera Images of the Location Targets in the Logistic Module. Presently, during the summer of '94, I completed the preliminary design of an easily portable measuring instrument using encoders to obtain the 3-Dimensional Coordinates of Location Targets in the Logistics Module relative to the RIEE mechanism frame. The algorithm developed in '93 can use the output of this instrument also. Simplification of the '93 work and suggestions for the future work are discussed.

  2. App-assisted external ventricular drain insertion.

    PubMed

    Eftekhar, Behzad

    2016-09-01

    The freehand technique for insertion of an external ventricular drain (EVD) is based on fixed anatomical landmarks and does not take individual variations into consideration. A patient-tailored approach based on augmented-reality techniques using devices such as smartphones can address this shortcoming. The Sina neurosurgical assist (Sina) is an Android mobile device application (app) that was designed and developed to be used as a simple intraoperative neurosurgical planning aid. It overlaps the patient's images from previously performed CT or MRI studies on the image seen through the device camera. The device is held by an assistant who aligns the images and provides information about the relative position of the target and EVD to the surgeon who is performing EVD insertion. This app can be used to provide guidance and continuous monitoring during EVD placement. The author describes the technique of Sina-assisted EVD insertion into the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle and reports on its clinical application in 5 cases as well as the results of ex vivo studies of ease of use and precision. The technique has potential for further development and use with other augmented-reality devices.

  3. DEVICE FOR CONTROLLING INSERTION OF ROD

    DOEpatents

    Beaty, B.J.

    1958-10-14

    A device for rapidly inserting a safety rod into a nuclear reactor upon a given signal or in the event of a power failure in order to prevent the possibility of extensive damage caused by a power excursion is described. A piston is slidably mounted within a vertical cylinder with provision for an electromagnetic latch at the top of the cylinder. This assembly, with a safety rod attached to the piston, is mounted over an access port to the core region of the reactor. The piston is normally latched at the top of the cylinder with the safety rod clear of the core area, however, when the latch is released, the piston and rod drop by their own weight to insert the rod. Vents along the side of the cylinder permit the escape of the air entrapped under the piston over the greater part of the distance, however, at the end of the fall the entrapped air is compressed thereby bringing the safety rod gently to rest, thus providing for a rapid automatic insertion of the rod with a minimum of structural shock.

  4. Force measurement of insertion of cochlear implant electrode arrays in-vitro: Comparison of surgeon to automated insertion tool

    PubMed Central

    Majdani, O; Hussong, A; Rau, TS; Wittkopf, J; Lenarz, T; Labadie, RF

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions We have demonstrated that an automated insertion tool (a.k.a. robot) can be used to duplicate a complex surgical motion in inserting cochlear implant electrode arrays via the “advance-off-stylet” technique (AOS). As compared to human operators, the forces generated by the robot were slightly larger but the robot was more reliable (i.e. less force maxima). Objectives We present force data collected during cochlear implant electrode insertion by human operators and by an automated insertion tool (a.k.a. robot). Methods Using a three-dimensional, anatomically-correct, translucent model of the scala tympani chamber of the cochlea, cochlear implant electrodes were inserted either by one of three surgeons (26 insertions) or by the robotic insertion tool (8 insertions). Force was recorded using a load beam cell calibrated for expected forces of less than 0.1 Newtons. The insertions were also videotaped to allow correlation of force with depth of penetration into the cochlea and speed of insertion. Results Average insertion force by the surgeons was 0.004±0.001N and for the insertion tool 0.005±0.014N (p < 0.00001, Student’s t-test). While the average insertion force of the automated tool was larger than that of the surgeons, the surgeons did have intermittent peaks during the AOS component of the insertion (between 120° and 200°). PMID:19484593

  5. Epidural insertion simulator of higher insertion resistance & drop rate after puncture.

    PubMed

    Naemura, K; Sakai, A; Hayashi, T; Saito, H

    2008-01-01

    Accidents such as dural puncture remain one of the problems of epidural anesthesia, and unskilled doctors can repeat such accidents. The purpose of the current research was to provide a new simulator for epidural insertion training. No reference data regarding the resistance force used when inserting a needle into patients have been reported. A comparative study was conducted to aid in the development of a new simulator. Pork loin (n=5) were employed as a substitute for patients. Thickness was set at 2 cm so as to improve the reproducibility. The authors took the conventional simulator apart, and picked a block as an analogue of muscle and ligamentum flavum. A new simulator was made of a melamine foam resin block and a latex rubber sheet. An epidural needle fixed on a motorized stage was inserted at the speed of 2 mm per second. The reaction force was measured while the needle was inserted into each specimen. Waveform of the pork loin exhibited two slopes of different inclines up to peaks and then falls after puncture. The conventional simulator showed a simple increase up to peak and a slow fall after puncture. In contrast, the new simulator showed two slopes up to peak and then a sudden fall after puncture. The insertion resistances were 2.5 N/s for the porcine, 0.8 N/s for the conventional and 2.1 N/s for the new simulator. The drop rates were 5 N/s for the porcine, 0.6 N/s for the conventional and 24 N/s for the new simulator. The higher insertion resistance and drop rate for the new simulator than the conventional simulator will be suitable for epidural insertion training.

  6. Estimation of insertion depth angle based on cochlea diameter and linear insertion depth: a prediction tool for the CI422.

    PubMed

    Franke-Trieger, Annett; Mürbe, Dirk

    2015-11-01

    Beside the cochlear size, the linear insertion depth (LID) influences the insertion depth angle of cochlear implant electrode arrays. For the specific implant CI422 the recommended LID is not fixed but can vary continuously between 20 and 25 mm. In the current study, the influence of cochlea size and LID on the final insertion depth angle was investigated to develop a prediction tool for the insertion depth angle by means of cochlea diameter and LID. Preoperative estimation of insertion depth angles might help surgeons avoid exceeding an intended insertion depth, especially with respect to low-frequency residual hearing preservation. Postoperative, high-resolution 3D-radiographs provided by Flat Panel Computed Volume Tomography (FPCT) were used to investigate the insertion depth angle in 37 CI422 recipients. Furthermore, the FPCT images were used to measure linear insertion depth and diameter of the basal turn of the cochlea. A considerable variation of measured insertion depth angles ranging from 306° to 579° was identified. The measured linear insertion depth ranged from -18.6 to 26.2 mm and correlated positively with the insertion depth angle. The cochlea diameter ranged from 8.11 to 10.42 mm and correlated negatively with the insertion depth angle. The results suggest that preoperatively measured cochlea diameter combined with the option of different array positions by means of LID may act as predictors for the final insertion depth angle.

  7. Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus Science Insert - 03

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Nancy; Stodieck, Louis; Cushing, Paula; Stowe, Mark; Hamilton, Mary Ann; Werner, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus Science Insert - 03 (CSI-03) is the third set of investigations in the CSI program series. The CSI program provides the K-12 community opportunities to utilize the unique microgravity environment of the International Space Station as part of the regular classroom to encourage learning and interest in science, technology, engineering and math. CSI-03 will examine the complete life cycle of the painted lady butterfly and the ability of an orb weaving spider to spin a web, eat and remain healthy in space.

  8. Phoenix's Probe Inserted in Martian Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Phoenix Mars lander's robotic-arm camera took this image of the spacecraft's thermal and electrical-conductivity probe (TECP) inserted into Martian soil on day 149 of the mission. Phoenix landed on Mars' northern plains on May 25, 2008, landing.

    The robotic-arm camera acquired this image at 16:02:41 local solar time. The camera pointing was elevation -72.6986 degrees and azimuth 2.1093 degrees.

    The Phoenix mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Compiler-assisted static checkpoint insertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Junsheng; Fuchs, W. K.; Abraham, Jacob A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a compiler-assisted approach for static checkpoint insertion. Instead of fixing the checkpoint location before program execution, a compiler enhanced polling mechanism is utilized to maintain both the desired checkpoint intervals and reproducible checkpoint 1ocations. The technique has been implemented in a GNU CC compiler for Sun 3 and Sun 4 (Sparc) processors. Experiments demonstrate that the approach provides for stable checkpoint intervals and reproducible checkpoint placements with performance overhead comparable to a previously presented compiler assisted dynamic scheme (CATCH) utilizing the system clock.

  10. Quench Module Insert (QMI) and the Diffusion Module Insert (DMI) Furnace Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, Myscha R.; Carswell, William E.; Farmer, Jeff; Rose, Fred; Tidwell, Paul H., II

    2000-01-01

    The Quench Module Insert (QMI) and the Diffusion Module Insert (DMI) are microgravity furnaces under development at Marshall Space Flight Center. The furnaces are being developed for the first Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) of the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF), one of the first International Space Station (ISS) scientific payloads. QMI is a Bridgman furnace with quench capability for studying interface behavior during directional solidification of metallic and alloy materials. DMI will be a Bridgman-Stockbarger furnace to study diffusion processes in semiconductors. The design for each insert, both QMI and DMI, is driven by specific science, operations and safety requirements, as well as by constraints arising from resource limitations, such as volume, mass and power. Preliminary QMI analysis and testing indicates that the design meets these requirements.

  11. Insertion torque versus mechanical resistance of mini-implants inserted in different cortical thickness

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Renata de Faria; Ruellas, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira; Fernandes, Daniel Jogaib; Elias, Carlos Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to measure insertion torque, tip mechanical resistance to fracture and transmucosal neck of mini-implants (MI) (Conexão Sistemas de PróteseT), as well as to analyze surface morphology. Methods Mechanical tests were carried out to measure the insertion torque of MIs in different cortical thicknesses, and tip mechanical resistance to fracture as well as transmucosal neck of MIs. Surface morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after the mechanical tests. Results Values of mechanical resistance to fracture (22.14 N.cm and 54.95 N.cm) were higher and statistically different (P < 0.05) from values of insertion torque for 1-mm (7.60 N.cm) and 2-mm (13.27 N.cm) cortical thicknesses. Insertion torque was statistically similar (P > 0.05) to torsional fracture in the tip of MI (22.14 N.cm) when 3 mm cortical thickness (16.11 N.cm) and dense bone (23.95 N.cm) were used. Torsional fracture of the transmucosal neck (54.95 N.cm) was higher and statistically different (P < 0.05) from insertion torsional strength in all tested situations. SEM analysis showed that the MIs had the same smooth surface when received from the manufacturer and after the mechanical tests were performed. Additionally, no significant marks resulting from the manufacturing process were observed. Conclusion All mini-implants tested presented adequate surface morphology. The resistance of mini-implants to fracture safely allows placement in 1 and 2-mm cortical thickness. However, in 3-mm cortical thickness and dense bones, pre-drilling with a bur is recommended before insertion. PMID:25162571

  12. Cell line fingerprinting using retroelement insertion polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Ustyugova, Svetlana V; Amosova, Anna L; Lebedev, Yuri B; Sverdlov, Eugene D

    2005-04-01

    Human cell lines are an indispensable tool for functional studies of living entities in their numerous manifestations starting with integral complex systems such as signal pathways and networks, regulation of gene ensembles, epigenetic factors, and finishing with pathological changes and impact of artificially introduced elements, such as various transgenes, on the behavior of the cell. Therefore, it is highly desirable to have reliable cell line identification techniques to make sure that the cell lines to be used in experiments are exactly what is expected. To this end, we developed a set of informative markers based on insertion polymorphism of human retroelements (REs). The set includes 47 pairs of PCR primers corresponding to introns of the human genes with dimorphic LINE1 (L1) and Alu insertions. Using locus-specific PCR assays, we have genotyped 10 human cell lines of various origins. For each of these cell lines, characteristic fingerprints were obtained. An estimated probability that two different cell lines possess the same marker genotype is about 10-18. Therefore, the proposed set of markers provides a reliable tool for cell line identification.

  13. Horizontally separated 1-in-1 crossing insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, M.J.

    1985-10-01

    Previous to this workshop, realistic lattices have been developed for vertically separated l-in-l (e.g., D.E. Johnson, A.A. Garren) and 2-in-1 (e.g., S. Heifets) magnets as well as for horizontally separated 2-in-l magnets (e.g., SSC RDS). Bringing together the widely separated ({approximately}60-70 cm) beams in a reasonable length of tunnel and keeping the dispersion zero at the interaction point has been difficult in the vertical l-in-l case. Most designs have required spacial 2-in-1 quadrupoles near the interaction point where the beams are separated by 15 cm or less. It is not clear that such magnets, as dictated by some of these lattice designs, can easily be built. The purpose of this exercise is to provide a crossing insertion for a realistic lattice which involves horizontally separated l-in-l magnets. The following horizontal crossing insertions, which incorporate the dispersion suppressors and phase trombones into the major arcs, need no special 2-in-1 magnets near the interaction point. The dispersion at the IP created by the horizontal crossing can be cancelled by the dispersion suppressor and one set of triplets.

  14. Radiological Insertion and Management of Peritoneovenous Shunt

    SciTech Connect

    Bratby, M. J.; Hussain, F. F. Lopez, A. J.

    2007-06-15

    The purpose of the study was to report our experience of the management of complications following the insertion of a peritoneovenous shunt for intractable malignant ascites. From June 1999 to January 2006, 26 patients underwent insertion of a peritoneovenous shunt for ascites by interventional radiologists. We have used ultrasound and shuntography to assist in the diagnosis of the cause of shunt blockage. Successful techniques for the restoration of the shunt function include port- pumping, stripping of any fibrin sheath, and revision of either the venous or peritoneal catheter. The procedure was initially successful in all patients with continued patency until death in 17. A further four patients are still alive with a functioning shunt. There was one rapid postprocedure death resulting from pulmonary edema. Two patients developed pneumothorax, managed successfully with either a chest drain or aspiration. Shunt dysfunction occurred eight times in seven patients. There were five successful revisions in four patients. Overall, shunt patency has been maintained in 80.1% of patients. Shunt dysfunction is seen in a significant number of patients, but successful revision of the shunt can be achieved in the majority.

  15. Model of a Hollow Cathode Insert Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.; Polk, James E.

    2004-01-01

    A 2-D axisymmetric fluid model of the plasma in the insert region of a hollow cathode is presented. The level of sophistication included in the model is motivated in part by the need to determine quantitatively plasma fluxes to the emitter surface. The ultimate goal is to assess whether plasma effects can degrade the life of impregnated inserts beyond those documented throughout the 30-50 year history of vacuum cathode technologies. Results from simulations of a 1.2-cm diameter cathode operating at a discharge current of 25 A, and a gas flow rate of 5 sccm, suggest that approximately 10 A of electron current, and 3.5 A of ion current return to the emitter surface. The total emitted electron current computed by the model is about 35 A. Comparisons with plasma measurements suggest that anomalous heating of the plasma due to two-stream instabilities is possible near the orifice region. Solution to the heavy species energy equation, with classical transport and no viscous effects, predicts heavy species temperatures as high as 2640 K.

  16. Insertional mutagenesis and illegitimate recombination in mycobacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Kalpana, G V; Bloom, B R; Jacobs, W R

    1991-01-01

    Mycobacteria, particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, and Mycobacterium avium, are major pathogens of man. Although insertional mutagenesis has been an invaluable genetic tool for analyzing the mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis, it has not yet been possible to apply it to the mycobacteria. To overcome intrinsic difficulties in directly manipulating the genetics of slow-growing mycobacteria, including M. tuberculosis and bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine strains, we developed a system for random shuttle mutagenesis. A genomic library of Mycobacterium smegmatis was subjected to transposon mutagenesis with Tn5 seq1, a derivative of Tn5, in Escherichia coli and these transposon-containing recombinant plasmids were reintroduced into mycobacterial chromosomes by homologous recombination. This system has allowed us to isolate several random auxotrophic mutants of M. smegmatis. To extend this strategy to M. tuberculosis and BCG, targeted mutagenesis was performed using a cloned BCG methionine gene that was subjected to Tn5 seq1 mutagenesis in E. coli and reintroduced into the mycobacteria. Surprisingly for prokaryotes, both BCG and M. tuberculosis were found to incorporate linear DNA fragments into illegitimate sites throughout the mycobacterial genomes at a frequency of 10(-5) to 10(-4) relative to the number of transformants obtained with autonomously replicating vectors. Thus the efficient illegitimate recombination of linear DNA fragments provides the basis for an insertional mutagenesis system for M. tuberculosis and BCG. Images PMID:2052623

  17. Lithium Insertion Chemistry of Some Iron Vanadates

    SciTech Connect

    Patoux, Sebastien; Richardson, Thomas J.

    2007-02-02

    Lithium insertion into various iron vanadates has been investigated. Fe{sub 2}V{sub 4}O{sub 13} and Fe{sub 4}(V{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sub 3} {center_dot} 3H{sub 2}O have discharge capacities approaching 200 mAh/g above 2.0 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li. Although the potential profiles change significantly between the first and subsequent discharges, capacity retention is unexpectedly good. Other phases, structurally related to FeVO{sub 4}, containing copper and/or sodium ions were also studied. One of these, {beta}-Cu{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}(VO{sub 4}){sub 6}, reversibly consumes almost 10 moles of electrons per formula unit (ca. 240 mAh g{sup -1}) between 3.6 and 2.0 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li, in a non-classical insertion process. It is proposed that both copper and vanadium are electrochemically active, whereas iron(III) reacts to form LiFe{sup III}O{sub 2}. The capacity of the Cu{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}(VO{sub 4}){sub 6}/Li system is nearly independent of cycling rate, stabilizing after a few cycles at 120-140 mAh g{sup -1}. Iron vanadates exhibit better capacities than their phosphate analogues, whereas the latter display more constant discharge potentials.

  18. The study of origin of interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in ultra-thin CoFeB layer on the top of MgO based magnetic tunnel junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-Peng; Li, Shaoping; Zheng, Yuankai; Fang, Jason; Chen, Lifan; Hong, Liang; Wang, Haifeng

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive microstructure study has been conducted experimentally for identifying the origin or mechanism of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in the ultra-thin (10 Å) CoFeB layer on the top of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ). The high resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that the feature of crystal structure in 10 Å-CoFeB layer is localized in nature at the CoFeB-MgO interface. On the other hand, the strain-relaxed crystalline structure is observed in the thick CoFeB (20 Å) layer at the CoFeB-MgO interface, associated with a series of dislocation formations. The electron energy loss spectroscopy further suggests that the local chemical stoichiometry of the ultra-thin 10 Å-CoFeB layer is notably changed at the CoFeB-MgO interface, compared with an atomic stoichiometry in a thick 20 Å-CoFeB layer. The origin of PMA mechanism is therefore identified experimentally as an interface effect, which can be attributed to a change of local atom bonding or lattice constant of the transition metal at the CoFeB-MgO based MTJ interface. Furthermore, such a local interfacial atom bonding change is seemly induced by the localized anisotropic strain and consistent with previous theoretical speculations and calculations. The observed experimental findings provide some perspective on microstructure and chemistry on PMA in ultra-thin CoFeB film at the MTJ interface, then deepening our understanding of the mechanism of PMA within MTJ stack and thus facilitating advancement for emerging spintronics technology.

  19. Recessed impingement insert metering plate for gas turbine nozzles

    DOEpatents

    Itzel, Gary Michael; Burdgick, Steven Sebastian

    2002-01-01

    An impingement insert sleeve is provided that is adapted to be disposed in a coolant cavity defined through a stator vane. The insert has a generally open inlet end and first and second diametrically opposed, perforated side walls. A metering plate having at least one opening defined therethrough for coolant flow is mounted to the side walls to generally transverse a longitudinal axis of the insert, and is disposed downstream from said inlet end. The metering plate improves flow distribution while reducing ballooning stresses within the insert and allowing for a more flexible insert attachment.

  20. Insertion of coherence requests for debugging a multiprocessor

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Salapura, Valentina

    2010-02-23

    A method and system are disclosed to insert coherence events in a multiprocessor computer system, and to present those coherence events to the processors of the multiprocessor computer system for analysis and debugging purposes. The coherence events are inserted in the computer system by adding one or more special insert registers. By writing into the insert registers, coherence events are inserted in the multiprocessor system as if they were generated by the normal coherence protocol. Once these coherence events are processed, the processing of coherence events can continue in the normal operation mode.

  1. Method Of Wire Insertion For Electric Machine Stators

    DOEpatents

    Brown, David L; Stabel, Gerald R; Lawrence, Robert Anthony

    2005-02-08

    A method of inserting coils in slots of a stator is provided. The method includes interleaving a first set of first phase windings and a first set of second phase windings on an insertion tool. The method also includes activating the insertion tool to radially insert the first set of first phase windings and the first set of second phase windings in the slots of the stator. In one embodiment, interleaving the first set of first phase windings and the first set of second phase windings on the insertion tool includes forming the first set of first phase windings in first phase openings defined in the insertion tool, and forming the first set of second phase windings in second phase openings defined in the insertion tool.

  2. Intermetallic insertion anodes for lithium batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Thackeray, M. M.; Vaughey, J.; Johnson, C. S.; Kepler, K. D.

    1999-11-12

    Binary intermetallic compounds containing lithium, or lithium alloys, such as Li{sub x}Al, Li{sub x}Si and Li{sub x}Sn have been investigated in detail in the past as negative electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. It is generally acknowledged that the major limitation of these systems is the large volumetric expansion that occurs when lithium reacts with the host metal. Such large increases in volume limit the practical use of lithium-tin electrodes in electrochemical cells. It is generally recognized that metal oxide electrodes, MO{sub y}, in lithium-ion cells operate during charge and discharge by means of a reversible lithium insertion/extraction process, and that the cells offer excellent cycling behavior when the crystallographic changes to the unit cell parameters and unit cell volume of the Li{sub x}MO{sub y} electrode are kept to a minimum. An excellent example of such an electrode is the spinel Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}, which maintains its cubic symmetry without any significant change to the lattice parameter (and hence unit cell volume) during lithium insertion to the rock-salt composition Li{sub 7}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}. This spinel electrode is an example of a ternary Li{sub x}MO{sub y} system in which a binary MO{sub y} framework provides a stable host structure for lithium. With this approach, the authors have turned their attention to exploring ternary intermetallic systems Li{sub x}MM{prime} in the hope of finding a system that is not subject to the high volumetric expansion that typifies many binary systems. In this paper, the authors present recent data of their investigations of lithium-copper-tin and lithium-indium-antimonide electrodes in lithium cells. The data show that lithium can be inserted reversibly into selected intermetallic compounds with relatively small expansion of the lithiated intermetallic structures.

  3. Impact of Orthodontic Decompensation on Bone Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Fabio Pinto; Capelozza Filho, Leopoldino; Garib, Daniela Gamba; Nary Filho, Hugo; Borgo, Evandro José; Cardoso, Mauricio de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    There has always been concern in determining the relationship between orthodontic tooth movement and the consequent biological costs to the periodontium and tooth root. The possibility of evaluating the tooth and bone morphology by CBCT allows more accurate analysis of qualitative and quantitative aspects of these processes. This paper presents a case report of a 20-year-old male patient with Class III malocclusion and hyperdivergent facial pattern, who was surgically treated. A significant amount of labial movement of mandibular incisors was performed during orthodontic treatment before surgery. CBCT was used for evaluation of buccal and lingual bone plates before and after tooth decompensation. The changes in the bone insertion level of maxillary and mandibular incisors in the present case encourage a reflection on the treatment protocol in individuals with dentoskeletal discrepancies. PMID:25436157

  4. Polymorphic Alu insertions among Mayan populations.

    PubMed

    Herrera, R J; Rojas, D P; Terreros, M C

    2007-01-01

    The Mayan homeland within Mesoamerica spans five countries: Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico. There are indications that the people we call the Maya migrated from the north to the highlands of Guatemala as early as 4000 B.C. Their existence was village-based and agricultural. The culture of these Preclassic Mayans owes much to the earlier Olmec civilization, which flourished in the southern portion of North America. In this study, four different Mayan groups were examined to assess their genetic variability. Ten polymorphic Alu insertion (PAI) loci were employed to ascertain the genetic affinities among these Mayan groups. North American, African, European and Asian populations were also examined as reference populations. Our results suggest that the Mayan groups examined in this study are not genetically homogeneous.

  5. INSERTION DEVICE UPGRADE PLANS AT THE NSLS.

    SciTech Connect

    TANABE, T.; BLEDNYKH, A.; HARDER, D.; LEHECKA, M.; RAKOWSKY, G.; SKARITKA, J.

    2005-05-16

    This paper describes plans to upgrade insertion devices (IDs) at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, U.S.A. The aging wiggler (W120) at X25 is being replaced by a 1 m long in-vacuum mini-gap undulator (MGU-X25) optimized for a dedicated macromolecular crystallography program. A new, 1/3 m long, undulator (MGU or SCU-X9), will be installed between a pair of RF cavities at X9, and will serve a new beamline dedicated for small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Both IDs will have provision for cryocooling the NdFeB hybrid arrays to 150K to raise the field and K-value and to obtain better spectral coverage. Design issues of the devices and other considerations, especially magnetic measurement at low temperature, will be discussed.

  6. Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterton, M.

    1997-01-01

    The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff`s understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required.

  7. Neonatal peripherally inserted central catheters: recommendations for prevention of insertion and postinsertion complications.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Pamela R; Miller, Kellee M

    2008-01-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) continue to be necessary in neonatal care. They benefit many premature infants and those needing long-term intravenous access. An experienced inserter, early recognition of PICC candidates, early PICC placement, knowledge of anatomy, and correct choice of vein all increase placement success. As with any invasive procedure, there are risks. These include pain, difficulty advancing the catheter, damage to vessels, catheter malposition, and bleeding. Utilizing assessment skills, following the product manufacturer's instructions, and carefully placing the catheter should minimize most of these risks. Additional risks include postinsertion complications such as occlusions, thrombosis, catheter failure, infection, and catheter malposition. Proper nursing care--which includes controlling infection, properly securing the catheter, and changing the dressing as needed--is key to preventing complications and maintaining the PICC until treatment has been completed.

  8. Core Vessel Insert Handling Robot for the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, Van B; Dayton, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source provides the world's most intense pulsed neutron beams for scientific research and industrial development. Its eighteen neutron beam lines will eventually support up to twenty-four simultaneous experiments. Each beam line consists of various optical components which guide the neutrons to a particular instrument. The optical components nearest the neutron moderators are the core vessel inserts. Located approximately 9 m below the high bay floor, these inserts are bolted to the core vessel chamber and are part of the vacuum boundary. They are in a highly radioactive environment and must periodically be replaced. During initial SNS construction, four of the beam lines received Core Vessel Insert plugs rather than functional inserts. Remote replacement of the first Core Vessel Insert plug was recently completed using several pieces of custom-designed tooling, including a highly complicated Core Vessel Insert Robot. The design of this tool are discussed.

  9. Comparison of Postoperative Drain Insertion versus No Drain Insertion in Thyroidectomies

    PubMed Central

    Al-Habsi, Asma S.; Al-Sulaimani, Al-Anood K.; Taqi, Kadhim M.; Al-Qadhi, Hani A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives A thyroidectomy is a frequently performed surgical procedure which can result in life-threatening complications. The insertion of a drain after a thyroidectomy has been suggested to prevent such complications. This study aimed to evaluate the use of surgical drains following thyroidectomies in relation to postoperative complications and mass sizes. Methods This retrospective case-control study included all thyroidectomies conducted at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, from January 2011 to December 2013. Length of hospital stay, readmission, postoperative complications and mass size were evaluated. Results During the study period, 250 surgeries were carried out on 241 patients. The majority of patients were female (87.2%). Drains were inserted postoperatively after 202 surgeries (80.8%) compared to 48 surgeries (19.2%) without drains. A total of 32 surgeries (12.8%) were conducted on patients with thyroid masses <1 cm, 138 (55.2%) on those with masses between 1–4 cm and 80 (32.0%) on those with masses >4 cm. The association between drain use and mass size was not significant (P = 0.439). Although postoperative complications were more prevalent in patients with drains, the relationship between these factors was not significant (P >0.050). Length of hospital stay was significantly longer among patients with postoperative drains (P <0.010). Conclusion The routine insertion of drains after thyroid surgeries was found to result in longer hospital stays and did not reduce rates of post-thyroidectomy complications. Thyroid mass size should not be used as an indicator for the insertion of a drain after thyroidectomy. PMID:28003893

  10. Large insert environmental genomic library production.

    PubMed

    Taupp, Marcus; Lee, Sangwon; Hawley, Alyse; Yang, Jinshu; Hallam, Steven J

    2009-09-23

    The vast majority of microbes in nature currently remain inaccessible to traditional cultivation methods. Over the past decade, culture-independent environmental genomic (i.e. metagenomic) approaches have emerged, enabling researchers to bridge this cultivation gap by capturing the genetic content of indigenous microbial communities directly from the environment. To this end, genomic DNA libraries are constructed using standard albeit artful laboratory cloning techniques. Here we describe the construction of a large insert environmental genomic fosmid library with DNA derived from the vertical depth continuum of a seasonally hypoxic fjord. This protocol is directly linked to a series of connected protocols including coastal marine water sampling [1], large volume filtration of microbial biomass [2] and a DNA extraction and purification protocol [3]. At the outset, high quality genomic DNA is end-repaired with the creation of 5 -phosphorylated blunt ends. End-repaired DNA is subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for size selection and gel extraction is performed to recover DNA fragments between 30 and 60 thousand base pairs (Kb) in length. Size selected DNA is purified away from the PFGE gel matrix and ligated to the phosphatase-treated blunt-end fosmid CopyControl vector pCC1 (EPICENTRE http://www.epibio.com/item.asp?ID=385). Linear concatemers of pCC1 and insert DNA are subsequently headfull packaged into phage particles by lambda terminase, with subsequent infection of phage-resistant E. coli cells. Successfully transduced clones are recovered on LB agar plates under antibiotic selection and archived in 384-well plate format using an automated colony picking robot (Qpix2, GENETIX). The current protocol draws from various sources including the CopyControl Fosmid Library Production Kit from EPICENTRE and the published works of multiple research groups [4-7]. Each step is presented with best practice in mind. Whenever possible we highlight subtleties

  11. Threaded insert for compact cryogenic-capable pressure vessels

    DOEpatents

    Espinosa-Loza, Francisco; Ross, Timothy O.; Switzer, Vernon A.; Aceves, Salvador M.; Killingsworth, Nicholas J.; Ledesma-Orozco, Elias

    2015-06-16

    An insert for a cryogenic capable pressure vessel for storage of hydrogen or other cryogenic gases at high pressure. The insert provides the interface between a tank and internal and external components of the tank system. The insert can be used with tanks with any or all combinations of cryogenic, high pressure, and highly diffusive fluids. The insert can be threaded into the neck of a tank with an inner liner. The threads withstand the majority of the stress when the fluid inside the tank that is under pressure.

  12. Phoenix Conductivity Probe Inserted into Martian Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander inserted the four needles of its thermal and conductivity probe into Martian soil during the 98th Martian day, or sol, of the mission and left it in place until Sol 99 (Sept. 4, 2008).

    The Robotic Arm Camera on Phoenix took this image on the morning of Sol 99 while the probe's needles were in the ground. The science team informally named this soil target 'Gandalf.'

    The thermal and conductivity probe measures how fast heat and electricity move from one needle to an adjacent one through the soil or air between the needles. Conductivity readings can be indicators about water vapor, water ice and liquid water.

    The probe is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity suite of instruments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. IYA2009 newspaper insert in your community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J.

    2008-06-01

    The Gemini PIO (Public Information Officer) offers suggestions on how to approach your local newspaper about a newspaper insert for your community being published during IYA2009. Local government support, articles by astronomers, advertisers, and appointing someone within your organisation to manage the content will be discussed. We will explain the timeline required, the number of personnel hours required, developmental stages and income a local newspaper would have to generate to produce a quality, table-top supplement. In 2003, over 30,000 copies of Stars over Mauna Kea, a special supplement in tabloid format were produced and distributed in the local newspapers in Hilo, Hawaii. The publication, 48 pages in total, featured profiles of the observatories on Mauna Kea, stories about the geology and legends of Mauna Kea, and historical information about the evolution of astronomy in Hawaii. In additionthe publication included a series of essays titled In their own words. These articles were written by key members of the astronomy community. Sixty thousand copies of Stars over Mauna Kea II were printed as a follow-up to the first edition in 2005. This second edition included an article on the `Imiloa Astronomy Education Center, explanations about the types of telescopes on Mauna Kea and columns written by scientists about the fascinating and significant discoveries made on Hawaii. Personal stories about careers in astronomy were also highlighted. In Chile, a similar eight-page supplement, featuring Gemini, CTIO and SOAR telescopes, was published in 2005 and 5000 copies were distributed throughout the country.

  14. Insertion devices for DORIS III (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pflüger, J.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, a major reconstruction of the electron storage ring DORIS II, the DORIS III project, has been completed [W. Brefeld, H. Nesemann, and J. Rossbach, Proceedings of the European Particle Accelerator Conference, Rome (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988), p. 2389]. Figure 1 shows an overview of the new ring. Originally DORIS II had a twofold symmetry. In part C each of the two dipole magnets adjacing to the 65-m-long straight section was replaced by three corresponding weaker ones. In this way a total of seven straight sections for insertion devices are provided. Six of them are 4-m long and the one in the center is only 2.7-m long. After extensive discussions with the user groups involved, four x-ray wigglers, one asymmetric hybrid structure, one x-ray undulator, and one XUV multiple undulator of the revolver type have been proposed for six of the sections [J. Pflüger and P. Gurtler, Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 287, 628 (1990)]. One section is presently still free. All devices are either in construction or have already been completed and installed. In this contribution the mechanical and magnetic design of these devices will be described. Results of magnetic measurements of those devices which are already completed will be given in more detail.

  15. Replicative resolution of integron cassette insertion

    PubMed Central

    Loot, Céline; Ducos-Galand, Magaly; Escudero, José Antonio; Bouvier, Marie; Mazel, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Site-specific recombination catalyzed by tyrosine recombinases follows a common pathway consisting of two consecutive strand exchanges. The first strand exchange generates a Holliday junction (HJ), which is resolved by a second strand exchange. In integrons, attC sites recombine as folded single-stranded substrates. Only one of the two attC site strands, the bottom one, is efficiently bound and cleaved by the integrase during the insertion of gene cassettes at the double-stranded attI site. Due to the asymmetry of this complex, a second strand exchange on the attC bottom strand (bs) would form linearized abortive recombination products. We had proposed that HJ resolution would rely on an uncharacterized mechanism, probably replication. Using an attC site carried on a plasmid with each strand specifically tagged, we followed the destiny of each strand after recombination. We demonstrated that only one strand, the one carrying the attC bs, is exchanged. Furthermore, we show that the recombination products contain the attC site bs and its entire de novo synthesized complementary strand. Therefore, we demonstrate the replicative resolution of single-strand recombination in integrons and rule out the involvement of a second strand exchange of any kind in the attC × attI reaction. PMID:22740653

  16. Roles of carboxyl groups in the transmembrane insertion of peptides

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, Francisco N.; Weerakkody, Dhammika; Anderson, Michael; Andreev, Oleg A.; Reshetnyak, Yana K.; Engelman, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    We have used the pHLIP® peptide to study the roles of carboxyl groups in transmembrane peptide insertion. The pH (low) insertion peptide (pHLIP) binds to the surface of a lipid bilayer as a disordered peptide at neutral pH, and when the pH is lowered it inserts across the membrane to form a transmembrane helix. Peptide insertion is reversed when the pH is raised above the characteristic pKa (6.0). A key event facilitating the membrane insertion is the protonation of aspartic (Asp) and/or glutamic (Glu) acid residues, since at neutral pH their negatively charged side chains hinder membrane insertion. In order to gain mechanistic understanding, we studied the membrane insertion and exit of a series of pHLIP variants where the four Asp residues were sequentially mutated to nonacidic residues, including histidine (His). Our results show that the presence of His residues does not prevent the pH-dependent peptide membrane insertion at ~pH 4 driven by the protonation of carboxyl groups at the inserting end of the peptide. A further pH drop leads to the protonation of His residues in the TM part of peptide, which induces peptide exit from the bilayer. We also find that the number of ionizable residues that undergo a change in protonation during membrane insertion correlates with the pH-dependent insertion into and exit from the lipid bilayer, and that cooperativity increases with their number. We expect that our understanding will be used to improve the targeting of acidic diseased tissue by pHLIP peptides. PMID:21888917

  17. Submission of the first full scale prototype chip for upgraded ATLAS pixel detector at LHC, FE-I4A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero, Marlon; Arutinov, David; Beccherle, Roberto; Darbo, Giovanni; Dube, Sourabh; Elledge, David; Fleury, Julien; Fougeron, Denis; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gensolen, Fabrice; Gnani, Dario; Gromov, Vladimir; Jensen, Frank; Hemperek, Tomasz; Karagounis, Michael; Kluit, Ruud; Kruth, Andre; Mekkaoui, Abderrezak; Menouni, Mohsine; Schipper, Jan David; Wermes, Norbert; Zivkovic, Vladimir

    2011-09-01

    A new ATLAS pixel chip FE-I4 is being developed for use in upgraded LHC luminosity environments, including the near-term Insertable B-Layer (IBL) upgrade. FE-I4 is designed in a 130 nm CMOS technology, presenting advantages in terms of radiation tolerance and digital logic density compared to the 0.25 μm CMOS technology used for the current ATLAS pixel IC, FE-I3. The FE-I4 architecture is based on an array of 80×336 pixels, each 50×250 μm2, consisting of analog and digital sections. In the summer 2010, a first full scale prototype FE-I4A was submitted for an engineering run. This IC features the full scale pixel array as well as the complex periphery of the future full-size FE-I4. The FE-I4A contains also various extra test features which should prove very useful for the chip characterization, but deviate from the needs for standard operation of the final FE-I4 for IBL. In this paper, focus will be brought to the various features implemented in the FE-I4A submission, while also underlining the main differences between the FE-I4A IC and the final FE-I4 as envisioned for IBL.

  18. Planar slim-edge pixel sensors for the ATLAS upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altenheiner, S.; Goessling, C.; Jentzsch, J.; Klingenberg, R.; Lapsien, T.; Muenstermann, D.; Rummler, A.; Troska, G.; Wittig, T.

    2012-02-01

    The ATLAS detector at CERN is a general-purpose experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost tracking detector of ATLAS and requires a sufficient level of hermeticity to achieve superb track reconstruction performance. The current planar n-type pixel sensors feature a pixel matrix of n+-implantations which is (on the opposite p-side) surrounded by so-called guard rings to reduce the high voltage stepwise towards the cutting edge and an additional safety margin. Because of the inactive region around the active area, the sensor modules have been shingled on top of each other's edge which limits the thermal performance and adds complexity in the present detector. The first upgrade phase of the ATLAS pixel detector will consist of the insertable b-layer (IBL), an additional b-layer which will be inserted into the present detector in 2013. Several changes in the sensor design with respect to the existing detector had to be applied to comply with the IBL's specifications and are described in detail. A key issue for the ATLAS upgrades is a flat arrangement of the sensors. To maintain the required level of hermeticity in the detector, the inactive sensor edges have to be reduced to minimize the dead space between the adjacent detector modules. Unirradiated and irradiated sensors with the IBL design have been operated in test beams to study the efficiency performance in the sensor edge region and it was found that the inactive edge width could be reduced from 1100 μm to less than 250 μm.

  19. [Umbilical and peripherally inserted venous central catheterization of the newborn].

    PubMed

    Bouissou, A; Rakza, T; Storme, L; Lafarghe, A; Fily, A; Diependaele, J-F; Dalmas, S

    2008-09-01

    Umbilical venous and peripherally inserted venous central catheters are widely used to perfuse low-weight preterm and term newborns in intensive care units. This catheter must be inserted carefully and monitored rigorously to prevent complications. This paper develops today's knowledge on the use and complications in the newborn population.

  20. 21 CFR 310.515 - Patient package inserts for estrogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Patient package inserts for estrogens. 310.515 Section 310.515 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements for Specific New Drugs or Devices § 310.515 Patient package inserts for estrogens....

  1. Interface study of insertion layers in organic semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Huanjun; Irfan, "; So, Franky; Gao, Yongli

    2009-08-01

    Inserting an ultra-thin interlayer has been an important means in modifying the performance of organic semiconductor devices. Using photoemission and inverse photoemission spectroscopy (UPS, XPS and IPES), we have investigated the electronic structure of a number of insertion layers widely used in organic semiconductor devices. We found that inserting alkali metal compound thin layers such as LiF between the electron transport layer (ETL) and the cathode can induce energy level shift in the ETL that reduces the electron injection barrier. The reduction is attributed to the release of the alkali metal that n-doped the ETL, and as such it depends on the cathode material deposited on top of the insertion layer. For thin metal oxide insertion layers, such as MoO3, between the anode and the hole transport layer (HTL), reduction of the hole injection barrier is also observed. This reduction, however, is due to the large workfunction of the oxide that subsequently moves the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) toward the anode Fermi level. Effects of other insertion layers, such as metal insertion layer in organic bistable device (OBD) and organic insertion layer in bipolar organic thin film transistors (OTFT) will also be discussed.

  2. Combined plasma and thermal hollow cathode insert model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Ira; Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ionnis G.; Goebel, Dan m.; Hornbeck, Sarah E.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present the first results from a Hollow Cathode Thermal (HCThermal) model that uses the spatially distributed plasma fluxes calculated by the InsertRegion of an Orificed Cathode (IROrCa2D) code as the heat source to predict the hollow cathode and insert temperatures.

  3. Piezo-Driven Vibrating Insertion Device for Microelectrode Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Takahiro; Kanzaki, Ryohei; Takahashi, Hirokazu

    Microelectrode arrays are commonly used to measure neural activities in the brain, and arrays with some 100 electrodes are commercially available to date. However, insertion of a dense grid array deforms the brain, resulting in deterioration of the measurements. In order to overcome this problem, we propose a piezo-driven vibrating insertion device to reduce the insertion-induced deformation of the brain. We attempted under various conditions to insert the array into an agarose substrate, whose hardness was adjusted to that of the cerebral cortex of rats. Our experiments demonstrated that inverse-sawtooth vibration reduced the insertion-induced deformation of the substrate in proportion to the logarithm of an upstroke velocity when the velocity was higher than 10 mm/s, and vibrating insertion of the maximum velocity at 36.7 mm/s reduced the deformation by up to 40% as compared to insertion without vibration. In addition, we tested the vibrating insertion device in an electrophysiological experiment in the rat auditory cortex in vivo, and successfully measured tone-evoked neuronal activities.

  4. Load beam unit replaceable inserts for dry coal extrusion pumps

    DOEpatents

    Saunders, Timothy; Brady, John D.

    2012-11-13

    A track assembly for a particulate material extrusion pump according to an exemplary aspect of the present disclosure includes a link assembly with a roller bearing. An insert mounted to a load beam located such that the roller bearing contacts the insert.

  5. Cruciate retaining and cruciate substituting ultra-congruent insert

    PubMed Central

    Deledda, Davide; Rosso, Federica; Ratto, Nicola; Bruzzone, Matteo; Bonasia, Davide Edoardo; Rossi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) conservation and the polyethylene insert constraint in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are still debated. The PCL is one of the primary stabilizers of the joint, but cruciate retaining (CR) implants have the disadvantage of a difficult balancing of the PCL. Postero-stabilized (PS) implants were introduced to reduce this problem. However, also the PS implants have some disadvantages, due to the cam-mechanism, such as high risk of cam-mechanism polyethylene wear. To minimize the polyethylene wear of the cam-mechanism and the bone sacrifice due to the intercondylar box, different types of inserts were developed, trying to increase the implant conformity and to reduce stresses on the bone-implant interface. In this scenario ultra-congruent (UC) inserts were developed. Those inserts are characterized by a high anterior wall and a deep-dished plate. This conformation should guarantee a good stability without the posterior cam. Few studies on both kinematic and clinical outcomes of UC inserts are available. Clinical and radiological outcomes, as well as kinematic data are similar between UC mobile bearing (MB) and standard PS MB inserts at short to mid-term follow-up. In this manuscript biomechanics and clinical outcomes of UC inserts will be described, and they will be compared to standard PS or CR inserts. PMID:26855938

  6. Z-2 Threaded Insert Design and Testing Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, RIchard; Graziosi, Dave; Jones, Bobby; Ferl, Jinny; Scarborough, Steve; Sweeney, Mitch

    2016-01-01

    The Z-2 Prototype Planetary Extravehicular Space Suit Assembly is a continuation of NASA's Z series of spacesuits. The Z-2 is another step in the NASA's technology development roadmap leading to human exploration of the Martian surface. To meet a more challenging set of requirements than previous suit systems standard design features, such as threaded inserts, have been re-analyzed and improved. NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit contains several components fabricated from an advanced hybrid composite laminate consisting of IM10 carbon fiber and fiber glass. One requirement NASA levied on the suit composites was the ability to have removable, replaceable helicoil inserts to which other suit components would be fastened. An approach utilizing bonded in inserts with helicoils inside of them was implemented. The design of the interface flanges of the composites allowed some of the inserts to be a "T" style insert that was installed through the entire thickness of the laminate. The flange portion of the insert provides a mechanical lock as a redundancy to the adhesive aiding in the pullout load that the insert can withstand. In some locations it was not possible to utilize at "T" style insert and a blind insert was used instead. These inserts rely completely on the bond strength of the adhesive to resist pullout. It was determined during the design of the suit that the inserts did not need to withstand loads induced from pressure cycling but instead tension induced from torqueing the screws to bolt on hardware which creates a much higher stress on them. Bolt tension is determined by dividing the torque on the screw by a k value multiplied by the thread diameter of the bolt. The k value is a factor that accounts for friction in the system. A common value used for k for a non-lubricated screw is 0.2. The k value can go down by as much as 0.1 if the screw is lubricated which means for the same torque, a much larger tension could be placed on the bolt and insert. This paper

  7. Measurement of Vein Diameter for Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) Insertion: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Rebecca; Cummings, Melita; Childs, Jessie; Fielder, Andrea; Mikocka-Walus, Antonina; Grech, Carol; Esterman, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Choosing an appropriately sized vein reduces the risk of venous thromboembolism associated with peripherally inserted central catheters. This observational study described the diameters of the brachial, basilic, and cephalic veins and determined the effect of patient factors on vein size. Ultrasound was used to measure the veins of 176 participants. Vein diameter was similar in both arms regardless of hand dominance and side. Patient factors-including greater age, height, and weight, as well as male gender-were associated with increased vein diameter. The basilic vein tended to have the largest diameter statistically. However, this was the case in only 55% of patients.

  8. Intraaortic balloon pump insertion through the subclavian artery. Subclavian artery insertion of IABP.

    PubMed

    Marcu, Constantin B; Donohue, Thomas J; Ferneini, Antoine; Ghantous, Andre E

    2006-04-01

    The intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) is frequently used in the management of cardiac failure in the setting of myocardial infarction or as a bridge for coronary revascularisation surgery. The IABP is usually inserted through the femoral artery. Occasionally severe aorto-iliac occlusive disease prevents the retrograde passage of the balloon, in which case an anterograde route, usually through the ascending aorta is used. We describe four patients in whom an IABP was placed through the subclavian artery by the joint efforts of cardiologists and vascular surgeons.

  9. Small genomic insertions form enhancers that misregulate oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Brian J.; Hnisz, Denes; Weintraub, Abraham S.; Kwiatkowski, Nicholas; Li, Charles H.; Li, Zhaodong; Weichert-Leahey, Nina; Rahman, Sunniyat; Liu, Yu; Etchin, Julia; Li, Benshang; Shen, Shuhong; Lee, Tong Ihn; Zhang, Jinghui; Look, A. Thomas; Mansour, Marc R.; Young, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    The non-coding regions of tumour cell genomes harbour a considerable fraction of total DNA sequence variation, but the functional contribution of these variants to tumorigenesis is ill-defined. Among these non-coding variants, somatic insertions are among the least well characterized due to challenges with interpreting short-read DNA sequences. Here, using a combination of Chip-seq to enrich enhancer DNA and a computational approach with multiple DNA alignment procedures, we identify enhancer-associated small insertion variants. Among the 102 tumour cell genomes we analyse, small insertions are frequently observed in enhancer DNA sequences near known oncogenes. Further study of one insertion, somatically acquired in primary leukaemia tumour genomes, reveals that it nucleates formation of an active enhancer that drives expression of the LMO2 oncogene. The approach described here to identify enhancer-associated small insertion variants provides a foundation for further study of these abnormalities across human cancers. PMID:28181482

  10. Gas turbine nozzle vane insert and methods of installation

    DOEpatents

    Miller, William John; Predmore, Daniel Ross; Placko, James Michael

    2002-01-01

    A pair of hollow elongated insert bodies are disposed in one or more of the nozzle vane cavities of a nozzle stage of a gas turbine. Each insert body has an outer wall portion with apertures for impingement-cooling of nozzle wall portions in registration with the outer wall portion. The insert bodies are installed into the cavity separately and spreaders flex the bodies toward and to engage standoffs against wall portions of the nozzle whereby the designed impingement gap between the outer wall portions of the insert bodies and the nozzle wall portions is achieved. The spreaders are secured to the inner wall portions of the insert bodies and the bodies are secured to one another and to the nozzle vane by welding or brazing.

  11. Smart structures for shock wave attenuation using ER inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Jung-Yup; Choi, Seung-Bok; Kim, Kyung-Su

    2001-08-01

    This Paper demonstrates the possibility of shock wave attenuation propagating through a smart structure that incorporates ER insert. The wave transmission of ER inserted beam is theoretically derived using Mead & Markus model and the theoretical results are compared with the finite element analysis results. To experimentally verify the shock wave attenuation, ER insert in an aluminum plate is made and two piezoceramic disks are used as transmitter and receiver of the wave. The transmitter sends a sine pulse signal such that a component of shock wave travels through the plate structure and the receiver gets the transmitted wave signal. Wave propagation of the ER insert can be adjusted by changing the applied electric field on the ER insert. Details of the experiment are addressed and the possibility of shock wave attenuation is experimentally verified. This kind of smart structure can be used for warship and submarine hull structures to protect fragile and important equipment.

  12. Method for improving the durability of ion insertion materials

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Cheong, Hyeonsik M.

    2002-01-01

    The invention provides a method of protecting an ion insertion material from the degradative effects of a liquid or gel-type electrolyte material by disposing a protective, solid ion conducting, electrically insulating, layer between the ion insertion layer and the liquid or gel-type electrolyte material. The invention further provides liquid or gel-type electrochemical cells having improved durability having a pair of electrodes, a pair of ion insertion layers sandwiched between the pair of electrodes, a pair of solid ion conducting layers sandwiched between the ion insertion layers, and a liquid or gel-type electrolyte material disposed between the solid ion conducting layers, where the solid ion conducting layer minimizes or prevents degradation of the faces of the ion insertion materials facing the liquid or gel-type electrolyte material. Electrochemical cells of this invention having increased durability include secondary lithium batteries and electrochromic devices.

  13. Detection for processing history of seam insertion and contrast enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianwei; Zhao, Yao; Ni, Rongrong

    2014-11-01

    With the development of manipulations techniques of digital images, digital image forensic technology is becoming more and more necessary. However, the determination of processing history of multi-operation is still a challenge problem. In this paper, we improve the traditional seam insertion algorithm, and propose corresponding detection method. Then an algorithm that focuses on detecting the processing history of seam insertion and contrast enhancement is proposed, which can be widely used in practical image forgery. Based on comprehensive analysis, we have discovered the inherent relationship between seam insertion and contrast enhancement. Different orders of processing make different impacts on images. By using the newly proposed algorithm, both contrast enhancement followed by seam insertion and seam insertion followed by contrast enhancement can be detected correctly. Plenty of experiments have been implemented to prove the accuracy.

  14. Method of joining a vane cavity insert to a nozzle segment of a gas turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian

    2002-01-01

    An insert containing apertures for impingement cooling a nozzle vane of a nozzle segment in a gas turbine is inserted into one end of the vane. The leading end of the insert is positioned slightly past a rib adjacent the opposite end of the vane through which the insert is inserted. The end of the insert is formed or swaged into conformance with the inner margin of the rib. The insert is then brazed or welded to the rib.

  15. The genomic landscape of polymorphic human nuclear mitochondrial insertions

    PubMed Central

    Dayama, Gargi; Emery, Sarah B.; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Mills, Ryan E.

    2014-01-01

    The transfer of mitochondrial genetic material into the nuclear genomes of eukaryotes is a well-established phenomenon that has been previously limited to the study of static reference genomes. The recent advancement of high throughput sequencing has enabled an expanded exploration into the diversity of polymorphic nuclear mitochondrial insertions (NumtS) within human populations. We have developed an approach to discover and genotype novel Numt insertions using whole genome, paired-end sequencing data. We have applied this method to a thousand individuals in 20 populations from the 1000 Genomes Project and other datasets and identified 141 new sites of Numt insertions, extending our current knowledge of existing NumtS by almost 20%. We find that recent Numt insertions are derived from throughout the mitochondrial genome, including the D-loop, and have integration biases that differ in some respects from previous studies on older, fixed NumtS in the reference genome. We determined the complete inserted sequence for a subset of these events and have identified a number of nearly full-length mitochondrial genome insertions into nuclear chromosomes. We further define their age and origin of insertion and present an analysis of their potential impact to ongoing studies of mitochondrial heteroplasmy and disease. PMID:25348406

  16. Toward automated cochlear implant insertion using tubular manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granna, Josephine; Rau, Thomas S.; Nguyen, Thien-Dang; Lenarz, Thomas; Majdani, Omid; Burgner-Kahrs, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    During manual cochlear implant electrode insertion the surgeon is at risk to damage the intracochlear fine-structure, as the electrode array is inserted through a small opening in the cochlea blindly with little force-feedback. This paper addresses a novel concept for cochlear electrode insertion using tubular manipulators to reduce risks of causing trauma during insertion and to automate the insertion process. We propose a tubular manipulator incorporated into the electrode array composed of an inner wire within a tube, both elastic and helically shaped. It is our vision to use this manipulator to actuate the initially straight electrode array during insertion into the cochlea by actuation of the wire and tube, i.e. translation and slight axial rotation. In this paper, we evaluate the geometry of the human cochlea in 22 patient datasets in order to derive design requirements for the manipulator. We propose an optimization algorithm to automatically determine the tube set parameters (curvature, torsion, diameter, length) for an ideal final position within the cochlea. To prove our concept, we demonstrate that insertion can be realized in a follow-the-leader fashion for 19 out of 22 cochleas. This is possible with only 4 different tube/wire sets.

  17. Isthmus-guided cortical bone trajectory for pedicle screw insertion.

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, Koichi; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Ohnishi, Yu-ichiro; Ninomiya, Kosi; Ohkawa, Toshika

    2014-08-01

    Herein is described cortical bone trajectory (CBT), a new path for pedicle screw insertion for lumbar vertebral fusion. Because the points of insertion are under the end of the inferior articular process, and because the screws are inserted toward the lateral side, there is less soft tissue development than with the conventional technique; the CBT technique therefore enables less invasive surgery than the conventional technique. However, it has some drawbacks. For example, in the original CBT approach, the points of insertion are in the vicinity of the end of the inferior articular process. Because this joint has been destroyed in many patients who have indications for intervertebral fusion surgery, it is sometimes difficult to use it as a reference point for screw insertion location. With severe lateral slippage, the screw insertion site can become significantly dislocated sideways, with possible resultant damaging to the spinal canal and/or nerve root. The CBT technique here involved inserting the screws while keeping clear of the intervertebral foramen with the assistance of side view X-ray fluoroscopy and using the end of the inferior articular process and the isthmus as points of reference for screw location.

  18. Industrial stator vane with sequential impingement cooling inserts

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Russell B; Fedock, John A; Goebel, Gloria E; Krueger, Judson J; Rawlings, Christopher K; Memmen, Robert L

    2013-08-06

    A turbine stator vane for an industrial engine, the vane having two impingement cooling inserts that produce a series of impingement cooling from the pressure side to the suction side of the vane walls. Each insert includes a spar with a row of alternating impingement cooling channels and return air channels extending in a radial direction. Impingement cooling plates cover the two sides of the insert and having rows of impingement cooling holes aligned with the impingement cooling channels and return air openings aligned with the return air channel.

  19. CT fluoroscopic guided insertion of inferior vena cava filters.

    PubMed

    Ignotus, P; Wetton, C; Berry, J

    2006-03-01

    The value and use of inferior vena cava (IVC) filters is well documented and has been growing since the first reported filter placement in 1973 and the first percutaneous insertion in 1982. Access routes now include both jugular veins, both ante-cubital veins and both femoral veins. However, all insertions require some form of imaging, usually fluoroscopy, to identify the location of the filter with respect to the IVC and the renal veins. We describe two cases where the patients' weight was significantly greater than the weight limit of the angiography table, necessitating insertion under CT fluoroscopic guidance.

  20. A Multiple RCC Device for Polygonal Peg Insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chi-Cheng; Chen, Gin-Shan

    This paper proposes a new passive compliant center device, the Multiple Remote Center Compliance (MRCC), for assembly tasks. The MRCC introduces a new azimuthal compliance over traditional passive compliance mechanisms that can effectively compensate the peg's orientation deviation for polygonal insertions. Besides, a special feature of the adjustable compliance provides capability to overcome the gravity effect. Non-vertical insertions therefore become possible. A spring-supported object in space is also adopted for stability analysis of this compliant device. Actual experimental assembly processes demonstrate promising results on polygonal insertions in both traditional top-down and horizontal directions.

  1. International Workshop on Magnetic Measurements of Insertion Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The International Workshop on Magnetic Measurements of Insertion Devices was held at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, on September 28--29, 1993. The workshop brought together scientists and engineers from Europe, Japan, and the United States to discuss the following topics: Special techniques for magnetic measurements of insertion devices, magnetic tolerances of the insertion devices for third generation synchrotron radiation sources, methods for and accuracy of the multipole moments measurements, magnetic sensors, among other topics. The workshop included thirteen presentations that are collected in this volume.

  2. Effect of insertion speed on tissue response and insertion mechanics of a chronically implanted silicon-based neural probe.

    PubMed

    Welkenhuysen, M; Andrei, A; Ameye, L; Eberle, W; Nuttin, B

    2011-11-01

    In this study, the effect of insertion speed on long-term tissue response and insertion mechanics was investigated. A dummy silicon parylene-coated probe was used in this context and implanted in the rat brain at 10 μm/s (n = 6) or 100 μm/s (n = 6) to a depth of 9 mm. The insertion mechanics were assessed by the dimpling distance, and the force at the point of penetration, at the end of the insertion phase, and after a 3-min rest period in the brain. After 6 weeks, the tissue response was evaluated by estimating the amount of gliosis, inflammation, and neuronal cell loss with immunohistochemistry. No difference in dimpling, penetration force, or the force after a 3-min rest period in the brain was observed. However, the force at the end of the insertion phase was significantly higher when inserting the probes at 100 μm/s compared to 10 μm/s. Furthermore, an expected tissue response was seen with an increase of glial and microglial reactivity around the probe. This reaction was similar along the entire length of the probe. However, evidence for a neuronal kill zone was observed only in the most superficial part of the implant. In this region, the lesion size was also greatest. Comparison of the tissue response between insertion speeds showed no differences.

  3. 33. Launch Control Center, close view of launch key inserted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Launch Control Center, close view of launch key inserted in the launch panel. Lyon - Whiteman Air Force Base, Oscar O-1 Minuteman Missile Alert Facility, Southeast corner of Twelfth & Vendenberg Avenues, Knob Noster, Johnson County, MO

  4. Interior, detail closeup shot of window with stained glass inserts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, detail closeup shot of window with stained glass inserts in top southeast room taken from ther west - J. Weingartner & Son Cigar Factory, 414 East Walnut Street, North Wales, Montgomery County, PA

  5. Membrane protein insertion: mixing eukaryotic and prokaryotic concepts.

    PubMed

    Schleiff, Enrico; Soll, Jürgen

    2005-11-01

    Proteins are translocated across or inserted into membranes by machines that are composed of soluble and membrane-anchored subunits. The molecular action of these machines and their evolutionary origin are at present the focus of intense research. For instance, our understanding of the mode of insertion of beta-barrel membrane proteins into the outer membrane of endosymbiotically derived organelles has increased rapidly during the past few years. In particular, the identification of the Omp85/YaeT-involving pathways in Neisseria meningitidis, Escherichia coli and cyanobacteria, and homologues of Omp85/YaeT in chloroplasts and mitochondria, has provided new clues about the ancestral beta-barrel protein insertion pathway. This review focuses on recent advances in the elucidation of the evolutionarily conserved concepts that underlie the translocation and insertion of beta-barrel membrane proteins.

  6. Spontaneous Radiation Emission from Short, High Field Strength Insertion Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffrey Krafft

    2005-09-15

    Since the earliest papers on undulaters were published, it has been known how to calculate the spontaneous emission spectrum from ''short'' undulaters when the magnetic field strength parameter is small compared to unity, or in ''single'' frequency sinusoidal undulaters where the magnetic field strength parameter is comparable to or larger than unity, but where the magnetic field amplitude is constant throughout the undulater. Fewer general results have been obtained in the case where the insertion device is both short, i.e., the magnetic field strength parameter changes appreciably throughout the insertion device, and the magnetic field strength is high enough that ponderomotive effects, radiation retardation, and harmonic generation are important physical phenomena. In this paper a general method is presented for calculating the radiation spectrum for short, high-field insertion devices. It is used to calculate the emission from some insertion device designs of recent interest.

  7. Pressure molding of powdered materials improved by rubber mold insert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Pressure molding tungsten microspheres is accomplished by applying hydraulic pressure to a silicone rubber mold insert with several barrel shaped chambers which is placed in a steel die cavity. This technique eliminates castings containing shear fractures.

  8. Development of Magnet Technologies for HTS Insert Coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesche, Rainer; Uglietti, Davide; Bruzzone, Pierluigi; March, Stephen; Marinucci, Claudio; Stepanov, Boris; Glowa, Natalia

    An existing Nb3Sn laboratory magnet generating a magnetic field of 12 T is intended to be upgraded to 16 T by means of the use of a high temperature superconductor (HTS) insert coil. An outline design of the HTS insert coil is presented. In the design, the aspects of the maximum achievable operation current, the required copper cross-section to ensure a hot spot temperature below 200 K and the resulting forces and stresses have been considered. The length of the insert coil has been selected in such a way that the field uniformity will be better than 1% within a sphere of 3 cm diameter. The protection of the whole magnet system (LTS & HTS insert) is briefly described.

  9. The use of dimorphic Alu insertions in human DNA fingerprinting

    SciTech Connect

    Novick, G.E.; Gonzalez, T.; Garrison, J.; Novick, C.C.; Herrera, R.J.; Batzer, M.A.; Deininger, P.L.

    1992-12-04

    We have characterized certain Human Specific Alu Insertions as either dimorphic (TPA25, PV92, APO), sightly dimorphic (C2N4 and C4N4) or monomorphic (C3N1, C4N6, C4N2, C4N5, C4N8), based on studies of Caucasian, Asian, American Black and African Black populations. Our approach is based upon: (1) PCR amplification using primers directed to the sequences that flank the site of insertion of the different Alu elements studied; (2) gel electrophoresis and scoring according to the presence or absence of an Alu insertion in one or both homologous chromosomes; (3) allelic frequencies calculated and compared according to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Our DNA fingerprinting procedure using PCR amplification of dimorphic Human Specific Alu insertions, is stable enough to be used not only as a tool for genetic mapping but also to characterize populations, study migrational patterns and track the inheritance of human genetic disorders.

  10. 21 CFR 529.1940 - Progesterone intravaginal inserts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... postpartum estrus in suckled beef cows; and for advancement of first pubertal estrus in replacement beef... postpartum. Do not use an insert more than once. To prevent the potential transmission of venereal...

  11. 21 CFR 529.1940 - Progesterone intravaginal inserts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... postpartum estrus in suckled beef cows; and for advancement of first pubertal estrus in replacement beef... postpartum. Do not use an insert more than once. To prevent the potential transmission of venereal...

  12. 21 CFR 529.1940 - Progesterone intravaginal inserts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... postpartum estrus in suckled beef cows; and for advancement of first pubertal estrus in replacement beef... postpartum. Do not use an insert more than once. To prevent the potential transmission of venereal...

  13. 21 CFR 529.1940 - Progesterone intravaginal inserts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... postpartum estrus in suckled beef cows; and for advancement of first pubertal estrus in replacement beef... genital tracts. Do not use in beef cows that are fewer than 20 days postpartum. Do not use an insert...

  14. Bougie insertion: A common practice with underestimated dangers

    PubMed Central

    Theodorou, D.; Doulami, G.; Larentzakis, A.; Almpanopoulos, K.; Stamou, K.; Zografos, G.; Menenakos, E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Esophageal perforation after bariatric operations is rare. We report two cases of esophageal perforation after bariatric operations indicating the dangers of a common practice – like insertion of esophageal tubes – and we describe our management of that complication. Presentation of case A 56 year old woman who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and a 41 year old woman who underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding respectively. In both operations a bougie has been used and led to esophageal perforation. Discussion The insertion of bougie and especially of inflated bougie is a common practice. It is an invasive procedure that in most cases is performed by the anesthesiologist team. Conclusion Bougie insertion is an invasive procedure with risks and should always be attempted under direct supervision of surgical team or should be inserted by a surgeon. PMID:22288051

  15. MTR MAIN FLOOR. MEN DEMONSTRATE INSERTION OF DUMMY PLUG INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR MAIN FLOOR. MEN DEMONSTRATE INSERTION OF DUMMY PLUG INTO AN MTR BEAM HOLE. ONE MAN CHECKS RADIATION LEVEL AT THE END OF THE UNIVERSAL COFFIN, WHILE ANOTHER USES TOOL TO INSERT PLUG INTO HOLE THROUGH COFFIN. MEN WEAR "ANTI-C" (ANTI-CONTAMINATION) CLOTHING. INL NEGATIVE NO. 6198. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 6/27/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. Impediments to rapid insertion of innovative displays and peripherals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Gail

    2012-06-01

    In order to optimize system performance and minimize cost for a system to fill capability gaps, an improvement to rapid insertion of innovative display and peripheral technology is required to take advantage of human-machine intersections. Current approaches to testing and integration impedes successful rapid insertion of innovative technology for new systems and incremental upgrades. Considerations to innovative displays and peripherals must occur further to the left of the lifecycle to be successful and key integration areas must be address for success.

  17. Evaluation of preferable insertion routes for esophagogastroduodenoscopy using ultrathin endoscopes

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Satoshi; Niimi, Keiko; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Takahashi, Yu; Sakaguchi, Yoshiki; Nakayama, Chiemi; Minatsuki, Chihiro; Matsuda, Rie; Hirayama-Asada, Itsuko; Tsuji, Yosuke; Mochizuki, Satoshi; Kodashima, Shinya; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Ozeki, Atsuko; Matsumoto, Lumine; Ohike, Yumiko; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the discomfort associated with esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) using an ultrathin endoscope through different insertion routes. METHODS: This study (January 2012-March 2013) included 1971 consecutive patients [male/female (M/F), 1158/813, 57.5 ± 11.9 years] who visited a single institute for annual health checkups. Transnasal EGD was performed in 1394 patients and transoral EGD in 577. EGD-associated discomfort was assessed using a visual analog scale score (VAS score: 0-10). RESULTS: Multivariate analysis revealed gender (M vs F: 4.02 ± 2.15 vs 5.06 ± 2.43) as the only independent predictor of the VAS score in 180 patients who underwent EGD for the first time; whereas it revealed gender (M vs F 3.60 ± 2.20 vs 4.84 ± 2.37), operator, age group (A: < 39 years; B: 40-49 years; C: 50-59 years; D: 60-69 years; E: > 70 years; A/B/C/D/E: 4.99 ± 2.32/4.34 ± 2.49/4.19 ± 2.31/3.99 ± 2.27/3.63 ± 2.31), and type of insertion as independent predictors in the remaining patients. Subanalysis for gender, age group, and insertion route revealed that the VAS score decreased with age regardless of gender and insertion route, was high in female patients regardless of age and insertion route, and was low in males aged over 60 years who underwent transoral insertion. CONCLUSION: Although comprehensive analysis revealed that the insertion route may not be an independent predictor of the VAS score, transoral insertion may reduce EGD-associated discomfort in elderly patients. PMID:24803817

  18. Mechanism for electrochemical hydrogen insertion in carbonaceous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Deyang

    The mechanism for safe and reversible storage of hydrogen in porous carbonaceous materials by electrochemical decomposition of water in alkaline electrolyte is proposed. Atomic H was found to be inserted into the microdomains of defective graphene layers. Hydrogen storage capacity increases with increasing interlayer distance between carbon sheets. Hydrogen insertion in carbonaceous materials occurs at ambient conditions. Static potential acts as an electrochemical valve which can retain the hydrogen in the carbon structure, thus preventing leakage during storage.

  19. Evolution models with base substitutions, insertions, deletions, and selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saakian, D. B.

    2008-12-01

    The evolution model with parallel mutation-selection scheme is solved for the case when selection is accompanied by base substitutions, insertions, and deletions. The fitness is assumed to be either a single-peak function (i.e., having one finite discontinuity) or a smooth function of the Hamming distance from the reference sequence. The mean fitness is calculated exactly in large-genome limit. In the case of insertions and deletions the evolution characteristics depend on the choice of reference sequence.

  20. Sensorless Motion Planning for Medical Needle Insertion in Deformable Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Alterovitz, Ron; Goldberg, Kenneth Y.; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I-Chow

    2009-01-01

    Minimally invasive medical procedures such as biopsies, anesthesia drug injections, and brachytherapy cancer treatments require inserting a needle to a specific target inside soft tissues. This is difficult because needle insertion displaces and deforms the surrounding soft tissues causing the target to move during the procedure. To facilitate physician training and preoperative planning for these procedures, we develop a needle insertion motion planning system based on an interactive simulation of needle insertion in deformable tissues and numerical optimization to reduce placement error. We describe a 2-D physically based, dynamic simulation of needle insertion that uses a finite-element model of deformable soft tissues and models needle cutting and frictional forces along the needle shaft. The simulation offers guarantees on simulation stability for mesh modications and achieves interactive, real-time performance on a standard PC. Using texture mapping, the simulation provides visualization comparable to ultrasound images that the physician would see during the procedure. We use the simulation as a component of a sensorless planning algorithm that uses numerical optimization to compute needle insertion offsets that compensate for tissue deformations. We apply the method to radioactive seed implantation during permanent seed prostate brachytherapy to minimize seed placement error. PMID:19126473

  1. Templated Sequence Insertion Polymorphisms in the Human Genome

    PubMed Central

    Onozawa, Masahiro; Aplan, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Templated Sequence Insertion Polymorphism (TSIP) is a recently described form of polymorphism recognized in the human genome, in which a sequence that is templated from a distant genomic region is inserted into the genome, seemingly at random. TSIPs can be grouped into two classes based on nucleotide sequence features at the insertion junctions; Class 1 TSIPs show features of insertions that are mediated via the LINE-1 ORF2 protein, including (1) target-site duplication (TSD), (2) polyadenylation 10–30 nucleotides downstream of a “cryptic” polyadenylation signal, and (3) preference for insertion at a 5′-TTTT/A-3′ sequence. In contrast, class 2 TSIPs show features consistent with repair of a DNA double-strand break (DSB) via insertion of a DNA “patch” that is derived from a distant genomic region. Survey of a large number of normal human volunteers demonstrates that most individuals have 25–30 TSIPs, and that these TSIPs track with specific geographic regions. Similar to other forms of human polymorphism, we suspect that these TSIPs may be important for the generation of human diversity and genetic diseases. PMID:27900318

  2. Retrotransposon insertions in the clonal evolution of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rodić, Nemanja; Steranka, Jared P; Makohon-Moore, Alvin; Moyer, Allison; Shen, Peilin; Sharma, Reema; Kohutek, Zachary A; Huang, Cheng Ran; Ahn, Daniel; Mita, Paolo; Taylor, Martin S; Barker, Norman J; Hruban, Ralph H; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Boeke, Jef D; Burns, Kathleen H

    2015-09-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is typically diagnosed after the disease has metastasized; it is among the most lethal forms of cancer. We recently described aberrant expression of an open reading frame 1 protein, ORF1p, encoded by long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1; L1) retrotransposon, in PDAC. To test whether LINE-1 expression leads to somatic insertions of this mobile DNA, we used a targeted method to sequence LINE-1 insertion sites in matched PDAC and normal samples. We found evidence of 465 somatic LINE-1 insertions in 20 PDAC genomes, which were absent from corresponding normal samples. In cases in which matched normal tissue, primary PDAC and metastatic disease sites were available, insertions were found in primary and metastatic tissues in differing proportions. Two adenocarcinomas secondarily involving the pancreas, but originating in the stomach and duodenum, acquired insertions with a similar discordance between primary and metastatic sites. Together, our findings show that LINE-1 contributes to the genetic evolution of PDAC and suggest that somatic insertions are acquired discontinuously in gastrointestinal neoplasms.

  3. Polyubiquitin insertions and the phylogeny of Cercozoa and Rhizaria.

    PubMed

    Bass, David; Moreira, David; López-García, Purificación; Polet, Stephane; Chao, Ema E; von der Heyden, Sophie; Pawlowski, Jan; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2005-08-01

    A single or double amino acid insertion at the monomer-monomer junction of the universal eukaryotic protein polyubiquitin is unique to Cercozoa and Foraminifera, closely related 'core' phyla in the protozoan infrakingdom Rhizaria. We screened 11 other candidate rhizarians for this insertion: Radiozoa (polycystine and acantharean radiolaria), a 'microheliozoan', and Apusozoa; all lack it, supporting suggestions that Foraminifera are more closely related to Cercozoa than either is to other eukaryotes. The insertion's size was ascertained for 12 additional Cercozoa to help resolve their basal branching order. The earliest branching Cercozoa generally have a single amino acid insertion, like all Foraminifera, but a large derived clade consisting of all Monadofilosa except Metopion, Helk-esimastix, and Cercobodo agilis has two amino acids, suggesting one doubling event and no reversions to a single amino acid. Metromonas and Sainouron, cercozoans of uncertain position, have a double insertion, suggesting that they belong in Monadofilosa. An alternative interpretation, suggested by the higher positions for Metopion and Cercobodo on Bayesian trees compared with most distance trees, cannot be ruled out, i.e. that the second insertion took place earlier, in the ancestral filosan, and was followed by three independent reversions to a single amino acid in Chlorarachnea, Metopion and Cercobodo.

  4. Sensorless motion planning for medical needle insertion in deformable tissues.

    PubMed

    Alterovitz, Ron; Goldberg, Kenneth Y; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I-Chow Joe

    2009-03-01

    Minimally invasive medical procedures such as biopsies, anesthesia drug injections, and brachytherapy cancer treatments require inserting a needle to a specific target inside soft tissues. This is difficult because needle insertion displaces and deforms the surrounding soft tissues causing the target to move during the procedure. To facilitate physician training and preoperative planning for these procedures, we develop a needle insertion motion planning system based on an interactive simulation of needle insertion in deformable tissues and numerical optimization to reduce placement error. We describe a 2-D physically based, dynamic simulation of needle insertion that uses a finite-element model of deformable soft tissues and models needle cutting and frictional forces along the needle shaft. The simulation offers guarantees on simulation stability for mesh modifications and achieves interactive, real-time performance on a standard PC. Using texture mapping, the simulation provides visualization comparable to ultrasound images that the physician would see during the procedure. We use the simulation as a component of a sensorless planning algorithm that uses numerical optimization to compute needle insertion offsets that compensate for tissue deformations. We apply the method to radioactive seed implantation during permanent seed prostate brachytherapy to minimize seed placement error.

  5. Templated sequence insertion polymorphisms in the human genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onozawa, Masahiro; Aplan, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Templated Sequence Insertion Polymorphism (TSIP) is a recently described form of polymorphism recognized in the human genome, in which a sequence that is templated from a distant genomic region is inserted into the genome, seemingly at random. TSIPs can be grouped into two classes based on nucleotide sequence features at the insertion junctions; Class 1 TSIPs show features of insertions that are mediated via the LINE-1 ORF2 protein, including 1) target-site duplication (TSD), 2) polyadenylation 10-30 nucleotides downstream of a “cryptic” polyadenylation signal, and 3) preference for insertion at a 5’-TTTT/A-3’ sequence. In contrast, class 2 TSIPs show features consistent with repair of a DNA double-strand break via insertion of a DNA “patch” that is derived from a distant genomic region. Survey of a large number of normal human volunteers demonstrates that most individuals have 25-30 TSIPs, and that these TSIPs track with specific geographic regions. Similar to other forms of human polymorphism, we suspect that these TSIPs may be important for the generation of human diversity and genetic diseases.

  6. Embryonic Lethals and T-DNA Insertional Mutagenesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Errampalli, D; Patton, D; Castle, L; Mickelson, L; Hansen, K; Schnall, J; Feldmann, K; Meinke, D

    1991-01-01

    T-DNA insertional mutagenesis represents a promising approach to the molecular isolation of genes with essential functions during plant embryo development. We describe in this report the isolation and characterization of 18 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana defective in embryo development following seed transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Random T-DNA insertion was expected to result in a high frequency of recessive embryonic lethals because many target genes are required for embryogenesis. The cointegrate Ti plasmid used in these experiments contained the nopaline synthase and neomycin phosphotransferase gene markers. Nopaline assays and resistance to kanamycin were used to estimate the number of functional inserts present in segregating families. Nine families appeared to contain a T-DNA insert either within or adjacent to the mutant gene. Eight families were clearly not tagged with a functional insert and appeared instead to contain mutations induced during the transformation process. DNA gel blot hybridization with internal and right border probes revealed a variety of rearrangements associated with T-DNA insertion. A general strategy is presented to simplify the identification of tagged embryonic mutants and facilitate the molecular isolation of genes required for plant embryogenesis. PMID:12324593

  7. Evaluation of a high resolution silicon PET insert module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grkovski, Milan; Brzezinski, Karol; Cindro, Vladimir; Clinthorne, Neal H.; Kagan, Harris; Lacasta, Carlos; Mikuž, Marko; Solaz, Carles; Studen, Andrej; Weilhammer, Peter; Žontar, Dejan

    2015-07-01

    Conventional PET systems can be augmented with additional detectors placed in close proximity of the region of interest. We developed a high resolution PET insert module to evaluate the added benefit of such a combination. The insert module consists of two back-to-back 1 mm thick silicon sensors, each segmented into 1040 1 mm2 pads arranged in a 40 by 26 array. A set of 16 VATAGP7.1 ASICs and a custom assembled data acquisition board were used to read out the signal from the insert module. Data were acquired in slice (2D) geometry with a Jaszczak phantom (rod diameters of 1.2-4.8 mm) filled with 18F-FDG and the images were reconstructed with ML-EM method. Both data with full and limited angular coverage from the insert module were considered and three types of coincidence events were combined. The ratio of high-resolution data that substantially improves quality of the reconstructed image for the region near the surface of the insert module was estimated to be about 4%. Results from our previous studies suggest that such ratio could be achieved at a moderate technological expense by using an equivalent of two insert modules (an effective sensor thickness of 4 mm).

  8. [Duration and complications following grommet insertion in childhood].

    PubMed

    Fiebach, A; Matschke, R G

    1987-02-01

    We report 1000 insertions of ventilation tubes in 534 children for secretory otitis media (SOM) within a period of 6 years. In 77.5% of the cases, the air-bone gap was greater than 20 dB. The grommets are allowed to undergo spontaneous expulsion which happened in 319 ears, about 7 months after insertion. SOM recurred in 32.6% of the cases once, in 5.0% of the cases twice, and in 1.9% three times, requiring re-insertion of grommets. Recurrence appeared between 4 and 65 months after the first insertion. In three cases perforations of the tympanic membrane persisted and required tympanoplasty. Tympanometric examination and pure tone audiometry are necessary, in addition to pure tone audiometry to follow up successfully ventilated middle ears and to show recurrence as early as possible. Pre-existing but unsuspected sensorineural hearing loss was discovered in 10 cases. The deprivation of neural auditory pathways in early childhood and the possible retardation of speech development caused by SOM are mentioned. Normal hearing is the most important goal of therapy in children suffering from SOM, and insertion of ventilation tubes is the preferred method of achieving that goal safely. Adenoidectomy and treatment of upper airway infections are indispensable parts of the therapy of SOM. Regular follow up after insertion of grommets and even after their expulsion is necessary because of the high rate of late recurrence of SOM. Induction of cholesteatoma by grommets was not observed.

  9. Radiation hardness studies of n + -in-n planar pixel sensors for the ATLAS upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altenheiner, S.; Goessling, C.; Jentzsch, J.; Klingenberg, R.; Muenstermann, D.; Rummler, A.; Troska, G.; Wittig, T.

    2011-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC is planning upgrades of its pixel detector to cope with the luminosity increase foreseen in the coming years within the transition from LHC to Super-LHC (SLHC/HL-LHC). Associated with the increase in instantaneous luminosity is a rise of the target integrated luminosity from 730 to about 3000 fb -1 which directly translates into significantly higher radiation damage. These upgrades consist of the installation of a 4th pixel layer, the insertable b-layer IBL, with a mean sensor radius of only 32 mm from the beam axis, before 2016/17. In addition, the complete pixel detector will be exchanged before 2020/21. Being very close to the beam, the radiation damage of the IBL sensors might be as high as 5×1015 neq cm-2 at their end-of-life. The total fluence of the innermost pixel layer after the SLHC upgrade might even reach 2×1016 neq cm-2. To investigate the radiation hardness and suitability of the current ATLAS pixel sensors for these fluences, n +-in-n silicon pixel sensors from the ATLAS Pixel production have been irradiated by reactor neutrons to the IBL design fluence and been tested with pions at the SPS and with electrons from a 90Sr source in the laboratory. The collected charge after IBL fluences was found to exceed 10 000 electrons per MIP at 1 kV of bias voltage which is in agreement with data collected with strip sensors. After SLHC fluences, still reliable operation of the devices could be observed with a collected charge of more than 5000 electrons per MIP.

  10. Comparison of large-insert, small-insert and pyrosequencing libraries for metagenomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Danhorn, Thomas; Young, Curtis R; DeLong, Edward F

    2012-11-01

    The development of DNA sequencing methods for characterizing microbial communities has evolved rapidly over the past decades. To evaluate more traditional, as well as newer methodologies for DNA library preparation and sequencing, we compared fosmid, short-insert shotgun and 454 pyrosequencing libraries prepared from the same metagenomic DNA samples. GC content was elevated in all fosmid libraries, compared with shotgun and 454 libraries. Taxonomic composition of the different libraries suggested that this was caused by a relative underrepresentation of dominant taxonomic groups with low GC content, notably Prochlorales and the SAR11 cluster, in fosmid libraries. While these abundant taxa had a large impact on library representation, we also observed a positive correlation between taxon GC content and fosmid library representation in other low-GC taxa, suggesting a general trend. Analysis of gene category representation in different libraries indicated that the functional composition of a library was largely a reflection of its taxonomic composition, and no additional systematic biases against particular functional categories were detected at the level of sequencing depth in our samples. Another important but less predictable factor influencing the apparent taxonomic and functional library composition was the read length afforded by the different sequencing technologies. Our comparisons and analyses provide a detailed perspective on the influence of library type on the recovery of microbial taxa in metagenomic libraries and underscore the different uses and utilities of more traditional, as well as contemporary 'next-generation' DNA library construction and sequencing technologies for exploring the genomics of the natural microbial world.

  11. Focus on peripherally inserted central catheters in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Cotogni, Paolo; Pittiruti, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Venous access devices are of pivotal importance for an increasing number of critically ill patients in a variety of disease states and in a variety of clinical settings (emergency, intensive care, surgery) and for different purposes (fluids or drugs infusions, parenteral nutrition, antibiotic therapy, hemodynamic monitoring, procedures of dialysis/apheresis). However, healthcare professionals are commonly worried about the possible consequences that may result using a central venous access device (CVAD) (mainly, bloodstream infections and thrombosis), both peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) and centrally inserted central catheters (CICCs). This review aims to discuss indications, insertion techniques, and care of PICCs in critically ill patients. PICCs have many advantages over standard CICCs. First of all, their insertion is easy and safe -due to their placement into peripheral veins of the arm- and the advantage of a central location of catheter tip suitable for all osmolarity and pH solutions. Using the ultrasound-guidance for the PICC insertion, the risk of hemothorax and pneumothorax can be avoided, as well as the possibility of primary malposition is very low. PICC placement is also appropriate to avoid post-procedural hemorrhage in patients with an abnormal coagulative state who need a CVAD. Some limits previously ascribed to PICCs (i.e., low flow rates, difficult central venous pressure monitoring, lack of safety for radio-diagnostic procedures, single-lumen) have delayed their start up in the intensive care units as common practice. Though, the recent development of power-injectable PICCs overcomes these technical limitations and PICCs have started to spread in critical care settings. Two important take-home messages may be drawn from this review. First, the incidence of complications varies depending on venous accesses and healthcare professionals should be aware of the different clinical performance as well as of the different risks

  12. Patterns of Transposable Element Expression and Insertion in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Evan A.; Wang, Lu; Rishishwar, Lavanya; Wang, Jianrong; McDonald, John F.; Jordan, I. King

    2016-01-01

    Human transposable element (TE) activity in somatic tissues causes mutations that can contribute to tumorigenesis. Indeed, TE insertion mutations have been implicated in the etiology of a number of different cancer types. Nevertheless, the full extent of somatic TE activity, along with its relationship to tumorigenesis, have yet to be fully explored. Recent developments in bioinformatics software make it possible to analyze TE expression levels and TE insertional activity directly from transcriptome (RNA-seq) and whole genome (DNA-seq) next-generation sequence data. We applied these new sequence analysis techniques to matched normal and primary tumor patient samples from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) in order to analyze the patterns of TE expression and insertion for three cancer types: breast invasive carcinoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and lung adenocarcinoma. Our analysis focused on the three most abundant families of active human TEs: Alu, SVA, and L1. We found evidence for high levels of somatic TE activity for these three families in normal and cancer samples across diverse tissue types. Abundant transcripts for all three TE families were detected in both normal and cancer tissues along with an average of ~80 unique TE insertions per individual patient/tissue. We observed an increase in L1 transcript expression and L1 insertional activity in primary tumor samples for all three cancer types. Tumor-specific TE insertions are enriched for private mutations, consistent with a potentially causal role in tumorigenesis. We used genome feature analysis to investigate two specific cases of putative cancer-causing TE mutations in further detail. An Alu insertion in an upstream enhancer of the CBL tumor suppressor gene is associated with down-regulation of the gene in a single breast cancer patient, and an L1 insertion in the first exon of the BAALC gene also disrupts its expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Our results are consistent with

  13. LMA Supreme insertion by novices in manikins and patients.

    PubMed

    Howes, B W; Wharton, N M; Gibbison, B; Cook, T M

    2010-04-01

    The LMA Supreme has been suggested for use in emergency situations by medical personnel with no experience in endotracheal intubation. We evaluated the LMA Supreme when inserted by non-anaesthetists, firstly in a manikin and then in patients. Fifty airway novices inserted a LMA Supreme in a manikin without any complications so we proceeded to the patient phase. Fifty airway novices inserted the LMA Supreme in anaesthetised patients undergoing elective surgery. First time insertion success rate was 86% and overall insertion success rate was 100%. Mechanical ventilation was successful in all cases. Median (IQR [range]) time to establish an airway was 34 s (26-40 [18-145] s). Median (IQR [range]) pharyngeal seal pressure was 23 cmH(2)O (19-28 [13-40] cmH(2)O). There were no important complications. Results are consistent with previous studies of use of the LMA Supreme by airway experts. We conclude that the LMA supreme is suitable for use by airway novices. Further research is needed before it may be recommended for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency airway use.

  14. Quantitative assessment of insertion sequence impact on bacterial genome architecture

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Brian; Wright, Meredith S.

    2016-01-01

    Insertion sequence (IS) elements are important mediators of genome plasticity and can lead to phenotypic changes with evolutionary significance. In multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae, IS elements have contributed significantly to the mobilization of genes that encode resistance to antimicrobial drugs. A systematic analysis of IS elements is needed for a more comprehensive understanding of their evolutionary impact. We developed a computational approach (ISseeker) to annotate IS elements in draft genome assemblies and applied the method to analysis of IS elements in all publicly available A. baumannii(>1000) and K. pneumoniae(>800) genome sequences, in a phylogenetic context. Most IS elements in A. baumanniigenomes are species-specific ISAba elements, whereas K. pneumoniaegenomes contain significant numbers of both ISKpn elements and elements that are found throughout the Enterobacteriaceae. A. baumanniigenomes have a higher density of IS elements than K. pneumoniae, averaging ~33 vs ~27 copies per genome. In K. pneumoniae, several insertion sites are shared by most genomes in the ST258 clade, whereas in A. baumannii, different IS elements are abundant in different phylogenetic groups, even among closely related Global Clone 2 strains. IS elements differ in the distribution of insertion locations relative to genes, with some more likely to disrupt genes and others predominantly in intergenic regions. Several genes and intergenic regions had multiple independent insertion events, suggesting that those events may confer a selective advantage. Genome- and taxon-wide characterization of insertion locations revealed that IS elements have been active contributors to genome diversity in both species.

  15. Seamless lesion insertion in digital mammography: methodology and reader study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezeshk, Aria; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman

    2016-03-01

    Collection of large repositories of clinical images containing verified cancer locations is costly and time consuming due to difficulties associated with both the accumulation of data and establishment of the ground truth. This problem poses a significant challenge to the development of machine learning algorithms that require large amounts of data to properly train and avoid overfitting. In this paper we expand the methods in our previous publications by making several modifications that significantly increase the speed of our insertion algorithms, thereby allowing them to be used for inserting lesions that are much larger in size. These algorithms have been incorporated into an image composition tool that we have made publicly available. This tool allows users to modify or supplement existing datasets by seamlessly inserting a real breast mass or micro-calcification cluster extracted from a source digital mammogram into a different location on another mammogram. We demonstrate examples of the performance of this tool on clinical cases taken from the University of South Florida Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). Finally, we report the results of a reader study evaluating the realism of inserted lesions compared to clinical lesions. Analysis of the radiologist scores in the study using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methodology indicates that inserted lesions cannot be reliably distinguished from clinical lesions.

  16. Some physical and chemical indices of clique-inserted lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zuhe

    2013-10-01

    The operation of replacing every vertex of an r-regular lattice H by a complete graph of order r is called clique-insertion, and the resulting lattice is called the clique-inserted lattice of H. For any given r-regular lattice, applying this operation iteratively, an infinite family of r-regular lattices is generated. Some interesting lattices including the 3-12-12 lattice can be constructed this way. In this paper, we recall the relationship between the spectra of an r-regular lattice and that of its clique-inserted lattice, and investigate the graph energy and resistance distance statistics. As an application, the asymptotic energy per vertex and average resistance distance of the 3-12-12 and 3-6-24 lattices are computed. We also give formulae expressing the numbers of spanning trees and dimer coverings of the kth iterated clique-inserted lattices in terms of those of the original one. Moreover, we show that new families of expander graphs can be constructed from the known ones by clique-insertion.

  17. Customizable engineered blood vessels using 3D printed inserts.

    PubMed

    Pinnock, Cameron B; Meier, Elizabeth M; Joshi, Neeraj N; Wu, Bin; Lam, Mai T

    2016-04-15

    Current techniques for tissue engineering blood vessels are not customizable for vascular size variation and vessel wall thickness. These critical parameters vary widely between the different arteries in the human body, and the ability to engineer vessels of varying sizes could increase capabilities for disease modeling and treatment options. We present an innovative method for producing customizable, tissue engineered, self-organizing vascular constructs by replicating a major structural component of blood vessels - the smooth muscle layer, or tunica media. We utilize a unique system combining 3D printed plate inserts to control construct size and shape, and cell sheets supported by a temporary fibrin hydrogel to encourage cellular self-organization into a tubular form resembling a natural artery. To form the vascular construct, 3D printed inserts are adhered to tissue culture plates, fibrin hydrogel is deposited around the inserts, and human aortic smooth muscle cells are then seeded atop the fibrin hydrogel. The gel, aided by the innate contractile properties of the smooth muscle cells, aggregates towards the center post insert, creating a tissue ring of smooth muscle cells. These rings are then stacked into the final tubular construct. Our methodology is robust, easily repeatable and allows for customization of cellular composition, vessel wall thickness, and length of the vessel construct merely by varying the size of the 3D printed inserts. This platform has potential for facilitating more accurate modeling of vascular pathology, serving as a drug discovery tool, or for vessel repair in disease treatment.

  18. EGFR exon 20 insertion mutation in Japanese lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hidefumi; Endo, Katsuhiko; Takada, Minoru; Kawahara, Masaaki; Kitahara, Naoto; Tanaka, Hisaichi; Okumura, Meinoshin; Matsumura, Akihide; Iuchi, Keiji; Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Kawano, Osamu; Yukiue, Haruhiro; Yokoyama, Tomoki; Yano, Motoki; Fujii, Yoshitaka

    2007-12-01

    Mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene have been reported in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), especially in female, never smoker patients with adenocarcinoma. Some common somatic mutations in EGFR, including deletion mutations in exon 19 and leucine to arginine substitution at amino acid position 858 (L858R) in exon 21, have been examined for their ability to predict sensitivity to gefitinib or erlotinib. On the other hand, previous report has shown that the insertion mutation at exon 20 is related to gefitinib resistance. We investigated the exon 20 EGFR mutation statuses in 322 surgically treated non-small cell lung cancer cases. Two hundred and five adenocarcinoma cases were included. The presence or absence of EGFR mutations of kinase domains was analyzed by direct sequences. EGFR insertion mutations at exon 20 were found from 7 of 322 (2.17%) lung cancer patients. We also detected the 18 deletion type mutations in exon 19, and 25 L858R type mutations in exon 21. There was a tendency towards higher exon 20 insertion ratio in never smoker (never smoker 4.4% versus smoker 1.3%, p=0.0996) and female (female 4.5% versus male 1.3%, p=0.0917). Two exon 20 insertion cases were treated with gefitinib and failed to response. EGFR insertion mutation in exon 20 could not be ignored from Japanese lung cancers.

  19. Recombination of an intrachromosomal paracentric insertion of chromosome 3

    SciTech Connect

    Best, R.G.; Burnett, W.J.; Brock, J.K.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were initiated on a newborn female due to multiple congenital anomalies including microcephaly, clinodactyly, abnormal positioning of hands, left facial palsy, heart defect, sacral dimple, and facial dysmorphic features. Facial features were described as low set rotated ears, nystagmus, and a small, flattened nose. A structural rearrangement of the long arm of chromosome 3 was observed with a complex banding pattern. Study of parental chromosomes revealed a normal male pattern for the father, and an intrachromosomal insertion on the long arm of chromosome 3 for the mother described as 46,XX,dir ins(3)(q21q23q26.2). Further characterization of the proband`s structurally abnormal chromosome 3 revealed a karyotype best described as: 46,XX,rec(3),dupq23{r_arrow}q26.2::q21{r_arrow}q23,dir ins(3)(q21q23q26.2), which is a partial duplication of both the inserted segment as well as the intervening segment between the inserted segment and the insertion site. This would appear to be the result of a three-strand double cross-over within the insertion loop. Molecular cytogenetic studies are presently underway to further elucidate chromosome structure of the proband and her mother.

  20. Direct insertion of metal ions into tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine

    SciTech Connect

    Linkous, C.A.; Shea, C.E.; Jaber, M.R.A. )

    1989-07-01

    A series of metal salts were reacted with aqueous solutions of the tetrasulfonated free base phthalocyanine (H{sub 2}TsPc) in an attempt to prepare the corresponding metal TsPc derivative by direct insertion instead of the usual template reaction in a urea melt. Spectrophotometric analysis showed that Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Pd{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Sn{sup 2+} could be successfully inserted; higher oxidation states as well as Pb{sup 2+} caused precipitation. Reducing species such as Cr{sup 2+} and V{sup 2+} reduced H{sub 2}TsPc but did not insert; Sn{sup 2+} inserted with formation of an air-sensitive intermediate species. Mg{sup 2+}, VO{sup 2+}, Pt{sup 2+}, and Hg{sup 2+} were unreactive. It is recommended that insertion may be the preferable method for synthesis of the MTsPc's listed above when air sensitivity, reaction time, and microscale are important issues in an overall synthetic scheme. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Insertion of liquid crystal molecules into hydrocarbon monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, Piotr Mann, Elizabeth K.; Lacks, Daniel J.; Jákli, Antal

    2014-08-07

    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate the molecular mechanisms of vertical surface alignment of liquid crystals. We study the insertion of nCB (4-Cyano-4{sup ′}-n-biphenyl) molecules with n = 0,…,6 into a bent-core liquid crystal monolayer that was recently found to provide good vertical alignment for liquid crystals. The results suggest a complex-free energy landscape for the liquid crystal within the layer. The preferred insertion direction of the nCB molecules (core or tail first) varies with n, which can be explained by entropic considerations. The role of the dipole moments was found to be negligible. As vertical alignment is the leading form of present day liquid crystal displays (LCD), these results will help guide improvement of the LCD technology, as well as lend insight into the more general problem of insertion of biological and other molecules into lipid and surfactant layers.

  2. Genetic aspects of targeted insertion mutagenesis in yeasts.

    PubMed

    Klinner, U; Schäfer, B

    2004-05-01

    Targeted insertion mutagenesis is a main molecular tool of yeast science initially applied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The method was extended to fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and to "non-conventional" yeast species, which show specific properties of special interest to both basic and applied research. Consequently, the behaviour of such non-Saccharomyces yeasts is reviewed against the background of the knowledge of targeted insertion mutagenesis in S. cerevisiae. Data of homologous integration efficiencies obtained with circular, ends-in or ends-out vectors in several yeasts are compared. We follow details of targeted insertion mutagenesis in order to recognize possible rate-limiting steps. The route of the vector to the target and possible mechanisms of its integration into chromosomal genes are considered. Specific features of some yeast species are discussed. In addition, similar approaches based on homologous recombination that have been established for the mitochondrial genome of S. cerevisiae are described.

  3. Synchronized monochromator and insertion device energy scans at SLS

    SciTech Connect

    Krempasky, J.; Flechsig, U.; Korhonen, T.; Zimoch, D.; Quitmann, Ch.; Nolting, F.

    2010-06-23

    Synchronous monochromator and insertion device energy scans were implemented at the Surfaces/Interfaces:Microscopy (SIM) beamline in order to provide the users fast X-ray magnetic dichroism studies (XMCD). A simple software control scheme is proposed based on a fast monochromator run-time energy readback which quickly updates the insertion device requested energy during an on-the-fly X-ray absorption scan (XAS). In this scheme the Plain Grating Monochromator (PGM) motion control, being much slower compared with the insertion device (APPLE-II type undulator), acts as a 'master' controlling the undulator 'slave' energy position. This master-slave software implementation exploits EPICS distributed device control over computer network and allows for a quasi-synchronous motion control combined with data acquisition needed for the XAS or XMCD experiment.

  4. Synchronized monochromator and insertion device energy scans at SLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krempaský, J.; Flechsig, U.; Korhonen, T.; Zimoch, D.; Quitmann, Ch.; Nolting, F.

    2010-06-01

    Synchronous monochromator and insertion device energy scans were implemented at the Surfaces/Interfaces:Microscopy (SIM) beamline in order to provide the users fast X-ray magnetic dichroism studies (XMCD). A simple software control scheme is proposed based on a fast monochromator run-time energy readback which quickly updates the insertion device requested energy during an on-the-fly X-ray absorption scan (XAS). In this scheme the Plain Grating Monochromator (PGM) motion control, being much slower compared with the insertion device (APPLE-II type undulator), acts as a "master" controlling the undulator "slave" energy position. This master-slave software implementation exploits EPICS distributed device control over computer network and allows for a quasi-synchronous motion control combined with data acquisition needed for the XAS or XMCD experiment.

  5. Polyglutamine expansion in huntingtin increases its insertion into lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Kegel, Kimberly B; Schewkunow, Vitali; Sapp, Ellen; Masso, Nicholas; Wanker, Erich E; DiFiglia, Marian; Goldmann, Wolfgang H

    2009-09-25

    An expanded polyglutamine (Q) tract (>37Q) in huntingtin (htt) causes Huntington disease. Htt associates with membranes and polyglutamine expansion in htt may alter membrane function in Huntington disease through a mechanism that is not known. Here we used differential scanning calorimetry to examine the effects of polyQ expansion in htt on its insertion into lipid bilayers. We prepared synthetic lipid vesicles composed of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine and tested interactions of htt amino acids 1-89 with 20Q, 32Q or 53Q with the vesicles. GST-htt1-89 with 53Q inserted into synthetic lipid vesicles significantly more than GST-htt1-89 with 20Q or 32Q. We speculate that by inserting more into cell membranes, mutant huntingtin could increase disorder within the lipid bilayer and thereby disturb cellular membrane function.

  6. Tool Life Detecting System Using Damage Sensor-Integrated Insert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiya, Katsuhiko; Yamane, Yasuo; Torimoto, Ayumu

    In-process tool life detecting system has been developed. In order to detect tool life, we monitored breakage of an electrical conductive thin film band of titanium nitride (TiN) on flank faces of a ceramic insert that was an insulation material. The conductive band was parallel to the cutting edge and was broken by fracture of the cutting edge or excessive tool wear. A coil and a capacitor were connected in series to the band on an insert to make a series resonance circuit in a tool holder for turning, or in an arbor for face milling. A detecting coil with high frequency oscillator was coupled to the coil in the holder/arbor electromagnetically. An electromagnetic induction between two coils was used to take the signal from the insert. The system developed in this study showed good stability against electric noises radiated from electrical devices of machine tools.

  7. Molecular and genetic characterization of an Alcaligenes eutrophus insertion element.

    PubMed Central

    Kung, S S; Chen, J; Chow, W Y

    1992-01-01

    An insertion element, ISAE1, was discovered during the molecular analysis of mutants defective in the autotrophic growth (Aut-) of Alcaligenes eutrophus H1-4, a mitomycin C-generated derivative of strain H1. ISAE1 is 1,313 bp long, has 12-bp nearly perfect inverted terminal repeats, and contains an open reading frame that has a coding capacity of 408 amino acids. Direct repeats of 8 bp were generated by insertion of ISAE1 into chromosomes or plasmids. Most insertion were found in the AT-rich target sites. The distribution of ISAE1 is limited to A. eutrophus H1 (ATCC 17698) and H16 (ATCC 17699). Variants with newly transposed copies of ISAE1 could be isolated at an elevated frequency by changing the growth conditions. Images PMID:1334068

  8. Gene Insertion Into Genomic Safe Harbors for Human Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Papapetrou, Eirini P; Schambach, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Genomic safe harbors (GSHs) are sites in the genome able to accommodate the integration of new genetic material in a manner that ensures that the newly inserted genetic elements: (i) function predictably and (ii) do not cause alterations of the host genome posing a risk to the host cell or organism. GSHs are thus ideal sites for transgene insertion whose use can empower functional genetics studies in basic research and therapeutic applications in human gene therapy. Currently, no fully validated GSHs exist in the human genome. Here, we review our formerly proposed GSH criteria and discuss additional considerations on extending these criteria, on strategies for the identification and validation of GSHs, as well as future prospects on GSH targeting for therapeutic applications. In view of recent advances in genome biology, gene targeting technologies, and regenerative medicine, gene insertion into GSHs can potentially catalyze nearly all applications in human gene therapy. PMID:26867951

  9. Optimized production and concentration of lentiviral vectors containing large inserts.

    PubMed

    al Yacoub, Nadya; Romanowska, Malgorzata; Haritonova, Natalie; Foerster, John

    2007-07-01

    Generation of high titer lentiviral stocks and efficient virus concentration are central to maximize the utility of lentiviral technology. Here we evaluate published protocols for lentivirus production on a range of transfer vectors differing in size (7.5-13.2 kb). We present a modified virus production protocol robustly yielding useful titers (up to 10(7)/ml) for a range of different transfer vectors containing packaging inserts up to 7.5 kb. Moreover, we find that virus recovery after concentration by ultracentrifugation depends on the size of the packaged inserts, heavily decreasing for large packaged inserts. We describe a fast (4 h) centrifugation protocol at reduced speed allowing high virus recovery even for large and fragile lentivirus vectors. The protocols outlined in the current report should be useful for many labs interested in producing and concentrating high titer lentiviral stocks.

  10. Rhizobium phaseoli symbiotic mutants with transposon Tn5 insertions.

    PubMed Central

    Noel, K D; Sanchez, A; Fernandez, L; Leemans, J; Cevallos, M A

    1984-01-01

    Rhizobium phaseoli CFN42 DNA was mutated by random insertion of Tn5 from suicide plasmid pJB4JI to obtain independently arising strains that were defective in symbiosis with Phaseolus vulgaris but grew normally outside the plant. When these mutants were incubated with the plant, one did not initiate visible nodule tissue (Nod-), seven led to slow nodule development (Ndv), and two led to superficially normal early nodule development but lacked symbiotic nitrogenase activity (Sna-). The Nod- mutant lacked the large transmissible indigenous plasmid pCFN42d that has homology to Klebsiella pneumoniae nitrogenase (nif) genes. The other mutants had normal plasmid content. In the two Sna- mutants and one Ndv mutant, Tn5 had inserted into plasmid pCFN42d outside the region of nif homology. The insertions of the other Ndv mutants were apparently in the chromosome. They were not in plasmids detected on agarose gels, and, in contrast to insertions on indigenous plasmids, they were transmitted in crosses to wild-type strain CFN42 at the same frequency as auxotrophic markers and with the same enhancement of transmission by conjugation plasmid R68.45. In these Ndv mutants the Tn5 insertions were the same as or very closely linked to mutations causing the Ndv phenotype. However, in two mutants with Tn5 insertions on plasmid pCFN42d, an additional mutation on the same plasmid, rather than Tn5, was responsible for the Sna- or Ndv phenotype. When plasmid pJB4JI was transferred to two other R. phaseoli strains, analysis of symbiotic mutants was complicated by Tn5-containing deleted forms of pJB4JI that were stably maintained. Images PMID:6325385

  11. Rectal fist insertion. An unusual form of sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Shook, L L; Whittle, R; Rose, E F

    1985-12-01

    Rectal fist insertion (fist fucking) is an uncommon and potentially dangerous sexual practice. This is usually a homosexual activity, but can also be a heterosexual or an autoerotic practice. One known death has been reported associated with rectal fist insertion, in which the complications of anal and colonic tears and bleeding had occurred (see Editor's note). The possibility of drug overdose is also probable, as drugs and alcohol are commonly introduced into the rectum to promote sphincter relaxation and to ease the discomfort of anal dilatation.

  12. Rays inserting method (RIM) to design dielectric optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taskhiri, Mohammad Mahdi; Khalaj Amirhosseini, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    In this article, a novel approach, called Rays Inserted Method (RIM), is introduced to design dielectric optical devices. In this approach, some rays are inserted between two ends of desired device and then the refractive index of the points along the route of rays are obtained. The validity of the introduced approach is verified by designing three types of optical devices, i.e. power splitter, bend, and flat lens. The results are confirmed with numerical simulations by the means of FDTD scheme at the frequency of 100 GHz.

  13. Imaging of the complications of peripherally inserted central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Amerasekera, S S H; Jones, C M; Patel, R; Cleasby, M J

    2009-08-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) are widely used to provide central venous access, often in chronically ill patients with long-term intravenous access requirements. There are a number of significant complications related to both insertion and maintenance of PICC lines, including catheter malposition, migration, venous thrombosis, and line fracture. The incidence of these complications is likely to rise as the number of patients undergoing intravenous outpatient therapy increases, with a corresponding rise in radiologist input. This paper provides an overview of the relevant peripheral and central venous anatomy, including anatomical variations, and outlines the complications of PICC lines. Imaging examples demonstrate the range of radiological findings seen in these complications.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of conducting polymer inserted carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, A. Jeong; Nam, Young Woo; Park, Yung Woo

    2008-03-01

    The carbon nanotubes filled with the photo-conducting polymer poly(N-vinyl carbazole) and the conducting polymer polypyrrole were prepared by polymerizing the monomers inside the nanotubes using the supercritical carbon dioxide. The endohedral nanotubes were characterized by HRTEM and ^1H NMR, which confirmed that the inserted material was indeed the conducting polymer [1]. I-V characteristics of the polymer inserted carbon nanotubes are presented. [1] Johannes Steinmetz, Soyoung Kwon, Hyun-Jung Lee, Edy Abou-Hamad, Robert Almairac, Christophe Goze-Bac, Hwayong Kim, Yung-Woo Park,, Chem. Phys. Lett., 431, 139 (2006)

  15. Method of modifying a volume mesh using sheet insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Borden, Michael J.; Shepherd, Jason F.

    2006-08-29

    A method and machine-readable medium provide a technique to modify a hexahedral finite element volume mesh using dual generation and sheet insertion. After generating a dual of a volume stack (mesh), a predetermined algorithm may be followed to modify (refine) the volume mesh of hexahedral elements. The predetermined algorithm may include the steps of locating a sheet of hexahedral mesh elements, determining a plurality of hexahedral elements within the sheet to refine, shrinking the plurality of elements, and inserting a new sheet of hexahedral elements adjacently to modify the volume mesh. Additionally, another predetermined algorithm using mesh cutting may be followed to modify a volume mesh.

  16. Advanced photon source experience with vacuum chambers for insertion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hartog, P.D.; Grimmer, J.; Xu, S.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Wiemerslage, G.

    1997-08-01

    During the last five years, a new approach to the design and fabrication of extruded aluminum vacuum chambers for insertion devices was developed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). With this approach, three different versions of the vacuum chamber, with vertical apertures of 12 mm, 8 mm, and 5 mm, were manufactured and tested. Twenty chambers were installed into the APS vacuum system. All have operated with beam, and 16 have been coupled with insertion devices. Two different vacuum chambers with vertical apertures of 16 mm and 11 mm were developed for the BESSY-II storage ring and 3 of 16 mm chambers were manufactured.

  17. Dosimetry of portable image intensifiers in pacemaker insertions.

    PubMed

    Hayt, D B; Malsky, S J; Blatt, C J; Greenberg, E I; Pochaczevsky, R; Simon, D F; Perez, L A

    1975-01-01

    With the increased utilization of portable image intensifiers for pacemaker insertions, an investigation of the radiation hazards to operative personnel was undertaken. The personnel were tested first utilizing a Rando phantom and later during actual pacemaker insertions. Studies of medical personnel show the critical organs to be the thyroid (approximately 15mR per procedure) and the lens of the eye (approximately 13mR per procedure). While the MPD/week was not exceeded, the radiation dosage was substantial and could increase under operating conditions other than those measured. Recommendations to insure safer operation of this equipment are presented.

  18. 20 TeV collider lattices with low-. beta. insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Garren, A.A.

    1983-08-01

    A lattice containing insertions designed for collisions of 20 TeV proton beams at crossing points having beta values of two meters or less is presented. The machine would use high-field double bore superconducting magnets, with opposite focusing action on the two beams passing through each quadrupole. Hence the focusing pattern in the insertions is antisymmetric about the crossings. The beams, separated by 16 cms in the arcs are made colinear by dipoles common to both beams and then focused to the low-..beta.. collision points by quadrupole triplets. A similar machine design for pp collisions is also included.

  19. Cryptococcus neoformans Virulence Gene Discovery through Insertional Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Idnurm, Alexander; Reedy, Jennifer L.; Nussbaum, Jesse C.; Heitman, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Insertional mutagenesis was applied to Cryptococcus neoformans to identify genes associated with virulence attributes. Using biolistic transformation, we generated 4,300 nourseothricin (NAT)-resistant strains, of which 590 exhibited stable resistance. We focused on mutants with defects in established virulence factors and identified two with reduced growth at 37°C, four with reduced production of the antioxidant pigment melanin, and two with an increased sensitivity to nitric oxide (NO). The NAT insertion and mutant phenotypes were genetically linked in five of eight mutants, and the DNA flanking the insertions was characterized. For the strains with altered growth at 37°C and altered melanin production, mutations were in previously uncharacterized genes, while the two NO-sensitive strains bore insertions in the flavohemoglobin gene FHB1, whose product counters NO stress. Because of the frequent instability of nourseothricin resistance associated with biolistic transformation, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was tested. This transkingdom DNA delivery approach produced 100% stable nourseothricin-resistant transformants, and three melanin-defective strains were identified from 576 transformants, of which 2 were linked to NAT in segregation analysis. One of these mutants contained a T-DNA insertion in the promoter of the LAC1 (laccase) gene, which encodes a key enzyme required for melanin production, while the second contained an insertion in the promoter of the CLC1 gene, encoding a voltage-gated chloride channel. Clc1 and its homologs are required for ion homeostasis, and in their absence Cu+ transport into the secretory pathway is compromised, depriving laccase and other Cu+-dependent proteins of their essential cofactor. The NAT resistance cassette was optimized for cryptococcal codon usage and GC content and was then used to disrupt a mitogen-activated protein kinase gene, a predicted gene, and two putative chloride channel genes to analyze their

  20. Insertion of lithium into electrochromic devices after completion

    DOEpatents

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Frey, Jonathan Mack; Barrett, Kathryn Suzanne; DuPont, Paul Damon; Schaller, Ronald William

    2015-12-22

    The present disclosure describes methods of inserting lithium into an electrochromic device after completion. In the disclosed methods, an ideal amount of lithium can be added post-fabrication to maximize or tailor the free lithium ion density of a layer or the coloration range of a device. Embodiments are directed towards a method to insert lithium into the main device layers of an electrochromic device as a post-processing step after the device has been manufactured. In an embodiment, the methods described are designed to maximize the coloration range while compensating for blind charge loss.

  1. Neutron reflectometry of supported hybrid bilayers with inserted peptide

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew B.; McGillivray, Duncan J.; Genzer, Jan; Lösche, Mathias; Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    The insertion of a synthetic amphiphilic, α-helical peptide into a supported hybrid bilayer membrane (HBM) was studied by neutron reflectometry to elucidate the resulting nanostructure. The HBM consisted of a self-assembled monolayer of perdeuterated octadecanethiol on gold and an overlying leaflet of acyl-deuterated phosphatidylcholine (d-DMPC). Using contrast variation, several reflectivity spectra were recorded for each step of film fabrication, and simultaneously modeled. This analysis indicated that peptide insertion into the DMPC lipid leaflet is the likeliest mode of incorporation. PMID:21274414

  2. Technology Insertion and Management: Options for the Canadian Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    enhancement” of system performance and functionality in existing or deployed defence systems by the utilization of a new or improved technology. Importantly...du fardeau logistique si l’insertion technologique est mise en œuvre de façon efficace. La réduction des coûts de propriété d’un système de défense...powerful Honeywell engines that improve fuel efficiency and enhance lift performance by 3900lbs. [7] Horizontal technology insertion (HTI) refers to

  3. Definition of Metrics to Evaluate Cochlear Array Insertion Forces Performed with Forceps, Insertion Tool, or Motorized Tool in Temporal Bone Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Ferrary, Evelyne; Sterkers, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. In order to achieve a minimal trauma to the inner ear structures during array insertion, it would be suitable to control insertion forces. The aim of this work was to compare the insertion forces of an array insertion into anatomical specimens with three different insertion techniques: with forceps, with a commercial tool, and with a motorized tool. Materials and Methods. Temporal bones have been mounted on a 6-axis force sensor to record insertion forces. Each temporal bone has been inserted, with a lateral wall electrode array, in random order, with each of the 3 techniques. Results. Forceps manual and commercial tool insertions generated multiple jerks during whole length insertion related to fits and starts. On the contrary, insertion force with the motorized tool only rose at the end of the insertion. Overall force momentum was 1.16 ± 0.505 N (mean ± SD, n = 10), 1.337 ± 0.408 N (n = 8), and 1.573 ± 0.764 N (n = 8) for manual insertion with forceps and commercial and motorized tools, respectively. Conclusion. Considering force momentum, no difference between the three techniques was observed. Nevertheless, a more predictable force profile could be observed with the motorized tool with a smoother rise of insertion forces. PMID:25126565

  4. Electromagnetically tracked placement of a peripherally inserted central catheter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacolick, Laura; Patel, Neilesh; Tang, Jonathan; Levy, Elliot; Cleary, Kevin R.

    2004-05-01

    This paper describes a computer program to utilize electromagnetic tracking guidance during insertion of peripherally inserted central catheters. Placement of a Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) line is a relatively simple, routine procedure in which a catheter is inserted into the veins of the lower arm and threaded up the arm to the vena cava to sit just above the heart. However, the procedure requires x-ray verification of the catheter position and is usually done under continuous fluoroscopic guidance. The computer program is designed to replace fluoroscopic guidance in this procedure and make PICC line placement a bedside procedure. This would greatly reduce the time and resources dedicated to this procedure. The physician first goes through a quick registration procedure to register the patient space with the computer screen coordinates. Once registration is completed, the program provides a continuous, real-time display of the position of the catheter tip overlaid on an x-ray image of the patient on an adjacent computer screen. Both the position and orientation of the catheter tip is shown. The display is very similar to that shown when using fluoroscopy.

  5. External Tank (ET) Bipod Fitting Bolted Attachment Locking Insert Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Curtis E.; Wilson, Tim R.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Raju, Ivatury S.; McManamen, John

    2008-01-01

    Following STS-107, the External Tank (ET) Project implemented corrective actions and configuration changes at the ET bipod fitting. Among the corrective actions, the existing bolt lock wire which provided resistance to potential bolt rotation was removed. The lock wire removal was because of concerns with creating voids during foam application and potential for lock wire to become debris. The bolts had been previously lubricated to facilitate assembly but, because of elimination of the lock wire, the ET Project wanted to enable the locking feature of the insert. Thus, the lubrication was removed from bolt threads and instead applied to the washer under the bolt head. Lubrication is necessary to maximize joint pre-load while remaining within the bolt torque specification. The locking feature is implemented by thread crimping in at four places in the insert. As the bolt is torqued into the insert the bolt threads its way past the crimped parts of the insert. This provides the locking of the bolt, as torque is required to loosen the joint after clamping.

  6. Selective insertion of sulfur dioxide reduction intermediates on graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Humeres, Eduardo; Debacher, Nito A; Smaniotto, Alessandra; de Castro, Karen M; Benetoli, Luís O B; de Souza, Eduardo P; Moreira, Regina de F P M; Lopes, Cristiane N; Schreiner, Wido H; Canle, Moisés; Santaballa, J Arturo

    2014-04-22

    Graphite microparticles (d50 6.20 μm) were oxidized by strong acids, and the resultant graphite oxide was thermally exfoliated to graphene oxide sheets (MPGO, C/O 1.53). Graphene oxide was treated with nonthermal plasma under a SO2 atmosphere at room temperature. The XPS spectrum showed that SO2 was inserted only as the oxidized intermediate at 168.7 eV in the S 2p region. Short thermal shocks at 600 and 400 °C, under an Ar atmosphere, produced reduced sulfur and carbon dioxide as shown by the XPS spectrum and TGA analysis coupled to FTIR. MPGO was also submitted to thermal reaction with SO2 at 630 °C, and the XPS spectrum in the S 2p region at 164.0 eV showed that this time only the nonoxidized episulfide intermediate was inserted. Plasma and thermal treatment produced a partial reduction of MPGO. The sequence of thermal reaction followed by plasma treatment inserted both sulfur intermediates. Because oxidized and nonoxidized intermediates have different reactivities, this selective insertion would allow the addition of selective types of organic fragments to the surface of graphene oxide.

  7. Insertion Success of the Laryngeal Tube in Emergency Airway Management.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Michael; Gries, André; Ramshorn-Zimmer, Alexandra; Wenzel, Volker; Hossfeld, Bjoern

    2016-01-01

    Background. Emergency airway management (AM) is a priority when resuscitating critically ill or severely injured patients. The goal of this study was to determine the success rates of LT insertion during AM. Methods. Studies that included LT first-pass insertion (FPI) and overall-pass insertion (OPI) success by emergency medical services and in-hospital providers performing AM for emergency situations as well as for scheduled surgery published until July 2014 were searched systematically in Medline. Results. Data of 36 studies (n = 1,897) reported a LT FPI success by physicians of 82.5% with an OPI success of 93.6% (p < 0.001). A cumulative analysis of all 53 studies (n = 3,600) led to FPI and OPI success of 80.1% and 92.6% (p < 0.001), respectively. The results of 26 studies (n = 2,159) comparing the LT with the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) demonstrated a FPI success of 77.0 versus 78.7% (p = 0.36) and an OPI success of 92.2 versus 97.7% (p < 0.001). Conclusion. LT insertion failed in the first attempt in one out of five patients, with an overall failure rate in one out of 14 patients. When compared with the LT, the LMA had a cumulative 5.5% better OPI success rate.

  8. Insertion of short transmembrane helices by the Sec61 translocon.

    PubMed

    Jaud, Simon; Fernández-Vidal, Mónica; Nilsson, Ingmarie; Meindl-Beinker, Nadja M; Hübner, Nadja C; Tobias, Douglas J; von Heijne, Gunnar; White, Stephen H

    2009-07-14

    The insertion efficiency of transmembrane (TM) helices by the Sec61 translocon depends on helix amino acid composition, the positions of the amino acids within the helix, and helix length. We have used an in vitro expression system to examine systematically the insertion efficiency of short polyleucine segments (L(n), n = 4 ... 12) flanked at either end by 4-residue sequences of the form XXPX-L(n)-XPXX with X = G, N, D, or K. Except for X = K, insertion efficiency (p) is <10% for n < 8, but rises steeply to 100% for n = 12. For X = K, p is already close to 100% for n = 10. A similar pattern is observed for synthetic peptides incorporated into oriented phospholipid bilayer arrays, consistent with the idea that recognition of TM segments by the translocon critically involves physical partitioning of nascent peptide chains into the lipid bilayer. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that insertion efficiency is determined primarily by the energetic cost of distorting the bilayer in the vicinity of the TM helix. Very short lysine-flanked leucine segments can reduce the energetic cost by extensive hydrogen bonding with water and lipid phosphate groups (snorkeling) and by partial unfolding.

  9. Large scale screen for transposon insertions into cloned genes.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, B A; Palazzolo, M J; Chang, J H; VijayRaghavan, K; Mayeda, C A; Whitney, M A; Meyerowitz, E M

    1991-01-01

    We describe a method of screening for transposon insertions in or near Drosophila loci that correspond to cloned DNA sequences. We mobilize a modified P element transposon that carries a bacterial plasmid origin of replication and a drug-resistance marker. The genomic sequences flanking each transposon insertion site can then be rescued as a plasmid in Escherichia coli. Libraries of such plasmids, representing pools of transposon-mutagenized individuals, are used as hybridization probes against cloned sequences to determine whether a transposon has inserted next to a particular site in the genome. The number of loci that can be screened simultaneously by this procedure is quite large. We have screened an array of cDNA clones representing almost 700 distinct loci against libraries representing 760 mutagenized flies, and we obtained hybridization signals to 7 different cDNAs. Three of these events have been analyzed in detail and represent genuine insertions near genomic sequences that correspond to the cDNAs. Images PMID:1849274

  10. Postplacental or delayed levonorgestrel intrauterine device insertion and breastfeeding duration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Beatrice A.; Reeves, Matthew F.; Creinin, Mitchell D.; Schwarz, E. Bimla

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objective was to assess the effect of timing of postpartum levonorgestrel-releasing IUD insertion on breastfeeding continuation. STUDY DESIGN Women interested in using a levonorgestrel IUD postpartum were randomized to immediate postplacental insertion (postplacental group) or insertion 6–8 weeks after vaginal delivery (delayed group). Duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding were assessed at 6–8 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months postpartum. Only women who received an IUD were included in this analysis. RESULTS Breastfeeding was initiated by 32/50 (64%) of women receiving a postplacental IUD and 27/46 (58.7%) of women receiving a delayed IUD (p=0.59). More women in the delayed group compared to the postplacental group continued to breastfeed at 6–8 weeks (16/46 vs 15/50, p=0.62), 3 months (13/46 vs 7/50, p=0.13), and 6 months postpartum (11/46 vs 3/50, p=0.02). The results did not differ when only women who initiated breastfeeding or only primiparous women with no prior breastfeeding experience were analyzed. CONCLUSIONS Immediate postplacental insertion of the levonorgestrel IUD is associated with shorter duration of breastfeeding and less exclusive breastfeeding. Further studies are needed of the effects of early initiation of progestin-only methods on women’s lactation experience. PMID:22018124

  11. Proper Angle of Sono-guided Central Venous Line Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Barzegari, Hassan; Forouzan, Arash; Fahimi, Mohammad Ali; Zohrevandi, Behzad; Ghanavati, Mandana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Determining the proper angle for inserting central venous catheter (CV line) is of great importance for decreasing the complications and increasing success rate. The present study was designed to determine the proper angle of needle insertion for internal jugular vein catheterization. Methods: In the present case series study, candidate patients for catheterization of the right internal jugular vein under guidance of ultrasonography were studied. At the time of proper placing of the catheter, photograph was taken and Auto Cad 2014 software was used to measure the angles of the needle in the sagittal and axial planes, as well as patient’s head rotation. Result: 114 patients with the mean age of 56.96 ± 14.71 years were evaluated (68.4% male). The most common indications of catheterization were hemodialysis (55.3%) and shock state (24.6%). The mean angles of needle insertion were 102.15 ± 6.80 for axial plane, 36.21 ± 3.12 for sagittal plane and the mean head rotation angle was 40.49 ± 5.09. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study it seems that CV line insertion under the angles 102.15 ± 6.80 degrees in the axial plane, 36.21 ± 3.12 in the sagittal plane and 40.49 ± 5.09 head rotation yield satisfactory results. PMID:27299146

  12. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Bereau, Tristan; Bennett, W. F. Drew; Pfaendtner, Jim; Deserno, Markus; Karttunen, Mikko

    2015-12-28

    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA){sub n} (L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural properties have been illuminated in a large number of experimental and simulation studies. In this combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulation study, we probe the thermodynamics of a single WALP peptide, focusing on both the insertion across the water-membrane interface, as well as folding in both water and a membrane. The potential of mean force characterizing the peptide’s insertion into the membrane shows qualitatively similar behavior across peptides and three force fields. However, the Martini force field exhibits a pronounced secondary minimum for an adsorbed interfacial state, which may even become the global minimum—in contrast to both atomistic simulations and the alternative PLUM force field. Even though the two coarse-grained models reproduce the free energy of insertion of individual amino acids side chains, they both underestimate its corresponding value for the full peptide (as compared with atomistic simulations), hinting at cooperative physics beyond the residue level. Folding of WALP in the two environments indicates the helix as the most stable structure, though with different relative stabilities and chain-length dependence.

  13. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bereau, Tristan; Bennett, W. F. Drew; Pfaendtner, Jim; Deserno, Markus; Karttunen, Mikko

    2015-12-01

    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA)n (L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural properties have been illuminated in a large number of experimental and simulation studies. In this combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulation study, we probe the thermodynamics of a single WALP peptide, focusing on both the insertion across the water-membrane interface, as well as folding in both water and a membrane. The potential of mean force characterizing the peptide's insertion into the membrane shows qualitatively similar behavior across peptides and three force fields. However, the Martini force field exhibits a pronounced secondary minimum for an adsorbed interfacial state, which may even become the global minimum—in contrast to both atomistic simulations and the alternative PLUM force field. Even though the two coarse-grained models reproduce the free energy of insertion of individual amino acids side chains, they both underestimate its corresponding value for the full peptide (as compared with atomistic simulations), hinting at cooperative physics beyond the residue level. Folding of WALP in the two environments indicates the helix as the most stable structure, though with different relative stabilities and chain-length dependence.

  14. New transposon delivery plasmids for insertional mutagenesis in Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Adam C.; Perego, Marta; Hoch, James A.

    2007-01-01

    Two new transposon delivery vector systems utilizing Mariner and mini-Tn10 transposons have been developed for in vivo insertional mutagenesis in Bacillus anthracis and other compatible Gram-positive species. The utility of both systems was directly demonstrated through the mutagenesis of a widely used B. anthracis strain. PMID:17931726

  15. Observations on rotating needle insertions using a brachytherapy robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltsner, M. A.; Ferrier, N. J.; Thomadsen, B. R.

    2007-09-01

    A robot designed for prostate brachytherapy implantations has the potential to greatly improve treatment success. Much of the research in robotic surgery focuses on measuring accuracy. However, there exist many factors that must be optimized before an analysis of needle placement accuracy can be determined. Some of these parameters include choice of the needle type, insertion velocity, usefulness of the rotating needle and rotation speed. These parameters may affect the force at which the needle interacts with the tissue. A reduction in force has been shown to decrease the compression of the prostate and potentially increase the accuracy of seed position. Rotating the needle as it is inserted may reduce frictional forces while increasing accuracy. However, needle rotations are considered to increase tissue damage due to the drilling nature of the insertion. We explore many of the factors involved in optimizing a brachytherapy robot, and the potential effects each parameter may have on the procedure. We also investigate the interaction of rotating needles in gel and suggest the rotate-cannula-only method of conical needle insertion to minimize any tissue damage while still maintaining the benefits of reduced force and increased accuracy.

  16. Spline modelling electron insert factors using routine measurements.

    PubMed

    Biggs, S; Sobolewski, M; Murry, R; Kenny, J

    2016-01-01

    There are many methods available to predict electron output factors; however, many centres still measure the factors for each irregular electron field. Creating an electron output factor prediction model that approaches measurement accuracy--but uses already available data and is simple to implement--would be advantageous in the clinical setting. This work presents an empirical spline model for output factor prediction that requires only the measured factors for arbitrary insert shapes. Equivalent ellipses of the insert shapes are determined and then parameterised by width and ratio of perimeter to area. This takes into account changes in lateral scatter, bremsstrahlung produced in the insert material, and scatter from the edge of the insert. Agreement between prediction and measurement for the 12 MeV validation data had an uncertainty of 0.4% (1SD). The maximum recorded deviation between measurement and prediction over the range of energies was 1.0%. The validation methodology showed that one may expect an approximate uncertainty of 0.5% (1SD) when as little as eight data points are used. The level of accuracy combined with the ease with which this model can be generated demonstrates its suitability for clinical use. Implementation of this method is freely available for download at https://github.com/SimonBiggs/electronfactors.

  17. Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, S.

    1997-01-01

    Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties.

  18. Temperature induced compositional redistribution in blended insertion electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heubner, C.; Lämmel, C.; Schneider, M.; Michaelis, A.

    2017-03-01

    Blending insertion compounds is a novel and promising approach to design advanced electrodes for future lithium-ion batteries. In spite of the considerable improvements regarding safety issues and power density, the understanding of basic interactions between the constituents of the blend and differences towards common single compound insertion electrodes is still ongoing. Herein we explore and verify the effect of temperature induced compositional redistribution of lithium-ions between the constituents of a blended insertion electrode for the first time. A model-like blend electrode and a special experimental setup is used to measure the compositional redistribution current between the constituents when subjected to a temperature change. The amount of lithium exchanged between the constituents of the blend is also derived theoretically based on the thermodynamic properties of the pure constituents, showing excellent agreement to the experimental results. Theoretical and experimental results proof that significant amounts of lithium are exchanged between the constituents without any cycling of the battery, suggesting that this effect may intrinsically reduce the cycle life of batteries with blended insertion electrodes.

  19. Astronaut Scott Carpenter inserted into Aurora 7 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter, pilot of the Mercury-Atlas 7 space flight, is inserted into Aurora 7 spacecraft during the prelaunch countdown. Carpenter is assisted into the spacecraft by Astronaut John Glenn and Gunter Vendt, McDonnell Douglas pad capsule test conducter.

  20. Computer Modeling of Protocellular Functions: Peptide Insertion in Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez-Gomez, D.; Darve, E.; Pohorille, A.

    2006-01-01

    Lipid vesicles became the precursors to protocells by acquiring the capabilities needed to survive and reproduce. These include transport of ions, nutrients and waste products across cell walls and capture of energy and its conversion into a chemically usable form. In modem organisms these functions are carried out by membrane-bound proteins (about 30% of the genome codes for this kind of proteins). A number of properties of alpha-helical peptides suggest that their associations are excellent candidates for protobiological precursors of proteins. In particular, some simple a-helical peptides can aggregate spontaneously and form functional channels. This process can be described conceptually by a three-step thermodynamic cycle: 1 - folding of helices at the water-membrane interface, 2 - helix insertion into the lipid bilayer and 3 - specific interactions of these helices that result in functional tertiary structures. Although a crucial step, helix insertion has not been adequately studied because of the insolubility and aggregation of hydrophobic peptides. In this work, we use computer simulation methods (Molecular Dynamics) to characterize the energetics of helix insertion and we discuss its importance in an evolutionary context. Specifically, helices could self-assemble only if their interactions were sufficiently strong to compensate the unfavorable Free Energy of insertion of individual helices into membranes, providing a selection mechanism for protobiological evolution.

  1. Insertion Success of the Laryngeal Tube in Emergency Airway Management

    PubMed Central

    Gries, André; Ramshorn-Zimmer, Alexandra; Wenzel, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Background. Emergency airway management (AM) is a priority when resuscitating critically ill or severely injured patients. The goal of this study was to determine the success rates of LT insertion during AM. Methods. Studies that included LT first-pass insertion (FPI) and overall-pass insertion (OPI) success by emergency medical services and in-hospital providers performing AM for emergency situations as well as for scheduled surgery published until July 2014 were searched systematically in Medline. Results. Data of 36 studies (n = 1,897) reported a LT FPI success by physicians of 82.5% with an OPI success of 93.6% (p < 0.001). A cumulative analysis of all 53 studies (n = 3,600) led to FPI and OPI success of 80.1% and 92.6% (p < 0.001), respectively. The results of 26 studies (n = 2,159) comparing the LT with the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) demonstrated a FPI success of 77.0 versus 78.7% (p = 0.36) and an OPI success of 92.2 versus 97.7% (p < 0.001). Conclusion. LT insertion failed in the first attempt in one out of five patients, with an overall failure rate in one out of 14 patients. When compared with the LT, the LMA had a cumulative 5.5% better OPI success rate. PMID:27642595

  2. Prediction tool for thrombi associated with peripherally inserted central catheters.

    PubMed

    Seeley, Maria A; Santiago, Mary; Shott, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The upper extremity deep vein thrombosis rate is increasing at the same time that the rate for insertions of peripherally inserted central catheters is on the rise. There is little information on whether the established risk factors for lower extremity deep vein thromboses are effective to predict the occurrence of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis. The purpose of this study was to identify patients at highest risk for upper extremity deep vein thrombosis in order to initiate effective prophylaxis. A retrospective review was undertaken of medical records of all patients with peripherally inserted central catheters inserted in a 6-month period at a Midwestern US hospital. Of the 233 charts reviewed, 17 (7.3%) recorded an upper extremity deep vein thrombosis during the patient's hospital stay. Of the multiple factors identified with deep vein thrombosis in the literature, a weighted risk factor measure, the upper extremity deep vein thrombosis prediction tool, was developed. Sensitivity of the instrument for upper extremity deep vein thrombosis is high (88%), as are its specificity (82%) and negative predictive value (99%), whereas the positive predictive value is low (28%). The total percentage of cases correctly classified is 82%. Further testing is indicated on a larger sample to extend the validity of this instrument.

  3. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide.

    PubMed

    Bereau, Tristan; Bennett, W F Drew; Pfaendtner, Jim; Deserno, Markus; Karttunen, Mikko

    2015-12-28

    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA)n (L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural properties have been illuminated in a large number of experimental and simulation studies. In this combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulation study, we probe the thermodynamics of a single WALP peptide, focusing on both the insertion across the water-membrane interface, as well as folding in both water and a membrane. The potential of mean force characterizing the peptide's insertion into the membrane shows qualitatively similar behavior across peptides and three force fields. However, the Martini force field exhibits a pronounced secondary minimum for an adsorbed interfacial state, which may even become the global minimum-in contrast to both atomistic simulations and the alternative PLUM force field. Even though the two coarse-grained models reproduce the free energy of insertion of individual amino acids side chains, they both underestimate its corresponding value for the full peptide (as compared with atomistic simulations), hinting at cooperative physics beyond the residue level. Folding of WALP in the two environments indicates the helix as the most stable structure, though with different relative stabilities and chain-length dependence.

  4. Effects of Rotational Motion in Robotic Needle Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Ramezanpour, H.; Yousefi, H.; Rezaei, M.; Rostami, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Robotic needle insertion in biological tissues has been known as one the most applicable procedures in sampling, robotic injection and different medical therapies and operations. Objective In this paper, we would like to investigate the effects of angular velocity in soft tissue insertion procedure by considering force-displacement diagram. Non-homogenous camel liver can be exploited as a tissue sample under standard compression test with Zwick/Roell device employing 1-D axial load-cell. Methods Effects of rotational motion were studied by running needle insertion experiments in 5, 50 and 200 mm/min in two types of with or without rotational velocity of 50, 150 and 300 rpm. On further steps with deeper penetrations, friction force of the insertion procedure in needle shaft was acquired by a definite thickness of the tissue. Results Designed mechanism of fixture for providing different frequencies of rotational motion is available in this work. Results for comparison of different force graphs were also provided. Conclusion Derived force-displacement graphs showed a significant difference between two procedures; however, tissue bleeding and disorganized micro-structure would be among unavoidable results. PMID:26688800

  5. Analysis of HIV-2 Vpx by modeling and insertional mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mahnke, Lisa A. . E-mail: lmahnke@im.wustl.edu; Belshan, Michael; Ratner, Lee . E-mail: lratner@im.wustl.edu

    2006-04-25

    Vpx facilitates HIV-2 nuclear localization by a poorly understood mechanism. We have compared Vpx to an NMR structure HIV-1 Vpr in a central helical domain and probed regions of Vpx by insertional mutagenesis. A predicted loop between helices two and three appears to be unique, overlapping with a known novel nuclear localization signal. Overall, Vpx was found to be surprisingly flexible, tolerating a series of large insertions. We found that insertion within the polyproline-containing C-terminus destabilizes nuclear localization, whereas mutating a second helix in the central domain disrupts viral packaging. Other insertional mutants in the predicted loop and in a linker region between the central domain and the C-terminus may be useful as sites of intramolecular tags as they could be packaged adequately and retained preintegration complex associated integration activity in a serum starvation assay. An unexpected result was found within a previously defined nuclear localization motif near aa 71. This mutant retained robust nuclear localization in a GFP fusion assay and was competent for preintegration complex associated nuclear import. In summary, we have modeled helical content in Vpx and assessed potential sites of intramolecular tags which may prove useful for protein-protein interactions studies.

  6. Discovery of unfixed endogenous retrovirus insertions in diverse human populations

    PubMed Central

    Wildschutte, Julia Halo; Williams, Zachary H.; Montesion, Meagan; Subramanian, Ravi P.; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Coffin, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) have contributed to more than 8% of the human genome. The majority of these elements lack function due to accumulated mutations or internal recombination resulting in a solitary (solo) LTR, although members of one group of human ERVs (HERVs), HERV-K, were recently active with members that remain nearly intact, a subset of which is present as insertionally polymorphic loci that include approximately full-length (2-LTR) and solo-LTR alleles in addition to the unoccupied site. Several 2-LTR insertions have intact reading frames in some or all genes that are expressed as functional proteins. These properties reflect the activity of HERV-K and suggest the existence of additional unique loci within humans. We sought to determine the extent to which other polymorphic insertions are present in humans, using sequenced genomes from the 1000 Genomes Project and a subset of the Human Genome Diversity Project panel. We report analysis of a total of 36 nonreference polymorphic HERV-K proviruses, including 19 newly reported loci, with insertion frequencies ranging from <0.0005 to >0.75 that varied by population. Targeted screening of individual loci identified three new unfixed 2-LTR proviruses within our set, including an intact provirus present at Xq21.33 in some individuals, with the potential for retained infectivity. PMID:27001843

  7. Quench Module Insert Capabilities and Development Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, B.; Crouch, M.; Farmer, J.; Breeding, S.; Rose, F.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Quench Module Insert is a directional solidification furnace, which will fly in the Materials Science Research Facility. The QMI provides high thermal gradient and quench capabilities for processing metals and alloys in microgravity. This paper will describe the capabilities and present of on-going analysis and development testing.

  8. Effects of lithium insertion on thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wen; Zhang, Gang; Li, Baowen

    2015-04-27

    Recently, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been applied as high-performance Li battery anodes, since they can overcome the pulverization and mechanical fracture during lithiation. Although thermal stability is one of the most important parameters that determine safety of Li batteries, thermal conductivity of SiNWs with Li insertion remains unclear. In this letter, using molecular dynamics simulations, we study room temperature thermal conductivity of SiNWs with Li insertion. It is found that compared with the pristine SiNW, there is as much as 60% reduction in thermal conductivity with 10% concentration of inserted Li atoms, while under the same impurity concentration the reduction in thermal conductivity of the mass-disordered SiNW is only 30%. With lattice dynamics calculations and normal mode decomposition, it is revealed that the phonon lifetimes in SiNWs decrease greatly due to strong scattering of phonons by vibrational modes of Li atoms, especially for those high frequency phonons. The observed strong phonon scattering phenomenon in Li-inserted SiNWs is similar to the phonon rattling effect. Our study serves as an exploration of thermal properties of SiNWs as Li battery anodes or weakly coupled with impurity atoms.

  9. Cochlear implant insertion forces in microdissected human cochlea to evaluate a prototype array.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Yann; Miroir, Mathieu; Kazmitcheff, Guillaume; Sutter, Jasmine; Bensidhoum, Morad; Ferrary, Evelyne; Sterkers, Olivier; Bozorg Grayeli, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Cochlear implant array insertion forces are potentially related to cochlear trauma. We compared these forces between a standard (Digisonic SP; Neurelec, Vallauris, France) and an array prototype (Neurelec) with a smaller diameter. The arrays were inserted by a mechatronic tool in 23 dissected human cochlea specimens exposing the basilar membrane. The array progression under the basilar membrane was filmed together with dynamic force measurements. Insertion force profiles and depth of insertion were compared. The recordings showed lower insertion forces beyond 270° of insertion and deeper insertions with the thin prototype array. This will potentially allow larger cochlear coverage with less trauma.

  10. [Discussion on different methods of painless needle insertion based on positions].

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Shi, Xuemin

    2016-03-01

    Based on multiple painless needle insertion skills in clinic combined with own experience, the authors propose the opinion that different painless needle insertion methods need to be used according to the positions where acupoints are. The appropriate needle insertion mean must be selected in accord with the anatomical characteristic of acupoint position, namely, tapping insertion is applied in scalp part, skin-pinching up needle insertion is used in forehead and superficial nerve trunk, fingernail-pressure needle insertion in ocular region and positions where large blood vessels distribute, flying acupuncture insertion in face and finger tip, vibrating needle in occipitonuchal region, quivering insertion in abdomen, quick pricking by single hand in the four limbs and back, and chop acupuncture in palm and pelma. The insertion methods are systematically discussed in terms of preparation, acupoint position, manipulation and attention, etc, so that to provide the reference for painless needle insertion.

  11. Efficient simulation of chemical potentials and phase equilibria in associating fluids: monomer/dimer insertion versus gradual particle insertion in primitive water models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vörtler, Horst L.; Kettler, Matthias

    Widom's test particle method for simulation of chemical potentials fails for associating (network forming) fluids. Therefore we study more sophisticated insertion methods, such as gradual particle insertion and the recent unbonded particle insertion of Tripathi and Chapman. We model strongly associating fluids by short-ranged primitive models (PMs) due to Nezbeda and co-workers. Recently, we showed that gradual insertion, in principle, is applicable to PM water. Here, we study systematically subcritical chemical potential isotherms, determine vapour-liquid coexistence densities and estimate the critical point density and temperature. For comparison we implement two variants of the Tripathi-Chapman algorithm. In the first case we use as unbonded test particles only particles which remain single molecules (monomers), when inserted and in the second case such test particles which remain as single molecules or form a two-particle cluster with an existing free molecule (monomer/dimer), when inserted. While monomer insertion improves Widom's method slightly, monomer/dimer insertion extends substantially the range of application to the subcritical temperatures studied by gradual insertion. But, for low temperatures monomer/dimer insertion requires extremely long Markov chains and significantly more computer time than gradual insertion. The Tripathi-Chapman algorithm - a direct extension of Widom's method - is much simpler than gradual insertion and therefore should be preferred at supercritical and critical conditions.

  12. Choice of Tevatron tune with matched low-. beta. insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Month, M.

    1984-06-20

    The Tevatron lattice, following closely the Main Ring lattice, is made up of approximately 90 FODO cells with six straight sections equally spaced. The straight sections are identical (neglecting the special high-..beta.. straight section used for resonant extraction) providing six-fold symmetry. Each straight section is comprised mainly of a pair of doublets, one at each end, in an antisymmetric configuration. The ..beta..-functions are matched to the building block cells but the dispersion function is not. The ..beta..-function matching implies that the structure is not sensitive to the tune of the sextant (i.e., structure resonances); however, the dispersion mismatch excites off-momentum dipole resonances and the dispersion structure of the ring is therefore sensitive to sextant tunes near an integer. The introduction of low-..beta.. insertions can be accomplished by replacing a standard insertion (expanded somewhat from the doublet pair straight section) with a low-..beta.. insertion. By matching the ends of the replacement units with respect to ..beta..-functions and dispersion function, the full lattice is made insensitive to linear structure resonances. Procedures are described here for introducing into the idealized Tevatron lattice considered here a single matched low-..beta.. insertion at BO, and two matched low-..beta.. insertions at BO and DO. The main consequence is the need for a significant number of independently powered quadrupoles. Another conclusion is related to the choice of tune, where it is found that the arbitrary rule of maintaining a fixed tune for all configurations should be modified.

  13. A kinetic model for estimating the boron activation energies in the FeB and Fe2B layers during the gas-boriding of Armco iron: Effect of boride incubation times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keddam, M.; Kulka, M.; Makuch, N.; Pertek, A.; Małdziński, L.

    2014-04-01

    The present work deals with a simulation of the growth kinetics of boride layers grown on Armco iron substrate. The formed boride layers (FeB + Fe2B) are obtained by the gas-boriding in the temperature range of 1073-1273 K during a time duration ranging from 80 to 240 min. The used approach solves the mass balance equations at the two growing fronts: (FeB/Fe2B) and (Fe2B/Fe) under certain assumptions. To consider the effect of the incubation times for the borides formation, the temperature-dependent function Φ(T) was incorporated in the model. The following input data: (the boriding temperature, the treatment time, the upper and lower values of boron concentrations in FeB and Fe2B and the experimental parabolic growth constants) are needed to determine the boron activation energies in the FeB and Fe2B layers. The obtained values of boron activation energies were then compared with the values available in the literature. Finally, a good agreement was obtained between the simulated values of boride layers thicknesses and the experimental ones in the temperature range of 1073-1273 K.

  14. Effects of rotated square inserts on the longitudinal vibration band gaps in thin phononic crystal plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Haojiang; Liu, Rongqiang; Shi, Chuang; Guo, Hongwei; Deng, Zongquan

    2015-07-01

    Longitudinal vibration of thin phononic crystal plates with a hybrid square-like array of square inserts is investigated. The plane wave expansion method is used to calculate the vibration band structure of the plate. Numerical results show that rotated square inserts can open several vibration gaps, and the band structures are twisted because of the rotation of inserts. Filling fraction and material of the insert affect the change law of the gap width versus the rotation angles of square inserts.

  15. Effects on Subtalar Joint Stress Distribution After Cannulated Screw Insertion at Different Positions and Directions.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Cheng-song; Chen, Wan; Chen, Chen; Yang, Guang-hua; Hu, Chao; Tang, Kang-lai

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects on subtalar joint stress distribution after cannulated screw insertion at different positions and directions. After establishing a 3-dimensional geometric model of a normal subtalar joint, we analyzed the most ideal cannulated screw insertion position and approach for subtalar joint stress distribution and compared the differences in loading stress, antirotary strength, and anti-inversion/eversion strength among lateral-medial antiparallel screw insertion, traditional screw insertion, and ideal cannulated screw insertion. The screw insertion approach allowing the most uniform subtalar joint loading stress distribution was lateral screw insertion near the border of the talar neck plus medial screw insertion close to the ankle joint. For stress distribution uniformity, antirotary strength, and anti-inversion/eversion strength, lateral-medial antiparallel screw insertion was superior to traditional double-screw insertion. Compared with ideal cannulated screw insertion, slightly poorer stress distribution uniformity and better antirotary strength and anti-inversion/eversion strength were observed for lateral-medial antiparallel screw insertion. Traditional single-screw insertion was better than double-screw insertion for stress distribution uniformity but worse for anti-rotary strength and anti-inversion/eversion strength. Lateral-medial antiparallel screw insertion was slightly worse for stress distribution uniformity than was ideal cannulated screw insertion but superior to traditional screw insertion. It was better than both ideal cannulated screw insertion and traditional screw insertion for anti-rotary strength and anti-inversion/eversion strength. Lateral-medial antiparallel screw insertion is an approach with simple localization, convenient operation, and good safety.

  16. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Methods: Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. Results: For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically

  17. Method of installing a metallic threaded insert in a composite/rubber panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izdebski, Stanley

    1994-02-01

    A method of installing a metallic threaded insert in a composite/rubber panel consists of threading a first insert section into a preformed hole in a fiberglass composite panel and bonding a rubber panel over the fiberglass composite panel. The rubber panel includes an opening which is positioned over the first insert section. A second insert section is threaded onto an elongated positioning bolt and then the positioning bolt is threaded into the first insert section. The second insert section is threaded downwardly on the positioning so as to be in adjacent relation to the first insert section, and the opening in the rubber panel is filled with a rubber compound. The rubber compound is cured, preferably at room temperature, to set the second insert section in position and the positioning bolt is threaded out of the first and second insert sections.

  18. Needle insertion with duty-cycled rotation into multiple media.

    PubMed

    Lehocky, Craig A; Riviere, Cameron N

    2012-01-01

    Thin, flexible needles can be steered along nonlinear paths to reach deep anatomical structures within the human body. This study builds upon previous work involving steering of bevel-tipped needles by inserting while rotating in a duty-cycled fashion. Here we investigate how needle material and radius, duty cycle, and tissue stiffness affect needle curvature. Needles were inserted into media while rotated at a specified duty cycle and the curvature was measured. A linear relationship between duty cycle and curvature was observed across all needle materials and radii, and tissue stiffnesses. Following these observations, we developed a model that encapsulates needle and tissue parameters in order to predict the duty cycle needed to achieve a desired curvature.

  19. Phase transitions in insertion electrodes for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Thackeray, M. M.

    2000-02-02

    Phase transitions that occur during lithium insertion into layered and framework structures are discussed in the context of their application as positive and negative electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. The discussion is focused on the two-dimensional structures of graphite, LiNi{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}O{sub 2} (M = Co, Ti and Mg), and Li{sub 1.2}V{sub 3}O{sub 8}; examples of framework structures with a three-dimensional interstitial space for Li{sup +}-ion transport include the spinel oxides and intermetallic compounds with zinc-blende-type structures. The phase transitions are discussed in terms of their tolerance to lithium insertion and extraction and to the chemical stability of the electrodes in the cell environment.

  20. [Neonatology nurses' knowledge about Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheter].

    PubMed

    Belo, Marcela Patricia Macêdo; Silva, Roberta Albuquerque Mello de Castro; Nogueira, Isis Larissa Maia; Mizoguti, Daniele Pereira; Ventura, Claudiane Maria Urbano

    2012-01-01

    The Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) has been used as a safe venous access for infants at risk. The aim of this study was to describe the knowledge and practice of nurses from the five public Neonatal Intensive Care Units, of Recife-PE, Brazil, about the use of the PICC. The sample was comprised by 52 nurses; data were collected from January to February/2010. It was found that 64,8% of nurses did not have license for insertion of the PICC. Only two units routinely used the PICC. About the indication of the access, the accuracy was above 70%. In unit B only 8,3% of nurses reported adequate initial location of the catheter tip. It was concluded that is necessary greater incentives to train nurses to use the PICC.

  1. Metallocene Catalytic Insertion Polymerization of 1-Silene to Polycarbosilanes

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuelong; Ge, Min; Zhang, Weigang; Lv, Xiaoxu; Yu, Shouquan

    2015-01-01

    Metallocene of zirconium were used as a catalyst for an insertion polymerization of 1-methylsilene directly into pre-ceramic precursor polyzirconocenecarbosilane (PZCS) during dechlorination of dichlorodimethylesilane by sodium, which exhibits high catalytic effectiveness with the maximum conversion ratio of polycarbosilane up to 91%. The average molecular weights of polymers synthesized are less than 1400, all with very narrow polymolecularities. The mechanism of catalytic polymerization was assumed to be similar to a coordination insertion polymerization of 1-olefins by metallocenes. The obtained PZCS show high ceramic yields with formation of composite ceramics of ZrC-SiC, which are novel polymeric precursors of ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTC) fiber and composite. PMID:26541636

  2. Insertion devices for the Advanced Light Source at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Hassenzahl, W.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hoyer, E.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Savoy, R.

    1989-03-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory will be the first of the new generation of dedicated synchrotron light sources to be put into operation. Specially designed insertion devices will be required to realize the high brightness photon beams made possible by the low emittance of the electron beam. The complement of insertion devices on the ALS will include undulators with periods as short as 3.9 cm and one or more high field wigglers. The first device to be designed is a 5 m long, 5 cm period, hybrid undulator. The goal of very high brightness and high harmonic output imposes unusually tight tolerances on the magnetic field quality and thus on the mechanical structure. The design process, using a generic structure for all undulators, is described. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Convective heat transfer enhancement inside tubes using inserted helical coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, R. K.; Sharafeldeen, M. A.; Berbish, N. S.; Moawed, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Convective heat transfer was experimentally investigated in tubes with helical coils inserts in turbulent flow regime within Reynolds number range of 14400 ≤ Re ≤ 42900. The present work aims to extend the experimental data available on wire coil inserts to cover wire diameter ratio from 0.044 to 0.133 and coil pitch ratio from 1 to 5. Uniform heat flux was applied to the external surface of the tube and air was selected as fluid. The effects of Reynolds number and wire diameter and coil pitch ratios on the Nusselt number and friction factor were studied. The enhancement efficiency and performance criteria ranges are of (46.9-82.6%) and (100.1-128%) within the investigated range of the different parameters, respectively. Correlations are obtained for the average Nusselt number and friction factor utilizing the present measurements within the investigated range of geometrical parameters and Re.

  4. Calculation of magnetic error fields in hybrid insertion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoy, R.; Halbach, K.; Hassenzahl, W.; Hoyer, E.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.

    1990-05-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory requires insertion devices with fields sufficiently accurate to take advantage of the small emittance of the ALS electron beam. To maintain the spectral performance of the synchrotron radiation and to limit steering effects on the electron beam these errors must be smaller than 0.25%. This paper develops a procedure for calculating the steering error due to misalignment of the easy axis of the permanent-magnet material. The procedure is based on a three-dimensional theory of the design of hybrid insertion devices developed by one of us. The acceptable tolerance for easy axis misalignment is found for a 5-cm-period undulator proposed for the ALS.

  5. Massive reflux and aspiration after radiographically inserted gastrostomy tube placement.

    PubMed

    Chesoni, Sandra A; Bach, John R; Okamura, Erica Mia

    2015-01-01

    To the authors' knowledge, fatal postgastrostomy aspiration within 2 days of enteral nutrition has not been reported. The authors report consecutive cases of severe postgastrotomy aspiration with one being fatal for a 26-yr-old with Duchenne muscular dystrophy 2 days after initiation of gastrostomy feedings. Previous to these consecutive radiographically inserted gastrostomies, all gastrotomies at the institution were percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomies or open gastrostomies. Radiographically inserted gastrostomy tubes have an increased likelihood of being oriented toward the esophagus as opposed to the duodenum, which may increase the risk for reflux. Elimination of invasive airway tubes should be delayed until after gastrostomy feedings are documented to be well tolerated. Oximetry and repeated measurements of vital capacity can suggest changes in the status of airway clearance.

  6. The Ziegler—Natta olefin insertion reaction for cationic metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Vidar R.; Siegban, Per E. M.

    1993-09-01

    The catalytic Ziegler—Natta polymerization reaction has been studied for a set of metal cations, in order to identify the role of the positive charge on this process. Geometry optimizations have been performed for the reactant metal—methyl systems, the π-coordinated olefin systems, the transition states for the olefin insertion and finally for the product metal—propyl systems. All valence electrons are correlated. The cations selected for this study are the transition metals Zr + and Ti +, the non-transition metals Be +, Mg +, Al + and finally also Si +. The transition metal cations are found to have very low barriers for the insertion, but the lowest barrier is actually found for Be +. The results are discussed in terms of the ionization energies and the accessibility to valence p and d orbitals. Comparisons are made to previous theoretical work on cationic model systems.

  7. Flexibility in targeting and insertion during bacterial membrane protein biogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bloois, Edwin van; Hagen-Jongman, Corinne M. ten; Luirink, Joen

    2007-10-26

    The biogenesis of Escherichia coli inner membrane proteins (IMPs) is assisted by targeting and insertion factors such as the signal recognition particle (SRP), the Sec-translocon and YidC with translocation of (large) periplasmic domains energized by SecA and the proton motive force (pmf). The use of these factors and forces is probably primarily determined by specific structural features of an IMP. To analyze these features we have engineered a set of model IMPs based on endogenous E. coli IMPs known to follow distinct targeting and insertion pathways. The modified model IMPs were analyzed for altered routing using an in vivo protease mapping approach. The data suggest a facultative use of different combinations of factors.

  8. Wear mechanisms of milling inserts: Dry and wet cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, J.; Tung, S.C.; Barber, G.C.

    1998-07-01

    There is less literature on wear of milling tools than on wear of turning tools because milling is one of the most complicated machining operations. The intermittent milling action creates mechanical and thermal surges that distinguish milling from single-point machining. A systematic tool life study for face milling inserts was conducted with and without coolant. Workpieces made of 4140 steel were cut by C5 grade carbide inserts under various cutting conditions. The comparison between dry and wet cutting shows that caution should be taken when applying a coolant for milling operations. Special tests should be carried out in evaluating potential coolant candidates. It is not always true that coolant enhances tool life for milling. Wear mechanisms are presented by means of war maps. Identified wear mechanisms are: micro-attrition, micro-abrasion, mechanical fatigue, thermal fatigue, thermal pitting, and edge chipping.

  9. Chromaticity and low-β insertions in particle colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Autin, Bruno

    1990-12-01

    Besides its energy range, the main characteristic of a particle collider is its luminosity. A very important piece of equipment to achieve high luminosities is a low-β insertion, a device which focuses the beam down to a tiny spot size. The focusing limits are not only technological, they are also associated with the aberrations of such systems. This paper deals with the chromatic aberrations. In a first part, the treatment of the focusing errors is reviewed and a formalism using symbolic computation is set up so that high-order perturbations can be evaluated, although results are limited to the second-order betatron tune shift and to its interpretation. In a second part, a completely analytical theory of the final doublet of a low-β insertion is given for a special model of flat-beam focusing.

  10. Insertion sequences enrichment in extreme Red sea brine pool vent.

    PubMed

    Elbehery, Ali H A; Aziz, Ramy K; Siam, Rania

    2017-03-01

    Mobile genetic elements are major agents of genome diversification and evolution. Limited studies addressed their characteristics, including abundance, and role in extreme habitats. One of the rare natural habitats exposed to multiple-extreme conditions, including high temperature, salinity and concentration of heavy metals, are the Red Sea brine pools. We assessed the abundance and distribution of different mobile genetic elements in four Red Sea brine pools including the world's largest known multiple-extreme deep-sea environment, the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. We report a gradient in the abundance of mobile genetic elements, dramatically increasing in the harshest environment of the pool. Additionally, we identified a strong association between the abundance of insertion sequences and extreme conditions, being highest in the harshest and deepest layer of the Red Sea Atlantis II Deep. Our comparative analyses of mobile genetic elements in secluded, extreme and relatively non-extreme environments, suggest that insertion sequences predominantly contribute to polyextremophiles genome plasticity.

  11. Needle Insertion with Duty-Cycled Rotation into Multiple Media

    PubMed Central

    Lehocky, Craig A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2012-01-01

    Thin, flexible needles can be steered along nonlinear paths to reach deep anatomical structures within the human body. This study builds upon previous work involving steering of bevel-tipped needles by inserting while rotating in a duty-cycled fashion. Here we investigate how needle material and radius, duty cycle, and tissue stiffness affect needle curvature. Needles were inserted into media while rotated at a specified duty cycle and the curvature was measured. A linear relationship between duty cycle and curvature was observed across all needle materials and radii, and tissue stiffnesses. Following these observations, we developed a model that encapsulates needle and tissue parameters in order to predict the duty cycle needed to achieve a desired curvature. PMID:23366042

  12. Insertional hypermutation in mineral oil-induced plasmacytomas.

    PubMed

    Knittel, Gero; Metzner, Mirjam; Beck-Engeser, Gabriele; Kan, Ada; Ahrends, Tomasz; Eilat, Dan; Huppi, Konrad; Wabl, Matthias

    2014-09-01

    Unless stimulated by a chronic inflammatory agent, such as mineral oil, plasma cell tumors are rare in young BALB/c mice. This raises the questions: What do inflammatory tissues provide to promote mutagenesis? And what is the nature of mutagenesis? We determined that mineral oil-induced plasmacytomas produce large amounts of endogenous retroelements--ecotropic and polytropic murine leukemia virus and intracisternal A particles. Therefore, plasmacytoma formation might occur, in part, by de novo insertion of these retroelements, induced or helped by the inflammation. We recovered up to ten de novo insertions in a single plasmacytoma, mostly in genes with common retroviral integration sites. Additional integrations accompany tumor evolution from a solid tumor through several generations in cell culture. The high frequency of de novo integrations into cancer genes suggests that endogenous retroelements are coresponsible for plasmacytoma formation and progression in BALB/c mice.

  13. Challenges for Insertion of Structural Nanomaterials in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sochi, Emilie J.

    2012-01-01

    In the two decades since Iijima's report on carbon nanotubes (CNT), there has been great interest in realizing the benefits of mechanical properties observed at the nanoscale in large-scale structures. The weight savings possible due to dramatic improvements in mechanical properties relative to state-of-the-art material systems can be game changing for applications like aerospace vehicles. While there has been significant progress in commercial production of CNTs, major aerospace applications that take advantage of properties offered by this material have yet to be realized. This paper provides a perspective on the technical challenges and barriers for insertion of CNTs as an emerging material technology in aerospace applications and proposes approaches that may reduce the typical timeframe for technology maturation and insertion into aerospace structures.

  14. Design and optimization of a HTS insert for solenoid magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomassetti, Giordano; de Marzi, Gianluca; Muzzi, Luigi; Celentano, Giuseppe; della Corte, Antonio

    2016-12-01

    With the availability of High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) prototype cables, based on high-performance REBCO Coated Conductor (CC) tapes, new designs can now be made for large bore high-field inserts in superconducting solenoids, thus extending the magnet operating point to higher magnetic fields. In this work, as an alternative approach to the standard trial-and-error design process, an optimization procedure for a HTS grading section design is proposed, including parametric electro-magnetic and structural analyses, using the ANSYS software coupled with a numerically-efficient optimization algorithm. This HTS grading section is designed to be inserted into a 12 T large bore Low-Temperature Superconducting (LTS) solenoid (diameter about 1 m) to increase the field up to a maximum value of at least 17 T. The optimization variables taken into consideration are the number of turns and layers and the circle-in-square jacket inner diameter in order to minimize the total needed conductor length to achieve a peak field of at least 17 T, while guaranteeing the structural integrity and manufacturing constraints. By means of the optimization, an optimal 360 m total conductor length was found, achieving 17.2 T with an operating current of 22.4 kA and a coil comprised of 18 × 12 turns, shortened of about 20% with respect to the best initial candidate architectural design. The optimal HTS insert has a bore compatible with manufacturing constraints (inner bore radius larger than 30 cm). A scaled HTS insert for validation purposes, with a reduced conductor length, to be tested in an advanced experimental facility currently under construction, is also mentioned.

  15. Crystallographic snapshots of sulfur insertion by lipoyl synthase

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Martin I.; Lanz, Nicholas D.; Goldman, Peter J.; Lee, Kyung-Hoon; Booker, Squire J.; Drennan, Catherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Lipoyl synthase (LipA) catalyzes the insertion of two sulfur atoms at the unactivated C6 and C8 positions of a protein-bound octanoyl chain to produce the lipoyl cofactor. To activate its substrate for sulfur insertion, LipA uses a [4Fe-4S] cluster and S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) radical chemistry; the remainder of the reaction mechanism, especially the source of the sulfur, has been less clear. One controversial proposal involves the removal of sulfur from a second (auxiliary) [4Fe-4S] cluster on the enzyme, resulting in destruction of the cluster during each round of catalysis. Here, we present two high-resolution crystal structures of LipA from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: one in its resting state and one at an intermediate state during turnover. In the resting state, an auxiliary [4Fe-4S] cluster has an unusual serine ligation to one of the irons. After reaction with an octanoyllysine-containing 8-mer peptide substrate and 1 eq AdoMet, conditions that allow for the first sulfur insertion but not the second insertion, the serine ligand dissociates from the cluster, the iron ion is lost, and a sulfur atom that is still part of the cluster becomes covalently attached to C6 of the octanoyl substrate. This intermediate structure provides a clear picture of iron–sulfur cluster destruction in action, supporting the role of the auxiliary cluster as the sulfur source in the LipA reaction and describing a radical strategy for sulfur incorporation into completely unactivated substrates. PMID:27506792

  16. Evolution of implantable and insertable drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Kleiner, Lothar W; Wright, Jeremy C; Wang, Yunbing

    2014-05-10

    The paper describes the development of implantable and insertable drug delivery systems (IDDS) from their early stage in the 1960s until the current stage in the 2010s. It gives a detailed summary of non-degradable and biodegradable systems and their applications in different areas such as vascular disease treatment, birth control, cancer treatment, and eye disease treatment. It also describes the development of various implantable pump systems and some other atypical IDDS, the challenges and the future of IDDS.

  17. Protease-sensitive prions with 144-bp insertion mutations

    PubMed Central

    Puoti, Gianfranco; Yuan, Jue; Qing, Liuting; Wang, Heming; Kong, Qingzhong; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Zou, Wen-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Insertion of 144-base pair (bp) containing six extra octapeptide repeats between residues 51 and 91 of prion protein (PrP) gene is associated with inherited prion diseases. Most cases linked to this insertion examined by Western blotting showed detectable proteinase K-resistant PrPSc (rPrPSc) resembling PrPSc type 1 and type 2 in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), or PrP7-8 in Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease. However, cases lacking detectable rPrPSc also have been reported. Which PrP conformer is associated with neuropathological changes in the cases without detectable rPrPSc remains to be determined. Here we report that while all six but one subjects with the 144-bp insertion mutations examined display the pathognomonic PrP patches in the cerebellum, one of them exhibits no detectable typical rPrPSc even in PrPSc-enriched preparations. Instead, a large amount of abnormal PrP is captured from this case by gene 5 protein and sodium phosphotungstate, reagents that have been proved to specifically capture abnormal PrP. All captured abnormal PrP from the cerebellum and other brain regions is virtually sensitive to PK-digestion (termed sPrPSc). The presence of the predominant sPrPSc but absence of rPrPSc in this 144-bp insertion-linked inherited CJD case suggests that mutant sPrPSc is the main component of the PrP deposit patches and sPrPSc is sufficient to cause neurotoxicity and prion disease. PMID:23515139

  18. Accurate Insertion Loss Measurements of the Juno Patch Array Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Neil; Chen, Jacqueline; Hodges, Richard; Demas, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes two independent methods for estimating the insertion loss of patch array antennas that were developed for the Juno Microwave Radiometer instrument. One method is based principally on pattern measurements while the other method is based solely on network analyzer measurements. The methods are accurate to within 0.1 dB for the measured antennas and show good agreement (to within 0.1dB) of separate radiometric measurements.

  19. Theoretical model for electrophilic oxygen atom insertion into hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Bach, R.D.; Su, M.D. ); Andres, J.L. Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI ); McDouall, J.J.W. )

    1993-06-30

    A theoretical model suggesting the mechanistic pathway for the oxidation of saturated-alkanes to their corresponding alcohols and ketones is described. Water oxide (H[sub 2]O-O) is employed as a model singlet oxygen atom donor. Molecular orbital calculations with the 6-31G basis set at the MP2, QCISD, QCISD(T), CASSCF, and MRCI levels of theory suggest that oxygen insertion by water oxide occurs by the interaction of an electrophilic oxygen atom with a doubly occupied hydrocarbon fragment orbital. The electrophilic oxygen approaches the hydrocarbon along the axis of the atomic carbon p orbital comprising a [pi]-[sub CH(2)] or [pi]-[sub CHCH(3)] fragment orbital to form a carbon-oxygen [sigma] bond. A concerted hydrogen migration to an adjacent oxygen lone pair of electrons affords the alcohol insertion product in a stereoselective fashion with predictable stereochemistry. Subsequent oxidation of the alcohol to a ketone (or aldehyde) occurs in a similar fashion and has a lower activation barrier. The calculated (MP4/6-31G*//MP2/6-31G*) activation barriers for oxygen atom insertion into the C-H bonds of methane, ethane, propane, butane, isobutane, and methanol are 10.7, 8.2, 3.9, 4.8, 4.5, and 3.3 kcal/mol, respectively. We use ab initio molecular orbital calculations in support of a frontier MO theory that provides a unique rationale for both the stereospecificity and the stereoselectivity of insertion of electrophilic oxygen and related electrophiles into the carbon-hydrogen bond. 13 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Osteometry at muscle origin and insertion in sex determination.

    PubMed

    France, D L

    1988-08-01

    Multivariate statistical analyses were performed on 22 size measurements of the humerus from five sample populations: Sudanese Nubians, Arikara, Pecos Pueblos, American blacks, and American whites. The effects of muscle use ("occupational" differences) on identification of sex in this long bone are examined, particularly at points of muscle origins and insertions. The ramifications of the results of this research on sexual dimorphism studies of other bones are discussed.

  1. Non-harmful insertion of data mimicking computer network attacks

    DOEpatents

    Neil, Joshua Charles; Kent, Alexander; Hash, Jr, Curtis Lee

    2016-06-21

    Non-harmful data mimicking computer network attacks may be inserted in a computer network. Anomalous real network connections may be generated between a plurality of computing systems in the network. Data mimicking an attack may also be generated. The generated data may be transmitted between the plurality of computing systems using the real network connections and measured to determine whether an attack is detected.

  2. The first insertion devices at SSRL - some personal recollections

    SciTech Connect

    Winick, H.

    1995-02-01

    The author recounts his experiences with insertion devices at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. His first experiences with wigglers occured at the Cambridge Electron Accelerator, and was carried over to SSRL with the proposal for a six pole electromagnetic wiggler. Most modern undulators, and many wigglers are now designed around permanent magnets, and the origin of this transition at SSRL was rather fortuitous and humorous. It reflects some of the personality characteristics of Klaus Halbach.

  3. Development of an ultrasound-guided PICC insertion service.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Jackie

    Use of the peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) has gained popularity over the past 30 years in the USA and over the past 15 years in the UK. The PICC was initially used for specific purposes, such as the delivery of parenteral nutrition and chemotherapy, but its use has expanded both within the acute hospital and community settings. This article describes an ultrasound-guided PICC insertion service that has been set up in a district general hospital to expand the service within the oncology department and to begin a service for non-oncology patients. As expected, patients who have benefited from the development of this service include those requiring parenteral nutrition, chemotherapy and intravenous therapy in the community. However, retrospective audit has shown that the largest group of patients to benefit from the ultrasound-guided PICC insertion service was those with difficult venous access for a variety of reasons. Some of these reasons are discussed, along with an overview of the benefits the service has provided to other groups of patients, and associated benefits to the hospital trust.

  4. Examining Prebiotic Chemistry Using O(^1D) Insertion Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Brian M.; Laas, Jacob C.; Weaver, Susanna L. Widicus

    2013-06-01

    Aminomethanol, methanediol, and methoxymethanol are all prebiotic molecules expected to form via photo-driven grain surface chemistry in the interstellar medium (ISM). These molecules are expected to be precursors for larger, biologically-relevant molecules in the ISM such as sugars and amino acids. These three molecules have not yet been detected in the ISM because of the lack of available rotational spectra. A high resolution (sub)millimeter spectrometer coupled to a molecular source is being used to study these molecules using O(^1D) insertion reactions. The O(^1D) chemistry is initiated using an excimer laser, and the products of the insertion reactions are adiabatically cooled using a supersonic expansion. Experimental parameters are being optimized by examination of methanol formed from O(^1D) insertion into methane. Theoretical studies of the structure and reaction energies for aminomethanol, methanediol, and methoxymethanol have been conducted to guide the laboratory studies once the methanol experiment has been optimized. The results of the calculations and initial experimental results will be presented.

  5. Levator Ani Muscle Anatomy Evaluated by Origin-Insertion Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, Rohna; Sawhney, Raja; DeLancey, John O. L.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the published literature and suggest a resolution to the confusion that exists in levator ani muscle descriptions and terminology. DATA SOURCES A MEDLINE search was performed using the keyword “levator ani,” limited to human studies in women. References found in these articles were reviewed to identify research reported before 1966 and articles not included in the search. STUDY SELECTION Studies were accepted if they contained direct observations of female specimens. Only those that contained specific descriptions or illustrations of the muscle origins and insertions in more than 5 female specimens were included. Review of 265 human studies yielded 9 qualifying articles, and reference tracing disclosed 3 additional reports. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS The literature review identified 5 origin-insertion pairs consistently described in studies directly examining the levator ani muscle in women, but 16 terms were used by authors for these 5 components of the muscle. Labeled illustrations often provided more precise information than was provided in the text. Terms were reviewed for inconsistencies of usage and appropriateness of term choice. The terms puboperineal, pubovaginal, and puboanal (for components of the pubovisceral [“pubococcygeal”] muscle), along with puborectal and iliococcygeal, are sufficient to describe the divisions of the levator ani muscle. CONCLUSION Although there was great diversity and conflict in terms chosen among the original articles, the number of origin and insertion pairs was relatively consistent among authors and confusion can be avoided by standardizing terminology. PMID:15229017

  6. Effects of Tools Inserted through Snake-like Surgical Manipulators

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Ryan J.; Otake, Yoshito; Wolfe, Kevin C.; Taylor, Russell H.; Armand, Mehran

    2015-01-01

    Snake-like manipulators with a large, open lumen can offer improved treatment alternatives for minimally- and less-invasive surgeries. In these procedures, surgeons use the manipulator to introduce and control flexible tools in the surgical environment. This paper describes a predictive algorithm for estimating manipulator configuration given tip position for nonconstant curvature, cable-driven manipulators using energy minimization. During experimental bending of the manipulator with and without a tool inserted in its lumen, images were recorded from an overhead camera in conjunction with actuation cable tension and length. To investigate the accuracy, the estimated manipulator configuration from the model and the ground-truth configuration measured from the image were compared. Additional analysis focused on the response differences for the manipulator with and without a tool inserted through the lumen. Results indicate that the energy minimization model predicts manipulator configuration with an error of 0.24 ± 0.22mm without tools in the lumen and 0.24 ± 0.19mm with tools in the lumen (no significant difference, p = 0.81). Moreover, tools did not introduce noticeable perturbations in the manipulator trajectory; however, there was an increase in requisite force required to reach a configuration. These results support the use of the proposed estimation method for calculating the shape of the manipulator with an tool inserted in its lumen when an accuracy range of at least 1mm is required. PMID:25571571

  7. Internal carotid artery rupture caused by carotid shunt insertion

    PubMed Central

    Illuminati, Giulio; Caliò, Francesco G.; Pizzardi, Giulia; Vietri, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Shunting is a well-accepted method of maintaining cerebral perfusion during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Nonetheless, shunt insertion may lead to complications including arterial dissection, embolization, and thrombosis. We present a complication of shunt insertion consisting of arterial wall rupture, not reported previously. Presentation of case A 78-year-old woman underwent CEA combined with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). At the time of shunt insertion an arterial rupture at the distal tip of the shunt was detected and was repaired via a small saphenous vein patch. Eversion CEA and subsequent CABG completed the procedure whose postoperative course was uneventful. Discussion Shunting during combined CEA-CABG may be advisable to assure cerebral protection from possible hypoperfusion due to potential hemodynamic instability of patients with severe coronary artery disease. Awareness and prompt management of possible shunt-related complications, including the newly reported one, may contribute to limiting their harmful effect. Conclusion Arterial wall rupture is a possible, previously not reported, shunt-related complication to be aware of when performing CEA. PMID:26255001

  8. Pneumothorax as a complication of central venous catheter insertion.

    PubMed

    Tsotsolis, Nikolaos; Tsirgogianni, Katerina; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Baka, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Barbetakis, Nikos; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Kuhajda, Ivan; Andjelkovic, Dejan; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Zarogoulidis, Paul

    2015-03-01

    The central venous catheter (CVC) is a catheter placed into a large vein in the neck [internal jugular vein (IJV)], chest (subclavian vein or axillary vein) or groin (femoral vein). There are several situations that require the insertion of a CVC mainly to administer medications or fluids, obtain blood tests (specifically the "central venous oxygen saturation"), and measure central venous pressure. CVC usually remain in place for a longer period of time than other venous access devices. There are situations according to the drug administration or length of stay of the catheter that specific systems are indicated such as; a Hickman line, a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line or a Port-a-Cath may be considered because of their smaller infection risk. Sterile technique is highly important here, as a line may serve as a port of entry for pathogenic organisms, and the line itself may become infected with organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococci. In the current review we will present the complication of pneumothorax after CVC insertion.

  9. Retroviral gene insertion in breast milk mediated lymphomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Joana; Okonta, Henry; Bagalb, Hussein; Lee, Soon Jin; Fink, Brian; Changanamkandat, Rajesh; Duggan, Joan

    2008-07-20

    We have demonstrated breast milk transmitted MoMuLV-ts1 retrovirus infection and subsequent lymphoma development in offspring of uninfected mothers suckled by infected surrogate mothers. Additionally, we have shown that the lymphoma development occurs as a result of viral gene integration into host genome. A total of 146 pups from Balb/C mice were divided into 5 groups; one control and 4 experimental. All offspring suckled from surrogate infected or control mothers, except one group of infected pups left with their biological mothers. Thirteen of 91 infected pups developed lymphoma. Inverse-PCR, DNA cloning, and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) were used to study the virus integration sites (VIS) and alterations in gene expression. VIS were randomly distributed throughout the genome. The majority of insertion sites were found in chromosomes 10, 12 and 13. A total of 209 proviral genomic insertion sites were located with 52 intragenic and 157 intergenic sites. We have identified 29 target genes. Four genes including Tacc3, Aurka, Gfi1 and Ahi1 showed the maximum upregulation of mRNA expression. These four genes can be considered as candidate genes based on their association with cancer. Upregulation of these genes may be involved in this type of lymphoma development. This model provides an important opportunity to gain insight into the relationship of viral gene insertion into host genome and development of lymphoma via natural transmission route such as breast milk.

  10. ADC's Insertion Devices and Magnetic Measurement Systems Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deyhim, A.; Kulesza, J.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper Advance Design Consulting USA, Inc. (ADC) will discuss ADC's major improved capabilities for building Wiggler Insertion Devices, Undulator Planar Devices, Elliptical Polarizing Undulators (EPU), In-Vacuum Undulators (IVU), Cryogenically Cooled in-vacuum Undulators (CPMU), Super Conductive Undulator, and Insertion Device Magnetic Measurement Systems. ADC has designed, built and delivered Insertion Devices and Magnetic Measurement Systems to such facilities as MAX-lab (two EPUs, a Planar, and Measurement System), ALBA and ASP (Wigglers), BNL (CPMU), SSRF (two IVUs and a Measurement System), PAL (one IVU and Measurement System), NSRRC (one 4m EPU), and SRC (Planar and EPU). ADC's magnetic field measurement system is a sophisticated and sensitive machine for the measurement of magnetic fields in undulators (Planar and EPU), wigglers and in-vacuum ID units. The magnetic fields are measured using 3 axis hall-effect probes, mounted orthogonally, to a thin wand. The wand is mounted to a carriage that rides on vacuum air bearings. The base is granite. A flip coil is provided on two vertical towers with X, Y and Theta axes. Special software is provided to assist in homing, movement, and data collection and analysis.

  11. Optimising daytime deliveries when inducing labour using prostaglandin vaginal inserts

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Hugh; Goetzl, Laura; Wing, Deborah A.; Powers, Barbara; Rugarn, Olof

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To determine induction start time(s) that would maximise daytime deliveries when using prostaglandin vaginal inserts. Methods: Women enrolled into the Phase III trial, EXPEDITE (clinical trial registration: NCT01127581), had labour induced with either a misoprostol or dinoprostone vaginal insert (MVI or DVI). A secondary analysis was conducted to determine the optimal start times for induction by identifying the 12-h period with the highest proportion of deliveries by parity and treatment. Results: Optimal start times for achieving daytime deliveries when using MVI appear to be 19:00 in nulliparae and 23:00 in multiparae. Applying these start times, the median time of onset of active labour would be approximately 08:30 for both parities and the median time of delivery would be the following day at approximately 16:30 for nulliparae and 12:00 (midday) for multiparae. Optimal start times when using DVI appear to be 07:00 for nulliparae and 23:00 for multiparae. Using these start times, the median time of onset of active labour would be the following day at approximately 04:00 and 11:50, and the median time of delivery would be approximately 13:40 and 16:10, respectively. Conclusions: When optimising daytime deliveries, different times to initiate induction of labour may be appropriate depending on parity and the type of retrievable prostaglandin vaginal insert used. PMID:25758619

  12. Modeling and characterization of partially inserted electrical connector faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokgöz, ćaǧatay; Dardona, Sameh; Soldner, Nicholas C.; Wheeler, Kevin R.

    2016-03-01

    Faults within electrical connectors are prominent in avionics systems due to improper installation, corrosion, aging, and strained harnesses. These faults usually start off as undetectable with existing inspection techniques and increase in magnitude during the component lifetime. Detection and modeling of these faults are significantly more challenging than hard failures such as open and short circuits. Hence, enabling the capability to locate and characterize the precursors of these faults is critical for timely preventive maintenance and mitigation well before hard failures occur. In this paper, an electrical connector model based on a two-level nonlinear least squares approach is proposed. The connector is first characterized as a transmission line, broken into key components such as the pin, socket, and connector halves. Then, the fact that the resonance frequencies of the connector shift as insertion depth changes from a fully inserted to a barely touching contact is exploited. The model precisely captures these shifts by varying only two length parameters. It is demonstrated that the model accurately characterizes a partially inserted connector.

  13. Development of Needle Insertion Manipulator for Central Venous Catheterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yo; Hong, Jaesung; Hamano, Ryutaro; Hashizume, Makoto; Okada, Kaoru; Fujie, Masakatsu G.

    Central venous catheterization is a procedure, which a doctor insert a catheter into the patient’s vein for transfusion. Since there are risks of bleeding from arterial puncture or pneumothorax from pleural puncture. Physicians are strictly required to make needle reach up into the vein and to stop the needle in the middle of vein. We proposed a robot system for assisting the venous puncture, which can relieve the difficulties in conventional procedure, and the risks of complication. This paper reports the design structuring and experimental results of needle insertion manipulator. First, we investigated the relationship between insertion force and angle into the vein. The results indicated that the judgment of perforation using the reaction force is possible in case where the needling angle is from 10 to 20 degree. The experiment to evaluate accuracy of the robot also revealed that it has beyond 0.5 mm accuracy. We also evaluated the positioning accuracy in the ultrasound images. The results displays that the accuracy is beyond 1.0 mm and it has enough for venous puncture. We also carried out the venous puncture experiment to the phantom and confirm our manipulator realized to make needle reach up into the vein.

  14. Coaxial needle insertion assistant with enhanced force feedback.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzo, Danilo; Koseki, Yoshihiko; De Momi, Elena; Chinzei, Kiyoyuki; Okamura, Allison M

    2013-02-01

    Many medical procedures involving needle insertion into soft tissues, such as anesthesia, biopsy, brachytherapy, and placement of electrodes, are performed without image guidance. In such procedures, haptic detection of changing tissue properties at different depths during needle insertion is important for needle localization and detection of subsurface structures. However, changes in tissue mechanical properties deep inside the tissue are difficult for human operators to sense, because the relatively large friction force between the needle shaft and the surrounding tissue masks the smaller tip forces. A novel robotic coaxial needle insertion assistant, which enhances operator force perception, is presented. This one-degree-of-freedom cable-driven robot provides to the operator a scaled version of the force applied by the needle tip to the tissue, using a novel design and sensors that separate the needle tip force from the shaft friction force. The ability of human operators to use the robot to detect membranes embedded in artificial soft tissue was tested under the conditions of 1) tip force and shaft force feedback, and 2) tip force only feedback. The ratio of successful to unsuccessful membrane detections was significantly higher (up to 50%) when only the needle tip force was provided to the user.

  15. Genome annotation in the presence of insertional RNA editing

    PubMed Central

    Beargie, Christina; Liu, Tsunglin; Corriveau, Mark; Lee, Ha Youn; Gott, Jonatha; Bundschuh, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: Insertional RNA editing renders gene prediction very difficult compared to organisms without such RNA editing. A case in point is the mitochondrial genome of Physarum polycephalum in which only about one-third of the number of genes that are to be expected given its length are annotated. Thus, gene prediction methods that explicitly take into account insertional editing are needed for successful annotation of such genomes. Results: We annotate the mitochondrial genome of P.polycephalum using several different approaches for gene prediction in organisms with insertional RNA editing. We computationally validate our annotations by comparing the results from different methods against each other and as proof of concept experimentally validate two of the newly predicted genes. We more than double the number of annotated putative genes in this organism and find several intriguing candidate genes that are not expected in a mitochondrial genome. Availability: The C source code of the programs described here are available upon request from the corresponding author. Contact: bundschuh@mps.ohio-state.edu PMID:18819938

  16. Local Dispersion Insert: The {gamma}T knob for accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Visnjic, V.

    1994-05-01

    The Local Dispersion Insert is a novel three-quadrupole cell which produces local dispersion and beta waves while leaving all other beam parameters unchanged. The obtained dispersion bump can be effectively used to control the transition energy and the so-called {gamma}T jump of an accelerator. Since the induced beta wave is local and the tune shift is zero, the Local Dispersion Insert is an extremely efficient cell, typically requiring only a small number of magnets in order to achieve a {gamma}T jump. Since the desired {gamma}T jump can be obtained by locally decreasing the dispersion, the well known problems which accompany the conventional {gamma}T jump schemes, like large maximal dispersion, transverse emittance growth etc. are absent. The paper contains three applications of the Local Dispersion Insert: the {gamma}T jump in the Main Injector, the {eta} adjustment in the Antiproton Debuncher (both at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory), and the {gamma}T jump in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  17. Comparing Intravenous Insertion Instructional Methods with Haptic Simulators

    PubMed Central

    Malecha, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this review was to compare traditional intravenous (IV) insertion instructional methods with the use of haptic IV simulators. Design. An integrative research design was used to analyze the current literature. Data Sources. A search was conducted using key words intravenous (IV) insertion or cannulation or venipuncture and simulation from 2000 to 2015 in the English language. The databases included Academic Search Complete, CINAHL Complete, Education Resource Information Center, and Medline. Review Methods. Whittemore and Knafl's (2005) strategies were used to critique the articles for themes and similarities. Results. Comparisons of outcomes between traditional IV instructional methods and the use of haptic IV simulators continue to show various results. Positive results indicate that the use of the haptic IV simulator decreases both band constriction and total procedure time. While students are satisfied with practicing on the haptic simulators, they still desire faculty involvement. Conclusion. Combining the haptic IV simulator with practical experience on the IV arm may be the best practice for learning IV insertion. Research employing active learning strategies while using a haptic IV simulator during the learning process may reduce cost and faculty time. PMID:28250987

  18. A comprehensive map of mobile element insertion polymorphisms in humans.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Chip; Kural, Deniz; Strömberg, Michael P; Walker, Jerilyn A; Konkel, Miriam K; Stütz, Adrian M; Urban, Alexander E; Grubert, Fabian; Lam, Hugo Y K; Lee, Wan-Ping; Busby, Michele; Indap, Amit R; Garrison, Erik; Huff, Chad; Xing, Jinchuan; Snyder, Michael P; Jorde, Lynn B; Batzer, Mark A; Korbel, Jan O; Marth, Gabor T

    2011-08-01

    As a consequence of the accumulation of insertion events over evolutionary time, mobile elements now comprise nearly half of the human genome. The Alu, L1, and SVA mobile element families are still duplicating, generating variation between individual genomes. Mobile element insertions (MEI) have been identified as causes for genetic diseases, including hemophilia, neurofibromatosis, and various cancers. Here we present a comprehensive map of 7,380 MEI polymorphisms from the 1000 Genomes Project whole-genome sequencing data of 185 samples in three major populations detected with two detection methods. This catalog enables us to systematically study mutation rates, population segregation, genomic distribution, and functional properties of MEI polymorphisms and to compare MEI to SNP variation from the same individuals. Population allele frequencies of MEI and SNPs are described, broadly, by the same neutral ancestral processes despite vastly different mutation mechanisms and rates, except in coding regions where MEI are virtually absent, presumably due to strong negative selection. A direct comparison of MEI and SNP diversity levels suggests a differential mobile element insertion rate among populations.

  19. Comparing Intravenous Insertion Instructional Methods with Haptic Simulators.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Lenora A; Malecha, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this review was to compare traditional intravenous (IV) insertion instructional methods with the use of haptic IV simulators. Design. An integrative research design was used to analyze the current literature. Data Sources. A search was conducted using key words intravenous (IV) insertion or cannulation or venipuncture and simulation from 2000 to 2015 in the English language. The databases included Academic Search Complete, CINAHL Complete, Education Resource Information Center, and Medline. Review Methods. Whittemore and Knafl's (2005) strategies were used to critique the articles for themes and similarities. Results. Comparisons of outcomes between traditional IV instructional methods and the use of haptic IV simulators continue to show various results. Positive results indicate that the use of the haptic IV simulator decreases both band constriction and total procedure time. While students are satisfied with practicing on the haptic simulators, they still desire faculty involvement. Conclusion. Combining the haptic IV simulator with practical experience on the IV arm may be the best practice for learning IV insertion. Research employing active learning strategies while using a haptic IV simulator during the learning process may reduce cost and faculty time.

  20. Pneumothorax as a complication of central venous catheter insertion

    PubMed Central

    Tsotsolis, Nikolaos; Tsirgogianni, Katerina; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Baka, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Barbetakis, Nikos; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Kuhajda, Ivan; Andjelkovic, Dejan; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    The central venous catheter (CVC) is a catheter placed into a large vein in the neck [internal jugular vein (IJV)], chest (subclavian vein or axillary vein) or groin (femoral vein). There are several situations that require the insertion of a CVC mainly to administer medications or fluids, obtain blood tests (specifically the “central venous oxygen saturation”), and measure central venous pressure. CVC usually remain in place for a longer period of time than other venous access devices. There are situations according to the drug administration or length of stay of the catheter that specific systems are indicated such as; a Hickman line, a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line or a Port-a-Cath may be considered because of their smaller infection risk. Sterile technique is highly important here, as a line may serve as a port of entry for pathogenic organisms, and the line itself may become infected with organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococci. In the current review we will present the complication of pneumothorax after CVC insertion. PMID:25815301

  1. Role of the import motor in insertion of transmembrane segments by the mitochondrial TIM23 complex.

    PubMed

    Popov-Čeleketić, Dušan; Waegemann, Karin; Mapa, Koyeli; Neupert, Walter; Mokranjac, Dejana

    2011-06-01

    The TIM23 complex mediates translocation of proteins across, and their lateral insertion into, the mitochondrial inner membrane. Translocation of proteins requires both the membrane-embedded core of the complex and its ATP-dependent import motor. Insertion of some proteins, however, occurs in the absence of ATP, questioning the need for the import motor during lateral insertion. We show here that the import motor associates with laterally inserted proteins even when its ATPase activity is not required. Furthermore, our results suggest a role for the import motor in lateral insertion. Thus, the import motor is involved in ATP-dependent translocation and ATP-independent lateral insertion.

  2. Modified mariner transposons for random inducible-expression insertions and transcriptional reporter fusion insertions in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Pozsgai, Eric R; Blair, Kris M; Kearns, Daniel B

    2012-02-01

    Transposons are mobile genetic elements bounded by insertion sequences that are recognized by a specific mobilizing transposase enzyme. The transposase may mobilize not only the insertion sequences but also intervening DNA. mariner is a particularly efficient transposon for the random chromosomal integration of genes and insertional mutagenesis. Here, we modify an existing mariner transposon, TnYLB, such that it can easily be genetically manipulated and introduced into Bacillus subtilis. We generate a series of three new mariner derivatives that mobilize spectinomycin, chloramphenicol, and kanamycin antibiotic resistance cassettes. Furthermore, we generate a series of transposons with a strong, outward-oriented, optionally isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible promoter for the random overexpression of neighboring genes and a series of transposons with a promoterless lacZ gene for the random generation of transcriptional reporter fusions. We note that the modification of the base transposon is not restricted to B. subtilis and should be applicable to any mariner-compatible host organism, provided that in vitro mutagenesis or an in vivo species-specific delivery vector is employed.

  3. Commissioning of the upgraded ATLAS Pixel Detector for Run2 at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobos, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to the surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer, a fourth layer of pixel detectors, installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. An overview of the refurbishing of the Pixel Detector and of the IBL project as well as early performance tests using cosmic rays and beam data will be presented.

  4. Insertion mechanism and stability of boron nitride nanotubes in lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael; Enciso, Marta; Hilder, Tamsyn A

    2015-04-16

    We provide insight into the interaction of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) with cell membranes to better understand their improved biocompatibility compared to carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Contrary to CNTs, no computational studies exist investigating the insertion mechanism and stability of BNNTs in membranes. Our molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that BNNTs are spontaneously attracted to lipid bilayers and are stable once inserted. They insert via a lipid-mediated, passive insertion mechanism. BNNTs demonstrate similar characteristics to more biocompatible functionalized CNTs.

  5. Efficient Merge and Insert Operations for Binary Heaps and Trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuszmaul, Christopher Lee; Woo, Alex C. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Binary heaps and binary search trees merge efficiently. We introduce a new amortized analysis that allows us to prove the cost of merging either binary heaps or balanced binary trees is O(l), in the amortized sense. The standard set of other operations (create, insert, delete, extract minimum, in the case of binary heaps, and balanced binary trees, as well as a search operation for balanced binary trees) remain with a cost of O(log n). For binary heaps implemented as arrays, we show a new merge algorithm that has a single operation cost for merging two heaps, a and b, of O(absolute value of a + min(log absolute value of b log log absolute value of b. log absolute value of a log absolute value of b). This is an improvement over O(absolute value of a + log absolute value of a log absolute value of b). The cost of the new merge is so low that it can be used in a new structure which we call shadow heaps. to implement the insert operation to a tunable efficiency. Shadow heaps support the insert operation for simple priority queues in an amortized time of O(f(n)) and other operations in time O((log n log log n)/f (n)), where 1 less than or equal to f (n) less than or equal to log log n. More generally, the results here show that any data structure with operations that change its size by at most one, with the exception of a merge (aka meld) operation, can efficiently amortize the cost of the merge under conditions that are true for most implementations of binary heaps and search trees.

  6. Flexor Hallucis Longus Tendon Transfer for Calcific Insertional Achilles Tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Howell, Michael A; Catanzariti, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Calcific insertional Achilles tendinopathy can result in significant pain and disability. Although some patients respond to nonoperative therapy, many patients are at risk for long-term morbidity and unpredictable clinical outcomes. There is no evidence-based data to support the timing of operative invention, choice of procedures, or whether equinus requires treatment. This article suggests the need for a classification system based on physical examination and imaging to help guide treatment. There is an obvious need for evidence-based studies evaluating outcomes and for properly conducted scientific research to establish appropriate treatment protocols.

  7. Re-visiting the trans insertion model for complexin clamping

    PubMed Central

    Krishnakumar, Shyam S; Li, Feng; Coleman, Jeff; Schauder, Curtis M; Kümmel, Daniel; Pincet, Frederic; Rothman, James E; Reinisch, Karin M

    2015-01-01

    We have previously proposed that complexin cross-links multiple pre-fusion SNARE complexes via a trans interaction to function as a clamp on SNARE-mediated neurotransmitter release. A recent NMR study was unable to detect the trans clamping interaction of complexin and therefore questioned the previous interpretation of the fluorescence resonance energy transfer and isothermal titration calorimetry data on which the trans clamping model was originally based. Here we present new biochemical data that underscore the validity of our previous interpretation and the continued relevancy of the trans insertion model for complexin clamping. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04463.001 PMID:25831964

  8. Modification of commercial force feedback hardware for needle insertion simulation.

    PubMed

    Coles, Timothy R; John, Nigel W; Sofia, Giuseppe; Gould, Derek A; Caldwell, Darwin G

    2011-01-01

    A SensAble Omni force feedback device has been modified to increase the face validity of a needle insertion simulation. The new end effector uses a real needle hub and shortened needle shaft in place of the Omni's pre-fitted pen shaped end effector. This modification facilitates correct procedural training through the simulation of co-located visual and haptic cues in an augmented reality approach to simulation. The development of the new end effector is described and a pictorial guide to its manufacture and the fitting process is provided. Initial results from face validation studies bode well for the fidelity of this low cost device.

  9. Development and testing of the rack insertion device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strickland, G. Scott

    1995-01-01

    Installing and removing experiment racks in a Space Station Logistics Module will become a repetitive operation at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in the near future. A Rack Insertion Device (RID) consisting of an Extendible Boom, End Effector, and Positioning Base is being developed for the task. This paper discusses the key elements of the RlD's function and design. Prototype test results for the RlD's Extendible Boom and End Effector are presented. Also discussed are future end effectors that will further enhance the RlD's Space Station processing capability.

  10. Crossing professional boundaries: nurse-led catheter insertion.

    PubMed

    Linda, Kelly

    2009-10-01

    The steady expansion of nursing roles is enabling staff to perform tasks traditionally undertaken by doctors. This change is perceived as being in the interests of patients, particularly because it can reduce waiting times, but it can also increase job satisfaction and enhance opportunities for the recruitment and retention of staff. This article describes the establishment of a nurse-led service for tunnelled central venous catheter insertion for renal dialysis. The result of a retrospective audit describes what impact this service has had.

  11. RHIC INSERTION REGION, SHUNT POWER SUPPLY CURRENT ERRORS.

    SciTech Connect

    BRUNO,D.; GANETIS,G.; LAMBIASE,R.F.; SANDBERG,J.

    2001-06-18

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) was commissioned in 1999 and 2000. RHIC requires power supplies to supply currents to highly inductive superconducting magnets. The RHIC Insertion Region contain's many shunt power supplies to trim the current of different magnet elements in a large superconducting magnet circuit. Power Supply current error measurements were performed during the commissioning of RHIC. Models of these power supply systems were produced to predict and improve these power supply current errors using the circuit analysis program MicroCap V by Spectrum Software (TM). Results of the power supply current errors are presented from the models and from the measurements performed during the commissioning of RHIC.

  12. Pediatric Enteric Feeding Techniques: Insertion, Maintenance, and Management of Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Nijs, Els L. F.; Cahill, Anne Marie

    2010-12-15

    Enteral feeding is considered a widespread, well-accepted means of delivering nutrition to adults and children who are unable to consume food by mouth or who need support in maintaining adequate nutrition for a variety of reasons, including acute and chronic disease states. Delivery of enteral feeding to nutritionally deprived patients may be achieved by several means. In this article, the indications and insertion of enteral access in children will be reviewed. In addition, common complications and management of problems will be discussed.

  13. Inserting Phase Change Lines into Microsoft Excel® Graphs.

    PubMed

    Dubuque, Erick M

    2015-10-01

    Microsoft Excel® is a popular graphing tool used by behavior analysts to visually display data. However, this program is not always friendly to the graphing conventions used by behavior analysts. For example, adding phase change lines has typically been a cumbersome process involving the insertion of line objects that do not move when new data is added to a graph. The purpose of this article is to describe a novel way to add phase change lines that move when new data is added and when graphs are resized.

  14. Postpartum and postabortal insertion of intrauterine contraceptive devices.

    PubMed

    Martorella, L A; Esposito, J M

    1975-04-01

    One hundred forty-four patients are studied over an 18 month period. Postpartum and postabortal insertions of intrauterine contraceptive devices using the Lippes Loop and the Dalkon Shield are compared. The age, parity, previous methods of contraception, and marital status of the study group indicated a poorly motivated patient population. Although accidental pregnancy rates and expulsion rates are higher, the technique is considered worth-while in the population studied. Future research should be directed toward improved devices in order to decrease side effects and to increase appeal of the technique to those who will benefit most.

  15. Reliability Technology to Achieve Insertion of Advanced Packaging (RELTECH) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fayette, Daniel F.; Speicher, Patricia; Stoklosa, Mark J.; Evans, Jillian V.; Evans, John W.; Gentile, Mike; Pagel, Chuck A.; Hakim, Edward

    1993-01-01

    A joint military-commercial effort to evaluate multichip module (MCM) structures is discussed. The program, Reliability Technology to Achieve Insertion of Advanced Packaging (RELTECH), has been designed to identify the failure mechanisms that are possible in MCM structures. The RELTECH test vehicles, technical assessment task, product evaluation plan, reliability modeling task, accelerated and environmental testing, and post-test physical analysis and failure analysis are described. The information obtained through RELTECH can be used to address standardization issues, through development of cost effective qualification and appropriate screening criteria, for inclusion into a commercial specification and the MIL-H-38534 general specification for hybrid microcircuits.

  16. ARTEMIS Lunar Orbit Insertion and Science Orbit Design Through 2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broschart, Stephen B.; Sweetser, Theodore H.; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Folta, David; Woodard, Mark

    2015-01-01

    As of late-July 2011, the ARTEMIS mission is transferring two spacecraft from Lissajous orbits around Earth-Moon Lagrange Point #1 into highly-eccentric lunar science orbits. This paper presents the trajectory design for the transfer from Lissajous orbit to lunar orbit insertion, the period reduction maneuvers, and the science orbits through 2013. The design accommodates large perturbations from Earth's gravity and restrictive spacecraft capabilities to enable opportunities for a range of heliophysics and planetary science measurements. The process used to design the highly-eccentric ARTEMIS science orbits is outlined. The approach may inform the design of future planetary moon missions.

  17. The Design and Analysis of Transposon-Insertion Sequencing Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Michael C.; Abel, Sören; Davis, Brigid M.; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2016-01-01

    Preface Transposon-insertion sequencing (TIS) is a powerful approach that can be widely applied to genome-wide definition of loci that are required for growth in diverse conditions. However, experimental design choices and stochastic biological processes can heavily influence the results of TIS experiments and affect downstream statistical analysis. Here, we discuss TIS experimental parameters and how these factors relate to the benefits and limitations of the various statistical frameworks that can be applied to computational analysis of TIS data. PMID:26775926

  18. Infrasonic and low-frequency insert earphone hearing threshold.

    PubMed

    Kuehler, Robert; Fedtke, Thomas; Hensel, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Low-frequency and infrasonic pure-tone monaural hearing threshold data down to 2.5 Hz are presented. These measurements were made by means of a newly developed insert-earphone source. The source is able to generate pure-tone sound pressure levels up to 130 dB between 2 and 250 Hz with very low harmonic distortions. Behavioral hearing thresholds were determined in the frequency range from 2.5 to 125 Hz for 18 otologically normal test persons. The median hearing thresholds are comparable to values given in the literature. They are intended for stimulus calibration in subsequent brain imaging investigations.

  19. Systemic Air Embolism Associated with Pleural Pigtail Chest Tube Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Alkhankan, Emad; Nusair, Ahmad; Mazagri, Rida

    2016-01-01

    Pleural pigtail catheter placement is associated with many complications including pneumothorax, hemorrhage, and chest pain. Air embolism is a known but rare complication of pleural pigtail catheter insertion and has a high risk of occurrence with positive pressure ventilation. In this case report, we present a 50-year-old male with bilateral pneumonia who developed a pneumothorax while on mechanical ventilation with continuous positive airway pressure mode. During the placement of the pleural pigtail catheter to correct the pneumothorax, the patient developed a sudden left sided body weakness and became unresponsive. An air embolism was identified in the right main cerebral artery, which was fatal. PMID:27630781

  20. 21 CFR 876.5830 - Hemodialyzer with disposable insert (Kiil type).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hemodialyzer with disposable insert (Kiil type... Hemodialyzer with disposable insert (Kiil type). (a) Identification. A hemodialyzer with disposable inserts (Kiil type) is a device that is used as a part of an artificial kidney system for the treatment...

  1. 21 CFR 876.5830 - Hemodialyzer with disposable insert (Kiil type).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hemodialyzer with disposable insert (Kiil type... Hemodialyzer with disposable insert (Kiil type). (a) Identification. A hemodialyzer with disposable inserts (Kiil type) is a device that is used as a part of an artificial kidney system for the treatment...

  2. 21 CFR 876.5830 - Hemodialyzer with disposable insert (Kiil type).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hemodialyzer with disposable insert (Kiil type... Hemodialyzer with disposable insert (Kiil type). (a) Identification. A hemodialyzer with disposable inserts (Kiil type) is a device that is used as a part of an artificial kidney system for the treatment...

  3. Efforts to deregulate Rainbow papaya in Japan: Molecular Characterization of Transgene and Vector Inserts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transformation plasmid-derived insert number and insert site sequence in 55-1 line papaya derivatives Rainbow and SunUp was determined as part of a larger petition to allow its import into Japan (Suzuki, et al., 2007, 2008). Three insertions were detected by Southern analysis and their correspondin...

  4. An ancient retrovirus-like element contains hot spots for SINE insertion.

    PubMed Central

    Cantrell, M A; Filanoski, B J; Ingermann, A R; Olsson, K; DiLuglio, N; Lister, Z; Wichman, H A

    2001-01-01

    Vertebrate retrotransposons have been used extensively for phylogenetic analyses and studies of molecular evolution. Information can be obtained from specific inserts either by comparing sequence differences that have accumulated over time in orthologous copies of that insert or by determining the presence or absence of that specific element at a particular site. The presence of specific copies has been deemed to be an essentially homoplasy-free phylogenetic character because the probability of multiple independent insertions into any one site has been believed to be nil. Mys elements are a type of LTR-containing retrotransposon present in Sigmodontine rodents. In this study we have shown that one particular insert, mys-9, is an extremely old insert present in multiple species of the genus Peromyscus. We have found that different copies of this insert show a surprising range of sizes, due primarily to a continuing series of SINE (short interspersed element) insertions into this locus. We have identified two hot spots for SINE insertion within mys-9 and at each hot spot have found that two independent SINE insertions have occurred at identical sites. These results have major repercussions for phylogenetic analyses based on SINE insertions, indicating the need for caution when one concludes that the existence of a SINE at a specific locus in multiple individuals is indicative of common ancestry. Although independent insertions at the same locus may be rare, SINE insertions are not homoplasy-free phylogenetic markers. PMID:11404340

  5. The effect of insertion angle on orthodontic mini-screw torque

    PubMed Central

    Raji, Seyed Hamid; Noorollahian, Saeed; Niknam, Seyed Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Primary stability is an important factor for the clinical success of orthodontic mini-screws. The present study made an attempt to evaluate the effect of insertion angle changes on the maximum insertion and removal torque of orthodontic mini-screws. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 72 mini-screws (Dual Top Anchor System, Jeil, 1.6 mm diameter, 8 mm length) were used. They were randomly divided into four equal groups and inserted in poly-carbonate plates with 3 mm thickness. Then, their maximum insertion torque (MIT) and maximum removal torque (MRT) were recorded using a digital torque tester/screwdriver. Each group had a different insertion angle (90°, 75°, 60° and 45°). The data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 18) using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's tests. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The maximum MIT was observed in 45° insertion angle (14.84 Ncm) and the minimum MIT was reported in 75° insertion angle (12.66 Ncm). The maximum MRT was observed in 45° insertion angle (23.21 Ncm) and the minimum MRT was reported in the 90° insertion angle (17.43 Ncm). Conclusion: Oblique insertion of the mini-screws results in higher insertion and removal torques and probably more primary stability compared to the vertical insertion. PMID:25225557

  6. 21 CFR 872.3900 - Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert... tooth with a metal insert. (a) Identification. A posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert is a... and metals of the platinum group intended to replace a natural tooth. The device is attached...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3900 - Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert... tooth with a metal insert. (a) Identification. A posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert is a... and metals of the platinum group intended to replace a natural tooth. The device is attached...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3900 - Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert... tooth with a metal insert. (a) Identification. A posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert is a... and metals of the platinum group intended to replace a natural tooth. The device is attached...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3900 - Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert... tooth with a metal insert. (a) Identification. A posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert is a... and metals of the platinum group intended to replace a natural tooth. The device is attached...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3900 - Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert... tooth with a metal insert. (a) Identification. A posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert is a... and metals of the platinum group intended to replace a natural tooth. The device is attached...

  11. Sodium ion insertion in hollow carbon nanowires for battery applications.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuliang; Xiao, Lifen; Sushko, Maria L; Wang, Wei; Schwenzer, Birgit; Xiao, Jie; Nie, Zimin; Saraf, Laxmikant V; Yang, Zhengguo; Liu, Jun

    2012-07-11

    Hollow carbon nanowires (HCNWs) were prepared through pyrolyzation of a hollow polyaniline nanowire precursor. The HCNWs used as anode material for Na-ion batteries deliver a high reversible capacity of 251 mAh g(-1) and 82.2% capacity retention over 400 charge-discharge cycles between 1.2 and 0.01 V (vs Na(+)/Na) at a constant current of 50 mA g(-1) (0.2 C). Excellent cycling stability is also observed at an even higher charge-discharge rate. A high reversible capacity of 149 mAh g(-1) also can be obtained at a current rate of 500 mA g(-1) (2C). The good Na-ion insertion property is attributed to the short diffusion distance in the HCNWs and the large interlayer distance (0.37 nm) between the graphitic sheets, which agrees with the interlayered distance predicted by theoretical calculations to enable Na-ion insertion in carbon materials.

  12. Damping insert materials for settling chambers of supersonic wind tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jie; Radespiel, Rolf

    2017-03-01

    This study describes the application of a novel damping insert material for reducing the flow fluctuations in a tandem nozzle supersonic wind tunnel. This new damping material is composed of multi-layer stainless steel wired meshes. The influences of the multi-layer mesh, such as the quantity of the mesh layer and the installed location in the settling chamber, to the freestream quality have been investigated. A Pitot probe instrumented with a Kulite pressure sensor and a hot-wire probe are employed to monitor the flow fluctuation in the test section of the wind tunnel. Thereafter, a combined modal analysis is applied for the disturbance qualification. Additionally, the transient Mach number in the test section is measured. The disturbance qualification indicates that the multi-layer mesh performs well in providing reduction of vorticity reduction and acoustic fluctuations. Comparable flow quality of the freestream was also obtained using a combination of flexible damping materials. However, the life-span of the new damping materials is much longer. The time transient of the Mach number measured in the test section indicates that the mean flow is rather constant over run time. Furthermore, the time-averaged pressure along the settling chamber is recorded and it shows the distribution of pressure drop by settling chamber inserts.

  13. Seamless insertion of real pulmonary nodules in chest CT exams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezeshk, Aria; Sahiner, Berkman; Zeng, Rongping; Wunderlich, Adam; Chen, Weijie; Petrick, Nicholas

    2014-03-01

    The availability of large medical image datasets is critical in many applications such as training and testing of computer aided diagnosis (CAD) systems, evaluation of segmentation algorithms, and conducting perceptual studies. However, collection of large repositories of clinical images is hindered by the high cost and difficulties associated with both the accumulation of data and establishment of the ground truth. To address this problem, we are developing an image blending tool that allows users to modify or supplement existing datasets by seamlessly inserting a real lesion extracted from a source image into a different location on a target image. In this study we focus on the application of this tool to pulmonary nodules in chest CT exams. We minimize the impact of user skill on the perceived quality of the blended image by limiting user involvement to two simple steps: the user first draws a casual boundary around the nodule of interest in the source, and then selects the center of desired insertion area in the target. We demonstrate examples of the performance of the proposed system on samples taken from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) dataset, and compare the noise power spectrum (NPS) of blended nodules versus that of native nodules in simulated phantoms.

  14. Detecting Alu insertions from high-throughput sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    David, Matei; Mustafa, Harun; Brudno, Michael

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing technologies have allowed for the cataloguing of variation in personal human genomes. In this manuscript, we present alu-detect, a tool that combines read-pair and split-read information to detect novel Alus and their precise breakpoints directly from either whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing data while also identifying insertions directly in the vicinity of existing Alus. To set the parameters of our method, we use simulation of a faux reference, which allows us to compute the precision and recall of various parameter settings using real sequencing data. Applying our method to 100 bp paired Illumina data from seven individuals, including two trios, we detected on average 1519 novel Alus per sample. Based on the faux-reference simulation, we estimate that our method has 97% precision and 85% recall. We identify 808 novel Alus not previously described in other studies. We also demonstrate the use of alu-detect to study the local sequence and global location preferences for novel Alu insertions. PMID:23921633

  15. Automated synthesis, insertion and detection of polyps for CT colonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezille, Nicolas; Sadleir, Robert J. T.; Whelan, Paul F.

    2003-03-01

    CT Colonography (CTC) is a new non-invasive colon imaging technique which has the potential to replace conventional colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening. A novel system which facilitates automated detection of colorectal polyps at CTC is introduced. As exhaustive testing of such a system using real patient data is not feasible, more complete testing is achieved through synthesis of artificial polyps and insertion into real datasets. The polyp insertion is semi-automatic: candidate points are manually selected using a custom GUI, suitable points are determined automatically from an analysis of the local neighborhood surrounding each of the candidate points. Local density and orientation information are used to generate polyps based on an elliptical model. Anomalies are identified from the modified dataset by analyzing the axial images. Detected anomalies are classified as potential polyps or natural features using 3D morphological techniques. The final results are flagged for review. The system was evaluated using 15 scenarios. The sensitivity of the system was found to be 65% with 34% false positive detections. Automated diagnosis at CTC is possible and thorough testing is facilitated by augmenting real patient data with computer generated polyps. Ultimately, automated diagnosis will enhance standard CTC and increase performance.

  16. Early Metamorphic Insertion Technology for Insect Flight Behavior Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Alper

    2014-01-01

    Early Metamorphosis Insertion Technology (EMIT) is a novel methodology for integrating microfabricated neuromuscular recording and actuation platforms on insects during their metamorphic development. Here, the implants are fused within the structure and function of the neuromuscular system as a result of metamorphic tissue remaking. The implants emerge with the insect where the development of tissue around the electronics during pupal development results in a bioelectrically and biomechanically enhanced tissue interface. This relatively more reliable and stable interface would be beneficial for many researchers exploring the neural basis of the insect locomotion with alleviated traumatic effects caused during adult stage insertions. In this article, we implant our electrodes into the indirect flight muscles of Manduca sexta. Located in the dorsal-thorax, these main flight powering dorsoventral and dorsolongitudinal muscles actuate the wings and supply the mechanical power for up and down strokes. Relative contraction of these two muscle groups has been under investigation to explore how the yaw maneuver is neurophysiologically coordinated. To characterize the flight dynamics, insects are often tethered with wires and their flight is recorded with digital cameras. We also developed a novel way to tether Manduca sexta on a magnetically levitating frame where the insect is connected to a commercially available wireless neural amplifier. This set up can be used to limit the degree of freedom to yawing “only” while transmitting the related electromyography signals from dorsoventral and dorsolongitudinal muscle groups. PMID:25079130

  17. Comparison of three peripherally-inserted central catheters: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Di Giacomo, Michele

    Peripherally-inserted central catheters (PICCS) are non-tunnelled, central catheters inserted through a peripheral vein of the arm. They are 50-60 cm long and are usually made of either silicone or second-third generation polyurethane. PICCs can be used for prolonged, continuous or intermittent infusion therapies (up to 3 months) both in hospitalized patients and in patients treated as outpatients, in a hospice, or at home. When establishing a vascular service it is key to select a PICC that meets the requirements of safety, cost-effectiveness, high resistance (ability to take increasing fluid volumes with high pressure devices) and durability, and low complications rate. The complications and dwell times of three different PICCs were studied: coated polyurethane, valved silicone and power-injectable. The study was conducted at the chemotherapy suite at the author's hospital with the aim of selecting the right PICC based on low incidence of complications, resistance and enhanced dwell time. Results show a low incidence of complications and long dwell time among patients with the power-injectable PICC. Furthermore, this study demonstrated a reduction on the rate of occlusion and rupture with power-injectable PICCs, which makes them safer to use for administration of chemotherapy and other vesicant agents, as well as for the management of patients in critical care.

  18. Launch vehicle and power level impacts on electric GEO insertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Myers, Roger M.

    1996-01-01

    Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) has been shown to increase net geosynchronous spacecraft mass when used for station keeping and final orbit insertion. The impact of launch vehicle selection and power level on the benefits of this approach were examined for 20 and 25 kW systems launched using the Ariane 5, Atlas IIAR, Long March, Proton, and Sea Launch vehicles. Two advanced on-board propulsion technologies, 5 kW ion and Hall thruster systems, were used to establish the relative merits of the technologies and launch vehicles. GaAs solar arrays were assumed. The analysis identifies the optimal starting orbits for the SEP orbit raising/plane changing while considering the impacts of radiation degradation in the Van Allen belts, shading, power degradation, and oblateness. This use of SEP to provide part of the orbit insertion results in net mass increases of 15 - 38% and 18 - 46% for one to two month trip times, respectively, over just using SEP for 15 years of north/south station keeping. SEP technology was shown to have a greater impact on net masses of launch vehicles with higher launch latitudes when avoidance of solar array and payload degradation is desired. This greater impact of SEP could help reduce the plane changing disadvantage of high latitude launch sites. Comparison with results for 10 and 15 kW systems show clear benefits of incremental increases in SEP power level, suggesting that an evolutionary approach to high power SEP for geosynchronous spacecraft is possible.

  19. Fracture of crystalline silicon nanopillars during electrochemical lithium insertion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seok Woo; McDowell, Matthew T; Berla, Lucas A; Nix, William D; Cui, Yi

    2012-03-13

    From surface hardening of steels to doping of semiconductors, atom insertion in solids plays an important role in modifying chemical, physical, and electronic properties of materials for a variety of applications. High densities of atomic insertion in a solid can result in dramatic structural transformations and associated changes in mechanical behavior: This is particularly evident during electrochemical cycling of novel battery electrodes, such as alloying anodes, conversion oxides, and sulfur and oxygen cathodes. Silicon, which undergoes 400% volume expansion when alloying with lithium, is an extreme case and represents an excellent model system for study. Here, we show that fracture locations are highly anisotropic for lithiation of crystalline Si nanopillars and that fracture is strongly correlated with previously discovered anisotropic expansion. Contrary to earlier theoretical models based on diffusion-induced stresses where fracture is predicted to occur in the core of the pillars during lithiation, the observed cracks are present only in the amorphous lithiated shell. We also show that the critical fracture size is between about 240 and 360 nm and that it depends on the electrochemical reaction rate.

  20. Single gene insertion drives bioalcohol production by a thermophilic archaeon

    PubMed Central

    Basen, Mirko; Schut, Gerrit J.; Nguyen, Diep M.; Lipscomb, Gina L.; Benn, Robert A.; Prybol, Cameron J.; Vaccaro, Brian J.; Poole, Farris L.; Kelly, Robert M.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production is achieved by only two metabolic pathways and only at moderate temperatures. Herein a fundamentally different synthetic pathway for bioalcohol production at 70 °C was constructed by insertion of the gene for bacterial alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) into the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The engineered strain converted glucose to ethanol via acetate and acetaldehyde, catalyzed by the host-encoded aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and heterologously expressed AdhA, in an energy-conserving, redox-balanced pathway. Furthermore, the AOR/AdhA pathway also converted exogenously added aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding alcohol using glucose, pyruvate, and/or hydrogen as the source of reductant. By heterologous coexpression of a membrane-bound carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, CO was used as a reductant for converting carboxylic acids to alcohols. Redirecting the fermentative metabolism of P. furiosus through strategic insertion of foreign genes creates unprecedented opportunities for thermophilic bioalcohol production. Moreover, the AOR/AdhA pathway is a potentially game-changing strategy for syngas fermentation, especially in combination with carbon chain elongation pathways. PMID:25368184

  1. Single gene insertion drives bioalcohol production by a thermophilic archaeon

    SciTech Connect

    Basen, M; Schut, GJ; Nguyen, DM; Lipscomb, GL; Benn, RA; Prybol, CJ; Vaccaro, BJ; Poole, FL; Kelly, RM; Adams, MWW

    2014-12-09

    Bioethanol production is achieved by only two metabolic pathways and only at moderate temperatures. Herein a fundamentally different synthetic pathway for bioalcohol production at 70 degrees C was constructed by insertion of the gene for bacterial alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) into the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The engineered strain converted glucose to ethanol via acetate and acetaldehyde, catalyzed by the host-encoded aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and heterologously expressed AdhA, in an energy-conserving, redox-balanced pathway. Furthermore, the AOR/AdhA pathway also converted exogenously added aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding alcohol using glucose, pyruvate, and/or hydrogen as the source of reductant. By heterologous coexpression of a membrane-bound carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, CO was used as a reductant for converting carboxylic acids to alcohols. Redirecting the fermentative metabolism of P. furiosus through strategic insertion of foreign genes creates unprecedented opportunities for thermophilic bioalcohol production. Moreover, the AOR/AdhA pathway is a potentially game-changing strategy for syngas fermentation, especially in combination with carbon chain elongation pathways.

  2. Noise reduction in supersonic jets by nozzle fluidic inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Philip J.; McLaughlin, Dennis K.; Kuo, Ching-Wen

    2013-08-01

    Professor Philip Doak spent a very productive time as a consultant to the Lockheed-Georgia Company in the early 1970s. The focus of the overall research project was the prediction and reduction of noise from supersonic jets. Now, 40 years on, the present paper describes an innovative methodology and device for the reduction of supersonic jet noise. The goal is the development of a practical active noise reduction technique for low bypass ratio turbofan engines. This method introduces fluidic inserts installed in the divergent wall of a CD nozzle to replace hard-wall corrugation seals, which have been demonstrated to be effective by Seiner (2005) [1]. By altering the configuration and operating conditions of the fluidic inserts, active noise reduction for both mixing and shock noise has been obtained. Substantial noise reductions have been achieved for mixing noise in the maximum noise emission direction and in the forward arc for broadband shock-associated noise. To achieve these reductions (on the order of greater than 4 and 2 dB for the two main components respectively), practically achievable levels of injection mass flow rates have been used. The total injected mass flow rates are less than 4% of the core mass flow rate and the effective operating injection pressure ratio has been maintained at or below the same level as the nozzle pressure ratio of the core flow.

  3. Toolbox for mobile-element insertion detection on cancer genomes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wan-Ping; Wu, Jiantao; Marth, Gabor T

    2015-01-01

    Mobile elements constitute greater than 45% of the human genome as a result of repeated insertion events during human genome evolution. Although most of mobile elements are fixed within the human population, some elements (including ALU, long interspersed elements (LINE) 1 (L1), and SVA) are still actively duplicating and may result in life-threatening human diseases such as cancer, motivating the need for accurate mobile-element insertion (MEI) detection tools. We developed a software package, TANGRAM, for MEI detection in next-generation sequencing data, currently serving as the primary MEI detection tool in the 1000 Genomes Project. TANGRAM takes advantage of valuable mapping information provided by our own MOSAIK mapper, and until recently required MOSAIK mappings as its input. In this study, we report a new feature that enables TANGRAM to be used on alignments generated by any mainstream short-read mapper, making it accessible for many genomic users. To demonstrate its utility for cancer genome analysis, we have applied TANGRAM to the TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) mutation calling benchmark 4 dataset. TANGRAM is fast, accurate, easy to use, and open source on https://github.com/jiantao/Tangram.

  4. Toolbox for mobile-element insertion detection on cancer genomes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wan-Ping; Wu, Jiantao; Marth, Gabor T

    2014-01-01

    Mobile elements constitute greater than 45% of the human genome as a result of repeated insertion events during human genome evolution. Although most of mobile elements are fixed within the human population, some elements (including ALU, long interspersed elements (LINE) 1 (L1), and SVA) are still actively duplicating and may result in life-threatening human diseases such as cancer, motivating the need for accurate mobile-element insertion (MEI) detection tools. We developed a software package, TANGRAM, for MEI detection in next-generation sequencing data, currently serving as the primary MEI detection tool in the 1000 Genomes Project. TANGRAM takes advantage of valuable mapping information provided by our own MOSAIK mapper, and until recently required MOSAIK mappings as its input. In this study, we report a new feature that enables TANGRAM to be used on alignments generated by any mainstream short-read mapper, making it accessible for many genomic users. To demonstrate its utility for cancer genome analysis, we have applied TANGRAM to the TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) mutation calling benchmark 4 dataset. TANGRAM is fast, accurate, easy to use, and open source on https://github.com/jiantao/Tangram.

  5. Toolbox for Mobile-Element Insertion Detection on Cancer Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wan-Ping; Wu, Jiantao; Marth, Gabor T

    2015-01-01

    Mobile elements constitute greater than 45% of the human genome as a result of repeated insertion events during human genome evolution. Although most of mobile elements are fixed within the human population, some elements (including ALU, long interspersed elements (LINE) 1 (L1), and SVA) are still actively duplicating and may result in life-threatening human diseases such as cancer, motivating the need for accurate mobile-element insertion (MEI) detection tools. We developed a software package, TANGRAM, for MEI detection in next-generation sequencing data, currently serving as the primary MEI detection tool in the 1000 Genomes Project. TANGRAM takes advantage of valuable mapping information provided by our own MOSAIK mapper, and until recently required MOSAIK mappings as its input. In this study, we report a new feature that enables TANGRAM to be used on alignments generated by any mainstream short-read mapper, making it accessible for many genomic users. To demonstrate its utility for cancer genome analysis, we have applied TANGRAM to the TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) mutation calling benchmark 4 dataset. TANGRAM is fast, accurate, easy to use, and open source on https://github.com/jiantao/Tangram. PMID:25931804

  6. Surface heat transfer in a channel with porous insert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gortyshov, Yu. F.

    1993-05-01

    One of the possible ways of the effective intensification is the realization of heat carrier flows in porous structures. For this purpose inserts are placed in moving heat carrier channels. Despite a large number of publications, net-like, fibrous, brush, caked and powder structures of low and mean porosity (epsilon less than or equal to 0.6) are studied. Application of high-porous permeable honeycomb materials (HPHM) shows, that among the the well-known porous materials possessing maximal permeability (penetrability factors are 10(exp -8) ...10(exp -9) sq m). HPHM's have a characteristic three-dimensional net-like honeycomb structure with high repeatability of cells. All the frame substance is concentrated in stripping ribs, which bound each separate cell. In coolant flowing in the channel with porous insert the transfer of energy from the heated wall into the channel interior originates at the expense of the frame material heat conduction and lateral conduction and lateral convective mixing of flow. In this paper we present the results of analytical and experimental heat transfer investigation at forced heat carrier, flowing in the channel that is filled-in by porous HPHM medium.

  7. Investigation on Composite Throat Insert For Cryogenic Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayyappan, G.; Tiwari, S. B.; Praveen, RS; Mohankumar, L.; Jathaveda, M.; Ganesh, P.

    2017-02-01

    Injector element testing is an important step in the development and qualification of the cryogenic rocket engines. For the purpose of characterising the injectors, sub scale chambers are used. In order to assess the performance of the injectors, different configurations of the injectors are tested using a combustion chamber and a convergent-divergent nozzle. Pressure distribution along the wall of the chamber and throat insert is obtained from the CFD analysis and temperature distribution is obtained from thermal analysis. Thermo-structural analysis is carried out for the sub-scale model of throat inert using temperature dependent material properties. For the experiments a sub-scale model of the thrust chamber is realised. Injector element tests are carried out for the studies. The objective of the present study is to investigate the behaviour of different throat inserts, mainly graphite, 2-D Carbon-Carbon(2D C-C), 4-D Carbon-Carbon (4D C-C) and Silica Phenolic (SP), under pressure and thermal load for repeated operation of the engine. Analytical results are compared with the test results. The paper gives the results of theoretical studies and experiments conducted with all the four type of throat material. It is concluded that 2D C-C is superior in terms of throat erosion being the least under specified combustion environment.

  8. Insertional action of the abdominal muscles in rabbits and dogs.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, E; Prandi, E; Robatto, F; Petitjean, M; Bellemare, F

    1996-07-01

    The insertional action of the abdominal muscles was studied in supine anesthetized, apneic rabbits and dogs by comparing the changes in esophageal pressure (Pes), upper and lower rib cage circumference (Cru,u and Crc,I) and lung volume (VL) in response to electrical stimulation of all abdominal muscles before and after evisceration. In eviscerated animals, abdominal muscle contraction increased Pes and decreased both VL and Cre,I, but had no effect on Crc,u. Maximal responses were obtained at submaximal intensities of stimulation, and became larger with increasing lung volume. Relative to the vital capacity in intact animals, maximal delta VL for stimulation performed at FRC and TLC were 7.2 +/- 2.9(SD) and 39.5 +/- 7% in rabbits, and 6.3 +/- 0.8 and 18.3 +/- 5.9% in dogs, respectively. Relative to the changes in lung volume occurring with maximal contraction of the abdominal muscles in intact animals, the values of delta VL observed in the eviscerated animals amounted to approximately 35 and approximately 45% for stimulation performed at FRC and TLC, respectively. Hence, abdominal muscles exert substantial insertional action on the lower rib cage that can result in appreciable lung deflationary effects, particularly at elevated lung volumes.

  9. Evaluation of pedicle screw insertion monitored by intraoperative evoked electromyography.

    PubMed

    Darden, B V; Wood, K E; Hatley, M K; Owen, J H; Kostuik, J

    1996-02-01

    The insertion of pedicle screws monitored by evoked electromyography (EMG) was prospectively evaluated in the 132 consecutive patients. The technique involved constant-voltage stimulation and was statistically evaluated at both the arbitrary 20- and 40-V settings. The patients were postoperatively evaluated clinically and radiographically. Computed tomography (CT) scanning was performed for new neurologic deficits. Results were divided into three groups: type 1, a negative EMG response; type 2, a positive EMG response, but no corrective action taken; and type 3, a positive EMG response and corrective action undertaken. Nonparametric statistics were used to evaluate the results at both the 20- and 40-V settings. In the type 3 group, in which corrective action was undertaken, there were no neurologic injuries or screw removals, a statistically significant result. Looking at the two intensity levels, at 20- and 40-V settings, there were no statistically significant differences in the three classifications at either intensity level. We concluded the evoked EMG for monitoring pedicle screw insertion is an efficacious adjunct. A positive response at < 20 V with the constant-voltage technique warrants corrective action.

  10. Single gene insertion drives bioalcohol production by a thermophilic archaeon.

    PubMed

    Basen, Mirko; Schut, Gerrit J; Nguyen, Diep M; Lipscomb, Gina L; Benn, Robert A; Prybol, Cameron J; Vaccaro, Brian J; Poole, Farris L; Kelly, Robert M; Adams, Michael W W

    2014-12-09

    Bioethanol production is achieved by only two metabolic pathways and only at moderate temperatures. Herein a fundamentally different synthetic pathway for bioalcohol production at 70 °C was constructed by insertion of the gene for bacterial alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) into the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The engineered strain converted glucose to ethanol via acetate and acetaldehyde, catalyzed by the host-encoded aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and heterologously expressed AdhA, in an energy-conserving, redox-balanced pathway. Furthermore, the AOR/AdhA pathway also converted exogenously added aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding alcohol using glucose, pyruvate, and/or hydrogen as the source of reductant. By heterologous coexpression of a membrane-bound carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, CO was used as a reductant for converting carboxylic acids to alcohols. Redirecting the fermentative metabolism of P. furiosus through strategic insertion of foreign genes creates unprecedented opportunities for thermophilic bioalcohol production. Moreover, the AOR/AdhA pathway is a potentially game-changing strategy for syngas fermentation, especially in combination with carbon chain elongation pathways.

  11. An incremental high-utility mining algorithm with transaction insertion.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jerry Chun-Wei; Gan, Wensheng; Hong, Tzung-Pei; Zhang, Binbin

    2015-01-01

    Association-rule mining is commonly used to discover useful and meaningful patterns from a very large database. It only considers the occurrence frequencies of items to reveal the relationships among itemsets. Traditional association-rule mining is, however, not suitable in real-world applications since the purchased items from a customer may have various factors, such as profit or quantity. High-utility mining was designed to solve the limitations of association-rule mining by considering both the quantity and profit measures. Most algorithms of high-utility mining are designed to handle the static database. Fewer researches handle the dynamic high-utility mining with transaction insertion, thus requiring the computations of database rescan and combination explosion of pattern-growth mechanism. In this paper, an efficient incremental algorithm with transaction insertion is designed to reduce computations without candidate generation based on the utility-list structures. The enumeration tree and the relationships between 2-itemsets are also adopted in the proposed algorithm to speed up the computations. Several experiments are conducted to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of runtime, memory consumption, and number of generated patterns.

  12. Mechanics of Dynamic Needle Insertion into a Biological Material

    PubMed Central

    Mahvash, Mohsen; Dupont, Pierre E.

    2010-01-01

    During needle-based procedures, transitions between tissue layers often lead to rupture events that involve large forces and tissue deformations and produce uncontrollable crack extensions. In this paper, the mechanics of these rupture events is described, and the effect of insertion velocity on needle force, tissue deformation, and needle work is analyzed. Using the J integral method from fracture mechanics, rupture events are modeled as sudden crack extensions that occur when the release rate J of strain energy concentrated at the tip of the crack exceeds the fracture toughness of the material. It is shown that increasing the velocity of needle insertion will reduce the force of the rupture event when it increases the energy release rate. A nonlinear viscoelastic Kelvin model is then used to predict the relationship between the deformation of tissue and the rupture force at different velocities. The model predicts that rupture deformation and work asymptotically approach minimum values as needle velocity increases. Consequently, most of the benefit of using a higher needle velocity can be achieved using a finite velocity that is inversely proportional to the relaxation time of the tissue. Experiments confirm the analytical predictions with multilayered porcine cardiac tissue. PMID:19932986

  13. Mechanics of dynamic needle insertion into a biological material.

    PubMed

    Mahvash, Mohsen; Dupont, Pierre E

    2010-04-01

    During needle-based procedures, transitions between tissue layers often lead to rupture events that involve large forces and tissue deformations and produce uncontrollable crack extensions. In this paper, the mechanics of these rupture events is described, and the effect of insertion velocity on needle force, tissue deformation, and needle work is analyzed. Using the J integral method from fracture mechanics, rupture events are modeled as sudden crack extensions that occur when the release rate J of strain energy concentrated at the tip of the crack exceeds the fracture toughness of the material. It is shown that increasing the velocity of needle insertion will reduce the force of the rupture event when it increases the energy release rate. A nonlinear viscoelastic Kelvin model is then used to predict the relationship between the deformation of tissue and the rupture force at different velocities. The model predicts that rupture deformation and work asymptotically approach minimum values as needle velocity increases. Consequently, most of the benefit of using a higher needle velocity can be achieved using a finite velocity that is inversely proportional to the relaxation time of the tissue. Experiments confirm the analytical predictions with multilayered porcine cardiac tissue.

  14. Current status of frameless anchored IUD for immediate intracesarean insertion.

    PubMed

    Wildemeersch, Dirk; Goldstuck, Norman D; Hasskamp, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Immediate postpartum intrauterine device (IUD) insertion deserves great attention as it can provide immediate, timely and convenient contraception plus the added benefit of preventing repeat unintended pregnancies. Although women post vaginal delivery can benefit from immediate post-placenta contraception, women undergoing Cesarean section clearly need contraception, as an inter-delivery interval shorter than 18 months places them at a high risk for uterine rupture. The main drawback of currently available framed IUD devices for immediate postpartum insertion of an IUD is their high expulsion and displacement rates when inserted immediately postpartum after both vaginal and Cesarean delivery. Current research suggests that a brief window of opportunity exists of 10 minutes for insertion of conventional IUDs after which time expulsion rates both immediately and over time are greatly enhanced. This paper summarizes the current research conducted to overcome the expulsion problems associated with conventional T-shaped devices as well as through the use of an anchored frameless device. In the 1970s and 1980s, attempts were made to solve the expulsion problem by modifying existing devices, such as adding absorbable sutures (Delta-T) or additional appendages. These attempts proved to be clinically unsuccessful as the catgut suture added to the transverse arms did not provide sufficient resistance to prevent downward displacement and expulsion. An anchoring technique to suspend a copper IUD to the fundus of the uterus was developed in Belgium in the 1980s and has been the subject of extensive ongoing clinical research since 1985. Recently the frameless copper releasing anchor IUD, GyneFix, has been tested for postplacental insertion. Initially, the anchor was modified by the inclusion of a biodegradable cone which was added below the anchoring knot. Clinical studies confirmed the adequacy of this approach suggesting that it was technically possible to anchor an IUD

  15. 3D-FBK Pixel Sensors: Recent Beam Tests Results with Irradiated Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Micelli, A.; Helle, K.; Sandaker, H.; Stugu, B.; Barbero, M.; Hugging, F.; Karagounis, M.; Kostyukhin, V.; Kruger, H.; Tsung, J.W.; Wermes, N.; Capua, M.; Fazio, S.; Mastroberardino, A.; Susinno, G.; Gallrapp, C.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dobos, D.; La Rosa, A.; Pernegger, H.; Roe, S.; /CERN /Prague, Tech. U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Freiburg U. /Freiburg U. /Freiburg U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Glasgow U. /Glasgow U. /Glasgow U. /Hawaii U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, IFAE /LBL, Berkeley /Barcelona, IFAE /LBL, Berkeley /LBL, Berkeley /Manchester U. /Manchester U. /Manchester U. /Manchester U. /Manchester U. /Manchester U. /Manchester U. /Manchester U. /Manchester U. /New Mexico U. /New Mexico U. /Oslo U. /Oslo U. /Oslo U. /Oslo U. /Oslo U. /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SUNY, Stony Brook /SUNY, Stony Brook /SUNY, Stony Brook /INFN, Trento /Trento U. /INFN, Trento /Trento U. /INFN, Trento /Trento U. /INFN, Trieste /Udine U. /INFN, Trieste /Udine U. /INFN, Trieste /Udine U. /INFN, Trieste /Udine U. /INFN, Trieste /Udine U. /INFN, Trieste /Udine U. /Barcelona, Inst. Microelectron. /Barcelona, Inst. Microelectron. /Barcelona, Inst. Microelectron. /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Trento /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Trento /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Trento /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Trento /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Trento /SINTEF, Oslo /SINTEF, Oslo /SINTEF, Oslo /SINTEF, Oslo /VTT Electronics, Espoo /VTT Electronics, Espoo

    2012-04-30

    The Pixel Detector is the innermost part of the ATLAS experiment tracking device at the Large Hadron Collider, and plays a key role in the reconstruction of the primary vertices from the collisions and secondary vertices produced by short-lived particles. To cope with the high level of radiation produced during the collider operation, it is planned to add to the present three layers of silicon pixel sensors which constitute the Pixel Detector, an additional layer (Insertable B-Layer, or IBL) of sensors. 3D silicon sensors are one of the technologies which are under study for the IBL. 3D silicon technology is an innovative combination of very-large-scale integration and Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems where electrodes are fabricated inside the silicon bulk instead of being implanted on the wafer surfaces. 3D sensors, with electrodes fully or partially penetrating the silicon substrate, are currently fabricated at different processing facilities in Europe and USA. This paper reports on the 2010 June beam test results for irradiated 3D devices produced at FBK (Trento, Italy). The performance of these devices, all bump-bonded with the ATLAS pixel FE-I3 read-out chip, is compared to that observed before irradiation in a previous beam test.

  16. Surgical insertions of transmitters and telemetry methods in fisheries research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wargo Rub, A. Michelle; Jepsen, Niels; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Moser, L; Weber III, E. P. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Use of electronic transmitter and monitoring systems to track movements of aquatic animals has increased continuously since the inception of these systems in the mid-1950s. The purpose of the present report is to provide information about veterinary principles and their incorporation into surgical implantation procedures for fish. We also intend to provide insight into the unique challenges of field-based aquatic surgical studies. Within this context, 4 aspects of the process for surgical implantation of transmitters in fish (ie, handling, aseptic technique, anesthesia, and implantation) will be described. Effects of surgical insertion of transmitters (ie, tagging) and aspects of the surgical implantation process where collaboration and professional exchanges among nonveterinarian researchers and veterinarians may be most fruitful will be discussed. Although this report focuses on surgical implantation, the principles and protocols described here (other than incision and suture placement) are also applicable to studies that involve injection of transmitters into fish.

  17. Direct Synthesis of Imidazolium-Functional Polyethylene by Insertion Copolymerization.

    PubMed

    Jian, Zhongbao; Leicht, Hannes; Mecking, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    Cationic imidazolium-functionalized polyethylene is accessible by insertion copolymerization of ethylene and allyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate (AIm-BF4 ) with phosphinesulfonato palladium(II) catalyst precursors. Imidazolium-substituted repeat units are incorporated into the main chain and the initiating saturated chain end of the linear polymers, rather than the terminating unsaturated chain end. The counterion of the allyl imidazolium monomer is decisive, with the chloride analogue (AIm-Cl) no polymerization is observed. Stoichiometric studies reveal the formation of an inactive chloride complex from the catalyst precursor. An effect of moderate densities (0.5 mol%) of ionic groups on the copolymers' physical properties is exemplified by an enhanced wetting by water.

  18. Conductivity Probe Inserted in Martian Soil, Sol 46

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the lander's Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP), at the end of the Robotic Arm, on the 46th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 11, 2008).

    The TECP is inserted at a site called Vestri, which was monitored several times over the course of the mission. The probe's measurements at this site yielded evidence that water was exchanged, daily and seasonally, between the soil and atmosphere.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. The thermodynamic origin of hysteresis in insertion batteries.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Wolfgang; Jamnik, Janko; Guhlke, Clemens; Huth, Robert; Moskon, Joze; Gaberscek, Miran

    2010-05-01

    Lithium batteries are considered the key storage devices for most emerging green technologies such as wind and solar technologies or hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles. Despite the tremendous recent advances in battery research, surprisingly, several fundamental issues of increasing practical importance have not been adequately tackled. One such issue concerns the energy efficiency. Generally, charging of 10(10)-10(17) electrode particles constituting a modern battery electrode proceeds at (much) higher voltages than discharging. Most importantly, the hysteresis between the charge and discharge voltage seems not to disappear as the charging/discharging current vanishes. Herein we present, for the first time, a general explanation of the occurrence of inherent hysteretic behaviour in insertion storage systems containing multiple particles. In a broader sense, the model also predicts the existence of apparent equilibria in battery electrodes, the sequential particle-by-particle charging/discharging mechanism and the disappearance of two-phase behaviour at special experimental conditions.

  20. Alu polymorphic insertions reveal genetic structure of north Indian populations.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Manorama; Tripathi, Piyush; Chauhan, Ugam Kumari; Herrera, Rene J; Agrawal, Suraksha

    2008-10-01

    The Indian subcontinent is characterized by the ancestral and cultural diversity of its people. Genetic input from several unique source populations and from the unique social architecture provided by the caste system has shaped the current genetic landscape of India. In the present study 200 individuals each from three upper-caste and four middle-caste Hindu groups and from two Muslim populations in North India were examined for 10 polymorphic Alu insertions (PAIs). The investigated PAIs exhibit high levels of polymorphism and average heterozygosity. Limited interpopulation variance and genetic flow in the present study suggest admixture. The results of this study demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, the caste system has not provided an impermeable barrier to genetic exchange among Indian groups.

  1. Integrin‐Targeting Fluorescent Proteins: Exploration of RGD Insertion Sites

    PubMed Central

    Sonntag, Michael H.; Schill, Jurgen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The potential of the fluorescent protein scaffold to control peptide sequence functionality is illustrated by an exploration of fluorescent proteins as novel probes for targeting integrins. A library of fluorescent mCitrine proteins with RGD motifs incorporated at several positions in loops within the protein main chain was generated and characterized. Amino acid mutations to RGD as well as RGD insertions were evaluated: both led to constructs with typical mCitrine fluorescent properties. Screening experiments against four human integrin receptors revealed two strong‐binding constructs and two selective integrin binders. The effect of the site of RGD incorporation illustrates the importance of the protein scaffold on RGD sequence functionality, leading to fluorescent protein constructs with the potential for selective integrin targeting. PMID:28004511

  2. Collimator design for a multipinhole brain SPECT insert for MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Van Audenhaege, Karen; Van Holen, Roel; Vanhove, Christian; Vandenberghe, Stefaan

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is an important clinical tool, with unique tracers for studying neurological diseases. Nowadays, most commercial SPECT systems are combined with x-ray computed tomography (CT) in so-called SPECT/CT systems to obtain an anatomical background for the functional information. However, while CT images have a high spatial resolution, they have a low soft-tissue contrast, which is an important disadvantage for brain imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), on the other hand, has a very high soft-tissue contrast and does not involve extra ionizing radiation. Therefore, the authors designed a brain SPECT insert that can operate inside a clinical MRI. Methods: The authors designed and simulated a compact stationary multipinhole SPECT insert based on digital silicon photomultiplier detector modules, which have shown to be MR-compatible and have an excellent intrinsic resolution (0.5 mm) when combined with a monolithic 2 mm thick LYSO crystal. First, the authors optimized the different parameters of the SPECT system to maximize sensitivity for a given target resolution of 7.2 mm in the center of the field-of-view, given the spatial constraints of the MR system. Second, the authors performed noiseless simulations of two multipinhole configurations to evaluate sampling and reconstructed resolution. Finally, the authors performed Monte Carlo simulations and compared the SPECT insert with a clinical system with ultrahigh-resolution (UHR) fan beam collimators, based on contrast-to-noise ratio and a visual comparison of a Hoffman phantom with a 9 mm cold lesion. Results: The optimization resulted in a stationary multipinhole system with a collimator radius of 150.2 mm and a detector radius of 172.67 mm, which corresponds to four rings of 34 diSPM detector modules. This allows the authors to include eight rings of 24 pinholes, which results in a system volume sensitivity of 395 cps/MBq. Noiseless simulations

  3. Radiation doses to insertion devices at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Moog, E.R.; Den Hartog, P.K.; Semones, E.J.; Job, P.K.

    1997-09-01

    Dose measurements made on and around the insertion devices (IDs) at the Advanced Photon Source are reported. Attempts are made to compare these dose rates to dose rates that have been reported to cause radiation-induced demagnetization, but comparisons are complicated by such factors as the particular magnet material and the techniques used in its manufacture, the spectrum and type of radiation, and the demagnetizing field seen by the magnet. The spectrum of radiation at the IDs. It has almost no effect on the dose to the downstream ends of the IDs, however, since much of the radiation travels through the ID vacuum chamber and cannot be readily shielded. Opening the gaps of the IDs during injection and at other times also helps decrease the radiation exposure.

  4. Getting the most from ultrasound guidance for CVC insertion.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Linda J

    Ultrasound is an imaging technique that uses ultra-high frequency sound waves. The interaction of the sound waves with body tissue enables an image to be produced. Following guidance from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (2002), the use of two-dimensional ultrasound imaging for central venous catheter (CVC) insertion has increased. Ultrasound provides the nurse with visualisation of the target vein as well as any other surrounding structures. It also demonstrates any variation in anatomy that the patient may have. Increased first-time puncture rates and decreased complications are among the benefits of ultrasound use for CVC placement described in the literature. However, NICE (2002) guidance recommended that education and training be sought by those using this technology. The aim of this article, therefore, is to provide useful information regarding ultrasound-guided venous access and to describe some techniques to improve image quality.

  5. Nano particles insertion into individual mammalian cells using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waleed, Muhammad; Kim, Jung-Dae; Lee, Yong-Gu

    2012-01-01

    Transfection is the process of introducing DNA into cells so that the introduced DNA will function and produce proteins. This technique is useful to study the function of various DNA sequences and in the future may lead to gene therapy for curing genetic diseases. Currently, a number of techniques are available for both population and individual cells transfection. Although individual cells transfection is less commonly used than the population transfection, it has benefits because it allows controlled single cell analysis. In this paper, we present a new laser assisted transfection method for individual cells. In this technique, two lasers are used to perform the transfection procedure and third laser is used to detect the position of DNA coated nanoparticle which is inserted in the cell. This technique has relatively high transfection efficiency and good post-transfection cell viability.

  6. Software technology insertion: A study of success factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lydon, Tom

    1990-01-01

    Managing software development in large organizations has become increasingly difficult due to increasing technical complexity, stricter government standards, a shortage of experienced software engineers, competitive pressure for improved productivity and quality, the need to co-develop hardware and software together, and the rapid changes in both hardware and software technology. The 'software factory' approach to software development minimizes risks while maximizing productivity and quality through standardization, automation, and training. However, in practice, this approach is relatively inflexible when adopting new software technologies. The methods that a large multi-project software engineering organization can use to increase the likelihood of successful software technology insertion (STI), especially in a standardized engineering environment, are described.

  7. RHIC D0 INSERTION DIPOLE DESIGN ITERATIONS DURING PRODUCTION.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHMALZLE,J.; ANERELLA,M.; GANETIS,G.; GHOSH,A.; GUPTA,R.; JAIN,A.; KAHN,S.; MORGAN,G.; MURATORE,J.; SAMPSON,W.; WANDERER,P.; WILLEN,E.

    1997-05-12

    Iterations to the cross section of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) D0 Insertion Dipole magnets were made during the production. This was included as part of the production plan because no R&D or pre-production magnets were built prior to the start of production. The first magnet produced had the desired coil pre-stress and low field harmonics in the body of the magnet and is therefore being used in the RHIC Machine. On the first eight magnets, iterations were carried out to minimize the iron saturation and to compensate for the end harmonics. This paper will discuss the details of the iterations made, the obstacles encountered, and the results obtained. Also included will be a brief summary of the magnet design and performance.

  8. Mars Observer mission status and orbit insertion phase planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodd, Suzanne R.; Roncoli, Ralph B.

    1993-01-01

    The Mars Observer spacecraft will reach Mars on August 24, 1993. Launch and cruise phase operations have gone smoothly, with few spacecraft anomalies. The orbit insertion phase, which spans a three month period and involves a series of seven maneuvers, has been redesigned postlaunch making use of excess spacecraft velocity change (Delta V) capability to advance the mapping phase, now planned to begin November 24, 1993. This is highly desirable since it moves the start of the mapping phase away from solar conjunction and the expected dust storm disturbances. The redesign process involved making tradeoffs between science, operations, and maneuver requirements. At Mars, the spacecraft will continuously record data with a single daily playback through the Deep Space Network's 34-meter high-efficiency antennas for one Martian year.

  9. INSERTION DEVICES R AND Ds FOR NSLS-II.

    SciTech Connect

    TANABE,T.; HARDER, D.A.; RAKOWSKY, G.; SHAFTAN, T.; SKARITKA, J.

    2007-06-25

    NSLS-II is a medium energy storage ring of 3GeV electron beam energy with sub-nm.rad horizontal emittance and top-off capability at 500mA. Damping wigglers will be used not only to reduce the beam emittance but also for broadband sources for users. Cryo-Permanent Magnet Undulators (CPMUs) are considered for hard X-ray linear device, and permanent magnet based Elliptically Polarized Undulators (EPUs) are for polarization control. Rigorous R&D plans have been established to pursue the performance enhancement of the above devices as well as building new types of insertion devices such as high temperature superconducting wiggler/undulators. This paper describes the details of these activities and discuss technical issues.

  10. Inserting epidural patient controlled analgesia into a peripheral venous line.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    A case is reported from the Safety Reporting System in Anaesthesia and Resuscitation database. The event occurred in a patient undergoing abdominal surgery in whom an epidural catheter was inserted for analgesia. After the intervention, the patient was transferred to the recovery unit where the patient controlled analgesia (PCA) is programmed. Due to an error, the PCA was connected to a peripheral venous line, which was detected early without harm to the patient. Communication and analysis of this incident served to introduce a new drug delivery protocol through PCA pumps, including the obligation to prescribe the PCA in the electronic system, a dual computerised check immediately before connecting PCA, labelling the medication bag as well as the proximal and distal lines, standardisation of daily visits to patients, and monthly monitoring of results.

  11. Coupling-aware mixed dummy metal insertion for lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Liang; Wong, Martin D. F.; Chao, Kai-Yuan; Xiang, Hua

    2007-03-01

    As integrated circuits manufacturing technology is advancing into 65nm and 45nm nodes, extensive resolution enhancement techniques (RET) are needed to correctly manufacture a chip design. The widely used RET called offaxis illumination (OAI) introduces forbidden pitches which lead to very complex design rules. It has been observed that imposing uniformity on layout designs can substantially improve printability under OAI. In this paper, two types of assist features for the metal layer are proposed to improve the uniformity, printable assist feature and segmented printable assist feature. They bring different costs on performance and manufacturing. Coupling and lithography costs from these assist features are discussed. Optimal insertion algorithm is proposed to use both types of dummy metals, considering trade-offs between coupling and lithography costs.

  12. Cybermaterials: materials by design and accelerated insertion of materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Wei; Olson, Gregory B.

    2016-02-01

    Cybermaterials innovation entails an integration of Materials by Design and accelerated insertion of materials (AIM), which transfers studio ideation into industrial manufacturing. By assembling a hierarchical architecture of integrated computational materials design (ICMD) based on materials genomic fundamental databases, the ICMD mechanistic design models accelerate innovation. We here review progress in the development of linkage models of the process-structure-property-performance paradigm, as well as related design accelerating tools. Extending the materials development capability based on phase-level structural control requires more fundamental investment at the level of the Materials Genome, with focus on improving applicable parametric design models and constructing high-quality databases. Future opportunities in materials genomic research serving both Materials by Design and AIM are addressed.

  13. Quench Module Insert Capabilities and Development Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, William E.; Crouch, M. R.; Farmer, J.; Breeding, S.; Rose, F.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Quench Module Insert is a directional solidification furnace that will operate in the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) on the International Space Station. It will provide high thermal gradient and quench capabilities for processing metals and alloys in microgravity. Numerical analyses and breadboard testing conducted to date show that the QMI can produce an axial temperature gradient approaching 150 C per centimeter in a 1 centimeter diameter aluminum sample with a maximum molten sample temperature of 1100 C. Breadboard testing and analysis have also shown that the quench capabilities of the furnace are sufficient to rapidly solidify at least a 5mm axial portion of a 1 centimeter diameter molten aluminum sample in significantly less than the required 2 seconds and prevent significant backmelt. This paper presents the furnace requirements and capabilities and a status of the associated development testing and analyses.

  14. Insertion device operating experience at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmer, John; Ramanathan, Mohan; Smith, Martin; Merritt, Michael

    2002-03-01

    The Advanced Photon Source has 29 insertion devices (IDs) installed in the 7 GeV electron storage ring; 28 of these devices, most of which are 3.3 cm period undulators, use two horizontal permanent magnet structures positioned over a straight vacuum chamber. A support and drive mechanism allows the vertical gap between the magnet structures to be varied, thus changing the x-ray energy produced by the ID [J. Viccaro, Proc. SPIE 1345, 28 (1990); E. Gluskin, J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5, 189 (1998)]. Most of these IDs use a drive scheme with two stepper motors, one driving each end through a mechanism synchronizing the upper and lower magnet structures. Our experience in almost 5 yr of operating this system will be discussed. All of the IDs are in continuous operation for approximately 10 weeks at a time. Reliability of operation is of paramount importance, as access to the storage ring for servicing of a single ID inhibits operation for all users. Our experience in achieving highly reliable ID operation is reviewed. Accuracy of operation and repeatability over time are also vital. To this end, these devices use absolute optical linear encoders with submicron resolution for primary position feedback. Absolute rotary encoders are used as a backup to the linear encoders. The benefits and limitations of each type of encoder, and our experience dealing with radiation and electrical noise are reviewed. The insertion devices operate down to gaps as small as 8.5 mm, with clearance over the vacuum chamber as small as 200 μm. The vacuum chamber has a minimum wall thickness of only 1 mm. A number of levels of safeguards are used to prevent contact between the magnet structure and the vacuum chamber. These safeguards and their evolution after gaining operational experience are presented.

  15. Accuracy of computer-assisted implant placement with insertion templates

    PubMed Central

    Naziri, Eleni; Schramm, Alexander; Wilde, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of computer-assisted implant insertion based on computed tomography and template-guided implant placement. Material and methods: A total of 246 implants were placed with the aid of 3D-based transfer templates in 181 consecutive partially edentulous patients. Five groups were formed on the basis of different implant systems, surgical protocols and guide sleeves. After virtual implant planning with the CoDiagnostiX Software, surgical guides were fabricated in a dental laboratory. After implant insertion, the actual implant position was registered intraoperatively and transferred to a model cast. Deviations between the preoperative plan and postoperative implant position were measured in a follow-up computed tomography of the patient’s model casts and image fusion with the preoperative computed tomography. Results: The median deviation between preoperative plan and postoperative implant position was 1.0 mm at the implant shoulder and 1.4 mm at the implant apex. The median angular deviation was 3.6º. There were significantly smaller angular deviations (P=0.000) and significantly lower deviations at the apex (P=0.008) in implants placed for a single-tooth restoration than in those placed at a free-end dental arch. The location of the implant, whether in the upper or lower jaw, did not significantly affect deviations. Increasing implant length had a significant negative influence on deviations from the planned implant position. There was only one significant difference between two out of the five implant systems used. Conclusion: The data of this clinical study demonstrate the accuracy and predictable implant placement when using laboratory-fabricated surgical guides based on computed tomography. PMID:27274440

  16. Tracking Marsupial Evolution Using Archaic Genomic Retroposon Insertions

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Maria A.; Churakov, Gennady; Sommer, Mirjam; Tran, Ngoc Van; Zemann, Anja; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    The Australasian and South American marsupial mammals, such as kangaroos and opossums, are the closest living relatives to placental mammals, having shared a common ancestor around 130 million years ago. The evolutionary relationships among the seven marsupial orders have, however, so far eluded resolution. In particular, the relationships between the four Australasian and three South American marsupial orders have been intensively debated since the South American order Microbiotheria was taxonomically moved into the group Australidelphia. Australidelphia is significantly supported by both molecular and morphological data and comprises the four Australasian marsupial orders and the South American order Microbiotheria, indicating a complex, ancient, biogeographic history of marsupials. However, the exact phylogenetic position of Microbiotheria within Australidelphia has yet to be resolved using either sequence or morphological data analysis. Here, we provide evidence from newly established and virtually homoplasy-free retroposon insertion markers for the basal relationships among marsupial orders. Fifty-three phylogenetically informative markers were retrieved after in silico and experimental screening of ∼217,000 retroposon-containing loci from opossum and kangaroo. The four Australasian orders share a single origin with Microbiotheria as their closest sister group, supporting a clear divergence between South American and Australasian marsupials. In addition, the new data place the South American opossums (Didelphimorphia) as the first branch of the marsupial tree. The exhaustive computational and experimental evidence provides important insight into the evolution of retroposable elements in the marsupial genome. Placing the retroposon insertion pattern in a paleobiogeographic context indicates a single marsupial migration from South America to Australia. The now firmly established phylogeny can be used to determine the direction of genomic changes and

  17. Predicting the Insertion Length for Gastric Tube Placement in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Ellett, Marsha L. Cirgin; Cohen, Mervyn D.; Perkins, Susan M.; Smith, Coral E.; Lane, Kathleen A.; Austin, Joan K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare error rates of three existing methods of predicting the gastric tube insertion length in a group of neonates < one month corrected age: age-related, height-based (ARHB); direct distance nose-ear-xiphoid (NEX); and direct distance nose-ear-mid-umbilicus (NEMU). Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting Five neonatal care units in a large midwestern city. Participants One hundred seventy-three hospitalized neonates. Methods Neonates were randomly assigned to one of three groups: ARHB, NEX, or NEMU. For primary analysis, only tubes placed too high with the tube tip in the esophagus or at the gastroesophageal junction were considered to be misplaced. For secondary analysis, a stricter definition was used, and low placements (pylorus or duodenum) were also considered to be misplaced. All radiographs were blinded and read by a pediatric radiologist. Results For the primary analysis, the differences in percentages of correctly placed tubes among the three methods was statistically significant (chi-square = 34.45; p < 0.0001), with both NEMU and ARHB more accurate than NEX (NEMU chi-square = 18.59, p < 0.0001; ARHB chi-square = 21.34, p < 0.0001). Using the stricter definition for placement, ARHB was not significantly different from NEX (p = 0.0615). A new ARHB equation was developed specific for neonates < 1 month corrected age. Conclusions Direct distance nose-ear-xiphoid should no longer be used as an NG/OG tube insertion-length predictor in neonates. Either NEMU for nasogastric/orogastric (NG/OG) tubes or the new ARHB equation for NG tubes should be used. PMID:21639864

  18. Insertion torque, resonance frequency, and removal torque analysis of microimplants.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yu-Chuan; Ting, Chun-Chan; Du, Je-Kang; Chen, Chun-Ming; Wu, Ju-Hui; Chen, Hong-Sen

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to compare the insertion torque (IT), resonance frequency (RF), and removal torque (RT) among three microimplant brands. Thirty microimplants of the three brands were used as follows: Type A (titanium alloy, 1.5-mm × 8-mm), Type B (stainless steel, 1.5-mm × 8-mm), and Type C (titanium alloy, 1.5-mm × 9-mm). A synthetic bone with a 2-mm cortical bone and bone marrow was used. Each microimplant was inserted into the synthetic bone, without predrilling, to a 7 mm depth. The IT, RF, and RT were measured in both vertical and horizontal directions. One-way analysis of variance and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient tests were used for intergroup and intragroup comparisons, respectively. In the vertical test, the ITs of Type C (7.8 Ncm) and Type B (7.5 Ncm) were significantly higher than that of Type A (4.4 Ncm). The RFs of Type C (11.5 kHz) and Type A (10.2 kHz) were significantly higher than that of Type B (7.5 kHz). Type C (7.4 Ncm) and Type B (7.3 Ncm) had significantly higher RTs than did Type A (4.1 Ncm). In the horizontal test, both the ITs and RTs were significantly higher for Type C, compared with Type A. No significant differences were found among the groups, and the study hypothesis was accepted. Type A had the lowest inner/outer diameter ratio and widest apical facing angle, engendering the lowest IT and highest RF values. However, no significant correlations in the IT, RF, and RT were observed among the three groups.

  19. Using Yeast Transposon-Insertion Libraries for Phenotypic Screening and Protein Localization.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anuj

    2016-06-01

    This protocol details how to use a transposon-insertion library for phenotypic screening and protein localization. The insertion library was generated by mutagenesis of a plasmid-based yeast genomic DNA library by using a multipurpose transposon; the transposon produces gene disruptions, and, by Cre-mediated recombination at lox sites incorporated within the transposon, alleles with an in-frame insertion can be truncated to a residual transposon encoding multiple copies of the hemagglutinin epitope. Insertions are generated in yeast by shuttle mutagenesis. Yeast genomic DNA containing a transposon insertion is released from the library, and the mutagenized DNA sequences are introduced into a desired strain of yeast, where the insertion alleles replace native loci by homologous recombination. The insertion mutants can be screened for phenotypes, and the site of transposon insertion can subsequently be identified in selected mutants by inverse polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In-frame insertions within genes of interest can be truncated to an epitope-tagged allele by Cre-lox recombination, and the subcellular localization of the encoded protein product can be identified by standard methods of indirect immunofluorescence. In summary, the transposon-insertion libraries represent an informative resource for large-scale mutagenesis, presenting a straightforward alternative to labor-intensive targeted approaches for the construction of deletion alleles and fluorescent protein fusions.

  20. Exchange of peripherally inserted central catheters is associated with an increased risk for bloodstream infection.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Michael; Bedwell, Susan; Noori, Shahab

    2011-06-01

    It is not uncommon that the peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) needs to be replaced either due to blockage or migration to a peripheral position. In such circumstances, there are two methods of PICC placement: new-site insertion and exchange by using the old PICC as a guide wire. Our objective was to investigate risk of infection associated with the exchange method. In this retrospective study, data on all PICC insertions in the neonatal intensive care unit in 2004 to 2008 were obtained. In the population who needed removal of existing PICC and insertion of a new one, we compared central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) within 1 week of insertion between the two insertion methods. Of 1148 PICC insertions reviewed, 164 (103 new-site and 61 exchange insertions) were performed after removal of a blocked/malpositioned PICC and therefore comprised the study population. The rate of CLABSI was higher in the exchange method (9.8% versus 1%, P < 0.007). After adjusting for the confounders, the odds for CLABSI within 7 days of PICC insertion was higher with the exchange method (odds ratio 25.2, 95% confidence interval: 2.17 to 292.98; P = 0.01). In infants, insertion of PICCs using the exchange method carries an increased risk of bloodstream infection.

  1. [The development and operation of a package inserts service system for electronic medical records].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hidetoshi; Nishimura, Sachiho; Shimamori, Yoshimitsu; Sato, Seiji; Hayase, Yukitoshi

    2003-03-01

    To promote the appropriate use of pharmaceuticals and to prevent side effects, physicians need package inserts on medicinal drugs as soon as possible. A medicinal drug information service system was established for electronic medical records to speed up and increase the efficiency of package insert communications within a medical institution. Development of this system facilitates access to package inserts by, for example, physicians. The time required to maintain files of package inserts was shortened, and the efficiency of the drug information service increased. As a source of package inserts for this system, package inserts using a standard generalized markup language (SGML) form were used, which are accessible to the public on the homepage of the Organization for Pharmaceutical Safety and Research (OPSR). This study found that a delay occurred in communicating revised package inserts from pharmaceutical companies to the OPSR. Therefore a pharmaceutical department page was set up as part of the homepage of the medical institution for electronic medical records to shorten the delay in the revision of package inserts posted on the medicinal drug information service homepage of the OPSR. The usefulness of this package insert service system for electronic medical records is clear. For more effective use of this system based on the OPSR homepage pharmaceutical companies have been requested to provide quicker updating of package inserts.

  2. Transition-metal-catalyzed enantioselective heteroatom-hydrogen bond insertion reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shou-Fei; Zhou, Qi-Lin

    2012-08-21

    Carbon-heteroatom bonds (C-X) are ubiquitous and are among the most reactive components of organic compounds. Therefore investigations of the construction of C-X bonds are fundamental and vibrant fields in organic chemistry. Transition-metal-catalyzed heteroatom-hydrogen bond (X-H) insertions via a metal carbene or carbenoid intermediate represent one of the most efficient approaches to form C-X bonds. Because of the availability of substrates, neutral and mild reaction conditions, and high reactivity of these transformations, researchers have widely applied transition-metal-catalyzed X-H insertions in organic synthesis. Researchers have developed a variety of rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric C-H insertion reactions with high to excellent enantioselectivities for a wide range of substrates. However, at the time that we launched our research, very few highly enantioselective X-H insertions had been documented primarily because of a lack of efficient chiral catalysts and indistinct insertion mechanisms. In this Account, we describe our recent studies of copper- and iron-catalyzed asymmetric X-H insertion reactions by using chiral spiro-bisoxazoline and diimine ligands. The copper complexes of chiral spiro-bisoxazoline ligands proved to be highly enantioselective catalysts for N-H insertions of α-diazoesters into anilines, O-H insertions of α-diazoesters into phenols and water, O-H insertions of α-diazophosphonates into alcohols, and S-H insertions of α-diazoesters into mercaptans. The iron complexes of chiral spiro-bisoxazoline ligands afforded the O-H insertion of α-diazoesters into alcohols and water with unprecedented enantioselectivities. The copper complexes of chiral spiro-diimine ligands exhibited excellent reactivity and enantioselectivity in the Si-H insertion of α-diazoacetates into a wide range of silanes. These transition-metal-catalyzed X-H insertions have many potential applications in organic synthesis because the insertion products, including chiral

  3. Prescription drugs; revocation of final guideline patient package inserts and withdrawal of draft guideline patient package inserts--Food and Drug Administration. Notice.

    PubMed

    1982-09-07

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is revoking the final guideline patient package inserts for 5 classes of drugs and is withdrawing the draft guideline patient package inserts for 5 other classes of drugs. Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register, the agency is revoking the regulations that established general requirements for the preparation and distribution of patient package inserts for prescription drug products. Those regulations had established a pilot program that would have been applied to 10 classes of drugs for 3 years. This notice revokes the draft and final guidelines which described how manufactures might comply with the regulations with respect to affected classes of drug.

  4. A novel reverse-genetic approach (SIMF) identifies Mutator insertions in new Myb genes.

    PubMed

    Rabinowicz, P D; Grotewold, E

    2000-11-01

    We have developed a new strategy designated SIMF (Systematic Insertional Mutagenesis of Families), to identify DNA insertions in many members of a gene family simultaneously. This method requires only a short amino acid sequence conserved in all members of the family to make a degenerate oligonucleotide, and a sequence from the end of the DNA insertion. The SIMF strategy was successfully applied to the large maize R2R3 Myb family of regulatory genes, and Mutator insertions in several novel Myb genes were identified. Application of this technique to identify insertions in other large gene families could significantly decrease the effort involved in screening at the same time for insertions in all members of groups of genes that share a limited sequence identity.

  5. Structural and biophysical analysis of sequence insertions in the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus macro domain.

    PubMed

    Guillén, Jaime; Lichière, Julie; Rabah, Nadia; Beitzel, Brett F; Canard, Bruno; Coutard, Bruno

    2015-04-02

    Random transposon insertions in viral genomes can be used to reveal genomic regions important for virus replication. We used these genomic data to evaluate at the protein level the effect of such insertions on the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus nsP3 macro domain. The structural analysis showed that transposon insertions occur mainly in loops connecting the secondary structure elements. Some of the insertions leading to a temperature sensitive viral phenotype (ts) are close to the cleavage site between nsP2 and nsP3 or the ADP-ribose binding site, two important functions of the macro domain. Using four mutants mimicking the transposon insertions, we confirmed that these insertions can affect the macro domain properties without disrupting the overall structure of the protein.

  6. A proposal for the reference-based annotation of de novo transposable element insertions.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Casey M

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the causes and consequences of transposable element (TE) activity in the genomic era requires sophisticated bioinformatics approaches to accurately identify individual insertion sites. Next-generation sequencing technology now makes it possible to rapidly identify new TE insertions using resequencing data, opening up new possibilities to study the nature of TE-induced mutation and the target site preferences of different TE families. While the identification of new TE insertion sites is seemingly a simple task, the mechanisms of transposition present unique challenges for the annotation of de novo transposable element insertions mapped to a reference genome. Here I discuss these challenges and propose a framework for the annotation of de novo TE insertions that accommodates known mechanisms of TE insertion and established coordinate systems for genome annotation.

  7. Verification of Triple Modular Redundancy Insertion for Reliable and Trusted Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    If a system is required to be protected using triple modular redundancy (TMR), improper insertion can jeopardize the reliability and security of the system. Due to the complexity of the verification process and the complexity of digital designs, there are currently no available techniques that can provide complete and reliable confirmation of TMR insertion. We propose a method for TMR insertion verification that satisfies the process for reliable and trusted systems.

  8. Radiative-recoil corrections to hyperfine splitting: Polarization insertions in the muon factor

    SciTech Connect

    Eides, Michael I.; Shelyuto, Valery A.

    2009-09-01

    We consider three-loop radiative-recoil corrections to hyperfine splitting in muonium due to insertions of a one-loop polarization operator in the muon factor. The contribution produced by electron polarization insertions is enhanced by the large logarithm of the electron-muon mass ratio. We obtained all single-logarithmic and nonlogarithmic radiative-recoil corrections of order {alpha}{sup 3}(m/M)E{sub F} generated by the diagrams with electron and muon polarization insertions.

  9. Lidocaine-Prilocaine Cream as Analgesia for IUD Insertion: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled, Triple Blinded Study

    PubMed Central

    Tavakolian, Samira; Doulabi, Mahbobeh Ahmadi; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzade; Mortazavi, Alireza; Ghorbani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Copper IUD is a long term and reversible contraception which equals tubal ligation in terms of sterilization. One of the barriers to using this contraception method is the fear and the pain associated with its insertion. Eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) 5% is a local anesthetic that contains 25 mg lidocaine and 25 mg of prilocaine per gram. Application of topical analgesic cream to the cervix for laser surgery, hysteroscopy and hysterosalpingography is known Aims: this study aimed to determine the effect of EMLA on IUD insertion pain. Methods: This triple blind clinical trial was conducted on 92 women in a clinic in Hamedan in 2012. After applying the cream on the cervix, pain in three steps, after using Tenaculum, after inserting hystrometr and after inserting IUD and removing IUD insertion tube were assessed with visual analog scale and were compared in EMLA group and placebo group Statistical analysis used to determine and compare the pain of independent t tests, Mann-Whitney U test and repeated measures analysis of variance and chi-square tests to determine the homogeneity of variables and Fisher’s exact test was used Results: Insertion hystrometr was determined as the most painful IUD insertion. The mean pain at step 2 (inserting hystrometr) was (3/11±2/53) in EMLA group, (5/23±2/31) in placebo group. EMLA cream significantly reduced the pain after using tenaculum (P<0/001), pain inserting Hystrometr (P< 0/001) and pain at IUD insertion and removing insertion tube (P< 0/001) Conclusions: Topical Application of EMLA 5% cream as a topical anesthetic on the cervix before insertion IUD reduced the pain during this procedure. PMID:25946948

  10. Refining the pathway of carbide insertion into the nitrogenase M-cluster

    PubMed Central

    Wiig, Jared A.; Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W.

    2015-01-01

    Carbide insertion plays a pivotal role in the biosynthesis of M-cluster, the cofactor of nitrogenase. Previously, we proposed a carbide insertion pathway involving methyltransfer from SAM to a FeS precursor and hydrogen abstraction from this methyl group that initiates the radical-based precursor maturation. Here we demonstrate that the methyl group is transferred to a precursor-associated sulfur before hydrogen abstraction, thereby refining the initial steps of the carbide insertion pathway. PMID:26259825

  11. Insertion Polymorphisms of Mobile Genetic Elements in Sexual and Asexual Populations of Daphnia pulex

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhiqiang; Lynch, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) constitute a substantial portion of many eukaryotic genomes, and can in principle contribute to evolutionary innovation as well as genomic deterioration. Daphnia pulex serves as a useful model for studying TE dynamics as a potential cause and/or consequence of asexuality. We analyzed insertion polymorphisms of TEs in 20 sexual and 20 asexual isolates of D. pulex across North American from their available whole-genome sequencing data. Our results show that the total fraction of the derived sequences of TEs is not substantially different between asexual and sexual D. pulex isolates. However, in general, sexual clones contain fewer fixed TE insertions but more total insertion polymorphisms than asexual clones, supporting the hypothesis that sexual reproduction facilitates the spread and elimination of TEs. We identified nine asexual-specific fixed TE insertions, eight long terminal repeat retrotransposons, and one DNA transposon. By comparison, no sexual-specific fixed TE insertions were observed in our analysis. Furthermore, except one TE insertion located on a contig from chromosome 7, the other eight asexual-specific insertion sites are located on contigs from chromosome 9 that is known to be associated with obligate asexuality in D. pulex. We found that all nine asexual-specific fixed TE insertions can also be detected in some Daphnia pulicaria isolates, indicating that a substantial number of TE insertions in asexual D. pulex have been directly inherited from D. pulicaria during the origin of obligate asexuals. PMID:28057730

  12. Non-insertion-related complications of central venous catheterization--temporary vascular access for hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Bevc, Sebastjan; Pecovnik-Balon, Breda; Ekart, Robert; Hojs, Radovan

    2007-01-01

    The authors analyzed 309 central venous catheters (CVC) inserted in 147 hemodialysis patients before the maturation of the first or new arteriovenous fistula. One clinical manifestations of sepsis after CVC insertion was found. In all, 33.7% of the catheters were removed because of early minor complications: CVC occlusion, inadequate blood flow in CVC, shattered suture and malposition of CVC, fever, signs of infection at the site of CVC insertion, and bleeding at the site of CVC insertion. The most frequently isolated pathogenic bacteria at the tips of the catheters were coagulase-negative staphylococci highly sensitive to vancomycin and gentamicin.

  13. Experimental development of tubeside heat transfer correlations for laminar flow with and without inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guido, Joseph D.

    1992-09-01

    An experimental study of laminar flow heat transfer of an ethylene glycol/water mixture in an electrically heated horizontal tube using wire mesh (HEATEX) and twisted tape inserts was investigated. Twelve thermocouples, inserted in the tube wall at four longitudinal locations, enabled a mean inside experimental heat-transfer coefficient to be accurately measured. A constant wall heat flux boundary condition was placed on the wall by wrapping six 200 W flexible heater tapes tightly around the tube. The ethylene glycol/water mixture provided a coolant Reynolds number between 200-5000 and a Prandtl number between 30-140. Two smooth inside diameters and a roped tube profile were tested with and without the inserts. Heat-transfer correlations for tubes without inserts were developed and compared with theory for both thermally and hydrodynamically developing flow. Correlations were also developed for the two types of inserts. Nusselt numbers for fully developed flow were found to be a function of Reynolds and Prandtl numbers for the wire mesh insert and a function of tape twist ratio, Reynolds and Prandtl numbers for the twisted tape insert. Heat transfer enhancements of over 7 for the wire mesh insert and over 4 for the twisted tape insert at high Reynolds numbers were obtained over the empty tube.

  14. Single Center Experience with Gastrostomy Insertion in Pediatric Patients: A 10-Year Review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyoung; Koh, Hong; Chang, Eun Young; Park, Sun Yeong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to review the outcomes of gastrostomy insertion in children at our institute during 10 years. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed on 236 patients who underwent gastrostomy insertion from October 2005 to March 2015. We used our algorithm to select the least invasive method for gastrostomy insertion for each patient. Long-term follow-up was performed to analyze complications related to the method of gastrostomy insertion. Results Out of 236 patients, 120 underwent endoscopic gastrostomy, 79 had laparoscopic gastrostomy, and 37 had open gastrostomy procedures. The total major complication rates for endoscopic gastrostomy insertion, laparoscopic gastrostomy insertion, and open gastrostomy were 9.2%, 8.9%, and 8.1%, respectively. The most common major complication was gastroesophageal reflux requiring Nissen fundoplication (3.8%), and other complications included peritonitis (1.3%), hiatal hernia (1.3%), and bowel perforation (0.8%). Gastrostomy removal was successful in 8.6% and 5.0% of patients in the endoscopic and surgical gastrostomy groups, respectively. Gastrocutaneous fistula occurred in 60% of surgically inserted cases, requiring a second operation. Conclusion This retrospective study was performed to review the outcome of gastrostomy insertion, as well as to introduce an algorithm that can be used for future cases. Further studies should be conducted to make a consensus on choosing the most appropriate method for gastrostomy insertion.

  15. Individual Optimization of the Insertion of a Preformed Cochlear Implant Electrode Array

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Thomas S.; Lenarz, Thomas; Majdani, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to show that individual adjustment of the curling behaviour of a preformed cochlear implant (CI) electrode array to the patient-specific shape of the cochlea can improve the insertion process in terms of reduced risk of insertion trauma. Methods. Geometry and curling behaviour of preformed, commercially available electrode arrays were modelled. Additionally, the anatomy of each small, medium-sized, and large human cochlea was modelled to consider anatomical variations. Finally, using a custom-made simulation tool, three different insertion strategies (conventional Advanced Off-Stylet (AOS) insertion technique, an automated implementation of the AOS technique, and a manually optimized insertion process) were simulated and compared with respect to the risk of insertion-related trauma. The risk of trauma was evaluated using a newly developed “trauma risk” rating scale. Results. Using this simulation-based approach, it was shown that an individually optimized insertion procedure is advantageous compared with the AOS insertion technique. Conclusion. This finding leads to the conclusion that, in general, consideration of the specific curling behaviour of a CI electrode array is beneficial in terms of less traumatic insertion. Therefore, these results highlight an entirely novel aspect of clinical application of preformed perimodiolar electrode arrays in general. PMID:26448764

  16. Cl Insertion on Si(100)-(2×1): Etching Under Conditions of Supersaturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Abhishek; Butera, R. E.; Weaver, J. H.

    2007-03-01

    We use scanning tunneling microscopy to show that Cl2 dosing of Cl-saturated Si(100)-(2×1) surfaces at elevated temperature leads to uptake beyond “saturation” and allows access to a new etching pathway. This process involves Cl insertion in Si-Si dimer bonds or backbonds, diffusion of the inserted Cl, and ultimately desorption of SiCl2. Investigations into the etch kinetics reveal that insertion occurs via a novel form of Cl2 dissociative chemisorption that is mediated by dangling bond sites. Upon dissociation, one Cl atom adsorbs at the dangling bond while the other can insert.

  17. A method for insertion of a stented xenograft valve in the atrioventricular position.

    PubMed

    Stefanik, G; Lindesmith, G G; Tucker, B L; Meyer, B W

    1976-02-01

    To facilitate the insertion of prosthetic valves, holders are available which keep the poppet out of the area of suture insertion or keep the open ends of the struts occluded. No such holders are available for use during insertion of xenograft valves, and it seems unlikely that one could be used, for danger of damage to the valve leaflets. To obviate this problem, we have brought the flexible struts together with a suture at the time of insertion. The struts assume their original open position upon cutting the suture.

  18. Formation of nanofilms on cell surfaces to improve the insertion efficiency of a nanoneedle into cells

    SciTech Connect

    Amemiya, Yosuke; Kawano, Keiko; Matsusaki, Michiya; Akashi, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Noriyuki; Nakamura, Chikashi

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the insertion efficiency of nanoneedles into fibroblast and neural cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanofilms formed on cell surfaces improved the insertion efficiency of nanoneedles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanofilms improved the insertion efficiency even in Y27632-treated cells. -- Abstract: A nanoneedle, an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip etched to 200 nm in diameter and 10 {mu}m in length, can be inserted into cells with the aid of an AFM and has been used to introduce functional molecules into cells and to analyze intracellular information with minimal cell damage. However, some cell lines have shown low insertion efficiency of the nanoneedle. Improvement in the insertion efficiency of a nanoneedle into such cells is a significant issue for nanoneedle-based cell manipulation and analysis. Here, we have formed nanofilms composed of extracellular matrix molecules on cell surfaces and found that the formation of the nanofilms improved insertion efficiency of a nanoneedle into fibroblast and neural cells. The nanofilms were shown to improve insertion efficiency even in cells in which the formation of actin stress fibers was inhibited by the ROCK inhibitor Y27632, suggesting that the nanofilms with the mesh structure directly contributed to the improved insertion efficiency of a nanoneedle.

  19. Insertion trauma of a cochlear implant electrode array with Nitinol inlay.

    PubMed

    Rau, Thomas S; Harbach, Lenka; Pawsey, Nick; Kluge, Marcel; Erfurt, Peter; Lenarz, Thomas; Majdani, Omid

    2016-11-01

    The integration of a shape memory actuator is a potential mechanism to achieve a consistent perimodiolar position after electrode insertion during cochlear implant surgery. After warming up, and therefore activation of the shape memory effect, the electrode array will change from a straight configuration into a spiral shaped one leading to a final position close to the modiolus. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the integration of an additional thin wire (referred to as an "inlay") made of Nitinol, a well-established shape memory alloy, in a conventional hearing preservation electrode array will affect the insertion behaviour in terms of increased risk of insertion trauma. Six conventional Hybrid-L electrode arrays (Cochlear Ltd., Sydney, Australia) were modified to incorporate a wire inlay made of Nitinol. The diameter of the wires was 100 µm with a tapered tip region. Electrodes were inserted into human temporal bone specimens using a standard surgical approach. After insertion and embedding in epoxy resin, histological sections were prepared to evaluate insertion trauma. Insertion was straightforward and no difficulties were observed. The addition of a shape memory wire, thin but also strong enough to curl the electrode array, does not result in histologically detectable insertion trauma. Atraumatic insertion seems possible.

  20. Insertion Polymorphisms of Mobile Genetic Elements in Sexual and Asexual Populations of Daphnia pulex.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoqian; Tang, Haixu; Ye, Zhiqiang; Lynch, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) constitute a substantial portion of many eukaryotic genomes, and can in principle contribute to evolutionary innovation as well as genomic deterioration. Daphnia pulex serves as a useful model for studying TE dynamics as a potential cause and/or consequence of asexuality. We analyzed insertion polymorphisms of TEs in 20 sexual and 20 asexual isolates of D. pulex across North American from their available whole-genome sequencing data. Our results show that the total fraction of the derived sequences of TEs is not substantially different between asexual and sexual D. pulex isolates. However, in general, sexual clones contain fewer fixed TE insertions but more total insertion polymorphisms than asexual clones, supporting the hypothesis that sexual reproduction facilitates the spread and elimination of TEs. We identified nine asexual-specific fixed TE insertions, eight long terminal repeat retrotransposons, and one DNA transposon. By comparison, no sexual-specific fixed TE insertions were observed in our analysis. Furthermore, except one TE insertion located on a contig from chromosome 7, the other eight asexual-specific insertion sites are located on contigs from chromosome 9 that is known to be associated with obligate asexuality in D. pulex. We found that all nine asexual-specific fixed TE insertions can also be detected in some Daphnia pulicaria isolates, indicating that a substantial number of TE insertions in asexual D. pulex have been directly inherited from D. pulicaria during the origin of obligate asexuals.

  1. Development and comparison of projection and image space 3D nodule insertion techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robins, Marthony; Solomon, Justin; Sahbaee, Pooyan; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to develop and compare two methods of inserting computerized virtual lesions into CT datasets. 24 physical (synthetic) nodules of three sizes and four morphologies were inserted into an anthropomorphic chest phantom (LUNGMAN, KYOTO KAGAKU). The phantom was scanned (Somatom Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare) with and without nodules present, and images were reconstructed with filtered back projection and iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) at 0.6 mm slice thickness using a standard thoracic CT protocol at multiple dose settings. Virtual 3D CAD models based on the physical nodules were virtually inserted (accounting for the system MTF) into the nodule-free CT data using two techniques. These techniques include projection-based and image-based insertion. Nodule volumes were estimated using a commercial segmentation tool (iNtuition, TeraRecon, Inc.). Differences were tested using paired t-tests and R2 goodness of fit between the virtually and physically inserted nodules. Both insertion techniques resulted in nodule volumes very similar to the real nodules (<3% difference) and in most cases the differences were not statistically significant. Also, R2 values were all <0.97 for both insertion techniques. These data imply that these techniques can confidently be used as a means of inserting virtual nodules in CT datasets. These techniques can be instrumental in building hybrid CT datasets composed of patient images with virtually inserted nodules.

  2. Analysis of C60 insertion into single wall carbon nanotube by molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Takafumi; Esfarjani, Keivan; Hashi, Yuichi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Iijima, Sumio

    2001-10-01

    Classical molecular dynamics is used to simulate the insertion of C60 into a (10, 10) single wall nano tube (SWNT). We propose that the insertion process occurs through the open end of the tube. After insertion, the energy exchange between the C60 and the nanotube causes the kinetic energy of the former to decrease as it moves inside the tube. This kinetic energy loss is due to a "friction force" which we calculated for several insertion conditions. The binding energy of the C60 with the SWNT is due to Van der Waals interaction, and is found to be about 3.5 eV.

  3. The insertion of human apolipoprotein H into phospholipid membranes: a monolayer study.

    PubMed

    Wang, S X; Cai, G P; Sui, S F

    1998-10-15

    Apolipoprotein H (ApoH) is a plasma glycoprotein isolated from human serum. The interactions of ApoH with lipid membrane were reported to be essential for its physiological and pathogenic roles. In this paper we studied the ability of ApoH to insert into phospholipid membranes using the monolayer approach. The results show that ApoH is surface active and can insert into the lipid monolayers. The insertion ability of ApoH is stronger when a higher content of negatively charged lipids is present in the membrane. The acidic-pH and low-ionic-strength conditions will also enhance ApoH insertion, but these factors may not have much influence on the final insertion ability of ApoH, suggesting that, in the mechanism of ApoH insertion, not only electrostatic forces, but also hydrophobic interactions, are evidently involved. Modification by heat inactivation and reduction/alkylation does not change the critical insertion pressure (pic) of ApoH, suggesting a stable domain, maybe a linear sequence motif, but not the native three-dimensional structure of ApoH, is responsible for its insertion. The extent to which insertion of ApoH into phospholipid membranes may facilitate the 'immune cleaning' of plasma liposomes is discussed.

  4. The Evolution of Insertion Sequences within Enteric Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, J. G.; Ochman, H.; Hartl, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    To identify mechanisms that influence the evolution of bacterial transposons, DNA sequence variation was evaluated among homologs of insertion sequences IS1, IS3 and IS30 from natural strains of Escherichia coli and related enteric bacteria. The nucleotide sequences within each class of IS were highly conserved among E. coli strains, over 99.7% similar to a consensus sequence. When compared to the range of nucleotide divergence among chromosomal genes, these data indicate high turnover and rapid movement of the transposons among clonal lineages of E. coli. In addition, length polymorphism among IS appears to be far less frequent than in eukaryotic transposons, indicating that nonfunctional elements comprise a smaller fraction of bacterial transposon populations than found in eukaryotes. IS present in other species of enteric bacteria are substantially divergent from E. coli elements, indicating that IS are mobilized among bacterial species at a reduced rate. However, homologs of IS1 and IS3 from diverse species provide evidence that recombination events and horizontal transfer of IS among species have both played major roles in the evolution of these elements. IS3 elements from E. coli and Shigella show multiple, nested, intragenic recombinations with a distantly related transposon, and IS1 homologs from diverse taxa reveal a mosaic structure indicative of multiple recombination and horizontal transfer events. PMID:1317318

  5. Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling of Volcanic Ash using Data Insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, K. L.; Watson, M.; Kristiansen, N. I.; Webster, H. N.; Thomson, D.; Dacre, H.; Prata, F.

    2015-12-01

    Eruption source parameters in volcanic ash dispersion and transport modelling, such as plume height and eruption rate, can often be highly uncertain. This can lead to significant uncertainties in the position and concentration of the modelled ash cloud downwind of the vent. Methods such as inversion modelling have successfully constrained such uncertainties, but in this work estimation of the eruption source parameters for the atmospheric dispersion model NAME is bypassed by implementing data insertion. Using this method under development, ash cloud properties retrieved from satellite imagery are used to create ash sources downwind from the volcano vent, from which dispersion simulations are initialised. Using the satellite retrievals, a set of simulations are initialised from different times and combined to create forecasts. In other experiments the simulations are sequentially updated using a probabilistic cloud / ash / clear classification scheme to correct the model state over time. Simulations from the Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvötn eruptions compare well against other established modelling methods and satellite observations.

  6. Estrogen patient package insert: medication acceptance despite negative attitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Weintraub, M.; Glickstein, S.; Lasagna, L.

    1981-08-01

    We surveyed 100 women receiving short courses of estrogen post partum to suppress lactation. Thirty six had significant apprehension about estrogens, but took them. These women were significantly older and better educated and 92% of them were married. In contrast, only one third of the ''nonapprehensive'' women were married and they had significantly lower family incomes. More of the apprehensive women read the estrogen patient package insert (PPI) and almost 30% developed negative attitudes toward estrogens. The major concerns of these women reflected information in the PPI about cancer and thromboembolism. The reasons given for taking estrogens despite apprehension included the lower risk of short courses, assurance from physicians, nurses, or family members, and the desired therapeutic effect. These women should not be given the current estrogen PPI, which was designed to warn women of the risks of long-term estrogen use; a PPI should be written specifically for patients receiving short courses. Similar problems will arise with the PPIs for other medications that have different risks for different therapeutic indications.

  7. Using multiple sensors for printed circuit board insertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sood, Deepak; Repko, Michael C.; Kelley, Robert B.

    1989-01-01

    As more and more activities are performed in space, there will be a greater demand placed on the information handling capacity of people who are to direct and accomplish these tasks. A promising alternative to full-time human involvement is the use of semi-autonomous, intelligent robot systems. To automate tasks such as assembly, disassembly, repair and maintenance, the issues presented by environmental uncertainties need to be addressed. These uncertainties are introduced by variations in the computed position of the robot at different locations in its work envelope, variations in part positioning, and tolerances of part dimensions. As a result, the robot system may not be able to accomplish the desired task without the help of sensor feedback. Measurements on the environment allow real time corrections to be made to the process. A design and implementation of an intelligent robot system which inserts printed circuit boards into a card cage are presented. Intelligent behavior is accomplished by coupling the task execution sequence with information derived from three different sensors: an overhead three-dimensional vision system, a fingertip infrared sensor, and a six degree of freedom wrist-mounted force/torque sensor.

  8. Elastic constant determination of hardwoods using ultrasonic insertion technique.

    PubMed

    Mat Daud, Anis Nazihah; Jaafar, Rosly; Ayop, Shahrul Kadri; Yaacob, Mohd Ikhwan Hadi; Rohani, Md Supar

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasonic insertion technique (IT) is an ultrasonic technique which involves sample immersion in a solution to determine its acoustic properties. IT is normally used to determine the acoustic properties of a medical phantom. We proposed the use of IT as an alternative technique to the common contact ultrasonic technique: through-transmission technique (TT) for determining the elastic constant of hardwoods in longitudinal, tangential and radial directions. The elastic constant of twelve rectangular-shaped Malaysian hardwoods from three different categories; heavy, medium and light with the density ranging from 602 to 992kgm(-3) were determined using IT and TT. Both techniques were carried out at 24.0°C surrounding temperature and utilized 2.25MHz ultrasonic transducers. Data from both techniques were compared to validate the use of the proposed technique. Findings indicated that IT offers consistent and accurate results for, tangential and radial elastic constants (TEC and REC) within 8.89% and 5.86% differences, respectively compared to TT for all tested hardwoods. IT offers an alternative technique for TEC and REC determinations of precious wood samples.

  9. Anti-Rotation Device Releasable by Insertion of a Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warden, Harry K.; Jenkins, Terro J.

    2011-01-01

    A drive mechanism enables a socket-type wrench to rotate a shaft and prevents accidental rotation of the shaft when the wrench is not coupled to the shaft. In the original intended application, the shaft would be part of an attachment mechanism on a spacecraft, and the purpose to be served by the drive is to prevent back-driving of the shaft by launch vibrations while enabling an astronaut equipped with the appropriate wrench to actuate the shaft while in orbit. The design could also be adapted to terrestrial applications in which it is necessary to prevent rotational back-driving. The mechanism includes a gear near the tip of the shaft, and a drive nut that constitutes the tip of the shaft. The gear and drive nut are positioned in a recess in a housing. The recess is sized to receive the wrench socket that mates with the drive nut. Also contained in the housing are four linkages that include pins that are spring-loaded into engagement with the gear to prevent rotation of the shaft. When the wrench socket is inserted in the recess, it pushes on the linkages in such a manner as to disengage the pins from the gear.

  10. FEMORAL INSERTION OF THE POSTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT: AN ANATOMICAL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    de Paula Leite Cury, Ricardo; Severino, Nilson Roberto; Camargo, Osmar Pedro Arbix; Aihara, Tatsuo; Neto, Leopoldo Viana Batista; Goarayeb, Dedley Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify objective parameters to guide correct location of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in the femur. Methods: The PCLs of 20 human cadavers were resected. The following portions were measured: distance from the most distal portion of the PCL, close to the roof, to the most anterior edge of the cartilage (AB); distance from the most proximal portion of the PCL, close to the roof, to the most anterior cartilage (AC); distance between the two parts of the ligament close to the roof (BC); distance from the distal edge in its posterior portion, to the more posterior joint edge (DE); distance from the distal edge of the ligament in its posterior portion, to the intercondylar roof (DF); and finally, the format of the ligament insertion and area of coverage on the femoral condyle. Results: The PCL has the shape of a quarter ellipse, with an average area of 153.5mm2. The mean distances found were: AB of 2.1mm, AC of 10.7mm, BC of 8.6mm DE of 12.4mm and DF of 16.8mm. Conclusions: The edge close to the roof of the anterolateral bundle is closer to the joint cartilage (2.1mm) than the posteromedial bundle is, which is 12.4mm from the edge proximal to the cartilage. These references should assist in better and more accurate positioning of femoral tunnels in PCL reconstruction. PMID:27027059

  11. Mitochondrial DNA insertions in the nuclear Capra hircus genome.

    PubMed

    Ning, F Y; Fu, J; Du, Z H

    2017-01-23

    Nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts), originating from mtDNA insertions into the nuclear genome, have been detected in many species. However, the distribution of numts in the newly published nuclear genome of domestic goat (Capra hircus) has not yet been explored. We used the entire goat mtDNA sequence and nuclear genome, to identify 118 numts using BLAST. Of these, 79 were able to map sequences to the genome. Further analysis showed that the size of the numts ranged from 318 to 9608 bp, and the homologous identity between numts and their respective corresponding mtDNA fragments varied between 65 and 99%. The identified Yunnan black goat numts covered nearly all the mitochondrial genes including mtDNA control region, and were distributed over all chromosomes with the exception of chromosomes 18, 21, and 25. The Y chromosome was excluded from our analysis, as sequence data are currently not available. Among the discovered 79 numts that we were able to map to the genome, 26 relatively complete mitochondrial genes were detected. Our results constitute valuable information for subsequent studies related to mitochondrial genes and goat evolution.

  12. Stochastic deletion-insertion algorithm to construct dense linkage maps.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jixiang; Lou, Xiang-Yang; Gonda, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we proposed a stochastic deletion-insertion (SDI) algorithm for constructing large-scale linkage maps. This SDI algorithm was compared with three published approximation approaches, the seriation (SER), neighbor mapping (NM), and unidirectional growth (UG) approaches, on the basis of simulated F(2) data with different population sizes, missing genotype rates, and numbers of markers. Simulation results showed that the SDI method had a similar or higher percentage of correct linkage orders than the other three methods. This SDI algorithm was also applied to a real dataset and compared with the other three methods. The total linkage map distance (cM) obtained by the SDI method (148.08 cM) was smaller than the distance obtained by SER (225.52 cM) and two published distances (150.11 cM and 150.38 cM). Since this SDI algorithm is stochastic, a more accurate linkage order can be quickly obtained by repeating this algorithm. Thus, this SDI method, which combines the advantages of accuracy and speed, is an important addition to the current linkage mapping toolkit for constructing improved linkage maps.

  13. KRAS insertion mutations are oncogenic and exhibit distinct functional properties

    PubMed Central

    White, Yasmine; Bagchi, Aditi; Van Ziffle, Jessica; Inguva, Anagha; Bollag, Gideon; Zhang, Chao; Carias, Heidi; Dickens, David; Loh, Mignon; Shannon, Kevin; Firestone, Ari J.

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic KRAS mutations introduce discrete amino acid substitutions that reduce intrinsic Ras GTPase activity and confer resistance to GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). Here we discover a partial duplication of the switch 2 domain of K-Ras encoding a tandem repeat of amino acids G60_A66dup in a child with an atypical myeloproliferative neoplasm. K-Ras proteins containing this tandem duplication or a similar five amino acid E62_A66dup mutation identified in lung and colon cancers transform the growth of primary myeloid progenitors and of Ba/F3 cells. Recombinant K-RasG60_A66dup and K-RasE62_A66dup proteins display reduced intrinsic GTP hydrolysis rates, accumulate in the GTP-bound conformation and are resistant to GAP-mediated GTP hydrolysis. Remarkably, K-Ras proteins with switch 2 insertions are impaired for PI3 kinase binding and Akt activation, and are hypersensitive to MEK inhibition. These studies illuminate a new class of oncogenic KRAS mutations and reveal unexpected plasticity in oncogenic Ras proteins that has diagnostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:26854029

  14. Electron mobility enhancement in (100) oxygen-inserted silicon channel

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Nuo; King Liu, Tsu-Jae; Takeuchi, Hideki; Hytha, Marek; Cody, Nyles W.; Stephenson, Robert J.; Mears, Robert J.; Kwak, Byungil; Cha, Seon Yong

    2015-09-21

    High performance improvement (+88% in peak G{sub m} and >30% in linear and saturation region drain currents) was observed for N-MOSFETs with Oxygen-Inserted (OI) Si channel. From TCAD analysis of the C-V measurement data, the improvement was confirmed to be due to electron mobility enhancement of the OI Si channel (+75% at N{sub inv} = 4.0 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2} and +25% at N{sub inv} = 8.0 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}). Raman and high-resolution Rutherford backscattering measurements confirmed that negligible strain is induced in the OI Si layer, and hence, it cannot be used to explain the origin of mobility improvement. Poisson-Schrödinger based quantum mechanical simulation was performed, taking into account phonon, surface roughness and Coulomb scatterings. The OI layer was modeled as a “quasi barrier” region with reference to the Si conduction band edge to confine inversion electrons. Simulation explains the measured electron mobility enhancement as the confinement effect of inversion electrons while the formation of an super-steep retrograde well doping profile in the channel (as a result of dopant diffusion blocking effect accompanied by introduction of the OI layer) also contributes 50%–60% of the mobility improvement.

  15. Insertional mutagenesis of preneoplastic astrocytes by Moloney murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Afanasieva, T A; Pekarik, V; Grazia D'Angelo, M; Klein, M A; Voigtländer, T; Stocking, C; Aguzzi, A

    2001-04-01

    Retroviral infection can induce transcriptional activation of genes flanking the sites of proviral integration in target cells. Because integration is essentially random, this phenomenon can be exploited for random mutagenesis of the genome, and analysis of integration sites in tumors may identify potential oncogenes. Here we have investigated this strategy in the context of astrocytoma progression. Neuroectodermal explants from astrocytoma-prone GFAP-v-src transgenic mice were infected with the ecotropic Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV). In situ hybridization and FACS analysis indicated that astrocytes from E12.5-13.5 embryos were highly susceptible to retroviral infection and expressed viral RNA and proteins both in vitro and in vivo. In average 80% of neuroectodermal cells were infected in vitro with 9-14 proviral integrations per cell. Virus mobility assays confirmed that Mo-MuLV remained transcriptionally active and replicating in neuroectodermal primary cultures even after 45 days of cultivation. Proviral insertion sites were investigated by inverse long-range PCR. Analysis of a limited number of provirus flanking sequences in clones originated from in vitro infected GFAP-v-src neuroectodermal cells identified loci of possible relevance to tumorigenesis. Therefore, the approach described here might be suitable for acceleration of tumorigenesis in preneoplastic astrocytes. We expect this method to be useful for identifying genes involved in astrocytoma development/progression in animal models.

  16. Ganglioside inserted into PEGylated liposome attenuates anti-PEG immunity.

    PubMed

    Mima, Yu; Abu Lila, Amr S; Shimizu, Taro; Ukawa, Masami; Ando, Hidenori; Kurata, Yasuko; Ishida, Tatsuhiro

    2017-03-28

    Despite the clinical introduction of a vast number of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated therapeutics, conjugated PEG is also known for an unfortunate inclination toward immunogenicity. Immunogenicity of PEG, manifested by the robust production of anti-PEG IgM, is known to compromise the therapeutic efficacy and/or reduce the tolerance of PEGylated therapeutics. In the present study, we inserted ganglioside into the membrane of PEGylated liposome (PL) to prepare ganglioside-modified PEGylated liposomes (G-PL), and investigated its efficacy in attenuating the anti-PEG IgM response against PL. A single intravenous injection of G-PL significantly attenuated the anti-PEG IgM production, compared with that of naïve PL. In addition, pretreatment with G-PL substantially alleviated the anti-PEG IgM response elicited by a subsequent dose of PL, presumably via inducing B cell tolerance, and as a consequence, this modification abrogated/attenuated the incidence of the rapid clearance of subsequently administrated PL. These results indicate that incorporating gangliosides in PEGylated liposome membrane not only prevents the immunogenicity of PEG but also induces the tolerance of B cells to subsequent doses of the immunogenic PL. Consequently, liposomal membrane modification with ganglioside might represent a promising approach to attenuating the immunogenicity of PEGylated liposomes while preserving their therapeutic efficacy, particularly upon repeated administration.

  17. Synthesis and insertion mechanism of graphite intercalation compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Leong, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    The formation of graphite intercalation compounds were studied in graphite-oxide and graphite-metal chloride systems. Three types of fibers-type P (Union Carbide), GY-30 and GY-70 (Celanese), and HMS and HT(Hercules)- were oxidized by chemical as well as electrochemical means. The chemically oxidized fibers had an increase in electrical resistivity of over three orders of magnitude compared to the pristine fiber. The interstitial oxidation reduced the tensile strength and elastic modulus of the fiber by no more than 25%. In examining the role played by co-reagents in assisting insertion of AlCl/sub 3/, it was concluded that intercalation was initiated by a charge transfer between the graphite layers and an adsorbed Friedel-Crafts complex. Nitric oxide, hydrogen chloride, and nitrosyl chloride had been identified as new effective coreagents for the intercalation of AlCl/sub 3/. Discovery of these coreagents offered alternative synthetic routes, which are discussed. The kinetic investigation of the intercalation of AlCl/sub 3/-Cl/sub 2/ suggested that charge transfer between graphite and AlCl/sub 3/ is a surface phenomenon, and propagation of electron holes along c-axis is one of the rate-determining steps. To model the non-Fickian diffusion behavior, it was proposed that relaxation of the matrix as driven by elastic interaction of the intercalants contributes to the anomalies. A mathematical expression was derived to correlate the data by superpositioning relaxation terms over the diffusion equation.

  18. Orbital implants insertion to improve ocular prostheses motility.

    PubMed

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Haddad, Marcela Filié; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Ribeiro, Paula do Prado; Moreno, Amália

    2010-05-01

    The objectives of this study were, through a literature review, to point the differences between orbital implants and their advantages and disadvantages, to evaluate prosthesis motility after orbital implants are inserted, and to point the implant wrapping current risks. Sixty-seven articles were reviewed. Enucleation implants can be autoplastics or alloplastics and porous (including natural and synthetic hydroxyapatite [HA]) or nonporous (silicone). Hydroxyapatite is the most related in the literature, but it has disadvantages, too, that is, all orbital implants must be wrapped. Exposure of the porous orbital implant can be repaired using different materials, which include homologous tissue, as well as autogenous graft, xenograft, and synthetic material mesh. The most used materials are HA and porous polyethylene orbital implant. The HA implant is expensive and possibly subject corals to damage, different from porous polyethylene orbital implants. Porous implants show the best prosthesis motility and a minimum rate of implants extrusion. Implant wraps can facilitate smoother entry of the implant into the orbit and allow reattachment of extraocular muscles. They also serve as a barrier between the overlying soft tissue and the rough surface of the implant, protecting implants from exposure or erosion.

  19. Dynamics of Saturn's magnetosphere from MIMI during Cassini's orbital insertion.

    PubMed

    Krimigis, S M; Mitchell, D G; Hamilton, D C; Krupp, N; Livi, S; Roelof, E C; Dandouras, J; Armstrong, T P; Mauk, B H; Paranicas, C; Brandt, P C; Bolton, S; Cheng, A F; Choo, T; Gloeckler, G; Hayes, J; Hsieh, K C; Ip, W-H; Jaskulek, S; Keath, E P; Kirsch, E; Kusterer, M; Lagg, A; Lanzerotti, L J; Lavallee, D; Manweiler, J; McEntire, R W; Rasmuss, W; Saur, J; Turner, F S; Williams, D J; Woch, J

    2005-02-25

    The Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument (MIMI) onboard the Cassini spacecraft observed the saturnian magnetosphere from January 2004 until Saturn orbit insertion (SOI) on 1 July 2004. The MIMI sensors observed frequent energetic particle activity in interplanetary space for several months before SOI. When the imaging sensor was switched to its energetic neutral atom (ENA) operating mode on 20 February 2004, at approximately 10(3) times Saturn's radius RS (0.43 astronomical units), a weak but persistent signal was observed from the magnetosphere. About 10 days before SOI, the magnetosphere exhibited a day-night asymmetry that varied with an approximately 11-hour periodicity. Once Cassini entered the magnetosphere, in situ measurements showed high concentrations of H+, H2+, O+, OH+, and H2O+ and low concentrations of N+. The radial dependence of ion intensity profiles implies neutral gas densities sufficient to produce high loss rates of trapped ions from the middle and inner magnetosphere. ENA imaging has revealed a radiation belt that resides inward of the D ring and is probably the result of double charge exchange between the main radiation belt and the upper layers of Saturn's exosphere.

  20. A target inserter for the Vulcan Petawatt Laser interaction chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heathcote, Robert; Clarke, Robert J.

    2016-09-01

    The ability to maximise the shot rate of large scale laser facilities is dependent on the turnaround time of the laser, diagnostics and targetry. In a move to improve the last of these, a combined target mount and carousel are being implemented on the Vulcan Petawatt facility. The Vulcan Petawatt interaction chamber currently operates with either a single target or with a target wheel; which has limited positions and varying degrees of subsequent target survivability. Whenever the target holder needs to be changed the chamber vacuum has to be cycled, delaying shots by up to an hour. The new carousel design is capable of holding 30 target assemblies at a safe distance from the interaction point, with each target capable of being dialed in to position on demand. This allows for a whole day's worth of shots with the flexibility to choose any target or reference object without having to break vacuum. Here we present the design, characterisation and implementation of this new target inserter.

  1. Insertion of oxidized nucleotide triggers rapid DNA polymerase opening

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taejin; Freudenthal, Bret D.; Beard, William A.; Wilson, Samuel H.; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    A novel mechanism is unveiled to explain why a pro-mutagenic nucleotide lesion (oxidized guanine, 8-oxoG) causes the mammalian DNA repair polymerase-β (pol-β) to rapidly transition to an inactive open conformation. The mechanism involves unexpected features revealed recently in time-lapse crystallography. Specifically, a delicate water network associated with a lesion-stabilizing auxilliary product ion Mg(p) triggers a cascade of events that leads to poor active site geometry and the rupture of crucial molecular interactions between key residues in both the anti(8-oxoG:C) and syn(8-oxoG:A) systems. Once the base pairs in these lesioned systems are broken, dislocation of both Asp192 (a metal coordinating ligand) and the oxoG phosphate group (PO4) interfere with the hydrogen bonding between Asp192 and Arg258, whose rotation toward Asp192 is crucial to the closed-to-open enzyme transition. Energetically, the lesioned open states are similar in energy to those of the corresponding closed complexes after chemistry, in marked contrast to the unlesioned pol-β anti(G:C) system, whose open state is energetically higher than the closed state. The delicate surveillance system offers a fundamental protective mechanism in the cell that triggers DNA repair events which help deter insertion of oxidized lesions. PMID:27034465

  2. Insertions/Deletions-Associated Nucleotide Polymorphism in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Changjiang; Du, Jianchang; Wang, Long; Yang, Sihai; Mauricio, Rodney; Tian, Dacheng; Gu, Tingting

    2016-01-01

    Although high levels of within-species variation are commonly observed, a general mechanism for the origin of such variation is still lacking. Insertions and deletions (indels) are a widespread feature of genomes and we hypothesize that there might be an association between indels and patterns of nucleotide polymorphism. Here, we investigate flanking sequences around 18 indels (>100 bp) among a large number of accessions of the plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. We found two distinct haplotypes, i.e., a nucleotide dimorphism, present around each of these indels and dimorphic haplotypes always corresponded to the indel-present/-absent patterns. In addition, the peaks of nucleotide diversity between the two divergent alleles were closely associated with these indels. Thus, there exists a close association between indels and dimorphisms. Further analysis suggests that indel-associated substitutions could be an important component of genetic variation shaping nucleotide polymorphism in Arabidopsis. Finally, we suggest a mechanism by which indels might generate these highly divergent haplotypes. This study provides evidence that nucleotide dimorphisms, which are frequently regarded as evidence of frequency-dependent selection, could be explained simply by structural variation in the genome. PMID:27965694

  3. A Dedicated Postpartum Intrauterine Device Inserter: Pilot Experience and Proof of Concept

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sharad; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Dewan, Rupali; Mittal, Pratima; Bhamrah, Renita; Lerma, Klaira; Blumenthal, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the feasibility, acceptability, and safety of a dedicated postpartum intrauterine device (PPIUD) inserter specifically designed for the post-delivery setting. Primary objectives of fundal placement and expulsion rates were assessed. Secondary objectives were participant satisfaction and IUD retention. Methods: In this pilot proof of concept, we enrolled 80 women who presented for PPIUD insertion at 2 government hospitals in Delhi and Lucknow, India, between March and July 2015. PPIUD insertion was completed with the dedicated inserter in all cases, by trained providers with no prior experience in PPIUD insertion, followed immediately by ultrasound to assess location and fundal placement of the IUD. Follow-up took place at 6 to 8 weeks post-insertion, and ultrasound was used to assess IUD location. Providers and participants also completed satisfaction surveys. Results: High fundal placement (≤10 mm from uterine fundus) was achieved with the dedicated PPIUD inserter in 82% of cases (n = 65). There were no perforations or infections among the participants and no other complications associated with use of the dedicated inserter. The mean distance between the IUD and the endometrial verge immediately post-insertion was 5.8 mm (range, 0–31; N = 80); this distance at follow-up was also 5.8 mm (range, 0–25; n = 50). Complete expulsion was observed in 6 cases (7.5%), and asymptomatic partial expulsion in 8 cases (10%). Providers reported the majority (93%, n = 74) of insertions to be easy. The majority (74%, n = 59) of participants reported the same level of pain before and after insertion. Conclusions: This dedicated PPIUD inserter performed as intended and was found to be safe, with high acceptability among the participants and providers. Further study and use of the dedicated inserter may reveal reduced risk of infection among PPIUD users as well as increased convenience compared with standard PPIUD insertion

  4. Numerical analysis of modified Central Solenoid insert design

    DOE PAGES

    Khodak, Andrei; Martovetsky, Nicolai; Smirnov, Aleksandre; ...

    2015-06-21

    The United States ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for fabrication of the Central Solenoid (CS) for ITER project. The ITER machine is currently under construction by seven parties in Cadarache, France. The CS Insert (CSI) project should provide a verification of the conductor performance in relevant conditions of temperature, field, currents and mechanical strain. The US IPO designed the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at JAEA, Naka. To validate the modified design we performed three-dimensional numerical simulations using coupled solver for simultaneous structural, thermal and electromagnetic analysis. Thermal and electromagneticmore » simulations supported structural calculations providing necessary loads and strains. According to current analysis design of the modified coil satisfies ITER magnet structural design criteria for the following conditions: (1) room temperature, no current, (2) temperature 4K, no current, (3) temperature 4K, current 60 kA direct charge, and (4) temperature 4K, current 60 kA reverse charge. Fatigue life assessment analysis is performed for the alternating conditions of: temperature 4K, no current, and temperature 4K, current 45 kA direct charge. Results of fatigue analysis show that parts of the coil assembly can be qualified for up to 1 million cycles. Distributions of the Current Sharing Temperature (TCS) in the superconductor were obtained from numerical results using parameterization of the critical surface in the form similar to that proposed for ITER. Lastly, special ADPL scripts were developed for ANSYS allowing one-dimensional representation of TCS along the cable, as well as three-dimensional fields of TCS in superconductor material. Published by Elsevier B.V.« less

  5. Numerical analysis of modified Central Solenoid insert design

    SciTech Connect

    Khodak, Andrei; Martovetsky, Nicolai; Smirnov, Aleksandre; Titus, Peter

    2015-06-21

    The United States ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for fabrication of the Central Solenoid (CS) for ITER project. The ITER machine is currently under construction by seven parties in Cadarache, France. The CS Insert (CSI) project should provide a verification of the conductor performance in relevant conditions of temperature, field, currents and mechanical strain. The US IPO designed the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at JAEA, Naka. To validate the modified design we performed three-dimensional numerical simulations using coupled solver for simultaneous structural, thermal and electromagnetic analysis. Thermal and electromagnetic simulations supported structural calculations providing necessary loads and strains. According to current analysis design of the modified coil satisfies ITER magnet structural design criteria for the following conditions: (1) room temperature, no current, (2) temperature 4K, no current, (3) temperature 4K, current 60 kA direct charge, and (4) temperature 4K, current 60 kA reverse charge. Fatigue life assessment analysis is performed for the alternating conditions of: temperature 4K, no current, and temperature 4K, current 45 kA direct charge. Results of fatigue analysis show that parts of the coil assembly can be qualified for up to 1 million cycles. Distributions of the Current Sharing Temperature (TCS) in the superconductor were obtained from numerical results using parameterization of the critical surface in the form similar to that proposed for ITER. Lastly, special ADPL scripts were developed for ANSYS allowing one-dimensional representation of TCS along the cable, as well as three-dimensional fields of TCS in superconductor material. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Selenocysteine biosynthesis and insertion machinery in Naegleria gruberi.

    PubMed

    da Silva, M T A; Caldas, V E A; Costa, F C; Silvestre, D A M M; Thiemann, O H

    2013-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element primarily found in selenoproteins as the 21st amino acid (selenocysteine, Sec, or U). Selenoproteins play an important role in growth and proliferation and are typically involved in cellular redox balance. Selenocysteine is encoded by an in-frame UGA codon specified by a stem-loop structure, the Sec insertion sequence element (SECIS), which, in eukaryotes, is located in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR). The availability of the Naegleria gruberi (ATCC 30224) genome sequence and the use of this organism as a model system for the pathogenic amoeba N. fowleri allowed us to investigate the Sec incorporation pathway in this primitive eukaryote. Using bioinformatics tools, we identified gene sequences encoding PSTK (O-phosphoseryl-tRNA(Sec) kinase), SepSecS (O-phosphoseryl-tRNA:selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase), SelD/SPS2 (selenophosphate synthetase), EFSec (selenocysteine-specific elongation factor) and SBP (SECIS binding protein). These findings were confirmed by RT-PCR and by sequencing. A potential tRNA(Ser)Sec (SelC) gene and a putative selenoprotein with sequence similarity to a mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase (TR3) were also identified. Our results show that the selenocysteine incorporation machinery is indeed present in N. gruberi. Interestingly, the SelD/SPS2 gene is 2214 bp in length and contains two distinct domains. The N-terminal region shows sequence similarity to predicted methyltransferase proteins, and the C-terminal region is homologous to prokaryotic SelD/SPS2. Our results suggest the possibility of novel selenoproteins.

  7. Insertion of Trivalent Lanthanides into Uranyl Vanadate Layers and Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaxing; Yin, Xuemiao; Zhao, Yanyan; Gao, Yang; Chen, Lanhua; Liu, Zhiyong; Sheng, Daopeng; Diwu, Juan; Chai, Zhifang; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E; Wang, Shuao

    2015-09-08

    Two new uranyl vanadates have been prepared from hydrothermal reactions and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure of (H3O)UO2VO4 (UVO-1) consists of anionic layers containing UO2(2+) pentagonal bipyramids coordinated by edge-sharing VO5 square pyramids, with the charge balanced by interlaminar H3O(+) cations. Vanadium in (UO2)3(VO4)2(H2O)3 (UVO-2) exists as monomeric VO4 tetrahedra coordinating to UO2(2+) pentagonal bipyramids, forming a 3D uranyl(VI) vanadate framework. Similar reactions with the addition of Ln(NO3)3 (Ln = Nd, Eu) afford the three heterobimetallic lanthanide uranyl vanadate frameworks Nd(UO2)3(VO4)3(H2O)11 (NdUVO-1), Eu(UO2)3(VO4)3(H2O)10 (EuUVO-1), and Eu2(UO2)12(VO4)10(H2O)24 (EuUVO-2). In NdUVO-1 and EuUVO-1, Ln(3+) cations are inserted into the interlayer space of UVO-1 substituting for H3O(+) and further bridging adjacent layers into 3D frameworks. Similarly, EuUVO-2 adopts the same sheet topology as UVO-2, with Eu(3+) ions replacing some of the interlayer uranyl ions in UVO-2. Our work has demonstrated that uranyl vanadate extended structures are excellent hosts for further incorporation of trivalent lanthanide/actinide cations and has provided a new way to create new heterobimetallic 4f-5f and 5f-5f compounds.

  8. Controlled language and information on vaccines: application to package inserts.

    PubMed

    Renahy, Julie; Vuitton, Dominique A; Rath, Barbara; Thomas, Izabella; de Grivel, Valerie; Cardey, Sylviane

    2015-01-01

    Any ambiguity in texts used in the communication about vaccines can not only interfere with comprehension, but also generate safety and liability issues. Within a survey on the quality of written protocols for at-risk interventional procedures and sanitary crises, we analyzed documents relating to vaccination, and among them, the "package-leaflet" of an anti-H1N1 influenza vaccine, widely disseminated to the public in 2009-2010. Among the most common mistakes, we observed that 1) language was not always adjusted to the non-specialist's level of knowledge; 2) chronology, logic, consistency, and homogeneity were often missing; 3) crucial pieces of information were disseminated all over the text, 4) use of the passive voice did not distinguish between instructions and information; 5) use of synonyms could be misleading and impair translation. We propose the use of "Controlled language" (CL) to improve the situation. By constraining lexicon, grammar and syntax, CL is a way to write documents that are clear, accurate and devoid of ambiguity. However, the set of rules necessary to write in CL is difficult to memorize. We thus developed authoring software (Rédacticiel Prolipsia) to make the creation of a CL by linguists and its use by health professionals easy and adapted to any domain. It may considerably improve the writing of vaccine package inserts/leaflets. It could be used to write information documents about vaccines and their safety, and operating procedures for professionals to prepare, store, and administer vaccines, decide upon proper indication of vaccines, and follow patients after vaccine injection.

  9. Dialkylboron guanidinates: syntheses, structures and carbodiimide de-insertion reactions.

    PubMed

    Antiñolo, Antonio; Carrillo-Hermosilla, Fernando; Fernández-Galán, Rafael; Montero-Rama, María Pilar; Ramos, Alberto; Villaseñor, Elena; Rojas, Rene S; Rodríguez-Diéguez, Antonio

    2016-10-21

    The synthesis of novel dialkylboron guanidinates is reported: the symmetrical compounds, (Me2N)C(NR)2BR'2 [R = (i)Pr, R' = Nrb (1); R = Cy, R' = Nrb (2); R = (i)Pr, R' = Cy (3); R = R' = Cy (4); R = 2,6-(i)Pr2-C6H3; R' = Cy (5); Nrb = exo-2-norbornyl] and the asymmetrically coordinated {(i)Pr(H)N}C(N(i)Pr)(NAr)BCy2 [Ar = Ph (6), 4-Me-C6H4 (7), 4-(t)Bu-C6H4 (8)] were prepared by the salt metathesis method from the appropriate lithium guanidinates and chloroboranes. Moreover, the bis(dicyclohexylboron)guanidinate(-2) {(i)Pr(Cy2B)N}C(N(i)Pr){N(4-(t)Bu-C6H4)}BCy2 (9) was also prepared from the corresponding dilithium guanidinate Li2[{N(4-(t)Bu-C6H4)}C(N(i)Pr)2] and ClBCy2. The structures of compounds 1, 3, 6 and 9 were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and all displayed a chelate coordination of the guanidinate ligand to the BR'2 fragment, the latter displaying an additional BCy2 attached to the exocyclic N atom. Solutions of compounds 1-4 reached an equilibrium with the aminoboranes Me2NBR'2 [R' = Nrb (10), Cy (11)] and the corresponding carbodiimides, which was slow at 25 °C. The thermodynamic parameters for these equilibria are also reported. The activation parameters for the equilibrium for compound 1 have been calculated after a kinetic study. Compounds 5-8, with one or two N-aryl fragments bound to a B centre, are more robust and need higher temperatures (80 °C) and prolonged times to give similar carbodiimide de-insertion reactions.

  10. Characterising stormwater gross pollutants captured in catch basin inserts.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Zahanggir; Anwar, A H M Faisal; Sarker, Dipok Chandra; Heitz, Anna; Rothleitner, Craig

    2017-05-15

    The accumulation of wash-off solid waste, termed gross pollutants (GPs), in drainage systems has become a major constraint for best management practices (BMPs) of stormwater. GPs should be captured at source before the material clogs the drainage network, seals the infiltration capacity of side entry pits or affects the aquatic life in receiving waters. BMPs intended to reduce stormwater pollutants include oil and grit separators, grassed swales, vegetated filter strips, retention ponds, and catch basin inserts (CBIs) are used to remove GP at the source and have no extra land use requirement because they are typically mounted within a catch basin (e.g. side entry pits; grate or gully pits). In this study, a new type of CBI, recently developed by Urban Stormwater Technologies (UST) was studied for its performance at a site in Gosnells, Western Australia. This new type of CBI can capture pollutants down to particle sizes of 150μm while retaining its shape and pollutant capturing capacity for at least 1year. Data on GP and associated water samples were collected during monthly servicing of CBIs for one year. The main component of GPs was found to be vegetation (93%): its accumulation showed a strong relationship (r(2)=0.9) with rainfall especially during the wet season. The average accumulation of total GP load for each CBI was 384kg/ha/yr (dry mass) with the GP moisture content ranging from 24 to 52.5%. Analysis of grain sizes of GPs captured in each CBI showed similar distributions in the different CBIs. The loading rate coefficient (K) calculated from runoff and GP load showed higher K-values for CBI located near trees. The UST developed CBI in this study showed higher potential to capture GPs down to 150μm in diameter than similar CBI devices described in previous studies.

  11. A proposed model membrane and test method for microneedle insertion studies

    PubMed Central

    Larrañeta, Eneko; Moore, Jessica; Vicente-Pérez, Eva M.; González-Vázquez, Patricia; Lutton, Rebecca; Woolfson, A. David; Donnelly, Ryan F.

    2014-01-01

    A commercial polymeric film (Parafilm M®, a blend of a hydrocarbon wax and a polyolefin) was evaluated as a model membrane for microneedle (MN) insertion studies. Polymeric MN arrays were inserted into Parafilm M® (PF) and also into excised neonatal porcine skin. Parafilm M® was folded before the insertions to closely approximate thickness of the excised skin. Insertion depths were evaluated using optical coherence tomography (OCT) using either a force applied by a Texture Analyser or by a group of human volunteers. The obtained insertion depths were, in general, slightly lower, especially for higher forces, for PF than for skin. However, this difference was not a large, being less than the 10% of the needle length. Therefore, all these data indicate that this model membrane could be a good alternative to biological tissue for MN insertion studies. As an alternative method to OCT, light microscopy was used to evaluate the insertion depths of MN in the model membrane. This provided a rapid, simple method to compare different MN formulations. The use of Parafilm M®, in conjunction with a standardised force/time profile applied by a Texture Analyser, could provide the basis for a rapid MN quality control test suitable for in-process use. It could also be used as a comparative test of insertion efficiency between candidate MN formulations. PMID:24877757

  12. Joint Effect of Insertion of Spaces and Word Length in Saccade Target Selection in Chinese Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xingshan; Shen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined how insertion of spaces before and after a word affects saccade target selection in Chinese reading. We found that inserting spaces in Chinese text changes the eye movement behaviour of Chinese readers. They are less likely to fixate on the character near the space and will try their best to process the entire word with…

  13. Characterization of insertion sites in Rainbow papaya, the first commercialized transgenic tree-fruit crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inserts and insert sites in transgenic, commercial papaya line 55-1 derivatives Rainbow and SunUp were characterized as part of a petition to Japan to allow import of fresh fruit of these cultivars from the U.S. and to provide data for a larger study aimed at understanding the global impact of DNA t...

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A TOOL TO INSERT ABOMASAL INFUSION LINES INTO DAIRY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A tool was developed to aid in ruminal insertion of abomasal infusion lines into dairy cows. The tool consisted of two pieces cut from polyvinyl chloride pipe. The first piece of pipe, the insertion tool, contained a groove that held the flexible plastic flange that was on the end of the infusion ...

  15. Puncture-Site Metastasis in a Radiologically Inserted Gastrostomy Tube: Case Report and Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Hawken, R.M.A.; Williams, R.W.; Bridger, M.W.M.; Lyons, C.B.A.; Jackson, S.A.

    2005-04-15

    Gastrostomy-site metastases from head and neck cancer have been reported numerous times following endoscopic insertion, with direct implantation being implicated. We present the first reported case of gastrostomy-site metastasis following radiological insertion, and discuss the mechanisms by which this may have occurred. These include: direct implantation, hematogenous dissemination, or the natural shedding of tumor cells into the gastrointestinal tract.

  16. Alu Insertions and Genetic Diversity: A Preliminary Investigation by an Undergraduate Bioinformatics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwess, Nancy L.; Duprey, Stephen L.; Harney, Lindesay A.; Langman, Jessie E.; Marino, Tara C.; Martinez, Carolina; McKeon, Lauren L.; Moss, Chantel I. E.; Myrie, Sasha S.; Taylor, Luke Ryan

    2008-01-01

    "Alu"-insertion polymorphisms were used by an undergraduate Bioinformatics class to study how these insertion sites could be the basis for an investigation in human population genetics. Based on the students' investigation, both allele and genotype "Alu" frequencies were determined for African-American and Japanese populations as well as a…

  17. Acute changes associated with electrode insertion measured with optical coherence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Lozzi, Andrea; Boretsky, Adam; Agrawal, Anant; Welle, Cristin G.

    2016-03-01

    Despite advances in functional neural imaging, penetrating microelectrodes provide the most direct interface for the extraction of neural signals from the nervous system and are a critical component of many high degree-of-freedom braincomputer interface devices. Electrode insertion is a traumatic event that elicits a complex neuroinflammatory response. In this investigation we applied optical coherence microscopy (OCM), particularly optical coherence angiography (OCA), to characterize the immediate tissue response during microelectrode insertion. Microelectrodes of varying dimension and footprint (one-, two-, and four-shank) were inserted into mouse motor cortex beneath a window after craniotomy surgery. The microelectrodes were inserted in 3-4 steps at 15-20°, with approximately 250 μm linear insertion distance for each step. Before insertion and between each step, OCM datasets were collected, including for quantitative capillary velocimetry. A cohort of control animals without microelectrode insertion was also imaged over a similar time period (2-3 hours). Mechanical tissue deformation was observed in all the experimental animals. The quantitative angiography results varied across animals, and were not correlated with device dimensions. In some cases, localized flow drop-out was observed in a small region surrounding the electrode, while in other instances a global disruption in flow occurred, perhaps as a result of large vessel compression caused by mechanical pressure. OCM is a tool that can be used in various neurophotonics applications, including quantification of the neuroinflammatory response to penetrating electrode insertion.

  18. Wear and wear mechanism simulation of heavy-duty engine intake valve and seat inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. S.; Narasimhan, S.; Larson, J. M.; Schaefer, S. K.

    1998-02-01

    A silicon-chromium alloy frequently used for heavy-duty diesel engine intake valves was tested against eight different insert materials with a valve seat wear simulator. Wear resistance of these combinations was ranked. For each test, the valve seat temperature was controlled at approximately 510 °C, the number of cycles was 864,000 (or 24 h), and the test load was 17,640 N. The combination of the silicon-chromium valve against a cast iron insert produced the least valve seat wear, whereas a cobalt-base alloy insert produced the highest valve seat wear. In the overall valve seat recession ranking, however, the combination of the silicon-chromium valve and an iron-base chromium-nickel alloy insert had the least total seat recession, whereas the silicon-chromium valve against cobalt-base alloy, cast iron, and nickel-base alloy inserts had significant seat recession. Hardness and microstructure compatibility of valve and insert materials are believed to be significant factors in reducing valve and insert wear. The test results indicate that the mechanisms of valve seat and insert wear are a complex combination of adhesion and plastic deformation. Adhesion was confirmed by material transfer, while plastic deformation was verified by shear strain (or radial flow) and abrasion. The oxide films formed during testing also played a significant role. They prevented direct metal-to-metal contact and reduced the coefficient of friction on seat surfaces, thereby reducing adhesive and deformation-controlled wear.

  19. Vacuum-actuated percutaneous insertion/implantation tool for flexible neural probes and interfaces

    DOEpatents

    Sheth, Heeral; Bennett, William J.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.; Tooker, Angela C.

    2017-03-07

    A flexible device insertion tool including an elongated stiffener with one or more suction ports, and a vacuum connector for interfacing the stiffener to a vacuum source, for attaching the flexible device such as a flexible neural probe to the stiffener during insertion by a suction force exerted through the suction ports to, and to release the flexible device by removing the suction force.

  20. Utilization of next generation sequencing for analyzing transgenic insertions in plum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When utilizing transgenic plants, it is useful to know how many copies of the genes were inserted and the locations of these insertions in the genome. This information can provide important insights for the interpretation of transgene expression and the resulting phenotype. Traditionally, these qu...

  1. Non-Insertional Code-Switching in English-Japanese Bilingual Children: Alternation and Congruent Lexicalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namba, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates English-Japanese children's code-switching (CS) from the structural point of view. Muysken categorises it into three types, that is, insertion, alternation and congruent lexicalisation. Regarding insertion, using Myers-Scotton's matrix language frame (MLF) model, for example, the matrix language (ML) of a bilingual clause…

  2. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 227 - Use of Insert Earphones for Audiometric Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... both types of earphones. A. The test subject must have a quiet period of at least 14 hours before... audiogram for all future hearing tests performed with insert earphones. B. If an STS is not indicated by the... hearing tests performed with insert earphones. C. Transitioning Employees with Partial Shifts....

  3. A proposed model membrane and test method for microneedle insertion studies.

    PubMed

    Larrañeta, Eneko; Moore, Jessica; Vicente-Pérez, Eva M; González-Vázquez, Patricia; Lutton, Rebecca; Woolfson, A David; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2014-09-10

    A commercial polymeric film (Parafilm M(®), a blend of a hydrocarbon wax and a polyolefin) was evaluated as a model membrane for microneedle (MN) insertion studies. Polymeric MN arrays were inserted into Parafilm M(®) (PF) and also into excised neonatal porcine skin. Parafilm M(®) was folded before the insertions to closely approximate thickness of the excised skin. Insertion depths were evaluated using optical coherence tomography (OCT) using either a force applied by a Texture Analyser or by a group of human volunteers. The obtained insertion depths were, in general, slightly lower, especially for higher forces, for PF than for skin. However, this difference was not a large, being less than the 10% of the needle length. Therefore, all these data indicate that this model membrane could be a good alternative to biological tissue for MN insertion studies. As an alternative method to OCT, light microscopy was used to evaluate the insertion depths of MN in the model membrane. This provided a rapid, simple method to compare different MN formulations. The use of Parafilm M(®), in conjunction with a standardised force/time profile applied by a Texture Analyser, could provide the basis for a rapid MN quality control test suitable for in-process use. It could also be used as a comparative test of insertion efficiency between candidate MN formulations.

  4. Routine preoperative insertion of IABP in high-risk off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Vohra, Hunaid A; Briffa, Norman P

    2005-01-01

    The beneficial effects of intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) in coronary artery bypass graft surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass have been reported. However, whether preoperative insertion of IABP in high-risk off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) has any beneficial effects remains to be established. We report our experience of preoperative insertion of IABP in OPCAB.

  5. RJPrimers: unique transposable element insertion junction discovery and PCR primer design for marker development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transposable elements (TE) exist in the genomes of nearly all eukaryotes. TE mobilization through “cut-and-paste” or “copy-and-paste” mechanisms causes their insertions into other repetitive sequences, gene loci, and other DNA. An insertion of a TE produces a junction consisting of the TE-end sequen...

  6. Insert Design and Manufacturing for Foam-Core Composite Sandwich Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lares, Alan

    Sandwich structures have been used in the aerospace industry for many years. The high strength to weight ratios that are possible with sandwich constructions makes them desirable for airframe applications. While sandwich structures are effective at handling distributed loads such as aerodynamic forces, they are prone to damage from concentrated loads at joints or due to impact. This is due to the relatively thin face-sheets and soft core materials typically found in sandwich structures. Carleton University's Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Project Team has designed and manufactured a UAV (GeoSury II Prototype) which features an all composite sandwich structure fuselage structure. The purpose of the aircraft is to conduct geomagnetic surveys. The GeoSury II Prototype serves as the test bed for many areas of research in advancing UAV technologies. Those areas of research include: low cost composite materials manufacturing, geomagnetic data acquisition, obstacle detection, autonomous operations and magnetic signature control. In this thesis work a methodology for designing and manufacturing inserts for foam-core sandwich structures was developed. The results of this research work enables a designer wishing to design a foam-core sandwich airframe structure, a means of quickly manufacturing optimized inserts for the safe introduction of discrete loads into the airframe. The previous GeoSury II Prototype insert designs (v.1 & v.2) were performance tested to establish a benchmark with which to compare future insert designs. Several designs and materials were considered for the new v.3 inserts. A plug and sleeve design was selected, due to its ability to effectively transfer the required loads to the sandwich structure. The insert material was chosen to be epoxy, reinforced with chopped carbon fibre. This material was chosen for its combination of strength, low mass and also compatibility with the face-sheet material. The v.3 insert assembly is 60% lighter than the

  7. Pneumorrhachis Resulting in Transient Paresis after PICC Line Insertion into the Ascending Lumbar Vein.

    PubMed

    Payne, Russell; Sieg, Emily P; Choudhary, Arabinda; Iantosca, Mark

    2016-10-17

    Obtaining intravascular access in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is not only critical but also technically challenging. Malposition of the catheter tip is a known and well-documented complication. Specifically, peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC) line insertion into the ascending lumbar vein can lead to neurological dysfunction and, in some cases, even death. We present the first reported case of pneumorrhachis (PR) following PICC line insertion into the ascending lumbar vein. Our patient presented with lower extremity weakness and imaging confirmed the presence of air within the spinal canal. After conservative treatment, the strength deficit resolved and subsequent imaging revealed resolution of the air within the spinal canal. Insertion of central venous catheters into the ascending lumbar vein is a well-documented complication that can lead to neurologic injury and even death. This should be considered in the evaluation of any neonate presenting with an abnormal neurological examination or unexplained change in exam after line insertion.

  8. A study of the suitability of ferrite for use in low-field insertion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1995-02-01

    Most insertion devices built to date use rare-earth permanent-magnet materials, which have a high remanent field and are more expensive than many other permanent-magnet materials. Low-field insertion devices could use less-expensive, lower performance magnetic materials if they had suitable magnetic characteristics. These materials must be resistant to demagnetization during construction and operation of the insertion device, have uniform magnetization, possess low minor-axis magnetic moments, and have small minor field components on the surfaces. This paper describes an investigation to determine if ferrite possesses magnetic qualities suitable for insertion device applications. The type of ferrite investigated, MMPA Ceramic 8 from Stackpole Inc., was found to be acceptable for insertion device applications.

  9. The role of the inserted layer in resistive random access memory device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dainan; Ma, Guokun; Zhang, Huaiwu; Tang, Xiaoli; Zhong, Zhiyong; Jie, Li; Su, Hua

    2016-07-01

    NiO resistive switching devices were fabricated by reactive DC magnetron sputtering at room temperature containing different inserted layers. From measurements, we demonstrated the filaments were made up by metal Co rather than the oxygen defect or other metal. A current jumping phenomenon in the SET process was observed, evidencing that the filament generating procedure was changed due to the inserted layers. In this process, we demonstrate the current jumping appeared in higher voltage region when the position of inserted layer was close to the bottom electrode. The I-V curves shifted to the positive direction as the thickness of inserted layer increasing. With the change of the number of inserted layers, SET voltages varied while the RESET voltage kept stable. According to the electrochemical metallization memory mechanism, detailed explanations on all the phenomena were addressed. This discovery is supposed of great potentials in the use of designing multi-layer RRAM devices.

  10. Aspartate embedding depth affects pHLIP's insertion pKa.

    PubMed

    Fendos, Justin; Barrera, Francisco N; Engelman, Donald M

    2013-07-09

    We have used the pHlow insertion peptide (pHLIP) family to study the role of aspartate embedding depth in pH-dependent transmembrane peptide insertion. pHLIP binds to the surface of a lipid bilayer as a largely unstructured monomer at neutral pH. When the pH is lowered, pHLIP inserts spontaneously across the membrane as a spanning α-helix. pHLIP insertion is reversible when the pH is adjusted back to a neutral value. One of the critical events facilitating pHLIP insertion is the protonation of aspartates in the spanning domain of the peptide: the negative side chains of these residues convert to uncharged, polar forms, facilitating insertion by altering the hydrophobicity of the spanning domain. To examine this protonation mechanism further, we created pHLIP sequence variants in which the two spanning aspartates (D14 and D25) were moved up or down in the sequence. We hypothesized that the aspartate depth in the inserted state would directly affect the proton affinity of the acidic side chains, altering the pKa of pH-dependent insertion. To this end, we also mutated the arginine at position 11 to determine whether arginine snorkeling modulates the insertion pKa by affecting the aspartate depth. Our results indicate that both types of mutations change the insertion pKa, supporting the idea that the aspartate depth is a participating parameter in determining the pH dependence. We also show that pHLIP's resistance to aggregation can be altered with our mutations, identifying a new criterion for improving the performance of pHLIP in vivo when targeting acidic disease tissues such as cancer and inflammation.

  11. Preprocedural ultrasound examination versus manual palpation for thoracic epidural catheter insertion

    PubMed Central

    Hasanin, Ahmed M.; Mokhtar, Ali M.; Amin, Shereen M.; Sayed, Ahmed A.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: Ultrasound imaging before neuraxial blocks was reported to improve the ease of insertion and minimize the traumatic trials. However, the data about the use of ultrasound in thoracic epidural block are scanty. In this study, pre-insertion ultrasound scanning was compared to traditional manual palpation technique for insertion of the thoracic epidural catheter in abdominal operations. Subjects and Methods: Forty-eight patients scheduled to midline laparotomy under combined general anesthesia with thoracic epidural analgesia were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups with regard to technique of epidural catheter insertion; ultrasound group (done ultrasound screening to determine the needle insertion point, angle of insertion, and depth of epidural space) and manual palpation group (used the traditional manual palpation technique). Number of puncture attempts, number of puncture levels, and number of needle redirection attempts were reported. Time of catheter insertion and complications were also reported in both groups. Results: Ultrasound group showed lower number of puncture attempts (1 [1, 1.25] vs. 1.5 [1, 2.75], P = 0.008), puncture levels (1 (1, 1) vs. 1 [1, 2], P = 0.002), and needle redirection attempts (0 [0, 2.25] vs. 3.5 [2, 5], P = 0.00). Ultrasound-guided group showed shorter time for catheter insertion compared to manual palpation group (140 ± 24 s vs. 213 ± 71 s P = 0.00). Conclusion: Preprocedural ultrasound imaging increased the incidence of first pass success in thoracic epidural catheter insertion and reduced the catheter insertion time compared to manual palpation method. PMID:28217056

  12. Monoblock versus modular polyethylene insert in uncemented total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Mikkel Rathsach; Winther, Nikolaj; Lind, Thomas; SchrøDer, Henrik; Flivik, Gunnar; Petersen, Michael Mørk

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose — Backside wear of the polyethylene insert in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can produce clinically significant levels of polyethylene debris, which can lead to loosening of the tibial component. Loosening due to polyethylene debris could theoretically be reduced in tibial components of monoblock polyethylene design, as there is no backside wear. We investigated the effect of 2 different tibial component designs, monoblock and modular polyethylene, on migration of the tibial component in uncemented TKA. Patients and methods — In this randomized study, 53 patients (mean age 61 years), 32 in the monoblock group and 33 in the modular group, were followed for 2 years. Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) was done postoperatively after weight bearing and after 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The primary endpoint of the study was comparison of the tibial component migration (expressed as maximum total point motion (MTPM)) of the 2 different implant designs. Results — We did not find any statistically significant difference in MTPM between the groups at 3 months (p = 0.2) or at 6 months (p = 0.1), but at 12 and 24 months of follow-up there was a significant difference in MTPM of 0.36 mm (p = 0.02) and 0.42 mm (p = 0.02) between groups, with the highest amount of migration (1.0 mm) in the modular group. The difference in continuous migration (MTPM from 12 and 24 months) between the groups was 0.096 mm (p = 0.5), and when comparing MTPM from 3–24 months, the difference between the groups was 0.23 mm (p = 0.07). Interpretation — In both study groups, we found the early migration pattern expected, with a relatively high initial amount of migration from operation to 3 months of follow-up, followed by stabilization of the implant with little migration thereafter. However, the modular implants had a statistically significantly higher degree of migration compared to the monoblock. We believe that the greater stiffness of the modular implants was the

  13. Monoblock versus modular polyethylene insert in uncemented total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Mikkel Rathsach; Winther, Nikolaj; Lind, Thomas; SchrøDer, Henrik; Flivik, Gunnar; Petersen, Michael Mørk

    2016-12-01

    Background and purpose - Backside wear of the polyethylene insert in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can produce clinically significant levels of polyethylene debris, which can lead to loosening of the tibial component. Loosening due to polyethylene debris could theoretically be reduced in tibial components of monoblock polyethylene design, as there is no backside wear. We investigated the effect of 2 different tibial component designs, monoblock and modular polyethylene, on migration of the tibial component in uncemented TKA. Patients and methods - In this randomized study, 53 patients (mean age 61 years), 32 in the monoblock group and 33 in the modular group, were followed for 2 years. Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) was done postoperatively after weight bearing and after 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The primary endpoint of the study was comparison of the tibial component migration (expressed as maximum total point motion (MTPM)) of the 2 different implant designs. Results - We did not find any statistically significant difference in MTPM between the groups at 3 months (p = 0.2) or at 6 months (p = 0.1), but at 12 and 24 months of follow-up there was a significant difference in MTPM of 0.36 mm (p = 0.02) and 0.42 mm (p = 0.02) between groups, with the highest amount of migration (1.0 mm) in the modular group. The difference in continuous migration (MTPM from 12 and 24 months) between the groups was 0.096 mm (p = 0.5), and when comparing MTPM from 3-24 months, the difference between the groups was 0.23 mm (p = 0.07). Interpretation - In both study groups, we found the early migration pattern expected, with a relatively high initial amount of migration from operation to 3 months of follow-up, followed by stabilization of the implant with little migration thereafter. However, the modular implants had a statistically significantly higher degree of migration compared to the monoblock. We believe that the greater stiffness of the modular implants was the main

  14. On the processing and properties of binary compound insertion electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarakonsri, Thapanee

    This dissertation explores the processing/structure/property relationship for binary compounds used as negative electrode material. A solution route method for synthesis of binary compound electrodes, InSb, Cu2Sb, and Cu6Sn5 will be introduced. The material characterization using XRD and TEM techniques suggests the formation of an amorphous phase in the reaction products. The amorphous phase was decomposed under an annealing process and under direct exposure to the electron beam. The precipitation of different phases in the form of small particles was observed. The electrochemical analysis of InSb from the solution route will be compared with ball milled and single crystal InSb electrodes. The structure simulation of the ternary phase Li3xIn1-xSb, which exists in the Li-In-Sb phase diagram at 400°C proposed by W. Sitte and W. Weppner [1], was used to confirm the occurrence of ternary compounds after an initial lithium insertion into the InSb zinc-blende structure. The charge-discharge voltage profile of Li/InSb under OCV conditions shows chemical potential changing with time in the two-phase region, indicating a series of ternary phase formation according to the phase diagram. This is an experimental result confirming the existence of ternary phases, which is consistent with the simulation models. The electrochemical analysis of Cu2Sb and Cu6Sn 5 solution route electrodes will be discussed. The Cu extrusion from Cu2Sb and Cu6Sn5 structures was reported to occur during the lithiation process [2, 3]. The post mortem analysis of a Cu2Sb electrode then was conducted to examine the Cu extrusion. The electrochemical behavior of InSb from solution route and Cu 6Sn5 from both solution route and ball milling exhibits a local minimum voltage in the first discharge. It was suggested that the occurrence of a local voltage minimum was due to the slow nucleation of a stable phase [4]. The growth analysis of Johnson-Mehl-Avrami [5] combined with Butler-Volmer [6] electrode

  15. [Fabrication and photocatalytic activity of Pt-inserted titania nanotubes].

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Long; Luo, Wu-Lin; Tian, Wen-Yu; Chen, Tao; Li, Chun; Sun, Mao; Zhu, Di; Liu, Ran-Ran; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Liu, Chun-Li

    2009-06-01

    Titania nanotubes (TNTs) were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of rutile-phase TiO2 nanoparticals in NaOH solution at 110 degrees C for 24 hours. After drying in aceton for 36 h, the TNTs were under vacuum drying for 24 h at room temperature. The Pt-inserted titania nanotubes (Pt/TNTs) were obtained by filling H2 PtCl6 ethanol solution into the TNTs after vacuum drying. The characterizations of the as-synthesized samples were confirmed by TEM, XRD, and UV-Vis. The photocatalytic activity of the Pt/TNTs was investigated by photo-induced decomposition of methyl orange(MO)under the main 365 nm UV-light. In order to comparison, the photocatalytic activity of both the rutile-phase TiO2 nanoparticles and pure TNTs were also investigated at the same time under the same experimental conditions. The TEM images show that the TNTs are hollow, a few hundred nanometers long, and the inner/outer diameter is about 6/10 nm. The crystal structure of TNTs is H2Ti2O5 x H2O with a little Na. Both the shape and the crystalline of the TNTs are not changed after the modification. The oval or round Pt0 nanoparticals, about 3 nm in diameter, are found only in the nanotubes. Pt/TNTs exhibit enhanced absorption at the visible range in the UV-Vis spectra and its start absorption band edge(lambda0 approximately 457 nm)is obviously redshifted compared to the rutile-phase TiO2 nanoparticals and pure TNTs. The Pt nanoparticles are found to significantly enhance the photocatalytic activity of TNTs. Pt/TNTs are demonstrated to be highly efficient for the UV-light induced photocatalytic decomposition of MO compared to both the rutile-phase TiO2 nanoparticals and pure TNTs. After irradiation for 60 min, the photocatalysis decomposition rate of MO in rutile-phase TiO2 nanoparticals, TNTs and Pt/TNTs are 46.8%, 57.2% and 84.6% respectively.

  16. Modeling the Insertion Mechanics of Flexible Neural Probes Coated with Sacrificial Polymers for Optimizing Probe Design

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sagar; Lo, Meng-Chen; Damodaran, Vinod B.; Kaplan, Hilton M.; Kohn, Joachim; Zahn, Jeffrey D.; Shreiber, David I.

    2016-01-01

    Single-unit recording neural probes have significant advantages towards improving signal-to-noise ratio and specificity for signal acquisition in brain-to-computer interface devices. Long-term effectiveness is unfortunately limited by the chronic injury response, which has been linked to the mechanical mismatch between rigid probes and compliant brain tissue. Small, flexible microelectrodes may overcome this limitation, but insertion of these probes without buckling requires supporting elements such as a stiff coating with a biodegradable polymer. For these coated probes, there is a design trade-off between the potential for successful insertion into brain tissue and the degree of trauma generated by the insertion. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a finite element model (FEM) to simulate insertion of coated neural probes of varying dimensions and material properties into brain tissue. Simulations were performed to predict the buckling and insertion forces during insertion of coated probes into a tissue phantom with material properties of brain. The simulations were validated with parallel experimental studies where probes were inserted into agarose tissue phantom, ex vivo chick embryonic brain tissue, and ex vivo rat brain tissue. Experiments were performed with uncoated copper wire and both uncoated and coated SU-8 photoresist and Parylene C probes. Model predictions were found to strongly agree with experimental results (<10% error). The ratio of the predicted buckling force-to-predicted insertion force, where a value greater than one would ideally be expected to result in successful insertion, was plotted against the actual success rate from experiments. A sigmoidal relationship was observed, with a ratio of 1.35 corresponding to equal probability of insertion and failure, and a ratio of 3.5 corresponding to a 100% success rate. This ratio was dubbed the “safety factor”, as it indicated the degree to which the coating should be over

  17. Modeling the Insertion Mechanics of Flexible Neural Probes Coated with Sacrificial Polymers for Optimizing Probe Design.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sagar; Lo, Meng-Chen; Damodaran, Vinod B; Kaplan, Hilton M; Kohn, Joachim; Zahn, Jeffrey D; Shreiber, David I

    2016-03-04

    Single-unit recording neural probes have significant advantages towards improving signal-to-noise ratio and specificity for signal acquisition in brain-to-computer interface devices. Long-term effectiveness is unfortunately limited by the chronic injury response, which has been linked to the mechanical mismatch between rigid probes and compliant brain tissue. Small, flexible microelectrodes may overcome this limitation, but insertion of these probes without buckling requires supporting elements such as a stiff coating with a biodegradable polymer. For these coated probes, there is a design trade-off between the potential for successful insertion into brain tissue and the degree of trauma generated by the insertion. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a finite element model (FEM) to simulate insertion of coated neural probes of varying dimensions and material properties into brain tissue. Simulations were performed to predict the buckling and insertion forces during insertion of coated probes into a tissue phantom with material properties of brain. The simulations were validated with parallel experimental studies where probes were inserted into agarose tissue phantom, ex vivo chick embryonic brain tissue, and ex vivo rat brain tissue. Experiments were performed with uncoated copper wire and both uncoated and coated SU-8 photoresist and Parylene C probes. Model predictions were found to strongly agree with experimental results (<10% error). The ratio of the predicted buckling force-to-predicted insertion force, where a value greater than one would ideally be expected to result in successful insertion, was plotted against the actual success rate from experiments. A sigmoidal relationship was observed, with a ratio of 1.35 corresponding to equal probability of insertion and failure, and a ratio of 3.5 corresponding to a 100% success rate. This ratio was dubbed the "safety factor", as it indicated the degree to which the coating should be over

  18. Transposable elements: insertion pattern and impact on gene expression evolution in hominids.

    PubMed

    Warnefors, Maria; Pereira, Vini; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2010-08-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) can affect the regulation of nearby genes through several mechanisms. Here, we examine to what extent recent TE insertions have contributed to the evolution of gene expression in hominids. We compare expression levels of human and chimpanzee orthologs and detect a weak increase in expression divergence (ED) for genes with species-specific TE insertions compared with unaffected genes. However, we show that genes with TE insertions predating the human-chimpanzee split also exhibit a similar increase in ED and therefore conclude that the increase is not due to the transcriptional influence of the TEs. These results are further confirmed by lineage-specific analysis of ED, using rhesus macaque as an outgroup: Human-chimpanzee ortholog pairs, where one ortholog has suffered TE insertion but not the other, do not show increased ED along the lineage where the insertion occurred, relative to the other lineage. We also show that genes with recent TE insertions tend to produce more alternative transcripts but find no evidence that the TEs themselves promote transcript diversity. Finally, we observe that TEs are enriched upstream relative to downstream of genes and show that this is due to insertional bias, rather than selection, because this bias is only observed in genes expressed in the germ line. This provides an alternative neutral explanation for the accumulation of TEs in upstream sequences.

  19. Comparison of guided insertion of the LMA ProSeal vs the i-gel.

    PubMed

    Gasteiger, L; Brimacombe, J; Perkhofer, D; Kaufmann, M; Keller, C

    2010-09-01

    In a randomised, non-crossover study, we tested the hypothesis that the ease of insertion using a duodenal tube guided insertion technique and the oropharyngeal leak pressure differ between the LMA ProSeal and the i-gel in non-paralysed, anesthetised female subjects. One hundred and fifty-two females aged 19-70 years were studied. Insertion success rate, insertion time and oropharyngeal leak pressure were measured. First attempt and overall insertion success were similar (LMA ProSeal, 75/76 (99%) and 76/76 (100%); i-gel 73/75 (97%) and 75 (100%), respectively). Mean (SD) insertion times were similar (LMA ProSeal, 40 (16) s; i-gel 43 (21) s). Mean oropharyngeal leak pressure was 7 cmH(2) O higher with the LMA ProSeal (p < 0.0001). Insertion of the LMA ProSeal and i-gel is similarly easy using a duodenal tube guided technique, but the LMA ProSeal forms a more effective seal for ventilation.

  20. Novel Visual Nasogastric Tube Insertion System: A Feasibility and Efficiency Study in a Manikin

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Conventional nasogastric tube placement is an essential clinical procedure; however, complications may arise from blind manipulation. We tested the feasibility and efficiency of a visual nasogastric tube insertion system (VNGS) using a manikin. Methods. A microimaging fiber (0.8 mm) was integrated into the nasogastric tube to create the VNGS. Twenty inexperienced physicians were enrolled and assigned to the visual or conventional group. Each physician performed 10 repeated nasogastric tube insertions with visual guidance or the conventional method; another 20 inexperienced medical students received nasogastric tube insertion training using visual guidance or the conventional method. Results. The nasogastric tube successfully reached the stomach and the narrow anatomic structures were visualized with the VNGS. Time required for insertion was significantly shorter in the visual group compared to the conventional group (22.56 ± 3.08 versus 37.30 ± 4.12 seconds, P < 0.001). Tube misplacement was observed in 19/100 cases (19%) in the conventional group; no misplacement was observed in the visual group. Less mucosal damage was noted in the visual group (3.43 ± 1.63 versus 9.86 ± 2.31 cm2). Medical students performed better NGT insertions (shorter insertion time and less procedure-related complications) after undergoing the visual guidance training. Conclusions. The VNGS may provide a new technique for nasogastric tube insertion applicable to clinical use or simulation training. PMID:27994620

  1. Optimum coil insertion speed of various coils in brain aneurysm embolization in vitro.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Yoshifumi; Takeuchi, Masataka; Fukasaku, Kazuaki

    2016-10-01

    A coil must comprise material with shape memory to perform optimal coil embolization. To achieve this, the alloy characteristics of the coil (hardness, shape, and thickness) must be understood. In this experiment, a catheter was fixed in the bright position and the movement of the coil was observed under a constant rate of insertion; the optimal insertion rate during clinical use was investigated. The first coil insertion speed was evaluated using simulated aneurysms in an in vivo arterial model. The results showed that the insertion force relates to the deployment shape of the coil, that the feedback through the force indicator using sound is very effective, and that the recorder is useful for analysis of coil embolization. The inserted coils during aneurysm embolization were able to wind uniformly within the aneurysm due to a variety of factors (guiding or micro-catheter position and kick-back phenomenon such as delivery wire). Optimal speed is achieved with proper coil design, which allows the coil to be inserted into the aneurysm. The shape and size of the aneurysm can help determine the necessary size and design of the coil that should be used during the optimal speed range. Aneurysm wall and coil characteristics are considered, along with the friction state of the coil (hardness, shape, and thickness), leading to improvements in safety during the insertion procedure at optimum speed.

  2. Voltage-dependent insertion of alamethicin at phospholipid/water and octane/water interfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Tieleman, D P; Berendsen, H J; Sansom, M S

    2001-01-01

    Understanding the binding and insertion of peptides in lipid bilayers is a prerequisite for understanding phenomena such as antimicrobial activity and membrane-protein folding. We describe molecular dynamics simulations of the antimicrobial peptide alamethicin in lipid/water and octane/water environments, taking into account an external electric field to mimic the membrane potential. At cis-positive potentials, alamethicin does not insert into a phospholipid bilayer in 10 ns of simulation, due to the slow dynamics of the peptide and lipids. However, in octane N-terminal insertion occurs at field strengths from 0.33 V/nm and higher, in simulations of up to 100 ns duration. Insertion of alamethicin occurs in two steps, corresponding to desolvation of the Gln7 side chain, and the backbone of Aib10 and Gly11. The proline induced helix kink angle does not change significantly during insertion. Polyalanine and alamethicin form stable helices both when inserted in octane and at the water/octane interface, where they partition in the same location. In water, both polyalanine and alamethicin partially unfold in multiple simulations. We present a detailed analysis of the insertion of alamethicin into the octane slab and the influence of the external field on the peptide structure. Our findings give new insight into the mechanism of channel formation by alamethicin and the structure and dynamics of membrane-associated helices. PMID:11159406

  3. Can we predict the insertion torque using the bone density around the implant?

    PubMed

    Wada, M; Suganami, T; Sogo, M; Maeda, Y

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between initial stability and bone density in patients undergoing implant treatment. Twenty-five screw-type dental implants were inserted in 12 patients. All patients underwent multi-detector computed tomography (CT) examination prior to implant insertion. The implant sockets were prepared according to the drilling protocol, and peak insertion torque values were measured. CT values around the implants were measured using preoperatively scanned CT data, which were combined with actual implant positions. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to investigate the correlation between insertion torque values and CT values (in Hounsfield units, HU). Twenty-three implants (8 or 10 mm in length) were inserted in the mandibular molar region and two (10mm length) in the maxillary molar region. The mean CT value of the 8-mm implants was 508.6 ± 187.0 HU and mean insertion torque was 27.2 ± 12.1 N·cm; for the 10-mm implants, these values were 579.6 ± 224.3 HU and 28.1 ± 14.6 N·cm, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed a strong positive correlation between the insertion torque and mean CT values (r=0.699, 8 mm; r=0.771, 10 mm). The results revealed that bone density around the implant is a useful index. This study indicates that preoperative CT may enable the prediction of initial implant stability.

  4. Insertion and pore formation driven by adsorption of proteins onto lipid bilayer membrane-water interfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Zuckermann, M J; Heimburg, T

    2001-01-01

    We describe the binding of proteins to lipid bilayers in the case for which binding can occur either by adsorption to the lipid bilayer membrane-water interface or by direct insertion into the bilayer itself. We examine in particular the case when the insertion and pore formation are driven by the adsorption process using scaled particle theory. The adsorbed proteins form a two-dimensional "surface gas" at the lipid bilayer membrane-water interface that exerts a lateral pressure on the lipid bilayer membrane. Under conditions of strong intrinsic binding and a high degree of interfacial converge, this pressure can become high enough to overcome the energy barrier for protein insertion. Under these conditions, a subtle equilibrium exists between the adsorbed and inserted proteins. We propose that this provides a control mechanism for reversible insertion and pore formation of proteins such as melittin and magainin. Next, we discuss experimental data for the binding isotherms of cytochrome c to charged lipid membranes in the light of our theory and predict that cytochrome c inserts into charged lipid bilayers at low ionic strength. This prediction is supported by titration calorimetry results that are reported here. We were furthermore able to describe the observed binding isotherms of the pore-forming peptides endotoxin (alpha 5-helix) and of pardaxin to zwitterionic vesicles from our theory by assuming adsorption/insertion equilibrium. PMID:11606262

  5. Novel Visual Nasogastric Tube Insertion System: A Feasibility and Efficiency Study in a Manikin.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiaoya; Xie, Juan; Wu, Jinxing; Guo, Rui; Ma, Wenwen; Xu, Gang; Yang, Min; Deng, Huisheng

    2016-01-01

    Background. Conventional nasogastric tube placement is an essential clinical procedure; however, complications may arise from blind manipulation. We tested the feasibility and efficiency of a visual nasogastric tube insertion system (VNGS) using a manikin. Methods. A microimaging fiber (0.8 mm) was integrated into the nasogastric tube to create the VNGS. Twenty inexperienced physicians were enrolled and assigned to the visual or conventional group. Each physician performed 10 repeated nasogastric tube insertions with visual guidance or the conventional method; another 20 inexperienced medical students received nasogastric tube insertion training using visual guidance or the conventional method. Results. The nasogastric tube successfully reached the stomach and the narrow anatomic structures were visualized with the VNGS. Time required for insertion was significantly shorter in the visual group compared to the conventional group (22.56 ± 3.08 versus 37.30 ± 4.12 seconds, P < 0.001). Tube misplacement was observed in 19/100 cases (19%) in the conventional group; no misplacement was observed in the visual group. Less mucosal damage was noted in the visual group (3.43 ± 1.63 versus 9.86 ± 2.31 cm(2)). Medical students performed better NGT insertions (shorter insertion time and less procedure-related complications) after undergoing the visual guidance training. Conclusions. The VNGS may provide a new technique for nasogastric tube insertion applicable to clinical use or simulation training.

  6. Lyophilized Chitosan/xanthan Polyelectrolyte Complex Based Mucoadhesive Inserts for Nasal Delivery of Promethazine Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    G Dehghan, Mohamed Hassan; Marzuka, Marzuka

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was the development of chitosan/xanthan polyelectrolyte complex based mucoadhesive nasal insert of promethazine hydrochloride a drug used in the treatment of motion sickness. A 32 factorial design was applied for preparing chitosan/xanthan polyelectrolyte complex and to study the effect of independent variables i.e. concentration of xanthan [X1] and concentration of chitosan [X2] on various responses i.e. viscosity of polyelectrolyte complex solution, water uptake of nasal inserts (at pH 2, 5.5, 7.4), bioadhesion potential of nasal inserts and in-vitro drug release at Q6h through nasal inserts. FTIR and DSC analysis were carried out to confirm complex formation and on loaded and unloaded nasal insert to investigate any drug excipient interaction. The nasal inserts were also characterized by powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and for ex-vivo permeation studies. The results show that higher amount of xanthan in polyelectrolyte complexes with respect to higher amount of chitosan retarded in-vitro drug release. The water uptake behaviour of nasal insert was strongly influenced by pH of the medium and by polycation/ polyanion concentration. The investigation verifies the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes formation between chitosan and xanthan at pH values in the vicinity of pKa intervals of the two polymers and confirms their potential for the nasal delivery of promethazine hydrochloride. PMID:25276178

  7. Time and resources of peripherally inserted central catheter insertion procedures: a comparison between blind insertion/chest X-ray and a real time tip navigation and confirmation system

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewski, Kenneth J; Ferko, Nicole; Hollmann, Sarah S; Eng, Simona C; Richard, Howard M; Rowe, Lynn; Sproule, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Background The Sherlock 3CG™ Tip Confirmation System (TCS) provides real-time peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) tip insertion information using passive magnetic navigation and patient cardiac electrical activity. It is an alternative tip confirmation method to fluoroscopy or chest X-ray for PICC tip insertion confirmation in adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate time and cost of the Sherlock 3CG TCS and blind insertion with chest X-ray tip confirmation (BI/CXR) for PICC insertions. Methods A cross-sectional, observational Time and Motion study was conducted. Data were collected at four hospitals in the US. Two hospitals used Sherlock 3CG TCS and two hospitals used BI/CXR to place/confirm successful PICC tip location. Researchers observed PICC insertions, collecting data from the beginning (ie, PICC kit opening) to catheter tip confirmation (ie, released for intravenous [IV] therapy). An economic model was developed to project outcomes for a larger population. Results A total of 120 subjects were enrolled, with 60 subjects enrolled in each arm and 30 enrolled at each of the four US hospitals. The mean time from initiation of the PICC procedure to the time to release for IV therapy was 33.93 minutes in the Sherlock 3CG arm and 176.32 minutes in the BI/CXR arm (p < 0.001). No malpositions were observed for PICC insertions using the Sherlock 3CG TCS, while 20% of subjects in the BI/CXR arm had a malposition. BI/CXR subjects had significantly more total malpositions (mean 0.23 vs. 0, p < 0.001). For a hypothetical population of 1,000 annual patients, adoption of Sherlock 3CG TCS was predicted to be cost saving compared with BI/CXR in all three analysis years. Conclusion The results from this study demonstrate that Sherlock 3CG TCS, when compared with BI/CXR, is a superior alternative with regard to time to release subject to therapy, malposition rates, and minimization of X-ray exposure. PMID:28223832

  8. Cloning of insertion site flanking sequence and construction of transfer DNA insert mutant library in Stylosanthes colletotrichum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Helong; Hu, Caiping; Yi, Kexian; Huang, Guixiu; Gao, Jianming; Zhang, Shiqing; Zheng, Jinlong; Liu, Qiaolian; Xi, Jingen

    2014-01-01

    Stylosanthes sp. is the most important forage legume in tropical areas worldwide. Stylosanthes anthracnose, which is mainly caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is a globally severe disease in stylo production. Little progress has been made in anthracnose molecular pathogenesis research. In this study, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was used to transform Stylosanthes colletotrichum strain CH008. The major factors of the genetic transformation system of S. colletotrichum were optimized as follows: A. tumefaciens' AGL-1 concentration (OD(600)), 0.8; concentration of Colletotrichum conidium, 1 × 10(6) conidia/mL; acetosyringone concentration, 100 mmol/L; induction time, 6 h; co-culture temperature, 25 °C; and co-culture time, 3 d. Thus, the transformation efficiency was increased to 300-400 transformants per 106 conidia. Based on the optimized system, a mutant library containing 4616 mutants was constructed, from which some mutants were randomly selected for analysis. Results show that the mutants were single copies that could be stably inherited. The growth rate, spore amount, spore germination rate, and appressorium formation rate in some mutants were significantly different from those in the wild-type strain. We then selected the most appropriate method for the preliminary screening and re-screening of each mutant's pathogenic defects. We selected 1230 transformants, and obtained 23 strains with pathogenic defects, namely, 18 strains with reduced pathogenicity and five strains with lost pathogenicity. Thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR was used to identify the transfer DNA (T-DNA) integration site in the mutant that was coded 2430, and a sequence of 476 bp was obtained. The flanking sequence of T-DNA was compared with the Colletotrichum genome by BLAST, and a sequence of 401 bp was found in Contig464 of the Colletotrichum genome. By predicting the function of the flanking sequence, we discovered that T-DNA insertion in the promoter region

  9. Cloning of Insertion Site Flanking Sequence and Construction of Transfer DNA Insert Mutant Library in Stylosanthes Colletotrichum

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guixiu; Gao, Jianming; Zhang, Shiqing; Zheng, Jinlong; Liu, Qiaolian; Xi, Jingen

    2014-01-01

    Stylosanthes sp. is the most important forage legume in tropical areas worldwide. Stylosanthes anthracnose, which is mainly caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is a globally severe disease in stylo production. Little progress has been made in anthracnose molecular pathogenesis research. In this study, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was used to transform Stylosanthes colletotrichum strain CH008. The major factors of the genetic transformation system of S. colletotrichum were optimized as follows: A. tumefaciens’ AGL-1 concentration (OD600), 0.8; concentration of Colletotrichum conidium, 1×106 conidia/mL; acetosyringone concentration, 100 mmol/L; induction time, 6 h; co-culture temperature, 25°C; and co-culture time, 3 d. Thus, the transformation efficiency was increased to 300–400 transformants per 106 conidia. Based on the optimized system, a mutant library containing 4616 mutants was constructed, from which some mutants were randomly selected for analysis. Results show that the mutants were single copies that could be stably inherited. The growth rate, spore amount, spore germination rate, and appressorium formation rate in some mutants were significantly different from those in the wild-type strain. We then selected the most appropriate method for the preliminary screening and re-screening of each mutant’s pathogenic defects. We selected 1230 transformants, and obtained 23 strains with pathogenic defects, namely, 18 strains with reduced pathogenicity and five strains with lost pathogenicity. Thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR was used to identify the transfer DNA (T-DNA) integration site in the mutant that was coded 2430, and a sequence of 476 bp was obtained. The flanking sequence of T-DNA was compared with the Colletotrichum genome by BLAST, and a sequence of 401 bp was found in Contig464 of the Colletotrichum genome. By predicting the function of the flanking sequence, we discovered that T-DNA insertion in the promoter region of

  10. An Acetobacter xylinum insertion sequence element associated with inactivation of cellulose production.

    PubMed Central

    Coucheron, D H

    1991-01-01

    An insertion sequence (IS) element, IS1031, caused insertions associated with spontaneous cellulose deficient (Cel-) mutants of Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 23769. The element was discovered during hybridization analysis of DNAs from Cel- mutants of A. xylinum ATCC 23769 with pAXC145, an indigenous plasmid from a Cel- mutant of A. xylinum NRCC 17005. An IS element, IS1031B, apparently identical to IS1031, was identified on pAXC145. IS1031 is about 950 bp. DNA sequencing showed that the two elements had identical termini with inverted repeats of 24 bp containing two mismatches and that they generated 3-bp target sequence duplications. The A. xylinum ATCC 23769 wild type carries seven copies of IS1031. Southern hybridization showed that 8 of 17 independently isolated spontaneous Cel- mutants of ATCC 23769 contained insertions of an element homologous to IS1031. Most insertions were in unique sites, indicating low insertion specificity. Significantly, two insertions were 0.5 kb upstream of a recently identified cellulose synthase gene. Attempts to isolate spontaneous cellulose-producing revertants of these two Cel- insertion mutants by selection in static cultures were unsuccessful. Instead, pseudorevertants that made waxlike films in the liquid-air interface were obtained. The two pseudorevertants carried new insertions of an IS1031-like element in nonidentical sites of the genome without excision of the previous insertions. Taken together, these results suggest that indigenous IS elements contribute to genetic instability in A. xylinum. The elements might also be useful as genetic tools in this organism and related species. Images PMID:1653216

  11. The Nucleoid Binding Protein H-NS Biases Genome-Wide Transposon Insertion Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Satoshi; Hubbard, Troy P.; Davis, Brigid M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transposon insertion sequencing (TIS; also known as TnSeq) is a potent approach commonly used to comprehensively define the genetic loci that contribute to bacterial fitness in diverse environments. A key presumption underlying analyses of TIS datasets is that loci with a low frequency of transposon insertions contribute to fitness. However, it is not known whether factors such as nucleoid binding proteins can alter the frequency of transposon insertion and thus whether TIS output may systematically reflect factors that are independent of the role of the loci in fitness. Here, we investigated whether the histone-like nucleoid structuring (H-NS) protein, which preferentially associates with AT-rich sequences, modulates the frequency of Mariner transposon insertion in the Vibrio cholerae genome, using comparative analysis of TIS results from wild-type (wt) and Δhns V. cholerae strains. These analyses were overlaid on gene classification based on GC content as well as on extant genome-wide identification of H-NS binding loci. Our analyses revealed a significant dearth of insertions within AT-rich loci in wt V. cholerae that was not apparent in the Δhns insertion library. Additionally, we observed a striking correlation between genetic loci that are overrepresented in the Δhns insertion library relative to their insertion frequency in wt V. cholerae and loci previously found to physically interact with H-NS. Collectively, our findings reveal that factors other than genetic fitness can systematically modulate the frequency of transposon insertions in TIS studies and add a cautionary note to interpretation of TIS data, particularly for AT-rich sequences. PMID:27578758

  12. Cassini observations of Saturn's inner plasmasphere: Saturn orbit insertion results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittler, E. C.; Thomsen, M.; Johnson, R. E.; Hartle, R. E.; Burger, M.; Chornay, D.; Shappirio, M. D.; Simpson, D.; Smith, H. T.; Coates, A. J.; Rymer, A. M.; McComas, D. J.; Young, D. T.; Reisenfeld, D.; Dougherty, M.; Andre, N.

    2006-10-01

    We present new and definitive results of Cassini plasma spectrometer (CAPS) data acquired during passage through Saturn's inner plasmasphere by the Cassini spacecraft during the approach phase of the Saturn orbit insertion period. This analysis extends the original analysis of Sittler et al. [2005. Preliminary results on Saturn's inner plasmasphere as observed by Cassini: comparison with Voyager. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L14S07, doi:10.1029/2005GL022653] to L˜10 along with also providing a more comprehensive study of the interrelationship of the various fluid parameters. Coincidence data are sub-divided into protons and water group ions. Our revised analysis uses an improved convergence algorithm which provides a more definitive and independent estimate of the spacecraft potential ΦSC for which we enforce the protons and water group ions to co-move with each other. This has allowed us to include spacecraft charging corrections to our fluid parameter estimations and allow accurate estimations of fluctuations in the fluid parameters for future correlative studies. In the appendix we describe the ion moments algorithm, and minor corrections introduced by not weighting the moments with sin θ term in Sittler et al. [2005] (Correction offset by revisions to instruments geometric factor). Estimates of the spacecraft potential and revised proton densities are presented. Our total ion densities are in close agreement with the electron densities reported by Moncuquet et al. [2005. Quasi-thermal noise spectroscopy in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn with Cassini/RPWS: electron temperatures and density. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L20S02, doi:10.1029/2005GL022508] who used upper hybrid resonance (UHR) emission lines observed by the radio and plasma wave science (RPWS) instrument. We show a positive correlation between proton temperature and water group ion temperature. The proton and thermal electron temperatures track each with both having a positive radial gradient. These

  13. Pericardial Effusion and Cardiac Tamponade Following Percutaneously Inserted Central Line Insertion in an Extremely Low-birth-weight Baby: Case Report and Successful Management

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Avinash V.; Kumar, Abnish; Shanbhag, Praful; Shah, Forum

    2017-01-01

    Pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade are rare complications of percutaneously inserted central lines (PICLs), in extremely low-birth-weight babies. This particular complication carries a high degree of mortality, if not suspected and diagnosed. Bedside echocardiography proves not only diagnostic but also can be lifesaving in these conditions. Here, we wish to report such a baby who suddenly deteriorated and showed cardiovascular instability 2 days after the insertion of PICL. Immediate bedside echocardiography helped pick up the effusion which was drained using a subxiphoid percutaneous approach. PMID:28197055

  14. Placement of a peripherally inserted central catheter into the azygous vein

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, Iain Gilmore, Christopher

    2015-06-15

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) are used for a variety of infusion therapies. They are indicated in patients requiring long-term venous access. Incorrect positioning of the insertion of a PICC line is one of the known complications when inserting the device in clinical practice. Radiographers once performing imaging will commonly check if the tip of a PICC has entered the superior vena cava. This case study will report on a lesser known incorrect placement of a PICC line into the azygous vein and how this can be detected on radiographic imaging. This outcome for the patient can be detrimental as it has an increased risk of perforation, thrombus, and fistula formation.

  15. Radiative recoil corrections to hyperfine splitting: Polarization insertions in the electron factor

    SciTech Connect

    Eides, M. I.; Shelyuto, V. A.

    2010-01-15

    We consider three-loop radiative recoil corrections to hyperfine splitting in muonium due to insertions of the one-loop polarization operator in the electron factor. The contribution generated by electron polarization insertions is a cubic polynomial in the large logarithm of the electron-muon mass ratio. The leading logarithm cubed and logarithm squared terms are well known for some time. We calculate all single-logarithmic and nonlogarithmic radiative recoil corrections of the order {alpha}{sup 3}(m/M)E{sub F} generated by diagrams with the electron and muon polarization insertions.

  16. Design and testing of microfabricated surgical tools for large animal probe insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, Shelly

    2016-08-05

    Neural probes provide therapeutic stimulation for neuropsychiatric disorders or record neural activity to investigate the workings of the brain. Researchers utilize 6 mm long temporary silicon stiffeners attached with biodissolvable adhesive to insert flexible neural probes into rat brains, but increasing the probe length fivefold makes inserting large animal probes a significant challenge because of an increased potential for buckling. This study compared the insertion success rates of 6 mm and 30 mm long silicon stiffeners that were 80 μm wide and 30 μm thick, and ascertained the material thickness and modulus of elasticity that would provide successful insertion for a 30 mm probe. Using a microdrive, stiffeners were inserted into an agarose brain phantom at controlled insertion speeds while being video-recorded. Twenty-five percent of the 30 mm silicon stiffeners fully inserted at speeds approximately four times higher than the target rate of 0.13 mm/s, while 100 percent of the 6 mm silicon stiffeners inserted successfully at target speed. Critical buckling loads (Pcr) were calculated for the 6 mm and 30 mm silicon stiffeners, and for 30 mm diamond and tungsten stiffeners, with thicknesses varying from 30-80 μm. Increasing the thickness of the material by 10 μm, 20 μm and 30 μm improved the Pcr by 2.4, 4.7 and 8.2 times, respectively, independent of the material, and substituting diamond for silicon multiplied the buckling capacity by 5.0 times. Stiffeners made of silicon for large animal probe insertion are not strong enough to withstand buckling upon insertion without a significant increase in thickness. Replacing silicon with diamond and increasing the thickness of the stiffener to 50 μm would afford a stiffener with the same Pcr capacity as the 6 mm silicon stiffener that had a 100 percent insertion success rate. Experiments should continue with diamond to determine a minimum thickness that will ensure successful

  17. Membrane insertion and topology of the translocon-associated protein (TRAP) gamma subunit.

    PubMed

    Bañó-Polo, Manuel; Martínez-Garay, Carlos A; Grau, Brayan; Martínez-Gil, Luis; Mingarro, Ismael

    2017-05-01

    Translocon-associated protein (TRAP) complex is intimately associated with the ER translocon for the insertion or translocation of newly synthesised proteins in eukaryotic cells. The TRAP complex is comprised of three single-spanning and one multiple-spanning subunits. We have investigated the membrane insertion and topology of the multiple-spanning TRAP-γ subunit by glycosylation mapping and green fluorescent protein fusions both in vitro and in cell cultures. Results demonstrate that TRAP-γ has four transmembrane (TM) segments, an Nt/Ct cytosolic orientation and that the less hydrophobic TM segment inserts efficiently into the membrane only in the cellular context of full-length protein.

  18. Use of sodium hypochlorite for skin antisepsis before inserting a peripheral venous catheter: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Forni, Cristiana; Sabattini, Tania; D'Alessandro, Fabio; Fiorani, Ambra; Gamberini, Simonetta; Maso, Alessandra; Curci, Rosa; Zanotti, Enrichetta; Chiari, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    Although it can be prevented, catheter-related bacteremia is common and dangerous. The antiseptics most widely used during insertion of peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) include povidone iodine, alcohol, and chlorhexidine. Another widely used antiseptic is a solution of 0.057 g sodium hypochlorite. This pilot study explored the contamination rate of the PVC tip inserted after skin decontamination with sodium hypochlorite. Culture analysis of the tips of the PVCs inserted into the 42 participants showed 7 (16.7%) colonized catheters. The results of this pilot study suggest taking into serious consideration the assessment of this antiseptic in randomized experimental studies.

  19. Transposon-Assisted Genetic Engineering with Mos1-Mediated Single-Copy Insertion (MosSCI).

    PubMed

    Frøkjær-Jensen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Transgenesis in model organisms is necessary to determine the function, expression, and subcellular localization of gene products. In Caenorhabditis elegans, injected DNA can be propagated as multicopy extrachromosomal arrays but transgenes in arrays are mosaic, over-expressed in some tissues and silenced in the germline. Here, a method to insert a transgene into a specific genomic location called Mos1-mediated single-copy insertion (MosSCI) is described. Single-copy insertion allows transgene expression at levels that approximate endogenous gene expression as well as expression in the germline.

  20. Unexpected formal insertion of CO2 into the C-Si bonds of a zinc compound

    DOE PAGES

    Kemp, Richard A.; McGrew, Genette I.; Khatri, Pathik A.; ...

    2015-09-08

    Reaction of [κ2-PR2C(SiMe3)Py]2Zn (R = Ph, 2a; iPr, 2b) with CO2 affords the products of formal insertion at the C–Si bond, [κ2-PR2CC(O)O(SiMe3)Py]2Zn (R = Ph, 3a; iPr, 3b). Insertion product 3b was structurally characterized. As a result, the reaction appears to be a stepwise insertion and rearrangement of CO2 based on kinetic data.