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Sample records for insertable b-layer ibl

  1. Development of Indium bump bonding for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimonti, G.; Andreazza, A.; Corda, G.; Darbo, G.; Di Gioia, S.; Fiorello, A.; Gariano, G.; Gemme, C.; Meroni, C.; Rovani, A.; Ruscino, E.

    2013-01-01

    About half of the ATLAS pixel modules have been assembled with the Selex indium bump bonding process. The requirements of the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) detector ask for larger and thinner chips, two critical parameters for bonding processes. We report on the research and development carried on with Selex to produce modules with 100 μm thick and 18.8 × 20.2 mm2 area read out chips bonded with indium bumps.

  2. ``The Read-Out Driver'' ROD card for the Insertable B-layer (IBL) detector of the ATLAS experiment: commissioning and upgrade studies for the Pixel Layers 1 and 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbi, G.; Bindi, M.; Chen, S. P.; Falchieri, D.; Flick, T.; Gabrielli, A.; Hauck, S.; Hsu, S. C.; Kretz, M.; Kugel, A.; Lama, L.; Morettini, P.; Travaglini, R.; Wensing, M.

    2014-01-01

    The upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at LHC foresees the insertion of an innermost silicon layer, called the Insertable B-layer (IBL). The IBL read-out system will be equipped with new electronics. The Readout-Driver card (ROD) is a VME board devoted to data processing, configuration and control. A pre-production batch has been delivered for testing with instrumented slices of the overall acquisition chain, aiming to finalize strategies for system commissioning. In this paper system setups and results will be described, as well as preliminary studies on changes needed to adopt the ROD for the ATLAS Pixel Layers 1 and 2.

  3. The Insertable B-Layer of the ATLAS experiment for the Run-2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guescini, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long shutdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new Service Quarter Panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors and has been installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam pipe at a radial distance of 3.3 cm from the beam axis. The realization of the IBL required the development of several new technologies and solutions in order to overcome the challenges introduced by the extreme environment and working conditions, such as the high radiation levels, the high pixel occupancy and the need of an exceptionally low material budget. Two silicon sensor technologies have been adopted for the IBL modules: planar and 3D. Both of these are connected via bump-bonding to the new FE-I4 front-end read-out chip. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system have been adopted. An overview of the IBL project as well as the experience in its construction is presented, focusing on adopted technologies, modules and staves production, qualification of assembly procedure, integration of staves around the beam pipe and commissioning of the detector.

  4. Characterization of the FE-I4B pixel readout chip production run for the ATLAS Insertable B-layer upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backhaus, M.

    2013-03-01

    The Insertable B-layer (IBL) is a fourth pixel layer that will be added inside the existing ATLAS pixel detector during the long LHC shutdown of 2013 and 2014. The new four layer pixel system will ensure excellent tracking, vertexing and b-tagging performance in the high luminosity pile-up conditions projected for the next LHC run. The peak luminosity is expected to reach 3·1034 cm-2s-1with an integrated luminosity over the IBL lifetime of 300 fb-1 corresponding to a design lifetime fluence of 5·1015 neqcm-2 and ionizing dose of 250 Mrad including safety factors. The production front-end electronics FE-I4B for the IBL has been fabricated at the end of 2011 and has been extensively characterized on diced ICs as well as at the wafer level. The production tests at the wafer level were performed during 2012. Selected results of the diced IC characterization are presented, including measurements of the on-chip voltage regulators. The IBL powering scheme, which was chosen based on these results, is described. Preliminary wafer to wafer distributions as well as yield calculations are given.

  5. Lessons learned in the IBL project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miucci, A.

    2016-07-01

    The ATLAS experiment is ready for Run II of the LHC with improved tracking performance thanks to the installation of a new Pixel Detector layer, called the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The IBL was installed in May 2014 located at only 3.3 cm radius from the beam axis and has been successfully taking data since the beginning of Run II in June 2015. An overview of the lessons learned during the IBL construction will be presented, focusing on the challenges and highlighting the issues met during the production, integration, installation and commissioning phases of the detector.

  6. Firmware development and testing of the ATLAS Pixel Detector / IBL ROD card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielli, A.; Backhaus, M.; Balbi, G.; Bindi, M.; Chen, S. P.; Falchieri, D.; Flick, T.; Hauck, S.; Hsu, S. C.; Kretz, M.; Kugel, A.; Lama, L.; Travaglini, R.; Wensing, M.

    2015-03-01

    The ATLAS Experiment is reworking and upgrading systems during the current LHC shut down. In particular, the Pixel detector has inserted an additional inner layer called the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The Readout-Driver card (ROD), the Back-of-Crate card (BOC), and the S-Link together form the essential frontend data path of the IBL's off-detector DAQ system. The strategy for IBL ROD firmware development was three-fold: keeping as much of the Pixel ROD datapath firmware logic as possible, employing a complete new scheme of steering and calibration firmware, and designing the overall system to prepare for a future unified code version integrating IBL and Pixel layers. Essential features such as data formatting, frontend-specific error handling, and calibration are added to the ROD data path. An IBL DAQ test bench using a realistic front-end chip model was created to serve as an initial framework for full offline electronic system simulation. In this document, major firmware achievements concerning the IBL ROD data path implementation, test on the test bench and ROD prototypes, will be reported. Recent Pixel collaboration efforts focus on finalizing hardware and firmware tests for the IBL. The plan is to approach a complete IBL DAQ hardware-software installation by the end of 2014.

  7. The FE-I4 Pixel Readout Chip and the IBL Module

    SciTech Connect

    Barbero, Marlon; Arutinov, David; Backhaus, Malte; Fang, Xiao-Chao; Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Karagounis, Michael; Hans, Kruger; Kruth, Andre; Wermes, Norbert; Breugnon, Patrick; Fougeron, Denis; Gensolen, Fabrice; Menouni, Mohsine; Rozanov, Alexander; Beccherle, Roberto; Darbo, Giovanni; Caminada, Lea; Dube, Sourabh; Fleury, Julien; Gnani, Dario; /LBL, Berkeley /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Gottingen U. /SLAC

    2012-05-01

    FE-I4 is the new ATLAS pixel readout chip for the upgraded ATLAS pixel detector. Designed in a CMOS 130 nm feature size process, the IC is able to withstand higher radiation levels compared to the present generation of ATLAS pixel Front-End FE-I3, and can also cope with higher hit rate. It is thus suitable for intermediate radii pixel detector layers in the High Luminosity LHC environment, but also for the inserted layer at 3.3 cm known as the 'Insertable B-Layer' project (IBL), at a shorter timescale. In this paper, an introduction to the FE-I4 will be given, focusing on test results from the first full size FE-I4A prototype which has been available since fall 2010. The IBL project will be introduced, with particular emphasis on the FE-I4-based module concept.

  8. Quality assurance and functionality tests on electrical components during the ATLAS IBL production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassalat, A.

    2014-01-01

    During the shutdown of 2013-2014, for the enhancement of the current ATLAS Pixel Detector, a fourth layer (Insertable B Layer, IBL) is being built and will be installed between the innermost layer and a new beam pipe. A new generation of readout chip has been developed, and two different sensor designs, a rather conventional planar and a 3D design, have been bump bonded to the Front Ends. Additionally, new staves and module flex circuits have been developed. A production QA test bench was therefore established to test all production staves before integration with the new beam pipe. Quality assurance measurements under cleanroom conditions, including temperature and humidity control, are being performed on the individual components during the various production steps of the IBL; namely, connectivity tests, electrical tests and signal probing on individual parts and assembled subsystems. This paper discusses the pre-assembly QC procedures, the capabilities of the stave qualification setup, and recent results from stave testing.

  9. Compute farm software for ATLAS IBL calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindi, M.; Flick, T.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Heim, T.; Hsu, S.-C.; Kretz, M.; Kugel, A.; Marx, M.; Morettini, P.; Potamianos, K.; Takubo, Y.

    2014-06-01

    In 2014 the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) will extend the existing Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN by over 12 million additional pixels. For calibration and monitoring purposes, occupancy and time-over-threshold data are being histogrammed in the read-out hardware. Further processing of the histograms happens on commodity hardware, which not only requires the fast transfer of histogram data from the read-out hardware to the computing farm via Ethernet, but also the integration of the software and hardware into the already existing data-acquisition and calibration framework (TDAQ and PixelDAQ) of the ATLAS experiment and the current Pixel Detector. We implement the software running on the compute cluster with an emphasis on modularity, allowing for flexible adjustment of the infrastructure and a good scalability with respect to the number of network interfaces, available CPU cores, and deployed machines. By using a modular design we are able to not only employ CPU-based fitting algorithms, but also have the possibility to take advantage of the performance offered by a GPU-based approach to fitting.

  10. Performance Evaluation of the ATLAS IBL Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretz, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Insertable-B-Layer (IBL) has recently been commissioned at the ATLAS Experiment, adding 12 million channels to the existing Pixel Detector. The front-end chips (FE-I4) are connected to newly designed readout hardware situated in a VME crate. In order to take data under uniform conditions, one needs to periodically tune the detector in short breaks between data-taking sessions to accommodate for radiation damage and aging effects. Tuning involves a variety of components, ranging from high-level steering and analysis software (PixLib) running on commodity hardware, to embedded components situated inside the VME crate that feature only a minimal or no operating system at all. Understanding the interactions between these components is key in debugging and optimizing the tuning procedures to become more efficient. We therefore implement an instrumentation framework aimed at all major components. It features a uniform interface to the user and is able to take instrumentation data with µs- precision. A central server application is used to gather the instrumentation data of a tuning session. It processes the data and saves it into an SQLite database for later analysis.

  11. Quality assurance and functionality tests on electrical components during the ATLAS IBL production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jentzsch, J.

    2013-02-01

    To improve performance of the ATLAS inner tracker, a fourth Pixel layer, called the Insertable B-layer (IBL), will be installed in 2014 on a new beam pipe. A new read out chip generation, FE-I4, has been developed and two different sensor designs, a rather conventional planar and a 3D design, have been flip chipped to these front ends. New staves holding new stave and module flex circuits have been developed as well. Therefore, a production QA test bench has been established to test all production staves before integration with the new beam pipe. This setup combines former ATLAS Pixel services and a new readout system, namely the RCE (Reconfigurable Cluster Element) system developed at SLAC. With this setup all production staves will be tested to ensure the installation of only those staves which fulfill the IBL criteria. Quality assurance measurements under cleanroom conditions, including temperature and humidity control, are performed on the individual components during the various production steps of the IBL, namely connectivity as well as electrical tests and signal probing on individual parts and assembled subsystems. The pre-assembly QC procedures, the capabilities of the stave qualification setup, and recent results from testing a prototype stave are presented and discussed.

  12. ATLAS Pixel Detector ROD card from IBL towards Layers 2 and 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbi, G.; Falchieri, D.; Gabrielli, A.; Lama, L.; Giangiacomi, N.; Travaglini, R.

    2016-01-01

    The incoming and future upgrades of LHC will require better performance by the data acquisition system, especially in terms of throughput due to the higher luminosity that is expected. For this reason, during the first shutdown of the LHC collider in 2013/14, the ATLAS Pixel Detector has been equipped with a fourth layer— the Insertable B-Layer or IBL—located at a radius smaller than the present three layers. To read out the new layer of pixels, with a smaller pixel size with respect to the other outer layers, a front end ASIC (FE-I4) was designed as well as a new off-detector read-out chain. The latter, accordingly to the structure of the other layers of pixels, is composed mainly of two 9U-VME read-out off-detector cards called the Back-Of-Crate (BOC) and Read-Out Driver (ROD). The ROD is used for data and event formatting and for configuration and control of the overall read-out electronics. After some prototyping samples were completed, a pre-production batch of 5 ROD cards was delivered with the final layout. Another production of 15 ROD cards was done in Fall 2013, and commissioning was completed in 2014. Altogether 14 cards are necessary for the 14 staves of the IBL detector, one additional card is required by the Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM), and additional spare ROD cards were produced for a total initial batch of 20 boards. This paper describes some integration tests that were performed and our plan to install the new DAQ chain for the layer 2, which is the outermost, and layer 1, which is external to the B-layer. This latter is the only layer that will not be upgraded to a higher readout speed. Rather, it will be switched off in the near future as it has too many damaged sensors that were not possible to rework. To do that, slices of the IBL read-out chain have been instrumented, and ROD performance is verified on a test bench mimicking a small-sized final setup. Thus, this contribution reports also how the adoption of the IBL ROD for ATLAS Pixel

  13. Commissioning of the read-out driver (ROD) card for the ATLAS IBL detector and upgrade studies for the pixel Layers 1 and 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbi, G.; Bindi, M.; Falchieri, D.; Gabrielli, A.; Travaglini, R.; Chen, S.-P.; Hsu, S.-C.; Hauck, S.; Kugel, A.

    2014-11-01

    The higher luminosity that is expected for the LHC after future upgrades will require better performance by the data acquisition system, especially in terms of throughput. In particular, during the first shutdown of the LHC collider in 2013/14, the ATLAS Pixel Detector will be equipped with a fourth layer - the Insertable B-Layer or IBL - located at a radius smaller than the present three layers. Consequently, a new front end ASIC (FE-I4) was designed as well as a new off-detector chain. The latter is composed mainly of two 9U-VME cards called the Back-Of-Crate (BOC) and Read-Out Driver (ROD). The ROD is used for data and event formatting and for configuration and control of the overall read-out electronics. After some prototyping samples were completed, a pre-production batch of 5 ROD cards was delivered with the final layout. Actual production of another 15 ROD cards is ongoing in Fall 2013, and commissioning is scheduled in 2014. Altogether 14 cards are necessary for the 14 staves of the IBL detector, one additional card is required by the Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM), and additional spare ROD cards will be produced for a total of 20 boards. This paper describes some integration tests that were performed and our plan to test the production of the ROD cards. Slices of the IBL read-out chain have been instrumented, and ROD performance is verified on a test bench mimicking a small-sized final setup. This contribution will report also one view on the possible adoption of the IBL ROD for ATLAS Pixel Detector Layer 2 (firstly) and, possibly, in the future, for Layer 1.

  14. Firmware development and testing of the ATLAS IBL Back Of Crate card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stramaglia, M. E.

    2015-02-01

    ATLAS is one of the four big LHC experiments and recently its Pixel Detector was upgraded with a new innermost 4th layer: the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) . The upgrade will result in better tracking efficiency, improved precision of measurements and, in the future, compensation for radiation damage of the Pixel-Detector. Newly developed front-end electronics and the higher than originally planned LHC luminosity required a complete re-design of the Off Detector Electronics consisting of the Back Of Crate card (BOC) and the Read Out Driver (ROD) . The main purposes of the BOC card are the distribution of the LHC clock to all Pixel Detector components as well as interfacing the detector and the higher level readout optically. The data-path to the detector runs a 40 MHz bi phase mark (BPM) encoded stream. The 160 MHz 8b10b encoded data path from the detector is phase and word aligned in the firmware and then forwarded to the ROD after decoding. The ROD will send out the processed data that is then forwarded to the higher level readout by the BOC card. An overview of the newly developed firmware will be presented together with the results from production tests and the system test at CERN . Focus is put on the partial reconfiguration and results of the fine delay measurements.

  15. Defining the IBL and Gamma-Ray Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the intensity and photon spectrum of the intergalactic background light (IBL) as a function of redshift using an approach based on observational data obtained in many different wavelength bands from local to deep galaxy surveys. Our empirically based approach allows us, for the first time, to obtain a completely model independent determination of the IBL and to quantify its uncertainties. Using our results on the IBL, we then place 68% confidence upper and lower limits on the opacity of the universe to gamma-rays, independent of previous constraints that were obtained by making theoretical assumptions. We then compare our results with measurements of the extragalactic background light and upper limits obtained from observations made by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.

  16. Perceived Usefulness and Outcomes of Intranet-Based Learning (IBL): Developing Asynchronous Knowledge Management Systems in Organizational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, DongHun; Kang, Sunwoo

    2005-01-01

    This article introduces two studies showing the perceived usefulness reported by the participants of Intranet Based Learning (IBL) (N = 226) and the effectiveness of IBL measured by the outcomes of two instructional groups and the control group in a Korean private company (N = 132). It is suggested that additional aspects of IBL need to be…

  17. B Layers and Adhesion on Armco Iron Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias-Espinosa, M.; Ortiz-Domínguez, M.; Keddam, M.; Flores-Rentería, M. A.; Damián-Mejía, O.; Zuno-Silva, J.; Hernández-Ávila, J.; Cardoso-Legorreta, E.; Arenas-Flores, A.

    2014-08-01

    In this work, a kinetic model was suggested to evaluate the boron diffusion coefficient in the Fe2B layers grown on the Armco iron substrate by the powder-pack boriding. This thermochemical treatment was carried out in the temperature range of 1123-1273 K for treatment times ranging from 2 to 8 h. The boron diffusion coefficient in the Fe2B layers was estimated by solving the mass balance equation at the (Fe2B/substrate) interface with an inclusion of boride incubation time. To validate the present model, the simulated value of Fe2B layer thickness was compared with the experimental value obtained at 1253 K for a treatment time of 5 h. The morphology of Fe2B layers was observed by SEM and optical microscopy. Metallographic studies showed that the boride layer has a saw-tooth morphology in all the samples. The layer thickness measurements were done with the help of MSQ PLUS software. The Fe2B phase was identified by x-ray diffraction method. Finally, the adherence of Fe2B layers on the Armco iron substrate was qualitatively evaluated by using the Daimler-Benz Rockwell-C indentation technique. In addition, the estimated value of boron activation energy was compared to the literature data.

  18. Identification and functional analysis of cytochrome P450 complement in Streptomyces virginiae IBL14

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As well known, both natural and synthetic steroidal compounds are powerful endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) which can cause reproductive toxicity and affect cellular development in mammals and thus are generally regarded as serious contributors to water pollution. Streptomyces virginiae IBL14 is an effective degradative strain for many steroidal compounds and can also catalyze the C25 hydroxylation of diosgenin, the first-ever biotransformation found on the F-ring of diosgenin. Results To completely elucidate the hydroxylation function of cytochrome P450 genes (CYPs) found during biotransformation of steroids by S. virginiae IBL14, the whole genome sequencing of this strain was carried out via 454 Sequencing Systems. The analytical results of BLASTP showed that the strain IBL14 contains 33 CYPs, 7 ferredoxins and 3 ferredoxin reductases in its 8.0 Mb linear chromosome. CYPs from S. virginiae IBL14 are phylogenetically closed to those of Streptomyces sp. Mg1 and Streptomyces sp. C. One new subfamily was found as per the fact that the CYP Svu001 in S. virginiae IBL14 shares 66% identity only to that (ZP_05001937, protein identifer) from Streptomyces sp. Mg1. Further analysis showed that among all of the 33 CYPs in S. virginiae IBL14, three CYPs are clustered with ferredoxins, one with ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase and three CYPs with ATP/GTP binding proteins, four CYPs arranged with transcriptional regulatory genes and one CYP located on the upstream of an ATP-binding protein and transcriptional regulators as well as four CYPs associated with other functional genes involved in secondary metabolism and degradation. Conclusions These characteristics found in CYPs from S. virginiae IBL14 show that the EXXR motif in the K-helix is not absolutely conserved in CYP157 family and I-helix not absolutely essential for the CYP structure, too. Experimental results showed that both CYP Svh01 and CYP Svu022 are two hydroxylases, capable of bioconverting

  19. Peripherally inserted central catheter - insertion

    MedlinePlus

    PICC - insertion ... A PICC is a long, thin tube (called a catheter) that goes into your body through a vein in ... into a large vein near your heart. The PICC helps carry nutrients and medicines into your body. ...

  20. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube insertion; G-tube insertion; PEG tube insertion; Stomach tube insertion; Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube insertion ... and down the esophagus, which leads to the stomach. After the endoscopy tube is inserted, the skin ...

  1. Enhanced decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80 textile dye by an indigenous white rot fungus Schizophyllum commune IBL-06

    PubMed Central

    Asgher, Muhammad; Yasmeen, Qamar; Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir

    2013-01-01

    An indigenously isolated white rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune IBL-06 was used to decolorize Solar brilliant red 80 direct dye in Kirk’s basal salts medium. In initial screening study, the maximum decolorization (84.8%) of Solar brilliant red 80 was achieved in 7 days shaking incubation period at pH 4.5 and 30 °C. Different physical and nutritional factors including pH, temperature and fungal inoculum density were statistically optimized through Completely Randomized Design (CRD), to enhance the efficiency of S. commune IBL-06 for maximum decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80 dye. The effects of inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources were also investigated. Percent dye decolorization was determined by a reduction in optical density at the wavelength of maximum absorbance (λmax, 590 nm). Under optimum conditions, the S. commune IBL-06 completely decolorized (100%) the Solar brilliant red 80 dye using maltose and ammonium sulfate as inexpensive carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively in 3 days. S. commune IBL-06 produced the three major ligninolytic enzymes lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganase peroxidase (MnP) and lacaase (Lac) during the decolorization of Solar brilliant red 80. LiP was the major enzyme (944 U/mL) secreted by S. commune IBL-06 along with comparatively lower activities of MnP and Laccase. PMID:24235871

  2. The nocturnal IBL over an hilly island with reference to the diffusion of radioactive nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camuffo, D.

    1982-02-01

    The dynamics of the nocturnal IBL over a small hilly island on the Mediterranean Sea are discussed, particularly for clear nights characterized by light wind, when typically a nocturnal inversion may grow. Among different cases, two typical situations are observed, depending on the steadiness of the wind. In the first case the inversion alternatively grows and is eroded from aloft until it is destroyed; in the second, it grows with half the speed usual at inland sites and its height is bounded by the top of the hill. The Stüve diagrams show that the warm sea surface can supply the energy required to lift airborne pollutants over the CCL.

  3. Characterization and decolorization applicability of xerogel matrix immobilized manganese peroxidase produced from Trametes versicolor IBL-04.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir; Asgher, Muhammad

    2013-05-01

    A novel manganese peroxidase (MnP) isolated from solid state culture of Trametes versicolor IBL-04 was immobilized using xerogel matrix composed of trimethoxysilane (TMOS) and propyltetramethoxysilane (PTMS). FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the successful entrapment of MnP into the xerogel matrix. An immobilization efficiency of 92.2% was achieved with a purified active fraction containing 2 mg/mL MnP. After 24 h incubation at varying pH and temperatures, the immobilized MnP retained 82 and 75% activity at pH 4 and 80°C, respectively. Xerogel matrix immobilization enhanced the catalytic efficiency of entrapped MnP. Metal ions including Cu2+, Mn2+ and Fe2+ stimulated enzyme activity while cysteine, EDTA and Ag+ inhibited the activity. MnP preserved 82% of its initial activity during oxidation of MnSO4 in 10 consecutive cycles, demonstrating the reusability of xerogel entrapped MnP. The immobilized MnP could be stored for up to 75 days at 4°C without significant activity loss. To explore the industrial applicability of MnP, the immobilized MnP was tested for decolorization of textile industry effluent in a Packed Bed Reactor System (PBRS). After five consecutive cycles, 98.8% decolorization of effluent was achieved within 5 h. The kinetic properties, storage stability and reusability of entrapped MnP from T. versicolor IBL-04 reflect its prospects as biocatalyst for bioremediation and other industrial applications.

  4. Decolorization of dye-containing textile industry effluents using Ganoderma lucidum IBL-05 in still cultures.

    PubMed

    Asgher, Muhammad; Noreen, Sadia; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz

    2010-04-01

    A locally isolated white rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum IBL-05 was used for development of a bioremediation process for original textile industry effluents. Dye-containing effluents of different colors were collected from the Arzoo (maroon), Ayesha (yellow), Ittemad (green), Crescent (navy blue) and Magna (yellowish) textile industries of Faisalabad, Pakistan. G. lucidum IBL-05 was screened for its decolorization potential on all the effluents. Maximum decolorization (49.5 %) was observed in the case of the Arzoo textile industry (ART) effluent (lambda(max) = 515 nm) on the 10th day of incubation. Therefore, the ART effluent was selected for optimization of its decolorization process. Process optimization could improve color removal efficiency of the fungus to 95% within only 2 days, catalyzed by manganese peroxidase (1295 U/mL) as the main enzyme activity at pH 3 and 35 degrees C using 1% starch supplemented Kirk's basal medium. Nitrogen addition inhibited enzyme formation and effluent decolorization. The economics and effectiveness of the process can be improved by further process optimization.

  5. Scientific evaluation of an intra-curricular educational kit to foster inquiry-based learning (IBL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debaes, Nathalie; Cords, Nina; Prasad, Amrita; Fischer, Robert; Euler, Manfred; Thienpont, Hugo

    2014-07-01

    Society becomes increasingly dependent on photonics technologies; however there is an alarming lack of technological awareness among secondary school students. They associate photonics with experiments and components in the class room that seem to bear little relevance to their daily life. The Rocard Report [5] highlights the need for fostering students' scientific skills and technological awareness and identifies inquiry based learning (IBL) as a means to achieve this. Students need to actively do science rather than be silent spectators. The `Photonics Explorer' kit was developed as an EU funded project to equip teachers, free-of-charge, with educational material designed to excite, engage and educate European secondary school students using guided inquiry based learning techniques. Students put together their own experiments using up-to-date versatile components, critically interpret results and relate the conclusions to relevant applications in their daily life. They work hands-on with the material, thus developing and honing their scientific and analytical skills that are otherwise latent in a typical class room situation. A qualitative and quantitative study of the impact of the kit in the classroom was undertaken with 50 kits tested in 7 EU countries with over 1500 students in the local language. This paper reports on the results of the EU wide field tests that show the positive impact of the kit in raising the self-efficacy, scientific skills and interest in science among students and the effectiveness of the kit in implementing IBL strategies in classrooms across EU.

  6. Insertion Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Mahillon, Jacques; Chandler, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Insertion sequences (ISs) constitute an important component of most bacterial genomes. Over 500 individual ISs have been described in the literature to date, and many more are being discovered in the ongoing prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome-sequencing projects. The last 10 years have also seen some striking advances in our understanding of the transposition process itself. Not least of these has been the development of various in vitro transposition systems for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic elements and, for several of these, a detailed understanding of the transposition process at the chemical level. This review presents a general overview of the organization and function of insertion sequences of eubacterial, archaebacterial, and eukaryotic origins with particular emphasis on bacterial elements and on different aspects of the transposition mechanism. It also attempts to provide a framework for classification of these elements by assigning them to various families or groups. A total of 443 members of the collection have been grouped in 17 families based on combinations of the following criteria: (i) similarities in genetic organization (arrangement of open reading frames); (ii) marked identities or similarities in the enzymes which mediate the transposition reactions, the recombinases/transposases (Tpases); (iii) similar features of their ends (terminal IRs); and (iv) fate of the nucleotide sequence of their target sites (generation of a direct target duplication of determined length). A brief description of the mechanism(s) involved in the mobility of individual ISs in each family and of the structure-function relationships of the individual Tpases is included where available. PMID:9729608

  7. Pacemaker insertion

    PubMed Central

    Kotsakou, Maria; Kioumis, Ioannis; Lazaridis, George; Pitsiou, Georgia; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Karapantzos, Ilias; Karapantzou, Chrysanthi; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    A pacemaker (PM) (or artificial PM, so as not to be confused with the heart’s natural PM) is a medical device that uses electrical impulses, delivered by electrodes contracting the heart muscles, to regulate the beating of the heart. The primary purpose of this device is to maintain an adequate heart rate, either because the heart’s natural PM is not fast enough, or there is a block in the heart’s electrical conduction system. Modern PMs are externally programmable and allow the cardiologist to select the optimum pacing modes for individual patients. Some combine a PM and defibrillator in a single implantable device. PMs can be temporary or permanent. Temporary PMs are used to treat short-term heart problems, such as a slow heartbeat that’s caused by a heart attack, heart surgery, or an overdose of medicine. Permanent PMs are used to control long-term heart rhythm problems. A PM can relieve some arrhythmia symptoms, such as fatigue and fainting. A PM also can help a person who has abnormal HRs resume a more active lifestyle. In the current mini review we will focus on the insertion of a PM and the possible pneumothorax that can be caused. PMID:25815303

  8. Dihalocarbene Insertion Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, S. H.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the insertion reaction using the insertion of carbenes into carbon-hydrogen bonds as an example. Outlines an experiment that will illustrate dihalocarbene insertions into diisopropyl ether. (GS)

  9. Chest tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    Chest drainage tube insertion; Insertion of tube into chest; Tube thoracostomy; Pericardial drain ... When your chest tube is inserted, you will lie on your side or sit partly upright, with one arm over your head. Sometimes, ...

  10. Fireplace stove insert

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, R.A.

    1983-09-27

    The present invention is directed to the provision of an improved stove insert for a fireplace opening, having means associated therewith for precisely controlling draft, thereby enabling the stove insert to be used for coal as well as wood.

  11. [Suprapubic catheter insertion].

    PubMed

    Neumann, Eva; Schwentner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The suprapubic catheter enables a percutaneous drainage of urine. The insertion is made superior of the pubic bone through the abdominal wall into the bladder. It allows a permanent drainage of urine bypassing the urethra. The insertion of a suprapubic catheter requires knowledge and expertise. This paper summarizes the basic background and allows to follow the practical application step by step.

  12. [Suprapubic catheter insertion].

    PubMed

    Neumann, Eva; Schwentner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The suprapubic catheter enables a percutaneous drainage of urine. The insertion is made superior of the pubic bone through the abdominal wall into the bladder. It allows a permanent drainage of urine bypassing the urethra. The insertion of a suprapubic catheter requires knowledge and expertise. This paper summarizes the basic background and allows to follow the practical application step by step. PMID:26800072

  13. Plastic pipe insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Diskin, J.

    1987-05-01

    In March 1987 KPL changed all that when the utility inserted 1,000 ft of 16-in. SDR 15.5 Phillips Driscopipe 8000 pipe with a wall thickness of 1.032-in., into an abandoned 24-in. cast-iron line in downtown Kansas City. This is believed to be the largest diameter insert removal job ever done for gas distribution in the U.S. For KPL it was a natural progression from the smaller sizes used earlier. The procedure is the same, and the operation was quick and comparatively simple. Lower construction costs were the bottom line because with insert renewal there is no need to cut up the streets, a major expense in any urban pipeline work. There are other significant costs savings as well because the insert renewal construction process is faster than other techniques.

  14. Ear tube insertion - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100045.htm Ear tube insertion - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... 4 Overview The eardrum (tympanic membrane) separates the ear canal from the middle ear. Update Date 8/ ...

  15. Insertion in Persian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kambuziya, Aliyeh Kord-e Zafaranlu; Dehghan, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates epenthesis process in Persian to catch some results in relating to vowel and consonant insertion in Persian lexicon. This survey has a close relationship to the description of epenthetic consonants and the conditions in which these consonants are used. Since no word in Persian may begin with a vowel, so that hiatus can't be…

  16. Phanerochaete chrysosporium IBL-03 secretes high titers of manganese peroxidase during decolorization of Drimarine Blue K2RL textile dye.

    PubMed

    Noreen, Razia; Asgher, Muhammad; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Batool, Shaheera; Asad, Muhammad Javaid

    2011-01-01

    A novel indigenous strain, Phanerochaete chrysosporium IBL-03, with high manganese peroxidase (MnP) activities was used for decolorization of a reactive textile dye, Drimarine Blue K2R, which is used extensively in textile units of Pakistan. The initial experiment was run for seven days with 0.01% (w/v) dye solution prepared in Kirk's basal nutrient medium. Samples were removed after every 24 h and the extent of dye decolorization was determined at lambda(max) of the dye. The study revealed that P. chrysosporium caused 65% decolorization of Drimarine Blue K2RL in seven days. By process optimization, 97% colour removal could be achieved in three days using 0.005% (w/v) Drimarine Blue K2RL solution at pH 4.0 and 30 degrees C in defined Kirk's medium with 0.9% (w/v) molasses and 0.2% (w/v) ammonium dihydrogen phosphate added as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Manganese peroxidase was found to be the major enzyme (560 IU/mL) involved in dye decolorization of Drimarine Blue K2RL by P. chrysosporium. The dye adsorption studies showed that the dye initially adsorbed on fungal mats disappeared later on, possibly by the action of MnP secreted by the fungus in secondary metabolism.

  17. Beam test results of 3D silicon pixel sensors for future upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellist, C.; Gligorova, A.; Huse, T.; Pacifico, N.; Sandaker, H.

    2013-12-01

    3D silicon has undergone an intensive beam test programme which has resulted in the successful qualification for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) upgrade project to be installed in 2013-2014. This paper presents selected results from this study with a focus on the final IBL test beam of 2012 where IBL prototype sensors were investigated. 3D devices were studied with 4 GeV positrons at DESY and 120 GeV pions at the SPS at CERN. Measurements include tracking efficiency, charge sharing, time over threshold and cluster size distributions as a function of incident angle for IBL 3D design sensors. Studies of 3D silicon sensors in an anti-proton beam test for the AEgIS experiment are also presented.

  18. Inserts Automatically Lubricate Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Inserts on ball-separator ring of ball bearings provide continuous film of lubricant on ball surfaces. Inserts are machined or molded. Small inserts in ball pockets provide steady supply of lubricant. Technique is utilized on equipment for which maintenance is often poor and lubrication interval is uncertain, such as household appliances, automobiles, and marine engines.

  19. Characterization of purified and Xerogel immobilized Novel Lignin Peroxidase produced from Trametes versicolor IBL-04 using solid state medium of Corncobs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cost-effective production of industrially important enzymes is a key for their successful exploitation on industrial scale. Keeping in view the extensive industrial applications of lignin peroxidase (LiP), this study was performed to purify and characterize the LiP from an indigenous strain of Trametes versicolor IBL-04. Xerogel matrix enzyme immobilization technique was applied to improve the kinetic and thermo-stability characteristics of LiP to fulfil the requirements of the modern enzyme consumer sector of biotechnology. Results A novel LiP was isolated from an indigenous T. versicolor IBL-04 strain. T. versicolor IBL-04 was cultured in solid state fermentation (SSF) medium of corn cobs and maximum LiP activity of 592 ± 6 U/mL was recorded after five days of incubation under optimum culture conditions. The crude LiP was 3.3-fold purified with specific activity of 553 U/mg after passing through the DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex-G-100 chromatography columns. The purified LiP exhibited a relatively low molecular weight (30 kDa) homogenous single band on native and SDS-PAGE. The LiP was immobilized by entrapping in xerogel matrix of trimethoxysilane (TMOS) and proplytetramethoxysilane (PTMS) and maximum immobilization efficiency of 88.6% was achieved. The free and immobilized LiPs were characterized and the results showed that the free and immobilized LiPs had optimum pH 6 and 5 while optimum temperatures were 60°C and 80°C, respectively. Immobilization was found to enhance the activity and thermo-stability potential of LiP significantly and immobilized LiP remained stable over broad pH and temperature range as compare to free enzyme. Kinetic constants Km and Vmax were 70 and 56 μM and 588 and 417 U/mg for the free and immobilized LiPs, respectively. Activity of this novel extra thermo-stable LiP was stimulated to variable extents by Cu2+, Mn2+ and Fe2+ whereas, Cystein, EDTA and Ag+ showed inhibitory effects. Conclusions The indigenously

  20. Facility target insert shielding assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mocko, Michal

    2015-10-06

    Main objective of this report is to assess the basic shielding requirements for the vertical target insert and retrieval port. We used the baseline design for the vertical target insert in our calculations. The insert sits in the 12”-diameter cylindrical shaft extending from the service alley in the top floor of the facility all the way down to the target location. The target retrieval mechanism is a long rod with the target assembly attached and running the entire length of the vertical shaft. The insert also houses the helium cooling supply and return lines each with 2” diameter. In the present study we focused on calculating the neutron and photon dose rate fields on top of the target insert/retrieval mechanism in the service alley. Additionally, we studied a few prototypical configurations of the shielding layers in the vertical insert as well as on the top.

  1. Impedance calculation for ferrite inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Breitzmann, S.C.; Lee, S.Y.; Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    Passive ferrite inserts were used to compensate the space charge impedance in high intensity space charge dominated accelerators. They study the narrowband longitudinal impedance of these ferrite inserts. they find that the shunt impedance and the quality factor for ferrite inserts are inversely proportional to the imaginary part of the permeability of ferrite materials. They also provide a recipe for attaining a truly passive space charge impedance compensation and avoiding narrowband microwave instabilities.

  2. Sink Inserts for Flood Prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Fraser F.; Bodnar, Daniel J.; Hardesty, David L.

    2004-09-01

    A simple, inexpensive insert is described for preventing flooding in lab sinks. The insert is essentially a tube with slots cut into the side that fits snugly into the drain outlet, preventing water buildup and providing additional drainage sites to avoid constriction by small lab items and paper towels.

  3. Improvement of Catalytic Efficiency, Thermo-stability and Dye Decolorization Capability of Pleurotus ostreatus IBL-02 laccase by Hydrophobic Sol Gel Entrapment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In serious consideration of the worldwide environmental issues associated with the extensive use of the textile dyes and effluents generated thereof, the scientists across the world are in search for potential treatment technologies for their treatment. In such scenario the ligninolytic enzymes provide a potential alternative because they are cost effective, eco-friendly and can be applied to wide range of dye containing industrial effluents. Results Laccase produced from Pleurotus ostreatus IBL-02 during decolorization of the reactive textile dye Drimarene brilliant red K-4BL (DBR K-4BL) was purified and immobilized by hydrophobic gel entrapment. The crude laccase was 4.2-fold purified with specific activity of 573.52 U/mg after passing through the DEAE-Sepharose ion exchange and Sephadex-G-100 chromatography columns. P. ostreatus IBL-02 laccase was found to be a homogenous monomeric protein as evident by single band corresponding to 67 kDa on native and sodium dodesylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The laccase was immobilized by entrapment in Sol–gel matrix of trimethoxysilane (T) and proplytetramethoxysilane (P) prepared using different T:P molar ratios. The free and immobilized laccases were compared to investigate the effect of immobilization on catalytic efficiency and thermo-stability features. Laccase immobilized in the Sol–gel of 1:5 T:P ratio was optimally active and thermo-stable fraction at pH 5, 60°C with half-life of 3 h and 50 min. Laccases immobilized in 1:2 and 1:5 T:P ratio gels had significantly higher Km (83 and100mM) and Vmax (1000 and 1111 mM/mg) values as compared to free laccase. After 5 h reaction time varying decolorization percentages with a maximum of 100% were achieved for different dyes and effluents. Conclusions In summary, P. ostreatus IBL-02 laccase was immobilized by entrapping in a Sol–gel matrix with an objective to enhance its catalytic and stability properties. Sol–gel entrapped laccase

  4. Insertion devices for Doris III

    SciTech Connect

    Pfluger, J.; Heintze, G. ); Baran, W.; Fernow, D.; Kuntze, K. )

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the mechanical and magnetic layout of the first three insertion devices for DORIS III, an upgraded reconstruction of DORIS II, is described and results of the magnetic characterization are given as well.

  5. Tool Removes Coil-Spring Thread Inserts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Gerald J., Jr.; Swenson, Gary J.; Mcclellan, J. Scott

    1991-01-01

    Tool removes coil-spring thread inserts from threaded holes. Threads into hole, pries insert loose, grips insert, then pulls insert to thread it out of hole. Effects essentially reverse of insertion process to ease removal and avoid further damage to threaded inner surface of hole.

  6. Gene Insertion Patterns and Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vain, Philippe; Thole, Vera

    During the past 25 years, the molecular analysis of transgene insertion patterns and sites in plants has greatly contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms underlying transgene integration, expression, and stability in the nuclear genome. Molecular characterization is also an essential step in the safety assessment of genetically modified crops. This chapter describes the standard experimental procedures used to analyze transgene insertion patterns and loci in cereals and grasses transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens or direct transfer of DNA. Methods and protocols enabling the determination of the number and configuration of transgenic loci via a combination of inheritance studies, polymerase chain reaction, and Southern analyses are presented. The complete characterization of transgenic inserts in plants is, however, a holistic process relying on a wide variety of experimental approaches. In this chapter, these additional approaches are not detailed but references to relevant bibliographic records are provided.

  7. Evidence of a reduction reaction of oxidized iron/cobalt by boron atoms diffused toward naturally oxidized surface of CoFeB layer during annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Soshi Honjo, Hiroaki; Niwa, Masaaki; Ikeda, Shoji; Ohno, Hideo; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2015-04-06

    We have investigated the redox reaction on the surface of Ta/CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junction stack samples after annealing at 300, 350, and 400 °C for 1 h using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for precise analysis of the chemical bonding states. At a capping tantalum layer thickness of 1 nm, both the capping tantalum layer and the surface of the underneath CoFeB layer in the as-deposited stack sample were naturally oxidized. By comparison of the Co 2p and Fe 2p spectra among the as-deposited and annealed samples, reduction of the naturally oxidized cobalt and iron atoms occurred on the surface of the CoFeB layer. The reduction reaction was more significant at higher annealing temperature. Oxidized cobalt and iron were reduced by boron atoms that diffused toward the surface of the top CoFeB layer. A single CoFeB layer was prepared on SiO{sub 2}, and a confirmatory evidence of the redox reaction with boron diffusion was obtained by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the naturally oxidized surface of the CoFeB single layer after annealing. The redox reaction is theoretically reasonable based on the Ellingham diagram.

  8. Insertion device calculations with mathematica

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, R.; Lidia, S.

    1995-02-01

    The design of accelerator insertion devices such as wigglers and undulators has usually been aided by numerical modeling on digital computers, using code in high level languages like Fortran. In the present era, there are higher level programming environments like IDL{reg_sign}, MatLab{reg_sign}, and Mathematica{reg_sign} in which these calculations may be performed by writing much less code, and in which standard mathematical techniques are very easily used. The authors present a suite of standard insertion device modeling routines in Mathematica to illustrate the new techniques. These routines include a simple way to generate magnetic fields using blocks of CSEM materials, trajectory solutions from the Lorentz force equations for given magnetic fields, Bessel function calculations of radiation for wigglers and undulators and general radiation calculations for undulators.

  9. Shoe Inserts and Prescription Custom Orthotics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feet » Foot Health Information Shoe Inserts and Prescription Custom Orthotics What are Shoe Inserts? You've seen ... hold on to your receipt.) What are Prescription Custom Orthotics? Custom orthotics are specially-made devices designed ...

  10. Field errors in hybrid insertion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    Hybrid magnet theory as applied to the error analyses used in the design of Advanced Light Source (ALS) insertion devices is reviewed. Sources of field errors in hybrid insertion devices are discussed.

  11. Insert metering plates for gas turbine nozzles

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven S.; Itzel, Gary; Chopra, Sanjay; Abuaf, Nesim; Correia, Victor H.

    2004-05-11

    The invention comprises a metering plate which is assembled to an impingement insert for use in the nozzle of a gas turbine. The metering plate can have one or more metering holes and is used to balance the cooling flow within the nozzle. A metering plate with multiple holes reduces static pressure variations which result from the cooling airflow through the metering plate. The metering plate can be assembled to the insert before or after the insert is inserted into the nozzle.

  12. Analysis of inserts in prokaryote genomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristea, Paul Dan; Tuduce, Rodica Aurora

    2008-02-01

    Nucleotide genomic signals satisfy regularities that reveal restrictions in the distribution of nucleotides and pairs of nucleotides along DNA sequences. Structurally, a chromosome appears to be more than a plain text, by satisfying symmetry constrains that evoke the rhythm and rhyme in poems. These regularities make it easy to identify exogenous inserts in the genomes of prokaryotes, because such inserts obey different regularities than the background sequence. The paper presents instances of inserts found in the genomes of Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other prokaryotes. Inserts of exogenous material are frequently accompanied by complementary inserts tending to restore the original constrains.

  13. Quench Module Insert (QMI) and the Diffusion Module Insert (DMI) Furnace Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, Myscha; Carswell, William; Farmer, Jeff; Rose, Fred; Tidwell, Paul

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents, in viewgraph form, QMI (Quench Module Insert) and DMI (Diffusion Module Insert) furnace development. The topics include: 1) Furnace Module in Rack; 2) Quench Module Insert; 3) QMI in MSL Core; 4) Diffusion Module Insert; 5) QMI; and 6) QMI Development and Testing.

  14. Mars Observer Orbit Insertion Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Steve Wall is the host of this video entitled, "Return to the Red Planet". Live animation of the Mars Observer orbiting Mars is presented. Steve Wall explains the spacecraft insertion maneuver and also explains the purpose for the Mars Observer launch. Live coverage of the Cape Canaveral launch of the Mars Observer is also presented. Suzanne Dodd, Chief of the Mission Planning team describes the burn start and how the spacecraft will be captured by Mars' gravity. Glenn Cunningham, Mars Observer Project Manager, gives background information on the Mars Observer and describes the organizations behind the Mars Observer Spacecraft, such as the Deep Space Network, the Mission Operation Support Office, Science Investigators, the Flight Engineering Office, Operations Office, and the Ground Data System Office. Dr. William Piotrowski, Acting Director, Solar System Exploration Division, NASA, talks about the purpose of the Mars Pathfinder which is to develop the technology and systems for landing small science packages on Mars. Mr. Roger Gibbs, Former Mars Observer Spacecraft Systems Engineer, tells us how the Mars Observer was built and describes the structural elements on the Mars Observer. The 11-month cruise period for the spacecraft is given by Joseph Beerer, Manager of the Engineering office. The thrust for the Mars Orbit Insertion is described by Ronald Klemetson, Technical Manager, Propulsion Subsystem Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). George Chen, Lead Engineer Attitude and Articulation Subsystem Spacecraft Team, explains the importance of the attitude control engines on the Spacecraft. Marvin Traxler, Manager of Tracking and Data Acquisition, describes how searching for a signal from the Mars Observer works. See NONP-NASA-VT-2000081555 for a continuation of this discussion with Marvin Traxler.

  15. Frictional insertion kinetics of bone biopsy needles.

    PubMed

    Heiner, A D; Brown, T D; Rossin, V; Buckwalter, J A

    2001-12-01

    Patients undergoing a percutaneous bone biopsy often complain of pain during needle insertion, despite local anesthesia. Bone biopsy needles are typically inserted with combined axial and twisting motions. These motions could cause pain through frictional heating or direct mechanical irritation. The hypothesis of this study is that the insertion energy of bone biopsy needles can be reduced by modifying the insertion kinetics or by adding a friction-lowering coating to the needles. Jamshidi bone biopsy needles were driven into a bone analog model by an MTS materials testing machine operating under axial and rotational displacement control. The load/torque recordings showed that, to significantly decrease insertion energy and peak resistance to needle insertion, axial velocity and angular frequency had to be decreased to one quarter of the baseline, typical-usage parameters. However the increased insertion time may not be acceptable clinically. The majority of the insertion energy was associated with the needle axial thrust rather than with needle twisting. Overcoming friction against the side of the needle consumed much more of the insertion energy than did the process of cutting per se. None of five needle coatings tested succeeded in appreciably lowering the insertion energy, and none achieved a substantial decrease in peak resisting force.

  16. Transoesophageal echocardiography and central line insertion.

    PubMed

    Chaney, Mark A; Minhaj, Mohammed M; Patel, Komal; Muzic, David

    2007-07-01

    We investigated the potential utility of transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) in facilitating central venous catheter (CVC) insertion in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Thirty five patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery and CVC insertion were prospectively included in the observational, single-centre clinical investigation. Following induction of general anaesthesia and tracheal intubation, the TOE probe was inserted and the bicaval view obtained prior to CVC insertion (site at discretion of the anaesthesiologist). Prospectively collected data included site and sequence of CVC insertion attempts, information regarding ease of guidewire insertion, whether or not guidewire was visualized via TOE, and other pertinent information. In 1 patient, the TOE bicaval view could not be readily obtained because of right atrial (RA) distortion. In 31 patients, the TOE bicaval view was obtained and CVC access was successful at the site of first choice (guidewire visualized in all). Three patients had noteworthy CVC insertions. In one, CVC insertion was difficult despite visualization ofguidewire in the RA. In another, multiple guidewire insertions met with substantial resistance and without visualization of guidewire in the RA. One patient was found to have an unanticipated large mobile superior vena cava thrombus that extended into the RA, which changed clinical management by prompting initial CVC insertion into the femoral vein (potentially avoiding morbidity associated with thrombus dislodgement). Our prospective observational clinical study indicates that routine use of TOE during CVC insertion may help avoid potential complications associated with this intervention. If both CVC insertion and TOE are going to be used in the same patient, the benefits of TOE should be maximized by routine visualization of the bicaval view during guidewire insertion.

  17. Nozzle insert for mixed mode fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, Keith E.

    2006-11-21

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by first and second needle valve members. The homogeneous charged nozzle outlet set is defined by a nozzle insert that is attached to an injector body, which defines the conventional nozzle outlet set. The nozzle insert is a one piece metallic component with a large diameter segment separated from a small diameter segment by an annular engagement surface. One of the needle valve members is guided on an outer surface of the nozzle insert, and the nozzle insert has an interference fit attachment to the injector body.

  18. Mars Observer Orbit Insertion Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    For the first part of this briefing, see NONP-NASA-VT-2000081556. Marvin Traxler continues his discussion on signal tracking from the Mars Observer. Julie Webster, Lead Engineer, Telecommunications Subsystem, is introduced. She explains how signals coming back from Mars are detected. Dr. Pasquale Esposito talks about flyby orbits and capture orbits. He says that frequencies coming from the spacecraft can determine if the spacecraft has flown by Mars, or if a capture orbit has occurred. Charles Whetsel, System Engineer Spacecraft Team, presents a computer program. He shows where the signal will appear on the computer from the Spacecraft. Suzanne Dodd presents orbit insertion geometry. Dr. Arden Albee, Project Scientist Mars Observer Project, Cal Tech tech, says that Mars is studied to get more data to confirm their hypotheses derived from previous Mars Missions such as the Viking Mars Program and the Mariner Program. Dr. Albee also describes instrumentation on the Mars Observer such as the Ultra Stable Oscillator, Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, and Magnetometer. The camera on the spacecraft is similar to a fax machine because it scans one line at a time as the spacecraft orbits Mars. Dr. Michael Malin, Principle Investigator Mars Observer Camera, Malin Space Science Systems, Inc., describe this process.

  19. Corrigendum to "High-ohmic resistors fabricated by PureB layer for silicon drift detectors applications" [Solid State Electron. 105 (2015) 6-11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golshani, Negin; Derakhshandeh, Jaber; Beenakker, C. I. M.; Ishihara, R.

    2016-05-01

    In a journal publication "High-ohmic resistors fabricated by PureB layer for silicon drift detectors applications" by Negin Golshani; Jaber Derakhshandeh; C.I.M. Beenakker; R. Ishihara; published in Solid State Electronics, vol. 105, pp. 6-11, in 2015, an error occurred in the references by omitting the paper published by N. Golshani, et al., in the Proceedings of European Solid-State Device Research Conference (ESSDERC) in 2013 [1]. We apologize for any inconvenience caused. We also apologize for not properly acknowledging the contributions of Drs. L.K. Nanver, V. Mohammadi, and S. Ramesh to the first part of this research.

  20. Turbine vane segment and impingement insert configuration for fail-safe impingement insert retention

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian; Kellock, Iain Robertson

    2003-05-13

    An impingement insert sleeve is provided that is adapted to be disposed in a coolant cavity defined through a stator vane. The insert has a generally open inlet end and first and second pairs of diametrically opposed side walls, and at least one fail-safe tab defined at a longitudinal end of the insert for limiting radial displacement of the insert with respect to the stator vane.

  1. Thrust improvement with ablative insert nozzle extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, R. M.; Back, L. H.

    1986-01-01

    Aspects are examined of an investigation by the Marshall Space Flight Center into the conceptual feasibility of increasing the thrust performance of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) by using a conical nozzle extension fitted with an ablative insert in order to achieve a low-cost, near-term gain in payload. The ablating insert would provide a controlled increase in nozzle expansion ratio during launch and early climbout (first 30-60 seconds) so as to reduce thrust loss from nozzle over-expansion in the lower atmosphere. Summaries are given of JPL studies in the area of: defining the near-wall flow environment in the extended nozzle insert region; selecting potential insert materials; conceptualizing an extension/insert geometrical configuration; and identifying future experimental efforts necessary to verify the feasibility of the concepts.

  2. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N; Smirnov, Alexandre

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  3. A Simple Kinetic Model for the Growth of Fe2B Layers on AISI 1026 Steel During the Powder-pack Boriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Rentería, M. A.; Ortiz-Domínguez, M.; Keddam, M.; Damián-Mejía, O.; Elias-Espinosa, M.; Flores-González, M. A.; Medina-Moreno, S. A.; Cruz-Avilés, A.; Villanueva-Ibañez, M.

    2015-02-01

    This work focused on the determination of boron diffusion coefficient through the Fe2B layers on AISI 1026 steel using a mathematical model. The suggested model solves the mass balance equation at the (Fe2B/substrate) interface. This thermochemical treatment was carried out in the temperature range of 1123-1273 K for a treatment time ranging from 2 to 8 h. The generated boride layers were characterized by different experimental techniques such as light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, XRD analysis and the Daimler-Benz Rockwell-C indentation technique. As a result, the boron activation energy for AISI 1026 steel was estimated as 178.4 kJ/mol. Furthermore, this kinetic model was validated by comparing the experimental Fe2B layer thickness with the predicted one at a temperature of 1253 K for 5 h of treatment. A contour diagram relating the layer thickness to the boriding parameters was proposed to be used in practical applications.

  4. Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Russell B; Krueger, Judson J; Plank, William L

    2014-04-01

    A sequential impingement cooling insert for a turbine stator vane that forms a double impingement for the pressure and suction sides of the vane or a triple impingement. The insert is formed from a sheet metal formed in a zigzag shape that forms a series of alternating impingement cooling channels with return air channels, where pressure side and suction side impingement cooling plates are secured over the zigzag shaped main piece. Another embodiment includes the insert formed from one or two blocks of material in which the impingement channels and return air channels are machined into each block.

  5. Insertion Profiles of 4 Headless Compression Screws

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Adam; Harvey, Edward J.; Lefebvre, Louis-Philippe; Barthelat, Francois; Rabiei, Reza; Martineau, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In practice, the surgeon must rely on screw position (insertion depth) and tactile feedback from the screwdriver (insertion torque) to gauge compression. In this study, we identified the relationship between interfragmentary compression and these 2 factors. Methods The Acutrak Standard, Acutrak Mini, Synthes 3.0, and Herbert-Whipple implants were tested using a polyurethane foam scaphoid model. A specialized testing jig simultaneously measured compression force, insertion torque, and insertion depth at half-screw-turn intervals until failure occurred. Results The peak compression occurs at an insertion depth of −3.1 mm, −2.8 mm, 0.9 mm, and 1.5 mm for the Acutrak Mini, Acutrak Standard, Herbert-Whipple, and Synthes screws respectively (insertion depth is positive when the screw is proud above the bone and negative when buried). The compression and insertion torque at a depth of −2 mm were found to be 113 ± 18 N and 0.348 ± 0.052 Nm for the Acutrak Standard, 104 ± 15 N and 0.175 ± 0.008 Nm for the Acutrak Mini, 78 ± 9 N and 0.245 ± 0.006 Nm for the Herbert-Whipple, and 67 ± 2N, 0.233 ± 0.010 Nm for the Synthes headless compression screws. Conclusions All 4 screws generated a sizable amount of compression (> 60 N) over a wide range of insertion depths. The compression at the commonly recommended insertion depth of −2 mm was not significantly different between screws; thus, implant selection should not be based on compression profile alone. Conically shaped screws (Acutrak) generated their peak compression when they were fully buried in the foam whereas the shanked screws (Synthes and Herbert-Whipple) reached peak compression before they were fully inserted. Because insertion torque correlated poorly with compression, surgeons should avoid using tactile judgment of torque as a proxy for compression. Clinical relevance Knowledge of the insertion profile may improve our understanding of the implants, provide a better basis for comparing screws

  6. Elliptically polarizing adjustable phase insertion device

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Roger

    1995-01-01

    An insertion device for extracting polarized electromagnetic energy from a beam of particles is disclosed. The insertion device includes four linear arrays of magnets which are aligned with the particle beam. The magnetic field strength to which the particles are subjected is adjusted by altering the relative alignment of the arrays in a direction parallel to that of the particle beam. Both the energy and polarization of the extracted energy may be varied by moving the relevant arrays parallel to the beam direction. The present invention requires a substantially simpler and more economical superstructure than insertion devices in which the magnetic field strength is altered by changing the gap between arrays of magnets.

  7. Sequential cooling insert for turbine stator vane

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Russel B; Krueger, Judson J; Plank, William L

    2014-11-04

    A sequential impingement cooling insert for a turbine stator vane that forms a double impingement for the pressure and suction sides of the vane or a triple impingement. The insert is formed from a sheet metal formed in a zigzag shape that forms a series of alternating impingement cooling channels with return air channels, where pressure side and suction side impingement cooling plates are secured over the zigzag shaped main piece. Another embodiment includes the insert formed from one or two blocks of material in which the impingement channels and return air channels are machined into each block.

  8. Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.

  9. Efficient instruction sequencing with Inline Target Insertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Wen-Mei W.; Chang, Pohua P.

    1992-01-01

    Inline target insertion, a specific compiler and pipeline implementation method for delayed branches with squashing, is defined. The method is shown to offer two important features not discovered in previous studies. First, branches inserted into branch slots are correctly executed. Second, the execution returns correctly from interrupts or exceptions with only one program counter. These two features result in better performance and less software/hardware complexity than conventional delayed branching mechanisms.

  10. Shrink-Fit Solderable Inserts Seal Hermetically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croucher, William C.

    1992-01-01

    Shrink-fit stainless-steel insert in aluminum equipment housing allows electrical connectors to be replaced by soldering, without degrading hermeticity of housing or connector. Welding could destroy electrostatic-sensitive components and harm housing and internal cables. Steel insert avoids problems because connector soldered directly to it rather than welded to housing. Seals between flange and housing, and between connector and flange resistant to leaks, even after mechanical overloading and thermal shocking.

  11. Rectal suppository: commonsense and mode of insertion.

    PubMed

    Abd-el-Maeboud, K H; el-Naggar, T; el-Hawi, E M; Mahmoud, S A; Abd-el-Hay, S

    1991-09-28

    Rectal suppository is a well-known form of medication and its use is increasing. The commonest shape is one with an apex (pointed end) tapering to a base (blunt end). Because of a general lack of information about mode of insertion, we asked 360 lay subjects (Egyptians and non-Egyptians) and 260 medical personnel (physicians, pharmacists, and nurses) by questionnaire which end they inserted foremost. Apart from 2 individuals, all subjects suggested insertion with the apex foremost. Commonsense was the most frequent basis for this practice (86.9% of lay subjects and 84.6% of medical personnel) followed by information from a relative, a friend, or medical personnel, or from study at medical school. Suppository insertion with the base or apex foremost was compared in 100 subjects (60 adults, 40 infants and children). Retention with the former method was more easily achieved in 98% of the cases, with no need to introduce a finger in the anal canal (1% vs 83%), and lower expulsion rate (0% vs 3%). The designer of the "torpedo-shaped" suppository suggested its insertion with apex foremost. Our data suggest that a suppository is better inserted with the base foremost. Reversed vermicular contractions or pressure gradient of the anal canal might press it inwards.

  12. Earth boring tool with improved inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, H.; Scales, S.

    1980-07-08

    A description is given of an improved earth boring tool of the type having at least one sintered tungsten carbide insert with a substantially cylindrical retaining surface interferringly secured to the wall of a retaining hole, the improvement comprising said retaining surface roughened such that in any lineal increment of at least 010 inch, there are at least three asperities at least 0.001 in ch long and at least 0.00005 inch deep when measured with a stylus point with a 0.00005 inch radius. An improved method of retaining tungsten carbide inserts in an earth boring tool, said method comprising the steps of: drilling and reaming a plurality of holes in selected locations on the earth boring tool; sintering a plurality of tungsten carbide inserts with a binder selected from the group consisting of cobalt, nickel or iron; grinding a substantially cylindrical wall surface on the inserts that are nominally larger in diameter than the drilled and reamed holes; roughening the wall surface of the inserts such that any lineal increment of at least 0.010 inch has at least three asperities which are at least 0.001 inch long and at least 00005 inch deep when measured with a stylus point with a 0.00005 inch radius; and forcing the inserts interferringly into the mating drilled and reamed holes.

  13. Strength of inserts in titanium alloy machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, V.; Huang, Z.; Zhang, J.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a stressed state of a non-worn cutting wedge in a machined titanium alloy (Ti6Al2Mo2Cr) is analyzed. The distribution of contact loads on the face of a cutting tool was obtained experimentally with the use of a ‘split cutting tool’. Calculation of internal stresses in the indexable insert made from cemented carbide (WC8Co) was carried out with the help of ANSYS 14.0 software. Investigations showed that a small thickness of the cutting insert leads to extremely high compressive stresses near the cutting edge, stresses that exceed the ultimate compressive strength of cemented carbide. The face and the base of the insert experience high tensile stresses, which approach the ultimate tensile strength of cemented carbide and increase a probability of cutting insert destruction. If the thickness of the cutting insert is bigger than 5 mm, compressive stresses near the cutting edge decrease, and tensile stresses on the face and base decrease to zero. The dependences of the greatest normal and tangential stresses on thickness of the cutting insert were found. Abbreviation and symbols: m/s - meter per second (cutting speed v); mm/r - millimeter per revolution (feed rate f); MPa - mega Pascal (dimension of specific contact loads and stresses); γ - rake angle of the cutting tool [°] α - clearance angle of the sharp cutting tool [°].

  14. The Basques according to polymorphic Alu insertions.

    PubMed

    de Pancorbo, M M; López-Martínez, M; Martínez-Bouzas, C; Castro, A; Fernández-Fernández, I; de Mayolo, G A; de Mayolo, A A; de Mayolo, P A; Rowold, D J; Herrera, R J

    2001-08-01

    Polymorphic Alu insertions provide a set of DNA markers of interest in human population genetics. Approximately 1000-2000 of these insertions have not reached fixation within the human genome. Each one of these polymorphic loci most probably resulted from a unique insertional event, and therefore all individuals possessing the insertion are related by descent not just state. In addition, the direction of mutational change is toward the gain of the Alu element at a particular locus. Therefore, the improved knowledge of both the ancestral state and the direction of mutational change greatly facilitates the analysis of population relationships. As a result, Alu insertion polymorphisms represent a significant tool for population genetic studies. In this study, polymorphic Alu insertions have been employed to ascertain phylogenetic relationships among Basque groups and worldwide populations. The Basques are considered to be a geographic isolate with a unique language and customs. They may be direct descendants of Cro-Magnon enclaves from the upper Paleolithic (38,000 to 10,000 years). The Basques are distributed among narrow valleys in northeastern Spain with little migration between them until recently. This characteristic may have had an effect on allelic frequency distributions. With the aim of studying this possible effect, we have analyzed six autosomal polymorphic Alu loci from four different sites within the Spanish Basque region in order to ascertain any genetic heterogeneity among the Basques. The results are consistent with a lack of homogeneity among these four autochthonous Basque groups.

  15. The Basques according to polymorphic Alu insertions.

    PubMed

    de Pancorbo, M M; López-Martínez, M; Martínez-Bouzas, C; Castro, A; Fernández-Fernández, I; de Mayolo, G A; de Mayolo, A A; de Mayolo, P A; Rowold, D J; Herrera, R J

    2001-08-01

    Polymorphic Alu insertions provide a set of DNA markers of interest in human population genetics. Approximately 1000-2000 of these insertions have not reached fixation within the human genome. Each one of these polymorphic loci most probably resulted from a unique insertional event, and therefore all individuals possessing the insertion are related by descent not just state. In addition, the direction of mutational change is toward the gain of the Alu element at a particular locus. Therefore, the improved knowledge of both the ancestral state and the direction of mutational change greatly facilitates the analysis of population relationships. As a result, Alu insertion polymorphisms represent a significant tool for population genetic studies. In this study, polymorphic Alu insertions have been employed to ascertain phylogenetic relationships among Basque groups and worldwide populations. The Basques are considered to be a geographic isolate with a unique language and customs. They may be direct descendants of Cro-Magnon enclaves from the upper Paleolithic (38,000 to 10,000 years). The Basques are distributed among narrow valleys in northeastern Spain with little migration between them until recently. This characteristic may have had an effect on allelic frequency distributions. With the aim of studying this possible effect, we have analyzed six autosomal polymorphic Alu loci from four different sites within the Spanish Basque region in order to ascertain any genetic heterogeneity among the Basques. The results are consistent with a lack of homogeneity among these four autochthonous Basque groups. PMID:11511929

  16. Z-2 Threaded Insert Design and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy; Rhodes, Richard; Jones, Robert J.; Graziosi, David; Ferl, Jinny; Sweeny, Mitch; Scarborough, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit contains several components fabricated from an advanced hybrid composite laminate consisting of IM10 carbon fiber and fiber glass. One requirement was to have removable, replaceable helicoil inserts to which other suit components would be fastened. An approach utilizing bonded in inserts with helicoils inside of them was implemented. During initial assembly, cracking sounds were heard followed by the lifting of one of the blind inserts out of its hole when the screws were torqued. A failure investigation was initiated to understand the mechanism of the failure. Ultimately, it was determined that the pre-tension caused by torqueing the fasteners is a much larger force than induced from the pressure loads of the suit which was not considered in the insert design. Bolt tension is determined by dividing the torque on the screw by a k value multiplied by the thread diameter of the bolt. The k value is a factor that accounts for friction in the system. A common value used for k for a non-lubricated screw is 0.2. The k value can go down by as much as 0.1 if the screw is lubricated which means for the same torque, a much larger tension could be placed on the bolt and insert. This paper summarizes the failure investigation that was performed to identify the root cause of the suit failure and details how the insert design was modified to resist a higher pull out tension.

  17. Rectal suppository: commonsense and mode of insertion.

    PubMed

    Abd-el-Maeboud, K H; el-Naggar, T; el-Hawi, E M; Mahmoud, S A; Abd-el-Hay, S

    1991-09-28

    Rectal suppository is a well-known form of medication and its use is increasing. The commonest shape is one with an apex (pointed end) tapering to a base (blunt end). Because of a general lack of information about mode of insertion, we asked 360 lay subjects (Egyptians and non-Egyptians) and 260 medical personnel (physicians, pharmacists, and nurses) by questionnaire which end they inserted foremost. Apart from 2 individuals, all subjects suggested insertion with the apex foremost. Commonsense was the most frequent basis for this practice (86.9% of lay subjects and 84.6% of medical personnel) followed by information from a relative, a friend, or medical personnel, or from study at medical school. Suppository insertion with the base or apex foremost was compared in 100 subjects (60 adults, 40 infants and children). Retention with the former method was more easily achieved in 98% of the cases, with no need to introduce a finger in the anal canal (1% vs 83%), and lower expulsion rate (0% vs 3%). The designer of the "torpedo-shaped" suppository suggested its insertion with apex foremost. Our data suggest that a suppository is better inserted with the base foremost. Reversed vermicular contractions or pressure gradient of the anal canal might press it inwards. PMID:1681170

  18. Specificity of Transposon Tn5 Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Douglas E.; Schmandt, Margaret A.; Lowe, John B.

    1983-01-01

    Genetic mapping studies had shown that the bacterial transposon Tn5 can insert into many sites in a gene, but that some sites are preferred. To begin understanding Tn5's insertion specificity at the molecular level, we selected transpositions of Tn5 from the Escherichia coli chromosome to the plasmid pBR322 and analyzed the resultant pBR322::Tn5 plasmids by restriction endonuclease digestion and DNA sequencing. Seventy-five insertions in the tet gene were found at 28 sites including one major hotspot (with 21 insertions) and four lesser hotspots (with four to ten insertions each). All five hotspots are within the first 300 of the 1250-base pair (bp) tet gene. In contrast, 31 independent insertions in the amp gene were found in at least 27 distinct sites.—Tn5 generates 9 bp target sequence duplications when it transposes. Such transposon-induced duplications are generally taken to indicate that cleavages of complementary target DNA strands are made 9 bp apart during transposition. DNA sequence analysis indicated that GC base pairs occupy positions 1 and 9 in the duplications at each of the five hotspots examined, suggesting a GC-cutting preference during Tn5 transposition. PMID:6315531

  19. Cancer gene discovery: exploiting insertional mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ranzani, Marco; Annunziato, Stefano; Adams, David J.; Montini, Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    Insertional mutagenesis has been utilized as a functional forward genetics screen for the identification of novel genes involved in the pathogenesis of human cancers. Different insertional mutagens have been successfully used to reveal new cancer genes. For example, retroviruses (RVs) are integrating viruses with the capacity to induce the deregulation of genes in the neighborhood of the insertion site. RVs have been employed for more than 30 years to identify cancer genes in the hematopoietic system and mammary gland. Similarly, another tool that has revolutionized cancer gene discovery is the cut-and-paste transposons. These DNA elements have been engineered to contain strong promoters and stop cassettes that may function to perturb gene expression upon integration proximal to genes. In addition, complex mouse models characterized by tissue-restricted activity of transposons have been developed to identify oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes that control the development of a wide range of solid tumor types, extending beyond those tissues accessible using RV-based approaches. Most recently, lentiviral vectors (LVs) have appeared on the scene for use in cancer gene screens. LVs are replication defective integrating vectors that have the advantage of being able to infect non-dividing cells, in a wide range of cell types and tissues. In this review, we describe the various insertional mutagens focusing on their advantages/limitations and we discuss the new and promising tools that will improve the insertional mutagenesis screens of the future. PMID:23928056

  20. Nozzle cavity impingement/area reduction insert

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Yufeng Phillip; Itzel, Gary Michael; Osgood, Sarah Jane

    2002-01-01

    A turbine vane segment is provided that has inner and outer walls spaced from one another, a vane extending between the inner and outer walls and having leading and trailing edges and pressure and suction sides, the vane including discrete leading edge, intermediate, aft and trailing edge cavities between the leading and trailing edges and extending lengthwise of the vane for flowing a cooling medium; and an insert sleeve within at least one of the cavities and spaced from interior wall surfaces thereof. The insert sleeve has an inlet for flowing the cooling medium into the insert sleeve and has impingement holes defined in first and second walls thereof that respectively face the pressure and suction sides of the vane. The impingement holes of at least one of those first and second walls are defined along substantially only a first, upstream portion thereof, whereby the cooling flow is predominantly impingement cooling along a first region of the insert wall corresponding to the first, upstream portion and the cooling flow is predominantly convective cooling along a second region corresponding to a second, downstream portion of the at least one wall of the insert sleeve.

  1. Sensing Membrane Stresses by Protein Insertions

    PubMed Central

    Campelo, Felix; Kozlov, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    Protein domains shallowly inserting into the membrane matrix are ubiquitous in peripheral membrane proteins involved in various processes of intracellular membrane shaping and remodeling. It has been suggested that these domains sense membrane curvature through their preferable binding to strongly curved membranes, the binding mechanism being mediated by lipid packing defects. Here we make an alternative statement that shallow protein insertions are universal sensors of the intra-membrane stresses existing in the region of the insertion embedding rather than sensors of the curvature per se. We substantiate this proposal computationally by considering different independent ways of the membrane stress generation among which some include changes of the membrane curvature whereas others do not alter the membrane shape. Our computations show that the membrane-binding coefficient of shallow protein insertions is determined by the resultant stress independently of the way this stress has been produced. By contrast, consideration of the correlation between the insertion binding and the membrane curvature demonstrates that the binding coefficient either increases or decreases with curvature depending on the factors leading to the curvature generation. To validate our computational model, we treat quantitatively the experimental results on membrane binding by ALPS1 and ALPS2 motifs of ArfGAP1. PMID:24722359

  2. Membrane Protein Insertion at the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Sichen; Hegde, Ramanujan S.

    2014-01-01

    Integral membrane proteins of the cell surface and most intracellular compartments of eukaryotic cells are assembled at the endoplasmic reticulum. Two highly conserved and parallel pathways mediate membrane protein targeting to and insertion into this organelle. The classical cotranslational pathway, utilized by most membrane proteins, involves targeting by the signal recognition particle followed by insertion via the Sec61 translocon. A more specialized posttranslational pathway, employed by many tail-anchored membrane proteins, is composed of entirely different factors centered around a cytosolic ATPase termed TRC40 or Get3. Both of these pathways overcome the same biophysical challenges of ferrying hydrophobic cargo through an aqueous milieu, selectively delivering it to one among several intracellular membranes and asymmetrically integrating its transmembrane domain(s) into the lipid bilayer. Here, we review the conceptual and mechanistic themes underlying these core membrane protein insertion pathways, the complexities that challenge our understanding, and future directions to over-come these obstacles. PMID:21801011

  3. Elliptically polarizing adjustable phase insertion device

    DOEpatents

    Carr, R.

    1995-01-17

    An insertion device for extracting polarized electromagnetic energy from a beam of particles is disclosed. The insertion device includes four linear arrays of magnets which are aligned with the particle beam. The magnetic field strength to which the particles are subjected is adjusted by altering the relative alignment of the arrays in a direction parallel to that of the particle beam. Both the energy and polarization of the extracted energy may be varied by moving the relevant arrays parallel to the beam direction. The present invention requires a substantially simpler and more economical superstructure than insertion devices in which the magnetic field strength is altered by changing the gap between arrays of magnets. 3 figures.

  4. Rack Insertion End Effector (RIEE) automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malladi, Narasimha

    1993-01-01

    NASA is developing a mechanism to manipulate and insert Racks into the Space Station Logistic modules. The mechanism consists of the following: a base with three motorized degrees of freedom, a 3 section motorized boom that goes from 15 to 44 feet in length, and a Rack Insertion End Effector (RIEE) with 5 hand wheels for precise alignment. The robotics section was tasked with the automation of the RIEE unit. In this report, for the automation of the RIEE unit, application of the Perceptics Vision System was conceptually developed to determine the position and orientation of the RIEE relative to the logistic module, and a MathCad program is written to display the needed displacements for precise alignment and final insertion of the Rack. The uniqueness of this report is that the whole report is in fact a MathCad program including text, derivations, and executable equations with example inputs and outputs.

  5. Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals

    PubMed Central

    Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Baertsch, Robert; Zemann, Anja; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    One and a half centuries after Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace outlined our current understanding of evolution, a new scientific era is dawning that enables direct observations of genetic variation. However, pure sequence-based molecular attempts to resolve the basal origin of placental mammals have so far resulted only in apparently conflicting hypotheses. By contrast, in the mammalian genomes where they were highly active, the insertion of retroelements and their comparative insertion patterns constitute a neutral, virtually homoplasy-free archive of evolutionary histories. The “presence” of a retroelement at an orthologous genomic position in two species indicates their common ancestry in contrast to its “absence” in more distant species. To resolve the placental origin controversy we extracted ∼2 million potentially phylogenetically informative, retroposon-containing loci from representatives of the major placental mammalian lineages and found highly significant evidence challenging all current single hypotheses of their basal origin. The Exafroplacentalia hypothesis (Afrotheria as the sister group to all remaining placentals) is significantly supported by five retroposon insertions, the Epitheria hypothesis (Xenarthra as the sister group to all remaining placentals) by nine insertion patterns, and the Atlantogenata hypothesis (a monophyletic clade comprising Xenarthra and Afrotheria as the sister group to Boreotheria comprising all remaining placentals) by eight insertion patterns. These findings provide significant support for a “soft” polytomy of the major mammalian clades. Ancestral successive hybridization events and/or incomplete lineage sorting associated with short speciation intervals are viable explanations for the mosaic retroposon insertion patterns of recent placental mammals and for the futile search for a clear root dichotomy. PMID:19261842

  6. Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Baertsch, Robert; Zemann, Anja; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2009-05-01

    One and a half centuries after Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace outlined our current understanding of evolution, a new scientific era is dawning that enables direct observations of genetic variation. However, pure sequence-based molecular attempts to resolve the basal origin of placental mammals have so far resulted only in apparently conflicting hypotheses. By contrast, in the mammalian genomes where they were highly active, the insertion of retroelements and their comparative insertion patterns constitute a neutral, virtually homoplasy-free archive of evolutionary histories. The "presence" of a retroelement at an orthologous genomic position in two species indicates their common ancestry in contrast to its "absence" in more distant species. To resolve the placental origin controversy we extracted approximately 2 million potentially phylogenetically informative, retroposon-containing loci from representatives of the major placental mammalian lineages and found highly significant evidence challenging all current single hypotheses of their basal origin. The Exafroplacentalia hypothesis (Afrotheria as the sister group to all remaining placentals) is significantly supported by five retroposon insertions, the Epitheria hypothesis (Xenarthra as the sister group to all remaining placentals) by nine insertion patterns, and the Atlantogenata hypothesis (a monophyletic clade comprising Xenarthra and Afrotheria as the sister group to Boreotheria comprising all remaining placentals) by eight insertion patterns. These findings provide significant support for a "soft" polytomy of the major mammalian clades. Ancestral successive hybridization events and/or incomplete lineage sorting associated with short speciation intervals are viable explanations for the mosaic retroposon insertion patterns of recent placental mammals and for the futile search for a clear root dichotomy. PMID:19261842

  7. Mosaic retroposon insertion patterns in placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Baertsch, Robert; Zemann, Anja; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2009-05-01

    One and a half centuries after Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace outlined our current understanding of evolution, a new scientific era is dawning that enables direct observations of genetic variation. However, pure sequence-based molecular attempts to resolve the basal origin of placental mammals have so far resulted only in apparently conflicting hypotheses. By contrast, in the mammalian genomes where they were highly active, the insertion of retroelements and their comparative insertion patterns constitute a neutral, virtually homoplasy-free archive of evolutionary histories. The "presence" of a retroelement at an orthologous genomic position in two species indicates their common ancestry in contrast to its "absence" in more distant species. To resolve the placental origin controversy we extracted approximately 2 million potentially phylogenetically informative, retroposon-containing loci from representatives of the major placental mammalian lineages and found highly significant evidence challenging all current single hypotheses of their basal origin. The Exafroplacentalia hypothesis (Afrotheria as the sister group to all remaining placentals) is significantly supported by five retroposon insertions, the Epitheria hypothesis (Xenarthra as the sister group to all remaining placentals) by nine insertion patterns, and the Atlantogenata hypothesis (a monophyletic clade comprising Xenarthra and Afrotheria as the sister group to Boreotheria comprising all remaining placentals) by eight insertion patterns. These findings provide significant support for a "soft" polytomy of the major mammalian clades. Ancestral successive hybridization events and/or incomplete lineage sorting associated with short speciation intervals are viable explanations for the mosaic retroposon insertion patterns of recent placental mammals and for the futile search for a clear root dichotomy.

  8. True anteroposterior view pedicle screw insertion technique

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jia-yue; Zhang, Wei; An, Ji-long; Sun, Ya-peng; Ding, Wen-yuan; Shen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background The wide use of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) surgery in the treatment of degenerative disc disease of lumbar spine in spinal surgery highlights the gradual decrease in the use of traditional pedicle screw insertion technology. This study aims to analyze the accuracy of the true anteroposterior view pedicle screw insertion technique in MIS-TLIF surgery, compare it with conventional pedicle screw insertion technology, and discuss its clinical application value. Methods Fifty-two patients undergoing true anteroposterior view (group A) and 87 patients undergoing conventional pedicle screw insertion (group B) were diagnosed with lumbar disc herniation or lumbar spinal stenosis. Time for screw placement, intraoperative irradiation exposure, accuracy rate of pedicle screw insertion, and incidence of neurovascular injury were compared between the two groups. Results The time for screw placement and intraoperative irradiation exposure was significantly less in group A. Penetration rates of the paries lateralis of vertebral pedicle, medial wall of vertebral pedicle, and anterior vertebral wall were 1.44%, 0%, and 2.40%, respectively, all of which were significantly lower than that in group B. No additional serious complications caused by the placement of screw were observed during the follow-up period in patients in group A, but two patients with medial penetration underwent revision for unbearable radicular pain. Conclusion The application of true anteroposterior view pedicle screw insertion technique in MIS-TLIF surgery shortens time for screw placement and reduces the intraoperative irradiation exposure along with a higher accuracy rate of screw placement, which makes it a safe, accurate, and efficient technique. PMID:27418828

  9. The upgraded Pixel Detector of the ATLAS Experiment for Run 2 at the Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backhaus, M.

    2016-09-01

    During Run 1 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the ATLAS Pixel Detector has shown excellent performance. The ATLAS collaboration took advantage of the first long shutdown of the LHC during 2013 and 2014 and extracted the ATLAS Pixel Detector from the experiment, brought it to surface and maintained the services. This included the installation of new service quarter panels, the repair of cables, and the installation of the new Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM). Additionally, a completely new innermost pixel detector layer, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), was constructed and installed in May 2014 between a new smaller beam pipe and the existing Pixel Detector. With a radius of 3.3 cm the IBL is located extremely close to the interaction point. Therefore, a new readout chip and two new sensor technologies (planar and 3D) are used in the IBL. In order to achieve best possible physics performance the material budget was improved with respect to the existing Pixel Detector. This is realized using lightweight staves for mechanical support and a CO2 based cooling system. This paper describes the improvements achieved during the maintenance of the existing Pixel Detector as well as the performance of the IBL during the construction and commissioning phase. Additionally, first results obtained during the LHC Run 2 demonstrating the distinguished tracking performance of the new Four Layer ATLAS Pixel Detector are presented.

  10. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2008-06-24

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  11. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    SciTech Connect

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2013-04-16

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  12. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    SciTech Connect

    Waldo, Geoffrey S; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2013-02-12

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  13. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    SciTech Connect

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2011-06-14

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  14. RERTR-12 Insertion 2 Irradiation Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. M. Perez; G. S. Chang; D. M. Wachs; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme

    2012-09-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-12 was designed to provide comprehensive information on the performance of uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) based monolithic fuels for research reactor applications.1 RERTR-12 insertion 2 includes the capsules irradiated during the last three irradiation cycles. These capsules include Z, Y1, Y2 and Y3 type capsules. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-12 insertion 2 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

  15. Beam test studies of 3D pixel sensors irradiated non-uniformly for the ATLAS forward physics detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinstein, S.; Baselga, M.; Boscardin, M.; Christophersen, M.; Da Via, C.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Darbo, G.; Fadeyev, V.; Fleta, C.; Gemme, C.; Grenier, P.; Jimenez, A.; Lopez, I.; Micelli, A.; Nelist, C.; Parker, S.; Pellegrini, G.; Phlips, B.; Pohl, D.-L.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sicho, P.; Tsiskaridze, S.

    2013-12-01

    Pixel detectors with cylindrical electrodes that penetrate the silicon substrate (so called 3D detectors) offer advantages over standard planar sensors in terms of radiation hardness, since the electrode distance is decoupled from the bulk thickness. In recent years significant progress has been made in the development of 3D sensors, which culminated in the sensor production for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) upgrade carried out at CNM (Barcelona, Spain) and FBK (Trento, Italy). Based on this success, the ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) experiment has selected the 3D pixel sensor technology for the tracking detector. The AFP project presents a new challenge due to the need for a reduced dead area with respect to IBL, and the in-homogeneous nature of the radiation dose distribution in the sensor. Electrical characterization of the first AFP prototypes and beam test studies of 3D pixel devices irradiated non-uniformly are presented in this paper.

  16. DAQ hardware and software development for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stramaglia, Maria Elena

    2016-07-01

    In 2014, the Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has been extended by about 12 million pixels thanks to the installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). Data-taking and tuning procedures have been implemented along with newly designed readout hardware to support high bandwidth for data readout and calibration. The hardware is supported by an embedded software stack running on the readout boards. The same boards will be used to upgrade the readout bandwidth for the two outermost barrel layers of the ATLAS Pixel Detector. We present the IBL readout hardware and the supporting software architecture used to calibrate and operate the 4-layer ATLAS Pixel Detector. We discuss the technical implementations and status for data taking, validation of the DAQ system in recent cosmic ray data taking, in-situ calibrations, and results from additional tests in preparation for Run 2 at the LHC.

  17. Neutron absorber inserts for 55-gal drums

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.E.; Kim, Y.S.; Toffer, H.

    2000-07-01

    Transport and temporary storage of more than 200 g of fissile material in 55-gal drums at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) have received significant attention during the cleanup mission. This paper discusses successful applications and results of extensive computer studies. Interim storage and movement of fissile material in excess of standard drum limits (200 g) in a safe configuration have been accomplished using special drum inserts. Such inserts have constrained the contents of a drum to two 4-{ell} bottles. The content of the bottles was limited to 600 g Pu or U in solution or a total of 1200 g for the entire drum. The inserts were a simple design constructed of stainless steel, forming a vertical cylindrical pipe into which two bottles, one on top of the other, could be centered in the drum. The remaining drum volume was configured to preclude any additional bottle placement external to the vertical cylinder. Such inserts in drums were successfully used in moving high-concentration solution from one building to another for chemical processing. Concern about the knowledge of fissile material concentration in bottles prompted another study for drum inserts. The past practice had been to load up to fourteen 4-{ell} bottles into 55-gal drums, provided the fissile material concentration was <6 g fissile/{ell}, and the total drum contents of 200 g fissile was not exceeded. Only one determination of the solution concentration was needed. An extensive safety analysis concluded that a single measurement of bottle content could not ensure compliance with double-contingency-criterion requirements. A second determination of the bottle contents was required before bottles could be placed in a 55-gal drum. Al alternative to a dual-measurement protocol, which is for bolstering administrative control, was to develop an engineered safety feature that would eliminate expensive tests and administrative decisions. A drum insert design was evaluated that

  18. 21 CFR 886.5420 - Contact lens inserter/remover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contact lens inserter/remover. 886.5420 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5420 Contact lens inserter/remover. (a) Identification. A contact lens inserter/remover is a handheld device intended to insert or...

  19. 21 CFR 886.5420 - Contact lens inserter/remover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contact lens inserter/remover. 886.5420 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5420 Contact lens inserter/remover. (a) Identification. A contact lens inserter/remover is a handheld device intended to insert or...

  20. Inserting new technology into small missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, L. J.

    2001-01-01

    Part of what makes small missions small is that they have less money. Executing missions at low cost implies extensive use of cost sharing with other missions or use of existing solutions. Luckily, there are methods for creating new technology and inserting it into faster-better-cheaper missions.

  1. A design for vertical crossing insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Garren, A.

    1985-10-01

    A crossing insertion designed for an SSC with vertically separated 1-in-1 beam lines is presented in this note. The author supposes that the beam lines consist of separate magnets in separate cryostats separated by about 70 cm. He then describes the design, where vertical separation is done with four vertical dipoles producing a steplike beam line.

  2. Patients' experiences of the PICC insertion procedure.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Jackie; Davies, Louise

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are a type of central venous access device used to deliver a variety of intravenous therapies, including chemotherapy. PICCs may be placed by interventional radiologists, anaesthetists or, as is increasingly common, by specialist nurses in the hospital setting. However, little is known about how patients feel regarding the PICC insertion procedure. The aim of this study was to interview patients who had undergone a recent PICC insertion in the chemotherapy day unit to identify their experiences. On analysis of the qualitative data obtained from the semi-structured interview, five themes emerged: the context of cancer; expectations; levels of pain and anxiety; coping strategies; and explanation. The findings of this study support some previously described elements of procedural experiences; however, new understanding has provided implications for practice in the areas of expectations, allaying anxiety levels, supporting individual coping strategies and providing explanation. The major limitation of the study was the homogenous sample of oncology patients with a clear link between the patient experience of the PICC insertion and the context of cancer. The main recommendation for further research would be to repeat this study with a broader patient population.

  3. Lymphatic Leak Complicating Central Venous Catheter Insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Barnacle, Alex M. Kleidon, Tricia M.

    2005-12-15

    Many of the risks associated with central venous access are well recognized. We report a case of inadvertent lymphatic disruption during the insertion of a tunneled central venous catheter in a patient with raised left and right atrial pressures and severe pulmonary hypertension, which led to significant hemodynamic instability. To our knowledge, this rare complication is previously unreported.

  4. Embedded Multiprocessor Technology for VHSIC Insertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Paul J.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on embedded multiprocessor technology for VHSIC insertion are presented. The objective was to develop multiprocessor system technology providing user-selectable fault tolerance, increased throughput, and ease of application representation for concurrent operation. The approach was to develop graph management mapping theory for proper performance, model multiprocessor performance, and demonstrate performance in selected hardware systems.

  5. Thermal Performance of the XRS Helium Insert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breon, Susan R.; DiPirro, Michael J.; Tuttle, James G.; Shirron, Peter J.; Warner, Brent A.; Boyle, Robert F.; Canavan, Edgar R.

    1999-01-01

    The X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) is an instrument on the Japanese Astro-E satellite, scheduled for launch early in the year 2000. The XRS Helium Insert comprises a superfluid helium cryostat, an Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR), and the XRS calorimeters with their cold electronics. The calorimeters are capable of detecting X-rays over the energy range 0.1 to 10 keV with a resolution of 12 eV. The Helium Insert completed its performance and verification testing at Goddard in January 1999. It was shipped to Japan, where it has been integrated with the neon dewar built by Sumitomo Heavy Industries. The Helium Insert was given a challenging lifetime requirement of 2.0 years with a goal of 2.5 years. Based on the results of the thermal performance tests, the predicted on-orbit lifetime is 2.6 years with a margin of 30%. This is the result of both higher efficiency in the ADR cycle and the low temperature top-off, more than compensating for an increase in the parasitic heat load. This paper presents a summary of the key design features and the results of the thermal testing of the XRS Helium Insert.

  6. Insertion Loss of Personal Protective Clothing

    SciTech Connect

    Shull D.J.; Biesel, V.B.; Cunefare, K.A.

    1999-05-13

    'The use of personal protective clothing that covers the head is a common practice in many industries. Such personal protective clothing will impact the sound pressure level and the frequency content of sounds to which the wearer will be exposed. The use of such clothing, then, may impact speech and alarm audibility. A measure of the impact of such clothing is its insertion loss. Insertion loss measurements were performed on four types of personal protective clothing in use by Westinghouse Savannah River Company personnel which utilize cloth and plastic hood configurations to protect the head. All clothing configurations tested at least partially cover the ears. The measurements revealed that insertion loss of the items tested was notable at frequencies above 1000 Hz only and was a function of material stiffness and acoustic flanking paths to the ear. Further, an estimate of the clothing''s noise reduction rating reveals poor performance in that regard, even though the insertion loss of the test articles was significant at frequencies at and above 1000 Hz.'

  7. Frequency, Gradience, and Variation in Consonant Insertion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Young-ran

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the extent to which linguistic behavior can be described in terms of the projection of patterns from existing lexical items, through an investigation of Korean reduplication. Korean has a productive pattern of reduplication in which a consonant is inserted in a vowel-initial base, illustrated by forms such as "alok"--"t…

  8. Distal Insertions of the Biceps Femoris

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Eric A.; Anz, Adam W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Avulsion of the biceps femoris from the fibula and proximal tibia is encountered in clinical practice. While the anatomy of the primary posterolateral corner structures has been qualitatively and quantitatively described, a quantitative analysis regarding the insertions of the biceps femoris on the fibula and proximal tibia is lacking. Purpose: To quantitatively assess the insertions of the biceps femoris, fibular collateral ligament (FCL), and anterolateral ligament (ALL) on the fibula and proximal tibia as well as establish relationships among these structures and to pertinent surgical anatomy. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Dissections were performed on 12 nonpaired, fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens identifying the biceps femoris, FCL, and ALL, and their insertions on the proximal tibia and fibula. The footprint areas, orientations, and distances from relevant osseous landmarks were measured using a 3-dimensional coordinate measurement device. Results: Dissection produced 6 easily identifiable and reproducible anatomic footprints. Tibial footprints included the insertion of the ALL and an insertion of the biceps femoris (TBF). Fibular footprints included the insertion of the FCL, a distal insertion of the biceps femoris (DBF), a medial footprint of the biceps femoris (MBF), and a proximal footprint of the biceps femoris (PBF). The mean area of these footprints (95% CI) was as follows: ALL, 53.0 mm2 (38.4-67.6); TBF, 93.9 mm2 (72.0-115.8); FCL, 86.8 mm2 (72.3-101.2); DBF, 119 mm2 (91.1-146.9); MBF, 46.8 mm2 (29.0-64.5); and PBF, 215 mm2 (192.4-237.5). The mean distance (95% CI) from the Gerdy tubercle to the center of the ALL footprint was 24.3 mm (21.6-27.0) and to the center of the TBF was 22.5 mm (21.0-24.0). The center of the DBF was 8.68 mm (7.0-10.3) from the anterior border of the fibula, the center of the FCL was 14.6 mm (12.5-16.7) from the anterior border of the fibula and 20.7 mm (19.0-22.4) from the tip of the fibular

  9. Effect of Off-Axis Screw Insertion, Insertion Torque, and Plate Contouring on Locked Screw Strength

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Bethany; Silva, Matthew J.; Ricci, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study quantifies the effects of insertion torque, off-axis screw angulation, and plate contouring on the strength of locking plate constructs. Methods Groups of locking screws (n = 6–11 screws) were inserted at 50%, 100%, 150%, and 200% of the manufacturer-recommended torque (3.2 Nm) into locking compression plates at various angles: orthogonal (control), 5-degree angle off-axis, and 10-degree angle off-axis. Screws were loaded to failure by a transverse force (parallel to the plate) either in the same (“+”) or opposite direction (“−”) of the initial screw angulation. Separately, locking plates were bent to 5 and 10-degree angles, with the bend apex at a screw hole. Locking screws inserted orthogonally into the apex hole at 100% torque were loaded to failure. Results Orthogonal insertion resulted in the highest average load to failure, 2577 ± 141 N (range, 2413–2778 N), whereas any off-axis insertion significantly weakened constructs (165–1285 N, at 100% torque) (P < 0.05). For “+” loading, torque beyond 100% did not increase strength, but 50% torque reduced screw strength (P < 0.05). Loading in the “−” direction consistently resulted in higher strengths than “+” loading (P < 0.05). Plate contouring of 5-degree angle did not significantly change screw strength compared with straight plates but contouring of 10-degree angle significantly reduced load to failure (P < 0.05). Conclusions To maximize the screw plate interface strength, locking screws should be inserted without cross-threading. The mechanical stability of locked screws is significantly compromised by loose insertion, off-axis insertion, or severe distortion of the locking mechanism. PMID:24343255

  10. Symplectic models for general insertion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.; Forest, E.; Robin, D. S.; Nishimura, H.; Wolski, A.; Litvinenko, V. N.

    2001-06-01

    A variety of insertion devices (IDs), wigglers and undulators, linearly or elliptically polarized,are widely used as high brightness radiation sources at the modern light source rings. Long and high-field wigglers have also been proposed as the main source of radiation damping at next generation damping rings. As a result, it becomes increasingly important to understand the impact of IDs on the charged particle dynamics in the storage ring. In this paper, we report our recent development of a general explicit symplectic model for IDs with the paraxial ray approximation. High-order explicit symplectic integrators are developed to study real-world insertion devices with a number of wiggler harmonics and arbitrary polarizations.

  11. Electrochemical insertion of sodium into carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, M.M.; Yanping Ma; Visco, S.J.; De Jonghe, L.C.

    1993-12-01

    Electrochemical insertion of sodium ions into carbon using solid polymer electrolytes or organic liquid electrolytes is described. Cells with the configuration Na/P(EO){sub 8}NaCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}/C where P(EO) = polyethylene oxide or Na/liquid electrolyte/C were galvanostatically discharged, charged, and cycled. The extent of insertion into C (i.e., x in Na{sup +}C{sub x{minus}}) was found to be a strong function of the type and particle size of the carbon used, and the reversibility of the process was highly dependent upon the type of electrolyte used. The possibility of designing a sodium ion rocking chair cell is discussed, and a first-generation example, using a petroleum coke anode, polymer electrolyte, and sodium cobalt bronze cathode is described.

  12. INSERTION DEVICE ACTIVITIES FOR NSLS-II.

    SciTech Connect

    TANABE,T.; HARDER, D.A.; HULBERT, S.; RAKOWSKI, G.; SKARITKA, J.

    2007-06-25

    National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II) will be a medium energy storage ring of 3GeV electron beam energy with sub-nm.rad horizontal emittance and top-off capability at 500mA. Damping wigglers will be used not only to reduce the beam emittance but also used as broadband sources for users. Cryo-Permanent Magnet Undulators (CPMUs) are considered for hard X-ray linear device, and permanent magnet based elliptically polarized undulators (EPUs) for variable polarization devices for soft X-ray. 6T superconducting wiggler with minimal fan angle will be installed in the second phase as well as quasi-periodic EPU for VUV and possibly high-temperature superconducting undulator. R&D plans have been established to pursue the performance enhancement of the baseline devices and to design new types of insertion devices. A new insertion device development laboratory will also be established.

  13. A Monte Carlo study of peptide insertion into lipid bilayers: equilibrium conformations and insertion mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Maddox, Michael W; Longo, Marjorie L

    2002-01-01

    The membrane insertion behavior of two peptides, Magainin2 and M2 delta, was investigated by applying the Monte Carlo simulation technique to a theoretical model. The model included many novel aspects, such as a new semi-empirical lipid bilayer model and a new set of semi-empirical transfer energies, which reproduced the experimental insertion behavior of Magainin2 and M2 delta without parameter fitting. Additionally, we have taken into account diminished internal (intramolecular) hydrogen bonding at the N- and C-termini of helical peptides. All simulations were carried out at 305 K, above the membrane thermal phase transition temperature, and at pH 7.0. The peptide equilibrium conformations are discussed for a range of bilayers with tail polarities varying from octanol-like to alkane-like. Probability distributions of the individual amino-acid-residue positions show the dynamic nature of these equilibrium conformations. Two different insertion mechanisms for M2 delta, and a translocation mechanism for Magainin2, are described. A study of the effect of bilayer thickness on M2 delta insertion suggests a critical thickness above which insertion is unfavorable. Additionally, we did not need to use an orientational potential or array of hard cylinders to persuade M2 delta to insert perpendicular to the membrane surface. Instead, we found that diminished internal hydrogen bonding in the helical conformation anchored the termini in the headgroups and resulted in a nearly perpendicular orientation. PMID:11751313

  14. Investigation of flexible hose insertion forces and selected factors.

    PubMed

    Drinkaus, P; Armstrong, T; Foulke, J

    2009-01-01

    Flexible hoses are widely used in automobiles. Understanding the force required to insert a hose, independent of worker variation, is important for engineers, designers and health professionals. Various parameters affect the insertion forces including the interference between the hose and flange. Also, it has been observed that workers often add motions during the insertion process, including rotation and oscillation. This paper describes the effects of these parameters on axial insertion forces. A programmable mill was used to isolate the effects of four variables on hose insertion force: fit, insertion speed, rotational velocity and oscillation magnitude. The results show that the magnitude of the interference of the 19 mm inside diameters (ID) heater hose and the flange, and the insertion technique affect the insertion forces; resulting in a range of insertion forces from 11.1+/-0.2 to 128.4+/-11.3N.

  15. Descemet's Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty Tissue Insertion Devices

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Salman Nasir; Shiakolas, Panos S.; Mootha, Venkateswara Vinod

    2015-01-01

    This review study provides information regarding the construction, design, and use of six commercially available endothelial allograft insertion devices applied for Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK). We also highlight issues being faced in DSAEK and discuss the methods through which medical devices such as corneal inserters may alleviate these issues. Inserter selection is of high importance in the DSAEK procedure since overcoming the learning curve associated with the use of an insertion device is a time and energy consuming process. In the present review, allograft insertion devices were compared in terms of design, construction material, insertion technique, dimensions, incision requirements and endothelial cell loss to show their relative merits and capabilities based on available data in the literature. Moreover, the advantages/disadvantages of various insertion devices used for allograft insertion in DSAEK are reviewed and compared. The information presented in this review can be utilized for better selection of an insertion device for DSAEK. PMID:27051492

  16. Inserting new technology into small missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, L. J.

    2001-01-01

    Part of what makes small missions small is that they have less money. Executing missions at low cost implies extensive use of cost sharing with other missions or use of existing solutions. However, in order to create many small missions, new technology must be developed, applied, and assimilated. Luckily, there are methods for creating new technology and inserting it into faster-better-cheaper (FBC) missions.

  17. Beamline Insertions Manager at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Michael C.

    2015-09-01

    The beam viewer system at Jefferson Lab provides operators and beam physicists with qualitative and quantitative information on the transverse electron beam properties. There are over 140 beam viewers installed on the 12 GeV CEBAF accelerator. This paper describes an upgrade consisting of replacing the EPICS-based system tasked with managing all viewers with a mixed system utilizing EPICS and high-level software. Most devices, particularly the beam viewers, cannot be safely inserted into the beam line during high-current beam operations. Software is partly responsible for protecting the machine from untimely insertions. The multiplicity of beam-blocking and beam-vulnerable devices motivates us to try a data-driven approach. The beamline insertions application components are centrally managed and configured through an object-oriented software framework created for this purpose. A rules-based engine tracks the configuration and status of every device, along with the beam status of the machine segment containing the device. The application uses this information to decide on which device actions are allowed at any given time.

  18. DEVICE FOR CONTROLLING INSERTION OF ROD

    DOEpatents

    Beaty, B.J.

    1958-10-14

    A device for rapidly inserting a safety rod into a nuclear reactor upon a given signal or in the event of a power failure in order to prevent the possibility of extensive damage caused by a power excursion is described. A piston is slidably mounted within a vertical cylinder with provision for an electromagnetic latch at the top of the cylinder. This assembly, with a safety rod attached to the piston, is mounted over an access port to the core region of the reactor. The piston is normally latched at the top of the cylinder with the safety rod clear of the core area, however, when the latch is released, the piston and rod drop by their own weight to insert the rod. Vents along the side of the cylinder permit the escape of the air entrapped under the piston over the greater part of the distance, however, at the end of the fall the entrapped air is compressed thereby bringing the safety rod gently to rest, thus providing for a rapid automatic insertion of the rod with a minimum of structural shock.

  19. [Historical evolution of package inserts in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Caldeira, Telma Rodrigues; Neves, Eugênio Rodrigo Zimmer; Perini, Edson

    2008-04-01

    In Brazil, package inserts provide key information on pharmaceuticals. The current study analyzes the evolution of package inserts and the impact on this process by scientific research and development, globalization of information, and various health policies. The study began with a retrospective review of Brazilian health legislation until 1920, the year when the National Public Health Department was created. The analysis of documents on the evolution of health regulation in Brazil began with the Brazilian Pharmaceutical Collection-Health Rulings. The second stage of the study involved a search of standards and norms in VISALEGIS: Health Surveillance Legislation, Portal for Legislation from the National Congressional Information System and the Health Legislation System. Package inserts became an important vehicle for information in the country and underwent important regulatory changes in the latter half of the 20th century. From 1946 to 2006, the number of mandatory items increased, with more in-depth description. However, the standardization of information for medicines with the same active ingredient failed to materialize, despite its importance and the various legal initiatives in this direction.

  20. Magnetic insertion system for flexible electrode implantation.

    PubMed

    Jaroch, David B; Ward, Matthew P; Chow, Eric Y; Rickus, Jenna L; Irazoqui, Pedro P

    2009-10-15

    Chronic recording electrodes are a vital tool for brain research and neural prostheses. Despite decades of advances in recording technology, probe structures and implantation methods have changed little over time. Then as now, compressive insertion methods require probes to be constructed from hard, stiff materials, such as silicon, and contain a large diameter shank to penetrate the brain, particularly for deeper structures. The chronic presence of these probes results in an electrically isolating glial scar, degrading signal quality over time. This work demonstrates a new magnetic tension-based insertion mechanism that allows for the use of soft, flexible, and thinner probe materials, overcoming the materials limitations of modern electrodes. Probes are constructed from a sharp magnetic tip attached to a flexible tether. A pulsed magnetic field is generated in a coil surrounding a glass pipette containing the electrode. The applied field pulls the electrode tip forward, accelerating the probe into the neural tissue with a penetration depth that is calibrated against the charge voltage. Mathematical modeling and agar gel insertion testing demonstrate that the electrode can be implanted to a predictable depth given system specific parameters. Trial rodent implantations resulted in discernible single-unit activity on one of the probes. The current prototype demonstrates the feasibility of a tension based, magnetically driven implantation system and opens the door to a wide variety of new minimally invasive probe materials and configurations.

  1. Probabilistic phylogenetic inference with insertions and deletions.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Elena; Eddy, Sean R

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental task in sequence analysis is to calculate the probability of a multiple alignment given a phylogenetic tree relating the sequences and an evolutionary model describing how sequences change over time. However, the most widely used phylogenetic models only account for residue substitution events. We describe a probabilistic model of a multiple sequence alignment that accounts for insertion and deletion events in addition to substitutions, given a phylogenetic tree, using a rate matrix augmented by the gap character. Starting from a continuous Markov process, we construct a non-reversible generative (birth-death) evolutionary model for insertions and deletions. The model assumes that insertion and deletion events occur one residue at a time. We apply this model to phylogenetic tree inference by extending the program dnaml in phylip. Using standard benchmarking methods on simulated data and a new "concordance test" benchmark on real ribosomal RNA alignments, we show that the extended program dnamlepsilon improves accuracy relative to the usual approach of ignoring gaps, while retaining the computational efficiency of the Felsenstein peeling algorithm. PMID:18787703

  2. Studies on the function and catalytic mechanism of O-methyltransferases SviOMT02, SviOMT03 and SviOMT06 from Streptomyces virginiae IBL14.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Han, Mao-Zhen; Zhu, Shu-Liang; Li, Man; Dong, Xiang; Luo, Xue-Cai; Kong, Zhe; Lu, Yun-Xia; Wang, Shu-Yan; Tong, Wang-Yu

    2015-06-01

    To identify the fuctions of the nine putative O-methyltransferase genes in Streptomyces virginiae IBL14, the evolutionary and functional relationship of these genes in its 8.0 Mb linear chromosome was set up via sequence comparison with those of other Streptomyces species. Further, the functions and catalytic mechanism of the three genes sviOMT02, sviOMT03 and sviOMT06 from this strain were studied through experimental and computational approaches. As a result, the nine putative O-methyltransferases belong to methyltransf_2 superfamily, amdomet-MTases superfamily, and leucine carboxyl methyltransferase superfamily, and are phylogenetically close to those of Streptomyces sp. C. The products of genes sviOMT03 and sviOMT06 could catalyze O-methylation of caffeic acid to form ferulic acid. Computational analysis indicated that the O-methylation mechanism of SviOMT03 and SviOMT06 proceeds from a direct transfer of the SAM-methyl group to caffeic acid with inversion of symmetry aided by a divalent metal ion in a SN2-like mechanism. Particularly, the conservative polar amino acid residues in SviOMT03 and SviOMT06, including Lys143 that reacts with caffeic acid, Ser74, Asp140 and Tyr149 that react with S-adenosyl methionine, and His142 (SviOMT03) or His171 (SviOMT06) that transfers the 3-hydroxyl proton of substrate caffeic acid, probably be essential in their O-methylation.

  3. Epidural insertion simulator of higher insertion resistance & drop rate after puncture.

    PubMed

    Naemura, K; Sakai, A; Hayashi, T; Saito, H

    2008-01-01

    Accidents such as dural puncture remain one of the problems of epidural anesthesia, and unskilled doctors can repeat such accidents. The purpose of the current research was to provide a new simulator for epidural insertion training. No reference data regarding the resistance force used when inserting a needle into patients have been reported. A comparative study was conducted to aid in the development of a new simulator. Pork loin (n=5) were employed as a substitute for patients. Thickness was set at 2 cm so as to improve the reproducibility. The authors took the conventional simulator apart, and picked a block as an analogue of muscle and ligamentum flavum. A new simulator was made of a melamine foam resin block and a latex rubber sheet. An epidural needle fixed on a motorized stage was inserted at the speed of 2 mm per second. The reaction force was measured while the needle was inserted into each specimen. Waveform of the pork loin exhibited two slopes of different inclines up to peaks and then falls after puncture. The conventional simulator showed a simple increase up to peak and a slow fall after puncture. In contrast, the new simulator showed two slopes up to peak and then a sudden fall after puncture. The insertion resistances were 2.5 N/s for the porcine, 0.8 N/s for the conventional and 2.1 N/s for the new simulator. The drop rates were 5 N/s for the porcine, 0.6 N/s for the conventional and 24 N/s for the new simulator. The higher insertion resistance and drop rate for the new simulator than the conventional simulator will be suitable for epidural insertion training.

  4. Software-implemented fault insertion: An FTMP example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeck, Edward W.; Siewiorek, Daniel P.; Segall, Zary Z.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents a model for fault insertion through software; describes its implementation on a fault-tolerant computer, FTMP; presents a summary of fault detection, identification, and reconfiguration data collected with software-implemented fault insertion; and compares the results to hardware fault insertion data. Experimental results show detection time to be a function of time of insertion and system workload. For the fault detection time, there is no correlation between software-inserted faults and hardware-inserted faults; this is because hardware-inserted faults must manifest as errors before detection, whereas software-inserted faults immediately exercise the error detection mechanisms. In summary, the software-implemented fault insertion is able to be used as an evaluation technique for the fault-handling capabilities of a system in fault detection, identification and recovery. Although the software-inserted faults do not map directly to hardware-inserted faults, experiments show software-implemented fault insertion is capable of emulating hardware fault insertion, with greater ease and automation.

  5. Autodirected insertion: preinserted VDAC channels greatly shorten the delay to the insertion of new channels.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, X; Colombini, M

    1997-01-01

    VDAC, a mitochondrial outer membrane channel, has the ability to catalyze and direct the insertion of other VDAC channels into planar phospholipid membranes. The spontaneous rate of insertion of detergent-solubilized VDAC channels into phospholipid membranes is estimated to be 1.5 x 10(-5) channels min-1 micron-2. VDAC channels already in the membrane can increase this rate by a factor of 10(9). The presence of 5 M urea on the opposite side of the membrane increases this 10-fold to 4.5 x 10(5) channels min-1 microns-2. Similar but weaker effects are observed with Triton X100 addition (10(-3)% (v/v)). These agents are not acting on uninserted channels because they do not affect the delay from sample addition to first insertion. Under the chosen conditions, this delay is long (240 s) without preinserted channels. However, the presence of a few VDAC channels in the membrane reduces this delay to 14 s, close to the diffusion limit. Therefore, urea and Triton, added to the side of the membrane opposite that to which the VDAC sample was added, likely increase the flexibility of the VDAC channels in the membrane, allowing them to be more efficient catalysts for VDAC insertion. There are obvious implications for membrane protein insertion and targeting. PMID:9129814

  6. New cardiac retractor for epicardial electrode insertion via subxiphoid approach.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, T; Arai, H; Suzuki, A

    1993-04-01

    A new retractor for the insertion of epicardial screw-in electrodes is described. We have found that this instrument can be easily applied to the heart and gives excellent exposure for electrode insertion.

  7. Phoenix's Probe Inserted in Martian Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Phoenix Mars lander's robotic-arm camera took this image of the spacecraft's thermal and electrical-conductivity probe (TECP) inserted into Martian soil on day 149 of the mission. Phoenix landed on Mars' northern plains on May 25, 2008, landing.

    The robotic-arm camera acquired this image at 16:02:41 local solar time. The camera pointing was elevation -72.6986 degrees and azimuth 2.1093 degrees.

    The Phoenix mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Reactivity Insertion Accident Analysis with Coupled RETRAN

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yo-Han; Yang, Chang-Keun; Sung, Chang-Kyung; Lee, Chang-Sup

    2004-07-01

    Because of analysis field to be wider and complicated is required, it faces up hardships due to the narrow analysis scopes and limited functions of current vendor code systems. To overcome it KEPRI develop the in-house safety analysis methodology based on the available exquisite codes. For the development, the RETRAN code was modified and coupled to compensate for the lack of capabilities. To estimate the feasibility of the methodology and code system, some reactivity insertion accidents were analyzed and compared with the results mentioned in final safety analysis report of the plant. (authors)

  9. Cassini magnetometer observations during Saturn orbit insertion.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, M K; Achilleos, N; Andre, N; Arridge, C S; Balogh, A; Bertucci, C; Burton, M E; Cowley, S W H; Erdos, G; Giampieri, G; Glassmeier, K-H; Khurana, K K; Leisner, J; Neubauer, F M; Russell, C T; Smith, E J; Southwood, D J; Tsurutani, B T

    2005-02-25

    Cassini's successful orbit insertion has provided the first examination of Saturn's magnetosphere in 23 years, revealing a dynamic plasma and magnetic environment on short and long time scales. There has been no noticeable change in the internal magnetic field, either in its strength or its near-alignment with the rotation axis. However, the external magnetic field is different compared with past spacecraft observations. The current sheet within the magnetosphere is thinner and more extended, and we observed small diamagnetic cavities and ion cyclotron waves of types that were not reported before. PMID:15731444

  10. Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus Science Insert - 03

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Nancy; Stodieck, Louis; Cushing, Paula; Stowe, Mark; Hamilton, Mary Ann; Werner, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus Science Insert - 03 (CSI-03) is the third set of investigations in the CSI program series. The CSI program provides the K-12 community opportunities to utilize the unique microgravity environment of the International Space Station as part of the regular classroom to encourage learning and interest in science, technology, engineering and math. CSI-03 will examine the complete life cycle of the painted lady butterfly and the ability of an orb weaving spider to spin a web, eat and remain healthy in space.

  11. Phosphatydylglycerol promotes bilayer insertion of salmon calcitonin.

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, J P

    1997-01-01

    Neutron diffraction from oriented multibilayers has been used to study the bilayer interaction of the amphipathic peptide salmon calcitonin. Penetration of calcitonin into bilayers composed of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine increases with the addition of 15% (mol) of the anionic phospholipid dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol. Neutron scattering profiles of water distribution in stacked bilayers show a continuous band of deuterons across each bilayer, consistent with the suggestion that the hormone forms transbilayer alpha-helixes under these conditions. These experiments add to the growing body of data on the role of phosphatidylglycerol in bilayer insertion of protein helices and suggests a possible evolutionary history for calcitonin. Images FIGURE 5 PMID:9129820

  12. Compiler-assisted static checkpoint insertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Junsheng; Fuchs, W. K.; Abraham, Jacob A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a compiler-assisted approach for static checkpoint insertion. Instead of fixing the checkpoint location before program execution, a compiler enhanced polling mechanism is utilized to maintain both the desired checkpoint intervals and reproducible checkpoint 1ocations. The technique has been implemented in a GNU CC compiler for Sun 3 and Sun 4 (Sparc) processors. Experiments demonstrate that the approach provides for stable checkpoint intervals and reproducible checkpoint placements with performance overhead comparable to a previously presented compiler assisted dynamic scheme (CATCH) utilizing the system clock.

  13. Quench Module Insert (QMI) and the Diffusion Module Insert (DMI) Furnace Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, Myscha R.; Carswell, William E.; Farmer, Jeff; Rose, Fred; Tidwell, Paul H., II

    2000-01-01

    The Quench Module Insert (QMI) and the Diffusion Module Insert (DMI) are microgravity furnaces under development at Marshall Space Flight Center. The furnaces are being developed for the first Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) of the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF), one of the first International Space Station (ISS) scientific payloads. QMI is a Bridgman furnace with quench capability for studying interface behavior during directional solidification of metallic and alloy materials. DMI will be a Bridgman-Stockbarger furnace to study diffusion processes in semiconductors. The design for each insert, both QMI and DMI, is driven by specific science, operations and safety requirements, as well as by constraints arising from resource limitations, such as volume, mass and power. Preliminary QMI analysis and testing indicates that the design meets these requirements.

  14. T-tube insertion for sclerotic subglottic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Goto, Taichiro; Kato, Ryoichi

    2014-02-01

    T-tube insertion is effective treatment for subglottic stenosis, but it is generally difficult due to bending of the T-tube. In a 52-year-old woman with relapsing polychondritis, a T-tube was inserted after predilatation using Hegar dilators. We describe the details of our T-tube insertion methods for sclerotic subglottic stenosis.

  15. Insertion torque versus mechanical resistance of mini-implants inserted in different cortical thickness

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Renata de Faria; Ruellas, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira; Fernandes, Daniel Jogaib; Elias, Carlos Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to measure insertion torque, tip mechanical resistance to fracture and transmucosal neck of mini-implants (MI) (Conexão Sistemas de PróteseT), as well as to analyze surface morphology. Methods Mechanical tests were carried out to measure the insertion torque of MIs in different cortical thicknesses, and tip mechanical resistance to fracture as well as transmucosal neck of MIs. Surface morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after the mechanical tests. Results Values of mechanical resistance to fracture (22.14 N.cm and 54.95 N.cm) were higher and statistically different (P < 0.05) from values of insertion torque for 1-mm (7.60 N.cm) and 2-mm (13.27 N.cm) cortical thicknesses. Insertion torque was statistically similar (P > 0.05) to torsional fracture in the tip of MI (22.14 N.cm) when 3 mm cortical thickness (16.11 N.cm) and dense bone (23.95 N.cm) were used. Torsional fracture of the transmucosal neck (54.95 N.cm) was higher and statistically different (P < 0.05) from insertion torsional strength in all tested situations. SEM analysis showed that the MIs had the same smooth surface when received from the manufacturer and after the mechanical tests were performed. Additionally, no significant marks resulting from the manufacturing process were observed. Conclusion All mini-implants tested presented adequate surface morphology. The resistance of mini-implants to fracture safely allows placement in 1 and 2-mm cortical thickness. However, in 3-mm cortical thickness and dense bones, pre-drilling with a bur is recommended before insertion. PMID:25162571

  16. Construction of small-insert and large-insert metagenomic libraries.

    PubMed

    Simon, Carola; Daniel, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    The vast majority of the Earth's biological diversity is hidden in uncultured and yet uncharacterized microbial genomes. The construction of metagenomic libraries is a cultivation-independent molecular approach to assess this unexplored genetic reservoir. In the last few years, a high number of novel biocatalysts have been identified by function-based or sequence-based screening of metagenomic libraries. Here, we describe detailed protocols for the construction of metagenomic small-insert and large-insert libraries in plasmids and fosmids, respectively, from environmental DNA. PMID:20830554

  17. Model of a Hollow Cathode Insert Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Goebel, Dan M.; Polk, James E.

    2004-01-01

    A 2-D axisymmetric fluid model of the plasma in the insert region of a hollow cathode is presented. The level of sophistication included in the model is motivated in part by the need to determine quantitatively plasma fluxes to the emitter surface. The ultimate goal is to assess whether plasma effects can degrade the life of impregnated inserts beyond those documented throughout the 30-50 year history of vacuum cathode technologies. Results from simulations of a 1.2-cm diameter cathode operating at a discharge current of 25 A, and a gas flow rate of 5 sccm, suggest that approximately 10 A of electron current, and 3.5 A of ion current return to the emitter surface. The total emitted electron current computed by the model is about 35 A. Comparisons with plasma measurements suggest that anomalous heating of the plasma due to two-stream instabilities is possible near the orifice region. Solution to the heavy species energy equation, with classical transport and no viscous effects, predicts heavy species temperatures as high as 2640 K.

  18. Horizontally separated 1-in-1 crossing insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, M.J.

    1985-10-01

    Previous to this workshop, realistic lattices have been developed for vertically separated l-in-l (e.g., D.E. Johnson, A.A. Garren) and 2-in-1 (e.g., S. Heifets) magnets as well as for horizontally separated 2-in-l magnets (e.g., SSC RDS). Bringing together the widely separated ({approximately}60-70 cm) beams in a reasonable length of tunnel and keeping the dispersion zero at the interaction point has been difficult in the vertical l-in-l case. Most designs have required spacial 2-in-1 quadrupoles near the interaction point where the beams are separated by 15 cm or less. It is not clear that such magnets, as dictated by some of these lattice designs, can easily be built. The purpose of this exercise is to provide a crossing insertion for a realistic lattice which involves horizontally separated l-in-l magnets. The following horizontal crossing insertions, which incorporate the dispersion suppressors and phase trombones into the major arcs, need no special 2-in-1 magnets near the interaction point. The dispersion at the IP created by the horizontal crossing can be cancelled by the dispersion suppressor and one set of triplets.

  19. Radiological Insertion and Management of Peritoneovenous Shunt

    SciTech Connect

    Bratby, M. J.; Hussain, F. F. Lopez, A. J.

    2007-06-15

    The purpose of the study was to report our experience of the management of complications following the insertion of a peritoneovenous shunt for intractable malignant ascites. From June 1999 to January 2006, 26 patients underwent insertion of a peritoneovenous shunt for ascites by interventional radiologists. We have used ultrasound and shuntography to assist in the diagnosis of the cause of shunt blockage. Successful techniques for the restoration of the shunt function include port- pumping, stripping of any fibrin sheath, and revision of either the venous or peritoneal catheter. The procedure was initially successful in all patients with continued patency until death in 17. A further four patients are still alive with a functioning shunt. There was one rapid postprocedure death resulting from pulmonary edema. Two patients developed pneumothorax, managed successfully with either a chest drain or aspiration. Shunt dysfunction occurred eight times in seven patients. There were five successful revisions in four patients. Overall, shunt patency has been maintained in 80.1% of patients. Shunt dysfunction is seen in a significant number of patients, but successful revision of the shunt can be achieved in the majority.

  20. Lithium Insertion Chemistry of Some Iron Vanadates

    SciTech Connect

    Patoux, Sebastien; Richardson, Thomas J.

    2007-02-02

    Lithium insertion into various iron vanadates has been investigated. Fe{sub 2}V{sub 4}O{sub 13} and Fe{sub 4}(V{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sub 3} {center_dot} 3H{sub 2}O have discharge capacities approaching 200 mAh/g above 2.0 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li. Although the potential profiles change significantly between the first and subsequent discharges, capacity retention is unexpectedly good. Other phases, structurally related to FeVO{sub 4}, containing copper and/or sodium ions were also studied. One of these, {beta}-Cu{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}(VO{sub 4}){sub 6}, reversibly consumes almost 10 moles of electrons per formula unit (ca. 240 mAh g{sup -1}) between 3.6 and 2.0 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li, in a non-classical insertion process. It is proposed that both copper and vanadium are electrochemically active, whereas iron(III) reacts to form LiFe{sup III}O{sub 2}. The capacity of the Cu{sub 3}Fe{sub 4}(VO{sub 4}){sub 6}/Li system is nearly independent of cycling rate, stabilizing after a few cycles at 120-140 mAh g{sup -1}. Iron vanadates exhibit better capacities than their phosphate analogues, whereas the latter display more constant discharge potentials.

  1. Mammalian NUMT insertion is non-random

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Junko; Frith, Martin C.; Tomii, Kentaro; Horton, Paul

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that remnants of partial or whole copies of mitochondrial DNA, known as Nuclear MiTochondrial sequences (NUMTs), are found in nuclear genomes. Since whole genome sequences have become available, many bioinformatics studies have identified putative NUMTs and from those attempted to infer the factors involved in NUMT creation. These studies conclude that NUMTs represent randomly chosen regions of the mitochondrial genome. There is less consensus regarding the nuclear insertion sites of NUMTs — previous studies have discussed the possible role of retrotransposons, but some recent ones have reported no correlation or even anti-correlation between NUMT sites and retrotransposons. These studies have generally defined NUMT sites using BLAST with default parameters. We analyze a redefined set of human NUMTs, computed with a carefully considered protocol. We discover that the inferred insertion points of NUMTs have a strong tendency to have high-predicted DNA curvature, occur in experimentally defined open chromatin regions and often occur immediately adjacent to A + T oligomers. We also show clear evidence that their flanking regions are indeed rich in retrotransposons. Finally we show that parts of the mitochondrial genome D-loop are under-represented as a source of NUMTs in primate evolution. PMID:22761406

  2. Ceramic inserts do not generally improve resin composite margins.

    PubMed

    Strobel, W O; Petschelt, A; Kemmoona, M; Frankenberger, R

    2005-08-01

    summary Ceramic inserts are reported to possibly reduce polymerization shrinkage for posterior resin composite fillings. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of different insert systems before and after thermomechanical loading. Sixty sound human third molars received occlusomesial Class II cavities, 40 with proximal margins 2 mm above and 20 with proximal margins 1 mm below the cementum-enamel junction. The specimens were randomly assigned to one of the six experimental groups (n = 10). The enamel-bordered cavities were restored with Syntac classic and Tetric Ceram (ST), Syntac classic, Tetric Ceram and beta-quartz inserts (TB), Syntac classic, Tetric Ceram and Cerana inserts (TC), Syntac classic, Tetric flow and SonicSys approx inserts (TS). The dentin-limited cavities were filled with Syntac classic and Tetic Ceram (DT), Syntac classic, Tetric flow and SonicSys approx inserts (DS). Before and after thermomechanical loading (100 000 x 50 N, 2500 x 5 degrees C/55 degrees C), replicas were made and both interfaces tooth/composite and insert/composite were examined under a scanning electron microscope at 200x. The Cerana and SonicSys insert groups showed significantly less gaps in enamel (P < 0.05). With beta-quartz inserts, no reduction of gaps was found (P > 0.05). Marginal integrity in dentine-bordered specimens could not be improved with SonicSys inserts (P > 0.05). The bonding performance insert/composite was promising for all IPS Empress inserts (Cerana, SonicSys enamel) but worse for beta-quartz inserts. Regarding gap formation between resin composite and tooth, Cerana and SonicSys inserts significantly reduced gaps. The use of SonicSys inserts in deep proximal cavities cannot be recommended. PMID:16011640

  3. Insertion of coherence requests for debugging a multiprocessor

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Salapura, Valentina

    2010-02-23

    A method and system are disclosed to insert coherence events in a multiprocessor computer system, and to present those coherence events to the processors of the multiprocessor computer system for analysis and debugging purposes. The coherence events are inserted in the computer system by adding one or more special insert registers. By writing into the insert registers, coherence events are inserted in the multiprocessor system as if they were generated by the normal coherence protocol. Once these coherence events are processed, the processing of coherence events can continue in the normal operation mode.

  4. Studies on the function and catalytic mechanism of O-methyltransferases SviOMT02, SviOMT03 and SviOMT06 from Streptomyces virginiae IBL14.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Han, Mao-Zhen; Zhu, Shu-Liang; Li, Man; Dong, Xiang; Luo, Xue-Cai; Kong, Zhe; Lu, Yun-Xia; Wang, Shu-Yan; Tong, Wang-Yu

    2015-06-01

    To identify the fuctions of the nine putative O-methyltransferase genes in Streptomyces virginiae IBL14, the evolutionary and functional relationship of these genes in its 8.0 Mb linear chromosome was set up via sequence comparison with those of other Streptomyces species. Further, the functions and catalytic mechanism of the three genes sviOMT02, sviOMT03 and sviOMT06 from this strain were studied through experimental and computational approaches. As a result, the nine putative O-methyltransferases belong to methyltransf_2 superfamily, amdomet-MTases superfamily, and leucine carboxyl methyltransferase superfamily, and are phylogenetically close to those of Streptomyces sp. C. The products of genes sviOMT03 and sviOMT06 could catalyze O-methylation of caffeic acid to form ferulic acid. Computational analysis indicated that the O-methylation mechanism of SviOMT03 and SviOMT06 proceeds from a direct transfer of the SAM-methyl group to caffeic acid with inversion of symmetry aided by a divalent metal ion in a SN2-like mechanism. Particularly, the conservative polar amino acid residues in SviOMT03 and SviOMT06, including Lys143 that reacts with caffeic acid, Ser74, Asp140 and Tyr149 that react with S-adenosyl methionine, and His142 (SviOMT03) or His171 (SviOMT06) that transfers the 3-hydroxyl proton of substrate caffeic acid, probably be essential in their O-methylation. PMID:26002507

  5. Method Of Wire Insertion For Electric Machine Stators

    DOEpatents

    Brown, David L; Stabel, Gerald R; Lawrence, Robert Anthony

    2005-02-08

    A method of inserting coils in slots of a stator is provided. The method includes interleaving a first set of first phase windings and a first set of second phase windings on an insertion tool. The method also includes activating the insertion tool to radially insert the first set of first phase windings and the first set of second phase windings in the slots of the stator. In one embodiment, interleaving the first set of first phase windings and the first set of second phase windings on the insertion tool includes forming the first set of first phase windings in first phase openings defined in the insertion tool, and forming the first set of second phase windings in second phase openings defined in the insertion tool.

  6. Non-insertional tendinopathy of the subscapularis

    PubMed Central

    Dierckman, Brian D.; Shah, Nirav R.; Larose, Connor R.; Gerbrandt, Stacey; Getelman, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: (1) Describe a previously unreported finding involving the intra-articular portion of the subscapularis, the Conrad lesion. (2) Describe a novel classification system for the spectrum of non-insertional tendinopathy of the subscapularis. (3) Report the outcomes of surgical treatment of this spectrum of pathology. Materials and Methods: Outcomes of 34 patients (23 males and 11 females, mean age 60.5 ± 7.5) with non-insertional tendinopathy of the subscapularis treated arthroscopically were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had anterior shoulder pain with no weakness during belly-press testing and no subscapularis footprint involvement on magnetic resonance imaging. All patients were managed with subscapularis tendon debridement and side-to-side repair along with treatment of concomitant pathology. Results: Seven patients had a Type I lesion (so-called Conrad lesion) – a nodule on the leading edge of the subscapularis. Eighteen patients had a Type II lesion – a visible split tear with degeneration in the upper ½ of the intra-articular tendon. Nine patients had a Type III lesion – more extensive splitting in the tendon with advanced tendon degeneration. At a mean follow-up of 24 months, 97% of patients were completely satisfied. Significant improvements were seen in forward elevation (152 ± 12° to 172 ± 5°, P < 0.001) and visual analog scale pain scores (5.9 ± 1.7-0.6 ± 1.0, P < 0.001). Internal rotation strength and external rotation motion at the side were maintained. ASES scores averaged 95.4 ± 7.4, disabilities of arm, shoulder and hand scores averaged 6.19 ± 9.8, Western Ontario Rotator Cuff scores averaged 91.7 ± 9.3 and the average University of California at Los Angeles score was 33.1 ± 2.4. Conclusions: We present a previously unreported finding of the subscapularis, the Conrad lesion, along with a novel classification system for non-insertional tendinopathy of the subscapularis. Arthroscopic treatment of this spectrum of

  7. INSERTION DEVICE UPGRADE PLANS AT THE NSLS.

    SciTech Connect

    TANABE, T.; BLEDNYKH, A.; HARDER, D.; LEHECKA, M.; RAKOWSKY, G.; SKARITKA, J.

    2005-05-16

    This paper describes plans to upgrade insertion devices (IDs) at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, U.S.A. The aging wiggler (W120) at X25 is being replaced by a 1 m long in-vacuum mini-gap undulator (MGU-X25) optimized for a dedicated macromolecular crystallography program. A new, 1/3 m long, undulator (MGU or SCU-X9), will be installed between a pair of RF cavities at X9, and will serve a new beamline dedicated for small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Both IDs will have provision for cryocooling the NdFeB hybrid arrays to 150K to raise the field and K-value and to obtain better spectral coverage. Design issues of the devices and other considerations, especially magnetic measurement at low temperature, will be discussed.

  8. Polymorphic Alu insertions among Mayan populations.

    PubMed

    Herrera, R J; Rojas, D P; Terreros, M C

    2007-01-01

    The Mayan homeland within Mesoamerica spans five countries: Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico. There are indications that the people we call the Maya migrated from the north to the highlands of Guatemala as early as 4000 B.C. Their existence was village-based and agricultural. The culture of these Preclassic Mayans owes much to the earlier Olmec civilization, which flourished in the southern portion of North America. In this study, four different Mayan groups were examined to assess their genetic variability. Ten polymorphic Alu insertion (PAI) loci were employed to ascertain the genetic affinities among these Mayan groups. North American, African, European and Asian populations were also examined as reference populations. Our results suggest that the Mayan groups examined in this study are not genetically homogeneous. PMID:17151812

  9. Stabilization of insertion electrodes for lithium batteries.

    SciTech Connect

    Thackeray, M. M.

    1998-09-03

    This paper discusses the techniques that are being employed to stabilize LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel and composite Li{sub x}MnO{sub 2} positive electrodes. The critical role that spinel domains play in stabilizing these electrodes for operation at both 4 V and 3 V is highlighted. The concept of using an intermetallic electrode MM{prime} where M is an active alloying element and M{prime} is an inactive element (or elements) is proposed as an alternative negative electrode (to carbon) for lithium-ion cells. An analogy to metal oxide insertion electrodes, such as MnO{sub 2}, in which Mn is the electrochemically active ion and O is the inactive ion, is made. Performance data are given for the copper-tin electrode system, which includes the intermetallic phases eta-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and Li{sub 2}CuSn.

  10. Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterton, M.

    1997-01-01

    The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff`s understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required.

  11. Peripherally inserted central catheter: compliance with evidence-based indications for insertion in an inpatient setting.

    PubMed

    Wojnar, Danuta G; Beaman, Margaret L

    2013-01-01

    A randomized, retrospective chart review was conducted at a medium-sized community hospital to verify appropriateness of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) use in 49 inpatient patients. Study results support the Infusion Nurses Society recommendation to use PICCs to facilitate either short- or long-term intravenous therapy of vesicants, irritants, and any medications with a pH less than 5 or greater than 9 and osmolarity greater than 600 mOsm/L. All PICC insertion criteria recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were met except one--the intended duration of intravenous therapy of more than 6 days. Identical PICC selection criteria are needed to standardize clinical practice. PMID:23823005

  12. Peripherally inserted central catheter: compliance with evidence-based indications for insertion in an inpatient setting.

    PubMed

    Wojnar, Danuta G; Beaman, Margaret L

    2013-01-01

    A randomized, retrospective chart review was conducted at a medium-sized community hospital to verify appropriateness of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) use in 49 inpatient patients. Study results support the Infusion Nurses Society recommendation to use PICCs to facilitate either short- or long-term intravenous therapy of vesicants, irritants, and any medications with a pH less than 5 or greater than 9 and osmolarity greater than 600 mOsm/L. All PICC insertion criteria recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were met except one--the intended duration of intravenous therapy of more than 6 days. Identical PICC selection criteria are needed to standardize clinical practice.

  13. Core Vessel Insert Handling Robot for the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, Van B; Dayton, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source provides the world's most intense pulsed neutron beams for scientific research and industrial development. Its eighteen neutron beam lines will eventually support up to twenty-four simultaneous experiments. Each beam line consists of various optical components which guide the neutrons to a particular instrument. The optical components nearest the neutron moderators are the core vessel inserts. Located approximately 9 m below the high bay floor, these inserts are bolted to the core vessel chamber and are part of the vacuum boundary. They are in a highly radioactive environment and must periodically be replaced. During initial SNS construction, four of the beam lines received Core Vessel Insert plugs rather than functional inserts. Remote replacement of the first Core Vessel Insert plug was recently completed using several pieces of custom-designed tooling, including a highly complicated Core Vessel Insert Robot. The design of this tool are discussed.

  14. Design and evaluation of moxifloxacin hydrochloride ocular inserts.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Pravin K; Katara, Rajesh; Majumdar, Dipak K

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to prepare and evaluate ocular inserts of moxifloxacin. An ocular insert was made from an aqueous dispersion of moxifloxacin, sodium alginate, polyvinyl alcohol, and dibutyl phthalate by the film casting method. The ocular insert (5.5 mm diameter) was cross-linked by CaCl2 and was coated with Eudragit S-100, RL-100, RS-100, E-100 or L-100. The in vitro drug drainage/permeation studies were carried out using an all-glass modified Franz diffusion cell. The drug concentration and mucoadhesion time of the ocular insert were found satisfactory. Cross-linking and coating with polymers extended the drainage from inserts. The cross-linked ocular insert coated with Eudragit RL-100 showed maximum drug permeation compared to other formulations.

  15. Technical note: Computer-manufactured inserts for prosthetic sockets.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Joan E; McLean, Jake B; Cagle, John C; Gardner, David W; Allyn, Katheryn J

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this research was to use computer-aided design software and a tabletop 3-D additive manufacturing system to design and fabricate custom plastic inserts for trans-tibial prosthesis users. Shape quality of inserts was tested right after they were inserted into participant's test sockets and again after four weeks of wear. Inserts remained properly positioned and intact throughout testing. Right after insertion the inserts caused the socket to be slightly under-sized, by a mean of 0.11mm, approximately 55% of the thickness of a nylon sheath. After four weeks of wear the under-sizing was less, averaging 0.03mm, approximately 15% of the thickness of a nylon sheath. Thus the inserts settled into the sockets over time. If existing prosthetic design software packages were enhanced to conduct insert design and to automatically generate fabrication files for manufacturing, then computer manufactured inserts may offer advantages over traditional methods in terms of speed of fabrication, ease of design, modification, and record keeping. PMID:27212209

  16. Threaded insert for compact cryogenic-capable pressure vessels

    DOEpatents

    Espinosa-Loza, Francisco; Ross, Timothy O.; Switzer, Vernon A.; Aceves, Salvador M.; Killingsworth, Nicholas J.; Ledesma-Orozco, Elias

    2015-06-16

    An insert for a cryogenic capable pressure vessel for storage of hydrogen or other cryogenic gases at high pressure. The insert provides the interface between a tank and internal and external components of the tank system. The insert can be used with tanks with any or all combinations of cryogenic, high pressure, and highly diffusive fluids. The insert can be threaded into the neck of a tank with an inner liner. The threads withstand the majority of the stress when the fluid inside the tank that is under pressure.

  17. Saturn orbit insertion mission plan for Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Ya-Pei Holden; Stetson, Douglas S.

    1990-01-01

    The Cassini mission will be launched in April 1996 and will arrive at Saturn in December 2002. Upon arrival, a large maneuver near Saturn periapsis called Saturn Orbit Insertion (SOI) will reduce the energy of the spacecraft and result in capture into Saturn orbit. SOI is one of the most critical events of the entire mission. Therefore it is prudent to determine what resources must be dedicated to assure successful execution of SOI and what operational resources can be provided to satisfy SOI science objective. To prolong undisturbed science observations near the periapsis, a delayed SOI burn strategy has been developed. To examine potential resource conflicts between science and engineering activities, key considerations such as power and data storage capability have been evaluated. Other constraints such as turning the spacecraft to burn attitude and slewing platforms for science have also been examined. Although there are many constraints and the spacecraft resources are limited, a reasonable amount of science can still be carried out prior to and during the SOI burn.

  18. Biosynthesis and Insertion of the Molybdenum Cofactor.

    PubMed

    Magalon, Axel; Mendel, Ralf R

    2015-01-01

    The transition element molybdenum (Mo) is of primordial importance for biological systems, because it is required by enzymes catalyzing key reactions in the global carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen metabolism. To gain biological activity, Mo has to be complexed by a special cofactor. With the exception of bacterial nitrogenase, all Mo-dependent enzymes contain a unique pyranopterin-based cofactor coordinating a Mo atom at their catalytic site. Various types of reactions are catalyzed by Mo-enzymes in prokaryotes including oxygen atom transfer, sulfur or proton transfer, hydroxylation, or even nonredox reactions. Mo-enzymes are widespread in prokaryotes and many of them were likely present in the Last Universal Common Ancestor. To date, more than 50--mostly bacterial--Mo-enzymes are described in nature. In a few eubacteria and in many archaea, Mo is replaced by tungsten bound to the same unique pyranopterin. How Mo-cofactor is synthesized in bacteria is reviewed as well as the way until its insertion into apo-Mo-enzymes.

  19. Phoenix Conductivity Probe Inserted into Martian Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander inserted the four needles of its thermal and conductivity probe into Martian soil during the 98th Martian day, or sol, of the mission and left it in place until Sol 99 (Sept. 4, 2008).

    The Robotic Arm Camera on Phoenix took this image on the morning of Sol 99 while the probe's needles were in the ground. The science team informally named this soil target 'Gandalf.'

    The thermal and conductivity probe measures how fast heat and electricity move from one needle to an adjacent one through the soil or air between the needles. Conductivity readings can be indicators about water vapor, water ice and liquid water.

    The probe is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity suite of instruments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Insertion assembly for a pipe completion plug

    SciTech Connect

    Jiles, S.L.

    1991-08-13

    This patent describes an insertion assembly for installing a completion plug in a branching saddle having an internally-threaded pipe stub and a peripheral beveled seating surface in the pipe stub. It comprises a tube; a shaft extending through the tube; a spring-loaded socket extending partially into one end of the tube, resiliently biased against further movement into the tube and mounted on one end of the shaft so as to turn with it; a completion plug having an elastomeric disk with a beveled peripheral edge and a circular metal plate attached to the disk; a camming groove at the end of the tube and a camming pin extending from the hub to releasably retain the plate at the end of the tube, the groove having a radially-extending portion terminating in a pair of axially-extending recesses for receiving the pin and an axially-extending inlet slot between the recesses, whereby the completion plug may be lowered into place in the branching saddle by means of the tube and engaged so that its beveled edge seats against the beveled seating surface of the pipe stub by screwing the plate into the threaded pipe stub as the shaft is turned within the tube while the pin is seated in one of the recesses and may be left in place in the pipe stub by releasing the camming pin from the camming groove through the inlet slot.

  1. Device for inserting tubular members together

    SciTech Connect

    Milberger, L.J.

    1992-03-17

    This patent describes a well, a lower tubular member with a sealing surface located in the well, an upper tubular member which inserts into engagement with the lower tubular member during running in, the upper and lower tubular members being exposed to well fluid pressure, an improved means for sliding the upper tubular member into engagement with the lower tubular member. It comprises the upper tubular member having a first side and a second side, the second side having a sealing section which mates with the sealing surface of the lower tubular sidewall; axially spaced apart seal means located on the running tool sidewall for sealingly engaging the first side of the upper tubular member above and below the sealing section during running in, for defining a low pressure area between the running tool and the first side which is isolated from the well fluid pressure; the sealing section of the upper tubular member being exposed to well fluid pressure during running in, resulting in a pressure difference across the upper tubular member between the first side of the tubular member and the sealing section, means for eliminating the pressure difference across the upper tubular member between the first side and the sealing section after the upper tubular member has reached its engaged position with the lower tubular member, allowing the sealing section to move radially into engagement with the sealing surface. This patent also describes a method for sliding an upper tubular member into engagement with a sealing surface of a lower tubular member in a well having well fluid pressure, comprising in combination: providing the upper tubular member with a first side and a second side and providing the second side with a sealing section for mating with the sealing surface of the lower tubular member.

  2. A hybridisation-dependent membrane-insertable amphiphilic DNA.

    PubMed

    Dohno, C; Matsuzaki, K; Yamaguchi, H; Shibata, T; Nakatani, K

    2015-10-28

    We synthesised a novel membrane-insertable amphiphilic DNA. The amphiphilic DNA had a nine-nucleotide hydrophobic region at one end consisting of octyl phosphotriester linkages. The amphiphilic DNA bound to the lipid membrane by inserting the hydrophobic region; this process was facilitated by the presence of the complementary DNA strand.

  3. Combined plasma and thermal hollow cathode insert model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Ira; Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ionnis G.; Goebel, Dan m.; Hornbeck, Sarah E.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present the first results from a Hollow Cathode Thermal (HCThermal) model that uses the spatially distributed plasma fluxes calculated by the InsertRegion of an Orificed Cathode (IROrCa2D) code as the heat source to predict the hollow cathode and insert temperatures.

  4. Cruciate retaining and cruciate substituting ultra-congruent insert

    PubMed Central

    Deledda, Davide; Rosso, Federica; Ratto, Nicola; Bruzzone, Matteo; Bonasia, Davide Edoardo; Rossi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) conservation and the polyethylene insert constraint in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are still debated. The PCL is one of the primary stabilizers of the joint, but cruciate retaining (CR) implants have the disadvantage of a difficult balancing of the PCL. Postero-stabilized (PS) implants were introduced to reduce this problem. However, also the PS implants have some disadvantages, due to the cam-mechanism, such as high risk of cam-mechanism polyethylene wear. To minimize the polyethylene wear of the cam-mechanism and the bone sacrifice due to the intercondylar box, different types of inserts were developed, trying to increase the implant conformity and to reduce stresses on the bone-implant interface. In this scenario ultra-congruent (UC) inserts were developed. Those inserts are characterized by a high anterior wall and a deep-dished plate. This conformation should guarantee a good stability without the posterior cam. Few studies on both kinematic and clinical outcomes of UC inserts are available. Clinical and radiological outcomes, as well as kinematic data are similar between UC mobile bearing (MB) and standard PS MB inserts at short to mid-term follow-up. In this manuscript biomechanics and clinical outcomes of UC inserts will be described, and they will be compared to standard PS or CR inserts. PMID:26855938

  5. Piezo-Driven Vibrating Insertion Device for Microelectrode Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Takahiro; Kanzaki, Ryohei; Takahashi, Hirokazu

    Microelectrode arrays are commonly used to measure neural activities in the brain, and arrays with some 100 electrodes are commercially available to date. However, insertion of a dense grid array deforms the brain, resulting in deterioration of the measurements. In order to overcome this problem, we propose a piezo-driven vibrating insertion device to reduce the insertion-induced deformation of the brain. We attempted under various conditions to insert the array into an agarose substrate, whose hardness was adjusted to that of the cerebral cortex of rats. Our experiments demonstrated that inverse-sawtooth vibration reduced the insertion-induced deformation of the substrate in proportion to the logarithm of an upstroke velocity when the velocity was higher than 10 mm/s, and vibrating insertion of the maximum velocity at 36.7 mm/s reduced the deformation by up to 40% as compared to insertion without vibration. In addition, we tested the vibrating insertion device in an electrophysiological experiment in the rat auditory cortex in vivo, and successfully measured tone-evoked neuronal activities.

  6. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment for Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oide, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run 1 of the LHC. Taking advantage of the long shutdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface in order to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules, and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The IBL is the fourth layer of the Run 2 Pixel Detector, and it was installed at a radius of 3.3 cm in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and the new smaller-radius beam pipe. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance is expected to improve through the reduction of pixel size. As well, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system were adopted. An overview of the IBL project as well as the experience in its construction is presented, focusing on adopted technologies, module and staves production, qualification of assembly procedure, integration of staves around the beam pipe, and commissioning of the detector.

  7. The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment for LHC Run-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernegger, H.

    2015-06-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long shutdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). IBL is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller beam pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and hit occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. Furthermore, the physics performance will be improved through the reduction of pixel size while, targeting for a low material budget, a new mechanical support using lightweight staves and a CO2 based cooling system have been adopted. An overview of the refurbishing of the Pixel Detector and of the IBL project as well as the experience in its construction will be presented, focusing on adopted technologies, module and staves production, qualification of assembly procedure, integration of staves around the beam pipe and commissioning of the detector.

  8. Measurement of Vein Diameter for Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) Insertion: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Rebecca; Cummings, Melita; Childs, Jessie; Fielder, Andrea; Mikocka-Walus, Antonina; Grech, Carol; Esterman, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Choosing an appropriately sized vein reduces the risk of venous thromboembolism associated with peripherally inserted central catheters. This observational study described the diameters of the brachial, basilic, and cephalic veins and determined the effect of patient factors on vein size. Ultrasound was used to measure the veins of 176 participants. Vein diameter was similar in both arms regardless of hand dominance and side. Patient factors-including greater age, height, and weight, as well as male gender-were associated with increased vein diameter. The basilic vein tended to have the largest diameter statistically. However, this was the case in only 55% of patients.

  9. Analysis of the Sherlock II tip location system for inserting peripherally inserted central venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Lelkes, Valdis; Kumar, Abhishek; Shukla, Pratik A; Contractor, Sohail; Rutan, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are frequently placed at the bedside. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Sherlock II tip location system (Bard Access Systems, Salt Lake City, UT), which offers electromagnetic detection of the PICC tip to assist the operator in guiding the tip to a desired location. We performed a retrospective review of patients who had a bedside PICC using the Sherlock II tip location system. Three hundred seventy-five of 384 patients (97.7%) had the catheter tip positioned appropriately. Our results suggest that the Sherlock II tip location system is an efficacious system for bedside PICC placement.

  10. Z-2 Threaded Insert Design and Testing Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, RIchard; Graziosi, Dave; Jones, Bobby; Ferl, Jinny; Scarborough, Steve; Sweeney, Mitch

    2016-01-01

    The Z-2 Prototype Planetary Extravehicular Space Suit Assembly is a continuation of NASA's Z series of spacesuits. The Z-2 is another step in the NASA's technology development roadmap leading to human exploration of the Martian surface. To meet a more challenging set of requirements than previous suit systems standard design features, such as threaded inserts, have been re-analyzed and improved. NASA's Z-2 prototype space suit contains several components fabricated from an advanced hybrid composite laminate consisting of IM10 carbon fiber and fiber glass. One requirement NASA levied on the suit composites was the ability to have removable, replaceable helicoil inserts to which other suit components would be fastened. An approach utilizing bonded in inserts with helicoils inside of them was implemented. The design of the interface flanges of the composites allowed some of the inserts to be a "T" style insert that was installed through the entire thickness of the laminate. The flange portion of the insert provides a mechanical lock as a redundancy to the adhesive aiding in the pullout load that the insert can withstand. In some locations it was not possible to utilize at "T" style insert and a blind insert was used instead. These inserts rely completely on the bond strength of the adhesive to resist pullout. It was determined during the design of the suit that the inserts did not need to withstand loads induced from pressure cycling but instead tension induced from torqueing the screws to bolt on hardware which creates a much higher stress on them. Bolt tension is determined by dividing the torque on the screw by a k value multiplied by the thread diameter of the bolt. The k value is a factor that accounts for friction in the system. A common value used for k for a non-lubricated screw is 0.2. The k value can go down by as much as 0.1 if the screw is lubricated which means for the same torque, a much larger tension could be placed on the bolt and insert. This paper

  11. Detection for processing history of seam insertion and contrast enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianwei; Zhao, Yao; Ni, Rongrong

    2014-11-01

    With the development of manipulations techniques of digital images, digital image forensic technology is becoming more and more necessary. However, the determination of processing history of multi-operation is still a challenge problem. In this paper, we improve the traditional seam insertion algorithm, and propose corresponding detection method. Then an algorithm that focuses on detecting the processing history of seam insertion and contrast enhancement is proposed, which can be widely used in practical image forgery. Based on comprehensive analysis, we have discovered the inherent relationship between seam insertion and contrast enhancement. Different orders of processing make different impacts on images. By using the newly proposed algorithm, both contrast enhancement followed by seam insertion and seam insertion followed by contrast enhancement can be detected correctly. Plenty of experiments have been implemented to prove the accuracy.

  12. Method for improving the durability of ion insertion materials

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Cheong, Hyeonsik M.

    2002-01-01

    The invention provides a method of protecting an ion insertion material from the degradative effects of a liquid or gel-type electrolyte material by disposing a protective, solid ion conducting, electrically insulating, layer between the ion insertion layer and the liquid or gel-type electrolyte material. The invention further provides liquid or gel-type electrochemical cells having improved durability having a pair of electrodes, a pair of ion insertion layers sandwiched between the pair of electrodes, a pair of solid ion conducting layers sandwiched between the ion insertion layers, and a liquid or gel-type electrolyte material disposed between the solid ion conducting layers, where the solid ion conducting layer minimizes or prevents degradation of the faces of the ion insertion materials facing the liquid or gel-type electrolyte material. Electrochemical cells of this invention having increased durability include secondary lithium batteries and electrochromic devices.

  13. Gas turbine nozzle vane insert and methods of installation

    DOEpatents

    Miller, William John; Predmore, Daniel Ross; Placko, James Michael

    2002-01-01

    A pair of hollow elongated insert bodies are disposed in one or more of the nozzle vane cavities of a nozzle stage of a gas turbine. Each insert body has an outer wall portion with apertures for impingement-cooling of nozzle wall portions in registration with the outer wall portion. The insert bodies are installed into the cavity separately and spreaders flex the bodies toward and to engage standoffs against wall portions of the nozzle whereby the designed impingement gap between the outer wall portions of the insert bodies and the nozzle wall portions is achieved. The spreaders are secured to the inner wall portions of the insert bodies and the bodies are secured to one another and to the nozzle vane by welding or brazing.

  14. Do junior doctors know where to insert chest drains safely?

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, J; Roberts, N

    2005-01-01

    Background: The safe insertion of a chest drain is a skill doctors across specialties require. Incorrect placement can lead to significant morbidity and even mortality. Methods: This audit surveyed junior doctors working in a teaching hospital about their specialty and level of experience with intercostal drains. They were then asked to mark on a photograph where they would insert a chest drain for a pneumothorax in a non-emergency situation. Results: Of the 55 junior doctors surveyed, 45% were outside the safe area of chest drain insertion as defined by the British Thoracic Society. The most common error was a choice of insertion site too low (24%). Conclusions: In this audit 45% of juniors surveyed would have placed a chest drain outside the safe triangle recommended by the British Thoracic Society. The common mistake of a choice of insertion site too low should be discussed in postgraduate teaching programmes. PMID:15998822

  15. Planar slim-edge pixel sensors for the ATLAS upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altenheiner, S.; Goessling, C.; Jentzsch, J.; Klingenberg, R.; Lapsien, T.; Muenstermann, D.; Rummler, A.; Troska, G.; Wittig, T.

    2012-02-01

    The ATLAS detector at CERN is a general-purpose experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost tracking detector of ATLAS and requires a sufficient level of hermeticity to achieve superb track reconstruction performance. The current planar n-type pixel sensors feature a pixel matrix of n+-implantations which is (on the opposite p-side) surrounded by so-called guard rings to reduce the high voltage stepwise towards the cutting edge and an additional safety margin. Because of the inactive region around the active area, the sensor modules have been shingled on top of each other's edge which limits the thermal performance and adds complexity in the present detector. The first upgrade phase of the ATLAS pixel detector will consist of the insertable b-layer (IBL), an additional b-layer which will be inserted into the present detector in 2013. Several changes in the sensor design with respect to the existing detector had to be applied to comply with the IBL's specifications and are described in detail. A key issue for the ATLAS upgrades is a flat arrangement of the sensors. To maintain the required level of hermeticity in the detector, the inactive sensor edges have to be reduced to minimize the dead space between the adjacent detector modules. Unirradiated and irradiated sensors with the IBL design have been operated in test beams to study the efficiency performance in the sensor edge region and it was found that the inactive edge width could be reduced from 1100 μm to less than 250 μm.

  16. Cut-and-screw insertion: a method for safe and speedy secondary trocar insertion in laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Hiki, Naoki; Fukunaga, Tetsu; Yamaguchi, Toshiharu; Nunobe, Souya; Ohyama, Shigekazu; Tokunaga, Masanori; Miki, Akira; Kuroyanagi, Hiroya; Seto, Yasuyuki; Muto, Tetsuichiro

    2008-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is increasingly applied to the treatment of gastrointestinal disease. However, the insertion of secondary trocars following pneumoperitoneum carries the risk of serious complications such as major vascular and bowel injuries. Such injury can arise when the force required for the trocar insertion is such that it causes the operator to have impaired control over the entry. There is a need for a procedure of secondary trocar insertion that is safe and easy to perform for training clinicians in laparoscopic surgery. We have developed the "cut-and-screw" insertion method for secondary trocar insertion using a specially developed laparoscopic cannula with a sharp edge and housing. Our procedure is simple, rapid, and safe. In this chapter, we describe the technique and present our initial clinical results.

  17. Genome-wide analysis of mobile genetic element insertion sites

    PubMed Central

    Rawal, Kamal; Ramaswamy, Ram

    2011-01-01

    Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) account for a significant fraction of eukaryotic genomes and are implicated in altered gene expression and disease. We present an efficient computational protocol for MGE insertion site analysis. ELAN, the suite of tools described here uses standard techniques to identify different MGEs and their distribution on the genome. One component, DNASCANNER analyses known insertion sites of MGEs for the presence of signals that are based on a combination of local physical and chemical properties. ISF (insertion site finder) is a machine-learning tool that incorporates information derived from DNASCANNER. ISF permits classification of a given DNA sequence as a potential insertion site or not, using a support vector machine. We have studied the genomes of Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Drosophila melanogaster and Entamoeba histolytica via a protocol whereby DNASCANNER is used to identify a common set of statistically important signals flanking the insertion sites in the various genomes. These are used in ISF for insertion site prediction, and the current accuracy of the tool is over 65%. We find similar signals at gene boundaries and splice sites. Together, these data are suggestive of a common insertion mechanism that operates in a variety of eukaryotes. PMID:21609951

  18. Toward automated cochlear implant insertion using tubular manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granna, Josephine; Rau, Thomas S.; Nguyen, Thien-Dang; Lenarz, Thomas; Majdani, Omid; Burgner-Kahrs, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    During manual cochlear implant electrode insertion the surgeon is at risk to damage the intracochlear fine-structure, as the electrode array is inserted through a small opening in the cochlea blindly with little force-feedback. This paper addresses a novel concept for cochlear electrode insertion using tubular manipulators to reduce risks of causing trauma during insertion and to automate the insertion process. We propose a tubular manipulator incorporated into the electrode array composed of an inner wire within a tube, both elastic and helically shaped. It is our vision to use this manipulator to actuate the initially straight electrode array during insertion into the cochlea by actuation of the wire and tube, i.e. translation and slight axial rotation. In this paper, we evaluate the geometry of the human cochlea in 22 patient datasets in order to derive design requirements for the manipulator. We propose an optimization algorithm to automatically determine the tube set parameters (curvature, torsion, diameter, length) for an ideal final position within the cochlea. To prove our concept, we demonstrate that insertion can be realized in a follow-the-leader fashion for 19 out of 22 cochleas. This is possible with only 4 different tube/wire sets.

  19. Method of joining a vane cavity insert to a nozzle segment of a gas turbine

    DOEpatents

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian

    2002-01-01

    An insert containing apertures for impingement cooling a nozzle vane of a nozzle segment in a gas turbine is inserted into one end of the vane. The leading end of the insert is positioned slightly past a rib adjacent the opposite end of the vane through which the insert is inserted. The end of the insert is formed or swaged into conformance with the inner margin of the rib. The insert is then brazed or welded to the rib.

  20. Industrial stator vane with sequential impingement cooling inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Russell B; Fedock, John A; Goebel, Gloria E; Krueger, Judson J; Rawlings, Christopher K; Memmen, Robert L

    2013-08-06

    A turbine stator vane for an industrial engine, the vane having two impingement cooling inserts that produce a series of impingement cooling from the pressure side to the suction side of the vane walls. Each insert includes a spar with a row of alternating impingement cooling channels and return air channels extending in a radial direction. Impingement cooling plates cover the two sides of the insert and having rows of impingement cooling holes aligned with the impingement cooling channels and return air openings aligned with the return air channel.

  1. Kinematics Analysis of an Aided Robot for Needle Insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Gao, Dedong; Wang, Shan; Bai, Huiquan; Zheng, Haojun

    The kinematic relationship between the needle base and the robot's joints is analyzed. The analysis process is based on the aided needle-insertion robot built by our group. The thinking of needle-inserting procedure is confirming the needle base's posture before the needle inserted into tissue. The method of Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) parameters is used to establish a link robot body-frames with the structural characteristics of the robot. After analysing kinematics, the kinematics equation is presented. The kinematics inverse solutions are obtained with the analytical method and geometry analysis method.

  2. Catalytic X-H insertion reactions based on carbenoids.

    PubMed

    Gillingham, Dennis; Fei, Na

    2013-06-21

    Catalysed X-H insertion reactions into diazo compounds (where X is any heteroatom) are a powerful yet underutilized class of transformations. The following review will explore the historical development of X-H insertion and give an up-to-date account of the metal catalysts most often employed, including an assessment of their strengths and weaknesses. Despite decades of development, recent work on enantioselective variants, as well as applying catalytic X-H insertion towards problems in chemical biology indicate that this field has ample room for innovation. PMID:23407887

  3. Small bowel injury after suprapubic catheter insertion presenting 3 years after initial insertion

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Kevin M; Good, Daniel W; Brush, John P; Al-hasso, Ammar; Stewart, Grant D

    2013-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman was referred to urology with blockages of her suprapubic catheter (SPC). The catheter was replaced easily in the emergency department, however, no urine was draining, only a cloudy green fluid was visible. On cystoscopy bilious material was identified in the bladder. There was no catheter visible. There seemed to be a fistulous tract entering the bladder at the left dome. The urethra was dilated, a urethral catheter was placed and the SPC was removed. A CT demonstrated that the SPC tract transfixed a loop of pelvic small bowel and entered the bladder with no intraperitoneal contrast leak. The patient recovered well and did not require laparotomy. This case emphasises that bowel perforation, although rare, must be considered as a complication of SPC placement even years after initial insertion when catheter problems arise. Unusually, we learn that this complication may not present with abdominal pain or peritonism. PMID:24326435

  4. Small bowel injury after suprapubic catheter insertion presenting 3 years after initial insertion.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Kevin M; Good, Daniel W; Brush, John P; Alhasso, Ammar; Al-hasso, Ammar; Stewart, Grant D

    2013-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman was referred to urology with blockages of her suprapubic catheter (SPC). The catheter was replaced easily in the emergency department, however, no urine was draining, only a cloudy green fluid was visible. On cystoscopy bilious material was identified in the bladder. There was no catheter visible. There seemed to be a fistulous tract entering the bladder at the left dome. The urethra was dilated, a urethral catheter was placed and the SPC was removed. A CT demonstrated that the SPC tract transfixed a loop of pelvic small bowel and entered the bladder with no intraperitoneal contrast leak. The patient recovered well and did not require laparotomy. This case emphasises that bowel perforation, although rare, must be considered as a complication of SPC placement even years after initial insertion when catheter problems arise. Unusually, we learn that this complication may not present with abdominal pain or peritonism.

  5. Bougie insertion: A common practice with underestimated dangers

    PubMed Central

    Theodorou, D.; Doulami, G.; Larentzakis, A.; Almpanopoulos, K.; Stamou, K.; Zografos, G.; Menenakos, E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Esophageal perforation after bariatric operations is rare. We report two cases of esophageal perforation after bariatric operations indicating the dangers of a common practice – like insertion of esophageal tubes – and we describe our management of that complication. Presentation of case A 56 year old woman who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and a 41 year old woman who underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding respectively. In both operations a bougie has been used and led to esophageal perforation. Discussion The insertion of bougie and especially of inflated bougie is a common practice. It is an invasive procedure that in most cases is performed by the anesthesiologist team. Conclusion Bougie insertion is an invasive procedure with risks and should always be attempted under direct supervision of surgical team or should be inserted by a surgeon. PMID:22288051

  6. Pressure molding of powdered materials improved by rubber mold insert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Pressure molding tungsten microspheres is accomplished by applying hydraulic pressure to a silicone rubber mold insert with several barrel shaped chambers which is placed in a steel die cavity. This technique eliminates castings containing shear fractures.

  7. The use of dimorphic Alu insertions in human DNA fingerprinting

    SciTech Connect

    Novick, G.E.; Gonzalez, T.; Garrison, J.; Novick, C.C.; Herrera, R.J.; Batzer, M.A.; Deininger, P.L.

    1992-12-04

    We have characterized certain Human Specific Alu Insertions as either dimorphic (TPA25, PV92, APO), sightly dimorphic (C2N4 and C4N4) or monomorphic (C3N1, C4N6, C4N2, C4N5, C4N8), based on studies of Caucasian, Asian, American Black and African Black populations. Our approach is based upon: (1) PCR amplification using primers directed to the sequences that flank the site of insertion of the different Alu elements studied; (2) gel electrophoresis and scoring according to the presence or absence of an Alu insertion in one or both homologous chromosomes; (3) allelic frequencies calculated and compared according to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Our DNA fingerprinting procedure using PCR amplification of dimorphic Human Specific Alu insertions, is stable enough to be used not only as a tool for genetic mapping but also to characterize populations, study migrational patterns and track the inheritance of human genetic disorders.

  8. Interior, detail closeup shot of window with stained glass inserts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, detail closeup shot of window with stained glass inserts in top southeast room taken from ther west - J. Weingartner & Son Cigar Factory, 414 East Walnut Street, North Wales, Montgomery County, PA

  9. Fireplace insert and its parameters depend on the used glazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papučík, Štefan; Čaja, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    The contribution deals with the analysis of the impact of using double glass to change the performance and emission parameters of the fireplace insert. Conventional fireplace inserts are equipped with heat-resistant glass, which is resistant to high temperatures. For this type of inserts are required to be radiant constituent maximized. Prevailing part of heat is into the interior gets just by radiation through the glazed part. The hot water fireplace inserts is the requirement that the radiant constituent to the environment to a minimum. Therefore, instead of a single glass using double glazing which is intended to reduce this part of heat transfer. The temperature in the furnace is increased, and transmitted most of the heat into the water.

  10. Spontaneous Radiation Emission from Short, High Field Strength Insertion Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffrey Krafft

    2005-09-15

    Since the earliest papers on undulaters were published, it has been known how to calculate the spontaneous emission spectrum from ''short'' undulaters when the magnetic field strength parameter is small compared to unity, or in ''single'' frequency sinusoidal undulaters where the magnetic field strength parameter is comparable to or larger than unity, but where the magnetic field amplitude is constant throughout the undulater. Fewer general results have been obtained in the case where the insertion device is both short, i.e., the magnetic field strength parameter changes appreciably throughout the insertion device, and the magnetic field strength is high enough that ponderomotive effects, radiation retardation, and harmonic generation are important physical phenomena. In this paper a general method is presented for calculating the radiation spectrum for short, high-field insertion devices. It is used to calculate the emission from some insertion device designs of recent interest.

  11. Production Recesses for Replaceable Cutting Inserts of Milling Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kousal, Lukáš; Sadílek, Marek

    2014-12-01

    This article describes the production of recesses for replaceable cutting inserts of milling tools. The recess manufacture is exemplified on a D20 shanktype milling cutter with three replaceable cutting inserts. A new production technology and its operating cycle are demonstrated. A com-parison of the old and the new technologies shows the percentage saving of change cycles and used tools, including overall evaluation of the tech-nology.

  12. MTR MAIN FLOOR. MEN DEMONSTRATE INSERTION OF DUMMY PLUG INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR MAIN FLOOR. MEN DEMONSTRATE INSERTION OF DUMMY PLUG INTO AN MTR BEAM HOLE. ONE MAN CHECKS RADIATION LEVEL AT THE END OF THE UNIVERSAL COFFIN, WHILE ANOTHER USES TOOL TO INSERT PLUG INTO HOLE THROUGH COFFIN. MEN WEAR "ANTI-C" (ANTI-CONTAMINATION) CLOTHING. INL NEGATIVE NO. 6198. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 6/27/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Evaluation of preferable insertion routes for esophagogastroduodenoscopy using ultrathin endoscopes

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Satoshi; Niimi, Keiko; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Takahashi, Yu; Sakaguchi, Yoshiki; Nakayama, Chiemi; Minatsuki, Chihiro; Matsuda, Rie; Hirayama-Asada, Itsuko; Tsuji, Yosuke; Mochizuki, Satoshi; Kodashima, Shinya; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Ozeki, Atsuko; Matsumoto, Lumine; Ohike, Yumiko; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the discomfort associated with esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) using an ultrathin endoscope through different insertion routes. METHODS: This study (January 2012-March 2013) included 1971 consecutive patients [male/female (M/F), 1158/813, 57.5 ± 11.9 years] who visited a single institute for annual health checkups. Transnasal EGD was performed in 1394 patients and transoral EGD in 577. EGD-associated discomfort was assessed using a visual analog scale score (VAS score: 0-10). RESULTS: Multivariate analysis revealed gender (M vs F: 4.02 ± 2.15 vs 5.06 ± 2.43) as the only independent predictor of the VAS score in 180 patients who underwent EGD for the first time; whereas it revealed gender (M vs F 3.60 ± 2.20 vs 4.84 ± 2.37), operator, age group (A: < 39 years; B: 40-49 years; C: 50-59 years; D: 60-69 years; E: > 70 years; A/B/C/D/E: 4.99 ± 2.32/4.34 ± 2.49/4.19 ± 2.31/3.99 ± 2.27/3.63 ± 2.31), and type of insertion as independent predictors in the remaining patients. Subanalysis for gender, age group, and insertion route revealed that the VAS score decreased with age regardless of gender and insertion route, was high in female patients regardless of age and insertion route, and was low in males aged over 60 years who underwent transoral insertion. CONCLUSION: Although comprehensive analysis revealed that the insertion route may not be an independent predictor of the VAS score, transoral insertion may reduce EGD-associated discomfort in elderly patients. PMID:24803817

  14. Lithium insertion in silicon nanowires: an ab initio study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianfan; Zhang, Wenxing; Wan, Wenhui; Cui, Yi; Wang, Enge

    2010-09-01

    The ultrahigh specific lithium ion storage capacity of Si nanowires (SiNWs) has been demonstrated recently and has opened up exciting opportunities for energy storage. However, a systematic theoretical study on lithium insertion in SiNWs remains a challenge, and as a result, understanding of the fundamental interaction and microscopic dynamics during lithium insertion is still lacking. This paper focuses on the study of single Li atom insertion into SiNWs with different sizes and axis orientations by using full ab initio calculations. We show that the binding energy of interstitial Li increases as the SiNW diameter grows. The binding energies at different insertion sites, which can be classified as surface, intermediate, and core sites, are quite different. We find that surface sites are energetically the most favorable insertion positions and that intermediate sites are the most unfavorable insertion positions. Compared with the other growth directions, the [110] SiNWs with different diameters always present the highest binding energies on various insertion locations, which indicates that [110] SiNWs are more favorable by Li doping. Furthermore, we study Li diffusion inside SiNWs. The results show that the Li surface diffusion has a much higher chance to occur than the surface to core diffusion, which is consistent with the experimental observation that the Li insertion in SiNWs is layer by layer from surface to inner region. After overcoming a large barrier crossing surface-to-intermediate region, the diffusion toward center has a higher possibility to occur than the inverse process.

  15. Innovation in training for totally implanted port insertion.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Linda J; Moss, Jon

    2016-01-27

    This article discusses the use of fresh frozen cadavers as an innovative way to teach the procedure of totally implanted port insertion. In an attempt to increase the number of competent medical and nursing practitioners able to insert these devices, workshops have been devised and delivered at a university clinical anatomy skills centre. This method of teaching has had positive feedback from practitioners. PMID:27282699

  16. Evaluation of a high resolution silicon PET insert module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grkovski, Milan; Brzezinski, Karol; Cindro, Vladimir; Clinthorne, Neal H.; Kagan, Harris; Lacasta, Carlos; Mikuž, Marko; Solaz, Carles; Studen, Andrej; Weilhammer, Peter; Žontar, Dejan

    2015-07-01

    Conventional PET systems can be augmented with additional detectors placed in close proximity of the region of interest. We developed a high resolution PET insert module to evaluate the added benefit of such a combination. The insert module consists of two back-to-back 1 mm thick silicon sensors, each segmented into 1040 1 mm2 pads arranged in a 40 by 26 array. A set of 16 VATAGP7.1 ASICs and a custom assembled data acquisition board were used to read out the signal from the insert module. Data were acquired in slice (2D) geometry with a Jaszczak phantom (rod diameters of 1.2-4.8 mm) filled with 18F-FDG and the images were reconstructed with ML-EM method. Both data with full and limited angular coverage from the insert module were considered and three types of coincidence events were combined. The ratio of high-resolution data that substantially improves quality of the reconstructed image for the region near the surface of the insert module was estimated to be about 4%. Results from our previous studies suggest that such ratio could be achieved at a moderate technological expense by using an equivalent of two insert modules (an effective sensor thickness of 4 mm).

  17. Seamless Insertion of Pulmonary Nodules in Chest CT Images.

    PubMed

    Pezeshk, Aria; Sahiner, Berkman; Zeng, Rongping; Wunderlich, Adam; Chen, Weijie; Petrick, Nicholas

    2015-12-01

    The availability of large medical image datasets is critical in many applications, such as training and testing of computer-aided diagnosis systems, evaluation of segmentation algorithms, and conducting perceptual studies. However, collection of data and establishment of ground truth for medical images are both costly and difficult. To address this problem, we are developing an image blending tool that allows users to modify or supplement existing datasets by seamlessly inserting a lesion extracted from a source image into a target image. In this study, we focus on the application of this tool to pulmonary nodules in chest CT exams. We minimize the impact of user skill on the perceived quality of the composite image by limiting user involvement to two simple steps: the user first draws a casual boundary around a nodule in the source, and, then, selects the center of desired insertion area in the target. We demonstrate the performance of our system on clinical samples, and report the results of a reader study evaluating the realism of inserted nodules compared to clinical nodules. We further evaluate our image blending techniques using phantoms simulated under different noise levels and reconstruction filters. Specifically, we compute the area under the ROC curve of the Hotelling observer (HO) and noise power spectrum of regions of interest enclosing native and inserted nodules, and compare the detectability, noise texture, and noise magnitude of inserted and native nodules. Our results indicate the viability of our approach for insertion of pulmonary nodules in clinical CT images. PMID:26080378

  18. Bits with diamond-coated inserts reduce gauge problems

    SciTech Connect

    Eckstrom, D. )

    1991-06-17

    In highly abrasive formations, failure of the gauge row cutters on tungsten carbide insert bits may occur rapidly, resulting in short bit runs, poor performance, and undergauge hole. In certain applications, polycrystalline diamond (PCD) enhanced insert bits have longer bit runs and maintain an in-gauge hole which reduces reaming time and wear on downhole equipment. These bits with PCD-coated inserts have reduced drilling costs in several areas of Canada. PCD has been applied to rock drilling tools for several years because of its high wear resistance. Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits use polycrystalline diamonds formed in flat wafers applied to the flat surfaces on carbide inserts. The flat PDC cutters drill by shearing the formation. Smith International Canada Ltd. developed a patented process to apply PCD to curved surfaces, which now allows PCD-enhanced inserts to be used for percussion and rotary cone applications. These diamond-enhanced inserts combine the wear resistance properties of diamond with the durability of tungsten carbide.

  19. A dosimetric comparison of copper and Cerrobend electron inserts.

    PubMed

    Rusk, Benjamin D; Carver, Robert L; Gibbons, John P; Hogstrom, Kenneth R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate differences in dose resulting from the use of copper aperture inserts compared to lead-alloy (Cerrobend) aperture inserts for electron beam therapy. Specifically, this study examines if copper aperture inserts can be used clinically with the same commissioning data measured using lead-alloy aperture inserts. The copper inserts were acquired from .decimal, LLC and matching lead-alloy, Cerrobend inserts were constructed in-house for 32 com-binations of nine square insert field sizes (2 × 2 to 20 × 20 cm2) and five applicator sizes (6 × 6 to 25 × 25 cm2). Percent depth-dose and off-axis relative dose profiles were measured using an electron diode in water for select copper and Cerrobend inserts for a subset of applicators (6 × 6, 10 × 10, 25 × 25 cm2) and energies (6, 12, 20 MeV) at 100 and 110 cm source-to-surface distances (SSD) on a Varian Clinac 21EX accelerator. Dose outputs were measured for all field size-insert combina-tions and five available energies (6-20 MeV) at 100 cm SSD and for a smaller subset at 110 cm SSD. Using these data, 2D planar absolute dose distributions were generated and compared. Criteria for agreement were ± 2% of maximum dose or 1 mm distance-to-agreement for 99% of points. A gamma analysis of the beam dosimetry showed 94 of 96 combinations of insert size, applicator, energy, and SSD were within the 2%/1 mm criteria for > 99% of points. Outside the field, copper inserts showed less bremsstrahlung dose under the insert compared to Cerrobend (greatest difference was 2.5% at 20 MeV and 100 cm SSD). This effect was most prominent at the highest energies for combinations of large applicators with small field sizes, causing some gamma analysis failures. Inside the field, more electrons scattered from the collimator edge of copper compared to Cerrobend, resulting in an increased dose at the field edge for copper at shallow depths (greatest increase was 1% at 20 MeV and 100 cm SSD). Dose

  20. Comparison of large-insert, small-insert and pyrosequencing libraries for metagenomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Danhorn, Thomas; Young, Curtis R; DeLong, Edward F

    2012-11-01

    The development of DNA sequencing methods for characterizing microbial communities has evolved rapidly over the past decades. To evaluate more traditional, as well as newer methodologies for DNA library preparation and sequencing, we compared fosmid, short-insert shotgun and 454 pyrosequencing libraries prepared from the same metagenomic DNA samples. GC content was elevated in all fosmid libraries, compared with shotgun and 454 libraries. Taxonomic composition of the different libraries suggested that this was caused by a relative underrepresentation of dominant taxonomic groups with low GC content, notably Prochlorales and the SAR11 cluster, in fosmid libraries. While these abundant taxa had a large impact on library representation, we also observed a positive correlation between taxon GC content and fosmid library representation in other low-GC taxa, suggesting a general trend. Analysis of gene category representation in different libraries indicated that the functional composition of a library was largely a reflection of its taxonomic composition, and no additional systematic biases against particular functional categories were detected at the level of sequencing depth in our samples. Another important but less predictable factor influencing the apparent taxonomic and functional library composition was the read length afforded by the different sequencing technologies. Our comparisons and analyses provide a detailed perspective on the influence of library type on the recovery of microbial taxa in metagenomic libraries and underscore the different uses and utilities of more traditional, as well as contemporary 'next-generation' DNA library construction and sequencing technologies for exploring the genomics of the natural microbial world.

  1. Focus on peripherally inserted central catheters in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Cotogni, Paolo; Pittiruti, Mauro

    2014-11-01

    Venous access devices are of pivotal importance for an increasing number of critically ill patients in a variety of disease states and in a variety of clinical settings (emergency, intensive care, surgery) and for different purposes (fluids or drugs infusions, parenteral nutrition, antibiotic therapy, hemodynamic monitoring, procedures of dialysis/apheresis). However, healthcare professionals are commonly worried about the possible consequences that may result using a central venous access device (CVAD) (mainly, bloodstream infections and thrombosis), both peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) and centrally inserted central catheters (CICCs). This review aims to discuss indications, insertion techniques, and care of PICCs in critically ill patients. PICCs have many advantages over standard CICCs. First of all, their insertion is easy and safe -due to their placement into peripheral veins of the arm- and the advantage of a central location of catheter tip suitable for all osmolarity and pH solutions. Using the ultrasound-guidance for the PICC insertion, the risk of hemothorax and pneumothorax can be avoided, as well as the possibility of primary malposition is very low. PICC placement is also appropriate to avoid post-procedural hemorrhage in patients with an abnormal coagulative state who need a CVAD. Some limits previously ascribed to PICCs (i.e., low flow rates, difficult central venous pressure monitoring, lack of safety for radio-diagnostic procedures, single-lumen) have delayed their start up in the intensive care units as common practice. Though, the recent development of power-injectable PICCs overcomes these technical limitations and PICCs have started to spread in critical care settings. Two important take-home messages may be drawn from this review. First, the incidence of complications varies depending on venous accesses and healthcare professionals should be aware of the different clinical performance as well as of the different risks

  2. Focus on peripherally inserted central catheters in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Cotogni, Paolo; Pittiruti, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Venous access devices are of pivotal importance for an increasing number of critically ill patients in a variety of disease states and in a variety of clinical settings (emergency, intensive care, surgery) and for different purposes (fluids or drugs infusions, parenteral nutrition, antibiotic therapy, hemodynamic monitoring, procedures of dialysis/apheresis). However, healthcare professionals are commonly worried about the possible consequences that may result using a central venous access device (CVAD) (mainly, bloodstream infections and thrombosis), both peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) and centrally inserted central catheters (CICCs). This review aims to discuss indications, insertion techniques, and care of PICCs in critically ill patients. PICCs have many advantages over standard CICCs. First of all, their insertion is easy and safe -due to their placement into peripheral veins of the arm- and the advantage of a central location of catheter tip suitable for all osmolarity and pH solutions. Using the ultrasound-guidance for the PICC insertion, the risk of hemothorax and pneumothorax can be avoided, as well as the possibility of primary malposition is very low. PICC placement is also appropriate to avoid post-procedural hemorrhage in patients with an abnormal coagulative state who need a CVAD. Some limits previously ascribed to PICCs (i.e., low flow rates, difficult central venous pressure monitoring, lack of safety for radio-diagnostic procedures, single-lumen) have delayed their start up in the intensive care units as common practice. Though, the recent development of power-injectable PICCs overcomes these technical limitations and PICCs have started to spread in critical care settings. Two important take-home messages may be drawn from this review. First, the incidence of complications varies depending on venous accesses and healthcare professionals should be aware of the different clinical performance as well as of the different risks

  3. Recombination of an intrachromosomal paracentric insertion of chromosome 3

    SciTech Connect

    Best, R.G.; Burnett, W.J.; Brock, J.K.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were initiated on a newborn female due to multiple congenital anomalies including microcephaly, clinodactyly, abnormal positioning of hands, left facial palsy, heart defect, sacral dimple, and facial dysmorphic features. Facial features were described as low set rotated ears, nystagmus, and a small, flattened nose. A structural rearrangement of the long arm of chromosome 3 was observed with a complex banding pattern. Study of parental chromosomes revealed a normal male pattern for the father, and an intrachromosomal insertion on the long arm of chromosome 3 for the mother described as 46,XX,dir ins(3)(q21q23q26.2). Further characterization of the proband`s structurally abnormal chromosome 3 revealed a karyotype best described as: 46,XX,rec(3),dupq23{r_arrow}q26.2::q21{r_arrow}q23,dir ins(3)(q21q23q26.2), which is a partial duplication of both the inserted segment as well as the intervening segment between the inserted segment and the insertion site. This would appear to be the result of a three-strand double cross-over within the insertion loop. Molecular cytogenetic studies are presently underway to further elucidate chromosome structure of the proband and her mother.

  4. GAPDH regulates cellular heme insertion into inducible nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarti, Ritu; Aulak, Kulwant S.; Fox, Paul L.; Stuehr, Dennis J.

    2010-01-01

    Heme proteins play essential roles in biology, but little is known about heme transport inside mammalian cells or how heme is inserted into soluble proteins. We recently found that nitric oxide (NO) blocks cells from inserting heme into several proteins, including cytochrome P450s, hemoglobin, NO synthases, and catalase. This finding led us to explore the basis for NO inhibition and to identify cytosolic proteins that may be involved, using inducible NO synthase (iNOS) as a model target. Surprisingly, we found that GAPDH plays a key role. GAPDH was associated with iNOS in cells. Pure GAPDH bound tightly to heme or to iNOS in an NO-sensitive manner. GAPDH knockdown inhibited heme insertion into iNOS and a GAPDH mutant with defective heme binding acted as a dominant negative inhibitor of iNOS heme insertion. Exposing cells to NO either from a chemical donor or by iNOS induction caused GAPDH to become S-nitrosylated at Cys152. Expressing a GAPDH C152S mutant in cells or providing a drug to selectively block GAPDH S-nitrosylation both made heme insertion into iNOS resistant to the NO inhibition. We propose that GAPDH delivers heme to iNOS through a process that is regulated by its S-nitrosylation. Our findings may uncover a fundamental step in intracellular heme trafficking, and reveal a mechanism whereby NO can govern the process. PMID:20921417

  5. Customizable engineered blood vessels using 3D printed inserts.

    PubMed

    Pinnock, Cameron B; Meier, Elizabeth M; Joshi, Neeraj N; Wu, Bin; Lam, Mai T

    2016-04-15

    Current techniques for tissue engineering blood vessels are not customizable for vascular size variation and vessel wall thickness. These critical parameters vary widely between the different arteries in the human body, and the ability to engineer vessels of varying sizes could increase capabilities for disease modeling and treatment options. We present an innovative method for producing customizable, tissue engineered, self-organizing vascular constructs by replicating a major structural component of blood vessels - the smooth muscle layer, or tunica media. We utilize a unique system combining 3D printed plate inserts to control construct size and shape, and cell sheets supported by a temporary fibrin hydrogel to encourage cellular self-organization into a tubular form resembling a natural artery. To form the vascular construct, 3D printed inserts are adhered to tissue culture plates, fibrin hydrogel is deposited around the inserts, and human aortic smooth muscle cells are then seeded atop the fibrin hydrogel. The gel, aided by the innate contractile properties of the smooth muscle cells, aggregates towards the center post insert, creating a tissue ring of smooth muscle cells. These rings are then stacked into the final tubular construct. Our methodology is robust, easily repeatable and allows for customization of cellular composition, vessel wall thickness, and length of the vessel construct merely by varying the size of the 3D printed inserts. This platform has potential for facilitating more accurate modeling of vascular pathology, serving as a drug discovery tool, or for vessel repair in disease treatment. PMID:26732049

  6. Customizable engineered blood vessels using 3D printed inserts.

    PubMed

    Pinnock, Cameron B; Meier, Elizabeth M; Joshi, Neeraj N; Wu, Bin; Lam, Mai T

    2016-04-15

    Current techniques for tissue engineering blood vessels are not customizable for vascular size variation and vessel wall thickness. These critical parameters vary widely between the different arteries in the human body, and the ability to engineer vessels of varying sizes could increase capabilities for disease modeling and treatment options. We present an innovative method for producing customizable, tissue engineered, self-organizing vascular constructs by replicating a major structural component of blood vessels - the smooth muscle layer, or tunica media. We utilize a unique system combining 3D printed plate inserts to control construct size and shape, and cell sheets supported by a temporary fibrin hydrogel to encourage cellular self-organization into a tubular form resembling a natural artery. To form the vascular construct, 3D printed inserts are adhered to tissue culture plates, fibrin hydrogel is deposited around the inserts, and human aortic smooth muscle cells are then seeded atop the fibrin hydrogel. The gel, aided by the innate contractile properties of the smooth muscle cells, aggregates towards the center post insert, creating a tissue ring of smooth muscle cells. These rings are then stacked into the final tubular construct. Our methodology is robust, easily repeatable and allows for customization of cellular composition, vessel wall thickness, and length of the vessel construct merely by varying the size of the 3D printed inserts. This platform has potential for facilitating more accurate modeling of vascular pathology, serving as a drug discovery tool, or for vessel repair in disease treatment.

  7. Direct insertion of metal ions into tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine

    SciTech Connect

    Linkous, C.A.; Shea, C.E.; Jaber, M.R.A. )

    1989-07-01

    A series of metal salts were reacted with aqueous solutions of the tetrasulfonated free base phthalocyanine (H{sub 2}TsPc) in an attempt to prepare the corresponding metal TsPc derivative by direct insertion instead of the usual template reaction in a urea melt. Spectrophotometric analysis showed that Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Pd{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Sn{sup 2+} could be successfully inserted; higher oxidation states as well as Pb{sup 2+} caused precipitation. Reducing species such as Cr{sup 2+} and V{sup 2+} reduced H{sub 2}TsPc but did not insert; Sn{sup 2+} inserted with formation of an air-sensitive intermediate species. Mg{sup 2+}, VO{sup 2+}, Pt{sup 2+}, and Hg{sup 2+} were unreactive. It is recommended that insertion may be the preferable method for synthesis of the MTsPc's listed above when air sensitivity, reaction time, and microscale are important issues in an overall synthetic scheme. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Seamless lesion insertion in digital mammography: methodology and reader study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezeshk, Aria; Petrick, Nicholas; Sahiner, Berkman

    2016-03-01

    Collection of large repositories of clinical images containing verified cancer locations is costly and time consuming due to difficulties associated with both the accumulation of data and establishment of the ground truth. This problem poses a significant challenge to the development of machine learning algorithms that require large amounts of data to properly train and avoid overfitting. In this paper we expand the methods in our previous publications by making several modifications that significantly increase the speed of our insertion algorithms, thereby allowing them to be used for inserting lesions that are much larger in size. These algorithms have been incorporated into an image composition tool that we have made publicly available. This tool allows users to modify or supplement existing datasets by seamlessly inserting a real breast mass or micro-calcification cluster extracted from a source digital mammogram into a different location on another mammogram. We demonstrate examples of the performance of this tool on clinical cases taken from the University of South Florida Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). Finally, we report the results of a reader study evaluating the realism of inserted lesions compared to clinical lesions. Analysis of the radiologist scores in the study using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methodology indicates that inserted lesions cannot be reliably distinguished from clinical lesions.

  9. Minimally disruptive needle insertion: a biologically inspired solution.

    PubMed

    Leibinger, Alexander; Oldfield, Matthew J; Rodriguez Y Baena, Ferdinando

    2016-06-01

    The mobility of soft tissue can cause inaccurate needle insertions. Particularly in steering applications that employ thin and flexible needles, large deviations can occur between pre-operative images of the patient, from which a procedure is planned, and the intra-operative scene, where a procedure is executed. Although many approaches for reducing tissue motion focus on external constraining or manipulation, little attention has been paid to the way the needle is inserted and actuated within soft tissue. Using our biologically inspired steerable needle, we present a method of reducing the disruptiveness of insertions by mimicking the burrowing mechanism of ovipositing wasps. Internal displacements and strains in three dimensions within a soft tissue phantom are measured at the needle interface, using a scanning laser-based image correlation technique. Compared to a conventional insertion method with an equally sized needle, overall displacements and strains in the needle vicinity are reduced by 30% and 41%, respectively. The results show that, for a given net speed, needle insertion can be made significantly less disruptive with respect to its surroundings by employing our biologically inspired solution. This will have significant impact on both the safety and targeting accuracy of percutaneous interventions along both straight and curved trajectories. PMID:27274797

  10. Comparison of large-insert, small-insert and pyrosequencing libraries for metagenomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Danhorn, Thomas; Young, Curtis R; DeLong, Edward F

    2012-11-01

    The development of DNA sequencing methods for characterizing microbial communities has evolved rapidly over the past decades. To evaluate more traditional, as well as newer methodologies for DNA library preparation and sequencing, we compared fosmid, short-insert shotgun and 454 pyrosequencing libraries prepared from the same metagenomic DNA samples. GC content was elevated in all fosmid libraries, compared with shotgun and 454 libraries. Taxonomic composition of the different libraries suggested that this was caused by a relative underrepresentation of dominant taxonomic groups with low GC content, notably Prochlorales and the SAR11 cluster, in fosmid libraries. While these abundant taxa had a large impact on library representation, we also observed a positive correlation between taxon GC content and fosmid library representation in other low-GC taxa, suggesting a general trend. Analysis of gene category representation in different libraries indicated that the functional composition of a library was largely a reflection of its taxonomic composition, and no additional systematic biases against particular functional categories were detected at the level of sequencing depth in our samples. Another important but less predictable factor influencing the apparent taxonomic and functional library composition was the read length afforded by the different sequencing technologies. Our comparisons and analyses provide a detailed perspective on the influence of library type on the recovery of microbial taxa in metagenomic libraries and underscore the different uses and utilities of more traditional, as well as contemporary 'next-generation' DNA library construction and sequencing technologies for exploring the genomics of the natural microbial world. PMID:22534608

  11. Bone scanning in the adductor insertion avulsion syndrome ("thigh splints").

    PubMed

    Charkes, N D; Siddhivarn, N; Schneck, C D

    1987-12-01

    Shin splints is a defined clinical entity resulting from extreme tension on muscles inserting on the tibia, resulting in periosteal elevation which is detectable by bone scanning. The clinical equivalent in the thigh has been described. We found scintigraphic changes in the femurs of seven short, female, basic trainees at the Fort Dix Army base, most of whom were referred for stress fractures elsewhere in the lower extremities. The scan findings were generally noted in the upper or mid femurs, always involved the anteromedial cortex, and were bilateral in five of the seven subjects. The abnormalities were linear and suggested periosteal elevation, and did not have the typical appearance of stress fracture. Since the findings correspond to the insertion of one or more adductor muscle groups, the descriptive term "adductor insertion avulsion syndrome" or "thigh splints" is proposed for this entity.

  12. Isolation of sequences flanking Ac insertion sites by Ac casting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dafang; Peterson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Localizing Ac insertions is a fundamental task in studying Ac-induced mutation and chromosomal rearrangements involving Ac elements. Researchers may sometimes be faced with the situation in which the sequence flanking one side of an Ac/Ds element is known, but the other flank is unknown. Or, a researcher may have a small sequence surrounding the Ac/Ds insertion site and needs to obtain additional flanking genomic sequences. One way to rapidly clone unknown Ac/Ds flanking sequences is via a PCR-based method termed Ac casting. This approach utilizes the somatic transposition activity of Ac during plant development, and provides an efficient means for short-range genome walking. Here we describe the principle of Ac casting, and show how it can be applied to isolate Ac macrotransposon insertion sites.

  13. A Nasogastric Tube Inserted into the Gastrocutaneous Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yang Soo; Kim, Joon Sung; Yu, In Hee; Jeong, Ji Young; Jung, Sung Hee; Jo, Yil Ryun

    2011-01-01

    We reported a case in which a nasogastric tube was inserted into the gastrocutaneous fistula, diagnosed by abdominal computed tomography. A 78-year-old man with a history of recurrent cerebral hemorrhage had a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube due to dysphagia for 2 years. However, soft tissue infection at the gastrostomy site caused the removal of the tube. Immediately, antibiotic agents were infused. For appropriate hydration and medication, a nasogastric tube was inserted. However, there was no significant improvement of the soft tissue infection. Moreover, the amount of bloody exudate increased. Abdominal computed tomography revealed the nasogastric tube placed under the patient's skin via gastrocutaneous fistula. The nasogastric tube was removed, and an antibiotic agents were maintained. After 3 weeks, the signs of infection fully improved, and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was performed again. This case shows necessities of an appropriate interval between removal of the gastrostomy tube and insertion of a nasogastric tube, and suspicion of existence of gastrocutaneous fistula. PMID:22506228

  14. Synchronized monochromator and insertion device energy scans at SLS

    SciTech Connect

    Krempasky, J.; Flechsig, U.; Korhonen, T.; Zimoch, D.; Quitmann, Ch.; Nolting, F.

    2010-06-23

    Synchronous monochromator and insertion device energy scans were implemented at the Surfaces/Interfaces:Microscopy (SIM) beamline in order to provide the users fast X-ray magnetic dichroism studies (XMCD). A simple software control scheme is proposed based on a fast monochromator run-time energy readback which quickly updates the insertion device requested energy during an on-the-fly X-ray absorption scan (XAS). In this scheme the Plain Grating Monochromator (PGM) motion control, being much slower compared with the insertion device (APPLE-II type undulator), acts as a 'master' controlling the undulator 'slave' energy position. This master-slave software implementation exploits EPICS distributed device control over computer network and allows for a quasi-synchronous motion control combined with data acquisition needed for the XAS or XMCD experiment.

  15. Insertion of liquid crystal molecules into hydrocarbon monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, Piotr Mann, Elizabeth K.; Lacks, Daniel J.; Jákli, Antal

    2014-08-07

    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate the molecular mechanisms of vertical surface alignment of liquid crystals. We study the insertion of nCB (4-Cyano-4{sup ′}-n-biphenyl) molecules with n = 0,…,6 into a bent-core liquid crystal monolayer that was recently found to provide good vertical alignment for liquid crystals. The results suggest a complex-free energy landscape for the liquid crystal within the layer. The preferred insertion direction of the nCB molecules (core or tail first) varies with n, which can be explained by entropic considerations. The role of the dipole moments was found to be negligible. As vertical alignment is the leading form of present day liquid crystal displays (LCD), these results will help guide improvement of the LCD technology, as well as lend insight into the more general problem of insertion of biological and other molecules into lipid and surfactant layers.

  16. African origin of human-specific polymorphic Alu insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Batzer, M.A.; Alegria-Hartman, M. ); Stoneking, M. ); Bazan, H.; Kass, D.H.; Shaikh, T.H.; Scheer, W.D. ); Novick, G.E.; Herrera, R.J. ); Ioannou, P.A. )

    1994-12-06

    Alu elements are a family of interspersed repeats that have mobilized throughout primate genomes by retroposition from a few [open quotes]master[close quotes] genes. Among the 500,000 Alu elements in the human genome are members of the human-specific subfamily that are not fixed in the human species. Four such polymorphic human-specific Alu insertions were analyzed by a rapid, PCR-based assay. These four polymorphic Alu insertions were shown to be absent from the genomes of a number of nonhuman primates, consistent with their arising as human genetic polymorphisms sometime after the human/African ape divergence. Analysis of 664 unrelated individuals from 16 population groups from around the world revealed substantial levels of variation within population groups and significant genetic differentiation among groups. No significant associations were found among the four loci, consistent with their location on different chromosomes. A maximum-likelihood tree of population relationships showed four major groupings consisting of Africa, Europe, Asia/Americas, and Australia/New Guinea, which is concordant with similar trees based on other loci. A particularly useful feature of the polymorphic Alu insertions is that the ancestral state is known to be the absence of the Alu element, and the presence of the Alu element at a particular chromosomal site reflects a single, unique event in human evolution. A hypothetical ancestral group can then be included in the tree analysis, with the frequency of each insertion set to zero. The ancestral group connected to the maximum-likelihood tree within the African branch, which suggests an African origin of these polymorphic Alu insertions. These data are concordant with other diverse data sets, which lends further support to the recent African origin hypothesis for modern humans. Polymorphic Alu insertions represent a source of genetic variation for studying human population structure and evolution. 45 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Rhizobium phaseoli symbiotic mutants with transposon Tn5 insertions.

    PubMed Central

    Noel, K D; Sanchez, A; Fernandez, L; Leemans, J; Cevallos, M A

    1984-01-01

    Rhizobium phaseoli CFN42 DNA was mutated by random insertion of Tn5 from suicide plasmid pJB4JI to obtain independently arising strains that were defective in symbiosis with Phaseolus vulgaris but grew normally outside the plant. When these mutants were incubated with the plant, one did not initiate visible nodule tissue (Nod-), seven led to slow nodule development (Ndv), and two led to superficially normal early nodule development but lacked symbiotic nitrogenase activity (Sna-). The Nod- mutant lacked the large transmissible indigenous plasmid pCFN42d that has homology to Klebsiella pneumoniae nitrogenase (nif) genes. The other mutants had normal plasmid content. In the two Sna- mutants and one Ndv mutant, Tn5 had inserted into plasmid pCFN42d outside the region of nif homology. The insertions of the other Ndv mutants were apparently in the chromosome. They were not in plasmids detected on agarose gels, and, in contrast to insertions on indigenous plasmids, they were transmitted in crosses to wild-type strain CFN42 at the same frequency as auxotrophic markers and with the same enhancement of transmission by conjugation plasmid R68.45. In these Ndv mutants the Tn5 insertions were the same as or very closely linked to mutations causing the Ndv phenotype. However, in two mutants with Tn5 insertions on plasmid pCFN42d, an additional mutation on the same plasmid, rather than Tn5, was responsible for the Sna- or Ndv phenotype. When plasmid pJB4JI was transferred to two other R. phaseoli strains, analysis of symbiotic mutants was complicated by Tn5-containing deleted forms of pJB4JI that were stably maintained. Images PMID:6325385

  18. Characterisation of protein stability in rod-insert vaginal rings.

    PubMed

    Pattani, Aditya; Lowry, Deborah; Curran, Rhonda M; McGrath, Stephanie; Kett, Vicky L; Andrews, Gavin P; Malcolm, R Karl

    2012-07-01

    A major goal in vaccine development is elimination of the 'cold chain', the transport and storage system for maintenance and distribution of the vaccine product. This is particularly pertinent to liquid formulation of vaccines. We have previously described the rod-insert vaginal ring (RiR) device, comprising an elastomeric body into which are inserted lyophilised, rod-shaped, solid drug dosage forms, and having potential for sustained mucosal delivery of biomacromolecules, such as HIV envelope protein-based vaccine candidates. Given the solid, lyophilised nature of these insert dosage forms, we hypothesised that antigen stability may be significantly increased compared with more conventional solubilised vaginal gel format. In this study, we prepared and tested vaginal ring devices fitted with lyophilised rod inserts containing the model antigen bovine serum albumin (BSA). Both the RiRs and the gels that were freeze-dried to prepare the inserts were evaluated for BSA stability using PAGE, turbidimetry, microbial load, MALDI-TOF and qualitative precipitate solubility measurements. When stored at 4 °C, but not when stored at 40 °C/75% RH, the RiR formulation offered protection against structural and conformational changes to BSA. The insert also retained matrix integrity and release characteristics. The results demonstrate that lypophilised gels can provide relative protection against degradation at lower temperatures compared to semi-solid gels. The major mechanism of degradation at 40 °C/75% RH was shown to be protein aggregation. Finally, in a preliminary study, we found that addition of trehalose to the formulation significantly reduces the rate of BSA degradation compared to the original formulation when stored at 40 °C/75% RH. Establishing the mechanism of degradation, and finding that degradation is decelerated in the presence of trehalose, will help inform further development of RiRs specifically and polymer based freeze-dried systems in general. PMID

  19. Insertion and confinement of air bubbles inside a liquid marble.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guanqing; Sheng, Yifeng; Ngai, To

    2016-01-14

    Nanoparticles at the air/liquid interface can serve as solid separating barriers to form stable foams or liquid marbles depending on the wettability of the nanoparticles. This paper presents an effect that enables the insertion and confinement of air bubbles inside a liquid marble, based on encapsulating an air bubble surrounded by surfactant molecules or hydrophilic particles. We have demonstrated that more than one bubble can be inserted and trapped inside one liquid marble so that liquid marbles can be divided into several separate compartments. The findings presented here may stimulate fundamental studies of this novel bubble-marble phenomenon, as well as developments of various practical applications.

  20. Suprapubic catheterisation: a retrospective comparison of two insertion systems.

    PubMed

    Lingard, Corinne; Foote, Andrew J

    2005-02-01

    Abstract This study compares two suprapubic catheter insertion systems available for postoperative bladder drainage. We performed retrospective analysis of patients who underwent laparoscopic colposuspension and postoperative suprapubic catheterisation with either the Bonanno (Becton, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) or the Lawrence Add-a-Cath (Femcare, Nottingham, UK) mini-Foley catheters (Bard, Covington, GA, USA). There were no statistically significant postoperative outcome differences between the two catheter groups. We prefer the Add-a-Cath mini-Foley suprapubic catheter for its ease of insertion and fixation.

  1. Tension Pneumothorax and Subcutaneous Emphysema Complicating Insertion of Nasogastric Tube.

    PubMed

    Al Saif, Narjis; Hammodi, Adel; Al-Azem, M Ali; Al-Hubail, Rasheed

    2015-01-01

    Nasogastric tube has a key role in the management of substantial number of hospitalized patients particularly the critically ill. In spite of the apparent simple insertion technique, nasogastric tube placement has its serious perhaps fatal complications which need to be carefully assessed. Pulmonary misplacement and associated complications are commonplace during nasogastric tube procedure. We present a case of tension pneumothorax and massive surgical emphysema in critically ill ventilated patient due to inadvertent nasogastric tube insertion and also discussed the risk factors, complication list, and arrays of techniques for safer tube placement.

  2. Advanced photon source experience with vacuum chambers for insertion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hartog, P.D.; Grimmer, J.; Xu, S.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Wiemerslage, G.

    1997-08-01

    During the last five years, a new approach to the design and fabrication of extruded aluminum vacuum chambers for insertion devices was developed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). With this approach, three different versions of the vacuum chamber, with vertical apertures of 12 mm, 8 mm, and 5 mm, were manufactured and tested. Twenty chambers were installed into the APS vacuum system. All have operated with beam, and 16 have been coupled with insertion devices. Two different vacuum chambers with vertical apertures of 16 mm and 11 mm were developed for the BESSY-II storage ring and 3 of 16 mm chambers were manufactured.

  3. Cryptococcus neoformans virulence gene discovery through insertional mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Idnurm, Alexander; Reedy, Jennifer L; Nussbaum, Jesse C; Heitman, Joseph

    2004-04-01

    Insertional mutagenesis was applied to Cryptococcus neoformans to identify genes associated with virulence attributes. Using biolistic transformation, we generated 4,300 nourseothricin (NAT)-resistant strains, of which 590 exhibited stable resistance. We focused on mutants with defects in established virulence factors and identified two with reduced growth at 37 degrees C, four with reduced production of the antioxidant pigment melanin, and two with an increased sensitivity to nitric oxide (NO). The NAT insertion and mutant phenotypes were genetically linked in five of eight mutants, and the DNA flanking the insertions was characterized. For the strains with altered growth at 37 degrees C and altered melanin production, mutations were in previously uncharacterized genes, while the two NO-sensitive strains bore insertions in the flavohemoglobin gene FHB1, whose product counters NO stress. Because of the frequent instability of nourseothricin resistance associated with biolistic transformation, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was tested. This transkingdom DNA delivery approach produced 100% stable nourseothricin-resistant transformants, and three melanin-defective strains were identified from 576 transformants, of which 2 were linked to NAT in segregation analysis. One of these mutants contained a T-DNA insertion in the promoter of the LAC1 (laccase) gene, which encodes a key enzyme required for melanin production, while the second contained an insertion in the promoter of the CLC1 gene, encoding a voltage-gated chloride channel. Clc1 and its homologs are required for ion homeostasis, and in their absence Cu+ transport into the secretory pathway is compromised, depriving laccase and other Cu(+)-dependent proteins of their essential cofactor. The NAT resistance cassette was optimized for cryptococcal codon usage and GC content and was then used to disrupt a mitogen-activated protein kinase gene, a predicted gene, and two putative chloride channel genes to

  4. Using PATIMDB to Create Bacterial Transposon Insertion Mutant Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Urbach, Jonathan M.; Wei, Tao; Liberati, Nicole; Grenfell-Lee, Daniel; Villanueva, Jacinto; Wu, Gang; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    2015-01-01

    PATIMDB is a software package for facilitating the generation of transposon mutant insertion libraries. The software has two main functions: process tracking and automated sequence analysis. The process tracking function specifically includes recording the status and fates of multiwell plates and samples in various stages of library construction. Automated sequence analysis refers specifically to the pipeline of sequence analysis starting with ABI files from a sequencing facility and ending with insertion location identifications. The protocols in this unit describe installation and use of PATIMDB software. PMID:19343706

  5. Insertion of lithium into electrochromic devices after completion

    SciTech Connect

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Frey, Jonathan Mack; Barrett, Kathryn Suzanne; DuPont, Paul Damon; Schaller, Ronald William

    2015-12-22

    The present disclosure describes methods of inserting lithium into an electrochromic device after completion. In the disclosed methods, an ideal amount of lithium can be added post-fabrication to maximize or tailor the free lithium ion density of a layer or the coloration range of a device. Embodiments are directed towards a method to insert lithium into the main device layers of an electrochromic device as a post-processing step after the device has been manufactured. In an embodiment, the methods described are designed to maximize the coloration range while compensating for blind charge loss.

  6. Magnetic ripple correction in tandem mirrors by ferromagnetic inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, G.W.

    1985-04-04

    Magnetic ripple of 1% or more caused by discrete solenoid coils in the central cells of tandem mirrors may severely affect the MHD stability. The ripple amplitude can be reduced by an order of magnitude by ferromagnetic annuli inserted within the coils at the regions of ripple maxima. The inserts need not affect the accessibility, coil diameter, or capital cost, since large quantities of steel are required within the coils for the neutron blanket and shield. Design of the ripple correction is simplified and linearized by the cylindrical geometry and by the saturation of the ferromagnetic steel.

  7. Method of modifying a volume mesh using sheet insertion

    DOEpatents

    Borden, Michael J.; Shepherd, Jason F.

    2006-08-29

    A method and machine-readable medium provide a technique to modify a hexahedral finite element volume mesh using dual generation and sheet insertion. After generating a dual of a volume stack (mesh), a predetermined algorithm may be followed to modify (refine) the volume mesh of hexahedral elements. The predetermined algorithm may include the steps of locating a sheet of hexahedral mesh elements, determining a plurality of hexahedral elements within the sheet to refine, shrinking the plurality of elements, and inserting a new sheet of hexahedral elements adjacently to modify the volume mesh. Additionally, another predetermined algorithm using mesh cutting may be followed to modify a volume mesh.

  8. Reactions of a cerium(iii) amide with heteroallenes: insertion, silyl-migration and de-insertion.

    PubMed

    Yin, Haolin; Carroll, Patrick J; Schelter, Eric J

    2016-07-28

    Reactions of Ce[N(SiMe3)Ph(F)]3 (-Ph(F) = pentafluorophenyl) toward small molecules of the type E1[double bond, length as m-dash]C[double bond, length as m-dash]E2 (E1, E2 = O, S, NR), including carbon disulfide, carbodiimide, carbon dioxide, isocyanate and isothiocyanate are reported, resulting in distinct products, including cerium(iii) dithiocarbamate, cerium(iii) guanidinate, isocyanates and unsymmetric carbodiimides. These reactions were rationalized as three consecutive stages of the same reaction pathway: insertion, silyl-migration and de-insertion. PMID:27416923

  9. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bereau, Tristan; Bennett, W. F. Drew; Pfaendtner, Jim; Deserno, Markus; Karttunen, Mikko

    2015-12-01

    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA)n (L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural properties have been illuminated in a large number of experimental and simulation studies. In this combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulation study, we probe the thermodynamics of a single WALP peptide, focusing on both the insertion across the water-membrane interface, as well as folding in both water and a membrane. The potential of mean force characterizing the peptide's insertion into the membrane shows qualitatively similar behavior across peptides and three force fields. However, the Martini force field exhibits a pronounced secondary minimum for an adsorbed interfacial state, which may even become the global minimum—in contrast to both atomistic simulations and the alternative PLUM force field. Even though the two coarse-grained models reproduce the free energy of insertion of individual amino acids side chains, they both underestimate its corresponding value for the full peptide (as compared with atomistic simulations), hinting at cooperative physics beyond the residue level. Folding of WALP in the two environments indicates the helix as the most stable structure, though with different relative stabilities and chain-length dependence.

  10. Astronaut Rich Clifford inserts tape into payload high data recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    On the Space Shuttle Endeavour's aft flight deck, Astronaut Michael R. (Rich) Clifford, mission specialist, inserts a tape in the payload high rate recorder. Three of these state-of-the-art recorders captured four times the amount of data that could be radioed to the ground.

  11. 21 CFR 310.515 - Patient package inserts for estrogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... recent revision of the patient package insert. (d) Guidance language. The Food and Drug Administration issues informal labeling guidance texts under § 10.90(b)(9) of this chapter to provide assistance in meeting the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section. Requests for a copy of the guidance text...

  12. 21 CFR 310.515 - Patient package inserts for estrogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... recent revision of the patient package insert. (d) Guidance language. The Food and Drug Administration issues informal labeling guidance texts under § 10.90(b)(9) of this chapter to provide assistance in meeting the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section. Requests for a copy of the guidance text...

  13. 21 CFR 310.515 - Patient package inserts for estrogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... recent revision of the patient package insert. (d) Guidance language. The Food and Drug Administration issues informal labeling guidance texts under § 10.90(b)(9) of this chapter to provide assistance in meeting the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section. Requests for a copy of the guidance text...

  14. Otological Findings Ten Years after Myringotomy with Tympanostomy Tube Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Barati, Behrouz; Hashemi, Seyed Mostafa; Goljanian Tabrizi, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: To study the long-term complications of tympanostomy tube insertion in young children 10 years after surgery. Materials and Methods: In September 2011, the medical records of all patients who had undergone myringotomy with tympanostomy tube insertion between February 2000 and March 2001 at the two general hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences were studied. Of the 98 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 82 patients agreed to participate and were enrolled in the study. The complications of the operation were evaluated in these patients. Results: Of the 164 ears that were operated on, myringosclerosis was found in 17.1%, atrophy of the tympanic membrane in 1.2%, permanent perforation of the tympanic membrane in 0.6% and tympanic membrane atelectasis in 0.6%. None of the patients developed cholesteatoma as a complication of tympanostomy tube insertion. Conclusion: Considering the low risk of serious complications after 10 years, tympanostomy tube insertion is a safe and effective treatment option in the treatment of otitis media with effusion. PMID:24303407

  15. Electromagnetically tracked placement of a peripherally inserted central catheter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacolick, Laura; Patel, Neilesh; Tang, Jonathan; Levy, Elliot; Cleary, Kevin R.

    2004-05-01

    This paper describes a computer program to utilize electromagnetic tracking guidance during insertion of peripherally inserted central catheters. Placement of a Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) line is a relatively simple, routine procedure in which a catheter is inserted into the veins of the lower arm and threaded up the arm to the vena cava to sit just above the heart. However, the procedure requires x-ray verification of the catheter position and is usually done under continuous fluoroscopic guidance. The computer program is designed to replace fluoroscopic guidance in this procedure and make PICC line placement a bedside procedure. This would greatly reduce the time and resources dedicated to this procedure. The physician first goes through a quick registration procedure to register the patient space with the computer screen coordinates. Once registration is completed, the program provides a continuous, real-time display of the position of the catheter tip overlaid on an x-ray image of the patient on an adjacent computer screen. Both the position and orientation of the catheter tip is shown. The display is very similar to that shown when using fluoroscopy.

  16. Quench Module Insert Capabilities and Development Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, B.; Crouch, M.; Farmer, J.; Breeding, S.; Rose, F.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Quench Module Insert is a directional solidification furnace, which will fly in the Materials Science Research Facility. The QMI provides high thermal gradient and quench capabilities for processing metals and alloys in microgravity. This paper will describe the capabilities and present of on-going analysis and development testing.

  17. Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, S.

    1997-01-01

    Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties.

  18. Effects of lithium insertion on thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wen; Zhang, Gang; Li, Baowen

    2015-04-27

    Recently, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been applied as high-performance Li battery anodes, since they can overcome the pulverization and mechanical fracture during lithiation. Although thermal stability is one of the most important parameters that determine safety of Li batteries, thermal conductivity of SiNWs with Li insertion remains unclear. In this letter, using molecular dynamics simulations, we study room temperature thermal conductivity of SiNWs with Li insertion. It is found that compared with the pristine SiNW, there is as much as 60% reduction in thermal conductivity with 10% concentration of inserted Li atoms, while under the same impurity concentration the reduction in thermal conductivity of the mass-disordered SiNW is only 30%. With lattice dynamics calculations and normal mode decomposition, it is revealed that the phonon lifetimes in SiNWs decrease greatly due to strong scattering of phonons by vibrational modes of Li atoms, especially for those high frequency phonons. The observed strong phonon scattering phenomenon in Li-inserted SiNWs is similar to the phonon rattling effect. Our study serves as an exploration of thermal properties of SiNWs as Li battery anodes or weakly coupled with impurity atoms.

  19. Postplacental or delayed levonorgestrel intrauterine device insertion and breastfeeding duration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Beatrice A.; Reeves, Matthew F.; Creinin, Mitchell D.; Schwarz, E. Bimla

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objective was to assess the effect of timing of postpartum levonorgestrel-releasing IUD insertion on breastfeeding continuation. STUDY DESIGN Women interested in using a levonorgestrel IUD postpartum were randomized to immediate postplacental insertion (postplacental group) or insertion 6–8 weeks after vaginal delivery (delayed group). Duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding were assessed at 6–8 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months postpartum. Only women who received an IUD were included in this analysis. RESULTS Breastfeeding was initiated by 32/50 (64%) of women receiving a postplacental IUD and 27/46 (58.7%) of women receiving a delayed IUD (p=0.59). More women in the delayed group compared to the postplacental group continued to breastfeed at 6–8 weeks (16/46 vs 15/50, p=0.62), 3 months (13/46 vs 7/50, p=0.13), and 6 months postpartum (11/46 vs 3/50, p=0.02). The results did not differ when only women who initiated breastfeeding or only primiparous women with no prior breastfeeding experience were analyzed. CONCLUSIONS Immediate postplacental insertion of the levonorgestrel IUD is associated with shorter duration of breastfeeding and less exclusive breastfeeding. Further studies are needed of the effects of early initiation of progestin-only methods on women’s lactation experience. PMID:22018124

  20. Insertional mutagenesis using Tnt1 retrotransposon in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is the third most important food crop in the world. However, genetics and genomics research of potato has lagged behind many major crop species due to its autotetraploidy and a highly heterogeneous genome. Insertional mutagenesis using T-DNA or transposable elements, which is available in sev...

  1. External Tank (ET) Bipod Fitting Bolted Attachment Locking Insert Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Curtis E.; Wilson, Tim R.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Raju, Ivatury S.; McManamen, John

    2008-01-01

    Following STS-107, the External Tank (ET) Project implemented corrective actions and configuration changes at the ET bipod fitting. Among the corrective actions, the existing bolt lock wire which provided resistance to potential bolt rotation was removed. The lock wire removal was because of concerns with creating voids during foam application and potential for lock wire to become debris. The bolts had been previously lubricated to facilitate assembly but, because of elimination of the lock wire, the ET Project wanted to enable the locking feature of the insert. Thus, the lubrication was removed from bolt threads and instead applied to the washer under the bolt head. Lubrication is necessary to maximize joint pre-load while remaining within the bolt torque specification. The locking feature is implemented by thread crimping in at four places in the insert. As the bolt is torqued into the insert the bolt threads its way past the crimped parts of the insert. This provides the locking of the bolt, as torque is required to loosen the joint after clamping.

  2. Analysis of HIV-2 Vpx by modeling and insertional mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mahnke, Lisa A. . E-mail: lmahnke@im.wustl.edu; Belshan, Michael; Ratner, Lee . E-mail: lratner@im.wustl.edu

    2006-04-25

    Vpx facilitates HIV-2 nuclear localization by a poorly understood mechanism. We have compared Vpx to an NMR structure HIV-1 Vpr in a central helical domain and probed regions of Vpx by insertional mutagenesis. A predicted loop between helices two and three appears to be unique, overlapping with a known novel nuclear localization signal. Overall, Vpx was found to be surprisingly flexible, tolerating a series of large insertions. We found that insertion within the polyproline-containing C-terminus destabilizes nuclear localization, whereas mutating a second helix in the central domain disrupts viral packaging. Other insertional mutants in the predicted loop and in a linker region between the central domain and the C-terminus may be useful as sites of intramolecular tags as they could be packaged adequately and retained preintegration complex associated integration activity in a serum starvation assay. An unexpected result was found within a previously defined nuclear localization motif near aa 71. This mutant retained robust nuclear localization in a GFP fusion assay and was competent for preintegration complex associated nuclear import. In summary, we have modeled helical content in Vpx and assessed potential sites of intramolecular tags which may prove useful for protein-protein interactions studies.

  3. 31. Photocopy of map. Insert from Master Plan Notes Prepared ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Photocopy of map. Insert from Master Plan Notes Prepared by Environmental Planning and Design, Pittsburgh, Pa. Original at Missouri Botanical Garden. 1972 MASTER PLAN 32. 'THE TREE,' SCULPTURE BY ALEXANDER CALDER, 1966 - Missouri Botanical Garden, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  4. 30. Photocopy of map. Insert, p. 138, Master Plan Report, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photocopy of map. Insert, p. 138, Master Plan Report, 1960, Vol. II. Layton, Layton and Rohrbach, General Planning and Resource Consultants. 1960 MASTER PLAN, SHOWING PROPOSED LOCATION OF LINNAEAN HOUSE - Missouri Botanical Garden, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  5. Computer Modeling of Protocellular Functions: Peptide Insertion in Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez-Gomez, D.; Darve, E.; Pohorille, A.

    2006-01-01

    Lipid vesicles became the precursors to protocells by acquiring the capabilities needed to survive and reproduce. These include transport of ions, nutrients and waste products across cell walls and capture of energy and its conversion into a chemically usable form. In modem organisms these functions are carried out by membrane-bound proteins (about 30% of the genome codes for this kind of proteins). A number of properties of alpha-helical peptides suggest that their associations are excellent candidates for protobiological precursors of proteins. In particular, some simple a-helical peptides can aggregate spontaneously and form functional channels. This process can be described conceptually by a three-step thermodynamic cycle: 1 - folding of helices at the water-membrane interface, 2 - helix insertion into the lipid bilayer and 3 - specific interactions of these helices that result in functional tertiary structures. Although a crucial step, helix insertion has not been adequately studied because of the insolubility and aggregation of hydrophobic peptides. In this work, we use computer simulation methods (Molecular Dynamics) to characterize the energetics of helix insertion and we discuss its importance in an evolutionary context. Specifically, helices could self-assemble only if their interactions were sufficiently strong to compensate the unfavorable Free Energy of insertion of individual helices into membranes, providing a selection mechanism for protobiological evolution.

  6. Direct observation of poloxamer 188 insertion into lipid monolayers.

    PubMed Central

    Maskarinec, Stacey A; Hannig, Jürgen; Lee, Raphael C; Lee, Ka Yee C

    2002-01-01

    P188, a triblock copolymer of the form poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) helps seal electroporated cell membranes, arresting the leakage of intracellular materials from the damaged cells. To explore the nature of the interaction between P188 and cell membranes, we have constructed a model system that assesses the ability of P188 to insert into lipid monolayers. Using concurrent Langmuir isotherm and fluorescence microscopy measurements, we find that P188 changes the phase behavior and morphology of the monolayers. P188 inserts into both dipalmitoylphosphatidlycholine and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol monolayers at surface pressures equal to and lower than approximately 22 mN/m at 30 degrees C; this pressure corresponds to the maximal surface pressure attained by P188 on a pure water subphase. Similar results for the two phospholipids indicate that P188 insertion is not influenced by headgroup electrostatics. Because the equivalent surface pressure of a normal bilayer is on the order of 30 mN/m, the lack of P188 insertion above 22 mN/m further suggests the poloxamer selectively adsorbs into damaged portions of electroporated membranes, thereby localizing its effect. P188 is also found to be "squeezed out" of the monolayers at high surface pressures, suggesting a mechanism for the cell to be rid of the poloxamer when the membrane is restored. PMID:11867460

  7. Discovery of unfixed endogenous retrovirus insertions in diverse human populations

    PubMed Central

    Wildschutte, Julia Halo; Williams, Zachary H.; Montesion, Meagan; Subramanian, Ravi P.; Kidd, Jeffrey M.; Coffin, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) have contributed to more than 8% of the human genome. The majority of these elements lack function due to accumulated mutations or internal recombination resulting in a solitary (solo) LTR, although members of one group of human ERVs (HERVs), HERV-K, were recently active with members that remain nearly intact, a subset of which is present as insertionally polymorphic loci that include approximately full-length (2-LTR) and solo-LTR alleles in addition to the unoccupied site. Several 2-LTR insertions have intact reading frames in some or all genes that are expressed as functional proteins. These properties reflect the activity of HERV-K and suggest the existence of additional unique loci within humans. We sought to determine the extent to which other polymorphic insertions are present in humans, using sequenced genomes from the 1000 Genomes Project and a subset of the Human Genome Diversity Project panel. We report analysis of a total of 36 nonreference polymorphic HERV-K proviruses, including 19 newly reported loci, with insertion frequencies ranging from <0.0005 to >0.75 that varied by population. Targeted screening of individual loci identified three new unfixed 2-LTR proviruses within our set, including an intact provirus present at Xq21.33 in some individuals, with the potential for retained infectivity. PMID:27001843

  8. Insertion Success of the Laryngeal Tube in Emergency Airway Management

    PubMed Central

    Gries, André; Ramshorn-Zimmer, Alexandra; Wenzel, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Background. Emergency airway management (AM) is a priority when resuscitating critically ill or severely injured patients. The goal of this study was to determine the success rates of LT insertion during AM. Methods. Studies that included LT first-pass insertion (FPI) and overall-pass insertion (OPI) success by emergency medical services and in-hospital providers performing AM for emergency situations as well as for scheduled surgery published until July 2014 were searched systematically in Medline. Results. Data of 36 studies (n = 1,897) reported a LT FPI success by physicians of 82.5% with an OPI success of 93.6% (p < 0.001). A cumulative analysis of all 53 studies (n = 3,600) led to FPI and OPI success of 80.1% and 92.6% (p < 0.001), respectively. The results of 26 studies (n = 2,159) comparing the LT with the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) demonstrated a FPI success of 77.0 versus 78.7% (p = 0.36) and an OPI success of 92.2 versus 97.7% (p < 0.001). Conclusion. LT insertion failed in the first attempt in one out of five patients, with an overall failure rate in one out of 14 patients. When compared with the LT, the LMA had a cumulative 5.5% better OPI success rate. PMID:27642595

  9. Observations on rotating needle insertions using a brachytherapy robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltsner, M. A.; Ferrier, N. J.; Thomadsen, B. R.

    2007-09-01

    A robot designed for prostate brachytherapy implantations has the potential to greatly improve treatment success. Much of the research in robotic surgery focuses on measuring accuracy. However, there exist many factors that must be optimized before an analysis of needle placement accuracy can be determined. Some of these parameters include choice of the needle type, insertion velocity, usefulness of the rotating needle and rotation speed. These parameters may affect the force at which the needle interacts with the tissue. A reduction in force has been shown to decrease the compression of the prostate and potentially increase the accuracy of seed position. Rotating the needle as it is inserted may reduce frictional forces while increasing accuracy. However, needle rotations are considered to increase tissue damage due to the drilling nature of the insertion. We explore many of the factors involved in optimizing a brachytherapy robot, and the potential effects each parameter may have on the procedure. We also investigate the interaction of rotating needles in gel and suggest the rotate-cannula-only method of conical needle insertion to minimize any tissue damage while still maintaining the benefits of reduced force and increased accuracy.

  10. Effects of Rotational Motion in Robotic Needle Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Ramezanpour, H.; Yousefi, H.; Rezaei, M.; Rostami, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Robotic needle insertion in biological tissues has been known as one the most applicable procedures in sampling, robotic injection and different medical therapies and operations. Objective In this paper, we would like to investigate the effects of angular velocity in soft tissue insertion procedure by considering force-displacement diagram. Non-homogenous camel liver can be exploited as a tissue sample under standard compression test with Zwick/Roell device employing 1-D axial load-cell. Methods Effects of rotational motion were studied by running needle insertion experiments in 5, 50 and 200 mm/min in two types of with or without rotational velocity of 50, 150 and 300 rpm. On further steps with deeper penetrations, friction force of the insertion procedure in needle shaft was acquired by a definite thickness of the tissue. Results Designed mechanism of fixture for providing different frequencies of rotational motion is available in this work. Results for comparison of different force graphs were also provided. Conclusion Derived force-displacement graphs showed a significant difference between two procedures; however, tissue bleeding and disorganized micro-structure would be among unavoidable results. PMID:26688800

  11. Insert earphone modeling and measurement by IEC-60711 coupler.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen-Hung; Pawar, S; Hong, Zih-Jyun; Huang, Jin

    2011-02-01

    In this study, an analytical model based on the equivalent circuit method is developed to simulate the frequency response of an insert earphone. This earphone incorporates a miniature loudspeaker commonly used in computer, communication, consumer, and car electronics. Through the laser triangulation method, electroacoustic parameters of a miniature loudspeaker are obtained. Several earphone design configurations are analyzed in accordance with the open and closed states of front leakage hole, vent, and back leakage hole. To validate the analysis, an insert earphone that is attached to IEC-60711 coupler and a specially designed fixture tube is experimentally measured for frequency response using electroacoustic equipment in the air. Simulation and experimental results show good agreement over the complete audible frequency range. Analysis indicates that states of front leakage hole, vent, and back leakage hole of an insert earphone have significant effects on frequency response. The front leakage hole affects the low frequency response, whereas the vent affects the fundamental resonance. Detailed analysis has been provided to further improve the design of insert earphones. PMID:21342831

  12. 21 CFR 310.515 - Patient package inserts for estrogens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NEW DRUGS Requirements for Specific New Drugs or Devices § 310.515 Patient... Products, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002. (e... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Patient package inserts for estrogens....

  13. Insertion and deletion mutagenesis of the human cytomegalovirus genome

    SciTech Connect

    Spaete, R.R.; Mocarski, E.S.

    1987-10-01

    Studies on human cytomegalovirus (CMV) have been limited by a paucity of molecular genetic techniques available for manipulating the viral genome. The authors have developed methods for site-specific insertion and deletion mutagenesis of CMV utilizing a modified Escherichia coli lacZ gene as a genetic marker. The lacZ gene was placed under the control of the major ..beta.. gene regulatory signals and inserted into the viral genome by homologous recombination, disrupting one of two copies of this ..beta.. gene within the L-component repeats of CMV DNA. They observed high-level expression of ..beta..-galactosidase by the recombinant in a temporally authentic manner, with levels of this enzyme approaching 1% of total protein in infected cells. Thus, CMV is an efficient vector for high-level expression of foreign gene products in human cells. Using back selection of lacZ-deficient virus in the presence of the chromogenic substrate 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl ..beta..-D-galactoside, they generated random endpoint deletion mutants. Analysis of these mutant revealed that CMV DNA sequences flanking the insert had been removed, thereby establishing this approach as a means of determining whether sequences flanking a lacZ insertion are dispensable for viral growth. In an initial test of the methods, they have shown that 7800 base pairs of one copy of L-component repeat sequences can be deleted without affecting viral growth in human fibroblasts.

  14. Discovery of unfixed endogenous retrovirus insertions in diverse human populations.

    PubMed

    Wildschutte, Julia Halo; Williams, Zachary H; Montesion, Meagan; Subramanian, Ravi P; Kidd, Jeffrey M; Coffin, John M

    2016-04-19

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) have contributed to more than 8% of the human genome. The majority of these elements lack function due to accumulated mutations or internal recombination resulting in a solitary (solo) LTR, although members of one group of human ERVs (HERVs), HERV-K, were recently active with members that remain nearly intact, a subset of which is present as insertionally polymorphic loci that include approximately full-length (2-LTR) and solo-LTR alleles in addition to the unoccupied site. Several 2-LTR insertions have intact reading frames in some or all genes that are expressed as functional proteins. These properties reflect the activity of HERV-K and suggest the existence of additional unique loci within humans. We sought to determine the extent to which other polymorphic insertions are present in humans, using sequenced genomes from the 1000 Genomes Project and a subset of the Human Genome Diversity Project panel. We report analysis of a total of 36 nonreference polymorphic HERV-K proviruses, including 19 newly reported loci, with insertion frequencies ranging from <0.0005 to >0.75 that varied by population. Targeted screening of individual loci identified three new unfixed 2-LTR proviruses within our set, including an intact provirus present at Xq21.33 in some individuals, with the potential for retained infectivity.

  15. 21 CFR 529.1940 - Progesterone intravaginal inserts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Progesterone intravaginal inserts. 529.1940 Section 529.1940 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS CERTAIN OTHER DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  16. Cannulated screw with solid core insert: stronger than cannulated screws.

    PubMed

    Dundon, John M; Gould, Gregory C; Herbenick, Michael A; Hamilton, J Adam

    2014-09-01

    We conducted a study to determine if there is a significant difference in ultimate load, yield strength, and fatigue strength between solid core screws and cannulated screws and if a solid core insert placed inside a cannulated screw would have biomechanical effects similar to those of a solid core screw. Five screw designs were tested: Synthes 4.5-mm solid core and 4.5-mm cannulated and our prototype 4.0-mm solid core, 4.0-mm cannulated, and 4.0-mm cannulated with solid core insert. Biomechanical testing with 3-point bending was used to determine ultimate load, yield strength, and cycles to failure for 6 screws of each design. Ultimate load, yield strength, and cycles to failure were significantly (P < .05) lower in the Synthes 4.5-mm cannulated screws than in the Synthes solid core screws and significantly lower in the prototype cannulated screws than in the prototype solid core screws (P < .05) and prototype cannulated screws with solid core inserts (P < .05). There was no significant difference (P > .05) in ultimate load, yield strength, or cycles to failure between the prototype cannulated screws with solid core inserts and the prototype solid core screws.

  17. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide.

    PubMed

    Bereau, Tristan; Bennett, W F Drew; Pfaendtner, Jim; Deserno, Markus; Karttunen, Mikko

    2015-12-28

    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA)n (L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural properties have been illuminated in a large number of experimental and simulation studies. In this combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulation study, we probe the thermodynamics of a single WALP peptide, focusing on both the insertion across the water-membrane interface, as well as folding in both water and a membrane. The potential of mean force characterizing the peptide's insertion into the membrane shows qualitatively similar behavior across peptides and three force fields. However, the Martini force field exhibits a pronounced secondary minimum for an adsorbed interfacial state, which may even become the global minimum-in contrast to both atomistic simulations and the alternative PLUM force field. Even though the two coarse-grained models reproduce the free energy of insertion of individual amino acids side chains, they both underestimate its corresponding value for the full peptide (as compared with atomistic simulations), hinting at cooperative physics beyond the residue level. Folding of WALP in the two environments indicates the helix as the most stable structure, though with different relative stabilities and chain-length dependence. PMID:26723612

  18. Insertion Success of the Laryngeal Tube in Emergency Airway Management.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Michael; Gries, André; Ramshorn-Zimmer, Alexandra; Wenzel, Volker; Hossfeld, Bjoern

    2016-01-01

    Background. Emergency airway management (AM) is a priority when resuscitating critically ill or severely injured patients. The goal of this study was to determine the success rates of LT insertion during AM. Methods. Studies that included LT first-pass insertion (FPI) and overall-pass insertion (OPI) success by emergency medical services and in-hospital providers performing AM for emergency situations as well as for scheduled surgery published until July 2014 were searched systematically in Medline. Results. Data of 36 studies (n = 1,897) reported a LT FPI success by physicians of 82.5% with an OPI success of 93.6% (p < 0.001). A cumulative analysis of all 53 studies (n = 3,600) led to FPI and OPI success of 80.1% and 92.6% (p < 0.001), respectively. The results of 26 studies (n = 2,159) comparing the LT with the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) demonstrated a FPI success of 77.0 versus 78.7% (p = 0.36) and an OPI success of 92.2 versus 97.7% (p < 0.001). Conclusion. LT insertion failed in the first attempt in one out of five patients, with an overall failure rate in one out of 14 patients. When compared with the LT, the LMA had a cumulative 5.5% better OPI success rate. PMID:27642595

  19. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide.

    PubMed

    Bereau, Tristan; Bennett, W F Drew; Pfaendtner, Jim; Deserno, Markus; Karttunen, Mikko

    2015-12-28

    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA)n (L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural properties have been illuminated in a large number of experimental and simulation studies. In this combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulation study, we probe the thermodynamics of a single WALP peptide, focusing on both the insertion across the water-membrane interface, as well as folding in both water and a membrane. The potential of mean force characterizing the peptide's insertion into the membrane shows qualitatively similar behavior across peptides and three force fields. However, the Martini force field exhibits a pronounced secondary minimum for an adsorbed interfacial state, which may even become the global minimum-in contrast to both atomistic simulations and the alternative PLUM force field. Even though the two coarse-grained models reproduce the free energy of insertion of individual amino acids side chains, they both underestimate its corresponding value for the full peptide (as compared with atomistic simulations), hinting at cooperative physics beyond the residue level. Folding of WALP in the two environments indicates the helix as the most stable structure, though with different relative stabilities and chain-length dependence.

  20. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Bereau, Tristan; Bennett, W. F. Drew; Pfaendtner, Jim; Deserno, Markus; Karttunen, Mikko

    2015-12-28

    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA){sub n} (L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural properties have been illuminated in a large number of experimental and simulation studies. In this combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulation study, we probe the thermodynamics of a single WALP peptide, focusing on both the insertion across the water-membrane interface, as well as folding in both water and a membrane. The potential of mean force characterizing the peptide’s insertion into the membrane shows qualitatively similar behavior across peptides and three force fields. However, the Martini force field exhibits a pronounced secondary minimum for an adsorbed interfacial state, which may even become the global minimum—in contrast to both atomistic simulations and the alternative PLUM force field. Even though the two coarse-grained models reproduce the free energy of insertion of individual amino acids side chains, they both underestimate its corresponding value for the full peptide (as compared with atomistic simulations), hinting at cooperative physics beyond the residue level. Folding of WALP in the two environments indicates the helix as the most stable structure, though with different relative stabilities and chain-length dependence.

  1. Insertion Success of the Laryngeal Tube in Emergency Airway Management

    PubMed Central

    Gries, André; Ramshorn-Zimmer, Alexandra; Wenzel, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Background. Emergency airway management (AM) is a priority when resuscitating critically ill or severely injured patients. The goal of this study was to determine the success rates of LT insertion during AM. Methods. Studies that included LT first-pass insertion (FPI) and overall-pass insertion (OPI) success by emergency medical services and in-hospital providers performing AM for emergency situations as well as for scheduled surgery published until July 2014 were searched systematically in Medline. Results. Data of 36 studies (n = 1,897) reported a LT FPI success by physicians of 82.5% with an OPI success of 93.6% (p < 0.001). A cumulative analysis of all 53 studies (n = 3,600) led to FPI and OPI success of 80.1% and 92.6% (p < 0.001), respectively. The results of 26 studies (n = 2,159) comparing the LT with the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) demonstrated a FPI success of 77.0 versus 78.7% (p = 0.36) and an OPI success of 92.2 versus 97.7% (p < 0.001). Conclusion. LT insertion failed in the first attempt in one out of five patients, with an overall failure rate in one out of 14 patients. When compared with the LT, the LMA had a cumulative 5.5% better OPI success rate.

  2. Cochlear implant insertion forces in microdissected human cochlea to evaluate a prototype array.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Yann; Miroir, Mathieu; Kazmitcheff, Guillaume; Sutter, Jasmine; Bensidhoum, Morad; Ferrary, Evelyne; Sterkers, Olivier; Bozorg Grayeli, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Cochlear implant array insertion forces are potentially related to cochlear trauma. We compared these forces between a standard (Digisonic SP; Neurelec, Vallauris, France) and an array prototype (Neurelec) with a smaller diameter. The arrays were inserted by a mechatronic tool in 23 dissected human cochlea specimens exposing the basilar membrane. The array progression under the basilar membrane was filmed together with dynamic force measurements. Insertion force profiles and depth of insertion were compared. The recordings showed lower insertion forces beyond 270° of insertion and deeper insertions with the thin prototype array. This will potentially allow larger cochlear coverage with less trauma.

  3. Choice of Tevatron tune with matched low-. beta. insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Month, M.

    1984-06-20

    The Tevatron lattice, following closely the Main Ring lattice, is made up of approximately 90 FODO cells with six straight sections equally spaced. The straight sections are identical (neglecting the special high-..beta.. straight section used for resonant extraction) providing six-fold symmetry. Each straight section is comprised mainly of a pair of doublets, one at each end, in an antisymmetric configuration. The ..beta..-functions are matched to the building block cells but the dispersion function is not. The ..beta..-function matching implies that the structure is not sensitive to the tune of the sextant (i.e., structure resonances); however, the dispersion mismatch excites off-momentum dipole resonances and the dispersion structure of the ring is therefore sensitive to sextant tunes near an integer. The introduction of low-..beta.. insertions can be accomplished by replacing a standard insertion (expanded somewhat from the doublet pair straight section) with a low-..beta.. insertion. By matching the ends of the replacement units with respect to ..beta..-functions and dispersion function, the full lattice is made insensitive to linear structure resonances. Procedures are described here for introducing into the idealized Tevatron lattice considered here a single matched low-..beta.. insertion at BO, and two matched low-..beta.. insertions at BO and DO. The main consequence is the need for a significant number of independently powered quadrupoles. Another conclusion is related to the choice of tune, where it is found that the arbitrary rule of maintaining a fixed tune for all configurations should be modified.

  4. VME insertion device control at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M.; Ramanathan, M.; Grimmer, J.; Merritt, M.

    2002-03-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) currently has 29 insertion devices (IDs) installed and operating. The need to remotely diagnose and correct problems has become increasingly important. This has been accomplished through the development of a new control system with greatly enhanced input/output (I/O) capabilities specifically targeted to this control task. The system features a custom VME control card and three rack-mounted interface chassis for ID control, encoder interface, and motor drive shutdown. The card provides device interlocks, limit switch logic, motor axis selection, digital I/O, and status feedback. This VME insertion device control was designed to operate with an eight-axis intelligent motor controller and a stepper-motor drive that accepts step and direction inputs. The front panel of the card has two connectors for all of the control signals for the stepper-motor drives. There is a third connector for the ID limit switch inputs and the emergency stop circuit, and a fourth connector provides 23 bits of digital outputs and 16 bits of digital inputs. Light-emitting diodes indicate which motions are inhibited by the limit switch logic. An experimental physics industrial control system (EPICS) (http://www.APS.ANL-GOV/EPICS) device driver was developed to access all the registers on the VME control card. Using standard EPICS records, the insertion device status can be viewed remotely. This minimizes downtime for APS ID beamline users by allowing faster resolution of any problems preventing a user from operating the insertion device. This new insertion device control has been in use at the APS since July of 1999. The design features of the control system and rationale for them will be presented, along with our experience in building, testing, installing, and operating the control system.

  5. A transposable element insertion confers xenobiotic resistance in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Lidia; Ullastres, Anna; González, Josefa

    2014-08-01

    The increase in availability of whole genome sequences makes it possible to search for evidence of adaptation at an unprecedented scale. Despite recent progress, our understanding of the adaptive process is still very limited due to the difficulties in linking adaptive mutations to their phenotypic effects. In this study, we integrated different levels of biological information to pinpoint the ecologically relevant fitness effects and the underlying molecular and biochemical mechanisms of a putatively adaptive TE insertion in Drosophila melanogaster: the pogo transposon FBti0019627. We showed that other than being incorporated into Kmn1 transcript, FBti0019627 insertion also affects the polyadenylation signal choice of CG11699 gene. Consequently, only the short 3'UTR transcript of CG11699 gene is produced and the expression level of this gene is higher in flies with the insertion. Our results indicated that increased CG11699 expression leads to xenobiotic stress resistance through increased ALDH-III activity: flies with FBti0019627 insertion showed increased survival rate in response to benzaldehyde, a natural xenobiotic, and to carbofuran, a synthetic insecticide. Although differences in survival rate between flies with and without the insertion were not always significant, when they were, they were consistent with FBti0019627 mediating resistance to xenobiotics. Taken together, our results provide a plausible explanation for the increase in frequency of FBti0019627 in natural populations of D. melanogaster and add to the limited number of examples in which a natural genetic mutation has been linked to its ecologically relevant phenotype. Furthermore, the widespread distribution of TEs across the tree of life and conservation of stress response pathways across organisms make our results relevant not only for Drosophila, but for other organisms as well.

  6. A Transposable Element Insertion Confers Xenobiotic Resistance in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Mateo, Lidia; Ullastres, Anna; González, Josefa

    2014-01-01

    The increase in availability of whole genome sequences makes it possible to search for evidence of adaptation at an unprecedented scale. Despite recent progress, our understanding of the adaptive process is still very limited due to the difficulties in linking adaptive mutations to their phenotypic effects. In this study, we integrated different levels of biological information to pinpoint the ecologically relevant fitness effects and the underlying molecular and biochemical mechanisms of a putatively adaptive TE insertion in Drosophila melanogaster: the pogo transposon FBti0019627. We showed that other than being incorporated into Kmn1 transcript, FBti0019627 insertion also affects the polyadenylation signal choice of CG11699 gene. Consequently, only the short 3′UTR transcript of CG11699 gene is produced and the expression level of this gene is higher in flies with the insertion. Our results indicated that increased CG11699 expression leads to xenobiotic stress resistance through increased ALDH-III activity: flies with FBti0019627 insertion showed increased survival rate in response to benzaldehyde, a natural xenobiotic, and to carbofuran, a synthetic insecticide. Although differences in survival rate between flies with and without the insertion were not always significant, when they were, they were consistent with FBti0019627 mediating resistance to xenobiotics. Taken together, our results provide a plausible explanation for the increase in frequency of FBti0019627 in natural populations of D. melanogaster and add to the limited number of examples in which a natural genetic mutation has been linked to its ecologically relevant phenotype. Furthermore, the widespread distribution of TEs across the tree of life and conservation of stress response pathways across organisms make our results relevant not only for Drosophila, but for other organisms as well. PMID:25122208

  7. Effects of rotated square inserts on the longitudinal vibration band gaps in thin phononic crystal plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Haojiang; Liu, Rongqiang; Shi, Chuang; Guo, Hongwei; Deng, Zongquan

    2015-07-01

    Longitudinal vibration of thin phononic crystal plates with a hybrid square-like array of square inserts is investigated. The plane wave expansion method is used to calculate the vibration band structure of the plate. Numerical results show that rotated square inserts can open several vibration gaps, and the band structures are twisted because of the rotation of inserts. Filling fraction and material of the insert affect the change law of the gap width versus the rotation angles of square inserts.

  8. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To perform task-based image quality assessment in CT, it is desirable to have a large number of realistic patient images with known diagnostic truth. One effective way of achieving this objective is to create hybrid images that combine patient images with inserted lesions. Because conventional hybrid images generated in the image domain fails to reflect the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance, this study explored a projection-domain approach. Methods: Lesions were segmented from patient images and forward projected to acquire lesion projections. The forward-projection geometry was designed according to a commercial CT scanner and accommodated both axial and helical modes with various focal spot movement patterns. The energy employed by the commercial CT scanner for beam hardening correction was measured and used for the forward projection. The lesion projections were inserted into patient projections decoded from commercial CT projection data. The combined projections were formatted to match those of commercial CT raw data, loaded onto a commercial CT scanner, and reconstructed to create the hybrid images. Two validations were performed. First, to validate the accuracy of the forward-projection geometry, images were reconstructed from the forward projections of a virtual ACR phantom and compared to physically acquired ACR phantom images in terms of CT number accuracy and high-contrast resolution. Second, to validate the realism of the lesion in hybrid images, liver lesions were segmented from patient images and inserted back into the same patients, each at a new location specified by a radiologist. The inserted lesions were compared to the original lesions and visually assessed for realism by two experienced radiologists in a blinded fashion. Results: For the validation of the forward-projection geometry, the images reconstructed from the forward projections of the virtual ACR phantom were consistent with the images physically

  9. Insertional mutagenesis by transposable elements in the mammalian genome.

    PubMed

    Amariglio, N; Rechavi, G

    1993-01-01

    Several mammalian repetitive transposable genetic elements were characterized in recent years, and their role in mutagenesis is delineated in this review. Two main groups have been described: elements with symmetrical termini such as the murine IAP sequences and the human THE 1 elements and elements characterized by a poly-A rich tail at the 3' end such as the SINE and LINE sequences. The characteristic property of such mobile elements to spread and integrate in the host genome leads to insertional mutagenesis. Both germline and somatic mutations have been documented resulting from the insertion of the various types of mammalian repetitive transposable genetic elements. As foreseen by Barbara McClintock, such genetic events can cause either the activation or the inactivation of specific genes, resulting in their identification via an altered phenotype. Several disease states, such as hemophilia and cancer, are the result of this apparent aspect of genome instability. PMID:8385004

  10. Random tag insertions by Transposon Integration mediated Mutagenesis (TIM).

    PubMed

    Hoeller, Brigitte M; Reiter, Birgit; Abad, Sandra; Graze, Ina; Glieder, Anton

    2008-10-01

    Transposon Integration mediated Mutagenesis (TIM) is a broadly applicable tool for protein engineering. This method combines random integration of modified bacteriophage Mu transposons with their subsequent defined excision employing type IIS restriction endonuclease AarI. TIM enables deletion or insertion of an arbitrary number of bases at random positions, insertion of functional sequence tags at random positions, replacing randomly selected triplets by a specific codon (e.g. scanning) and site-saturation mutagenesis. As a proof of concept a transposon named GeneOpenerAarIKan was designed and employed to introduce 6xHis tags randomly into the esterase EstC from Burkholderia gladioli. A TIM library was screened with colony based assays for clones with an integrated 6xHis tag and for clones exhibiting esterase activity. The employed strategy enables the isolation of randomly tagged active enzymes in single mutagenesis experiments.

  11. Amyloid protein unfolding and insertion kinetics on neuronal membrane mimics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Liming; Buie, Creighton; Vaughn, Mark; Cheng, Kwan

    2010-03-01

    Atomistic details of beta-amyloid (Aβ ) protein unfolding and lipid interaction kinetics mediated by the neuronal membrane surface are important for developing new therapeutic strategies to prevent and cure Alzheimer's disease. Using all-atom MD simulations, we explored the early unfolding and insertion kinetics of 40 and 42 residue long Aβ in binary lipid mixtures with and without cholesterol that mimic the cholesterol-depleted and cholesterol-enriched lipid nanodomains of neurons. The protein conformational transition kinetics was evaluated from the secondary structure profile versus simulation time plot. The extent of membrane disruption was examined by the calculated order parameters of lipid acyl chains and cholesterol fused rings as well as the density profiles of water and lipid headgroups at defined regions across the lipid bilayer from our simulations. Our results revealed that both the cholesterol content and the length of the protein affect the protein-insertion and membrane stability in our model lipid bilayer systems.

  12. Flexibility in targeting and insertion during bacterial membrane protein biogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bloois, Edwin van; Hagen-Jongman, Corinne M. ten; Luirink, Joen

    2007-10-26

    The biogenesis of Escherichia coli inner membrane proteins (IMPs) is assisted by targeting and insertion factors such as the signal recognition particle (SRP), the Sec-translocon and YidC with translocation of (large) periplasmic domains energized by SecA and the proton motive force (pmf). The use of these factors and forces is probably primarily determined by specific structural features of an IMP. To analyze these features we have engineered a set of model IMPs based on endogenous E. coli IMPs known to follow distinct targeting and insertion pathways. The modified model IMPs were analyzed for altered routing using an in vivo protease mapping approach. The data suggest a facultative use of different combinations of factors.

  13. Challenges for Insertion of Structural Nanomaterials in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sochi, Emilie J.

    2012-01-01

    In the two decades since Iijima's report on carbon nanotubes (CNT), there has been great interest in realizing the benefits of mechanical properties observed at the nanoscale in large-scale structures. The weight savings possible due to dramatic improvements in mechanical properties relative to state-of-the-art material systems can be game changing for applications like aerospace vehicles. While there has been significant progress in commercial production of CNTs, major aerospace applications that take advantage of properties offered by this material have yet to be realized. This paper provides a perspective on the technical challenges and barriers for insertion of CNTs as an emerging material technology in aerospace applications and proposes approaches that may reduce the typical timeframe for technology maturation and insertion into aerospace structures.

  14. Biological insertion of computationally designed short transmembrane segments.

    PubMed

    Baeza-Delgado, Carlos; von Heijne, Gunnar; Marti-Renom, Marc A; Mingarro, Ismael

    2016-01-01

    The great majority of helical membrane proteins are inserted co-translationally into the ER membrane through a continuous ribosome-translocon channel. The efficiency of membrane insertion depends on transmembrane (TM) helix amino acid composition, the helix length and the position of the amino acids within the helix. In this work, we conducted a computational analysis of the composition and location of amino acids in transmembrane helices found in membrane proteins of known structure to obtain an extensive set of designed polypeptide segments with naturally occurring amino acid distributions. Then, using an in vitro translation system in the presence of biological membranes, we experimentally validated our predictions by analyzing its membrane integration capacity. Coupled with known strategies to control membrane protein topology, these findings may pave the way to de novo membrane protein design. PMID:26987712

  15. Intentional ingestion and insertion of foreign objects: a forensic perspective.

    PubMed

    Klein, Carolina A

    2012-01-01

    Intentional ingestion and insertion of foreign objects is a topic that has generated mounting interest among medical professionals over the past two decades. When featured in the literature, it has been typically discussed in medical subdisciplines, such as emergency medicine, surgery, gastroenterology, and urology. However, in-depth exploration of this multidimensional phenomenon in the field of psychiatry has thus far been limited. This article presents illustrative clinical vignettes from forensic practice of deliberate ingestion/insertion of objects and then examines specific aspects of this behavior that are critical to achieving a better understanding of it. The clinical, legal, and ethics-related implications surrounding this conduct are also explored. By taking a comprehensive approach, the aim is to foster a greater appreciation of this syndrome by clinicians and ultimately to arrive at improved practice guidelines surrounding these cases, including a more informed therapeutic plan and an enhanced management approach. PMID:22396349

  16. Convective heat transfer enhancement inside tubes using inserted helical coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, R. K.; Sharafeldeen, M. A.; Berbish, N. S.; Moawed, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Convective heat transfer was experimentally investigated in tubes with helical coils inserts in turbulent flow regime within Reynolds number range of 14400 ≤ Re ≤ 42900. The present work aims to extend the experimental data available on wire coil inserts to cover wire diameter ratio from 0.044 to 0.133 and coil pitch ratio from 1 to 5. Uniform heat flux was applied to the external surface of the tube and air was selected as fluid. The effects of Reynolds number and wire diameter and coil pitch ratios on the Nusselt number and friction factor were studied. The enhancement efficiency and performance criteria ranges are of (46.9-82.6%) and (100.1-128%) within the investigated range of the different parameters, respectively. Correlations are obtained for the average Nusselt number and friction factor utilizing the present measurements within the investigated range of geometrical parameters and Re.

  17. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided insertion of ventriculo-atrial shunts.

    PubMed

    McCracken, James Albert; Bahl, Anuj; McMullan, John

    2016-08-01

    Ventriculo-atrial (VA) shunts have been in use for >60 years but less frequently so of late. This is due to a combination of the risk of cardiac complications, lack of expertise and a lengthy operation. We present our consecutive prospective series of 10 VA shunts inserted using a percutaneous method employing the Sonowand Invite™ neuronavigation system for both the distal and proximal catheters, over a 13-month period. We had two complications of cases needing revision, but our series highlights a safe and reproducible method of inserting a VA shunt. About 30% of the procedures were carried out by a trainee as the primary surgeon. This technique does not necessarily require the expertise of a complex hydrocephalus surgeon and is thus able to be in the armoury of any neurosurgeon needing to do a VA shunt procedure. The indications, operative data and outcomes of our patients are discussed.

  18. Metallocene Catalytic Insertion Polymerization of 1-Silene to Polycarbosilanes.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuelong; Ge, Min; Zhang, Weigang; Lv, Xiaoxu; Yu, Shouquan

    2015-01-01

    Metallocene of zirconium were used as a catalyst for an insertion polymerization of 1-methylsilene directly into pre-ceramic precursor polyzirconocenecarbosilane (PZCS) during dechlorination of dichlorodimethylesilane by sodium, which exhibits high catalytic effectiveness with the maximum conversion ratio of polycarbosilane up to 91%. The average molecular weights of polymers synthesized are less than 1400, all with very narrow polymolecularities. The mechanism of catalytic polymerization was assumed to be similar to a coordination insertion polymerization of 1-olefins by metallocenes. The obtained PZCS show high ceramic yields with formation of composite ceramics of ZrC-SiC, which are novel polymeric precursors of ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTC) fiber and composite. PMID:26541636

  19. Insertional mutagenesis by transposable elements in the mammalian genome.

    PubMed

    Amariglio, N; Rechavi, G

    1993-01-01

    Several mammalian repetitive transposable genetic elements were characterized in recent years, and their role in mutagenesis is delineated in this review. Two main groups have been described: elements with symmetrical termini such as the murine IAP sequences and the human THE 1 elements and elements characterized by a poly-A rich tail at the 3' end such as the SINE and LINE sequences. The characteristic property of such mobile elements to spread and integrate in the host genome leads to insertional mutagenesis. Both germline and somatic mutations have been documented resulting from the insertion of the various types of mammalian repetitive transposable genetic elements. As foreseen by Barbara McClintock, such genetic events can cause either the activation or the inactivation of specific genes, resulting in their identification via an altered phenotype. Several disease states, such as hemophilia and cancer, are the result of this apparent aspect of genome instability.

  20. Flexibility in targeting and insertion during bacterial membrane protein biogenesis.

    PubMed

    van Bloois, Edwin; ten Hagen-Jongman, Corinne M; Luirink, Joen

    2007-10-26

    The biogenesis of Escherichia coli inner membrane proteins (IMPs) is assisted by targeting and insertion factors such as the signal recognition particle (SRP), the Sec-translocon and YidC with translocation of (large) periplasmic domains energized by SecA and the proton motive force (pmf). The use of these factors and forces is probably primarily determined by specific structural features of an IMP. To analyze these features we have engineered a set of model IMPs based on endogenous E. coli IMPs known to follow distinct targeting and insertion pathways. The modified model IMPs were analyzed for altered routing using an in vivo protease mapping approach. The data suggest a facultative use of different combinations of factors.

  1. Biological insertion of computationally designed short transmembrane segments

    PubMed Central

    Baeza-Delgado, Carlos; von Heijne, Gunnar; Marti-Renom, Marc A.; Mingarro, Ismael

    2016-01-01

    The great majority of helical membrane proteins are inserted co-translationally into the ER membrane through a continuous ribosome-translocon channel. The efficiency of membrane insertion depends on transmembrane (TM) helix amino acid composition, the helix length and the position of the amino acids within the helix. In this work, we conducted a computational analysis of the composition and location of amino acids in transmembrane helices found in membrane proteins of known structure to obtain an extensive set of designed polypeptide segments with naturally occurring amino acid distributions. Then, using an in vitro translation system in the presence of biological membranes, we experimentally validated our predictions by analyzing its membrane integration capacity. Coupled with known strategies to control membrane protein topology, these findings may pave the way to de novo membrane protein design. PMID:26987712

  2. Metallocene Catalytic Insertion Polymerization of 1-Silene to Polycarbosilanes

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuelong; Ge, Min; Zhang, Weigang; Lv, Xiaoxu; Yu, Shouquan

    2015-01-01

    Metallocene of zirconium were used as a catalyst for an insertion polymerization of 1-methylsilene directly into pre-ceramic precursor polyzirconocenecarbosilane (PZCS) during dechlorination of dichlorodimethylesilane by sodium, which exhibits high catalytic effectiveness with the maximum conversion ratio of polycarbosilane up to 91%. The average molecular weights of polymers synthesized are less than 1400, all with very narrow polymolecularities. The mechanism of catalytic polymerization was assumed to be similar to a coordination insertion polymerization of 1-olefins by metallocenes. The obtained PZCS show high ceramic yields with formation of composite ceramics of ZrC-SiC, which are novel polymeric precursors of ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTC) fiber and composite. PMID:26541636

  3. Tumor track seeding: A new complication of fiducial marker insertion

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Zeal; Retrouvey, Michele; Vingan, Harlan; Williams, Scott

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death. Candidates for tumor ablation using CyberKnife® require fiducial placement in or near the target tumor to achieve precision. Placing these reference points may lead to complications including pneumothorax and/or hemorrhage. We report a new complication: the appearance of metastatic foci along the track of the fiducial marker. Since the marker was inserted by traversing the original primary tumor, we hypothesize that malignant cells were seeded along the track. In light of this new complication, current techniques for the insertion of fiducial markers should consider a peripheral approach when possible to avoid tracking of malignant cells. PMID:27186243

  4. Insertion devices for the Advanced Light Source at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Hassenzahl, W.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hoyer, E.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Savoy, R.

    1989-03-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory will be the first of the new generation of dedicated synchrotron light sources to be put into operation. Specially designed insertion devices will be required to realize the high brightness photon beams made possible by the low emittance of the electron beam. The complement of insertion devices on the ALS will include undulators with periods as short as 3.9 cm and one or more high field wigglers. The first device to be designed is a 5 m long, 5 cm period, hybrid undulator. The goal of very high brightness and high harmonic output imposes unusually tight tolerances on the magnetic field quality and thus on the mechanical structure. The design process, using a generic structure for all undulators, is described. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Massive reflux and aspiration after radiographically inserted gastrostomy tube placement.

    PubMed

    Chesoni, Sandra A; Bach, John R; Okamura, Erica Mia

    2015-01-01

    To the authors' knowledge, fatal postgastrostomy aspiration within 2 days of enteral nutrition has not been reported. The authors report consecutive cases of severe postgastrotomy aspiration with one being fatal for a 26-yr-old with Duchenne muscular dystrophy 2 days after initiation of gastrostomy feedings. Previous to these consecutive radiographically inserted gastrostomies, all gastrotomies at the institution were percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomies or open gastrostomies. Radiographically inserted gastrostomy tubes have an increased likelihood of being oriented toward the esophagus as opposed to the duodenum, which may increase the risk for reflux. Elimination of invasive airway tubes should be delayed until after gastrostomy feedings are documented to be well tolerated. Oximetry and repeated measurements of vital capacity can suggest changes in the status of airway clearance.

  6. Needle Insertion with Duty-Cycled Rotation into Multiple Media

    PubMed Central

    Lehocky, Craig A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2012-01-01

    Thin, flexible needles can be steered along nonlinear paths to reach deep anatomical structures within the human body. This study builds upon previous work involving steering of bevel-tipped needles by inserting while rotating in a duty-cycled fashion. Here we investigate how needle material and radius, duty cycle, and tissue stiffness affect needle curvature. Needles were inserted into media while rotated at a specified duty cycle and the curvature was measured. A linear relationship between duty cycle and curvature was observed across all needle materials and radii, and tissue stiffnesses. Following these observations, we developed a model that encapsulates needle and tissue parameters in order to predict the duty cycle needed to achieve a desired curvature. PMID:23366042

  7. APR1400 Reactivity Insertion Accident Analysis Using KNAP

    SciTech Connect

    Chang-Keun, Yang; Yo-Han, Kim; Chang-Kyung, Sung

    2006-07-01

    The Korea Electric Power Research Institute had decided to develop the new safety analysis code system for the Optimized Power Reactor 1000 (OPR1000) in Korea by the fund of the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy. In this paper, some results of the Advanced Power Reactor 1400(APR1400) using the RETRAN code for some reactivity insertion accident are introduced to expand application from safety analysis experience of OPR1000. (authors)

  8. Non-harmful insertion of data mimicking computer network attacks

    DOEpatents

    Neil, Joshua Charles; Kent, Alexander; Hash, Jr, Curtis Lee

    2016-06-21

    Non-harmful data mimicking computer network attacks may be inserted in a computer network. Anomalous real network connections may be generated between a plurality of computing systems in the network. Data mimicking an attack may also be generated. The generated data may be transmitted between the plurality of computing systems using the real network connections and measured to determine whether an attack is detected.

  9. Accurate Insertion Loss Measurements of the Juno Patch Array Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Neil; Chen, Jacqueline; Hodges, Richard; Demas, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes two independent methods for estimating the insertion loss of patch array antennas that were developed for the Juno Microwave Radiometer instrument. One method is based principally on pattern measurements while the other method is based solely on network analyzer measurements. The methods are accurate to within 0.1 dB for the measured antennas and show good agreement (to within 0.1dB) of separate radiometric measurements.

  10. The first insertion devices at SSRL - some personal recollections

    SciTech Connect

    Winick, H.

    1995-02-01

    The author recounts his experiences with insertion devices at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. His first experiences with wigglers occured at the Cambridge Electron Accelerator, and was carried over to SSRL with the proposal for a six pole electromagnetic wiggler. Most modern undulators, and many wigglers are now designed around permanent magnets, and the origin of this transition at SSRL was rather fortuitous and humorous. It reflects some of the personality characteristics of Klaus Halbach.

  11. Insertion DNA Accelerates Meiotic Interchromosomal Recombination in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Qin; Li, Ding-Hong; Xue, Jia-Yu; Yang, Si-Hai; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Li, Mi-Mi; Hang, Yue-Yu

    2016-08-01

    Nucleotide insertions/deletions are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes, and the resulting hemizygous (unpaired) DNA has significant, heritable effects on adjacent DNA. However, little is known about the genetic behavior of insertion DNA. Here, we describe a binary transgenic system to study the behavior of insertion DNA during meiosis. Transgenic Arabidopsis lines were generated to carry two different defective reporter genes on nonhomologous chromosomes, designated as "recipient" and "donor" lines. Double hemizygous plants (harboring unpaired DNA) were produced by crossing between the recipient and the donor, and double homozygous lines (harboring paired DNA) via self-pollination. The transfer of the donor's unmutated sequence to the recipient generated a functional β-glucuronidase gene, which could be visualized by histochemical staining and corroborated by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing. More than 673 million seedlings were screened, and the results showed that meiotic ectopic recombination in the hemizygous lines occurred at a frequency  >6.49-fold higher than that in the homozygous lines. Gene conversion might have been exclusively or predominantly responsible for the gene correction events. The direct measurement of ectopic recombination events provided evidence that an insertion, in the absence of an allelic counterpart, could scan the entire genome for homologous counterparts with which to pair. Furthermore, the unpaired (hemizygous) architectures could accelerate ectopic recombination between itself and interchromosomal counterparts. We suggest that the ectopic recombination accelerated by hemizygous architectures may be a general mechanism for interchromosomal recombination through ubiquitously dispersed repeat sequences in plants, ultimately contributing to genetic renovation and eukaryotic evolution. PMID:27189569

  12. Modeling and characterization of partially inserted electrical connector faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokgöz, ćaǧatay; Dardona, Sameh; Soldner, Nicholas C.; Wheeler, Kevin R.

    2016-03-01

    Faults within electrical connectors are prominent in avionics systems due to improper installation, corrosion, aging, and strained harnesses. These faults usually start off as undetectable with existing inspection techniques and increase in magnitude during the component lifetime. Detection and modeling of these faults are significantly more challenging than hard failures such as open and short circuits. Hence, enabling the capability to locate and characterize the precursors of these faults is critical for timely preventive maintenance and mitigation well before hard failures occur. In this paper, an electrical connector model based on a two-level nonlinear least squares approach is proposed. The connector is first characterized as a transmission line, broken into key components such as the pin, socket, and connector halves. Then, the fact that the resonance frequencies of the connector shift as insertion depth changes from a fully inserted to a barely touching contact is exploited. The model precisely captures these shifts by varying only two length parameters. It is demonstrated that the model accurately characterizes a partially inserted connector.

  13. Local Dispersion Insert: The {gamma}T knob for accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Visnjic, V.

    1994-05-01

    The Local Dispersion Insert is a novel three-quadrupole cell which produces local dispersion and beta waves while leaving all other beam parameters unchanged. The obtained dispersion bump can be effectively used to control the transition energy and the so-called {gamma}T jump of an accelerator. Since the induced beta wave is local and the tune shift is zero, the Local Dispersion Insert is an extremely efficient cell, typically requiring only a small number of magnets in order to achieve a {gamma}T jump. Since the desired {gamma}T jump can be obtained by locally decreasing the dispersion, the well known problems which accompany the conventional {gamma}T jump schemes, like large maximal dispersion, transverse emittance growth etc. are absent. The paper contains three applications of the Local Dispersion Insert: the {gamma}T jump in the Main Injector, the {eta} adjustment in the Antiproton Debuncher (both at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory), and the {gamma}T jump in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  14. Development of Needle Insertion Manipulator for Central Venous Catheterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yo; Hong, Jaesung; Hamano, Ryutaro; Hashizume, Makoto; Okada, Kaoru; Fujie, Masakatsu G.

    Central venous catheterization is a procedure, which a doctor insert a catheter into the patient’s vein for transfusion. Since there are risks of bleeding from arterial puncture or pneumothorax from pleural puncture. Physicians are strictly required to make needle reach up into the vein and to stop the needle in the middle of vein. We proposed a robot system for assisting the venous puncture, which can relieve the difficulties in conventional procedure, and the risks of complication. This paper reports the design structuring and experimental results of needle insertion manipulator. First, we investigated the relationship between insertion force and angle into the vein. The results indicated that the judgment of perforation using the reaction force is possible in case where the needling angle is from 10 to 20 degree. The experiment to evaluate accuracy of the robot also revealed that it has beyond 0.5 mm accuracy. We also evaluated the positioning accuracy in the ultrasound images. The results displays that the accuracy is beyond 1.0 mm and it has enough for venous puncture. We also carried out the venous puncture experiment to the phantom and confirm our manipulator realized to make needle reach up into the vein.

  15. Catch basin inserts to reduce pollution from stormwater.

    PubMed

    Lau, S L; Khan, E; Stenstrom, M K

    2001-01-01

    Stormwater contamination represents the largest source of contaminants to many receiving waters in the United States, such as Santa Monica Bay in Los Angeles, California. Point sources to these same waters generally receive secondary or better treatment before they are released, and they are usually discharged through outfalls that diffuse the wastewater plume to prevent it from contacting the shoreline. Stormwaters receive no treatment and reach the receiving waters through a variety of ways, but most enter through catch basins or inserts to storm drains that terminate at the beach or in shallow coastal areas. Under these conditions, the stormwater discharge may have greater impact on the quality and utility of the receiving water than the treated wastewater discharges. One method of reducing pollution is to equip catch basins with an insert that can capture pollutants. A number of commercially available devices exist but few have been evaluated by independent parties in full-scale applications. A series of tests using bench and full-scale devices under both laboratory and field conditions were conducted to evaluate their ability to remove trash and debris, suspended solids and oil and grease in stormwaters. The results presented in the paper should provide a basis for future insert development and application.

  16. Development of an ultrasound-guided PICC insertion service.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Jackie

    Use of the peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) has gained popularity over the past 30 years in the USA and over the past 15 years in the UK. The PICC was initially used for specific purposes, such as the delivery of parenteral nutrition and chemotherapy, but its use has expanded both within the acute hospital and community settings. This article describes an ultrasound-guided PICC insertion service that has been set up in a district general hospital to expand the service within the oncology department and to begin a service for non-oncology patients. As expected, patients who have benefited from the development of this service include those requiring parenteral nutrition, chemotherapy and intravenous therapy in the community. However, retrospective audit has shown that the largest group of patients to benefit from the ultrasound-guided PICC insertion service was those with difficult venous access for a variety of reasons. Some of these reasons are discussed, along with an overview of the benefits the service has provided to other groups of patients, and associated benefits to the hospital trust.

  17. Internal carotid artery rupture caused by carotid shunt insertion

    PubMed Central

    Illuminati, Giulio; Caliò, Francesco G.; Pizzardi, Giulia; Vietri, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Shunting is a well-accepted method of maintaining cerebral perfusion during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Nonetheless, shunt insertion may lead to complications including arterial dissection, embolization, and thrombosis. We present a complication of shunt insertion consisting of arterial wall rupture, not reported previously. Presentation of case A 78-year-old woman underwent CEA combined with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). At the time of shunt insertion an arterial rupture at the distal tip of the shunt was detected and was repaired via a small saphenous vein patch. Eversion CEA and subsequent CABG completed the procedure whose postoperative course was uneventful. Discussion Shunting during combined CEA-CABG may be advisable to assure cerebral protection from possible hypoperfusion due to potential hemodynamic instability of patients with severe coronary artery disease. Awareness and prompt management of possible shunt-related complications, including the newly reported one, may contribute to limiting their harmful effect. Conclusion Arterial wall rupture is a possible, previously not reported, shunt-related complication to be aware of when performing CEA. PMID:26255001

  18. Enzymatic functionalization of a nanobody using protein insertion technology.

    PubMed

    Crasson, O; Rhazi, N; Jacquin, O; Freichels, A; Jérôme, C; Ruth, N; Galleni, M; Filée, P; Vandevenne, M

    2015-10-01

    Antibody-based products constitute one of the most attractive biological molecules for diagnostic, medical imagery and therapeutic purposes with very few side effects. Their development has become a major priority of biotech and pharmaceutical industries. Recently, a growing number of modified antibody-based products have emerged including fragments, multi-specific and conjugate antibodies. In this study, using protein engineering, we have functionalized the anti-hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) camelid VHH antibody fragment (cAb-Lys3), by insertion into a solvent-exposed loop of the Bacillus licheniformis β-lactamase BlaP. We showed that the generated hybrid protein conserved its enzymatic activity while the displayed nanobody retains its ability to inhibit HEWL with a nanomolar affinity range. Then, we successfully implemented the functionalized cAb-Lys3 in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, potentiometric biosensor and drug screening assays. The hybrid protein was also expressed on the surface of phage particles and, in this context, was able to interact specifically with HEWL while the β-lactamase activity was used to monitor phage interactions. Finally, using thrombin-cleavage sites surrounding the permissive insertion site in the β-lactamase, we reported an expression system in which the nanobody can be easily separated from its carrier protein. Altogether, our study shows that insertion into the BlaP β-lactamase constitutes a suitable technology to functionalize nanobodies and allows the creation of versatile tools that can be used in innovative biotechnological assays. PMID:25852149

  19. Localized control of the orbit in the RHIC insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnuma, S.

    1992-08-01

    It is proposed here that, for RHIC92 insertions, we remove the corrector from Ql and the beam position monitor (BPM) from Q2 in order to alleviate difficulties associated with the physical layout of the quadrupole triplet (Ql-Q2-Q3). Furthermore, it is suggested that there should be both (horizontal and vertical) types of BPMs at each end of the free space between Q3 and Q4 and between Q7 and Q8 so that one can measure the direction of the closed orbit. With this model, a localized control of the beam position and angle at the interaction point (IP) with either four or six correctors has been investigated. Similarly, a control of the orbit within an insertion for minimizing the orbit displacements at seven (or eight) BPM locations with nine (or ten) correctors in each transverse direction has been studied. Examples are given for the beta at IP = 2m, 10m, 20m, and 200m. It is shown that the design value of the integrated field strength of 0.3 T-m for each corrector should be sufficient for the tasks considered here except for some cases with extreme parameter values. At the same time, it is emphasized that the overall correction of the closed orbit for the entire ring (arcs and insertions) should be re-examined for RHIC92 lattice with the proposed arrangement of correctors and BPMS.

  20. Rapid construction of metabolite biosensors using domain-insertion profiling

    PubMed Central

    Nadler, Dana C.; Morgan, Stacy-Anne; Flamholz, Avi; Kortright, Kaitlyn E.; Savage, David F.

    2016-01-01

    Single-fluorescent protein biosensors (SFPBs) are an important class of probes that enable the single-cell quantification of analytes in vivo. Despite advantages over other detection technologies, their use has been limited by the inherent challenges of their construction. Specifically, the rational design of green fluorescent protein (GFP) insertion into a ligand-binding domain, generating the requisite allosteric coupling, remains a rate-limiting step. Here, we describe an unbiased approach, termed domain-insertion profiling with DNA sequencing (DIP-seq), that combines the rapid creation of diverse libraries of potential SFPBs and high-throughput activity assays to identify functional biosensors. As a proof of concept, we construct an SFPB for the important regulatory sugar trehalose. DIP-seq analysis of a trehalose-binding-protein reveals allosteric hotspots for GFP insertion and results in high-dynamic range biosensors that function robustly in vivo. Taken together, DIP-seq simultaneously accelerates metabolite biosensor construction and provides a novel tool for interrogating protein allostery. PMID:27470466

  1. Laparoscopic insertion of gastric electrodes for electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Brody, Fred; Nam, Arthur; Drenon, Elizabeth; Ali, Aamir; Soffer, Edy

    2007-02-01

    Gastric electrical stimulation can provide symptomatic relief for patients with refractory gastroparesis. Traditionally, these wires are placed through a midline laparotomy. This paper describes and illustrates, in detail, the laparoscopic technique for successful implantation. Thirty-one consecutive patients from October 2003 to March 2005 underwent laparoscopic insertion of gastric stimulating wires for gastroparesis. Twenty-six patients were female. Four laparoscopic ports were used to insert a pair of electrodes. Anterior, cephalad retraction of the gastric wall is critical for accurate seromuscular placement of gastric leads. Intraoperative endoscopy was used to verify the seromuscular placement of the leads. Both leads were secured to a subcutaneous generator and electrical parameters were immediately established in the operating room. Patient demographics, operative details, and postoperative morbidities were recorded. All procedures were completed laparoscopically. The mean operative time was 114.4 +/- 20.9 minutes (range, 95-140). No perioperative mortality occurred. Two patients developed cellulitis at the generator site postoperatively and oral antibiotics were prescribed for one week postoperatively. No hardware was removed. Two patients had their generators repositioned due to pain at the pocket site. Gastric electrical stimulation is a novel treatment modality for patients with refractory gastroparesis and can be accomplished safely via laparoscopy. Laparoscopic insertion is successful even in patients with prior surgery and intact gastrointestinal tubes. Long-term follow-up and the current prospective multicenter trial continue to assess the efficacy of this treatment modality. PMID:17362169

  2. Non-rotating cementing plug with molded inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, B.W.

    1992-03-17

    This patent describes an anti-rotation plug set for use with cementing equipment having an insert seat therein, the anti-rotation plug set and the cementing equipment for use in cementing a string of casing into a well bore. It comprises an upper plug including: a non-metallic body member having a plurality of teeth integrally formed on the lower end thereof and an elastomeric covering thereon having, in turn, wipers which engage the interior of the string of casing; and a lower plug including: a non-metallic body member having a bore therethrough, having teeth integrally formed on the upper end thereof which mate with the teeth integrally formed on the lower end of the nonmetallic body member of the upper plug when the upper plug engages the lower plugs, having teeth integrally formed on the lower end thereof, having an insert member in a portion of the bore through the non-metallic body member, and the cementing equipment comprising: an insert seat having teeth thereon which mate with the integrally formed teeth on the lower end of the non-metallic body member of the lower plug of the anti-rotation plug set when the lower plug of the anti-rotation plug set engages the cementing equipment during the cementing of the string of casing into a well bore.

  3. Rapid construction of metabolite biosensors using domain-insertion profiling.

    PubMed

    Nadler, Dana C; Morgan, Stacy-Anne; Flamholz, Avi; Kortright, Kaitlyn E; Savage, David F

    2016-07-29

    Single-fluorescent protein biosensors (SFPBs) are an important class of probes that enable the single-cell quantification of analytes in vivo. Despite advantages over other detection technologies, their use has been limited by the inherent challenges of their construction. Specifically, the rational design of green fluorescent protein (GFP) insertion into a ligand-binding domain, generating the requisite allosteric coupling, remains a rate-limiting step. Here, we describe an unbiased approach, termed domain-insertion profiling with DNA sequencing (DIP-seq), that combines the rapid creation of diverse libraries of potential SFPBs and high-throughput activity assays to identify functional biosensors. As a proof of concept, we construct an SFPB for the important regulatory sugar trehalose. DIP-seq analysis of a trehalose-binding-protein reveals allosteric hotspots for GFP insertion and results in high-dynamic range biosensors that function robustly in vivo. Taken together, DIP-seq simultaneously accelerates metabolite biosensor construction and provides a novel tool for interrogating protein allostery.

  4. Commissioning of the upgraded ATLAS Pixel Detector for Run2 at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobos, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    The Pixel Detector of the ATLAS experiment has shown excellent performance during the whole Run-1 of LHC. Taking advantage of the long showdown, the detector was extracted from the experiment and brought to the surface, to equip it with new service quarter panels, to repair modules and to ease installation of the Insertable B-Layer, a fourth layer of pixel detectors, installed in May 2014 between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe at a radius of 3.3 cm. To cope with the high radiation and pixel occupancy due to the proximity to the interaction point, a new read-out chip and two different silicon sensor technologies (planar and 3D) have been developed. An overview of the refurbishing of the Pixel Detector and of the IBL project as well as early performance tests using cosmic rays and beam data will be presented.

  5. Single-phase heat transfer improved by helical inserts in tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutsein, M. U.

    1970-01-01

    Helical-vane insert creates a single, well defined helical flow passage resulting in more reliable predictions and extrapolations of the thermal and hydraulic performance. Insert core houses instrumentation which does not disturb the flow.

  6. Assessment of Azorean ancestry by Alu insertion polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Branco, Claudia C; Palla, Raquel; Lino, Sílvia; Pacheco, Paula R; Cabral, Rita; De Fez, Laura; Peixoto, Bernardo R; Mota-Vieira, Luisa

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of population ancestry from genetic markers is essential, for example, to understand the history of human migration and to carry out admixture and association studies. Here we assess the genome ancestry of the Azorean population through analysis of six Alu polymorphic sites (TPA-25, ACE, APO, B65, PV92, and D1) in 65 Azoreans and 30 Portuguese unrelated blood donors and compare data for the Y-chromosome and mtDNA. Allele frequencies were calculated by direct counting. Statistical analysis was performed using Arlequin 2.0. Nei's genetic distance was calculated with DISPAN software, and trees were constructed by neighbor joining (NJ) using PHYLIP 3.63. The results show that all Alu insertions were polymorphic. APO is the closest to fixation. The less frequent insertions are PV92 and D1 in the Azores and Portugal, respectively. ACE and TPA-25 show the highest values of heterozygosity in both populations. Allele frequencies are very similar to those obtained in European populations. These results are validated by the Y-chromosome and mtDNA data, where the majority of the maternal and paternal lineages are European. Overall, these data are reflected in the phylogenetic tree, in which the Azoreans and the Portuguese branch with Catalans, Andalusians, Moroccans, and Algerians. We conclude that the population of the Azores shows no significant genetic differences from that of mainland Portugal and that it is an outbred population. Moreover, the data validate the use of Alu insertion polymorphisms to assess the origin and history of human populations. PMID:16493635

  7. Efficient Merge and Insert Operations for Binary Heaps and Trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuszmaul, Christopher Lee; Woo, Alex C. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Binary heaps and binary search trees merge efficiently. We introduce a new amortized analysis that allows us to prove the cost of merging either binary heaps or balanced binary trees is O(l), in the amortized sense. The standard set of other operations (create, insert, delete, extract minimum, in the case of binary heaps, and balanced binary trees, as well as a search operation for balanced binary trees) remain with a cost of O(log n). For binary heaps implemented as arrays, we show a new merge algorithm that has a single operation cost for merging two heaps, a and b, of O(absolute value of a + min(log absolute value of b log log absolute value of b. log absolute value of a log absolute value of b). This is an improvement over O(absolute value of a + log absolute value of a log absolute value of b). The cost of the new merge is so low that it can be used in a new structure which we call shadow heaps. to implement the insert operation to a tunable efficiency. Shadow heaps support the insert operation for simple priority queues in an amortized time of O(f(n)) and other operations in time O((log n log log n)/f (n)), where 1 less than or equal to f (n) less than or equal to log log n. More generally, the results here show that any data structure with operations that change its size by at most one, with the exception of a merge (aka meld) operation, can efficiently amortize the cost of the merge under conditions that are true for most implementations of binary heaps and search trees.

  8. Insertion mechanism and stability of boron nitride nanotubes in lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael; Enciso, Marta; Hilder, Tamsyn A

    2015-04-16

    We provide insight into the interaction of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) with cell membranes to better understand their improved biocompatibility compared to carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Contrary to CNTs, no computational studies exist investigating the insertion mechanism and stability of BNNTs in membranes. Our molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that BNNTs are spontaneously attracted to lipid bilayers and are stable once inserted. They insert via a lipid-mediated, passive insertion mechanism. BNNTs demonstrate similar characteristics to more biocompatible functionalized CNTs.

  9. Development and testing of the rack insertion device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strickland, G. Scott

    1995-01-01

    Installing and removing experiment racks in a Space Station Logistics Module will become a repetitive operation at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in the near future. A Rack Insertion Device (RID) consisting of an Extendible Boom, End Effector, and Positioning Base is being developed for the task. This paper discusses the key elements of the RlD's function and design. Prototype test results for the RlD's Extendible Boom and End Effector are presented. Also discussed are future end effectors that will further enhance the RlD's Space Station processing capability.

  10. Bone Scanning in the Adductor Insertion Avulsion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Madhuri Shimpi

    2013-01-01

    A thigh splint (adductor insertion avulsion syndrome) is a relatively uncommon diagnosis analogous to shin splints. This article reports a 19-year-old female patient NOT a regular athlete who presented with groin pain. Physical examination was non-specific; magnetic resonance imaging pelvis did not reveal any abnormality. Patient referred for whole body bone scan, especially to locate any abnormality in the spine. This study highlights the role of whole body bone scan in the evaluation of groin pain and importance of evaluation of whole lower extremity. PMID:25126001

  11. A new gap separation mechanism for APS insertion devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Tcheskidov, V.; Den Hartog, P. K.; Deriy, B.; Erdmann, M.; Makarov, O.; Moog, E. R.

    1999-10-25

    A new gap separation mechanism for use with the standard Advanced Photon Source (APS) 3.3-cm-period undulator magnetic structures has been designed and built and the first system has been installed in the APS storage ring. The system allows a minimum magnetic gap of 10 mm for use with the APS 8-mm insertion device vacuum chambers. The mechanism is a bolted steel frame structure with a simple 4-motor mechanical drive train. The control system uses servomotors with incremental rotary encoders and virtual absolute linear encoders.

  12. Pediatric Enteric Feeding Techniques: Insertion, Maintenance, and Management of Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Nijs, Els L. F.; Cahill, Anne Marie

    2010-12-15

    Enteral feeding is considered a widespread, well-accepted means of delivering nutrition to adults and children who are unable to consume food by mouth or who need support in maintaining adequate nutrition for a variety of reasons, including acute and chronic disease states. Delivery of enteral feeding to nutritionally deprived patients may be achieved by several means. In this article, the indications and insertion of enteral access in children will be reviewed. In addition, common complications and management of problems will be discussed.

  13. Systemic Air Embolism Associated with Pleural Pigtail Chest Tube Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Alkhankan, Emad; Nusair, Ahmad; Mazagri, Rida

    2016-01-01

    Pleural pigtail catheter placement is associated with many complications including pneumothorax, hemorrhage, and chest pain. Air embolism is a known but rare complication of pleural pigtail catheter insertion and has a high risk of occurrence with positive pressure ventilation. In this case report, we present a 50-year-old male with bilateral pneumonia who developed a pneumothorax while on mechanical ventilation with continuous positive airway pressure mode. During the placement of the pleural pigtail catheter to correct the pneumothorax, the patient developed a sudden left sided body weakness and became unresponsive. An air embolism was identified in the right main cerebral artery, which was fatal. PMID:27630781

  14. Reliability Technology to Achieve Insertion of Advanced Packaging (RELTECH) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fayette, Daniel F.; Speicher, Patricia; Stoklosa, Mark J.; Evans, Jillian V.; Evans, John W.; Gentile, Mike; Pagel, Chuck A.; Hakim, Edward

    1993-01-01

    A joint military-commercial effort to evaluate multichip module (MCM) structures is discussed. The program, Reliability Technology to Achieve Insertion of Advanced Packaging (RELTECH), has been designed to identify the failure mechanisms that are possible in MCM structures. The RELTECH test vehicles, technical assessment task, product evaluation plan, reliability modeling task, accelerated and environmental testing, and post-test physical analysis and failure analysis are described. The information obtained through RELTECH can be used to address standardization issues, through development of cost effective qualification and appropriate screening criteria, for inclusion into a commercial specification and the MIL-H-38534 general specification for hybrid microcircuits.

  15. Systemic Air Embolism Associated with Pleural Pigtail Chest Tube Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Alkhankan, Emad; Nusair, Ahmad; Mazagri, Rida

    2016-01-01

    Pleural pigtail catheter placement is associated with many complications including pneumothorax, hemorrhage, and chest pain. Air embolism is a known but rare complication of pleural pigtail catheter insertion and has a high risk of occurrence with positive pressure ventilation. In this case report, we present a 50-year-old male with bilateral pneumonia who developed a pneumothorax while on mechanical ventilation with continuous positive airway pressure mode. During the placement of the pleural pigtail catheter to correct the pneumothorax, the patient developed a sudden left sided body weakness and became unresponsive. An air embolism was identified in the right main cerebral artery, which was fatal.

  16. RHIC INSERTION REGION, SHUNT POWER SUPPLY CURRENT ERRORS.

    SciTech Connect

    BRUNO,D.; GANETIS,G.; LAMBIASE,R.F.; SANDBERG,J.

    2001-06-18

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) was commissioned in 1999 and 2000. RHIC requires power supplies to supply currents to highly inductive superconducting magnets. The RHIC Insertion Region contain's many shunt power supplies to trim the current of different magnet elements in a large superconducting magnet circuit. Power Supply current error measurements were performed during the commissioning of RHIC. Models of these power supply systems were produced to predict and improve these power supply current errors using the circuit analysis program MicroCap V by Spectrum Software (TM). Results of the power supply current errors are presented from the models and from the measurements performed during the commissioning of RHIC.

  17. ARTEMIS Lunar Orbit Insertion and Science Orbit Design Through 2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broschart, Stephen B.; Sweetser, Theodore H.; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Folta, David; Woodard, Mark

    2015-01-01

    As of late-July 2011, the ARTEMIS mission is transferring two spacecraft from Lissajous orbits around Earth-Moon Lagrange Point #1 into highly-eccentric lunar science orbits. This paper presents the trajectory design for the transfer from Lissajous orbit to lunar orbit insertion, the period reduction maneuvers, and the science orbits through 2013. The design accommodates large perturbations from Earth's gravity and restrictive spacecraft capabilities to enable opportunities for a range of heliophysics and planetary science measurements. The process used to design the highly-eccentric ARTEMIS science orbits is outlined. The approach may inform the design of future planetary moon missions.

  18. The design and analysis of transposon insertion sequencing experiments.

    PubMed

    Chao, Michael C; Abel, Sören; Davis, Brigid M; Waldor, Matthew K

    2016-02-01

    Transposon insertion sequencing (TIS) is a powerful approach that can be extensively applied to the genome-wide definition of loci that are required for bacterial growth under diverse conditions. However, experimental design choices and stochastic biological processes can heavily influence the results of TIS experiments and affect downstream statistical analysis. In this Opinion article, we discuss TIS experimental parameters and how these factors relate to the benefits and limitations of the various statistical frameworks that can be applied to the computational analysis of TIS data.

  19. Systemic Air Embolism Associated with Pleural Pigtail Chest Tube Insertion.

    PubMed

    Alkhankan, Emad; Nusair, Ahmad; Mazagri, Rida; Al-Ourani, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Pleural pigtail catheter placement is associated with many complications including pneumothorax, hemorrhage, and chest pain. Air embolism is a known but rare complication of pleural pigtail catheter insertion and has a high risk of occurrence with positive pressure ventilation. In this case report, we present a 50-year-old male with bilateral pneumonia who developed a pneumothorax while on mechanical ventilation with continuous positive airway pressure mode. During the placement of the pleural pigtail catheter to correct the pneumothorax, the patient developed a sudden left sided body weakness and became unresponsive. An air embolism was identified in the right main cerebral artery, which was fatal. PMID:27630781

  20. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 227 - Use of Insert Earphones for Audiometric Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of Insert Earphones for Audiometric Testing E... E to Part 227—Use of Insert Earphones for Audiometric Testing This appendix is mandatory. Section 227.111(d) allows railroads to use insert earphones for audiometric testing. Railroads are...

  1. The effect of insertion angle on orthodontic mini-screw torque

    PubMed Central

    Raji, Seyed Hamid; Noorollahian, Saeed; Niknam, Seyed Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Primary stability is an important factor for the clinical success of orthodontic mini-screws. The present study made an attempt to evaluate the effect of insertion angle changes on the maximum insertion and removal torque of orthodontic mini-screws. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 72 mini-screws (Dual Top Anchor System, Jeil, 1.6 mm diameter, 8 mm length) were used. They were randomly divided into four equal groups and inserted in poly-carbonate plates with 3 mm thickness. Then, their maximum insertion torque (MIT) and maximum removal torque (MRT) were recorded using a digital torque tester/screwdriver. Each group had a different insertion angle (90°, 75°, 60° and 45°). The data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 18) using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's tests. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The maximum MIT was observed in 45° insertion angle (14.84 Ncm) and the minimum MIT was reported in 75° insertion angle (12.66 Ncm). The maximum MRT was observed in 45° insertion angle (23.21 Ncm) and the minimum MRT was reported in the 90° insertion angle (17.43 Ncm). Conclusion: Oblique insertion of the mini-screws results in higher insertion and removal torques and probably more primary stability compared to the vertical insertion. PMID:25225557

  2. Cholecystoduodenal fistula: A complication of inserted self-expandable metallic bilitary stents

    SciTech Connect

    Nishida, Hirotoshi; Inoue, Hiroki; Ueno, Kazuto; Nagata, Yukitaka; Kato, Takeshi; Miyazono, Nobuaki; Nakajo, Masayuki

    1998-05-15

    We encountered a case of hepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma resulting in cholecystoduodenal fistula after insertion of self-expandable metallic biliary stents (EMBSs). To our knowledge, there has been no report of cholecystoduodenal fistula after insertion of EMBSs. This case suggests that immediate gallbladder decompression may be necessary if acute cholecystitis occurs after insertion of EMBSs.

  3. Cholecystoduodenal Fistula: A Complication of Inserted Self-Expandable Metallic Biliary Stents

    SciTech Connect

    Nishida, Hirotoshi; Inoue, Hiroki; Ueno, Kazuto; Nagata, Yukitaka; Kato, Takeshi; Miyazono, Nobuaki; Nakajo, Masayuki

    1998-05-15

    We encountered a case of hepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma resulting in cholecystoduodenal fistula after insertion of self-expandable metallic biliary stents (EMBSs). To our knowledge, there has been no report of cholecystoduodenal fistula after insertion of EMBSs. This case suggests that immediate gallbladder decompression may be necessary if acute cholecystitis occurs after insertion of EMBSs.

  4. Efforts to deregulate Rainbow papaya in Japan: Molecular Characterization of Transgene and Vector Inserts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transformation plasmid-derived insert number and insert site sequence in 55-1 line papaya derivatives Rainbow and SunUp was determined as part of a larger petition to allow its import into Japan (Suzuki, et al., 2007, 2008). Three insertions were detected by Southern analysis and their correspondin...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3900 - Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert... tooth with a metal insert. (a) Identification. A posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert is a... and metals of the platinum group intended to replace a natural tooth. The device is attached...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3900 - Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert... tooth with a metal insert. (a) Identification. A posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert is a... and metals of the platinum group intended to replace a natural tooth. The device is attached...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3900 - Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert... tooth with a metal insert. (a) Identification. A posterior artificial tooth with a metal insert is a... and metals of the platinum group intended to replace a natural tooth. The device is attached...

  8. Single gene insertion drives bioalcohol production by a thermophilic archaeon

    SciTech Connect

    Basen, M; Schut, GJ; Nguyen, DM; Lipscomb, GL; Benn, RA; Prybol, CJ; Vaccaro, BJ; Poole, FL; Kelly, RM; Adams, MWW

    2014-12-09

    Bioethanol production is achieved by only two metabolic pathways and only at moderate temperatures. Herein a fundamentally different synthetic pathway for bioalcohol production at 70 degrees C was constructed by insertion of the gene for bacterial alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) into the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The engineered strain converted glucose to ethanol via acetate and acetaldehyde, catalyzed by the host-encoded aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and heterologously expressed AdhA, in an energy-conserving, redox-balanced pathway. Furthermore, the AOR/AdhA pathway also converted exogenously added aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding alcohol using glucose, pyruvate, and/or hydrogen as the source of reductant. By heterologous coexpression of a membrane-bound carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, CO was used as a reductant for converting carboxylic acids to alcohols. Redirecting the fermentative metabolism of P. furiosus through strategic insertion of foreign genes creates unprecedented opportunities for thermophilic bioalcohol production. Moreover, the AOR/AdhA pathway is a potentially game-changing strategy for syngas fermentation, especially in combination with carbon chain elongation pathways.

  9. Early metamorphic insertion technology for insect flight behavior monitoring.

    PubMed

    Verderber, Alexander; McKnight, Michael; Bozkurt, Alper

    2014-07-12

    Early Metamorphosis Insertion Technology (EMIT) is a novel methodology for integrating microfabricated neuromuscular recording and actuation platforms on insects during their metamorphic development. Here, the implants are fused within the structure and function of the neuromuscular system as a result of metamorphic tissue remaking. The implants emerge with the insect where the development of tissue around the electronics during pupal development results in a bioelectrically and biomechanically enhanced tissue interface. This relatively more reliable and stable interface would be beneficial for many researchers exploring the neural basis of the insect locomotion with alleviated traumatic effects caused during adult stage insertions. In this article, we implant our electrodes into the indirect flight muscles of Manduca sexta. Located in the dorsal-thorax, these main flight powering dorsoventral and dorsolongitudinal muscles actuate the wings and supply the mechanical power for up and down strokes. Relative contraction of these two muscle groups has been under investigation to explore how the yaw maneuver is neurophysiologically coordinated. To characterize the flight dynamics, insects are often tethered with wires and their flight is recorded with digital cameras. We also developed a novel way to tether Manduca sexta on a magnetically levitating frame where the insect is connected to a commercially available wireless neural amplifier. This set up can be used to limit the degree of freedom to yawing "only" while transmitting the related electromyography signals from dorsoventral and dorsolongitudinal muscle groups.

  10. Sodium Ion Insertion in Hollow Carbon Nanowires for Battery Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Yuliang; Xiao, Lifen; Sushko, Maria L.; Wang, Wei; Schwenzer, Birgit; Xiao, Jie; Nie, Zimin; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Yang, Zhenguo; Liu, Jun

    2012-07-11

    Hollow Carbon Nanowires (HCNWs) were prepared through pyrolyzation of hollow polyaniline nanowires precursor. The HCNWs used as anode material for Na-ion batteries delivers a high reversible capacity of 251 mAh g{sup -1} and 82.2% capacity retention over 400 charge/discharge cycles between 1.2 and 0.01 V (vs. Na{sup +}/Na) at a constant current of 50 mA g{sup -1} (0.2 C). Excellent cycling stability is also observed at even higher charge-discharge rate. A high reversible capacity of 149 mAh g{sup -1} also can be obtained at a current rate of 500 mA g{sup -1} (2C). The good Na ion insertion property is attributed to the short diffusion distance in the HCNWs, and the large interlayer distance (0.37 nm) between the graphitic sheets, which agrees with the interlayered distance predicted by theoretical calculation to enable Na ion insertion in carbon materials.

  11. Single gene insertion drives bioalcohol production by a thermophilic archaeon

    PubMed Central

    Basen, Mirko; Schut, Gerrit J.; Nguyen, Diep M.; Lipscomb, Gina L.; Benn, Robert A.; Prybol, Cameron J.; Vaccaro, Brian J.; Poole, Farris L.; Kelly, Robert M.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production is achieved by only two metabolic pathways and only at moderate temperatures. Herein a fundamentally different synthetic pathway for bioalcohol production at 70 °C was constructed by insertion of the gene for bacterial alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) into the archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The engineered strain converted glucose to ethanol via acetate and acetaldehyde, catalyzed by the host-encoded aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase (AOR) and heterologously expressed AdhA, in an energy-conserving, redox-balanced pathway. Furthermore, the AOR/AdhA pathway also converted exogenously added aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids to the corresponding alcohol using glucose, pyruvate, and/or hydrogen as the source of reductant. By heterologous coexpression of a membrane-bound carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, CO was used as a reductant for converting carboxylic acids to alcohols. Redirecting the fermentative metabolism of P. furiosus through strategic insertion of foreign genes creates unprecedented opportunities for thermophilic bioalcohol production. Moreover, the AOR/AdhA pathway is a potentially game-changing strategy for syngas fermentation, especially in combination with carbon chain elongation pathways. PMID:25368184

  12. Risks and complications of peripherally and centrally inserted intravenous catheters.

    PubMed

    Schmid, M W

    2000-06-01

    Increased nursing vigilance is needed while caring for critically ill patients who have i.v. catheters. All i.v. sites should be selected based upon the i.v. therapy needs of the patient, using the shortest catheter and smallest size possible to meet the treatment needs of the patient while avoiding excessive repeated insertions of peripheral IVs. Meticulous handwashing, site preparation, and the use of sterile technique during insertion and maintenance are essential to minimize the risk of infection. Use multilumen catheters only when necessary because these catheters have an increased manipulation and associated infection risk. Observe for signs and symptoms of localized, systemic, mechanical, and metastatic (e.g., vertebral osteomyelitis and endocarditis) foci of infection. Additionally, remove all unnecessary or poorly performing i.v. catheters. I.v. sites that do not yield a blood return but will accept i.v. solutions are in the process of becoming occluded. Most likely, there is a fibrin sheath that is developing along the catheter's inner lumen and opening, decreasing the catheter's effectiveness. Accommodate the need to replace a catheter into the patient's plan of care rather than allowing the catheter to occlude and then replacing it under emergent or rushed conditions.

  13. Early metamorphic insertion technology for insect flight behavior monitoring.

    PubMed

    Verderber, Alexander; McKnight, Michael; Bozkurt, Alper

    2014-01-01

    Early Metamorphosis Insertion Technology (EMIT) is a novel methodology for integrating microfabricated neuromuscular recording and actuation platforms on insects during their metamorphic development. Here, the implants are fused within the structure and function of the neuromuscular system as a result of metamorphic tissue remaking. The implants emerge with the insect where the development of tissue around the electronics during pupal development results in a bioelectrically and biomechanically enhanced tissue interface. This relatively more reliable and stable interface would be beneficial for many researchers exploring the neural basis of the insect locomotion with alleviated traumatic effects caused during adult stage insertions. In this article, we implant our electrodes into the indirect flight muscles of Manduca sexta. Located in the dorsal-thorax, these main flight powering dorsoventral and dorsolongitudinal muscles actuate the wings and supply the mechanical power for up and down strokes. Relative contraction of these two muscle groups has been under investigation to explore how the yaw maneuver is neurophysiologically coordinated. To characterize the flight dynamics, insects are often tethered with wires and their flight is recorded with digital cameras. We also developed a novel way to tether Manduca sexta on a magnetically levitating frame where the insect is connected to a commercially available wireless neural amplifier. This set up can be used to limit the degree of freedom to yawing "only" while transmitting the related electromyography signals from dorsoventral and dorsolongitudinal muscle groups. PMID:25079130

  14. Retroposon insertions and the chronology of avian sex chromosome evolution.

    PubMed

    Suh, Alexander; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2011-11-01

    The vast majority of extant birds possess highly differentiated Z and W sex chromosomes. Nucleotide sequence data from gametologs (homologs on opposite sex chromosomes) suggest that this divergence occurred throughout early bird evolution via stepwise cessation of recombination between identical sex chromosomal regions. Here, we investigated avian sex chromosome differentiation from a novel perspective, using retroposon insertions and random insertions/deletions for the reconstruction of gametologous gene trees. Our data confirm that the CHD1Z/CHD1W genes differentiated in the ancestor of the neognaths, whereas the NIPBLZ/NIPBLW genes diverged in the neoavian ancestor and independently within Galloanserae. The divergence of the ATP5A1Z/ATP5A1W genes in galloanserans occurred independently in the chicken, the screamer, and the ancestor of duck-related birds. In Neoaves, this gene pair differentiated in each of the six sampled representatives, respectively. Additionally, three of our investigated loci can be utilized as universal, easy-to-use independent tools for molecular sexing of Neoaves or Neognathae. PMID:21633113

  15. Neurosteroids promote phosphorylation and membrane insertion of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Abramian, Armen M.; Comenencia-Ortiz, Eydith; Modgil, Amit; Vien, Thuy N.; Nakamura, Yasuko; Moore, Yvonne E.; Maguire, Jamie L.; Terunuma, Miho; Davies, Paul A.; Moss, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Neurosteroids are synthesized within the brain and act as endogenous anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, and sedative agents, actions that are principally mediated via their ability to potentiate phasic and tonic inhibitory neurotransmission mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs). Although neurosteroids are accepted allosteric modulators of GABAARs, here we reveal they exert sustained effects on GABAergic inhibition by selectively enhancing the trafficking of GABAARs that mediate tonic inhibition. We demonstrate that neurosteroids potentiate the protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of S443 within α4 subunits, a component of GABAAR subtypes that mediate tonic inhibition in many brain regions. This process enhances insertion of α4 subunit-containing GABAAR subtypes into the membrane, resulting in a selective and sustained elevation in the efficacy of tonic inhibition. Therefore, the ability of neurosteroids to modulate the phosphorylation and membrane insertion of α4 subunit-containing GABAARs may underlie the profound effects these endogenous signaling molecules have on neuronal excitability and behavior. PMID:24778259

  16. Neurosteroids promote phosphorylation and membrane insertion of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Abramian, Armen M; Comenencia-Ortiz, Eydith; Modgil, Amit; Vien, Thuy N; Nakamura, Yasuko; Moore, Yvonne E; Maguire, Jamie L; Terunuma, Miho; Davies, Paul A; Moss, Stephen J

    2014-05-13

    Neurosteroids are synthesized within the brain and act as endogenous anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, and sedative agents, actions that are principally mediated via their ability to potentiate phasic and tonic inhibitory neurotransmission mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs). Although neurosteroids are accepted allosteric modulators of GABAARs, here we reveal they exert sustained effects on GABAergic inhibition by selectively enhancing the trafficking of GABAARs that mediate tonic inhibition. We demonstrate that neurosteroids potentiate the protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of S443 within α4 subunits, a component of GABAAR subtypes that mediate tonic inhibition in many brain regions. This process enhances insertion of α4 subunit-containing GABAAR subtypes into the membrane, resulting in a selective and sustained elevation in the efficacy of tonic inhibition. Therefore, the ability of neurosteroids to modulate the phosphorylation and membrane insertion of α4 subunit-containing GABAARs may underlie the profound effects these endogenous signaling molecules have on neuronal excitability and behavior. PMID:24778259

  17. Numerical Simulation of and Experiment on Electroforming Microstructure Mold Insert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Ming-Nan

    2008-09-01

    Microstructures are a vital component in various systems such as bionic chips, micro-fluidics sensor, optical communication systems, and micro-fuel cells. Micro-mold inserts should be produced by precise electroforming; however, interchanging the plating solution in an extremely small tunnel has been a main problem, where flow field and mass transfer are the major variances. In this paper we will concentrate on single- and three-micro hole array mode insert electroform flow fields and the mass transfer effect. Single-hole results show that the interchange of the plating fluid is more efficient at a lower aspect ratio of similar apertures with different aspect ratios. A lower coefficient of viscosities results in a weaker microelectroforming effect. The electroforming effect is better at an entry flow field speed of 0.01 m/s than at that of 0.001 m/s. The three-hole array results show that the first hole proved the best among the three holes, followed by the second hole; the third hole showed the worst results. The 10:1 ratio of distance to diameter of the hole produces better electroforming results than the 1:1 ratio. Lastly, this paper will contribute to the development of microelectro-mechanical manufacturing technologies.

  18. Evidence for long-range oncogene activation by hepadnavirus insertion.

    PubMed Central

    Fourel, G; Couturier, J; Wei, Y; Apiou, F; Tiollais, P; Buendia, M A

    1994-01-01

    Insertional mutagenesis of host genes, a common oncogenic strategy of slow transforming retroviruses, has recently been described for a DNA virus of the hepadnavirus group: the woodchuck hepatitis virus. This virus causes insertional activation of myc genes, mainly the intronless N-myc2 oncogene, in > 50% of woodchuck liver tumours. In most remaining tumours, N-myc2 is overexpressed without any apparent genetic alteration. To elucidate the role of the virus in such cases, we have cloned and analysed single integration sites in four woodchuck tumours carrying wild-type myc alleles. All sites were clustered within < 20 kb in a single locus, in which scarce unique sequences showed no detectable transcriptional activity. By fluorescent in situ hybridization, N-myc2 and the new locus (win) were localized to the same region of the long arm of the woodchuck X chromosome, and a 150-180 kb intervening distance was deduced from pulse-field gel analysis. The detection of viral integrations in win in additional tumours that produced abundant N-myc2 transcripts further substantiates the link between these two loci in woodchuck tumorigenesis. We propose that efficient activation of the N-myc2 promoter by the hepadnavirus enhancer acting over a long distance might operate in liver cell transformation. Images PMID:8013453

  19. Polymorphic insertions and deletions in parabasalian enolase genes.

    PubMed

    Keeling, Patrick J

    2004-05-01

    Insertions and deletions in gene sequences have been used as characters to infer phylogenetic relationships and, like any character, the information they contain varies in utility between different levels of evolution. In one case, the absence of two otherwise highly conserved deletions in the enolase genes of parabasalian protists has been interpreted as a primitive characteristic that suggests these were among the first eukaryotes. Here, semi-environmental 3'-RACE was used to sample enolases from parabasalia in the hindgut of the termite Zootermopsis angusticolis to examine the conservation of this character within the parabasalia. Parabasalian homologues were found to be polymorphic for these deletions, and the phylogeny of parabasalian enolases shows that the deletion-possessing genes branch within deletion-lacking genes (i.e., they did not form two clearly distinct groups). Phylogenetic incongruence was detected in the carboxy-terminal third of the sequence (in the region of the deletions), but there is no unambiguous evidence for recombination. The polymorphism of this character discredits these deletions as strong evidence for the early origin of parabasalia, although the complex distribution makes it impossible to state whether parabasalian enolases were ancestrally like those of other eukaryotes. These observations stress the importance of strong corroborating evidence when considering insertion and deletion data, and raises some interesting questions about the apparent variation in degree of conservation of these deletions between different eukaryotic groups.

  20. Systematic discovery of complex insertions and deletions in human cancers.

    PubMed

    Ye, Kai; Wang, Jiayin; Jayasinghe, Reyka; Lameijer, Eric-Wubbo; McMichael, Joshua F; Ning, Jie; McLellan, Michael D; Xie, Mingchao; Cao, Song; Yellapantula, Venkata; Huang, Kuan-lin; Scott, Adam; Foltz, Steven; Niu, Beifang; Johnson, Kimberly J; Moed, Matthijs; Slagboom, P Eline; Chen, Feng; Wendl, Michael C; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    Complex insertions and deletions (indels) are formed by simultaneously deleting and inserting DNA fragments of different sizes at a common genomic location. Here we present a systematic analysis of somatic complex indels in the coding sequences of samples from over 8,000 cancer cases using Pindel-C. We discovered 285 complex indels in cancer-associated genes (such as PIK3R1, TP53, ARID1A, GATA3 and KMT2D) in approximately 3.5% of cases analyzed; nearly all instances of complex indels were overlooked (81.1%) or misannotated (17.6%) in previous reports of 2,199 samples. In-frame complex indels are enriched in PIK3R1 and EGFR, whereas frameshifts are prevalent in VHL, GATA3, TP53, ARID1A, PTEN and ATRX. Furthermore, complex indels display strong tissue specificity (such as VHL in kidney cancer samples and GATA3 in breast cancer samples). Finally, structural analyses support findings of previously missed, but potentially druggable, mutations in the EGFR, MET and KIT oncogenes. This study indicates the critical importance of improving complex indel discovery and interpretation in medical research. PMID:26657142

  1. Detecting Alu insertions from high-throughput sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    David, Matei; Mustafa, Harun; Brudno, Michael

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing technologies have allowed for the cataloguing of variation in personal human genomes. In this manuscript, we present alu-detect, a tool that combines read-pair and split-read information to detect novel Alus and their precise breakpoints directly from either whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing data while also identifying insertions directly in the vicinity of existing Alus. To set the parameters of our method, we use simulation of a faux reference, which allows us to compute the precision and recall of various parameter settings using real sequencing data. Applying our method to 100 bp paired Illumina data from seven individuals, including two trios, we detected on average 1519 novel Alus per sample. Based on the faux-reference simulation, we estimate that our method has 97% precision and 85% recall. We identify 808 novel Alus not previously described in other studies. We also demonstrate the use of alu-detect to study the local sequence and global location preferences for novel Alu insertions. PMID:23921633

  2. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Inserts in Sandwich Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunyawanichakul, P.; Castanie, B.; Barrau, J.-J.

    2005-05-01

    In aeronautics, sandwich structures are widely used for secondary structures like flaps or landing gear doors. In the case of landing gear doors, the junction is made by a local reinforcement called an insert. This insert is made by a resin molded in the Nomex™ sandwich core. Such structures are still designed mainly using test results and the lack of an efficient numerical model remains a problem. The purpose of this study is on the one hand to perform experiments in order to be able to identify the failure modes and on the other hand to propose an efficient numerical model. Pull-out tests with cycling were conducted and 3D displacement measured by optical methods. The potential failure modes are numerous (delamination, local fiber breaking, skin/core debonding, core crushing, core shear buckling, potting failure, etc.). Experiments demonstrated that, for the lower loads, the non-linearity and the hysteresis are mainly due to core shear buckling. From this observation, the nonlinear behavior of the core is identified by a 3 point-bending test. The shear-modulus damage law is then implemented on a non-linear finite element model and an acceptable correlation of the tests is achieved. As a consequence, some improvements of the technology will be proposed, manufactured and tested.

  3. Bonding of ceramic insert to a laboratory particle filler composite.

    PubMed

    Kienanen, Pietari; Alander, Pasi; Lassila, Lippo V J; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2005-10-01

    The push-out bond strength of cylindrical ceramic inserts (CI) to particulate filler resin composite (VC) was evaluated in this study. Various surface treatments to improve the adhesion of CI to resin composite were tested. Additionally, the effect of fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) laminate encapsulation around CI was tested. Feldspathic porcelain CI with a diameter of 3.1 mm was bonded to VC. Adhesive resin was used for bonding. In group 1, no surface treatment of CI was done. In group 2, CI was encapsulated with a thin layer of woven glass FRC. In group 3, the surface of the CI was tribochemically silica coated and silanized. In group 4, the surface of the CI was grit-blasted with 50 microm aluminum oxide and etched with hydrofluoric acid. In group 5, the grit-blasted CI was encapsulated with a layer of FRC. The specimens (n = 6/group) were either dry stored or thermocycled in water (6000 x 5-55 degrees C). The push-out test was carried out with a universal material testing machine. The highest push-out strength was achieved in group 5 (20.4 MPa) and the lowest in group 2 (11.5 MPa). ANOVA revealed that both surface treatment and storage condition had a significant effect on push-out strength (p < 0.05). We conclude that the additional glass FRC encapsulation can be used to increase the bond strength of insert to composite.

  4. Seamless insertion of real pulmonary nodules in chest CT exams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezeshk, Aria; Sahiner, Berkman; Zeng, Rongping; Wunderlich, Adam; Chen, Weijie; Petrick, Nicholas

    2014-03-01

    The availability of large medical image datasets is critical in many applications such as training and testing of computer aided diagnosis (CAD) systems, evaluation of segmentation algorithms, and conducting perceptual studies. However, collection of large repositories of clinical images is hindered by the high cost and difficulties associated with both the accumulation of data and establishment of the ground truth. To address this problem, we are developing an image blending tool that allows users to modify or supplement existing datasets by seamlessly inserting a real lesion extracted from a source image into a different location on a target image. In this study we focus on the application of this tool to pulmonary nodules in chest CT exams. We minimize the impact of user skill on the perceived quality of the blended image by limiting user involvement to two simple steps: the user first draws a casual boundary around the nodule of interest in the source, and then selects the center of desired insertion area in the target. We demonstrate examples of the performance of the proposed system on samples taken from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) dataset, and compare the noise power spectrum (NPS) of blended nodules versus that of native nodules in simulated phantoms.

  5. Launch vehicle and power level impacts on electric GEO insertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Myers, Roger M.

    1996-01-01

    Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) has been shown to increase net geosynchronous spacecraft mass when used for station keeping and final orbit insertion. The impact of launch vehicle selection and power level on the benefits of this approach were examined for 20 and 25 kW systems launched using the Ariane 5, Atlas IIAR, Long March, Proton, and Sea Launch vehicles. Two advanced on-board propulsion technologies, 5 kW ion and Hall thruster systems, were used to establish the relative merits of the technologies and launch vehicles. GaAs solar arrays were assumed. The analysis identifies the optimal starting orbits for the SEP orbit raising/plane changing while considering the impacts of radiation degradation in the Van Allen belts, shading, power degradation, and oblateness. This use of SEP to provide part of the orbit insertion results in net mass increases of 15 - 38% and 18 - 46% for one to two month trip times, respectively, over just using SEP for 15 years of north/south station keeping. SEP technology was shown to have a greater impact on net masses of launch vehicles with higher launch latitudes when avoidance of solar array and payload degradation is desired. This greater impact of SEP could help reduce the plane changing disadvantage of high latitude launch sites. Comparison with results for 10 and 15 kW systems show clear benefits of incremental increases in SEP power level, suggesting that an evolutionary approach to high power SEP for geosynchronous spacecraft is possible.

  6. Current status of frameless anchored IUD for immediate intracesarean insertion.

    PubMed

    Wildemeersch, Dirk; Goldstuck, Norman D; Hasskamp, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Immediate postpartum intrauterine device (IUD) insertion deserves great attention as it can provide immediate, timely and convenient contraception plus the added benefit of preventing repeat unintended pregnancies. Although women post vaginal delivery can benefit from immediate post-placenta contraception, women undergoing Cesarean section clearly need contraception, as an inter-delivery interval shorter than 18 months places them at a high risk for uterine rupture. The main drawback of currently available framed IUD devices for immediate postpartum insertion of an IUD is their high expulsion and displacement rates when inserted immediately postpartum after both vaginal and Cesarean delivery. Current research suggests that a brief window of opportunity exists of 10 minutes for insertion of conventional IUDs after which time expulsion rates both immediately and over time are greatly enhanced. This paper summarizes the current research conducted to overcome the expulsion problems associated with conventional T-shaped devices as well as through the use of an anchored frameless device. In the 1970s and 1980s, attempts were made to solve the expulsion problem by modifying existing devices, such as adding absorbable sutures (Delta-T) or additional appendages. These attempts proved to be clinically unsuccessful as the catgut suture added to the transverse arms did not provide sufficient resistance to prevent downward displacement and expulsion. An anchoring technique to suspend a copper IUD to the fundus of the uterus was developed in Belgium in the 1980s and has been the subject of extensive ongoing clinical research since 1985. Recently the frameless copper releasing anchor IUD, GyneFix, has been tested for postplacental insertion. Initially, the anchor was modified by the inclusion of a biodegradable cone which was added below the anchoring knot. Clinical studies confirmed the adequacy of this approach suggesting that it was technically possible to anchor an IUD

  7. Survey of heat use during peripheral IV insertion by health care workers.

    PubMed

    Kiger, Tammy; Knudsen, Élise Arsenault; Curran, Wendy; Hunter, Julia; Schaub, Anna; Williams, Mary Jane; Zechel, Janet; Kwekkeboom, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    Health care workers at an academic medical center in the Midwest were surveyed to identify common practices regarding heat use during peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheter insertion. Of the 907 who responded, the majority used heat to facilitate PIV insertion at least sometimes, when veins were not easily seen or not palpable, applying a commercial dry hot pack for 2 to 5 minutes before selecting an insertion site. Heat use correlated with practice role and population, frequency of PIV insertion, and perceived PIV skill. Findings will guide development of a research protocol to compare the effects of dry heat, moist heat, and no heat on PIV insertion success.

  8. Targeted Capture of Phylogenetically Informative Ves SINE Insertions in Genus Myotis.

    PubMed

    Platt, Roy N; Zhang, Yuhua; Witherspoon, David J; Xing, Jinchuan; Suh, Alexander; Keith, Megan S; Jorde, Lynn B; Stevens, Richard D; Ray, David A

    2015-05-25

    Identification of retrotransposon insertions in nonmodel taxa can be technically challenging and costly. This has inhibited progress in understanding retrotransposon insertion dynamics outside of a few well-studied species. To address this problem, we have extended a retrotransposon-based capture and sequence method (ME-Scan [mobile element scanning]) to identify insertions belonging to the Ves family of short interspersed elements (SINEs) across seven species of the bat genus Myotis. We identified between 120,000 and 143,000 SINE insertions in six taxa lacking a draft genome by comparing to the M. lucifugus reference genome. On average, each Ves insertion was sequenced to 129.6 × coverage. When mapped back to the M. lucifugus reference genome, all insertions were confidently assigned within a 10-bp window. Polymorphic Ves insertions were identified in each taxon based on their mapped locations. Using cross-species comparisons and the identified insertion positions, a presence-absence matrix was created for approximately 796,000 insertions. Dollo parsimony analysis of more than 85,000 phylogenetically informative insertions recovered strongly supported, monophyletic clades that correspond with the biogeography of each taxa. This phylogeny is similar to previously published mitochondrial phylogenies, with the exception of the placement of M. vivesi. These results support the utility of our variation on ME-Scan to identify polymorphic retrotransposon insertions in taxa without a reference genome and for large-scale retrotransposon-based phylogenetics.

  9. Pre-puncture ultrasound guided epidural insertion before vaginal delivery.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Mahmoud; Abdelazim, Ibrahim A

    2015-10-01

    Palpation method is widely used in clinical practice to identify the puncture site during combined spinal-epidural (CSE) blocks. Tuffier's line, is an anatomical landmark between two iliac crests (inter-cristal), which is widely used to identify the puncture site during CSE blocks is not always an indicator for specific vertebral level or inter-vertebral space. One hundred and Ten (110) women were scheduled for normal vaginal delivery and were randomized into two equal groups; palpation group and an ultrasound guided group to detect the efficacy of puncture ultrasound before CSE blocks to increase chances of successful CSE procedure on the first attempt and to reduce the number of attempts or punctures during insertion of CSE catheter. There were no significant differences between two studied groups regarding; maternal age, weight and height, while, there was a significant difference between two studied groups regarding; parity. Percentage of successful CSE procedure on the first attempt was significantly higher (67.27%) in ultrasound compared to palpation group (40%). Number of punctures (attempts) were significantly less in ultrasound (1.2 ± 0.6) compared to palpation group (2.3 ± 0.8) and the number of redirections was also significantly less in ultrasound (1.4 ± 0.5) compared to palpation group (2.8 ± 1.6). Although, time to identify puncture site was significantly longer in ultrasound compared to palpation group and total procedure time was longer in ultrasound (9.1 ± 1.5 min) compared to palpation group (6.2 ± 1.2 min), there was no significant difference between two studied groups regarding; time to identify puncture site and total procedure time. Two cases of dural puncture in palpation versus no cases in ultrasound group and two cases of intravascular catheter placement (one in each group), with no significant difference between two groups. Pre- puncture ultrasound guided epidural insertion before vaginal delivery, increases the chance of a

  10. 3D-FBK Pixel Sensors: Recent Beam Tests Results with Irradiated Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Micelli, A.; Helle, K.; Sandaker, H.; Stugu, B.; Barbero, M.; Hugging, F.; Karagounis, M.; Kostyukhin, V.; Kruger, H.; Tsung, J.W.; Wermes, N.; Capua, M.; Fazio, S.; Mastroberardino, A.; Susinno, G.; Gallrapp, C.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dobos, D.; La Rosa, A.; Pernegger, H.; Roe, S.; /CERN /Prague, Tech. U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Freiburg U. /Freiburg U. /Freiburg U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Glasgow U. /Glasgow U. /Glasgow U. /Hawaii U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, IFAE /LBL, Berkeley /Barcelona, IFAE /LBL, Berkeley /LBL, Berkeley /Manchester U. /Manchester U. /Manchester U. /Manchester U. /Manchester U. /Manchester U. /Manchester U. /Manchester U. /Manchester U. /New Mexico U. /New Mexico U. /Oslo U. /Oslo U. /Oslo U. /Oslo U. /Oslo U. /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SLAC /SUNY, Stony Brook /SUNY, Stony Brook /SUNY, Stony Brook /INFN, Trento /Trento U. /INFN, Trento /Trento U. /INFN, Trento /Trento U. /INFN, Trieste /Udine U. /INFN, Trieste /Udine U. /INFN, Trieste /Udine U. /INFN, Trieste /Udine U. /INFN, Trieste /Udine U. /INFN, Trieste /Udine U. /Barcelona, Inst. Microelectron. /Barcelona, Inst. Microelectron. /Barcelona, Inst. Microelectron. /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Trento /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Trento /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Trento /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Trento /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Trento /SINTEF, Oslo /SINTEF, Oslo /SINTEF, Oslo /SINTEF, Oslo /VTT Electronics, Espoo /VTT Electronics, Espoo

    2012-04-30

    The Pixel Detector is the innermost part of the ATLAS experiment tracking device at the Large Hadron Collider, and plays a key role in the reconstruction of the primary vertices from the collisions and secondary vertices produced by short-lived particles. To cope with the high level of radiation produced during the collider operation, it is planned to add to the present three layers of silicon pixel sensors which constitute the Pixel Detector, an additional layer (Insertable B-Layer, or IBL) of sensors. 3D silicon sensors are one of the technologies which are under study for the IBL. 3D silicon technology is an innovative combination of very-large-scale integration and Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems where electrodes are fabricated inside the silicon bulk instead of being implanted on the wafer surfaces. 3D sensors, with electrodes fully or partially penetrating the silicon substrate, are currently fabricated at different processing facilities in Europe and USA. This paper reports on the 2010 June beam test results for irradiated 3D devices produced at FBK (Trento, Italy). The performance of these devices, all bump-bonded with the ATLAS pixel FE-I3 read-out chip, is compared to that observed before irradiation in a previous beam test.

  11. RHIC D0 INSERTION DIPOLE DESIGN ITERATIONS DURING PRODUCTION.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHMALZLE,J.; ANERELLA,M.; GANETIS,G.; GHOSH,A.; GUPTA,R.; JAIN,A.; KAHN,S.; MORGAN,G.; MURATORE,J.; SAMPSON,W.; WANDERER,P.; WILLEN,E.

    1997-05-12

    Iterations to the cross section of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) D0 Insertion Dipole magnets were made during the production. This was included as part of the production plan because no R&D or pre-production magnets were built prior to the start of production. The first magnet produced had the desired coil pre-stress and low field harmonics in the body of the magnet and is therefore being used in the RHIC Machine. On the first eight magnets, iterations were carried out to minimize the iron saturation and to compensate for the end harmonics. This paper will discuss the details of the iterations made, the obstacles encountered, and the results obtained. Also included will be a brief summary of the magnet design and performance.

  12. Inserting epidural patient controlled analgesia into a peripheral venous line.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    A case is reported from the Safety Reporting System in Anaesthesia and Resuscitation database. The event occurred in a patient undergoing abdominal surgery in whom an epidural catheter was inserted for analgesia. After the intervention, the patient was transferred to the recovery unit where the patient controlled analgesia (PCA) is programmed. Due to an error, the PCA was connected to a peripheral venous line, which was detected early without harm to the patient. Communication and analysis of this incident served to introduce a new drug delivery protocol through PCA pumps, including the obligation to prescribe the PCA in the electronic system, a dual computerised check immediately before connecting PCA, labelling the medication bag as well as the proximal and distal lines, standardisation of daily visits to patients, and monthly monitoring of results.

  13. Surgical insertions of transmitters and telemetry methods in fisheries research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wargo Rub, A. Michelle; Jepsen, Niels; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Moser, L; Weber III, E. P. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Use of electronic transmitter and monitoring systems to track movements of aquatic animals has increased continuously since the inception of these systems in the mid-1950s. The purpose of the present report is to provide information about veterinary principles and their incorporation into surgical implantation procedures for fish. We also intend to provide insight into the unique challenges of field-based aquatic surgical studies. Within this context, 4 aspects of the process for surgical implantation of transmitters in fish (ie, handling, aseptic technique, anesthesia, and implantation) will be described. Effects of surgical insertion of transmitters (ie, tagging) and aspects of the surgical implantation process where collaboration and professional exchanges among nonveterinarian researchers and veterinarians may be most fruitful will be discussed. Although this report focuses on surgical implantation, the principles and protocols described here (other than incision and suture placement) are also applicable to studies that involve injection of transmitters into fish.

  14. Functionalization of homodiamantane: oxygen insertion reactions without rearrangement with dimethyldioxirane.

    PubMed

    Fokin, Andrey A; Zhuk, Tatyana S; Pashenko, Alexander E; Osipov, Valeriy V; Gunchenko, Pavel A; Serafin, Michael; Schreiner, Peter R

    2014-02-21

    Homodiamantane bromination and nitroxylation are accompanied by contraction of the seven-membered ring to give the corresponding substituted 1-diamantylmethyl derivatives. In contrast, CH-bond hydroxylations with dimethyldioxirane retain the cage and give both apically and medially substituted homodiamantanes. The product ratios are in accord with the barriers for the oxygen insertion computed with density functional theory methods only if solvation is included through a polarizable continuum model. B3LYP-D3 and M06-2X computations with a 6-31G(d,p) basis set on the oligomeric van der Waals complexes predict the potential of homodiamantane derivatives for surface modifications with conformationally slightly flexible diamondoid homologues. PMID:24433143

  15. Insertion of a GFP reporter gene in influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Perez, Jasmine T; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Manicassamy, Balaji

    2013-01-01

    The incorporation of a fluorescent reporter gene into a replication-competent influenza A virus (IAV) has made it possible to trace IAV infection in vivo. This protocol describes the process of inserting a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter into the IAV genome using the established reverse genetics system. The strategy begins with the reorganization of segment eight of the IAV genome, during which the open reading frames of nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) and the nuclear export protein (NEP) are separated to allow for GFP fusion to the NS1 protein. The NS1, GFP, and NEP open reading frames (ORF) are then cloned into the IAV rescue system backbone. Upon construction of the GFP-encoding segment eight rescue plasmid, recombinant NS1-GFP influenza virus can be rescued via co-transfection with the remaining seven rescue plasmids. The generated NS1-GFP IAV can subsequently be used to visualize infected cells, both in vitro and in vivo.

  16. The Astro-E2/XRS-2 helium insert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirron, P. J.; DiPirro, M. J.; Panek, J.; Kelley, R.; Mitsuda, K.; Fujimoto, R.; Hirabayashi, M.; McCammon, D.

    2006-04-01

    The X-ray Spectrometer (XRS-2) instrument on the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) Astro-E2 spacecraft will measure faint X-ray emissions in the energy range of 0.2-10 keV. A square array of 32 X-ray microcalorimeters used will be able to distinguish individual photons to better than 10 eV at 6 keV, with a quantum efficiency near 100%. The detectors are cooled to 60 mK by means of an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The ADR rejects heat to a 1.3 K superfluid helium tank, which is surrounded by a 17 K solid neon tank. A Stirling cycle cryocooler precools an outer shield around the neon tank. This system will provide an estimated 3 years of on-orbit lifetime. This paper describes the helium insert, the ADR, the high temperature superconducting leads, and early on-orbit performance.

  17. Inserting epidural patient controlled analgesia into a peripheral venous line.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    A case is reported from the Safety Reporting System in Anaesthesia and Resuscitation database. The event occurred in a patient undergoing abdominal surgery in whom an epidural catheter was inserted for analgesia. After the intervention, the patient was transferred to the recovery unit where the patient controlled analgesia (PCA) is programmed. Due to an error, the PCA was connected to a peripheral venous line, which was detected early without harm to the patient. Communication and analysis of this incident served to introduce a new drug delivery protocol through PCA pumps, including the obligation to prescribe the PCA in the electronic system, a dual computerised check immediately before connecting PCA, labelling the medication bag as well as the proximal and distal lines, standardisation of daily visits to patients, and monthly monitoring of results. PMID:27062173

  18. Alternating Poly(ester-anhydride) by Insertion Polycondensation.

    PubMed

    Haim-Zada, Moran; Basu, Arijit; Hagigit, Tal; Schlinger, Ron; Grishko, Michael; Kraminsky, Alexander; Hanuka, Ezra; Domb, Abraham J

    2016-06-13

    We report on a synthetic method where polyanhydride is used as starting material and the ester monomers are inserted through complete esterification, leading to an alternating ester-anhydride copolymer. The molar ratio of ricinoleic acid (RA) and sebacic acid (SA) was optimized until polysebacic acid is completely converted to carboxylic acid-terminated RA-SA and RA-SA-RA ester-dicarboxylic acids. These dimers and trimers were activated with acetic anhydride, polymerized under heat and vacuum to yield alternating RA-SA copolymer. The resulting alternating poly(ester-anhydride) have the RA at regular intervals. The regular occurrences of RA side chains prevent anhydride interchange, enhancing hydrolytic stability, which allows storage of the polymer at room temperature. PMID:27198864

  19. Collimator design for a multipinhole brain SPECT insert for MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Van Audenhaege, Karen; Van Holen, Roel; Vanhove, Christian; Vandenberghe, Stefaan

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is an important clinical tool, with unique tracers for studying neurological diseases. Nowadays, most commercial SPECT systems are combined with x-ray computed tomography (CT) in so-called SPECT/CT systems to obtain an anatomical background for the functional information. However, while CT images have a high spatial resolution, they have a low soft-tissue contrast, which is an important disadvantage for brain imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), on the other hand, has a very high soft-tissue contrast and does not involve extra ionizing radiation. Therefore, the authors designed a brain SPECT insert that can operate inside a clinical MRI. Methods: The authors designed and simulated a compact stationary multipinhole SPECT insert based on digital silicon photomultiplier detector modules, which have shown to be MR-compatible and have an excellent intrinsic resolution (0.5 mm) when combined with a monolithic 2 mm thick LYSO crystal. First, the authors optimized the different parameters of the SPECT system to maximize sensitivity for a given target resolution of 7.2 mm in the center of the field-of-view, given the spatial constraints of the MR system. Second, the authors performed noiseless simulations of two multipinhole configurations to evaluate sampling and reconstructed resolution. Finally, the authors performed Monte Carlo simulations and compared the SPECT insert with a clinical system with ultrahigh-resolution (UHR) fan beam collimators, based on contrast-to-noise ratio and a visual comparison of a Hoffman phantom with a 9 mm cold lesion. Results: The optimization resulted in a stationary multipinhole system with a collimator radius of 150.2 mm and a detector radius of 172.67 mm, which corresponds to four rings of 34 diSPM detector modules. This allows the authors to include eight rings of 24 pinholes, which results in a system volume sensitivity of 395 cps/MBq. Noiseless simulations

  20. INSERTION DEVICES R AND Ds FOR NSLS-II.

    SciTech Connect

    TANABE,T.; HARDER, D.A.; RAKOWSKY, G.; SHAFTAN, T.; SKARITKA, J.

    2007-06-25

    NSLS-II is a medium energy storage ring of 3GeV electron beam energy with sub-nm.rad horizontal emittance and top-off capability at 500mA. Damping wigglers will be used not only to reduce the beam emittance but also for broadband sources for users. Cryo-Permanent Magnet Undulators (CPMUs) are considered for hard X-ray linear device, and permanent magnet based Elliptically Polarized Undulators (EPUs) are for polarization control. Rigorous R&D plans have been established to pursue the performance enhancement of the above devices as well as building new types of insertion devices such as high temperature superconducting wiggler/undulators. This paper describes the details of these activities and discuss technical issues.

  1. Nano particles insertion into individual mammalian cells using optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waleed, Muhammad; Kim, Jung-Dae; Lee, Yong-Gu

    2012-01-01

    Transfection is the process of introducing DNA into cells so that the introduced DNA will function and produce proteins. This technique is useful to study the function of various DNA sequences and in the future may lead to gene therapy for curing genetic diseases. Currently, a number of techniques are available for both population and individual cells transfection. Although individual cells transfection is less commonly used than the population transfection, it has benefits because it allows controlled single cell analysis. In this paper, we present a new laser assisted transfection method for individual cells. In this technique, two lasers are used to perform the transfection procedure and third laser is used to detect the position of DNA coated nanoparticle which is inserted in the cell. This technique has relatively high transfection efficiency and good post-transfection cell viability.

  2. Software technology insertion: A study of success factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lydon, Tom

    1990-01-01

    Managing software development in large organizations has become increasingly difficult due to increasing technical complexity, stricter government standards, a shortage of experienced software engineers, competitive pressure for improved productivity and quality, the need to co-develop hardware and software together, and the rapid changes in both hardware and software technology. The 'software factory' approach to software development minimizes risks while maximizing productivity and quality through standardization, automation, and training. However, in practice, this approach is relatively inflexible when adopting new software technologies. The methods that a large multi-project software engineering organization can use to increase the likelihood of successful software technology insertion (STI), especially in a standardized engineering environment, are described.

  3. Quench Module Insert Capabilities and Development Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, William E.; Crouch, M. R.; Farmer, J.; Breeding, S.; Rose, F.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Quench Module Insert is a directional solidification furnace that will operate in the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) on the International Space Station. It will provide high thermal gradient and quench capabilities for processing metals and alloys in microgravity. Numerical analyses and breadboard testing conducted to date show that the QMI can produce an axial temperature gradient approaching 150 C per centimeter in a 1 centimeter diameter aluminum sample with a maximum molten sample temperature of 1100 C. Breadboard testing and analysis have also shown that the quench capabilities of the furnace are sufficient to rapidly solidify at least a 5mm axial portion of a 1 centimeter diameter molten aluminum sample in significantly less than the required 2 seconds and prevent significant backmelt. This paper presents the furnace requirements and capabilities and a status of the associated development testing and analyses.

  4. Insertion torque, resonance frequency, and removal torque analysis of microimplants.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yu-Chuan; Ting, Chun-Chan; Du, Je-Kang; Chen, Chun-Ming; Wu, Ju-Hui; Chen, Hong-Sen

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to compare the insertion torque (IT), resonance frequency (RF), and removal torque (RT) among three microimplant brands. Thirty microimplants of the three brands were used as follows: Type A (titanium alloy, 1.5-mm × 8-mm), Type B (stainless steel, 1.5-mm × 8-mm), and Type C (titanium alloy, 1.5-mm × 9-mm). A synthetic bone with a 2-mm cortical bone and bone marrow was used. Each microimplant was inserted into the synthetic bone, without predrilling, to a 7 mm depth. The IT, RF, and RT were measured in both vertical and horizontal directions. One-way analysis of variance and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient tests were used for intergroup and intragroup comparisons, respectively. In the vertical test, the ITs of Type C (7.8 Ncm) and Type B (7.5 Ncm) were significantly higher than that of Type A (4.4 Ncm). The RFs of Type C (11.5 kHz) and Type A (10.2 kHz) were significantly higher than that of Type B (7.5 kHz). Type C (7.4 Ncm) and Type B (7.3 Ncm) had significantly higher RTs than did Type A (4.1 Ncm). In the horizontal test, both the ITs and RTs were significantly higher for Type C, compared with Type A. No significant differences were found among the groups, and the study hypothesis was accepted. Type A had the lowest inner/outer diameter ratio and widest apical facing angle, engendering the lowest IT and highest RF values. However, no significant correlations in the IT, RF, and RT were observed among the three groups.

  5. Insertion torque, resonance frequency, and removal torque analysis of microimplants.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yu-Chuan; Ting, Chun-Chan; Du, Je-Kang; Chen, Chun-Ming; Wu, Ju-Hui; Chen, Hong-Sen

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to compare the insertion torque (IT), resonance frequency (RF), and removal torque (RT) among three microimplant brands. Thirty microimplants of the three brands were used as follows: Type A (titanium alloy, 1.5-mm × 8-mm), Type B (stainless steel, 1.5-mm × 8-mm), and Type C (titanium alloy, 1.5-mm × 9-mm). A synthetic bone with a 2-mm cortical bone and bone marrow was used. Each microimplant was inserted into the synthetic bone, without predrilling, to a 7 mm depth. The IT, RF, and RT were measured in both vertical and horizontal directions. One-way analysis of variance and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient tests were used for intergroup and intragroup comparisons, respectively. In the vertical test, the ITs of Type C (7.8 Ncm) and Type B (7.5 Ncm) were significantly higher than that of Type A (4.4 Ncm). The RFs of Type C (11.5 kHz) and Type A (10.2 kHz) were significantly higher than that of Type B (7.5 kHz). Type C (7.4 Ncm) and Type B (7.3 Ncm) had significantly higher RTs than did Type A (4.1 Ncm). In the horizontal test, both the ITs and RTs were significantly higher for Type C, compared with Type A. No significant differences were found among the groups, and the study hypothesis was accepted. Type A had the lowest inner/outer diameter ratio and widest apical facing angle, engendering the lowest IT and highest RF values. However, no significant correlations in the IT, RF, and RT were observed among the three groups. PMID:27638407

  6. Tracking Marsupial Evolution Using Archaic Genomic Retroposon Insertions

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Maria A.; Churakov, Gennady; Sommer, Mirjam; Tran, Ngoc Van; Zemann, Anja; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    The Australasian and South American marsupial mammals, such as kangaroos and opossums, are the closest living relatives to placental mammals, having shared a common ancestor around 130 million years ago. The evolutionary relationships among the seven marsupial orders have, however, so far eluded resolution. In particular, the relationships between the four Australasian and three South American marsupial orders have been intensively debated since the South American order Microbiotheria was taxonomically moved into the group Australidelphia. Australidelphia is significantly supported by both molecular and morphological data and comprises the four Australasian marsupial orders and the South American order Microbiotheria, indicating a complex, ancient, biogeographic history of marsupials. However, the exact phylogenetic position of Microbiotheria within Australidelphia has yet to be resolved using either sequence or morphological data analysis. Here, we provide evidence from newly established and virtually homoplasy-free retroposon insertion markers for the basal relationships among marsupial orders. Fifty-three phylogenetically informative markers were retrieved after in silico and experimental screening of ∼217,000 retroposon-containing loci from opossum and kangaroo. The four Australasian orders share a single origin with Microbiotheria as their closest sister group, supporting a clear divergence between South American and Australasian marsupials. In addition, the new data place the South American opossums (Didelphimorphia) as the first branch of the marsupial tree. The exhaustive computational and experimental evidence provides important insight into the evolution of retroposable elements in the marsupial genome. Placing the retroposon insertion pattern in a paleobiogeographic context indicates a single marsupial migration from South America to Australia. The now firmly established phylogeny can be used to determine the direction of genomic changes and

  7. Accuracy of computer-assisted implant placement with insertion templates

    PubMed Central

    Naziri, Eleni; Schramm, Alexander; Wilde, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of computer-assisted implant insertion based on computed tomography and template-guided implant placement. Material and methods: A total of 246 implants were placed with the aid of 3D-based transfer templates in 181 consecutive partially edentulous patients. Five groups were formed on the basis of different implant systems, surgical protocols and guide sleeves. After virtual implant planning with the CoDiagnostiX Software, surgical guides were fabricated in a dental laboratory. After implant insertion, the actual implant position was registered intraoperatively and transferred to a model cast. Deviations between the preoperative plan and postoperative implant position were measured in a follow-up computed tomography of the patient’s model casts and image fusion with the preoperative computed tomography. Results: The median deviation between preoperative plan and postoperative implant position was 1.0 mm at the implant shoulder and 1.4 mm at the implant apex. The median angular deviation was 3.6º. There were significantly smaller angular deviations (P=0.000) and significantly lower deviations at the apex (P=0.008) in implants placed for a single-tooth restoration than in those placed at a free-end dental arch. The location of the implant, whether in the upper or lower jaw, did not significantly affect deviations. Increasing implant length had a significant negative influence on deviations from the planned implant position. There was only one significant difference between two out of the five implant systems used. Conclusion: The data of this clinical study demonstrate the accuracy and predictable implant placement when using laboratory-fabricated surgical guides based on computed tomography. PMID:27274440

  8. Transposon assisted gene insertion technology (TAGIT): a tool for generating fluorescent fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Gregory, James A; Becker, Eric C; Jung, James; Tuwatananurak, Ida; Pogliano, Kit

    2010-01-01

    We constructed a transposon (transposon assisted gene insertion technology, or TAGIT) that allows the random insertion of gfp (or other genes) into chromosomal loci without disrupting operon structure or regulation. TAGIT is a modified Tn5 transposon that uses Kan(R) to select for insertions on the chromosome or plasmid, beta-galactosidase to identify in-frame gene fusions, and Cre recombinase to excise the kan and lacZ genes in vivo. The resulting gfp insertions maintain target gene reading frame (to the 5' and 3' of gfp) and are integrated at the native chromosomal locus, thereby maintaining native expression signals. Libraries can be screened to identify GFP insertions that maintain target protein function at native expression levels, allowing more trustworthy localization studies. We here use TAGIT to generate a library of GFP insertions in the Escherichia coli lactose repressor (LacI). We identified fully functional GFP insertions and partially functional insertions that bind DNA but fail to repress the lacZ operon. Several of these latter GFP insertions localize to lacO arrays integrated in the E. coli chromosome without producing the elongated cells frequently observed when functional LacI-GFP fusions are used in chromosome tagging experiments. TAGIT thereby faciliates the isolation of fully functional insertions of fluorescent proteins into target proteins expressed from the native chromosomal locus as well as potentially useful partially functional proteins. PMID:20090956

  9. MECHANISM AND HYDROPHOBIC FORCES DRIVING MEMBRANE PROTEIN INSERTION OF SUBUNIT II OF CYTOCHROME BO OXIDASE

    PubMed Central

    Celebi, Nil; Dalbey, Ross E.; Yuan, Jijun

    2009-01-01

    Subunit II (CyoA) of cytochrome bo oxidase, which spans the inner membrane twice in bacteria, has several unusual features in membrane biogenesis. It is synthesized with an amino-terminal signal peptide. In addition, distinct pathways are used to insert the two ends of the protein. The amino-terminal domain is inserted by the YidC pathway whereas the large carboxyl-terminal domain is translocated by the SecYEG pathway. Insertion of the protein is also pmf-independent. In this study we examined the topogenic requirements and mechanism of insertion of CyoA in bacteria. We find that both the signal peptide and the first membrane spanning region are required for insertion of the amino-terminal periplasmic loop. The pmf-independence of insertion of the first periplasmic loop is due to the loop’s neutral net charge. We observe also that the introduction of negatively charged residues into the periplasmic loop makes insertion pmf dependent, whereas the addition of positively charged residues prevents insertion unless the pmf is abolished. Insertion of the carboxyl-terminal domain in the full-length CyoA occurs by a sequential mechanism even when the CyoA amino and carboxyl-terminal domains are swapped with other domains. However, when a long spacer peptide is added to increase the distance between the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal domains, insertion no longer occurs by a sequential mechanism. PMID:18155041

  10. Two independent retrotransposon insertions at the same site within the coding region of BTK.

    PubMed

    Conley, Mary Ellen; Partain, Julie D; Norland, Shannon M; Shurtleff, Sheila A; Kazazian, Haig H

    2005-03-01

    Insertion of endogenous retrotransposon sequences accounts for approximately 0.2% of disease causing mutations. These insertions are mediated by the reverse transcriptase and endonuclease activity of long interspersed nucleotide (LINE-1) elements. The factors that control the target site selection in insertional mutagenesis are not well understood. In our analysis of 199 unrelated families with proven mutations in BTK, the gene responsible for X-linked agammaglobulinemia, we identified two families with retrotransposon insertions at exactly the same nucleotide within the coding region of BTK. Both insertions, an SVA element and an AluY sequence, occurred 12 bp before the end of exon 9. Both had the typical hallmarks of a retrotransposon insertion including target site duplication and a long poly A tail. The insertion site is flanked by AluSx sequences 1 kb upstream and 1 kb downstream and an unusual 60 bp sequence consisting of only As and Ts is located in intron 9, 60 bp downstream of the insertion. The occurrence of two retrotransposon sequences at exactly the same site suggests that this site is vulnerable to insertional mutagenesis. A better understanding of the factors that make this site vulnerable will shed light on the mechanisms of LINE-1 mediated insertional mutagenesis.

  11. Efficient recovery of centric heterochromatin P-element insertions in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Christopher M; Dobie, Kenneth W; Le, Hiep D; Konev, Alexander Y; Karpen, Gary H

    2002-01-01

    Approximately one-third of the human and Drosophila melanogaster genomes are heterochromatic, yet we know very little about the structure and function of this enigmatic component of eukaryotic genomes. To facilitate molecular and cytological analysis of heterochromatin we introduced a yellow(+) (y(+))-marked P element into centric heterochromatin by screening for variegated phenotypes, that is, mosaic gene inactivation. We recovered >110 P insertions with variegated yellow expression from approximately 3500 total mobilization events. FISH analysis of 71 of these insertions showed that 69 (97%) were in the centric heterochromatin, rather than telomeres or euchromatin. High-resolution banding analysis showed a wide but nonuniform distribution of insertions within centric heterochromatin; variegated insertions were predominantly recovered near regions of satellite DNA. We successfully used inverse PCR to clone and sequence the flanking DNA for approximately 63% of the insertions. BLAST analysis of the flanks demonstrated that either most of the variegated insertions could not be placed on the genomic scaffold, and thus may be inserted within novel DNA sequence, or that the flanking DNA hit multiple sites on the scaffold, due to insertions within different transposons. Taken together these data suggest that screening for yellow variegation is a very efficient method for recovering centric insertions and that a large-scale screen for variegated yellow P insertions will provide important tools for detailed analysis of centric heterochromatin structure and function. PMID:12019236

  12. Recent LTR retrotransposon insertion contrasts with waves of non-LTR insertion since speciation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Casey M; Bensasson, Douda

    2007-07-01

    LTR and non-LTR retrotransposons exhibit distinct patterns of abundance within the Drosophila melanogaster genome, yet the causes of these differences remain unknown. Here we investigate whether genomic differences between LTR and non-LTR retrotransposons reflect systematic differences in their insertion history. We find that for 17 LTR and 10 non-LTR retrotransposon families that evolve under a pseudogene-like mode of evolution, most elements from LTR families have integrated in the very recent past since colonization of non-African habitats ( approximately 16,000 years ago), whereas elements from non-LTR families have been accumulating in overlapping waves since the divergence of D. melanogaster from its sister species, Drosophila simulans ( approximately 5.4 Mya). LTR elements are significantly younger than non-LTR elements, individually and by family, in regions of high and low recombination, and in genic and intergenic regions. We show that analysis of transposable element (TE) nesting provides a method to calculate transposition rates from genome sequences, which we estimate to be one to two orders of magnitude lower than those that are based on mutation accumulation studies. Recent LTR integration provides a nonequilibrium alternative for the low population frequency of LTR elements in this species, a pattern that is classically interpreted as evidence for selection against the transpositional increase of TEs. Our results call for a new class of population genetic models that incorporate TE copy number, allele frequency, and the age of insertions to provide more powerful and robust inferences about the forces that control the evolution of TEs in natural populations.

  13. Peripherally inserted central catheters are equivalent to centrally inserted catheters in intensive care unit patients for central venous pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Latham, Heath E; Rawson, Scott T; Dwyer, Timothy T; Patel, Chirag C; Wick, Jo A; Simpson, Steven Q

    2012-04-01

    To determine the equivalency of pressure measurements from peripherally inserted central catheters(PICCs) versus centrally inserted central venous catheters(CVCs) in vitro as well as in vivo. The in vitro study was performed in a clinical laboratory. Static pressure measurements from PICCs and CVCs were obtained in vitro over a physiologic range of 5–25 mmHg. Triple and dual lumen PICCs were directly compared to CVC controls.Dynamic pressure waveforms were recorded to simulate physiologic intravascular pressure variation. The in vivo study was executed in the medical intensive care unit(MICU) of a tertiary-level academic medical center. Data was collected from ten adult patients with both a PICC and a CVC in place for on-going clinical care. Measurements of central venous pressure (CVP) were recorded simultaneously from PICCs and CVCs. Duplicate measurements were taken after a stable waveform was recorded. For the in vitro study, a total of 540 pressure measurements were recorded. The average bias determined by Bland–Altman plot was 0 mmHg for the 5Fr PICC and 0.071 mmHg for the 6Fr PICC. The correlation coefficient for both catheters was 1.0 (P<0.001). Dynamic pressure waveforms revealed equivalent amplitude. During the in vivo trial, 70CVP measurements were collected. The paired CVP measurements were found to be highly reliable across subjects (r = 0.99, P<0.0001). No significance in the average difference in CVP measurement (PICC–CVC) was determined by the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test (S = 1,P = 0.93). In conclusion, PICCs are equivalent to CVCs when measuring static and dynamic pressure in vitro and CVP in ICU patients.

  14. Nelaton catheter assisted versus standard nasogastric tube insertion: a randomized, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ghaemi, M; Mousavinasab, N; Jalili, S

    2014-01-09

    It is sometimes difficult to insert a nasogastric tube in an anaesthetized patient. We evaluated the benefit of reinforcing the distal portion of the nasogastric tube with a Nelaton catheter: 8 and 10 French Nelaton catheters were inserted into 16 and 18 French nasogastric tubes respectively through the first proximal holes of tubes up to their tips. The patients anaesthetized were randomly allocated into either the control or the Nelaton groups, and nasogastric tube was inserted as deeply as the catheter length, then the catheter was withdrawn and the tube was inserted farther to reach the stomach. Eighty patients (40 in each group) were included in this study. The success rate of nasogastric tube insertion was 90% in the Nelaton group and 57% in the control group (P = 0.001). The mean insertion time was 80 (SD 43) and 92 (SD 35) seconds in the Nelaton and the control groups respectively.

  15. Phenotypes Associated with Second Chromosome P Element Insertions in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Kahsai, Lily; Millburn, Gillian H; Cook, Kevin R

    2016-08-09

    In Drosophila melanogaster, P element transposition has been a productive means of insertional mutagenesis. Thousands of genes have been tagged with natural and engineered P element constructs. Nevertheless, chromosomes carrying P element insertions tend to have high levels of background mutations from P elements inserting and excising during transposition. Consequently, the phenotypes seen when P element-bearing chromosomes are homozygous are often not attributable to the P insertions themselves. In this study, 178 strains in the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center collection with P insertions on the second chromosome were complementation tested against molecularly defined chromosomal deletions and previously characterized single-gene mutations to determine if recessive lethality or sterility is associated with the P insertions rather than background mutations. This information should prove valuable to geneticists using these strains for experimental studies of gene function.

  16. Structural and biophysical analysis of sequence insertions in the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus macro domain.

    PubMed

    Guillén, Jaime; Lichière, Julie; Rabah, Nadia; Beitzel, Brett F; Canard, Bruno; Coutard, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Random transposon insertions in viral genomes can be used to reveal genomic regions important for virus replication. We used these genomic data to evaluate at the protein level the effect of such insertions on the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus nsP3 macro domain. The structural analysis showed that transposon insertions occur mainly in loops connecting the secondary structure elements. Some of the insertions leading to a temperature sensitive viral phenotype (ts) are close to the cleavage site between nsP2 and nsP3 or the ADP-ribose binding site, two important functions of the macro domain. Using four mutants mimicking the transposon insertions, we confirmed that these insertions can affect the macro domain properties without disrupting the overall structure of the protein.

  17. Using ΦC31 integrase to mediate insertion of DNA in Xenopus embryos.

    PubMed

    Li, You E; Allen, Bryan G; Weeks, Daniel L

    2012-01-01

    The two most common methods used to generate transgenic Xenopus embryos, restriction enzyme-mediated insertion, and I-SceI meganuclease take advantage of relatively common but spatially unpredictable double-stranded breaks in sperm, egg, or early embryo genomes. These methods also tend to insert multimeric copies of the transgene. An alternative is to use bacteriophage- or transposon-derived integrase or recombinase to mediate more site-specific insertion of the transgene. The use of phiC31 integrase requires a defined sequence for insertion and is compatible with insertion of a single copy of the transgene. We describe the protocol we use to facilitate phiC31 integrase transgene insertion including the use of insulator sequences to reduce position effect disruption of transgene activity. PMID:22956091

  18. Energy-Deposition and Damage Calculations in Core-Vessel Inserts at the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, B.D.

    2002-06-25

    Heat-deposition and damage calculations are described for core-vessel inserts in the target area of the Spallation Neutron Source. Two separate designs for these inserts (or neutron beam tubes) were studied; a single-unit insert and a multi-unit insert. The single unit contains a neutron guide; the multi unit does not. Both units are constructed of stainless steel. For the single unit, separate studies were carried out with the guide composed of stainless steel, glass, and aluminum. Results are also reported for an aluminum window on the front of the insert, a layer of nickel on the guide, a cadmium shield surrounding the guide, and a stainless steel plug in the beam-tube opening. The locations of both inserts were the most forward positions to be occupied by each design respectively thus ensuring that the calculations are conservative.

  19. Structural and biophysical analysis of sequence insertions in the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus macro domain.

    PubMed

    Guillén, Jaime; Lichière, Julie; Rabah, Nadia; Beitzel, Brett F; Canard, Bruno; Coutard, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Random transposon insertions in viral genomes can be used to reveal genomic regions important for virus replication. We used these genomic data to evaluate at the protein level the effect of such insertions on the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus nsP3 macro domain. The structural analysis showed that transposon insertions occur mainly in loops connecting the secondary structure elements. Some of the insertions leading to a temperature sensitive viral phenotype (ts) are close to the cleavage site between nsP2 and nsP3 or the ADP-ribose binding site, two important functions of the macro domain. Using four mutants mimicking the transposon insertions, we confirmed that these insertions can affect the macro domain properties without disrupting the overall structure of the protein. PMID:25725151

  20. Radiative-recoil corrections to hyperfine splitting: Polarization insertions in the muon factor

    SciTech Connect

    Eides, Michael I.; Shelyuto, Valery A.

    2009-09-01

    We consider three-loop radiative-recoil corrections to hyperfine splitting in muonium due to insertions of a one-loop polarization operator in the muon factor. The contribution produced by electron polarization insertions is enhanced by the large logarithm of the electron-muon mass ratio. We obtained all single-logarithmic and nonlogarithmic radiative-recoil corrections of order {alpha}{sup 3}(m/M)E{sub F} generated by the diagrams with electron and muon polarization insertions.

  1. Refining the pathway of carbide insertion into the nitrogenase M-cluster.

    PubMed

    Wiig, Jared A; Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W

    2015-08-11

    Carbide insertion plays a pivotal role in the biosynthesis of M-cluster, the cofactor of nitrogenase. Previously, we proposed a carbide insertion pathway involving methyltransfer from SAM to a FeS precursor and hydrogen abstraction from this methyl group that initiates the radical-based precursor maturation. Here we demonstrate that the methyl group is transferred to a precursor-associated sulfur before hydrogen abstraction, thereby refining the initial steps of the carbide insertion pathway.

  2. Refining the pathway of carbide insertion into the nitrogenase M-cluster

    PubMed Central

    Wiig, Jared A.; Hu, Yilin; Ribbe, Markus W.

    2015-01-01

    Carbide insertion plays a pivotal role in the biosynthesis of M-cluster, the cofactor of nitrogenase. Previously, we proposed a carbide insertion pathway involving methyltransfer from SAM to a FeS precursor and hydrogen abstraction from this methyl group that initiates the radical-based precursor maturation. Here we demonstrate that the methyl group is transferred to a precursor-associated sulfur before hydrogen abstraction, thereby refining the initial steps of the carbide insertion pathway. PMID:26259825

  3. Verification of Triple Modular Redundancy Insertion for Reliable and Trusted Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    If a system is required to be protected using triple modular redundancy (TMR), improper insertion can jeopardize the reliability and security of the system. Due to the complexity of the verification process and the complexity of digital designs, there are currently no available techniques that can provide complete and reliable confirmation of TMR insertion. We propose a method for TMR insertion verification that satisfies the process for reliable and trusted systems.

  4. Exponential megapriming PCR (EMP) cloning--seamless DNA insertion into any target plasmid without sequence constraints.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Alexander; Andersen, Kasper R; Schwartz, Thomas U

    2012-01-01

    We present a fast, reliable and inexpensive restriction-free cloning method for seamless DNA insertion into any plasmid without sequence limitation. Exponential megapriming PCR (EMP) cloning requires two consecutive PCR steps and can be carried out in one day. We show that EMP cloning has a higher efficiency than restriction-free (RF) cloning, especially for long inserts above 2.5 kb. EMP further enables simultaneous cloning of multiple inserts.

  5. Large-scale discovery of insertion hotspots and preferential integration sites of human transposed elements

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Asaf; Schwartz, Schraga; Ast, Gil

    2010-01-01

    Throughout evolution, eukaryotic genomes have been invaded by transposable elements (TEs). Little is known about the factors leading to genomic proliferation of TEs, their preferred integration sites and the molecular mechanisms underlying their insertion. We analyzed hundreds of thousands nested TEs in the human genome, i.e. insertions of TEs into existing ones. We first discovered that most TEs insert within specific ‘hotspots’ along the targeted TE. In particular, retrotransposed Alu elements contain a non-canonical single nucleotide hotspot for insertion of other Alu sequences. We next devised a method for identification of integration sequence motifs of inserted TEs that are conserved within the targeted TEs. This method revealed novel sequences motifs characterizing insertions of various important TE families: Alu, hAT, ERV1 and MaLR. Finally, we performed a global assessment to determine the extent to which young TEs tend to nest within older transposed elements and identified a 4-fold higher tendency of TEs to insert into existing TEs than to insert within non-TE intergenic regions. Our analysis demonstrates that TEs are highly biased to insert within certain TEs, in specific orientations and within specific targeted TE positions. TE nesting events also reveal new characteristics of the molecular mechanisms underlying transposition. PMID:20008508

  6. Insertional translocations: report of two new families and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Abuelo, D N; Barsel-Bowers, G; Richardson, A

    1988-10-01

    We describe two families with insertional translocations. In the first, a large family ascertained because of repeated pregnancy loss, the insertional translocation, ins(1;3)(q32;p13pter), was found to be segregating through three generations. In the second family, ascertained through a proposita with congenital malformations, multiple spontaneous abortions also occurred. The father had an insertional translocation, inv 4(p14,q21.1)ins(7,4)(q32;q21.1 q23). These cases illustrate that recurrent fetal wastage may be caused by insertional translocations and in fact may be the only clinical manifestation of this unusual type of chromosome rearrangement.

  7. Mitotic and Meiotic Gene Conversion of Ty Elements and Other Insertions in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, A.; Petes, T. D.

    1989-01-01

    We examined meiotic and mitotic gene conversion events involved in deletion of Ty elements and other insertions from the genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that Ty elements and one other insertion were deleted by mitotic gene conversion less frequently than point mutations at the same loci. One non-Ty insertion similar in size to Ty, however, did not show this bias. Mitotic conversion events deleting insertions were more frequently associated with crossing over than those deleting point mutations. In meiosis, conversion events duplicating the element were more common than those that deleted the element for one of the loci (HIS4) examined. PMID:2547693

  8. The insertion of human apolipoprotein H into phospholipid membranes: a monolayer study.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, S X; Cai, G P; Sui, S F

    1998-01-01

    Apolipoprotein H (ApoH) is a plasma glycoprotein isolated from human serum. The interactions of ApoH with lipid membrane were reported to be essential for its physiological and pathogenic roles. In this paper we studied the ability of ApoH to insert into phospholipid membranes using the monolayer approach. The results show that ApoH is surface active and can insert into the lipid monolayers. The insertion ability of ApoH is stronger when a higher content of negatively charged lipids is present in the membrane. The acidic-pH and low-ionic-strength conditions will also enhance ApoH insertion, but these factors may not have much influence on the final insertion ability of ApoH, suggesting that, in the mechanism of ApoH insertion, not only electrostatic forces, but also hydrophobic interactions, are evidently involved. Modification by heat inactivation and reduction/alkylation does not change the critical insertion pressure (pic) of ApoH, suggesting a stable domain, maybe a linear sequence motif, but not the native three-dimensional structure of ApoH, is responsible for its insertion. The extent to which insertion of ApoH into phospholipid membranes may facilitate the 'immune cleaning' of plasma liposomes is discussed. PMID:9761718

  9. The insertion of human apolipoprotein H into phospholipid membranes: a monolayer study.

    PubMed

    Wang, S X; Cai, G P; Sui, S F

    1998-10-15

    Apolipoprotein H (ApoH) is a plasma glycoprotein isolated from human serum. The interactions of ApoH with lipid membrane were reported to be essential for its physiological and pathogenic roles. In this paper we studied the ability of ApoH to insert into phospholipid membranes using the monolayer approach. The results show that ApoH is surface active and can insert into the lipid monolayers. The insertion ability of ApoH is stronger when a higher content of negatively charged lipids is present in the membrane. The acidic-pH and low-ionic-strength conditions will also enhance ApoH insertion, but these factors may not have much influence on the final insertion ability of ApoH, suggesting that, in the mechanism of ApoH insertion, not only electrostatic forces, but also hydrophobic interactions, are evidently involved. Modification by heat inactivation and reduction/alkylation does not change the critical insertion pressure (pic) of ApoH, suggesting a stable domain, maybe a linear sequence motif, but not the native three-dimensional structure of ApoH, is responsible for its insertion. The extent to which insertion of ApoH into phospholipid membranes may facilitate the 'immune cleaning' of plasma liposomes is discussed.

  10. Comparison of four techniques of nasogastric tube insertion in anaesthetised, intubated patients: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Mohan Chandra; Dolai, Sujata; Ghosh, Santanu; Mistri, Pallab Kumar; Roy, Rajiv; Basu, Sekhar Ranjan; Das, Sabyasachi

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Insertion of nasogastric tubes (NGTs) in anaesthetised, intubated patients with a conventional method is sometimes difficult. Different techniques of NGT insertion have been tried with varying degree of success. The aim of this prospective, randomised, open-label study was to evaluate three modified techniques of NGT insertion comparing with the conventional method in respect of success rate, time taken for insertion and the adverse events. Methods: In the operation theatre of general surgery, the patients were randomly allocated into four groups: Group C (control group, n = 54), Group W (ureteral guide wire group, n = 54), Group F (neck flexion with lateral pressure, n = 54) and Group R (reverse Sellick's manoeuvre, n = 54). The number of attempts for successful NGT insertion, time taken for insertion and adverse events were noted. Results: All the three modified techniques were found more successful than the conventional method on the first attempt. The least time taken for insertion was noted in the reverse Sellick's method. However, on intergroup analysis, neck flexion and reverse Sellick's methods were comparable but significantly faster than the other two methods with respect to time taken for insertion. Conclusion: Reverse Sellick's manoeuver, neck flexion with lateral neck pressure and guide wire-assisted techniques are all better alternatives to the conventional method for successful, quick and reliable NGT insertion with permissible adverse events in anaesthetised, intubated adult patients. Further studies after eliminating major limitations of the present study are warranted to establish the superiority of any one of these modified techniques. PMID:25624535

  11. Individual Optimization of the Insertion of a Preformed Cochlear Implant Electrode Array

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Thomas S.; Lenarz, Thomas; Majdani, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to show that individual adjustment of the curling behaviour of a preformed cochlear implant (CI) electrode array to the patient-specific shape of the cochlea can improve the insertion process in terms of reduced risk of insertion trauma. Methods. Geometry and curling behaviour of preformed, commercially available electrode arrays were modelled. Additionally, the anatomy of each small, medium-sized, and large human cochlea was modelled to consider anatomical variations. Finally, using a custom-made simulation tool, three different insertion strategies (conventional Advanced Off-Stylet (AOS) insertion technique, an automated implementation of the AOS technique, and a manually optimized insertion process) were simulated and compared with respect to the risk of insertion-related trauma. The risk of trauma was evaluated using a newly developed “trauma risk” rating scale. Results. Using this simulation-based approach, it was shown that an individually optimized insertion procedure is advantageous compared with the AOS insertion technique. Conclusion. This finding leads to the conclusion that, in general, consideration of the specific curling behaviour of a CI electrode array is beneficial in terms of less traumatic insertion. Therefore, these results highlight an entirely novel aspect of clinical application of preformed perimodiolar electrode arrays in general. PMID:26448764

  12. Modified Direct Insertion/Cancellation Method Based Sample Rate Conversion for Software Defined Radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostamam, Anas Muhamad; Sanada, Yukitoshi; Minami, Hideki

    In this paper, a new fractional sample rate conversion (SRC) scheme based on a direct insertion/cancellation scheme is proposed. This scheme is suitable for signals that are sampled at a high sample rate and converted to a lower sample rate. The direct insertion/cancellation scheme may achieve low-complexity and lower power consumption as compared to the other SRC techniques. However, the direct insertion/cancellation technique suffers from large aliasing and distortion. The aliasing from an adjacent channel interferes the desired signal and degrades the performance. Therefore, a modified direct insertion/cancellation scheme is proposed in order to realize high performance resampling.

  13. Effects of nitroglycerin on hemodynamics in dogs with experimentally inserted heartworms.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, S; Miyatake, K; Okamoto, Y; Minami, S; Matsuhashi, A

    1993-04-01

    Hemodynamic effects of nitroglycerin were investigated in dogs with right ventricular failure including engorgement of the pulmonary artery and ascites induced by insertion of adult live heartworms into the pulmonary artery. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure (21.5 +/- 6.6 mmHg) in heartworm-inserted dogs 4 or 5 weeks after heartworm insertion were higher than that of control (4.2-7.1 mmHg). Nitroglycerin administered intravenously at doses of 3 or 10 micrograms/kg decreased pulmonary arterial pressure in these heartworm inserted dogs. This drug also decreased pulmonary vascular resistance and total systemic resistance with no effect on cardiac index and heart rate.

  14. Development and comparison of projection and image space 3D nodule insertion techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robins, Marthony; Solomon, Justin; Sahbaee, Pooyan; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to develop and compare two methods of inserting computerized virtual lesions into CT datasets. 24 physical (synthetic) nodules of three sizes and four morphologies were inserted into an anthropomorphic chest phantom (LUNGMAN, KYOTO KAGAKU). The phantom was scanned (Somatom Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare) with and without nodules present, and images were reconstructed with filtered back projection and iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) at 0.6 mm slice thickness using a standard thoracic CT protocol at multiple dose settings. Virtual 3D CAD models based on the physical nodules were virtually inserted (accounting for the system MTF) into the nodule-free CT data using two techniques. These techniques include projection-based and image-based insertion. Nodule volumes were estimated using a commercial segmentation tool (iNtuition, TeraRecon, Inc.). Differences were tested using paired t-tests and R2 goodness of fit between the virtually and physically inserted nodules. Both insertion techniques resulted in nodule volumes very similar to the real nodules (<3% difference) and in most cases the differences were not statistically significant. Also, R2 values were all <0.97 for both insertion techniques. These data imply that these techniques can confidently be used as a means of inserting virtual nodules in CT datasets. These techniques can be instrumental in building hybrid CT datasets composed of patient images with virtually inserted nodules.

  15. Formation of nanofilms on cell surfaces to improve the insertion efficiency of a nanoneedle into cells

    SciTech Connect

    Amemiya, Yosuke; Kawano, Keiko; Matsusaki, Michiya; Akashi, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Noriyuki; Nakamura, Chikashi

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the insertion efficiency of nanoneedles into fibroblast and neural cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanofilms formed on cell surfaces improved the insertion efficiency of nanoneedles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanofilms improved the insertion efficiency even in Y27632-treated cells. -- Abstract: A nanoneedle, an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip etched to 200 nm in diameter and 10 {mu}m in length, can be inserted into cells with the aid of an AFM and has been used to introduce functional molecules into cells and to analyze intracellular information with minimal cell damage. However, some cell lines have shown low insertion efficiency of the nanoneedle. Improvement in the insertion efficiency of a nanoneedle into such cells is a significant issue for nanoneedle-based cell manipulation and analysis. Here, we have formed nanofilms composed of extracellular matrix molecules on cell surfaces and found that the formation of the nanofilms improved insertion efficiency of a nanoneedle into fibroblast and neural cells. The nanofilms were shown to improve insertion efficiency even in cells in which the formation of actin stress fibers was inhibited by the ROCK inhibitor Y27632, suggesting that the nanofilms with the mesh structure directly contributed to the improved insertion efficiency of a nanoneedle.

  16. Stochastic deletion-insertion algorithm to construct dense linkage maps

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jixiang; Lou, Xiang-Yang; Gonda, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we proposed a stochastic deletion-insertion (SDI) algorithm for constructing large-scale linkage maps. This SDI algorithm was compared with three published approximation approaches, the seriation (SER), neighbor mapping (NM), and unidirectional growth (UG) approaches, on the basis of simulated F2 data with different population sizes, missing genotype rates, and numbers of markers. Simulation results showed that the SDI method had a similar or higher percentage of correct linkage orders than the other three methods. This SDI algorithm was also applied to a real dataset and compared with the other three methods. The total linkage map distance (cM) obtained by the SDI method (148.08 cM) was smaller than the distance obtained by SER (225.52 cM) and two published distances (150.11 cM and 150.38 cM). Since this SDI algorithm is stochastic, a more accurate linkage order can be quickly obtained by repeating this algorithm. Thus, this SDI method, which combines the advantages of accuracy and speed, is an important addition to the current linkage mapping toolkit for constructing improved linkage maps. PMID:21927641

  17. Radiation doses to insertion devices at the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Moog, E. R.; Den Hartog, P. K.; Semones, E. J.; Job, P. K.

    1997-07-01

    Dose measurements made on and around the insertion devices (IDs) at the Advanced Photon Source are reported. Attempts are made to compare these dose rates to dose rates that have been reported to cause radiation-induced demagnetization, but comparisons are complicated by such factors as the particular magnet material and the techniques used in its manufacture, the spectrum and type of radiation, and the demagnetizing field seen by the magnet. The spectrum of radiation at the IDs has been measured and found to include a large high-energy (7 GeV) component, at least during some runs. Lead shielding installed immediately upstream of the IDs has been found to decrease the dose to the upstream ends of the IDs. It has almost no effect on the dose to the downstream ends of the IDs, however, since much of the radiation travels through the ID vacuum chamber and cannot be readily shielded. Opening the gaps of the IDs during injection and at other times also helps decrease the radiation exposure.

  18. Radiation doses to insertion devices at the advanced photon source

    SciTech Connect

    Moog, E.R.; Den Hartog, P.K.; Semones, E.J.; Job, P.K.

    1997-07-01

    Dose measurements made on and around the insertion devices (IDs) at the Advanced Photon Source are reported. Attempts are made to compare these dose rates to dose rates that have been reported to cause radiation-induced demagnetization, but comparisons are complicated by such factors as the particular magnet material and the techniques used in its manufacture, the spectrum and type of radiation, and the demagnetizing field seen by the magnet. The spectrum of radiation at the IDs has been measured and found to include a large high-energy (7 GeV) component, at least during some runs. Lead shielding installed immediately upstream of the IDs has been found to decrease the dose to the upstream ends of the IDs. It has almost no effect on the dose to the downstream ends of the IDs, however, since much of the radiation travels through the ID vacuum chamber and cannot be readily shielded. Opening the gaps of the IDs during injection and at other times also helps decrease the radiation exposure. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Hawkins and Stevens revisited with insert earphones (L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houtsma, Adrianus J. M.

    2004-03-01

    The classical experiment on masking of pure tones by white noise by Hawkins and Stevens [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 22, 6-13 (1950)] has left two general notions about broadband masking that are still being echoed in present-day textbooks on hearing. One is that broadband masking is linear (i.e., if the noise power level increases, the signal threshold level increases by exactly the same amount). The other is the existence of a nonmonotonic function of frequency, the critical ratio (CR) which, unlike the critical band (CB) or equivalent rectangular bandwidth (ERB) functions, shows a distinct upturn below 300 Hz. Exploring the possibility that Hawkins and Stevens' measurements may have been adversely affected by acoustic leakage at the headphones at low frequencies, the experiment was repeated with insert earphones. The resulting critical ratio function shows a monotonic dependence on frequency down to 90 Hz, similar to CB and ERB functions. Moreover, the CR function appears to closely approximate the ERB function when the dependence of each filter's detection efficiency on masker energy uncertainty is incorporated. Masking appears to be linear below 1000 Hz, but thresholds, expressed as S/N0 ratios, were found to increase systematically with increasing masker intensity at higher frequencies.

  20. Electron mobility enhancement in (100) oxygen-inserted silicon channel

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Nuo; King Liu, Tsu-Jae; Takeuchi, Hideki; Hytha, Marek; Cody, Nyles W.; Stephenson, Robert J.; Mears, Robert J.; Kwak, Byungil; Cha, Seon Yong

    2015-09-21

    High performance improvement (+88% in peak G{sub m} and >30% in linear and saturation region drain currents) was observed for N-MOSFETs with Oxygen-Inserted (OI) Si channel. From TCAD analysis of the C-V measurement data, the improvement was confirmed to be due to electron mobility enhancement of the OI Si channel (+75% at N{sub inv} = 4.0 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2} and +25% at N{sub inv} = 8.0 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}). Raman and high-resolution Rutherford backscattering measurements confirmed that negligible strain is induced in the OI Si layer, and hence, it cannot be used to explain the origin of mobility improvement. Poisson-Schrödinger based quantum mechanical simulation was performed, taking into account phonon, surface roughness and Coulomb scatterings. The OI layer was modeled as a “quasi barrier” region with reference to the Si conduction band edge to confine inversion electrons. Simulation explains the measured electron mobility enhancement as the confinement effect of inversion electrons while the formation of an super-steep retrograde well doping profile in the channel (as a result of dopant diffusion blocking effect accompanied by introduction of the OI layer) also contributes 50%–60% of the mobility improvement.

  1. Anti-Rotation Device Releasable by Insertion of a Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warden, Harry K.; Jenkins, Terro J.

    2011-01-01

    A drive mechanism enables a socket-type wrench to rotate a shaft and prevents accidental rotation of the shaft when the wrench is not coupled to the shaft. In the original intended application, the shaft would be part of an attachment mechanism on a spacecraft, and the purpose to be served by the drive is to prevent back-driving of the shaft by launch vibrations while enabling an astronaut equipped with the appropriate wrench to actuate the shaft while in orbit. The design could also be adapted to terrestrial applications in which it is necessary to prevent rotational back-driving. The mechanism includes a gear near the tip of the shaft, and a drive nut that constitutes the tip of the shaft. The gear and drive nut are positioned in a recess in a housing. The recess is sized to receive the wrench socket that mates with the drive nut. Also contained in the housing are four linkages that include pins that are spring-loaded into engagement with the gear to prevent rotation of the shaft. When the wrench socket is inserted in the recess, it pushes on the linkages in such a manner as to disengage the pins from the gear.

  2. Insertion of Ia and H-2 alloantigens into model membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Littman, D R; Cullen, S E; Schwartz, B D

    1979-01-01

    The study of immune phenomena dependent on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) would be greatly simplified by the use of MHC antigen-containing liposomes in various functional systems. Towards this end, we have constructed unilamellar phosphatidylcholine liposomes containing H-2 and Ia antigens. These molecules were not simply trapped within the aqueous compartment of the liposome as assessed by their accessibility to papain digestion. They were shown to be integrally inserted in the liposome bilayer because they could not be dissociated from the liposome with high salt and EDTA concentrations but could be solubilized by detergent. A sensitive radioimmunoassay showed that the Ia molecules were antigenically active in the liposome environment. Both Ia and H-2 antigens could be immunoprecipitated from detergent-solubilized liposomes. By comparing liposome-associated Ia activity in the presence and absence of detergent and by showing accessibility of the Ia antigens to papain, it was concluded that the majority of Ia antigens were exposed on the external surface of the liposome. These results suggest that the orientation of MHC antigens in liposomes closely parallels their natural orientation in the cell membrane. Images PMID:284415

  3. FEMORAL INSERTION OF THE POSTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT: AN ANATOMICAL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    de Paula Leite Cury, Ricardo; Severino, Nilson Roberto; Camargo, Osmar Pedro Arbix; Aihara, Tatsuo; Neto, Leopoldo Viana Batista; Goarayeb, Dedley Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify objective parameters to guide correct location of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in the femur. Methods: The PCLs of 20 human cadavers were resected. The following portions were measured: distance from the most distal portion of the PCL, close to the roof, to the most anterior edge of the cartilage (AB); distance from the most proximal portion of the PCL, close to the roof, to the most anterior cartilage (AC); distance between the two parts of the ligament close to the roof (BC); distance from the distal edge in its posterior portion, to the more posterior joint edge (DE); distance from the distal edge of the ligament in its posterior portion, to the intercondylar roof (DF); and finally, the format of the ligament insertion and area of coverage on the femoral condyle. Results: The PCL has the shape of a quarter ellipse, with an average area of 153.5mm2. The mean distances found were: AB of 2.1mm, AC of 10.7mm, BC of 8.6mm DE of 12.4mm and DF of 16.8mm. Conclusions: The edge close to the roof of the anterolateral bundle is closer to the joint cartilage (2.1mm) than the posteromedial bundle is, which is 12.4mm from the edge proximal to the cartilage. These references should assist in better and more accurate positioning of femoral tunnels in PCL reconstruction. PMID:27027059

  4. Using multiple sensors for printed circuit board insertion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sood, Deepak; Repko, Michael C.; Kelley, Robert B.

    1989-01-01

    As more and more activities are performed in space, there will be a greater demand placed on the information handling capacity of people who are to direct and accomplish these tasks. A promising alternative to full-time human involvement is the use of semi-autonomous, intelligent robot systems. To automate tasks such as assembly, disassembly, repair and maintenance, the issues presented by environmental uncertainties need to be addressed. These uncertainties are introduced by variations in the computed position of the robot at different locations in its work envelope, variations in part positioning, and tolerances of part dimensions. As a result, the robot system may not be able to accomplish the desired task without the help of sensor feedback. Measurements on the environment allow real time corrections to be made to the process. A design and implementation of an intelligent robot system which inserts printed circuit boards into a card cage are presented. Intelligent behavior is accomplished by coupling the task execution sequence with information derived from three different sensors: an overhead three-dimensional vision system, a fingertip infrared sensor, and a six degree of freedom wrist-mounted force/torque sensor.

  5. KRAS insertion mutations are oncogenic and exhibit distinct functional properties

    PubMed Central

    White, Yasmine; Bagchi, Aditi; Van Ziffle, Jessica; Inguva, Anagha; Bollag, Gideon; Zhang, Chao; Carias, Heidi; Dickens, David; Loh, Mignon; Shannon, Kevin; Firestone, Ari J.

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic KRAS mutations introduce discrete amino acid substitutions that reduce intrinsic Ras GTPase activity and confer resistance to GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). Here we discover a partial duplication of the switch 2 domain of K-Ras encoding a tandem repeat of amino acids G60_A66dup in a child with an atypical myeloproliferative neoplasm. K-Ras proteins containing this tandem duplication or a similar five amino acid E62_A66dup mutation identified in lung and colon cancers transform the growth of primary myeloid progenitors and of Ba/F3 cells. Recombinant K-RasG60_A66dup and K-RasE62_A66dup proteins display reduced intrinsic GTP hydrolysis rates, accumulate in the GTP-bound conformation and are resistant to GAP-mediated GTP hydrolysis. Remarkably, K-Ras proteins with switch 2 insertions are impaired for PI3 kinase binding and Akt activation, and are hypersensitive to MEK inhibition. These studies illuminate a new class of oncogenic KRAS mutations and reveal unexpected plasticity in oncogenic Ras proteins that has diagnostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:26854029

  6. Biology and augmentation of tendon-bone insertion repair

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Surgical reattachment of tendon and bone such as in rotator cuff repair, patellar-patella tendon repair and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction often fails due to the failure of regeneration of the specialized tissue ("enthesis") which connects tendon to bone. Tendon-to-bone healing taking place between inhomogenous tissues is a slow process compared to healing within homogenous tissue, such as tendon to tendon or bone to bone healing. Therefore special attention must be paid to augment tendon to bone insertion (TBI) healing. Apart from surgical fixation, biological and biophysical interventions have been studied aiming at regeneration of TBI healing complex, especially the regeneration of interpositioned fibrocartilage and new bone at the healing junction. This paper described the biology and the factors influencing TBI healing using patella-patellar tendon (PPT) healing and tendon graft to bone tunnel healing in ACL reconstruction as examples. Recent development in the improvement of TBI healing and directions for future studies were also reviewed and discussed. PMID:20727196

  7. Dynamics of Saturn's magnetosphere from MIMI during Cassini's orbital insertion.

    PubMed

    Krimigis, S M; Mitchell, D G; Hamilton, D C; Krupp, N; Livi, S; Roelof, E C; Dandouras, J; Armstrong, T P; Mauk, B H; Paranicas, C; Brandt, P C; Bolton, S; Cheng, A F; Choo, T; Gloeckler, G; Hayes, J; Hsieh, K C; Ip, W-H; Jaskulek, S; Keath, E P; Kirsch, E; Kusterer, M; Lagg, A; Lanzerotti, L J; Lavallee, D; Manweiler, J; McEntire, R W; Rasmuss, W; Saur, J; Turner, F S; Williams, D J; Woch, J

    2005-02-25

    The Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument (MIMI) onboard the Cassini spacecraft observed the saturnian magnetosphere from January 2004 until Saturn orbit insertion (SOI) on 1 July 2004. The MIMI sensors observed frequent energetic particle activity in interplanetary space for several months before SOI. When the imaging sensor was switched to its energetic neutral atom (ENA) operating mode on 20 February 2004, at approximately 10(3) times Saturn's radius RS (0.43 astronomical units), a weak but persistent signal was observed from the magnetosphere. About 10 days before SOI, the magnetosphere exhibited a day-night asymmetry that varied with an approximately 11-hour periodicity. Once Cassini entered the magnetosphere, in situ measurements showed high concentrations of H+, H2+, O+, OH+, and H2O+ and low concentrations of N+. The radial dependence of ion intensity profiles implies neutral gas densities sufficient to produce high loss rates of trapped ions from the middle and inner magnetosphere. ENA imaging has revealed a radiation belt that resides inward of the D ring and is probably the result of double charge exchange between the main radiation belt and the upper layers of Saturn's exosphere.

  8. Overpromotion of drugs in international product package inserts.

    PubMed

    Osifo, N G

    1983-01-01

    A study of the drug-labelling information contained in international product package inserts (PPIs) available in Nigeria in comparison with similar information in the United States Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR) was undertaken, against a background of recently-improved drug control regulations in Nigeria. The findings indicate that most multinational pharmaceutical firms, especially through their affiliates and subsidiaries, overpromote their drugs for extra indications and with mention of fewer hazards in the PPIs, than in the PDR. For some drugs with known, medically-stringent indications or low therapeutic indices, a few drug companies appeared to exert discretional restraint on overpromotion by providing the same content of information in the PPIs as in the PDR. The present study suggests that merely intending a better drug control with more sophisticated regulations which are not enforced may not cure the exploitative attitude of multinational drug companies and their subsidiaries or affiliates, in overpromoting pharmaceutical products through PPIs destined for countries with a literally free drug market.

  9. Theory of electromagnetic insertion devices and the corresponding synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumail, Muhammad; Tantawi, Sami G.

    2016-07-01

    Permanent magnet insertion devices (IDs), which are the main radiation generating devices in synchrotron light sources and free-electron lasers, use a time-invariant but space-periodic magnetic field to wiggle relativistic electrons for short-wavelength radiation generation. Recently, a high power microwave based undulator has also been successfully demonstrated at SLAC which promises the advantage of dynamic tunability of radiation spectrum and polarization. Such IDs employ transverse elecromagnetic fields which are periodic in both space and time to undulate the electrons. In this paper we develop a detailed theory of the principle of electromagnetic IDs from first principles for both linear and circular polarization modes. The electromagnetic equivalent definitions of undulator period (λu) and undulator deflection parameter (K ) are derived. In the inertial frame where the average momentum of the electron is zero, we obtain the figure-8-like trajectory for the linear polarization mode and the circular trajectory for the circular polarization mode. The corresponding radiation spectra and the intensity of harmonics is also calculated.

  10. Polymorphic Alu insertions and genetic diversity among African populations.

    PubMed

    Terreros, Maria C; Martinez, Laisel; Herrera, Rene J

    2005-10-01

    Thorough assessment of modern genetic diversity and interpopulation affinities within the African continent is essential for understanding the processes that have been at work during the course of worldwide human evolution. Regardless of whether autosomal, Y-chromosome, or mtDNA markers are used, allele- or haplotype-frequency data from African populations are necessary in setting the framework for the construction of global population phylogenies. In the present study we analyze genetic differentiation and population structure in a data set of nine African populations using 12 polymorphic Alu insertions (PAls). Furthermore, to place our findings within a global context, we also examined an equal number of non-African groups. Frequency data from 456 individuals presented for the first time in this work plus additional data obtained from the literature indicate an overall pattern of higher intrapopulation diversity in sub-Saharan populations than in northern Africa, a prominent differentiation between these two locations, an appreciably high degree of transcontinental admixture in Egypt, and significant discontinuity between Morocco and the Iberian peninsula. Moreover, the topologies of our phylogenetic analyses suggest that out of the studied sub-Saharan groups, the southern Bantu population of Sotho/ Tswana presents the highest level of antiquity, perhaps as a result of ancestral or acquired Khoisan genetic signals. Close affinities of eastern sub-Saharan populations with Egypt in the phylogenetic trees may indicate the existence of gene flow along the Nile River.

  11. A Dedicated Postpartum Intrauterine Device Inserter: Pilot Experience and Proof of Concept

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sharad; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Dewan, Rupali; Mittal, Pratima; Bhamrah, Renita; Lerma, Klaira; Blumenthal, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the feasibility, acceptability, and safety of a dedicated postpartum intrauterine device (PPIUD) inserter specifically designed for the post-delivery setting. Primary objectives of fundal placement and expulsion rates were assessed. Secondary objectives were participant satisfaction and IUD retention. Methods: In this pilot proof of concept, we enrolled 80 women who presented for PPIUD insertion at 2 government hospitals in Delhi and Lucknow, India, between March and July 2015. PPIUD insertion was completed with the dedicated inserter in all cases, by trained providers with no prior experience in PPIUD insertion, followed immediately by ultrasound to assess location and fundal placement of the IUD. Follow-up took place at 6 to 8 weeks post-insertion, and ultrasound was used to assess IUD location. Providers and participants also completed satisfaction surveys. Results: High fundal placement (≤10 mm from uterine fundus) was achieved with the dedicated PPIUD inserter in 82% of cases (n = 65). There were no perforations or infections among the participants and no other complications associated with use of the dedicated inserter. The mean distance between the IUD and the endometrial verge immediately post-insertion was 5.8 mm (range, 0–31; N = 80); this distance at follow-up was also 5.8 mm (range, 0–25; n = 50). Complete expulsion was observed in 6 cases (7.5%), and asymptomatic partial expulsion in 8 cases (10%). Providers reported the majority (93%, n = 74) of insertions to be easy. The majority (74%, n = 59) of participants reported the same level of pain before and after insertion. Conclusions: This dedicated PPIUD inserter performed as intended and was found to be safe, with high acceptability among the participants and providers. Further study and use of the dedicated inserter may reveal reduced risk of infection among PPIUD users as well as increased convenience compared with standard PPIUD insertion

  12. Ocular insert for sustained delivery of gatifloxacin sesquihydrate: Preparation and evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, Gaurav; Arora, Sandeep; Pawar, Pravin K

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many polymeric systems have been used to fabricate ocular inserts for improve ocular bioavailability and retention to drug of which matrix systems have shown advantages of reduce dosing frequency and increased corneal residence time. The objective of the present investigation was to prepare and evaluate ocular inserts of gatifloxacin. Materials and Methods: Ocular insert was made from an aqueous dispersion of gatifloxacin, sodium alginate, polyvinyl alcohol, and glycerin by solvent casting method. Ocular insert (5.5 mm) was cross-linked by CaCl2 and was coated with Eudragit RL-100 or Eudragit RS-100. The ocular inserts were characterized for thickness; uniformity of weight, drug content uniformity, % moisture absorption or moisture loss, and surface pH. The in vitro diffusion studies were carried out by putting insert on Millipore membrane filter (0.8 μm) fixed between donor and receptor compartment of an all glass modified Franz diffusion cell. Results: The thickness and drug content of ocular insert were found in the range of 0.11 ± 0.003 to 0.24 ± 0.010 mm and 0.718 ± 0.002 to 0.867 ± 0.007 mg, respectively. The surface pH, % moisture absorption or moisture loss and weight variation values were obtained in satisfactory range. The cross-linked ocular insert coated with Eudragit RL-100 shows maximum drug permeation i.e. 89.53 % ± 0.43 at 11 h. The stability studies suggest that all ocular insert remained stable, showed lesser degradation rate and maximum shelf life. Conclusion: Ocular inserts of gatifloxacin were prepared successfully by using solvent casting method for sustained drug delivery. The cross-linked and Eudragit RL-100 coated ocular insert of gatifloxacin provides better in vitro drug release and sustained upto 11 h. PMID:23119235

  13. Increased Microbial Butanol Tolerance by Exogenous Membrane Insertion Molecules.

    PubMed

    Hinks, Jamie; Wang, Yaofeng; Matysik, Artur; Kraut, Rachel; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Mu, Yuguang; Bazan, Guillermo C; Wuertz, Stefan; Seviour, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Butanol is an ideal biofuel, although poor titers lead to high recovery costs by distillation. Fluidization of microbial membranes by butanol is one of the major factors limiting titers in butanol-producing bioprocesses. Starting with the hypothesis that certain membrane insertion molecules would stabilize the lipid bilayer in the presence of butanol, we applied a combination of in vivo and in vitro techniques within an in silico framework to describe a new approach to achieve solvent tolerance in bacteria. Single-molecule tracking of a model supported bilayer showed that COE1-5C, a five-ringed oligo-polyphenylenevinylene conjugated oligoelectrolyte (COE), reduced the diffusion rate of phospholipids in a microbially derived lipid bilayer to a greater extent than three-ringed and four-ringed COEs. Furthermore, COE1-5C treatment increased the specific growth rate of E. coli K12 relative to a control at inhibitory butanol concentrations. Consequently, to confer butanol tolerance to microbes by exogenous means is complementary to genetic modification of strains in industrial bioprocesses, extends the physiological range of microbes to match favorable bioprocess conditions, and is amenable with complex and undefined microbial consortia for biobutanol production. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the π-conjugated aromatic backbone of COE1-5C likely acts as a hydrophobic tether for glycerophospholipid acyl chains by enhancing bilayer integrity in the presence of high butanol concentrations, which thereby counters membrane fluidization. COE1-5C-mitigated E. coli K12 membrane depolarization by butanol is consistent with the hypothesis that improved growth rates in the presence of butanol are a consequence of improved bilayer stability. PMID:26404512

  14. Increased Microbial Butanol Tolerance by Exogenous Membrane Insertion Molecules.

    PubMed

    Hinks, Jamie; Wang, Yaofeng; Matysik, Artur; Kraut, Rachel; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Mu, Yuguang; Bazan, Guillermo C; Wuertz, Stefan; Seviour, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Butanol is an ideal biofuel, although poor titers lead to high recovery costs by distillation. Fluidization of microbial membranes by butanol is one of the major factors limiting titers in butanol-producing bioprocesses. Starting with the hypothesis that certain membrane insertion molecules would stabilize the lipid bilayer in the presence of butanol, we applied a combination of in vivo and in vitro techniques within an in silico framework to describe a new approach to achieve solvent tolerance in bacteria. Single-molecule tracking of a model supported bilayer showed that COE1-5C, a five-ringed oligo-polyphenylenevinylene conjugated oligoelectrolyte (COE), reduced the diffusion rate of phospholipids in a microbially derived lipid bilayer to a greater extent than three-ringed and four-ringed COEs. Furthermore, COE1-5C treatment increased the specific growth rate of E. coli K12 relative to a control at inhibitory butanol concentrations. Consequently, to confer butanol tolerance to microbes by exogenous means is complementary to genetic modification of strains in industrial bioprocesses, extends the physiological range of microbes to match favorable bioprocess conditions, and is amenable with complex and undefined microbial consortia for biobutanol production. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the π-conjugated aromatic backbone of COE1-5C likely acts as a hydrophobic tether for glycerophospholipid acyl chains by enhancing bilayer integrity in the presence of high butanol concentrations, which thereby counters membrane fluidization. COE1-5C-mitigated E. coli K12 membrane depolarization by butanol is consistent with the hypothesis that improved growth rates in the presence of butanol are a consequence of improved bilayer stability.

  15. Forensic performance of two insertion-deletion marker assays.

    PubMed

    Fondevila, M; Phillips, C; Santos, C; Pereira, R; Gusmão, L; Carracedo, A; Butler, J M; Lareu, M V; Vallone, P M

    2012-09-01

    Improving the amplification and analysis of highly degraded DNA extracts has been a longstanding area of research in forensic genetics. One of the most promising recent developments in analysis of degraded DNA is the availability of short, biallelic insertion-deletion length polymorphisms (InDels) in highly multiplexed assays. InDels share many of the favourable characteristics of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that make them ideal markers for analysis of degraded DNA, including: analysis in short amplicon size ranges, high multiplexing capability and low mutation rates. In addition, as length-based polymorphisms, InDels can be analysed with the same simple dye-labelled PCR primer methods as standard forensic short tandem repeats. Separation and detection of fluorescently dye-labelled PCR products by capillary electrophoresis eliminate the multiple step protocols required by SNP typing with single-base extension assays and provide a closer relationship between the input DNA and the profile peak height ratios. Therefore InDel genotyping represents an effective new approach for human identification that adds informative new loci to the existing battery of forensic markers. To assess the utility of InDels for forensic analysis, we characterised population variation with two InDel identification assays: the 30-plex Qiagen DIPplex panel and a 38-plex panel developed by Pereira et al. in 2009. Allele frequencies were generated for the 68 markers in US African American, Caucasian, East Asian and Hispanic samples. We made a thorough assessment of the individual and combined performance of the InDel sets, as well as characterising profile artifacts and other issues related to the routine use of these newly developed forensic assays based on artificially degraded DNA and mixed source samples.

  16. Numerical analysis of modified Central Solenoid insert design

    DOE PAGES

    Khodak, Andrei; Martovetsky, Nicolai; Smirnov, Aleksandre; Titus, Peter

    2015-06-21

    The United States ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for fabrication of the Central Solenoid (CS) for ITER project. The ITER machine is currently under construction by seven parties in Cadarache, France. The CS Insert (CSI) project should provide a verification of the conductor performance in relevant conditions of temperature, field, currents and mechanical strain. The US IPO designed the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at JAEA, Naka. To validate the modified design we performed three-dimensional numerical simulations using coupled solver for simultaneous structural, thermal and electromagnetic analysis. Thermal and electromagneticmore » simulations supported structural calculations providing necessary loads and strains. According to current analysis design of the modified coil satisfies ITER magnet structural design criteria for the following conditions: (1) room temperature, no current, (2) temperature 4K, no current, (3) temperature 4K, current 60 kA direct charge, and (4) temperature 4K, current 60 kA reverse charge. Fatigue life assessment analysis is performed for the alternating conditions of: temperature 4K, no current, and temperature 4K, current 45 kA direct charge. Results of fatigue analysis show that parts of the coil assembly can be qualified for up to 1 million cycles. Distributions of the Current Sharing Temperature (TCS) in the superconductor were obtained from numerical results using parameterization of the critical surface in the form similar to that proposed for ITER. Lastly, special ADPL scripts were developed for ANSYS allowing one-dimensional representation of TCS along the cable, as well as three-dimensional fields of TCS in superconductor material. Published by Elsevier B.V.« less

  17. Numerical analysis of modified Central Solenoid insert design

    SciTech Connect

    Khodak, Andrei; Martovetsky, Nicolai; Smirnov, Aleksandre; Titus, Peter

    2015-06-21

    The United States ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for fabrication of the Central Solenoid (CS) for ITER project. The ITER machine is currently under construction by seven parties in Cadarache, France. The CS Insert (CSI) project should provide a verification of the conductor performance in relevant conditions of temperature, field, currents and mechanical strain. The US IPO designed the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at JAEA, Naka. To validate the modified design we performed three-dimensional numerical simulations using coupled solver for simultaneous structural, thermal and electromagnetic analysis. Thermal and electromagnetic simulations supported structural calculations providing necessary loads and strains. According to current analysis design of the modified coil satisfies ITER magnet structural design criteria for the following conditions: (1) room temperature, no current, (2) temperature 4K, no current, (3) temperature 4K, current 60 kA direct charge, and (4) temperature 4K, current 60 kA reverse charge. Fatigue life assessment analysis is performed for the alternating conditions of: temperature 4K, no current, and temperature 4K, current 45 kA direct charge. Results of fatigue analysis show that parts of the coil assembly can be qualified for up to 1 million cycles. Distributions of the Current Sharing Temperature (TCS) in the superconductor were obtained from numerical results using parameterization of the critical surface in the form similar to that proposed for ITER. Lastly, special ADPL scripts were developed for ANSYS allowing one-dimensional representation of TCS along the cable, as well as three-dimensional fields of TCS in superconductor material. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Insertion of sequential glaucoma drainage implant in a piggyback manner

    PubMed Central

    Välimäki, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This pilot study, the first of its type, was conducted to determine the clinical outcome of a sequential glaucoma drainage implant (GDI) inserted in piggyback manner, that is into the bleb of a primary GDI. Methods This was a retrospective chart study with a minimum 1-year follow-up involving 16 eyes of 14 uncontrolled glaucoma patients who had previously undergone sequential GDI performed using a technique to convert a one-plate into a two-plate implant system. Surgical success was defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) <21 mm Hg with at least a 30% reduction in IOP from baseline on two consecutive follow-up visits, IOP >5 mm Hg on two consecutive follow-up visits, and neither reoperation of glaucoma nor loss of light perception vision. Results The mean ±SD baseline IOP was 29.2±5.2 mm Hg, and the mean postoperative IOP was 17.3±3.4 mm Hg, with a mean pressure drop of 39.4±10.4% (P<0.001). Life-table analysis showed an 88% success rate after 12 months of follow-up. The mean preoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.2±0.2 logMAR (Snellen equivalent 6/9.5), compared with 0.3±0.3 logMAR postoperatively (Snellen equivalent 6/12; P=0.497). Postoperative complications included a flat anterior chamber and choroidal detachment (one eye), uveitis and cataract (one eye), diplopia (one eye), and worsening of pre-existing pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (one eye). Conclusions In glaucoma eyes with useful vision the piggyback GDI seems to provide a significant IOP lowering with minimal complications in patients in whom an initial GDI had failed to control the IOP. PMID:26113501

  19. Controlled language and information on vaccines: application to package inserts.

    PubMed

    Renahy, Julie; Vuitton, Dominique A; Rath, Barbara; Thomas, Izabella; de Grivel, Valerie; Cardey, Sylviane

    2015-01-01

    Any ambiguity in texts used in the communication about vaccines can not only interfere with comprehension, but also generate safety and liability issues. Within a survey on the quality of written protocols for at-risk interventional procedures and sanitary crises, we analyzed documents relating to vaccination, and among them, the "package-leaflet" of an anti-H1N1 influenza vaccine, widely disseminated to the public in 2009-2010. Among the most common mistakes, we observed that 1) language was not always adjusted to the non-specialist's level of knowledge; 2) chronology, logic, consistency, and homogeneity were often missing; 3) crucial pieces of information were disseminated all over the text, 4) use of the passive voice did not distinguish between instructions and information; 5) use of synonyms could be misleading and impair translation. We propose the use of "Controlled language" (CL) to improve the situation. By constraining lexicon, grammar and syntax, CL is a way to write documents that are clear, accurate and devoid of ambiguity. However, the set of rules necessary to write in CL is difficult to memorize. We thus developed authoring software (Rédacticiel Prolipsia) to make the creation of a CL by linguists and its use by health professionals easy and adapted to any domain. It may considerably improve the writing of vaccine package inserts/leaflets. It could be used to write information documents about vaccines and their safety, and operating procedures for professionals to prepare, store, and administer vaccines, decide upon proper indication of vaccines, and follow patients after vaccine injection. PMID:25859674

  20. Controlled language and information on vaccines: application to package inserts.

    PubMed

    Renahy, Julie; Vuitton, Dominique A; Rath, Barbara; Thomas, Izabella; de Grivel, Valerie; Cardey, Sylviane

    2015-01-01

    Any ambiguity in texts used in the communication about vaccines can not only interfere with comprehension, but also generate safety and liability issues. Within a survey on the quality of written protocols for at-risk interventional procedures and sanitary crises, we analyzed documents relating to vaccination, and among them, the "package-leaflet" of an anti-H1N1 influenza vaccine, widely disseminated to the public in 2009-2010. Among the most common mistakes, we observed that 1) language was not always adjusted to the non-specialist's level of knowledge; 2) chronology, logic, consistency, and homogeneity were often missing; 3) crucial pieces of information were disseminated all over the text, 4) use of the passive voice did not distinguish between instructions and information; 5) use of synonyms could be misleading and impair translation. We propose the use of "Controlled language" (CL) to improve the situation. By constraining lexicon, grammar and syntax, CL is a way to write documents that are clear, accurate and devoid of ambiguity. However, the set of rules necessary to write in CL is difficult to memorize. We thus developed authoring software (Rédacticiel Prolipsia) to make the creation of a CL by linguists and its use by health professionals easy and adapted to any domain. It may considerably improve the writing of vaccine package inserts/leaflets. It could be used to write information documents about vaccines and their safety, and operating procedures for professionals to prepare, store, and administer vaccines, decide upon proper indication of vaccines, and follow patients after vaccine injection.

  1. Selenocysteine biosynthesis and insertion machinery in Naegleria gruberi.

    PubMed

    da Silva, M T A; Caldas, V E A; Costa, F C; Silvestre, D A M M; Thiemann, O H

    2013-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element primarily found in selenoproteins as the 21st amino acid (selenocysteine, Sec, or U). Selenoproteins play an important role in growth and proliferation and are typically involved in cellular redox balance. Selenocysteine is encoded by an in-frame UGA codon specified by a stem-loop structure, the Sec insertion sequence element (SECIS), which, in eukaryotes, is located in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR). The availability of the Naegleria gruberi (ATCC 30224) genome sequence and the use of this organism as a model system for the pathogenic amoeba N. fowleri allowed us to investigate the Sec incorporation pathway in this primitive eukaryote. Using bioinformatics tools, we identified gene sequences encoding PSTK (O-phosphoseryl-tRNA(Sec) kinase), SepSecS (O-phosphoseryl-tRNA:selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase), SelD/SPS2 (selenophosphate synthetase), EFSec (selenocysteine-specific elongation factor) and SBP (SECIS binding protein). These findings were confirmed by RT-PCR and by sequencing. A potential tRNA(Ser)Sec (SelC) gene and a putative selenoprotein with sequence similarity to a mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase (TR3) were also identified. Our results show that the selenocysteine incorporation machinery is indeed present in N. gruberi. Interestingly, the SelD/SPS2 gene is 2214 bp in length and contains two distinct domains. The N-terminal region shows sequence similarity to predicted methyltransferase proteins, and the C-terminal region is homologous to prokaryotic SelD/SPS2. Our results suggest the possibility of novel selenoproteins.

  2. Routine cerebrospinal fluid analysis during 'de novo' ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion: Single Institution Experience.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Ayman; Mandiwanza, Tafadzwa; Zakaria, Zaitun; Crimmins, Darach

    2016-08-01

    Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling is performed during ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting procedure surgery for early detection of infection. We have performed a retrospective study to determine whether routine intraoperative CSF sampling at new VP shunt insertion has predicted shunt infection or changed subsequent surveillance or management. Method From January 2011 to December 2013, 99 patients underwent first time VP shunt insertion at our hospital. The data collected from Beaumont Hospital Information System and operating theatre logbook. The reviewed data were patient demographics, the clinical condition requiring VP shunt procedure, shunt type, date of VP shunt insertion, date of VP shunt infection or malfunction and laboratory data. Results A first time VP shunt insertion procedure was performed in 99 patients. During the VP shunt insertion procedure, 64 patients had CSF sampling for microbiological analysis. The CSF culture was negative in all samples. All patients were followed up for 12 months. During the follow-up period, a total of 15 patients underwent VP shunt revision. Three of the shunt revisions were secondary to infection. The three infected shunt cases had sterile CSF cultures at the time of insertion. Conclusion There appears to be no correlation between CSF sampling during first time VP shunt insertion and the later development VP shunt infection. This questions the need for routine CSF sampling at the time of insertion. This would be confirmed as a part of future randomised trials.

  3. Verification of a standardized method for inserting intramuscular electromyography electrodes into teres minor using ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Sangeeta; Zacharias, Anita; Green, Rodney A

    2015-09-01

    The close proximity of the infraspinatus to the teres minor and their functional similarity in producing external rotation of the glenohumeral joint make accurate insertion of electromyographic (EMG) electrodes into the teres minor difficult and questionable even when published guidelines are followed. The primary aim of this study was to examine the anatomical support for the current guidelines for inserting intramuscular EMG electrodes into the teres minor muscle. The secondary aim was to provide a technical description for ultrasound-guided electrode insertion into the teres minor. Intramuscular electrodes were inserted into four cadaveric shoulders using markings based on the current guidelines. EMG electrodes were also inserted into the teres minor of four healthy male participants using real-time ultrasound (RTUS) guidance. Systematic dissections of the cadaver specimens revealed that the electrode had been successfully inserted into the teres minor muscle in only one out of the four. In the remaining three specimens, the needle lodged in the infraspinatus muscle belly at distances ranging from 3 to 17 mm medial to the teres minor. Using RTUS guidance, the electrodes were successfully inserted into the teres minor in all participants, as confirmed by visual inspection with RTUS. This study confirms that the current EMG electrode insertion guidelines for the teres minor are not accurate and RTUS ensures the placement of electrodes into the teres minor rather than the adjacent infraspinatus muscle.

  4. A proposed model membrane and test method for microneedle insertion studies

    PubMed Central

    Larrañeta, Eneko; Moore, Jessica; Vicente-Pérez, Eva M.; González-Vázquez, Patricia; Lutton, Rebecca; Woolfson, A. David; Donnelly, Ryan F.

    2014-01-01

    A commercial polymeric film (Parafilm M®, a blend of a hydrocarbon wax and a polyolefin) was evaluated as a model membrane for microneedle (MN) insertion studies. Polymeric MN arrays were inserted into Parafilm M® (PF) and also into excised neonatal porcine skin. Parafilm M® was folded before the insertions to closely approximate thickness of the excised skin. Insertion depths were evaluated using optical coherence tomography (OCT) using either a force applied by a Texture Analyser or by a group of human volunteers. The obtained insertion depths were, in general, slightly lower, especially for higher forces, for PF than for skin. However, this difference was not a large, being less than the 10% of the needle length. Therefore, all these data indicate that this model membrane could be a good alternative to biological tissue for MN insertion studies. As an alternative method to OCT, light microscopy was used to evaluate the insertion depths of MN in the model membrane. This provided a rapid, simple method to compare different MN formulations. The use of Parafilm M®, in conjunction with a standardised force/time profile applied by a Texture Analyser, could provide the basis for a rapid MN quality control test suitable for in-process use. It could also be used as a comparative test of insertion efficiency between candidate MN formulations. PMID:24877757

  5. An ordered, nonredundant library of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 transposon insertion mutants

    PubMed Central

    Liberati, Nicole T.; Urbach, Jonathan M.; Miyata, Sachiko; Lee, Daniel G.; Drenkard, Eliana; Wu, Gang; Villanueva, Jacinto; Wei, Tao; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    2006-01-01

    Random transposon insertion libraries have proven invaluable in studying bacterial genomes. Libraries that approach saturation must be large, with multiple insertions per gene, making comprehensive genome-wide scanning difficult. To facilitate genome-scale study of the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14, we constructed a nonredundant library of PA14 transposon mutants (the PA14NR Set) in which nonessential PA14 genes are represented by a single transposon insertion chosen from a comprehensive library of insertion mutants. The parental library of PA14 transposon insertion mutants was generated by using MAR2xT7, a transposon compatible with transposon-site hybridization and based on mariner. The transposon-site hybridization genetic footprinting feature broadens the utility of the library by allowing pooled MAR2xT7 mutants to be individually tracked under different experimental conditions. A public, internet-accessible database (the PA14 Transposon Insertion Mutant Database, http://ausubellab.mgh.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/pa14/home.cgi) was developed to facilitate construction, distribution, and use of the PA14NR Set. The usefulness of the PA14NR Set in genome-wide scanning for phenotypic mutants was validated in a screen for attachment to abiotic surfaces. Comparison of the genes disrupted in the PA14 transposon insertion library with an independently constructed insertion library in P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 provides an estimate of the number of P. aeruginosa essential genes. PMID:16477005

  6. Joint Effect of Insertion of Spaces and Word Length in Saccade Target Selection in Chinese Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xingshan; Shen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined how insertion of spaces before and after a word affects saccade target selection in Chinese reading. We found that inserting spaces in Chinese text changes the eye movement behaviour of Chinese readers. They are less likely to fixate on the character near the space and will try their best to process the entire word with…

  7. A proposed model membrane and test method for microneedle insertion studies.

    PubMed

    Larrañeta, Eneko; Moore, Jessica; Vicente-Pérez, Eva M; González-Vázquez, Patricia; Lutton, Rebecca; Woolfson, A David; Donnelly, Ryan F

    2014-09-10

    A commercial polymeric film (Parafilm M(®), a blend of a hydrocarbon wax and a polyolefin) was evaluated as a model membrane for microneedle (MN) insertion studies. Polymeric MN arrays were inserted into Parafilm M(®) (PF) and also into excised neonatal porcine skin. Parafilm M(®) was folded before the insertions to closely approximate thickness of the excised skin. Insertion depths were evaluated using optical coherence tomography (OCT) using either a force applied by a Texture Analyser or by a group of human volunteers. The obtained insertion depths were, in general, slightly lower, especially for higher forces, for PF than for skin. However, this difference was not a large, being less than the 10% of the needle length. Therefore, all these data indicate that this model membrane could be a good alternative to biological tissue for MN insertion studies. As an alternative method to OCT, light microscopy was used to evaluate the insertion depths of MN in the model membrane. This provided a rapid, simple method to compare different MN formulations. The use of Parafilm M(®), in conjunction with a standardised force/time profile applied by a Texture Analyser, could provide the basis for a rapid MN quality control test suitable for in-process use. It could also be used as a comparative test of insertion efficiency between candidate MN formulations. PMID:24877757

  8. Knee-simulator testing of conventional and cross-linked polyethylene tibial inserts.

    PubMed

    Muratoglu, Orhun K; Bragdon, Charles R; Jasty, Murali; O'Connor, Daniel O; Von Knoch, Rebecca S; Harris, William H

    2004-10-01

    We compared the resistance to delamination and to adhesive/abrasive wear of conventional and highly cross-linked polyethylene tibial inserts of a cruciate-retaining total knee design using a knee simulator. Both groups were tested after aggressive, accelerated aging, and 1 set of conventional inserts was studied without aging. Aging oxidized the conventional, but not the highly cross-linked, inserts. The simulated normal gait testing lasted for 5 and 10 million cycles for the conventional and highly cross-linked inserts, respectively. Aged conventional inserts showed delaminations, whereas none were observed in the unaged conventional and aged cross-linked inserts. Wear rates measured by the gravimetric method were 9 +/- 2 mm3, 10 +/- 4 mm3, and 1 +/- 0 mm3 per million cycles; by the metrologic method, they were 8 +/- 1 mm3, 9 +/- 2 mm3, and 3 +/- 0 mm3 for the unaged conventional, aged conventional, and aged highly crosslinked inserts, respectively. In the test model used, oxidation led to delamination, whereas increased cross-link density resulted in reduced adhesive/abrasive wear of tibial inserts.

  9. Alu Insertions and Genetic Diversity: A Preliminary Investigation by an Undergraduate Bioinformatics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwess, Nancy L.; Duprey, Stephen L.; Harney, Lindesay A.; Langman, Jessie E.; Marino, Tara C.; Martinez, Carolina; McKeon, Lauren L.; Moss, Chantel I. E.; Myrie, Sasha S.; Taylor, Luke Ryan

    2008-01-01

    "Alu"-insertion polymorphisms were used by an undergraduate Bioinformatics class to study how these insertion sites could be the basis for an investigation in human population genetics. Based on the students' investigation, both allele and genotype "Alu" frequencies were determined for African-American and Japanese populations as well as a…

  10. Vector insert-targeted integrative antisense expression system for plasmid stabilization.

    PubMed

    Luke, Jeremy M; Carnes, Aaron E; Hodgson, Clague P; Williams, James A

    2011-01-01

    Some DNA vaccine and gene therapy vector-encoded transgenes are toxic to the E. coli plasmid production host resulting in poor production yields. For plasmid products undergoing clinical evaluation, sequence modification to eliminate toxicity is undesirable because an altered vector is a new chemical entity. We hypothesized that: (1) insert-encoded toxicity is mediated by unintended expression of a toxic insert-encoded protein from spurious bacterial promoters; and (2) that toxicity could be eliminated with antisense RNA-mediated translation inhibition. We developed the pINT PR PL vector, a chromosomally integrable RNA expression vector, and utilized it to express insert-complementary (anti-insert) RNA from a single defined site in the bacterial chromosome. Anti-insert RNA eliminated leaky fluorescent protein expression from a target plasmid. A toxic retroviral gag pol helper plasmid produced in a gag pol anti-insert strain had fourfold improved plasmid fermentation yields. Plasmid fermentation yields were also fourfold improved when a DNA vaccine plasmid containing a toxic Influenza serotype H1 hemagglutinin transgene was grown in an H1 sense strand anti-insert production strain, suggesting that in this case toxicity was mediated by an antisense alternative reading frame-encoded peptide. This anti-insert chromosomal RNA expression technology is a general approach to improve production yields with plasmid-based vectors that encode toxic transgenes, or toxic alternative frame peptides. PMID:20607625

  11. Verification of a standardized method for inserting intramuscular electromyography electrodes into teres minor using ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Sangeeta; Zacharias, Anita; Green, Rodney A

    2015-09-01

    The close proximity of the infraspinatus to the teres minor and their functional similarity in producing external rotation of the glenohumeral joint make accurate insertion of electromyographic (EMG) electrodes into the teres minor difficult and questionable even when published guidelines are followed. The primary aim of this study was to examine the anatomical support for the current guidelines for inserting intramuscular EMG electrodes into the teres minor muscle. The secondary aim was to provide a technical description for ultrasound-guided electrode insertion into the teres minor. Intramuscular electrodes were inserted into four cadaveric shoulders using markings based on the current guidelines. EMG electrodes were also inserted into the teres minor of four healthy male participants using real-time ultrasound (RTUS) guidance. Systematic dissections of the cadaver specimens revealed that the electrode had been successfully inserted into the teres minor muscle in only one out of the four. In the remaining three specimens, the needle lodged in the infraspinatus muscle belly at distances ranging from 3 to 17 mm medial to the teres minor. Using RTUS guidance, the electrodes were successfully inserted into the teres minor in all participants, as confirmed by visual inspection with RTUS. This study confirms that the current EMG electrode insertion guidelines for the teres minor are not accurate and RTUS ensures the placement of electrodes into the teres minor rather than the adjacent infraspinatus muscle. PMID:25974129

  12. Genome-wide LORE1 retrotransposon mutagenesis and high-throughput insertion detection in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Urbański, Dorian Fabian; Małolepszy, Anna; Stougaard, Jens; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj

    2012-02-01

    Use of insertion mutants facilitates functional analysis of genes, but it has been difficult to identify a suitable mutagen and to establish large populations for reverse genetics in most plant species. The main challenge is developing efficient high-throughput procedures for both mutagenesis and identification of insertion sites. To date, only floral-dip T-DNA transformation of Arabidopsis has produced independent germinal insertions, thereby allowing generation of mutant populations from seeds of single plants. In addition, advances in insertion detection have been hampered by a lack of protocols, including software for automated data analysis, that take full advantage of high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We have addressed these challenges by developing the FSTpoolit protocol and software package, and here we demonstrate its efficacy by detecting 8935 LORE1 insertions in 3744 Lotus japonicus plants. The identified insertions show that the endogenous LORE1 retrotransposon is well suited for insertion mutagenesis due to homogenous gene targeting and exonic insertion preference. As LORE1 transposition occurs in the germline, harvesting seeds from a single founder line and cultivating progeny generates a complete mutant population. This ease of LORE1 mutagenesis, combined with the efficient FSTpoolit protocol, which exploits 2D pooling, Illumina sequencing and automated data analysis, allows highly cost-efficient development of a comprehensive reverse genetic resource.

  13. Research on impact behaviour and silicon insert fracture phenomenon in microinjection moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zheng; Lv, Zhi-bin; Wang, Lin-gang; Jiang, Kai-yu; Ji, Zhi; Liu, Chong; Liu, Jun-shan

    2015-04-01

    Silicon insert is a promising tool for microinjection moulding (MIM). However, its fracture problem induced by impact in MIM creates a bottleneck for application. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact behaviour in MIM and the effect on the fracture of silicon inserts. The finite element method is utilised to calculate the crack propagation of silicon inserts with pressure load and thermal load in the MIM process. The simulation result shows that the crack propagation is more easily induced by the increase of pressure load, while the temperature change has little effect on the crack propagation. An experimental platform, including a novel rotatable insert mould, is developed to investigate the dynamic pressure in the MIM process. The result shows that both the maximum pressure and the maximum loading rate occur in the initial period of MIM process. It indicates that the silicon insert is more prone to fracture at the beginning of the MIM process, and spatial pressure peaks are observed in the cavity as well. The nearly consistent distribution between the peak positions and the insert fracture zones shows that the pressure distribution is quite relevant to the fracture of the silicon insert. The result is helpful because it reveals the fracture phenomenon of silicon inserts.

  14. Tryptophan auxotrophs were obtained by random transposon insertions in the Methanococcus maripaludis tryptophan operon.

    PubMed

    Porat, Iris; Whitman, William B

    2009-08-01

    Methanococcus maripaludis is an anaerobic, methane-producing archaeon that utilizes H(2) or formate for the reduction of CO(2) to methane. Tryptophan auxotrophs were constructed by in vitro insertions of the Tn5 transposon into the tryptophan operon, followed by transformation into M. maripaludis. This method could serve for rapid insertions into large cloned DNA regions. PMID:19566682

  15. Non-Insertional Code-Switching in English-Japanese Bilingual Children: Alternation and Congruent Lexicalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namba, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates English-Japanese children's code-switching (CS) from the structural point of view. Muysken categorises it into three types, that is, insertion, alternation and congruent lexicalisation. Regarding insertion, using Myers-Scotton's matrix language frame (MLF) model, for example, the matrix language (ML) of a bilingual clause…

  16. Acute changes associated with electrode insertion measured with optical coherence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Lozzi, Andrea; Boretsky, Adam; Agrawal, Anant; Welle, Cristin G.

    2016-03-01

    Despite advances in functional neural imaging, penetrating microelectrodes provide the most direct interface for the extraction of neural signals from the nervous system and are a critical component of many high degree-of-freedom braincomputer interface devices. Electrode insertion is a traumatic event that elicits a complex neuroinflammatory response. In this investigation we applied optical coherence microscopy (OCM), particularly optical coherence angiography (OCA), to characterize the immediate tissue response during microelectrode insertion. Microelectrodes of varying dimension and footprint (one-, two-, and four-shank) were inserted into mouse motor cortex beneath a window after craniotomy surgery. The microelectrodes were inserted in 3-4 steps at 15-20°, with approximately 250 μm linear insertion distance for each step. Before insertion and between each step, OCM datasets were collected, including for quantitative capillary velocimetry. A cohort of control animals without microelectrode insertion was also imaged over a similar time period (2-3 hours). Mechanical tissue deformation was observed in all the experimental animals. The quantitative angiography results varied across animals, and were not correlated with device dimensions. In some cases, localized flow drop-out was observed in a small region surrounding the electrode, while in other instances a global disruption in flow occurred, perhaps as a result of large vessel compression caused by mechanical pressure. OCM is a tool that can be used in various neurophotonics applications, including quantification of the neuroinflammatory response to penetrating electrode insertion.

  17. An ordered, nonredundant library of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 transposon insertion mutants.

    PubMed

    Liberati, Nicole T; Urbach, Jonathan M; Miyata, Sachiko; Lee, Daniel G; Drenkard, Eliana; Wu, Gang; Villanueva, Jacinto; Wei, Tao; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2006-02-21

    Random transposon insertion libraries have proven invaluable in studying bacterial genomes. Libraries that approach saturation must be large, with multiple insertions per gene, making comprehensive genome-wide scanning difficult. To facilitate genome-scale study of the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14, we constructed a nonredundant library of PA14 transposon mutants (the PA14NR Set) in which nonessential PA14 genes are represented by a single transposon insertion chosen from a comprehensive library of insertion mutants. The parental library of PA14 transposon insertion mutants was generated by using MAR2xT7, a transposon compatible with transposon-site hybridization and based on mariner. The transposon-site hybridization genetic footprinting feature broadens the utility of the library by allowing pooled MAR2xT7 mutants to be individually tracked under different experimental conditions. A public, internet-accessible database (the PA14 Transposon Insertion Mutant Database, http://ausubellab.mgh.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/pa14/home.cgi) was developed to facilitate construction, distribution, and use of the PA14NR Set. The usefulness of the PA14NR Set in genome-wide scanning for phenotypic mutants was validated in a screen for attachment to abiotic surfaces. Comparison of the genes disrupted in the PA14 transposon insertion library with an independently constructed insertion library in P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 provides an estimate of the number of P. aeruginosa essential genes.

  18. Following Natures Lead: On the Construction of Membrane-Inserted Toxins in Lipid Bilayer Nanodiscs

    PubMed Central

    Akkaladevi, Narahari; Mukherjee, Srayanta; Katayama, Hiroo; Janowiak, Blythe; Patel, Deepa; Gogol, Edward P.; Pentelute, Bradley L.; Collier, R. John

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial toxin or viral entry into the cell often requires cell surface binding and endocytosis. The endosomal acidification induces a limited unfolding/refolding and membrane insertion reaction of the soluble toxins or viral proteins into their translocation competent or membrane inserted states. At the molecular level, the specific orientation and immobilization of the pre-transitioned toxin on the cell surface is often an important prerequisite prior to cell entry. We propose that structures of some toxin membrane insertion complexes may be observed through procedures where one rationally immobilizes the soluble toxin so that potential unfolding ↔ refolding transitions that occur prior to membrane insertion orientate away from the immobilization surface in the presence of lipid micelle pre-nanodisc structures. As a specific example, the immobilized prepore form of the anthrax toxin pore translocon or protective antigen can be transitioned, inserted into a model lipid membrane (nanodiscs), and released from the immobilized support in its membrane solubilized form. This particular strategy, although unconventional, is a useful procedure for generating pure membrane-inserted toxins in nanodiscs for electron microscopy structural analysis. In addition, generating a similar immobilized platform on label-free biosensor surfaces allows one to observe the kinetics of these acid-induced membrane insertion transitions. These platforms can facilitate the rational design of inhibitors that specifically target the toxin membrane insertion transitions that occur during endosomal acidification. This approach may lead to a new class of direct anti-toxin inhibitors. PMID:25578459

  19. Retargeting Sleeping Beauty Transposon Insertions by Engineered Zinc Finger DNA-binding Domains

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Katrin; Gogol-Döring, Andreas; Miskey, Csaba; Chen, Wei; Cathomen, Toni; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ivics, Zoltán

    2012-01-01

    The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon is a nonviral, integrating vector system with proven efficacy in preclinical animal models, and thus holds promise for future clinical applications. However, SB has a close-to-random insertion profile that could lead to genotoxic effects, thereby presenting a potential safety issue. We evaluated zinc finger (ZF) DNA-binding domains (DBDs) for their abilities to introduce a bias into SB's insertion profile. E2C, that binds a unique site in the erbB-2 gene, mediated locus-specific transposon insertions at low frequencies. A novel ZF targeting LINE1 repeats, ZF-B, showed specific binding to an 18-bp site represented by ~12,000 copies in the human genome. We mapped SB insertions using linear-amplification (LAM)-PCR and Illumina sequencing. Targeted insertions with ZF-B peaked at approximately fourfold enrichment of transposition around ZF-B binding sites yielding ~45% overall frequency of insertion into LINE1. A decrease in the ZF-B dataset with respect to transposon insertions in genes was found, suggesting that LINE1 repeats act as a sponge that “soak up” a fraction of SB insertions and thereby redirect them away from genes. Improvements in ZF technology and a careful choice of targeted genomic regions may improve the safety profile of SB for future clinical applications. PMID:22776959

  20. Characterization of insertion sites in Rainbow papaya, the first commercialized transgenic tree-fruit crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inserts and insert sites in transgenic, commercial papaya line 55-1 derivatives Rainbow and SunUp were characterized as part of a petition to Japan to allow import of fresh fruit of these cultivars from the U.S. and to provide data for a larger study aimed at understanding the global impact of DNA t...

  1. Insert Design and Manufacturing for Foam-Core Composite Sandwich Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lares, Alan

    Sandwich structures have been used in the aerospace industry for many years. The high strength to weight ratios that are possible with sandwich constructions makes them desirable for airframe applications. While sandwich structures are effective at handling distributed loads such as aerodynamic forces, they are prone to damage from concentrated loads at joints or due to impact. This is due to the relatively thin face-sheets and soft core materials typically found in sandwich structures. Carleton University's Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Project Team has designed and manufactured a UAV (GeoSury II Prototype) which features an all composite sandwich structure fuselage structure. The purpose of the aircraft is to conduct geomagnetic surveys. The GeoSury II Prototype serves as the test bed for many areas of research in advancing UAV technologies. Those areas of research include: low cost composite materials manufacturing, geomagnetic data acquisition, obstacle detection, autonomous operations and magnetic signature control. In this thesis work a methodology for designing and manufacturing inserts for foam-core sandwich structures was developed. The results of this research work enables a designer wishing to design a foam-core sandwich airframe structure, a means of quickly manufacturing optimized inserts for the safe introduction of discrete loads into the airframe. The previous GeoSury II Prototype insert designs (v.1 & v.2) were performance tested to establish a benchmark with which to compare future insert designs. Several designs and materials were considered for the new v.3 inserts. A plug and sleeve design was selected, due to its ability to effectively transfer the required loads to the sandwich structure. The insert material was chosen to be epoxy, reinforced with chopped carbon fibre. This material was chosen for its combination of strength, low mass and also compatibility with the face-sheet material. The v.3 insert assembly is 60% lighter than the

  2. The role of the inserted layer in resistive random access memory device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dainan; Ma, Guokun; Zhang, Huaiwu; Tang, Xiaoli; Zhong, Zhiyong; Jie, Li; Su, Hua

    2016-07-01

    NiO resistive switching devices were fabricated by reactive DC magnetron sputtering at room temperature containing different inserted layers. From measurements, we demonstrated the filaments were made up by metal Co rather than the oxygen defect or other metal. A current jumping phenomenon in the SET process was observed, evidencing that the filament generating procedure was changed due to the inserted layers. In this process, we demonstrate the current jumping appeared in higher voltage region when the position of inserted layer was close to the bottom electrode. The I-V curves shifted to the positive direction as the thickness of inserted layer increasing. With the change of the number of inserted layers, SET voltages varied while the RESET voltage kept stable. According to the electrochemical metallization memory mechanism, detailed explanations on all the phenomena were addressed. This discovery is supposed of great potentials in the use of designing multi-layer RRAM devices.

  3. A study of the suitability of ferrite for use in low-field insertion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1995-02-01

    Most insertion devices built to date use rare-earth permanent-magnet materials, which have a high remanent field and are more expensive than many other permanent-magnet materials. Low-field insertion devices could use less-expensive, lower performance magnetic materials if they had suitable magnetic characteristics. These materials must be resistant to demagnetization during construction and operation of the insertion device, have uniform magnetization, possess low minor-axis magnetic moments, and have small minor field components on the surfaces. This paper describes an investigation to determine if ferrite possesses magnetic qualities suitable for insertion device applications. The type of ferrite investigated, MMPA Ceramic 8 from Stackpole Inc., was found to be acceptable for insertion device applications.

  4. Insertion site preferences of the P transposable element in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Guo-chun; Rehm, E. Jay; Rubin, Gerald M.

    2000-01-01

    We determined the genomic sequence at the site of insertion in 2,266 unselected P element insertion events. Estimating physical properties of the genomic DNA at these insertion sites—such as base composition, bendability, A-philicity, protein-induced deformability, and B-DNA twist—revealed that they differ significantly from average chromosomal DNA. By examining potential hydrogen bonding sites in the major groove, we identified a 14-bp palindromic pattern centered on the 8-bp target site duplication that is generated by P element insertion. Our results suggest that the P-element transposition mechanism has a two-fold dyad symmetry and recognizes a structural feature at insertion sites, rather than a specific sequence motif. PMID:10716700

  5. A predictive model of intein insertion site for use in the engineering of molecular switches.

    PubMed

    Apgar, James; Ross, Mary; Zuo, Xiao; Dohle, Sarah; Sturtevant, Derek; Shen, Binzhang; de la Vega, Humberto; Lessard, Philip; Lazar, Gabor; Raab, R Michael

    2012-01-01

    Inteins are intervening protein domains with self-splicing ability that can be used as molecular switches to control activity of their host protein. Successfully engineering an intein into a host protein requires identifying an insertion site that permits intein insertion and splicing while allowing for proper folding of the mature protein post-splicing. By analyzing sequence and structure based properties of native intein insertion sites we have identified four features that showed significant correlation with the location of the intein insertion sites, and therefore may be useful in predicting insertion sites in other proteins that provide native-like intein function. Three of these properties, the distance to the active site and dimer interface site, the SVM score of the splice site cassette, and the sequence conservation of the site showed statistically significant correlation and strong predictive power, with area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.79, 0.76, and 0.73 respectively, while the distance to secondary structure/loop junction showed significance but with less predictive power (AUC of 0.54). In a case study of 20 insertion sites in the XynB xylanase, two features of native insertion sites showed correlation with the splice sites and demonstrated predictive value in selecting non-native splice sites. Structural modeling of intein insertions at two sites highlighted the role that the insertion site location could play on the ability of the intein to modulate activity of the host protein. These findings can be used to enrich the selection of insertion sites capable of supporting intein splicing and hosting an intein switch.

  6. Aspartate embedding depth affects pHLIP's insertion pKa.

    PubMed

    Fendos, Justin; Barrera, Francisco N; Engelman, Donald M

    2013-07-01

    We have used the pHlow insertion peptide (pHLIP) family to study the role of aspartate embedding depth in pH-dependent transmembrane peptide insertion. pHLIP binds to the surface of a lipid bilayer as a largely unstructured monomer at neutral pH. When the pH is lowered, pHLIP inserts spontaneously across the membrane as a spanning α-helix. pHLIP insertion is reversible when the pH is adjusted back to a neutral value. One of the critical events facilitating pHLIP insertion is the protonation of aspartates in the spanning domain of the peptide: the negative side chains of these residues convert to uncharged, polar forms, facilitating insertion by altering the hydrophobicity of the spanning domain. To examine this protonation mechanism further, we created pHLIP sequence variants in which the two spanning aspartates (D14 and D25) were moved up or down in the sequence. We hypothesized that the aspartate depth in the inserted state would directly affect the proton affinity of the acidic side chains, altering the pKa of pH-dependent insertion. To this end, we also mutated the arginine at position 11 to determine whether arginine snorkeling modulates the insertion pKa by affecting the aspartate depth. Our results indicate that both types of mutations change the insertion pKa, supporting the idea that the aspartate depth is a participating parameter in determining the pH dependence. We also show that pHLIP's resistance to aggregation can be altered with our mutations, identifying a new criterion for improving the performance of pHLIP in vivo when targeting acidic disease tissues such as cancer and inflammation. PMID:23721379

  7. A proposal for a drug information database and text templates for generating package inserts.

    PubMed

    Okuya, Ryo; Kimura, Masaomi; Ohkura, Michiko; Tsuchiya, Fumito

    2013-01-01

    To prevent prescription errors caused by information systems, a database to store complete and accurate drug information in a user-friendly format is needed. In previous studies, the primary method for obtaining data stored in a database is to extract drug information from package inserts by employing pattern matching or more sophisticated methods such as text mining. However, it is difficult to obtain a complete database because there is no strict rule concerning expressions used to describe drug information in package inserts. The authors' strategy was to first build a database and then automatically generate package inserts by embedding data in the database using templates. To create this database, the support of pharmaceutical companies to input accurate data is required. It is expected that this system will work, because these companies can earn merit for newly developed drugs to decrease the effort to create package inserts from scratch. This study designed the table schemata for the database and text templates to generate the package inserts. To handle the variety of drug-specific information in the package inserts, this information in drug composition descriptions was replaced with labels and the replacement descriptions utilizing cluster analysis were analyzed. To improve the method by which frequently repeated ingredient information and/or supplementary information are stored, the method was modified by introducing repeat tags in the templates to indicate repetition and improving the insertion of data into the database. The validity of this method was confirmed by inputting the drug information described in existing package inserts and checking that the method could regenerate the descriptions in the original package insert. In future research, the table schemata and text templates will be extended to regenerate other information in the package inserts.

  8. Review of peripherally inserted central catheters in the Singapore acute-care hospital.

    PubMed

    Chlebicki, M P; Teo, E K

    2003-10-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters are frequently used whenever reliable central venous access is required for a prolonged period of time. The objective of this study was to review utilisation profile, complication rates and outcomes of patients who were treated in our hospital with the therapy that required placement of the peripherally inserted central catheter. We reviewed the medical records of all patients who had peripherally inserted central catheter placed between the beginning of July and the end of October 2002. Five patients who remained hospitalised at the time of review (six weeks after the last day of study period) were excluded. Seventy-eight patients with 94 peripherally inserted central catheters were analysed in detail. Sixty-four peripherally inserted central catheters (68.1%) were placed for prolonged antibiotic therapy, 27 (28.7%) mainly to administer total parenteral nutrition and 3 (3.2%) were inserted for other reasons. Catheters were in place before removal for a mean 17.2 days. Forty-eight catheters (51.1%) were removed after completion of therapy on average 20.2 days after insertion. Complications were frequent but minor. Thirty-three catheters (35.1%) were removed due to catheter-related complications. The most common complication were phlebitis followed by accidental removal. In summary, peripherally inserted central catheters proved to be reasonably safe and a reliable way of providing therapy requiring prolonged intravenous access. Complications were frequent but relatively minor. Complication rates in our study were similar to those reported in other studies on this subject. Peripherally inserted central catheters remain a convenient and reasonable alternative to other centrally or peripherally inserted venous devices.

  9. A Predictive Model of Intein Insertion Site for Use in the Engineering of Molecular Switches

    PubMed Central

    Apgar, James; Ross, Mary; Zuo, Xiao; Dohle, Sarah; Sturtevant, Derek; Shen, Binzhang; de la Vega, Humberto; Lessard, Philip; Lazar, Gabor; Raab, R. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Inteins are intervening protein domains with self-splicing ability that can be used as molecular switches to control activity of their host protein. Successfully engineering an intein into a host protein requires identifying an insertion site that permits intein insertion and splicing while allowing for proper folding of the mature protein post-splicing. By analyzing sequence and structure based properties of native intein insertion sites we have identified four features that showed significant correlation with the location of the intein insertion sites, and therefore may be useful in predicting insertion sites in other proteins that provide native-like intein function. Three of these properties, the distance to the active site and dimer interface site, the SVM score of the splice site cassette, and the sequence conservation of the site showed statistically significant correlation and strong predictive power, with area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.79, 0.76, and 0.73 respectively, while the distance to secondary structure/loop junction showed significance but with less predictive power (AUC of 0.54). In a case study of 20 insertion sites in the XynB xylanase, two features of native insertion sites showed correlation with the splice sites and demonstrated predictive value in selecting non-native splice sites. Structural modeling of intein insertions at two sites highlighted the role that the insertion site location could play on the ability of the intein to modulate activity of the host protein. These findings can be used to enrich the selection of insertion sites capable of supporting intein splicing and hosting an intein switch. PMID:22649521

  10. Impact of ploidy level on the distribution of Pokey element insertions in the Daphnia pulex complex

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transposable elements (TEs) play a major role in genome evolution. Their capacity to move and/or multiply in the genome of their host may have profound impacts on phenotypes and dramatic consequences on genome structure. The population dynamics and distribution of TEs are influenced by their mode of transposition, the availability of niches in host genomes, and host population dynamics. Theories predict an increase in the number of TE insertions following hybridization or polyploidization. Evolution of TEs in hybrids and polyploids has mostly been studied in plants; few studies have examined the impacts of hybridization and/or polyploidization on TEs in animals. Hybrids and polyploids have arisen multiple times in the Daphnia pulex complex and are thought to reproduce by obligate parthenogenesis. Our study examines the effects of ploidy level on polymorphism and number of Pokey element insertions in diploid and polyploid hybrid isolates from the Daphnia pulex complex. Results The polymorphism of Pokey insertion sites did not depend solely on either the ploidy level or the genetic background of their host; therefore, it may be the result of interactions between these parameters and other parameters such as Pokey activity, selection and/or drift. No significant effect of ploidy level was found on the number of Pokey insertions using TE display and qPCR. However, the load of Pokey insertion sites and the number of unique insertion sites were slightly (but not significantly) higher in polyploids than in diploids. Conclusions These results suggest a lack of increase in the number of Pokey insertions following polyploidization but higher availability of Pokey insertion sites in polyploids than in diploids. Compared to previous TE display and qPCR results, the load of Pokey insertions in hybrid diploids was higher than in non-hybrid sexual and asexual diploids, which suggests an increase in the density of Pokey insertions following hybridization. PMID:24382139

  11. CHELT therapy in the treatment of chronic insertional Achilles tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Notarnicola, Angela; Maccagnano, Giuseppe; Tafuri, Silvio; Forcignanò, Maria Immacolata; Panella, Antonio; Moretti, Biagio

    2014-05-01

    The application of laser therapy on soft tissue is used for pain relief, anti-inflammation action and biostimulation. The efficiency of High Energy Laser Therapy has not yet been studied on Achilles tendinopathy. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a flow of Cold air and High Energy Laser Therapy (CHELT) versus Extracorporeal Shock Waves Therapy (ESWT) in the treatment of Achilles tendinopathy. In this prospective, clinical trial, 60 subjects affected by insertional Achilles tendinopathy were enrolled and randomized to CHELT (30 subjects) or to ESWT (30 subjects). In CHELT group the patients received ten daily sessions of 1,200 J and 12 W of laser therapy (wavelength of 1,084, 810 and 980 nm) added to a flow of cold air at -30 °C. In the ESWT group, the patients received three sessions at 3- to 4-day intervals of 1,600 impulses with an energy flux density (EFD) of 0.05-0.07 mJ/mm(2). Both groups of participants performed stretching and eccentric exercises over a 2-month period. The visual analogue scale (VAS), the Ankle-Hindfoot Scale, and the Roles and Maudsley Score were measured before treatment (T0), and at end of the treatment session (T1) and 2 (T2) and 6 months (T3) after treatment during the follow-up examinations. In both groups, we found a statistically significant improvement of the VAS at T1, T2 and T3 (p < 0.01). The difference between the two groups was statistically significant in favour of the CHELT group (p < 0.001). At 2 months, the CHELT group was statistically better for Ankle-Hindfoot Scale and the Roles and Maudsley Score (p < 0.05) and at 6 months only for the Roles and Maudsley Score (p < 0.001). High Energy Laser Therapy gave quicker and better pain relief. It also gave the patient a full functional recovery and greater satisfaction.

  12. On the processing and properties of binary compound insertion electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarakonsri, Thapanee

    This dissertation explores the processing/structure/property relationship for binary compounds used as negative electrode material. A solution route method for synthesis of binary compound electrodes, InSb, Cu2Sb, and Cu6Sn5 will be introduced. The material characterization using XRD and TEM techniques suggests the formation of an amorphous phase in the reaction products. The amorphous phase was decomposed under an annealing process and under direct exposure to the electron beam. The precipitation of different phases in the form of small particles was observed. The electrochemical analysis of InSb from the solution route will be compared with ball milled and single crystal InSb electrodes. The structure simulation of the ternary phase Li3xIn1-xSb, which exists in the Li-In-Sb phase diagram at 400°C proposed by W. Sitte and W. Weppner [1], was used to confirm the occurrence of ternary compounds after an initial lithium insertion into the InSb zinc-blende structure. The charge-discharge voltage profile of Li/InSb under OCV conditions shows chemical potential changing with time in the two-phase region, indicating a series of ternary phase formation according to the phase diagram. This is an experimental result confirming the existence of ternary phases, which is consistent with the simulation models. The electrochemical analysis of Cu2Sb and Cu6Sn 5 solution route electrodes will be discussed. The Cu extrusion from Cu2Sb and Cu6Sn5 structures was reported to occur during the lithiation process [2, 3]. The post mortem analysis of a Cu2Sb electrode then was conducted to examine the Cu extrusion. The electrochemical behavior of InSb from solution route and Cu 6Sn5 from both solution route and ball milling exhibits a local minimum voltage in the first discharge. It was suggested that the occurrence of a local voltage minimum was due to the slow nucleation of a stable phase [4]. The growth analysis of Johnson-Mehl-Avrami [5] combined with Butler-Volmer [6] electrode

  13. DFT Calculations on the Mechanism of Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Reaction of Diazo Compounds with Phenols: O-H Insertion versus C-H Insertion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Luo, Zhoujie; Zhang, John Zenghui; Xia, Fei

    2016-08-18

    The reaction of diazo compounds with transition-metal carbenes is an efficient way to achieve the functionalization of chemical bonds in organic molecules, especially for the C-H and O-H bonds. However, the selective mechanisms of C-H and O-H bond insertions by various metal carbenes such as Rh and Cu complexes are not quite clear. In this work, we performed a comprehensively theoretical investigation of the phenol C-H and O-H bonds inserted by Rh and Cu carbenes by using DFT calculations. The calculated results reveal that the nucleophilic additions of phenols to the Rh and Cu carbenes in the C-H bond insertions are the rate-determining steps of whole reactions, which are higher than the barriers in the O-H insertions. In the process of intramolecular [1,3]-H transfer, the Rh and Cu ligands in their carbenes tend to dissociate into solution rather than the intramolecular migration due to their weak metal-carbon bonds. A deeply theoretical analysis of the electronic structures of Rh, Cu, and Au carbenes as well as their complexes elucidated their differences in the chemoselectivity of C-H and O-H insertion products, which agrees with the experimental observations well. PMID:27472439

  14. Modeling the Insertion Mechanics of Flexible Neural Probes Coated with Sacrificial Polymers for Optimizing Probe Design.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sagar; Lo, Meng-Chen; Damodaran, Vinod B; Kaplan, Hilton M; Kohn, Joachim; Zahn, Jeffrey D; Shreiber, David I

    2016-01-01

    Single-unit recording neural probes have significant advantages towards improving signal-to-noise ratio and specificity for signal acquisition in brain-to-computer interface devices. Long-term effectiveness is unfortunately limited by the chronic injury response, which has been linked to the mechanical mismatch between rigid probes and compliant brain tissue. Small, flexible microelectrodes may overcome this limitation, but insertion of these probes without buckling requires supporting elements such as a stiff coating with a biodegradable polymer. For these coated probes, there is a design trade-off between the potential for successful insertion into brain tissue and the degree of trauma generated by the insertion. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a finite element model (FEM) to simulate insertion of coated neural probes of varying dimensions and material properties into brain tissue. Simulations were performed to predict the buckling and insertion forces during insertion of coated probes into a tissue phantom with material properties of brain. The simulations were validated with parallel experimental studies where probes were inserted into agarose tissue phantom, ex vivo chick embryonic brain tissue, and ex vivo rat brain tissue. Experiments were performed with uncoated copper wire and both uncoated and coated SU-8 photoresist and Parylene C probes. Model predictions were found to strongly agree with experimental results (<10% error). The ratio of the predicted buckling force-to-predicted insertion force, where a value greater than one would ideally be expected to result in successful insertion, was plotted against the actual success rate from experiments. A sigmoidal relationship was observed, with a ratio of 1.35 corresponding to equal probability of insertion and failure, and a ratio of 3.5 corresponding to a 100% success rate. This ratio was dubbed the "safety factor", as it indicated the degree to which the coating should be over

  15. Modeling the Insertion Mechanics of Flexible Neural Probes Coated with Sacrificial Polymers for Optimizing Probe Design

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sagar; Lo, Meng-Chen; Damodaran, Vinod B.; Kaplan, Hilton M.; Kohn, Joachim; Zahn, Jeffrey D.; Shreiber, David I.

    2016-01-01

    Single-unit recording neural probes have significant advantages towards improving signal-to-noise ratio and specificity for signal acquisition in brain-to-computer interface devices. Long-term effectiveness is unfortunately limited by the chronic injury response, which has been linked to the mechanical mismatch between rigid probes and compliant brain tissue. Small, flexible microelectrodes may overcome this limitation, but insertion of these probes without buckling requires supporting elements such as a stiff coating with a biodegradable polymer. For these coated probes, there is a design trade-off between the potential for successful insertion into brain tissue and the degree of trauma generated by the insertion. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a finite element model (FEM) to simulate insertion of coated neural probes of varying dimensions and material properties into brain tissue. Simulations were performed to predict the buckling and insertion forces during insertion of coated probes into a tissue phantom with material properties of brain. The simulations were validated with parallel experimental studies where probes were inserted into agarose tissue phantom, ex vivo chick embryonic brain tissue, and ex vivo rat brain tissue. Experiments were performed with uncoated copper wire and both uncoated and coated SU-8 photoresist and Parylene C probes. Model predictions were found to strongly agree with experimental results (<10% error). The ratio of the predicted buckling force-to-predicted insertion force, where a value greater than one would ideally be expected to result in successful insertion, was plotted against the actual success rate from experiments. A sigmoidal relationship was observed, with a ratio of 1.35 corresponding to equal probability of insertion and failure, and a ratio of 3.5 corresponding to a 100% success rate. This ratio was dubbed the “safety factor”, as it indicated the degree to which the coating should be over

  16. Cloning of insertion site flanking sequence and construction of transfer DNA insert mutant library in Stylosanthes colletotrichum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Helong; Hu, Caiping; Yi, Kexian; Huang, Guixiu; Gao, Jianming; Zhang, Shiqing; Zheng, Jinlong; Liu, Qiaolian; Xi, Jingen

    2014-01-01

    Stylosanthes sp. is the most important forage legume in tropical areas worldwide. Stylosanthes anthracnose, which is mainly caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is a globally severe disease in stylo production. Little progress has been made in anthracnose molecular pathogenesis research. In this study, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was used to transform Stylosanthes colletotrichum strain CH008. The major factors of the genetic transformation system of S. colletotrichum were optimized as follows: A. tumefaciens' AGL-1 concentration (OD(600)), 0.8; concentration of Colletotrichum conidium, 1 × 10(6) conidia/mL; acetosyringone concentration, 100 mmol/L; induction time, 6 h; co-culture temperature, 25 °C; and co-culture time, 3 d. Thus, the transformation efficiency was increased to 300-400 transformants per 106 conidia. Based on the optimized system, a mutant library containing 4616 mutants was constructed, from which some mutants were randomly selected for analysis. Results show that the mutants were single copies that could be stably inherited. The growth rate, spore amount, spore germination rate, and appressorium formation rate in some mutants were significantly different from those in the wild-type strain. We then selected the most appropriate method for the preliminary screening and re-screening of each mutant's pathogenic defects. We selected 1230 transformants, and obtained 23 strains with pathogenic defects, namely, 18 strains with reduced pathogenicity and five strains with lost pathogenicity. Thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR was used to identify the transfer DNA (T-DNA) integration site in the mutant that was coded 2430, and a sequence of 476 bp was obtained. The flanking sequence of T-DNA was compared with the Colletotrichum genome by BLAST, and a sequence of 401 bp was found in Contig464 of the Colletotrichum genome. By predicting the function of the flanking sequence, we discovered that T-DNA insertion in the promoter region

  17. A comparative analysis of insertional effects in genetically engineered plants: considerations for pre-market assessments.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Jaimie; Steele, Marina; Bean, Jordan; Neuspiel, Margaret; Girard, Cécile; Dormann, Nataliya; Pearson, Cindy; Savoie, Annie; Bourbonnière, Luc; Macdonald, Philip

    2015-02-01

    During genetic engineering, DNA is inserted into a plant's genome, and such insertions are often accompanied by the insertion of additional DNA, deletions and/or rearrangements. These genetic changes are collectively known as insertional effects, and they have the potential to give rise to unintended traits in plants. In addition, there are many other genetic changes that occur in plants both spontaneously and as a result of conventional breeding practices. Genetic changes similar to insertional effects occur in plants, namely as a result of the movement of transposable elements, the repair of double-strand breaks by non-homologous end-joining, and the intracellular transfer of organelle DNA. Based on this similarity, insertional effects should present a similar level of risk as these other genetic changes in plants, and it is within the context of these genetic changes that insertional effects must be considered. Increased familiarity with genetic engineering techniques and advances in molecular analysis techniques have provided us with a greater understanding of the nature and impact of genetic changes in plants, and this can be used to refine pre-market assessments of genetically engineered plants and food and feeds derived from genetically engineered plants.

  18. Regulation of AMPA receptor extrasynaptic insertion by 4.1N, phosphorylation and palmitoylation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Da–Ting; Makino, Yuichi; Sharma, Kamal; Hayashi, Takashi; Neve, Rachael; Takamiya, Kogo; Huganir, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    The insertion of alpha–amino–3–hydroxy–5–methyl–4–isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) into the plasma membrane is a key step in synaptic delivery of AMPARs during the expression of synaptic plasticity. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating AMPAR insertion remain elusive. By directly visualizing individual insertion events of the AMPAR subunit GluR1, we demonstrate that Protein 4.1N is required for activity dependent GluR1 insertion. PKC phosphorylation of GluR1 S816 and S818 residues enhances 4.1N binding to GluR1, and facilitates GluR1 insertion. In addition, palmitoylation of GluR1 C811 residue modulates PKC phosphorylation and GluR1 insertion. Finally, disrupting 4.1N dependent GluR1 insertion decreases surface expression of GluR1 and the expression of long–term potentiation (LTP). Our study uncovers a novel mechanism that governs activity dependent GluR1 trafficking, reveals an interesting interplay between AMPAR palmitoylation and phosphorylation, and underscores the functional significance of the 4.1N protein in AMPAR trafficking and synaptic plasticity. PMID:19503082

  19. The FADE mass-stat: a technique for inserting or deleting particles in molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Borg, Matthew K; Lockerby, Duncan A; Reese, Jason M

    2014-02-21

    The emergence of new applications of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation calls for the development of mass-statting procedures that insert or delete particles on-the-fly. In this paper we present a new mass-stat which we term FADE, because it gradually "fades-in" (inserts) or "fades-out" (deletes) molecules over a short relaxation period within a MD simulation. FADE applies a time-weighted relaxation to the intermolecular pair forces between the inserting/deleting molecule and any neighbouring molecules. The weighting function we propose in this paper is a piece-wise polynomial that can be described entirely by two parameters: the relaxation time scale and the order of the polynomial. FADE inherently conserves overall system momentum independent of the form of the weighting function. We demonstrate various simulations of insertions of atomic argon, polyatomic TIP4P water, polymer strands, and C60 Buckminsterfullerene molecules. We propose FADE parameters and a maximum density variation per insertion-instance that restricts spurious potential energy changes entering the system within desired tolerances. We also demonstrate in this paper that FADE compares very well to an existing insertion algorithm called USHER, in terms of accuracy, insertion rate (in dense fluids), and computational efficiency. The USHER algorithm is applicable to monatomic and water molecules only, but we demonstrate that FADE can be generally applied to various forms and sizes of molecules, such as polymeric molecules of long aspect ratio, and spherical carbon fullerenes with hollow interiors.

  20. The FADE mass-stat: A technique for inserting or deleting particles in molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, Matthew K.; Lockerby, Duncan A.; Reese, Jason M.

    2014-02-21

    The emergence of new applications of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation calls for the development of mass-statting procedures that insert or delete particles on-the-fly. In this paper we present a new mass-stat which we term FADE, because it gradually “fades-in” (inserts) or “fades-out” (deletes) molecules over a short relaxation period within a MD simulation. FADE applies a time-weighted relaxation to the intermolecular pair forces between the inserting/deleting molecule and any neighbouring molecules. The weighting function we propose in this paper is a piece-wise polynomial that can be described entirely by two parameters: the relaxation time scale and the order of the polynomial. FADE inherently conserves overall system momentum independent of the form of the weighting function. We demonstrate various simulations of insertions of atomic argon, polyatomic TIP4P water, polymer strands, and C{sub 60} Buckminsterfullerene molecules. We propose FADE parameters and a maximum density variation per insertion-instance that restricts spurious potential energy changes entering the system within desired tolerances. We also demonstrate in this paper that FADE compares very well to an existing insertion algorithm called USHER, in terms of accuracy, insertion rate (in dense fluids), and computational efficiency. The USHER algorithm is applicable to monatomic and water molecules only, but we demonstrate that FADE can be generally applied to various forms and sizes of molecules, such as polymeric molecules of long aspect ratio, and spherical carbon fullerenes with hollow interiors.

  1. Isolation and Analysis of a Novel Class of Suppressor of Ty Insertion Mutations in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Fassler, J. S.; Winston, F.

    1988-01-01

    Using a new scheme for the isolation of suppressor of Ty insertion mutations (spt mutations) in yeast, we have identified six new SPT genes. Mutations in two of these genes, SPT13 and SPT14, exhibit a novel suppression pattern: suppression of complete Ty insertion mutations, but not of solo δ insertion mutations. Transcriptional analysis shows that spt13- and spt14-mediated suppression of Ty insertion mutations is the result of an elevation in the levels of adjacent gene transcription. In spite of the failure of these mutations to suppress solo δ insertion mutations, they do cause changes in transcription of at least one solo δ insertion mutation. In addition, spt13 and spt14 mutations are epistatic to mutations in certain other SPT genes that do suppress solo δ insertion mutations. These results suggest that the SPT13 and SPT14 gene products may act via sequences in both the δ and ε regions of Ty elements. Finally, mutations in SPT13 cause sporulation and mating defects and SPT14 is essential for growth, suggesting that these two genes have important roles in general cellular functions. PMID:2834263

  2. Lyophilized Chitosan/xanthan Polyelectrolyte Complex Based Mucoadhesive Inserts for Nasal Delivery of Promethazine Hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    G Dehghan, Mohamed Hassan; Marzuka, Marzuka

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was the development of chitosan/xanthan polyelectrolyte complex based mucoadhesive nasal insert of promethazine hydrochloride a drug used in the treatment of motion sickness. A 32 factorial design was applied for preparing chitosan/xanthan polyelectrolyte complex and to study the effect of independent variables i.e. concentration of xanthan [X1] and concentration of chitosan [X2] on various responses i.e. viscosity of polyelectrolyte complex solution, water uptake of nasal inserts (at pH 2, 5.5, 7.4), bioadhesion potential of nasal inserts and in-vitro drug release at Q6h through nasal inserts. FTIR and DSC analysis were carried out to confirm complex formation and on loaded and unloaded nasal insert to investigate any drug excipient interaction. The nasal inserts were also characterized by powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and for ex-vivo permeation studies. The results show that higher amount of xanthan in polyelectrolyte complexes with respect to higher amount of chitosan retarded in-vitro drug release. The water uptake behaviour of nasal insert was strongly influenced by pH of the medium and by polycation/ polyanion concentration. The investigation verifies the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes formation between chitosan and xanthan at pH values in the vicinity of pKa intervals of the two polymers and confirms their potential for the nasal delivery of promethazine hydrochloride. PMID:25276178

  3. A Wrapping Method for Inserting Titanium Micro-Mesh Implants in the Reconstruction of Blowout Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Tae Joon; Yang, Won Yong; Kang, Sang Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Titanium micro-mesh implants are widely used in orbital wall reconstructions because they have several advantageous characteristics. However, the rough and irregular marginal spurs of the cut edges of the titanium mesh sheet impede the efficacious and minimally traumatic insertion of the implant, because these spurs may catch or hook the orbital soft tissue, skin, or conjunctiva during the insertion procedure. In order to prevent this problem, we developed an easy method of inserting a titanium micro-mesh, in which it is wrapped with the aseptic transparent plastic film that is used to pack surgical instruments or is attached to one side of the inner suture package. Fifty-four patients underwent orbital wall reconstruction using a transconjunctival or transcutaneous approach. The wrapped implant was easily inserted without catching or injuring the orbital soft tissue, skin, or conjunctiva. In most cases, the implant was inserted in one attempt. Postoperative computed tomographic scans showed excellent placement of the titanium micro-mesh and adequate anatomic reconstruction of the orbital walls. This wrapping insertion method may be useful for making the insertion of titanium micro-mesh implants in the reconstruction of orbital wall fractures easier and less traumatic. PMID:26848451

  4. Transposable elements: insertion pattern and impact on gene expression evolution in hominids.

    PubMed

    Warnefors, Maria; Pereira, Vini; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2010-08-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) can affect the regulation of nearby genes through several mechanisms. Here, we examine to what extent recent TE insertions have contributed to the evolution of gene expression in hominids. We compare expression levels of human and chimpanzee orthologs and detect a weak increase in expression divergence (ED) for genes with species-specific TE insertions compared with unaffected genes. However, we show that genes with TE insertions predating the human-chimpanzee split also exhibit a similar increase in ED and therefore conclude that the increase is not due to the transcriptional influence of the TEs. These results are further confirmed by lineage-specific analysis of ED, using rhesus macaque as an outgroup: Human-chimpanzee ortholog pairs, where one ortholog has suffered TE insertion but not the other, do not show increased ED along the lineage where the insertion occurred, relative to the other lineage. We also show that genes with recent TE insertions tend to produce more alternative transcripts but find no evidence that the TEs themselves promote transcript diversity. Finally, we observe that TEs are enriched upstream relative to downstream of genes and show that this is due to insertional bias, rather than selection, because this bias is only observed in genes expressed in the germ line. This provides an alternative neutral explanation for the accumulation of TEs in upstream sequences.

  5. Spectrum of T-DNA integrations for insertional mutagenesis of Histoplasma capsulatum

    PubMed Central

    Kemski, Megan M.; Stevens, Bryan; Rappleye, Chad A.

    2012-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is being increasingly used for insertional mutagenesis of fungi. To better evaluate its effectiveness as a mutagen for the fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum, we analyzed a collection of randomly selected T-DNA insertion mutants. Testing of different T-DNA element vectors engineered for transformation of fungi showed that pBHt2 provides the highest transformation efficiency and the lowest rate of vector backbone carryover. Sixty-eight individual T-DNA integrations were characterized by recovery of T-DNA ends and flanking genomic sequences. The right border end of the T-DNA is largely preserved whereas the left border end is frequently truncated. Analysis of T-DNA insertion sites confirms the lack of any integration hotspots in the Histoplasma genome. Relative to genes, T-DNA integrations show significant bias towards promoter regions at the expense of coding sequences. With consideration for potential promoter interruption and the demonstrated efficacy of intronic insertions, 61% of mapped T-DNA insertions should impair gene expression or function. Mapping of T-DNA flanking sequences demonstrates 67% of T-DNA integrations are integrations at a single chromosomal site and 31% of T-DNA integrations are associated with large-scale chromosomal rearrangements. This characterization of T-DNA insertions in mutants selected without regard to phenotype supports application of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation as an insertional mutagen for genome-based screens and functional discovery of genes in Histoplasma. PMID:23332832

  6. Exclusion of long heterologous insertions and deletions from the pairing synapsis in pneumococcal transformation.

    PubMed

    Pasta, F; Sicard, M A

    1996-03-01

    We have studied the mode of recombination of six insertions during genetic transformation of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The six heterologous insertions are located at the same site in the ami locus of the pneumococcal chromosome; insertion sizes range from 4 to 1374 bp. With respect to single-point markers we found that the number of transformants in one-point crosses is reduced, while the number of wild-type transformants in two-point crosses is drastically increased, what we call hyper-recombination. The magnitude of the shift is correlated with the size of the insert. This effect could result either from a special repair pathway of multibase heteroduplexes or from the exclusion of multibase heterologous insertions out of the pairing synapsis. To test these hypotheses we have used insertions in two kinds of three-point crosses. The repair model predicts that the excess of wild-type transformants remains in one set of crosses but is suppressed in the second set. The results we obtained are reversed, ruling out the hypothesis of a repair process, but in agreement with predictions based on the exclusion model. Moreover, we have re-examined the situation of deletions, our previous results suggesting that deletions were likely to be converted at the heteroduplex step. Genetic evidence we obtained in this work no longer supports this hypothesis. Thus, long heterologous insertions are partly excluded at the pairing step.

  7. Age-dependent changes in matrix composition and organization at the ligament-to-bone insertion.

    PubMed

    Wang, I-Ning E; Mitroo, Siddarth; Chen, Faye H; Lu, Helen H; Doty, Stephen B

    2006-08-01

    Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) often occur at the ligament-to-bone insertion site; thus, an in-depth understanding of the native insertion is critical in identifying the etiology of failure and devising optimal treatment protocols for ACL injuries. The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic characterization of the ACL-to-bone interface, focusing on structural and compositional changes as a function of age. Using a bovine model, three age groups were studied: Neonatal (1-7 days old), Immature (2-6 months old), and Mature (2-5 years old). The distribution of types I, II, X collagen, decorin, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), glycosaminoglycan (GAG), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and minerals at the ACL-to-bone insertion were examined. Additionally, cell aspect ratio, size, and distribution across the insertion were quantified. The ACL-to-bone insertion is divided into four regions: ligament, nonmineralized interface, mineralized interface, and bone. Both region-dependent and age-dependent structural and compositional changes at the insertion site were observed in this study. The interface in the skeletally immature group resembled articular cartilage, while the adult interface was similar to fibrocartilaginous tissue. Age-dependent changes in extracellular matrix composition (type X collagen, sulfated glycosaminoglycan), cellularity, ALP activity, and mineral distribution were also found. Marked differences in collagen fiber orientation between the femoral and tibial insertions were observed, and these differences became more pronounced with age.

  8. Optimum coil insertion speed of various coils in brain aneurysm embolization in vitro.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Yoshifumi; Takeuchi, Masataka; Fukasaku, Kazuaki

    2016-10-01

    A coil must comprise material with shape memory to perform optimal coil embolization. To achieve this, the alloy characteristics of the coil (hardness, shape, and thickness) must be understood. In this experiment, a catheter was fixed in the bright position and the movement of the coil was observed under a constant rate of insertion; the optimal insertion rate during clinical use was investigated. The first coil insertion speed was evaluated using simulated aneurysms in an in vivo arterial model. The results showed that the insertion force relates to the deployment shape of the coil, that the feedback through the force indicator using sound is very effective, and that the recorder is useful for analysis of coil embolization. The inserted coils during aneurysm embolization were able to wind uniformly within the aneurysm due to a variety of factors (guiding or micro-catheter position and kick-back phenomenon such as delivery wire). Optimal speed is achieved with proper coil design, which allows the coil to be inserted into the aneurysm. The shape and size of the aneurysm can help determine the necessary size and design of the coil that should be used during the optimal speed range. Aneurysm wall and coil characteristics are considered, along with the friction state of the coil (hardness, shape, and thickness), leading to improvements in safety during the insertion procedure at optimum speed. PMID:27353635

  9. Optimum coil insertion speed of various coils in brain aneurysm embolization in vitro.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Yoshifumi; Takeuchi, Masataka; Fukasaku, Kazuaki

    2016-10-01

    A coil must comprise material with shape memory to perform optimal coil embolization. To achieve this, the alloy characteristics of the coil (hardness, shape, and thickness) must be understood. In this experiment, a catheter was fixed in the bright position and the movement of the coil was observed under a constant rate of insertion; the optimal insertion rate during clinical use was investigated. The first coil insertion speed was evaluated using simulated aneurysms in an in vivo arterial model. The results showed that the insertion force relates to the deployment shape of the coil, that the feedback through the force indicator using sound is very effective, and that the recorder is useful for analysis of coil embolization. The inserted coils during aneurysm embolization were able to wind uniformly within the aneurysm due to a variety of factors (guiding or micro-catheter position and kick-back phenomenon such as delivery wire). Optimal speed is achieved with proper coil design, which allows the coil to be inserted into the aneurysm. The shape and size of the aneurysm can help determine the necessary size and design of the coil that should be used during the optimal speed range. Aneurysm wall and coil characteristics are considered, along with the friction state of the coil (hardness, shape, and thickness), leading to improvements in safety during the insertion procedure at optimum speed.

  10. A Wrapping Method for Inserting Titanium Micro-Mesh Implants in the Reconstruction of Blowout Fractures.

    PubMed

    Choi, Tae Joon; Burm, Jin Sik; Yang, Won Yong; Kang, Sang Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Titanium micro-mesh implants are widely used in orbital wall reconstructions because they have several advantageous characteristics. However, the rough and irregular marginal spurs of the cut edges of the titanium mesh sheet impede the efficacious and minimally traumatic insertion of the implant, because these spurs may catch or hook the orbital soft tissue, skin, or conjunctiva during the insertion procedure. In order to prevent this problem, we developed an easy method of inserting a titanium micro-mesh, in which it is wrapped with the aseptic transparent plastic film that is used to pack surgical instruments or is attached to one side of the inner suture package. Fifty-four patients underwent orbital wall reconstruction using a transconjunctival or transcutaneous approach. The wrapped implant was easily inserted without catching or injuring the orbital soft tissue, skin, or conjunctiva. In most cases, the implant was inserted in one attempt. Postoperative computed tomographic scans showed excellent placement of the titanium micro-mesh and adequate anatomic reconstruction of the orbital walls. This wrapping insertion method may be useful for making the insertion of titanium micro-mesh implants in the reconstruction of orbital wall fractures easier and less traumatic. PMID:26848451

  11. Mono-allelic retrotransposon insertion addresses epigenetic transcriptional repression in human genome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Retrotransposons have been extensively studied in plants and animals and have been shown to have an impact on human genome dynamics and evolution. Their ability to move within genomes gives retrotransposons to affect genome instability. Methods we examined the polymorphic inserted AluYa5, evolutionary young Alu, in the progesterone receptor gene to determine the effects of Alu insertion on molecular environment. We used mono-allelic inserted cell lines which carry both Alu-present and Alu-absent alleles. To determine the epigenetic change and gene expression, we performed restriction enzyme digestion, Pyrosequencing, and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation. Results We observed that the polymorphic insertion of evolutionally young Alu causes increasing levels of DNA methylation in the surrounding genomic area and generates inactive histone tail modifications. Consequently the Alu insertion deleteriously inactivates the neighboring gene expression. Conclusion The mono-allelic Alu insertion cell line clearly showed that polymorphic inserted repetitive elements cause the inactivation of neighboring gene expression, bringing aberrant epigenetic changes. PMID:22300442

  12. Vena cava filter insertion and the general surgery armamentarium: a 13-year experience.

    PubMed

    Sing, Ronald F; Nguyen, Phuong H; Christmas, A Britton; Jacobs, David G; Heniford, B Todd

    2010-07-01

    The prevention of pulmonary emboli has a long surgical history. Through the development of percutaneous technologies, vena cava filters (VCFs) are now commonly inserted by interventional radiologists. This study reviews our experience with VCFs inserted by general surgeons. We retrospectively reviewed data from our VCF performance improvement database, which is a prospective collection of the VCF experience of the Department of General Surgery from February 1996 to May 2009. Demographics, procedural information, and complications were recorded. Eight hundred fifty-five VCFs were inserted in 853 patients. The mean age was 42.0 years (range, 14 to 90 years). One hundred ninety-seven VCFs were placed in the operating room, and 658 were placed in the intensive care unit. Twelve VCFs were intentionally inserted in a suprarenal position, and four were placed in the superior vena cava. Two patients received both superior vena cava and inferior vena cava filters. Complications included deep vein thrombosis at the insertion site (n=16), vena cava thrombosis (n=9), post-VCF pulmonary embolism (n=2), and a ventricle perforation requiring operative repair (n=1). No deaths were attributed to the presence of a VCF. Overall insertion success was 99.8 per cent. In two patients, an inferior VCF could not be placed as a result of inferior vena cava occlusion with no safe "landing zone" for deployment. The placement of VCFs is a vital skill in the general surgery armamentarium. Our experience demonstrates that general surgeons can safely insert VCFs with minimal perioperative complications.

  13. The Nucleoid Binding Protein H-NS Biases Genome-Wide Transposon Insertion Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Satoshi; Hubbard, Troy P.; Davis, Brigid M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transposon insertion sequencing (TIS; also known as TnSeq) is a potent approach commonly used to comprehensively define the genetic loci that contribute to bacterial fitness in diverse environments. A key presumption underlying analyses of TIS datasets is that loci with a low frequency of transposon insertions contribute to fitness. However, it is not known whether factors such as nucleoid binding proteins can alter the frequency of transposon insertion and thus whether TIS output may systematically reflect factors that are independent of the role of the loci in fitness. Here, we investigated whether the histone-like nucleoid structuring (H-NS) protein, which preferentially associates with AT-rich sequences, modulates the frequency of Mariner transposon insertion in the Vibrio cholerae genome, using comparative analysis of TIS results from wild-type (wt) and Δhns V. cholerae strains. These analyses were overlaid on gene classification based on GC content as well as on extant genome-wide identification of H-NS binding loci. Our analyses revealed a significant dearth of insertions within AT-rich loci in wt V. cholerae that was not apparent in the Δhns insertion library. Additionally, we observed a striking correlation between genetic loci that are overrepresented in the Δhns insertion library relative to their insertion frequency in wt V. cholerae and loci previously found to physically interact with H-NS. Collectively, our findings reveal that factors other than genetic fitness can systematically modulate the frequency of transposon insertions in TIS studies and add a cautionary note to interpretation of TIS data, particularly for AT-rich sequences. PMID:27578758

  14. Low free energy cost of very long loop insertions in proteins

    PubMed Central

    Scalley-Kim, Michelle; Minard, Philippe; Baker, David

    2003-01-01

    Long insertions into a loop of a folded host protein are expected to have destabilizing effects because of the entropic cost associated with loop closure unless the inserted sequence adopts a folded structure with amino- and carboxy-termini in close proximity. A loop entropy reduction screen based on this concept was used in an attempt to retrieve folded sequences from random sequence libraries. A library of long random sequences was inserted into a loop of the SH2 domain, displayed on the surface of M13 phage, and the inserted sequences that did not disrupt SH2 function were retrieved by panning using beads coated with a phosphotyrosine containing SH2 peptide ligand. Two sequences of a library of 2 × 108 sequences were isolated after multiple rounds of panning, and were found to have recovery levels similar to the wild-type SH2 domain and to be relatively intolerant to further mutation in PCR mutagenesis experiments. Surprisingly, although these inserted sequences exhibited little nonrandom structure, they do not significantly destabilize the host SH2 domain. Additional insertion variants recovered at lower levels in the panning experiments were also found to have a minimal effect on the stability and peptide-binding function of the SH2 domain. The additional level of selection present in the panning experiments is likely to involve in vivo folding and assembly, as there was a rough correlation between recovery levels in the phage-panning experiments and protein solubility. The finding that loop insertions of 60–80 amino acids have minimal effects on SH2 domain stability suggests that the free energy cost of inserting long loops may be considerably less than polymer theory estimates based on the entropic cost of loop closure, and, hence, that loop insertion may have provided an evolutionary route to multidomain protein structures. PMID:12538883

  15. Relative movements between Kinemax Plus tibial inserts and the tibial base-plates.

    PubMed

    Ash, H E; Scholes, S C; Parkin, R; Unsworth, A

    2003-01-01

    Tests were performed on six large Kinemax Plus knee bearings (snap-fit design) to evaluate the amount of movement between 10- and 15-mm-thick tibial inserts and the tibial base plates. The knee bearings were tested up to 1 x 10(6) cycles on the Durham six-station knee wear simulator which subjected the bearings to similar motion and loading profiles that would be experienced by the natural knee during walking. Although passive internal/external (I/E) rotation was allowed, no active I/E rotation was applied. The movement of the tibial inserts was measured with dial gauges (accuracy +/-0.01 mm) before and after the bearings were tested on the simulator, when unloaded, and throughout the tests while the bearings were being dynamically loaded in the simulator. Movement occurred between the tibial insert and the tibial base plate after initial assembly due to the snap-fit mechanism used to locate the tibial insert within the tibial base plate. However this decreased appreciably when the bearings were loaded in the simulator. The amount of movement did not change with time when the bearings were continuously loaded in the simulator. However, after each test the amount of movement of the tibial inserts, when unloaded, was only 65 per cent (anterior-posterior) and 46 per cent (medial-lateral) of the values before the test. This was thought to be due to creep of the ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) inserts. The movement between the tibial insert and tibial base plate in situ is likely to be much less than that observed by a surgeon at the time of assembly due to loading of the knee bearing in the body. However, the amount of movement when the tibial inserts are loaded may still be great enough to produce a second interface where wear of the tibial insert may take place. PMID:12666776

  16. Ablating the ventricular insertion of atrio-fascicular mahaim fiber: could be performed safely?

    PubMed

    Ducceschi, Valentino; Vitale, Raffaele; Sokola, Ewa Anna; Ottaviano, Luca; Sangiuolo, Raffaele; Gregorio, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    We report a patient who underwent radiofrequency ablation of the distal insertion of an atrio-fascicular accessory pathway with decremental properties because of inability to map a suitable potential alongside the tricuspid annulus. Small, discrete potentials resembling those of Purkinje fiber were found at right ventricular apex. All these potentials showed early activation during tachycardia preceding the QRS onset of various degree. Pace mapping helped to localize the presumed main distal insertion of the atrio-fascicular accessory pathway in a region where damage of the His-purkinje system may ensue. This case report describes catheter ablation of an atriofascicular accessory pathway by targeting its distal (ventricular) insertion site.

  17. Ablating the ventricular insertion of atrio-fascicular Mahaim fiber: what selection criteria should we use?

    PubMed

    Ducceschi, Valentino; Vitale, Raffaele; Ottaviano, Luca; Sokola, Ewa Anna; Sangiuolo, Raffaele; Gregorio, Giovanni

    2009-09-01

    We reported a patient who underwent RF ablation of the distal insertion of an atrio-fascicular accessory pathway with decremental properties because of inability to map a suitable potential alongside the tricuspid annulus. Small, discrete potentials resembling those of purkinje fiber were found at right ventricular apex, all these potentials showed early activation during tachycardia preceding the QRS onset of various degrees. Pace mapping helped to localize the presumed main distal insertion of the atrio-fascicular AP in a region where a damage of the His-purkinje system may ensue. This case report describes catheter ablation of an atriofascicular accessory pathway by targeting its distal (ventricular) insertion site.

  18. Placement of a peripherally inserted central catheter into the azygous vein

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, Iain Gilmore, Christopher

    2015-06-15

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) are used for a variety of infusion therapies. They are indicated in patients requiring long-term venous access. Incorrect positioning of the insertion of a PICC line is one of the known complications when inserting the device in clinical practice. Radiographers once performing imaging will commonly check if the tip of a PICC has entered the superior vena cava. This case study will report on a lesser known incorrect placement of a PICC line into the azygous vein and how this can be detected on radiographic imaging. This outcome for the patient can be detrimental as it has an increased risk of perforation, thrombus, and fistula formation.

  19. Radiative recoil corrections to hyperfine splitting: Polarization insertions in the electron factor

    SciTech Connect

    Eides, M. I.; Shelyuto, V. A.

    2010-01-15

    We consider three-loop radiative recoil corrections to hyperfine splitting in muonium due to insertions of the one-loop polarization operator in the electron factor. The contribution generated by electron polarization insertions is a cubic polynomial in the large logarithm of the electron-muon mass ratio. The leading logarithm cubed and logarithm squared terms are well known for some time. We calculate all single-logarithmic and nonlogarithmic radiative recoil corrections of the order {alpha}{sup 3}(m/M)E{sub F} generated by diagrams with the electron and muon polarization insertions.

  20. [Effect of the methods of photoactivation and insertion on the hardness of composite resins].

    PubMed

    Consani, Simonides; Pereira, Samira Buselli; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho; Correr Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of methods of photoactivation and insertion on the Knoop hardness of the Z100 and Alert composite resins. The specimens were confected in cavities measuring 4 x 4 mm. The insertion of material was carried out by means of two methods: single-portion technique and insertion of two 2-mm-thick layers. When inserted in a single portion, the resin was compressed with a static load of 1 kgf on a glass slab recovered with a polyester strip, in order to remove the excess of material. After the removal of the glass slab and polyester strip, the materials were photoactivated by means of continuous light emitted by a XL 3000 unit with a light intensity of 520 mW/cm2 for 40 seconds; double pulse, with light emission of 150 mW/cm2 for 10 seconds, plus 30 seconds with light intensity of 520 mW/cm2 emitted by a XL 3000 unit; and pulsatile light of 520 mW/cm emitted by the Optilux 400 unit, turned on for 2 seconds and off for 2 seconds, during 60 seconds. The two layers of the material submitted to double insertion were photoactivated in the same conditions as the bulk-inserted material, and the excess of material was also removed from the second layer. After storage in a stove at 37 C and 100% relative humidity for 24 hours, the specimens were embedded in polyester resin, trimmed and polished with sandpaper and diamond slurry. Knoop hardness was assessed in 4 depths with a HMV Shimadzu penetrometer under the load of 50 g during 30 seconds. The data submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test revealed that Z100 presented greater hardness values; double insertion was better than single insertion; the hardness at the surface was smaller than that at the bottom of the specimen, regardless of other factors. For Z100, all activation methods produced smaller hardness values when double insertion was carried out. Meanwhile, for Alert, continuous light promoted statistical similarity between the insertion techniques. For Z100, there was

  1. Unexpected formal insertion of CO2 into the C-Si bonds of a zinc compound

    DOE PAGES

    Kemp, Richard A.; McGrew, Genette I.; Khatri, Pathik A.; Geiger, William E.; Waterman, Rory

    2015-09-08

    Reaction of [κ2-PR2C(SiMe3)Py]2Zn (R = Ph, 2a; iPr, 2b) with CO2 affords the products of formal insertion at the C–Si bond, [κ2-PR2CC(O)O(SiMe3)Py]2Zn (R = Ph, 3a; iPr, 3b). Insertion product 3b was structurally characterized. As a result, the reaction appears to be a stepwise insertion and rearrangement of CO2 based on kinetic data.

  2. Use of sodium hypochlorite for skin antisepsis before inserting a peripheral venous catheter: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Forni, Cristiana; Sabattini, Tania; D'Alessandro, Fabio; Fiorani, Ambra; Gamberini, Simonetta; Maso, Alessandra; Curci, Rosa; Zanotti, Enrichetta; Chiari, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    Although it can be prevented, catheter-related bacteremia is common and dangerous. The antiseptics most widely used during insertion of peripheral venous catheters (PVCs) include povidone iodine, alcohol, and chlorhexidine. Another widely used antiseptic is a solution of 0.057 g sodium hypochlorite. This pilot study explored the contamination rate of the PVC tip inserted after skin decontamination with sodium hypochlorite. Culture analysis of the tips of the PVCs inserted into the 42 participants showed 7 (16.7%) colonized catheters. The results of this pilot study suggest taking into serious consideration the assessment of this antiseptic in randomized experimental studies.

  3. A new technique for T tube insertion in severe subglottic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Goto, Taichiro; Akanabe, Kumi; Oyamada, Yoshitaka; Kato, Ryoichi

    2011-06-01

    T tube insertion for subglottic stenosis is often difficult due to bending of the T tube itself. A T tube could be inserted safely and consistently in a patient with severe subglottic stenosis employing a method that we newly devised. Our method can be performed under local anesthesia without special instruments and is technically straightforward. And also, our method is considered to be applicable to marked stenosis and stenosis with a complex morphology. Herein we present an improved method for inserting a silicone T tube through a tracheostomy stoma in patients with severe subglottic stenosis.

  4. Central vein perforation during tunneled dialysis catheter insertion: principles of acute management.

    PubMed

    Pua, Uei

    2014-10-01

    Central venous perforation during dialysis catheter insertion is a potentially fatal complication. Prompt recognition and judicious initial steps are important in optimizing the outcome. The purpose of this manuscript is to illustrate the imaging features and steps in initial management.

  5. Inserting spaces before and after words affects word processing differently in Chinese: Evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pingping; Li, Xingshan

    2014-02-01

    Unlike in English, there are no spaces between printed words in Chinese. In this study, we explored how inserting a space before or after a word affects the processing of that word in Chinese reading. Native Chinese readers' eye movements were monitored as they read sentences with different presentation conditions. The results show that inserting a space after a word facilitates its processing, but inserting a space before a word does not show this effect and inhibits the processing of that word in some cases. Our results are consistent with the prediction of a word segmentation and recognition model in Chinese Li et al., 2009, Cognit. Psychol., 58, 525. Additionally, we found that a space guides the initial landing position on the word: the initial landing position was further away from the space that inserted into the text, whether it was before or after a word.

  6. Biased insert for installing data transmission components in downhole drilling pipe

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Briscoe, Michael A.; Garner, Kory K.; Wilde, Tyson J.

    2007-04-10

    An apparatus for installing data transmission hardware in downhole tools includes an insert insertable into the box end or pin end of drill tool, such as a section of drill pipe. The insert typically includes a mount portion and a slide portion. A data transmission element is mounted in the slide portion of the insert. A biasing element is installed between the mount portion and the slide portion and is configured to create a bias between the slide portion and the mount portion. This biasing element is configured to compensate for varying tolerances encountered in different types of downhole tools. In selected embodiments, the biasing element is an elastomeric material, a spring, compressed gas, or a combination thereof.

  7. Verification of Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) Insertion for Reliable and Trusted Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method for TMR insertion verification that satisfies the process for reliable and trusted systems. If a system is expected to be protected using TMR, improper insertion can jeopardize the reliability and security of the system. Due to the complexity of the verification process, there are currently no available techniques that can provide complete and reliable confirmation of TMR insertion. This manuscript addresses the challenge of confirming that TMR has been inserted without corruption of functionality and with correct application of the expected TMR topology. The proposed verification method combines the usage of existing formal analysis tools with a novel search-detect-and-verify tool. Field programmable gate array (FPGA),Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR),Verification, Trust, Reliability,

  8. Identifying and calling insertions, deletions, and single-base mutations efficiently from sequence data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole genome sequencing studies can directly identify causative mutations for subsequent use in genomic evaluations, but sequence variant identification is a lengthy and sometimes inaccurate process. The speed and accuracy of identifying small insertions and deletions of sequence, collectively terme...

  9. The use of the peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) in the hospital environment.

    PubMed

    Baiocco, Graziella Gasparotto; da Silva, Jefferson Luis Braga

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to analyze the history of the use of the peripherally inserted central catheters in adult patients admitted to hospital from 2000 to 2007. The historical cohort approach was used with retrospective data collection from medical records of the Catheter Group of the Moinhos de Vento Hospital Association in Porto Alegre, RS, totaling 229 catheters inserted. The growth curve in the use of the PICC was from 1 catheter inserted in 2000 to 57 in 2007. The most prevalent pathology was oncology (17.9%, n=41). In relation to the indications of use, antibiotic use prevailed (54.1%, n=124). In the radiological confirmation the vena cava was prevalent (68.1%, n=156). The use of the PICC in the hospital environment is expanding and nursing has a fundamental role in its insertion, maintenance and removal.

  10. Confirming PICC tip position during insertion with real-time information.

    PubMed

    Barton, Andrew

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) play a fundamental role in patient care in a variety of clinical and healthcare settings. Tip location is important for both safety and efficacy. New technologies may offer the possibility of safer, more efficient and more effective insertion. A prospective evaluation was carried out of a system providing real-time information on the tip’s location, direction, and depth during insertion in a total of 488 patients at a single centre (65 patients in the initial study, plus follow-on case series reports in 423 patients). No tip malpositions were reported and, as a result, the institution has been able to waive the requirement for confirmatory chest X-ray after PICC insertion, thus minimising the delay before the PICC can be used and increasing staff and patient confidence in the procedure.

  11. Confirming PICC tip position during insertion with real-time information.

    PubMed

    Barton, Andrew

    2016-01-27

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) play a fundamental role in patient care in a variety of clinical and healthcare settings. Tip location is important for both safety and efficacy. New technologies may offer the possibility of safer, more efficient and more effective insertion. A prospective evaluation was carried out of a system providing real-time information on the tip's location, direction, and depth during insertion in a total of 488 patients at a single centre (65 patients in the initial study, plus follow-on case series reports in 423 patients). No tip malpositions were reported and, as a result, the institution has been able to waive the requirement for confirmatory chest X-ray after PICC insertion, thus minimising the delay before the PICC can be used and increasing staff and patient confidence in the procedure.

  12. Synthesis of indoles and tryptophan derivatives via photoinduced nitrene C-H insertion.

    PubMed

    Junk, Lukas; Kazmaier, Uli

    2016-03-14

    Functionalized indoles and tryptophans can be obtained from stannylated alkenes and o-iodoanilines via Stille coupling. Subsequent azidation and photochemical nitrene generation results in the formation of the heterocyclic ring systems via C-H insertion. PMID:26869211

  13. Current status of single-balloon enteroscopy: Insertability and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Takuji; Uno, Koji; Tanaka, Kiyohito; Yasuda, Kenjiro

    2015-01-01

    The single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE) system was launched in 2007, proposed as a simpler method than double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE). Controversy surrounds whether the SBE system has the same insertability as DBE. However, many methods have been proposed to improve the depth of insertion with the SBE system, involving several techniques and endoscopic accessories. SBE is used for investigating not only small bowel diseases, but also diseases of the pancreatobiliary and colonic structures. SBE is a necessary advancement for many endoscopic procedures and applications in modern clinical practice. In our review, we summarized the current literature concerning the insertability of SBE and described the technical aspects of improving the rate of deep insertion in SBE procedures. In addition, the recent applications of SBE to diseases besides those of the small bowel are described. PMID:25610535

  14. Natural channel protein inserts and functions in a completely artificial, solid-supported bilayer membrane

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Fu, Wangyang; Palivan, Cornelia G.; Meier, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Reconstitution of membrane proteins in artificial membrane systems creates a platform for exploring their potential for pharmacological or biotechnological applications. Previously, we demonstrated amphiphilic block copolymers as promising building blocks for artificial membranes with long-term stability and tailorable structural parameters. However, the insertion of membrane proteins has not previously been realized in a large-area, stable, and solid-supported artificial membrane. Here, we show the first, preliminary model of a channel membrane protein that is functionally incorporated in a completely artificial polymer, tethered, solid-supported bilayer membrane (TSSBM). Unprecedented ionic transport characteristics that differ from previous results on protein insertion into planar, free-standing membranes, are identified. Our findings mark a change in understanding protein insertion and ion flow within natural channel proteins when inserted in an artificial TSSBM, thus holding great potential for numerous applications such as drug screening, trace analyzing, and biosensing. PMID:23846807

  15. Effect of Tension and Curvature of Skin on Insertion Characteristics of Microneedle Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto; Takano, Naoki; Nishiyabu, Kazuaki; Miki, Norihisa; Ami, Yoshimichi

    Recent MEMS (micro electro mechanical system) fabrication techniques have made it possible to produce painless microneedles precisely enough to be inserted into epidermis layer penetrating the stratum corneum of human skin. This paper presents a testing procedure to evaluate the insertion characteristics of microneedle array using cultured human skin considering the tension and the curvature. First, the biaxial strain applied to the cultured human skin was measured by optical technique with image processing. It was found that almost constant strain could be successfully given within a certain area and that error factors in the experiment except the thickness variation of the cultured skin were negligible. Next, using a microneedle square array for brain machine interface (BMI) application, the effects of biaxial tension and the curvature on insertion characteristics were discussed. Within the above mentioned area with high strain, the needles were successfully inserted.

  16. TIM23-mediated insertion of transmembrane α-helices into the mitochondrial inner membrane.

    PubMed

    Botelho, Salomé Calado; Osterberg, Marie; Reichert, Andreas S; Yamano, Koji; Björkholm, Patrik; Endo, Toshiya; von Heijne, Gunnar; Kim, Hyun

    2011-03-16

    While overall hydrophobicity is generally recognized as the main characteristic of transmembrane (TM) α-helices, the only membrane system for which there are detailed quantitative data on how different amino acids contribute to the overall efficiency of membrane insertion is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotic cells. Here, we provide comparable data for TIM23-mediated membrane protein insertion into the inner mitochondrial membrane of yeast cells. We find that hydrophobicity and the location of polar and aromatic residues are strong determinants of membrane insertion. These results parallel what has been found previously for the ER. However, we see striking differences between the effects elicited by charged residues flanking the TM segments when comparing the mitochondrial inner membrane and the ER, pointing to an unanticipated difference between the two insertion systems.

  17. Assembly and characterization of novel Alu inserts detected from next-generation sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Harun; David, Matei; Brudno, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive elements generally, and Alu inserts specifically are a large contributor to the recent evolution of the human genome. By assembling the sequences of novel Alu inserts using their respective subfamily consensus sequences as references, we found an exponential decay in the Alu subfamily call enrichment with increased number of sequence variants (Pearson correlation r=−0.68, p<0.0039). By mapping the sequences of these inserts to a human reference genome, we infer the reference Alu sources of a subset of the novel Alus, of which 85% were previously shown to be active. We also evaluate relationships between the loci of the novel inserts and their inferred sources. PMID:26442170

  18. Automatic identification of needle insertion site in epidural anesthesia with a cascading classifier.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuang; Tan, Kok Kiong; Sng, Ban Leong; Li, Shengjin; Sia, Alex Tiong Heng

    2014-09-01

    Ultrasound imaging was used to detect the anatomic structure of lumbar spine from the transverse view, to facilitate needle insertion in epidural anesthesia. The interspinous images that represent proper needle insertion sites were identified automatically with image processing and pattern recognition techniques. On the basis of ultrasound video streams obtained in pregnant patients, the image processing and identification procedure in a previous work was tested and improved. The test results indicate that the pre-processing algorithm performs well on lumbar spine ultrasound images, whereas the classifier is not flexible enough for pregnant patients. To improve the accuracy of identification, we propose a cascading classifier that successfully located the proper needle insertion site on all of the 36 video streams collected from pregnant patients. The results indicate that the proposed image identification procedure is able to identify the ultrasound images of lumbar spine in an automatic manner, so as to facilitate the anesthetists' work to identify the needle insertion point precisely and effectively.

  19. Plasma transfusions prior to insertion of central lines for patients with abnormal coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Hall, David P; Estcourt, Lise J; Doree, Carolyn; Hopewell, Sally; Trivella, Marialena; Walsh, Timothy S

    2015-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the effect of different prophylactic plasma transfusion regimens prior to central line insertion in patients with abnormal coagulation. PMID:27057149

  20. Polyembolokoilamania: Self-insertion of transistor radio antenna in male urethra.

    PubMed

    Bello, Jibril Oyekunle; Badmus, Kamil O; Babata, Abdul-Lateef; Bello, Halima S

    2013-05-01

    Though self-insertion of a foreign body in the male urethra is an infrequent urologic emergency, a weird variety of self-inserted foreign bodies have been reported. Most of these are attributed to autoerotic stimulation, a consequence of mental illness or the result of drug intoxication. We report an unusual case of a 65-year-old African man who self-inserted a broken transistor radio antenna into his urethra to serve as an improvised 'itchstick' to ease a bothersome itchy urethral condition. The foreign body subsequently migrated proximally out of reach. He presented a week after with urethral bleeding following nocturnal penile erections and we describe his evaluation and the challenge of retrieval. The reasons for self-inserting objects into the urethra may be as varied as the foreign bodies themselves and may include objects being used as an improvised 'itchstick' for itchy urethral conditions. The urologist's creative tendencies will often be required in safely removing these objects.