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Sample records for instabile arteriosklerotische plaque

  1. Vulnerable Plaque

    MedlinePlus

    ... all vulnerable plaque ruptures, and researchers at the Texas Heart Institute are looking at ways to determine ... comments. Terms of Use and Privacy Policy © Copyright Texas Heart Institute All rights reserved.

  2. Fishbowl Plaques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    1998-01-01

    Presents an elementary art activity that successfully teaches the process of slabbing by having students create fishbowl plaques. Explains the process step-by-step beginning with a demonstration to the students along with showing previous examples. Endorses a type of clay that fires white because the glaze colors are much more vibrant. (CMK)

  3. Inflammation and plaque vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, G. K.; Libby, P.; Tabas, I.

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a maladaptive, nonresolving chronic inflammatory disease that occurs at sites of blood flow disturbance. The disease usually remains silent until a breakdown of integrity at the arterial surface triggers the formation of a thrombus. By occluding the lumen, the thrombus or emboli detaching from it elicits ischaemic symptoms that may be life-threatening. Two types of surface damage can cause atherothrombosis: plaque rupture and endothelial erosion. Plaque rupture is thought to be caused by loss of mechanical stability, often due to reduced tensile strength of the collagen cap surrounding the plaque. Therefore, plaques with reduced collagen content are thought to be more vulnerable than those with a thick collagen cap. Endothelial erosion, on the other hand, may occur after injurious insults to the endothelium instigated by metabolic disturbance or immune insults. This review discusses the molecular mechanisms involved in plaque vulnerability and the development of atherothrombosis. PMID:26260307

  4. Corneal mucus plaques.

    PubMed

    Fraunfelder, F T; Wright, P; Tripathi, R C

    1977-02-01

    Corneal mucus plaques adhered to the anterior corneal surface in 17 of 67 advanced cases of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. The plaques were translucent to opaque and varied in size and shape, from multiple isolated islands to bizarre patterns involving more than half the corneal surface. Ultrastructurally, they consisted of mucus mixed with desquamated degenerating epithelial cells and proteinaceous and lipoidal material. The condition may be symptomatic but can be controlled and prevented in most cases by topical ocular application of 10% acetylcysteine.

  5. Aetiology of pleural plaques

    PubMed Central

    Rous, V.; Studeny, J.

    1970-01-01

    Pleural plaques were found in 644 (6·6%) of 9,760 photofluorograms taken in 1965 in a region of Pelhřimov district; the incidence was highest in the age group 66-70 years. The advanced age of those affected may be explained by the greater frequency of the causative agent in the past. The disorder was known in Pelhřimov district as early as 1930; it was then thought to be posttuberculous. The past history of the cases was uninformative; as a rule, the only common previous disease was pleurisy with effusion, occurring in 9·7%. The general condition of those affected was excellent; only 8% were aware of the fact that pleural lesions were present. The disorder was found mainly in farmers, familial incidence was common, and if two generations of one family suffered from the condition, the older generation was affected in 100%. Pleural plaques consist morphologically of limited areas of hyalinized collagenous connective tissue with calcium salt deposits. Tubercle bacilli could not be cultivated from the lesions. Mineralological analysis showed no evidence of silicates in the pleural plaques and a normal content in the lungs. The aetiological factor responsible for the development of pleural plaques in Pelhřimov district is not known, but asbestos cannot be implicated. The unknown noxious agent is carried to the pleura by the lymph and blood stream. Pleural plaques are an endemic disorder. The traditional view that lesions are post-tuberculous appears, in the region submitted to this study, to be a possible explanation. Images PMID:5465601

  6. La pelade par plaques

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, l’histologie et l’approche clinique au diagnostic de la pelade par plaques. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant la pathogenèse, le diagnostic et le pronostic de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme de perte pileuse auto-immune dont la prévalence durant une vie est d’environ 2 %. Des antécédents personnels ou familiaux de troubles auto-immuns concomitants, comme le vitiligo ou une maladie de la thyroïde, peuvent être observés dans un petit sous-groupe de patients. Le diagnostic peut souvent être posé de manière clinique en se fondant sur la perte de cheveux non cicatricielle et circulaire caractéristique, accompagnée de cheveux en « point d’exclamation » en périphérie chez ceux dont le problème en est aux premiers stades. Le diagnostic des cas plus complexes ou des présentations inhabituelles peut être facilité par une biopsie et un examen histologique. Le pronostic varie largement et de mauvais résultats sont associés à une apparition à un âge précoce, une perte importante, la variante ophiasis, des changements aux ongles, des antécédents familiaux ou des troubles auto-immuns concomitants. Conclusion La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte de cheveux périodiquement observée en soins primaires. Les médecins de famille sont bien placés pour identifier la pelade par plaques, déterminer la gravité de la maladie et poser le diagnostic différentiel approprié. De plus, ils sont en mesure de renseigner leurs patients à propos de l’évolution clinique de la maladie ainsi que du pronostic général selon le sous-type de patients.

  7. La pelade par plaques

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre les schémas thérapeutiques et les résultats des traitements pour la pelade par plaques, de même que les aider à identifier les patients pour qui une demande de consultation en dermatologie pourrait s’imposer. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant le traitement de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte pileuse qui touche à la fois les enfants et les adultes. Même s’il n’y a pas de mortalité associée à la maladie, la morbidité découlant des effets psychologiques de la perte des cheveux peut être dévastatrice. Lorsque la pelade par plaques et le sous-type de la maladie sont identifiés, un schéma thérapeutique approprié peut être amorcé pour aider à arrêter la chute des cheveux et possiblement faire commencer la repousse. Les traitements de première intention sont la triamcinolone intralésionnelle avec des corticostéroïdes topiques ou du minoxidil ou les 2. Les médecins de famille peuvent prescrire ces traitements en toute sécurité et amorcer ces thérapies. Les cas plus avancés ou réfractaires pourraient avoir besoin de diphénylcyclopropénone topique ou d’anthraline topique. On peut traiter la perte de cils avec des analogues de la prostaglandine. Les personnes ayant subi une perte de cheveux abondante peuvent recourir à des options de camouflage ou à des prothèses capillaires. Il est important de surveiller les troubles psychiatriques en raison des effets psychologiques profonds de la perte de cheveux. Conclusion Les médecins de famille verront de nombreux patients qui perdent leurs cheveux. La reconnaissance de la pelade par plaques et la compréhension du processus pathologique sous-jacent permettent d’amorcer un schéma thérapeutique approprié. Les cas plus graves ou r

  8. Plaque assay for murine norovirus.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, Mariam B; Bragazzi Cunha, Juliana; Wobus, Christiane E

    2012-01-01

    Murine norovirus (MNV) is the only member of the Norovirus genus that efficiently grows in tissue culture. Cell lysis and cytopathic effect (CPE) are observed during MNV-1 infection of murine dendritic cells or macrophages. This property of MNV-1 can be used to quantify the number of infectious particles in a given sample by performing a plaque assay. The plaque assay relies on the ability of MNV-1 to lyse cells and to form holes in a confluent cell monolayer, which are called plaques. Multiple techniques can be used to detect viral infections in tissue culture, harvested tissue, clinical, and environmental samples, but not all measure the number of infectious particles (e.g. qRT-PCR). One way to quantify infectious viral particles is to perform a plaque assay, which will be described in detail below. A variation on the MNV plaque assay is the fluorescent focus assay, where MNV antigen is immunostained in cell monolayers. This assay can be faster, since viral antigen expression precedes plaque formation. It is also useful for titrating viruses unable to form plaques. However, the fluorescent focus assay requires additional resources beyond those of the plaque assay, such as antibodies and a microscope to count focus-forming units. Infectious MNV can also be quantified by determining the 50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose (TCID50). This assay measures the amount of virus required to produce CPE in 50% of inoculated tissue culture cells by endpoint titration. However, its limit of detection is higher compared to a plaque assay. In this article, we describe a plaque assay protocol that can be used to effectively determine the number of infectious MNV particles present in biological or environmental samples. This method is based on the preparation of 10-fold serial dilutions of MNV-containing samples, which are used to inoculate a monolayer of permissive cells (RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells). Virus is allowed to attach to the cell monolayer for a given period of

  9. Thermal detection of vulnerable plaque.

    PubMed

    Madjid, Mohammad; Naghavi, Morteza; Malik, Basit A; Litovsky, Silvio; Willerson, James T; Casscells, Ward

    2002-11-21

    In 1996, we showed that inflamed atherosclerotic plaques give off more heat and that vulnerable plaques may be detected by measuring their temperature. Plaque temperature is correlated directly with inflammatory cell density and inversely with the distance of the cell clusters from the luminal surface. It is inversely related to the density of the smooth muscle cells. We found no significant association between temperature heterogeneity and presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in plaque or the gross color of human atherosclerotic carotid plaques. We also found pH heterogeneity in plaques from human carotid artery and aortas of Watanabe atherosclerotic rabbits and apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Areas with lower pH had higher temperature, and areas with a large lipid core showed lower pH with higher temperature, whereas calcified regions had lower temperature and higher pH. We also developed a thermography basket catheter and showed in vivo temperature heterogeneity in atherosclerotic lesions of atherosclerotic dogs and Watanabe rabbits. Thermal heterogeneity was later documented in human atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Temperature difference between atherosclerotic plaque and healthy vessel wall is related to clinical instability. It is correlated with systemic markers of inflammation and is a strong predictor of adverse cardiac events after percutaneous interventions. Thermography is the first in a series of novel "functional" imaging methods and is moving to clinical trials. It may be useful for a variety of clinical and research purposes, such as detection of vulnerable plaques and risk stratification of vulnerable patients.

  10. Pioneer F Plaque Location

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Pioneer F spacecraft, destined to be the first man made object to escape from the solar system into interstellar space, carries this pictorial plaque. It is designed to show scientifically educated inhabitants of some other star system, who might intercept it millions of years from now, when Pioneer was launched, from where, and by what kind of beings. (Hopefully, any aliens reading the plaque will not use this knowledge to immediately invade Earth.) The design is etched into a 6 inch by 9 inch gold-anodized aluminum plate, attached to the spacecraft's attenna support struts in a position to help shield it from erosion by interstellar dust. The radiating lines at left represents the positions of 14 pulsars, a cosmic source of radio energy, arranged to indicate our sun as the home star of our civilization. The '1-' symbols at the ends of the lines are binary numbers that represent the frequencies of these pulsars at the time of launch of Pioneer F relative of that to the hydrogen atom shown at the upper left with a '1' unity symbol. The hydrogen atom is thus used as a 'universal clock,' and the regular decrease in the frequencies of the pulsars will enable another civilization to determine the time that has elapsed since Pioneer F was launched. The hydrogen is also used as a 'universal yardstick' for sizing the human figures and outline of the spacecraft shown on the right. The hydrogen wavelength, about 8 inches, multiplied by the binary number representing '8' shown next to the woman gives her height, 64 inches. The figures represent the type of creature that created Pioneer. The man's hand is raised in a gesture of good will. Across the bottom are the planets, ranging outward from the Sun, with the spacecraft trajectory arching away from Earth, passing Mars, and swinging by Jupiter.

  11. Making a Lightweight Battery Plaque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M. A.; Post, R. E.; Soltis, D.

    1986-01-01

    Plaque formed in porous plastic by electroless plating. Lightweight plaque prepared by electroless plating of porous plastic contains embedded wire or expanded metal grid. Plastic may or may not be filled with soluble pore former. If it contains soluble pore former, treated to remove soluble pore former and increase porosity. Porous plastic then clamped into rig that allows plating solutions to flow through plastic. Lightweight nickel plaque used as electrode substrate for alkaline batteries, chiefly Ni and Cd electrodes, and for use as electrolyte-reservoir plates for fuel cells.

  12. Imaging Atherosclerosis and Vulnerable Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Mehran M.; Glover, David K.; Lanza, Gregory M.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Johnson, Lynne L.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying patients at high risk for an acute cardiovascular event such as myocardial infarction or stroke and assessing the total atherosclerotic burden are clinically important. Currently available imaging modalities can delineate vascular wall anatomy and, with novel probes, target biologic processes important in plaque evolution and plaque stability. Expansion of the vessel wall involving remodeling of the extracellular matrix can be imaged, as can angiogenesis of the vasa vasorum, plaque inflammation, and fibrin deposits on early nonocclusive vascular thrombosis. Several imaging platforms are available for targeted vascular imaging to acquire information on both anatomy and pathobiology in the same imaging session using either hybrid technology (nuclear combined with CT) or MRI combined with novel probes targeting processes identified by molecular biology to be of importance. This article will discuss the current state of the art of these modalities and challenges to clinical translation. PMID:20395341

  13. Progress in atherosclerotic plaque imaging

    PubMed Central

    Soloperto, Giulia; Casciaro, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the primary cause of mortality in the industrialized world, and arterial obstruction, triggered by rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques, lead to myocardial infarction and cerebral stroke. Vulnerable plaques do not necessarily occur with flow-limiting stenosis, thus conventional luminographic assessment of the pathology fails to identify unstable lesions. In this review we discuss the currently available imaging modalities used to investigate morphological features and biological characteristics of the atherosclerotic plaque. The different imaging modalities such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, nuclear imaging and their intravascular applications are illustrated, highlighting their specific diagnostic potential. Clinically available and upcoming methodologies are also reviewed along with the related challenges in their clinical translation, concerning the specific invasiveness, accuracy and cost-effectiveness of these methods. PMID:22937215

  14. Molecular Imaging of Plaque Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Sina; Vashist, Aseem; Sadeghi, Mehran M.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade significant progress has been made in the development of novel imaging strategies focusing on the biology of the vessel wall for identification of vulnerable plaques. While the majority of these studies are still in the preclinical stage, few techniques (e.g., 18F-FDG and 18F-NaF PET imaging) have already been evaluated in clinical studies with promising results. Here, we will briefly review the pathobiology of atherosclerosis and discuss molecular imaging strategies that have been developed to target these events, with an emphasis on mechanisms that are associated with atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability. PMID:25124827

  15. Multiphoton microscopy of atheroslcerotic plaques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilledahl, Magnus B.; de Lange Davies, Catharina; Haugen, Olav A.; Svaasand, Lars O.

    2007-02-01

    Multiphoton microscopy is a techniques that fascilitates three dimensional imaging of intact, unstained tissue. Especially connective tissue has a relatively strong nonlinear optical response and can easily be imaged. Atherosclerosis is a disease where lipids accumulate in the vessel wall and there is a thickening of the intima by growth of a cap of connective tissue. The mechanical strength of this fibrous cap is of clinically importance. If the cap ruptures a thrombosis forms which can block a coronary vessel and therby causing myocardial infarction. Multiphoton microscopy can be used to image the fibrous cap and thereby determine the thickness of the cap and the structure of the connective fibres. This could possibly be developed into a diagnostic and clincal tool to monitor the vulnerability of a plaque and also to better understand the development of a plaque and effects of treatment. We have collected multiphoton microscopy images from atherosclerotic plaque in human aorta, both two photon excited fluorescens and second harmonic generated signal. The feasability of using this technique to determine the state of the plaque is explored.

  16. Understanding Motivation of Plaque Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Kenneth H.

    1982-01-01

    A theoretical model for understanding motivation of plaque control is presented. The belief in this model is that, if people can be convinced of their ability to control a health threat, they would be encouraged to take responsibility for their health. (CJ)

  17. Ultrasound Tissue Characterization of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Picano, Eugenio; Paterni, Marco

    2015-01-01

    A thrombotic occlusion of the vessel fed by ruptured coronary atherosclerotic plaque may result in unstable angina, myocardial infarction or death, whereas embolization from a plaque in carotid arteries may result in transient ischemic attack or stroke. The atherosclerotic plaque prone to such clinical events is termed high-risk or vulnerable plaque, and its identification in humans before it becomes symptomatic has been elusive to date. Ultrasonic tissue characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque is possible with different techniques—such as vascular, transesophageal, and intravascular ultrasound—on a variety of arterial segments, including carotid, aorta, and coronary districts. The image analysis can be based on visual, video-densitometric or radiofrequency methods and identifies three distinct textural patterns: hypo-echoic (corresponding to lipid- and hemorrhage-rich plaque), iso- or moderately hyper-echoic (fibrotic or fibro-fatty plaque), and markedly hyperechoic with shadowing (calcific plaque). Hypoechoic or dishomogeneous plaques, with spotty microcalcification and large plaque burden, with plaque neovascularization and surface irregularities by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, are more prone to clinical complications than hyperechoic, extensively calcified, homogeneous plaques with limited plaque burden, smooth luminal plaque surface and absence of neovascularization. Plaque ultrasound morphology is important, along with plaque geometry, in determining the atherosclerotic prognostic burden in the individual patient. New quantitative methods beyond backscatter (to include speed of sound, attenuation, strain, temperature, and high order statistics) are under development to evaluate vascular tissues. Although not yet ready for widespread clinical use, tissue characterization is listed by the American Society of Echocardiography roadmap to 2020 as one of the most promising fields of application in cardiovascular ultrasound imaging, offering unique

  18. The pathology of parietal pleural plaques

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, G. Hefin

    1971-01-01

    The incidence, morbid anatomy, histology, and relationship of hyaline pleural plaques to exposure to asbestos has been studied. Plaques were found in 12·3% of 334 hospital necropsies (in an urban population in Glasgow, 41 cases). In 85·3% (35 cases) asbestos bodies were found in the lungs. There is evidence of a dose-response relationship between the number of asbestos bodies found in the lungs and the presence of pleural plaques. The selective distribution of plaques within the pleural cavities suggests that mechanical factors play a part in their localization. Histological examination contributed little to understanding the mechanism of plaque formation; that asbestos bodies have been detected in only a few cases suggest that their presence in the parietal pleura is not essential to plaque formation. The suggested mechanisms of plaque formation are discussed. Images PMID:5556121

  19. Phyto (in)stabilization of elements.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Donna L; Otte, Marinus L; Hopkins, David G

    2011-01-01

    The effects of plants (corn, soybean, and sunflower) and fertilizer on mobility of more than 60 elements were assessed in a greenhouse experiment. Unplanted columns with the same soil served as controls. Half the columns received fertilizer and all columns were watered at the same rate. At the end of the experiment, the columns were watered to mimic a rainstorm event such that water drained from the bases of the columns, which was collected and analyzed for element content. Soil from between the roots of the plants was also collected and the water-extractable fraction determined. It was expected that (1) more mobile elements, as measured by water extraction, would be leached from the soils at a higher rate compared to less mobile elements, (2) plants would immobilize most elements, but that some would be immobilized, and (3) that this would depend on plant species. The results led to the following conclusions: plants cause metal mobility to vary over a wide range for a specific soil and do mobilize some elements (e.g., Th) while immobilizing others (e.g., U). The effects depended on plant species for some elements. Water-extractable fractions of elements do not predict mobility. PMID:22046750

  20. Multimodality Intravascular Imaging Assessment of Plaque Erosion versus Plaque Rupture in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jee Eun; Mintz, Gary S.; Hong, Young Joon; Lee, Sung Yun; Kim, Ki Seok; Hahn, Joo-Yong; Kumar, Kaup Sharath; Won, Hoyoun; Hyeon, Seong Hyeop; Shin, Seung Yong; Lee, Kwang Je; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Chee Jeong; Kim, Sang Wook

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives We assessed plaque erosion of culprit lesions in patients with acute coronary syndrome in real world practice. Subjects and Methods Culprit lesion plaque rupture or plaque erosion was diagnosed with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) was used to determine arterial remodeling. Positive remodeling was defined as a remodeling index (lesion/reference EEM [external elastic membrane area) >1.05. Results A total of 90 patients who had plaque rupture showing fibrous-cap discontinuity and ruptured cavity were enrolled. 36 patients showed definite OCT-plaque erosion, while 7 patients had probable OCT-plaque erosion. Overall, 26% (11/43) of definite/probable plaque erosion had non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) while 35% (15/43) had ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Conversely, 14.5% (13/90) of plaque rupture had NSTEMI while 71% (64/90) had STEMI (p<0.0001). Among plaque erosion, white thrombus was seen in 55.8% (24/43) of patients and red thrombus in 27.9% (12/43) of patients. Compared to plaque erosion, plaque rupture more often showed positive remodeling (p=0.003) with a larger necrotic core area examined by virtual histology (VH)-IVUS, while negative remodeling was prominent in plaque erosion. Overall, 65% 28/43 of plaque erosions were located in the proximal 30 mm of a culprit vessel-similar to plaque ruptures (72%, 65/90, p=0.29). Conclusion Although most of plaque erosions show nearly normal coronary angiogram, modest plaque burden with negative remodeling and an uncommon fibroatheroma might be the nature of plaque erosion. Multimodality intravascular imaging with OCT and VH-IVUS showed fundamentally different pathoanatomic substrates underlying plaque rupture and erosion. PMID:27482258

  1. Plaquing procedure for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, J.A.; Mulcahy, D.

    1980-01-01

    A single overlay plaque assay was designed and evaluated for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Epithelioma papillosum carpio cells were grown in normal atmosphere with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane- or HEPES (N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid)-buffered media. Plaques were larger and formed more quickly on 1- to 3-day-old cell monolayers than on older monolayers. Cell culture medium with a 10% addition of fetal calf serum (MEM 10) or without serum (MEM 0) were the most efficient virus diluents. Dilution with phosphate-buffered saline, saline, normal broth, or deionized water reduced plaque numbers. Variations in the pH (7.0 to 8.0) of a MEM 0 diluent did not affect plaque numbers. Increasing the volume of viral inoculum above 0.15 ml (15- by 60-mm plate) decreased plaquing efficiency. Significantly more plaques occurred under gum tragacanth and methylcellulose than under agar or agarose overlays. Varying the pH (6.8 to 7.4) of methylcellulose overlays did not significantly change plaque numbers. More plaques formed under the thicker overlays of both methylcellulose and gum tragacanth. Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and HEPES performed equally well, buffering either medium or overlay. Plaque numbers were reduced when cells were rinsed after virus adsorption or less than 1 h was allowed for adsorption. Variation in adsorption time between 60 and 180 min did not change plaque numbers. The mean plaque formation time was 7 days at 16 degrees C. The viral dose response was linear when the standardized assay was used.

  2. Stabilization of high-risk plaques

    PubMed Central

    Takata, Kohei; Zhang, Bo; Miura, Shin-ichiro; Saku, Keijiro

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVDs) is increasing globally and they have become the leading cause of death in most countries. Numerous experimental and clinical studies have been conducted to identify major risk factors and effective control strategies for ASCVDs. The development of imaging modalities with the ability to determine the plaque composition enables us to further identify high-risk plaque and evaluate the effectiveness of different treatment strategies. While intensive lipid-lowering by statins can stabilize or even regress plaque by various mechanisms, such as the reduction of lipid accumulation in a necrotic lipid core, the reduction of inflammation, and improvement of endothelial function, there are still considerable residual risks that need to be understood. We reviewed important findings regarding plaque vulnerability and some encouraging emerging approaches for plaque stabilization. PMID:27500090

  3. Corneal plaque containing levofloxacin in a dog.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Woo; Kang, Byung-Jae; Lim, Jae Hyun; Ahn, Jung-Mo; Lim, Hyun Sook

    2015-11-01

    A 13-year-old castrated male Yorkshire terrier developed a corneal ulcer 2 weeks after intracapsular lens extraction (ICLE) in the right eye. The corneal ulcer was treated with levofloxacin eye drops. A plaque with a white luster developed in the central cornea 2 weeks after treatment with levofloxacin eye drops. The corneal plaque was surgically removed under inhalant anesthesia. The corneal plaque displayed antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. Furthermore, levofloxacin content in the plaque was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The corneal ulcer completely resolved 2 weeks after the surgical removal of the corneal lesion and replacement of levofloxacin eye drops with tobramycin eye drops. Although the topical use of levofloxacin is unlikely to lead to corneal chemical deposits due to the high water solubility of the drug compared to other topical fluoroquinolones, this patient developed corneal plaque of the antibiotic drop.

  4. Atherosclerosis and Atheroma Plaque Rupture: Imaging Modalities in the Visualization of Vasa Vasorum and Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Invasive angiography has been widely accepted as the gold standard to diagnose cardiovascular pathologies. Despite its superior resolution of demonstrating atherosclerotic plaque in terms of degree of lumen stenosis, the morphological assessment for the plaque is insufficient for the analysis of plaque components, and therefore, unable to predict the risk status or vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaque. There is an increased body of evidence to show that the vasa vasorum play an important role in the initiation, progression, and complications of atherosclerotic plaque leading to major adverse cardiac events. This paper provides an overview of the evidence-based reviews of various imaging modalities with regard to their potential value for comprehensive characterization of the composition, burden, and neovascularization of atherosclerotic plaque. PMID:24688380

  5. Evaluation of Carotid Plaque Using Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Traditional risk factors for predicting of cardiovascular disease are not always effective predictors for development of cardiovascular events. This review summarizes several newly developed noninvasive imaging techniques for evaluating carotid plaques and their role in cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:27358696

  6. Plaque growth and removal with daily toothbrushing.

    PubMed

    De la Rosa, M; Zacarias Guerra, J; Johnston, D A; Radike, A W

    1979-12-01

    Dental plaque growth was observed among 180 teenage boys during a 28-day period following prophylaxis. During this period, subjects brushed their teeth under supervision for 2 minutes daily. Plaque levels were measured immediately after brushing and 24 hours after brushing. Both levels increased rapidly during the first 14 days and appeared to be leveled off at 28 days. Less than half of the plaque was removed with one brushing per day leaving about 60% after brushing to promote rapid regrowth. Regrowth rate after brushing on the 28th day was 0.032 plaque units per hour over a 24-hour period. The regrowth rate for the group brushing with dentifrice was 27% lower than for the group brushing without a dentifrice.

  7. Vascular MR segmentation: wall and plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fuxing; Holzapfel, Gerhard; Schulze-Bauer, Christian; Stollberger, Rudolf; Thedens, Daniel; Bolinger, Lizann; Stolpen, Alan; Sonka, Milan

    2003-05-01

    Cardiovascular events frequently result from local rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. Non-invasive assessment of plaque vulnerability is needed to allow institution of preventive measures before heart attack or stroke occur. A computerized method for segmentation of arterial wall layers and plaque from high-resolution volumetric MR images is reported. The method uses dynamic programming to detect optimal borders in each MRI frame. The accuracy of the results was tested in 62 T1-weighted MR images from 6 vessel specimens in comparison to borders manually determined by an expert observer. The mean signed border positioning errors for the lumen, internal elastic lamina, and external elastic lamina borders were -0.12+/-0.14 mm, 0.04+/-0.12mm, and -0.15+/-0.13 mm, respectively. The presented wall layer segmentation approach is one of the first steps towards non-invasive assessment of plaque vulnerability in atherosclerotic subjects.

  8. Carotid Plaque Age Is a Feature of Plaque Stability Inversely Related to Levels of Plasma Insulin

    PubMed Central

    Hägg, Sara; Salehpour, Mehran; Noori, Peri; Lundström, Jesper; Possnert, Göran; Takolander, Rabbe; Konrad, Peter; Rosfors, Stefan; Ruusalepp, Arno; Skogsberg, Josefin; Tegnér, Jesper; Björkegren, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Background The stability of atherosclerotic plaques determines the risk for rupture, which may lead to thrombus formation and potentially severe clinical complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Although the rate of plaque formation may be important for plaque stability, this process is not well understood. We took advantage of the atmospheric 14C-declination curve (a result of the atomic bomb tests in the 1950s and 1960s) to determine the average biological age of carotid plaques. Methodology/Principal Finding The cores of carotid plaques were dissected from 29 well-characterized, symptomatic patients with carotid stenosis and analyzed for 14C content by accelerator mass spectrometry. The average plaque age (i.e. formation time) was 9.6±3.3 years. All but two plaques had formed within 5–15 years before surgery. Plaque age was not associated with the chronological ages of the patients but was inversely related to plasma insulin levels (p = 0.0014). Most plaques were echo-lucent rather than echo-rich (2.24±0.97, range 1–5). However, plaques in the lowest tercile of plaque age (most recently formed) were characterized by further instability with a higher content of lipids and macrophages (67.8±12.4 vs. 50.4±6.2, p = 0.00005; 57.6±26.1 vs. 39.8±25.7, p<0.0005, respectively), less collagen (45.3±6.1 vs. 51.1±9.8, p<0.05), and fewer smooth muscle cells (130±31 vs. 141±21, p<0.05) than plaques in the highest tercile. Microarray analysis of plaques in the lowest tercile also showed increased activity of genes involved in immune responses and oxidative phosphorylation. Conclusions/Significance Our results show, for the first time, that plaque age, as judge by relative incorporation of 14C, can improve our understanding of carotid plaque stability and therefore risk for clinical complications. Our results also suggest that levels of plasma insulin might be involved in determining carotid plaque age. PMID:21490968

  9. Improved treatment planning for COMS eye plaques

    SciTech Connect

    Astrahan, Melvin A. . E-mail: astrahan@usc.edu

    2005-03-15

    Purpose: A recent reanalysis of the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) medium tumor trial concluded that incorporating factors to account for anisotropy, line source approximation, the gold plaque, and attenuation in the Silastic seed carrier into the dose calculations resulted in a significant and consistent reduction of calculated doses to structures of interest within the eye. The authors concluded that future eye plaque dosimetry should be 'performed using the most up-to-date parameters available.' The reason these factors are important is attributable to the low energy {sup 125}I radiation (approximately 28 keV) that is primarily absorbed by the photoelectric process. Photoelectric absorption is quite dependent on the atomic composition of the absorbing material. Being 40% silicon by weight, the effective atomic number of Silastic is significantly greater than that of water. Although the AAPM TG43 brachytherapy formalism inherently addresses the issues of source anisotropy and geometry, its parameter that accounts for scatter and attenuation, the radial dose function g(r), assumes that the source is immersed in infinite homogeneous water. In this work, factors are proposed for {sup 125}I that correct for attenuation in the Silastic carrier and scatter deficits resulting from the gold plaque and nearby air. The implications of using {sup 103}Pd seeds in COMS plaques are also discussed. Methods and materials: An existing TG43-based ophthalmic plaque planning system was modified to incorporate additional scatter and attenuation correction factors that better account for the path length of primary radiation in the Silastic seed carrier and the distance between the dose calculation point and the eye-air interface. Results: Compared with homogeneous water, the dose-modifying effects of the Silastic and gold are greatest near the plaque surface and immediately adjacent to the plaque, while being least near the center of the eye. The calculated dose

  10. Amyloid Plaques in PSAPP Mice Bind Less Metal than Plaques in Human Alzheimer's Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Leskovjan, A.; Lanzirotti, A; Miller, L

    2009-01-01

    Amyloid beta (A{Beta}) is the primary component of Alzheimer's disease (AD) plaques, a key pathological feature of the disease. Metal ions of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and calcium (Ca) are elevated in human amyloid plaques and are thought to be involved in neurodegeneration. Transgenic mouse models of AD also exhibit amyloid plaques, but fail to exhibit the high degree of neurodegeneration observed in humans. In this study, we imaged the Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ca ion distribution in the PSAPP transgenic mouse model representing end-stage AD (N = 6) using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microprobe. In order to account for differences in density in the plaques, the relative protein content was imaged with synchrotron Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) on the same samples. FTIRM results revealed a 61% increase in protein content in the plaques compared to the surrounding tissue. After normalizing to protein density, we found that the PSAPP plaques contained only a 29% increase in Zn and there was actually less Cu, Fe, and Ca in the plaque compared to the surrounding tissue. Since metal binding to A{beta} is thought to induce redox chemistry that is toxic to neurons, the reduced metal binding in PSAPP mice is consistent with the lack of neurodegeneration in these animals. These findings were in stark contrast to the high metal ion content observed in human AD plaques, further implicating the role of metal ions in human AD pathology.

  11. Amyloid Plaques in PSAPP Mice Bind Less Metal than Plaques in Human Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leskovjan, Andreana C.; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Miller, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) is the primary component of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) plaques, a key pathological feature of the disease. Metal ions of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and calcium (Ca) are elevated in human amyloid plaques and are thought to be involved in neurodegeneration. Transgenic mouse models of AD also exhibit amyloid plaques, but fail to exhibit the high degree of neurodegeneration observed in humans. In this study, we imaged the Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ca ion distribution in the PSAPP transgenic mouse model representing end-stage AD (N = 6) using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microprobe. In order to account for differences in density in the plaques, the relative protein content was imaged with synchrotron Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) on the same samples. FTIRM results revealed a 61% increase in protein content in the plaques compared to the surrounding tissue. After normalizing to protein density, we found that the PSAPP plaques contained only a 29% increase in Zn and there was actually less Cu, Fe, and Ca in the plaque compared to the surrounding tissue. Since metal-binding to Aβ is thought to induce redox chemistry that is toxic to neurons, the reduced metal-binding in PSAPP mice is consistent with the lack of neurodegeneration in these animals. These findings were in stark contrast to the high metal ion content observed in human AD plaques, further implicating the role of metal ions in human AD pathology. PMID:19481608

  12. Chemical agents for the control of plaque and plaque microflora: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gaffar, A; Afflitto, J; Nabi, N

    1997-10-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the technologies available for the chemical control of plaque. It is generally accepted that the formation of dental plaque at the interfaces of tooth/gingiva is one of the major causes of gingival inflammation and dental caries. Several therapeutic approaches have been used to control dental plaque and supragingival infections. These include fluoride preparations such as stannous fluoride, oxygenating agents, anti-attachment agents, and cationic and non-cationic antibacterial agents. Among the fluoride preparations, stable stannous fluoride pastes and gels have been shown to reduce supragingival plaque, gingivitis, hypersensitivity and caries. The effect of the oxygenating agents on the supragingival plaque has been equivocal, but recent data indicate that a stable agent which provides sustained active oxygen release is effective in controlling plaque. A polymer, PVPA, which reduced attachment of bacteria to teeth was shown to significantly reduce plaque formation in humans. A new generation of antibacterials includes non-ionics such as triclosan, which in combination with a special polymer delivery system, has been shown to reduce plaque, gingivitis, supragingival calculus and dental caries in long-term studies conducted around the world. Unlike the first generation of agents, the triclosan/copolymer/sodium fluoride system is effective in long-term clinicals and does not cause staining of teeth, increase in calculus, or disturbance in the oral microbial ecology. PMID:9395116

  13. Chemical agents for the control of plaque and plaque microflora: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gaffar, A; Afflitto, J; Nabi, N

    1997-10-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the technologies available for the chemical control of plaque. It is generally accepted that the formation of dental plaque at the interfaces of tooth/gingiva is one of the major causes of gingival inflammation and dental caries. Several therapeutic approaches have been used to control dental plaque and supragingival infections. These include fluoride preparations such as stannous fluoride, oxygenating agents, anti-attachment agents, and cationic and non-cationic antibacterial agents. Among the fluoride preparations, stable stannous fluoride pastes and gels have been shown to reduce supragingival plaque, gingivitis, hypersensitivity and caries. The effect of the oxygenating agents on the supragingival plaque has been equivocal, but recent data indicate that a stable agent which provides sustained active oxygen release is effective in controlling plaque. A polymer, PVPA, which reduced attachment of bacteria to teeth was shown to significantly reduce plaque formation in humans. A new generation of antibacterials includes non-ionics such as triclosan, which in combination with a special polymer delivery system, has been shown to reduce plaque, gingivitis, supragingival calculus and dental caries in long-term studies conducted around the world. Unlike the first generation of agents, the triclosan/copolymer/sodium fluoride system is effective in long-term clinicals and does not cause staining of teeth, increase in calculus, or disturbance in the oral microbial ecology.

  14. DECT evaluation of noncalcified coronary artery plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Ravanfar Haghighi, Rezvan; Chatterjee, S.; Tabin, Milo; Singh, Rishi P.; Sharma, Munish; Krishna, Karthik; Sharma, Sanjiv; Jagia, Priya; Ray, Ruma; Arava, Sudhir; Yadav, Rakesh; Vani, V. C.; Lakshmi, R.; Kumar, Pratik; Mandal, Susama R.

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Composition of the coronary artery plaque is known to have critical role in heart attack. While calcified plaque can easily be diagnosed by conventional CT, it fails to distinguish between fibrous and lipid rich plaques. In the present paper, the authors discuss the experimental techniques and obtain a numerical algorithm by which the electron density (ρ{sub e}) and the effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}) can be obtained from the dual energy computed tomography (DECT) data. The idea is to use this inversion method to characterize and distinguish between the lipid and fibrous coronary artery plaques. Methods: For the purpose of calibration of the CT machine, the authors prepare aqueous samples whose calculated values of (ρ{sub e}, Z{sub eff}) lie in the range of (2.65 × 10{sup 23} ≤ ρ{sub e} ≤ 3.64 × 10{sup 23}/cm{sup 3}) and (6.80 ≤ Z{sub eff} ≤ 8.90). The authors fill the phantom with these known samples and experimentally determine HU(V{sub 1}) and HU(V{sub 2}), with V{sub 1},V{sub 2} = 100 and 140 kVp, for the same pixels and thus determine the coefficients of inversion that allow us to determine (ρ{sub e}, Z{sub eff}) from the DECT data. The HU(100) and HU(140) for the coronary artery plaque are obtained by filling the channel of the coronary artery with a viscous solution of methyl cellulose in water, containing 2% contrast. These (ρ{sub e}, Z{sub eff}) values of the coronary artery plaque are used for their characterization on the basis of theoretical models of atomic compositions of the plaque materials. These results are compared with histopathological report. Results: The authors find that the calibration gives ρ{sub e} with an accuracy of ±3.5% while Z{sub eff} is found within ±1% of the actual value, the confidence being 95%. The HU(100) and HU(140) are found to be considerably different for the same plaque at the same position and there is a linear trend between these two HU values. It is noted that pure lipid type plaques

  15. Growth of Necrotic Cores in Vulnerable Plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fok, Pak-Wing

    2011-03-01

    Plaques are fatty deposits that grow mainly in arteries and develop as a result of a chronic inflammatory response. Plaques are called vulnerable when they are prone to mechanical rupture. Vulnerable Plaques (VPs) are characterized by lipid-rich, necrotic cores that are heavily infiltrated with macrophages. The rupture of VPs releases thrombogenic agents into the bloodstream, usually resulting in myocardial infarctions. We propose a quantitative model to predict the development of a plaque's necrotic core. By solving coupled reaction-diffusion equations for macrophages and dead cells, we explore the joint effects of hypoxic cell death and chemo-attraction to Ox-LDL, a molecule that is strongly linked to atherosclerosis. Our model predicts cores that have approximately the right size and shape. Normal mode analysis and subsequent calculation of the smallest eigenvalues allow us to compute the times required for the system to reach its steady state. This study allows us to make quantitative predictions for how quickly vulnerable plaques develop and how their growth depends on system parameters such as chemotactic coefficients and cell death rates.

  16. Hyperspectral imaging of atherosclerotic plaques in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Eivind L. P.; Randeberg, Lise L.; Olstad, Elisabeth; Haugen, Olav A.; Aksnes, Astrid; Svaasand, Lars O.

    2011-02-01

    Vulnerable plaques constitute a risk for serious heart problems, and are difficult to identify using existing methods. Hyperspectral imaging combines spectral- and spatial information, providing new possibilities for precise optical characterization of atherosclerotic lesions. Hyperspectral data were collected from excised aorta samples (n = 11) using both white-light and ultraviolet illumination. Single lesions (n = 42) were chosen for further investigation, and classified according to histological findings. The corresponding hyperspectral images were characterized using statistical image analysis tools (minimum noise fraction, K-means clustering, principal component analysis) and evaluation of reflectance/fluorescence spectra. Image analysis combined with histology revealed the complexity and heterogeneity of aortic plaques. Plaque features such as lipids and calcifications could be identified from the hyperspectral images. Most of the advanced lesions had a central region surrounded by an outer rim or shoulder-region of the plaque, which is considered a weak spot in vulnerable lesions. These features could be identified in both the white-light and fluorescence data. Hyperspectral imaging was shown to be a promising tool for detection and characterization of advanced atherosclerotic plaques in vitro. Hyperspectral imaging provides more diagnostic information about the heterogeneity of the lesions than conventional single point spectroscopic measurements.

  17. Fatigue crack propagation analysis of plaque rupture.

    PubMed

    Pei, Xuan; Wu, Baijian; Li, Zhi-Yong

    2013-10-01

    Rupture of atheromatous plaque is the major cause of stroke or heart attack. Considering that the cardiovascular system is a classic fatigue environment, plaque rupture was treated as a chronic fatigue crack growth process in this study. Fracture mechanics theory was introduced to describe the stress status at the crack tip and Paris' law was used to calculate the crack growth rate. The effect of anatomical variation of an idealized plaque cross-section model was investigated. The crack initiation was considered to be either at the maximum circumferential stress location or at any other possible locations around the lumen. Although the crack automatically initialized at the maximum circumferential stress location usually propagated faster than others, it was not necessarily the most critical location where the fatigue life reached its minimum. We found that the fatigue life was minimum for cracks initialized in the following three regions: the midcap zone, the shoulder zone, and the backside zone. The anatomical variation has a significant influence on the fatigue life. Either a decrease in cap thickness or an increase in lipid pool size resulted in a significant decrease in fatigue life. Comparing to the previously used stress analysis, this fatigue model provides some possible explanations of plaque rupture at a low stress level in a pulsatile cardiovascular environment, and the method proposed here may be useful for further investigation of the mechanism of plaque rupture based on in vivo patient data.

  18. Fatigue and plaque rupture in myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Versluis, Antheunis; Bank, Alan J; Douglas, William H

    2006-01-01

    Plaque rupture plays a role in the majority of acute coronary syndromes. Rupture has been associated with stress concentrations, which are affected by tissue properties and anatomy. In this study rupture was not approached as an acute syndrome, but rather as the culmination of a chronic injury or fatigue process. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of anatomy, tissue properties, and blood pressure on a fatigue mechanism. Incremental crack propagation was dynamically simulated based on evolving stress distributions. Stresses were resolved by a finite element solver, using vessel stiffness properties derived from in vivo data. Plaque fatigue crack growth per pressure pulse was estimated using an adapted Paris-relation. It was demonstrated that cracks begin at the lumen wall at areas of stress concentration, depending on the shape of the lumen, thickness of the fibrous cap and stiffness of the plaque components. Mean or pulse pressure did not affect initiation location. Cracks extended radially and grew at a rate that was highly dependent on both mean and pulse pressure and on lipid stiffness. Rupture rate depended on blood pressure and lipid stiffness. It was concluded that a fatigue mechanism in a pulsatile cardiovascular pressure environment reconciles clinical evidence of acute plaque rupture at seemingly low stress levels, and it could provide a framework for developing strategies to create a biomechanically benign environment which is least conducive to plaque rupture.

  19. Micro-CT imaging of Randall's plaques.

    PubMed

    Williams, James C; Lingeman, James E; Coe, Fredric L; Worcester, Elaine M; Evan, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    Micro-computed tomographic imaging (micro-CT) provides unprecedented information on stone structure and mineral composition. High-resolution micro-CT even allows visualization of the lumens of tubule and/or vessels within Randall's plaque, on stones or in papillary biopsies, thus giving a non-destructive way to study these sites of stone adhesion. This paper also shows an example of a stone growing on a different anchoring mechanism: a mineral plug within the lumen of a Bellini duct (BD plug). Micro-CT shows striking structural differences between stones that have grown on Randall's plaque and those that have grown on BD plugs. Thus, Randall's plaque can be distinguished by micro-CT, and this non-destructive method shows great promise in helping to elucidate the different mechanisms by which small stones are retained in the kidney during the development of nephrolithiasis. PMID:25096802

  20. Association between Randall's Plaque and Calcifying Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Vejdani, Kaveh; Lee, Olivia; Mathew, Grace; Aho, Katja M.; Kajander, Olavi; McKay, David S.; Jones, Jeff A.; Hayat, Matthew; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2007-01-01

    Randall's plaques, first described by Alexander Randall in the 1930s, are small subepithelial calcifications in the renal papillae (RP) that also extend deeply into the renal medulla. Despite the strong correlation between the presence of these plaques and the formation of renal stones, the precise origin and pathogenesis of Randall s plaque formation remain elusive. The discovery of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) and their detection in many calcifying processes of human tissues has raised hypotheses about their possible involvement in renal stone formation. We collected RP and blood samples from 17 human patients who had undergone laparoscopic nephrectomy due to neoplasia. Homogenized RP tissues and serum samples were cultured for CNP. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis were performed on fixed RP samples. Immunohistochemical staining (IHS) was applied on the tissue samples using CNP-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb). Randall s plaques were visible on gross inspection in 11 out of 17 collected samples. Cultures of all serum samples and 13 tissue homogenates had CNP growth within 4 weeks. SEM revealed spherical apatite formations in 14 samples, with calcium and phosphate peaks detected by EDS analysis. IHS was positive in 9 out of 17 samples. A strong link was found between the presence of Randall s plaques and the detection of CNP, also referred to as nanobacteria. These results suggest new insights into the etiology of Randall's plaque formation, and will help us understand the pathogenesis of stone formation. Further studies on this topic may lead us to new approaches on early diagnosis and novel medical therapies of kidney stone formation.

  1. Aterofisiol® in carotid plaque evolution

    PubMed Central

    Amato, Bruno; Compagna, Rita; Amato, Maurizio; Gallelli, Luca; de Franciscis, Stefano; Serra, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Background In patients with carotid stenosis, the risk of plaque rupture is related to the composition of the atherosclerotic plaque rather than to its magnitude. In this regard, we evaluated the effects of a supplement, Aterofisiol,® containing omega-3 (EPA [eicosapen acid] DHA [docosahexaenoic acid]), vitamin K2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC) and resveratrol on the composition of atherosclerotic plaque and on neurological symptoms in patients with carotid stenosis undergoing carotid endarterectomy. Methods The study was randomized, prospective, and double-blinded. Eligible patients were of both sexes, with carotid stenosis >70% who underwent endarterectomy. Enrolled patients were randomly allocated to receive either one tablet of acetylsalicylic acid 100 mg (Cardioaspirin®) + one tablet of Aterofisiol every 24 hours or one tablet of Cardioaspirin + one tablet of placebo every 24 hours. Each treatment was started 30 days before the surgery and was stopped 5 days before the surgery. The plaques were removed “en bloc” using standard surgical technique. Results During the study period, 214 patients (135 men and 79 women) were enrolled for intent-to-treat and randomized in two groups: Group A: 107 patients (68 men and 39 women) were treated with Cardioaspirin + Aterofisiol. Group B: 107 patients (67 men and 40 women) were treated with Cardioaspirin + placebo. At the end of the study, 202 patients participated fully (103 patients in Group A and 99 patients in Group B), making up the protocol evaluation population (94.4%). The mean lipid content of removed plaques was significantly lower (P<0.05) in Group A. We recorded a significantly lower incidence of neurological symptoms in Group A in comparison with Group B (P<0.05). Conclusion In the study, Aterofisiol showed to be effective in reducing the amounts of cholesterol and lipids in the plaques and in reducing adverse neurological events in the study group with respect to controls

  2. Cobalt plaque therapy of posterior uveal melanomas

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, J.A.; Augsburger, J.J.; Brady, L.W.; Day, J.L.

    1982-10-01

    One hundred patients with choroidal melanomas who were treated by the authors with cobalt plaque radiotherapy were analyzed with regard to tumor regression, visual results, complications, and mortality rate. The follow-up period at the time of this writing ranged from one to five years. These preliminary observations indicate that cobalt plaque radiotherapy induces tumor regression in 96% of cases, preserves useful vision in many cases and has fewer complications during the one- to five-year follow-up period than previously believed.

  3. Lipidome of atherosclerotic plaques from hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bojic, Lazar A; McLaren, David G; Shah, Vinit; Previs, Stephen F; Johns, Douglas G; Castro-Perez, Jose M

    2014-12-15

    The cellular, macromolecular and neutral lipid composition of the atherosclerotic plaque has been extensively characterized. However, a comprehensive lipidomic analysis of the major lipid classes within atherosclerotic lesions has not been reported. The objective of this study was to produce a detailed framework of the lipids that comprise the atherosclerotic lesion of a widely used pre-clinical model of plaque progression. Male New Zealand White rabbits were administered regular chow supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol (HC) for 12 weeks to induce hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Our lipidomic analyses of plaques isolated from rabbits fed the HC diet, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and high-resolution mass spectrometry, detected most of the major lipid classes including: Cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, diacylglycerols, fatty acids, phosphatidylserines, lysophosphatidylcholines, ceramides, phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylinositols and phosphatidylethanolamines. Given that cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines comprise greater than 75% of total plasma lipids, we directed particular attention towards the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the fatty acid composition of these lipids. We additionally found that sphingomyelins were relatively abundant lipid class within lesions, and compared the abundance of sphingomyelins to their precursor phosphatidylcholines. The studies presented here are the first approach to a comprehensive characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque lipidome.

  4. Lipidome of Atherosclerotic Plaques from Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Bojic, Lazar A.; McLaren, David G.; Shah, Vinit; Previs, Stephen F.; Johns, Douglas G.; Castro-Perez, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    The cellular, macromolecular and neutral lipid composition of the atherosclerotic plaque has been extensively characterized. However, a comprehensive lipidomic analysis of the major lipid classes within atherosclerotic lesions has not been reported. The objective of this study was to produce a detailed framework of the lipids that comprise the atherosclerotic lesion of a widely used pre-clinical model of plaque progression. Male New Zealand White rabbits were administered regular chow supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol (HC) for 12 weeks to induce hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Our lipidomic analyses of plaques isolated from rabbits fed the HC diet, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and high-resolution mass spectrometry, detected most of the major lipid classes including: Cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, diacylglycerols, fatty acids, phosphatidylserines, lysophosphatidylcholines, ceramides, phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylinositols and phosphatidylethanolamines. Given that cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines comprise greater than 75% of total plasma lipids, we directed particular attention towards the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the fatty acid composition of these lipids. We additionally found that sphingomyelins were relatively abundant lipid class within lesions, and compared the abundance of sphingomyelins to their precursor phosphatidylcholines. The studies presented here are the first approach to a comprehensive characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque lipidome. PMID:25517033

  5. A simplified plaque assay for varicella vaccine.

    PubMed

    Husson-van Vliet, J; Colinet, G; Yane, F; Lemoine, P

    1987-11-01

    A simple and accurate plaque assay is described for potency testing of attenuated varicella vaccine. Assays were performed on the African green monkey kidney continuous cell line CV-1, in multidish-plates, under a semi-solid carboxymethylcellulose overlay. The test is economical and yields accurate individual titre estimates, the reliability of which may be assessed by parallel titration of reference preparations.

  6. Adalimumab: A Review in Chronic Plaque Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Burness, Celeste B; McKeage, Kate

    2015-12-01

    Adalimumab (Humira(®)) is a fully human monoclonal antibody against tumour necrosis factor (TNF), formulated for subcutaneous administration. It is well established in the treatment of adults with moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis and has recently received approval in the EU for the treatment of severe chronic plaque psoriasis in children and adolescents from 4 years of age. In a phase III trial in paediatric patients, a significantly greater proportion of patients receiving adalimumab 0.8 mg/kg (to a maximum of 40 mg) every other week (eow) achieved a ≥75 % improvement from baseline in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index than those receiving methotrexate after 16 weeks of treatment. In adults, well-designed randomized clinical trials demonstrated that adalimumab 40 mg eow effectively reduced the signs and symptoms of psoriasis and improved dermatology-specific and general measures of health-related quality of life, with these benefits sustained during long-term treatment. Adalimumab was generally well tolerated, compared with placebo or methotrexate, during clinical trials in paediatric and adult patients with chronic plaque psoriasis. Thus, adalimumab remains an important treatment strategy in adults with moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis and provides a promising new systemic treatment option for children and adolescents from 4 years of age with severe psoriasis.

  7. Association between Randall's Plaque and Calcifying Nanoparticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Citfcioglu, Neva; Vejdani, Kaveh; Lee, Olivia; Mathew, Grace; Aho, Katja M.; Kajander, Olavi; McKay, David S.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2007-01-01

    Randall initially described calcified subepithelial papillary plaques, which he hypothesized as nidi for kidney stone formation. The discovery of calcifying nanoparticles (CNP) in many calcifying processes of human tissues has raised another hypothesis about their possible involvement in urinary stone formation. This research is the first attempt to investigate the potential association of these two hypotheses. We collected renal papilla and blood samples from 17 human patients who had undergone laparoscopic nephrectomy due to neoplasia. Immunohistochemical staining (IHS) was applied on the tissue samples using monoclonal antibody 8D10 (mAb) against CNP. Homogenized papillary tissues and serum samples were cultured for CNP. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis were performed on fixed papillary samples. Randall's plaques were visible on gross inspection in 11 out of 17 collected samples. IHS was positive for CNP antigen in 8 of these 11 visually positive samples, but in only 1 of the remaining 6 samples. SEM revealed spherical apatite formations in 14 samples, all of which had calcium and phosphate peaks detected by EDS analysis. From this study, there was some evidence of a link between the presence of Randall's plaques and the detection of CNP, also referred to as nanobacteria. Although causality was not demonstrated, these results suggest that further studies with negative control samples should be made to explore the etiology of Randall's plaque formation, thus leading to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of stone formation.

  8. Linear milia en plaque on the forearm.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Piyush; Gharami, Ramesh Chandra

    2014-01-01

    A 64-year-old man presented with asymptomatic eruption on his right forearm and the dorsum of the hand present for 2 weeks. There was no history of trauma, prolonged sun exposure, or application of or contact with any substance prior to the development of lesions. He was a known hypertensive and diabetic and was taking treatment for these conditions. The rest of his history was noncontributory. On examination, multiple grouped tiny white papules were found on both normal skin and on the erythematous plaque. These papules were of almost uniform size (2-4 mm) and were notable for absence of umbilication. The erythematous plaque was roughly 15 cm in length and was extending along the ulnar border of forearm and dorsum of hand in a linear pattern (Figure 1). The surface temperature of the plaque appeared similar to the surrounding area, and the surface was studded with multiple tiny white papules. There were no lesions suggestive of chronic actinic damage in the surrounding area. The papules revealed solid whitish material on expression with a needle. The rest of the mucocutaneous examination was noncontributory. Based on clinical presentation, a diagnosis of linear milia en plaque was made. PMID:25335356

  9. BATON ROUGE NATIONAL CEMETERY PLAQUE MOUNTED ON BASE OF FLAGPOLE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BATON ROUGE NATIONAL CEMETERY PLAQUE MOUNTED ON BASE OF FLAGPOLE, WITH NATIONAL REGISTER OF HISTORIC PLACES PLAQUE AT RIGHT. VIEW TO NORTH. - Baton Rouge National Cemetery, 220 North 19th Street, Baton Rouge, East Baton Rouge Parish, LA

  10. Plaque assay of bluegill virus using a methylcellulose overlay.

    PubMed

    Robin, J; Larivière-Durand, C; Berthiaume, L

    1982-12-01

    The EFDL strain of Bluegill virus (BGV) has been titrated in BF-2 cells by the plaque method using 1% methylcellulose overlay. Visible plaques, formed 7 days postinfection, ranged in diameter from 0.5 to 1 mm. Dose-response experiments indicated that a single particle initiated the formation of a plaque. The titration of BGV by this new plaque method provided an accurate technique for the determination of virus concentration.

  11. Infectious Viral Quantification of Chikungunya Virus-Virus Plaque Assay.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Parveen; Lee, Regina Ching Hua; Chu, Justin Jang Hann

    2016-01-01

    The plaque assay is an essential method for quantification of infectious virus titer. Cells infected with virus particles are overlaid with a viscous substrate. A suitable incubation period results in the formation of plaques, which can be fixed and stained for visualization. Here, we describe a method for measuring Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) titers via virus plaque assays.

  12. Plaque reduction over time of an integrated oral hygiene system.

    PubMed

    Nunn, Martha E; Ruhlman, C Douglas; Mallatt, Philip R; Rodriguez, Sally M; Ortblad, Katherine M

    2004-10-01

    This article compares the efficacy of a prototype integrated system (the IntelliClean System from Sonicare and Crest) in the reduction of supragingival plaque to that of a manual toothbrush and conventional toothpaste. The integrated system was compared to a manual toothbrush with conventional toothpaste in a randomized, single-blinded, parallel, 4-week, controlled clinical trial with 100 subjects randomized to each treatment group. There was a low dropout rate, with 89 subjects in the manual toothbrush group (11% loss to follow-up) and 93 subjects in the integrated system group (7% loss to follow-up) completing the study. The Turesky modification of the Quigley and Hein Plaque Index was used to assess full-mouth plaque scores for each subject. Prebrushing plaque scores were obtained at baseline and at 4 weeks after 14 to 20 hours of plaque accumulation. A survey also was conducted at the conclusion of the study to determine the attitude toward the two oral hygiene systems. The integrated system was found to significantly reduce overall and interproximal prebrushing plaque scores over 4 weeks, both by 8.6%, demonstrating statistically significant superiority in overall plaque reduction (P = .002) and interproximal plaque reduction (P < .001) compared to the manual toothbrush with conventional toothpaste, which showed no significant reduction in either overall plaque or interproximal plaque. This study demonstrates that the IntelliClean System from Sonicare and Crest is superior to a manual toothbrush with conventional toothpaste in reducing overall plaque and interproximal plaque over time.

  13. Therapeutic strategies to deplete macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques

    PubMed Central

    De Meyer, Inge; Martinet, Wim; De Meyer, Guido R. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages can be found in all stages of atherosclerosis and are major contributors of atherosclerotic plaque development, progression and destabilization. Continuous recruitment of monocytes drives this chronic inflammatory disease, which can be intervened by several strategies: reducing the inflammatory stimulus by lowering circulating lipids and promoting cholesterol efflux from plaque, direct and indirect targeting of adhesion molecules and chemokines involved in monocyte adhesion and transmigration and inducing macrophage death in atherosclerotic plaques in combination with anti-inflammatory drugs. This review discusses the outlined strategies to deplete macrophages from atherosclerotic plaques to promote plaque stabilization. PMID:22309283

  14. Complement activation in amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's dementia.

    PubMed

    Eikelenboom, P; Hack, C E; Rozemuller, J M; Stam, F C

    1989-01-01

    Amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's dementia contain complement factors C1q, C4 and C3. In the present study we demonstrate complement activation in amyloid plaques using immunoenzymatical techniques and specific antibodies against subunits of individual complement components and activated complement products. Amyloid plaques contain C1q and activated C3 fragments (C3c and C3d, g) but no C1s and C3a. These findings demonstrate that the complement components are not passively bound to the amyloid plaque structures but are the result of an activation process. The role of complement activation in the genesis of senile plaques is discussed.

  15. Plaque titration and inhibition tests for bovine parvovirus.

    PubMed

    Durham, P J; Johnson, R H

    1984-08-01

    Bovine parvovirus readily produced plaques when inoculated into 60% confluent, actively growing bovine embryonic lung cells. Incorporation of DEAE-dextran, MgCl2 and DMSO in the agarose overlay medium was found to improve plaque production, especially with the latter chemical. In contrast, protamine sulphate inhibited plaque development. It was found that plaque titration and plaque inhibition tests could be conveniently carried out in 24-well cell culture plates, using an agarose overlay containing DMSO, DEAE-dextran and foetal calf serum. The procedures were highly sensitive, when compared with other established techniques.

  16. Cap buckling as a potential mechanism of atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Abdelali, Maria; Reiter, Steven; Mongrain, Rosaire; Bertrand, Michel; L'Allier, Philippe L; Kritikou, Ekaterini A; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2014-04-01

    Plaque rupture in atherosclerosis is the primary cause of potentially deadly coronary events, yet about 40% of ruptures occur away from the plaque cap shoulders and cannot be fully explained with the current biomechanical theories. Here, cap buckling is considered as a potential destabilizing factor which increases the propensity of the atherosclerotic plaque to rupture and which may also explain plaque failure away from the cap shoulders. To investigate this phenomenon, quasistatic 2D finite element simulations are performed, considering the salient geometrical and nonlinear material properties of diverse atherosclerotic plaques over the range of physiological loads. The numerical results indicate that buckling may displace the location of the peak von Mises stresses in the deflected caps. Plaque buckling, together with its deleterious effects is further observed experimentally in plaque caps using a physical model of deformable mock coronary arteries with fibroatheroma. Moreover, an analytical approach combining quasistatic equilibrium equations with the Navier-Bresse formulas is used to demonstrate the buckling potential of a simplified arched slender cap under intraluminal pressure and supported by foundations. This analysis shows that plaque caps - calcified, fibrotic or cellular - may buckle in specific undulated shapes once submitted to critical loads. Finally, a preliminary analysis of intravascular ultrasonography recordings of patients with atherosclerotic coronary arteries corroborates the numerical, experimental and theoretical findings and shows that various plaque caps buckle in vivo. By displacing the sites of high stresses in the plaque cap, buckling may explain the atherosclerotic plaque cap rupture at various locations, including cap shoulders.

  17. Plaque Production by Arboviruses in Singh's Aedes albopictus Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yunker, C. E.; Cory, J.

    1975-01-01

    We report plaquing tests of 124 virus strains, mostly arboviruses of 21 serological groups, in Singh's line of Aedes albopictus cells. Thirty of these plaqued; all were arboviruses of six groups and were known or presumed to be mosquito borne. Failing to plaque were 86 strains of arboviruses, mostly tick borne, two strains of insect pathogens, and six animal viruses not classified as arboviruses. Among mosquito-borne agents, plaquing ability appeared related to serological classification. California group and most A-group viruses failed to plaque, but nearly all members of B and Bunyamwera groups readily plaqued. Within serological group B, 14 of 16 mosquito-borne agents plaqued, but none of 13 tick-borne or vector-unassociated viruses did so. Some implications of these results for recognition and classification of arboviruses are discussed. Images PMID:234160

  18. Imaging of coronary atherosclerosis and identification of the vulnerable plaque

    PubMed Central

    de Feyter, P.J.; Serruys, P. W.; Nieman, K.; Mollet, N.; Cademartiri, F.; van Geuns, R. J.; Slager, C.; van der Steen, A.F.W.; Krams, R.; Schaar, J.A.; Wielopolski, P.; Pattynama, P.M.T.; Arampatzis, A.; van der Lugt, A.; Regar, E.; Ligthart, J.; Smits, P.

    2003-01-01

    Identification of the vulnerable plaque responsible for the occurrence of acute coronary syndromes and acute coronary death is a prerequisite for the stabilisation of this vulnerable plaque. Comprehensive coronary atherosclerosis imaging in clinical practice should involve visualisation of the entire coronary artery tree and characterisation of the plaque, including the three-dimensional morphology of the plaque, encroachment of the plaque on the vessel lumen, the major tissue components of the plaque, remodelling of the vessel and presence of inflammation. Obviously, no single diagnostic modality is available that provides such comprehensive imaging and unfortunately no diagnostic tool is available that unequivocally identifies the vulnerable plaque. The objective of this article is to discuss experience with currently available diagnostic modalities for coronary atherosclerosis imaging. In addition, a number of evolving techniques will be briefly discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:25696244

  19. Noninvasive diagnosis of vulnerable coronary plaque

    PubMed Central

    Pozo, Eduardo; Agudo-Quilez, Pilar; Rojas-González, Antonio; Alvarado, Teresa; Olivera, María José; Jiménez-Borreguero, Luis Jesús; Alfonso, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death are frequently the first manifestation of coronary artery disease. For this reason, screening of asymptomatic coronary atherosclerosis has become an attractive field of research in cardiovascular medicine. Necropsy studies have described histopathological changes associated with the development of acute coronary events. In this regard, thin-cap fibroatheroma has been identified as the main vulnerable coronary plaque feature. Hence, many imaging techniques, such as coronary computed tomography, cardiac magnetic resonance or positron emission tomography, have tried to detect noninvasively these histomorphological characteristics with different approaches. In this article, we review the role of these diagnostic tools in the detection of vulnerable coronary plaque with particular interest in their advantages and limitations as well as the clinical implications of the derived findings. PMID:27721935

  20. Near-infrared spectroscopy for plaque characterization.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Sergio

    2008-12-01

    A near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy catheter-based system has been developed for intracoronary detection of lipid-rich plaques, capable of scanning an artery through blood and during cardiac motion. The lipid-rich plaque chemometric algorithm was validated in an ex vivo study using coronary artery specimens from autopsy hearts. A parallel clinical study was performed to demonstrate safety of the system in patients and the similarity of spectra acquired in vivo to data from the ex vivo study. Proof of spectral similarity between data obtained in patients and data from autopsy specimens is required to demonstrate the applicability of the algorithm to patients, in whom tissue for analysis is not available. A preliminary analysis in an unblinded cohort of patients from the clinical study reported promising results. The final results of the clinical study will be submitted for publication. The potential clinical value of this NIR spectroscopy device is discussed.

  1. Noninvasive imaging modalities to visualize atherosclerotic plaques

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is becoming a major cause of death in the world due to global epidemic of diabetes and obesity. For the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, it is necessary to detect high-risk atherosclerotic plaques prior to events. Recent technological advances enable to visualize atherosclerotic plaques noninvasively. This ability of noninvasive imaging helps to refine cardiovascular risk assessment in various individuals, select optimal therapeutic strategy and evaluate the efficacy of medical therapies. In this review, we discuss the role of the currently available imaging modalities including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography. Advantages and disadvantages of each noninvasive imaging modality will be also summarized. PMID:27500092

  2. Cataractogenesis after Cobalt-60 eye plaque radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kleineidam, M.; Augsburger, J.J. ); Hernandez, C.; Glennon, P.; Brady, L.W. )

    1993-07-15

    This study was designed to estimate the actuarial incidence of typical postirradiation cataracts and to identify prognostic factors related to their development in melanoma-containing eyes treated by Cobalt-60 plaque radiotherapy. A special interest was the impact of calculated radiation dose and dose-rate to the lens. The authors evaluated the actuarial occurrence of post-irradiation cataract in 365 patients with primary posterior uveal melanoma treated by Cobalt-60 plaque radiotherapy between 1976 and 1986. Only 22% (S.E. = 4.6%) of the patients who received a total dose of 6 to 20 Gy at the center of the lens developed a visually significant cataract attributable to the radiation within 5 years after treatment. Using multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling, the authors identified thickness of the tumor, location of the tumor's anterior margin relative to the equatorward and the ora serrata, and diameter of the eye plaque used as the best combination of covariables for predicting length of time until development of cataract. Surprisingly, the dose of radiation delivered to the lens, which was strongly correlated to all of these covariables, was not a significant predictive factor in multivariate analysis. The results suggest that success of efforts to decrease the occurrence rate of post-irradiation cataracts by better treatment planning might be limited in patients with posterior uveal melanoma. 21 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Microwave plaque thermoradiotherapy for choroidal melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Finger, P. T.

    1992-01-01

    Microwave thermoradiotherapy was used as a primary treatment for 44 patients with choroidal melanoma. An episcleral dish-shaped microwave antenna was placed beneath the tumour at the time of plaque brachytherapy. While temperatures were measured at the sclera, the tumour's apex was targeted to receive a minimum of 42 degrees C for 45 minutes. In addition, the patients received full or reduced doses of plaque radiotherapy. No patients have been lost to follow-up. Two eyes have been enucleated: one for rubeotic glaucoma, and one for uveitic glaucoma. Though six patients have died, only one death was due to metastatic choroidal melanoma (39 months after treatment). Clinical observations suggest that the addition of microwave heating to plaque radiation therapy of choroidal melanoma has been well tolerated. There has been a 97.7% local control rate (with a mean follow-up of 22.2 months). We have reduced the minimum tumour radiation dose (apex dose) to levels used for thermoradiotherapy of cutaneous melanomas (50 Gy/5000 rad). Within the range of this follow-up period no adverse effects which might preclude the use of this microwave heat delivery system for treatment of choroidal melanoma have been noted. Images PMID:1622949

  4. Intravascular probe for detection of vulnerable plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patt, Bradley E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Tull, Carolyn R.; Janecek, Martin; Hoffman, Edward J.; Strauss, H. William; Tsugita, Ross; Ghazarossian, Vartan

    2001-12-01

    Coronary angiography is unable to define the status of the atheroma, and only measures the luminal dimensions of the blood vessel, without providing information about plaque content. Up to 70% of heart attacks are caused by minimally obstructive vulnerable plaques, which are too small to be detected adequately by angiography. We have developed an intravascular imaging detector to identify vulnerable coronary artery plaques. The detector works by sensing beta or conversion electron radiotracer emissions from plaque-binding radiotracers. The device overcomes the technical constraints of size, sensitivity and conformance to the intravascular environment. The detector at the distal end of the catheter uses six 7mm long by 0.5mm diameter scintillation fibers coupled to 1.5m long plastic fibers. The fibers are offset from each other longitudinally by 6mm and arranged spirally around a guide wire in the catheter. At the proximal end of the catheter the optical fibers are coupled to an interface box with a snap on connector. The interface box contains a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) to decode the individual fibers. The whole detector assembly fits into an 8-French (2.7 mm in diameter) catheter. The PSPMT image is further decoded with software to give a linear image, the total instantaneous count rate and an audio output whose tone corresponds to the count rate. The device was tested with F-18 and Tl-204 sources. Spectrometric response, spatial resolution, sensitivity and beta to background ratio were measured. System resolution is 6 mm and the sensitivity is >500 cps / micrometers Ci when the source is 1 mm from the detector. The beta to background ratio was 11.2 for F-18 measured on a single fiber. The current device will lead to a system allowing imaging of labeled vulnerable plaque in coronary arteries. This type of signature is expected to enable targeted and cost effective therapies to prevent acute coronary artery diseases such as: unstable angina

  5. Micro-analysis of plaque fluid from single-site fasted plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, G.L.; Carey, C.M.; Chow, L.C.; Tatevossian, A. )

    1990-06-01

    Despite the site-specific nature of caries, nearly all data on the concentration of ions relevant to the level of saturation of plaque fluid with respect to calcium phosphate minerals or enamel are from studies that used pooled samples. A procedure is described for the collection and analysis of inorganic ions relevant to these saturation levels in plaque fluid samples collected from a single surface on a single tooth. Various methods for examining data obtained by this procedure are described, and a mathematical procedure employing potential plots is recommended.

  6. [Factors affecting plaque formation by Lassa virus in Vero cells].

    PubMed

    Lukashevich, I S; Vasiuchkov, A D; Mar'iankova, R F; Votiakov, V I

    1982-01-01

    The method of Porterfield and Allison was adapted for titration of the infectious activity of Lassa virus by the plaque formation in Vero cells. The virus was cloned, and the effect of the time of adsorption, pH, temperature, as well as polycations (DEAD-dextran, protamine sulphate) dimethylsuphoxide (DMSO), and trypsin added during adsorption or into the agar overlay on the effectiveness of plaque production by Lassa virus (virus titres, plaque size) were studied. The optimal adsorption time was found to be 1 1/2-2 hours, pH 8.0. The number of plaques produced by the virus was approximately similar at 35 degrees C. The substances under study did not enhance the efficacy of plaque formation, on the contrary, DMSO and high concentrations of polycations decreased plaque size.

  7. Oral biofilm models for mechanical plaque removal

    PubMed Central

    Verkaik, Martinus J.; Busscher, Henk J.; Rustema-Abbing, Minie; Slomp, Anje M.; Abbas, Frank

    2009-01-01

    In vitro plaque removal studies require biofilm models that resemble in vivo dental plaque. Here, we compare contact and non-contact removal of single and dual-species biofilms as well as of biofilms grown from human whole saliva in vitro using different biofilm models. Bacteria were adhered to a salivary pellicle for 2 h or grown after adhesion for 16 h, after which, their removal was evaluated. In a contact mode, no differences were observed between the manual, rotating, or sonic brushing; and removal was on average 39%, 84%, and 95% for Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, and Actinomyces naeslundii, respectively, and 90% and 54% for the dual- and multi-species biofilms, respectively. However, in a non-contact mode, rotating and sonic brushes still removed considerable numbers of bacteria (24–40%), while the manual brush as a control (5–11%) did not. Single A. naeslundii and dual-species (A. naeslundii and S. oralis) biofilms were more difficult to remove after 16 h growth than after 2 h adhesion (on average, 62% and 93% for 16- and 2-h-old biofilms, respectively), while in contrast, biofilms grown from whole saliva were easier to remove (97% after 16 h and 54% after 2 h of growth). Considering the strong adhesion of dual-species biofilms and their easier more reproducible growth compared with biofilms grown from whole saliva, dual-species biofilms of A. naeslundii and S. oralis are suggested to be preferred for use in mechanical plaque removal studies in vitro. PMID:19565279

  8. Congenital Milia En Plaque on Scalp

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sangita; Sangal, Shikha

    2015-01-01

    Milia en plaque is a rare disease entity characterized by confluence of multiple keratin-filled cysts resulting from the obstruction of hair follicle without any preceding primary dermatosis. Fewer than 40 cases have been reported so far in dermatological literature, and most cases are described to occur in adults and in the peri-auricular area. We describe a case of congenital MEP on scalp of a five-year-old boy with a blaschkoid extension into posterior nuchal area. This case report claims its uniqueness because of the unusual site and congenital presentation. PMID:25657433

  9. Plaque biofilms: the effect of chemical environment on natural human plaque biofilm architecture.

    PubMed

    Robinson, C; Strafford, S; Rees, G; Brookes, S J; Kirkham, J; Shore, R C; Watson, P S; Wood, S

    2006-11-01

    The architecture of microbial biofilms especially the outer regions have an important influence on the interaction between biofilm and local environment particularly on the flux of materials into and out of biofilm compartments and as a consequence, biofilm metabolic behaviour. In the case of dental plaque biofilms, architecture will determine access of nutrients including acidogenic substrates and therapeutic materials to the microbial biomass and to the underlying tooth surface. Manipulation of this architecture may offer a means of altering mass transfer into the whole biofilm and biomass and raises the possibility of improving access of therapeutics. Plaque biofilms formed in vivo on human enamel were subjected to a number of different chemical conditions while under observation by confocal laser scanning microscopy in reflection mode. In this way the outer 50-100 microm or so of the biofilms was examined. Density and distribution of biomass were recorded as degree of reflectance. The amount and density of biofilm biomass increased from the plaque saliva interface towards the interior. Plaque biofilms were robust and little affected by mechanical manipulation, high ionic strength or low pH (2.5). Detergent (SLS), however, often appeared to either remove biomass and/or dramatically reduce its density.

  10. DETAIL OF PLAQUE WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF PLAQUE WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT - Connecticut Avenue Bridge, Spans Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway at Connecticut Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. Plaque assay for titration of bovine enteric coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Vautherot, J F

    1981-10-01

    The plaquing ability of two isolates of bovine enteric coronavirus (BECV) was studied in HRT18 (human rectal adenocarcinoma) cell monolayers. Both isolates were able to induce plaque formation within 2 to 3 days; plaques appeared as round opalescent areas which remained colourless after neutral red or crystal violet staining. A good correlation was found between the titres as determined either by counting the plaques that were visible to the naked eye before and after neutral red staining, or by enumerating fluorescence or haemadsorption foci.

  12. Plaque formation assay for human parainfluenza virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Keijo; Takahashi, Tadanobu; Takaguchi, Masahiro; Ueyama, Hiroo; Ito, Seigo; Kurebayashi, Yuuki; Kawanishi, Tomohiro; McKimm-Breschkin, Jennifer Lois; Takimoto, Toru; Minami, Akira; Suzuki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Human parainfluenza virus type 1 (hPIV1) generally does not show visible plaques in common cell lines, including Lewis lung carcinoma-monkey kidney (LLC-MK(2)) cells, by plaque formation assays for human parainfluenza virus type 3 (hPIV3) and Sendai virus. In several conditions of the plaque formation assay, complete elimination of serum proteins in the overlay medium was necessary for visualization of hPIV1-induced plaque formation in LLC-MK(2) cells. We developed a plaque formation assay for hPIV1 isolation and titration in LLC-MK(2) cells using an initial overlay medium of bovine serum albumin-free Eagle's minimum essential medium containing agarose and acetylated trypsin for 4-6 d followed by a second overlay staining medium containing agarose and neutral red. The assay allowed both laboratory and clinical hPIV1 strains to form large plaques. The plaque reduction assay was also performed with rabbit anti-hPIV1 antibody as a general evaluation model of viral inhibitors to decrease both the plaque number and size. The results indicate that the plaque formation assay is useful for hPIV1 isolation, titration, evaluation of antiviral reagents and epidemiologic research.

  13. DETAIL OF PLAQUE DESCRIBING LION SCULPTURES BY ROLAND HINTON PERRY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF PLAQUE DESCRIBING LION SCULPTURES BY ROLAND HINTON PERRY, NORTHWEST ABUTMENT - Connecticut Avenue Bridge, Spans Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway at Connecticut Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. Effect of Chlorhexidine with Fluoride Mouthrinse on Plaque Accumulation, Plaque pH - A Double Blind Parallel Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sabyasachi; Singh, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mouthwashes are important means used in chemical control of dental plaque. There is strong evidence suggestive of better effectiveness, when fluoride is added to chlorhexidine mouthwash. Aim To assess the anti-plaque efficacy of Chlorhexidine combined with Fluoride mouthwash and to measure its impact on plaque accumulation and on plaque pH. Materials and Methods Initially 100 subjects were screened. A double blind, parallel randomized clinical trial was conducted on 30 subjects after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Other independent variables were matched before randomly allocating them in three groups: Group A-Chlorhexidine as positive control, Group B-Chlorhexidine + Fluoride as test group and Group C- Distilled water as negative control. Oral prophylaxis of participants was done before onset of the study. Plaque pH was assessed before and immediately after rinsing at 0, 5 and 10 minutes interval and after 7 days with digital pH electrode (pHepR pH meter, Hanna Instruments R10285) and accumulation of plaque was recorded by Turesky et al., modification of Quigley Hein Plaque Index (1970). ANOVA test was used for statistical analysis. Results Although there was a statistically significant reduction in mean plaque scores from baseline to seven days in both Groups A and B, Group B showed better anti-plaque efficacy . Almost equal drop in plaque pH was seen for both the groups at 5 and 10 minutes. Conclusion Better anti-plaque efficacy was observed in Group B (Chlorhexidine and Fluoride combination) with minimum variation of plaque pH.

  15. Effect of Chlorhexidine with Fluoride Mouthrinse on Plaque Accumulation, Plaque pH - A Double Blind Parallel Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sabyasachi; Singh, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mouthwashes are important means used in chemical control of dental plaque. There is strong evidence suggestive of better effectiveness, when fluoride is added to chlorhexidine mouthwash. Aim To assess the anti-plaque efficacy of Chlorhexidine combined with Fluoride mouthwash and to measure its impact on plaque accumulation and on plaque pH. Materials and Methods Initially 100 subjects were screened. A double blind, parallel randomized clinical trial was conducted on 30 subjects after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Other independent variables were matched before randomly allocating them in three groups: Group A-Chlorhexidine as positive control, Group B-Chlorhexidine + Fluoride as test group and Group C- Distilled water as negative control. Oral prophylaxis of participants was done before onset of the study. Plaque pH was assessed before and immediately after rinsing at 0, 5 and 10 minutes interval and after 7 days with digital pH electrode (pHepR pH meter, Hanna Instruments R10285) and accumulation of plaque was recorded by Turesky et al., modification of Quigley Hein Plaque Index (1970). ANOVA test was used for statistical analysis. Results Although there was a statistically significant reduction in mean plaque scores from baseline to seven days in both Groups A and B, Group B showed better anti-plaque efficacy . Almost equal drop in plaque pH was seen for both the groups at 5 and 10 minutes. Conclusion Better anti-plaque efficacy was observed in Group B (Chlorhexidine and Fluoride combination) with minimum variation of plaque pH. PMID:27630956

  16. Photolichenoid plaques with associated vitiliginous pigmentary changes.

    PubMed

    Tran, Kathleen; Hartman, Rachael; Tzu, Julia; Meehan, Shane; Sanders, Scott E; Pomeranz, Miriam Keltz; Sanchez, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    A 49-year-old man with advanced HIV/AIDS on anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) presented with a several-month history of pruritic, erythematous, lichenified papules that coalesced into hyperkeratotic plaques on the trunk and extremities in a sun-exposed distribution. He shortly thereafter developed a progressive depigmentation over more than 80 percent of his body surface area. A biopsy specimen of an erythematous plaque on the trunk showed a superficial and mid-dermal infiltrate of lymphocytes with eosinophils, most consistent with either chronic lichenoid drug eruption or atypical lymphoproliferative disorder (ACLD) of HIV. The patient's lichenoid skin disease has persisted despite discontinuation of TMP-SMX, although it has improved partially with administration of topical glucocorticoids and acitretin. His depigmentation has continued to progress. We discuss the overlapping diagnostic entities which may be comprised by this patient's clinical disease, and highlight a unique presentation of the complex interaction between HIV infection and the skin. PMID:22031639

  17. Assessment of plaque assay methods for alphaviruses.

    PubMed

    Juarez, Diana; Long, Kanya C; Aguilar, Patricia; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Halsey, Eric S

    2013-01-01

    Viruses from the Alphavirus genus are responsible for numerous arboviral diseases impacting human health throughout the world. Confirmation of acute alphavirus infection is based on viral isolation, identification of viral RNA, or a fourfold or greater increase in antibody titers between acute and convalescent samples. In convalescence, the specificity of antibodies to an alphavirus may be confirmed by plaque reduction neutralization test. To identify the best method for alphavirus and neutralizing antibody recognition, the standard solid method using a cell monolayer overlay with 0.4% agarose and the semisolid method using a cell suspension overlay with 0.6% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) overlay were evaluated. Mayaro virus, Una virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), and Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) were selected to be tested by both methods. The results indicate that the solid method showed consistently greater sensitivity than the semisolid method. Also, a "semisolid-variant method" using a 0.6% CMC overlay on a cell monolayer was assayed for virus titration. This method provided the same sensitivity as the solid method for VEEV and also had greater sensitivity for WEEV titration. Modifications in plaque assay conditions affect significantly results and therefore evaluation of the performance of each new assay is needed.

  18. Concept of Remission in Chronic Plaque Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Gisondi, Paolo; Di Mercurio, Marco; Idolazzi, Luca; Girolomoni, Giampiero

    2015-11-01

    Psoriasis is a lifelong chronic inflammatory disease affecting 2-3% of the worldwide population. Current understanding of the pathogenesis of psoriasis assigns central importance to an interaction between acquired and innate immunity. The disease is characterized by a series of linked cellular changes in the skin, including hyperplasia of epidermal keratinocytes, angiogenesis, and infiltration of T lymphocytes, neutrophils, and other types of leukocytes in the affected skin. Plaque psoriasis is the most common clinical form and is characterized by red and scaly plaques generally localized at extensor sites such as elbows and knees. Major determinants of psoriasis severity include the extent of skin involvement; localization in highly affected areas such as scalp, palms, and soles; pruritus; presence of comorbidities including psoriatic arthritis; and impairment on quality of life. About one-third of patients have moderate to severe psoriasis defined as PASI (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index) and/or Dermatology Life Quality Index>10, and/or affected body surface area>10%. The optimal treatment goal is to safely achieve complete or almost complete skin clearance. Treatments available are various and they are chosen according to disease features, comorbidities, and patient characteristics and priorities. Topical treatments including corticosteroids and Vitamin D analogs are reserved for mild disease. Phototherapy, cyclosporine, methotrexate, acitretin, or biologics such as tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists and ustekinumab are reserved for the moderate to severe forms.

  19. Granulomatous rosacea: unusual presentation as solitary plaque.

    PubMed

    Batra, Mayanka; Bansal, Cherry; Tulsyan, Suman

    2011-02-15

    A 45-year-old male presented with a 6 month history of an enlarging smooth, erythematous plaque over the central part of his face. Mild erythema of both eyes was present. Sarcoidosis, Hansen disease, lupus vulgaris, cutaneous leishmaniasis, pseudolymphoma, foreign body granuloma, granuloma faciale, discoid lupus erythematosus, and granulomatous rosacea were considered in the differential diagnosis. CBC, urinalysis, renal function tests, liver function tests, serum electrolytes, and blood sugar were all normal. Chest X-ray and ECG revealed no abnormality. Serology for syphilis and HIV, and mantoux test were negative. Slit-skin smear, tissue smear and culture for AFB and fungi were negative. Skin biopsy revealed multiple non-caseating epitheloid granulomas around the pilosebaceous unit suggestive of granulomatous rosacea. Granulomatous rosacea, a rare entity comprising only about 10 percent of cases of rosacea can mimic many granulomatous conditions both clinically and histologically making the diagnosis an enigma. It usually presents as yellowish brown-red discrete papules on the face; non-caseating epithelioid granulomas are seen on histology examination. We herein report the case because it presented in atypical fashion, as a solitary indurated plaque on the nose, likely representing Morbihan's disease or solid persistent facial edema of rosacea (rosacea lymphedema).

  20. Plaque removal efficacy of Colgate 360 toothbrush: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Nageshwar; Chandna, Shalu; Dhindsa, Abhishek; Damle, Dhanashree; Loomba, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to confirm the plaque removal efficacy of the Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush. Study Design: This was a single-center, monadic, case–controlled study with the 7 days duration. Materials and Methods: A total of eighty participants (56 male and 24 female) aged between 18 and 45 years with a minimum of 20 permanent teeth (excluding the third molars) without any prosthetic crowns and an initial plaque score of minimum 1.5 as determined by Modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (1970) participated in the study. There were two dropouts during the study duration, one male and one female. The participants were instructed to brush for 1 min, after which plaque index was recorded again. They were then instructed to brush their teeth twice a day for 1 min with the assigned toothbrush (Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush) and a commercially available fluoride toothpaste for the next 7 days. On the 7th day, all the participants were recalled for follow-up and plaque examination. The plaque index scores (pre- and post-brushing) were recorded, tabulated, and analyzed statistically. Results: The mean plaque indices reduced after brushing both on day 1 and day 7. There was also a reduction in mean plaque indices from day 1 to day 7. All these reductions were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The reduction in plaque scores was independent of the gender of the participants however female participants showed lower scores as compared to male participants (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated a significant reduction in plaque scores with the use of Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Soft Toothbrush throughout the study period. Continued use resulted in a further significant reduction in plaque scores irrespective of the gender of participants.

  1. Plaque removal efficacy of Colgate 360 toothbrush: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Nageshwar; Chandna, Shalu; Dhindsa, Abhishek; Damle, Dhanashree; Loomba, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to confirm the plaque removal efficacy of the Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush. Study Design: This was a single-center, monadic, case–controlled study with the 7 days duration. Materials and Methods: A total of eighty participants (56 male and 24 female) aged between 18 and 45 years with a minimum of 20 permanent teeth (excluding the third molars) without any prosthetic crowns and an initial plaque score of minimum 1.5 as determined by Modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (1970) participated in the study. There were two dropouts during the study duration, one male and one female. The participants were instructed to brush for 1 min, after which plaque index was recorded again. They were then instructed to brush their teeth twice a day for 1 min with the assigned toothbrush (Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush) and a commercially available fluoride toothpaste for the next 7 days. On the 7th day, all the participants were recalled for follow-up and plaque examination. The plaque index scores (pre- and post-brushing) were recorded, tabulated, and analyzed statistically. Results: The mean plaque indices reduced after brushing both on day 1 and day 7. There was also a reduction in mean plaque indices from day 1 to day 7. All these reductions were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The reduction in plaque scores was independent of the gender of the participants however female participants showed lower scores as compared to male participants (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated a significant reduction in plaque scores with the use of Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Soft Toothbrush throughout the study period. Continued use resulted in a further significant reduction in plaque scores irrespective of the gender of participants. PMID:27630494

  2. 24. View of one of the plaques from Clark Fork ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. View of one of the plaques from Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge. Presently located at the Bonner County Historical Museum in Sandpoint, Idaho. A plaque was attached at each end of the bridge. Only one remains. - Clark Fork Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Clark Fork River, serves Highway 200, Clark Fork, Bonner County, ID

  3. Plaque assay for African swine fever virus on swine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bustos, M J; Nogal, M L; Revilla, Y; Carrascosa, A L

    2002-07-01

    A plaque assay developed to detect the infection of African Swine Fever Virus on swine macrophages is described. Plaques were generated by all of the virus isolates tested. The method is suitable not only for virus titration but also for the selection of clones in protocols for isolation/purification of recombinant viruses.

  4. Methylcellulose media for plaque assay of murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Horikawa, Y; Sato, K; Saito, H

    1982-09-01

    When ecotropic murine leukemia virus was assayed by a methylcellulose-XC cell procedure, plaque titers showed less test-to-test variation, more uniform dose-response curves, and larger plaque sizes, as compared with results of the conventional liquid overlay-XC cell test system. This assay therefore seems to be reliable and useful for the titration of ecotropic murine leukemia virus.

  5. Ultrafast laser ablation for targeted atherosclerotic plaque removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanvin, Thomas; Conkey, Donald B.; Descloux, Laurent; Frobert, Aurelien; Valentin, Jeremy; Goy, Jean-Jacques; Cook, Stéphane; Giraud, Marie-Noelle; Psaltis, Demetri

    2015-07-01

    Coronary artery disease, the main cause of heart disease, develops as immune cells and lipids accumulate into plaques within the coronary arterial wall. As a plaque grows, the tissue layer (fibrous cap) separating it from the blood flow becomes thinner and increasingly susceptible to rupturing and causing a potentially lethal thrombosis. The stabilization and/or treatment of atherosclerotic plaque is required to prevent rupturing and remains an unsolved medical problem. Here we show for the first time targeted, subsurface ablation of atherosclerotic plaque using ultrafast laser pulses. Excised atherosclerotic mouse aortas were ablated with ultrafast near-infrared (NIR) laser pulses. The physical damage was characterized with histological sections of the ablated atherosclerotic arteries from six different mice. The ultrafast ablation system was integrated with optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging for plaque-specific targeting and monitoring of the resulting ablation volume. We find that ultrafast ablation of plaque just below the surface is possible without causing damage to the fibrous cap, which indicates the potential use of ultrafast ablation for subsurface atherosclerotic plaque removal. We further demonstrate ex vivo subsurface ablation of a plaque volume through a catheter device with the high-energy ultrafast pulse delivered via hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

  6. Stroke. Geometry is destiny for carotid atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The geometry of carotid arteries, both normal and narrowed, produces flow characteristics that predict the location of atherosclerosis and the site of plaque rupture. A recent study has shown that the upstream carotid plaque undergoes profound biochemical and apoptotic changes that are closely linked to the development of stroke symptoms.

  7. Directional spatial frequency analysis of lipid distribution in atherosclerotic plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korn, Clyde; Reese, Eric; Shi, Lingyan; Alfano, Robert; Russell, Stewart

    2016-04-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by the growth of fibrous plaques due to the retention of cholesterol and lipids within the artery wall, which can lead to vessel occlusion and cardiac events. One way to evaluate arterial disease is to quantify the amount of lipid present in these plaques, since a higher disease burden is characterized by a higher concentration of lipid. Although therapeutic stimulation of reverse cholesterol transport to reduce cholesterol deposits in plaque has not produced significant results, this may be due to current image analysis methods which use averaging techniques to calculate the total amount of lipid in the plaque without regard to spatial distribution, thereby discarding information that may have significance in marking response to therapy. Here we use Directional Fourier Spatial Frequency (DFSF) analysis to generate a characteristic spatial frequency spectrum for atherosclerotic plaques from C57 Black 6 mice both treated and untreated with a cholesterol scavenging nanoparticle. We then use the Cauchy product of these spectra to classify the images with a support vector machine (SVM). Our results indicate that treated plaque can be distinguished from untreated plaque using this method, where no difference is seen using the spatial averaging method. This work has the potential to increase the effectiveness of current in-vivo methods of plaque detection that also use averaging methods, such as laser speckle imaging and Raman spectroscopy.

  8. Small entities with large impact: microcalcifications and atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Hutcheson, Joshua D.; Maldonado, Natalia; Aikawa, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Atherosclerotic plaque rupture and subsequent acute events, such as myocardial infarction and stroke, contribute to the majority of cardiovascular-related deaths. Calcification has emerged as a significant predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, challenging previously held notions that calcifications stabilize atherosclerotic plaques. In this review, we address this discrepancy through recent findings that not all calcifications are equivalent in determining plaque stability. Recent findings The risk associated with calcification is inversely associated with calcification density. As opposed to large calcifications that potentially stabilize the plaque, biomechanical modeling indicates that small microcalcifications within the plaque fibrous cap can lead to sufficient stress accumulation to cause plaque rupture. Microcalcifications appear to derive from matrix vesicles enriched in calcium-binding proteins that are released by cells within the plaque. Clinical detection of microcalcifications has been hampered by the lack of imaging resolution required for in-vivo visualization; however, recent studies have demonstrated promising new techniques to predict the presence of microcalcifications. Summary Microcalcifications play a major role in destabilizing atherosclerotic plaques. The identification of critical characteristics that lead to instability along with new imaging modalities to detect their presence in vivo may allow early identification and prevention of acute cardiovascular events. PMID:25188916

  9. Application of infrared fiber optic imaging in atherosclerotic plaques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bujin; Casscells, S. W.; Bearman, Gregory H.; McNatt, Janice; Naghevi, Morteza; Malik, Basit A.; Gul, Khawar; Willerson, James T.

    1999-07-01

    Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques - the main cause of heart attach and stokes - is not predictable. Hence even treadmill stress tests fail to detect many persons at risk. Fatal plaques are found at autopsies to be associated with active inflammatory cells. Classically, inflammation is detected by its swelling, red color, pain and heat. We have found that heat accurately locates the dangerous plaques that are significantly warmer then atherosclerotic plaques without the same inflammation. In order to develop a non-surgical method of locating these plaques, an IR fiber optic imaging system has been developed in our laboratory to evalute the causes and effect of heat in atherosclerotic plaques. The fiber optical imagin bundle consists of 900 individual As2S3 chalcogenide glass fibers which transmit IR radiation from 0.7 micrometers 7 micrometers with little energy loss. By combining that with a highly sensitive Indium Antimonide IR focal plane array detector, we are able to obtain thermal graphic images in situ. The temperature heterogeneity of atherosclerotic plaques developed in the arteral of the experimental animal models is under study with the new device. The preliminary experimental results from the animal model are encouraging. The potential of using this new technology in diagnostic evaluation of the vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is considerable.

  10. [Effect of Root Iron Plaque on Norfloxacin Uptake by Rice].

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei; Bao, Yan-yu

    2015-06-01

    In anaerobic condition, release of oxygen by roots to rhyzosphere caused the formation of red plaque of iron oxides or hydroxides on the root surface of rice. The effect of iron plaque on norfloxacin uptake was investigated with solution culture in greenhouse, and the results are showed in the following. The content of iron plaque increased with the increase of Fe2+ concentration in medium. After the addition of norfloxacin in nutrient solution, the content of iron plaques on the root surface decreased to different degree, and the reduction of iron plaques was increasing with the increase of norfloxacin mass concentration. Significant relationships were found between the iron plaques and norfloxacin on the root surface, and the correlation coefficients were 0.959 (norfloxacin mass concentration was 10 mg x L(-1)) and 0.987 (norfloxacin mass concentration was 50 mg x L(-1)), respectively, however, the norfloxacin contents in roots and shoots had no significant correlation with the iron plaques. After addition of different mass concentrations of norfloxacin, the quality distribution percentages of norfloxacin on the root surface and in roots and shoots were 87.7%-97.6%, 0.8%-4.8%, 1.5%-7.5%, respectively, the norfloxacin content on the root surface was far greater than those in roots and shoots. It was therefore concluded that iron plaque on roots was a norfloxacin reservoir for rice plant but had no significant effect on the transfer of norfloxacin to roots and shoots of the rice plant.

  11. A comparative study on plaque vulnerability using constitutive equations.

    PubMed

    Karimi, A; Navidbakhsh, M; Faghihi, S

    2014-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is the most serious and common form of cardiovascular disease in which plaque builds up inside the arteries. Peak plaque stress is considered as the main reason for plaque rupture, which results in heart attack and stroke. In the current research, the finite element method is used to anticipate plaque vulnerability, using human samples. A total of 23 healthy and atherosclerotic human coronary arteries (14 healthy and 9 atherosclerotic) were removed within 5 h postmortem. The samples were mounted on a uniaxial tensile test machine and the obtained mechanical properties were used in finite element models. The peak plaque stresses for the Ogden hyperelastic model were compared to the Mooney-Rivlin and Neo-Hookean outcomes. The results indicated that hypocellular plaque in all three models has the highest stress values compared to the cellular and calcified ones and, as a result, is quite prone to rupture. The calcified plaque type, in contrast, has the lowest stress values and remains stable. The results can be used in plaque vulnerability prediction and have clinical implications for interventions and surgeries such as balloon-angioplasty, cardiopulmonary bypass and stenting.

  12. Nanoparticle uptake by macrophages in vulnerable plaques for atherosclerosis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Susanne; Ankri, Rinat; Fixler, Dror; Tarnok, Attila

    2015-11-01

    The composition of atherosclerotic (AS) plaques is crucial concerning rupture, thrombosis and clinical events. Two plaque types are distinguished: stable and vulnerable plaques. Vulnerable plaques are rich in inflammatory cells, mostly only M1 macrophages, and are highly susceptible to rupture. These plaques represent a high risk particularly with the standard invasive diagnosis by coronary angiography. So far there are no non-invasive low-risk clinical approaches available to detect and distinguish AS plaque types in vivo. The perspective review introduces a whole work-flow for a novel approach for non-invasive detection and classification of AS plaques using the diffusion reflection method with gold nanoparticle loaded macrophages in combination with flow and image cytometric analysis for quality assurance. Classical biophotonic methods for AS diagnosis are summarized. Phenotyping of monocytes and macrophages are discussed for specific subset labelling by nanomaterials, as well as existing studies and first experimental proofs of concept for the novel approach are shown. In vitro and in vivo detection of NP loaded macrophages (MΦ). Different ways of MΦ labelling include (1) in vitro labelling in suspension (whole blood or buffy coat) or (2) labelling of short-term MΦ cultures with re-injection of MΦ-NP into the animal to detect migration of the cells in the plaques and (3) in vivo injection of NP into the organism.

  13. Spectroscopy to improve identification of vulnerable plaques in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Bruggink, Janneke L M; Meerwaldt, Robbert; van Dam, Gooitzen M; Lefrandt, Joop D; Slart, Riemer H J A; Tio, René A; Smit, Andries J; Zeebregts, Clark J

    2010-01-01

    Many apparent healthy persons die from cardiovascular disease, despite major advances in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors are able to predict cardiovascular events in the long run, but fail to assess current disease activity or nearby cardiovascular events. There is a clear relation between the occurrence of cardiovascular events and the presence of so-called vulnerable plaques. These vulnerable plaques are characterized by active inflammation, a thin cap and a large lipid pool. Spectroscopy is an optical imaging technique which depicts the interaction between light and tissues, and thereby shows the biochemical composition of tissues. In recent years, impressive advances have been made in spectroscopy technology and intravascular spectroscopy is able to assess the composition of plaques of interest and thereby to identify and actually quantify plaque vulnerability. This review summarizes the current evidence for spectroscopy as a measure of plaque vulnerability and discusses the potential role of intravascular spectroscopic imaging techniques. PMID:19760516

  14. High shear stress induces atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque formation through angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Qiu, Juhui; Luo, Shisui; Xie, Xiang; Zheng, Yiming; Zhang, Kang; Ye, Zhiyi; Liu, Wanqian; Gregersen, Hans; Wang, Guixue

    2016-01-01

    Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques causing thrombosis is the main cause of acute coronary syndrome and ischemic strokes. Inhibition of thrombosis is one of the important tasks developing biomedical materials such as intravascular stents and vascular grafts. Shear stress (SS) influences the formation and development of atherosclerosis. The current review focuses on the vulnerable plaques observed in the high shear stress (HSS) regions, which localizes at the proximal region of the plaque intruding into the lumen. The vascular outward remodelling occurs in the HSS region for vascular compensation and that angiogenesis is a critical factor for HSS which induces atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque formation. These results greatly challenge the established belief that low shear stress is important for expansive remodelling, which provides a new perspective for preventing the transition of stable plaques to high-risk atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:27482467

  15. Spectroscopy to improve identification of vulnerable plaques in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Bruggink, Janneke L M; Meerwaldt, Robbert; van Dam, Gooitzen M; Lefrandt, Joop D; Slart, Riemer H J A; Tio, René A; Smit, Andries J; Zeebregts, Clark J

    2010-01-01

    Many apparent healthy persons die from cardiovascular disease, despite major advances in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors are able to predict cardiovascular events in the long run, but fail to assess current disease activity or nearby cardiovascular events. There is a clear relation between the occurrence of cardiovascular events and the presence of so-called vulnerable plaques. These vulnerable plaques are characterized by active inflammation, a thin cap and a large lipid pool. Spectroscopy is an optical imaging technique which depicts the interaction between light and tissues, and thereby shows the biochemical composition of tissues. In recent years, impressive advances have been made in spectroscopy technology and intravascular spectroscopy is able to assess the composition of plaques of interest and thereby to identify and actually quantify plaque vulnerability. This review summarizes the current evidence for spectroscopy as a measure of plaque vulnerability and discusses the potential role of intravascular spectroscopic imaging techniques.

  16. Are herbal mouthwash efficacious over chlorhexidine on the dental plaque?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Nayan, Swapna; Tippanawar, Harshad K.; Patil, Gaurav I.; Jain, Ankita; Momin, Rizwan K.; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effect of herbal extract mouthwash and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the dental plaque level. Materials and Methods: The subjects (60 healthy medical students aged ranges between 20 and 25 years) were randomly divided into two groups, that is, the herbal group and the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group. The data were collected at the baseline and 3 days. The plaque was disclosed using erythrosine disclosing agent and their scores were recorded using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of all the two groups. Results: Our result showed that the chlorhexidine group shows a greater decrease in plaque score followed by herbal extract, but the result was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The results indicate that herbal mouthwash may prove to be an effective agent owing to its ability to reduce plaque level, especially in low socioeconomic strata. PMID:26130940

  17. Imaging Modalities to Identity Inflammation in an Atherosclerotic Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Sunny; Miller, Avraham; Agarwal, Chirag; Zakin, Elina; Acholonu, Michael; Gidwani, Umesh; Sharma, Abhishek; Kulbak, Guy; Shani, Jacob; Chen, On

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, multifocal arterial wall disease caused by local and systemic inflammation responsible for major cardiovascular complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. With the recent understanding that vulnerable plaque erosion and rupture, with subsequent thrombosis, rather than luminal stenosis, is the underlying cause of acute ischemic events, there has been a shift of focus to understand the mechanisms that make an atherosclerotic plaque unstable or vulnerable to rupture. The presence of inflammation in the atherosclerotic plaque has been considered as one of the initial events which convert a stable plaque into an unstable and vulnerable plaque. This paper systemically reviews the noninvasive and invasive imaging modalities that are currently available to detect this inflammatory process, at least in the intermediate stages, and discusses the ongoing studies that will help us to better understand and identify it at the molecular level. PMID:26798515

  18. Accelerated Plaque Formation by Fowlpox Virus in the Presence of Chymotrypsin

    PubMed Central

    Asch, Bonnie B.; Gifford, George E.

    1969-01-01

    Chymotrypsin enhanced fowlpox virus plaque formation in chick embryo cell cultures. A simplified plaque assay for fowlpox virus is described. Plaques were produced in 3 days when chymotrypsin was included in a serum-free fluid overlay. Plaques were also produced in 5 to 6 days under an agar overlay when a medium containing fetal calf serum was employed. Kinetics of plaque formation were also studied, and it was shown that fowlpox virus plaque diameters grow at a linear rate. Images PMID:4905607

  19. Dental plaque biofilm in oral health and disease.

    PubMed

    Seneviratne, Chaminda Jayampath; Zhang, Cheng Fei; Samaranayake, Lakshman Perera

    2011-01-01

    Dental plaque is an archetypical biofilm composed of a complex microbial community. It is the aetiological agent for major dental diseases such as dental caries and periodontal disease. The clinical picture of these dental diseases is a net result of the cross-talk between the pathogenic dental plaque biofilm and the host tissue response. In the healthy state, both plaque biofilm and adjacent tissues maintain a delicate balance, establishing a harmonious relationship between the two. However, changes occur during the disease process that transform this 'healthy' dental plaque into a 'pathogenic' biofilm. Recent advances in molecular microbiology have improved the understanding of dental plaque biofilm and produced numerous clinical benefits. Therefore, it is imperative that clinicians keep abreast with these new developments in the field of dentistry. Better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind dental diseases will facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies to establish a 'healthy dental plaque biofilm' by modulating both host and microbial factors. In this review, the present authors aim to summarise the current knowledge on dental plaque as a microbial biofilm and its properties in oral health and disease.

  20. The Vulnerable Plaque: the Real Villain in Acute Coronary Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Michael; Puri, Aniket; Devlin, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    The term "vulnerable plaque" refers to a vascular lesion that is prone to rupture and may result in life-threatening events which include myocardial infarction. It consists of thin-cap fibroatheroma and a large lipid core which is highly thrombogenic. Acute coronary syndromes often result from rupture of vulnerable plaques which frequently are only moderately stenosed and not visible by conventional angiography. Several invasive and non-invasive strategies have been developed to assess the burden of vulnerable plaques. Intravascular ultrasound provides a two-dimensional cross-sectional image of the arterial wall and can help assess the plaque burden and composition. Optical coherent tomography offers superior resolution over intravascular ultrasound. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging provides non-invasive imaging for visualizing fibrous cap thickness and rupture in plaques. In addition, it may be of value in assessing the effects of treatments, such as lipid-lowering therapy. Technical issues however limit its clinical applicability. The role of multi-slice computed tomography, a well established screening tool for coronary artery disease, remains to be determined. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) may provide physiological functional assessment of plaque vulnerability; however, its role in the management of vulnerable plaque requires further studies. Treatment of the vulnerable patient may involve systemic therapy which currently include statins, ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, aspirin, and calcium-channel blockers and in the future local therapeutic options such as drug-eluting stents or photodynamic therapy. PMID:21673834

  1. Dose response of chlorhexidine against plaque and comparison with triclosan.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, S; Addy, M; Newcombe, R G

    1994-04-01

    The optimum dose of chlorhexidine delivered by mouthrinse, which balances efficacy against local side-effects, is generally considered to be in the region of 20 mg 2 x daily. Unfortunately, there have been few dose-response studies for chlorhexidine mouthrinses and for these, only limited details are published. The aims of this study were to determine the dose response of chlorhexidine to plaque inhibition and position a 0.1% triclosan rinse within this model. 28 subjects took part in this 7-treatment, double-blind, randomised cross-over 4-day plaque regrowth study. The rinses were 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% chlorhexidine, 0.1% triclosan and minus active controls for chlorhexidine and triclosan. On day 1 from a zero plaque baseline, volunteers suspended tooth-cleaning and commenced supervised 2 x daily rinsing with 10 ml volumes of the allocated rinses. On Day 5, plaque was scored by index and area. Treatment differences between the 7 rinses were highly significant. A clear dose-response pattern was seen for chlorhexidine with mean plaque scores decreasing with increasing dose. Even at 0.01%, chlorhexidine showed considerable and significant plaque inhibition compared to control. Triclosan at 0.1% showed limited plaque inhibition and less than 0.01% chlorhexidine. The findings of this study suggest that consideration could be given to low concentration chlorhexidine rinses as adjuncts to oral hygiene.

  2. Assessment of Coronary Plaque Vulnerability with Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Uemura, Shiro; Soeda, Tsunenari; Sugawara, Yu; Ueda, Tomoya; Watanabe, Makoto; Saito, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Several catheter-based imaging modalities have been developed over the past 2 decades for visualizing the morphological features of coronary atherosclerotic plaques that are susceptible to future development of serious cardiovascular events. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new high-resolution intracoronary imaging modality based on near-infrared interferometry, and it has been shown to be able to identify various components of atheromatous plaques. In this review, we examine the histopathology of vulnerable plaques as a target for imaging technology, and discuss the evidence of OCT in identifying vulnerable atherosclerotic lesions in patients with coronary artery disease. PMID:27122761

  3. Non-pulsed electrochemical impregnation of flexible metallic battery plaques

    SciTech Connect

    Maskalick, N.J.

    1982-06-29

    A method of loading active battery material into porous, flexible, metallic battery plaques, comprises the following steps: precipitating nickel hydroxide active material within the plaque, by making the plaque cathodic, at a high current density, in an electro-precipitation cell also containing a consumable nickel anode and a solution comprising nickel nitrate, having a pH of between 2.0 and 2.8; electrochemically oxidizing the precipitate in caustic formation solution; and repeating the electro-precipitation step at a low current density. 3 figs.

  4. Atherosclerotic plaque detection by confocal Brillouin and Raman microscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zhaokai; Basagaoglu, Berkay; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2015-02-01

    Atherosclerosis, the development of intraluminal plaque, is a fundamental pathology of cardiovascular system and remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Biomechanical in nature, plaque rupture occurs when the mechanical properties of the plaque, related to the morphology and viscoelastic properties, are compromised, resulting in intraluminal thrombosis and reduction of coronary blood flow. In this report, we describe the first simultaneous application of confocal Brillouin and Raman microscopies to ex-vivo aortic wall samples. Such a non-invasive, high specific approach allows revealing a direct relationship between the biochemical and mechanical properties of atherosclerotic tissue.

  5. Impact of the sonicare toothbrush on plaque and gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Kugel, Gerard; Boghosian, Alan A

    2002-07-01

    The sonicare toothbrush has been shown to be 40% more effective in removing plaque than a manual toothbrush, 82% better in removing plaque from interproximal areas, and to reverse gingivitis. In vitro studies have examined the ability of the sonicare toothbrush to remove plaque bacteria beyond the reach of the bristles. The sonicare toothbrush has also been shown to produce significantly less dentin wear in vitro than another leading power toothbrush. This article reviews both in vivo and in vitro studies that illustrate the efficacy of the sonicare toothbrush in improving oral health.

  6. Neutralization Assay for Chikungunya Virus Infection: Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test.

    PubMed

    Azami, Nor Azila Muhammad; Moi, Meng Ling; Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    Neutralization assay is a technique that detects and quantifies neutralizing antibody in serum samples by calculating the percentage of reduction of virus activity, as the concentration of virus used is usually constant. Neutralizing antibody titer is conventionally determined by calculating the percentage reduction in total virus infectivity by counting and comparing number of plaques (localized area of infection due to cytopathic effect) with a standard amount of virus. Conventional neutralizing test uses plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to determine neutralizing antibody titers against Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Here we describe the plaque reduction neutralization assay (PRNT) using Vero cell lines to obtain neutralizing antibody titers.

  7. Non-pulsed electrochemical impregnation of flexible metallic battery plaques

    DOEpatents

    Maskalick, Nicholas J.

    1982-01-01

    A method of loading active battery material into porous, flexible, metallic battery plaques, comprises the following steps: precipitating nickel hydroxide active material within the plaque, by making the plaque cathodic, at a high current density, in an electro-precipitation cell also containing a consumable nickel anode and a solution comprising nickel nitrate, having a pH of between 2.0 and 2.8; electrochemically oxidizing the precipitate in caustic formation solution; and repeating the electro-precipitation step at a low current density.

  8. Hydrogen sulfide production from subgingival plaque samples.

    PubMed

    Basic, A; Dahlén, G

    2015-10-01

    Periodontitis is a polymicrobial anaerobe infection. Little is known about the dysbiotic microbiota and the role of bacterial metabolites in the disease process. It is suggested that the production of certain waste products in the proteolytic metabolism may work as markers for disease severity. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gas produced by degradation of proteins in the subgingival pocket. It is highly toxic and believed to have pro-inflammatory properties. We aimed to study H2S production from subgingival plaque samples in relation to disease severity in subjects with natural development of the disease, using a colorimetric method based on bismuth precipitation. In remote areas of northern Thailand, adults with poor oral hygiene habits and a natural development of periodontal disease were examined for their oral health status. H2S production was measured with the bismuth method and subgingival plaque samples were analyzed for the presence of 20 bacterial species with the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. In total, 43 subjects were examined (age 40-60 years, mean PI 95 ± 6.6%). Fifty-six percent had moderate periodontal breakdown (CAL > 3 < 7 mm) and 35% had severe periodontal breakdown (CAL > 7 mm) on at least one site. Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, Porphyromonas endodontalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum were frequently detected. H2S production could not be correlated to periodontal disease severity (PPD or CAL at sampled sites) or to a specific bacterial composition. Site 21 had statistically lower production of H2S (p = 0.02) compared to 16 and 46. Betel nut chewers had statistically significant lower H2S production (p = 0.01) than non-chewers. Rapid detection and estimation of subgingival H2S production capacity was easily and reliably tested by the colorimetric bismuth sulfide precipitation method. H2S may be a valuable clinical marker for degradation of proteins in the subgingival pocket. PMID:25280920

  9. Insulin decreases atherosclerotic plaque burden and increases plaque stability via nitric oxide synthase in apolipoprotein E-null mice.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yusaku; Chiang, Simon; Bendeck, Michelle P; Giacca, Adria

    2016-08-01

    It has been argued whether insulin accelerates or prevents atherosclerosis. Although results from in vitro studies have been conflicting, recent in vivo mice studies demonstrated antiatherogenic effects of insulin. Insulin is a known activator of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS), leading to increased production of NO, which has potent antiatherogenic effects. We aimed to examine the role of NOS in the protective effects of insulin against atherosclerosis. Male apolipoprotein E-null mice (8 wk old) fed a high-cholesterol diet (1.25% cholesterol) were assigned to the following 12-wk treatments: control, insulin (0.05 U/day via subcutaneous pellet), N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME, via drinking water at 100 mg/l), and insulin plus l-NAME. Insulin reduced atherosclerotic plaque burden in the descending aorta by 42% compared with control (plaque area/aorta lumen area: control, 16.5 ± 1.9%; insulin, 9.6 ± 1.3%, P < 0.05). Although insulin did not decrease plaque burden in the aortic sinus, macrophage accumulation in the plaque was decreased by insulin. Furthermore, insulin increased smooth muscle actin and collagen content and decreased plaque necrosis, consistent with increased plaque stability. In addition, insulin treatment increased plasma NO levels, decreased inducible NOS staining, and tended to increase phosphorylated vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein staining in the plaques of the aortic sinus. All these effects of insulin were abolished by coadministration of l-NAME, whereas l-NAME alone showed no effect. Insulin also tended to increase phosphorylated endothelial NOS and total neuronal NOS staining, effects not modified by l-NAME. In conclusion, we demonstrate that insulin treatment decreases atherosclerotic plaque burden and increases plaque stability through NOS-dependent mechanisms. PMID:27221119

  10. Assessment of dental plaque by optoelectronic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrutiu, Meda-Lavinia; Sinescu, Cosmin; Bortun, Cristina Maria; Levai, Mihaela-Codrina; Topala, Florin Ionel; Crǎciunescu, Emanuela Lidia; Cojocariu, Andreea Codruta; Duma, Virgil Florin; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2016-03-01

    The formation of dental biofilm follows specific mechanisms of initial colonization on the surface, microcolony formation, development of organized three dimensional community structures, and detachment from the surface. The structure of the plaque biofilm might restrict the penetration of antimicrobial agents, while bacteria on a surface grow slowly and display a novel phenotype; the consequence of the latter is a reduced sensitivity to inhibitors. The aim of this study was to evaluate with different optoelectronic methods the morphological characteristics of the dental biofilm. The study was performed on samples from 25 patients aged between 18 and 35 years. The methods used in this study were Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) working at 870 nm for in vivo evaluations and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) for validations. For each patient a sample of dental biofilm was obtained directly from the vestibular surface of the teeth's. SD-OCT produced C- and B-scans that were used to generate three dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the sample. The results were compared with SEM evaluations. The biofilm network was dramatically destroyed after the professional dental cleaning. OCT noninvasive methods can act as a valuable tool for the 3D characterization of dental biofilms.

  11. Genetic variants of dental plaque Methanobrevibacter oralis.

    PubMed

    Huynh, H T T; Nkamga, V D; Drancourt, M; Aboudharam, G

    2015-06-01

    Methanobrevibacter oralis is the major methanogenic archaea found in the oral cavity. It has been implicated in periodontitis, including the severe form. It is unknown whether certain M. oralis genetic variants are associated with severe periodontitis. Here, we developed multispacer sequence typing (MST) as a sequencing-based genotyping method for the assessment of M. oralis. The sequencing of four intergenic spacers from a collection of 17 dental plaque M. oralis isolates obtained from seven individuals revealed 482 genetic polymorphisms, including 401 single nucleotide polymorphisms (83.2 %), 55 deletions (11.4 %) and 26 insertions (5.4 %). Concatenation of the four spacers yielded nine genotypes, which were clustered into six groups with an index of discrimination of 0.919. One periodontitis patient may have harboured up to three genetic variants of M. oralis, revealing the previously unknown diversity of this archaea. MST will allow for the study of the dynamics of M. oralis populations, including inter-individual transmission and any correlations with the severity of periodontitis. PMID:25633825

  12. Cutaneous sarcoidosis masquerading as psoriatic plaques.

    PubMed

    Argraves, Melissa; Sloan, Steven B; Dadras, Soheil S

    2015-04-16

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease characterized by non-caseating granulomas present in the involved organ systems. The disease is believed to result from an interaction among genetic factors, antigens, and the immune response. Environmental exposures and infectious agents have been implicated as potential causes. Cutaneous sarcoidosis presents clinically in many forms and the lesions are classified as either specific or non-specific. Non-specific lesions show a nondescript inflammatory process whereas specific lesions display typical, non-caseating granulomas. There are many different forms of specific lesions with some being more common than others. Psoriasiform lesions are uncommon. The literature suggests that as few as 0.9% of patients display this type of cutaneous sarcoidosis. Some of these patients present solely with cutaneous sarcoidosis, but others have systemic involvement with pulmonary involvement being the most common concomitant presentation. Plaques appear as round or oval, brownish, red infiltrated lesions, frequently involving the extensor surface of the extremities, face, scalp, back, and buttocks. Multiple configurations, including discrete, confluent, annular, and polycyclic, have been reported. Despite the clinical resemblance to psoriasis, on histological examination, only non-caseating granulomas are seen in the dermis. In rare cases both psoriasiform sarcoidosis and psoriasis were present.

  13. Detail of aluminum plaque attached to the top of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of aluminum plaque attached to the top of the northwest pilaster, facing west. - Oakland Avenue Viaduct, Oakland Avenue spanning U.S. Route 62 (State Route 2302) & Pine Run, Sharon, Mercer County, PA

  14. Butyrate and propionate: important components of toxic dental plaque extracts.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, R E; Buckner, B A

    1981-01-01

    Extracts of in vitro-cultured human dental plaque contain factors toxic to mammalian cells. Previous studies demonstrated that those toxic factors most readily released from cultured plaque had very low molecular weights and were heat stable. Studies reported here demonstrate that metabolic end products including short-chain fatty acids were present in fractions containing the low-molecular-weight, heat-stable factors. The salts of two of these acids, butyrate and propionate, inhibited proliferation of both mouse L929 cells and human gingival fibroblasts. Furthermore, when tested at concentrations present in plaque extracts, the inhibitory effects of butyrate and propionate accounted for essentially all the inhibitory potential of the extracts. These findings, taken together with those of other groups, suggest that butyrate and propionate, end products of dental plaque metabolism, may have an etiological role in periodontal disease. PMID:7251132

  15. 38. 100 foot through truss bridge original identification plaque ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. 100 foot through truss - bridge original identification plaque located on the top of the north portal entrance. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  16. 32. STUDIO VIEW OF PLAQUE PLACED ON MILL HOUSE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. STUDIO VIEW OF PLAQUE PLACED ON MILL HOUSE AT TIME OF COMPLETION, COMMEMORATING EDWARD J. LUKE (SEE TEXT) - Sperry Corn Elevator Complex, Weber Avenue (North side), West of Edison Street, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  17. Clathrin and Cx43 gap junction plaque endoexocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nickel, Beth M.; DeFranco, B. Hewa; Gay, Vernon L.; Murray, Sandra A.

    2008-10-03

    In earlier transmission electron microscopic studies, we have described pentilaminar gap junctional membrane invaginations and annular gap junction vesicles coated with short, electron-dense bristles. The similarity between these electron-dense bristles and the material surrounding clathrin-coated pits led us to suggest that the dense bristles associated with gap junction structures might be clathrin. To confirm that clathrin is indeed associated with annular gap junction vesicles and gap junction plaques, quantum dot immuno-electron microscopic techniques were used. We report here that clathrin associates with both connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junction plaques and pentilaminar gap junction vesicles. An important finding was the preferential localization of clathrin to the cytoplasmic surface of the annular or of the gap junction plaque membrane of one of the two contacting cells. This is consistent with the possibility that the direction of gap junction plaque internalization into one of two contacting cells is regulated by clathrin.

  18. 6. VIEW OF COMMEMORATIVE PLAQUE, EAST APPROACH GUARDRAIL, WHICH STATES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF COMMEMORATIVE PLAQUE, EAST APPROACH GUARDRAIL, WHICH STATES 'SALINE RIVER; ARK. GENERAL CONST. CO.; CONTRACTOR; ARKANSAS; STATE HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT; 1928, BRIDGE NO. __.' - Saline River Bridge, County Highway 365 across Saline River, Benton, Saline County, AR

  19. 33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY WITH CONCRETE CULVERT LEADING NORTH OUT OF RAVINE TOWARD JOHNSTON MEMORIAL SITE. VIEW NW. - Shiloh National Military Park Tour Roads, Shiloh, Hardin County, TN

  20. 5. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING STONE PLAQUE INSCRIBED 'USRA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING STONE PLAQUE INSCRIBED 'USRA, 1936' LOCATED IN EAST ELEVATION (tHIS PHOTOGRAPH IS FOGGED) - Spring Lake Bridge, Spanning Bob Barnes Branch at County Road No. 36D, Belleville, Yell County, AR

  1. Elevation view of dedication plaque on east wall of south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of dedication plaque on east wall of south lobby - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Main Mental Health Building, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. Contemporary carotid imaging: from degree of stenosis to plaque vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Brinjikji, Waleed; Huston, John; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Kim, Gyeong-Moon; Lerman, Amir; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Carotid artery stenosis is a well-established risk factor of ischemic stroke, contributing to up to 10%-20% of strokes or transient ischemic attacks. Many clinical trials over the last 20 years have used measurements of carotid artery stenosis as a means to risk stratify patients. However, with improvements in vascular imaging techniques such as CT angiography and MR angiography, ultrasonography, and PET/CT, it is now possible to risk stratify patients, not just on the degree of carotid artery stenosis but also on how vulnerable the plaque is to rupture, resulting in ischemic stroke. These imaging techniques are ushering in an emerging paradigm shift that allows for risk stratifications based on the presence of imaging features such as intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH), plaque ulceration, plaque neovascularity, fibrous cap thickness, and presence of a lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC). It is important for the neurosurgeon to be aware of these new imaging techniques that allow for improved patient risk stratification and outcomes. For example, a patient with a low-grade stenosis but an ulcerated plaque may benefit more from a revascularization procedure than a patient with a stable 70% asymptomatic stenosis with a thick fibrous cap. This review summarizes the current state-of-the-art advances in carotid plaque imaging. Currently, MRI is the gold standard in carotid plaque imaging, with its high resolution and high sensitivity for identifying IPH, ulceration, LRNC, and inflammation. However, MRI is limited due to time constraints. CT also allows for high-resolution imaging and can accurately detect ulceration and calcification, but cannot reliably differentiate LRNC from IPH. PET/CT is an effective technique to identify active inflammation within the plaque, but it does not allow for assessment of anatomy, ulceration, IPH, or LRNC. Ultrasonography, with the aid of contrast enhancement, is a cost-effective technique to assess plaque morphology and characteristics, but it is

  3. Plaque retention on elastomeric ligatures. An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    CONDÒ, R.; CASAGLIA, A.; CONDÒ, S.G.; CERRONI, L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Fixed orthodontic appliances make it difficult to maintain the oral hygiene, resulting in plaque accumulation. Retention of bacterial plaque, represents a risk for white spot lesions and development of periodontal disease. Aim Purpose of this study was to determine in vivo the retention of plaque on three different elastic ligatures, in comparison with stainless steel ligature, to determine a possible association between type of ligatures and accumulation of microorganisms. Material and Methods three elastic ligation systems were analyzed for plaque retention: ring-shape, clear, latex ligatures (Leone® Spa), ring-shape, grey, polyurethane ligatures (Micerium® Spa) and grey, polyurethane, Slide low-friction ligatures (Leone® Spa), compared with stainless steel ligatures (Leone® Spa) used as control. Forthy orthodontic patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy were selected. A sample for each type of ligature were applied inside the oral cavity of each subject. Samples were kept in the oral cavity for 28 days, ligating 0.16 X 0.22 stainless steel archwire to stainless steel orthodontic premolars brackets. The presence of bacterical slime was quantified by spectrophotometric method (crystal violet-Bouin’s fixative) and morphological observations was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Results From analysis of bacterical slime emerges that all the elastics showed a low plaque retention, especially if compared to the group of steinless steel ligatures, that presented a greater plaque adhesion, statistically significant compared to the Slide group (r<0.0002) and the two elastic groups (r<0.0001). This study reported no significant difference between the Slide ligatures and the traditional elastic ligatures as regards the retention of plaque. SEM images showed presence of cocci, rods and few filamentous organisms and an interbacterial matrix in all observed samples. Conclusion Elastomeric ligatures showed a significant lower susceptibility

  4. Urease and Dental Plaque Microbial Profiles in Children

    PubMed Central

    Morou-Bermudez, Evangelia; Rodriguez, Selena; Bello, Angel S.; Dominguez-Bello, Maria G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Urease enzymes produced by oral bacteria generate ammonia, which can have a significant impact on the oral ecology and, consequently, on oral health. To evaluate the relationship of urease with dental plaque microbial profiles in children as it relates to dental caries, and to identify the main contributors to this activity. Methods 82 supragingival plaque samples were collected from 44 children at baseline and one year later, as part of a longitudinal study on urease and caries in children. DNA was extracted; the V3–V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced using 454 pyrosequencing. Urease activity was measured using a spectrophotometric assay. Data were analyzed with Qiime. Results Plaque urease activity was significantly associated with the composition of the microbial communities of the dental plaque (Baseline P = 0.027, One Year P = 0.012). The bacterial taxa whose proportion in dental plaque exhibited significant variation by plaque urease levels in both visits were the family Pasteurellaceae (Baseline P<0.001; One Year P = 0.0148), especially Haemophilus parainfluenzae. No association was observed between these bacteria and dental caries. Bacteria in the genus Leptotrichia were negatively associated with urease and positively associated with dental caries (Bonferroni P<0.001). Conclusions Alkali production by urease enzymes primarily from species in the family Pasteurellaceae can be an important ecological determinant in children’s dental plaque. Further studies are needed to establish the role of urease-associated bacteria in the acid/base homeostasis of the dental plaque, and in the development and prediction of dental caries in children. PMID:26418220

  5. Single-use plaque removal efficacy of three power toothbrushes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, N C; Goyal, C R; Qaqish, J G; Cugini, M A; Thompson, M C; Warren, P R

    2005-06-01

    OBJECTIVES.: To compare the safety and plaque removal efficacy of two oscillating/rotating/pulsating toothbrushes (Oral-B ProfessionalCaretrade mark 7000 [PC 7000] and Oral-B 3D Excel [3DE]) and a high-frequency toothbrush (Sonicare(R) Advance, Philips Oral Healthcare; SA) in a single-use, examiner-blind, three period crossover study. METHODS.: After refraining from all oral hygiene procedures for 23-25 hours, subjects received an oral tissue examination and those with pre-brushing whole mouth mean plaque scores 0.6 based on the Rustogi et al. Modified Navy Plaque Index were randomly assigned to treatment sequence. After brushing with the assigned toothbrush and a commercially available dentifrice for 2 minutes, oral tissues were then re-examined and post-brushing plaque scores recorded. Following a brief washout period between two additional visits, the above procedures were repeated with the two alternate toothbrushes. One examiner, blinded to the treatment sequence, performed all clinical measurements. RESULTS.: A total of 79 subjects (28 males and 51 females) were enrolled and completed the study. Each toothbrush was found to be safe and significantly reduced plaque levels after a single brushing. The PC 7000 and 3DE were equally more effective in plaque removal than the SA, at all tooth areas, reducing plaque by 59.0%, 59.7% and 51.8%, respectively on whole mouth surfaces, and by 67.5%, 67.8% and 59.4%, respectively on approximal surfaces. CONCLUSIONS.: The action of the oscillating/rotating/pulsating toothbrushes (Oral-B ProfessionalCare 7000 and Oral-B 3D Excel) was more effective in plaque removal than the high-frequency toothbrush (Sonicare Advance).

  6. Effect of rinse with calcium enriched milk on plaque fluid.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M; Matsunaga, K; Kadoma, Y

    1999-09-01

    Previous research has shown that rinsing the mouth with milk significantly diminished the pH in dental plaque fluid; however, the degree of saturation with respect to the dental enamel (DS) was not significantly decreased because of an increase in the calcium ion concentration in plaque fluid. The aim of this study was to investigate the cariostatic effect of adding calcium to milk on the DS value of the plaque fluid after rinsing. Plaque samples were collected from 8 Japanese male dental students. Prior to plaque collection, all subjects refrained from practicing oral hygiene for 48 hr and fasted overnight. Supragingival plaque samples were collected from one side of the mouth of each subject, and then collected from the other side, following a 30-second rinse with 15 mL of calcium-enriched milk, which was prepared by adding calcium carbonate to ordinary milk, and a 10-minute waiting period. The samples were cleared by centrifugation, and the plaque fluid was analyzed for inorganic ions and pH, using an ion chromatograph and pH microelectrode, respectively. The calcium ion concentration of the milk was 6.4 mM, which was about 36% higher than that of ordinary milk. The pH decreased significantly (p<5%) from 6.4 to 6.1 following the rinse with calcium enriched milk, as tested by the paired t-test. The decrease in pH might have caused a reduction of the DS value; however, it was compensated for by a significant (p<0.5%) increase in the calcium ion concentration of plaque fluid. PMID:12160258

  7. Detail of plaque beneath column on the south parapet at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of plaque beneath column on the south parapet at the west end of the bridge. The plaque reads “1914; Mayor E.J. Drussel; Councilmen E.S. Henry, E.F. Hogan, R.P. Lamdin, C.F. Ross, J.H. Shuppert; Leonard & Day, Engineers; C.H. Gildersleeve, Builder.” - First Street Bridge, Spanning Napa River at First Street between Soscol Avenue & Juarez Street, Napa, Napa County, CA

  8. An interactive treatment planning system for ophthalmic plaque radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Astrahan, M.A.; Luxton, G.; Jozsef, G.; Kampp, T.D.; Liggett, P.E.; Sapozink, M.D.; Petrovich, Z. )

    1990-03-01

    Brachytherapy using removable episcleral plaques containing sealed radioisotope sources is being studied as an alternative to enucleation in the treatment of choroidal melanoma and other tumors of the eye. Encouraging early results have been reported, but late complications which lead to loss of vision continue to be a problem. A randomized national study, the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) is currently in progress to evaluate the procedure. The COMS specified isotope is 125I. Precise dosimetric calculations near the plaque may correlate strongly with complications and could also be used to optimize isotope loading patterns in the plaques. A microcomputer based treatment planning system has been developed for ophthalmic plaque brachytherapy. The program incorporates an interactive, 3-dimensional, solid-surface, color-graphic interface. The program currently supports 125I and 192Ir seeds which are treated as anisotropic line sources. Collimation effects related to plaque structure are accounted for, permitting detailed study of shielding effectiveness near the lip of a plaque. A dose distribution matrix may be calculated in any subregion of a transverse, sagittal, or coronal planar cross section of the eye, in any plane transecting the plaque and crossing the eye diametrically, or on a spherical surface within or surrounding the eye. Spherical surfaces may be displayed as 3-dimensional perspective projections or as funduscopic diagrams. Isodose contours are interpolated from the dose matrix. A pointer is also available to explicitly calculate and display dose at any location on the dosimetry surface. An interactive editing capability allows new plaque designs to be rapidly added to the system.

  9. High throughput virus plaque quantitation using a flatbed scanner.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kate; Kloess, Johannes; Qian, Chen; Bell, Donald; Hay, Alan; Lin, Yi Pu; Gu, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The plaque assay is a standard technique for measuring influenza virus infectivity and inhibition of virus replication. Counting plaque numbers and quantifying virus infection of cells in multiwell plates quickly, accurately and automatically remain a challenge. Visual inspection relies upon experience, is subjective, often time consuming, and has less reproducibility than automated methods. In this paper, a simple, high throughput imaging-based alternative is proposed which uses a flatbed scanner and image processing software to quantify the infected cell population and plaque formation. Quantitation results were evaluated with reference to visual counting and achieved better than 80% agreement. The method was shown to be particularly advantageous in titration of the number of plaques and infected cells when influenza viruses produce a heterogeneous population of small plaques. It was also shown to be insensitive to the densities of plaques in determination of neutralization titres and IC(50)s of drug susceptibility. In comparison to other available techniques, this approach is cost-effective, relatively accurate, and readily available.

  10. Automatic plaque assay for the pharmaceutical industry using machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, Joseph; Tsai, Augustine; Festa, J. M.

    1995-10-01

    A crucial step in the manufacture of vaccines is the verification of their potency. An assay of the potency must be carried out on every batch produced to determine the safety and efficacy of the vaccine. Currently, human inspectors count the number of plaques (holes) in a cell layer in a petri dish to estimate the potency.They must determine whether nearby plaques that have overgrown each other's borders are single or multiple plaques and distinguish between plaques and small tears in the cell layer resulting from the processing operations (the edges of tears differ in appearance from the edges of plaques). Because of the judgments required to make these subtle distinctions, human inspectors are inconsistent. In cooperation with Merck & Co., Inc., the Rutgers University Center for Computer Aids for Industrial Productivity has demonstrated the feasibility of achieving consistent automatic counting of plaques by a prototype intelligent machine vision system. The David Sarnoff Research Center developed materials handling equipment and factory information system interfaces to enable this prototype system to be installed in a quality control facility at Merck. This paper describes the overall operation of the machine vision aspects of the system, including optics, illumination, sensing, preprocessing, feature extraction and shape recognition. Results of initial tests of the system are also reported.

  11. Replica study of plaque formation on human tooth surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lie, T; Gusberti, F

    1979-01-01

    Plaque formation on buccal tooth surfaces was studied by replica technique, consisting of impressions using low viscosity silicone impression materials and positive models produced in epoxy resins. Bacterial accumulation occurred near the cemento-enamel junction in 6-hr specimens, and subsequently expanded in a coronal direction. This development took place partly by extensions of single layers of bacteria, and partly by a pattern where the colonization was mostly restricted to vertical enamel cracks. Plaque accumulations were also frequently located in abrasion grooves and surface pits in the enamel, and prolific plaque areas were consistently surrounded by a monolayer of bacterial cells. Globular and hemispheric structures which occurred, especially on root surfaces immediately after cleaning, were probably artefacts caused by air bubbles or remaining moisture. In separate series of experiments it was demonstrated that improved reproduction of details from the plaque could be achieved by repeating the replicating procedure. The findings indicate that plaque formation starts by adsorption and proliferation of individual bacteria on tooth surfaces, and not by adsorption of aggregates of cells. Special attention should be directed against the problem of artefacts and moisture in replica studies of dental plaque.

  12. MRI-based biomechanical parameters for carotid artery plaque vulnerability assessment.

    PubMed

    Speelman, Lambert; Teng, Zhongzhao; Nederveen, Aart J; van der Lugt, Aad; Gillard, Jonathan H

    2016-03-01

    Carotid atherosclerotic plaques are a major cause of ischaemic stroke. The biomechanical environment to which the arterial wall and plaque is subjected to plays an important role in the initiation, progression and rupture of carotid plaques. MRI is frequently used to characterize the morphology of a carotid plaque, but new developments in MRI enable more functional assessment of carotid plaques. In this review, MRI based biomechanical parameters are evaluated on their current status, clinical applicability, and future developments. Blood flow related biomechanical parameters, including endothelial wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index, have been shown to be related to plaque formation. Deriving these parameters directly from MRI flow measurements is feasible and has great potential for future carotid plaque development prediction. Blood pressure induced stresses in a plaque may exceed the tissue strength, potentially leading to plaque rupture. Multi-contrast MRI based stress calculations in combination with tissue strength assessment based on MRI inflammation imaging may provide a plaque stress-strength balance that can be used to assess the plaque rupture risk potential. Direct plaque strain analysis based on dynamic MRI is already able to identify local plaque displacement during the cardiac cycle. However, clinical evidence linking MRI strain to plaque vulnerability is still lacking. MRI based biomechanical parameters may lead to improved assessment of carotid plaque development and rupture risk. However, better MRI systems and faster sequences are required to improve the spatial and temporal resolution, as well as increase the image contrast and signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:26791734

  13. Raised soluble P-selectin moderately accelerates atherosclerotic plaque progression.

    PubMed

    Woollard, Kevin J; Lumsden, Natalie G; Andrews, Karen L; Aprico, Andrea; Harris, Emma; Irvine, Jennifer C; Jefferis, Ann-maree; Fang, Lu; Kanellakis, Peter; Bobik, Alex; Chin-Dusting, Jaye P F

    2014-01-01

    Soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin), a biomarker of inflammatory related pathologies including cardiovascular and peripheral vascular diseases, also has pro-atherosclerotic effects including the ability to increase leukocyte recruitment and modulate thrombotic responses in vivo. The current study explores its role in progressing atherosclerotic plaque disease. Apoe-/- mice placed on a high fat diet (HFD) were given daily injections of recombinant dimeric murine P-selectin (22.5 µg/kg/day) for 8 or 16 weeks. Saline or sE-selectin injections were used as negative controls. In order to assess the role of sP-selectin on atherothrombosis an experimental plaque remodelling murine model, with sm22α-hDTR Apoe-/- mice on a HFD in conjunction with delivery of diphtheria toxin to induce targeted vascular smooth muscle apoptosis, was used. These mice were similarly given daily injections of sP-selectin for 8 or 16 weeks. While plaque mass and aortic lipid content did not change with sP-selectin treatment in Apoe-/- or SM22α-hDTR Apoe-/- mice on HFD, increased plasma MCP-1 and a higher plaque CD45 content in Apoe-/- HFD mice was observed. As well, a significant shift towards a more unstable plaque phenotype in the SM22α-hDTR Apoe-/- HFD mice, with increased macrophage accumulation and lower collagen content, leading to a lower plaque stability index, was observed. These results demonstrate that chronically raised sP-selectin favours progression of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque phenotype.

  14. Macrophage-targeted photodynamic detection of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamblin, Michael R.; Tawakol, Ahmed; Castano, Ana P.; Gad, Faten; Zahra, Touqir; Ahmadi, Atosa; Stern, Jeremy; Ortel, Bernhard; Chirico, Stephanie; Shirazi, Azadeh; Syed, Sakeena; Muller, James E.

    2003-06-01

    Rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque (VP) leading to coronary thrombosis is the chief cause of sudden cardiac death. VPs are angiographically insignificant lesions, which are excessively inflamed and characterized by dense macrophage infiltration, large necrotic lipid cores, thin fibrous caps, and paucity of smooth muscle cells. We have recently shown that chlorin(e6) conjugated with maleylated albumin can target macrophages with high selectivity via the scavenger receptor. We report the potential of this macrophage-targeted fluorescent probe to localize in VPs in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis, and allow detection and/or diagnosis by fluorescence spectroscopy or imaging. Atherosclerotic lesions were induced in New Zealand White rabbit aortas by balloon injury followed by administration of a high-fat diet. 24-hours after IV injection of the conjugate into atherosclerotic or normal rabbits, the animals were sacrificed, and aortas were removed, dissected and examined for fluorescence localization in plaques by fiber-based spectrofluorimetry and confocal microscopy. Dye uptake within the aortas was also quantified by fluorescence extraction of samples from aorta segments. Biodistribution of the dye was studied in many organs of the rabbits. Surface spectrofluorimetry after conjugate injection was able to distinguish between plaque and adjacent aorta, between atherosclerotic and normal aorta, and balloon-injured and normal iliac arteries with high significance. Discrete areas of high fluorescence (up to 20 times control were detected in the balloon-injured segments, presumably corresponding to macrophage-rich plaques. Confocal microscopy showed red ce6 fluorescence localized in plaques that showed abundant foam cells and macrophages by histology. Extraction data on aortic tissue corroborated the selectivity of the conjugate for plaques. These data support the strategy of employing macrophage-targeted fluorescent dyes to detect VP by intravascular

  15. Survival of Human Dental Plaque Flora in Various Transport Media

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Salam A.; Loesche, Walter J.

    1972-01-01

    Dental plaque samples from (i) subjects with no apparent oral disease, (ii) mentally retarded subjects with periodontal disease, and (iii) subjects with active caries were collected in three transport media viz. a dithiothreitol poised balanced mineral salt solution designated as reduced transport fluid (RTF), VMG II, and modified Stuart medium (SBL). The samples were dispersed by sonic treatment, diluted in the respective medium in which they were collected, and cultured on MM10 sucrose agar. The efficiency of the transport media in the survival of dental plaque flora was determined by comparing the quantitative recovery (expressed as percentage of the initial viable count) from the specimens stored for various lengths of time. The data showed a great variation in the recovery of the oral bacterial flora from the plaque samples. VMG II and SBL served better than RTF as storage media for non-disease-associated dental plaque cultured under strict anaerobic conditions. Recoveries of bacteria from periodontal plaque specimens stored in RTF were higher than SBL and VMG II under identical conditions. The organisms present in the carious plaque samples appeared to survive much better in RTF and VMG II than in SBL as determined by conventional anaerobic culturing technique. However, VMG II showed a higher recovery of organisms from these specimens with an increase in the storage period, suggesting multiplication of the plaque flora. RTF did not allow the growth of oral bacterial flora under all experimental conditions. On the basis of the relative performance of these media it is suggested that RTF is a satisfactory medium for the transport of oral bacteria present in the samples. PMID:4628799

  16. Can anti-erosion dentifrices also provide effective plaque control?

    PubMed Central

    Bellamy, PG; Prendergast, M; Strand, R; Yu, Z; Day, TN; Barker, ML; Mussett, AJ

    2011-01-01

    Objective: While gingivitis and caries continue to be prevalent issues, there is growing concern about dental erosion induced by dietary acids. An oral hygiene product that protects against all these conditions would be beneficial. This study investigated the potential of two anti-erosion dentifrices to inhibit plaque. Methods: This was a randomized, three-period, two-treatment, double-blind, crossover study evaluating a stannous chloride/sodium fluoride dentifrice (SnCl2/NaF, blend-a-med® Pro Expert) and a popular anti-erosion dentifrice (NaF, Sensodyne® ProNamel™). During Period 3, subjects were randomized to repeat one treatment to evaluate any product carryover effects. Each treatment period was 17 days. Test dentifrices were used with a standard manual toothbrush. Digital plaque image analysis (DPIA) was employed at the end of each period to evaluate plaque levels (i) overnight (am prebrush); (ii) post-brushing with the test product (am post-brush); and (iii) mid-afternoon (pm). Analysis was conducted via an objective computer algorithm, which calculated total area of visible plaque. Results: Twenty-seven subjects completed the study. At all time points, subjects had statistically significantly (P ≤ 0.0001) lower plaque levels after using the SnCl2/NaF dentifrice than the NaF dentifrice. The antiplaque benefit for the SnCl2/NaF dentifrice versus the NaF dentifrice was: am prebrush = 26.0%; am post-brushing = 27.9%; pm = 25.7%. Conclusions: The SnCl2/NaF dentifrice provided significantly greater daytime and overnight plaque inhibition than the NaF toothpaste. When recommending dentifrice to patients susceptible to dental erosion, clinicians can consider one that also inhibits plaque. PMID:21356021

  17. Unified theory on the pathogenesis of Randall's plaques and plugs.

    PubMed

    Khan, Saeed R; Canales, Benjamin K

    2015-01-01

    Kidney stones develop attached to sub-epithelial plaques of calcium phosphate (CaP) crystals (termed Randall's plaque) and/or form as a result of occlusion of the openings of the Ducts of Bellini by stone-forming crystals (Randall's plugs). These plaques and plugs eventually extrude into the urinary space, acting as a nidus for crystal overgrowth and stone formation. To better understand these regulatory mechanisms and the pathophysiology of idiopathic calcium stone disease, this review provides in-depth descriptions of the morphology and potential origins of these plaques and plugs, summarizes existing animal models of renal papillary interstitial deposits, and describes factors that are believed to regulate plaque formation and calcium overgrowth. Based on evidence provided within this review and from the vascular calcification literature, we propose a "unified" theory of plaque formation-one similar to pathological biomineralization observed elsewhere in the body. Abnormal urinary conditions (hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria, and hypocitraturia), renal stress or trauma, and perhaps even the normal aging process lead to transformation of renal epithelial cells into an osteoblastic phenotype. With this de-differentiation comes an increased production of bone-specific proteins (i.e., osteopontin), a reduction in crystallization inhibitors (such as fetuin and matrix Gla protein), and creation of matrix vesicles, which support nucleation of CaP crystals. These small deposits promote aggregation and calcification of surrounding collagen. Mineralization continues by calcification of membranous cellular degradation products and other fibers until the plaque reaches the papillary epithelium. Through the activity of matrix metalloproteinases or perhaps by brute physical force produced by the large sub-epithelial crystalline mass, the surface is breached and further stone growth occurs by organic matrix-associated nucleation of CaOx or by the transformation of the outer layer

  18. Association between abdominal aortic plaque and coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Luo, Songyuan; Luo, Jianfang; Liu, Yuan; Huang, Wenhui; Chen, Jiyan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Currently, the association between abdominal aortic plaques and coronary artery disease (CAD) has not yet been clarified clearly. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of abdominal aortic plaques by ultrasound imaging and to explore its association with CAD in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Methods Between October 2014 and June 2015, a prospective study was conducted in the Department of Cardiology at Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China. Ultrasound scanning of the abdominal aortas was performed in 1,667 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography. Clinical characteristics and coronary profile were collected from the patients. Results Of the 1,667 study patients (male, 68.9%; mean age, 63±11 years) undergoing coronary angiography, 1,268 had CAD. Compared with 399 patients without CAD, 1,268 patients with CAD had higher prevalence of abdominal aortic plaques (37.3% vs 17%, P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, abdominal aortic plaques served as independent factors associated with the presence of CAD (odds ratio =2.08; 95% confidence interval =1.50–2.90; P<0.001). Of the 1,268 patients with CAD, the prevalence of abdominal aortic plaques was 27.0% (98/363) in patients with one-vessel disease, 35.0% (107/306) in patients with two-vessel disease, and 44.7% (268/599) in patients with three-vessel disease. Stepwise increases in the prevalence of abdominal aortic plaque was found depending on the number of stenotic coronary vessels (P<0.001; P-value for trend <0.001). In an ordinal logistic regression model, abdominal aortic plaques served as independent factors associated with the severity of CAD according to the number of stenotic coronary vessels (P<0.001). Conclusion The prevalence of abdominal aortic plaques was higher in patients with CAD than in those without CAD. Abdominal aortic plaque was an independent factor associated with the presence and severity of CAD. PMID:27279740

  19. Identifying Vulnerable Plaques with Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Joshua Ryan

    The rupture of arterial plaques is the most common cause of ischemic complications including stroke, the fourth leading cause of death and number one cause of long term disability in the United States. Unfortunately, because conventional diagnostic tools fail to identify plaques that confer the highest risk, often a disabling stroke and/or sudden death is the first sign of disease. A diagnostic method capable of characterizing plaque vulnerability would likely enhance the predictive ability and ultimately the treatment of stroke before the onset of clinical events. This dissertation evaluates the hypothesis that Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging can noninvasively identify lipid regions, that have been shown to increase a plaque's propensity to rupture, within carotid artery plaques in vivo. The work detailed herein describes development efforts and results from simulations and experiments that were performed to evaluate this hypothesis. To first demonstrate feasibility and evaluate potential safety concerns, finite- element method simulations are used to model the response of carotid artery plaques to an acoustic radiation force excitation. Lipid pool visualization is shown to vary as a function of lipid pool geometry and stiffness. A comparison of the resulting Von Mises stresses indicates that stresses induced by an ARFI excitation are three orders of magnitude lower than those induced by blood pressure. This thesis also presents the development of a novel pulse inversion harmonic tracking method to reduce clutter-imposed errors in ultrasound-based tissue displacement estimates. This method is validated in phantoms and was found to reduce bias and jitter displacement errors for a marked improvement in image quality in vivo. Lastly, this dissertation presents results from a preliminary in vivo study that compares ARFI imaging derived plaque stiffness with spatially registered composition determined by a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) gold standard

  20. Individuality, Stability, and Variability of the Plaque Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Utter, Daniel R.; Mark Welch, Jessica L.; Borisy, Gary G.

    2016-01-01

    Dental plaque is a bacterial biofilm composed of a characteristic set of organisms. Relatively little information from cultivation-independent, high-throughput analyses has been published on the temporal dynamics of the dental plaque microbiome. We used Minimum Entropy Decomposition, an information theory-based approach similar to oligotyping that provides single-nucleotide resolution, to analyze a previously published time series data set and investigate the dynamics of the plaque microbiome at various analytic and taxonomic levels. At both the genus and 97% Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) levels of resolution, the range of variation within each individual overlapped that of other individuals in the data set. When analyzed at the oligotype level, however, the overlap largely disappeared, showing that single-nucleotide resolution enables differentiation of individuals from one another without ambiguity. The overwhelming majority of the plaque community in all samples was made up of bacteria from a moderate number of plaque-typical genera, indicating that the overall community framework is shared among individuals. Each of these genera fluctuated in abundance around a stable mean that varied between individuals, with some genera having higher inter-individual variability than others. Thus, at the genus level, differences between individuals lay not in the identity of the major genera but in consistently differing proportions of these genera from mouth to mouth. However, at the oligotype level, we detected oligotype “fingerprints,” a highly individual-specific set of persistently abundant oligotypes fluctuating around a stable mean over time. For example, within the genus Corynebacterium, more than a dozen oligotypes were detectable in each individual, of which a different subset reached high abundance in any given person. This pattern suggests that each mouth contains a subtly different community of organisms. We also compared the Chinese plaque community

  1. Plaque Development and Induction of Interferon Synthesis by RMC Poliovirus

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Terry C.; McLaren, Leroy C.

    1965-01-01

    Johnson, Terry C. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis), and Leroy C. McLaren. Plaque development and induction of interferon synthesis by RMC poliovirus. J. Bacteriol. 90:565–570. 1965.—Plaque development by RMC poliovirus on human amnion cell monolayers was investigated with regard to autointerference and to the effect of acid-agar overlay on plaquing efficiency. The virus was inhibited by acid-agar overlay, thereby exhibiting the d− marker typical of attenuated poliovirus strains. In addition, a lack of RMC poliovirus plaque development on HeLa cell monolayers was shown to be the result of an agar inhibitor which could be removed by NaCl extraction. By use of a simplified plaque reduction assay, it was shown that interferon production was responsible for the autointerference phenomenon. Interferon synthesis did not correlate with the ages in vitro of human amnion cell cultures. Fibroblasts originating from the chorionic membrane produced negligible amounts of the inhibitor. Interferon synthesis by human amnion cells infected with RMC poliovirus was inhibited by actinomycin D. The addition of guanidine hydrochloride to infected cultures immediately after RMC poliovirus adsorption markedly inhibited interferon synthesis, although after 2 hr (postadsorption) guanidine had no effect on interferon production. PMID:16562049

  2. Quantitative analysis of the polarization characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubarkova, Ekaterina V.; Kirillin, Michail Y.; Dudenkova, Varvara V.; Kiseleva, Elena B.; Moiseev, Alexander A.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Timofeeva, Lidia B.; Fiks, Ilya I.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Gladkova, Natalia D.

    2016-04-01

    In this study we demonstrate the capability of cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP OCT) to assess collagen and elastin fibers condition in atherosclerotic plaques basing on ratio of the OCT signal levels in cross- and co- polarizations. We consider the depolarization factor (DF) and the effective birefringence (Δn) as quantitative characteristics of CP OCT images. We revealed that calculation of both DF and Δn in the region of interest (fibrous cap) yields a statistically significant difference between stable and unstable plaques (0.46+/-0.21 vs 0.09+/-0.04 for IDF; (4.7+/-1.0)•10-4 vs (2.5+/-0.7)•10-4 for Δn p<0.05). In parallel with CP OCT we used the nonlinear microscopy for analysis of thin cross-section of atherosclerotic plaque, revealing the different average isotropy index of collagen and elastin fibers for stable and unstable plaques (0.30 +/- 0.10 vs 0.70 +/- 0.08; p<0.001). The proposed approach for quantitative assessment of CP OCT images allows cross-scattering and birefringence characterization of stable and unstable atherosclerotic plaques.

  3. Statins, atherosclerosis regression and HDL: Insights from within the plaque.

    PubMed

    Feig, Jonathan E; Feig, Jessica L; Kini, Annapoorna S

    2015-06-15

    The idea that atheroma can regress is no longer a dream. We and others have discovered that decreasing the lipid content can directly lead to macrophage egress and plaque healing. The question, however, has remained as to how to translate these findings to the bedside. Taking advantage of imaging modalities such as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), we demonstrated in the YELLOW (Reduction in Yellow Plaque by Intensive Lipid Lowering Therapy) trial that short term treatment of high dose rosuvastatin treatment can lead to a decrease in lipid content in plaques. It is important to note that optical coherence tomography (OCT), a high resolution imaging modality, was not performed during the first study and therefore, only a very limited assessment of the effect of statin therapy on measures of plaque stabilization could be made. The YELLOW II trial is the first to our knowledge to determine whether these data can be extrapolated and how it relates to HDL function, alterations in macrophage gene expression, and plaque morphology. While tremendous progress has been made, our research serves as a reminder that angiography is simply luminography and it is features such as thin cap fibroatheroma and lipid burden, for example, that likely modulate the syndromes seen in clinical practice. Ongoing studies such as ours may provide novel pathways for diagnosis and therapy, with the ultimate goal of reducing the burden of cardiovascular disease.

  4. Low copper and high manganese levels in prion protein plaques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Abrecth, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Russell, Robin E.; Pedersen, Joel A.; McKenzie, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of plaque formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion plaques in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion plaques in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion plaques: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion plaques altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system.

  5. Restriction of bacteriophage plaque formation in Streptomyces spp.

    PubMed

    Cox, K L; Baltz, R H

    1984-08-01

    Several Streptomyces species that produce restriction endonucleases were characterized for their ability to propagate 10 different broad host range bacteriophages. Each species displayed a different pattern of plaque formation. A restrictionless mutant of S. albus G allowed plaque formation by all 10 phages, whereas the wild-type strain showed plaques with only 2 phages. DNA isolated from three of the phages was analyzed for the presence of restriction sites for Streptomyces species-encoded enzymes, and a very strong correlation was established between the failure to form plaques on Streptomyces species that produced particular restriction enzymes and the presence of the corresponding restriction sites in the phage DNA. Also, the phages that lacked restriction sites in their DNA generally formed plaques on the corresponding restriction endonuclease-producing hosts at high efficiency. The DNAs from the three phages analyzed also generally contained either many or no restriction sites for the Streptomyces species-produced enzymes, suggesting a strong evolutionary trend to either eliminate all or tolerate many restriction sites. The data indicate that restriction plays a major role in host range determination for Streptomyces phages. Analysis of bacteriophage host ranges of many other uncharacterized Streptomyces hosts has identified four relatively nonrestricting hosts, at least two of which may be suitable hosts for gene cloning. The data also suggest that several restriction systems remain to be identified in the genus Streptomyces.

  6. Low Copper and High Manganese Levels in Prion Protein Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Abrecht, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L.; Russell, Robin E.; Pedersen, Joel A.; Aiken, Judd M.; McKenzie, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of plaque formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion plaques in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion plaques in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion plaques: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion plaques altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system. PMID:23435237

  7. Low copper and high manganese levels in prion protein plaques.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christopher J; Gilbert, P U P A; Abrecht, Mike; Baldwin, Katherine L; Russell, Robin E; Pedersen, Joel A; Aiken, Judd M; McKenzie, Debbie

    2013-02-01

    Accumulation of aggregates rich in an abnormally folded form of the prion protein characterize the neurodegeneration caused by transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The molecular triggers of plaque formation and neurodegeneration remain unknown, but analyses of TSE-infected brain homogenates and preparations enriched for abnormal prion protein suggest that reduced levels of copper and increased levels of manganese are associated with disease. The objectives of this study were to: (1) assess copper and manganese levels in healthy and TSE-infected Syrian hamster brain homogenates; (2) determine if the distribution of these metals can be mapped in TSE-infected brain tissue using X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (X-PEEM) with synchrotron radiation; and (3) use X-PEEM to assess the relative amounts of copper and manganese in prion plaques in situ. In agreement with studies of other TSEs and species, we found reduced brain levels of copper and increased levels of manganese associated with disease in our hamster model. We also found that the in situ levels of these metals in brainstem were sufficient to image by X-PEEM. Using immunolabeled prion plaques in directly adjacent tissue sections to identify regions to image by X-PEEM, we found a statistically significant relationship of copper-manganese dysregulation in prion plaques: copper was depleted whereas manganese was enriched. These data provide evidence for prion plaques altering local transition metal distribution in the TSE-infected central nervous system.

  8. Molecular features of hypothalamic plaques in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Standaert, D. G.; Lee, V. M.; Greenberg, B. D.; Lowery, D. E.; Trojanowski, J. Q.

    1991-01-01

    The pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves subcortical as well as cortical structures. The authors have used immunohistochemical methods to study the molecular composition of AD plaques in the hypothalamus. In contrast to previous studies using histochemical methods, the authors observed large numbers of diffuse plaques in the AD hypothalamus labeled with an antiserum to the beta-amyloid, or A4 peptide, of the beta-amyloid precursor proteins (beta APPs), whereas A4-immunoreactive plaques were uncommon in the hypothalamus of patients without AD. Unlike plaques in the cortex and hippocampus of AD patients, hypothalamic plaques did not contain epitopes corresponding to other regions of the beta APPs, nor did they contain tau-, neurofilament-, or microtubule-associated protein-reactive epitopes, and did not disrupt the neuropil or produce astrogliosis. These findings demonstrate that there are substantial molecular and cellular differences in the pathologic features of AD in the hypothalamus compared with those observed in hippocampal and cortical structures, which may provide insight into the pathogenetic mechanisms of AD. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1653521

  9. Laser speckle imaging of atherosclerotic plaques through optical fiber bundles.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, Seemantini K; Bouma, Brett E; Yelin, Dvir; Gulati, Amneet; Tearney, Guillermo J

    2008-01-01

    Laser speckle imaging (LSI), a new technique that measures an index of plaque viscoelasticity, has been investigated recently to characterize atherosclerotic plaques. These prior studies demonstrated the diagnostic potential of LSI for detecting high-risk plaques and were conducted ex vivo. To conduct intracoronary LSI in vivo, the laser speckle pattern must be transmitted from the coronary wall to the image detector in the presence of cardiac motion. Small-diameter, flexible optical fiber bundles, similar to those used in coronary angioscopy, may be incorporated into an intravascular catheter for this purpose. A key challenge is that laser speckle is influenced by inter-fiber leakage of light, which may be exacerbated during bundle motion. In this study, we tested the capability of optical fiber bundles to transmit laser speckle patterns obtained from atherosclerotic plaques and evaluated the influence of motion on the diagnostic accuracy of fiber bundle-based LSI. Time-varying helium-neon laser speckle images of aortic plaques were obtained while cyclically moving the flexible length of the bundle to mimic coronary motion. Our results show that leached fiber bundles may reliably transmit laser speckle images in the presence of cardiac motion, providing a viable option to conduct intracoronary LSI. PMID:19021396

  10. Multimodal spectroscopy detects features of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šćepanović, Obrad R.; Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Miller, Arnold; Kong, Chae-Ryon; Volynskaya, Zoya; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Kramer, John R.; Feld, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Early detection and treatment of rupture-prone vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is critical to reducing patient mortality associated with cardiovascular disease. The combination of reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopy-termed multimodal spectroscopy (MMS)-provides detailed biochemical information about tissue and can detect vulnerable plaque features: thin fibrous cap (TFC), necrotic core (NC), superficial foam cells (SFC), and thrombus. Ex vivo MMS spectra are collected from 12 patients that underwent carotid endarterectomy or femoral bypass surgery. Data are collected by means of a unitary MMS optical fiber probe and a portable clinical instrument. Blinded histopathological analysis is used to assess the vulnerability of each spectrally evaluated artery lesion. Modeling of the ex vivo MMS spectra produce objective parameters that correlate with the presence of vulnerable plaque features: TFC with fluorescence parameters indicative of collagen presence; NC/SFC with a combination of diffuse reflectance β-carotene/ceroid absorption and the Raman spectral signature of lipids; and thrombus with its Raman signature. Using these parameters, suspected vulnerable plaques can be detected with a sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 72%. These encouraging results warrant the continued development of MMS as a catheter-based clinical diagnostic technique for early detection of vulnerable plaques.

  11. Clear Plaque Mutants of Lactococcal Phage TP901-1

    PubMed Central

    Kot, Witold; Kilstrup, Mogens; Vogensen, Finn K.; Hammer, Karin

    2016-01-01

    We report a method for obtaining turbid plaques of the lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1 and its derivative TP901-BC1034. We have further used the method to isolate clear plaque mutants of this phage. Analysis of 8 such mutants that were unable to lysogenize the host included whole genome resequencing. Four of the mutants had different mutations in structural genes with no relation to the genetic switch. However all 8 mutants had a mutation in the cI repressor gene region. Three of these were located in the promoter and Shine-Dalgarno sequences and five in the N-terminal part of the encoded CI protein involved in the DNA binding. The conclusion is that cI is the only gene involved in clear plaque formation i.e. the CI protein is the determining factor for the lysogenic pathway and its maintenance in the lactococcal phage TP901-1. PMID:27258092

  12. Conventional and enhanced plaque neutralization assay for polio antibody.

    PubMed

    Boone, E J; Albrecht, P

    1983-04-01

    HEp-2 cells were more suitable as a cell substrate than Vero cells for plaque assay of wild or attenuated strains of poliovirus. Polio antibody titration by plaque neutralization was on the average 3.4 to 4.8 times more sensitive than antibody titration by virus CPE assay. The most pronounced effect on virus neutralization was achieved by extending the time of serum-virus interaction. Incubating the virus-antiserum mixture for 20 h instead of 1 h at 36 degrees C increased antibody titer to all three poliovirus types about 11- to 28-fold. Potentiation of poliovirus neutralization by heterologous antiglobulin was considerably less effective than with other virus-antibody systems. The virus plaque neutralization technique described should be capable of measuring minute amounts of antibody as required in special circumstances.

  13. Zooming in on the genesis of atherosclerotic plaque microcalcifications.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jessica L; Weinbaum, Sheldon; Aikawa, Elena; Hutcheson, Joshua D

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological evidence conclusively demonstrates that calcium burden is a significant predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. These observations have challenged the previously held notion that calcification serves to stabilize the atherosclerotic plaque. Recent studies have shown that microcalcifications that form within the fibrous cap of the plaques lead to the accrual of plaque-destabilizing mechanical stress. Given the association between calcification morphology and cardiovascular outcomes, it is important to understand the mechanisms leading to calcific mineral deposition and growth from the earliest stages. We highlight the open questions in the field of cardiovascular calcification and include a review of the proposed mechanisms involved in extracellular vesicle-mediated mineral deposition. PMID:27040360

  14. Aluminosilicates and senile plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Candy, J M; Oakley, A E; Klinowski, J; Carpenter, T A; Perry, R H; Atack, J R; Perry, E K; Blessed, G; Fairbairn, A; Edwardson, J A

    1986-02-15

    Aluminium and silicon were found to be colocalised in the central region of senile plaque cores in studies with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The distribution of these elements was similar in cores isolated from the cerebral cortex of patients with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type and in cores studied in situ from tissue sections from the cerebral cortex of presenile and senile patients with Alzheimer's disease, and elderly, mentally normal patients. High-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques showed aluminium and silicon to be present as aluminosilicates. The presence of aluminosilicates at the centre of senile plaque cores contrasts with the distribution of other inorganic constituents and suggests that they may be involved in the initiation or early stages of senile plaque formation.

  15. Low dose tunicamycin enhances atherosclerotic plaque stability by inducing autophagy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Meijuan; Song, Liqiang; Yan, Hao; Liu, Min; Zhang, Le; Ma, Ying; Yuan, Jian; Hu, Jianhua; Ji, Zhaole; Zhang, Rongqing; Li, Congye; Wang, Haichang; Tao, Ling; Zhang, Yingmei; Li, Yan

    2016-01-15

    After decades of indolent progression, atherosclerosis may cause unheralded events, such as myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome and stroke due to sudden rupture of atherosclerotic plaques, and pharmacologically modulating plaque stability would reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is responsible for the vulnerability of plaques. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In this work, ApoE(-/-) mice underwent perivascular carotid collar placement surgeries or sham operations were given higher (3.0mg/kg) and lower (0.3mg/kg) doses of tunicamycin (TM), and plaque stability was evaluated. It was shown that lower TM-treated animals exhibited reduced plaque areas and necrotic cores as well as fibrous cap thickness accompanied by a lower percentage of infiltrates and foam cells than the sham-operated and higher TM treated animals. Lower TM had a profound inhibitory effect on plasma inflammatory response and lipid profile in atherosclerotic ApoE(-/-) mice. In addition, we found that the ApoE(-/-) mice presented higher autophagy activity in response to lower TM administration while apoptosis was reduced. An in vitro study in murine macrophages revealed that lower TM could markedly reduce lipid uptake and accumulation and cell apoptosis while significantly upregulated the expression of Atg7. However, higher TM had adverse effects. Finally, mild induction of ERS by lower TM inhibits AKT-TSC-mTOR cascades to increase cellular autophagy. However, high TM failed to enhance autophagy and equilibrate elevated CHOP-mediated cell death in spite of the inhibition of AKT-TSC-mTOR signaling. In conclusion, lower TM stabilized plaques by activating autophagy through AKT-TSC-mTOR signaling. PMID:26616221

  16. Microbiology of early supragingival plaque development after delmopinol treatment.

    PubMed

    Collaert, B; Edwardsson, S; Attström, R; Hase, J C; Aström, M

    1993-02-01

    The aim of this double blind, cross-over, microbiological study was to compare the effect of topical application of the plaque control agent 0.5% delmopinol HCl with placebo on early supragingival plaque formation. Six subjects underwent 7 periods (0.5, 1, 2, 8 and 24 h and 3 and 7 days) of placebo and delmopinol application, respectively. At the start of each study period the teeth were professionally cleaned and 2 ml of placebo and delmopinol 0.5%, respectively, were applied on all teeth (twice daily for periods lasting 24 h or more). At the end of each period, supragingival plaque samples of one upper and one lower buccal tooth surface were collected separately and cultured on anaerobically incubated Brucella blood agar, on aerobically incubated blood agar and on selective media for the enumeration of Streptococcus spp., Haemophilus spp., Actinomyces spp., Veillonella spp., Neisseria spp. and Fusobacterium spp. The total anaerobic cultivable microflora after delmopinol use was 10-100 times lower than after placebo use. Compared with placebo, the proportion of cultivable aerobes (61.3%), Streptococcus spp. (104.8%) and Haemophilus spp. (82.3%) increased and the proportion of Actinomyces spp. (86.1%), Veillonella spp. (60.5%), Neisseria spp. (96.9%) and Fusobacterium spp. (60.6%) decreased after 7 days. Short-term application of 0.5% delmopinol HCl on supragingival dental plaque regrowth resulted in a reduction of the number of cultivable microorganisms in the plaque and produced a shift in the cultivable plaque composition.

  17. Bifurcation analysis of a model for atherosclerotic plaque evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulelzai, M. A. K.; Dubbeldam, J. L. A.; Meijer, H. G. E.

    2014-06-01

    We analyze two ordinary differential equation (ODE) models for atherosclerosis. The ODE models describe long time evolution of plaques in arteries. We show how the dynamics of the first atherosclerosis model (model A) can be understood using codimension-two bifurcation analysis. The Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) intake parameter (d) is the first control parameter and the second control parameter is either taken to be the conversion rate of macrophages (b) or the wall shear stress (σ). Our analysis reveals that in both cases a Bogdanov-Takens (BT) point acts as an organizing center. The bifurcation diagrams are calculated partly analytically and to a large extent numerically using AUTO07 and MATCONT. The bifurcation curves show that the concentration of LDL in the plaque as well as the monocyte and the macrophage concentrations exhibit oscillations for a certain range of values of the control parameters. Moreover, we find that there are threshold values for both the cholesterol intake rate dcrit and the conversion rate of the macrophages bcrit, which depend on the values of other parameters, above which the plaque volume increases with time. It is found that larger conversion rates of macrophages lower the threshold value of cholesterol intake and vice versa. We further argue that the dynamics for model A can still be discerned in the second model (model B) in which the slow evolution of the radius of the artery is coupled self-consistently to changes in the plaque volume. The very slow evolution of the radius of the artery compared to the other processes makes it possible to use a slow manifold approximation to study the dynamics in this case. We find that in this case the model predicts that the concentrations of the plaque constituents may go through a period of oscillations before the radius of the artery will start to decrease. These oscillations hence act as a precursor for the reduction of the artery radius by plaque growth.

  18. Low dose tunicamycin enhances atherosclerotic plaque stability by inducing autophagy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Meijuan; Song, Liqiang; Yan, Hao; Liu, Min; Zhang, Le; Ma, Ying; Yuan, Jian; Hu, Jianhua; Ji, Zhaole; Zhang, Rongqing; Li, Congye; Wang, Haichang; Tao, Ling; Zhang, Yingmei; Li, Yan

    2016-01-15

    After decades of indolent progression, atherosclerosis may cause unheralded events, such as myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome and stroke due to sudden rupture of atherosclerotic plaques, and pharmacologically modulating plaque stability would reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is responsible for the vulnerability of plaques. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In this work, ApoE(-/-) mice underwent perivascular carotid collar placement surgeries or sham operations were given higher (3.0mg/kg) and lower (0.3mg/kg) doses of tunicamycin (TM), and plaque stability was evaluated. It was shown that lower TM-treated animals exhibited reduced plaque areas and necrotic cores as well as fibrous cap thickness accompanied by a lower percentage of infiltrates and foam cells than the sham-operated and higher TM treated animals. Lower TM had a profound inhibitory effect on plasma inflammatory response and lipid profile in atherosclerotic ApoE(-/-) mice. In addition, we found that the ApoE(-/-) mice presented higher autophagy activity in response to lower TM administration while apoptosis was reduced. An in vitro study in murine macrophages revealed that lower TM could markedly reduce lipid uptake and accumulation and cell apoptosis while significantly upregulated the expression of Atg7. However, higher TM had adverse effects. Finally, mild induction of ERS by lower TM inhibits AKT-TSC-mTOR cascades to increase cellular autophagy. However, high TM failed to enhance autophagy and equilibrate elevated CHOP-mediated cell death in spite of the inhibition of AKT-TSC-mTOR signaling. In conclusion, lower TM stabilized plaques by activating autophagy through AKT-TSC-mTOR signaling.

  19. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging of the vasa vasorum of carotid artery plaque

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ze-Zhou; Zhang, Yan-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The vasa vasorum of carotid artery plaque is a novel marker of accurately evaluating the vulnerability of carotid artery plaque, which was associated with symptomatic cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease. The presence of ultrasound contrast agents in carotid artery plaque represents the presence of the vasa vasorum in carotid artery plaque because the ultrasound contrast agents are strict intravascular tracers. Therefore, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a novel and safe imaging modality for evaluating the vasa vasorum in carotid artery plaque. However, there are some issues that needs to be assessed to embody fully the clinical utility of the vasa vasorum in carotid artery plaque with CEUS. PMID:26120382

  20. Method of making a light weight battery plaque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M. A.; Post, R. E.; Soltis, D. G. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A nickel plaque which may be coated with a suitable metal or compound to make an electrode for a fuel cell or battery is fabricated by directing nickel sensitizer, catalyst and plating solutions through a porous plastic substrate in the order named and at prescribed temperatures and flow rates. A boride compound dissolved in the plating solution decreases the electrical resistance of the plaque. Certain substrates may require treatment in an alkali solution to dissolve filler materials thereby increasing porosity to a required 65%.

  1. A modified plaque method for arboviruses on plastic panels.

    PubMed

    Hronovský, V; Benda, R; Plaisner, V

    1975-04-01

    Autoclavable culture media containing an increased (10---15-fold)concentration of succinate buffer permit a comparitively long-term cultivation of cells in free gas exchange with the atmosphere. Based on them, an economical technique of plaque titration of arboviruses on plastic panels with methylcellulose overlay was developed. With seven arboviruses of three different groups and three cell lines (CV-1, PS and PK), the method proved sufficiently sensitive as compared with titrations in mice or tube cell cultures and suitable for plaque reduction tests.

  2. DETAIL OF PLAQUE COMMEMORATING THE JULY/ AUGUST 1958 VOYAGE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF PLAQUE COMMEMORATING THE JULY/ AUGUST 1958 VOYAGE OF THE USS NAUTILUS (SSN-571) TO THE NORTH POLE. NOTE: THIS PLAQUE IS NOT LOCATED AT WHARFS S13-S19; IT IS AT THE SUBMARINE MEMORIAL PARK, ABOUT 1,000' SOUTH OF THE WHARFS. THE LOCATION AND ORIENTATION OF THIS PHOTO IS NOT SHOWN ON THE PHOTO KEY MAP - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Additional Piers and Quay Walls, S13 to S19, Northeast end of Magazine Loch, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. Dosimetry and physical treatment planning for iodine eye plaque therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Alberti, W.; Pothmann, B.; Tabor, P.; Muskalla, K.; Hermann, K.P.; Harder, D. )

    1991-05-01

    The dosimetry of eye plaques loaded with iodine-125 seeds (type 6702) was performed by means of computer calculations and measurements with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Measurements of the depth dose distribution (2-25.5 mm) along the transverse axis of a single seed were performed in water equivalent phantom material. The transverse axis attenuation and geometry factor F(r) was obtained by applying a least squares fit to the measured data. Based on the resulting radial dose function, a computer program was developed which calculates dose distributions within the eye for arbitrary loading and placement of the eye plaque. The computational results were verified by TLD measurements in an eye phantom.

  4. The nature of iron deposits differs between symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaques

    SciTech Connect

    Kopriva, David; Kisheev, Anastasye; Meena, Deiter; Pelle, Shaneen; Karnitsky, Max; Lavoie, Andrea; Buttigieg, Josef; Hagemeyer, Christoph E.

    2015-11-25

    Iron within atherosclerotic plaque has been implicated as a catalyst of oxidative stress that causes progression of plaque, and plaque rupture. Iron is believed to accumulate within plaque by incorporation of erythrocytes following plaque rupture and hemorrhage. There is only indirect evidence to support this hypothesis. Plaque specimens were obtained from ten symptomatic and fifteen asymptomatic patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy at a single institution. Plaques were sectioned for study using synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence the study the distribution of zinc, calcium and iron. Histologic staining was carried out with Prussian Blue, and immunohistochemical staining was done to localize macrophages with CD68. Data were compared against patient clinical variables. Ten symptomatic (15 ± 10 days between index symptoms and surgery) and fifteen asymptomatic carotid plaques were studied. Zinc and calcium co-localized in mineralized areas of symptomatic and asymptomatic plaque. Iron was identified away from zinc and calcium in both symptomatic and asymptomatic plaques. Within the symptomatic plaques, iron was found within the thrombus associated with plaque rupture and hemorrhage. It did not stain with Prussian Blue, but was found in association with CD68 positive macrophages. In symptomatic plaques, the abundance of iron showed an association with the source patient’s LDL cholesterol (R2 = 0.39, Significance F = 0.05). Iron in asymptomatic plaque was present as hemosiderin/ferritin that stained positive with Prussian Blue, and was observed in association with CD68 positive macrophages. Iron in acutely symptomatic plaques is found within thrombus, in the presence of macrophages. Moreover, the abundance of iron in symptomatic plaques is associated with the source patient’s LDL cholesterol. Within asymptomatic plaques, iron is found in association with macrophages, as hemosiderin/ferritin.

  5. The nature of iron deposits differs between symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaques

    DOE PAGES

    Kopriva, David; Kisheev, Anastasye; Meena, Deiter; Pelle, Shaneen; Karnitsky, Max; Lavoie, Andrea; Buttigieg, Josef; Hagemeyer, Christoph E.

    2015-11-25

    Iron within atherosclerotic plaque has been implicated as a catalyst of oxidative stress that causes progression of plaque, and plaque rupture. Iron is believed to accumulate within plaque by incorporation of erythrocytes following plaque rupture and hemorrhage. There is only indirect evidence to support this hypothesis. Plaque specimens were obtained from ten symptomatic and fifteen asymptomatic patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy at a single institution. Plaques were sectioned for study using synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence the study the distribution of zinc, calcium and iron. Histologic staining was carried out with Prussian Blue, and immunohistochemical staining was done to localize macrophagesmore » with CD68. Data were compared against patient clinical variables. Ten symptomatic (15 ± 10 days between index symptoms and surgery) and fifteen asymptomatic carotid plaques were studied. Zinc and calcium co-localized in mineralized areas of symptomatic and asymptomatic plaque. Iron was identified away from zinc and calcium in both symptomatic and asymptomatic plaques. Within the symptomatic plaques, iron was found within the thrombus associated with plaque rupture and hemorrhage. It did not stain with Prussian Blue, but was found in association with CD68 positive macrophages. In symptomatic plaques, the abundance of iron showed an association with the source patient’s LDL cholesterol (R2 = 0.39, Significance F = 0.05). Iron in asymptomatic plaque was present as hemosiderin/ferritin that stained positive with Prussian Blue, and was observed in association with CD68 positive macrophages. Iron in acutely symptomatic plaques is found within thrombus, in the presence of macrophages. Moreover, the abundance of iron in symptomatic plaques is associated with the source patient’s LDL cholesterol. Within asymptomatic plaques, iron is found in association with macrophages, as hemosiderin/ferritin.« less

  6. The Nature of Iron Deposits Differs between Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Kopriva, David; Kisheev, Anastasye; Meena, Deiter; Pelle, Shaneen; Karnitsky, Max; Lavoie, Andrea; Buttigieg, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Iron within atherosclerotic plaque has been implicated as a catalyst of oxidative stress that causes progression of plaque, and plaque rupture. Iron is believed to accumulate within plaque by incorporation of erythrocytes following plaque rupture and hemorrhage. There is only indirect evidence to support this hypothesis. Plaque specimens were obtained from ten symptomatic and fifteen asymptomatic patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy at a single institution. Plaques were sectioned for study using synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence the study the distribution of zinc, calcium and iron. Histologic staining was carried out with Prussian Blue, and immunohistochemical staining was done to localize macrophages with CD68. Data were compared against patient clinical variables. Ten symptomatic (15 ± 10 days between index symptoms and surgery) and fifteen asymptomatic carotid plaques were studied. Zinc and calcium co-localized in mineralized areas of symptomatic and asymptomatic plaque. Iron was identified away from zinc and calcium in both symptomatic and asymptomatic plaques. Within the symptomatic plaques, iron was found within the thrombus associated with plaque rupture and hemorrhage. It did not stain with Prussian Blue, but was found in association with CD68 positive macrophages. In symptomatic plaques, the abundance of iron showed an association with the source patient’s LDL cholesterol (R2 = 0.39, Significance F = 0.05). Iron in asymptomatic plaque was present as hemosiderin/ferritin that stained positive with Prussian Blue, and was observed in association with CD68 positive macrophages. Iron in acutely symptomatic plaques is found within thrombus, in the presence of macrophages. The abundance of iron in symptomatic plaques is associated with the source patient’s LDL cholesterol. Within asymptomatic plaques, iron is found in association with macrophages, as hemosiderin/ferritin. PMID:26606178

  7. In vivo multiphoton imaging reveals gradual growth of newborn amyloid plaques over weeks.

    PubMed

    Burgold, Steffen; Bittner, Tobias; Dorostkar, Mario M; Kieser, Daniel; Fuhrmann, Martin; Mitteregger, Gerda; Kretzschmar, Hans; Schmidt, Boris; Herms, Jochen

    2011-03-01

    The kinetics of amyloid plaque formation and growth as one of the characteristic hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are fundamental issues in AD research. Especially the question how fast amyloid plaques grow to their final size after they are born remains controversial. By long-term two-photon in vivo imaging we monitored individual methoxy-X04-stained amyloid plaques over 6 weeks in 12 and 18 months old Tg2576 mice. We found that in 12 months old mice, newly appearing amyloid plaques were initially small in volume and subsequently grew over time. The growth rate of plaques was inversely proportional to their volume; thus amyloid plaques that were already present at the first imaging time point grew over time but slower compared to new plaques. Additionally, we analyzed 18 months old Tg2576 mice in which we neither found newly appearing plaques nor a significant growth of pre-existing plaques over 6 weeks of imaging. In conclusion, newly appearing amyloid plaques are initially small in size but grow over time until plaque growth can not be detected anymore in aged mice. These results suggest that drugs that target plaque formation should be most effective early in the disease, when plaques are growing.

  8. Effects of extracellular plaque components on the chlorhexidine sensitivity of strains of Streptococcus mutans and human dental plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Wolinsky, L.E.; Hume, W.R.

    1985-08-01

    An in vitro study was undertaken to determine the effects of sucrose-derived extracellular plaque components on the sensitivity of selected oral bacteria to chlorhexidine (CX). Cultures of Streptococcus mutans HS-6, OMZ-176, Ingbritt C, 6715-wt13, and pooled human plaque were grown in trypticase soy media with or without 1% sucrose. The sensitivity to CX of bacteria grown in each medium was determined by fixed-time exposure to CX and subsequent measurement of /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake. One-hour exposure to CX at concentrations of 10(-4) M (0.01% w/v) or greater substantially inhibited subsequent cellular division among all the S. mutans strains and human plaque samples tested. An IC50 (the CX concentration which depressed /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation to 50% of control level) of close to 10(-4) M was noted for S. mutans strains HS-6, OMZ-176, and 6715-wt13 when grown in the presence of sucrose. The same strains grown in cultures without added sucrose showed about a ten-fold greater sensitivity to CX (IC50 close to 10(-5) M). A three-fold difference was noted for S. mutans Ingbritt C. Only a slight increase in the IC50 was noted for the plaque samples cultured in sucrose-containing media, but their threshold for depression of /sup 3/H-thymidine uptake by CX was lower than that for the sucrose-free plaque samples. The study showed that extracellular products confer some protection against CX to the bacteria examined, and provided an explanation for the disparity between clinically-recommended concentrations for plaque suppression and data on in vitro susceptibility.

  9. Absence of aluminium in neuritic plaque cores in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Landsberg, J P; McDonald, B; Watt, F

    1992-11-01

    Controversy exists over whether aluminium has a role in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's disease is neuropathologically characterized by the occurrence of a minimum density of neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques in the hippocampus and the association cortex of the brain. The purported association of aluminium with Alzheimer's disease is based on: (1) the experimental induction of fibrillary changes in the neurons of animals by the injection of aluminium salts into brain tissue; (2) reported detection of aluminium in neuritic plaques and tangle-bearing neurons; (3) epidemiological studies linking aluminium levels in the environment, notably water supplies, with an increased prevalence of dementia; and (4) a reported decrease in the rate of disease progression following the administration of desferroxamine, an aluminium chelator, to clinically diagnosed sufferers of Alzheimer's disease. Here we use nuclear microscopy, a new analytical technique involving million-volt nuclear particles, to identify and analyse plaques in postmortem tissue from patients with Alzheimer's disease without using chemical staining techniques and fail to demonstrate the presence of aluminium in plaque cores in untreated tissue. PMID:1436075

  10. Interstellar Message Plaques: Application of White-Light Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matloff, G. L.

    2002-01-01

    During Spring / Summer 2001, a prototype white-light holographic interstellar-probe message plaque was created under Contract H-29712D of NASA Marshall Spaceflight Center (MSFC), and commercial white-light holograms were tested for space-radiation tolerance at the MSFC Space Environment Facility (SEF) in Huntsville, AL, USA. Artist C Bangs' message plaque was created at the Center for Holographic Arts in Long Island City, NY. The 57.5 X 47.5 cm rainbow hologram was delivered to MSFC after framing by Simon Liu Inc., Brooklyn, NY, USA. The prototype message plaque, which is in the collection of the MSFC Space Transportation Directorate, has six multiplexed 2-D and 3-D images representing humans, the hypothetical interstellar spacecraft, and our position in the galaxy. Consultation with John Caulfield of Fisk University, an expert in holography, revealed that micron-thick holograms not much larger than a sheet of paper could contain hundreds of thousands of images, which opens the me ssage-plaque field considerably so that work of many artists could be included. Tests of commercial holograms at up to 100 MRad of simulated solar-wind radiation were performed at MSFC / SEF. Image-quality deterioriation was monitored using the image-color- histogram of the (trademarked) Adobe Photoshop software package. No significant deterioration occurred, which is in agreement with the literature. Holographic solar sails may be a propulsive application of this technology.

  11. Development of Tc-99m Imaging Agents for Abeta Plaques

    SciTech Connect

    Zhi-Ping, Zhuang; Mei-Ping Kung; Catherihne Hou; Hank F. Kung

    2008-09-26

    Development of SPECT imaging agents based on Tc-99m targeting Aβ plaques is useful for diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A stilbene derivative, [11C]SB-13, showing promise in detecting senile plaques present in AD patients has been reported previously1,2. Based on the 4’-amino-stilbene core structure we have added substituted groups through which a chelating group, N2S2, was conjugated. We report herein a series of Tc-99m labeled stilbene derivative conjugated with a TcO[N2S2] core. The syntheses of stilbenes containing a N2S2 chelating ligand are achieved by a scheme shown. Lipophilic 99mTc stilbene complexes were successfully prepared and purified through HPLC. Preliminary results of in vitro labeling of brain sections from transgenic mice showed very promising plaque labeling. These 99mTc stilbene derivatives are warranted for further evaluations as potential imaging agents targeting amyloid plaques.

  12. 4. VISTA POINT AND INTERPRETIVE PLAQUE AT LEE VINING CANYON. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VISTA POINT AND INTERPRETIVE PLAQUE AT LEE VINING CANYON. NOTE ROAD CUT ON CANYON WALL. LOOKING NNE. GIS: N-37 56 30.3 / 119 13 44.8 - Tioga Road, Between Crane Flat & Tioga Pass, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  13. APOLLO 16 TECHNICIAN ATTACHES PLAQUE TO LUNAR MODULE'S DESCENT STAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Working inside the Apollo 16 Saturn V space vehicle at the launch pad, technician Ken Crow attaches a stainless steel plaque bearing the names of Apollo 16 astronauts John W. Young, Thomas K. Mattingly II and Charles M. Duke, Jr., to the Lunar Module's descent stage, which will remain on the Moon's surface.

  14. Imaging of the Fibrous Cap in Atherosclerotic Carotid Plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Saba, Luca; Potters, Fons; Lugt, Aad van der; Mallarini, Giorgio

    2010-08-15

    In the last two decades, a substantial number of articles have been published to provide diagnostic solutions for patients with carotid atherosclerotic disease. These articles have resulted in a shift of opinion regarding the identification of stroke risk in patients with carotid atherosclerotic disease. In the recent past, the degree of carotid artery stenosis was the sole determinant for performing carotid intervention (carotid endarterectomy or carotid stenting) in these patients. We now know that the degree of stenosis is only one marker for future cerebrovascular events. If one wants to determine the risk of these events more accurately, other parameters must be taken into account; among these parameters are plaque composition, presence and state of the fibrous cap (FC), intraplaque haemorrhage, plaque ulceration, and plaque location. In particular, the FC is an important structure for the stability of the plaque, and its rupture is highly associated with a recent history of transient ischaemic attack or stroke. The subject of this review is imaging of the FC.

  15. Molecular Imaging of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Gargiulo, Sara; Gramanzini, Matteo; Mancini, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by intimal plaques of the arterial vessels that develop slowly and, in some cases, may undergo spontaneous rupture with subsequent heart attack or stroke. Currently, noninvasive diagnostic tools are inadequate to screen atherosclerotic lesions at high risk of acute complications. Therefore, the attention of the scientific community has been focused on the use of molecular imaging for identifying vulnerable plaques. Genetically engineered murine models such as ApoE−/− and ApoE−/−Fbn1C1039G+/− mice have been shown to be useful for testing new probes targeting biomarkers of relevant molecular processes for the characterization of vulnerable plaques, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1, VEGFR-2, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, P-selectin, and integrins, and for the potential development of translational tools to identify high-risk patients who could benefit from early therapeutic interventions. This review summarizes the main animal models of vulnerable plaques, with an emphasis on genetically altered mice, and the state-of-the-art preclinical molecular imaging strategies. PMID:27618031

  16. [A woman with a sclerotic plaque and a bulla].

    PubMed

    Holthuis, M F; Teune, T M; van Meurs, T

    2016-01-01

    A 63-year-old woman had a sclerotic plaque with a bulla under her left breast. Histopathological examination of a biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of bullous morphea. Bullae are rarely seen in morphea. The patient was successfully treated with mometasone ointment 0.1%. To our knowledge, the pathogenesis of bullous morphea is still under debate. PMID:27650022

  17. Verrucous plaque on the face: what is your diagnosis?

    PubMed

    De, Abhishek; Gharami, Ramesh C; Datta, Pijush K

    2010-01-15

    A 46-year-old male patient presented with hyperpigmented verrucous plaques and papules mainly on the left cheek and malar region that had evolved over a 7 month period. Histopathology demonstrated the presence of a large number of classical copper penny bodies or muriform bodies and a predominantly neutrophilic dermal infiltrate that confirmed the diagnosis of chromoblastomycosis.

  18. 152. 1932 MEMORIAL PLAQUE FROM THE NATIONAL COLONIAL DAMES OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    152. 1932 MEMORIAL PLAQUE FROM THE NATIONAL COLONIAL DAMES OF AMERICA, DISTRICT CHAPTER, AND MEMORIAL PLANTING OF TWO SPECIMEN WILLOW OAKS AT FT. WASHINGTON OVERLOOK LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  19. Persistent painful plaque due to a brown recluse spider bite.

    PubMed

    Yiannias, J A; Winkelmann, R K

    1992-10-01

    The bite of the arthropod Loxosceles is known to cause subdermal hemorrhage, dermal-epidermal separation, inflammatory infiltrates, as well as occlusion and necrosis of small arterioles. We report a case of a brown recluse spider bite that presented as a chronic painful skin plaque, with the unusual histologic findings of a cutaneous and deep subcutaneous hyalinizing panniculitis and myonecrosis.

  20. Variogram methods for texture classification of atherosclerotic plaque ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeromin, Oliver M.; Pattichis, Marios S.; Pattichis, Constantinos; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos; Nicolaides, Andrew

    2006-03-01

    Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the western world and the major cause of disability in adults. The type and stenosis of extracranial carotid artery disease is often responsible for ischemic strokes, transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or amaurosis fugax (AF). The identification and grading of stenosis can be done using gray scale ultrasound scans. The appearance of B-scan pictures containing various granular structures makes the use of texture analysis techniques suitable for computer assisted tissue characterization purposes. The objective of this study is to investigate the usefulness of variogram analysis in the assessment of ultrasound plague morphology. The variogram estimates the variance of random fields, from arbitrary samples in space. We explore stationary random field models based on the variogram, which can be applied in ultrasound plaque imaging leading to a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system for the early detection of symptomatic atherosclerotic plaques. Non-parametric tests on the variogram coefficients show that the cofficients coming from symptomatic versus asymptomatic plaques come from distinct distributions. Furthermore, we show significant improvement in class separation, when a log point-transformation is applied to the images, prior to variogram estimation. Model fitting using least squares is explored for anisotropic variograms along specific directions. Comparative classification results, show that variogram coefficients can be used for the early detection of symptomatic cases, and also exhibit the largest class distances between symptomatic and asymptomatic plaque images, as compared to over 60 other texture features, used in the literature.

  1. 6. VIEW OF BRIDGE COMMEMORATIVE PLAQUE WHICH STATES '1908, J. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF BRIDGE COMMEMORATIVE PLAQUE WHICH STATES '1908, J. H. CROOKS, ED. ELLIS, A. S. LELAND, COMMISSIONERS. L. E. BRELSFORD, AUDITOR. L. WEST, SURVEYOR. - B. C. GERWICK, DESIGNER. F. E. WITHCOTT, ENG. ON CONST. C. A. WARNER, CONTRACTOR.' - First Street Reinforced Concrete Bridge, Spanning Moxahala Creek at First Street (CR 7), Roseville, Muskingum County, OH

  2. Molecular Imaging of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Gargiulo, Sara; Gramanzini, Matteo; Mancini, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by intimal plaques of the arterial vessels that develop slowly and, in some cases, may undergo spontaneous rupture with subsequent heart attack or stroke. Currently, noninvasive diagnostic tools are inadequate to screen atherosclerotic lesions at high risk of acute complications. Therefore, the attention of the scientific community has been focused on the use of molecular imaging for identifying vulnerable plaques. Genetically engineered murine models such as ApoE(-/-) and ApoE(-/-)Fbn1C1039G(+/-) mice have been shown to be useful for testing new probes targeting biomarkers of relevant molecular processes for the characterization of vulnerable plaques, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1, VEGFR-2, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, P-selectin, and integrins, and for the potential development of translational tools to identify high-risk patients who could benefit from early therapeutic interventions. This review summarizes the main animal models of vulnerable plaques, with an emphasis on genetically altered mice, and the state-of-the-art preclinical molecular imaging strategies. PMID:27618031

  3. Reporting Casting Bronze Plaque Becomes Advisers Class Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Charlie

    1977-01-01

    Describes an advisers' class project (at the University of Oklahoma) which consisted of reporting on the casting of a bronze plaque bearing the names of the first school newspaper, "The Students Gazette," and its editor, Samuel M. Fox, for presentation in Philadelphia to commemorate scholastic journalism's Bicentennial. (MB)

  4. Optical coherence tomography for imaging the vulnerable plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tearney, Guillermo J.; Jang, Ik-Kyung; Bouma, Brett E.

    2006-03-01

    While our understanding of vulnerable coronary plaque is still at an early stage, the concept that certain types of plaques predispose patients to developing an acute myocardial infarction continues to be at the forefront of cardiology research. Intracoronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been developed to both identify and study these lesions due to its distinct resolution advantage over other imaging modalities. We review clinical research conducted at the Massachusetts General Hospital over the past five years to develop, validate, and utilize this technology to improve our understanding of vulnerable plaque. Our results show that intracoronary OCT may be safely conducted in patients and that it provides abundant information regarding plaque microscopic morphology, which is essential to the identification and study of high-risk lesions. Even though many basic biological, clinical, and technological challenges must be addressed prior to widespread use of this technology, the unique capabilities of OCT ensure that it will have a prominent role in shaping the future of cardiology.

  5. 7. VARIABLEANGLE LAUNCHER DEDICATION PLAQUE SHOWING JAMES H. JENNISON (LEFT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VARIABLE-ANGLE LAUNCHER DEDICATION PLAQUE SHOWING JAMES H. JENNISON (LEFT), AND W.H. SAYLOR (RIGHT), AT THE DEDICATION CEREMONY, May 7, 1948. (Original photograph in possession of Dave Willis, San Diego, California.) - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. Microflora and chemical composition of dental plaque from subjects with hereditary fructose intolerance.

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, C I; Newbrun, E; Mettraux, G; Graf, H

    1980-01-01

    We compared the microbiological and chemical composition of dental plaque from subjects with hereditary fructose intolerance who restrict their dietary sugar intake with that of control subjects who do not. The two groups showed no significant differences in chemical composition of plaque: the mean protein, carbohydrate, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate contents were similar. Dental plaque from both groups contained similar numbers of total colony-forming units per microgram of plaque protein, and Streptococcus sanguis, an indigenous nonpathogen, was isolated with equal frequency from plaque samples of both groups. However, potentially odontopathic Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus were isolated three to four times more frequently from plaque samples of control subjects than from plaque samples of subjects with hereditary fructose intolerance. Clearly, diet (sucrose in particular) influences the colonization and multiplication of specific cariogenic organisms in dental plaque. PMID:7399699

  7. Numerical observer for atherosclerotic plaque classification in spectral computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Lorsakul, Auranuch; Fakhri, Georges El; Worstell, William; Ouyang, Jinsong; Rakvongthai, Yothin; Laine, Andrew F; Li, Quanzheng

    2016-07-01

    Spectral computed tomography (SCT) generates better image quality than conventional computed tomography (CT). It has overcome several limitations for imaging atherosclerotic plaque. However, the literature evaluating the performance of SCT based on objective image assessment is very limited for the task of discriminating plaques. We developed a numerical-observer method and used it to assess performance on discrimination vulnerable-plaque features and compared the performance among multienergy CT (MECT), dual-energy CT (DECT), and conventional CT methods. Our numerical observer was designed to incorporate all spectral information and comprised two-processing stages. First, each energy-window domain was preprocessed by a set of localized channelized Hotelling observers (CHO). In this step, the spectral image in each energy bin was decorrelated using localized prewhitening and matched filtering with a set of Laguerre-Gaussian channel functions. Second, the series of the intermediate scores computed from all the CHOs were integrated by a Hotelling observer with an additional prewhitening and matched filter. The overall signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were obtained, yielding an overall discrimination performance metric. The performance of our new observer was evaluated for the particular binary classification task of differentiating between alternative plaque characterizations in carotid arteries. A clinically realistic model of signal variability was also included in our simulation of the discrimination tasks. The inclusion of signal variation is a key to applying the proposed observer method to spectral CT data. Hence, the task-based approaches based on the signal-known-exactly/background-known-exactly (SKE/BKE) framework and the clinical-relevant signal-known-statistically/background-known-exactly (SKS/BKE) framework were applied for analytical computation of figures of merit (FOM). Simulated data of a

  8. Numerical observer for atherosclerotic plaque classification in spectral computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Lorsakul, Auranuch; Fakhri, Georges El; Worstell, William; Ouyang, Jinsong; Rakvongthai, Yothin; Laine, Andrew F; Li, Quanzheng

    2016-07-01

    Spectral computed tomography (SCT) generates better image quality than conventional computed tomography (CT). It has overcome several limitations for imaging atherosclerotic plaque. However, the literature evaluating the performance of SCT based on objective image assessment is very limited for the task of discriminating plaques. We developed a numerical-observer method and used it to assess performance on discrimination vulnerable-plaque features and compared the performance among multienergy CT (MECT), dual-energy CT (DECT), and conventional CT methods. Our numerical observer was designed to incorporate all spectral information and comprised two-processing stages. First, each energy-window domain was preprocessed by a set of localized channelized Hotelling observers (CHO). In this step, the spectral image in each energy bin was decorrelated using localized prewhitening and matched filtering with a set of Laguerre-Gaussian channel functions. Second, the series of the intermediate scores computed from all the CHOs were integrated by a Hotelling observer with an additional prewhitening and matched filter. The overall signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were obtained, yielding an overall discrimination performance metric. The performance of our new observer was evaluated for the particular binary classification task of differentiating between alternative plaque characterizations in carotid arteries. A clinically realistic model of signal variability was also included in our simulation of the discrimination tasks. The inclusion of signal variation is a key to applying the proposed observer method to spectral CT data. Hence, the task-based approaches based on the signal-known-exactly/background-known-exactly (SKE/BKE) framework and the clinical-relevant signal-known-statistically/background-known-exactly (SKS/BKE) framework were applied for analytical computation of figures of merit (FOM). Simulated data of a

  9. Intravascular Ultrasound Classification of Plaque in Angiographic True Bifurcation Lesions of the Left Main Coronary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Dash, Debabrata; Gai, Lu-Yue; Cao, Yun-Shan; Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Ya-Rong; Zhang, Yao-Jun; Zhang, Jun-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Accurately, characterizing plaques is critical for selecting the optimal intervention strategy for the left main coronary artery (LMCA) bifurcation. Coronary angiography cannot precisely assess the location or nature of plaques in bifurcation lesions. Few intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) classification scheme has been reported for angiographic imaging of true bifurcation lesions of the unprotected LMCA thus far. In addition, the plaque composition at the bifurcation has not been elucidated. This study aimed to detect plaque composition at LMCA bifurcation lesions by IVUS. Methods: Fifty-eight patients were recruited. The location, concentricity or eccentricity, site of maximum thickness, and composition of plaques of the distal LMCA, ostial left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery and, left circumflex (LCX) coronary artery were assessed using IVUS and described using illustrative diagrams. Results: True bifurcation lesions of the unprotected LMCA were classified into four types: Type A, with continuous involvement from the distal LMCA to the ostial LAD and the ostial LCX with eccentric plaques; Type B, with concentric plaques at the distal LMCA, eccentric plaques at the ostial LAD, and no plaques at the LCX; Type C, with continuous involvement from the distal LMCA to the ostial LCX, with eccentric plaques, and to the ostial LAD, with eccentric plaques; and Type D, with continuous involvement from the distal LMCA to the ostial LAD, with eccentric plaques, and to the ostial LCX, with concentric plaques. The carina was involved in only 3.5% of the plaques. A total of 51.7% of the plaques at the ostium of the LAD were soft, while 44.8% and 44.6% were fibrous in the distal LMCA and in the ostial LCX, respectively. Conclusions: We classified LMCA true bifurcation lesions into four types. The carina was always free from disease. Plaques at the ostial LAD tended to be soft, whereas those at the ostial LCX and the distal LMCA tended to be fibrous. PMID

  10. Dose verification of eye plaque brachytherapy using spectroscopic dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Jarema, T; Cutajar, D; Weaver, M; Petasecca, M; Lerch, M; Kejda, A; Rosenfeld, A

    2016-09-01

    Eye plaque brachytherapy has been developed and refined for the last 80 years, demonstrating effective results in the treatment of ocular malignancies. Current dosimetry techniques for eye plaque brachytherapy (such as TLD- and film-based techniques) are time consuming and cannot be used prior to treatment in a sterile environment. The measurement of the expected dose distribution within the eye, prior to insertion within the clinical setting, would be advantageous, as any errors in source loading will lead to an erroneous dose distribution and inferior treatment outcomes. This study investigated the use of spectroscopic dosimetry techniques for real-time quality assurance of I-125 based eye plaques, immediately prior to insertion. A silicon detector based probe, operating in spectroscopy mode was constructed, containing a small (1 mm(3)) silicon detector, mounted within a ceramic holder, all encapsulated within a rubber sheath to prevent water infiltration of the electronics. Preliminary tests of the prototype demonstrated that the depth dose distribution through the central axis of an I-125 based eye plaque may be determined from AAPM Task Group 43 recommendations to a deviation of 6 % at 3 mm depth, 7 % at 5 mm depth, 1 % at 10 mm depth and 13 % at 20 mm depth, with the deviations attributed to the construction of the probe. A new probe design aims to reduce these discrepancies, however the concept of spectroscopic dosimetry shows great promise for use in eye plaque quality assurance in the clinical setting.

  11. Factors affecting supragingival biofilm composition. I. Plaque mass

    PubMed Central

    Haffajee, A. D.; Teles, R.P.; Patel, M.R.; Song, X.; Veiga, N.; Socransky, S. S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between total DNA probe counts of supragingival biofilm samples, clinical parameters and supragingival biofilm composition. Methods Supragingival plaque samples were taken from 187 systemically healthy adult subjects at baseline (N samples = 4,745). All samples were individually analyzed for their content of 40 bacterial species using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. The relationship between total DNA probe counts and microbial composition was examined by sub-setting the data into 10 groups based on 10 percentile increments of the total DNA probe counts. Differences among groups in terms of species counts and proportions were sought as well as relationships of total plaque DNA probe count and clinical parameters. Results There was a wide distribution in mean total DNA probe counts among the 187 subjects. With increasing total plaque levels there was a change in the proportions of individual species and microbial complexes. “Small plaques” were characterized by high proportions of species in the yellow, orange, purple and “other” complexes; plaques of moderate mass were characterized by high proportions of Actinomyces and purple complex species, while “large plaques” exhibited increased proportions of green and orange complex species. Measures of gingival inflammation, pocket depth and recession were significantly positively associated with total DNA probe counts. Increased plaque numbers were related to increased pocket depth irrespective of presence or absence of gingival inflammation. Conclusion The proportions of individual species and microbial complexes in supragingival biofilms are influenced by the total numbers of organisms in the biofilm. PMID:18973540

  12. Efficacy of Methotrexate in patients with plaque type psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Sabiqa; Wahid, Zarnaz; Najam-us-Saher; Riaz, Farzana

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of Methotrexate in patients with plaque type psoriasis. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in the department of Dermatology, Civil Hospital Karachi from September 2009 to March 2010. Seventy three patients between 18 to 50 years of age suffering from plaque type psoriasis with PASI score of >10 were included in the study after taking the informed consent. Oral methotrexate in a dose of 7.5 mg/week was given for 8 weeks. The data collected included demographic profile (age and gender), duration of disease, site of involvement, size of plaque, severity of plaque measured by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score before starting the treatment and at the end of treatment. Efficacy was labeled with a PASI score of ≤5 at the end of 8 weeks. Results: Out of 73 patients there were 45 (61.6%) males and 28 (38.4%) females. The mean ±SD age was 40.0±12.6 years. The mean baseline PASI score showed clear and comparable improvement from a mean ± SD PASI score of 14.8±4.2 to 4.9±4.3.Twenty nine (40%) patients had an almost complete remission during the 8 weeks of treatment. Partial remission was achieved in 44 (60%) patients. The clearance time for psoriasis ranged from 5-7 weeks (mean 6±0.89 weeks). Conclusion: Treatment with methotrexate for chronic plaque psoriasis brings satisfactory disease control and improved quality of life. PMID:25225524

  13. Direct association between diet and the stability of human atherosclerotic plaque.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Isabel; Andersson Georgiadou, Elisavet; Mattsson, Sören; Skog, Göran; Pedro, Luís; Fernandes E Fernandes, José; Dias, Nuno; Engström, Gunnar; Nilsson, Jan; Stenström, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Mediterranean diet has been suggested to explain why coronary heart disease mortality is lower in southern than northern Europe. Dietary habits can be revealed by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) measurement of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) in biological tissues. To study if diet is associated with human plaque stability, atherosclerotic plaques from carotid endarterectomy on 56 patients (21 Portuguese and 35 Swedish) were analysed by IRMS and histology. Plaque components affecting rupture risk were measured. Swedish plaques had more apoptosis, lipids and larger cores, as well as fewer proliferating cells and SMC than the Portuguese, conferring the Swedish a more rupture-prone phenotype. Portuguese plaques contained higher δ(13)C and δ(15)N than the Swedish, indicating that Portuguese plaques were more often derived from marine food. Plaque δ(13)C correlated with SMC and proliferating cells, and inversely with lipids, core size, apoptosis. Plaque δ(15)N correlated with SMC and inversely with lipids, core size and apoptosis. This is the first observational study showing that diet is reflected in plaque components associated with its vulnerability. The Portuguese plaques composition is consistent with an increased marine food intake and those plaques are more stable than those from Swedish patients. Marine-derived food is associated with plaque stability.

  14. Pleural plaques as risk indicators for malignant pleural mesothelioma: a necropsy-based study.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, C; Brollo, A; Ramani, L; Zuch, C

    1997-11-01

    Pleural plaque is recognized as a reliable marker of previous exposure to asbestos. However, it is controversial whether pleural plaque is a risk indicator for asbestos-related malignancies. In the present study, the thoracic cavities were examined for pleural plaques in 3,005 necropsies performed at the Monfalcone Hospital in people aged 15 years or older. Plaques were classified into three classes: 1, small (plaques measuring 1-4 cm in major diameter); 3, large (plaques involving a major part of a hemithorax); and 2, moderate (intermediate conditions). The prevalences of pleural plaques were 70.9% among men, and 24.0% among women. The prevalences of plaques (total plaques, various classes) among subjects with pleural mesothelioma were compared with those observed in the remaining cases. The series included 92 subjects with malignant pleural mesothelioma (82 men and 10 women). Mesothelioma cases showed higher prevalences of total plaques as well as higher prevalences of classes 1, 2, and 3, when compared with controls. These differences reached the statistical significance for total plaques, and classes 2, 3. The present data are consistent with the idea that pleural plaque is a risk indicator for pleural mesothelioma.

  15. Direct association between diet and the stability of human atherosclerotic plaque

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Isabel; Andersson Georgiadou, Elisavet; Mattsson, Sören; Skog, Göran; Pedro, Luís; Fernandes e Fernandes, José; Dias, Nuno; Engström, Gunnar; Nilsson, Jan; Stenström, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Mediterranean diet has been suggested to explain why coronary heart disease mortality is lower in southern than northern Europe. Dietary habits can be revealed by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) measurement of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) in biological tissues. To study if diet is associated with human plaque stability, atherosclerotic plaques from carotid endarterectomy on 56 patients (21 Portuguese and 35 Swedish) were analysed by IRMS and histology. Plaque components affecting rupture risk were measured. Swedish plaques had more apoptosis, lipids and larger cores, as well as fewer proliferating cells and SMC than the Portuguese, conferring the Swedish a more rupture-prone phenotype. Portuguese plaques contained higher δ13C and δ15N than the Swedish, indicating that Portuguese plaques were more often derived from marine food. Plaque δ13C correlated with SMC and proliferating cells, and inversely with lipids, core size, apoptosis. Plaque δ15N correlated with SMC and inversely with lipids, core size and apoptosis. This is the first observational study showing that diet is reflected in plaque components associated with its vulnerability. The Portuguese plaques composition is consistent with an increased marine food intake and those plaques are more stable than those from Swedish patients. Marine-derived food is associated with plaque stability. PMID:26490319

  16. Plaque: What It Is and How to Get Rid of It

    MedlinePlus

    Rx for PLAQUE: Sound Teeth What it is and how to get rid of it People used to think that as you got older you naturally lost your teeth. ... your teeth for a lifetime! Plaque: What is it? Plaque is made up of invisible masses of ...

  17. Quantification of arterial plaque and lumen density with MDCT

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Narinder S.; Blobel, Joerg; Kashani, Hany; Rice, Murray; Ursani, Ali

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: This study aimed to derive a mathematical correction function in order to normalize the CT number measurements for small volume arterial plaque and small vessel mimicking objects, imaged with multidetector CT (MDCT). Methods: A commercially available calcium plaque phantom (QRM GmbH, Moehrendorf, Germany) and a custom built cardiovascular phantom were scanned with 320 and 64 MDCT scanners. The calcium hydroxyapatite plaque phantom contained objects 0.5-5.0 mm in diameter with known CT attenuation nominal values ranging 50-800 HU. The cardiovascular phantom contained vessel mimicking objects 1.0-5.0 mm in diameter with different contrast media. Both phantoms were scanned using clinical protocols for CT angiography and images were reconstructed with different filter kernels. The measured CT number (HU) and diameter of each object were analyzed on three clinical postprocessing workstations. From the resultant data, a mathematical formula was derived based on absorption function exp(-{mu}{sup *}d) to demonstrate the relation between measured CT numbers and object diameters. Results: The percentage reduction in measured CT number (HU) for the group of selected filter kernels, apparent during CT angiography, is dependent only on the object size (plaque or vessel diameter). The derived formula of the form 1-c{sup *}exp(-a{sup *}d{sup b}) showed reduction in CT number for objects between 0.5 and 5 mm in diameter, with asymptote reaching background noise for small objects with diameters nearing the CT in-plane resolution (0.35 mm). No reduction was observed for the objects with diameters equal or larger than 5 mm. Conclusions: A clear mathematical relationship exists between object diameter and reduction in measured CT number in HU. This function is independent of exposure parameters and inherent attenuation properties of the objects studied. Future developments include the incorporation of this mathematical model function into quantification software in order to

  18. A free boundary problem for steady small plaques in the artery and their stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Avner; Hao, Wenrui; Hu, Bei

    2015-08-01

    Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of death in the United States and worldwide; it originates from a plaque which builds up in the artery. In this paper, we consider a simplified model of plaque growth involving LDL and HDL cholesterols, macrophages and foam cells, which satisfy a coupled system of PDEs with a free boundary, the interface between the plaque and the blood flow. We prove that there exist small radially symmetric stationary plaques and establish a sharp condition that ensures their stability. We also determine necessary and sufficient conditions under which a small initial plaque will shrink and disappear, or persist for all times.

  19. [Changes in proinflammatory cytokine and destructive metalloproteinase levels during formation of unstable atherosclerotic plaque].

    PubMed

    Ragino, Iu I; Cherniavskiĭ, A M; Polonskaia, Ia V; Volkov, A M; Semaeva, E V; Tsymbal, S Iu; Voevoda, M I

    2009-01-01

    We studied men with coronary atherosclerosis without acute coronary syndrome and determined typical valuable parameters of inflammatory (tumor necrotic factor, antagonist of receptor to interleukin [IL] 1, IL 6, IL 8, monocytes chemotactic protein 1, endothelial monocytes activating protein II), and destructive (matrix metalloproteinase [MMP] 3, MMP 7, MMP 9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase) processes at consecutive stages of formation of coronary atherosclerotic plaque: "normal intimal tissue --> lipid stain --> early stable plaque --> unstable vulnerable plaque <--> stable plaque with fibrosis", and in 3 types of unstable plaques (lipid type, inflammatory erosive type, necrotic type). PMID:19656094

  20. Plaques of Alzheimer's disease originate from cysts of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Alan B

    2006-01-01

    Here is hypothesized a truly revolutionary notion that rounded cystic forms of Borrelia burgdorferi are the root cause of the rounded structures called plaques in the Alzheimer brain. Rounded "plaques' in high density in brain tissue are emblematic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Plaques may be conceptualized as rounded "pock mark-like" areas of brain tissue injury. In this century, in brain tissue of AD, plaques are Amyloid Plaques according to the most up to date textbooks. In the last century, however, Dr. Alois Alzheimer did not require amyloid as the pathogenesis for either the disease or for the origin of its plaques. Surely, amyloid is an event in AD, but it may not be the primal cause of AD. Indeed in plaques, amyloid is regularly represented by the "congophilic core" structure which is so named because the waxy amyloid material binds the congo red stain and is congophilic. However an accepted subset of plaques in AD is devoid of a congophilic amyloid core region (these plaques "cotton wool" type plaques, lack a central congophilic core structure). Furthermore, there is "plaque diversity" in Alzheimer's; small, medium and large plaques parallel variable cystic diameters for Borrelia burgdorferi. Perturbations of AD plaque structure (i.e. young plaques devoid of a central core and older plaques with or without a central core structure) offer room for an alternate pathway for explanation of ontogeny of the plaque structures. If amyloid is not required to initiate all of the possible plaques in Alzheimer's, is it possible that amyloid just a by product of a more fundamental primal path to dementia? If a byproduct status is assigned to amyloid in the realm of plaque formation, then is amyloid also an epiphenomenon rather than a primary pathogenesis for Alzheimer's disease. In the "anatomy is destiny" model, cysts of borrelia are always round. Why then not accept roundness as a fundamental "structure determines function" argument for the answer to the mystery of

  1. A double layer plaque assay using spread plate technique for enumeration of bacteriophage MS2.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Jiemin; Janes, Marlene

    2014-02-01

    Bacteriophage MS2 is used widely as a model organism to estimate pathogenic virus survival in various environments, and is usually quantified by plaque assay. Although current plaque assays work well in enumeration of MS2 in environmental samples, quantification of MS2 calls for better visibility and higher consistency. In an attempt to improve the visibility and consistency of the current plaque assay, spread plate technique was introduced, instead of the pour plate technique used commonly in existing methods. Other parameters that influence the outcome of the plaque assay were also compared. Using spread plate technique resulted in an increase of plaque size by approximately 50% and contributed to a better visibility. Addition of supplements (glucose, CaCl2 and thiamine); reduction of agar thickness and hardness, also contributed to enhanced plaque visibility and increased plaque count. Among all the conditions tested, a supplemented thin bottom agar (10ml 1% agar) and a supplemented thin top agar (10ml 0.45% agar) with spread plate technique gave the maximum countable plaques with a minimum standard deviation. When compared to other methods, it produced significantly higher plaque count and lower variation. The optimized plaque assay significantly improved visibility and consistency of the existing plaque assay methods and could be used in quantification of MS2.

  2. Immunostained plaque assay for detection and titration of rabies virus infectivity.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun-Sun; Um, Jihye; Choi, Young-Ki; Lee, Yeong Seon; Ju, Young Ran; Kim, Su Yeon

    2016-02-01

    The fluorescent antibody test (FAT) is the most commonly used method for detection of the rabies virus (RV). The plaque assay can only be applied to fixed RVs, and cannot be used for street RVs. In this study, plaque formation allowing the determination of both fixed and street RVs was achieved using the immune plaque assay. The immune plaque assay carried out using both fixed and street RVs showed the formation of clear and countable plaques after immunostaining with anti-RV P monoclonal antibody and HRP-conjugated anti-mouse IgG. Plaque size increased with incubation time, and the plaque morphology differed according to viral strain. Fixed RVs had the dot-shaped regular plaque morphology and street RVs had the small irregular-shape plaque morphology. In addition, no significant differences were observed between the growth kinetics of the KGH strain when the virus was titrated using the FAT and the immune plaque assay. It allowed the successful detection and quantification of both street and fixed RVs through the production of clear, countable plaques, making it easy to obtain objective results. The assay is an applicable tool for the detection of RVs in various investigations, including virus neutralizing antibody testing, cell-to-cell spread, and viral drug sensitivity testing.

  3. Aortic atherosclerotic plaque detection using a multiwavelength handheld photoacoustic imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Susumu; Namita, Takeshi; Kondo, Kengo; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

    2016-03-01

    Patients affected by diseases caused by arteriosclerosis are increasing. Atherosclerosis, which is becoming an especially difficult health problem, forms plaques from lipids such as cholesterol located in walls of the aorta, cerebral artery, and coronary artery. Because lipid-rich plaques are vulnerable and because arterial rupture causes acute vascular occlusion, early detection is crucially important to prevent plaque growth and rupture. Ultrasound systems can detect plaques but cannot discriminate between vulnerable and equable plaques. To evaluate plaques non-invasively and easily, we developed a handheld photoacoustic imaging device. Its usefulness was verified in phantom experiments with a bovine aorta in which mimic plaque had been embedded. Photoacoustic images taken at wavelengths that produce high light absorbance by lipids show strong photoacoustic signals from the boundary of the mimic plaque. Results confirmed that our system can evaluate plaque properties by analysis with the photoacoustic spectrum. The effects of surrounding tissues and tissue components on plaque evaluation were investigated using a layered phantom. The mimic plaque located under a 6 mm blood layer was also evaluated. Results of these analyses demonstrate the system's usefulness.

  4. Chemical Plaque Control Strategies in the Prevention of Biofilm-associated Oral Diseases.

    PubMed

    Jafer, Mohammed; Patil, Shankargouda; Hosmani, Jagadish; Bhandi, Shilpa H; Chalisserry, Elna P; Anil, Sukumaran

    2016-01-01

    Dental plaque is a biofilm that forms naturally on the surfaces of exposed teeth and other areas of the oral cavity. It is the primary etiological factor for the most frequently occurring oral diseases, such as dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specific, nonspecific, and ecologic plaque hypothesis explains the causation of dental and associated diseases. Adequate control of biofilm accumulation on teeth has been the cornerstone of prevention of periodontitis and dental caries. Mechanical plaque control is the mainstay for prevention of oral diseases, but it requires patient cooperation and motivation; therefore, chemical plaque control agents act as useful adjuvants for achieving the desired results. Hence, it is imperative for the clinicians to update their knowledge in chemical antiplaque agents and other developments for the effective management of plaque biofilm-associated diseases. This article explores the critical analysis of various chemical plaque control strategies and the current trends in the control and prevention of dental plaque biofilm. PMID:27340170

  5. Texture based segmentation method to detect atherosclerotic plaque from optical tomography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Ammu; Hewko, Mark; Sowa, Michael; Sherif, Sherif

    2013-06-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging has been widely employed in assessing cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis is one of the major cause cardio vascular diseases. However visual detection of atherosclerotic plaque from OCT images is often limited and further complicated by high frame rates. We developed a texture based segmentation method to automatically detect plaque and non plaque regions from OCT images. To verify our results we compared them to photographs of the vascular tissue with atherosclerotic plaque that we used to generate the OCT images. Our results show a close match with photographs of vascular tissue with atherosclerotic plaque. Our texture based segmentation method for plaque detection could be potentially used in clinical cardiovascular OCT imaging for plaque detection.

  6. Manganese and copper in the root plaque of Phragmites australis (cav. ) trin. ex steudel

    SciTech Connect

    St-Cyr, L.; Crowder, A.A. )

    1990-04-01

    Manganese and copper were found in the iron oxide plaque on roots of Phragmites australis collected at six sampling sites in southern Quebec and Ontario, Canada. Manganese concentration in the plaque, like that of Fe, is correlated with Mn-bound-to-carbonates fraction of the soil/sediment. The Fe:Mn ratio of the plaque resemble the same ratio of Fe:Mn-bound-to-carbonates in the substrate. The ratio changes with environmental conditions, increasing with percentage of water and decreasing with pH. Plants located near flowing water accumulate more Mn (and Fe) in the plaque than plants in other habitats through the summer. Copper concentration in the plaque than plants in other habitats through the summer. Copper concentration in the plaque is pH-dependent and is positively correlated with the amount of Fe and Mn of the plaque, but appears to be related more closely to Mn.

  7. Data on TREM-1 activation destabilizing carotid plaques.

    PubMed

    Rao, Velidi H; Rai, Vikrant; Stoupa, Samantha; Subramanian, Saravanan; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2016-09-01

    The data described herein are related to the article entitled "Tumor necrosis factor-α regulates triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1-dependent matrix metalloproteinases in the carotid plaques of symptomatic patients with carotid stenosis" (Rao et al., 2016) [1]. Additional data are provided on the dose-response effect of TNF-α, TREM-1 antibody and recombinant rTREM-1/Fc fusion chimera (TREM-1/FC) on the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-9 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) isolated from human carotid endarterectomy tissues. Data are also presented on the distribution of CD86+ M1- and CD206+ M2-macrophages and their co-localization with TREM-1 in symptomatic carotid plaques as visualized by dual immunofluorescence. The interpretation of this data and further extensive insights can be found in Rao et al. (2016) [1]. PMID:27331093

  8. Oral care and pulmonary infection - the importance of plaque scoring

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Improving the quality of oral hygiene is recognised as an important counter measure for reducing the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia amongst critically ill patients. Toothbrushing physically disrupts the dental plaque that acts as a reservoir for pulmonary infection and therefore has the potential to reduce the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Gu and colleagues performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of oral hygiene with and without a toothbrush and found no difference in the incidence of pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients. The diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia is prone to bias and future studies of oral care interventions should focus on measures of oral cleanliness such as plaque and gingival scores. Once the optimal strategy for oral hygiene is defined in the critically ill, larger studies focussing on ventilator-associated pneumonia or mortality can be conducted. PMID:23302185

  9. Apollo 11 Commander Armstrong Presents President With Commemorative Plaque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    On June 4, 1974, 5 years after the successful Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, commander Neil Armstrong (right) presented a plaque to U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon (left) on behalf of all people who had taken part in the space program. In making the presentation, Armstrong said 'Mr. President, you have proclaimed this week to be United States Space week in conjunction with the fifth anniversary of our first successful landing on the Moon. It is my privilege to represent my colleagues, the crewmen of projects Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab, and the men and women of NASA, and the hundreds of thousands of Americans from across the land who contributed so mightily to the success of our efforts in space in presenting this plaque which bears the names of each individual who has had the privilege of representing this country' in a space flight. The presentation was made at the California white house in San Clemente.

  10. RTN/Nogo in forming Alzheimer’s neuritic plaques

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Marguerite; Shi, Qi; Hu, Xiangyou; He, Wanxia; Levey, Allan; Yan, Riqiang

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY One of the pathological hallmarks in brains of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the presence of neuritic plaques, in which amyloid deposits are surrounded by reactive gliosis and dystrophic neurites. Within neuritic plaques, reticulon 3 (RTN3), a homolog of Nogo protein, appears to regulate the formation of both amyloid deposition via negative modulation of BACE1 activity and dystrophic neurites via the formation of RTN3 aggregates. Transgenic mice over-expressing RTN3, but not the other known markers of dystrophic neurites in AD brain, spontaneously develop RTN3-immunoreactive dystrophic neurites. The presence of dystrophic neurites impairs cognition. Blocking abnormal RTN3 aggregation will increase the available RTN3 monomer and is therefore a promising potential therapeutic strategy for enhancing cognitive function in AD patients. PMID:20144652

  11. Episcleral eye plaque dosimetry comparison for the Eye Physics EP917 using Plaque Simulator and Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Leonard W; Amoush, Ahmad; Wilkinson, Douglas A

    2015-01-01

    This work is a comparative study of the dosimetry calculated by Plaque Simulator, a treatment planning system for eye plaque brachytherapy, to the dosimetry calculated using Monte Carlo simulation for an Eye Physics model EP917 eye plaque. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation using MCNPX 2.7 was used to calculate the central axis dose in water for an EP917 eye plaque fully loaded with 17 IsoAid Advantage (125)I seeds. In addition, the dosimetry parameters Λ, gL(r), and F(r,θ) were calculated for the IsoAid Advantage model IAI-125 (125)I seed and benchmarked against published data. Bebig Plaque Simulator (PS) v5.74 was used to calculate the central axis dose based on the AAPM Updated Task Group 43 (TG-43U1) dose formalism. The calculated central axis dose from MC and PS was then compared. When the MC dosimetry parameters for the IsoAid Advantage (125)I seed were compared with the consensus values, Λ agreed with the consensus value to within 2.3%. However, much larger differences were found between MC calculated gL(r) and F(r,θ) and the consensus values. The differences between MC-calculated dosimetry parameters are much smaller when compared with recently published data. The differences between the calculated central axis absolute dose from MC and PS ranged from 5% to 10% for distances between 1 and 12 mm from the outer scleral surface. When the dosimetry parameters for the (125)I seed from this study were used in PS, the calculated absolute central axis dose differences were reduced by 2.3% from depths of 4 to 12 mm from the outer scleral surface. We conclude that PS adequately models the central dose profile of this plaque using its defaults for the IsoAid model IAI-125 at distances of 1 to 7 mm from the outer scleral surface. However, improved dose accuracy can be obtained by using updated dosimetry parameters for the IsoAid model IAI-125 (125)I seed.

  12. Murine atherosclerotic plaque imaging with the USPIO Ferumoxtran-10.

    PubMed

    Klug, Gert; Kampf, Thomas; Ziener, Christan; Parczyk, Marco; Bauer, Elizabeth; Herold, Volker; Rommel, Eberhard; Jakob, Peter Michael; Bauer, Wolfgang Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    In this study we intended to image plaque inflammation in a murine model of atherosclerosis with MRI and Ferumoxtran-10 (Sinerem, Guerbet, France). 8 apoE-/- mice were injected 500 micromol Fe/kg or 1000 micromol Fe/kg Ferumoxtran-10. 2 apoE-/- mice were injected NaCl. After a post-contrast time of 24 to 336 hours the mice were scarificed and the aortas were imaged ex vivo. All measurements were performed on a 17.6 Tesla Bruker AVANCE 750WB MR scanner (Bruker, Germany). Spin-echo sequences and gradient-echo sequences with variable TE were performed and T2* maps were generated. Prussian-blue and hematoxilin-eosin histology were obtained afterwards and iron-uptake was quantified by counting iron positive areas. 2 apoE-/- mice were imaged in vivo before and 48 hours after 1000 micromol Fe/kg. Atheroma iron uptake was not elevated after 24 hours compared to controls. 48 hours after 1000 micromol Fe/kg but not 500 micromol Fe/kg histology revealed a 1.3- fold increase in plaque iron content compared to NaCl injected mice. Normalized T2*-times decreased from 0.86+/-0.02 in controls to 0.66+/-0.15 after a dose of 500 micromol Fe/ml and 0.59+/-0.14 in mice injected with 1000 micromol Fe/Kg (p=0.038). These results translated into a mean of 122% increase in CNR, as measured by in vivo MRI. We have demonstrated that Ferumoxtran-10 is taken up by atherosclerotic plaques in untreated apoE-/- mice and this alters plaque signal properties.

  13. The effect of anti-plaque agents on gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Spivakovsky, Silvia; Keenan, Analia

    2016-06-01

    Data sourcesAn electronic search was conducted on PubMed Central. References of retrieved papers and previously published systematic reviews were hand searched.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) with at least six months follow-up evaluating the use of test products used in mouthrinses, toothpastes or gels as adjuncts to mechanical oral hygiene (including toothbrushing) were considered.Data extraction and synthesisTwo trained and calibrated reviewers independently assessed the studies for eligibility, with any disagreement being resolved by discussion. Two reviewers under the supervision of a third reviewer extracted data. Risk of bias was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the CONSORT statement. Outcomes were summarised as means and standard deviation (SD) or standard error (SE), the results were pooled and analysed using weighted mean differences (WMD), and heterogeneity among the studies was calculated.ResultsEighty-seven articles with 133 comparisons were included in the review. A majority of the studies (75) were considered to be at high risk of bias, eight at unclear risk and four at low risk. Fifteen different categories of active agent were used in toothpastes and ten in mouthwashes. The additional effects of the tested products were statistically significant for the Loe & Silness gingival index (46 studies), WMD -0.217, the modified gingival index (23 studies) - 0.415, gingivitis severity index (26 studies) - 14.939% or bleeding index (23 studies) - 7.626% with significant heterogeneity. For plaque, additional effects were found for Turesky (66 studies) WMD - 0.0475, Silness & Loe (26 studies) - 0.109 and for plaque severity (12 studies) - 23.4% indices, with significant heterogeneity.ConclusionsWithin the limitations of the present study, formulations with specific agents for chemical plaque control provide statistically significant improvements in terms of gingival, bleeding and plaque indices. PMID:27339238

  14. Modeling plaque fissuring and dissection during balloon angioplasty intervention.

    PubMed

    Gasser, T Christian; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2007-05-01

    Balloon angioplasty intervention is traumatic to arterial tissue. Fracture mechanisms such as plaque fissuring and/or dissection occur and constitute major contributions to the lumen enlargement. However, these types of mechanically-based traumatization of arterial tissue are also contributing factors to both acute procedural complications and chronic restenosis of the treatment site. We propose physical and finite element models, which are generally useable to trace fissuring and/or dissection in atherosclerotic plaques during balloon angioplasty interventions. The arterial wall is described as an anisotropic, heterogeneous, highly deformable, nearly incompressible body, whereas tissue failure is captured by a strong discontinuity kinematics and a novel cohesive zone model. The numerical implementation is based on the partition of unity finite element method and the interface element method. The later is used to link together meshes of the different tissue components. The balloon angioplasty-based failure mechanisms are numerically studied in 3D by means of an atherosclerotic-prone human external iliac artery, with a type V lesion. Image-based 3D geometry is generated and tissue-specific material properties are considered. Numerical results show that in a primary phase the plaque fissures at both shoulders of the fibrous cap and stops at the lamina elastica interna. In a secondary phase, local dissections between the intima and the media develop at the fibrous cap location with the smallest thickness. The predicted results indicate that plaque fissuring and dissection cause localized mechanical trauma, but prevent the main portion of the stenosis from high stress, and hence from continuous tissue damage.

  15. Hydrocortisone supresses inflammatory activity of metalloproteinase - 8 in carotid plaque

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Sthefano Atique; Antonangelo, Leila; Capelozzi, Vera Luiza; Beteli, Camila Baumann; de Camargo Júnior, Otacílio; de Aquino, José Luis Braga; Caffaro, Roberto Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Objective Matrix metalloproteinases are inflammatory biomarkers involved in carotid plaque instability. Our objective was to analyze the inflammatory activity of plasma and carotid plaque MMP-8 and MMP-9 after intravenous administration of hydrocortisone. Methods The study included 22 patients with stenosis ≥ 70% in the carotid artery (11 symptomatic and 11 asymptomatic) who underwent carotid endarterectomy. The patients were divided into two groups: Control Group - hydrocortisone was not administered, and Group 1 - 500 mg intravenous hydrocortisone was administered during anesthetic induction. Plasma levels of MMP-8 and MMP-9 were measured preoperatively (24 hours before carotid endarterectomy) and at 1 hour, 6 hours and 24 hours after carotid endarterectomy. In carotid plaque, tissue levels of MMP-8 and MMP-9 were measured. Results Group 1 showed increased serum levels of MMP- 8 (994.28 pg/ml and 408.54 pg/ml, respectively; P=0.045) and MMP-9 (106,656.34 and 42,807.69 respectively; P=0.014) at 1 hour after carotid endarterectomy compared to the control group. Symptomatic patients in Group 1 exhibited lower tissue concentration of MMP-8 in comparison to the control group (143.89 pg/ml and 1317.36 respectively; P=0.003). There was a correlation between preoperative MMP-9 levels and tissue concentrations of MMP-8 (P=0.042) and MMP-9 (P=0.019) between symptomatic patients in the control group. Conclusion Hydrocortisone reduces the concentration of MMP- 8 in carotid plaque, especially in symptomatic patients. There was an association between systemic and tissue inflammation. PMID:26313719

  16. Optical detection of structural changes in human carotid atherosclerotic plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korol, R. M.; Canham, P. B.; Finlay, H. M.; Hammond, R. R.; Quantz, M.; Ferguson, G. G.; Liu, L. Y.; Lucas, A. R.

    2005-08-01

    Background: Arterial bifurcations are commonly the sites of developing atherosclerotic plaque that lead to arterial occlusions and plaque rupture (myocardial infarctions and strokes). Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy provides an effective nondestructive method supplying spectral information on extracellular matrix (ECM) protein composition, specifically collagen and elastin. Purpose: To investigate regional differences in the ECM proteins -- collagen I, III and elastin in unstable plaque by analyzing data from laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy of human carotid endarterectomy specimens. Methods: Gels of ECM protein extracts (elastin, collagen types I & III) were measured as reference spectra and internal thoracic artery segments (extra tissue from bypass surgery) were used as tissue controls. Arterial segments and the endarterectomy specimens (n=21) were cut into 5mm cross-sectional rings. Ten fluorescence spectra per sampling area were then recorded at 5 sites per ring with argon laser excitation (357nm) with a penetration depth of 200 μm. Spectra were normalized to maximum intensity and analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Tissue rings were fixed in formalin (within 3 hours of surgery), sectioned and stained with H&E or Movat's Pentachrome for histological analysis. Spectroscopy data were correlated with immunohistology (staining for elastin, collagen types I, III and IV). Results: Quantitative fluorescence for the thoracic arteries revealed a dominant elastin component on the luminal side -- confirmed with immunohistology and known artery structure. Carotid endarterectomy specimens by comparison had a significant decrease in elastin signature and increased collagen type I and III. Arterial spectra were markedly different between the thoracic and carotid specimens. There was also a significant elevation (p<0.05) of collagen type I distal to the bifurcation compared to proximal tissue in the carotid specimens. Conclusion: Fluorescence

  17. Experimental determination of circumferential properties of fresh carotid artery plaques.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Michael G; O'Donnell, Michael R; O'Connell, Barry M; Walsh, Michael T

    2011-06-01

    Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is currently accepted as the gold standard for interventional revascularisation of diseased arteries belonging to the carotid bifurcation. Despite the proven efficacy of CEA, great interest has been generated in carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) as an alternative to open surgical therapy. CAS is less invasive compared with CEA, and has the potential to successfully treat lesions close to the aortic arch or distal internal carotid artery (ICA). Following promising results from two recent trials (CREST; Carotid revascularisation endarterectomy versus stenting trial, and ICSS; International carotid stenting study) it is envisaged that there will be a greater uptake in carotid stenting, especially amongst the group who do not qualify for open surgical repair, thus creating pressure to develop computational models that describe a multitude of plaque models in the carotid arteries and their reaction to the deployment of such interventional devices. Pertinent analyses will require fresh human atherosclerotic plaque material characteristics for different disease types. This study analysed atherosclerotic plaque characteristics from 18 patients tested on site, post-surgical revascularisation through endarterectomy, with 4 tissue samples being excluded from tensile testing based on large width-length ratios. According to their mechanical behaviour, atherosclerotic plaques were separated into 3 grades of stiffness. Individual and group material coefficients were then generated analytically using the Yeoh strain energy function. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of each sample was also recorded, showing large variation across the 14 atherosclerotic samples tested. Experimental Green strains at rupture varied from 0.299 to 0.588 and the Cauchy stress observed in the experiments was between 0.131 and 0.779 MPa. It is expected that this data may be used in future design optimisation of next generation interventional medical devices for the

  18. Perforin expression in plaque psoriasis: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Samaka, Rehab Monir; Gaber, Mohamed A; Metwe, Nermin A

    2015-04-01

    Psoriasis (PsO) is T-cell-mediated disease resulting from aberrant activation of both innate and adaptive immunity. Perforin is a multi-domain, pore-forming protein. It is located within the cytoplasm of CD 8 cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) and natural killer cells (NK). The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of perforin in lesional and perilesional skin of chronic plaque psoriatic patient and correlate its expression with the standard clinico-pathological variables. This prospective case-control study was conducted on 50 PsO patients and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects as a control group. There were high-significant differences between lesional and perilesional skin of plaque PsO patients as regards to IHC perforin status and localization (p < 0.001 for both). There was a high-significant difference between positive and negative perforin cases as regards to psoriasis area severity index (PASI) (p < 0.000). There were significant differences between mild and moderate-to-severe intensity of IHC perforin expression as regards to triggering factors and PASI (p = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively). Localization of IHC perforin positive lymphocytes in both epidermis and dermis was significantly associated with higher degree of acanthosis and higher degree of inflammatory infiltrates in comparison with positive cells located in dermis (p = 0.001 for both). Perforin might have a putative signaling in early and late plaque PsO. Plaque psoriatic patients with positive perforin expression could be a candidate for a future target therapy to stop the proposed scenario and achieve a therapeutic response.

  19. Assessment of vulnerable and unstable carotid atherosclerotic plaques on endarterectomy specimens

    PubMed Central

    BUTCOVAN, DOINA; MOCANU, VERONICA; BARAN, DANA; CIURESCU, DIANA; TINICA, GRIGORE

    2016-01-01

    The types of lesion instability responsible for the majority of acute coronary events frequently include plaque disruption and plaque erosion with superimposed thrombosis. The term ‘vulnerable plaque is used to describe atherosclerotic (ATS) plaques that are particularly prone to rupture and susceptible to thrombus formation, such as the thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA). The aim of the present study was to assess the morphological and histological differences between plaques that are unstable and those that are vulnerable to instability. Carotid artery endarterectomy specimens were obtained from 26 patients with carotid artery stenosis, consisting of 20 men and 6 women (age range, 35–80 years). Histological and morphometric methods were used to visualize and characterize the ATS plaques. Among the 26 carotid ATS plaques, 23% were stable, 23% were unstable and 54% were vulnerable. With regard to morphometric characteristics, the following mean values were obtained for the TCFA and unstable plaques, respectively: Fibrous cap thickness, 21.91 and 11.66 µM; proportion of necrotic core area in the total plaque area, 25.90 and 22.03%; and the proportion of inflammatory area in the total plaque area, 8.41 and 3.04%. No plaque calcification was observed in any of them. Since ATS coronary artery disease is considerably widespread and fatal, it is crucial to further study ATS lesions to obtain an improved understanding of the nature of vulnerable and unstable plaques. The methods used to detect plaque size, necrotic core area and fibrous cap thickness are considered to be particularly useful for identifying vulnerable and unstable plaques. PMID:27168846

  20. HDL-mimetic PLGA nanoparticle to target atherosclerosis plaque macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Gaytan, Brenda L; Fay, Francois; Lobatto, Mark E; Tang, Jun; Ouimet, Mireille; Kim, YongTae; van der Staay, Susanne E M; van Rijs, Sarian M; Priem, Bram; Zhang, Liangfang; Fisher, Edward A; Moore, Kathryn J; Langer, Robert; Fayad, Zahi A; Mulder, Willem J M

    2015-03-18

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a natural nanoparticle that exhibits an intrinsic affinity for atherosclerotic plaque macrophages. Its natural targeting capability as well as the option to incorporate lipophilic payloads, e.g., imaging or therapeutic components, in both the hydrophobic core and the phospholipid corona make the HDL platform an attractive nanocarrier. To realize controlled release properties, we developed a hybrid polymer/HDL nanoparticle composed of a lipid/apolipoprotein coating that encapsulates a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) core. This novel HDL-like nanoparticle (PLGA-HDL) displayed natural HDL characteristics, including preferential uptake by macrophages and a good cholesterol efflux capacity, combined with a typical PLGA nanoparticle slow release profile. In vivo studies carried out with an ApoE knockout mouse model of atherosclerosis showed clear accumulation of PLGA-HDL nanoparticles in atherosclerotic plaques, which colocalized with plaque macrophages. This biomimetic platform integrates the targeting capacity of HDL biomimetic nanoparticles with the characteristic versatility of PLGA-based nanocarriers.

  1. Symplekin, a novel type of tight junction plaque protein

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Using a monoclonal antibody we have identified and cDNA-cloned a novel type of protein localized, by light and electron microscopy, to the plaque associated with the cytoplasmic face of the tight junction- containing zone (zonula occludens) of polar epithelial cells and of Sertoli cells of testis, but absent from the junctions of vascular endothelia. The approximately 3.7-kb mRNA encodes a polypeptide of 1142 amino acids (calculated molecular weight 126.5 kD, pI 6.25), for which the name "symplekin" (from Greek sigma upsilon mu pi lambda epsilon kappa epsilon iota, nu, to tie together, to weave, to be intertwined) is proposed. However, both the mRNA and the protein can also be detected in a wide range of cell types that do not form tight junctions or are even completely devoid of any stable cell contacts. Careful analyses have revealed that the protein occurs in all these diverse cells in the nucleoplasm, and only in those cells forming tight junctions is it recruited, partly but specifically, to the plaque structure of the zonula occludens. We discuss symplekin as a representative of a group of dual residence proteins which occur and probably function in the nucleus as well as in the plaques exclusive for either tight junctions, adherens junctions, or desmosomes. PMID:8769423

  2. Optimization of sup 125 I ophthalmic plaque brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Astrahan, M.A.; Luxton, G.; Jozsef, G.; Liggett, P.E.; Petrovich, Z. )

    1990-11-01

    Episcleral plaques containing {sup 125}I sources are often used in the treatment of ocular melanoma. Within four years post-treatment, however, the majority of patients experience some visual loss due to radiation retinopathy. The high incidence of late complications suggests that careful treatment optimization may lead to improved outcome. The goal of optimization would be to reduce the magnitude of vision-limiting complications without compromising tumor control. We have developed a three-dimensional computer model for ophthalmic plaque therapy which permits us to explore the potential of various optimization strategies. One simple strategy which shows promise is to maximize the ratio of dose to the tumor apex (T) compared to dose to the macula (M). By modifying the parameters of source location, activity distribution, source orientation, and shielding we find that the calculated T:M ratio can be varied by a factor of 2 for a common plaque design and posterior tumor location. Margins and dose to the tumor volume remain essentially unchanged.

  3. [Ultrasound-guided ESWT in Peyronie's disease plaques].

    PubMed

    Mirone, V; Palmieri, A; Granata, A M; Piscopo, A; Verze, P; Ranavolo, R

    2000-12-01

    The aim of the study was to check the efficiency of shock waves in the treatment of Peyronie's disease. The instrument, because of its lithotriptic power, already used in the treatment of orthopedic disease and salivary stones, can be used to break plaques in induratio penis plastica. A total of 481 patients affected with Peyronie's disease were entered into a prospective trial. Patients with big plaques or with an initial stage of degeneration were excluded. We divided the patients into three treatment groups: a) shock waves alone in 56 patients; b) a combination of shock waves and calcioantagonist (perilesional injection) in 324 patients; c) calcioantagonist alone in 101 patients. The group of 101 patients (group C) treated during the previous 2 years with a medical therapy based only on the injection of calcioantagonist, was used as a control group. Ultrasound evaluation of the treated plaques showed a reduction of size in 27/56 patients of the group A, in 159/324 patients of the group B and in 39/101 patients of group C. Painful erection improved in the 91.5% of group B, against the 45.7% of group C. Furthermore, we pointed out, with interviews to the patients, a considerable improvement of the pain and of the sexual performances. The therapeutic association of shock waves with calcioantagonist injections is an effective non-operative treatment for the stabilization of Peyronie's disease. PMID:11221076

  4. Secukinumab: a review in moderate to severe plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Garnock-Jones, Karly P

    2015-08-01

    Secukinumab (Cosentyx™) is a fully human monoclonal immunoglobulin G1κ antibody targeting human interleukin-17A, an important cytokine in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Secukinumab, as well as being first in its drug class, is the first biologic treatment to be approved in the EU for the first-line systemic treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. This article reviews the pharmacologic properties of secukinumab and its clinical efficacy and tolerability in adult patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. In clinical trials, subcutaneous secukinumab was more effective than placebo, etanercept and ustekinumab at improving both psoriasis symptoms (with high skin clearance) and health-related quality of life. Moreover, secukinumab was more effective than placebo in the difficult-to-treat palmoplantar and nail psoriasis populations. Secukinumab was generally well tolerated, with low immunogenicity. Longer-term, efficacy was sustained and secukinumab remained well tolerated. Subcutaneous secukinumab is an effective and generally well tolerated first-line treatment for moderate to severe plaque psoriasis, and is a useful addition to the treatment options for this disease.

  5. Subclinical microbial infection in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Bartenjev, I; Rogl Butina, M; Potocnik, M

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence implicates bacterial infection as a common triggering stimulus for psoriasis. Recent studies suggest that continuing, subclinical streptococcal and staphylococcal infections might be responsible not only for relapse of acute guttate psoriasis but also for a new episode of chronic plaque psoriasis. In this study 195 patients suffering from a severe form of chronic plaque psoriasis hospitalized between 1996 and 1998 were examined. The presence of subclinical microbial infection of the upper respiratory tract was studied by the cultivation of pathogens from this area. Patients with other provoking factors, such as a positive history of taking any drugs that may exacerbate psoriasis, endocrine and metabolic factors, alcohol abuse, trauma, dental focus and clinically evident bacterial infection, were excluded. Subclinical streptococcal and/or staphylococcal infections were detected in 68% of tested patients and in only 11% of the control group. The results of this study indicate that subclinical bacterial infections of the upper respiratory tract may be an important factor in provoking a new relapse of chronic plaque psoriasis. Searching for, and eliminating, microbial infections could be of importance in the treatment of psoriasis.

  6. Spectral CT imaging of vulnerable plaque with two independent biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baturin, Pavlo; Alivov, Yahya; Molloi, Sabee

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of a novel four-material decomposition technique for assessing the vulnerability of plaque with two contrast materials spectral computer tomography (CT) using two independent markers: plaque's inflammation and spotty calcification. A simulation study was conducted using an energy-sensitive photon-counting detector for k-edge imaging of the coronary arteries. In addition to detecting the inflammation status, which is known as a biological marker of a plaque's vulnerability, we use spotty calcium concentration as an independent marker to test a plaque's vulnerability. We have introduced a new method for detecting and quantifying calcium concentrations in the presence of two contrast materials (iodine and gold), calcium and soft tissue background. In this method, four-material decomposition was performed on a pixel-by-pixel basis, assuming there was an arbitrary mixture of materials in the voxel. The concentrations of iodine and gold were determined by the k-edge material decomposition based on the maximum likelihood method. The calibration curves of the attenuation coefficients, with respect to the concentrations of different materials, were used to separate the calcium signal from both contrast materials and different soft tissues in the mixtures. Three different materials (muscle, blood and lipid) were independently used as soft tissue. The simulations included both ideal and more realistic energy resolving detectors to measure the polychromatic photon spectrum in single slice parallel beam geometry. The ideal detector was used together with a 3 cm diameter digital phantom to demonstrate the decomposition method while a more realistic detector and a 33 × 24 cm2 digital chest phantom were simulated to validate the vulnerability assessment technique. A 120 kVp spectrum was generated to produce photon flux sufficient for detecting contrast materials above the k-edges of iodine (33.2 keV) and gold (80.7 ke

  7. Regional brain hypometabolism is unrelated to regional amyloid plaque burden.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Andre; Ng, Bernard; Landau, Susan M; Jagust, William J; Greicius, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    In its original form, the amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease holds that fibrillar deposits of amyloid are an early, driving force in pathological events leading ultimately to neuronal death. Early clinicopathological investigations highlighted a number of inconsistencies leading to an updated hypothesis in which amyloid plaques give way to amyloid oligomers as the driving force in pathogenesis. Rather than focusing on the inconsistencies, amyloid imaging studies have tended to highlight the overlap between regions that show early amyloid plaque signal on positron emission tomography and that also happen to be affected early in Alzheimer's disease. Recent imaging studies investigating the regional dependency between metabolism and amyloid plaque deposition have arrived at conflicting results, with some showing regional associations and other not. We extracted multimodal neuroimaging data from the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging database for 227 healthy controls and 434 subjects with mild cognitive impairment. We analysed regional patterns of amyloid deposition, regional glucose metabolism and regional atrophy using florbetapir ((18)F) positron emission tomography, (18)F-fluordeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Specifically, we derived grey matter density and standardized uptake value ratios for both positron emission tomography tracers in 404 functionally defined regions of interest. We examined the relation between regional glucose metabolism and amyloid plaques using linear models. For each region of interest, correcting for regional grey matter density, age, education and disease status, we tested the association of regional glucose metabolism with (i) cortex-wide florbetapir uptake; (ii) regional (i.e. in the same region of interest) florbetapir uptake; and (iii) regional florbetapir uptake while correcting in addition for cortex-wide florbetapir uptake. P-values for each setting

  8. 3D MRI-based multicomponent FSI models for atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dalin; Yang, Chun; Zheng, Jie; Woodard, Pamela K; Sicard, Gregorio A; Saffitz, Jeffrey E; Yuan, Chun

    2004-07-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) MRI-based computational model with multicomponent plaque structure and fluid-structure interactions (FSI) is introduced to perform mechanical analysis for human atherosclerotic plaques and identify critical flow and stress/strain conditions which may be related to plaque rupture. Three-dimensional geometry of a human carotid plaque was reconstructed from 3D MR images and computational mesh was generated using Visualization Toolkit. Both the artery wall and the plaque components were assumed to be hyperelastic, isotropic, incompressible, and homogeneous. The flow was assumed to be laminar, Newtonian, viscous, and incompressible. The fully coupled fluid and structure models were solved by ADINA, a well-tested finite element package. Results from two-dimensional (2D) and 3D models, based on ex vivo MRI and histological images (HI), with different component sizes and plaque cap thickness, under different pressure and axial stretch conditions, were obtained and compared. Our results indicate that large lipid pools and thin plaque caps are associated with both extreme maximum (stretch) and minimum (compression when negative) stress/strain levels. Large cyclic stress/strain variations in the plaque under pulsating pressure were observed which may lead to artery fatigue and possible plaque rupture. Large-scale patient studies are needed to validate the computational findings for possible plaque vulnerability assessment and rupture predictions. PMID:15298432

  9. pH gradients induced by urea metabolism in 'artificial mouth' microcosm plaques.

    PubMed

    Sissons, C H; Wong, L; Hancock, E M; Cutress, T W

    1994-06-01

    Evidence was sought for urea-induced pH gradients in dental plaque microcosm biofilms cultured from the mixed salivary bacteria in a multi plaque 'artificial mouth'. Application of 500 mmol/l urea for short periods (6 min) to 5-8 mm maximum-thickness plaques induced intraplaque pH gradients of up to 0.7 pH units with the surface alkaline relative to the inner plaque. These pH gradients persisted for more than 5 h in the absence of a flow of fluid. With 30-min urea applications and a flow of a basal medium containing mucin (BMM, pH 7.0), the pH of the inner (deeper) plaque regions also increased. Although the pH gradient initially formed was alkaline at the plaque surface, the BMM flow lowered the surface pH to neutrality whilst the inner layers were still alkaline, thereby reversing the pH gradient. In thick microcosm dental plaques, urea-induced pH gradients can therefore form and last many hours. They probably result from the significant time taken for urea to penetrate to the inner layers of plaque, its rapid metabolism by the outer plaque layers, and a rate-limiting clearance of ammonia. Even a slow BMM flow over the plaque greatly increased the rate of return to the resting pH, causing the gradients to change polarity.

  10. Relating plaque morphology to respiratory syncytial virus subgroup, viral load, and disease severity in children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-In; Murphy, Ryan; Majumdar, Sirshendu; Harrison, Lisa G.; Aitken, Jody; DeVincenzo, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Viral culture plaque morphology in human cell lines are markers for growth capability and cytopathic effect, and have been used to assess viral fitness and select pre-attenuation candidates for live viral vaccines. We classified RSV plaque morphology and analyzed the relationship between plaque morphology as compared to subgroup, viral load and clinical severity of infection in infants and children. Methods We obtained respiratory secretions from 149 RSV-infected children. Plaque morphology and viral load was assessed within the first culture passage in HEp-2 cells. Viral load was measured by PCR, as was RSV subgroup. Disease severity was determined by hospitalization, length of stay, intensive care requirement, and respiratory failure. Results Plaque morphology varied between individual subjects; however, similar results were observed among viruses collected from upper and lower respiratory tracts of the same subject. Significant differences in plaque morphology were observed between RSV subgroups. No correlations were found among plaque morphology and viral load. Plaque morphology did not correlate with disease severity. Conclusions Plaque morphology measures parameters that are viral-specific and independent of the human host. Morphologies vary between patients and are related to RSV subgroup. In HEp-2 cells, RSV plaque morphology appears unrelated to disease severity in RSV-infected children. PMID:26107392

  11. Primary Stenting for Complex Atherosclerotic Plaques in Aortic and Iliac Stenoses

    SciTech Connect

    Onal, Baran; Ilgit, Erhan T.; Yuecel, Cem; Ozbek, Erdal; Vural, Murat; Akpek, Sergin

    1998-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of primary stenting for complex atherosclerotic plaques in aortic and iliac stenoses that are not amenable to balloon angioplasty alone. Methods: Nineteen patients with complex atherosclerotic plaques were treated with a Palmaz stent (n= 19), Wallstent (n= 1), Strecker stent (n= 1), or Memotherm stent (n= 1). A total of 22 stenoses presenting with complex plaque morphology including ulcerated plaques, ulcerated plaques with focal aneurysms, plaques with heavy calcification, severely eccentric plaques, plaques with overhanging edge, and plaques with spontaneous dissection were stented. The lesions were in the aorta (n= 1), common iliac artery (n= 19), or external iliac artery (n= 2). Results: Immediate angiography after stent placement revealed restoration of patency of the stented segment. Focal aneurysms and ulcerated areas were occluded in the follow-up angiographies obtained 4-12 weeks after the procedure. In one case with poor distal runoff and multiple complex lesions of the iliac artery, subacute occlusion occurred. Clinical and angiographic follow-up (3-46 months) revealed patency of all other stented segments. Conclusion: Primary stenting is an effective and reliable approach for complex plaques in stenoses. Patency of the arterial segment with a smooth lumen can be created without the risk of acute complications such as distal embolization, dissection, or occlusion.

  12. Effect of rinsing with phosphorylated chitosan on four-day plaque regrowth.

    PubMed

    Sano, H; Shibasaki, K; Matsukubo, T; Takaesu, Y

    2001-11-01

    This clinical investigation examined the effect of phosphorylated chitosan rinsing on plaque development and on the buffering capacity of plaque suspension. Three male adult subjects participated in the trial that was designed as a single blind study. Participants refrained from mechanical oral hygiene procedures during a four-day study and rinsed three times a day with 20 ml of test solutions. A wash-out period of three days was instituted between the placebo and phosphorylated chitosan rinsing period. Clinical evaluation and plaque sampling were performed at the end of each test period. We disclosed plaque accumulations on the buccal upper front teeth with a two-tone disclosing agent to distinguish between newly formed plaque and old plaque. After taking color slides, we then used a computerized image analysis. Tooth areas covered by plaque on the color slides were digitized and expressed as percentages of the tooth area. The buffering capacity of the collected plaque fluid was determined by using a beta-titrator. A mouth rinse containing 0.5% phosphorylated chitosan significantly reduced both newly formed plaque areas (red disclosed; p < 0.001) and old plaque areas (blue disclosed; p < 0.01) compared to a placebo rinsing. However there was no significant difference in the plaque buffering capacity (p > 0.05) between the mouth rinse containing 0.5% phosphorylated chitosan and placebo. These findings might suggest that mouth rinse containing phosphorylated chitosan would be effective in reducing plaque formation and have a slight ability to enhance plaque buffering capacity.

  13. Manual planimetric measurement of carotid plaque volume using three-dimensional ultrasound imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Landry, Anthony; Ainsworth, Craig; Blake, Chris; Spence, J. David; Fenster, Aaron

    2007-04-15

    We investigated the utility of three manual planimetric methods to quantify carotid plaque volume. A single observer measured 15 individual plaques from 15 three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound (3D US) images of patients ten times each using three different planimetric approaches. Individual plaque volumes were measured (range: 32.6-597.1 mm{sup 3}) using a standard planimetric approach (M1) whereby a plaque end was identified and sequential contours were measured. The same plaques were measured using a second approach (M2), whereby plaque ends were first identified and the 3D US image of the plaque was then subdivided into equal intervals. A third method (M3) was used to measure total plaque burden (range: 165.1-1080.0 mm{sup 3}) in a region ({+-}1.5 cm) relative to the carotid bifurcation. M1 systematically underestimated individual plaque volume compared to M2 (V{sub 2}=V{sub 1}+14.0 mm{sup 3}, r=0.99, p=0.006) due to a difference in the mean plaque length measured. Coefficients of variance (CV) for M1 and M2 decrease with increasing plaque volume, with M2 results less than M1. Root mean square difference between experimental and theoretical CV for M2 was 3.2%. The standard deviation in the identification of the transverse location of the carotid bifurcation was 0.56 mm. CVs for plaque burden measured using M3 ranged from 1.2% to 7.6% and were less than CVs determined for individual plaque volumes of the same volume. The utility of M3 was demonstrated by measuring carotid plaque burden and volume change over a period of 3 months in three patients. In conclusion, M2 was determined to be a more superior measurement technique than M1 to measure individual plaque volume. Furthermore, we demonstrated the utility of M3 to quantify regional plaque burden and to quantify change in plaque volume.

  14. Distribution of nickel hydroxide in sintered nickel plaques measured by radiotracer method during electroimpregnation

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, P.K.; Schneider, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    Sintered nickel positive electrodes were prepared by electroimpregnating nickel hydroxide inside a porous nickel plaque in a nickel nitrate solution. The distribution of nickel hydroxide inside the plaque was measured using a radio-tracer method with /sup 63/Ni as the radioactivity source. Autoradiography and ..beta.. counting were used to follow qualitative and quantitative distributions, respectively, of the pore filling process. Relatively uniform distribution was observed at low current density, and the precipitation of Ni(OH)/sub 2/ extends to the center of the plaque. At high current density, most of the Ni(OH)/sub 2/ aggregated in the region just underneath the plaque surface, causing a somewhat nonuniform distribution. Nickel hydroxide also precipitates heavily on the surface of the plaque at high current density, reducing the penetration of electrolyte to the inside of the plaque.

  15. Effect of iron plaque on antimony uptake by rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiao-Dan; Wang, Yu-Jun; Hockmann, Kerstin; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2015-09-01

    Although iron (Fe) plaque has been shown to significantly affect the uptake of toxic antimony (Sb) by rice, knowledge about the influence of iron plaque on antimony (Sb) (amount, mechanisms, etc) is, however, limited. Here, the effect of Fe plaque on Sb(III) and Sb(V) (nominal oxidation states) uptake by rice (Oryza sativa L.) was investigated using hydroponic experiments and synchrotron-based techniques. The results showed that iron plaque immobilized Sb on the surface of rice roots. Although the binding capacity of iron plaque for Sb(III) was markedly greater than that for Sb(V), significantly more Sb(III) was taken up by roots and transported to shoots. In the presence of Fe plaque, Sb uptake into rice roots was significantly reduced, especially for Sb(III). However, this did not translate into decreasing Sb concentrations in rice shoots and even increased shoot Sb concentrations during high Fe-Sb(III) treatment.

  16. [Morphologic characteristics of plaques produced by the rubella virus in cultures of Vero cells].

    PubMed

    Nates, S V; Márquez, A; Zapata, M

    1986-01-01

    Under defined plaquing condition, Gilschrist strain of rubella virus showed different plaque morphology and plaque size when tested in Vero cell cultures. These differences were obtained by changing the fetal bovine serum (FBS) concentration. With 2 per cent of FBS rubella virus formed clear plaques that included a number of cells which retained the stain, while with 4 per cent of FBS it formed ring-shaped plaques. These characteristics were retained even after the Gilschrist strain was passaged several times in Vero cell cultures. The cytopathic effect in Vero cell cultures proved to be useful for the titration of rubella virus, giving infective titres in the same logarithmic order than the plaque assay.

  17. Characterization of atherosclerotic plaque-depositions by infrared, Raman and CARS microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthäus, Christian; Bergner, Gero; Krafft, Christoph; Dietzek, Benjamin; Romeike, Bernd F. M.; Brehm, Bernhard R.; Popp, Jürgen

    2011-07-01

    Atherosclerotic plaques are mainly composed of proteoglycans, triglycerides, cholesterol, cholesterolester and crystalline calcium. From histopathological characterizations it is known that the composition of these atherosclerotic plaques can vary to a great extent, due to different risk factors as smoking, hyperlipedemia, or genetic background ect. The individual plaque components can be spectroscopically easily identified. Furthermore, spectroscopic imaging technologies offer the possibility to study the plaque compositions in a more quantitative manner than traditional staining techniques. Here, we compare the potential of IR, Raman and CARS microscopy to characterize the constitution of atherosclerotic plaques as well as the structure of the surrounding tissue. For data analysis and image reconstruction spectral decomposition algorithms such as vertex component analysis (VCA) were introduced. The results are in good agreement with the histopathology. Aim of the study is to correlate the compositional characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques with individual disease patterns.

  18. Plaque removal by dental floss or toothpicks. An intra-individual comparative study.

    PubMed

    Bergenholtz, A; Brithon, J

    1980-12-01

    The amount of plaque accumulation was assessed in an intraindividual study comprising 10 individuals. During different 2-week periods, the test subjects used nylon floss (unwaxed, waxed and specially treated), silk floss (unwaxed and waxed), Superfloss or triangular toothpicks for interdental tooth cleaning. Only teeth in contact with neighboring ones and with open interdental spaces were included in the study. The plaque removal of the interdental aids used was registered by estimating the amount of plaque present at the end of each experimental period according to a Plaque Index (Silness & Löe 1964) modified for plaque registration on 10 surface units around each tooth. In general, dental floss had a higher plaque removing potential than triangular toothpicks, especially on lingual axial surfaces.

  19. Live Observation of Atherosclerotic Plaque Disruption in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Daeichin, V.; Sluimer, J. C.; van der Heiden, K.; Skachkov, I.; Kooiman, K.; Janssen, A.; Janssen, B.; Bosch, J. G.; de Jong, N.; Daemen, M. J. A. P.; van der Steen, A. F. W.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The actual occurrence of spontaneous plaque rupture in mice has been a matter of debate. We report on an in vivo observation of the actual event of possible plaque disruption in a living ApoE-/- mouse. Methods and Results: During live contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of a 50-week-old ApoE-/- male mouse, symptoms suggesting plaque disruption in the brachiocephalic artery were observed. Histological analysis confirmed the presence of advanced atherosclerotic lesions with dissections and intraplaque hemorrhage in the affected brachiocephalic trunk, pointing towards plaque rupture as the cause of the observed event. However, we did not detect a luminal thrombus or cap rupture, which is a key criterion for plaque rupture in human atherosclerosis. Conclusion: This study reports the real-time occurrence of a possible plaque rupture in a living ApoE-/- mouse.

  20. In vitro method for prediction of plaque reduction by dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Tepper, Bruce; Howard, Brian; Schnell, Daniel; Mills, Lisa; Xu, Jian

    2015-11-01

    An in vitro Particle Based Biofilm (PBB) model was developed to enable high throughput screening tests to predict clinical plaque reduction. Multi-species oral biofilms were cultured from pooled stimulated human saliva on continuously-colliding hydroxyapatite particles. After three days PBBs were saline washed prior to use in screening tests. Testing involved dosing PBBs for 1min followed by neutralization of test materials and rinsing. PBBs were then assayed for intact biofilm activity measured as ATP. The ranking of commercial dentifrices from most to least reduction of intact biofilm activity was Crest ProHealth Clinical Gum Protection, Crest ProHealth, Colgate Total and Crest Cavity Protection. We demonstrated five advantages of the PBB model: 1) the ATP metric had a linear response over ≥1000-fold dynamic range, 2) potential interference with the ATP assay by treatments was easily eliminated by rinsing PBBs with saline, 3) discriminating power was statistically excellent between all treatment comparisons with the negative controls, 4) screening test results were reproducible across four tests, and 5) the screening test produced the same rank order for dentifrices as clinical studies that measured plaque reduction. In addition, 454 pyrosequencing of the PBBs indicated an oral microbial consortium was present. The most prevalent genera were Neisseria, Rothia, Streptococcus, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Actinomyces, Fusobacterium, Veillonella and Haemophilus. We conclude these in vitro methods offer an efficient, effective and relevant screening tool for reduction of intact biofilm activity by dentifrices. Moreover, dentifrice rankings by the in vitro test method are expected to predict clinical results for plaque reduction. PMID:26151407

  1. Thiocyanate supplementation decreases atherosclerotic plaque in mice expressing human myeloperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Morgan, P E; Laura, R P; Maki, R A; Reynolds, W F; Davies, M J

    2015-06-01

    Elevated levels of the heme enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) are associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. MPO predominantly catalyzes formation of the oxidants hypochlorous acid (HOCl) from Cl(-), and hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN) from SCN(-), with these anions acting as competitive substrates. HOSCN is a less powerful and more specific oxidant than HOCl, and selectively targets thiols; such damage is largely reversible, unlike much HOCl-induced damage. We hypothesized that increased plasma SCN(-), and hence HOSCN formation instead of HOCl, may decrease artery wall damage. This was examined using high-fat fed atherosclerosis-prone LDLR(-/-) mice transgenic for human MPO, with and without SCN(-) (10 mM) added to drinking water. Serum samples, collected fortnightly, were analyzed for cholesterol, triglycerides, thiols, MPO, and SCN(-); study-long exposure was calculated by area under the curve (AUC). Mean serum SCN(-) concentrations were elevated in the supplemented mice (200-320 μM) relative to controls (< 120 μM). Normalized aortic root plaque areas at sacrifice were 26% lower in the SCN(-)-supplemented mice compared with controls (P = 0.0417), but plaque morphology was not appreciably altered. Serum MPO levels steadily increased in mice on the high-fat diet, however, comparison of SCN(-)-supplemented versus control mice showed no significant changes in MPO protein, cholesterol, or triglyceride levels; thiol levels were decreased in supplemented mice at one time-point. Plaque areas increased with higher cholesterol AUC (r = 0.4742; P = 0.0468), and decreased with increasing SCN(-) AUC (r = - 0.5693; P = 0.0134). These data suggest that increased serum SCN(-) levels, which can be achieved in humans by dietary manipulation, may decrease atherosclerosis burden.

  2. Thiocyanate supplementation decreases atherosclerotic plaque in mice expressing human myeloperoxidase

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, P. E.; Laura, R. P.; Maki, R. A.; Reynolds, W. F.; Davies, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated levels of the heme enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) are associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. MPO predominantly catalyzes formation of the oxidants hypochlorous acid (HOCl) from Cl−, and hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN) from SCN−, with these anions acting as competitive substrates. HOSCN is a less powerful and more specific oxidant than HOCl, and selectively targets thiols; such damage is largely reversible, unlike much HOCl-induced damage. We hypothesized that increased plasma SCN−, and hence HOSCN formation instead of HOCl, may decrease artery wall damage. This was examined using high-fat fed atherosclerosis-prone LDLR−/− mice transgenic for human MPO, with and without SCN− (10 mM) added to drinking water. Serum samples, collected fortnightly, were analyzed for cholesterol, triglycerides, thiols, MPO and SCN−; study-long exposure was calculated by area under the curve (AUC). Mean serum SCN− concentrations were elevated in the supplemented mice (200-320 μM) relative to controls (<120 μM). Normalized aortic root plaque areas at sacrifice were 26% lower in the SCN−-supplemented mice compared to controls (P=0.0417), but plaque morphology was not appreciably altered. Serum MPO levels steadily increased in mice on the high-fat diet, however, comparison of SCN−- supplemented vs. control mice showed no significant changes in MPO protein, cholesterol or triglyceride levels; thiol levels were decreased in supplemented mice at one time-point. Plaque areas increased with higher cholesterol AUC (r=0.4742; P=0.0468), and decreased with increasing SCN− AUC (r=−0.5693; P=0.0134). These data suggest that increased serum SCN− levels, which can be achieved in humans by dietary manipulation, may decrease atherosclerosis burden. PMID:25812586

  3. Integrated IVUS-OCT Imaging for Atherosclerotic Plaque Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Li, Jiawen; Jing, Joe; Ma, Teng; Liang, Shanshan; Zhang, Jun; Mohar, Dilbahar; Raney, Aidan; Mahon, Sari; Brenner, Matthew; Patel, Pranav; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping

    2014-01-01

    For the diagnosis of atherosclerosis, biomedical imaging techniques such as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been developed. The combined use of IVUS and OCT is hypothesized to remarkably increase diagnostic accuracy of vulnerable plaques. We have developed an integrated IVUS-OCT imaging apparatus, which includes the integrated catheter, motor drive unit, and imaging system. The dual-function imaging catheter has the same diameter of current clinical standard. The imaging system is capable for simultaneous IVUS and OCT imaging in real time. Ex vivo and in vivo experiments on rabbits with atherosclerosis were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and superiority of the integrated intravascular imaging modality. PMID:24771992

  4. Integrated IVUS-OCT Imaging for Atherosclerotic Plaque Characterization.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Li, Jiawen; Jing, Joe; Ma, Teng; Liang, Shanshan; Zhang, Jun; Mohar, Dilbahar; Raney, Aidan; Mahon, Sari; Brenner, Matthew; Patel, Pranav; Shung, K Kirk; Zhou, Qifa; Chen, Zhongping

    2014-03-01

    For the diagnosis of atherosclerosis, biomedical imaging techniques such as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been developed. The combined use of IVUS and OCT is hypothesized to remarkably increase diagnostic accuracy of vulnerable plaques. We have developed an integrated IVUS-OCT imaging apparatus, which includes the integrated catheter, motor drive unit, and imaging system. The dual-function imaging catheter has the same diameter of current clinical standard. The imaging system is capable for simultaneous IVUS and OCT imaging in real time. Ex vivo and in vivo experiments on rabbits with atherosclerosis were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and superiority of the integrated intravascular imaging modality.

  5. Plaque pH modulations of children's favourite snacks.

    PubMed

    Gauba, K; Goyal, A; Tewari, A

    1991-03-01

    Cariogenic potential of a few children's favourite snacks, assessed by evaluation of pH modulations on their respective consumption after 2,5,10,20,30 and 40 minutes compared to 10 percent sucrose control using pooled plaque method, in 8-12 years old children revealed lollipop (hard sucking candy) to be the most cariogenic and samosa without chutney to be the least cariogenic. The cariogenic potential of ice creams were similar, however, low as compared to sucrose solution of 10 percent.

  6. Stationary and high-frequency pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance of a calcified atherosclerotic plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul'Yanov, V. A.; Galiullina, L. F.; Galyavich, A. S.; Izotov, V. G.; Mamin, G. V.; Orlinskii, S. B.; Rodionov, A. A.; Salakhov, M. Kh.; Silkin, N. I.; Sitdikova, L. M.; Khairullin, R. N.; Chelyshev, Yu. A.

    2008-09-01

    New possibilities of applying high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance in medicine are demonstrated on an example of the investigation of a calcified atherosclerotic plaque. After the irradiation of the atherosclerotic plaque by x rays, a new type of paramagnetic centers—organomineral radicals—is detected. The spectral and relaxation characteristics of these radicals depend on the calcification degree of the atherosclerotic plaque and can be used for diagnostics.

  7. Micro-FTIR imaging spectroscopy of calcified atheromatous carotid plaques. Part IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alò, Francesco; Conti, Carla; Ferraris, Paolo; Giorgini, Elisabetta; Rubini, Corrado; Sabbatini, Simona; Tosi, Giorgio

    2009-03-01

    Micro-imaging infrared spectroscopy has been performed on atheromatous plaques in order to localize and characterize substances responsible for the cytotoxic effects that prevent macrophages clearance of lipidic and calcified materials. In plaques with different graded atherosclerotic lesions, infrared determinations allowed to visualize gruel and ceroid toxic components and variously calcified zones. Compare correlations let to visualize the progression of the lesion on going from the lumen to the outer media of the plaque.

  8. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 of human carotid atherosclerotic plaques promotes platelet activation. Correlation with ischaemic events.

    PubMed

    Lenti, Massimo; Falcinelli, Emanuela; Pompili, Marcella; de Rango, Paola; Conti, Valentina; Guglielmini, Giuseppe; Momi, Stefania; Corazzi, Teresa; Giordano, Giuseppe; Gresele, Paolo

    2014-06-01

    Purified active matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is able to promote platelet aggregation. We aimed to assess the role of MMP-2 expressed in atherosclerotic plaques in the platelet-activating potential of human carotid plaques and its correlation with ischaemic events. Carotid plaques from 81 patients undergoing endarterectomy were tested for pro-MMP-2 and TIMP-2 content by zymography and ELISA. Plaque extracts were incubated with gel-filtered platelets from healthy volunteers for 2 minutes before the addition of a subthreshold concentration of thrombin receptor activating peptide-6 (TRAP-6) and aggregation was assessed. Moreover, platelet deposition on plaque extracts immobilised on plastic coverslips under high shear-rate flow conditions was measured. Forty-three plaque extracts (53%) potentiated platelet aggregation (+233 ± 26.8%), an effect prevented by three different specific MMP-2 inhibitors (inhibitor II, TIMP-2, moAb anti-MMP-2). The pro-MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio of plaques potentiating platelet aggregation was significantly higher than that of plaques not potentiating it (3.67 ± 1.21 vs 1.01 ± 0.43, p<0.05). Moreover, the platelet aggregation-potentiating effect, the active-MMP-2 content and the active MMP-2/pro-MMP-2 ratio of plaque extracts were significantly higher in plaques from patients who developed a subsequent major cardiovascular event. In conclusion, atherosclerotic plaques exert a prothrombotic effect by potentiating platelet activation due to their content of MMP-2; an elevated MMP-2 activity in plaques is associated with a higher rate of subsequent ischaemic cerebrovascular events. PMID:24499865

  9. A comparative immunohistochemical study of Kuru and senile plaques with a special reference to glial reactions at various stages of amyloid plaque formation.

    PubMed Central

    Miyazono, M.; Iwaki, T.; Kitamoto, T.; Kaneko, Y.; Doh-ura, K.; Tateishi, J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors examined 10 patients with Gerstmann-Sträussler syndrome or Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and 10 with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Immunohistochemistry using anti-prion protein (PrP) and anti-beta/A4 protein (beta/A4) coupled with formic acid pretreatment could detect Congophilic and non-Congophilic deposits. Prion protein deposits were classified into five types and compared with types of beta/A4 deposits. Kuru plaques with multicentric cores and fine granular deposits were a characteristic feature of PrP deposits. Some types of PrP or beta/A4 deposits depend on the anatomic sites. To clarify the relationship of microglia and astrocytes to PrP or beta/A4 deposits, double-immunostaining method was performed. In both kuru and senile plaques, microglia were closely linked to the Congophilic plaques. Astrocytes, however, extended their processes toward the plaques even in the non-Congophilic plaques. These observations strongly suggest that similar glial association with plaque formation may be involved in both kuru and senile plaques, although the amyloid core proteins differ. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 p595-a Figure 5 PMID:1679596

  10. Localized axillary milia en plaque: a rare cutaneous case presentation of systemic amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Dickison, P; Howard, V; Wylie, B; Smith, S D

    2016-10-01

    Systemic AL amyloidosis is known to be associated with plasma cell dyscrasias, including multiple myeloma. The cutaneous manifestations of systemic AL amyloidosis are varied, but typically include waxy plaques or subcutaneous nodules. We report a woman who presented with bilateral eruptions of hyperpigmented plaques in her axillae, which were diagnosed as milia en plaque. She had a history of multiple myeloma, for which she was under the care of a haematologist. This is the first documented case, to our knowledge, of an eruption in the axillae being milia en plaque.

  11. Localized axillary milia en plaque: a rare cutaneous case presentation of systemic amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Dickison, P; Howard, V; Wylie, B; Smith, S D

    2016-10-01

    Systemic AL amyloidosis is known to be associated with plasma cell dyscrasias, including multiple myeloma. The cutaneous manifestations of systemic AL amyloidosis are varied, but typically include waxy plaques or subcutaneous nodules. We report a woman who presented with bilateral eruptions of hyperpigmented plaques in her axillae, which were diagnosed as milia en plaque. She had a history of multiple myeloma, for which she was under the care of a haematologist. This is the first documented case, to our knowledge, of an eruption in the axillae being milia en plaque. PMID:27663153

  12. Automatic segmentation of amyloid plaques in MR images using unsupervised SVM

    PubMed Central

    Iordanescu, Gheorghe; Venkatasubramanian, Palamadai N.; Wyrwicz, Alice M.

    2011-01-01

    Deposition of the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is an important pathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, reliable quantification of amyloid plaques in both human and animal brains remains a challenge. We present here a novel automatic plaque segmentation algorithm based on the intrinsic MR signal characteristics of plaques. This algorithm identifies plaque candidates in MR data by using watershed transform, which extracts regions with low intensities completely surrounded by higher intensity neighbors. These candidates are classified as plaque or non-plaque by an unsupervised learning method using features derived from the MR data intensity. The algorithm performance is validated by comparison with histology. We also demonstrate the algorithm’s ability to detect age-related changes in plaque load ex vivo in 5×FAD APP transgenic mice. To our knowledge, this work represents the first quantitative method for characterizing amyloid plaques in MRI data. The proposed method can be used to describe the spatio-temporal progression of amyloid deposition, which is necessary for understanding the evolution of plaque pathology in mouse models of AD and to evaluate the efficacy of emergent amyloid-targeting therapies in preclinical trials. PMID:22189675

  13. Ex vivo differential phase contrast and magnetic resonance imaging for characterization of human carotid atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed

    Meletta, Romana; Borel, Nicole; Stolzmann, Paul; Astolfo, Alberto; Klohs, Jan; Stampanoni, Marco; Rudin, Markus; Schibli, Roger; Krämer, Stefanie D; Herde, Adrienne Müller

    2015-10-01

    Non-invasive detection of specific atherosclerotic plaque components related to vulnerability is of high clinical relevance to prevent cerebrovascular events. The feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for characterization of plaque components was already demonstrated. We aimed to evaluate the potential of ex vivo differential phase contrast X-ray tomography (DPC) to accurately characterize human carotid plaque components in comparison to high field multicontrast MRI and histopathology. Two human plaque segments, obtained from carotid endarterectomy, classified according to criteria of the American Heart Association as stable and unstable plaque, were examined by ex vivo DPC tomography and multicontrast MRI (T1-, T2-, and proton density-weighted imaging, magnetization transfer contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging). To identify specific plaque components, the plaques were subsequently sectioned and stained for fibrous and cellular components, smooth muscle cells, hemosiderin, and fibrin. Histological data were then matched with DPC and MR images to define signal criteria for atherosclerotic plaque components. Characteristic structures, such as the lipid and necrotic core covered by a fibrous cap, calcification and hemosiderin deposits were delineated by histology and found with excellent sensitivity, resolution and accuracy in both imaging modalities. DPC tomography was superior to MRI regarding resolution and soft tissue contrast. Ex vivo DPC tomography allowed accurate identification of structures and components of atherosclerotic plaques at different lesion stages, in good correlation with histopathological findings.

  14. Evaluation of the radiolabeled boronic acid-based FAP inhibitor MIP-1232 for atherosclerotic plaque imaging.

    PubMed

    Meletta, Romana; Müller Herde, Adrienne; Chiotellis, Aristeidis; Isa, Malsor; Rancic, Zoran; Borel, Nicole; Ametamey, Simon M; Krämer, Stefanie D; Schibli, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Research towards the non-invasive imaging of atherosclerotic plaques is of high clinical priority as early recognition of vulnerable plaques may reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events. The fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP) was recently proposed as inflammation-induced protease involved in the process of plaque vulnerability. In this study, FAP mRNA and protein levels were investigated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively, in human endarterectomized carotid plaques. A published boronic-acid based FAP inhibitor, MIP-1232, was synthetized and radiolabeled with iodine-125. The potential of this radiotracer to image plaques was evaluated by in vitro autoradiography with human carotid plaques. Specificity was assessed with a xenograft with high and one with low FAP level, grown in mice. Target expression analyses revealed a moderately higher protein level in atherosclerotic plaques than normal arteries correlating with plaque vulnerability. No difference in expression was determined on mRNA level. The radiotracer was successfully produced and accumulated strongly in the FAP-positive SK-Mel-187 melanoma xenograft in vitro while accumulation was negligible in an NCI-H69 xenograft with low FAP levels. Binding of the tracer to endarterectomized tissue was similar in plaques and normal arteries, hampering its use for atherosclerosis imaging. PMID:25633335

  15. Plaque assay of Heliothis zea baculovirus employing a mixed agarose overlay.

    PubMed

    Yamada, K; Maramorosch, K

    1981-01-01

    The nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Heliothis zea has been titrated in Heliothis zea cells by the plaque method, using 1 percent mixed agarose containing a mixture of Seakem and Ultra pure agarose. Visible plaques, formed 8 days postinfection, ranged in diameter from 0.5 to 2 mm. Dose-response experiments indicated that a single particle initiated the formation of a plaque. The titration of Heliothis zea baculovirus by the newly described plaque method provides an accurate technique for the determination of virus concentration.

  16. Dental plaque as a biofilm and new research on biofilm removal by power toothbrushes.

    PubMed

    Dudgeon, Douglas J; Berg, Joel

    2002-07-01

    Dental researchers have only recently begun to regard dental plaque as a biofilm. Dental plaque biofilm is a complex, heterogeneous structure of bacteria cells, a sticky extracellular matrix, and fluid channels. The biofilm must be modeled accurately for laboratory studies to be meaningful. To that end, researchers have compared the sonicare toothbrush to the Braun Oral-B 3D Excel Plaque Remover for the removal of interproximal dental plaque biofilm in an in vitro model. This article defines the concept of biofilms in the oral cavity and reviews how biofilm modeling is showing differences in toothbrush performance.

  17. Neuritic Plaques and Cerebrovascular Amyloid in Alzheimer Disease are Antigenically Related

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Caine W.; Quaranta, Vito; Glenner, George G.

    1985-12-01

    A synthetic peptide (Asp-Ala-Glu-Phe-Arg-His-Asp-Ser-Gly-Tyr), homologous to the amino terminus of a protein purified from cerebrovascular amyloid (β protein), induced antibodies in BALB/c mice that were used immunohistochemically to stain not only amyloid-laden cerebral vessels but neuritic plaques as well. These findings suggest that the amyloid in neuritic plaques shares antigenic determinants with β protein of cerebral vessels. Since the amino acid compositions of plaque amyloid and cerebrovascular amyloid are similar, it is likely that plaque amyloid also consists of β protein. This possibility suggests a model for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease involving β protein.

  18. [Correlation between autophagy and polarization of macrophages in atherosclerosis plaque in arteriosclerosis obliterans amputees].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-na; Guo, Sheng-nan; Wang, Jun-yan; Jia, Lian-qun; Li, Da-yong; Tian, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the correlation between autophagy and polarization of macrophages in atherosclerosis (AS) plaque in arteriosclerosis obliterans amputees. Femoral artery specimens from arteriosclerosis obliterans amputees were performed hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, oil red O and immunofluorescence staining to observe the morphology of atherosclerotic plaque, phenotype of macrophages and autophagy in plaque; using real-time quantitative RT-PCR technology to detect the mRNA level of M1 and M2 type markers in arterial tissue; to analyze polarized signal pathway and autophagy protein levels in macrophages by Western blotting. Arterial specimens staining showed obvious lipid deposition and obvious infiltration of amount of foam cells and inflammatory cells. Macrophages were mainly expression M1 type in percentage in fibrous plaque. Although both M1 and M2 macrophages were upregulated in atheromatous plaque, the increase was dominant in M2 type in percentage. The level of autophagy was significantly higher in the atheromatous plaque than that of fibrous plaque. The expression of tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) mRNA was significantly higher in fibrous plaque than that of atheromatous plaque (P < 0.01 or 0.05), and arginase-1 (Arg-1), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), CD163 and interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA was significantly lower than that in atheromatous plaque (P < 0.01). The levels of p-STAT1 and NF-κB were significantly increased in fibrous plaque (P < 0.01), while p-STAT6 expression was significantly increased in atheromatous plaque (P < 0.01). The level of LC3-II was significantly higher in atheromatous plaque than that in fibrous plaque (P < 0.01). Macrophages in early atherosclerotic plaque were induced to M1 type through p-STAT1/NF-κB pathway and expressed moderate levels of autophagy; while

  19. Comparison of strain rates of dart impacted plaques and pendulum impacted bumpers

    SciTech Connect

    Scammell, K.L.

    1987-01-01

    The difference in strain rates prevailing during pendulum impact of bumpers versus high speed dart impact of plaques was investigated. Uni-axial strain gages were applied to the tension side of the plaques and bumpers directly opposite the point of impact. The plaques were impacted with an instrumented high rate dart impact tester and the bumpers impacted with a full scale bumper pendulum impact tester. Theoretical calculations and actual strain rate data support the conclusion that the strain rate of a plaque during dart impact significantly exceeds that of bumper strain rate during pendulum impact.

  20. [Correlation between autophagy and polarization of macrophages in atherosclerosis plaque in arteriosclerosis obliterans amputees].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-na; Guo, Sheng-nan; Wang, Jun-yan; Jia, Lian-qun; Li, Da-yong; Tian, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the correlation between autophagy and polarization of macrophages in atherosclerosis (AS) plaque in arteriosclerosis obliterans amputees. Femoral artery specimens from arteriosclerosis obliterans amputees were performed hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, oil red O and immunofluorescence staining to observe the morphology of atherosclerotic plaque, phenotype of macrophages and autophagy in plaque; using real-time quantitative RT-PCR technology to detect the mRNA level of M1 and M2 type markers in arterial tissue; to analyze polarized signal pathway and autophagy protein levels in macrophages by Western blotting. Arterial specimens staining showed obvious lipid deposition and obvious infiltration of amount of foam cells and inflammatory cells. Macrophages were mainly expression M1 type in percentage in fibrous plaque. Although both M1 and M2 macrophages were upregulated in atheromatous plaque, the increase was dominant in M2 type in percentage. The level of autophagy was significantly higher in the atheromatous plaque than that of fibrous plaque. The expression of tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) mRNA was significantly higher in fibrous plaque than that of atheromatous plaque (P < 0.01 or 0.05), and arginase-1 (Arg-1), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), CD163 and interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA was significantly lower than that in atheromatous plaque (P < 0.01). The levels of p-STAT1 and NF-κB were significantly increased in fibrous plaque (P < 0.01), while p-STAT6 expression was significantly increased in atheromatous plaque (P < 0.01). The level of LC3-II was significantly higher in atheromatous plaque than that in fibrous plaque (P < 0.01). Macrophages in early atherosclerotic plaque were induced to M1 type through p-STAT1/NF-κB pathway and expressed moderate levels of autophagy; while

  1. Endothelial cells and macrophages, partners in atherosclerotic plaque progression.

    PubMed

    Antohe, Felicia

    2006-01-01

    Heart disease and stroke, the main cardiovascular diseases (CVD), have become global epidemics in our days. High levels of cholesterol and other abnormal lipids are among the main risk factors of atherosclerosis, the number one killer in the world. However, recent advances in CVD treatment together with improvements in surgical techniques have increased the quality of life and reduced premature death rates and disabilities. Nevertheless, they still add a heavy burden to the rising global costs of health care. The medical priorities highlight not only the need for early recognition of the warning signs of a heart attack, but also the need for early biomarkers for prevention. Two active partners in the development and progression of atherosclerotic plaques are the macrophages and endothelial cells that influence each other and modify the microenvironment composition of the plaque leading to either rapid progression or regression of individual lesions in patients. In this review we address two specific aspects related to atherosclerosis: i) the way in which folic acid and folic acid conjugates may be helpful to identify activated macrophages and ii) the high potential of proteomic analysis to evidence and identify the multiple changes induced in activated vascular cells. PMID:17178598

  2. An automated approach to seed assignment for eye plaque brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Koh, T S; Yeung, I; Tong, S

    2000-07-01

    Episcleral plaques are commonly used for the treatment of ocular tumours such as choroidal melanoma. Treatment planning involves the assignment of seeds to slots on the plaque to achieve a desired dose rate distribution. Seed assignment is rather straightforward if seeds are ordered on demand. However, the assignment task becomes tedious and laborious if the seeds have to be chosen from an existing stock of seeds with different activities. To date, this task has usually been performed by a human planner through trial and error. An algorithm has been developed to automate the task of seed assignment using a mixed-integer programming method. We also explore ways to simplify the problem such that the method becomes practical in most facilities. We have tested the method on three randomly chosen clinical cases from our past records, to show that the algorithm could yield solutions within a shorter time frame and with less deviation from the desired dose rate distributions, as compared with the solutions from a human counterpart.

  3. Evidence-based control of plaque and gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Santos, A

    2003-01-01

    Most adults brush and floss inadequately, and constant education and/or reinforcement is often required. Bacteria are usually left behind with mechanical oral health routines, and chemotherapeutic agents may have a key role as adjuncts to daily home-care. To date, two antiseptic mouthwashes have received the ADA Seal of Acceptance: Peridex (Zila Pharmaceuticals, Phoenix, AZ, USA; CHX, chlorhexidine) and Listerine (Pfizer Consumer Healthcare, Morris Plains, NJ, USA; essential oil (EO) mouthwash). CHX has a strong affinity for tooth and tissue surfaces, but can cause brown staining on the teeth and tongue. Patients must also wait until all traces of toothpaste are removed before rinsing with CHX. Long-term use of an EO mouthwash is microbiologically safe, with no changes observed in the bacterial composition of supragingival plaque, and no evidence of antimicrobial resistance. A number of trials have demonstrated the long-term plaque- and gingivitis-reducing properties of both CHX and EO mouthwashes. These studies clearly demonstrate that these agents have lasting efficacy, and can access hard-to-reach areas.

  4. Performance of digital RGB reflectance color extraction for plaque lesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Hadzli; Taib, Mohd Nasir; Jailani, Rozita; Sulaiman, Saadiah; Baba, Roshidah

    2005-01-01

    Several clinical psoriasis lesion groups are been studied for digital RGB color features extraction. Previous works have used samples size that included all the outliers lying beyond the standard deviation factors from the peak histograms. This paper described the statistical performances of the RGB model with and without removing these outliers. Plaque lesion is experimented with other types of psoriasis. The statistical tests are compared with respect to three samples size; the original 90 samples, the first size reduction by removing outliers from 2 standard deviation distances (2SD) and the second size reduction by removing outliers from 1 standard deviation distance (1SD). Quantification of data images through the normal/direct and differential of the conventional reflectance method is considered. Results performances are concluded by observing the error plots with 95% confidence interval and findings of the inference T-tests applied. The statistical tests outcomes have shown that B component for conventional differential method can be used to distinctively classify plaque from the other psoriasis groups in consistent with the error plots finding with an improvement in p-value greater than 0.5.

  5. Serum Osteoprotegerin Is Associated With Calcified Carotid Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ami; Choi, Yun-Seok; Choi, Yong-Won; Chung, Woo-Baek; Park, Chul-Soo; Chung, Wook-Sung; Lee, Man-Young; Youn, Ho-Joong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a kind of tumor necrosis factor, which is related to bone metabolism and vascular calcification. The increase of Osteoprotegerin concentration in serum is related to cardiovascular diseases in humans. The purpose of this study was to figure out the relevance between osteoprotegerin in serum and carotid calcification. Serum OPG concentrations were compared in 145 patients who underwent carotid sonography (average age: 68 ± 9 years old, male: female = 81:64). A calcified plaque (CP) (37 people [27%]), a noncalcified plaque (NCP) (54 people [37%]), and a nonplaque (NP) (54 people [37%]) were classified for this study. No significant differences among 3 groups were demonstrated in the distribution of age, diabetes, high blood pressure, and hyperlipidemia. Serum osteoprotegerin concentrations were significantly increased in CP group rather than NCP group or NP group; (median [interquartile range], 4016 [1410] vs 3210 [1802] pg/mL, P < 0.05 and 4016 [1410] vs 3204 [1754] pg/mL, P < 0.05). Serum osteoprotegerin concentrations did not indicate a significant difference between NCP Group or NP Group. This study had proved that patient group accompanied with carotid calcification in carotid artery disease had an increased serum OPG concentration, so it could consider that OPG plays an important function on calcification related to arteriosclerosis. PMID:27082605

  6. How Does Calcification Influence Plaque Vulnerability? Insights from Fatigue Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Baijian; Pei, Xuan; Li, Zhi-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Background. Calcification is commonly believed to be associated with cardiovascular disease burden. But whether or not the calcifications have a negative effect on plaque vulnerability is still under debate. Methods and Results. Fatigue rupture analysis and the fatigue life were used to evaluate the rupture risk. An idealized baseline model containing no calcification was first built. Based on the baseline model, we investigated the influence of calcification on rupture path and fatigue life by adding a circular calcification and changing its location within the fibrous cap area. Results show that 84.0% of calcified cases increase the fatigue life up to 11.4%. For rupture paths 10D far from the calcification, the life change is negligible. Calcifications close to lumen increase more fatigue life than those close to the lipid pool. Also, calcifications in the middle area of fibrous cap increase more fatigue life than those in the shoulder area. Conclusion. Calcifications may play a positive role in the plaque stability. The influence of the calcification only exists in a local area. Calcifications close to lumen may be influenced more than those close to lipid pool. And calcifications in the middle area of fibrous cap are seemly influenced more than those in the shoulder area. PMID:24955401

  7. Evidence-based control of plaque and gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Santos, A

    2003-01-01

    Most adults brush and floss inadequately, and constant education and/or reinforcement is often required. Bacteria are usually left behind with mechanical oral health routines, and chemotherapeutic agents may have a key role as adjuncts to daily home-care. To date, two antiseptic mouthwashes have received the ADA Seal of Acceptance: Peridex (Zila Pharmaceuticals, Phoenix, AZ, USA; CHX, chlorhexidine) and Listerine (Pfizer Consumer Healthcare, Morris Plains, NJ, USA; essential oil (EO) mouthwash). CHX has a strong affinity for tooth and tissue surfaces, but can cause brown staining on the teeth and tongue. Patients must also wait until all traces of toothpaste are removed before rinsing with CHX. Long-term use of an EO mouthwash is microbiologically safe, with no changes observed in the bacterial composition of supragingival plaque, and no evidence of antimicrobial resistance. A number of trials have demonstrated the long-term plaque- and gingivitis-reducing properties of both CHX and EO mouthwashes. These studies clearly demonstrate that these agents have lasting efficacy, and can access hard-to-reach areas. PMID:12787197

  8. Quantification of plaque stiffness by Brillouin microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonacci, Giuseppe; Pedrigi, Ryan; Krams, Rob; Török, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Spontaneous Brillouin scattering is an inelastic scattering process arising from inherent thermal density fluctuations, or acoustic phonons, propagating in a medium. Over the last few years, Brillouin spectroscopy has shown great potential to become a reliable non-invasive diagnostic tool due to its unique capability of retrieving viscoelastic properties of materials such as strain and stiffness. The detection of the weak scattered light, in addition to the resolution of the Brillouin peaks (typically shifted by few GHz from the central peak) represent one of the greatest challenges in Brillouin. The recent development of high sensitivity CCD cameras has brought Brillouin spectroscopy from a point sampling technique to a new imaging modality. Furthermore, the application of Virtually Imaged Phased Array (VIPA) etalons has dramatically reduced insertion loss simultaneously allowing fast (<1s) collection of the entire spectrum. Hitherto Brillouin microscopy has been shown the ability to provide unique stiffness maps of biological samples, such as the human lens, in a non-destructive manner. In this work, we present results obtained using our Brillouin microscope to map the stiffness variations in the walls of blood vessels in particular when atherosclerotic plaques are formed. The stiffness of the membrane that covers the plaques is critical in developing acute myocardial infarction yet it is not currently possible to credibly assess its stiffness due to lack of suitable methods.

  9. Cigarette smoking and carotid plaque echodensity in the Northern Manhattan Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dixon; Iyer, Sunil; Gardener, Hannah; Della-Morte, David; Crisby, Milita; Dong, Chuanhui; Cheung, Ken; Mora-McLaughlin, Consuelo; Wright, Clinton B.; Elkind, Mitchell S.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Rundek, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Background We sought to determine the association between cigarette smoking and carotid plaque ultrasound morphology in a multi-ethnic cohort. Methods We analyzed 1,743 stroke-free participants (mean age, 65.5±8.9 years; 60% women; 18% white, 63% Hispanic, 19% black; 14% current and 38% former smokers, 48% never smoked) from the Northern Manhattan Study using an ultrasound index of plaque echodensity, the Gray-Scale Median (GSM). Echolucent plaque (low GSM) represents soft plaque and echodense (high GSM) more calcified plaque. The mean GSM weighted by plaque area for each plaque was calculated for those with multiple plaques. Quintiles of GSM were compared to no plaque. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess associations of cigarette smoking with GSM, adjusting for demographics and vascular risk factors. Results Among subjects with carotid plaque (58%), the mean GSM scores for quintiles 1 to 5 were 48, 72, 90, 105, and 128, respectively. Current smokers had over a 2-fold increased risk of having GSM in quintile 1 (Odds Ratio [OR]=2.17; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.34–3.52), quintile 2 (OR=2.33; CI, 1.42–3.83), quintile 4 (OR=2.05; CI, 1.19–3.51), and quintile 5 (OR=2.13; CI, 1.27–3.56) but not in quintile 3 (OR=1.18; CI, 0.67–2.10) as compared to never smokers in fully adjusted models. Former smokers had increased risk in quintile 2 (OR=1.46; CI, 1.00–2.12), quintile 3 (OR=1.56; CI, 1.09–2.24), quintile 4 (OR=1.66; CI, 1.13–2.42), and quintile 5 (OR=1.73; CI, 1.19–2.51), but not in quintile 1 (OR=1.05; CI, 0.72–1.55). Conclusions A non-linear, Vshaped like relationship between current cigarette smoking and plaque echodensity was observed. Former smokers were at highest risk for plaques in high GSM quintiles. Thus, current smokers were more likely to have either soft or calcified plaques and former smokers were at greater risk of only echodense plaques when compared against never smokers. Further research is needed to

  10. Bacterial Amyloid and DNA are Important Constituents of Senile Plaques: Further Evidence of the Spirochetal and Biofilm Nature of Senile Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Miklossy, Judith

    2016-01-01

    It has long been known that spirochetes form clumps or micro colonies in vitro and in vivo. Cortical spirochetal colonies in syphilitic dementia were considered as reproductive centers for spirochetes. Historic and recent data demonstrate that senile plaques in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are made up by spirochetes. Spirochetes, are able to form biofilm in vitro. Senile plaques are also reported to contain elements of biofilm constituents. We expected that AβPP and Aβ (the main components of senile plaques) also occur in pure spirochetal biofilms, and bacterial DNA (an important component of biofilm) is also present in senile plaques. Histochemical, immunohistochemical, and in situ hybridization techniques and the TUNEL assay were used to answer these questions. The results obtained demonstrate that Aβ and DNA, including spirochete-specific DNA, are key components of both pure spirochetal biofilms and senile plaques in AD and confirm the biofilm nature of senile plaques. These results validate validate previous observations that AβPP and/or an AβPP-like amyloidogenic protein are an integral part of spirochetes, and indicate that bacterial and host derived Aβ are both constituents of senile plaques. DNA fragmentation in senile plaques further confirms their bacterial nature and provides biochemical evidence for spirochetal cell death. Spirochetes evade host defenses, locate intracellularly, form more resistant atypical forms and notably biofilms, which contribute to sustain chronic infection and inflammation and explain the slowly progressive course of dementia in AD. To consider co-infecting microorganisms is equally important, as multi-species biofilms result in a higher resistance to treatments and a more severe dementia. PMID:27314530

  11. [Senile scleral plaque associated with scleritis in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Yakoubi, S; Touzani, F; Knani, L; Krifa, F; Ben Rayana, N; Ben Hadj Hamida, F

    2012-10-01

    Senile scleral plaque is an age-related, commonly asymptomatic hyaline degeneration of the sclera. We report a case of calcific scleral plaque associated with anterior scleritis in an elderly patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Response to anti-inflammatory treatment was favorable.

  12. Novel Papillomaviral Sequence Detected within Epidermal Plaques in a Wolf (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Rothenburger, Jamie L; Myers, Sherry; Lockerbie, Betty; Wobeser, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    We describe numerous pale plaques affecting the inguinal skin of a grey wolf (Canis lupus). Histologically, these were consistent with papillomaviral plaques. Immunohistochemistry confirmed papillomavirus antigens, and partial sequencing of the L1 gene suggests this is a novel papillomavirus most-closely related to Canis familiaris Papillomavirus 5. PMID:26540181

  13. Novel Papillomaviral Sequence Detected within Epidermal Plaques in a Wolf (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Rothenburger, Jamie L; Myers, Sherry; Lockerbie, Betty; Wobeser, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    We describe numerous pale plaques affecting the inguinal skin of a grey wolf (Canis lupus). Histologically, these were consistent with papillomaviral plaques. Immunohistochemistry confirmed papillomavirus antigens, and partial sequencing of the L1 gene suggests this is a novel papillomavirus most-closely related to Canis familiaris Papillomavirus 5.

  14. Comparison of chlorhexidine delivery by mouthwash and spray on plaque accumulation.

    PubMed

    Kalaga, A; Addy, M; Hunter, B

    1989-03-01

    The delivery of chlorhexidine by spray systems have been found useful in controlling plaque in handicapped individuals. This study using a single blind crossover design compared chlorhexidine delivery by mouthwash and spray for plaque inhibitory effects. A group of 14 volunteers participated in two 4 day, no oral hygiene regimens. During one regimen chlorhexidine was professionally sprayed onto the teeth twice a day and during the other chlorhexidine was rinsed twice a day under supervision. Plaque regrowth from a zero baseline was recorded using a plaque index and by area. Little plaque accumulated during the two periods. There was no significant difference in plaque measurements following the use of the spray or mouthwash. This study demonstrated that chlorhexidine when sprayed under optimal conditions was as effective as a mouthwash at controlling plaque despite only requiring one seventh of a dose from a rinse. The results have implications for the use and delivery of chlorhexidine for plaque control and are relevant to the proposed mode of action of this antiseptic.

  15. Reverse plaque formation by hog cholera virus of the GPE-strain inducing heterologous interference.

    PubMed

    Fukusho, A; Ogawa, N; Yamamoto, H; Sawada, M; Sazawa, H

    1976-08-01

    A simple and rapid plaque procedure was developed for the assay of hog cholera virus (HCV) of a particular strain, GPE-, based on its intrinsic interference with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) on the primary swine testicle cells and on an established swine kidney cell line; the procedure is called the reverse plaque formation (RPF) method. The plaques were produced as colonies of HCV-infected cells which were VSV-sensitive, disintegrated cell sheet. These plaques became visible after 15 to 20 h of superinfection with VSV done 2 days after an initial inoculation of the GPE- strain. The plaque formation was inhibited by a specific antiserum against HCV. All cells within the plaque had HCV antigen detectable by fluorescent-antibody staining. The variations of reverse plaque count were low enough to permit virus titration. The relationship between virus concentration and the number of plaques was essentially linear. The titer measured by the RPF method was a little higher than that of the tube culture interference method.

  16. Evaluation and Management of Plaque Protrusion or Thrombus following Carotid Artery Stenting

    PubMed Central

    HASHIMURA, Naoki; MUTOH, Tatsushi; MATSUDA, Kazuya; MATSUMOTO, Keigo

    2015-01-01

    Carotid artery stenting (CAS) has become a common treatment for carotid artery stenosis. However, complications, such as an ischemic event, can occur with CAS during intra- and post-operative periods. Among these ischemic complications, plaque protrusion into the stent and thrombus on the stent have occurred after CAS. We retrospectively evaluated the temporal profile and treatment options for these complications in 32 consecutive cases who underwent CAS at our hospital between April 2009 and December 2011. The cases were evaluated pre-operatively for risk factors, as well as the plaque morphology and characteristics using computed tomographic angiography (CTA), ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Post-operatively, lesions were examined by CTA and/or US within 1 week of CAS. As a result, among the 32 cases, 8 experienced plaque protrusions or thrombus, which were treated with medication (anti-platelet and/or anti-coagulation reinforcement). In 7 of these 8 cases, the plaque protrusion or thrombus was stabilized with medication alone. However, the remaining case showed growth and migration of the plaque protrusion or thrombus when treated with medication alone, and therefore, required further endovascular treatment. We identified that a history of symptomatic cerebral infarction and plaques with ulceration were risk factors for plaque protrusion or thrombus formation after CAS, and pre dilatation can decrease the risk of these complications. Medication was effective in most cases of plaque protrusion or thrombus; however, further endovascular treatment was required when medication alone was unsuccessful. PMID:25746309

  17. Investigation of fibrous cap stresses on vulnerable plaques leading to heart attacks.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hao-Ming; Wu, Yi-Yu; Tsai, Bo-Chian; Chen, Yung-Chi; Cheng, Yu-Han

    2015-01-01

    Rupture-prone plaques in the coronary arteries, called ``vulnerable plaques'', are recognized as the key factor in acute myocardial infarction. Vulnerable plaques have a thin fibrous cap over a large fatty core and are highly susceptible to rupture. In general, this type of plaque rupture is mainly associated with stress concentrated on the fibrous cap. Fibrous cap stresses are counted among the most important factors in the plaque rupture process and must be taken into consideration when assessing the plaque vulnerability leading to heart attacks. The objective of this paper was to investigate the effects of nitinol stent deployment on the morphological changes of vulnerable plaques and then to propose a new stent design concept for effectively reducing fibrous cap stresses and the associated rupture risk. The deployment of a self-expanding nitinol stent was modeled, and the resulting stress distribution on the fibrous cap was investigated. The fibrous cap stresses were more uniformly distributed and the maximum stress was reduced by 13% when the crown number of the stent was increased. This study demonstrates an excellent approach to stent design that could effectively reduce the risk of a vulnerable plaque rupturing and causing a heart attack. PMID:26684564

  18. Mechanical modeling of cholesterol crystallization in atherosclerotic plaques base on Micro-OCT images (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yuemei; Liu, Xinyu; Chen, Si; Cui, Dongyao; Wang, Xianghong; Liu, Linbo

    2016-02-01

    Plaque rupture is the critical cause of cardiovascular thrombosis but this process is still under discussion. Recent studies show that, during crystallization, cholesterol crystals in atheromatous plaques accumulate rapidly in a limited space and may result in plaque rupture. However, the actual role of cholesterol crystals on plaque rupture remains unclear due to the lack of detailed morphological information of cholesterol crystals. In this study, we used a Micro-optical coherence tomography (µOCT) setup with 1-2 µm spatial resolution to extract the geometry of cholesterol crystals from human atherosclerotic artery ex vivo firstly. With measured dimensions of cholesterol crystals by this µOCT system (the average length and thickness of 269.1±80.16 µm and 3.0±0.33 µm), we developed a two-dimensional mechanical model in which rectangular shaped cholesterol crystals distribute at different locations spatially. We predicted the stress on the thin cap induced by the expansion of cholesterol crystals by use of finite-element method. Since a large portion of plaques (58%) rupture at points of peak circumferential stress (PCS), we used PCS as the primary indicator of plaque stability with blood pressure of 14.6 kPa on the lumen. The results demonstrate that loading of the concentrated crystals especially at the cap shoulder destabilize the plaque by proportionally increasing the PCS, while evenly distributed crystals loading along the cap might impose less PCS to the plaque than the concentrated case.

  19. Effects of a lactoperoxidase-system-containing toothpaste on dental plaque and whole saliva in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kirstilä, V; Lenander-Lumikari, M; Tenovuo, J

    1994-12-01

    The effects of a lactoperoxidase-system-containing toothpaste. Biotene, on saliva and dental plaque were studied. In a double-blind crossover study 20 healthy volunteers used an experimental (comprising the complete peroxidase system) or a placebo (without lactoperoxidase, KSCN, and glucose oxidase) toothpaste twice daily for 2 weeks separated by a 2-week washout period. At base lines and at the end of both test periods saliva and plaque samples were collected, and plaque pH changes were monitored. Saliva was analyzed for hypothiocyanite (HOSCN/OSCN-) and thiocyanate (SCN-) concentrations and salivary peroxidase activity. The amount of total streptococci, mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, and total anaerobic flora was determined both in saliva and in plaque samples. The accumulation and the acidogenicity of plaque were also quantitated. A 2-week daily use of Biotene had no effect on salivary flow rate, peroxidase activity, HOSCN/OSCN-, SCN-, or any of the monitored bacterial counts compared with the placebo toothpaste. The accumulation of dental plaque was not affected by the lactoperoxidase-system-containing toothpaste. The acidogenicity of plaque did not change significantly, nor did the two test dentifrices differ in their ability to inhibit the plaque pH drop caused by sucrose in subjects with normal salivary flow rate.

  20. 21 CFR 872.5580 - Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5580 Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque. (a) Identification. The device is assigned the generic name oral rinse to...

  1. 21 CFR 872.5580 - Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5580 Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque. (a) Identification. The device is assigned the generic name oral rinse to...

  2. 21 CFR 872.5580 - Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5580 Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque. (a) Identification. The device is assigned the generic name oral rinse to...

  3. 21 CFR 872.5580 - Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5580 Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque. (a) Identification. The device is assigned the generic name oral rinse to...

  4. 21 CFR 872.5580 - Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5580 Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque. (a) Identification. The device is assigned the generic name oral rinse to...

  5. Amino acid composition and amino acid-metabolic network in supragingival plaque.

    PubMed

    Washio, Jumpei; Ogawa, Tamaki; Suzuki, Keisuke; Tsukiboshi, Yosuke; Watanabe, Motohiro; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Dental plaque metabolizes both carbohydrates and amino acids. The former can be degraded to acids mainly, while the latter can be degraded to various metabolites, including ammonia, acids and amines, and associated with acid-neutralization, oral malodor and tissue inflammation. However, amino acid metabolism in dental plaque is still unclear. This study aimed to elucidate what kinds of amino acids are available as metabolic substrates and how the amino acids are metabolized in supragingival plaque, by a metabolome analysis. Amino acids and the related metabolites in supragingival plaque were extracted and quantified comprehensively by CE-TOFMS. Plaque samples were also incubated with amino acids, and the amounts of ammonia and amino acid-related metabolites were measured. The concentration of glutamate was the highest in supragingival plaque, while the ammonia-production was the highest from glutamine. The obtained metabolome profile revealed that amino acids are degraded through various metabolic pathways, including deamination, decarboxylation and transamination and that these metabolic systems may link each other, as well as with carbohydrate metabolic pathways in dental plaque ecosystem. Moreover, glutamine and glutamate might be the main source of ammonia production, as well as arginine, and contribute to pH-homeostasis and counteraction to acid-induced demineralization in supragingival plaque. PMID:27545001

  6. Quantification of plaque stiffness by Brillouin microscopy in experimental thin cap fibroatheroma.

    PubMed

    Antonacci, Giuseppe; Pedrigi, Ryan M; Kondiboyina, Avinash; Mehta, Vikram V; de Silva, Ranil; Paterson, Carl; Krams, Rob; Török, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Plaques vulnerable to rupture are characterized by a thin and stiff fibrous cap overlaying a soft lipid-rich necrotic core. The ability to measure local plaque stiffness directly to quantify plaque stress and predict rupture potential would be very attractive, but no current technology does so. This study seeks to validate the use of Brillouin microscopy to measure the Brillouin frequency shift, which is related to stiffness, within vulnerable plaques. The left carotid artery of an ApoE(-/-)mouse was instrumented with a cuff that induced vulnerable plaque development in nine weeks. Adjacent histological sections from the instrumented and control arteries were stained for either lipids or collagen content, or imaged with confocal Brillouin microscopy. Mean Brillouin frequency shift was 15.79 ± 0.09 GHz in the plaque compared with 16.24 ± 0.15 (p < 0.002) and 17.16 ± 0.56 GHz (p < 0.002) in the media of the diseased and control vessel sections, respectively. In addition, frequency shift exhibited a strong inverse correlation with lipid area of -0.67 ± 0.06 (p < 0.01) and strong direct correlation with collagen area of 0.71 ± 0.15 (p < 0.05). This is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, to apply Brillouin spectroscopy to quantify atherosclerotic plaque stiffness, which motivates combining this technology with intravascular imaging to improve detection of vulnerable plaques in patients.

  7. A review of factors influencing the incidence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Trombelli, L; Farina, R

    2013-06-01

    An individual variation in the gingival inflammatory response to the dental biofilm has been demonstrated. This variability can be observed between individuals with neither quantitative nor qualitative differences in plaque accumulation. The reported significant differences in gingival inflammatory response under quantitatively and/or qualitatively almost identical bacterial challenge suggest that the gingival response to plaque accumulation may be an individual trait, possibly genetic in origin. The most recent classification of periodontal diseases acknowledges that the clinical expression of plaque-induced gingival inflammation can be substantially modified by systemic factors, either inherent to the host or related to environmental influences. The aim of the present literature review is to describe (i) the factors influencing the development of plaque-induced gingivitis as well as (ii) those metabolic, environmental and systemic factors which have a direct impact on the etiopathogenetic pathway of plaque-induced gingivitis, thus altering the nature or course of the gingival inflammatory response to dental biofilm.

  8. The expanding indications for virtual histology intravascular ultrasound for plaque analysis prior to carotid stenting.

    PubMed

    Schiro, B J; Wholey, M H

    2008-12-01

    Complications of carotid artery stenting (CAS), including stroke, remain relatively high when compared with carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Current selection criteria for patients undergoing CAS are based predominately on surgical risk related to other comorbidities. Little attention is given to the morphology of the atherosclerotic plaque, although studies have shown that extensive variability exists which confers certain risks for plaque vulnerability. Virtual Histology intravascular ultrasound (VH IVUS) offers a unique method of assessing plaque morphology prior to CAS. Herein, the authors review the concepts of atherosclerotic plaque morphology and discuss the background of VH IVUS and illustrate its use in the carotid system. With selection of the appropriate patient and the appropriate plaque, more favorable outcomes of CAS may be achieved which will solidify its place as a frontline treatment of carotid vascular disease.

  9. Microwave radiometry: a new non-invasive method for the detection of vulnerable plaque

    PubMed Central

    Synetos, Andreas; Nikolaou, Charalampia; Stathogiannis, Konstantinos; Tsiamis, Eleftherios; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and its consequences are the most rapidly growing vascular pathology, with myocardial infarction and ischemic cerebrovascular accident to remain a major cause of premature morbidity and death. In order to detect the morphological and functional characteristics of the vulnerable plaques, new imaging modalities have been developed. Intravascular thermography (IVT) is an invasive method, which provides information on the identification of the high-risk atheromatic plaques in coronary arteries. However, the invasive character of IVT excludes the method from primary prevention. Microwave radiometry (MR) is a new non-invasive method, which detects with high accuracy relative changes of temperature in human tissues whereas this thermal heterogeneity is indicative of inflammatory atherosclerotic plaque. Both experimental and clinical studies have proved the effectiveness of MR in detecting vulnerable plaque whereas recent studies have also revealed its association with plaque neoangiogenesis as assessed by contrast enhanced carotid ultrasound (CEUS). PMID:24282729

  10. Genesis and growth of extracellular-vesicle-derived microcalcification in atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed

    Hutcheson, Joshua D; Goettsch, Claudia; Bertazzo, Sergio; Maldonado, Natalia; Ruiz, Jessica L; Goh, Wilson; Yabusaki, Katsumi; Faits, Tyler; Bouten, Carlijn; Franck, Gregory; Quillard, Thibaut; Libby, Peter; Aikawa, Masanori; Weinbaum, Sheldon; Aikawa, Elena

    2016-03-01

    Clinical evidence links arterial calcification and cardiovascular risk. Finite-element modelling of the stress distribution within atherosclerotic plaques has suggested that subcellular microcalcifications in the fibrous cap may promote material failure of the plaque, but that large calcifications can stabilize it. Yet the physicochemical mechanisms underlying such mineral formation and growth in atheromata remain unknown. Here, by using three-dimensional collagen hydrogels that mimic structural features of the atherosclerotic fibrous cap, and high-resolution microscopic and spectroscopic analyses of both the hydrogels and of calcified human plaques, we demonstrate that calcific mineral formation and maturation results from a series of events involving the aggregation of calcifying extracellular vesicles, and the formation of microcalcifications and ultimately large calcification areas. We also show that calcification morphology and the plaque's collagen content-two determinants of atherosclerotic plaque stability-are interlinked. PMID:26752654

  11. Effect of Pomegranate Juice on Dental Plaque Microorganisms (Streptococci and Lactobacilli)

    PubMed Central

    Kote, Sowmya; Kote, Sunder; Nagesh, Lakshminarayan

    2011-01-01

    To study the effect of pomegranate juice on dental plaque microorganisms. A clinical trial was conducted on thirty healthy volunteers aged 25-30 years who visited Out Patient Department (OPD) of Bapuji Dental College and Hospital, Davangere during the month of October 2006. Before conducting the study, thorough oral prophylaxis was done and the subjects were asked to refrain from the oral hygiene procedures for 24 hrs. Dental plaque was collected from each subject, before and after rinsing 30ml of pomegranate juice without sugar. Plaque samples were cultured using Mitis Salivarius Agar and Rogosa SL Agar media. Wilcoxon's signed rank test was used for statistical analysis. Results showed that pomegranate rinse was effective against dental plaque microorganisms. There was a significant reduction in the number of colony forming units of streptococci (23%) and lactobacilli (46%). The ruby red seeds may be a possible alternative for the treatment of dental plaque bacteria. PMID:23284205

  12. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the mitotic spindle and dense plaques in three species of Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Ureña, F

    1986-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the mitotic nucleus in Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis, L. mexicana and L. donovani was studied by serial thin sections and three-dimensional reconstructions of each divisional stage. The structures of the interphase and four stages of dividing nuclei were described. Attention was paid to dense plaques and spindle microtubules. At the beginning of the nuclear division, a set of six dense plaques was found in association with spindle microtubules in the vicinity of the equatorial region of the nucleus. The number of the plaques was the same in the three species examined. Each plaque was divided into two, forming hemiplaques at the elongational stage of the division; these two sets then migrate to the poles. The plaques appeared to correspond with centromeres of metazoan cells and play an important role in the process of nuclear division.

  13. Chronic miR-29 antagonism promotes favorable plaque remodeling in atherosclerotic mice.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Victoria; Rotllan, Noemi; Araldi, Elisa; Luciano, Amelia; Skroblin, Philipp; Abonnenc, Mélanie; Perrotta, Paola; Yin, Xiaoke; Bauer, Ashley; Leslie, Kristen L; Zhang, Pei; Aryal, Binod; Montgomery, Rusty L; Thum, Thomas; Martin, Kathleen; Suarez, Yajaira; Mayr, Manuel; Fernandez-Hernando, Carlos; Sessa, William C

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal remodeling of atherosclerotic plaques can lead to rupture, acute myocardial infarction, and death. Enhancement of plaque extracellular matrix (ECM) may improve plaque morphology and stabilize lesions. Here, we demonstrate that chronic administration of LNA-miR-29 into an atherosclerotic mouse model improves indices of plaque morphology. This occurs due to upregulation of miR-29 target genes of the ECM (col1A and col3A) resulting in reduced lesion size, enhanced fibrous cap thickness, and reduced necrotic zones. Sustained LNA-miR-29 treatment did not affect circulating lipids, blood chemistry, or ECM of solid organs including liver, lung, kidney, spleen, or heart. Collectively, these data support the idea that antagonizing miR-29 may promote beneficial plaque remodeling as an independent approach to stabilize vulnerable atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:27137489

  14. Microculture plaque neutralization test for California group arboviruses.

    PubMed

    Seawright, G L; Harding, G; Thomas, F C; Hanson, R P

    1974-11-01

    A microculture plaque neutralization test is described for California-group arboviruses that is as precise and quantitative as the standard test conducted in 60-mm petri dishes. It was shown that there was no significant between-panel or between-day variation in determinations and that a single pipette could be used for all serum-dilution levels within a titration without inoculum carry-over effect. The experimental protocol and statistical methods used produce 50% neutralization end points that meet the assumptions of parametric statistics. This permits the power and versatility of the analysis of variance to be exploited in testing for treatment effects in serological and immunological studies with viruses.

  15. Smallpox virus plaque phenotypes: genetic, geographical and case fatality relationships.

    PubMed

    Olson, Victoria A; Karem, Kevin L; Smith, Scott K; Hughes, Christine M; Damon, Inger K

    2009-04-01

    Smallpox (infection with Orthopoxvirus variola) remains a feared illness more than 25 years after its eradication. Historically, case-fatality rates (CFRs) varied between outbreaks (<1 to approximately 40 %), the reasons for which are incompletely understood. The extracellular enveloped virus (EEV) form of orthopoxvirus progeny is hypothesized to disseminate infection. Investigations with the closely related Orthopoxvirus vaccinia have associated increased comet formation (EEV production) with increased mouse mortality (pathogenicity). Other vaccinia virus genetic manipulations which affect EEV production inconsistently support this association. However, antisera against vaccinia virus envelope protect mice from lethal challenge, further supporting a critical role for EEV in pathogenicity. Here, we show that the increased comet formation phenotypes of a diverse collection of variola viruses associate with strain phylogeny and geographical origin, but not with increased outbreak-related CFRs; within clades, there may be an association of plaque size with CFR. The mechanisms for variola virus pathogenicity probably involves multiple host and pathogen factors.

  16. Calcium Oxalate Stones Are Frequently Found Attached to Randall's Plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Matlaga, Brian R.

    2007-04-05

    The exact mechanisms of the crystallization processes that occur during the formation of calcium oxalate calculi are controversial. Over six decades ago, Alexander Randall reported on a series of cadaveric renal units in which he observed calcium salt deposits on the tips of the renal papilla. Randall hypothesized that these deposits, eponymously termed Randall's plaque, would be the ideal site for stone formation, and indeed in a number of specimens he noted small stones attached to the papillae. With the recent advent of digital endoscopic imaging and micro computerized tomography (CT) technology, it is now possible to inspect the renal papilla of living, human stone formers and to study the attached stone with greater scrutiny.

  17. miRNAs in atherosclerotic plaque initiation, progression, and rupture

    PubMed Central

    Andreou, Ioannis; Sun, Xinghui; Stone, Peter H.; Edelman, Elazer R.; Feinberg, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic immune-inflammatory disorder that integrates multiple cell types and a diverse set of inflammatory mediators. miRNAs are emerging as important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in most, if not all, vertebrate cells and constitute central players in many physiological and pathological processes. Rapidly accumulating experimental studies reveal their key role in cellular and molecular processes related to the development of atherosclerosis. Here, we review the current evidence for the involvement of miRNAs in early atherosclerotic lesion formation to plaque rupture and erosion. We conclude with a perspective on the clinical relevance, therapeutic opportunities, and future challenges of miRNA biology in the pathogenesis of this complex disease. PMID:25771097

  18. Review of diagnostic plaque reduction neutralization tests for flavivirus infection.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Akihiko; Maeda, Junko

    2013-01-01

    Flavivirus infections (including Japanese encephalitis, West Nile encephalitis and dengue fever/severe dengue) present a worldwide public health problem. Recent climate change may affect the geographical distribution of the arthropod vectors for these viruses and so the risk of flavivirus epidemics may increase. Many methods have been developed for the serological diagnosis of flavivirus infections, such as haemagglutination inhibition assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunofluorescence in staining. However, the specificity of these assays varies. The plaque reduction neutralizing test (PRNT) using live viruses is currently the 'gold standard' for the differential serodiagnosis of flaviviruses. The specificity of results obtained with PRNT is better than that for other protocols and many laboratories apply the PRNT protocol to the differential serodiagnosis of flaviviruses. Here, recent refinements to the PRNT protocols with genetically modified recombinant viruses or reporter-harbouring virus-like particles are reviewed. Further, the problems associated with the differential serodiagnosis of flaviviruses using PRNT are discussed.

  19. Aminergic receptors in astrogliotic plaques from patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zeinstra, Esther; te Riele, Paula; Langlois, Xavier; Wilczak, Nadine; Leysen, Josée; de Keyser, Jacques

    2002-10-11

    Cultured astrocytes express a spectrum of neurotransmitter receptors. However, little is known about these receptors in situ. We previously reported the absence of beta(2) adrenergic receptors on astrocytes in multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we used [(3)H]-radioligands and receptor autoradiography to screen for a variety of other aminergic receptors in six silent chronic astrogliotic plaques in brain tissue obtained from five patients with MS. Dopamine D(1) and histamine H(1) receptors were absent. We detected specific binding for cholinergic muscarinic receptors > dopamine D(2), alpha(1-) and alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors > 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1B/D), 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2c), 5-HT(4), and dopamine D(3) receptors. Radiotracers for these aminergic receptors might be useful for studying astrogliosis in patients with MS, and compounds acting at some of these receptors may have potential to modulate astroglial function in MS. PMID:12361847

  20. The relationship among extent of lipid-rich plaque, lesion characteristics, and plaque progression/regression in patients with coronary artery disease: a serial near-infrared spectroscopy and intravascular ultrasound study

    PubMed Central

    Dohi, Tomotaka; Maehara, Akiko; Moreno, Pedro R.; Baber, Usman; Kovacic, Jason C.; Limaye, Atul M.; Ali, Ziad A.; Sweeny, Joseph M.; Mehran, Roxana; Dangas, George D.; Xu, Ke; Sharma, Samin K.; Mintz, Gary S.; Kini, Annapoorna S.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the relationship between lipid content and plaque morphometry as well as the process of lesion progression and regression in patients with significant coronary artery disease. Methods and results The present study, using data from the YELLOW trial, was conducted in patients having significant coronary lesions (fractional flow reserve <0.8) who underwent serial intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) at baseline and after 7 weeks. For each coronary plaque (≥50% plaque burden that was ≥5 mm in length), we evaluated plaque characteristics and the extent of lipid-rich plaque [LRP, defined as the 4 mm long segment with the maximum lipid-core burden index (maxLCBI4 mm)] on NIRS. Among 66 patients (age 63.0 ± 10.1 years; 82% statin use at baseline), 94 plaques were identified. The extent of LRP at baseline was positively correlated with IVUS plaque burden (r = 0.317, P = 0.002). A large LRP (maxLCBI4 mm ≥500) was present only in plaques with a large plaque burden (≥70%). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that plaque burden was the best predictor of the extent of LRP (P < 0.001). In lesions with a large plaque burden and a large amount of LRP at baseline, a reduction in LRP was seen in all lesions in patients receiving intensive statin therapy (P = 0.004) without a significant change in plaque burden. Conclusions Coronary lesions containing a large amount of LRP also had a large plaque burden. Short-term regression of LRP (without a change in plaque burden) was observed mainly in plaques with a large plaque burden and a large amount of LRP at baseline. Clinical Trial Registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01567826. PMID:25190072

  1. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy to Characterize Inflammatory Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fei; Dai, Xiaohu; Beebe, Tyler; Hsiai, Tzung

    2011-01-01

    Despite advances in diagnosis and therapy, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Predicting metabolically active atherosclerotic lesions has remained an unmet clinical need. We hereby developed an electrochemical strategy to characterize the inflammatory states of high-risk atherosclerotic plaques. Using the concentric bipolar microelectrodes, we sought to demonstrate distinct Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopic (EIS) measurements for unstable atherosclerotic plaques that harbored active lipids and inflammatory cells. Using equivalent circuits to simulate vessel impedance at the electrode-endoluminal tissue interface, we demonstrated specific electric elements to model working and counter electrode interfaces as well as the tissue impedance. Using explants of human coronary, carotid, and femoral arteries at various Stary stages of atherosclerotic lesions (n = 15), we performed endoluminal EIS measurements (n = 147) and validated with histology and immunohistochemistry. We computed the vascular tissue resistance using the equivalent circuit model and normalized the resistance to the lesion-free regions. Tissue resistance was significantly elevated in the oxLDL-rich thin-cap atheromas (1.57±0.40, n = 14, p < 0.001) and fatty streaks (1.36±0.28, n = 33, p < 0.001) as compared with lesion-free region (1.00±0.18, n = 82) or oxLDL-absent fibrous atheromas (0.86±0.30, n = 12). Tissue resistance was also elevated in the calcified core of fibrous atheroma (2.37±0.60, n = 6, p < 0.001). Despite presence of fibrous structures, tissue resistance between ox-LDL-absent fibroatheroma and the lesion-free regions was statistically insignificant (0.86±0.30, n = 12, p > 0.05). Hence, we demonstrate that the application of EIS strategy was sensitive to detect fibrous cap oxLDL-rich lesions and specific to distinguish oxLDL-absent fibroatheroma. PMID:21959227

  2. Apremilast (Otezla). No progress in plaque psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    When PUVA therapy and immunosuppressants such as methotrexate are ineffective, TNF alpha antagonists are an option for patients with severe plaque psoriasis, in the absence of a better alternative. This is also the case for patients with psoriatic arthritis after failure of a "disease-modifying" antirheumatic drug. Apremilast, an oral immunosuppressant that inhibits phosphodiesterase type 4, has been authorised in the European Union for use in these settings. In patients with plaque psoriasis, oral apremilast was compared with subcutaneous etanercept, aTNF alpha antagonist, in a randomised, doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial lasting 16 weeks and involving 250 patients in whom other treatments had failed or were inappropriate. This trial failed to show that apremilast was more effective than etanercept. And about one-quarter more patients experienced symptom relief compared with placebo. In patients with psoriatic arthritis, there are no clinical trials comparing apremilast with TNF alpha antagonists, and no interpretable trials of apremilast after failure of a TNF alpha antagonist. In three randomised, double-blind trials including a total of 1493 patients treated for 16 weeks, at least a modest improvement in joint status was reported in about 35% of patients treated with apremilast versus 19% with placebo. This would suggest that apremilast is less effective than a TNF alpha antagonist. In the trial versus etanercept, serious adverse events occurred in 3.6% of patients treated with apremilast versus 1.2% of those treated with the TNF alpha antagonist. The main adverse effects of apremilast are diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting, headache, sometimes marked weight loss, and infections. A risk of depression and cardiac arrhythmia must also be taken into account. A risk of cancer in the long-term is likely, given the immunosuppressive action of apremilast. Apremilast is a substrate of cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 3A4 and accumulates in patients with renal failure. This

  3. Evaluating practice patterns for managing moderate to severe plaque psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Poulin, Yves; Wasel, Norman; Chan, Daphne; Bernstein, Geula; Andrew, Robin; Fraquelli, Elisa; Papp, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe practice patterns for care of Canadian patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Design Online survey of a consumer panel. Setting Participants were drawn from a population-wide Canadian consumer database. Participants To be eligible to participate, respondents had to have been diagnosed with plaque psoriasis within the past 5 years, and to have had body surface area involvement of 3% or greater in the past 5 years, or to have psoriasis on a sensitive area of the body (hands, feet, scalp, face, or genitals), or to be currently receiving treatment with systemic agents or phototherapy for psoriasis. Main outcome measures Proportion of respondents with psoriasis managed by FPs and other specialists, psoriasis therapies, comorbidities, and patient satisfaction. Results Invitations were sent to 3845 panelists with self-reported psoriasis, of which 514 qualified to complete the survey. Family physicians were reported to be the primary providers for diagnosis and ongoing care of psoriasis in all provinces except Quebec. Overall physician care was reported to be satisfactory by 62% of respondents. Most respondents receiving over-the-counter therapies (55%) or prescribed topical therapies (61%) reported that their psoriasis was managed by FPs. Respondents receiving prescription oral or injectable medications or phototherapy were mainly managed by dermatologists (42%, 74%, and 71% of respondents, respectively). Ongoing management of respondents with body surface area involvement of 10% or greater was mainly split between dermatologists (47%) and FPs (45%), compared with rheumatologists (4%) or other health care professionals (4%). Of those respondents receiving medications for concomitant health conditions, treatment for high blood pressure was most common (92%), followed by treatment for heart disease (75%) and elevated cholesterol and lipid levels (68%). Conclusion Patient-reported practice patterns for the diagnosis and management

  4. Carotid barochemoreceptor pathological findings regarding carotid plaque status and aging

    PubMed Central

    Milei, José; Lavezzi, Anna M; Bruni, Barbara; Grana, Daniel R; Azzato, Francisco; Matturri, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carotid barochemoreceptor pathological lesions have been studied in animals, but few human necropsies have been performed. Therefore, data rely on case patients following surgery, radiotherapy and carotid endarterectomy. Almost no data are available regarding whether the effect of aging prevails over pathological conditions, despite the classic description that glomic fibrosis increases with age. OBJECTIVE: To morphometrically characterize the alterations of the carotid barochemoreceptors and their supplying arteries. METHODS: Patients (n=23) who had suffered and died from stroke, with and without complicated internal carotid atheromatosis, were divided by age (group 1: older than 80 years; group 2: 65 to 80 years; and group 3: younger than 65 years). Carotid segments were obtained at autopsy. The specimens were stained for light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Carotid glomus presented from moderate-to-severe atrophy and fibrosis. A focal decrease in vascularization (CD34-positive) of the glomus (greater than 50%) was observed in areas of atrophy and fibrosis. Damaged nerve endings (S100 protein-positive) were observed at the media of the carotid sinus. Morphometric data showed no differences between groups for glomus area, number of type 1 and 2 cells, and the wall to lumen arteriole ratio. No statistical differences were demonstrated in the pathological findings of the carotid glomus when comparing complicated with noncomplicated plaques or age groups. CONCLUSION: Severe carotid chemoreceptor damage exists in patients who have died from stroke and suffered from carotid atheromatosis. These findings were independent from aging and plaque type. However, damage was correlated with a marked narrowing of the supplying arterioles as a consequence of hemodynamic and/or metabolic alterations (dyslipidemia, diabetes). PMID:19148350

  5. Methylene blue mediated photodynamic therapy for resistant plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Salah, Manal; Samy, Nevien; Fadel, Maha

    2009-01-01

    Topical treatment of resistant psoriatic plaque stage lesions may be difficult and the systemic therapies seem inappropriate. Therefore, a topical 0.1% methylene blue (MB) hydrogel was prepared and evaluated for percent drug content, drug uniformity, pH, rheological and organoleptic characters such as feel tackiness, grittiness sensation, and transparency in addition to release kinetics study in vitro. The efficiency of the photodynamic therapy (PDT) of MB photo-activated using 565 mW Light emitting diode (LED) 670 nm was evaluated in patients with resistant plaque psoriasis. The gel was evaluated in single blinded study. The patients were subjected to repeated sessions of irradiation, skin biopsies from each patient in the beginning and at the end of the sessions were taken for histopathological studies. Results showed the hydrogel was transparent nongritty and the drug uniformly dispersed with pH=7.2 and viscosity value=25.04 Pa. The drug content was found to be 99.4 +/- 0.15 %. Drug release was following zero order kinetics with rate constant K=0.348 +/- 0.01 and T(1/2) = 0.95 +/- 0.5 hours. Sixteen patients experienced complete clearance of their treated lesions. Skin appeared normal in color, texture, and pliability with no complications indicating the lack of skin sensitivity. Histopathological examinations showed nearly normal epidermis at the end of all sessions. The authors concluded that the prepared hydrogel was safe, stable, and very effective. The results are encouraging to accept MB as a photosensitizer for PDT and as a safe and effective method for treatment of selected cases of resistant localized psoriasis PMID:19180895

  6. Methylene blue mediated photodynamic therapy for resistant plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Salah, Manal; Samy, Nevien; Fadel, Maha

    2009-01-01

    Topical treatment of resistant psoriatic plaque stage lesions may be difficult and the systemic therapies seem inappropriate. Therefore, a topical 0.1% methylene blue (MB) hydrogel was prepared and evaluated for percent drug content, drug uniformity, pH, rheological and organoleptic characters such as feel tackiness, grittiness sensation, and transparency in addition to release kinetics study in vitro. The efficiency of the photodynamic therapy (PDT) of MB photo-activated using 565 mW Light emitting diode (LED) 670 nm was evaluated in patients with resistant plaque psoriasis. The gel was evaluated in single blinded study. The patients were subjected to repeated sessions of irradiation, skin biopsies from each patient in the beginning and at the end of the sessions were taken for histopathological studies. Results showed the hydrogel was transparent nongritty and the drug uniformly dispersed with pH=7.2 and viscosity value=25.04 Pa. The drug content was found to be 99.4 +/- 0.15 %. Drug release was following zero order kinetics with rate constant K=0.348 +/- 0.01 and T(1/2) = 0.95 +/- 0.5 hours. Sixteen patients experienced complete clearance of their treated lesions. Skin appeared normal in color, texture, and pliability with no complications indicating the lack of skin sensitivity. Histopathological examinations showed nearly normal epidermis at the end of all sessions. The authors concluded that the prepared hydrogel was safe, stable, and very effective. The results are encouraging to accept MB as a photosensitizer for PDT and as a safe and effective method for treatment of selected cases of resistant localized psoriasis

  7. Identification of Atherosclerotic Plaques in Carotid Artery by Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Rick; Villaverde, Antonio Balbin; Silveira, Landulfo; Costa, Maricília Silva; Alves, Leandro Procópio; Pasqualucci, Carlos Augusto; Brugnera, Aldo

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the presence of atherosclerotic plaques in carotid artery using the Fluorescence Spectroscopy. The most important pathogeny in the cardiovascular disorders is the atherosclerosis, which may affect even younger individuals. With approximately 1.2 million heart attacks and 750,000 strokes afflicting an aging American population each year, cardiovascular disease remains the number one cause of death. Carotid artery samples were obtained from the Autopsy Service at the University of São Paulo (São Paulo, SP, Brazil) taken from cadavers. After a histopathological analysis the 60 carotid artery samples were divided into two groups: normal (26) and atherosclerotic plaques (34). Samples were irradiated with the wavelength of 488 nm from an Argon laser. A 600 μm core optical fiber, coupled to the Argon laser, was used for excitation of the sample, whereas another 600 optical fiber, coupled to the spectrograph entrance slit, was used for collecting the fluorescence from the sample. Measurements were taken at different points on each sample and then averaged. Fluorescence spectra showed a single broad line centered at 549 nm. The fluorescence intensity for each sample was calculated by subtracting the intensity at the peak (550 nm) and at the bottom (510 nm) and then data were statistically analyzed, looking for differences between both groups of samples. ANOVA statistical test showed a significant difference (p<0,05) between both types of tissues, with regard to the fluorescence peak intensities. Our results indicate that this technique could be used to detect the presence of the atherosclerotic in carotid tissue.

  8. Antibody-Labeled Liposomes for CT Imaging of Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Danila, Delia; Partha, Ranga; Elrod, Don B.; Lackey, Melinda; Casscells, S. Ward; Conyers, Jodie L.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the specific binding of anti-intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) conjugated liposomes (immunoliposomes, or ILs) to activated human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) with the purpose of designing a computed tomographic imaging agent for early detection of atherosclerotic plaques. Covalent attachment of anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibodies to pre-formed liposomes stabilized with polyethylene glycol yielded ILs, with a coupling efficiency of the ICAM-1 to the liposomes of 10% to 24%. The anti-ICAM-1–labeled ILs had an average diameter of 136 nm as determined by dynamic light-scattering and cryogenic electron microscopy. The ILs' encapsulation of 5-[N-acetyl-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-amino)-N, N′-bis(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-2,4,6-triiodo-benzene-1,3-dicarboxamide (iohexol) was determined to be 18% to 19% by a dialysis technique coupled with ultraviolet detection of free iohexol. This encapsulation corresponded to 30 to 38 mg iodine per mL IL solution, and the ILs exhibited 91% to 98.5% iohexol retention at room temperature and under physiologic conditions. The specific binding of the ILs to cultured, activated HCAEC was measured using flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and fluorescence microscopy. The immunosorbent assays demonstrated the specificity of binding of anti-ICAM-1 to ICAM-1 compared with control studies using nonspecific immunoglobulin G-labeled ILs. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy experiments demonstrated the expression of ICAM-1 on the surface of activated HCAEC. Therefore, our iohexol-filled ILs demonstrated potential for implementation in computed tomographic angiography to noninvasively detect atherosclerotic plaques that are prone to rupture. PMID:19876414

  9. Relationship between indexed epicardial fat volume and coronary plaque volume assessed by cardiac multidetector CT.

    PubMed

    You, Seulgi; Sun, Joo Sung; Park, Seon Young; Baek, Yoolim; Kang, Doo Kyoung

    2016-07-01

    We explored whether baseline indexed epicardial fat volume (EFVi) and serial changes in EFVi were associated with increase in coronary plaque volume as assessed by multidetector computed tomography.We retrospectively reviewed 87 patients with coronary artery plaque, identified during either baseline or follow-up cardiac computed tomography (CT) examinations. Each plaque volume was measured in volumetric units using a semiautomatic software tool. EFVi was quantified by calculating the total volume of epicardial tissue of CT density -190 to -30 HU, indexed to the body surface area. Clinical cardiovascular risk factors were extracted by medical record review at the time of the cardiac CT examinations. The relationship between EFVi and coronary plaque volume was explored by regression analysis.Although the EFVi did not change significantly from baseline to the time of the follow-up CT (65.7 ± 21.8 vs 66.0 ± 21.8 cm/m, P = 0.620), the plaque volumes were increased significantly on the follow-up CT scans. The annual change in EFVi was not accompanied by a parallel change in coronary plaque volume (P = 0.096-0.500). On univariate analysis, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, 10-year coronary heart disease risk, obesity, and baseline EFVi predicted rapid increases in lipid-rich and fibrous plaque volumes. On multivariate analysis, baseline EFVi (odds ratio = 1.029, P = 0.016) was an independent predictor of a rapid increase in lipid-rich plaque volume.EFVi was shown to be an independent predictor of a rapid increase in lipid-rich plaque volume. However, changes in EFVi were not associated with parallel changes in coronary plaque volume.

  10. The Spatial Distribution of Plaque Vulnerabilities in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guian; Li, Yuxin; Takayama, Tadateru; Nishida, Toshihiko; Sudo, Mitsumasa; Haruta, Hironori; Fukamachi, Daisuke; Okubo, Kimie; Higuchi, Yoshiharu; Hiro, Takafumi; Saito, Satoshi; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although the plaque characteristics have been recognized in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the plaque spatial distribution is not well clarified. Using color-mapping intravascular ultrasound (iMAP-IVUS), we examined culprit lesions to clarify plaque morphology, composition and spatial distribution of the sites of potential vulnerability. Methods Sixty-eight culprit lesions in 64 consecutive AMI patients who underwent angiography and IVUS examinations before intervention were analyzed. Plaque morphology and composition were quantified with iMAP-IVUS. The spatial distribution of the sites of potential vulnerability was assessed with longitudinal reconstruction of the consecutive IVUS images. The plaque characteristics were also compared between ruptured and non-ruptured lesions, and between totally occlusive (TO) and non-TO lesions. Results The sites with maximum necrotic area (maxNA), maximum plaque burden (maxPB) and most severely narrowed (minimal luminal area, MLA) were recognized vulnerability. In the majority of cases, maxNA sites were proximal to the maxPB sites, and MLA sites were distal to the maxNA and maxPB sites. Ruptures usually occurred close to maxNA sites and proximal to maxPB and MLA sites. The average distance from the site of rupture to the maxNA site was 0.33 ± 4.04 mm. Ruptured lesions showed significant vessel remodeling, greater plaque volume, and greater lipidic volume compared to those of non-ruptured lesions. Both the length and plaque burden (PB) of TO lesions were greater than those of non-TO lesions. Conclusions Instead of overlapping on maxPB sites, most maxNA sites are proximal to the maxPB sites and are the sites most likely to rupture. Plaque morphology and composition play critical roles in plaque rupture and coronary occlusion. PMID:27031514

  11. Optimal conditions for titration of SV40 by the plaque assay method.

    PubMed

    Fendrick, J L; Hallick, L M

    1983-08-01

    The parameters of the Simian Virus 40 (SV40) plaque assay on African green monkey kidney cells were optimized for reproducibility and maximum plaquing efficiency. Plaques were visible as early as 8 days postinfection; maximum titers were obtained with a 10- to 11-day incubation period. Titers read 12-16 days postinfection were not significantly higher than those observed after 10-11 days. Adsorption volumes greater than 0.1 ml/60 mm Petri dish decreased plaque forming units (PFUs) detected. Times greater than 60 min for adsorption of virus to the cell monolayer did not significantly increase the titer; adsorption times less than 60 min resulted in decreased titers. Under standard conditions, 3 ml of overlay medium containing 0.8% agar was applied following virus adsorption and again on days 5 and 10. Concentrations of fetal calf serum (FCS) in the overlay medium of 2.5 to 7.5% gave equal plaque formation. FCS concentrations of 1 and 10% resulted in slightly decreased and increased plaquing efficiencies respectively. Of the reagents tested, agar or agarose containing overlay media produced plaques of maximum number and size. An overlay of methyl cellulose resulted in the same number of plaques, but their size was reduced by approximately 70% relative to those observed in agar; thus longer incubation times were required. Gum tragacanth overlay medium was actually inhibitory to plaque development. DEAE-dextran, dextran sulfate, or DMSO added to agar overlay medium did not enhance plaque number or size, nor did they shorten the incubation period required for their detection.

  12. A finite element study of balloon expandable stent for plaque and arterial wall vulnerability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Razaghi, Reza

    2014-07-01

    The stresses induced within plaque tissues and arterial layers during stent expansion inside an atherosclerotic artery can be exceeded from the yield stresses of those tissues and, consequently, lead to plaque or arterial layer rupture. The distribution and magnitude of the stresses in each component involved in stenting might be clearly different for different plaque types and different arterial layers. In this study, a nonlinear finite element simulation was employed to investigate the effect of plaque composition (calcified, cellular, and hypocellular) on the stresses induced in the arterial layers (intima, media, and adventitia) during implantation of a balloon expandable coronary stent into a stenosed artery. The atherosclerotic artery was assumed to consist of a plaque and normal/healthy arterial tissues on its outer side. The results indicated a significant influence of plaque types on the maximum stresses induced within the plaque wall and arterial layers during stenting but not when computing maximum stress on the stent. The stress on the stiffest calcified plaque wall was in the fracture level (2.38 MPa), whereas cellular and hypocellular plaques remain stable owing to less stress on their walls. Regardless of plaque types, the highest von Mises stresses were observed on the stiffest intima layer, whereas the lowest stresses were seen to be located in less stiff media layer. The computed stresses on the intima layer were found to be high enough to initiate a rupture in this stiff layer. These findings suggest a higher risk of arterial vascular injury for the intima layer, while a lower risk of arterial injury for the media and adventitia layers.

  13. Evaluation of holy basil mouthwash as an adjunctive plaque control agent in a four day plaque regrowth model

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Anirudh B.; Vij, Chhavi; Trivedi, Dhiraj; Setty, Swati B.; Thakur, Srinath L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Various antibacterial and antiplaque agents are used in chemical plaque control but none are without their shortcomings. Chlorhexidine considered a gold standard, also has an array of side effects. To overcome these, numerous herbal extracts have been tried and tested and one among them is holy basil. The present study evaluated the antibacterial efficacy of holy basil in vitro against some periodontopathogens and its antiplaque effect in vivo. Study Design: Thirty periodontally healthy volunteers were randomly divided into three groups and refrained from all mechanical oral hygiene measures for 4 days and used one of the randomly assigned mouthwash (1- chlorhexidine; 2- holy basil; and 3- sterile water [placebo]) twice daily. The Plaque Index (PI) was assessed at days 0 and 5. Aqueous extract of holy basil was tested against Prevotella intermedia (P. intermedia) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (F.nucleatum). Results: Holy basil extract showed inhibition of both the tested periodontopathogens (P.intermedia and F.nucleatum) at various concentrations. In all groups, the PI increased from baseline to day 5. There was a statistically significant difference (p < .05) between the chlorhexidine and placebo rinse and the holy basil and placebo rinse, but no statistically significant difference was found between the chlorhexidine and holy basil rinse with respect to PI. Conclusions: These results indicate that the holy basil mouthwash has an antiplaque effect and is efficacious against P. intermedia and F. nucleatum strains in vitro. Hence holy basil mouthwash may have potential as an antiplaque mouthwash with prophylactic benefits. Key words:Antibacterial agent, basil, Fusobacterium nucleatum, mouthwashes, Prevotella intermedia. PMID:25674314

  14. Cystathionine γ-lyase is expressed in human atherosclerotic plaque microvessels and is involved in micro-angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    van den Born, J. C.; Mencke, R.; Conroy, S.; Zeebregts, C. J.; van Goor, H.; Hillebrands, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerotic plaques are classically divided into stable and vulnerable plaques. Vulnerable plaques are prone to rupture with a risk for infarction. High intraplaque microvessel density predisposes to plaque vulnerability. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a proangiogenic gasotransmitter which is endogenously produced by cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), and is believed to have vasculoprotective effects. However, due to its proangiogenic effects, H2S may result in pathological angiogenesis in atherosclerotic plaques, thereby increasing plaque vulnerability. The aim of this study was to determine CSE expression pattern in atherosclerotic plaques, and investigate whether CSE is involved in micro-angiogenesis in vitro. Endarterectomy plaques were studied for CSE expression, and the role of CSE in micro-angiogenesis was studied in vitro. CSE is expressed in plaques with similar levels in both stable and vulnerable plaques. CSE co-localized with von Willebrand Factor-positive microvessel endothelial cells and alpha-smooth-muscle actin-positive SMCs. In vitro, inhibition of CSE in HMEC-1 reduced tube formation, cell viability/proliferation, and migration which was restored after culture in the presence of H2S donor GYY4137. CSE is expressed in intraplaque microvessels, and H2S is a stimulator of micro-angiogenesis in vitro. Due to this pro-angiogenic effect, high levels of CSE in atherosclerotic plaques may be a potential risk for plaque vulnerability. PMID:27708362

  15. Viral concentration determination through plaque assays: using traditional and novel overlay systems.

    PubMed

    Baer, Alan; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2014-01-01

    Plaque assays remain one of the most accurate methods for the direct quantification of infectious virons and antiviral substances through the counting of discrete plaques (infectious units and cellular dead zones) in cell culture. Here we demonstrate how to perform a basic plaque assay, and how differing overlays and techniques can affect plaque formation and production. Typically solid or semisolid overlay substrates, such as agarose or carboxymethyl cellulose, have been used to restrict viral spread, preventing indiscriminate infection through the liquid growth medium. Immobilized overlays restrict cellular infection to the immediately surrounding monolayer, allowing the formation of discrete countable foci and subsequent plaque formation. To overcome the difficulties inherent in using traditional overlays, a novel liquid overlay utilizing microcrystalline cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose sodium has been increasingly used as a replacement in the standard plaque assay. Liquid overlay plaque assays can be readily performed in either standard 6 or 12 well plate formats as per traditional techniques and require no special equipment. Due to its liquid state and subsequent ease of application and removal, microculture plate formats may alternatively be utilized as a rapid, accurate and high throughput alternative to larger scale viral titrations. Use of a non heated viscous liquid polymer offers the opportunity to streamline work, conserves reagents, incubator space, and increases operational safety when used in traditional or high containment labs as no reagent heating or glassware are required. Liquid overlays may also prove more sensitive than traditional overlays for certain heat labile viruses. PMID:25407402

  16. Effects of herbal and non-herbal toothpastes on plaque and gingivitis: A clinical comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Tatikonda, Aravind; Debnath, Surangama; Chauhan, Vivek Singh; Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap; Taranath, M; Sharma, Akanksha Manmohan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Presence of plaque may be the culprit for dental caries, gingivitis, periodontal problems, and halitosis. Many mechanical aids are practiced worldwide to remove or control plaque, including tooth brushes, dental floss, mouth rinses, and dentifrices. The objective of this clinical study was to investigate the effectiveness of herbal toothpaste (Dabur Red) in controlling plaque and gingivitis, as compared to conventional (non-herbal) dentifrice (Pepsodent). Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 subjects aged 35–43 years with established gingivitis and at least 20 natural teeth, and having a probing depth <3 mm were investigated. After the washout period, plaque and gingival index (PI and GI, respectively) scores were assessed at days 0 and 30. Differences between groups were compared with Mann–Whitney U test and the mean scores of PI and GI by Wilcoxon test. Statistical difference between the weights of dentifrices tubes on days 0 and 30 was evaluated by Student's t-test. Results: At the end of 30 days of the study, there was statistically significant difference between both the groups for plaque and gingival scores. Conclusion: After 30 days of trial, both test and control groups showed effective reduction of plaque and gingivitis, which was statistically significant. No adverse reactions to dentifrices products were observed during the trial. It was concluded that herbal dentifrice was as effective as non-herbal dentifrices in the control of plaque and gingivitis. PMID:25558453

  17. Multi-scale AM-FM motion analysis of ultrasound videos of carotid artery plaques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, Sergio; Murray, Victor; Loizou, C. P.; Pattichis, C. S.; Pattichis, Marios; Barriga, E. Simon

    2012-03-01

    An estimated 82 million American adults have one or more type of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). CVD is the leading cause of death (1 of every 3 deaths) in the United States. When considered separately from other CVDs, stroke ranks third among all causes of death behind diseases of the heart and cancer. Stroke accounts for 1 out of every 18 deaths and is the leading cause of serious long-term disability in the United States. Motion estimation of ultrasound videos (US) of carotid artery (CA) plaques provides important information regarding plaque deformation that should be considered for distinguishing between symptomatic and asymptomatic plaques. In this paper, we present the development of verifiable methods for the estimation of plaque motion. Our methodology is tested on a set of 34 (5 symptomatic and 29 asymptomatic) ultrasound videos of carotid artery plaques. Plaque and wall motion analysis provides information about plaque instability and is used in an attempt to differentiate between symptomatic and asymptomatic cases. The final goal for motion estimation and analysis is to identify pathological conditions that can be detected from motion changes due to changes in tissue stiffness.

  18. Viral concentration determination through plaque assays: using traditional and novel overlay systems.

    PubMed

    Baer, Alan; Kehn-Hall, Kylene

    2014-11-04

    Plaque assays remain one of the most accurate methods for the direct quantification of infectious virons and antiviral substances through the counting of discrete plaques (infectious units and cellular dead zones) in cell culture. Here we demonstrate how to perform a basic plaque assay, and how differing overlays and techniques can affect plaque formation and production. Typically solid or semisolid overlay substrates, such as agarose or carboxymethyl cellulose, have been used to restrict viral spread, preventing indiscriminate infection through the liquid growth medium. Immobilized overlays restrict cellular infection to the immediately surrounding monolayer, allowing the formation of discrete countable foci and subsequent plaque formation. To overcome the difficulties inherent in using traditional overlays, a novel liquid overlay utilizing microcrystalline cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose sodium has been increasingly used as a replacement in the standard plaque assay. Liquid overlay plaque assays can be readily performed in either standard 6 or 12 well plate formats as per traditional techniques and require no special equipment. Due to its liquid state and subsequent ease of application and removal, microculture plate formats may alternatively be utilized as a rapid, accurate and high throughput alternative to larger scale viral titrations. Use of a non heated viscous liquid polymer offers the opportunity to streamline work, conserves reagents, incubator space, and increases operational safety when used in traditional or high containment labs as no reagent heating or glassware are required. Liquid overlays may also prove more sensitive than traditional overlays for certain heat labile viruses.

  19. Accuracy of Visible Plaque Identification by Pediatric Clinicians During Well-Child Care

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, S. Amanda; Weaver, Katelynn E.; Park, Seo Young; Polk, Deborah E.; Weyant, Robert J.; Bogen, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Assess pediatric providers’ ability to identify visible plaque on children's teeth. Methods Pediatric providers (residents, nurse practitioners, and attendings) conducting well-child care on 15-month to 5-year-olds in an academic practice examined children's maxillary incisors for visible plaque (recorded yes/no). A dental hygienist then examined the children and recorded the degree of visible plaque present. Results The children's mean age was 34 months (±15 months), and 50% had visible plaque. Providers (n = 28) identified visible plaque on 39% of children (n = 118), with 55% sensitivity and 80% specificity, and agreement with hygienist measured as a κ score was 0.34. Subgroup analyses (based on provider training level, exam experience, child age, and plaque scores) did not appreciably improve sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, or κ scores. Conclusions Visible plaque exams performed during well-child care may not be accurate. To comply with caries-risk assessment guidelines, providers require further education in oral exams. PMID:23572449

  20. Ultrafast optical-ultrasonic system and miniaturized catheter for imaging and characterizing atherosclerotic plaques in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiawen; Ma, Teng; Mohar, Dilbahar; Steward, Earl; Yu, Mingyue; Piao, Zhonglie; He, Youmin; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa; Patel, Pranav M.; Chen, Zhongping

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) is the number one cause of death worldwide. The majority of CAD-induced deaths are due to the rupture of vulnerable plaques. Accurate assessment of plaques is crucial to optimize treatment and prevent death in patients with CAD. Current diagnostic techniques are often limited by either spatial resolution or penetration depth. Several studies have proved that the combined use of optical and ultrasonic imaging techniques increase diagnostic accuracy of vulnerable plaques. Here, we introduce an ultrafast optical-ultrasonic dual-modality imaging system and flexible miniaturized catheter, which enables the translation of this technology into clinical practice. This system can perform simultaneous optical coherence tomography (OCT)-intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging at 72 frames per second safely in vivo, i.e., visualizing a 72 mm-long artery in 4 seconds. Results obtained in atherosclerotic rabbits in vivo and human coronary artery segments show that this ultrafast technique can rapidly provide volumetric mapping of plaques and clearly identify vulnerable plaques. By providing ultrafast imaging of arteries with high resolution and deep penetration depth simultaneously, this hybrid IVUS-OCT technology opens new and safe opportunities to evaluate in real-time the risk posed by plaques, detect vulnerable plaques, and optimize treatment decisions. PMID:26678300

  1. Plaque-Associated Local Toxicity Increases over the Clinical Course of Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Betensky, Rebecca A; Frosch, Matthew P; Hyman, Bradley T

    2016-02-01

    Amyloid (senile) plaques, one of the two pathologic hallmarks of Alzheimer disease (AD), are associated with dystrophic neurites and glial responses, both astrocytic and microglial. Although plaque burden remains relatively stable through the clinical course of AD, whether these features of local plaque toxicity continue to worsen over the course of the disease is unclear. We performed an unbiased plaque-centered quantification of SMI312(+) dystrophic neurites, GFAP(+) reactive astrocytes, and IBA1(+) and CD68(+) activated microglia in randomly selected dense-core (Thioflavin-S(+)) plaques from the temporal neocortex of 40 AD subjects with a symptom duration ranging from 4 to 20 years, and nine nondemented control subjects with dense-core plaques. Dystrophic neurites (Kendall τ = 0.34, P = 0.001), reactive astrocytes (Kendall τ = 0.30, P = 0.003), and CD68(+) (Kendall τ = 0.48, P < 0.0001), but not IBA1 microglia (Kendall τ = 0.045, P = 0.655), exhibited a significant positive correlation with symptom duration. When excluding control subjects, only the positive association between CD68(+) microglia and symptom duration remained significant (Kendall τ = 0.39, P = 0.0003). The presence of the APOEε4 allele did not affect these results. We conclude that plaques exert an increasing toxicity in the surrounding neuropil over the clinical course of AD, thereby potentially contributing to cognitive decline.

  2. Shear wave elastography plaque characterization with mechanical testing validation: a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widman, E.; Maksuti, E.; Larsson, D.; Urban, M. W.; Bjällmark, A.; Larsson, M.

    2015-04-01

    Determining plaque vulnerability is critical when selecting the most suitable treatment for patients with atherosclerotic plaque. Currently, clinical non-invasive ultrasound-based methods for plaque characterization are limited to visual assessment of plaque morphology and new quantitative methods are needed. In this study, shear wave elastography (SWE) was used to characterize hard and soft plaque mimicking inclusions in six common carotid artery phantoms by using phase velocity analysis in static and dynamic environments. The results were validated with mechanical tensile testing. In the static environment, SWE measured a mean shear modulus of 5.8  ±  0.3 kPa and 106.2  ±  17.2 kPa versus 3.3  ±  0.5 kPa and 98.3  ±  3.4 kPa measured by mechanical testing in the soft and hard plaques respectively. Furthermore, it was possible to measure the plaques’ shear moduli throughout a simulated cardiac cycle. The results show good agreement between SWE and mechanical testing and indicate the possibility for in vivo arterial plaque characterization using SWE.

  3. Low expression of ferroxidases is implicated in the iron retention in human atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jiajie; Zhou, Yu; Hao, Shuangying; Wang, Qi; Li, Kuanyu; Qiao, Tong

    2015-09-01

    The effect of iron on the progress of atherosclerosis is still controversial. To explore the relationship between atherosclerotic plaques and iron metabolism and how iron is accumulated in plaque macrophages, we performed Oil red O staining to detect the lipid of the atherosclerotic plaques, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect the intracellular lipids (total cholesterol, free cholesterol) and serum hepcidin, Western-blot to examine the iron-related proteins, immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence assays to localize ferroportin 1 in macrophages. The contents of serum iron and transferrin saturation were measured. The results confrimed that atherosclerotic plaques were all lipid-rich. Compared to normal vessel wall, atherosclerotic plaques had significantly higher levels of ferritin and ferroportin 1. Strikingly, we found the much lower levels of ferroxidases ceruloplasmin and hephaestin in plaque tissue than the normal vessel, while the content of serum hepcidin, iron and transferrin saturation were similar in these two groups. The novel finding suggests that the inability of ferrous iron to be oxidized into ferric iron might be a potential mechanism for iron retention in plaques. PMID:26208458

  4. A dose-response study of triclosan mouthrinses on plaque regrowth.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, S; Addy, M; Newcombe, R J

    1993-09-01

    Triclosan is used in toothpastes and mouthrinses as a plaque inhibitory agent. The concentrations used and therefore the dose of triclosan varies between products and there is, as with most plaque inhibitory agents, little information on the dose response of this agent. The purpose of this investigation was to measure the plaque inhibitory properties of triclosan in a simple mouthrinse formulation over a range of concentrations and therefore doses. The study was a 5 treatment, double-blind, Latin-square randomised, minus-active controlled design balanced for residual effects. The formulations were 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% triclosan in 0.5% sodium carbonate and 5% alcohol aqueous solutions, used as 10 ml, 1-min rinses 2 x daily, without tooth-brushing. 2 groups each of 15 healthy volunteers rinsed during alternate 4-day treatment, 1-week washout periods with the allocated rinses. From a zero-plaque baseline on Day 1, plaque was scored by index and area on Day 5. A dose response pattern of decreasing plaque indices and particularly areas, with increasing triclosan dose was observed. However, by far the largest sequential drop in plaque scores occurred between 0.1% and 0.2% triclosan treatments. Extending the dose-response study to higher concentrations is considered impractical if not unjustifiable, because of potential harmful local side-effects and compliance difficulties. Dose-response studies to assess the agents thought to potentiate triclosan would seem warranted.

  5. Detection and quantification of dental plaque based on laser-induced autofluorescence intensity ratio values.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Betsy; Prasanth, Chandra Sekhar; Jayanthi, Jayaraj L; Presanthila, Janam; Subhash, Narayanan

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of laser-induced autofluorescence (LIAF) spectroscopy to detect and quantify dental plaque. LIAF spectra were recorded in situ from dental plaque (0–3 grades of plaque index) in 300 patients with 404 nm diode laser excitation. The fluorescence intensity ratio of the emission peaks was calculated from the LIAF spectral data following which their scatter plots were drawn and the area under the receiver operating characteristics were calculated. The LIAF spectrum of clinically invisible grade-1 plaque showed a prominent emission peak at 510 nm with a satellite peak around 630 nm in contrast to grade 0 that has a single peak around 500 nm. The fluorescence intensity ratio (F510/F630) has a decreasing trend with increase in plaque grade and the ratio values show statistically significant differences (p<0.01) between different grades. An overall sensitivity and specificity of 100% each was achieved for discrimination between grade-0 and grade-1 plaque. The clinical significance of this study is that the diagnostic algorithm developed based on fluorescence spectral intensity ratio (F510/F630) would be useful to precisely identify minute amounts of plaque without the need for disclosing solutions and to convince patients of the need for proper oral hygiene and homecare practices.

  6. Effect of microbial mediated iron plaque reduction on arsenic mobility in paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinjun; Chen, Xueping; Yang, Jing; Wang, Zhaosu; Sun, Guoxin

    2009-01-01

    The potential of microbial mediated iron plaque reduction, and associated arsenic (As) mobility were examined by iron reducing bacteria enriched from As contaminated paddy soil. To our knowledge, this is the first time to report the impact of microbial iron plaque reduction on As mobility. Iron reduction occurred during the inoculation of iron reducing enrichment culture in the treatments with iron plaque and ferrihydrite as the electron acceptors, respectively. The Fe(II) concentration with the treatment of anthraquinone-2, 6-disulfonic acid (AQDS) and iron reducing bacteria increased much faster than the control. Arsenic released from iron plaque with the iron reduction, and a significant correlation between Fe(II) and total As in culture was observed. However, compared with control, the increasing rate of As was inhibited by iron reducing bacteria especially in the presence of AQDS. In addition, the concentrations of As(III) and As(V) in abiotic treatments were higher than those in the biotic treatments at day 30. These results indicated that both microbial and chemical reductions of iron plaque caused As release from iron plaque to aqueous phase, however, microbial iron reduction induced the formation of more crystalline iron minerals, leading to As sequestration. In addition, the presence of AQDS in solution can accelerate the iron reduction, the As release from iron plaque and subsequently the As retention in the crystalline iron mineral. Thus, our results suggested that it is possible to remediate As contaminated soils by utilizing iron reducing bacteria and AQDS. PMID:20108691

  7. A calcium prerinse required to form calcium fluoride in plaque from a sodium fluoride rinse.

    PubMed

    Vogel, G L; Tenuta, L M A; Schumacher, G E; Chow, L C

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether a calcium (Ca) prerinse used before a 228 µg/g (ppm) fluoride (F) rinse would induce the formation of 'calcium fluoride-like' (CaF2-like) deposits in human dental plaque. Sixty minutes after the use of the Ca prerinse/F rinse, plaque samples were collected from 10 volunteers, homogenized, and split into 2 aliquots. The plaque mass from one aliquot was then extracted with a 'plaque-like' solution that extracted all the CaF2-like deposits. The total F in both aliquots was then determined and compared. The results demonstrated that, as in previous studies, the Ca prerinse induced large increases in plaque fluid and total plaque F. However, unlike previous results without the Ca prerinse, 30% of the plaque F deposits were CaF2 or CaF2-like. Given that maintaining an elevated F concentration in the vicinity of a developing lesion may play an important role in the cariostatic effect of this ion, and the potential advantages of CaF2-like deposits as an F source, these results suggest that a Ca prerinse may increase the cariostatic effect of topical agents.

  8. On the effect of calcification volume and configuration on the mechanical behaviour of carotid plaque tissue.

    PubMed

    Barrett, H E; Cunnane, E M; Kavanagh, E G; Walsh, M T

    2016-03-01

    Vascular calcification is a complex molecular process that exhibits a number of relatively characteristic morphology patterns in atherosclerotic plaques. Treatment of arterial stenosis by endovascular intervention, involving forceful circumferential expansion of the plaque, can be unpredictable in calcified lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanical stretching mechanisms and define the mechanical limits for circumferentially expanding carotid plaque lesions under the influence of distinct calcification patterns. Mechanical and structural characterisation was performed on 17 human carotid plaques acquired from patients undergoing endarterectomy procedures. The mechanical properties were determined using uniaxial extension tests that stretch the lesions to complete failure along their circumferential axis. Calcification morphology of mechanically ruptured plaque lesions was characterised using high resolution micro computed tomography imaging. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the mechanically induced failure sites and to identify the interface boundary conditions between calcified and non-calcified tissue. The mechanical tests produced four distinct trends in mechanical behaviour which corresponded to the calcification patterns that structurally defined each mechanical group. Each calcification pattern produced unique mechanical restraining effects on the plaque tissue stretching properties evidenced by the variation in degree of stretch to failure. Resistance to failure appears to rely on interactions between calcification and non-calcified tissue. Scanning electron microscopy examination revealed structural gradations at interface boundary conditions to facilitate the transfer of stress. This study emphasises the mechanical influence of distinct calcification configurations on plaque expansion properties and highlights the importance of pre-operative lesion characterisation to optimise treatment outcomes.

  9. Development and optimization of a direct plaque assay for human and avian metapneumoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Wei, Yongwei; Li, Junan; Li, Jianrong

    2012-01-01

    The genus Metapneumovirus within the subfamily Pneumovirinae and family Paramyxoviridae includes only two viruses, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), which cause respiratory disease in humans and birds, respectively. These two viruses grow poorly in cell culture and other quantitation methods, such as indirect immuno-staining and immuno-fluorescent assays, are expensive, time consuming, and do not allow for plaque purification of the virus. In order to enhance research efforts for studying these two viruses, a direct plaque assay for both hMPV and aMPV has been developed. By optimizing the chemical components of the agarose overlay, it was found that both hMPV with a trypsin-independent F cleavage site and aMPV formed clear and countable plaques in a number of mammalian cell lines (such as Vero-E6 and LLC-MK2 cells) after 5 days of incubation. The plaque forming assay has similar sensitivity and reliability as the currently used immunological methods for viral quantitation. The plaque assay is also a more simple, rapid, and economical method compared to immunological assays, and in addition allows for plaque purification of the viruses. The direct plaque assay will be a valuable method for the quantitation and evaluation of the biological properties of some metapneumoviruses. PMID:22684013

  10. A comparison of proximal plaque removal using floss and interdental brushes.

    PubMed

    Kiger, R D; Nylund, K; Feller, R P

    1991-10-01

    The removal of interproximal plaque was compared using a standard toothbrush alone, a toothbrush with unwaxed dental floss and a toothbrush with an interdental brush. 30 previously treated periodontal patients were given the cleaning aids in a three-way crossover study design. After each 1 month trial period, scores for gingivitis, buccal/lingual plaque and proximal plaque were recorded. Mean GI scores for subjects were 0.37 using the toothbrush only, 0.36 using the toothbrush with floss and 0.32 using the toothbrush with the interdental brush. Mean buccal/lingual plaque scores were 0.64 using the toothbrush only, 0.62 using the toothbrush with floss and 0.51 using the toothbrush with the interdental brush. Mean plaque scores were 2.32 with the toothbrush only, 1.71 using the toothbrush with floss and 1.22 using the toothbrush with the interdental brush. Statistically significant differences were seen in proximal plaque scores between the 3 treatment groups. The results indicate that the interdental brush used in combination with a toothbrush is more effective in the removal of plaque from proximal tooth surfaces than a toothbrush used alone or in combination with dental floss.

  11. Improving visualization of intracranial arteries at the skull base for CT angiography with calcified plaques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Adam; Lee, Chung-Wei; Yang, Chung-Yi; Liu, Hon-Man

    2010-03-01

    Bony structures at the skull base were the main obstacle to detection and estimation of arterial stenoses and aneurysms for CT angiography in the brain. Direct subtraction and the matched mask bone elimination (MMBE) have become two standard methods for removing bony structures. However, clinicians regularly find that calcified plaques at or near the carotid canal cannot be removed satisfactorily by existing methods. The blood-plaque boundary tends to be blurred by subtraction operation while plaque size is constantly overestimated by the bone mask dilation operation in the MMBE approach. In this study, we propose using the level of enhancement to adjust the MMBE bone mask more intelligently on the artery- and tissue-bone/plaque boundaries. The original MMBE method is only applied to the tissue-bone boundary voxels; while the artery-bone/blood-plaque boundary voxels, identified by a higher enhancement level, are processed by direct subtraction instead. A dataset of 6 patients (3 scanned with a regular dose and 3 scanned with a reduced dose) with calcified plaques at or near the skull base is used to examine our new method. Preliminary results indicate that the visualization of intracranial arteries with calcified plaques at the skull base can be improved effectively and efficiently.

  12. Molecular determinants of plaque size as an indicator of dengue virus attenuation

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Kenneth Choon Meng; Tang, Choon Kit; Norton, Diana Catherine; Gan, Esther Shuyi; Tan, Hwee Cheng; Sun, Bo; Syenina, Ayesa; Yousuf, Amjad; Ong, Xin Mei; Kamaraj, Uma Sangumathi; Cheung, Yin Bun; Gubler, Duane J; Davidson, Andrew; St John, Ashley Lauren; Sessions, October Michael; Ooi, Eng Eong

    2016-01-01

    The development of live viral vaccines relies on empirically derived phenotypic criteria, especially small plaque sizes, to indicate attenuation. However, while some candidate vaccines successfully translated into licensed applications, others have failed safety trials, placing vaccine development on a hit-or-miss trajectory. We examined the determinants of small plaque phenotype in two dengue virus (DENV) vaccine candidates, DENV-3 PGMK30FRhL3, which produced acute febrile illness in vaccine recipients, and DENV-2 PDK53, which has a good clinical safety profile. The reasons behind the failure of PGMK30FRhL3 during phase 1 clinical trial, despite meeting the empirically derived criteria of attenuation, have never been systematically investigated. Using in vitro, in vivo and functional genomics approaches, we examined infections by the vaccine and wild-type DENVs, in order to ascertain the different determinants of plaque size. We show that PGMK30FRhL3 produces small plaques on BHK-21 cells due to its slow in vitro growth rate. In contrast, PDK53 replicates rapidly, but is unable to evade antiviral responses that constrain its spread hence also giving rise to small plaques. Therefore, at least two different molecular mechanisms govern the plaque phenotype; determining which mechanism operates to constrain plaque size may be more informative on the safety of live-attenuated vaccines. PMID:27185466

  13. Association between Human Plasma Chondroitin Sulfate Isomers and Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques.

    PubMed

    Zinellu, Elisabetta; Lepedda, Antonio Junior; Cigliano, Antonio; Pisanu, Salvatore; Zinellu, Angelo; Carru, Ciriaco; Bacciu, Pietro Paolo; Piredda, Franco; Guarino, Anna; Spirito, Rita; Formato, Marilena

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have evidenced variations in plasma glycosaminoglycans content in physiological and pathological conditions. In normal human plasma GAGs are present mainly as undersulfated chondroitin sulfate (CS). The aim of the present study was to evaluate possible correlations between plasma CS level/structure and the presence/typology of carotid atherosclerotic lesion. Plasma CS was purified from 46 control subjects and 47 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy showing either a soft or a hard plaque. The concentration and structural characteristics of plasma CS were assessed by capillary electrophoresis of constituent unsaturated fluorophore-labeled disaccharides. Results showed that the concentration of total CS isomers was increased by 21.4% (P < 0.01) in plasma of patients, due to a significant increase of undersulfated CS. Consequently, in patients the plasma CS charge density was significantly reduced with respect to that of controls. After sorting for plaque typology, we found that patients with soft plaques and those with hard ones differently contribute to the observed changes. In plasma from patients with soft plaques, the increase in CS content was not associated with modifications of its sulfation pattern. On the contrary, the presence of hard plaques was associated with CS sulfation pattern modifications in presence of quite normal total CS isomers levels. These results suggest that the plasma CS content and structure could be related to the presence and the typology of atherosclerotic plaque and could provide a useful diagnostic tool, as well as information on the molecular mechanisms responsible for plaque instability.

  14. Distinctive proteomic profiles among different regions of human carotid plaques in men and women

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wenzhao; Ward, Liam J.; Karlsson, Helen; Ljunggren, Stefan A.; Li, Wei; Lindahl, Mats; Yuan, Xi-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneity of atherosclerotic tissue has limited comprehension in proteomic and metabolomic analyses. To elucidate the functional implications, and differences between genders, of atherosclerotic lesion formation we investigated protein profiles from different regions of human carotid atherosclerotic arteries; internal control, fatty streak, plaque shoulder, plaque centre, and fibrous cap. Proteomic analysis was performed using 2-DE with MALDI-TOF, with validation using nLC-MS/MS. Protein mapping of 2-DE identified 52 unique proteins, including 15 previously unmapped proteins, of which 41 proteins were confirmed by nLC-MS/MS analysis. Expression levels of 18 proteins were significantly altered in plaque regions compared to the internal control region. Nine proteins showed site-specific alterations, irrespective of gender, with clear associations to extracellular matrix remodelling. Five proteins display gender-specific alterations with 2-DE, with two alterations validated by nLC-MS/MS. Gender differences in ferritin light chain and transthyretin were validated using both techniques. Validation of immunohistochemistry confirmed significantly higher levels of ferritin in plaques from male patients. Proteomic analysis of different plaque regions has reduced the effects of plaque heterogeneity, and significant differences in protein expression are determined in specific regions and between genders. These proteomes have functional implications in plaque progression and are of importance in understanding gender differences in atherosclerosis. PMID:27198765

  15. Network structure of the mussel plaque and its significance for load bearing and adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippidi, Emmanouela; Kim, Juntae; Waite, J. Herbert; Helgeson, Matthew; Valentine, Megan T.

    2015-03-01

    Marine mussels attach to rocks, each other, and a variety of surfaces via a flat, wide plaque that is interpenetrated by the collagen fibers of a thin, long thread that connects the plaque to the mussel body. The unusually strong adhesion of the plaque has long been attributed to the molecular design of its adhesive proteins that can form a variety of strong chemical bonds. However, the molecular energies for de-adhesion are orders of magnitude smaller than the macroscopic energies measured. We propose that the mesoscopic design of the plaque is critical in enhancing load bearing and eventually adhesion. We present new results on the structure of the plaque studied via electron microscopy and neutron scattering that exhibit a plaque geometry reminiscent of structural foams. Our studies reveal a collection of pores with an inner network, further connected with an outer network. The final structure can be described by two length scales. A synthetic soft system is constructed in an effort to mimic the two-lengthscale structure of the natural plaques. The structure of the native and synthetic systems is compared with the ultimate goal of evaluating the importance of the mesoscopic structure to mechanics and adhesion. NSF MRSEC IRG-I.

  16. Ni-Co alloy plaque for cathode of Ni-Cd battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lander, J. J.

    1986-03-01

    The present invention relates generally to Ni-Cd batteries, and, in particular, relates to the plaque material attached to the cathode. Because of the wide use of nickel-cadmium batteries, the corrosion rates of nickel and nickel-cobalt alloys are of interest to nickel-cadmium battery electrochemical theory and its technology. The plaque material of the cathode consists of a Ni-Co alloy in solid solution wherein the cobalt is by weight percent one to ten percent of the alloy. Conventional methods of applying the plaque material to the nickel core may be used. It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide an improved cathode for a nickel-cadmium battery wherein the nickel corrosion is substantially lessened in the plaque material. One process of making the plaque uses a nickel powder slurry that is applied to a nickel-plated steel core. This is then sintered at a high temperature which results in a very porous structure and an welding of the nickel grains to the core. This plaque is then soaked in appropriate salts to make either a positive or a negative plate; nickel salts make a positive plate and a cadmium salts a negative plate, for example. After impregnation, the plaque is placed in an electrolyte and an electric current is passed therethrough to convert the salts to their final form. In the nickel-cadmium cell, nickel hydroxide is the active material in the positive plate.

  17. [Atheroma plaque stabilization: a new concept based on the dynamic biology of atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Páramo, José A; Orbe, Josune; Rodríguez, José A

    2003-11-01

    As it is well-known, a thrombus evolving into a disrupted/eroded atherosclerotic plaque causes most acute coronary syndromes. Plaque stabilization via reduction of the lipid core and/or thickening of the fibrous cap is one of the possible mechanisms accounted for the clinical benefits displayed by different anti-atherosclerotic strategies. The concept of plaque stabilization was developed to explain how lipid-lowering agents could decrease adverse coronary events without substantial modifications of the atherosclerotic lesion. A number of imaging modalities (vascular ultrasound, MRI, and coronary computed tomography) are used for non-invasive assessment of atherosclerosis; most of them can identify luminal stenosis, wall thickness and plaque volume and composition, and can even characterize the rupture-prone vulnerable plaques. Several classes of drugs, including statins, ACE inhibitors, -blockers, and antithrombotics, are able to reduce the plaque burden and the incidence of cardiovascular events; this may be attibutable, at least in part, to plaque-stabilizing effects and the improvement of endothelial dysfunction.

  18. Chinese Herbal Cardiotonic Pill Stabilizes Vulnerable Plaques in Rabbits by Decreasing the Expression of Adhesion Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Li, Xiaonan; Li, Changjiang; Rong, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Yawei; Xu, Xinsheng; Yao, Guihua; Jiang, Guihua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The cardiotonic pill (CP), consisting of a mixture of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Notoginseng, and Borneolum Syntheticum, has been widely used in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Adhesion molecules, including intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, are involved in the development of vulnerable plaque. We investigated the effect of the CP in a rabbit model of vulnerable plaque established by local transfection with p53 gene. Compared with the control group, rabbits with vulnerable plaque showed a significantly lower intima-media thickness and plaque burden after CP treatment for 12 weeks. Moreover, the reduction in rate of plaque rupture and vulnerability index was similar. On enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry analysis, the expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 was inhibited with CP treatment. CP treatment could postpone atherosclerotic plaque development and stabilize vulnerable plaque by inhibiting the expression of adhesion molecules in treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:27110743

  19. Mapping elasticity moduli of atherosclerotic plaque in situ via atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tracqui, Philippe; Broisat, Alexis; Toczek, Jackub; Mesnier, Nicolas; Ohayon, Jacques; Riou, Laurent

    2011-04-01

    Several studies have suggested that evolving mechanical stresses and strains drive atherosclerotic plaque development and vulnerability. Especially, stress distribution in the plaque fibrous capsule is an important determinant for the risk of vulnerable plaque rupture. Knowledge of the stiffness of atherosclerotic plaque components is therefore of critical importance. In this work, force mapping experiments using atomic force microscopy (AFM) were conducted in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mouse, which represents the most widely used experimental model for studying mechanisms underlying the development of atherosclerotic lesions. To obtain the elastic material properties of fibrous caps and lipidic cores of atherosclerotic plaques, serial cross-sections of aortic arch lesions were probed at different sites. Atherosclerotic plaque sub-structures were subdivided into cellular fibrotic, hypocellular fibrotic and lipidic rich areas according to histological staining. Hertz's contact mechanics were used to determine elasticity (Young's) moduli that were related to the underlying histological plaque structure. Cellular fibrotic regions exhibit a mean Young modulus of 10.4±5.7kPa. Hypocellular fibrous caps were almost six-times stiffer, with average modulus value of 59.4±47.4kPa, locally rising up to ∼250kPa. Lipid rich areas exhibit a rather large range of Young's moduli, with average value of 5.5±3.5kPa. Such precise quantification of plaque stiffness heterogeneity will allow investigators to have prospectively a better monitoring of atherosclerotic disease evolution, including arterial wall remodeling and plaque rupture, in response to mechanical constraints imposed by vascular shear stress and blood pressure.

  20. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus phage plaque size enhancement using sublethal concentrations of antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sandeep; Harjai, Kusum; Chhibber, Sanjay

    2012-12-01

    Phage therapy presents an alternative approach against the emerging methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) threat. Some of the problems encountered during isolation of MRSA phages include the high prevalence of enteric phages in natural sources, nonspecific absorption of viable phage, and the formation of pinpoint or tiny plaques. The phage isolated in this study, MR-5, also formed tiny plaques against its host S. aureus ATCC 43300 (MRSA), making its detection and enumeration difficult. An improved method of increasing the plaque size of MRSA phage by incorporating sublethal concentrations of three different classes of antibiotics (inhibitors of protein synthesis) in the classical double-layer agar (DLA) method was investigated. The β-lactam and quinolone antibiotics commonly employed in earlier studies for increasing the plaque size did not show any significant effect on the plaque size of isolated MR-5 phage. Linezolid (oxazolidinone class), tetracycline, and ketolide antibiotics brought significant enhancements (3 times the original size) in the plaque size of MR-5 phage. Prior treatment with these antibiotics resulted in significant reductions in the time of adsorption and the latent period of MR-5 phage. To rule out whether the action of linezolid (which brought the maximum increase in plaque size) was specific for a single phage only, its effect on the plaque size of seven other S. aureus-specific phages was also assessed. Significant enhancements in the plaque size of these phages were observed. These results indicate that this modification can therefore safely be incorporated in the traditional DLA overlay method to search for new MRSA-virulent phages. PMID:23001655

  1. Effect of coconut oil in plaque related gingivitis — A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Peedikayil, Faizal C.; Sreenivasan, Prathima; Narayanan, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oil pulling or oil swishing therapy is a traditional procedure in which the practitioners rinse or swish oil in their mouth. It is supposed to cure oral and systemic diseases but the evidence is minimal. Oil pulling with sesame oil and sunflower oil was found to reduce plaque related gingivitis. Coconut oil is an easily available edible oil. It is unique because it contains predominantly medium chain fatty acids of which 45-50 percent is lauric acid. Lauric acid has proven anti inflammatory and antimicrobial effects. No studies have been done on the benefits of oil pulling using coconut oil to date. So a pilot study was planned to assess the effect of coconut oil pulling on plaque induced gingivitis. Materials and Methods: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of coconut oil pulling/oil swishing on plaque formation and plaque induced gingivitis. A prospective interventional study was carried out. 60 age matched adolescent boys and girls in the age-group of 16-18 years with plaque induced gingivitis were included in the study and oil pulling was included in their oral hygiene routine. The study period was 30 days. Plaque and gingival indices of the subjects were assessed at baseline days 1,7,15 and 30. The data was analyzed using paired t test. Results: A statistically significant decrease in the plaque and gingival indices was noticed from day 7 and the scores continued to decrease during the period of study. Conclusion: Oil pulling using coconut oil could be an effective adjuvant procedure in decreasing plaque formation and plaque induced gingivitis. PMID:25838632

  2. Improving quality assurance for assembled COMS eye plaques using a pinhole gamma camera.

    PubMed

    Beiki-Ardakani, Akbar; Jezioranski, John; Jaffray, David A; Young, Ivan

    2008-10-01

    A quality assurance system has been designed to verify the location and strength of seeds loaded in a brachytherapy eye plaque. This system consists of (1) a pinhole camera in conjunction with a Lumisys ACR-2000i computed radiography (CR) unit to image the location and measure the relative strength of the seeds with autoradiography, and (2) a source strength jig with a survey meter to estimate the total activity of the seeds in the plaque. Five holders of different sizes were made for fixation of the COMS (Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study) plaques (12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 mm) in the camera. The plaque-to-pinhole distance (dpp) has been optimized to be 30 mm to give approximately uniform intensity on the CR image for uniformly loaded COMS plaques. The pinhole-to-detector distance (dpd) can be kept at either 30 mm for 1:1 scale, or at larger distances for higher magnification. For a 1:1 scaling and pinhole diameter of 0.345 mm, useful images are obtained with time-activity product (mCi sec) ranging from 5 to 250 mCi sec. Within this range, the pinhole system is able to differentiate seed activities of >10%. The resulting pinhole autoradiograph is able to (1) confirm the correct number of seeds loaded in the plaque, (2) verify the proper sitting of the seeds in the silastic carrier and the plaque, (3) verify the relative activity distribution of the seeds loaded in the plaque, and (4) potentially evaluate the integrity of the seed. The source strength measurement system is able to measure the total strength of seeds in the plaque ranging from 10 to 80 mCi with an uncertainty of 5%.

  3. Improving quality assurance for assembled COMS eye plaques using a pinhole gamma camera

    SciTech Connect

    Beiki-Ardakani, Akbar; Jezioranski, John; Jaffray, David A.; Yeung, Ivan

    2008-10-15

    A quality assurance system has been designed to verify the location and strength of seeds loaded in a brachytherapy eye plaque. This system consists of (1) a pinhole camera in conjunction with a Lumisys ACR-2000i computed radiography (CR) unit to image the location and measure the relative strength of the seeds with autoradiography, and (2) a source strength jig with a survey meter to estimate the total activity of the seeds in the plaque. Five holders of different sizes were made for fixation of the COMS (Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study) plaques (12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 mm) in the camera. The plaque-to-pinhole distance (d{sub pp}) has been optimized to be 30 mm to give approximately uniform intensity on the CR image for uniformly loaded COMS plaques. The pinhole-to-detector distance (d{sub pd}) can be kept at either 30 mm for 1:1 scale, or at larger distances for higher magnification. For a 1:1 scaling and pinhole diameter of 0.345 mm, useful images are obtained with time-activity product (mCi sec) ranging from 5 to 250 mCi sec. Within this range, the pinhole system is able to differentiate seed activities of >10%. The resulting pinhole autoradiograph is able to (1) confirm the correct number of seeds loaded in the plaque, (2) verify the proper sitting of the seeds in the silastic carrier and the plaque, (3) verify the relative activity distribution of the seeds loaded in the plaque, and (4) potentially evaluate the integrity of the seed. The source strength measurement system is able to measure the total strength of seeds in the plaque ranging from 10 to 80 mCi with an uncertainty of 5%.

  4. Early canine plaque biofilms: characterization of key bacterial interactions involved in initial colonization of enamel.

    PubMed

    Holcombe, Lucy J; Patel, Niran; Colyer, Alison; Deusch, Oliver; O'Flynn, Ciaran; Harris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is a significant problem in dogs affecting between 44% and 63.6% of the population. The main etiological agent for PD is plaque, a microbial biofilm that colonizes teeth and causes inflammation of the gingiva. Understanding how this biofilm initiates on the tooth surface is of central importance in developing interventions against PD. Although the stages of plaque development on human teeth have been well characterized little is known about how canine plaque develops. Recent studies of the canine oral microbiome have revealed distinct differences between the canine and human oral environments and the bacterial communities they support, particularly with respect to healthy plaque. These differences mean knowledge about the nature of plaque formation in humans may not be directly translatable to dogs. The aim of this study was to identify the bacterial species important in the early stages of canine plaque formation in vivo and then use isolates of these species in a laboratory biofilm model to develop an understanding of the sequential processes which take place during the initial colonization of enamel. Supra-gingival plaque samples were collected from 12 dogs at 24 and 48 hour time points following a full mouth descale and polish. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA identified 134 operational taxonomic units after statistical analysis. The species with the highest relative abundance were Bergeyella zoohelcum, Neisseria shayeganii and a Moraxella species. Streptococcal species, which tend to dominate early human plaque biofilms, had very low relative abundance. In vitro testing of biofilm formation identified five primary colonizer species, three of which belonged to the genus Neisseria. Using these pioneer bacteria as a starting point, viable two and three species communities were developed. Combining in vivo and in vitro data has led us to construct novel models of how the early canine plaque biofilm develops. PMID:25463050

  5. Superficial Femoral Artery Plaque and Functional Performance in Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Mary M.; Liu, Kiang; Carroll, Timothy J.; Tian, Lu; Ferrucci, Luigi; Li, Debiao; Carr, James; Guralnik, Jack M.; Kibbe, Melina; Pearce, William H.; Yuan, Chun; McCarthy, Walter; Kramer, Christopher M.; Tao, Huimin; Liao, Yihua; Clark, Elizabeth Talley; Xu, Dongxiang; Berry, Jarett; Orozco, Jennifer; Sharma, Leena; Criqui, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We studied associations of magnetic resonance imaging measurements of plaque area and relative percent lumen reduction in the proximal superficial femoral artery with functional performance among participants with peripheral arterial disease. BACKGROUND The clinical significance of directly imaged plaque characteristics in lower extremity arteries is not well established. METHODS A total of 454 participants with an ankle brachial index <1.00 underwent magnetic resonance cross-sectional imaging of the proximal superficial femoral artery and completed a 6-min walk test, measurement of 4-m walking velocity at usual and fastest pace, and measurement of physical activity with a vertical accelerometer. RESULTS Adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, smoking, statin use, comorbidities, and other covariates, higher mean plaque area (1st quintile [least plaque]: 394 m, 2nd quintile: 360 m, 3rd quintile: 359 m, 4th quintile: 329 m, 5th quintile [greatest plaque]: 311 m; p trend <0.001) and smaller mean percent lumen area (1st quintile [greatest plaque]: 319 m, 2nd quintile: 330 m, 3rd quintile: 364 m, 4th quintile: 350 m, 5th quintile: 390 m; p trend <0.001) were associated with shorter distance achieved in the 6-min walk test. Greater mean plaque area was also associated with slower usual-paced walking velocity (p trend = 0.006) and slower fastest-paced 4-m walking velocity (p trend = 0.003). Associations of mean plaque area and mean lumen area with 6-min walk distance remained statistically significant even after additional adjustment for the ankle brachial index and leg symptoms. CONCLUSIONS Among participants with peripheral arterial disease, greater plaque burden and smaller lumen area in the proximal superficial femoral artery are associated independently with poorer functional performance, even after adjusting for the ankle brachial index and leg symptoms. PMID:21757163

  6. Chlamydia pneumoniae in atherosclerotic carotid artery plaques: high prevalence among heavy smokers.

    PubMed

    Dobrilovic, N; Vadlamani, L; Meyer, M; Wright, C B

    2001-06-01

    This study was designed to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in carotid artery plaques. Although there have been numerous studies evaluating coronary plaques for this bacterium fewer studies have assessed noncoronary vasculature. In addition we wished to evaluate whether correlation exists between the presence of C. pneumoniae in carotid plaques and established risk factors for atherosclerosis. Sixty intact carotid artery plaques removed during surgery (carotid endarterectomy) were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded according to conventional techniques. These samples were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction analysis to detect presence of C. pneumoniae DNA. Results were tabulated and compared against established risk factors for atherosclerosis: diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, age, and smoking. Forty-two (70.0%) of the 60 plaques that were evaluated tested positive for the presence of C. pneumoniae DNA by polymerase chain reaction analysis. In the sample defined as being from heavy smokers (greater than 15-pack-year history) 33 (94.3%) of 35 plaques tested positive whereas two (5.7%) tested negative. This correlation demonstrated statistical significance (P = 1.36 x 10(-6), two-tailed Fisher exact test). Presence of C. pneumoniae in carotid plaques demonstrated no statistically significant correlation with diabetes, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia. Age as a risk factor was examined but not statistically evaluated because of the narrow range within our patient sample. Analysis of the data reveals that C. pneumoniae is present in large numbers of atheromatous plaques as is consistent with emerging data. What is interesting though is that 33 (94.3%) of the 35 smokers had plaques that tested positive for the bacterium as opposed to only nine (36.0%) of the 25 nonsmokers. Identification of specific populations exhibiting a high prevalence of C. pneumoniae may serve to focus future studies. Ongoing investigation will seek to determine whether C

  7. Ex vivo comparison of angioscopy and histopathology for the evaluation of coronary plaque characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Masahiko; Fujii, Kenichi; Hao, Hiroyuki; Imanaka, Takahiro; Fukunaga, Masashi; Miki, Kojiro; Tamaru, Hiroto; Nakata, Tsuyoshi; Sawada, Hisashi; Naito, Yoshiro; Hirota, Seiichi; Masuyama, Tohru

    2016-06-01

    The yellow plaque has been considered to be a vulnerable and high risk for acute coronary syndrome events but not fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between angioscopic color grade and histological features in coronary autopsy specimens. We longitudinally sectioned 110 coronary arteries from 40 autopsy hearts with non-cardiovascular death. Harvested arteries were imaged with intravascular ultrasound to identify the focal plaque (plaque burden >50 %). An angioscopic examination of each focal plaque evaluated its color intensity as follows: 0 (white), 1 (light yellow), 2 (yellow), or 3 (dark yellow). The corresponding histological assessment was classified according to a modified version of the American Heart Association classification of atherosclerosis. Two hundred six plaques were matched to the histological analysis. Of these, 82 (40 %) were categorized as yellow (≥grade 1). Although, yellow plaque often includes thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA), the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and overall diagnostic accuracy for histological TCFA were 83, 91, 22, 99 and 91 %, respectively. The false-positive coronary angioscopic diagnoses for TCFA that contributed to the low positive predictive value consisted of the following plaques: thick FA (>65 μm), accumulations of large quantities of foam cells on the luminal surface, or dense calcified plates at the surface of the intima. Vulnerable coronary plaques were detected with high sensitivity and low positive predictive value from their yellow color on angioscopy. Not only fibroatheroma but also various types of plaques and their components, such as immature lipidic components and superficial calcium plates, appeared yellow on coronary angioscopy. PMID:26873010

  8. Migration of blood cells to β-amyloid plaques in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Hohsfield, Lindsay A.; Humpel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that leads to the progressive deterioration of cognitive and memory functions. The deposition of extracellular beta-amyloid (Aβ) senile plaques and intracellular tau neurofibrillary tangles are considered the cardinal pathological hallmarks of AD, however, accumulating evidence indicates that immune cells may also play an important role in disease pathogenesis. Among these immune cells, blood-derived cells and their infiltration into the CNS towards Aβ plaques have been implicated in therapeutic strategies against AD. Here, we review the current literature on blood cell migration into the AD brain and the important players involved in this selective migration towards Aβ plaques. PMID:25752742

  9. A plaque assay for malignant catarrhal fever virus and virus neutralizing activity.

    PubMed

    Hazlett, D T

    1980-05-01

    A cell-free strain of malignant catarrhal fever virus which produced a readily recognizable cytopathic effect was obtained by serial passage of the virus in a rabbit kidney cell line. Plaque assay of the virus was more rapid and gave higher titres 11 days postinoculation than tube titration, but the latter advantage decreased with a longer incubation period. Plaques were clear with sharp edges and measured 0.5 to 2 mm in diameter after 15 days. A plaque neutralization test was developed and successfully employed for the titration of malignant catarrhal fever virus neutralizing activity in the sera and nasal secretions of blue wildebeest.

  10. Plaque assay of Sendai virus in monolayers of a clonal line of porcine kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Ito, H

    1976-02-01

    The MN strain of Sendai virus formed distinct plaques in monolayers of PS-Y15 cells, an established porcine kidney cell line. The plaque-forming ability was neutralized by specific antibody to the virus. A linear relationship was found between the concentration of virus and the number of plaques. The sensitivity of this assay was about equal to that of the in ovo titration. When applied to the serum neutralization test, the end points obtained were comparable to those of the hemagglutination-inhibition and complement-fixation tests.

  11. Specific imaging of atherosclerotic plaque lipids with two-wavelength intravascular photoacoustics

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Min; Jansen, Krista; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.; van Soest, Gijs

    2015-01-01

    The lipid content in plaques is an important marker for identifying atherosclerotic lesions and disease states. Intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging can be used to visualize lipids in the artery. In this study, we further investigated lipid detection in the 1.7-µm spectral range. By exploiting the relative difference between the IVPA signal strengths at 1718 and 1734 nm, we could successfully detect and differentiate between the plaque lipids and peri-adventitial fat in human coronary arteries ex vivo. Our study demonstrates that IVPA imaging can positively identify atherosclerotic plaques using only two wavelengths, which could enable rapid data acquisition in vivo. PMID:26417500

  12. Pleural plaques and risk of cancer in Turin, northwestern Italy. An autopsy study

    SciTech Connect

    Mollo, F.; Andrion, A.; Colombo, A.; Segnan, N.; Pira, E.

    1984-10-01

    The relationship between the occurrence of neoplastic diseases and the presence of pleural plaques was studied in a series of 1097 autopsies performed in Turin from the adult general population. In men, pleural plaques showed an association with the presence of laryngeal, pulmonary, esophageal, and colorectal cancer. Only cancer of the larynx was strongly related to the occurrence of such pleural changes. This autopsy investigation confirms previous observations by others based on x-ray findings, and suggests that pleural plaques may be regarded as risk indicators of possibly asbestos-related tumors in the general population.

  13. Episcleral radioactive plaque therapy: Initial clinical experience with 56 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Lean, E.K.; Cohen, D.M.; Liggett, P.E.; Luxton, G.; Langholz, B.; Lau, R.; Astrahan, M.A.; Hyden, E.C.; Petrovich, Z. )

    1990-06-01

    Between 1983 and 1987, 56 patients with choroidal melanoma were treated at the University of Southern California with episcleral plaque (RPT). There were 29 female and 27 male patients, with a mean age of 59 years. Tumor stage at diagnosis was T2 in 18 (32%) and T3 in 38 (68%) patients. The tumor height ranged from 2.9 to 15 mm (mean 6.8 mm). Radial dimensions ranged from 5 to 25 mm (mean 13.2 mm), and circumference ranged from 7 to 23 mm (mean 12.3 mm). Most (77%) patients had posteriorly located tumors, including 18% that were juxtapapillary. Custom-designed gold plaques were utilized in this study. Radioactive isotopes used were 125I for 26 procedures or 192Ir for 31 procedures. A total of 56 patients were treated, with one patient having two procedures. Radiation doses at the tumor apex ranged from 29.8 to 165.4 Gy (mean 94.5 Gy), with the dose at 5-mm depth ranging from 70.5 to 430 Gy (mean 161.5 Gy). Follow-up ranged from 29 to 57 months (mean 39 months). The overall 4-year survival was 96%, with a 91% incidence of free-of-disease progression at 4 years. The majority (84%) of patients experienced a decrease in tumor height, with 27 (48%) patients having greater than 50% decrease. Increase in tumor height was noted in 5 (9%) and no change in 4 (7%) patients. Useful vision was observed in 59% of patients, including 21% who had improved vision. Metastatic tumor occurred in 5 (9%) patients, with a mean time to metastases of 14 months. There was a good correlation between radial tumor dimension and metastatic disease, p less than 0.001. Treatment complications were observed in 34 (61%) patients, with cataract and retinopathy being the most common. Enucleation was performed in 11 (20%) patients, with a mean time to enucleation of 14.5 months. Causative factors for enucleation were treatment complications in 6 and tumor progression in 5 patients.

  14. Plaque Brachytherapy for Uveal Melanoma: A Vision Prognostication Model

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Niloufer; Khan, Mohammad K.; Bena, James; Macklis, Roger; Singh, Arun D.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To generate a vision prognostication model after plaque brachytherapy for uveal melanoma. Methods and Materials: All patients with primary single ciliary body or choroidal melanoma treated with iodine-125 or ruthenium-106 plaque brachytherapy between January 1, 2005, and June 30, 2010, were included. The primary endpoint was loss of visual acuity. Only patients with initial visual acuity better than or equal to 20/50 were used to evaluate visual acuity worse than 20/50 at the end of the study, and only patients with initial visual acuity better than or equal to 20/200 were used to evaluate visual acuity worse than 20/200 at the end of the study. Factors analyzed were sex, age, cataracts, diabetes, tumor size (basal dimension and apical height), tumor location, and radiation dose to the tumor apex, fovea, and optic disc. Univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards were used to determine the influence of baseline patient factors on vision loss. Kaplan-Meier curves (log rank analysis) were used to estimate freedom from vision loss. Results: Of 189 patients, 92% (174) were alive as of February 1, 2011. At presentation, visual acuity was better than or equal to 20/50 and better than or equal to 20/200 in 108 and 173 patients, respectively. Of these patients, 44.4% (48) had post-treatment visual acuity of worse than 20/50 and 25.4% (44) had post-treatment visual acuity worse than 20/200. By multivariable analysis, increased age (hazard ratio [HR] of 1.01 [1.00-1.03], P=.05), increase in tumor height (HR of 1.35 [1.22-1.48], P<.001), and a greater total dose to the fovea (HR of 1.01 [1.00-1.01], P<.001) were predictive of vision loss. This information was used to develop a nomogram predictive of vision loss. Conclusions: By providing a means to predict vision loss at 3 years after treatment, our vision prognostication model can be an important tool for patient selection and treatment counseling.

  15. Topological analyses in APP/PS1 mice reveal that astrocytes do not migrate to amyloid-β plaques.

    PubMed

    Galea, Elena; Morrison, Will; Hudry, Eloise; Arbel-Ornath, Michal; Bacskai, Brian J; Gómez-Isla, Teresa; Stanley, H Eugene; Hyman, Bradley T

    2015-12-22

    Although the clustering of GFAP immunopositive astrocytes around amyloid-β plaques in Alzheimer's disease has led to the widespread assumption that plaques attract astrocytes, recent studies suggest that astrocytes stay put in injury. Here we reexamine astrocyte migration to plaques, using quantitative spatial analysis and computer modeling to investigate the topology of astrocytes in 3D images obtained by two-photon microscopy of living APP/PS1 mice and WT littermates. In WT mice, cortical astrocyte topology fits a model in which a liquid of hard spheres exclude each other in a confined space. Plaques do not disturb this arrangement except at very large plaque loads, but, locally, cause subtle outward shifts of the astrocytes located in three tiers around plaques. These data suggest that astrocytes respond to plaque-induced neuropil injury primarily by changing phenotype, and hence function, rather than location.

  16. Topological analyses in APP/PS1 mice reveal that astrocytes do not migrate to amyloid-β plaques

    PubMed Central

    Galea, Elena; Morrison, Will; Hudry, Eloise; Arbel-Ornath, Michal; Bacskai, Brian J.; Gómez-Isla, Teresa; Stanley, H. Eugene; Hyman, Bradley T.

    2015-01-01

    Although the clustering of GFAP immunopositive astrocytes around amyloid-β plaques in Alzheimer’s disease has led to the widespread assumption that plaques attract astrocytes, recent studies suggest that astrocytes stay put in injury. Here we reexamine astrocyte migration to plaques, using quantitative spatial analysis and computer modeling to investigate the topology of astrocytes in 3D images obtained by two-photon microscopy of living APP/PS1 mice and WT littermates. In WT mice, cortical astrocyte topology fits a model in which a liquid of hard spheres exclude each other in a confined space. Plaques do not disturb this arrangement except at very large plaque loads, but, locally, cause subtle outward shifts of the astrocytes located in three tiers around plaques. These data suggest that astrocytes respond to plaque-induced neuropil injury primarily by changing phenotype, and hence function, rather than location. PMID:26644572

  17. A proof-of-concept study for predicting the region of atherosclerotic plaque development based on plaque growth modeling in carotid arteries.

    PubMed

    Sakellarios, Antonis I; Bizopoulos, Paschalis; Stefanou, Kostas; Athanasiou, Lambros S; Papafaklis, Michail I; Bourantas, Christos V; Naka, Katerina K; Michalis, Lampros K; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present a computational model for plaque growth utilizing magnetic resonance data of a patient's carotid artery. More specifically, we model blood flow utilizing the Navier-Stokes equations, as well as LDL and HDL transport using the convection-diffusion equation in the arterial lumen. The accumulated LDL in the arterial wall is oxidized considering the protective effect of HDL. Macrophages recruitment and foam cells formation are the final step of the proposed multi-level modeling approach of the plaque growth. The simulated results of our model are compared with the follow-up MRI findings in 12 months regarding the change to the arterial wall thickness. WSS and LDL may indicate potential regions of plaque growth (R(2)=0.35), but the contribution of foam cells formation, macrophages and oxidized LDL increased the prediction significantly (R(2)=0.75). PMID:26737794

  18. IVUS-based histology of atherosclerotic plaques: improving longitudinal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taki, Arash; Pauly, Olivier; Setarehdan, S. Kamaledin; Unal, Gozde; Navab, Nassir

    2010-03-01

    Although Virtual Histology (VH) is the in-vivo gold standard for atherosclerosis plaque characterization in IVUS images, it suffers from a poor longitudinal resolution due to ECG-gating. In this paper, we propose an image-based approach to overcome this limitation. Since each tissue have different echogenic characteristics, they show in IVUS images different local frequency components. By using Redundant Wavelet Packet Transform (RWPT), IVUS images are decomposed in multiple sub-band images. To encode the textural statistics of each resulting image, run-length features are extracted from the neighborhood centered on each pixel. To provide the best discrimination power according to these features, relevant sub-bands are selected by using Local Discriminant Bases (LDB) algorithm in combination with Fisher's criterion. A structure of weighted multi-class SVM permits the classification of the extracted feature vectors into three tissue classes, namely fibro-fatty, necrotic core and dense calcified tissues. Results shows the superiority of our approach with an overall accuracy of 72% in comparison to methods based on Local Binary Pattern and Co-occurrence, which respectively give accuracy rates of 70% and 71%.

  19. The antibody aducanumab reduces Aβ plaques in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Sevigny, Jeff; Chiao, Ping; Bussière, Thierry; Weinreb, Paul H; Williams, Leslie; Maier, Marcel; Dunstan, Robert; Salloway, Stephen; Chen, Tianle; Ling, Yan; O'Gorman, John; Qian, Fang; Arastu, Mahin; Li, Mingwei; Chollate, Sowmya; Brennan, Melanie S; Quintero-Monzon, Omar; Scannevin, Robert H; Arnold, H Moore; Engber, Thomas; Rhodes, Kenneth; Ferrero, James; Hang, Yaming; Mikulskis, Alvydas; Grimm, Jan; Hock, Christoph; Nitsch, Roger M; Sandrock, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, accompanied by synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration. Antibody-based immunotherapy against Aβ to trigger its clearance or mitigate its neurotoxicity has so far been unsuccessful. Here we report the generation of aducanumab, a human monoclonal antibody that selectively targets aggregated Aβ. In a transgenic mouse model of AD, aducanumab is shown to enter the brain, bind parenchymal Aβ, and reduce soluble and insoluble Aβ in a dose-dependent manner. In patients with prodromal or mild AD, one year of monthly intravenous infusions of aducanumab reduces brain Aβ in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This is accompanied by a slowing of clinical decline measured by Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes and Mini Mental State Examination scores. The main safety and tolerability findings are amyloid-related imaging abnormalities. These results justify further development of aducanumab for the treatment of AD. Should the slowing of clinical decline be confirmed in ongoing phase 3 clinical trials, it would provide compelling support for the amyloid hypothesis. PMID:27582220

  20. Imaging Coronary Atherosclerosis and Vulnerable Plaques with Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tearney, Guillermo J.; Jang, Ik-Kyung; Kashiwagi, Manubu; Bouma, Brett E.

    Intracoronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an invasive microscopic imaging technology that has been developed for the identification of vulnerable plaque. OCT acquires cross-sectional images of tissue reflectance and, since it may be implemented through an optical fiber probe, it is readily adaptable to coronary catheters for insertion into coronary arteries and circumferential imaging of arterial pathology. The first investigation of vascular optical coherence tomography ex vivo demonstrated the potential of this technique to identify arterial microstructure. Subsequent development of OCT technology enabled image acquisition at rates sufficient for intracoronary imaging in human patients. In this chapter, we review studies conducted with this technology at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). Results from these studies show that a wide variety of microscopic features, including those associated with TCFAs, can be identified by OCT imaging both ex vivo and in living human patients. These findings suggest that this technology will play an important role in improving our understanding of coronary artery disease, guiding local therapy, and decreasing themortality of AMI.

  1. Is chronic plaque psoriasis triggered by microbiota in the skin?

    PubMed

    Fry, L; Baker, B S; Powles, A V; Fahlen, A; Engstrand, L

    2013-07-01

    There is a known association between psoriasis and Crohn disease (CD). Patients with CD are five times more likely to develop psoriasis, and, conversely, patients with psoriasis are more likely to develop CD. Many gastroenterologists now accept that CD results from a breakdown of immune tolerance to the microbiota of the intestine in genetically susceptible individuals. The microbiota of the skin have recently been investigated in psoriasis. Firmicutes was the most common phylum, and Streptococcus the most common genus identified. Beta-haemolytic streptococci have been implicated in both guttate and chronic plaque psoriasis. Furthermore, the innate immune system has been shown to be activated in psoriasis, and many of the genes associated with the disease are concerned with the signalling pathways of the innate immune system, notably interleukin-23 and nuclear factor κB. Patients with psoriasis also have an increased incidence of periodontitis, a disease thought to be due to an abnormal response to normal oral commensals. Based on the similarities between CD and psoriasis, we propose that psoriasis is due to a breakdown of immune tolerance to the microbiota of the skin. In support of this hypothesis we provide evidence for microbiota in the skin, activation of the innate immune system, and genetic abnormalities involving the innate immune system.

  2. Pleural plaques in a rural population in central Macedonia, Greece.

    PubMed

    Sichletidis, L; Daskalopoulou, E; Chloros, D; Vlachogiannis, E; Vamvalis, C

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and the causative factor of pleural plaques (PP) in 7 neighbouring villages (Monastiraki, Promachi, Megaplatanos, Orma, Polykarpi, Sarakini and Koryphi) located south-west of Aridea in Macedonia, Greece, where many cases of bilateral pleural calcifications were observed in the past. Full size chest radiographs were obtained from 1086 of the 3901 inhabitants over 5 years of age who agreed to participate in the study. The chest radiographs were scrutinized for PP according to International Labour Office criteria. From the total of 1737 inhabitants aged between 5 and 40 years, 268 were examined. None had a positive chest radiograph for PP. Therefore the prevalence of PP was evaluated for the subjects over 40 years of age. The highest prevalence of PP (41.7%) was observed in Monastiraki and none in Koryphi, with the prevalence of the other villages lying in between. Extremely high concentrations of chrysotile and tremolite fibres were found, using polarised light microscopy and X-ray diffraction, in the "white stones" which people use for white-washing their houses prior to 1935. The environmental study revealed 0.01 fibres/ml in a room purposely recently painted with the offending material, and 17.9 ff/ml after scraping. During the 28 months of our study five cases of malignant pleural mesothelioma were diagnosed.

  3. Association of Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio with Plaque Morphology in Patients with Asymptomatic Intermediate Carotid Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Köklü, Erkan; Arslan, Şakir; Çağırcı, Göksel; Göksu, Eylem Özaydın; Koç, Pınar; Çay, Serkan; Kızılırmak, Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Non-calcified carotid plaques are more unstable than calcified plaques, and they are associated with a higher risk of rupture, thromboembolism, and consequently, stroke. The purpose of the present study is to compare calcified and non-calcified plaques that cause intermediate carotid artery stenosis with respect to neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR). Subjects and Methods A total number of 139 asymptomatic patients with 50-70% stenosis of the carotid artery were included in this study. Carotid Doppler ultrasound imaging and computed tomography angiography were performed to divide the carotid artery plaques into two groups as calcified and non-calcified. Patients included in the calcified (n=73) and non-calcified (n=66) plaque groups were compared with respect to total neutrophil count, lymphocyte count and NLR. Results Total lymphocyte count was statistically significantly lower in the non-calcified plaque group compared to the calcified plaque group (total lymphocyte count in non-calcified/calcified plaque groups [103/mm3]: 2.1/2.3, respectively) (p=0.002). NLR was statistically significantly higher in the non-calcified plaque group compared to the calcified plaque group (NLR in non-calcified/calcified plaque groups: 2.6/2.1, respectively) (p<0.001). The cut-off value for NLR was found to be >2.54. Multivariate regression analysis showed that NLR was independently associated with non-calcified carotid artery plaques (odds ratio 5.686, 95% CI 2.498-12.944, p<0.001). Conclusions NLR is increased in the presence of non-calcified carotid artery plaques that cause asymptomatic intermediate stenosis. Increased NLR can be used as a marker to assess the risk of rupture of non-calcified carotid artery plaques. PMID:27721862

  4. [Titration of Ebola and Marburg viruses by plaque formation under semi liquid agar].

    PubMed

    Ustinova, E N; Shestopalov, A M; Bakulina, L F; Chepurnov, A A

    2003-01-01

    The method of titration of Ebola and Marburg viruses using plaque formation under semifluid agar cover is considered. Advantages of this method over conventional method of titration of these viruses with the use of hard agar cover are discussed.

  5. Plaque staining assay for non- or weakly cytotoxic human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T; Nakashima, H; Yoshiyama, H; Kobayashi, N; Yamamoto, N

    1987-07-01

    Cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were selectively stained with peroxidase-coupled antibodies in a recently developed plaque assay for HIV. The numbers of plaques formed with the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III strain of HIV were exactly the same in stained (immunologically detectable) and unstained (visible) dishes. However, four times more plaques were visualized in stained dishes than in unstained dishes when the YU-6 and acquired immune deficiency syndrome-associated retrovirus strains of HIV were used. Linear relationship was observed between the number of stained plaques and the virus concentrations in the titration of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III and YU-6. The assay should be useful for the titration of HIV, especially for non- or weakly cytopathic strains of HIV.

  6. Comparison of microtiter procedures with the plaque technique for assay of vesicular stomatitis virus.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, L J; Shechmeister, I L

    1971-03-01

    This paper describes a microprocedure for the tissue culture assay of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and compares the sensitivity of the method with the conventional plaque assay of viral concentration. Microtiter and plaque assay methods were used in titrations, neutralization tests, and thermoinactivation studies with this virus in chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF) and L, HeLa, and PK cell lines. Titration experiments with VSV by the microtiter procedure on preformed monolayers were significantly more sensitive than the plaque assay (P = 0.05). The results of the neutralization tests and thermoinactivation studies also showed greater ability to detect residual virus by the microtiter procedure (P = 0.10). In addition, the microtiter procedure was simpler, less costly, and more rapid than the plaque assay.

  7. [Reverse plaque formation by hog cholera virus inducing interference with VSV (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Laude, H

    1978-01-01

    Infection of PK15 cells with various strains of Hog Cholera (HCV, togaviridae) induces a transient refractory state to VSV. The reverse plaque procedure is convenient for HCV titration of virulent, "chronic" and attenuated strains.

  8. Emergence of simian virus 40 variants during serial passage of plaque isolates.

    PubMed

    Norkin, L C; Tirrell, S M

    1982-05-01

    Three serial passage series of simian virus 40 (SV40) in CV-1 cells were initiated by infection directly from the same wild-type plaque isolate, three series were initiated by infection with another plaque isolate, and two series were initiated with each of two other plaque isolates. Aberrant SV40 genomes were not detected in any of the passage series until after the fifty undiluted passage, and each series generated a different array of variant genomes. The results show that the variants were not present in the original plaque isolates but, instead, were randomly generated during subsequent high-input multiplicity passages. Although many of the aberrant viral genomes in each passage series contained reiterations of the SV40 origin of replication and some also contained host cell sequences, there was no indication that SV40 is predisposed toward generating any particular variant.

  9. The neuritic plaque facilitates pathological conversion of tau in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tong; Braunstein, Kerstin E.; Zhang, Juhong; Lau, Ashley; Sibener, Leslie; Deeble, Christopher; Wong, Philip C.

    2016-01-01

    A central question in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is whether the neuritic plaque is necessary and sufficient for the development of tau pathology. Hyperphosphorylation of tau is found within dystrophic neurites surrounding β-amyloid deposits in AD mouse models but the pathological conversion of tau is absent. Likewise, expression of a human tau repeat domain in mice is insufficient to drive the pathological conversion of tau. Here we developed an Aβ-amyloidosis mouse model that expresses the human tau repeat domain and show that in these mice, the neuritic plaque facilitates the pathological conversion of wild-type tau. We show that this tau fragment seeds the neuritic plaque-dependent pathological conversion of wild-type tau that spreads from the cortex and hippocampus to the brain stem. These results establish that in addition to the neuritic plaque, a second determinant is required to drive the conversion of wild-type tau. PMID:27373369

  10. Genesis and growth of extracellular-vesicle-derived microcalcification in atherosclerotic plaques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutcheson, Joshua D.; Goettsch, Claudia; Bertazzo, Sergio; Maldonado, Natalia; Ruiz, Jessica L.; Goh, Wilson; Yabusaki, Katsumi; Faits, Tyler; Bouten, Carlijn; Franck, Gregory; Quillard, Thibaut; Libby, Peter; Aikawa, Masanori; Weinbaum, Sheldon; Aikawa, Elena

    2016-03-01

    Clinical evidence links arterial calcification and cardiovascular risk. Finite-element modelling of the stress distribution within atherosclerotic plaques has suggested that subcellular microcalcifications in the fibrous cap may promote material failure of the plaque, but that large calcifications can stabilize it. Yet the physicochemical mechanisms underlying such mineral formation and growth in atheromata remain unknown. Here, by using three-dimensional collagen hydrogels that mimic structural features of the atherosclerotic fibrous cap, and high-resolution microscopic and spectroscopic analyses of both the hydrogels and of calcified human plaques, we demonstrate that calcific mineral formation and maturation results from a series of events involving the aggregation of calcifying extracellular vesicles, and the formation of microcalcifications and ultimately large calcification areas. We also show that calcification morphology and the plaque’s collagen content--two determinants of atherosclerotic plaque stability--are interlinked.

  11. Shape-based segmentation and visualization techniques for evaluation of atherosclerotic plaques in coronary artery disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinck, Daniel; Krüger, Sebastian; Reimann, Anja; Scheuering, Michael

    2006-03-01

    Multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) has developed strongly in the emerging field of cardiovascular imaging. The manual analysis of atherosclerotic plaques in coronary arteries is a very time consuming and labor intensive process and today only qualitative analysis is possible. In this paper we present a new shape-based segmentation and visualization technique for quantitative analysis of atherosclerotic plaques in coronary artery disease. The new technique takes into account several aspects of the vascular anatomy. It uses two surface representations, one for the contrast filled vessel lumen and also one for the vascular wall. The deviation between these two surfaces is defined as plaque volume. These surface representations can be edited by the user manually. With this kind of representation it is possible to calculate sub plaque volumes (such as: lipid rich core, fibrous tissue, calcified tissue) inside this suspicious area. Also a high quality 3D visualization, using Open Inventor is possible.

  12. Genesis and growth of extracellular vesicle-derived microcalcification in atherosclerotic plaques

    PubMed Central

    Hutcheson, Joshua D.; Goettsch, Claudia; Bertazzo, Sergio; Maldonado, Natalia; Ruiz, Jessica L.; Goh, Wilson; Yabusaki, Katsumi; Faits, Tyler; Bouten, Carlijn; Franck, Gregory; Quillard, Thibaut; Libby, Peter; Aikawa, Masanori; Weinbaum, Sheldon; Aikawa, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Clinical evidence links arterial calcification and cardiovascular risk. Finite-element modelling of the stress distribution within atherosclerotic plaques has suggested that subcellular microcalcifications in the fibrous cap may promote material failure of the plaque, but that large calcifications can stabilize it. Yet the physicochemical mechanisms underlying such mineral formation and growth in atheromata remain unknown. Here, by using three-dimensional collagen hydrogels that mimic structural features of the atherosclerotic fibrous cap, and high-resolution microscopic and spectroscopic analyses of both the hydrogels and of calcified human plaques, we demonstrate that calcific mineral formation and maturation results from a series of events involving the aggregation of calcifying extracellular vesicles, and the formation of microcalcifications and ultimately large calcification zones. We also show that calcification morphology and the plaque’s collagen content – two determinants of atherosclerotic plaque stability - are interlinked. PMID:26752654

  13. The Relationship between Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Carotid Plaque in the Northern Manhattan Study

    PubMed Central

    Rundek, Tatjana; Gardener, Hannah; Della-Morte, David; Dong, Chuanhui; Cabral, Digna; Tiozzo, Eduardo; Roberts, Eugene; Crisby, Milita; Chueng, Kuen; Demmer, Ryan; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Desvarieux, Moise

    2015-01-01

    Objective Carotid intima–media thickness (cIMT) and carotid plaque (CP) are proposed biomarkers of subclinical atherosclerosis associated with stroke risk. Whether cIMT and CP are distinct phenotypes or single traits at different stages of atherosclerotic development is unclear. We explored the relationship between these markers in the population-based Northern Manhattan Study. Methods We used high-resolution ultrasound and validated imaging protocols to study the cross-sectional (N=1,788 stroke-free participants) and prospective relationship (N=768 with follow-up scan; mean years between examinations=3.5) between CP and cIMT measured in plaque-free areas. Results The mean age was 66±9 (40% male, 19% black, 17% white, 61% Hispanic). The mean baseline cIMT was 0.92±0.09mm, 0.94±0.09mm among the 58% with prevalent plaque, 0.90±0.08mm among the 42% without prevalent plaque (p<0.0001). Each 0.1mm increase in baseline cIMT was associated with a 1.72-fold increased odds of plaque presence (95%CI=1.50-1.97), increased plaque thickness (effect on the median=0.46mm, p<0.0001), and increased plaque area (effect on the median=3.45mm2, p<0.0001), adjusting for demographics and vascular risk factors. Elevated baseline cIMT was associated with an increased risk of new plaque in any location at follow-up, but after adjusting for demographics and vascular risk factors this association was no longer present. No association was observed in carotid segment-specific analyses. Conclusion Increased cIMT was associated with baseline prevalent plaque but did not predict incident plaque independent of other vascular risk factors. This finding suggests that increased cIMT is not an independent predictor of plaque development although these atherosclerotic phenotypes often coexist and share some common vascular determinants. PMID:26071659

  14. Effect of calcium in model plaque on the anticaries activity of fluoride in vitro.

    PubMed

    Blake-Haskins, J C; Mellberg, J R; Snyder, C

    1992-08-01

    The uptake of calcium by a polysaccharide (agarose) gel used as a model for plaque from a two-step treatment (consisting of a calcium rinse followed by a fluoride treatment) and the effect of the deposited calcium in model plaque on caries lesion formation in enamel were determined. Calcium uptake was measured by treatment of the model plaques with [45Ca]-CaCl2 solutions with or without NaF. A two-step treatment consisting of calcium followed by fluoride produced a 100% increase in calcium content of model plaque, presumably due to the formation of CaF2, compared with a treatment with artificial saliva followed by calcium alone. The effects of these increased plaque minerals on caries lesion formation were studied by subjecting model-plaque-covered enamel blocks to a cyclic demineralization-remineralization treatment. Artificial-plaque-covered enamel blocks were treated daily with 180 ppm calcium for ten min, then 100 ppm fluoride for ten min, followed by demineralization for 16 h, and finally, remineralization for seven h and 40 min. After five days, the blocks were sectioned, and lesion formation was determined by microradiography-microdensitometry. Artificial plaque treated with a calcium rinse followed by a fluoride rinse reduced lesion size by 90%, compared with a 68% reduction by a fluoride rinse alone. When the experiment was repeated with a simulated pre-brush calcium rinse (180 ppm calcium) followed by a fluoride dentifrice suspension (110 ppm fluoride), lesion size was reduced by 46%, compared with a 32% reduction by the fluoride dentifrice suspension alone.

  15. Chronic intermittent mental stress promotes atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability, myocardial infarction and sudden death in mice.

    PubMed

    Roth, Lynn; Rombouts, Miche; Schrijvers, Dorien M; Lemmens, Katrien; De Keulenaer, Gilles W; Martinet, Wim; De Meyer, Guido R Y

    2015-09-01

    Vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques are prone to plaque rupture leading to acute cardiovascular syndromes and death. Elucidating the risk of plaque rupture is important to define better therapeutic or preventive strategies. In the present study, we investigated the effect of chronic intermittent mental stress on atherosclerotic plaque stability and cardiovascular mortality in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice with a heterozygous mutation in the fibrillin-1 gene (Fbn1(C1039G+/)(-)). This mouse model displays exacerbated atherosclerosis with spontaneous plaque ruptures, myocardial infarction and sudden death, when fed a Western-type diet (WD). Female ApoE(-/-)Fbn1(C1039G+/-) mice were fed a WD for up to 25 weeks. After 10 weeks WD, mice were divided in a control (n = 27) and mental stress (n = 29) group. The chronic intermittent mental stress protocol consisted of 3 triggers: water avoidance, damp bedding and restraint stress, in a randomly assigned order lasting 6 h every weekday for 15 weeks. Chronic intermittent mental stress resulted in a significant increase in the amount of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques of the proximal ascending aorta, whereas type I collagen and fibrous cap thickness were decreased. The coronary arteries of mental stress-treated mice showed larger plaques, more stenosis, and an increased degree of perivascular fibrosis. Moreover, myocardial infarctions occurred more frequently in the mental stress group. As compared to the control group, the survival of stressed ApoE(-/-)Fbn1(C1039G+/-) mice decreased from 67% to 52% at 25 weeks WD, presumably due to myocardial infarctions. In conclusion, chronic intermittent mental stress promotes plaque instability, myocardial infarctions, and mortality of ApoE(-/-)Fbn1(C1039G+/-) mice. PMID:26233915

  16. The Accuracy of Noninvasive Imaging Techniques in Diagnosis of Carotid Plaque Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Lukanova, Detelina Valchkova; Nikolov, Nadelin Krasimirov; Genova, Kameliya Zaharieva; Stankev, Mario Draganov; Georgieva, Elisaveta Valcheva

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The stroke is leading cause of death and severe disability worldwide. Atherosclerosis is responsible for over 30% of all ischemic strokes. It has been recently discovered that plaque morphology may help predict the clinical behavior of carotid atherosclerosis and determine the risk of stroke. The noninvasive imaging techniques have been developed to evaluate the vascular wall in an attempt to identify “vulnerable plaques”. AIM: The purpose is to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound, multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the identification of plaque components associated with plaque vulnerability. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred patients were admitted for carotid endarterectomy for high grade carotid stenosis. We defined the diagnostic value of B-mode ultrasound of carotid plaque in a half, and the accuracy of multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, in the other group, for detection of unstable carotid plaque. The reference standard was histology. RESULTS: Sensitivity of ultrasound, multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging is 94%, 83% and 100%, and the specificity is 93%, 73% and 89% for detection of unstable carotid plaque. CONCLUSION: The ultrasound has high accuracy for diagnostics of carotid plaque morphology, magnetic resonance imaging has high potential for tissue differentiation and multidetector computed tomography determines precisely degree of stenosis and presence of ulceration and calcifications. The three noninvasive imaging modalities are complementary for optimal evaluation of the morphology of carotid plaque. This will help to determine the risk of stroke and to decide on the best treatment – carotid endarterectomy or carotid stenting. PMID:27275225

  17. Functionalization of gadolinium metallofullerenes for detecting atherosclerotic plaque lesions by cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The hallmark of atherosclerosis is the accumulation of plaque in vessel walls. This process is initiated when monocytic cells differentiate into macrophage foam cells under conditions with high levels of atherogenic lipoproteins. Vulnerable plaque can dislodge, enter the blood stream, and result in acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Imaging techniques such as cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) provides one strategy to identify patients with plaque accumulation. Methods We synthesized an atherosclerotic-targeting contrast agent (ATCA) in which gadolinium (Gd)-containing endohedrals were functionalized and formulated into liposomes with CD36 ligands intercalated into the lipid bilayer. In vitro assays were used to assess the specificity of the ATCA for foam cells. The ability of ATCA to detect atherosclerotic plaque lesions in vivo was assessed using CMR. Results The ATCA was able to detect scavenger receptor (CD36)-expressing foam cells in vitro and were specifically internalized via the CD36 receptor as determined by focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) and Western blotting analysis of CD36 receptor-specific signaling pathways. The ATCA exhibited time-dependent accumulation in atherosclerotic plaque lesions of ApoE −/− mice as determined using CMR. No ATCA accumulation was observed in vessels of wild type (C57/b6) controls. Non-targeted control compounds, without the plaque-targeting moieties, were not taken up by foam cells in vitro and did not bind plaque in vivo. Importantly, the ATCA injection was well tolerated, did not demonstrate toxicity in vitro or in vivo, and no accumulation was observed in the major organs. Conclusions The ATCA is specifically internalized by CD36 receptors on atherosclerotic plaque providing enhanced visualization of lesions under physiological conditions. These ATCA may provide new tools for physicians to non-invasively detect atherosclerotic disease. PMID:23324435

  18. Plaque assay of neonatal calf diarrhea virus and the neutralizing antibody in human sera.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, S; Inouye, S; Kono, R

    1977-01-01

    Neonatal calf diarrhea virus (a bovine rotavirus) formed distinct plaques in monolayers of MA-104 cells, an established macacus rhesus monkey kidney cell line, when diethylaminoethyl dextran and trypsin were included in the overlay medium. By using this plaque assay method, titration of neutralizing antibody to neonatal calf diarrhea virus was made feasible. It was demonstrated that some human sera contained neutralizing antibody to this agent.

  19. The relationship of sanguinaria extract concentration and zinc ion to plaque and gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Southard, G L; Parsons, L G; Thomas, L G; Boulware, R T; Woodall, I R; Jones, B J

    1987-07-01

    The effects of sanguinaria extract and zinc chloride on plaque growth and gingivitis inhibition were assessed on subjects with initially plaque-free tooth surfaces using a series of oral rinses in a single-blind, crossover, no-oral-hygiene study lasting 2 weeks. A placebo oral rinse containing no sanguinaria or zinc chloride (A), and test rinses containing 150 micrograms/ml sanguinaria and 0.2% zinc chloride (B), 300 micrograms/ml sanguinaria and no zinc chloride (C), and 300 micrograms/ml sanguinaria and 0.2% zinc chloride (D) were evaluated. Subjects using the higher concentration rinses C and D had significantly lower plaque scores than rinse A at 7 and 14 days (p less than 0.05 for C, p less than 0.01 for D). However, groups C and D were not significantly different from each other. Group D had significantly lower plaque (p less than 0.05) and gingivitis (p less than 0.01) scores than group B. Subjects who used rinse B and placebo rinse A had the highest plaque and gingivitis scores and comparison of these two groups revealed no significant difference. At the end of 14 days, the % distribution of 0 plaque and gingivitis scores was greatest among subjects using rinses C and D. Subjects in these 2 groups also had the lowest incidence of plaque and gingivitis scores of 2+. It is concluded that the effects of sanguinaria rinses on developing plaque and gingivitis are influenced more by sanguinaria concentrations than the presence or absence of zinc ion, but that zinc ion may provide a mild enhancement of sanguinaria effectiveness against gingivitis.

  20. SOPROCARE - 450 nm wavelength detection tool for microbial plaque and gingival inflammation: a clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechmann, P.; Liou, Shasan W.; Rechmann, Beate M.; Featherstone, John D.

    2014-02-01

    Gingivitis due to microbial plaque and calculus can lead over time if left untreated to advanced periodontal disease with non-physiological pocket formation. Removal of microbial plaque in the gingivitis stage typically achieves gingival health. The SOPROCARE camera system emits blue light at 450 nm wavelength using three blue diodes. The 450 nm wavelength is located in the non-ionizing, visible spectral wavelength region and thus is not dangerous. It is assumed that using the SOPROCARE camera in perio-mode inflamed gingiva can easily be observed and inflammation can be scored due to fluorescence from porphyrins in blood. The assumption is also that illumination of microbial plaque with blue light induces fluorescence due to the bacteria and porphyrin content of the plaque and thus can help to make microbial plaque and calculus visible. Aim of the study with 55 subjects was to evaluate the ability of the SOPROCARE fluorescence camera system to detect, visualize and allow scoring of microbial plaque in comparison to the Turesky modification of the Quigley and Hein plaque index. A second goal was to detect and score gingival inflammation and correlated the findings to the Silness and Löe gingival inflammation index. The study showed that scoring of microbial plaque as well as gingival inflammation levels similar to the established Turesky modified Quigley Hein index and the Silness and Löe gingival inflammation index can easily be done using the SOPROCARE fluorescence system in periomode. Linear regression fits between the different clinical indices and SOPROCARE scores in fluorescence perio-mode revealed the system's capacity for effective discrimination between scores.

  1. Studies on plaque fluoride after use of F-containing dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, R M; Jones, Y; Nicholson, J; Jacobson, A P; Chestnutt, I G

    1994-07-01

    Increased fluoride levels in plaque and saliva have been associated with improved protection against dental caries for dentifrices which contained sodium monofluorophosphate (Duckworth et al., 1992). The main aim of the present work was to test whether oral fluoride retention depended on F source after use of dentifrices containing either NaF or Na2FPO3. In study 1, plaque samples were collected from 474 subjects who had been using one of six test dentifrices for two years, and analyzed by F extraction with water. The dentifrices contained 1000 or 1500 micrograms F/g as either NaF or Na2FPO3. Significantly more fluoride was found in plaque from subjects who were using the NaF dentifrices than in plaque from subjects who were using Na2FPO3 dentifrices of the same F content. Subsets of plaque samples were large enough to divide into two parts for extraction by both acid and water. No significant difference was found between mean fluoride contents, indicating that the majority of fluoride retained in plaque from these conventional dentifrices appears to be relatively labile. The results of two small-scale human enamel studies showed that NaF dentifrices gave elevated F concentrations in plaque and saliva, respectively, compared with Na2FPO3 dentifrices of equivalent F content, consistent with the main plaque study 1. These findings demonstrate that oral F retention from dentifrices is dependent on the source of ionic fluoride and support the view that NaF dentifrices may be more clinically effective than dentifrices which contain the same amount of F as Na2FPO3.

  2. Effect of Manuka honey, chlorhexidine gluconate and xylitol on the clinical levels of dental plaque

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Prathibha A.; Nayak, Ullal A.; Mythili, R.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To compare the effect of Manuka honey, chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2%) mouthwash and xylitol chewing gum on the dental plaque levels. Materials and Methods: Sixty healthy male dental students aged between 21 and 25 years (mean age 23.4 years) participated in the study. All the subjects received a professional prophylaxis at the start of the study, with the purpose of making the dentition 100% free of plaque and calculus. The subjects were then randomly divided into three groups, i.e. the Manuka honey group, the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group and the xylitol chewing gum group. Rinsing with water or any other fluid after the procedure was not allowed as also any form of mechanical oral hygiene for all the subjects during the experimental period of 72 h. After the experimental period, the plaque was disclosed using disclosing solution and their scores were recorded at six sites per tooth using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Results: The mean plaque scores for Groups I, II and III were 1.37, 1.35 and 1.57, respectively. The ANOVA revealed that between-group comparison was significant, with an F-value of 5.99 and a probability value of 0.004. The T-test was carried out to evaluate the inter-group significance, which revealed that the plaque inhibition by Manuka honey was similar to that of chlorhexidine mouthwash. Both Manuka honey and chlorhexidine mouthwash reduced plaque formation significantly, better than the xylitol chewing gum. Conclusion: Manuka honey and chlorhexidine mouthwash reduced plaque formation significantly better than xylitol chewing gum. PMID:22114423

  3. Bacterial Communities Associated with Atherosclerotic Plaques from Russian Individuals with Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ziganshina, Elvira E.; Sharifullina, Dilyara M.; Lozhkin, Andrey P.; Khayrullin, Rustem N.; Ignatyev, Igor M.; Ziganshin, Ayrat M.

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is considered a chronic disease of the arterial wall and is the major cause of severe disease and death among individuals all over the world. Some recent studies have established the presence of bacteria in atherosclerotic plaque samples and suggested their possible contribution to the development of cardiovascular disease. The main objective of this preliminary pilot study was to better understand the bacterial diversity and abundance in human atherosclerotic plaques derived from common carotid arteries of individuals with atherosclerosis (Russian nationwide group) and contribute towards the further identification of a main group of atherosclerotic plaque bacteria by 454 pyrosequencing their 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) genes. The applied approach enabled the detection of bacterial DNA in all atherosclerotic plaques. We found that distinct members of the order Burkholderiales were present at high levels in all atherosclerotic plaques obtained from patients with atherosclerosis with the genus Curvibacter being predominant in all plaque samples. Moreover, unclassified Burkholderiales as well as members of the genera Propionibacterium and Ralstonia were typically the most significant taxa for all atherosclerotic plaques. Other genera such as Burkholderia, Corynebacterium and Sediminibacterium as well as unclassified Comamonadaceae, Oxalobacteraceae, Rhodospirillaceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae and Burkholderiaceae were always found but at low relative abundances of the total 16S rRNA gene population derived from all samples. Also, we found that some bacteria found in plaque samples correlated with some clinical parameters, including total cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase and fibrinogen levels. Finally, our study indicates that some bacterial agents at least partially may be involved in affecting the development of cardiovascular disease through different mechanisms. PMID:27736997

  4. Inflammatory Biomarkers in Atherosclerosis: Pentraxin 3 Can Become a Novel Marker of Plaque Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Shindo, Akihiro; Tanemura, Hiroshi; Yata, Kenichiro; Hamada, Kazuhide; Shibata, Masunari; Umeda, Yasuyuki; Asakura, Fumio; Toma, Naoki; Sakaida, Hiroshi; Fujisawa, Takao; Taki, Waro; Tomimoto, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is crucially involved in the development of carotid plaques. We examined the relationship between plaque vulnerability and inflammatory biomarkers using intraoperative blood and tissue specimens. We examined 58 patients with carotid stenosis. Following carotid plaque magnetic resonance imaging, 41 patients underwent carotid artery stenting (CAS) and 17 underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Blood samples were obtained from the femoral artery (systemic) and common carotid artery immediately before and after CAS (local). Seventeen resected CEA tissue samples were embedded in paraffin, and histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses for IL-6, IL-10, E-selectin, adiponectin, and pentraxin 3 (PTX3) were performed. Serum levels of IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10, TNFα, E-selectin, VCAM-1, adiponectin, hs-CRP, and PTX3 were measured by multiplex bead array system and ELISA. CAS-treated patients were classified as stable plaques (n = 21) and vulnerable plaques (n = 20). The vulnerable group showed upregulation of the proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNFα), endothelial activation markers (E-selectin and VCAM-1), and inflammation markers (hs-CRP and PTX3) and downregulation of the anti-inflammatory markers (adiponectin and IL-10). PTX3 levels in both systemic and intracarotid samples before and after CAS were higher in the vulnerable group than in the stable group. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that IL-6 was localized to inflammatory cells in the vulnerable plaques, and PTX3 was observed in the endothelial and perivascular cells. Our findings reveal that carotid plaque vulnerability is modulated by the upregulation and downregulation of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, respectively. PTX3 may thus be a potential predictive marker of plaque vulnerability. PMID:24936646

  5. Persistent Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus infection in mice depends on plaque size.

    PubMed

    Lipton, H L

    1980-01-01

    Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) is an enteric pathogen of mice which causes acute and chronic neurological disorders in the natural host. When brain-derived stocks of TMEV isolates are adapted to cell culture they predominantly form either large or small plaques. In this study the type of central nervous system (CNS) infection (acute versus chronic) and the associated disease occurring in mice inoculated intracerebrally with large and small plaque strains of TMEV was investigated. Large and small plaque strains of TMEV were found to vary in virulence, type of neurological disease produced and ability to establish persistent CNS infection in mice. Two large plaque strains, GDVII and FA viruses, were highly virulent, produced acute encephalitis, but were cleared from the nervous systems of surviving animals. Therefore, it appears that these large plaque variants do not cause persistent CNS infection in mice. In contrast, five small plaque strains, DA, WW, TO4, Yale and BeAn8386 viruses, were relatively avirulent, usually produced no illness during the first month after inoculation, but readily established persistent CNS infection in mice. Persistently infected mice later developed demyelinating disease. Having identified strains of TMEV that differ regarding their ability to persist, we now hope to be able to exploit this difference in elucidating the basic mechanism(s) of TMEV persistence.

  6. Interaction between sulfur and lead in toxicity, iron plaque formation and lead accumulation in rice plant.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junxing; Liu, Zhiyan; Wan, Xiaoming; Zheng, Guodi; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Hanzhi; Guo, Lin; Wang, Xuedong; Zhou, Xiaoyong; Guo, Qingjun; Xu, Ruixiang; Zhou, Guangdong; Peters, Marc; Zhu, Guangxu; Wei, Rongfei; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun

    2016-06-01

    Human activities have resulted in lead and sulfur accumulation in paddy soils in parts of southern China. A combined soil-sand pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of S supply on iron plaque formation and Pb accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under two Pb levels (0 and 600 mg kg(-1)), combined with four S concentrations (0, 30, 60, and 120 mg kg(-1)). Results showed that S supply significantly decreased Pb accumulation in straw and grains of rice. This result may be attributed to the enhancement of Fe plaque formation, decrease of Pb availability in soil, and increase of reduced glutathione (GSH) in rice leaves. Moderate S supply (30 mg kg(-1)) significantly increased Fe plaque formation on the root surface and in the rhizosphere, whereas excessive S supply (60 and 120 mg kg(-1)) significantly decreased the amounts of iron plaque on the root surface. Sulfur supply significantly enhanced the GSH contents in leaves of rice plants under Pb treatment. With excessive S application, the rice root acted as a more effective barrier to Pb accumulation compared with iron plaque. Excessive S supply may result in a higher monosulfide toxicity and decreased iron plaque formation on the root surface during flooded conditions. However, excessive S supply could effectively decrease Pb availability in soils and reduce Pb accumulation in rice plants. PMID:26946285

  7. Texture characterization of carotid atherosclerotic plaque from B-mode ultrasound using gabor filters.

    PubMed

    Stoitsis, John; Golemati, Spyretta; Tsiaparas, Nikolaos; Nikita, Konstantina S

    2009-01-01

    Texture analysis of B-mode ultrasound images of carotid atheromatous plaque can be valuable for the accurate diagnosis of atherosclerosis. In this paper, Gabor filters were used to characterize the texture of carotid artery atherosclerotic tissue. B-mode ultrasound images of 10 symptomatic and 9 asymptomatic plaques were interrogated. A total of 40 texture features were estimated for each plaque. The bootstrap method was used to compare the mean values of the texture features extracted from the two groups. After bootstrapping, the mean value and the standard deviation of the energy estimated using the Gabor filters was found to be significantly different between symptomatic and asymptomatic plaques in the first scale of analysis and for all orientations. In addition, a number of texture features that correspond to larger resolution scales were found to be significantly different between the two types of plaques. It is concluded that Gabor-filter-based texture analysis in combination with a powerful statistical technique, such as bootstrapping, may provide valuable information about the plaque tissue type.

  8. Evaluation of knowledge and plaque scores in school children before and after health education

    PubMed Central

    Hebbal, Mamata; Ankola, Anil V.; Vadavi, Deepti; Patel, Kunal

    2011-01-01

    Background: Health education is a process of transmission of knowledge and skills necessary for improvement in quality of life. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the oral hygiene related knowledge and plaque scores of 12-year-old school children in Belgaum city before and after health education. Methods: Three schools of Belgaum city were randomly selected and assigned into one of three health educational groups – group I (audiovisual aids), group II (chalk and blackboard) and group III (no health education). Oral health related knowledge and plaque scores were assessed in all the groups before and after health education. Results: The mean knowledge score before intervention in group I was 7.94, in group II was 7.86 and in group III was 7.74 (P=0.86). After intervention, the mean knowledge score was 14.42 in group I, 12.7 in group II and 9.58 in group III (P<0.001). Plaque scores in the three groups were similar and statistically nonsignificant at baseline. After the oral health education, the mean plaque scores were 0.627 in group I, 0.8826 in group II and 1.0156 in group III. Within the group comparisons revealed a statistically improved oral hygiene with decreased plaque scores in all the three groups. Conclusion: Health education by audiovisual aids could be an effective preventive measure against plaque-related oral diseases. PMID:22135690

  9. Impact of local vessel curvature on the circumferential plaque distribution in coronary arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahle, Andreas; Medina, Ruben; Braddy, Kathleen C.; Fox, James M.; Brennan, Theresa M. H.; Lopez, John J.; Rossen, James D.; Sonka, Milan

    2003-05-01

    Plaque in native coronary arteries is hypothesized to accumulate more likely along the inner curvature of a vessel segment as compared to its outer curvature. This behavior is likely associated with differences in local shear stress, which tends to be lower on the inner bend of a curved vessel than on the outer bend. The reported in-vivo study evaluated how the circumferential plaque distribution depends on local vessel curvature in coronaries from a limited set of 12 patients. Geometrically correct models of the vessel segments were generated utilizing fusion between biplane angiography and intravascular ultrasound. The plaque thickness was derived from the 3-D borders of the lumen/plaque and media/adventitia interfaces. Within each frame, plaque thickness was classified into "below-average" and "above-average" regions. A local curvature index was defined for each point: A positive value indicates the "inner" curvature, a negative value the "outer" curvature, with the magnitude determined from differential geometry. In the majority of the examined vessels, regions of "below-average/outer-curvature" and "above-average/inner-curvature" combined outweighed the "below-average/inner-curvature" and "above-average/outer-curvature" regions. The ratio increased with the threshold to exclude lower-curvature regions, confirming the hypothesis that plaque is more likely to accumulate on the luminal surface along the inner curvature of the coronary segment.

  10. Cetylpyridinium chloride mouth rinses alleviate experimental gingivitis by inhibiting dental plaque maturation.

    PubMed

    Teng, Fei; He, Tao; Huang, Shi; Bo, Cun-Pei; Li, Zhen; Chang, Jin-Lan; Liu, Ji-Quan; Charbonneau, Duane; Xu, Jian; Li, Rui; Ling, Jun-Qi

    2016-09-29

    Oral rinses containing chemotherapeutic agents, such as cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), can alleviate plaque-induced gingival infections, but how oral microbiota respond to these treatments in human population remains poorly understood. Via a double-blinded, randomised controlled trial of 91 subjects, the impact of CPC-containing oral rinses on supragingival plaque was investigated in experimental gingivitis, where the subjects, after a 21-day period of dental prophylaxis to achieve healthy gingivae, received either CPC rinses or water for 21 days. Within-subject temporal dynamics of plaque microbiota and symptoms of gingivitis were profiled via 16S ribosomal DNA gene pyrosequencing and assessment with the Mazza gingival index. Cetylpyridinium chloride conferred gingival benefits, as progression of gingival inflammation resulting from a lack of dental hygiene was significantly slower in the mouth rinse group than in the water group due to inhibition of 17 gingivitis-enriched bacterial genera. Tracking of plaque α and β diversity revealed that CPC treatment prevents acquisition of new taxa that would otherwise accumulate but maintains the original biodiversity of healthy plaques. Furthermore, CPC rinses reduced the size, local connectivity and microbiota-wide connectivity of the bacterial correlation network, particularly for nodes representing gingivitis-enriched taxa. The findings of this study provide mechanistic insights into the impact of oral rinses on the progression and maturation of dental plaque in the natural human population.

  11. Quantification of Canine Dental Plaque Using Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Corrin; Gill, Yadvinder; Colyer, Alison; Davis, Ian; Allsopp, Judi; Komarov, Gleb; Higham, Susan; Harris, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF) as an alternative to the established Logan and Boyce method for determining plaque coverage of dogs' teeth. In a series of studies in conscious and anesthetized dogs, QLF showed good intra-photographer repeatability (coefficient of variation [CV] of 7.5% for undisclosed teeth) and inter-photographer reproducibility (CV of 3.2% for undisclosed teeth and 8.5% for disclosed teeth). The QLF software accurately identifies areas of plaque as demonstrated by comparison to the variability of 5 human scorers, manually marking plaque on QLF-acquired images (P = 0.1). There was good agreement with the modified Logan and Boyce method in the percentage reduction in plaque accumulation measured when dogs were fed an oral care chew versus no chew. To see a 15% difference in plaque accumulation, which is considered sufficient by the Veterinary Oral Health Council to differentiate between 2 treatments, a retrospective power analysis (90%) of the data established that only 7 dogs would be required, compared to 19 dogs for the modified Logan and Boyce method. QLF is a reliable method for measuring dental plaque in dogs with the added advantage that it is not subjective and requires fewer animals. PMID:27487653

  12. Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging of vulnerable plaques: a finite element method parametric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Joshua R.; Dumont, Douglas M.; Trahey, Gregg E.; Palmeri, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Plaque rupture is the most common cause of complications such as stroke and coronary heart failure. Recent histopathological evidence suggests that several plaque features, including a large lipid core and a thin fibrous cap, are associated with plaques most at risk for rupture. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging, a recently developed ultrasound-based elasticity imaging technique, shows promise for imaging these features noninvasively. Clinically, this could be used to distinguish vulnerable plaques, for which surgical intervention may be required, from those less prone to rupture. In this study, a parametric analysis using Finite-Element Method (FEM) models was performed to simulate ARFI imaging of five different carotid artery plaques across a wide range of material properties. It was demonstrated that ARFI could resolve the softer lipid pool from the surrounding, stiffer media and fibrous cap and was most dependent upon the stiffness of the lipid pool component. Stress concentrations due to an ARFI excitation were located in the media and fibrous cap components. In all cases, the maximum Von Mises stress was < 1.2 kPa. In comparing these results with others investigating plaque rupture, it is concluded that while the mechanisms may be different, the Von Mises stresses imposed by ARFI are orders of magnitude lower than the stresses associated with blood pressure. PMID:23122224

  13. The effect of iron plaque on lead translocation in soil-Carex cinerascens kukenth. system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunying; Gong, Xiaofeng; Chen, Chunli; Yang, Juyun; Xu, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of iron plaque on Pb uptake by and translocation in Carex cinerascens Kukenth. grown under open-air conditions. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry, iron plaque was present as an amorphous coating on root surfaces with uneven distribution. The amount of iron plaque increased significantly with increasing Fe additions regardless of Pb additions. The presence of iron plaque on the root surface of Carex cinerascens Kukenth. increased the concentrations of Pb adsorbed by iron plaque. The Pb percentage in whole roots increased by 14.52% at 500 mg kg(-1) Fe treatment than at 0 mg kg(-1) Fe, and the distribution coefficient (DC) of Pb and translocation factor (TF) root increased with Fe additions, but translocation factor (TF) shoot decreased with Fe additions. The results suggested that iron plaque could promote the translocation of Pb from soil to roots to some extent, and it played a role to reduce heavy metals pollution of Poyang Lake wetland. PMID:26364868

  14. New quantification methods for carotid intra-plaque neovascularization using contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Akkus, Zeynettin; Hoogi, Assaf; Renaud, Guillaume; van den Oord, Stijn C H; Ten Kate, Gerrit L; Schinkel, Arend F L; Adam, Dan; de Jong, Nico; van der Steen, Antonius F W; Bosch, Johan G

    2014-01-01

    As carotid intra-plaque neovascularization (IPN) is linked to progressive atherosclerotic disease and plaque vulnerability, its accurate quantification might allow early detection of plaque vulnerability. We therefore developed several new quantitative methods for analyzing IPN perfusion and structure. From our analyses, we derived six quantitative parameters-IPN surface area (IPNSA), IPN surface ratio (IPNSR), plaque mean intensity, plaque-to-lumen enhancement ratio, mean plaque contrast percentage and number of micro-vessels (MVN)-and compared these with visual grading of IPN by two independent physicians. A total of 45 carotid arteries with symptomatic stenosis in 23 patients were analyzed. IPNSA (correlation r = 0.719), IPNSR (r = 0.538) and MVN (r = 0.484) were found to be significantly correlated with visual scoring (p < 0.01). IPNSA was the best match to visual scoring. These results indicate that IPNSA, IPNSR and MVN may have the potential to replace qualitative visual scoring and to measure the degree of carotid IPN. PMID:24161799

  15. Imaging Plaques to Predict and Better Manage Patients with Acute Coronary Events

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Garcia, Hector M.; Jang, Ik-Kyung; Serruys, Patrick W.; Kovacic, Jason C.; Narula, Jagat; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2014-01-01

    Culprit lesions of patients who have had an acute coronary syndrome commonly are ruptured coronary plaques with superimposed thrombus. The precursor of such lesions is an inflamed thin-capped fibroatheroma. These plaques can be imaged by means of invasive techniques such as intravascular ultrasound (and derived techniques), optical coherence tomography and near-infrared spectroscopy. Very often these patients exhibit similar (multiple) plaques beyond the culprit lesion. These remote plaques can be assessed non invasively by computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance imaging and also using invasive imaging. The detection of these remote plaques is not only feasible, but also in natural history studies have been associated with clinical coronary events. Different systemic pharmacological treatments have been studied (mostly statins) with modest success and therefore newer approaches are being tested. Local treatment for such lesions is in its infancy and larger, prospective and randomized trials are needed. This review will describe the pathological and imaging findings in culprit lesions of patients with acute coronary syndrome and as well as the assessment of remote plaques. In addition, the pharmacological and local treatment options will be reviewed. PMID:24902974

  16. Carotid plaque characterization using CT and MRI scans for synergistic image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getzin, Matthew; Xu, Yiqin; Rao, Arhant; Madi, Saaussan; Bahadur, Ali; Lennartz, Michelle R.; Wang, Ge

    2014-09-01

    Noninvasive determination of plaque vulnerability has been a holy grail of medical imaging. Despite advances in tomographic technologies , there is currently no effective way to identify vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques with high sensitivity and specificity. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are widely used, but neither provides sufficient information of plaque properties. Thus, we are motivated to combine CT and MRI imaging to determine if the composite information can better reflect the histological determination of plaque vulnerability. Two human endarterectomy specimens (1 symptomatic carotid and 1 stable femoral) were imaged using Scanco Medical Viva CT40 and Bruker Pharmascan 16cm 7T Horizontal MRI / MRS systems. μCT scans were done at 55 kVp and tube current of 70 mA. Samples underwent RARE-VTR and MSME pulse sequences to measure T1, T2 values, and proton density. The specimens were processed for histology and scored for vulnerability using the American Heart Association criteria. Single modality-based analyses were performed through segmentation of key imaging biomarkers (i.e. calcification and lumen), image registration, measurement of fibrous capsule, and multi-component T1 and T2 decay modeling. Feature differences were analyzed between the unstable and stable controls, symptomatic carotid and femoral plaque, respectively. By building on the techniques used in this study, synergistic CT+MRI analysis may provide a promising solution for plaque characterization in vivo.

  17. Thymidine plaque autoradiography of thymidine kinase-positive and thymidine kinase-negative herpesviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Tenser, R.B.; Jones, J.C.; Ressel, S.J.; Fralish, F.A.

    1983-01-01

    Plaques formed by herpes simplex virus (HSV), pseudorabies virus, and varicella-zoster virus were studied by plaque autoradiography after (/sup 14/C)thymidine labeling. Standard thymidine kinase-positive (TK+) viruses and TK- mutants of HSV types 1 and 2 and pseudorabies virus were studied, including cell cultured viruses and viruses isolated from animals. Autoradiography was performed with X-ray film with an exposure time of 5 days. After development of films, TK+ plaques showed dark rims due to isotope incorporation, whereas TK- plaques were minimally labeled. Plaque autoradiography of stock TK- viruses showed reversion frequencies to the TK+ phenotype of less than 10(-3). Autoradiography indicated that TK- virus retained the TK- phenotype after replication in vivo. In addition, it was shown that TK- HSV could be isolated from mouse trigeminal ganglion tissue after corneal inoculation of TK- HSV together with TK+ HSV. The plaque autoradiographic procedure was very useful to evaluate proportions of TK+ and TK- virus present in TK+-TK- virus mixtures.

  18. Cetylpyridinium chloride mouth rinses alleviate experimental gingivitis by inhibiting dental plaque maturation.

    PubMed

    Teng, Fei; He, Tao; Huang, Shi; Bo, Cun-Pei; Li, Zhen; Chang, Jin-Lan; Liu, Ji-Quan; Charbonneau, Duane; Xu, Jian; Li, Rui; Ling, Jun-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Oral rinses containing chemotherapeutic agents, such as cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), can alleviate plaque-induced gingival infections, but how oral microbiota respond to these treatments in human population remains poorly understood. Via a double-blinded, randomised controlled trial of 91 subjects, the impact of CPC-containing oral rinses on supragingival plaque was investigated in experimental gingivitis, where the subjects, after a 21-day period of dental prophylaxis to achieve healthy gingivae, received either CPC rinses or water for 21 days. Within-subject temporal dynamics of plaque microbiota and symptoms of gingivitis were profiled via 16S ribosomal DNA gene pyrosequencing and assessment with the Mazza gingival index. Cetylpyridinium chloride conferred gingival benefits, as progression of gingival inflammation resulting from a lack of dental hygiene was significantly slower in the mouth rinse group than in the water group due to inhibition of 17 gingivitis-enriched bacterial genera. Tracking of plaque α and β diversity revealed that CPC treatment prevents acquisition of new taxa that would otherwise accumulate but maintains the original biodiversity of healthy plaques. Furthermore, CPC rinses reduced the size, local connectivity and microbiota-wide connectivity of the bacterial correlation network, particularly for nodes representing gingivitis-enriched taxa. The findings of this study provide mechanistic insights into the impact of oral rinses on the progression and maturation of dental plaque in the natural human population. PMID:27680288

  19. Efficiency of Various Growth Media in Recovering Oral Bacterial Flora from Human Dental Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Salam A.; Loesche, Walter J.

    1973-01-01

    MM10 sucrose blood agar (MM10 SB agar), N2C agar, Schaedler agar (SH agar), and mitis salivarius agar (MS agar) were tested for their ability to recover human dental plaque flora by a continuous anaerobic procedure and by a conventional anaerobic method. MM10 SB agar yielded higher recovery of bacteria from plaque samples as determined by the enumeration of colony-forming units (CFU). The CFU on N2C agar, SH agar, and MS agar were lower than MM10 SB agar when the continuous anaerobic procedure was used. The superior performance of MM10 SB agar was much more apparent when used for the cultivation of dental plaque by the conventional anaerobic method. Under these conditions the counts were consistently higher on MM10 SB agar as compared to the other media tested. However, the differential counts of Streptococcus sanguis and S. mutans from carious plaque samples were in general comparable on all culture media. Deletion of blood from MM10 SB agar did not lower counts. The elimination of dithiothreitol from this medium resulted in a significantly lower recovery of bacteria from the plaque samples when cultured by the conventional anaerobic method. The storage of MM10 SB agar for varying periods of time aerobic conditions did not seem to affect its performance. These findings suggest that MM10 SB agar is an ideal culture medium for the isolation, nonselective enumeration, and differential counts of bacteria present in normal and disease-associated plaques. PMID:4584588

  20. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of the effect of plaques in the left coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Chaichana, Thanapong; Sun, Zhonghua; Jewkes, James

    2012-01-01

    This study was to investigate the hemodynamic effect of simulated plaques in left coronary artery models, which were generated from a sample patient's data. Plaques were simulated and placed at the left main stem and the left anterior descending (LAD) to produce at least 60% coronary stenosis. Computational fluid dynamics analysis was performed to simulate realistic physiological conditions that reflect the in vivo cardiac hemodynamics, and comparison of wall shear stress (WSS) between Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid models was performed. The pressure gradient (PSG) and flow velocities in the left coronary artery were measured and compared in the left coronary models with and without presence of plaques during cardiac cycle. Our results showed that the highest PSG was observed in stenotic regions caused by the plaques. Low flow velocity areas were found at postplaque locations in the left circumflex, LAD, and bifurcation. WSS at the stenotic locations was similar between the non-Newtonian and Newtonian models although some more details were observed with non-Newtonian model. There is a direct correlation between coronary plaques and subsequent hemodynamic changes, based on the simulation of plaques in the realistic coronary models. PMID:22400051

  1. Error propagation in the characterization of atheromatic plaque types based on imaging.

    PubMed

    Athanasiou, Lambros S; Rigas, George; Sakellarios, Antonis; Bourantas, Christos V; Stefanou, Kostas; Fotiou, Evangelos; Exarchos, Themis P; Siogkas, Panagiotis; Naka, Katerina K; Parodi, Oberdan; Vozzi, Federico; Teng, Zhongzhao; Young, Victoria E L; Gillard, Jonathan H; Prati, Francesco; Michalis, Lampros K; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2015-10-01

    Imaging systems transmit and acquire signals and are subject to errors including: error sources, signal variations or possible calibration errors. These errors are included in all imaging systems for atherosclerosis and are propagated to methodologies implemented for the segmentation and characterization of atherosclerotic plaque. In this paper, we present a study for the propagation of imaging errors and image segmentation errors in plaque characterization methods applied to 2D vascular images. More specifically, the maximum error that can be propagated to the plaque characterization results is estimated, assuming worst-case scenarios. The proposed error propagation methodology is validated using methods applied to real datasets, obtained from intravascular imaging (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) for coronary arteries, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for carotid arteries. The plaque characterization methods have recently been presented in the literature and are able to detect the vessel borders, and characterize the atherosclerotic plaque types. Although, these methods have been extensively validated using as gold standard expert annotations, by applying the proposed error propagation methodology a more realistic validation is performed taking into account the effect of the border detection algorithms error and the image formation error into the final results. The Pearson's coefficient of the detected plaques has changed significantly when the method was applied to IVUS and OCT, while there was not any variation when the method was applied to MRI data.

  2. Effect of ozonated oil and chlorhexidine gel on plaque induced gingivitis: A randomized control clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Indurkar, Maya Sanjeev; Verma, Renu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several chemotherapeutic agents have been developed to prevent gingivitis and its progression into periodontitis. In this present study, the efficacy of ozonated oil and chlorhexidine gel was assessed and compared on plaque induced gingivitis. Aim: To evaluate the effect of ozonated oil on plaque induced gingivitis and to compare its efficacy with chlorhexidine gel. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 subjects, aged from 18 to 65 years, with plaque-induced gingivitis were selected from the outpatient Department of Periodontology, Government Dental College and Hospital, Aurangabad, for this study. They were divided randomly into the test or ozonated oil group (Group I) and the control or chlorhexidine gel group (Group II) with 10 subjects in each group. Subjects were randomly assigned to massage their gingiva thrice a day for 3 weeks with ozonated oil (test), and chlorhexidine gel (control). Plaque index and gingival index scores were recorded for the 20 subjects at baseline and after 3 weeks. Results: Ozonated oil (Group I) and chlorhexidine gel (Group II) groups showed statistically significant differences with respect to plaque index and gingival index, from the baseline to 3 weeks (P < 0.001 in both). But the difference between Group I and Group II, at the end of the study period, was not statistically significant with respect to the plaque index and gingival index. Conclusions: The ozonated oil and chlorhexidine gel, both can be used as an effective agent in maintaining and improving gingival health. PMID:27041835

  3. A quantitative comet assay: imaging and analysis of virus plaques formed with a liquid overlay.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Yin, John

    2007-01-01

    Although the plaque assay defines a "gold-standard" for measuring virus infectivity, its reliance on plaque counting limits its sensitivity. When the assay is performed with a liquid overlay, instead of agar overlay, spontaneous flows can promote a uni-directional spread of infection, creating elongated regions of cytopathology that resemble comets. As a model system comet and plaque cultures of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) on baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells were compared. Host-cell monolayers were infected with VSV particles, incubated 15 h in the presence of liquid or agar overlays and stained. VSV formed significantly larger comets than plaques, consistent with a mechanism of flow-enhanced spread. When antiviral drug (5-fluorouracil) was incorporated into the liquid overlay, comet sizes were reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Images of infected monolayers, acquired using a simple digital scanner, enabled a quantification of the inhibitory effect of the drug on infectivity. The resulting measure of drug susceptibility was found to be 18-fold more sensitive than the IC(50) measure attained by the traditional plaque-reduction assay. This quantitative comet assay has the potential to similarly enhance the sensitivity of infection measures for other plaque-forming viruses. PMID:17092573

  4. Imaging plaques to predict and better manage patients with acute coronary events.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Garcia, Hector M; Jang, Ik-Kyung; Serruys, Patrick W; Kovacic, Jason C; Narula, Jagat; Fayad, Zahi A

    2014-06-01

    Culprit lesions of patients, who have had an acute coronary syndrome commonly, are ruptured coronary plaques with superimposed thrombus. The precursor of such lesions is an inflamed thin-capped fibroatheroma. These plaques can be imaged by means of invasive techniques, such as intravascular ultrasound (and derived techniques), optical coherence tomography, and near-infrared spectroscopy. Often these patients exhibit similar (multiple) plaques beyond the culprit lesion. These remote plaques can be assessed noninvasively by computed tomographic angiography and MRI and also using invasive imaging. The detection of these remote plaques is not only feasible but also in natural history studies have been associated with clinical coronary events. Different systemic pharmacological treatments have been studied (mostly statins) with modest success and, therefore, newer approaches are being tested. Local treatment for such lesions is in its infancy and larger, prospective, and randomized trials are needed. This review will describe the pathological and imaging findings in culprit lesions of patients with acute coronary syndrome and the assessment of remote plaques. In addition, the pharmacological and local treatment options will be reviewed.

  5. The effect of iron plaque on lead translocation in soil-Carex cinerascens kukenth. system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunying; Gong, Xiaofeng; Chen, Chunli; Yang, Juyun; Xu, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of iron plaque on Pb uptake by and translocation in Carex cinerascens Kukenth. grown under open-air conditions. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry, iron plaque was present as an amorphous coating on root surfaces with uneven distribution. The amount of iron plaque increased significantly with increasing Fe additions regardless of Pb additions. The presence of iron plaque on the root surface of Carex cinerascens Kukenth. increased the concentrations of Pb adsorbed by iron plaque. The Pb percentage in whole roots increased by 14.52% at 500 mg kg(-1) Fe treatment than at 0 mg kg(-1) Fe, and the distribution coefficient (DC) of Pb and translocation factor (TF) root increased with Fe additions, but translocation factor (TF) shoot decreased with Fe additions. The results suggested that iron plaque could promote the translocation of Pb from soil to roots to some extent, and it played a role to reduce heavy metals pollution of Poyang Lake wetland.

  6. Chronic imaging of amyloid plaques in the live mouse brain using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacskai, Brian J.; Kajdasz, Stephen T.; Christie, R. H.; Zipfel, Warren R.; Williams, Rebecca M.; Kasischke, Karl A.; Webb, Watt W.; Hyman, B. T.

    2001-04-01

    Transgenic mice expressing the human Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) develop amyloid plaques as they age. These plaques resemble those found in the human disease. Multiphoton laser scanning microscopy combined with a novel surgical approach was used to measure amyloid plaque dynamics chronically in the cortex of living transgenic mice. Thioflavine S (thioS) was used as a fluorescent marker of amyloid deposits. Multiphoton excitation allowed visualization of amyloid plaques up to 200 micrometers deep into the brain. The surgical site could be imaged repeatedly without overt damage to the tissue, and individual plaques within this volume could be reliably identified over periods of several days to several months. On average, plaque sizes remained constant over time, supporting a model of rapid deposition, followed by relative stability. Alternative reporters for in vivo histology include thiazine red, and FITC-labeled amyloid-(Beta) peptide. We also present examples of multi-color imaging using Hoechst dyes and FITC-labeled tomato lectin. These approaches allow us to observe cell nuclei or microglia simultaneously with amyloid-(Beta) deposits in vivo. Chronic imaging of a variety of reporters in these transgenic mice should provide insight into the dynamics of amyloid-(Beta) activity in the brain.

  7. A clinical study of the relationship between crowding of teeth, plaque and gingival condition.

    PubMed

    Ingervall, B; Jacobsson, U; Nyman, S

    1977-08-01

    A clinical trial was undertaken to assess whether crowded teeth were more likely to accumulate plaque and develop gingivitis than non-crowded teeth. A tooth was considered crowded if it was displaced by 2 mm and/or rotated 15 degrees or more from the normal position in the arch. The material consisted of 50 dental students aged 21 to 32 years. An initial examination comprised assessment of Plaque Index, Gingival Index and pocket depths. After this examination the subjects refrained from using interdental cleaning aids but continued with their normal toothbrushing for 40 days. After re-examination they were instructed in the effective use of dental floss. A final examination was carried out after 140 days. At the start of the trial no difference was found in regard to the Plaque Index between crowded and non-crowded teeth. The Gingival Index for growded front teeth, but not for crowded premolars, was somewhat higher than for the corresponding controls. The cessation of interdental cleaning resulted in a similar increase in plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation in both non-crowded and crowded teeth. The use of dental floss for approximal tooth cleaning resulted in a similar decrease in the Plaque- and Gingival Indices for both types of teeth. The results demonstrate that in a group of young adults, crowding of teeth (1) did not favour plaque accumulation on approximal tooth surfaces and (2) influenced the degree of gingival inflammation only to a minor extent.

  8. {sup 106}Ruthenium Plaque Therapy (RPT) for Retinoblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Naoya; Suzuki, Shigenobu; Ito, Yoshinori; Yoshimura, Ryoichi; Inaba, Koji; Kuroda, Yuki; Morota, Madoka; Mayahara, Hiroshi; Sakudo, Mototake; Wakita, Akihisa; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Sumi, Minako; Kagami, Yoshikazu; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Ohtomo, Kuni; Itami, Jun

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of episcleral {sup 106}ruthenium plaque therapy (RPT) in the management of retinoblastoma. Methods and Materials: One hundred one RPTs were retrospectively analyzed that were performed in 90 eyes of 85 patients with retinoblastoma at National Cancer Center Hospital between 1998 and 2008. Each RPT had a corresponding tumor and 101 tumors were considered in the analysis of local control. Median follow-up length was 72.8 months. Median patient age at the RPT was 28 months. Median prescribed doses at reference depth and outer surface of the sclera were 47.4 Gy and 162.3 Gy, respectively. Results: Local control rate (LCR) and ocular retention rate (ORR) at 2 years were 33.7% and 58.7%, respectively. Unilateral disease, International Classification of Retinoblastoma group C or more advanced at the first presentation or at the time of RPT, vitreous and/or subretinal seeding, tumor size greater than 5 disc diameter (DD), reference depth greater than 5 mm, dose rate at reference depth lower than 0.7 Gy/hour, dose at the reference depth lower than 35 Gy, and (biologically effective dose with an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 10 Gy) at the reference depth lower than 40 Gy{sub 10} were associated with unfavorable LCR. Two patients died of metastatic disease. Radiation complications included retinal detachment in 12 eyes (13.3%), proliferative retinopathy in 6 (6.7%), rubeosis iris in 2 (2.2%), and posterior subcapsular cataract in 23 (25.6%). Conclusion: RPT is an effective eye-preserving treatment for retinoblastoma.

  9. Effect of Fluoride and Chlorhexidine Digluconate Mouthrinses on Plaque Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Rabe, Per; Twetman, Svante; Kinnby, Bertil; Svensäter, Gunnel; Davies, Julia R

    2015-01-01

    Objective : To develop a model in which to investigate the architecture of plaque biofilms formed on enamel surfaces in vivo and to compare the effects of anti-microbial agents of relevance for caries on biofilm vitality. Materials and Methodology : Enamel discs mounted on healing abutments in the pre-molar region were worn by three subjects for 7 days. Control discs were removed before subjects rinsed with 0.1% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) or 0.2% sodium fluoride (NaF) for 1 minute. Biofilms were stained with Baclight Live/Dead and z-stacks of images created using confocal scanning laser micoscopy. The levels of vital and dead/damaged bacteria in the biofilms, assessed as the proportion of green and red pixels respectively, were analysed using ImageTrak® software. Results : The subjects showed individual differences in biofilm architecture. The thickness of the biofilms varied from 28-96µm although cell density was always the greatest in the middle layers. In control biofilms, the overall levels of vitality were high (71-98%) especially in the area closest to the enamel interface. Rinsing with either CHX or NaF caused a similar reduction in overall vitality. CHX exerted an effect throughout the biofilm, particularly on the surface of cell clusters whereas NaF caused cell damage/death mainly in the middle to lower biofilm layers. Conclusion : We describe a model that allows the formation of mature, undisturbed oral biofilms on human enamel surfaces in vivo and show that CHX and NaF have a similar effect on overall vitality but differ in their sites of action. PMID:25870718

  10. Helicobacter Pylori Gastritis, a Presequeale to Coronary Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Raut, Shrikant C.; Patil, Vinayak W.; Dalvi, Shubhangi M.; Bakhshi, Girish D.

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori are considered the most common human pathogen colonizing gastric mucosa. Gastritis with or without H. pylori infection is associated with increase in levels of homocysteine and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) but a more pronounced increase is noted in gastritis with H. pylori infection. Increasing level of homocysteine, due to decreased absorption of vitamin B12 and folic acid, together with increased CRP levels in gastritis with H. pylori infection may be the earliest event in the process of atherosclerosis and plaque formation. Retrospective study conducted at tertiary care hospital in Mumbai by Department of Biochemistry in association with Department of Surgery. Eighty patients who underwent gastroscopy in view of gastritis were subjected to rapid urease test for diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Vitamin B12, folic acid, homocysteine and hs-CRP were analyzed using chemiluminescence immuno assay. Student’s t-test, Pearson’s correlation and linear regression used for statistical analysis. Patients with H. pylori gastritis had significantly lower levels of vitamin B12 (271.6±101.3 vs 390.6±176.7 pg/mL; P=0.0005), as well as higher levels of homocysteine (17.4±7.4 vs 13.8±7.8 µmol/L; P=0.037) and hs-CRP (2.5±2.9 vs 1.2±1.1 mg/L; P=0.017), than in patients without H. pylori gastritis. However, folic acid showed (8.9±3.2 vs 10.0±3.6 ng/mL; P=0.171) no significant difference. Elevated homocysteine and hs-CRP in H. pylori gastritis may independently induce endothelial dysfunction, leading to cardiovascular pathology. PMID:25918633

  11. Pleural plaque profiles on the chest radiographs and CT scans of asbestos-exposed Japanese construction workers.

    PubMed

    Elshazley, Momen; Shibata, Eiji; Hisanaga, Naomi; Ichihara, Gaku; Ewis, Ashraf A; Kamijima, Michihiro; Ichihara, Sahoko; Sakai, Kiyoshi; Sato, Mitsuo; Kondo, Masashi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2011-01-01

    Pleural plaques are asymptomatic focal thickenings of the pleura and considered the hallmark of asbestos exposure. However, it is often difficult to detect pleural plaques on chest x-rays (CXR). In a retrospective study, using chest CT scans of 140 Japanese asbestos-exposed construction workers who have probable or definite findings of pleural plaque on CXR; firstly, we proposed plaque morphology-based classification for CXR findings, and then we examined if those classified findings could be confirmed as pleural plaques on CT scans. Our morphology-based classification of pleural plaque findings included nine types. The percentages of confirmed pleural plaques on CT scans by type (number of confirmed pleural plaque on CT/number of observed on CXR) were 93% (40/43) for straight, 89% (56/63) for diamond, 88% (7/8) for double, 83% (19/23) for tapered medially, 80% (20/25) for parallel, 77% (23/30) for crescent, 79% (11/14) for tenting, 72% (18/25) for tapered-laterally (long type), and 0% (0/9) for tapered-laterally (short type). When added to the ILO classification, morphology-based classification of CXR pleural plaque findings makes its detection easier and hence chest radiograph continues to be a suitable tool for screening asbestos-related pleural plaques based on its simplicity, low radiation exposure, wide availability and cost-effectiveness. PMID:21828957

  12. Effects of Exogenous Gibberellic Acid3 on Iron and Manganese Plaque Amounts and Iron and Manganese Uptake in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yue; Zhu, Changhua; Gan, Lijun; Ng, Denny; Xia, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Gibberellins (GA) regulate various components of plant development. Iron and Mn plaque result from oxiding and hydroxiding Fe and Mn, respectively, on the roots of aquatic plant species such as rice (Oryza sativa L.). In this study, we found that exogenous gibberellic acid3 (GA3) spray decreased Fe plaque, but increased Mn plaque, with applications of Kimura B nutrient solution. Similar effects from GA3, leading to reduced Fe plaque and increased Mn plaque, were also found by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometric microanalysis. Reduced Fe plaque was observed after applying GA3 to the groups containing added Fe2+ (17 and 42 mg•L-1) and an increasing trend was detected in Mn plaques of the Mn2+ (34 and 84 mg•L-1) added treatments. In contrast, an inhibitor of GA3, uniconazole, reversed the effects of GA3. The uptake of Fe or Mn in rice plants was enhanced after GA3 application and Fe or Mn plaque production. Strong synergetic effects of GA3 application on Fe plaque production were detected. However, no synergetic effects on Mn plaque production were detected. PMID:25710173

  13. Experimental study of USPIO-enhanced MRI in the detection of atherosclerotic plaque and the intervention of atorvastatin

    PubMed Central

    SHA, TING; QI, CHUNMEI; FU, WEI; HAO, JI; GONG, LEI; WU, HAO; ZHANG, QINGDUI

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) can identify atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque and atorvastatin can stabilize vulnerable plaque by inhibiting the inflammatory response. Using balloon injury in rabbit abdominal aortic endothelial cells and p53 gene transfecting the local plaque, we established an atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque model. In the treatment group, animals were treated with atorvastatin for 8 weeks. At the end of week 16, the animals in each group underwent medication trigger. USPIO-enhanced MRI was utilized to detect vulnerable plaque formation and the transformation of stable plaque in the treatment group. Pathological and serological studies were conducted in animal sera and tissues. The images from the USPIO-enhanced MRI, and the vulnerable plaque showed low signal, especially on T2*-weighted sequences (T2*WI). Plaque signal strength reached a negative enhancement peak at 96 h. Compared with the other groups, lipids, cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 levels were significantly lower (P<0.05) in the treatment group. In conclusion, USPIO-enhanced MRI can identify vulnerable plaque formation by deposition in macrophages, while atorvastatin is able to inhibit the progression of atherosclerosis and promote plaque transformation to the stable form. PMID:27347029

  14. Increased expression of fatty acid binding protein 4 and leptin in resident macrophages characterises atherosclerotic plaque rupture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K.; Santibanez-Koref, M.; Polvikoski, T.; Birchall, D.; Mendelow, A.D.; Keavney, B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Resident macrophages play an important role in atheromatous plaque rupture. The macrophage gene expression signature associated with plaque rupture is incompletely defined due to the complex cellular heterogeneity in the plaque. We aimed to characterise differential gene expression in resident plaque macrophages from ruptured and stable human atheromatous lesions. Methods and results We performed genome-wide expression analyses of isolated macrophage-rich regions of stable and ruptured human atherosclerotic plaques. Plaques present in carotid endarterectomy specimens were designated as stable or ruptured using clinical, radiological and histopathological criteria. Macrophage-rich regions were excised from 5 ruptured and 6 stable plaques by laser micro-dissection. Transcriptional profiling was performed using Affymetrix microarrays. The profiles were characteristic of activated macrophages. At a false discovery rate of 10%, 914 genes were differentially expressed between stable and ruptured plaques. The findings were confirmed in fourteen further stable and ruptured samples for a subset of eleven genes with the highest expression differences (p < 0.05). Pathway analysis revealed that components of the PPAR/Adipocytokine signaling pathway were the most significantly upregulated in ruptured compared to stable plaques (p = 5.4 × 10−7). Two key components of the pathway, fatty-acid binding-protein 4 (FABP4) and leptin, showed nine-fold (p = 0.0086) and five-fold (p = 0.0012) greater expression respectively in macrophages from ruptured plaques. Conclusions We found differences in gene expression signatures between macrophages isolated from stable and ruptured human atheromatous plaques. Our findings indicate the involvement of FABP4 and leptin in the progression of atherosclerosis and plaque rupture, and suggest that down-regulation of PPAR/adipocytokine signaling within plaques may have therapeutic potential. PMID:23122912

  15. The Immune Response Is Involved in Atherosclerotic Plaque Calcification: Could the RANKL/RANK/OPG System Be a Marker of Plaque Instability?

    PubMed Central

    Montecucco, Fabrizio; Steffens, Sabine; Mach, François

    2007-01-01

    Atherogenesis is characterized by an intense inflammatory process, involving immune and vascular cells. These cells play a crucial role in all phases of atherosclerotic plaque formation and complication through cytokine, protease, and prothrombotic factor secretion. The accumulation of inflammatory cells and thus high amounts of soluble mediators are responsible for the evolution of some plaques to instable phenotype which may lead to rupture. One condition strongly associated with plaque rupture is calcification, a physiopathological process orchestrated by several soluble factors, including the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)κB ligand (RANKL)/receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)κB (RANK)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system. Although some studies showed some interesting correlations with acute ischemic events, at present, more evidences are needed to evaluate the predictive and diagnostic value of serum sRANKL and OPG levels for clinical use. The major limitation is probably the poor specificity of these factors for cardiovascular disease. The identification of tissue-specific isoforms could increase the importance of sRANKL and OPG in predicting calcified plaque rupture and the dramatic ischemic consequences in the brain and the heart. PMID:18320012

  16. Correlation of Cognitive Function with Ultrasound Strain Indices in Carotid Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X.; Jackson, D.C.; Varghese, T.; Mitchell, C.C.; Hermann, B.P.; Kliewer, M.A.; Dempsey, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    Instability in carotid vulnerable plaque can generate cerebral microemboli, that may be related to both stroke and eventual cognitive abnormality. Strain imaging to detect plaque vulnerability based on regions with large strain fluctuations, with arterial pulsation, may be able to determine risk of cognitive impairment. Plaque instability may be characterized by increased strain variations over a cardiac cycle. Radiofrequency signals for ultrasound strain imaging were acquired from the carotid arteries of 24 human subjects using a Siemens Antares with a VFX 13-5 linear array transducer. These patients underwent standardized cognitive assessment (Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS)). Plaque regions were segmented by a radiologist at end-diastole using the Medical Imaging Interaction Toolkit. A hierarchical block-matching motion tracking algorithm was utilized to estimate the cumulated axial, lateral, and shear strains within the imaging plane. The maximum, minimum and peak-to-peak strain indices in the plaque computed from the mean cumulated strain over a small region of interest in the plaque with large deformations, were obtained. The maximum and peak-to-peak mean cumulated strain indices over the entire plaque region were also computed. All the strain indices were then correlated with RBANS Total performance. Overall cognitive performance (RBANS Total) was negatively associated with values of the maximum strain and the peak-to-peak for axial and lateral strains respectively. There was no significant correlation between the RBANS Total score and shear strain, and strain indices averaged over the entire identified plaque for this group of patients. However, correlation of the maximum lateral strain was higher for symptomatic patients (r=−0.650, p=0.006) than that for asymptomatic patients (r=−0.115, p=0.803). On the other hand correlation for maximum axial strain averaged over the entire plaque region was significantly

  17. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Stabilize Atherosclerotic Vulnerable Plaque by Anti-Inflammatory Properties

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuang-shuang; Hu, Si-wang; Zhang, Qing-hua; Xia, Ai-xiang

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Formation and progression of atherosclerotic vulnerable plaque (VP) is the primary cause of many cardio-cerebrovascular diseases such as acute coronary syndrome and stroke. It has been reported that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) exhibit protective effects against many kinds of diseases including myocardial infarction. Here, we examined the effects of intravenous MSC infusion on a VP model and provide novel evidence of its influence as a therapy in this animal disease model. Subjects and methods Thirty healthy male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into a MSC, VP or stable plaque (SP) group (n = 10/group) and received high fat diet and cold-induced common carotid artery intimal injury with liquid nitrogen to form atherosclerotic plaques. Serum hs-CRP, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA at 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after MSC transplantation. The animals were sacrificed at 4 weeks after MSC transplantation. Lesions in the right common carotid were observed using H&E and Masson staining, and the fibrous cap/lipid core ratio of atherosclerotic plaques were calculated. The expression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and matrix metalloproteinase 1, 2, 9 (MMP-1,2,9) in the plaque were detected using immunohistochemistry, and apoptotic cells in the plaques were detected by TUNEL. In addition, the level of TNF-α stimulated gene/protein 6 (TSG-6) mRNA and protein were measured by quantitative Real-Time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Results Two rabbits in the VP group died of lung infection and cerebral infarction respectively at 1 week after plaque injury by liquid nitrogen. Both H&E and Masson staining revealed that the plaques from the SP and MSC groups had more stable morphological structure and a larger fibrous cap/lipid core ratio than the VP group. Serum hs-CRP, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly down-regulated, whereas IL-10 was significantly up-regulated in the MSC group compared with

  18. Towards coronary plaque imaging using simultaneous PET-MR: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petibon, Y.; El Fakhri, G.; Nezafat, R.; Johnson, N.; Brady, T.; Ouyang, J.

    2014-03-01

    Coronary atherosclerotic plaque rupture is the main cause of myocardial infarction and the leading killer in the US. Inflammation is a known bio-marker of plaque vulnerability and can be assessed non-invasively using fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography imaging (FDG-PET). However, cardiac and respiratory motion of the heart makes PET detection of coronary plaque very challenging. Fat surrounding coronary arteries allows the use of MRI to track plaque motion during simultaneous PET-MR examination. In this study, we proposed and assessed the performance of a fat-MR based coronary motion correction technique for improved FDG-PET coronary plaque imaging in simultaneous PET-MR. The proposed methods were evaluated in a realistic four-dimensional PET-MR simulation study obtained by combining patient water-fat separated MRI and XCAT anthropomorphic phantom. Five small lesions were digitally inserted inside the patients coronary vessels to mimic coronary atherosclerotic plaques. The heart of the XCAT phantom was digitally replaced with the patient's heart. Motion-dependent activity distributions, attenuation maps, and fat-MR volumes of the heart, were generated using the XCAT cardiac and respiratory motion fields. A full Monte Carlo simulation using Siemens mMR's geometry was performed for each motion phase. Cardiac/respiratory motion fields were estimated using non-rigid registration of the transformed fat-MR volumes and incorporated directly into the system matrix of PET reconstruction along with motion-dependent attenuation maps. The proposed motion correction method was compared to conventional PET reconstruction techniques such as no motion correction, cardiac gating, and dual cardiac-respiratory gating. Compared to uncorrected reconstructions, fat-MR based motion compensation yielded an average improvement of plaque-to-background contrast of 29.6%, 43.7%, 57.2%, and 70.6% for true plaque-to-blood ratios of 10, 15, 20 and 25:1, respectively. Channelized

  19. MR Imaging of Carotid Plaque Composition During Lipid-Lowering Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xue-Qiao; Dong, Li; Hatsukami, Tom; Phan, Binh An; Chu, Baocheng; Moore, Andrew; Lane, Trevor; Neradilek, Moni B.; Polissar, Nayak; Monick, Duane; Lee, Colin; Underhill, Hunter; Yuan, Chun

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to test the lipid depletion hypothesis and to establish the time course of change in carotid plaque morphology and composition during lipid therapy using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). BACKGROUND Lipid therapy is thought to improve plaque stability and reduce cardiovascular events by targeting the plaque rupture risk features such as large lipid core, thin fibrous cap, and high level of inflammatory infiltrates. However, the plaque stabilizing process during lipid therapy has not been clearly demonstrated in humans and in vivo. METHODS Subjects with coronary or carotid artery disease, apolipoprotein B ≥120 mg/dl, and lipid treatment history <1 year, were randomly assigned to atorvastatin monotherapy or to atorvastatin-based combination therapies with appropriate placebos for 3 years. All subjects underwent high-resolution, multicontrast bilateral carotid MRI scans at baseline and annually for 3 years. All images were analyzed for quantification of wall area and plaque composition blinded to therapy, laboratory results, and clinical course. RESULTS After 3 years of lipid therapy, the 33 subjects with measurable lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC) at baseline had a significant reduction in plaque lipid content: LRNC volume decreased from 60.4 ± 59.5 mm3 to 37.4 ± 69.5 mm3 (p < 0.001) and %LRNC (LRNC area/wall area in the lipid-rich regions) from 14.2 ± 7.0% to 7.4 ± 8.2% (p < 0.001). The time course showed that %LRNC decreased by 3.2 (p < 0.001) in the first year, by 3.0 (p = 0.005) in the second year, and by 0.91 (p = 0.2) in the third year. Changes in LRNC volume followed the same pattern. Percent wall volume (100 × wall/outer wall, a ratio of volumes) in the lipid-rich regions significantly decreased from 52.3 ± 8.5% to 48.6 ± 9.7% (p = 0.002). Slices containing LRNC had significantly more percent wall volume reduction than those without (−4.7% vs. −1.4%, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS Intensive lipid

  20. A mechanistic analysis of the role of microcalcifications in atherosclerotic plaque stability: potential implications for plaque rupture

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Natalia; Kelly-Arnold, Adreanne; Vengrenyuk, Yuliya; Laudier, Damien; Fallon, John T.; Virmani, Renu; Cardoso, Luis

    2012-01-01

    The role of microcalcifications (μCalcs) in the biomechanics of vulnerable plaque rupture is examined. Our laboratory previously proposed (Ref. 44), using a very limited tissue sample, that μCalcs embedded in the fibrous cap proper could significantly increase cap instability. This study has been greatly expanded. Ninety-two human coronary arteries containing 62 fibroatheroma were examined using high-resolution microcomputed tomography at 6.7-μm resolution and undecalcified histology with special emphasis on calcified particles <50 μm in diameter. Our results reveal the presence of thousands of μCalcs, the vast majority in lipid pools where they are not dangerous. However, 81 μCalcs were also observed in the fibrous caps of nine of the fibroatheroma. All 81 of these μCalcs were analyzed using three-dimensional finite-element analysis, and the results were used to develop important new clinical criteria for cap stability. These criteria include variation of the Young's modulus of the μCalc and surrounding tissue, μCalc size, and clustering. We found that local tissue stress could be increased fivefold when μCalcs were closely spaced, and the peak circumferential stress in the thinnest nonruptured cap (66 μm) if no μCalcs were present was only 107 kPa, far less than the proposed minimum rupture threshold of 300 kPa. These results and histology suggest that there are numerous μCalcs < 15 μm in the caps, not visible at 6.7-μm resolution, and that our failure to find any nonruptured caps between 30 and 66 μm is a strong indication that many of these caps contained μCalcs. PMID:22777419

  1. A systematic review of the association between pleural plaques and changes in lung function

    PubMed Central

    Kopylev, Leonid; Christensen, Krista Yorita; Brown, James S; Cooper, Glinda S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To conduct a systematic review of changes in lung function in relation to presence of pleural plaques in asbestos-exposed populations. Methods Database searches of PubMed and Web of Science were supplemented by review of papers’ reference lists and journals’ tables of contents. Methodological features (eg, consideration of potential confounding by smoking) of identified articles were reviewed by ≥two reviewers. Meta-analyses of 20 studies estimated a summary effect of the decrements in per cent predicted (%pred) forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) associated with presence of pleural plaques. Results Among asbestos-exposed workers, the presence of pleural plaques was associated with statistically significant decrements in FVC (4.09%pred, 95% CI 2.31 to 5.86) and FEV1 (1.99%pred, 95% CI 0.22 to 3.77). Effects of similar magnitude were seen when stratifying by imaging type (X-ray or high-resolution CT) and when excluding studies with potential methodological limitations. Undetected asbestosis was considered as an unlikely explanation of the observed decrements. Several studies provided evidence of an association between size of pleural plaques and degree of pulmonary decrease, and presence of pleural plaques and increased rate or degree of pulmonary impairment. Conclusions The presence of pleural plaques is associated with a small, but statistically significant mean difference in FVC and FEV1 in comparison to asbestos-exposed individuals without plaques or other abnormalities. From a public health perspective, small group mean decrements in lung function coupled with an increased rate of decline in lung function of the exposed population may be consequential. PMID:25504898

  2. Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giattina, Susanne D.; Courtney, Brian K.; Herz, Paul R.; Harman, Michelle; Shortkroff, Sonya; Stamper, Debra L.; Liu, Bin; Fujimoto, James G.; Brezinski, Mark E.

    2006-02-01

    Current evidence indicates that most plaques classified as vulnerable or ruptured plaques do not lead to unstable angina or myocardial infarction. Improved methods are needed to risk stratify plaques to identify those which lead to most acute coronary syndromes. Collagen depletion in the intima overlying lipid collections appears to be a critical component of unstable plaques. In this study, we use polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) for the assessment of coronary plaque collagen. Collagen is birefringent, meaning that different polarization states travel through it at different velocities. Changes in PS-OCT images are a measure of tissue birefringence. Twenty-two coronary artery segments were imaged with PS-OCT and analyzed by picrosirius staining (a measure of collagen intensity and fiber size) and trichrome blue. The regression plot between PS-OCT changes and measured collagen yielded a correlation coefficient value of 0.475 (p<0.002). Good correlation was noted between two blinded investigators both with respect to PS-OCT measurements as well as luminosity as assessed by picrosirius. The predictive value of a PS-OCT measurement of negligible birefringence (less than 33% change) for minimal collagen was 93% while the predictive value of high birefringence (greater than 66% change) for high collagen concentrations was 89%. The effect of fiber type (chemical composition) was minimal relative to the effect due to fiber concentration. The capability of PS-OCT to assess plaque collagen content, in addition to its ability to generate high resolution structural assessments, make it a potentially powerful technology for identifying high risk plaques.

  3. Ultrastructure and morphology of biofilms on thermoplastic orthodontic appliances in 'fast' and 'slow' plaque formers.

    PubMed

    Low, Bernard; Lee, Wilson; Seneviratne, C J; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; Hägg, Urban

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological features and distribution of biofilms on Invisalign orthodontic appliances, in a sample of 'slow' and 'fast' plaque formers using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fifty-six Chinese male/female volunteers (aged 19-39 years) were screened for their plaque-forming rate using the plaque percentage index (PPI) coupled with digital photography and computer-based image analysis, after a period of 48 hours of abstinence from oral hygiene procedures. Eleven volunteers (seven males/four females) representing the lowest and highest ends of the plaque formation spectrum were chosen as slow and fast plaque formers, respectively. The subjects wore a full-coverage splint appliance, in which four tiles of Invisalign material were embedded. These tiles were collected at intervals of 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours, as well as 3, 7, and 14 days, immediately fixed in 10 per cent paraformaldehyde in 0.2 M cacodylate buffer solution and prepared for SEM. The surface configuration of the Invisalign appliance was visualized, as well as the chronological pattern of biofilm formation. Significance between fast and slow plaque formers was determined using a Student's t-test. Colonization appeared to centre initially on the raised edges or textured surfaces of the appliance, and initial adhesion was quicker and more abundant in the fast plaque-forming group. In the later stages of biofilm development, both groups showed no discernible differences in biofilm accrual on the surfaces, but the fast group displayed a more complex biofilm structure. More recessed and sheltered areas of the appliance, such as the cusp tips and attachment dimples, harboured more biofilm than the flat surfaces. Hence, it seems that the novel Invisialign orthodontic appliance is a useful tool to investigate the features of biofilm formation in time-course studies.

  4. Angiopoietin-2 blocking antibodies reduce early atherosclerotic plaque development in mice

    PubMed Central

    Theelen, Thomas L.; Lappalainen, Jari P.; Sluimer, Judith C.; Gurzeler, Erika; Cleutjens, Jack P.; Gijbels, Marion J.; Biessen, Erik A.L.; Daemen, Mat J.A.P.; Alitalo, Kari; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    Objective Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) blocking agents are currently undergoing clinical trials for use in cancer treatment. Ang-2 has also been associated with rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques in humans, suggesting a role for Ang-2 in plaque stability. Despite the availability of Ang-2 blocking agents, their clinical use is still lacking. Our aim was to establish if Ang-2 has a role in atheroma development and in the transition of subclinical to clinically relevant atherosclerosis. We investigated the effect of antibody-mediated Ang-2 blockage on atherogenesis after in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Methods Hypercholesterolemic (low-density lipoprotein receptor−/− apolipoprotein B100/100) mice were subjected to high-cholesterol diet for eight weeks, one group with and one group without Ang-2 blocking antibody treatment during weeks 4–8.To enhance plaque development, a peri-adventitial collar was placed around the carotid arteries at the start of antibody treatment. Aortic root, carotid arteries and brachiocephalic arteries were analyzed to evaluate the effect of Ang-2 blockage on atherosclerotic plaque size and stable plaque characteristics. Results Anti-Ang-2 treatment reduced the size of fatty streaks in the brachiocephalic artery (−72%, p < 0.05). In addition, antibody-mediated Ang-2 blockage reduced plasma triglycerides (−27%, p < 0.05). In contrast, Ang-2 blockage did not have any effect on the size or composition (collagen content, macrophage percentage, adventitial microvessel density) of pre-existing plaques in the aortic root or collar-induced plaques in the carotid artery. Conclusions Ang-2 blockage was beneficial as it decreased fatty streak formation and plasma triglyceride levels, but had no adverse effect on pre-existing atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice. PMID:26062989

  5. Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 is Associated with Carotid Plaque Presence and Area: the Northern Manhattan Study

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nirav H.; Dong, Chuanhui; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Sacco, Ralph L.; Mendez, Armando J.; Hudson, Barry I.; Silverberg, Shonni; Wolf, Myles; Rundek, Tatjana; Wright, Clinton B.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a hormone that regulates phosphate homeostasis, has been associated with mortality, cardiovascular events, and stroke, and to arterial calcification in chronic kidney disease (CKD), but its role in atherosclerosis is unclear and population-based studies are lacking. We hypothesized that elevated FGF23 would associate with carotid plaque presence, area, and echogenicity in the race/ethnically diverse community-based Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS) sample. APPROACH AND RESULTS There were 1,512 stroke-free NOMAS participants with FGF23 and 2D carotid ultrasound data (mean age 68±9 years; 61% women; 62% Hispanic, 18% black, 18% white). We used multivariable linear and logistic regression to evaluate FGF23, continuously and by quintiles, as a correlate of carotid plaque, plaque area (cubic root transformed), and echogenicity adjusting for sociodemographic and vascular risk factors. Participants with FGF23 levels in the top quintile were more likely to have carotid plaque (OR=1.49 95% CI=1.02-2.19, p=0.04) and larger plaque area (beta=0.32 mm2, 95% CI=0.10-0.53 mm2, p=0.004) than those in the lowest quintile, adjusting for eGFR, demographics, and vascular risk factors. Linear regression models also showed that log transformed FGF23 (LnFGF23) associated with greater odds of plaque presence (OR=1.26 per LnFGF23, 95% CI=1.01-1.58, p=0.04), and plaque area (beta=0.19 mm2 per LnFGF23, 95% CI=0.07-0.31 mm2, p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS Higher FGF23 associated with greater likelihood and burden of carotid atherosclerosis independent of CKD. Atherosclerosis may be a mechanism through which FGF23 increases cardiovascular events and stroke. PMID:26112008

  6. Safrole-2',3'-oxide induces atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Su, Le; Zhang, Haiyan; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Shangli; Zhang, Yun; Zhao, Baoxiang; Miao, Junying

    2013-02-27

    Safrole-2',3'-oxide (SFO) is the major electrophilic metabolite of safrole (4-allyl-1, 2-methylenedioxybenzene), a natural plant constituent found in essential oils of numerous edible herbs and spices and in food containing these herbs, such as pesto sauce, cola beverages and bologna sausages. The effects of SFO in mammalian systems, especially the cardiovascular system, are little known. Disruption of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques in atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease, is the main cause of cardiovascular events. In this study, we investigated SFO-induced atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability (possibility of rupture) in apolipoprotein E-knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice. Lipid area in vessel wall reached 59.8% in high dose SFO (SFO-HD) treated group, which is only 31.2% in control group. SFO treatment changed the lesion composition to an unstable phenotype, increased the number of apoptotic cells in plaque and the endothelium in plaques was damaged after SFO treatment. Furthermore, compared with control groups, the plaque endothelium level of p75(NTR) was 3-fold increased and the liver level of p75(NTR) was 17.4-fold increased by SFO-HD. Meanwhile, the serum level of KC (a functional homolog of IL-8 and the main proinflammatory alpha chemokine in mice) in apoE(-/-) mice was up to 357pg/ml in SFO-HD treated group. Thus, SFO contributes to the instability of atherosclerotic plaque in apoE(-/-) mice through activating p75(NTR) and IL-8 and cell apoptosis in plaque.

  7. Outcomes of Iodine-125 Plaque Brachytherapy for Uveal Melanoma With Intraoperative Ultrasonography and Supplemental Transpupillary Thermotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Badiyan, Shahed N.; Rao, Rajesh C.; Apicelli, Anthony J.; Acharya, Sahaja; Verma, Vivek; Garsa, Adam A.; DeWees, Todd; Speirs, Christina K.; Garcia-Ramirez, Jose; Esthappan, Jacqueline; Grigsby, Perry W.; Harbour, J. William

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the impact on local tumor control of intraoperative ultrasonographic plaque visualization and selective application of transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) in the treatment of posterior uveal melanoma with iodine-125 (I-125) episcleral plaque brachytherapy (EPB). Methods and Materials: Retrospective analysis of 526 patients treated with I-125 EPB for posterior uveal melanoma. Clinical features, dosimetric parameters, TTT treatments, and local tumor control outcomes were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards and Kaplan-Meier life table method. Results: The study included 270 men (51%) and 256 women (49%), with a median age of 63 years (mean, 62 years; range, 16-91 years). Median dose to the tumor apex was 94.4 Gy (mean, 97.8; range, 43.9-183.9) and to the tumor base was 257.9 Gy (mean, 275.6; range, 124.2-729.8). Plaque tilt >1 mm away from the sclera at plaque removal was detected in 142 cases (27%). Supplemental TTT was performed in 72 patients (13.7%). One or 2 TTT sessions were required in 71 TTT cases (98.6%). After a median follow-up of 45.9 months (mean, 53.4 months; range, 6-175 months), local tumor recurrence was detected in 19 patients (3.6%). Local tumor recurrence was associated with lower dose to the tumor base (P=.02). Conclusions: Ultrasound-guided plaque localization of I-125 EPB is associated with excellent local tumor control. Detection of plaque tilt by ultrasonography at plaque removal allows supplemental TTT to be used in patients at potentially higher risk for local recurrence while sparing the majority of patients who are at low risk. Most patients require only 1 or 2 TTT sessions.

  8. Effect of water-soluble reduced chitosan on Streptococcus mutans, plaque regrowth and biofilm vitality.

    PubMed

    Bae, K; Jun, E J; Lee, S M; Paik, D I; Kim, J B

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a newly developed water-soluble reduced chitosan on Streptococcus mutans, plaque regrowth, and biofilm vitality. A 1.0%, water-soluble reduced chitosan, with pH ranging from 6.0 to 6.5, molecular weights between 3,000 and 5,000 Da, and 70% degree of deacetylation, was used. To determine antibacterial and antiplaque potency of chitosan, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for S. mutans and S. sanguinis (formerly S. sanguis), short-term exposure to S. mutans, and clinical trial of plaque regrowth and biofilm vitality were conducted. Twelve dental students volunteered to participate in the 6-week, double blind, randomized clinical trial using the classical 4-day plaque regrowth design. The MIC of water-soluble reduced chitosan for S. mutans was 1.25 g/l. While the cells exposed to distilled water (DW) grew rapidly, with a maximum turbidity reached by 16 h postinoculation, S. mutans exposed to chitosan (5.0 g/l) exhibited a substantial delay in growth and reached a maximum turbidity by 32 h postinoculation. The chitosan solution reduced the plaque index and the vitality of the plaque flora significantly when compared to DW, but this was less than the reductions found with the positive control of 0.1% chlorhexidine solution. The water-soluble reduced chitosan exhibited potent antibacterial effect on S. mutans, and displayed a significant antibacterial and plaque-reducing action during the 4-day plaque regrowth.

  9. Survival of Bacteria from Human Dental Plaque Under Various Transport Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Charles I.; Newbrun, Ernest

    1977-01-01

    The effects of transport media, temperature, and anaerobiosis on the survival of bacteria from human supragingival dental plaque were studied. Individual samples were obtained by passing sterile, unwaxed dental floss through the interproximal spaces. The plaque-bearing portion of floss was immediately placed in vials containing reduced transport fluid, viability-preserving microbistatic medium, or reduced salt solution transport fluid. Plaque samples were dispersed by ultrasonic oscillation, serially diluted, and plated in duplicate on MM10-sucrose-blood agar, mitis salivarius bacitracin agar, and Rogosa tomato juice agar. Initial viable counts (time 0) were compared with viable count determinations after 48- and 72-h storage. Quantitative recovery (>30%) of various groups of oral bacteria was accomplished from both reduced transport fluid and viability-preserving microbistatic medium after 48- and 72-h storage. Storage of dental plaque in reduced salt solution proved unsatisfactory for most bacteria (less than 10% survival). Since growth of some bacteria may occur in viability-preserving microbistatic medium and the charcoal present interferes with colonly enumeration on low-dilution plates, we found reduced transport fluid to be the most suitable medium for transport and recovery of bacteria from supragingival dental plaque. Subzero storage (−196 and −40°C) did not enhance the survival of bacteria from dental plaque; storage at moderate (5 and 20°C) temperatures gave better recovery of viable bacteria. Survival after anaerobic or aerobic storage was comparable for total colony-forming units; however, anaerobic storage enhanced survival of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Since these organisms are specifically associated with dental caries, anaerobic techniques are preferred for caries activity testing of plaque. PMID:332708

  10. Survival of bacteria from human dental plaque under various transport conditions.

    PubMed

    Hoover, C I; Newbrun, E

    1977-09-01

    The effects of transport media, temperature, and anaerobiosis on the survival of bacteria from human supragingival dental plaque were studied. Individual samples were obtained by passing sterile, unwaxed dental floss through the interproximal spaces. The plaque-bearing portion of floss was immediately placed in vials containing reduced transport fluid, viability-preserving microbistatic medium, or reduced salt solution transport fluid. Plaque samples were dispersed by ultrasonic oscillation, serially diluted, and plated in duplicate on MM10-sucrose-blood agar, mitis salivarius bacitracin agar, and Rogosa tomato juice agar. Initial viable counts (time 0) were compared with viable count determinations after 48- and 72-h storage. Quantitative recovery (>30%) of various groups of oral bacteria was accomplished from both reduced transport fluid and viability-preserving microbistatic medium after 48- and 72-h storage. Storage of dental plaque in reduced salt solution proved unsatisfactory for most bacteria (less than 10% survival). Since growth of some bacteria may occur in viability-preserving microbistatic medium and the charcoal present interferes with colonly enumeration on low-dilution plates, we found reduced transport fluid to be the most suitable medium for transport and recovery of bacteria from supragingival dental plaque. Subzero storage (-196 and -40 degrees C) did not enhance the survival of bacteria from dental plaque; storage at moderate (5 and 20 degrees C) temperatures gave better recovery of viable bacteria. Survival after anaerobic or aerobic storage was comparable for total colony-forming units; however, anaerobic storage enhanced survival of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Since these organisms are specifically associated with dental caries, anaerobic techniques are preferred for caries activity testing of plaque.

  11. Frequency Analysis of the Photoacoustic Signal Generated by Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaque.

    PubMed

    Daeichin, Verya; Wu, Min; De Jong, Nico; van der Steen, Antonius F W; van Soest, Gijs

    2016-08-01

    The identification of unstable atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary arteries is emerging as an important tool for guiding percutaneous coronary interventions and may enable preventive treatment of such plaques in the future. Assessment of plaque stability requires imaging of both structure and composition. Spectroscopic photoacoustic (sPA) imaging can visualize atherosclerotic plaque composition on the basis of the optical absorption contrast. It is an established fact that the frequency content of the photoacoustic (PA) signal is correlated with structural tissue properties. As PA signals can be weak, it is important to match the transducer bandwidth to the signal frequency content for in vivo imaging. In this ex vivo study on human coronary arteries, we combined sPA imaging and analysis of frequency content of the PA signals. Using a broadband transducer (-3-dB one-way bandwidth of 10-35 MHz) and a 1-mm needle hydrophone (calibrated for 1-20 MHz), we covered a large frequency range of 1-35 MHz for receiving the PA signals. Spectroscopic PA imaging was performed at wavelengths ranging from 1125 to 1275 nm with a step of 2 nm, allowing discrimination between plaque lipids and adventitial tissue. Under sPA imaging guidance, the frequency content of the PA signals from the plaque lipids was quantified. Our data indicate that more than 80% of the PA energy of the coronary plaque lipids lies in the frequency band below 8 MHz. This frequency information can guide the choice of the transducer element used for PA catheter fabrication.

  12. Effect of local application of delmopinol hydrochloride on developing and early established supragingival plaque in humans.

    PubMed

    Klinge, B; Matsson, L; Attström, R; Edwardsson, S; Sjödin, T

    1996-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of delmopinol hydrochloride on the development of dental plaque and on newly established plaque. In addition, the influence of this compound on the composition of the microbiota colonizing the gingival mucous membrane was studied. 14 healthy male volunteers took part. After a 3 week pre-experimental period of intense oral hygiene, the participants refrained from all oral hygiene for 14 days. The buccal surfaces of cuspids and bicuspids on one side of the jaws were treated with a 1% aqueous solution of delmopinol hydrochloride (applied with a paint brush) 2 x a day for 7 days, while the contralateral side received placebo solution. On day 7, the application procedures were changed in that the test compound was applied on the teeth previously treated with placebo and vice versa. Plaque development was assessed clinically and by photo-based planimetric determination. The clinical recordings revealed that 89.3% of the placebo-treated surfaces displayed visible plaque on day 7, compared to 6.0% of the delmopinol hydrochloride treated surfaces. Delmopinol hydrochloride treatment of the previously placebo-treated surfaces resulted in a decrease in the number of surfaces with visible plaque from 89.3% on day 7 to 6% on day 14. These results were confirmed by the planimetric data. No significant change in the composition of the mucosal flora was observed during the experimental period. The present results indicate that delmopinol hydrochloride markedly reduces the formation of dental plaque on a clean tooth surface exposed to conditions which favour bacterial colonization. Furthermore, the substance appears to possess plaque-dissolving properties. PMID:8811473

  13. Comparison of erythritol and xylitol saliva stimulants in the control of dental plaque and mutans streptococci.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, K K; Isotupa, K P; Kivilompolo, T; Mäkinen, P L; Toivanen, J; Söderling, E

    2001-01-01

    The effect of 2-month usage of saliva-stimulating pastils containing either erythritol or xylitol was studied in a cohort of 30 subjects assigned to the respective polyol groups (n = 15). The daily consumption level of both polyols was 5.2 g, used in 5 daily chewing episodes. The mean weight of total plaque mass (collectable during a standard period of 3 min from all available tooth surfaces) was reduced significantly in the xylitol-group, while no such effect was observed in the erythritol-group. This reduction in plaque mass was accompanied by a significant reduction in the turbidity readings (A(660)) of aqueous plaque suspensions; no such effect was observed in the erythritol-group. However, plaque protein levels did not differ between baseline and endpoint in either polyol group. The plaque and salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans and plaque levels of total streptococci were reduced significantly in the xylitol-group, while no such effect was detected in the erythritol-group. However, either polyol regimen had no effect on plaque levels of S. sobrinus. The results suggest that systematic use of xylitol-containing saliva stimulants may be more effective in controlling some oral-hygiene-related and caries-associated parameters than similar use of erythritol-containing products. The results also speak for a special relationship between xylitol and S. mutans. However, owing to the great potential of erythritol as a caries-reducing agent -- based on the tetritol nature of erythritol -- the present laboratory results should be considered preliminary and subject to verifying clinical studies.

  14. Carotid plaque is a new risk factor for peripheral vestibular disorder: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Masaoki; Takeshima, Taro; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Nagasaka, Shoichiro; Kamesaki, Toyomi; Kajii, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Many chronic diseases are associated with dizziness or vertigo, as is peripheral vestibular disorder (PVD). Although carotid plaque development is linked to atherosclerosis, it is unclear whether such plaques can lead to the development of PVD. We therefore conducted this study to investigate the presence of an association between carotid plaque and new PVD events. In this retrospective study, we consecutively enrolled 393 patients ≥20 years old who had been treated for chronic diseases such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus for ≥6 months at a primary care clinic (Oki Clinic, Japan) between November 2011 and March 2013. Carotid plaque presence was measured with high-resolution ultrasonography for all patients. During a 1-year follow-up period, an otorhinolaryngologist diagnosed and reported any new PVD events (the main end point). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for new PVD occurrence were estimated using the Cox proportional hazard regression model. The mean age of the participants was 65.5 years; 33.8% were men, and 12.7%, 82.4%, and 93.1% had diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, respectively. There were 76 new PVD events; patients with carotid plaque had a greater risk of such events (crude HR: 3.25; 95% CI: 1.62–6.52) compared to those without carotid plaque. This risk was even higher after adjusting for traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis (adjusted HR: 4.41; 95% CI: 1.75–11.14). Carotid plaques are associated with an increased risk of new PVD events. PMID:27495105

  15. Effects of wastewater discharge on formation of Fe plaque on root surface and radial oxygen loss of mangrove roots.

    PubMed

    Pi, N; Tam, N F Y; Wong, M H

    2010-02-01

    Effects of wastewater discharge on radial oxygen loss (ROL), formation of iron (Fe) plaque on root surface, and their correlations in Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Poir and Excoecaria agallocha L. were investigated. ROL along a lateral root increased more rapidly in control than that in strong wastewater (with pollutant concentrations ten times of that in municipal sewage, 10NW) treatment, but less Fe plaque was formed in control for both plants. For B. gymnorrhiza receiving 10NW, Fe plaque formation was more at basal and mature zones than at root tip, while opposite trend was shown in E. agallocha. At day 0, the correlation between ROL and Fe plaque was insignificant, but negative and positive correlations were found in 10NW and control, respectively, at day 105, suggesting that more ROL was induced leading to more Fe plaque. However, excess Fe plaque also served as a 'barrier' to prevent excessive ROL in 10NW plants. PMID:19782449

  16. Compositions for labeling .beta.-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles

    DOEpatents

    Barrio, Jorge R.; Petric, Andrej; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Small, Gary W.; Cole, Gregory M.; Huang, Sung-Cheng

    2008-03-11

    Compositions useful for labeling .beta.-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are provided. The compositions comprises compounds of formula (I): ##STR00001## wherein R.sub.1 is selected from the group consisting of --C(O)-alkyl, --C(O)-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)O-alkyl, --C(O)O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C.dbd.C(CN).sub.2-alkyl, --C.dbd.C(CN).sub.2-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.4 is a radical selected from the group consisting of alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl and substituted aryl; R.sub.5 is a radical selected from the group consisting of --NH.sub.2, --OH, --SH, --NH-alkyl, --NHR.sub.4, --NH-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --O-alkyl, --O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --S-alkyl, and --S-alkylenyl-R.sub.4; R.sub.6 is a radical selected from the group consisting of --CN, --COOH, --C(O)O-alkyl, --C(O)O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)-alkyl, --C(O)-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)-halogen, --C(O)NH-alkyl, --C(O)NH-alkylenyl-R.sub.4 and --C(O)NH.sub.2; R.sub.7 is a radical selected from the group consisting of O, NH, and S; and R.sub.8 is N, O or S; and R.sub.2 is selected from the group consisting of alkyl and alkylenyl-R.sub.10 and R.sub.3 is alkylenyl-R.sub.10, wherein R.sub.10 is selected from the group consisting of --OH, --OTs, halogen, spiperone, spiperone ketal, and spiperone-3-yl, or R.sub.2 and R.sub.3 together form a heterocyclic ring, optionally substituted with at least one radical selected from the group consisting of alkyl, alkoxy, OH, OTs, halogen, alkyl-R.sub.10, carbonyl, spiperone, spiperone ketal and spiperone-3-yl, and further wherein one or more of the hydrogen, halogen or carbon atoms are optionally replaced with a radiolabel.

  17. Methods for labeling .beta.-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles

    DOEpatents

    Barrio, Jorge R.; Petric, Andrej; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Small, Gary W.; Cole, Gregory M.; Huang, Sung-Cheng

    2001-01-01

    A method for labeling .beta.-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in vivo and in vitro, comprises contacting a compound of formula (I): ##STR1## with mammalian tissue. In formula (I), R.sub.1 is selected from the group consisting of --C(O)-alkyl, --C(O)-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)O-alkyl, --C(O)O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C.dbd.C(CN).sub.2 -alkyl, --C.dbd.C(CN).sub.2 -alkylenyl-R.sub.4 , ##STR2## R.sub.4 is a radical selected from the group consisting of alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl and substituted aryl; R.sub.5, is a radical selected from the group consisting of --NH.sub.2, --OH, --SH, --NH-alkyl, --NHR.sub.4, --NH-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --O-alkyl, --O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --S-alkyl, and --S-alkylenyl-R.sub.4 ; R.sub.6 is a radical selected from the group consisting of --CN, --COOH, --C(O)O-alkyl, --C(O)O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)-alkyl, --C(O)-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)-halogen, --C(O)NH , --C(O)NH-alkyl, --C(O)NH-alkylenyl-R.sub.4 ; R.sub.7 is a radical selected from the group consisting of O, NH, and S; and R.sub.8 is N, O or S. R.sub.2 and R.sub.3 are each independently selected from the group consisting of alkyl and alkylenyl-R.sub.10, wherein R.sub.10 is selected from the group consisting of --OH, --OTs, halogen, spiperone, spiperone ketal and spiperone-3-yl. Alternatively, R.sub.2 and R.sub.3 together form a heterocyclic ring, optionally substituted with at least one radical selected from the group consisting of alkyl, alkoxy, OH, OTs, halogen, alkylenyl-R.sub.10, carbonyl, spiperone, spiperone ketal and spiperone-3-yl. In the compounds of formula (I), one or more of the hydrogen, halogen or carbon atoms can, optionally, be replaced with a radiolabel.

  18. Methods for labeling .beta.-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles

    DOEpatents

    Barrio, Jorge R.; Petric, Andrej; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Small, Gary W.; Cole, Gregory M.; Huang, Sung-Cheng

    2003-12-09

    A method for labeling .beta.-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in vivo and in vitro, comprises contacting a compound of formula (I): ##STR1## with mammalian tissue. In formula (I), R.sub.1 is selected from the group consisting of --C(O)-alkyl, --C(O)-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)O-alkyl, --C(O)O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C.dbd.C(CN).sub.2 -alkyl, --C.dbd.C(CN).sub.2 -alkylenyl-R.sub.4, ##STR2## R.sub.4 is a radical selected from the group consisting of alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl and substituted aryl; R.sub.5 is a radical selected from the group consisting of --NH.sub.2, --OH, --SH, --NH-alkyl, --NHR.sub.4, --NH-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --O-alkyl, --O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --S-alkyl, and --S-alkylenyl-R.sub.4 ; R.sub.6 is a radical selected from the group consisting of --CN, --COOH, --C(O)O-alkyl, --C(O)O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)-alkyl, --C(O)-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)-halogen, --C(O)NH, --C(O)NH-alkyl, --C(O)NH-alkylenyl-R.sub.4 ; R.sub.7 is a radical selected from the group consisting of O, NH, and S; and R.sub.8 is N, O or S. R.sub.2 and R.sub.3 are each independently selected from the group consisting of alkyl and alkylenyl-R.sub.10, wherein R.sub.10 is selected from the group consisting of --OH, --OTs, halogen, spiperone, spiperone ketal and spiperone-3-yl. Alternatively, R.sub.2 and R.sub.3 together form a heterocyclic ring, optionally substituted with at least one radical selected from the group consisting of alkyl, alkoxy, OH, OTs, halogen, alkylenyl-R.sub.10, carbonyl, spiperone, spiperone ketal and spiperone-3-yl. In the compounds of formula (I), one or more of the hydrogen, halogen or carbon atoms can, optionally, be replaced with a radiolabel.

  19. Dual-mode ultrasound arrays for image-guided targeting of atheromatous plaques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, John R.; Casper, Andrew J.; Liu, Dalong; Haritonova, Alyona; Shehata, Islam A.; Troutman, Mitchell; Ebbini, Emad S.

    2012-11-01

    A feasibility study was undertaken in order to investigate alternative noninvasive treatment options for atherosclerosis. In particular, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of Dual-Mode Ultrasound Arrays (DMUAs) for image guided treatment of atheromatous plaques. DMUAs offer a unique treatment paradigm for image-guided surgery allowing for robust image-based identification of tissue targets for localized application of HIFU. In this study we present imaging and therapeutic results form a 3.5 MHz, 64-element fenestrated prototype DMUA for targeting lesions in the femoral artery of familial hypercholesterolemic (FH) swine. Before treatment, diagnostic ultrasound was used to verify the presence of plaque in the femoral artery of the swine. Images obtained with the DMUA and a diagnostic (HST 15-8) transducer housed in the fenestration were analyzed and used for guidance in targeting of the plaque. Discrete therapeutic shots with an estimated focal intensity of 4000-5600 W/cm2 and 500-2000 msec duration were performed at several planes in the plaque. During therapy, pulsed HIFU was interleaved with single transmit focus imaging from the DMUA and M2D imaging from the diagnostic transducer for further analysis of lesion formation. After therapy, the swine's were recovered and later sacrificed after 4 and 7 days for histological analysis of lesion formation. At sacrifice, the lower half of the swine was perfused and the femoral artery with adjoining muscle was fixed and stained with H&E to characterize HIFU-induced lesions. Histology has confirmed that localized thermal lesion formation within the plaque was achieved according to the planned lesion maps. Furthermore, the damage was confined to the plaque tissue without damage to the intima. These results offer the promise of a new treatment potentially suited for vulnerable plaques. The results also provide the first real-time demonstration of DMUA technology in targeting fine tissue structures for

  20. Seed coordinates of a new COMS-like 24 mm plaque verified using the FARO Edge.

    PubMed

    McCauley Cutsinger, Sarah E; Furutani, Keith M; Forsman, Renae M; Corner, Stephen M

    2015-11-08

    A 24 mm COMS-like eye plaque was developed to meet the treatment needs of our eye plaque brachytherapy practice. As part of commissioning, it was necessary to determine the new plaque's seed coordinates. The FARO Edge, a commercially available measurement arm, was chosen for this purpose. In order to validate the FARO Edge method, it was first used to measure the seed marker coordinates in the silastic molds for the standard 10, 18, and 20 mm COMS plaques, and the results were compared with the standard published Task Group 129 coordinates by a nonlinear least squares match in MATLAB version R2013a. All measured coordinates were within 0.60 mm, and root mean square deviation was 0.12, 0.23, and 0.35 mm for the 10, 18, and 20 mm molds, respectively. The FARO Edge was then used to measure the seed marker locations in the new 24 mm silastic mold. Those values were compared to the manufacturing specification coordinates and were found to demonstrate good agreement, with a maximum deviation of 0.56mm and a root mean square deviation of 0.37 mm. The FARO Edge is deemed to be a reliable method for determining seed coordinates for COMS silastics, and the seed coordinates for the new 24 mm plaque are presented.

  1. Is the red fluorescence of dental plaque related to its cariogenicity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittar, Daniela G.; Pontes, Laura Regina A.; Calvo, Ana Flávia B.; Novaes, Tatiane F.; Braga, Mariana M.; Freitas, Patrícia M.; Tabchoury, Cinthia P. M.; Mendes, Fausto M.

    2014-06-01

    It has been speculated that the red fluorescence emitted by dental plaque could be related to its cariogenicity. To test this hypothesis, we designed this crossover in situ study, with two experimental phases of 14 days each. Seventeen volunteers, wearing a palatal appliance with bovine enamel blocks, were instructed to drip a 20% sucrose solution (experimental group) or purified water (control group) onto the enamel blocks eight times daily. The specimens were removed after 4, 7, 10, and 14 days, and the red fluorescence of dental plaque formed on the enamel blocks was assessed using a quantitative light-induced fluorescence device. After the plaque removal, surface and cross-sectional microhardness tests were performed to assess the mineral loss. The comparisons were made by a multilevel linear regression analysis. We observed a significant increase in the red fluorescence of the dental plaque after longer periods of formation, but this trend was verified in both groups. The mineral loss assessed by the microhardness techniques, contrariwise, showed a significant increase only in the experimental group. In conclusion, the red fluorescence emitted by the dental plaque indicates a mature biofilm, but this fact is not necessarily associated with its cariogenicity.

  2. Distribution of nominal and latent IgG (Gm) allotypes in plaques of multiple sclerosis brain.

    PubMed Central

    Salier, J P; Glynn, P; Goust, J M; Cuzner, M L

    1983-01-01

    Concentrations of IgG allotypes G1m(1), G1m(3) and G3m(11) in neutral pH eluates from discrete plaques of multiple sclerosis (MS) brain and from white matter of control brain were determined to obtain information about distribution of B cell clones among MS lesions. Within each MS brain a predominant nominal IgG1 allotype was distributed rather homogeneously in all plaques while quantitatively minor allotypes showed some fluctuation. Latent IgG1 allotypes were detected (7-12% of the corresponding nominal allotype level) in some tissue eluates from both MS and control brains, which were homozygous for either G1m(1) or G1m(3). By contrast, the expression of a latent IgG3 allotype, namely G3m(11), was apparently MS restricted. Large amounts of latent allotypes were detected only in recent plaques with lymphoid cells whereas the distribution of total plaque associated IgGs did not correlate with the presence of lymphoid cells. Latent allotypes in recent MS lesions may mark a transient immunological activity which coincides with the infiltration of lymphoid cells and precedes the appearance in these plaques of oligoclonal IgGs, the distribution of which may parallel that of the predominant nominal allotypes. PMID:6606512

  3. Distribution of nominal and latent IgG (Gm) allotypes in plaques of multiple sclerosis brain.

    PubMed

    Salier, J P; Glynn, P; Goust, J M; Cuzner, M L

    1983-12-01

    Concentrations of IgG allotypes G1m(1), G1m(3) and G3m(11) in neutral pH eluates from discrete plaques of multiple sclerosis (MS) brain and from white matter of control brain were determined to obtain information about distribution of B cell clones among MS lesions. Within each MS brain a predominant nominal IgG1 allotype was distributed rather homogeneously in all plaques while quantitatively minor allotypes showed some fluctuation. Latent IgG1 allotypes were detected (7-12% of the corresponding nominal allotype level) in some tissue eluates from both MS and control brains, which were homozygous for either G1m(1) or G1m(3). By contrast, the expression of a latent IgG3 allotype, namely G3m(11), was apparently MS restricted. Large amounts of latent allotypes were detected only in recent plaques with lymphoid cells whereas the distribution of total plaque associated IgGs did not correlate with the presence of lymphoid cells. Latent allotypes in recent MS lesions may mark a transient immunological activity which coincides with the infiltration of lymphoid cells and precedes the appearance in these plaques of oligoclonal IgGs, the distribution of which may parallel that of the predominant nominal allotypes. PMID:6606512

  4. Quantitative assessment of MS plaques and brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis using semiautomatic segmentation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Tomi; Dastidar, Prasun; Ryymin, Pertti; Lahtinen, Antti J.; Eskola, Hannu; Malmivuo, Jaakko

    1997-05-01

    Quantitative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain is useful in multiple sclerosis (MS) in order to obtain reliable indices of disease progression. The goal of this project was to estimate the total volume of gliotic and non gliotic plaques in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis with the help of a semiautomatic segmentation method developed at the Ragnar Granit Institute. Youth developed program running on a PC based computer provides de displays of the segmented data, in addition to the volumetric analyses. The volumetric accuracy of the program was demonstrated by segmenting MR images of fluid filed syringes. An anatomical atlas is to be incorporated in the segmentation system to estimate the distribution of MS plaques in various neural pathways of the brain. A total package including MS plaque volume estimation, estimation of brain atrophy and ventricular enlargement, distribution of MS plaques in different neural segments of the brain has ben planned for the near future. Our study confirmed that total lesion volumes in chronic MS disease show a poor correlation to EDSS scores but show a positive correlation to neuropsychological scores. Therefore accurate total volume measurements of MS plaques using the developed semiautomatic segmentation technique helped us to evaluate the degree of neuropsychological impairment.

  5. Enhanced growth and plaquing of rabies virus in static chick embryo cell culture.

    PubMed

    Sekine, N; Yoshino, K

    1976-08-01

    The 7-day egg passage line of HEP Flury strain of rabies virus was inoculated to primary chick embyro (CE) cells prepared in different ways to compared efficiencies of viral growth and plaquing. Special care to minimize cellular damage due to trypsin at the step of monodispersion and sowing a comparatively large number of cells for monolayer preparation were required for rabies plaquing, whereas such cares were not necessary for plaquing of vesicular stomatitis virus. Plaque number and size were increased by incorporation of a high concentration of thymidine into cell growth medium. Various other means to produce a static state of CE cells were tested, and a maximal plaquing efficiency was obtained when dishes receiving a massive number of dispersed cells in MEM plus 1% calf serum were incubated at 37 C for 1 day without any buffering for monolayer preparation and postinfection incubation was done at 32 C in a CO2-incubator. Bottle cultures of CE cells prepared in a similar manner, when infected with HEP Flury virus, yielded a markedly higher titer of virus that CE cells prepared by our previous standard method. PMID:185442

  6. A New F-18 Labeled PET Agent For Imaging Alzheimer's Plaques

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, Padmakar V.; Hao Guiyang; Arora, Veera; Long, Michael; Slavine, Nikolai; Chiguru, Srinivas; Qu Baoxi; Sun Xiankai; Bennett, Michael; Antich, Peter P.; Bonte, Frederick J.; Vasdev, Neil

    2011-06-01

    Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Advances in development of imaging agents have focused on targeting amyloid plaques. Notable success has been the development of C-11 labeled PIB (Pittsburgh Compound) and a number of studies have demonstrated the utility of this agent. However, the short half life of C-11 (t1/2: 20 min), is a limitation, thus has prompted the development of F-18 labeled agents. Most of these agents are derivatives of amyloid binding dyes; Congo red and Thioflavin. Some of these agents are in clinical trials with encouraging results. We have been exploring new class of agents based on 8-hydroxy quinoline, a weak metal chelator, targeting elevated levels of metals in plaques. Iodine-123 labeled clioquinol showed affinity for amyloid plaques however, it had limited brain uptake and was not successful in imaging in intact animals and humans. We have been successful in synthesizing F-18 labeled 8-hydroxy quinoline. Small animal PET/CT imaging studies with this agent showed high (7-10% ID/g), rapid brain uptake and fast washout of the agent from normal mice brains and delayed washout from transgenic Alzheimer's mice. These promising results encouraged us in further evaluation of this class of compounds for imaging AD plaques.

  7. The Clinical Effectiveness of Post-Brushing Rinsing in Reducing Plaque and Gingivitis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Gupta, Ritu; Jankiram, Chandrasheker; Kumar, Jishnu Krishna; Vashishtha, Vaibhav; Malhi, Ravneet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dental plaque is the major etiological factor associated with the development of gingivitis. Hence, maintenance of oral hygiene is very essential. Aim To systematically review the literature on the effects of a post toothbrushing rinsing on plaque and parameters of gingival inflammation. Materials and Methods A literature review was performed in PubMed Central and Cochrane library, embase, google scholar were searched up to February 2015 to identify appropriate studies. The primary outcome measure was plaque and gingival inflammation reduction. Results Out of the total 56 titles appeared, 08articles fulfilled the criteria and were selected for the review. One article which was hand searched and one article which was through e-mail was included. A statistically significant reduction in overall plaque and gingivitis was noted when different mouth rinses were compared to the control (p<0.05). It was seen that chlorhexidine is the best antiplaque and antigingivitis agent but due to its side effects after continuous use, was not indicated for long term use. Probiotic was superior to chlorhexidine in terms of reduction of gingival inflammation. Conclusion There are relatively few studies evaluating the association between post toothbrushing rinsing and gingivitis. A clear effect was observed, indicating that different mouthrinses (chlorhexidine, probiotic, herbal, essential oil mouthrinse) when used as an adjunct to mechanical means of oral hygiene, provides an additional benefit with regard to plaque and gingivitis reduction as compared to a placebo or control. PMID:27437376

  8. Fluoride concentration in plaque in adolescents after topical application of different fluoride varnishes.

    PubMed

    Sköld-Larsson, K; Modéer, T; Twetman, S

    2000-03-01

    The aim of the study was to measure the fluoride (F) concentration in plaque after a single topical application of different fluoride varnishes with contrasting levels of F. Thirty adolescents (12-17 years) with fixed orthodontic appliances were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Bifluoride (6% F), Duraphat (2.23% F) and Fluor Protector (0.1% F). The varnishes were applied after professional cleaning in one upper quadrant, leaving the opposite quadrant untreated according to the split-mouth technique. Pooled plaque samples from each quadrant were collected at baseline and 3 days, 7 days and 30 days after the varnish treatment, and fluoride was analysed by microdiffusion. All fluoride varnishes increased the fluoride concentration in plaque compared with baseline, and the mean values varied between 23 and 138 ng F/mg after 3 days, depending on varnish F concentration. Compared with the control quadrant, statistically significant elevations were recorded for Bifluoride after 3 days and 7 days and Duraphat after 3 days, while no significant differences were revealed in the Fluor Protector group. The fluoride concentration in plaque was back to baseline levels for all participants in the Duraphat group after 7 days, while some individuals in the Bifluoride and Fluor Protector groups still registered slightly increased levels after 30 days. The results suggest that fluoride varnish treatments resulted in elevated fluoride levels in plaque adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances for a period of up to 1 week, although different patterns was disclosed for the various brands.

  9. Altered cell-mediated immunity to group A haemolytic streptococcal antigens in chronic plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Baker, B S; Powles, A V; Malkani, A K; Lewis, H; Valdimarsson, H; Fry, L

    1991-07-01

    The proliferative lymphocyte response to sonicated group A, beta-haemolytic streptococci (Strep-A) was measured by thymidine incorporation in 78 patients with psoriasis (guttate, chronic plaque or both). Lymphocytes from 72 of these patients were also cultured with streptokinase/streptodornase (SK/SD), and 20 of the patients with chronic plaque psoriasis were further tested with PPD, Candida albicans and sonicated Streptococcus mutans, a bacterial type not associated clinically with psoriasis. The median stimulation index (SI) of the psoriasis group to the Strep-A preparation was significantly higher than that of a group of 27 non-psoriatic individuals (P less than 0.05). Within this group, only the patients with chronic plaque psoriasis (n = 42) showed a significantly increased proliferative response compared to the non-psoriatic controls (median SI = 123.8 and 31.9, respectively, P less than 0.01). Although the lymphocyte response of the chronic plaque group to SK/SD was also markedly higher than that of the control group, this difference did not reach statistical significance. In addition, these patients did not show significantly increased responses to any of the other antigens tested, including S. mutans. No correlation was observed between the degree of proliferation to Strep-A and disease extent or activity. Similarly, ASO titres, which were raised in 11 out of 23 guttate and three out of nine chronic plaque psoriasis patients tested, did not correlate with the proliferative responses observed.

  10. Automatic classification of atherosclerotic plaques imaged with intravascular OCT (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rico-Jimenez, Jose D.; Campos-Delgado, Daniel U.; Villiger, Martin; Bouma, Brett; Jo, Javier A.

    2016-03-01

    A novel computational method for plaque tissue characterization based on Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IV-OCT) is presented. IV-OCT is becoming a powerful tool for the clinical evaluation of atherosclerotic plaques; however, it requires a trained expert for visual assessment and interpretation of the imaged plaques. Moreover, due to the inherit effect of speckle and the scattering attenuation of the optical scheme the direct interpretation of OCT images is limited. To overcome these difficulties, we propose to automatically identify the A-line profiles of the most significant plaque types (normal, fibrotic, or lipid-rich) and their respective abundance by using a probabilistic framework and blind alternated least squares to achieve the optimal decomposition. In this context, we present preliminary results of this novel probabilistic classification tool for intravascular OCT that relies on two steps. First, the B-scan is pre-processed to remove catheter artifacts, segment the lumen, select the region of interest (ROI), flatten the tissue surface, and reduce the speckle effect by a spatial entropy filter. Next, the resulting image is decomposed and its A-lines are classified by an automated strategy based on alternating-least-squares optimization. Our early results are encouraging and suggest that the proposed methodology can identify normal tissue, fibrotic and lipid-rich plaques from IV-OCT images.

  11. Intravascular photoacoustic imaging of atherosclerotic plaques: ex-vivo study using a rabbit model of atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethuraman, S.; Mallidi, S.; Aglyamov, S. R.; Amirian, J. H.; Litovsky, S.; Smalling, R. W.; Emelianov, S. Y.

    2007-02-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of atherosclerosis necessitates the detection and differentiation of rupture prone plaques. In principle, intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging has the ability to simultaneously visualize the structure and composition of atherosclerotic plaques by utilizing the difference in optical absorption. Extensive studies are required to validate the utility of IVPA imaging in detecting vulnerable plaques and address issues associated with the clinical implementation of the technique. In this work, we performed ex vivo imaging studies using a rabbit model of atherosclerosis. The intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) and ultrasound (IVUS) images of the normal aorta and aorta with plaque were obtained and compared with histological slices of the tissue. The results indicate that IVPA imaging is capable of detecting plaques and showed potential in determining the composition. Furthermore, we initially addressed several aspects of clinical implementation of the IVPA imaging. Specifically, the configuration of combined IVPA and IVUS catheter was investigated and the effect of the optical absorption of the luminal blood on the IVPA image quality was evaluated. Overall, this study suggests that IVPA imaging can become a unique and important clinical tool.

  12. Nanorose and lipid detection in atherosclerotic plaque using dual-wavelength photothermal wave imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianyi; Qiu, Jinze; Ma, Li Leo; Li, Xiankai; Sun, Jingjing; Ryoo, Seungyup; Johnston, Keith P.; Feldman, Marc D.; Milner, Thomas E.

    2010-02-01

    Atherosclerosis and specifically rupture of vulnerable plaques account for 23% of all deaths worldwide, far surpassing both infectious diseases and cancer. In atherosclerosis, macrophages can infiltrate plaques which are often associated with lipid deposits. Photothermal wave imaging is based on the periodic thermal modulation of a sample using intensity modulated light. Intensity modulated light enters the sample and is absorbed by targeted chromophores and generates a periodic thermal modulation. We report use of photothermal wave imaging to visualize nanoroses (taken up by macrophages via endocytosis) and lipids in atherosclerotic plaques. Two excitation wavelengths were selected to image nanoroses (800 nm) and lipids (1210 nm). Atherosclerotic plaque in a rabbit abdominal artery was irradiated (800 nm and 1210 nm separately) at a frequency of 4 Hz to generate photothermal waves. The radiometric temperature at the tissue surface was recorded by an infrared (IR) camera over a 10 second time period at the frame rate of 25.6 Hz. Extraction of images (256 × 256 pixels) at various frequencies was performed by Fourier transform at each pixel. Frequency amplitude images were obtained corresponding to 800 nm and 1210 nm laser irradiation. Computed images suggest that the distributions of both nanorose and lipid can be identified in amplitude images at a frequency of 4 Hz. Nanoroses taken up by macrophages are distributed at the edges of lipid deposits. Observation of high concentration of nanoroses in atherosclerotic plaque confirms that nanoroses are present at locations associated with lipid deposits.

  13. A statin-loaded reconstituted high-density lipoprotein nanoparticle inhibits atherosclerotic plaque inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Tang, Jun; Cormode, David P.; Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Ozcan, Canturk; Otten, Maarten J.; Zaidi, Neeha; Lobatto, Mark E.; van Rijs, Sarian M.; Priem, Bram; Kuan, Emma L.; Martel, Catherine; Hewing, Bernd; Sager, Hendrik; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Fuster, Valentin; Fisher, Edward A.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is a key feature of atherosclerosis and a target for therapy. Statins have potent anti-inflammatory properties but these cannot be fully exploited with oral statin therapy due to low systemic bioavailability. Here we present an injectable reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) nanoparticle carrier vehicle that delivers statins to atherosclerotic plaques. We demonstrate the anti-inflammatory effect of statin-rHDL in vitro and show that this effect is mediated through the inhibition of the mevalonate pathway. We also apply statin-rHDL nanoparticles in vivo in an apolipoprotein E-knockout mouse model of atherosclerosis and show that they accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions in which they directly affect plaque macrophages. Finally, we demonstrate that a 3-month low-dose statin-rHDL treatment regimen inhibits plaque inflammation progression, while a 1-week high-dose regimen markedly decreases inflammation in advanced atherosclerotic plaques. Statin-rHDL represents a novel potent atherosclerosis nanotherapy that directly affects plaque inflammation.

  14. TRAIL-expressing T cells induce apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells in the atherosclerotic plaque

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kayoko; Niessner, Alexander; Kopecky, Stephen L.; Frye, Robert L.; Goronzy, Jörg J.; Weyand, Cornelia M.

    2006-01-01

    Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are precipitated by a rupture of the atherosclerotic plaque, often at the site of T cell and macrophage infiltration. Here, we show that plaque-infiltrating CD4 T cells effectively kill vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). VSMCs sensitive to T cell–mediated killing express the death receptor DR5 (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand [TRAIL] receptor 2), and anti-TRAIL and anti-DR5 antibodies block T cell–mediated apoptosis. CD4 T cells that express TRAIL upon stimulation are expanded in patients with ACS and more effectively induce VSMC apoptosis. Adoptive transfer of plaque-derived CD4 T cells into immunodeficient mice that are engrafted with human atherosclerotic plaque results in apoptosis of VSMCs, which was prevented by coadministration of anti-TRAIL antibody. These data identify that the death pathway is triggered by TRAIL-producing CD4 T cells as a direct mechanism of VSMC apoptosis, a process which may lead to plaque destabilization. PMID:16418392

  15. The effectiveness of 3 types of dental floss for interdental plaque removal.

    PubMed

    Ong, G

    1990-08-01

    The relative effectiveness of waxed dental floss, dental tape and Superfloss as proximal plaque removal aids were compared in 20 subjects. Each subject used each of the three interdental aids for 1 week. The order of use was randomly selected. Interdental plaque scores were recorded at baseline, weeks 1, 2 and 3. At the end of week 3, subjects answered a questionnaire to ascertain their subjective responses to the 3 types of dental floss they had used. The use of all 3 types of dental floss resulted in significant improvement in interproximal plaque scores compared to baseline scores. Improvement in plaque scores, in decreasing order were: dental tape, dental floss and Superfloss. Dental tape was significantly more efficient than Superfloss (p = 0.003). There were no significant differences observed between the effectiveness of dental tape and waxed floss (p = 0.059), and waxed dental floss and Superfloss (p = 0.143). Regardless of the type of dental floss used, patients removed plaque more efficiently from buccal interproximal areas compared to lingual/palatal interproximal areas (p less than 0.001) and from anterior teeth than posterior teeth (p less than 0.001). Subjective responses indicated that 50% of subjects preferred dental tape, 40% waxed dental floss and only 10% preferred Superfloss.

  16. Effects of a Novel Dental Gel on Plaque and Gingivitis: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Dadkhah, M; Chung, NE; Ajdaharian, J; Wink, C; Klokkevold, P; Wilder-Smith, P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded study was to evaluate the effects of a novel dental gel on plaque and gingival health. The dental gel was designed to (1) break up and prevent re-accumulation of microbial biofilm, and (2) inhibit metal mediated inflammation. Materials and Methods Twenty-five subjects with moderate gingival inflammation (Löe and Silness Gingival Index ≥2) and pocket depths <4 were randomly assigned to brush twice daily for 21 days with the test or the control dental gel. On Days 0, 7, 14 and 21, plaque levels (Quigley-Hein, Turesky Modification Plaque Index), gingival inflammation (Löe and Silness Gingival Index) and gingival bleeding (modified Sulcus Bleeding Index) were determined by one blinded, investigator using a pressure sensitive probe. Results After 3 weeks, all 3 clinical indices were significantly improved in both groups (P<0.05) and significantly lower in the test group (P<0.05). Conclusion The novel dental gel formulation was provided effective plaque control and reduced gingival inflammation. Clinical Relevance A novel dentifrice formulation may be an effective tool for plaque removal and maintaining gingival health. PMID:26052472

  17. Multi-analyte profiling in human carotid atherosclerosis uncovers pro-inflammatory macrophage programming in plaques.

    PubMed

    Shalhoub, Joseph; Viiri, Leena E; Cross, Amanda J; Gregan, Scott M; Allin, David M; Astola, Nagore; Franklin, Ian J; Davies, Alun H; Monaco, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    Molecular characterisation of vulnerable atherosclerosis is necessary for targeting functional imaging and plaque-stabilising therapeutics. Inflammation has been linked to atherogenesis and the development of high-risk plaques. We set to quantify cytokine, chemokine and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) protein production in cells derived from carotid plaques to map the inflammatory milieu responsible for instability. Carotid endarterectomies from carefully characterised symptomatic (n=35) and asymptomatic (n=32) patients were enzymatically dissociated producing mixed cell type atheroma cell suspensions which were cultured for 24 hours. Supernatants were interrogated for 45 analytes using the Luminex 100 platform. Twenty-nine of the 45 analytes were reproducibly detectable in the majority of donors. The in vitro production of a specific network of mediators was found to be significantly higher in symptomatic than asymptomatic plaques, including: tumour necrosis factor α, interleukin (IL) 1β, IL-6, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), CCL5, CCL20, CXCL9, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 and MMP-9. Ingenuity pathway analysis of differentially expressed analytes between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients identified a number of key biological pathways (p< 10(-25)). In conclusion, the carotid artery plaque culprit of ischaemic neurological symptoms is characterised by an inflammatory milieu favouring inflammatory cell recruitment and pro-inflammatory macrophage polarisation. PMID:26763091

  18. Plaque-associated lipids in Alzheimer’s diseased brain tissue visualized by nonlinear microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kiskis, Juris; Fink, Helen; Nyberg, Lena; Thyr, Jacob; Li, Jia-Yi; Enejder, Annika

    2015-01-01

    By simultaneous coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and 2-photon fluorescence microscopy of Thioflavin-S stained Alzheimer´s diseased human brain tissues, we show evidence of lipid deposits co-localizing with fibrillar β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques. Two lipid morphologies can be observed; lamellar structures and coalescing macro-aggregates of sub-micron sizes to ~25 μm. No significant lipid deposits were observed in non-fibrillar, diffuse plaques identified by Aβ immuno-staining. CARS microscopy of unlabeled samples confirms the lamellar and macro-aggregate lipid morphologies. The composition of the plaques was analyzed by CARS microspectroscopy and Raman microscopy; vibrational signatures of lipids with long acyl chains co-localize with the β-sheet vibrations. The lipid fluidity was evaluated from the CARS spectra, illustrating that the lipid composition/organization varies throughout the plaques. Altogether this indicates close amyloid-lipid interplay in fibrillar Aβ plaques, rendering them more dynamic compositions than previously believed and, hence, potential sources of toxic oligomers. PMID:26311128

  19. Polarization properties of amyloid-beta plaques in Alzheimer's disease (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Bernhard; Wöhrer, Adelheid; Ricken, Gerda; Pircher, Michael; Kovacs, Gabor G.; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.

    2016-03-01

    In histopathological practice, birefringence is used for the identification of amyloidosis in numerous tissues. Amyloid birefringence is caused by the parallel arrangement of fibrous protein aggregates. Since neurodegenerative processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are also linked to the formation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques, optical methods sensitive to birefringence may act as non-invasive tools for Aβ identification. At last year's Photonics West, we demonstrated polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) imaging of ex vivo cerebral tissue of advanced stage AD patients. PS-OCT provides volumetric, structural imaging based on both backscatter contrast and tissue polarization properties. In this presentation, we report on polarization-sensitive neuroimaging along with numerical simulations of three-dimensional Aβ plaques. High speed PS-OCT imaging was performed using a spectral domain approach based on polarization maintaining fiber optics. The sample beam was interfaced to a confocal scanning microscope arrangement. Formalin-fixed tissue samples as well as thin histological sections were imaged. For comparison to the PS-OCT results, ray propagation through plaques was modeled using Jones analysis and various illumination geometries and plaque sizes. Characteristic polarization patterns were found. The results of this study may not only help to understand PS-OCT imaging of neuritic Aβ plaques but may also have implications for polarization-sensitive imaging of other fibrillary structures.

  20. Multi-analyte profiling in human carotid atherosclerosis uncovers pro-inflammatory macrophage programming in plaques.

    PubMed

    Shalhoub, Joseph; Viiri, Leena E; Cross, Amanda J; Gregan, Scott M; Allin, David M; Astola, Nagore; Franklin, Ian J; Davies, Alun H; Monaco, Claudia

    2016-05-01

    Molecular characterisation of vulnerable atherosclerosis is necessary for targeting functional imaging and plaque-stabilising therapeutics. Inflammation has been linked to atherogenesis and the development of high-risk plaques. We set to quantify cytokine, chemokine and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) protein production in cells derived from carotid plaques to map the inflammatory milieu responsible for instability. Carotid endarterectomies from carefully characterised symptomatic (n=35) and asymptomatic (n=32) patients were enzymatically dissociated producing mixed cell type atheroma cell suspensions which were cultured for 24 hours. Supernatants were interrogated for 45 analytes using the Luminex 100 platform. Twenty-nine of the 45 analytes were reproducibly detectable in the majority of donors. The in vitro production of a specific network of mediators was found to be significantly higher in symptomatic than asymptomatic plaques, including: tumour necrosis factor α, interleukin (IL) 1β, IL-6, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), CCL5, CCL20, CXCL9, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 and MMP-9. Ingenuity pathway analysis of differentially expressed analytes between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients identified a number of key biological pathways (p< 10(-25)). In conclusion, the carotid artery plaque culprit of ischaemic neurological symptoms is characterised by an inflammatory milieu favouring inflammatory cell recruitment and pro-inflammatory macrophage polarisation.

  1. Aqueous extract of rhubarb stabilizes vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques due to depression of inflammation and lipid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunfang; Yan, Fangfang; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Cheng; Yu, Huiming; Zhang, Yun; Zhao, Yuxia

    2008-07-01

    The study evaluated the effect of the traditional Chinese medicine rhubarb on the stability of atherosclerotic plaque. Atherosclerotic lesions were induced in rabbits through balloon injury with a high-cholesterol diet and then were divided into a control group, a rhubarb group and a simvastatin group. At week 24 recombinant-p53 adenoviruses were locally delivered to the atherosclerotic plaques. At week 26 plaque rupture was triggered by the intra-arterial Chinese Russell's viper venom and histamine. Serological, ultrasonographic, pathologic, immunohistochemical and gene expression studies were performed. The results showed that the incidence of plaque rupture in the rhubarb group and the simvastatin group was significantly lower than that in the control group (42.86% and 35.71% versus 80.00%, both p < 0.05). Serum TC, LDL-C (p < 0.05-0.01), IMT (both p < 0.01), PA (both p < 0.01), PB (%) (both p < 0.01) and the mRNA and protein expressions of TLR2, TLR4 and NF-kappaB (p < 0.05, 0.01, respectively) in the rhubarb group and the simvastatin group were significantly lower than those in the control group. In contrast, AIIc% (both p < 0.05) in the two treatment groups were significantly higher than those in the control group. These results suggest that rhubarb has antiatherosclerotic and plaque-stabilizing properties due to antiinflammation and lipid-lowering effects.

  2. Comparison of PCR and Plaque Assay for Detection and Enumeration of Coliphage in Polluted Marine Waters

    PubMed Central

    Rose, J. B.; Zhou, X.; Griffin, D. W.; Paul, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    A total of 68 marine samples from various sites impacted by sewage and storm waters were analyzed by both the plaque assay and a reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR technique for F(sup+)-specific coliphage. The coliphage levels detected by the plaque assay averaged 1.90 x 10(sup4) PFU/100.0 ml. Using a most probable number (MPN) PCR approach, the levels averaged 2.40 x 10(sup6) MPN-PCR units/100.0 ml. Two samples were positive by RT-PCR but negative by plaque assay, and 12 samples were positive by plaque assay but negative by RT-PCR (levels lower than 11.00 PFU/100.0 ml). The host system used for the plaque assay may detect somatic coliphage in addition to the F(sup+)-specific coliphage. When it is used as an indicator of pollution, contamination may be missed with more restrictive systems. The difference in results may be due to the sensitivity, specificity, or inhibition of RT-PCR in marine samples. This study provides information on quantifying PCR results by an MPN method and insights into interpretation of PCR data for detection of viruses in marine environments. PMID:16535737

  3. The hyperperfusion of the psoriatic plaque correlates histologically with dilatation of vessels.

    PubMed

    Auer, T; Bacharach-Buhles, M; el-Gammal, S; Stücker, M; Panz, B; Popp, C; Hoffmann, K; Happe, M; Altmeyer, P

    1994-01-01

    We examined psoriatic lesions on the upper legs in 20 patients, using a two-dimensional Laser-Doppler-Scanner (Laser Doppler Perfusion Imager LDI, Lisca Development, Linköping/Sweden). The plaques were evaluated weekly during therapy with dithranol. Five plaques were reconstructed three-dimensionally before and after therapy (reconstruction program ANAT 3D, SIS, Münster, Germany). The psoriatic plaque was represented in the Laser Doppler Perfusion image as a sharply demarcated, hyperperfused area. The perfusion of the plaques dropped during therapy with dithranol to just slightly increased values, compared with normal skin (2.04 arbitrary units AU, healthy skin 1.1 AU). Using three-dimensional reconstruction, we investigated the volume of dermal vessels and the density of papillae. When compared, the volume of papillary vessels was twice as large in psoriatic as in healthy skin. The number of the papillae per square millimetre, detected by three-dimensional reconstruction, was not reduced significantly during therapy. We think that the increased perfusion of the psoriatic plaque is due to the combination of morphological (dilatation of vessels), dynamic (increased blood flow) and optical effects (reduced scattering and increased sampling depth of the laser-beam in acanthotic tissue).

  4. Short-term evaluation of plaque area measurement reproducibility from computer-assisted sonography.

    PubMed

    Massonneau, M; Caillard, P; de Chassey, L; Mouren, X; Thébault, B; Cloarec, M

    1995-05-01

    One reason why quantifying plaque regression is difficult is the poor spatial control of the shooting angle whether in angiography or ultrasonography techniques. A computer-assisted technique has been developed to assess absolute carotid plaque dimensions from B-mode ultrasonography, with enhanced capability of comparative examinations at large time intervals. Plaque area is measured from arterial lumen to adventitia with a real-time tissular detection program. Further measurements on the same patient are made using an echo-specific mask automatically generated by the computer from the original section. For an average sonographer, the manipulation takes no more than ten minutes for each view. In order to determine the reproducibility of this technique, a repeated measurement study (T0, T1, T2) was carried out on 8 patients with moderate to severe atherosclerotic lesions at carotid localizations. The plaque areas ranged from 52.7 to 202.3 mm2 (120.7 +/- 61). The coefficients of correlation between the measurements (T0-T1, T0-T2) were respectively 0.93 and 0.96 (P < 0.0001). The mean coefficient of variation (+/- SD) was 9.8% +/- 4.8. This study shows the feasibility of an accurate follow-up for atherosclerotic patients, with a two-dimensional plaque quantification, closer to the reality of the evolution of the pathology than the usual scoring system.

  5. Diminished Perisomatic GABAergic Terminals on Cortical Neurons Adjacent to Amyloid Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Marin, Virginia; Blazquez-Llorca, Lidia; Rodriguez, José-Rodrigo; Boluda, Susana; Muntane, Gerard; Ferrer, Isidro; DeFelipe, Javier

    2009-01-01

    One of the main pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the accumulation of plaques in the cerebral cortex, which may appear either in the neuropil or in direct association with neuronal somata. Since different axonal systems innervate the dendritic (mostly glutamatergic) and perisomatic (mostly GABAergic) regions of neurons, the accumulation of plaques in the neuropil or associated with the soma might produce different alterations to synaptic circuits. We have used a variety of conventional light, confocal and electron microscopy techniques to study their relationship with neuronal somata in the cerebral cortex from AD patients and APP/PS1 transgenic mice. The main finding was that the membrane surfaces of neurons (mainly pyramidal cells) in contact with plaques lack GABAergic perisomatic synapses. Since these perisomatic synapses are thought to exert a strong influence on the output of pyramidal cells, their loss may lead to the hyperactivity of the neurons in contact with plaques. These results suggest that plaques modify circuits in a more selective manner than previously thought. PMID:19949482

  6. Development of fluorescent probes that bind and stain amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seung-Jin; Park, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Eun Je; Park, Jeong Hoon; Kong, Young Bae; Rho, Jong Kook; Hur, Min Goo; Yang, Seung Dae; Park, Yong Dae

    2015-11-01

    β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in the brain are composed of Aβ40 and Aβ42 peptides, and are the defining pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Fluorescent probes that can detect Aβ plaques have gained increasing interest as potential tools for in vitro and in vivo monitoring of the progression of AD. In this study, chalcone-mimic fluorescent probe 5 was designed and prepared. Probe 5 exhibited an approximately 50-fold increase in emission intensity after mixing with Aβ42 aggregates, a high affinity for Aβ42 aggregates (K D = 1.59 μM), and reasonable lipophilicity (log P value = 2.55). Probe 5 also exhibited specific staining of Aβ plaques in the transgenic mice (APP/PS1) brain sections. Ex vivo fluorescence imaging of the brain from normal and TG mice revealed that probe 5 was able to penetrate the BBB and stain the Aβ plaques. These results suggest that chalcone-mimic probe 5 possessed the requirements of a fluorescent probe for Aβ plaques and may be useful in AD research. PMID:26012373

  7. The diversity and abundance of As(III) oxidizers on root iron plaque is critical for arsenic bioavailability to rice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Min; Li, Fangbai; Liu, Chuanping; Wu, Weijian

    2015-01-01

    Iron plaque is a strong adsorbent on rice roots, acting as a barrier to prevent metal uptake by rice. However, the role of root iron plaque microbes in governing metal redox cycling and metal bioavailability is unknown. In this study, the microbial community structure on the iron plaque of rice roots from an arsenic-contaminated paddy soil was explored using high-throughput next-generation sequencing. The microbial composition and diversity of the root iron plaque were significantly different from those of the bulk and rhizosphere soils. Using the aoxB gene as an identifying marker, we determined that the arsenite-oxidizing microbiota on the iron plaque was dominated by Acidovorax and Hydrogenophaga-affiliated bacteria. More importantly, the abundance of arsenite-oxidizing bacteria (AsOB) on the root iron plaque was significantly negatively correlated with the arsenic concentration in the rice root, straw and grain, indicating that the microbes on the iron plaque, particularly the AsOB, were actively catalyzing arsenic transformation and greatly influencing metal uptake by rice. This exploratory research represents a preliminary examination of the microbial community structure of the root iron plaque formed under arsenic pollution and emphasizes the importance of the root iron plaque environment in arsenic biogeochemical cycling compared with the soil-rhizosphere biotope. PMID:26324258

  8. Application of IR and NIR fiber optic imaging in thermographic and spectroscopic diagnosis of atherosclerotic vulnerable plaques: preliminary experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghavi, Morteza; Khan, Tania; Gu, Bujin; Soller, Babs R.; Melling, Peter; Asif, Mohammed; Gul, Khawar; Madjid, Mohammad; Casscells, S. W.; Willerson, James T.

    2000-12-01

    Despite major advances in cardiovascular science and technology during the past three decades, approximately half of all myocardial infarctions and sudden deaths occur unexpectedly. It is widely accepted that coronary atherosclerotic plaques and thrombotic complications resulting from their rupture or erosion are the underlying causes of this major health problem. The majority of these vulnerable plaques exhibit active inflammation, a large necrotic lipid core, a thin fibrous cap, and confer a stenosis of less than 70%. These lesions are not detectable by stress testing or coronary angiography. Our group is exploring the possibility of a functional classification based on physiological variables such as plaque temperature, pH, oxygen consumption, lactate production etc. We have shown that heat accurately locates the inflamed plaques. We also demonstrated human atherosclerotic plaques are heterogeneous with regard to pH and hot plaques and are more likely to be acidic. To develop a nonsurgical method for locating the inflamed plaques, we are developing both IR fiber optic imaging and NIR spectroscopic systems in our laboratory to detect hot and acidic plaque in atherosclerotic arterial walls. Our findings introduce the possibility of an isolated/combined IR and NIR fiber optic catheter that can bring new insight into functional assessment of atherosclerotic plaque and thereby detection of active and inflamed lesions responsible for heart attacks and strokes.

  9. The diversity and abundance of As(III) oxidizers on root iron plaque is critical for arsenic bioavailability to rice

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Min; Li, Fangbai; Liu, Chuanping; Wu, Weijian

    2015-01-01

    Iron plaque is a strong adsorbent on rice roots, acting as a barrier to prevent metal uptake by rice. However, the role of root iron plaque microbes in governing metal redox cycling and metal bioavailability is unknown. In this study, the microbial community structure on the iron plaque of rice roots from an arsenic-contaminated paddy soil was explored using high-throughput next-generation sequencing. The microbial composition and diversity of the root iron plaque were significantly different from those of the bulk and rhizosphere soils. Using the aoxB gene as an identifying marker, we determined that the arsenite-oxidizing microbiota on the iron plaque was dominated by Acidovorax and Hydrogenophaga-affiliated bacteria. More importantly, the abundance of arsenite-oxidizing bacteria (AsOB) on the root iron plaque was significantly negatively correlated with the arsenic concentration in the rice root, straw and grain, indicating that the microbes on the iron plaque, particularly the AsOB, were actively catalyzing arsenic transformation and greatly influencing metal uptake by rice. This exploratory research represents a preliminary examination of the microbial community structure of the root iron plaque formed under arsenic pollution and emphasizes the importance of the root iron plaque environment in arsenic biogeochemical cycling compared with the soil-rhizosphere biotope. PMID:26324258

  10. The therapeutic effect of bevacizumab on plaque neovascularization in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis during contrast-enhanced ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Zhu, Ying; Deng, Youbin; Liu, Yani; Mao, Yuhang; Wang, Junli; Sun, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the therapeutic effect of the angiogenesis inhibitor bevacizumab on plaques of various stages in rabbit models using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS). Abdominal aortic atherosclerosis was induced in 55 rabbits. Thirty-six randomly selected rabbits were divided into 2 groups according to the timing of the bevacizumab injection: an early-stage plaque group (Group ESP) and a later-stage plaque group (Group LSP). The remainder were considered the control group. Standard ultrasonography and CEUS imaging of the abdominal aorta were performed. The animals were euthanized after CEUS, and plaque specimens were harvested for histological staining of CD31. The control group exhibited a substantially higher enhanced intensity, a higher ratio of enhanced intensity in the plaque to that in the lumen, and an increased number of CD31-positive microvessels in the plaque sections than Groups ESP and LSP (P < 0.05 for all). A higher enhanced intensity (P = 0.044), a higher ratio of enhanced intensity in the plaque to that in the lumen (P = 0.023) and more CD31-positive microvessels in the plaque sections (P = 0.006) were found in Group LSP than in Group ESP. Bevacizumab demonstrated more advanced inhibition of neovascularization in early-stage plaques in rabbits. PMID:27452862

  11. Three-Dimensional Carotid Plaque Progression Simulation Using Meshless Generalized Finite Difference Method Based on Multi-Year MRI Patient-Tracking Data.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun; Tang, Dalin; Atluri, Satya

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is becoming the number one cause of death worldwide. Atherosclerotic plaque rupture and progression are closely related to most severe cardiovascular syndromes such as heart attack and stroke. Mechanisms governing plaque rupture and progression are not well understood. A computational procedure based on three-dimensional meshless generalized finite difference (MGFD) method and serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data was introduced to quantify patient-specific carotid atherosclerotic plaque growth functions and simulate plaque progression. Participating patients were scanned three times (T1, T2, and T3, at intervals of about 18 months) to obtain plaque progression data. Vessel wall thickness (WT) changes were used as the measure for plaque progression. Since there was insufficient data with the current technology to quantify individual plaque component growth, the whole plaque was assumed to be uniform, homogeneous, isotropic, linear, and nearly incompressible. The linear elastic model was used. The 3D plaque model was discretized and solved using a meshless generalized finite difference (GFD) method. Four growth functions with different combinations of wall thickness, stress, and neighboring point terms were introduced to predict future plaque growth based on previous time point data. Starting from the T2 plaque geometry, plaque progression was simulated by solving the solid model and adjusting wall thickness using plaque growth functions iteratively until T3 is reached. Numerically simulated plaque progression agreed very well with the target T3 plaque geometry with errors ranging from 11.56%, 6.39%, 8.24%, to 4.45%, given by the four growth functions. We believe this is the first time 3D plaque progression simulation based on multi-year patient-tracking data was reported. Serial MRI-based progression simulation adds time dimension to plaque vulnerability assessment and will improve prediction accuracy for potential plaque rupture

  12. Milia En Plaque as a Distinct Follicular Hamartoma With Cystic Trichoepitheliomatous Features

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Akira; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Aiba, Setsuya

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Milia en plaque (MEP) is an uncommon disorder characterized by an erythematous plaque containing numerous milia. The pathogenesis of MEP is not clear. The authors report a man with an erythematous plaque on the right retroauricular area, containing numerous white-yellow cysts varying in size. Histological examination showed that multiple cystic structures at various levels of the dermis that were lined by stratified squamous epithelium and contained keratinous material—these findings were consistent with the diagnosis of multiple milia. In addition to epidermal cysts, however, the lesion consisted of a branched proliferation of pale-staining keratinocytes lined with basal keratinocytes budding from the overlying epidermis. Moreover, some cysts were formed within the branched epithelial proliferation, had thicker cyst walls than the ordinary milium, or had irregular or branched projections toward the surrounding dermis. From these findings, the authors conclude that MEP is a distinct follicular hamartoma with cystic trichoepitheliomatous features. PMID:26381115

  13. Clinical effect of a gel containing Lippia sidoides on plaque and gingivitis control

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Sérgio Luis da Silva; Praxedes, Yuri Carvalho Machado; Bastos, Thiago Catunda; Alencar, Phillipe Nogueira Barbosa; da Costa, Flávio Nogueira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This parallel controlled clinical trial evaluated the effect of a gel containing Lippia sidoides essential oil on plaque and gingivitis control. Methods: Thirty patients (n=30) were randomly selected and allocated into three groups: Lippia sidoides (LS, n=10), chlorhexidine (CLX, n=10) or placebo (control, n=10). Plaque and bleeding index were recorded at baseline and after three months. All volunteers were instructed to brush with the gel three times a day throughout the experiment period. Results: There was a significant reduction on plaque and gingivitis in the test groups (P<.05), but no statistically significant difference was observed between them (P>.05). Conclusion: A gel preparation containing 10% Lippia sidoides essential oil was an efficient herbal antiplaque and antigingivitis agent. PMID:23408652

  14. Large-scale production and plaque titration of European Chlorella viruses.

    PubMed

    Bornemann, C; Follmann, H

    1997-09-01

    Viruses of the exsymbiotic green freshwater algae Chlorella, family Phycodnaviridae, appear to be distributed worldwide but those found in North American algae have been characterized in detail. The distinct European Chlorella viruses were studied and it was necessary to adapt both large scale purification and the plaque titration assay to the host organisms' different physiology and to our specific laboratory needs. In the virus purification scheme, a precipitation step with polyethylene glycol was introduced which allows high yield recovery of infective particles from large volumes by rapid low-speed centrifugation. In the plaque assay, a standardized algal culture was introduced. The influence of other factors, e.g. circadian rhythm, on plaque growth is also described.

  15. Replication and plaque assay of influenza virus in an established line of canine kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Gaush, C R; Smith, T F

    1968-04-01

    A plaque assay system has been developed for types A and B influenza viruses in an established line of canine kidney cells (MDCK-USD). In addition to a homogeneous susceptible cell, consistent plaque production depends on the use of highly purified agar (Agarose). This quantitative system was used to determine the rate of adsorption, synthesis, and thermal inactivation of influenza viruses, as well as to determine a dose response curve. Plaque assays on the MDCK-USD line and the parent MDCK line showed that the latter was more sensitive to A/Swine and A(2)/Japan 305 viruses. Titration of standard virus pools in embryonated eggs and MDCK-USD indicated that the cell culture system was as sensitive as the in ovo assay.

  16. Titration of avirulent Newcastle disease virus by the plaque assay method.

    PubMed

    Kournikakis, B; Fildes, J

    1988-08-01

    Parameters of a plaque assay for avirulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were optimized for reproducibility and optimum titer in LLC-MK2 cells. Plaques were visible after 2 days and maximum virus titers were reached in 3 days. Virus titers were not affected by continued incubation through 6 days, although plaque size increased. An adsorption volume of 0.1 or 0.2 ml per 60 mm Petri dish was optimal, as was an adsorption time of 45 min. Trypsin (2.5 micrograms/ml) and magnesium sulfate (0.03 M) were essential requirements of the overlay medium and the presence of DEAE-dextran (0.02%) resulted in a 30% increase in titer. The use of cell monolayers, 1, 2, or 3 days old facilitated the performance of multiple assays per week and did not affect the virus titer.

  17. Technical aspects of nuclear microprobe analysis of senile plaques from alzheimer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, N. P.-O.; Tapper, U. A. S.; Sturesson, K.; Odselius, R.; Brun, A.

    1990-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease, a common form of senile dementia, has been proposed to be caused by aluminium. One of the interesting structures to be studied, senile plaque cores in the brain, have centres of only about 10 μm. We have investigated the possibility of applying nuclear microprobes to sections containing senile plaques. An alternative staining procedure, TMToluidin blue staining using a spray technique, is also presented. An outline is given of a procedure for preparing senile plaque specimens for nuclear microprobe analysis. This includes a technique for accurate ion beam positioning, utilizing electron microscopy-grids. The subject may be of general interest since sample preparation is one of the most important aspects in microprobe analysis of biological matter.

  18. Clinical effect of a sanguinaria dentifrice on plaque and gingivitis in adults.

    PubMed

    Mallatt, M E; Beiswanger, B B; Drook, C A; Stookey, G K; Jackson, R D; Bricker, S L

    1989-02-01

    A clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of a sanguinaria-zinc chloride dentifrice on the prevention of plaque formation and gingivitis. A total of 59 young adults, 18 to 30 years of age, either performed supervised brushing with a 0.075% sanguinaria-0.05% zinc chloride dentifrice, a 0.24% sodium fluoride dentifrice, or rinsed daily with a 0.05% NaF solution. Clinical evaluations for plaque and gingivitis were performed after 7, 14, and 21 days of the test regimen. After 21 days, all subjects resumed twice daily supervised brushing and flossing and post-test evaluations were conducted after two weeks. The results showed that after 7, 14, and 21 days both groups using dentifrices had significantly less plaque and gingivitis than the group using the rinse, and there were no significant differences between the two groups using either the sanguinaria-ZnCl2 or the NaF dentifrices.

  19. In vivo Raman spectral pathology of human atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motz, Jason T.; Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Miller, Arnold; Gandhi, Saumil J.; Haka, Abigail S.; Galindo, Luis; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Kramer, John R., Jr.; Feld, Michael S.

    2006-03-01

    The rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque accounts for the majority of clinically significant acute cardiovascular events. Because stability of these culprit lesions is directly related to chemical and morphological composition, Raman spectroscopy may be a useful technique for their study. Recent developments in optical fiber probe technology have allowed for the real-time in vivo Raman spectroscopic characterization of human atherosclerotic plaque demonstrated in this work. We spectroscopically examine 74 sites during carotid endarterectomy and femoral artery bypass surgeries. Of these, 34 are surgically biopsied and examined histologically. Excellent signal-to-noise ratio spectra are obtained in only 1 s and fit with an established model, demonstrating accurate tissue characterization. We also report the first evidence that Raman spectroscopy has the potential to identify vulnerable plaque, achieving a sensitivity and specificity of 79 and 85%, respectively. These initial findings indicate that Raman spectroscopy has the potential to be a clinically relevant diagnostic tool for studying cardiovascular disease.

  20. Near-infrared fluorescent probes for imaging of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer׳s disease.

    PubMed

    Tong, Hongjuan; Lou, Kaiyan; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    One of the early pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) is the deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques in the brain. There has been a tremendous interest in the development of Aβ plaques imaging probes for early diagnosis of AD in the past decades. Optical imaging, particularly near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging, has emerged as a safe, low cost, real-time, and widely available technique, providing an attractive approach for in vivo detection of Aβ plaques among many different imaging techniques. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the state-of-the-art development of NIRF Aβ probes and their in vitro and in vivo applications with special focus on design strategies and optical, binding, and brain-kinetic properties. PMID:26579421

  1. Computer-implemented system and method for automated and highly accurate plaque analysis, reporting, and visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, James Herbert (Inventor); Talukder, Ashit (Inventor); Lambert, James (Inventor); Lam, Raymond (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A computer-implemented system and method of intra-oral analysis for measuring plaque removal is disclosed. The system includes hardware for real-time image acquisition and software to store the acquired images on a patient-by-patient basis. The system implements algorithms to segment teeth of interest from surrounding gum, and uses a real-time image-based morphing procedure to automatically overlay a grid onto each segmented tooth. Pattern recognition methods are used to classify plaque from surrounding gum and enamel, while ignoring glare effects due to the reflection of camera light and ambient light from enamel regions. The system integrates these components into a single software suite with an easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI) that allows users to do an end-to-end run of a patient record, including tooth segmentation of all teeth, grid morphing of each segmented tooth, and plaque classification of each tooth image.

  2. Divergent JAM-C Expression Accelerates Monocyte-Derived Cell Exit from Atherosclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Miljkovic-Licina, Marijana; Lee, Boris P.; Fischer, Nicolas; Fish, Richard J.; Kwak, Brenda; Fisher, Edward A.; Imhof, Beat A.

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, caused in part by monocytes in plaques, continues to be a disease that afflicts the modern world. Whilst significant steps have been made in treating this chronic inflammatory disease, questions remain on how to prevent monocyte and macrophage accumulation in atherosclerotic plaques. Junctional Adhesion Molecule C (JAM-C) expressed by vascular endothelium directs monocyte transendothelial migration in a unidirectional manner leading to increased inflammation. Here we show that interfering with JAM-C allows reverse-transendothelial migration of monocyte-derived cells, opening the way back out of the inflamed environment. To study the role of JAM-C in plaque regression we used a mouse model of atherosclerosis, and tested the impact of vascular JAM-C expression levels on monocyte reverse transendothelial migration using human cells. Studies in-vitro under inflammatory conditions revealed that overexpression or gene silencing of JAM-C in human endothelium exposed to flow resulted in higher rates of monocyte reverse-transendothelial migration, similar to antibody blockade. We then transplanted atherosclerotic, plaque-containing aortic arches from hyperlipidemic ApoE-/- mice into wild-type normolipidemic recipient mice. JAM-C blockade in the recipients induced greater emigration of monocyte-derived cells and further diminished the size of atherosclerotic plaques. Our findings have shown that JAM-C forms a one-way vascular barrier for leukocyte transendothelial migration only when present at homeostatic copy numbers. We have also shown that blocking JAM-C can reduce the number of atherogenic monocytes/macrophages in plaques by emigration, providing a novel therapeutic strategy for chronic inflammatory pathologies. PMID:27442505

  3. Detection of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaques in Experimental Atherosclerosis with the USPIO-Enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Qi, Chun-Mei; Du, Lili; Wu, Wei-Heng; Li, Dong-Ye; Hao, Ji; Gong, Lei; Deng, Liangrong; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Yu

    2015-11-01

    This study's goal was to assess the diagnostic value of the USPIO-(ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detection of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques in abdominal aorta in experimental atherosclerosis. Thirty New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into two groups, Group A and Group B. Each group comprised 15 animals which were fed with high cholesterol diet for 8 weeks and then subjected to balloon-induced endothelial injury of the abdominal aorta. After another 8 weeks, animals in Group B received adenovirus carrying p53 gene that was injected through a catheter into the aortic segments rich in plaques. Two weeks later, all rabbits were challenged with the injection of Chinese Russell's viper venom and histamine. Pre-contrast images and USPIO-enhanced MRI images were obtained after pharmacological triggering with injection of USPIO for 5 days. Blood specimens were taken for biochemical and serological tests at 0 and 18 weeks. Abdominal aorta was histologically studied. The levels of serum ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were quantified by ELISA. Vulnerable plaques appeared as a local hypo-intense signal on the USPIO-enhanced MRI, especially on T2*-weighted sequences. The signal strength of plaques reached the peak at 96 h. Lipid levels were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in both Group A and B compared with the levels before the high cholesterol diet. The ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in Group B compared with Group A. The USPIO-enhanced MRI efficiently identifies vulnerable plaques due to accumulation of USPIO within macrophages in abdominal aorta plaques. PMID:27352319

  4. Monte Carlo dosimetry for {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd eye plaque brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, R. M.; Taylor, R. E. P.; Rogers, D. W. O.

    2008-12-15

    A Monte Carlo study of dosimetry for eye plaque brachytherapy is performed. BrachyDose, an EGSnrc user code which makes use of Yegin's multi-geometry package, is used to fully model {sup 125}I (model 6711) and {sup 103}Pd (model 200) brachytherapy seeds and the standardized plaques of the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS). Three-dimensional dose distributions in the eye region are obtained. In general, dose to water is scored; however, the implications of replacing water with eye tissues are explored. The effect of the gold alloy (Modulay) backing is investigated and the dose is found to be sensitive to the elemental composition of the backing. The presence of the silicone polymer (Silastic) seed carrier results in substantial dose decreases relative to water, particularly for {sup 103}Pd. For a 20 mm plaque with a Modulay backing and Silastic insert, fully loaded with 24 seeds, the dose decrease relative to water is of the order of 14% for {sup 125}I and 20% for {sup 103}Pd at a distance of 1 cm from the inner sclera along the plaque's central axis. For the configurations of seeds used in COMS plaques, interseed attenuation is a small effect within the eye region. The introduction of an air interface results in a dose reduction in its vicinity which depends on the plaque's position within the eye and the radionuclide. Introducing bone in the eye's vicinity also causes dose reductions. The dose distributions in the eye for the two different radionuclides are compared and, for the same prescription dose, {sup 103}Pd generally offers a lower dose to critical normal structures. BrachyDose is sufficiently fast to allow full Monte Carlo dose calculations for routine clinical treatment planning.

  5. The influence of toothbrush wear on the variables of plaque and gingivitis in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Galgut, P N

    2001-01-01

    Although toothbrush wear has been shown not to be critical in ensuring optimal plaque removal, the degree of toothbrush wear occurring in a clinical trial may influence the results of the trial. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of toothbrush wear on the clinical variables of dental plaque and gingivitis. There were 107 subjects who participated in this six-month clinical trial in which plaque and gingivitis scores were assessed in relation to toothbrush wear at 2, 4, 12 and 24 weekly intervals. At each appointment, the toothbrushes being used were assessed for wear and replaced if necessary. It was found that 58% of the group were "rapid," and 42% were "slow" wearers. Of the group, 18.6% required replacement toothbrushes within two weeks from baseline with 50.9% of replacement toothbrushes being issued within four weeks of the start of the trial. Two subjects required as many as 10 replacement toothbrushes over the six-month trial period. "Slow" wearers had significantly lower plaque scores than "rapid" wearers at weeks 4 and 12, whereas the "rapid" wearers had significantly lower gingivitis scores than "slow" wearers at weeks 2 and 4. Clinical results show that significant toothbrush wear patterns of individuals participating in clinical trials should be taken into account when designing clinical trials assessing plaque and gingivitis scores. It may be necessary to exclude "rapid" toothbrush wearers from clinical trials that assess plaque and its removal. As the rate of toothbrush wear varied considerably among subjects, the simple classification of subjects into "rapid" and "slow" wearers may require further subgrouping. The surprising result that "rapid" wearers achieved lower levels of gingivitis requires further study to determine if this observation is valid in clinical trials designed for this purpose.

  6. Subgingival temperature: relation to gingival crevicular fluid enzymes, cytokines, and subgingival plaque micro-organisms.

    PubMed

    Wolff, L F; Koller, N J; Smith, Q T; Mathur, A; Aeppli, D

    1997-12-01

    There have been no reports on the relationship of subgingival temperature to specific gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) components. Therefore, the purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether there was any relationship between subgingival temperature and GCF levels of neutrophil elastase (NE), myeloperoxidase (MPO), beta-glucuronidase (BG), interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1), and interferon alpha (IFN). Furthermore, another objective was to confirm an association of subgingival temperature with clinical parameters and specific subgingival plaque micro-organisms as has been reported earlier. 27 human subjects each having healthy (n = 50), gingivitis (n = 59) and periodontitis (n = 53) sites were evaluated. The plaque index (PI), subgingival temperature, probing depth, attachment loss, bleeding index and gingival index were measured. GCF was sampled following the measurement of the PI and removal of the supragingival plaque. GCF samples were assayed for the enzymes NE, BG, MPO and the cytokines IFN-alpha and IL-1 alpha. A sterile Gracey curette was utilized at each sampled site to collect subgingival plaque. The plaque samples were evaluated using an immunoassay. Subgingival temperature was found to directly correlate with all clinical parameters (p < 0.001). Significant, albeit not large, correlations were found between subgingival temperature and NE (r = 0.35, p < 0.001), MPO (r = 0.26, p < 0.001) and BG (r = 0.23, p < 0.01). Temperature was found to correlate positively with E. corrodens (r = 0.33, p < 0.02) and F. nucleatum (r = 0.25, p < 0.05) but not with P. intermedia (r = 0.02, p = 0.9), P. gingivalis (r = 0.20, p = 0.1) and A. actinomycetemcomitans (r = 0.01, p > 0.9). In conclusion, subgingival temperature is correlated with the GCF enzymes, NE, MPO and BG as well as the clinical parameters and specific plaque micro-organisms associated with periodontal disease.

  7. Relationship between coronary calcium score and high-risk plaque/significant stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Kohichiro; Matsumoto, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the relationship between coronary calcium score (CCS) and vulnerable plaque/significant stenosis using coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA). METHODS CCTA was performed in 651 patients and these patients were divided into the four groups (CCS 0, 1-100, 101-400 and > 400). We studied the incidence of high-risk plaque, including positive remodeling, low attenuation plaque, spotty calcification, and napkin-ring sign, and significant stenosis in each group. RESULTS High-risk plaque was found in 1.3%, 10.1%, 13.3% and 13.4% of patients with CCS 0, 1-100, 101-400 and > 400, respectively (P < 0.001). The difference was only significant for patients with zero CCS. The incidence of significant stenosis was 0.6%, 7.6%, 13.3% and 26.9% for each patient group, respectively (P < 0.001), which represented a significant stepwise increase as CCS increased. The combined incidence of high-risk plaque and significant stenosis was 1.9%, 17.7%, 26.9% and 40.3% in each patient group, respectively (P < 0.001), again representing a significant stepwise increase with CCS. The rate of major coronary event was 0%, 4.0%, 7.9% and 17.2% in each patient group, respectively (P < 0.001), another significant stepwise increase as CCS increased. CONCLUSION Stepwise increased risk of coronary events associated with increasing CCS is caused by increasing incidence of significant stenosis, while that of high-risk plaque remains the same.

  8. Relationship between coronary calcium score and high-risk plaque/significant stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Kohichiro; Matsumoto, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the relationship between coronary calcium score (CCS) and vulnerable plaque/significant stenosis using coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA). METHODS CCTA was performed in 651 patients and these patients were divided into the four groups (CCS 0, 1-100, 101-400 and > 400). We studied the incidence of high-risk plaque, including positive remodeling, low attenuation plaque, spotty calcification, and napkin-ring sign, and significant stenosis in each group. RESULTS High-risk plaque was found in 1.3%, 10.1%, 13.3% and 13.4% of patients with CCS 0, 1-100, 101-400 and > 400, respectively (P < 0.001). The difference was only significant for patients with zero CCS. The incidence of significant stenosis was 0.6%, 7.6%, 13.3% and 26.9% for each patient group, respectively (P < 0.001), which represented a significant stepwise increase as CCS increased. The combined incidence of high-risk plaque and significant stenosis was 1.9%, 17.7%, 26.9% and 40.3% in each patient group, respectively (P < 0.001), again representing a significant stepwise increase with CCS. The rate of major coronary event was 0%, 4.0%, 7.9% and 17.2% in each patient group, respectively (P < 0.001), another significant stepwise increase as CCS increased. CONCLUSION Stepwise increased risk of coronary events associated with increasing CCS is caused by increasing incidence of significant stenosis, while that of high-risk plaque remains the same. PMID:27621776

  9. Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy to Study Microglial Interactions with β-Amyloid Plaques.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Kanchan; El Hajj, Hassan; Savage, Julie C; Sánchez, Maria G; Tremblay, Marie-Ève

    2016-01-01

    A detailed protocol is provided here to identify amyloid Aβ plaques in brain sections from Alzheimer's disease mouse models before pre-embedding immunostaining (specifically for ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (IBA1), a calcium binding protein expressed by microglia) and tissue processing for electron microscopy (EM). Methoxy-X04 is a fluorescent dye that crosses the blood-brain barrier and selectively binds to β-pleated sheets found in dense core Aβ plaques. Injection of the animals with methoxy-X04 prior to sacrifice and brain fixation allows pre-screening and selection of the plaque-containing brain sections for further processing with time-consuming manipulations. This is particularly helpful when studying early AD pathology within specific brain regions or layers that may contain very few plaques, present in only a small fraction of the sections. Post-mortem processing of tissue sections with Congo Red, Thioflavin S, and Thioflavin T (or even with methoxy-X04) can label β-pleated sheets, but requires extensive clearing with ethanol to remove excess dye and these procedures are incompatible with ultrastructural preservation. It would also be inefficient to perform labeling for Aβ (and other cellular markers such as IBA1) on all brain sections from the regions of interest, only to yield a small fraction containing Aβ plaques at the right location. Importantly, Aβ plaques are still visible after tissue processing for EM, allowing for a precise identification of the areas (generally down to a few square millimeters) to examine with the electron microscope. PMID:27286292

  10. [Digital coronary angiography. A new approach in the analysis of the arteriosclerotic plaque].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A; Santaera, O; Fernández, M; Szenjfeld, M; Sosa Liprandi, M I; Pérez Baliño, N; Risau, G

    1991-01-01

    In order to define the coronary lesions we prospectively performed digital coronary angiographies in 61 patients. The degree of stenosis was measured in 100 lesions by quantitative analysis using densitometric and geometric methods. Two groups of lesions were found by comparing these two methods: Group A, 47 lesions with a poor correspondence in the degree of stenosis between densitometric and geometric analysis (p greater than 0.01; and group B, 53 lesions with a good correspondence. Both groups were correlated with plaque characteristics (unstable or stable), following angiographic criteria. The mean degree of stenosis in all lesions, for densitometric and geometric analysis was 50.04 +/- 21.1% and x 60.66 +/- 22.1% (p less than 0.01), respectively. Unstable plaque was more frequent in group A (80.9%) than in B (17.9%) (p less than 0.0001), and stable plaque was more frequent in B (81.1%) than in A (19.1%) (p less than 0.0001). Less degree of stenosis between A (41.5 +/- 13.2) and B (61.3 +/- 16.05) was found by densitometric analysis (p less than 0.0001) but it was similar by geometric method (60.02 +/- 11.3 in A and 58.6 +/- 14.4 in B) so that the degree of stenosis in unstable plaque was lower by densitometric method. We conclude that densitometric analysis showed poor correlation with geometric analysis in unstable plaques; the difference could be due to the soft component expression of the unstable plaque.

  11. Comparison of video and written instructions for plaque removal by an oscillating/rotating/reciprocating electric toothbrush.

    PubMed

    Renton-Harper, P; Addy, M; Warren, P; Newcombe, R G

    1999-11-01

    A previous crossover study showed that a watch-and-follow instructional video improved plaque removal by an electric toothbrush compared to the use of the instructional leaflet. This study employed a parallel design to assess the value of an instructional video for plaque removal by a new model oscillating/rotating/reciprocating electric toothbrush. 2 groups of 26 dentate subjects with average oral hygiene, who had never used an electric toothbrush, participated in this single blind, randomised parallel group designed study. On day 1 of the study, subjects received a professional prophylaxis to remove all plaque. Oral hygiene measures were then suspended and subjects returned on day 3 when a prebrushing plaque score was recorded by plaque index and area. Subjects withdrew and either read the manufacturers instructional leaflet (group L) or observed the instructional video (group V). Groups L and V then performed toothbrushing with toothpaste for 2 minutes and with group V brushing in time with the instructional video. Post-brushing plaque indices and areas were then recorded. Whole mouth, lingual, upper, lower, anterior and posterior but not buccal % reductions in plaque index and area were significantly greater in group V compared to group L. % plaque removal was also significantly greater by area at mid and distal sites but not mesial sites. Whole-mouth plaque reductions were 10% greater in group V but reached >15% at lingual surfaces. Within group differences in plaque removal at paired sites e.g., buccal/lingual, remained similar, suggesting that further improvement could be achieved by modifying the video to devote more time to the difficult-to-clean areas. In conclusion, in the early period of learning the use of an electric toothbrush, plaque removal can be improved by using an instructional video. Such watch-and-follow video routines could be extended to other areas of oral hygiene practices.

  12. Anti‐Inflammatory Immune Skewing Is Atheroprotective: Apoe−/−FcγRIIb−/− Mice Develop Fibrous Carotid Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Harmon, Erin Y.; Fronhofer, Van; Keller, Rebecca S.; Feustel, Paul J.; Zhu, Xinmei; Xu, Hao; Avram, Dorina; Jones, David M.; Nagarajan, Shanmugam; Lennartz, Michelle R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Stroke, caused by carotid plaque rupture, is a major cause of death in the United States. Whereas vulnerable human plaques have higher Fc receptor (FcγR) expression than their stable counterparts, how FcγR expression impacts plaque histology is unknown. We investigated the role of FcγRIIb in carotid plaque development and stability in apolipoprotein (Apo)e−/− and Apoe−/−FcγRIIb−/− double knockout (DKO) animals. Methods and Results Plaques were induced by implantation of a shear stress‐modifying cast around the carotid artery. Plaque length and stenosis were followed longitudinally using ultrasound biomicroscopy. Immune status was determined by flow cytometry, cytokine release, immunoglobulin G concentration and analysis