Science.gov

Sample records for installing bioenergy systems

  1. Advanced bio-energy systems for Air Force installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, W. J.; Bond, D. H.

    1981-10-01

    This investigation was sponsored by the US Air Force to determine the potential of using innovative biomass energy conversion technology interface with in place energy generating hardware to sustain total annual facility energy requirements on a forested airbase. The investigation found that Eglin AFB, FL, has high potential for such a system, but that certain components and subsystems require test, evaluation and demonstration in an Air Force base environment before full implementation is possible. The investigation found that a biomass energy island system could be achieved through a centralized biomass gasification/combined cycle system to produce 135,000 1b/hr 150 psig steam (saturated) and 27 Mwh/hr electrical power from 1480 green tons of wood chips daily. A phased implementation system is recommended, consisting of separate integrable test and evaluation modules for combined cycle wood gasification and for cogeneration, which would dovetail into an expanded basewide energy self sufficient system. The investigation did not consider harvestation of base woodlands, which is the subject of a separate effort to define the wood resource aspects of a total biomass self-sufficient system.

  2. Advanced Bio-Energy Systems for Air Force Installations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    This investigation was sponsored by the US Air Force to determine the potential of using innovative biomass energy conversion technology interface...base environment before full implementation is possible. The investigation found that a biomass energy island system could be achieved through a

  3. Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-20

    Scientists and engineers at Idaho National Laboratory are working with partners throughout the bioenergy industry in preprocessing and characterization to ensure optimum feedstock quality. This elite team understands that addressing feedstock variability is a critical component in the biofuel production process.

  4. Bioenergy

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Scientists and engineers at Idaho National Laboratory are working with partners throughout the bioenergy industry in preprocessing and characterization to ensure optimum feedstock quality. This elite team understands that addressing feedstock variability is a critical component in the biofuel production process.

  5. Global warming potential impact of bioenergy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonini, D.; Hamelin, L.; Wenzel, H.; Astrup, T.

    2012-10-01

    Reducing dependence on fossil fuels and mitigation of GHG emissions is a main focus in the energy strategy of many Countries. In the case of Demark, for instance, the long-term target of the energy policy is to reach 100% renewable energy system. This can be achieved by drastic reduction of the energy demand, optimization of production/distribution and substitution of fossil fuels with biomasses. However, a large increase in biomass consumption will finally induce conversion of arable and currently cultivated land into fields dedicated to energy crops production determining significant environmental consequences related to land use changes. In this study the global warming potential impact associated with six alternative bioenergy systems based on willow and Miscanthus was assessed by means of life-cycle assessment. The results showed that bioenergy production may generate higher global warming impacts than the reference fossil fuel system, when the impacts from indirect land use changes are accounted for. In a life-cycle perspective, only highly-efficient co-firing with fossil fuel achieved a (modest) GHG emission reduction.

  6. A bioenergy feedstock/vegetable double-cropping system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Certain warm-season vegetable crops may lend themselves to bioenergy double-cropping systems, which involve growing a winter annual bioenergy feedstock crop followed by a summer annual crop. The objective of the study was to compare crop productivity and weed communities in different pumpkin product...

  7. Indicators to support environmental sustainability of bioenergy systems

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Allen; Dale, Virginia H; Baskaran, Latha Malar; Downing, Mark; Eaton, Laurence M; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Garten Jr, Charles T; Kline, Keith L; Jager, Yetta; Mulholland, Patrick J; Parish, Esther S; Schweizer, Peter E; Storey, John Morse

    2011-01-01

    Indicators are needed to assess environmental sustainability of bioenergy systems. Effective indicators will help in the quantification of benefits and costs of bioenergy options and resource uses. We identify 19 measurable indicators for soil quality, water quality and quantity, greenhouse gases, biodiversity, air quality, and productivity, building on existing knowledge and on national and international programs that are seeking ways to assess sustainable bioenergy. Together, this suite of indicators is hypothesized to reflect major environmental effects of diverse feedstocks, management practices, and post-production processes. The importance of each indicator is identified. Future research relating to this indicator suite is discussed, including field testing, target establishment, and application to particular bioenergy systems. Coupled with such efforts, we envision that this indicator suite can serve as a basis for the practical evaluation of environmental sustainability in a variety of bioenergy systems.

  8. Soil surface carbon dioxide efflux of bioenergy cropping systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bioenergy cropping systems have been proposed as a way to enhance United States energy security. However, research on greenhouse gas emissions from such systems is needed to ensure environmental sustainability in the field. Since soil aeration properties are dynamic, high-resolution data are needed ...

  9. Heating equipment installation system

    DOEpatents

    Meuschke, Robert E.; Pomaibo, Paul P.

    1991-01-01

    A method for installing a heater unit assembly (52, 54) in a reactor pressure vessel (2) for performance of an annealing treatment on the vessel (2), the vessel (2) having a vertical axis, being open at the top, being provided at the top with a flange (6) having a horizontal surface, and being provided internally, at a location below the flange (6), with orientation elements (8) which are asymmetrical with respect to the vertical axis, by the steps of: providing an orientation fixture (10) having an upwardly extending guide member (18) and orientation elements (14, 16) and installing the orientation fixture (10) in the vessel (2) so that the orientation elements (14,16) of the orientation fixture (10) mate with the orientation elements (8) of the pressure vessel (2) in order to establish a defined position of the orientation fixture (10) in the pressure vessel (2), and so that the guide member (18) projects above the pressure vessel (2) flange (6); placing a seal ring (30) in a defined position on the pressure vessel (2) flange (6) with the aid of the guide member (18); mounting at least one vertical, upwardly extending guide stud (40) upon the seal ring (30); withdrawing the orientation fixture (10) from the pressure vessel (2); and moving the heater unit assembly (52,54) vertically downwardly into the pressure vessel (2) while guiding the heater unit assembly (52,54) along a path with the aid of the guide stud (40).

  10. Determination of Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy sustainability indicators using fuzzy inference system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkeman, Y.; Rizkyanti, R. A.; Hambali, E.

    2017-05-01

    Development of Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy faces an international challenge regarding to sustainability issue, indicated by the establishment of standards on sustainable bioenergy. Currently, Indonesia has sustainability standards limited to palm-oil cultivation, while other standards are lacking appropriateness for Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy sustainability regarding to real condition in Indonesia. Thus, Indonesia requires sustainability indicators for Indonesian palm-oil-based bioenergy to gain recognition and easiness in marketing it. Determination of sustainability indicators was accomplished through three stages, which were preliminary analysis, indicator assessment (using fuzzy inference system), and system validation. Global Bioenergy partnership (GBEP) was used as the standard for the assessment because of its general for use, internationally accepted, and it contained balanced proportion between environment, economic, and social aspects. Result showed that the number of sustainability indicators using FIS method are 21 indicators. The system developed has an accuracy of 85%.

  11. Quantifying the climate effects of bioenergy – Choice of reference system

    DOE PAGES

    Koponen, Kati; Soimakallio, Sampo; Kline, Keith L.; ...

    2017-06-27

    In order to understand the climate effects of a bioenergy system, a comparison between the bioenergy system and a reference system is required. The reference system describes the situation that occurs in the absence of the bioenergy system with respect to the use of land, energy, and materials. The importance of reference systems is discussed in the literature but guidance on choosing suitable reference systems for assessing climate effects of bioenergy is limited. The reference system should align with the purpose of the study. Transparency of reference system assumptions is essential for proper interpretation of bioenergy assessments. This paper presentsmore » guidance for selecting suitable reference systems. Particular attention is given to choosing the land reference. If the goal is to study the climate effects of bioenergy as a part of total anthropogenic activity the reference system should illustrate what is expected in the absence of human activities. In such a case the suitable land reference is natural regeneration, and energy or material reference systems are not relevant. If the goal is to assess the effect of a change in bioenergy use, the reference system should incorporate human activities. In this case suitable reference systems describe the most likely alternative uses of the land, energy and materials in the absence of the change in bioenergy use. The definition of the reference system is furthermore subject to the temporal scope of the study. In practice, selecting and characterizing reference systems will involve various choices and uncertainties which should be considered carefully. As a result, it can be instructive to consider how alternative reference systems influence the results and conclusions drawn from bioenergy assessments.« less

  12. Installation package for a solar heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Installation information is given for a solar heating system installed in Concho Indian School at El Reno, Oklahoma. This package includes a system Operation and Maintenance Manual, hardware brochures, schematics, system operating modes and drawings.

  13. Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Bioenergy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marland, Gregg

    2010-12-01

    Researchers have recently argued that there is a 'critical climate accounting error' and that we should say 'goodbye to carbon neutral' for bioenergy. Many other analysts have published opionions on the same topic, and the US Environmental Protection Agency posted a specific call for information. The currently burning questions for carbon accounting is how to deal with bioenergy. The questions arises because, unlike for fossil fuels, burning of biomass fuels represents part of a cycle in which combustion releases back to the atmosphere carbon that was earlier removed from the atmosphere by growing plants. In a sustainable system, plants will again remove the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from the atmosphere. Conceptually, it is clear that there are no net emissions of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} if biomass is harvested and combusted at the same rate that biomass grows and removes CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere. The problem lies in the fact that growth and combustion do not occur at the same time or in the same place, and our accounting system boundaries - spatial and temporal - frequently do not provide full and balanced accounting. When the first comprehensive guidelines for estimating national greenhouse gas emissions and sinks were put together by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, they noted that it has been argued that CO{sub 2} emissions resulting from bioenergy consumption should not be included in a country's official emission inventory because there are no net emissions if the biomass is produced sustainably, and if the biomass is not produced sustainably, the loss of carbon will be captured as part of the accounting for emissions from land-use change. In the same philosophical vein, the Kyoto Protocol provides that emissions or sinks of CO{sub 2} from land-use change and forestry activities be measured as the 'verifiable changes in carbon stocks'. From these has grown the convention that emissions from biomass fuels are generally not

  14. Sprinkler System Installer. Occupational Analyses Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinien, Chris; Boutin, France

    This analysis covers tasks performed by a sprinkler system installer, an occupational title some provinces and territories of Canada have also identified as pipefitter--fire protection mechanic specialty; sprinkler and fire protection installer; sprinkler and fire protection systems installer; and sprinkler fitter. A guide to analysis discusses…

  15. Heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ben

    The demand for clean and environmentally benign energy resources has been a great concern in the last two decades. To alleviate the associated environmental problems, reduction of the use of fossil fuels by developing more cost-effective renewable energy technologies becomes more and more significant. Among various types of renewable energy sources, solar energy and bioenergy take a great proportion. This dissertation focuses on the heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems, specifically for Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems in Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants and open-channel algal culture raceways for biofuel production. The first part of this dissertation is the discussion about mathematical modeling, numerical simulation and experimental investigation of solar TES system. First of all, in order to accurately and efficiently simulate the conjugate heat transfer between Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) and filler material in four different solid-fluid TES configurations, formulas of an e?ective heat transfer coe?cient were theoretically developed and presented by extending the validity of Lumped Capacitance Method (LCM) to large Biot number, as well as verifications/validations to this simplified model. Secondly, to provide design guidelines for TES system in CSP plant using Phase Change Materials (PCM), a general storage tank volume sizing strategy and an energy storage startup strategy were proposed using the enthalpy-based 1D transient model. Then experimental investigations were conducted to explore a novel thermal storage material. The thermal storage performances were also compared between this novel storage material and concrete at a temperature range from 400 °C to 500 °C. It is recommended to apply this novel thermal storage material to replace concrete at high operating temperatures in sensible heat TES systems. The second part of this dissertation mainly focuses on the numerical and experimental study of an open-channel algae

  16. An evaluation of the performance of integrated bioenergy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Toft, A.; Bridgwater, T.; Mitchell, P.

    1995-11-01

    A comprehensive study of biomass production conversion and utilisation systems has been carried out to examine complete bio-energy systems from biomass in the forest to electricity delivered to the grid. Models have been derived for all of the key steps in an integrated process which have been compiled into an overall system model. Biomass production from short rotation forestry and from conventional forestry is modelled on an individual operation basis in terms of the performance and cost of each step. This includes planting, maintenance, harvesting, chipping, storage and transport. Biomass conversion includes pretreatment (reception, storage, handling, comminution, screening and drying); atmospheric gasification (generic gasifier, water scrubbing, gas engine); pressure gasification (generic gasifier, hot gas clean-up, gas turbine, HRSG, steam turbine); fast pyrolysis for liquid bio-fuel-oil (pyrolyser, oil storage, dual fuel engine); combustion (fluid bed combustor, steam turbine). Results from the model have been validated and results are included in the paper in terms of electricity production costs at different outputs using each feed and each conversion route. Feed production costs for each case are also included. Further analyses are presented that vary the configuration of a basic system, highlighting the influence of system interfaces on overall production costs. The results show that bio-electricity is only viable with modest incentives, but at larger scales of operation and with the benefits of learning effects on capital costs, bio-electricity will soon be able to compete with conventional electricity without requiring support.

  17. Indicators for assessing socioeconomic sustainability of bioenergy systems. A short list of practical measures

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H.; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Kline, Keith L.; Langholtz, Matthew H.; Leiby, Paul Newsome; Oladosu, Gbadebo A.; Davis, Maggie R.; Downing, Mark E.; Hilliard, Michael R.

    2012-10-16

    Indicators are needed to assess both socioeconomic and environmental sustainability of bioenergy systems. Effective indicators can help to identify and quantify the sustainability attributes of bioenergy options. We identify 16 socioeconomic indicators that fall into the categories of social well-being, energy security, trade, profitability, resource conservation, and social acceptability. The suite of indicators is predicated on the existence of basic institutional frameworks to provide governance, legal, regulatory and enforcement services. Indicators were selected to be practical, sensitive to stresses, unambiguous, anticipatory, predictive, calibrated with known variability, and sufficient when considered collectively. The utility of each indicator, methods for its measurement, and applications appropriate for the context of particular bioenergy systems are described along with future research needs. Together, this suite of indicators is hypothesized to reflect major socioeconomic effects of the full supply chain for bioenergy, including feedstock production and logistics, conversion to biofuels, biofuel logistics and biofuel end uses. Ten of those 16 indicators are proposed to be the minimum list of practical measures of socioeconomic aspects of bioenergy sustainability. Coupled with locally-prioritized environmental indicators, we propose that these socioeconomic indicators can provide a basis to quantify and evaluate sustainability of bioenergy systems across many regions in which they will be deployed.

  18. Productivity and nutrient cycling in bioenergy cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heggenstaller, Andrew Howard

    One of the greatest obstacles confronting large-scale biomass production for energy applications is the development of cropping systems that balance the need for increased productive capacity with the maintenance of other critical ecosystem functions including nutrient cycling and retention. To address questions of productivity and nutrient dynamics in bioenergy cropping systems, we conducted two sets of field experiments during 2005-2007, investigating annual and perennial cropping systems designed to generate biomass energy feedstocks. In the first experiment we evaluated productivity and crop and soil nutrient dynamics in three prototypical bioenergy double-crop systems, and in a conventionally managed sole-crop corn system. Double-cropping systems included fall-seeded forage triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack), succeeded by one of three summer-adapted crops: corn (Zea mays L.), sorghum-sudangrass [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], or sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.). Total dry matter production was greater for triticale/corn and triticale/sorghum-sudangrass compared to sole-crop corn. Functional growth analysis revealed that photosynthetic duration was more important than photosynthetic efficiency in determining biomass productivity of sole-crop corn and double-crop triticale/corn, and that greater yield in the tiritcale/corn system was the outcome of photosynthesis occurring over an extended duration. Increased growth duration in double-crop systems was also associated with reductions in potentially leachable soil nitrogen relative to sole-crop corn. However, nutrient removal in harvested biomass was also greater in the double-crop systems, indicating that over the long-term, double-cropping would mandate increased fertilizer inputs. In a second experiment we assessed the effects of N fertilization on biomass and nutrient partitioning between aboveground and belowground crop components, and on carbon storage by four perennial, warm-season grasses: big bluestem

  19. Urban Wood-Based Bio-Energy Systems in Seattle

    SciTech Connect

    Stan Gent, Seattle Steam Company

    2010-10-25

    Seattle Steam Company provides thermal energy service (steam) to the majority of buildings and facilities in downtown Seattle, including major hospitals (Swedish and Virginia Mason) and The Northwest (Level I) Regional Trauma Center. Seattle Steam has been heating downtown businesses for 117 years, with an average length of service to its customers of 40 years. In 2008 and 2009 Seattle Steam developed a biomass-fueled renewable energy (bio-energy) system to replace one of its gas-fired boilers that will reduce greenhouse gases, pollutants and the amount of waste sent to landfills. This work in this sub-project included several distinct tasks associated with the biomass project development as follows: a. Engineering and Architecture: Engineering focused on development of system control strategies, development of manuals for start up and commissioning. b. Training: The project developer will train its current operating staff to operate equipment and facilities. c. Flue Gas Clean-Up Equipment Concept Design: The concept development of acid gas emissions control system strategies associated with the supply wood to the project. d. Fuel Supply Management Plan: Development of plans and specifications for the supply of wood. It will include potential fuel sampling analysis and development of contracts for delivery and management of fuel suppliers and handlers. e. Integrated Fuel Management System Development: Seattle Steam requires a biomass Fuel Management System to track and manage the delivery, testing, processing and invoicing of delivered fuel. This application will be web-based and accessed from a password-protected URL, restricting data access and privileges by user-level.

  20. Integrated photo-bioelectrochemical system for contaminants removal and bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Li; Young, Erica B; Berges, John A; He, Zhen

    2012-10-16

    An integrated photobioelectrochemical (IPB) system was developed by installing a microbial fuel cell (MFC) inside an algal bioreactor. This system achieves the simultaneous removal from a synthetic solution of organics (in the MFC) and nutrients (in the algal bioreactor), and the production of bioenergy in electricity and algal biomass through bioelectrochemical and microbiological processes. During the one-year operation, the IPB system removed more than 92% of chemical oxygen demand, 98% of ammonium nitrogen, and 82% of phosphate and produced a maximum power density of 2.2 W/m(3) and 128 mg/L of algal biomass. The algal growth provided dissolved oxygen to the cathode reaction of the MFC, whereas electrochemical oxygen reduction on the MFC cathode buffered the pH of the algal growth medium (which was also the catholyte). The system performance was affected by illumination and dissolved oxygen. Initial energy analysis showed that the IPB system could theoretically produce enough energy to cover its consumption; however, further improvement of electricity production is desired. An analysis of the attached and suspended microbes in the cathode revealed diverse bacterial taxa typical of aquatic and soil bacterial communities with functional roles in contaminant degradation and nutrient cycling.

  1. Solar system installation at Louisville, Kentucky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The installation of a solar space heating and domestic hot water system is described. The overall philosophy used was to install both a liquid and a hot air system retrofitted to existing office and combined warehouse building. The 1080 sq. ft. office space is heated first and excess heat is dumped into the warehouse. The two systems offer a unique opportunity to measure the performance and compare results of both air and liquid at one site.

  2. Life cycle assessment of bioenergy systems: state of the art and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Cherubini, Francesco; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2011-01-01

    The use of different input data, functional units, allocation methods, reference systems and other assumptions complicates comparisons of LCA bioenergy studies. In addition, uncertainties and use of specific local factors for indirect effects (like land-use change and N-based soil emissions) may give rise to wide ranges of final results. In order to investigate how these key issues have been addressed so far, this work performs a review of the recent bioenergy LCA literature. The abundance of studies dealing with the different biomass resources, conversion technologies, products and environmental impact categories is summarized and discussed. Afterwards, a qualitative interpretation of the LCA results is depicted, focusing on energy balance, GHG balance and other impact categories. With the exception of a few studies, most LCAs found a significant net reduction in GHG emissions and fossil energy consumption when bioenergy replaces fossil energy.

  3. Is a substantial global bioenergy system feasible? A spatial analysis using a dynamic global vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbrecht, T.; Lucht, W.; Lotze-Campem, H.

    2007-12-01

    Avoiding dangerous climate change requires drastic reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. However, the global demand for energy is projected to grow by more than 50 % until 2030 (IEA, 2006) and therefore actions are urgently required to decarbonize the global economy. Second generation bioenergy systems are promoted as a way forward to displace large amounts of fossil fuels with renewable materials, thereby increasing energy security and stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. At the same time, concerns are being raised regarding the sustainability of large-scale dedicated biomass plantations with regard to extensive mono- cultures, irrigation and fertilization requirements. We use a dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) including current agriculture to simulate the effects of rising competition for land when an additional spatially extensive production system for a new commodity, bioenergy, is added to the global land use mix under continued increase in global population size as well as per capita energy consumption. How much land is needed for a significant bioenergy generation if sufficient food production is warranted and what are the consequences for the terrestrial biosphere? To assess the potential impacts of a significant global bioenergy sector, we produced a selection of scenarios based on prior assumptions of total bioenergy demand, progress in conversion technologies and the availability of cultivable land limited by food requirements and biodiversity protection. We present the corresponding land use patterns as well as their impacts on the terrestrial carbon balance, evapotranspiration fluxes and irrigation demand. We find that an area of up to 50 % the size of current agricultural land is needed for the cultivation of ligno-cellulosic crops to satisfy high bioenergy demands. Carbon fluxes into the atmosphere caused by the removal of natural vegetation can equal those of 8 years of fossil fuel combustion.

  4. Solar heating system installed at Troy, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The completed system was composed of three basic subsystems: the collector system consisting of 3,264 square feet of Owens Illinois evacuated glass tube collectors; the storage system which included a 5,000 gallon insulated steel tank; and the distribution and control system which included piping, pumping and heat transfer components as well as the solemoid activated valves and control logic for the efficient and safe operation of the entire system. This solar heating system was installed in an existing facility and was, therefore, a retrofit system. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  5. Whole system analysis of second generation bioenergy production and Ecosystem Services in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henner, Dagmar; Smith, Pete; Davies, Christian; McNamara, Niall

    2017-04-01

    Bioenergy crops are an important source of renewable energy and are a possible mechanism to mitigate global climate warming, by replacing fossil fuel energy that has higher greenhouse gas emissions. There is, however, uncertainty about the impacts of the growth of bioenergy crops on ecosystem services. This uncertainty is further enhanced by current climate change. It is important to establish how second generation bioenergy crops (Miscanthus, SRC willow and poplar) can contribute by closing the gap between reducing fossil fuel use and increasing the use of other renewable sources in a sustainable way. The project builds on models of energy crop production, biodiversity, soil impacts, greenhouse gas emissions and other ecosystem services, and on work undertaken in the UK on the ETI-funded ELUM project (www.elum.ac.uk). We will present estimated yields for the above named crops in Europe using the ECOSSE, DayCent, SalixFor and MiscanFor models. These yields will be brought into context with a whole system analysis, detailing trade-offs and synergies for land use change, food security, GHG emissions and soil and water security. Methods like water footprint tools, tourism value maps and ecosystem valuation tools and models (e.g. InVest, TEEB database, GREET LCA Model, World Business Council for Sustainable Development corporate ecosystem valuation, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Ecosystem Services Framework) will be used to estimate and visualise the impacts of increased use of second generation bioenergy crops on the above named ecosystem services. The results will be linked to potential yields to generate "inclusion or exclusion areas" in Europe in order to establish suitable areas for bioenergy crop production and the extent of use possible. Policy is an important factor for using second generation bioenergy crops in a sustainable way. We will present how whole system analysis can be used to create scenarios for countries or on a continental scale. As an

  6. The economic potential of bioenergy for climate change mitigation with special attention given to implications for the land system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Alexander; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Klein, David; Bauer, Nico; Krause, Michael; Beringer, Tim; Gerten, Dieter; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2011-07-01

    Biomass from cellulosic bioenergy crops is expected to play a substantial role in future energy systems, especially if climate policy aims at stabilizing greenhouse gas concentration at low levels. However, the potential of bioenergy for climate change mitigation remains unclear due to large uncertainties about future agricultural yield improvements and land availability for biomass plantations. This letter, by applying a modelling framework with detailed economic representation of the land and energy sector, explores the cost-effective contribution of bioenergy to a low-carbon transition, paying special attention to implications for the land system. In this modelling framework, bioenergy competes directly with other energy technology options on the basis of costs, including implicit costs due to biophysical constraints on land and water availability. As a result, we find that bioenergy from specialized grassy and woody bioenergy crops, such as Miscanthus or poplar, can contribute approximately 100 EJ in 2055 and up to 300 EJ of primary energy in 2095. Protecting natural forests decreases biomass availability for energy production in the medium, but not in the long run. Reducing the land available for agricultural use can partially be compensated for by means of higher rates of technological change in agriculture. In addition, our trade-off analysis indicates that forest protection combined with large-scale cultivation of dedicated bioenergy is likely to affect bioenergy potentials, but also to increase global food prices and increase water scarcity. Therefore, integrated policies for energy, land use and water management are needed.

  7. Topographic and soil influences on root productivity of three bioenergy cropping systems

    Treesearch

    Todd A. Ontl; Kirsten S. Hofmockel; Cynthia A. Cambardella; Lisa A. Schulte; Randall K. Kolka

    2013-01-01

    Successful modeling of the carbon (C) cycle requires empirical data regarding species-specific root responses to edaphic characteristics. We address this need by quantifying annual root production of three bioenergy systems (continuous corn, triticale/sorghum, switchgrass) in response to variation in soil properties across a toposequence within a Midwestern...

  8. Bioenergy costs and potentials with special attention to implications for the land system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, A.; Lotze-Campen, H.; Dietrich, J.; Klein, D.; Bauer, N.; Krause, M.; Beringer, T.; Gerten, D.

    2011-12-01

    In the coming decades, an increasing competition for global land and water resources can be expected, due to rising demand for agricultural products, goals of nature conservation, and changing production conditions due to climate change. Especially biomass from cellulosic bioenergy crops, such as Miscanthus or poplar, is being proposed to play a substantial role in future energy systems if climate policy aims at stabilizing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentration at low levels. However, the potential of bioenergy for climate change mitigation remains unclear due to large uncertainties about future agricultural yield improvements, land availability for biomass plantations, and implications for the land system. In order to explore the cost-effective contribution of bioenergy to a low carbon transition with special attention to implications for the land system, we present a modeling framework with detailed biophysical and economic representation of the land and energy sector: We have linked the global dynamic vegetation and water balance model LPJmL (Bondeau et al. 2007, Rost et al. 2008), the global land and water use model MAgPIE (Lotze-Campen et al. 2008, Popp et al. 2010), and the global energy-economy-climate model ReMIND (Leimbach et al. 2009). In this modeling framework LPJmL supplies spatially explicit (0.5° resolution) agricultural yields as well as carbon and water stocks and fluxes. Based on this biophysical input MAgPIE delivers cost-optimized land use patterns (0.5° resolution), associated GHG emissions and rates of future yield increases in agricultural production. Moreover, shadow prices are calculated for irrigation water (as an indicator for water scarcity), food commodities, and bioenergy (as an indicator for changes in production costs) under different land use constraints such as forest conservation for climate change mitigation and as a contribution to biodiversity conservation. The energy-economy-climate model ReMIND generates the demand for

  9. Installation package - SIMS prototype system 1A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This report consists of details for the installation, operation and maintenance of a prototype heating and hot water system, designed for residential or light commercial applications. This system consists of the following subsystems: air type collectors, pebble bed thermal storage, air handling unit, air to water heat exchanger, hot water preheat tank, auxiliary energy, ducting system.

  10. ALACARTE installation and system manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzgibbon, Todd T.

    1991-01-01

    Compilations begun in other digital systems can be imported for completion as digital databases in ARC/INFO. The digital files that represent a geologic map can be used to prepare near-publication-quality color plots of the maps with full symbology or to create high-quality printing negatives. These files also constitute a digital database that can be used for computer-based query and analysis as well as for digital distribution of the map and associated data.

  11. Bioenergy systems report. Special issue: cane energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    The report examines the use of cane to produce energy. It focuses primarily on two recent proposals for the production of electric power for the grid using cane residues and supplementary fuels. It also reviews use of cane juice or molasses to produce ethanol for blending with gasoline. In both types of cane energy systems, the objective is the production of energy as well as sugar or sugar products. The report is divided into sections on growing and harvesting biomass fuels in cane fields, producing power for the grid with these fuels, the uses of the cane juice produced in cane energy systems, the costs and revenues associated with these systems, and the national benefits derived from these systems.

  12. Standard hydrogen monitoring system equipment installation instructions

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, T.C.

    1996-09-27

    This document provides the technical specifications for the equipment fabrication, installation, and sitework construction for the Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System. The Standard Hydrogen Monitoring System is designed to remove gases from waste tank vapor space and exhaust headers for continual monitoring and remote sample analysis.

  13. Development of a coiled tubing cable installation system

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, K.R.; Haver, N.A.; Stone, L.R.

    1995-12-31

    A system has been developed which installs and de-installs an electric wireline cable in coiled tubing (CT) while the CT is still on the reel. This cable installation system reduces the cost of a cable installation significantly compared with previous installation methods. This paper discusses the need for such a system, the theory used to develop this system, the various concepts considered, the system that was developed and test installation cases.

  14. PUREX exhaust ventilation system installation test report

    SciTech Connect

    Blackaby, W.B.

    1997-10-07

    This Acceptance Test Report validates the testing performed, the exceptions logged and resolved and certifies this portion of the SAMCONS has met all design and test criteria to perform as an operational system. The proper installation of the PUREX exhaust ventilation system components and wiring was systematically evaluated by performance of this procedure. Proper operation of PUREX exhaust fan inlet, outlet, and vortex damper actuators and limit switches were verified, using special test equipment, to be correct and installed wiring connections were verified by operation of this equipment.

  15. Solar heating system installed at Stamford, Connecticut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar heating system installed at the Lutz-Sotire Partnership Executive East Office Building, Stamford, Connecticut is described. The Executive East Office Building is of moderate size with 25,000 sq ft of heated space in 2 1/2 stories. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50 percent of the heating requirements. The system components are described. Appended data includes: the system design acceptance test, the operation and maintenance manual, and as-built drawings and photographs.

  16. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  17. Subsurface Drainage Nitrate and Total Reactive Phosphorus Losses in Bioenergy-Based Prairies and Corn Systems.

    PubMed

    Daigh, Aaron L M; Zhou, Xiaobo; Helmers, Matthew J; Pederson, Carl H; Horton, Robert; Jarchow, Meghann; Liebman, Matt

    2015-09-01

    We compare subsurface-drainage NO-N and total reactive phosphorus (TRP) concentrations and yields of select bioenergy cropping systems and their rotational phases. Cropping systems evaluated were grain-harvested corn-soybean rotations, grain- and stover-harvested continuous corn systems with and without a cover crop, and annually harvested reconstructed prairies with and without the addition of N fertilizer in an Iowa field. Drainage was monitored when soils were unfrozen during 2010 through 2013. The corn-soybean rotations without residue removal and continuous corn with residue removal produced similar mean annual flow-weighted NO-N concentrations, ranging from 6 to 18.5 mg N L during the 4-yr study. In contrast, continuous corn with residue removal and with a cover crop had significantly lower NO-N concentrations of 5.6 mg N L when mean annual flow-weighted values were averaged across the 4 yr. Prairies systems with or without N fertilization produced significantly lower concentrations below <1 mg NO-N L than all the row crop systems throughout the study. Mean annual flow-weighted TRP concentrations and annual yields were generally low, with values <0.04 mg TRP L and <0.14 kg TRP ha, and were not significantly affected by any cropping systems or their rotational phases. Bioenergy-based prairies with or without N fertilization and continuous corn with stover removal and a cover crop have the potential to supply bioenergy feedstocks while minimizing NO-N losses to drainage waters. However, subsurface drainage TRP concentrations and yields in bioenergy systems will need further evaluation in areas prone to higher levels of P losses.

  18. Assessing multimetric aspects of sustainability: Application to a bioenergy crop production system in East Tennessee

    DOE PAGES

    Parish, Esther S.; Dale, Virginia H.; English, Burton C.; ...

    2016-02-26

    This paper connects the science of sustainability theory with applied aspects of sustainability deployment. A suite of 35 sustainability indicators spanning six environmental, three economic, and three social categories has been proposed for comparing the sustainability of bioenergy production systems across different feedstock types and locations. A recent demonstration-scale switchgrass-to-ethanol production system located in East Tennessee is used to assess the availability of sustainability indicator data and associated measurements for the feedstock production and logistics portions of the biofuel supply chain. Knowledge pertaining to the available indicators is distributed within a hierarchical decision tree framework to generate an assessment ofmore » the overall sustainability of this no-till switchgrass production system relative to two alternative business-as-usual scenarios of unmanaged pasture and tilled corn production. The relative contributions of the social, economic and environmental information are determined for the overall trajectory of this bioenergy system s sustainability under each scenario. Within this East Tennessee context, switchgrass production shows potential for improving environmental and social sustainability trajectories without adverse economic impacts, thereby leading to potential for overall enhancement in sustainability within this local agricultural system. Given the early stages of cellulosic ethanol production, it is currently difficult to determine quantitative values for all 35 sustainability indicators across the entire biofuel supply chain. This case study demonstrates that integration of qualitative sustainability indicator ratings may increase holistic understanding of a bioenergy system in the absence of complete information.« less

  19. Assessing multimetric aspects of sustainability: Application to a bioenergy crop production system in East Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, Esther S.; Dale, Virginia H.; English, Burton C.; Jackson, Samuel W.; Tyler, Donald D.

    2016-02-26

    This paper connects the science of sustainability theory with applied aspects of sustainability deployment. A suite of 35 sustainability indicators spanning six environmental, three economic, and three social categories has been proposed for comparing the sustainability of bioenergy production systems across different feedstock types and locations. A recent demonstration-scale switchgrass-to-ethanol production system located in East Tennessee is used to assess the availability of sustainability indicator data and associated measurements for the feedstock production and logistics portions of the biofuel supply chain. Knowledge pertaining to the available indicators is distributed within a hierarchical decision tree framework to generate an assessment of the overall sustainability of this no-till switchgrass production system relative to two alternative business-as-usual scenarios of unmanaged pasture and tilled corn production. The relative contributions of the social, economic and environmental information are determined for the overall trajectory of this bioenergy system s sustainability under each scenario. Within this East Tennessee context, switchgrass production shows potential for improving environmental and social sustainability trajectories without adverse economic impacts, thereby leading to potential for overall enhancement in sustainability within this local agricultural system. Given the early stages of cellulosic ethanol production, it is currently difficult to determine quantitative values for all 35 sustainability indicators across the entire biofuel supply chain. This case study demonstrates that integration of qualitative sustainability indicator ratings may increase holistic understanding of a bioenergy system in the absence of complete information.

  20. Life-cycle assessment of net greenhouse-gas flux for bioenergy cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Adler, Paul R; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Parton, William J

    2007-04-01

    Bioenergy cropping systems could help offset greenhouse gas emissions, but quantifying that offset is complex. Bioenergy crops offset carbon dioxide emissions by converting atmospheric CO2 to organic C in crop biomass and soil, but they also emit nitrous oxide and vary in their effects on soil oxidation of methane. Growing the crops requires energy (e.g., to operate farm machinery, produce inputs such as fertilizer) and so does converting the harvested product to usable fuels (feedstock conversion efficiency). The objective of this study was to quantify all these factors to determine the net effect of several bioenergy cropping systems on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. We used the DAYCENT biogeochemistry model to assess soil GHG fluxes and biomass yields for corn, soybean, alfalfa, hybrid poplar, reed canarygrass, and switchgrass as bioenergy crops in Pennsylvania, USA. DAYCENT results were combined with estimates of fossil fuels used to provide farm inputs and operate agricultural machinery and fossil-fuel offsets from biomass yields to calculate net GHG fluxes for each cropping system considered. Displaced fossil fuel was the largest GHG sink, followed by soil carbon sequestration. N20 emissions were the largest GHG source. All cropping systems considered provided net GHG sinks, even when soil C was assumed to reach a new steady state and C sequestration in soil was not counted. Hybrid poplar and switchgrass provided the largest net GHG sinks, >200 g CO2e-C x m(-2) x yr(-1) for biomass conversion to ethanol, and >400 g CO2e-C x m(-2) x yr(-1) for biomass gasification for electricity generation. Compared with the life cycle of gasoline and diesel, ethanol and biodiesel from corn rotations reduced GHG emissions by approximately 40%, reed canarygrass by approximately 85%, and switchgrass and hybrid poplar by approximately 115%.

  1. CO2 CH4 and N20 fluxes during land conversion in early bioenergy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenone, T.

    2012-04-01

    CO2 CH4 and N20 fluxes during land conversion in early bioenergy systems Terenzio Zenone1-2, Jiquan Chen1-2, Ilya Gelfand3-4, G. Philip Robertson3-4 1 Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH USA 2 Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI USA 3 W.K. Kellogg Biological Station, Michigan State University, Hickory Corners, MI USA 4Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI USA Environmental sustainability of bioenergy crop cultivation represents an important challenge and is a topic of intensive scientific and political debate worldwide due to increasing societal needs for renewable energy. Despite the increasing knowledge related to potential bioenergy systems, the effect of land use change (LUC) on GHG fluxes during the conversion remains poorly understood but is likely to be substantial. In order to tackle this issue the Great lake Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has established a field experiment and deployed a cluster of eddy-covariance towers to quantify the magnitude and changes of ecosystem carbon assimilation, loss, and balance during the conversion and establishment years in a permanent prairie and four types of candidate biofuel systems [Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grassland, switchgrass, mixed-species restored prairie and corn]. Six sites were converted to soybean in 2009 before establishing the bioenergy systems in 2010 while one site was kept grassland as reference. Soil N2O and CH4 fluxes were measured biweekly with static chambers in four replicate locations in each fields, within the footprint of the eddy covariance tower using static chamber GHG flux protocols of the KBS LTER site. Our field observations, made between January 2009 through December 2010, showed that conversion of CRP to soybean induced net C emissions during the conversion year that ranging from 288 g C m-2, to 173 g C m-2 . while

  2. Challenges and models in supporting logistics system design for dedicated-biomass-based bioenergy industry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Li, Xueping; Yao, Qingzhu; Chen, Yuerong

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzed the uniqueness and challenges in designing the logistics system for dedicated biomass-to-bioenergy industry, which differs from the other industries, due to the unique features of dedicated biomass (e.g., switchgrass) including its low bulk density, restrictions on harvesting season and frequency, content variation with time and circumambient conditions, weather effects, scattered distribution over a wide geographical area, and so on. To design it, this paper proposed a mixed integer linear programming model. It covered from planting and harvesting switchgrass to delivering to a biorefinery and included the residue handling, concentrating on integrating strategic decisions on the supply chain design and tactical decisions on the annual operation schedules. The present numerical examples verified the model and demonstrated its use in practice. This paper showed that the operations of the logistics system were significantly different for harvesting and non-harvesting seasons, and that under the well-designed biomass logistics system, the mass production with a steady and sufficient supply of biomass can increase the unit profit of bioenergy. The analytical model and practical methodology proposed in this paper will help realize the commercial production in biomass-to-bioenergy industry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Net land-atmosphere flows of biogenic carbon related to bioenergy: towards an understanding of systemic feedbacks.

    PubMed

    Haberl, Helmut

    2013-07-01

    The notion that biomass combustion is carbon neutral vis-a-vis the atmosphere because carbon released during biomass combustion is absorbed during plant regrowth is inherent in the greenhouse gas accounting rules in many regulations and conventions. But this 'carbon neutrality' assumption of bioenergy is an oversimplification that can result in major flaws in emission accounting; it may even result in policies that increase, instead of reduce, overall greenhouse gas emissions. This commentary discusses the systemic feedbacks and ecosystem succession/land-use history issues ignored by the carbon neutrality assumption. Based on recent literature, three cases are elaborated which show that the C balance of bioenergy may range from highly beneficial to strongly detrimental, depending on the plants grown, the land used (including its land-use history) as well as the fossil energy replaced. The article concludes by proposing the concept of GHG cost curves of bioenergy as a means for optimizing the climate benefits of bioenergy policies.

  4. A multi-scale hydroclimatological assessment of perennial bioenergy cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, Matei; Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo; Wagner, Melissa; Wang, Meng; Bagley, Justin; Vanloocke, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Hydro-climatic sustainability associated with deployment of perennial bioenergy cropping systems requires a holistic approach that extends beyond merely carbon accounting. Here, we present results from a five-year National Science Foundation project (Water Sustainability and Climate initiative) focused on development of geographically explicit maps depicting sustainable regional "hot-spots" of perennial biomass energy expansion in the United States (U.S.). Using short-term/high-resolution (1 year/1km) and climate scale/medium range resolution (10 years/20km) simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) system, an atmospheric code coupled to a suite of land surface models, we quantify impacts on the hydrologic cycle, and examine the effect of energy crops (e.g., miscanthus and switchgrass) on subsurface hydrology (e.g., soil moisture, groundwater impacts) and atmospheric dynamics. We avoid the competition with food crops by focusing energy crop deployment exclusively on abandoned and degraded farmland regions within the Continental U.S. Finally, assessment of photosynthetic production of bioenergy crops is made, based on hydro-climatic constraints associated with varying scenarios of perennial bioenergy crop deployment simulated with WRF.

  5. Static Frequency Converter System Installed and Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Donald P.; Sadhukhan, Debashis

    2003-01-01

    A new Static Frequency Converter (SFC) system has been installed and tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center s Central Air Equipment Building to provide consistent, reduced motor start times and improved reliability for the building s 14 large exhausters and compressors. The operational start times have been consistent around 2 min, 20 s per machine. This is at least a 3-min improvement (per machine) over the old variable-frequency motor generator sets. The SFC was designed and built by Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) and installed by Encompass Design Group (EDG) as part of a Construction of Facilities project managed by Glenn (Robert Scheidegger, project manager). The authors designed the Central Process Distributed Control Systems interface and control between the programmable logic controller, solid-state exciter, and switchgear, which was constructed by Gilcrest Electric.

  6. Installation of a Roof Mounted Photovoltaic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, M.

    2015-12-01

    In order to create a safe and comfortable environment for students to learn, a lot of electricity, which is generated from coal fired power plants, is used. Therefore, ISF Academy, a school in Hong Kong with approximately 1,500 students, will be installing a rooftop photovoltaic (PV) system with 302 solar panels. Not only will these panels be used to power a classroom, they will also serve as an educational opportunity for students to learn about the importance of renewable energy technology and its uses. There were four different options for the installation of the solar panels, and the final choice was made based on the loading capacity of the roof, considering the fact that overstressing the roof could prove to be a safety hazard. Moreover, due to consideration of the risk of typhoons in Hong Kong, the solar panel PV system will include concrete plinths as counterweights - but not so much that the roof would be severely overstressed. During and after the installation of the PV system, students involved would be able to do multiple calculations, such as determining the reduction of the school's carbon footprint. This can allow students to learn about the impact renewable energy can have on the environment. Another project students can participate in includes measuring the efficiency of the solar panels and how much power can be produced per year, which in turn can help with calculate the amount of money saved per year and when we will achieve economic parity. In short, the installation of the roof mounted PV system will not only be able to help save money for the school but also provide learning opportunities for students studying at the ISF Academy.

  7. Energy Integrated Dairy Farm digester and cogeneration system installation

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, C.C.; Walsh, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Georgia Tech finished in December, 1983 Phase II (system installation and startup) of its four year Energy Integrated Dairy Farm System (EIDFS) program. This paper outlines the selection and installation of the anaerobic digestion and cogeneration components of the EIDFS.

  8. Installation package for a sunspot cascade solar water heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Solar water heating systems installed at Tempe, Arizona and San Diego, California are described. The systems consist of the following: collector, collector-tank water loop, solar tank, conventional tank, and controls. General guidelines which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications are provided along with instruction on operation, maintenance, and installation of solar hot water systems.

  9. Installation, operation, and maintenance for the pyramidal optics solar system installed at Yacht Cove, Columbia, SC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Information is presented concerning the installation, operation, and maintenance of the pyramidal Solar System for space heating and domestic hot water. Included are such items as principles of operation, sequence of installation, and procedures for the operation and maintenance of each subsystem making up the solar system. Also included are trouble-shooting charts and maintenance schedules.

  10. Dependency of global primary bioenergy crop potentials in 2050 on food systems, yields, biodiversity conservation and political stability.

    PubMed

    Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Plutzar, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    The future bioenergy crop potential depends on (1) changes in the food system (food demand, agricultural technology), (2) political stability and investment security, (3) biodiversity conservation, (4) avoidance of long carbon payback times from deforestation, and (5) energy crop yields. Using a biophysical biomass-balance model, we analyze how these factors affect global primary bioenergy potentials in 2050. The model calculates biomass supply and demand balances for eleven world regions, eleven food categories, seven food crop types and two livestock categories, integrating agricultural forecasts and scenarios with a consistent global land use and NPP database. The TREND scenario results in a global primary bioenergy potential of 77 EJ/yr, alternative assumptions on food-system changes result in a range of 26-141 EJ/yr. Exclusion of areas for biodiversity conservation and inaccessible land in failed states reduces the bioenergy potential by up to 45%. Optimistic assumptions on future energy crop yields increase the potential by up to 48%, while pessimistic assumptions lower the potential by 26%. We conclude that the design of sustainable bioenergy crop production policies needs to resolve difficult trade-offs such as food vs. energy supply, renewable energy vs. biodiversity conservation or yield growth vs. reduction of environmental problems of intensive agriculture.

  11. Dependency of global primary bioenergy crop potentials in 2050 on food systems, yields, biodiversity conservation and political stability

    PubMed Central

    Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Plutzar, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The future bioenergy crop potential depends on (1) changes in the food system (food demand, agricultural technology), (2) political stability and investment security, (3) biodiversity conservation, (4) avoidance of long carbon payback times from deforestation, and (5) energy crop yields. Using a biophysical biomass-balance model, we analyze how these factors affect global primary bioenergy potentials in 2050. The model calculates biomass supply and demand balances for eleven world regions, eleven food categories, seven food crop types and two livestock categories, integrating agricultural forecasts and scenarios with a consistent global land use and NPP database. The TREND scenario results in a global primary bioenergy potential of 77 EJ/yr, alternative assumptions on food-system changes result in a range of 26–141 EJ/yr. Exclusion of areas for biodiversity conservation and inaccessible land in failed states reduces the bioenergy potential by up to 45%. Optimistic assumptions on future energy crop yields increase the potential by up to 48%, while pessimistic assumptions lower the potential by 26%. We conclude that the design of sustainable bioenergy crop production policies needs to resolve difficult trade-offs such as food vs. energy supply, renewable energy vs. biodiversity conservation or yield growth vs. reduction of environmental problems of intensive agriculture. PMID:23576836

  12. Photovoltaic energy systems: Design and installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buresch, M.

    The characteristics of solar radiation, the design of solar cells, and the installation of Si solar cell arrays for various applications are described. The discussion is limited to medium-scale photovoltaic systems, from 0.1-100 kW peak output, mounted in fixed flat plate modules, the simplest, most maintenance-free concept. Solar cell functioning principles are outlined, including the parasitic mechanisms which reduce cell efficiency. The magnitude, variations, and distribution of the global solar energy input are quantified. Consideration is given to series and parallel connected solar arrays, and to performance under a variable load. Array protection and failure detection are explored, as are integrated array power conditioning equipment comprising energy storage, voltage regulation, and ac to dc converters. Attention is also devoted to array mounting and matching solar cell systems to load.

  13. Evaluation of regional bioenergy recovery by local methane fermentation thermal recycling systems.

    PubMed

    Wong, Looi-Fang; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Xu, Kaiqin

    2008-11-01

    This paper evaluates the potential for regional bioenergy recovery as electricity and heat by small-scale methane fermentation systems from organic waste matter generated from urban, industrial, and agricultural sectors. Biogas production functions of high-strength organic wastes are derived from data of implemented methane fermentation systems. The distributions of organic wastes from sewage, household, wholesale/retail, manufacturing, farming, and livestock activities in the Tokyo Bay region are calibrated into a disaggregated spatial database by compiling general activity statistics and emission intensity parameters using Geographic Information System (GIS). Three scenarios of organic matter circulation by co-digestion in sewage treatment plants (STPs) are designed and assessed. Surplus electricity and heat from methane fermentation systems are used for STP operations and household demand. The spatial database allows a preliminary examination for the suitability of locations for technology implementation from the aspects of bioenergy supply and balance. The results show that an additional 368,000-1,328,000 MW of electricity would be generated, and 1300-3600 TJ of heat could be used by households, reducing the annual emissions of CO2 from fossil fuels by 307,000-798,000 t.

  14. Assessment of by-products of bioenergy systems (anaerobic digestion and gasification) as potential crop nutrient.

    PubMed

    Kataki, Sampriti; Hazarika, Samarendra; Baruah, D C

    2017-01-01

    Alternative fertilizer resources have drawn attention in recent times in order to cope up with ever increasing demand for fertilizer. By-products of bioenergy system are considered favourable as organic fertilizer due to their ability to recycle plant nutrients. Present study evaluates fertilizer suitability of by-products of two bioenergy systems viz. 3 types of anaerobic digestion by-products (digestate) from local surplus biomass such as cowdung, Ipomoea carnea:cowdung (60:40) and ricestraw:green gram stover:cowdung (30:30:40) and one gasification by-product (biochar) from rice husk. Digestates were assessed considering 4 different application options of each viz. whole, solid, liquid and ash from solid digestates. Digestate characteristics (organic matter, macronutrients, micronutrients and heavy metal content) were found to be a function of feedstock and processing (solid liquid separation and ashing). Ipomoea carnea based digestates in all application options showed comparatively higher N, P, K, NH4(+)-N, Ca, Mg, S and micro nutrient content than other digestates. Separation concentrated plant nutrients and organic matter in solid digestates, making these suitable both as organic amendments and fertilizer. Separated liquid digestate shared larger fraction of ammonium nitrogen (61-91% of total content), indicating their suitability as readily available N source. However, fertilizer application of liquid digestate may not match crop requirements due to lower total nutrient concentration. Higher electrical conductivity of the liquid digestates (3.4-9.3mScm(-1)) than solid digestates (1.5-2mScm(-1)) may impart phyto-toxic effect upon fertilization due to salinity. In case of by-products with unstable organic fraction i.e. whole and solid digestates of rice straw:green gram stover:cowdung digestates (Humification index 0.7), further processing (stabilization, composting) may be required to maximize their fertilizer benefit. Heavy metal contents of the by

  15. Topographic and soil influences on root productivity of three bioenergy cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Ontl, Todd A; Hofmockel, Kirsten S; Cambardella, Cynthia A; Schulte, Lisa A; Kolka, Randall K

    2013-08-01

    Successful modeling of the carbon (C) cycle requires empirical data regarding species-specific root responses to edaphic characteristics. We address this need by quantifying annual root production of three bioenergy systems (continuous corn, triticale/sorghum, switchgrass) in response to variation in soil properties across a toposequence within a Midwestern agroecosystem. Using ingrowth cores to measure annual root production, we tested for the effects of topography and 11 soil characteristics on root productivity. Root production significantly differed among cropping systems. Switchgrass root productivity was lowest on the floodplain position, but root productivity of annual crops was not influenced by topography or soil properties. Greater switchgrass root production was associated with high percent sand, which explained 45% of the variation. Percent sand was correlated negatively with soil C and nitrogen and positively with bulk density, indicating this variable is a proxy for multiple important soil properties. Our results suggest that easily measured soil parameters can be used to improve model predictions of root productivity in bioenergy switchgrass, but the edaphic factors we measured were not useful for predicting root productivity in annual crops. These results can improve C cycling modeling efforts by revealing the influence of cropping system and soil properties on root productivity.

  16. Agroforestry systems for bioenergy in the southeastern USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Agricultural landscapes are an important component of a biofuel strategy to develop energy independence. Agroforestry systems offer an opportunity to produce both food and biofuel feedstocks from the same land area. Such a strategy could improve numerous ecosystem services more so than either of t...

  17. Effect of Conservation Systems and Irrigation on Potential Bioenergy Crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Renewable energy production in the United States should increase due to economic, environmental, and national security concerns. In the Southeastern US, annual cellulosic crops could be integrated in rotation systems to produce biofuels. An experiment conducted in South Central Alabama evaluated thr...

  18. Nutrient Use Efficiency in Bioenergy Cropping Systems: Critical Research Questions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Current U.S. plans for energy security rely on converting large areas of cropland from food to biofuel production. Additionally, lands currently considered too marginal for intensive food production may be considered suitable for biofuels production; predominant cropping systems may shift to more va...

  19. Logistics system design for biomass-to-bioenergy industry with multiple types of feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Yao, Qingzhu

    2011-12-01

    It is technologically possible for a biorefinery to use a variety of biomass as feedstock including native perennial grasses (e.g., switchgrass) and agricultural residues (e.g., corn stalk and wheat straw). Incorporating the distinct characteristics of various types of biomass feedstocks and taking into account their interaction in supplying the bioenergy production, this paper proposed a multi-commodity network flow model to design the logistics system for a multiple-feedstock biomass-to-bioenergy industry. The model was formulated as a mixed integer linear programming, determining the locations of warehouses, the size of harvesting team, the types and amounts of biomass harvested/purchased, stored, and processed in each month, the transportation of biomass in the system, and so on. This paper demonstrated the advantages of using multiple types of biomass feedstocks by comparing with the case of using a single feedstock (switchgrass) and analyzed the relationship of the supply capacity of biomass feedstocks to the output and cost of biofuel.

  20. Field-based estimates of global warming potential in bioenergy systems of Hawaii: Crop choice and deficit irrigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Replacing fossil fuel with biofuel is environmentally viable only if the net greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of the system is reduced. The effects of replacing annual arable crops with perennial bioenergy feedstocks on net GHG production and soil carbon (C) stock are critical to the system-level bal...

  1. Commercialization of willow bioenergy - a dedicated feedstock supply system

    SciTech Connect

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.; Robison, D.J.

    1995-11-01

    Willow hybrids grown as a Dedicated Feedstock Supply System (DFSS) have been analyzed and found to be a feasibile means of augmenting current coal and natural gas resources for power generation. This study focused on the technology and infrastructure required to grow willow DFSS and integrate it with four existing pulverized coal electric generation facilities in central and western New York. The study found that both utilities and growers can forge a long-term business relationship that offers fuel diversity, fuel cost competitiveness and environmental benefits for the utility partners while reinvigorating central and western New York business in the agricultural sector. Growers can bring idle land and land being farmed at a loss back into profitable production while reducing environmental impacts associated with more traditional row crops. The Consortium is gearing up to put in place the growers contracts and the acreage necessary to take the first steps to prove and develop a major new business opportunity for rural New York.

  2. Integrated bioenergy conversion concepts for small scale gasification power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldas, Rizaldo Elauria

    microorganisms used to deal with tars are selected and pre-conditioned to the tar environment. Overall, the results provided a basis for operational and design strategy for a combined gasification system but further study is recommended such as determination of the impacts in terms of emissions, power, efficiency and costs associated with the use of producer gas-enriched biogas taking advantage of hydrogen enrichment to reduce NOx and other pollutants in reciprocating engines and other energy conversion systems.

  3. An earth anchor system: installation and design guide.

    Treesearch

    R.L. Copstead; D.D. Studier

    1990-01-01

    A system for anchoring the guylines and skylines of cable yarding equipment is presented. A description of three types of tipping plate anchors is given. Descriptions of the installation equipment and methods specific to each type are given. Procedures for determining the correct number of anchors to install are included, as are guidelines for installing the anchors so...

  4. Bioenergy Sustainability in China: Potential and Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jie; Gentry, Randall W.; Yu, Gui-Rui; Sayler, Gary S.; Bickham, John W.

    2010-10-01

    The sustainability implications of bioenergy development strategies are large and complex. Unlike conventional agriculture, bioenergy production provides an opportunity to design systems for improving eco-environmental services. Different places have different goals and solutions for bioenergy development, but they all should adhere to the sustainability requirements of the environment, economy, and society. This article serves as a brief overview of China’s bioenergy development and as an introduction to this special issue on the impacts of bioenergy development in China. The eleven articles in this special issue present a range of perspectives and scenario analyses on bioenergy production and its impacts as well as potential barriers to its development. Five general themes are covered: status and goals, biomass resources, energy plants, environmental impacts, and economic and social impacts. The potential for bioenergy production in China is huge, particularly in the central north and northwest. China plans to develop a bioenergy capacity of 30GW by 2020. However, realization of this goal will require breakthroughs in bioenergy landscape design, energy plant biotechnology, legislation, incentive policy, and conversion facilities. Our analyses suggest that (1) the linkage between bioenergy, environment, and economy are often circular rather than linear in nature; (2) sustainability is a core concept in bioenergy design and the ultimate goal of bioenergy development; and (3) each bioenergy development scheme must be region-specific and designed to solve local environmental and agricultural problems.

  5. Bioenergy sustainability in China: potential and impacts.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jie; Gentry, Randall W; Yu, Gui-Rui; Sayler, Gary S; Bickham, John W

    2010-10-01

    The sustainability implications of bioenergy development strategies are large and complex. Unlike conventional agriculture, bioenergy production provides an opportunity to design systems for improving eco-environmental services. Different places have different goals and solutions for bioenergy development, but they all should adhere to the sustainability requirements of the environment, economy, and society. This article serves as a brief overview of China's bioenergy development and as an introduction to this special issue on the impacts of bioenergy development in China. The eleven articles in this special issue present a range of perspectives and scenario analyses on bioenergy production and its impacts as well as potential barriers to its development. Five general themes are covered: status and goals, biomass resources, energy plants, environmental impacts, and economic and social impacts. The potential for bioenergy production in China is huge, particularly in the central north and northwest. China plans to develop a bioenergy capacity of 30GW by 2020. However, realization of this goal will require breakthroughs in bioenergy landscape design, energy plant biotechnology, legislation, incentive policy, and conversion facilities. Our analyses suggest that (1) the linkage between bioenergy, environment, and economy are often circular rather than linear in nature; (2) sustainability is a core concept in bioenergy design and the ultimate goal of bioenergy development; and (3) each bioenergy development scheme must be region-specific and designed to solve local environmental and agricultural problems.

  6. Installation package for a Sunspot Cascade Solar Water Heating System

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    Elcam, Incorporated of Santa Barbara, California, has developed two solar water heating systems. The systems have been installed at Tempe, Arizona and San Diego, California. The systems consist of the following: collector, collector-tank water loop, solar tank, conventional tank and controls. General guidelines are provided which may be utilized in development of detailed instalation plans and specifications. In addition, it provides instruction on operation, maintenance and installation of solar hot water systems.

  7. Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF) Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-29

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF) is an online collaboration and geospatial analysis tool that allows researchers, policymakers, and investors to explore and engage the latest bioenergy research. This publication describes how the KDF harnesses Web 2.0 and social networking technologies to build a collective knowledge system that facilitates collaborative production, integration, and analysis of bioenergy-related information.

  8. The role of simulation models in monitoring soil organic carbon storage and greenhouse gas mitigation potential in bioenergy cropping systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is an increased demand on agricultural systems worldwide to provide food, fiber, and feedstock for the emerging bioenergy industry, raising legitimate concerns on the associated impacts of such intensification on the environment. Of the many ecosystem services that could be impacted by the la...

  9. 78 FR 56264 - Big Bear Mining Corp., Four Rivers BioEnergy, Inc., Mainland Resources, Inc., QI Systems Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Big Bear Mining Corp., Four Rivers BioEnergy, Inc., Mainland Resources, Inc., QI Systems Inc... there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Four Rivers...

  10. Practical aspects of instrumentation system installation, volume 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borek, R. W.; Pool, A. (Editor); Sanderson, K. C. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    A review of factors influencing installation of aircraft flight test instrumentation is presented. Requirements, including such factors as environment, reliability, maintainability, and system safety are discussed. The assessment of the mission profile is followed by an overview of electrical and mechanical installation factors with emphasis on shock/vibration isolation systems and standardization of the electric wiring installation, two factors often overlooked by instrumentation engineers. A discussion of installation hardware reviews the performance capabilities of wiring, connectors, fuses and circuit breakers, and a guide to proper selections is provided. The discussion of the installation is primarily concerned with the electrical wire routing, shield terminations and grounding. Also inclued are some examples of installation mistakes that could affect system accuracy. System verification procedures and special considerations such as sneak circuits, pyrotechnics, aircraft antenna patterns, and lightning strikes are discussed.

  11. Practical aspects of instrumentation system installation, volume 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borek, R. W.; Pool, A. (Editor); Sanderson, K. C. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    A review of factors influencing installation of aircraft flight test instrumentation is presented. Requirements, including such factors as environment, reliability, maintainability, and system safety are discussed. The assessment of the mission profile is followed by an overview of electrical and mechanical installation factors with emphasis on shock/vibration isolation systems and standardization of the electric wiring installation, two factors often overlooked by instrumentation engineers. A discussion of installation hardware reviews the performance capabilities of wiring, connectors, fuses and circuit breakers, and a guide to proper selections is provided. The discussion of the installation is primarily concerned with the electrical wire routing, shield terminations and grounding. Also inclued are some examples of installation mistakes that could affect system accuracy. System verification procedures and special considerations such as sneak circuits, pyrotechnics, aircraft antenna patterns, and lightning strikes are discussed.

  12. MODEL BASED BIOMASS SYSTEM DESIGN OF FEEDSTOCK SUPPLY SYSTEMS FOR BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Muth, Jr.; Jacob J. Jacobson; Kenneth M. Bryden

    2013-08-01

    Engineering feedstock supply systems that deliver affordable, high-quality biomass remains a challenge for the emerging bioenergy industry. Cellulosic biomass is geographically distributed and has diverse physical and chemical properties. Because of this feedstock supply systems that deliver cellulosic biomass resources to biorefineries require integration of a broad set of engineered unit operations. These unit operations include harvest and collection, storage, preprocessing, and transportation processes. Design decisions for each feedstock supply system unit operation impact the engineering design and performance of the other system elements. These interdependencies are further complicated by spatial and temporal variances such as climate conditions and biomass characteristics. This paper develops an integrated model that couples a SQL-based data management engine and systems dynamics models to design and evaluate biomass feedstock supply systems. The integrated model, called the Biomass Logistics Model (BLM), includes a suite of databases that provide 1) engineering performance data for hundreds of equipment systems, 2) spatially explicit labor cost datasets, and 3) local tax and regulation data. The BLM analytic engine is built in the systems dynamics software package PowersimTM. The BLM is designed to work with thermochemical and biochemical based biofuel conversion platforms and accommodates a range of cellulosic biomass types (i.e., herbaceous residues, short- rotation woody and herbaceous energy crops, woody residues, algae, etc.). The BLM simulates the flow of biomass through the entire supply chain, tracking changes in feedstock characteristics (i.e., moisture content, dry matter, ash content, and dry bulk density) as influenced by the various operations in the supply chain. By accounting for all of the equipment that comes into contact with biomass from the point of harvest to the throat of the conversion facility and the change in characteristics, the

  13. 14 CFR 25.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Position light system installation. 25.1385... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1385 Position light system installation. (a) General. Each part of each position light system must meet the applicable...

  14. 14 CFR 27.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Position light system installation. 27.1385... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1385 Position light system installation. (a) General. Each part of each position light system must meet the...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Position light system installation. 29.1385... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1385 Position light system installation. (a) General. Each part of each position light system must meet the...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Position light system installation. 29.1385... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1385 Position light system installation. (a) General. Each part of each position light system must meet the...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Position light system installation. 23.1385... Lights § 23.1385 Position light system installation. (a) General. Each part of each position light system... requirements of §§ 23.1387 through 23.1397. (b) Left and right position lights. Left and right position...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Position light system installation. 25.1385... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1385 Position light system installation. (a) General. Each part of each position light system must meet the...

  19. 14 CFR 27.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Position light system installation. 27.1385... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1385 Position light system installation. (a) General. Each part of each position light system must meet the...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Position light system installation. 23.1385... Lights § 23.1385 Position light system installation. (a) General. Each part of each position light system... requirements of §§ 23.1387 through 23.1397. (b) Left and right position lights. Left and right position...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Position light system installation. 23.1385... Lights § 23.1385 Position light system installation. (a) General. Each part of each position light system... requirements of §§ 23.1387 through 23.1397. (b) Left and right position lights. Left and right position...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Position light system installation. 23.1385... Lights § 23.1385 Position light system installation. (a) General. Each part of each position light system... requirements of §§ 23.1387 through 23.1397. (b) Left and right position lights. Left and right position...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Position light system installation. 25.1385... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1385 Position light system installation. (a) General. Each part of each position light system must meet the...

  4. 14 CFR 25.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Position light system installation. 25.1385... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1385 Position light system installation. (a) General. Each part of each position light system must meet the...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Position light system installation. 23.1385... Lights § 23.1385 Position light system installation. (a) General. Each part of each position light system... requirements of §§ 23.1387 through 23.1397. (b) Left and right position lights. Left and right position...

  6. Installation package for a solar heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Development and installation of two commercial solar heating and hot water systems are reported. The systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, transport, hot water, auxiliary energy and controls. General guidelines are provided which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications. In addition, operation, maintenance and repair of a solar heating and hot water system instructions are included.

  7. 14 CFR 27.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Position light system installation. 27.1385... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1385 Position light system installation. (a) General. Each part of each position light system must meet the...

  8. 14 CFR 27.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Position light system installation. 27.1385... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1385 Position light system installation. (a) General. Each part of each position light system must meet the...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Position light system installation. 29.1385... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1385 Position light system installation. (a) General. Each part of each position light system must meet the...

  10. Net land-atmosphere flows of biogenic carbon related to bioenergy: towards an understanding of systemic feedbacks

    PubMed Central

    Haberl, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    The notion that biomass combustion is carbon neutral vis-a-vis the atmosphere because carbon released during biomass combustion is absorbed during plant regrowth is inherent in the greenhouse gas accounting rules in many regulations and conventions. But this ‘carbon neutrality’ assumption of bioenergy is an oversimplification that can result in major flaws in emission accounting; it may even result in policies that increase, instead of reduce, overall greenhouse gas emissions. This commentary discusses the systemic feedbacks and ecosystem succession/land-use history issues ignored by the carbon neutrality assumption. Based on recent literature, three cases are elaborated which show that the C balance of bioenergy may range from highly beneficial to strongly detrimental, depending on the plants grown, the land used (including its land-use history) as well as the fossil energy replaced. The article concludes by proposing the concept of GHG cost curves of bioenergy as a means for optimizing the climate benefits of bioenergy policies. PMID:23956793

  11. Land use impacts of low-carbon energy system transition - the case of UK bioenergy deployment under the Carbon Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konadu, D. D.; Sobral Mourao, Z.; Lupton, R.; Skelton, S.

    2015-12-01

    The UK Department of Energy and Climate Change has developed four low-carbon energy transition pathways - the Carbon Plan - towards achieving the legally binding 80% territorial greenhouse gas emissions reduction, stipulated in the 2008 Climate Change Act by 2050. All the pathways require increase in bioenergy deployment, of which a significant amount could be indigenously sourced from crops. But will increased domestic production of energy crops conflict with other land use and ecosystem priorities? To address this question, a coupled analysis of the four energy transition pathways and land use has been developed using an integrated resource accounting platform called ForeseerTM. The two systems are connected by the bioenergy component, and are projected forward in time to 2050, under different scenarios of energy crop composition and yield, and accounting for various constraints on land use for agriculture and ecosystem services. The results show between 7 and 61% of UK agricultural land could be required to meet bioenergy deployment projections under different combinations of crop yield and compositions for the transition pathways. This could result in competition for land for food production and other socio-economic and ecological land uses. Consequently, the potential role of bioenergy in achieving UK emissions reduction targets may face significant deployment challenges.

  12. Installation and Commissioning Automated Demand Response Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Global Energy Partners; Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Kiliccote, Sila; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Wikler, Greg; Prijyanonda, Joe; Chiu, Albert

    2008-04-21

    strategies if convenient to the facility. From 2003 through 2006 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) developed and tested a series of demand response automation communications technologies known as Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR). In 2007, LBNL worked with three investor-owned utilities to commercialize and implement Auto-DR programs in their territories. This paper summarizes the history of technology development for Auto-DR, and describes the DR technologies and control strategies utilized at many of the facilities. It outlines early experience in commercializing Auto-DR systems within PG&E DR programs, including the steps to configure the automation technology. The paper also describes the DR sheds derived using three different baseline methodologies. Emphasis is given to the lessons learned from installation and commissioning of Auto-DR systems, with a detailed description of the technical coordination roles and responsibilities, and costs.

  13. Effects of child restraint system features on installation errors.

    PubMed

    Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Flannagan, Carol A C; Ebert, Sheila M; Malik, Laura A; Green, Paul A; Reed, Matthew P

    2014-03-01

    This study examined how child restraint system (CRS) features contribute to CRS installation errors. Sixteen convertible CRS, selected to include a wide range of features, were used in volunteer testing with 32 subjects. Subjects were recruited based on their education level (high or low) and experience with installing CRS (none or experienced). Each subject was asked to perform four child restraint installations in the right-rear passenger seat of a 2006 Pontiac G6 sedan using a crash dummy as a child surrogate. Each subject installed two CRS forward-facing (FF), one with LATCH and one with the vehicle seatbelt, and two CRS rear-facing (RF), one with LATCH and one with the seatbelt. After each installation, the experimenter evaluated 42 factors for each installation, such as choice of belt routing path, tightness of installation, and harness snugness. Analyses used linear mixed models to identify CRS installation outcomes associated with CRS features. LATCH connector type, LATCH strap adjustor type, and the presence of belt lockoffs were associated with the tightness of the CRS installation. The type of harness shoulder height adjuster was associated with the rate of achieving a snug harness. Correct tether use was associated with the tether storage method. In general, subject assessments of the ease-of-use of CRS features were not highly correlated with the quality of their installation, suggesting a need for feedback with incorrect installations. The data from this study provide quantitative assessments of some CRS features that were associated with reductions in CRS installation errors. These results provide child restraint designers with design guidelines for developing easier-to-use products. Research on providing effective feedback during the child restraint installation process is recommended.

  14. Prototype residential solar-energy system-installation package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Installation guidelines for architects and engineers discussing solar-heating system built in Togus, Maine are presented. Includes brief, functional description of system and summary of operation. Drawings complement text.

  15. Prototype residential solar-energy system-installation package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Installation guidelines for architects and engineers discussing solar-heating system built in Togus, Maine are presented. Includes brief, functional description of system and summary of operation. Drawings complement text.

  16. Our Commitment to Bioenergy Sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is committed to developing the resources, technologies, and systems needed to support a thriving bioenergy industry that protects natural resources and ad- vances environmental, economic, and social benefits. BETO’s Sustainability Technology Area proactively identifies and addresses issues that affect the scale-up potential, public acceptance, and long-term viability of advanced bioenergy systems; as a result, the area is critical to achieving BETO’s overall goals.

  17. Solar hot water system installed at Mobile, Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The system consists of six rows of ten collectors and three rows of eleven collectors (1990 square feet) mounted on the roof. Griswald flow control valves were installed to regulate the flow to each row. Two Heliotrope electronic thermometers with a combined capability of measuring the temperatures of 22 different locations were installed for monitoring purposes.

  18. A Review on Biomass Densification Systems to Develop Uniform Feedstock Commodities for Bioenergy Application

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Christopher T. Wright; J. Richard Hess; Kevin L. Kenney

    2011-11-01

    Developing uniformly formatted, densified feedstock from lignocellulosic biomass is of interest to achieve consistent physical properties like size and shape, bulk and unit density, and durability, which significantly influence storage, transportation and handling characteristics, and, by extension, feedstock cost and quality. A variety of densification systems are considered for producing a uniform format feedstock commodity for bioenergy applications, including (a) baler, (b) pellet mill, (c) cuber, (d) screw extruder, (e) briquette press, (f) roller press, (g) tablet press, and (g) agglomerator. Each of these systems has varying impacts on feedstock chemical and physical properties, and energy consumption. This review discusses the suitability of these densification systems for biomass feedstocks and the impact these systems have on specific energy consumption and end product quality. For example, a briquette press is more flexible in terms of feedstock variables where higher moisture content and larger particles are acceptable for making good quality briquettes; or among different densification systems, a screw press consumes the most energy because it not only compresses but also shears and mixes the material. Pretreatment options like preheating, grinding, steam explosion, torrefaction, and ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) can also help to reduce specific energy consumption during densification and improve binding characteristics. Binding behavior can also be improved by adding natural binders, such as proteins, or commercial binders, such as lignosulphonates. The quality of the densified biomass for both domestic and international markets is evaluated using PFI (United States Standard) or CEN (European Standard).

  19. New concept for a general purpose subsea installation system

    SciTech Connect

    Citi, G.; Cowen, S.; Radicioni, A.

    1996-12-31

    The first use of the Agip SAF System (Sistema Alti Fondali), an installation and maintenance system for subsea production systems up to 1,000 m water depth, was successfully performed on the Luna 40 well in 180 m w.d. The system successfully installed the christmas tree, flowline jumpers, control system and high pressure cap as well as deploying the LMRP to allow the commissioning of the well. The SAF system performed all the planned tasks during the installation of the Luna 40 subsea tree and now has to be considered an operational success. The system is based around a Master Vehicle that provides hydraulic power to, and controls a set of dedicated work modules. During the 2 test and 5 working dives, the Master Vehicle and the modules were subsea for a considerable period of time, up to 75 hours continuously, without any operational failures. This installation uncovered some system deficiencies that will have to be studied to improve the reliability and operability of the system. From the experience gained during this operation it has been shown that the system of a Master Vehicle providing locally generated hydraulic power is a feasible approach to many subsea installation problems. This paper describes the SAF system including improvements to be performed before being used operationally in up to 1,000 m of water and over. It also covers the necessary modifications required to allow the system to be deployed from a wide range of installation vessel.

  20. Environmental and economic assessment of integrated systems for dairy manure treatment coupled with algae bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongli; White, Mark A; Colosi, Lisa M

    2013-02-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) are used to investigate integrated algae bioenergy production and nutrient management on small dairy farms. Four cases are considered: a reference land-application scenario (REF), anaerobic digestion with land-application of liquid digestate (AD), and anaerobic digestion with recycling of liquid digestate to either an open-pond algae cultivation system (OPS) or an algae turf scrubber (ATS). LCA indicates that all three "improved" scenarios (AD, OPS, and ATS) are environmentally favorable compared to REF, exhibiting increases in net energy output up to 854GJ/yr, reductions in net eutrophication potential up to 2700kg PO(4)-eq/yr, and reductions in global warming potential up to 196Mg CO(2)-eq/yr. LCC reveals that the integrated algae systems are much more financially attractive than either AD or REF, whereby net present values (NPV) are as follows: $853,250 for OPS, $790,280 for ATS, -$62,279 for REF, and -$211,126 for AD. However, these results are highly dependent on the sale price for nutrient credits. Comparison of LCA and LCC results indicates that robust nutrient credit markets or other policy tools are required to align financial and environmental preferability of energy production systems and foster widespread adoption of sustainable nutrient management systems.

  1. An Integrated Model for Assessment of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Limits for Bioenergy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    D. Muth; K. M. Bryden

    2003-12-01

    Agricultural residues have been identified as a significant potential resource for bioenergy production, but serious questions remain about the sustainability of harvesting residues. Agricultural residues play an important role in limiting soil erosion from wind and water and in maintaining soil organic carbon. Because of this, multiple factors must be considered when assessing sustainable residue harvest limits. Validated and accepted modeling tools for assessing these impacts include the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation Version 2 (RUSLE2), the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS), and the Soil Conditioning Index. Currently, these models do not work together as a single integrated model. Rather, use of these models requires manual interaction and data transfer. As a result, it is currently not feasible to use these computational tools to perform detailed sustainable agricultural residue availability assessments across large spatial domains or to consider a broad range of land management practices. This paper presents an integrated modeling strategy that couples existing datasets with the RUSLE2 water erosion, WEPS wind erosion, and Soil Conditioning Index soil carbon modeling tools to create a single integrated residue removal modeling system. This enables the exploration of the detailed sustainable residue harvest scenarios needed to establish sustainable residue availability. Using this computational tool, an assessment study of residue availability for the state of Iowa was performed. This study included all soil types in the state of Iowa, four representative crop rotation schemes, variable crop yields, three tillage management methods, and five residue removal methods. The key conclusions of this study are that under current management practices and crop yields nearly 26.5 million Mg of agricultural residue are sustainably accessible in the state of Iowa, and that through the adoption of no till practices residue removal could sustainably approach 40

  2. Solar hot water system installed at Las Vegas, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A solar energy hot water system installed in a motor inn at Las Vegas, Nevada is described. The inn is a three story building with a flat roof for installation of the solar panels. The system consists of 1,200 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors, a 2,500 gallon insulated vertical steel storage tank, two heat exchangers, and pumps and controls. The system was designed to supply approximately 74 percent of the total hot water load.

  3. Emerging role of Geographical Information System (GIS), Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and spatial LCA (GIS-LCA) in sustainable bioenergy planning.

    PubMed

    Hiloidhari, Moonmoon; Baruah, D C; Singh, Anoop; Kataki, Sampriti; Medhi, Kristina; Kumari, Shilpi; Ramachandra, T V; Jenkins, B M; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2017-10-01

    Sustainability of a bioenergy project depends on precise assessment of biomass resource, planning of cost-effective logistics and evaluation of possible environmental implications. In this context, this paper reviews the role and applications of geo-spatial tool such as Geographical Information System (GIS) for precise agro-residue resource assessment, biomass logistic and power plant design. Further, application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in understanding the potential impact of agro-residue bioenergy generation on different ecosystem services has also been reviewed and limitations associated with LCA variability and uncertainty were discussed. Usefulness of integration of GIS into LCA (i.e. spatial LCA) to overcome the limitations of conventional LCA and to produce a holistic evaluation of the environmental benefits and concerns of bioenergy is also reviewed. Application of GIS, LCA and spatial LCA can help alleviate the challenges faced by ambitious bioenergy projects by addressing both economics and environmental goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Solar heating system installed at Troy, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    This document is the Final Report of the Solar Energy System located at Troy-Miami County Public Library, Troy, Ohio. The completed system is composed of tree basic subsystems: the collector system consisting of 3264 square feet of Owens Illinois evacuated glass tube collectors; the storage system which includes a 5000-gallon insulated steel tank; and the distribution and control system which includes piping, pumping and control logic for the efficient and safe operation of the entire system. This solar heating system was installed in an existing facility and is, therefore, a retrofit system. This report includes extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  5. Solar hot water system installed at Mobile, Alabama. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    This final report describes the solar energy hot water system installed at LaQuinta Motor Inn Inc., at Mobile, Alabama. The building is a 122 unit motel. The system consists of six rows of ten collectors and three rows of eleven collectors (1990 square feet) mounted on the roof. Griswald flow control valves were installed to regulate the flow to each row. Two Heliotrope electronic thermometers with a combined capability of measuring the temperatures of 22 different locations were installed for monitoring purposes. Engineering drawings, component specifications, and operator instructions are included.

  6. Energy Potential and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Bioenergy Cropping Systems on Marginally Productive Cropland

    PubMed Central

    Schmer, Marty R.; Vogel, Kenneth P.; Varvel, Gary E.; Follett, Ronald F.; Mitchell, Robert B.; Jin, Virginia L.

    2014-01-01

    Low-carbon biofuel sources are being developed and evaluated in the United States and Europe to partially offset petroleum transport fuels. Current and potential biofuel production systems were evaluated from a long-term continuous no-tillage corn (Zea mays L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) field trial under differing harvest strategies and nitrogen (N) fertilizer intensities to determine overall environmental sustainability. Corn and switchgrass grown for bioenergy resulted in near-term net greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions of −29 to −396 grams of CO2 equivalent emissions per megajoule of ethanol per year as a result of direct soil carbon sequestration and from the adoption of integrated biofuel conversion pathways. Management practices in switchgrass and corn resulted in large variation in petroleum offset potential. Switchgrass, using best management practices produced 3919±117 liters of ethanol per hectare and had 74±2.2 gigajoules of petroleum offsets per hectare which was similar to intensified corn systems (grain and 50% residue harvest under optimal N rates). Co-locating and integrating cellulosic biorefineries with existing dry mill corn grain ethanol facilities improved net energy yields (GJ ha−1) of corn grain ethanol by >70%. A multi-feedstock, landscape approach coupled with an integrated biorefinery would be a viable option to meet growing renewable transportation fuel demands while improving the energy efficiency of first generation biofuels. PMID:24594783

  7. Energy potential and greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy cropping systems on marginally productive cropland.

    PubMed

    Schmer, Marty R; Vogel, Kenneth P; Varvel, Gary E; Follett, Ronald F; Mitchell, Robert B; Jin, Virginia L

    2014-01-01

    Low-carbon biofuel sources are being developed and evaluated in the United States and Europe to partially offset petroleum transport fuels. Current and potential biofuel production systems were evaluated from a long-term continuous no-tillage corn (Zea mays L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) field trial under differing harvest strategies and nitrogen (N) fertilizer intensities to determine overall environmental sustainability. Corn and switchgrass grown for bioenergy resulted in near-term net greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions of -29 to -396 grams of CO2 equivalent emissions per megajoule of ethanol per year as a result of direct soil carbon sequestration and from the adoption of integrated biofuel conversion pathways. Management practices in switchgrass and corn resulted in large variation in petroleum offset potential. Switchgrass, using best management practices produced 3919±117 liters of ethanol per hectare and had 74±2.2 gigajoules of petroleum offsets per hectare which was similar to intensified corn systems (grain and 50% residue harvest under optimal N rates). Co-locating and integrating cellulosic biorefineries with existing dry mill corn grain ethanol facilities improved net energy yields (GJ ha-1) of corn grain ethanol by >70%. A multi-feedstock, landscape approach coupled with an integrated biorefinery would be a viable option to meet growing renewable transportation fuel demands while improving the energy efficiency of first generation biofuels.

  8. Bioenergy grass feedstock: current options and prospects for trait improvement using emerging genetic, genomic, and systems biology toolkits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    For lignocellulosic bioenergy to become a viable alternative to traditional energy production methods, rapid increases in conversion efficiency and biomass yield must be achieved. Increased productivity in bioenergy production can be achieved through concomitant gains in processing efficiency as well as genetic improvement of feedstock that have the potential for bioenergy production at an industrial scale. The purpose of this review is to explore the genetic and genomic resource landscape for the improvement of a specific bioenergy feedstock group, the C4 bioenergy grasses. First, bioenergy grass feedstock traits relevant to biochemical conversion are examined. Then we outline genetic resources available bioenergy grasses for mapping bioenergy traits to DNA markers and genes. This is followed by a discussion of genomic tools and how they can be applied to understanding bioenergy grass feedstock trait genetic mechanisms leading to further improvement opportunities. PMID:23122416

  9. Bioenergy grass feedstock: current options and prospects for trait improvement using emerging genetic, genomic, and systems biology toolkits.

    PubMed

    Feltus, Frank Alex; Vandenbrink, Joshua P

    2012-11-02

    For lignocellulosic bioenergy to become a viable alternative to traditional energy production methods, rapid increases in conversion efficiency and biomass yield must be achieved. Increased productivity in bioenergy production can be achieved through concomitant gains in processing efficiency as well as genetic improvement of feedstock that have the potential for bioenergy production at an industrial scale. The purpose of this review is to explore the genetic and genomic resource landscape for the improvement of a specific bioenergy feedstock group, the C4 bioenergy grasses. First, bioenergy grass feedstock traits relevant to biochemical conversion are examined. Then we outline genetic resources available bioenergy grasses for mapping bioenergy traits to DNA markers and genes. This is followed by a discussion of genomic tools and how they can be applied to understanding bioenergy grass feedstock trait genetic mechanisms leading to further improvement opportunities.

  10. Distributed Operating System Experiment (DOSE) Application Installation Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    uses the Cronus distrib- uted environment developed by BBN Systems and Technologies Corporation for the Rome Air Devel- opment Center, Rome, NY. f...and any other machine that has UNIX (or UNIX-like) as the constituent operating system for Cronus .-, T nual is recommended reading before installing...the application. 1.2 RE UIRE S ’" The following describes the minimum requirements needed before installing the DOSE application: 1. Cronus (release 1.3

  11. Systems Based Approaches for Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Bioenergy and Bioproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Steven

    2016-07-11

    Auburn’s Center for Bioenergy and Bioproducts conducts research on production of synthesis gas for use in power generation and the production of liquid fuels. The overall goal of our gasification research is to identify optimal processes for producing clean syngas to use in production of fuels and chemicals from underutilized agricultural and forest biomass feedstocks. This project focused on construction and commissioning of a bubbling-bed fluidized-bed gasifier and subsequent shakedown of the gasification and gas cleanup system. The result of this project is a fully commissioned gasification laboratory that is conducting testing on agricultural and forest biomass. Initial tests on forest biomass have served as the foundation for follow-up studies on gasification under a more extensive range of temperatures, pressures, and oxidant conditions. The laboratory gasification system consists of a biomass storage tank capable of holding up to 6 tons of biomass; a biomass feeding system, with loss-in-weight metering system, capable of feeding biomass at pressures up to 650 psig; a bubbling-bed fluidized-bed gasification reactor capable of operating at pressures up to 650 psig and temperatures of 1500oF with biomass flowrates of 80 lb/hr and syngas production rates of 37 scfm; a warm-gas filtration system; fixed bed reactors for gas conditioning; and a final quench cooling system and activated carbon filtration system for gas conditioning prior to routing to Fischer-Tropsch reactors, or storage, or venting. This completed laboratory enables research to help develop economically feasible technologies for production of biomass-derived synthesis gases that will be used for clean, renewable power generation and for production of liquid transportation fuels. Moreover, this research program provides the infrastructure to educate the next generation of engineers and scientists needed to implement these technologies.

  12. Renewable energy systems in Mexico: Installation of a hybrid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pate, Ronald C.

    1993-05-01

    Sandia has been providing technical leadership on behalf of DOE and CORECT on a working level cooperative program with Mexico on renewable energy (PROCER). As part of this effort, the Sandia Design Assistance Center (DAC) and the solar energy program staff at Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) in Cuernavaca, Mexico, recently reached agreement on a framework for mutually beneficial technical collaboration on the monitoring and field evaluation of renewable energy systems in Mexico, particularly village-scale hybrid systems. This trip was made for the purpose of planning the details for the joint installation of a data acquisition system (DAS) on a recently completed PV/Wind/Diesel hybrid system in the village of Xcalac on the Southeast coast of the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. The DAS installation will be made during the week of March 15, 1993. While in Mexico, discussions were also held with personnel from.the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) Solar Energy Laboratory and several private sector companies with regard to renewable energy project activities and technical and educational support needs in Mexico.

  13. Comparing net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange at adjacent commercial bioenergy and conventional cropping systems in Lincolnshire, United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Ross; Brooks, Milo; Evans, Jonathan; Finch, Jon; Rowe, Rebecca; Rylett, Daniel; McNamara, Niall

    2016-04-01

    The conversion of agricultural land to bioenergy plantations represents one option in the national and global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions whilst meeting future energy demand. Despite an increase in the area of (e.g. perennial) bioenergy crops in the United Kingdom and elsewhere, the biophysical and biogeochemical impacts of large scale conversion of arable and other land cover types to bioenergy cropping systems remain poorly characterised and uncertain. Here, the results of four years of eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) obtained at a commercial farm in Lincolnshire, United Kingdom (UK) are reported. CO2 flux measurements are presented and compared for arable crops (winter wheat, oilseed rape, spring barely) and plantations of the perennial biofuel crops Miscanthus x. giganteus (C4) and short rotation coppice (SRC) willow (Salix sp.,C3). Ecosystem light and temperature response functions were used to analyse and compare temporal trends and spatial variations in NEE across the three land covers. All three crops were net in situ sinks for atmospheric CO2 but were characterised by large temporal and between site variability in NEE. Environmental and biological controls driving the spatial and temporal variations in CO2 exchange processes, as well as the influences of land management, will be analysed and discussed.

  14. Deep water installation -- Heavy mooring and riser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alvheim, N.

    1995-12-31

    While the move into deep water has provided exciting challenges often resulting in ingenious and novel equipment it is usually the equipment or the solution itself that is remembered and discussed. Too often one overlooks just how that novel equipment was actually installed. Perhaps one of the most exciting and ingenious equipment designs of recent times is the Submerged Turret Loading (STL) system. To date the authors have had the privilege of installing each of the 3 systems so far produced. Their work is well on course for installing the fourth during the coming summer. This paper addresses the installation of two of these systems in the summer of 94 in 350m of the hostile Halten Bank waters as part of the Conoco Heidrun development. Because the Norwegian oil industry has always been at the cutting edge of technology each new development results in the usual plethora of statistics which when presented in papers Re this are accompanied with a long list of superlatives like tallest, heaviest, deepest, quickest etc. etc. Installation work at Heidrun has a similar list. Because the 2 STL systems at Heidrun (called Direct Shuttle Loading DSL) were to be installed in such deep water the sheer size of the system components are worthy of review.

  15. SeaStar: Subsea cluster manifold system design and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, P.G.T.; Upchurch, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    The SeaStar Cluster Manifold system was engineered as a low cost alternative to larger and more expensive completion template designs. Utilizing field-proven equipment and installation techniques, it was the first of its kind to be installed in the Gulf of Mexico. The Cluster Manifold system allows the connection of flowlines from adjacent satellite wells and numerous infield flowlines consisting of export, service, and methanol lines. With new technological advances, and a variety of flowline connection systems on the market today, deep water completions are being used with increasing frequency. Subsea operations are becoming more routine and installation times are being reduced. The SeaStar system was successfully installed in Garden Banks Block 70/71 in the Gulf of Mexico during the first quarter of 1995. Currently two 4 x 2-in. 10,000 psi lay-away trees are installed and connected to the manifold. Production is being processed at a Marathon platform in Vermilion Block 386B approximately 13.5 miles away from the subsea installation.

  16. Design and Installation of Nearshore Ocean Cable Protection Systems,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    system or a very limited range of environmental conditions. Consequently, many cables have been installed through a seat-of-the-pants approach that...environmental conditions. Consequently, many cables have been installed through a seat-of-the-pants approach that consists of an arbitrary selection...Sinusoidal shape of a wave. As waves approach shallow water (water depth less than one-half the wave length), the height increases and the velocity

  17. Adjustable Bearing System with Selectively Optimized Installational Clearances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-30

    ÄÖQ¥ÄL1HE mssx^. Navy Case No. 78,325 PATENTS ADJUSTABLE BEARING SYSTEM WITH SELECTIVELY OPTIMIZED INSTALLATIONAL CLEARANCES BACKGROUND OF THE... clearance 7 conditions. 8 9 10 .. small range of clearances within which to accommodate various operational conditions. Thus, a 12 very tight... clearance is extremely difficult to achieve for certain installations or conditions such as 13 quiet submarine control surface operation and

  18. Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Installation of the Canadian Muon Cargo Inspection System at CRL Prepared by: Guy Jonkmans Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Chalk River ON...Limited Chalk River, Ontario Canada K0J 1J0 Énergie Atomique du Canada Limitée Chalk River (Ontario) Canada K0J 1J0 Jonkmans Guy - R&D Scientist...2.5.3 Geotomography .......................................................................................... 2-5 3. INSTALLATION AT CHALK RIVER

  19. Active Solar Energy System Design, Installation and Maintenance Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    material choice that meets these requirements is ethylene- propylene-diene-monomer ( EPDM ) rubber. Ease of installation is the second item to be considered...allowing a single thermometer to be moved from row to row for testing . * The thermometer should be Installed Initially on the same row - as the collector...require the flushing and pressure testing of the solar system piping. 7. Define responsibility for coordination of the contractor’s work. 8. Operational

  20. Meeting the challenges of installing a mobile robotic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decorte, Celeste

    1994-01-01

    The challenges of integrating a mobile robotic system into an application environment are many. Most problems inherent to installing the mobile robotic system fall into one of three categories: (1) the physical environment - location(s) where, and conditions under which, the mobile robotic system will work; (2) the technological environment - external equipment with which the mobile robotic system will interact; and (3) the human environment - personnel who will operate and interact with the mobile robotic system. The successful integration of a mobile robotic system into these three types of application environment requires more than a good pair of pliers. The tools for this job include: careful planning, accurate measurement data (as-built drawings), complete technical data of systems to be interfaced, sufficient time and attention of key personnel for training on how to operate and program the robot, on-site access during installation, and a thorough understanding and appreciation - by all concerned - of the mobile robotic system's role in the security mission at the site, as well as the machine's capabilities and limitations. Patience, luck, and a sense of humor are also useful tools to keep handy during a mobile robotic system installation. This paper will discuss some specific examples of problems in each of three categories, and explore approaches to solving these problems. The discussion will draw from the author's experience with on-site installations of mobile robotic systems in various applications. Most of the information discussed in this paper has come directly from knowledge learned during installations of Cybermotion's SR2 security robots. A large part of the discussion will apply to any vehicle with a drive system, collision avoidance, and navigation sensors, which is, of course, what makes a vehicle autonomous. And it is with these sensors and a drive system that the installer must become familiar in order to foresee potential trouble areas in the

  1. Rotary feeding system for metallic coating installation by electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stănescu, A.; Alecusan, A. M.; Dimitescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper aims to present an alternative feeding system for metallic coatings lines by electrodeposition which lends itself to the circular arrangement of the cuvettes used in such plants. The novelty lies both, in the arrangement of the electrodeposition installation components and mechanical feeding and transport system for parts to be electrodeposited. The control and actuation system of this type of installation simplifies. Nevertheless, all these increase the system reliability and run lower maintenance costs, without adversely affecting the quality of the end product. The paper presents the justification for reducing the total energy consumption in the electrodeposition process, too.

  2. 45. STEEL RESERVOIR TANKS FOR NEW SPRINGFED WATER SYSTEM INSTALLED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. STEEL RESERVOIR TANKS FOR NEW SPRING-FED WATER SYSTEM INSTALLED IN 1982. LOCATED IN WAIHANAU VALLEY, THIS REPLACED THE WAIKOLU SYSTEM AND PROVIDES A MORE CONSISTENT AND CLEAN WATER SUPPLY FOR KALAUPAPA. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  3. [Preface for special issue on bioenergy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dehua

    2011-03-01

    More and more attentions have been being paid to seeking alternatives for fossil fuels. Bioenergy, as a renewable energy, is one of the best solutions. Bioenergy has been developed rapidly in China, which became the third largest producer and consumer of fuel ethanol. In order to promote the research of bioenergy technology in China, this special issue includes latest reports and articles on the fields of bioethanol, biodiesel, microbial lipid and biofuel system analysis.

  4. Best management practices: Managing cropping systems for soil protection and bioenergy production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Interest in renewable alternatives to fossil fuels has increased. Crop residue such as corn stover or wheat straw can be used for bioenergy including a substitution for natural gas or coal. Harvesting crop residue needs to be managed to protect the soil and future soil productivity. The amount of bi...

  5. Forest bioenergy system to reduce the hazard of wildfires: White Mountains, Arizona

    Treesearch

    Daniel G. Neary; Elaine J. Zieroth

    2007-01-01

    In an innovative effort, the USDA Forest Service is planning to reduce the long-term threat of catastrophic wildfires by inaugurating a series of forest thinnings for bioenergy. The start-up project is in the Nutrioso area of the Alpine Ranger District, Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest. ''The Nutrioso Wildland/Urban Interface Fuels Reduction Project'...

  6. Life-Cycle Assessment of a Distributed-Scale Thermochemical Bioenergy Conversion System

    Treesearch

    Hongmei Gu; Richard Bergman

    2016-01-01

    Expanding bioenergy production from woody biomass has the potential to decrease net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and improve the energy security of the United States. Science-based and internationally accepted life-cycle assessment (LCA) is an effective tool for policy makers to make scientifically informed decisions on expanding renewable energy production from...

  7. Enhancing biomass utilization for bioenergy-crop rotation systems and alternative conversion processes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biomass for bioenergy has a great deal of potential for decreasing our dependence upon fossil fuels and decreasing the net CO2 accumulation in the atmosphere. Crop residues are often promoted as a means of meeting the total biomass goals to provide sufficient amounts of materials for liquid fuel pro...

  8. Green cheese: partial life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and energy intensity of integrated dairy production and bioenergy systems.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Villegas, H A; Passos-Fonseca, T H; Reinemann, D J; Armentano, L E; Wattiaux, M A; Cabrera, V E; Norman, J M; Larson, R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of integrating dairy and bioenergy systems on land use, net energy intensity (NEI), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A reference dairy farm system representative of Wisconsin was compared with a system that produces dairy and bioenergy products. This integrated system investigates the effects at the farm level when the cow diet and manure management practices are varied. The diets evaluated were supplemented with varying amounts of dry distillers grains with solubles and soybean meal and were balanced with different types of forages. The manure-management scenarios included manure land application, which is the most common manure disposal method in Wisconsin, and manure anaerobic digestion (AD) to produce biogas. A partial life cycle assessment from cradle to farm gate was conducted, where the system boundaries were expanded to include the production of biofuels in the analysis and the environmental burdens between milk and bioenergy products were partitioned by system expansion. Milk was considered the primary product and the functional unit, with ethanol, biodiesel, and biogas considered co-products. The production of the co-products was scaled according to milk production to meet the dietary requirements of each selected dairy ration. Results indicated that land use was 1.6 m2, NEI was 3.86 MJ, and GHG emissions were 1.02 kg of CO2-equivalents per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) for the reference system. Within the integrated dairy and bioenergy system, diet scenarios that maximize dry distillers grains with solubles and implement AD had the largest reduction of GHG emissions and NEI, but the greatest increase in land use compared with the reference system. Average land use ranged from 1.68 to 2.01 m2/kg of FPCM; NEI ranged from -5.62 to -0.73 MJ/kg of FPCM; and GHG emissions ranged from 0.63 to 0.77 kg of CO2-equivalents/kg of FPCM. The AD contributed 65% of the NEI and 77% of the GHG

  9. Communicating about bioenergy sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H; Kline, Keith L; Perla, Dr. Donna; Lucier, Dr. Al

    2013-01-01

    Defining and measuring sustainability of bioenergy systems are difficult because the systems are complex, the science is in early stages of development, and there is a need to generalize what are inherently context-specific enterprises. These challenges, and the fact that decisions are being made now, create a need for improved communications among scientists as well as between scientists and decision makers. In order for scientists to provide information that is useful to decision makers, they need to come to an agreement on how to measure and report potential risks and benefits of diverse energy alternatives, including problems and opportunities in various bioenergy production pathways. Scientists also need to develop approaches that contribute information relevant to policy and decision making. The need for clear communication is especially important at this time when there is a plethora of scientific papers and reports, and it is difficult for the public or decision makers to assess the merits of each analysis. We propose three communication guidelines for scientists whose work can contribute to decision making: (1) relationships between the question and the analytical approach should be clearly defined and make common sense; (2) the information should be presented in a manner that nonscientists can understand; and (3) the implications of methods, assumptions and limitations should be clear. The scientists job is to analyze information in order to build a better understanding of environmental, cultural and socioeconomic aspects of the sustainability of energy alternatives. The scientific process requires transparency, debate, review, and collaboration across disciplines and time. This paper serves as an introduction to the papers in the special issue on Sustainability of Bioenergy Systems: Cradle to Grave because scientific communication is essential to developing more sustainable energy systems. Together these four papers provide a framework under which the

  10. Diurnal Patterns of Heterotrophic and Autotrophic Soil Respiration in Maize and Switchgrass Bioenergy Cropping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Haden, A.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Jackson, R. D.; Kucharik, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    A high proportion of carbon lost from terrestrial ecosystems occurs via soil CO2 respiration. Soil respiration is comprised of two contrasting sources: heterotrophic respiration (RH) from the decomposition of organic matter and autotrophic respiration (RA) from plant root metabolism. Since the two sources of soil respiration vary widely in their origin, the controls of each source are also likely to differ. However, the challenge of partitioning soil respiration sources in situ has limited our mechanistic understanding of RH and RA. Our objective was to evaluate the in situ diurnal controls of RH and RA in maize (Zea mays L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) bioenergy cropping systems. We hypothesized that both RH and RA would follow diurnal soil temperature trends, but that RA would also respond to diel patterns of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). We also expected that diurnal soil respiration patterns would vary significantly within the growing season. We evaluated our hypothesis with six diurnal soil respiration campaigns during the 2015 and 2016 growing seasons at Arlington, WI, USA. RH showed clear oscillating diel trends, typically peaking in the mid-afternoon when near-surface soil temperatures were highest. Diurnal RA patterns were more nuanced than RH, but were generally highest in the late afternoon and showed the most pronounced diel trends during peak growing season in July. RA also tended to spike in concert with PAR, but this effect was much more prominent in maize than switchgrass. Continuing efforts will attempt to quantitatively separate the effects of soil temperature and PAR on RA.

  11. Improving greenhouse gas reduction calculations for bioenergy systems: Incremental life cycle analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ney, Richard A.

    There are many scales that can be employed to calculate net greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy systems, ranging from single point source (stack gas) measurement, to full, multi-layered life cycle analyses considering all of the inputs and outputs throughout the economy. At an appropriate scale within these extremes, a method can be selected to support verification activities related to project-based trading of greenhouse gas emissions. The boundaries of the analysis must be carefully selected in order to meet the twin goals of the verification activity: (1) to meet scientific standards for emission balance quantification; and (2) to meet cost-effectiveness criteria of the emission trading community. The Incremental Life Cycle Analysis (ILCA) methodology is proposed and implemented for the quantification of greenhouse gas emission reductions arising from substitution of switchgrass for coal in electricity generation. The method utilizes an incremental progression through the fuel life cycle, evaluating each level of the life cycle for the quality the emission estimate produced. The method also reviews the scientific uncertainty underlying emission estimation procedures so that areas of relative weakness can be targeted and improved. The ILCA methodology is applied to the Chariton Valley Biomass Project (CVBP) for case study and evaluation. The CVBP is seeking to replace coal combustion in an existing 650-MW generation facility with switchgrass, cofired at a rate of 5 percent switchgrass to 95 percent coal. When the project reaches full capacity, the ILCA estimates that 239 pounds of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO2-eq) emissions will be reduced and/or removed from the atmosphere for every million Btu of switchgrass utilized, generating annual greenhouse gas reductions of 305,000 tons CO2-eq, leading to revenue for the project totaling over $1.5 million annually through trading of greenhouse gas emission reduction credits.

  12. Soil denitrifier community size changes with land use change to perennial bioenergy cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Karen A.; Deen, Bill; Dunfield, Kari E.

    2016-10-01

    Dedicated biomass crops are required for future bioenergy production. However, the effects of large-scale land use change (LUC) from traditional annual crops, such as corn-soybean rotations to the perennial grasses (PGs) switchgrass and miscanthus, on soil microbial community functioning is largely unknown. Specifically, ecologically significant denitrifying communities, which regulate N2O production and consumption in soils, may respond differently to LUC due to differences in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) inputs between crop types and management systems. Our objective was to quantify bacterial denitrifying gene abundances as influenced by corn-soybean crop production compared to PG biomass production. A field trial was established in 2008 at the Elora Research Station in Ontario, Canada (n  =  30), with miscanthus and switchgrass grown alongside corn-soybean rotations at different N rates (0 and 160 kg N ha-1) and biomass harvest dates within PG plots. Soil was collected on four dates from 2011 to 2012 and quantitative PCR was used to enumerate the total bacterial community (16S rRNA) and communities of bacterial denitrifiers by targeting nitrite reductase (nirS) and N2O reductase (nosZ) genes. Miscanthus produced significantly larger yields and supported larger nosZ denitrifying communities than corn-soybean rotations regardless of management, indicating large-scale LUC from corn-soybean to miscanthus may be suitable in variable Ontario climatic conditions and under varied management, while potentially mitigating soil N2O emissions. Harvesting switchgrass in the spring decreased yields in N-fertilized plots, but did not affect gene abundances. Standing miscanthus overwinter resulted in higher 16S rRNA and nirS gene copies than in fall-harvested crops. However, the size of the total (16S rRNA) and denitrifying bacterial communities changed differently over time and in response to LUC, indicating varying controls on these communities.

  13. Easily installable behavioral monitoring system with electric field sensor.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Sosuke; Machida, Yuichiro; Kameda, Noriyuki; Hoshino, Hiroshi; Tamura, Toshiyo

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a wireless behavioral monitoring system equipped with an electric field sensor. The sensor unit was designed to obtain information regarding the usage of home electric appliances such as the television, microwave oven, coffee maker, etc. by measuring the electric field surrounding them. It is assumed that these usage statistics could provide information regarding the indoor behavior of a subject. Since the sensor can be used by simply attaching it to an appliance and does not require any wiring for its installation, this system can be temporarily installed in any ordinary house. A simple interface for selecting the threshold value of appliances' power on/off states was introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed system can be installed by individuals in their residences in a short time and the usage statistics of home appliances can be gathered.

  14. Installation of Computerized Procedure System and Advanced Alarm System in the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Le Blanc, Katya Lee; Spielman, Zachary Alexander; Rice, Brandon Charles

    2016-04-01

    This report describes the installation of two advanced control room technologies, an advanced alarm system and a computerized procedure system, into the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). Installation of these technologies enables future phases of this research by providing a platform to systematically evaluate the effect of these technologies on operator and plant performance.

  15. 72. View of test system showing Klystron tube installed in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. View of test system showing Klystron tube installed in test position on first floor of transmitter building no. 102. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  16. Installation package for SIMS prototype system 2, solar hot water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The prototype system 2 solar hot water was designed for use in a single family dwelling and consists of the following subsystems: collector, storage, energy transport, and control. Guidelines are presented for utilization in the development of detailed installation plans and specifications. Instruction on operation, maintenance, and repair of the system is discussed.

  17. Evapotranspiration of a pine-switchgrass intercropping bioenergy system measured by combined surface renewal and energy balance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, M.; Noormets, A.; Domec, J. C.; Rosa, R.; Williamson, J.; Boone, J.; Sucre, E.; Trnka, M.; King, J.

    2015-12-01

    Intercropping bioenergy grasses within traditional pine silvicultural systems provides an opportunity for economic diversification and regional bioenergy production in a way that complements existing land use systems. Bioenergy intercropping in pine plantations does not compete with food production for land and it is thought will increase ecosystem resource-use efficiencies. As the frequency and intensity of drought is expected to increase with the changing climate, maximizing water use-efficiency of intercropped bioenergy systems will become increasingly important for long-term economic and environmental sustainability. The presented study is focused on evapotranspiration (ET) of an experimental pine-switchgrass intercropping system in the Lower Coastal Plain of North Carolina. We measured ET of two pure switchgrass fields, two pure pine stands and two pine-switchgrass intercropping systems using combined surface renewal (SR) and energy balance (EB) method throughout 2015. SR is based on high-frequency measurement of air temperature at or above canopy. As previously demonstrated, temperature time series are associated with identifiable, repeated patterns called "turbulent coherent structures". These coherent structures are considered to be responsible for most of the turbulent transport. Statistical analysis of the coherent structures in temperature time series allows quantification of sensible heat flux density (H) from the investigated area. Information about H can be combined with measurement of net radiation and soil heat flux density to indirectly obtain ET estimates as a residual of the energy balance equation. Despite the recent progress in the SR method, there is no standard methodology and each method available includes assumptions which require more research. To validate our SR estimates of ET, we used an eddy covariance (EC) system placed temporarily next to the each SR station as a comparative measurement of H. The conference contribution will include

  18. [Requirements for the successful installation of an data management system].

    PubMed

    Benson, M; Junger, A; Quinzio, L; Hempelmann, G

    2002-08-01

    Due to increasing requirements on medical documentation, especially with reference to the German Social Law binding towards quality management and introducing a new billing system (DRGs), an increasing number of departments consider to implement a patient data management system (PDMS). The installation should be professionally planned as a project in order to insure and complete a successful installation. The following aspects are essential: composition of the project group, definition of goals, finance, networking, space considerations, hardware, software, configuration, education and support. Project and finance planning must be prepared before beginning the project and the project process must be constantly evaluated. In selecting the software, certain characteristics should be considered: use of standards, configurability, intercommunicability and modularity. Our experience has taught us that vaguely defined goals, insufficient project planning and the existing management culture are responsible for the failure of PDMS installations. The software used tends to play a less important role.

  19. Installation, operation, and maintenance for the pyramidal optics solar system installed at Yacht Cover, Columbia, South Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Information concerning the installation, operation, and maintenance of the pyramidal Solar System for space heating and domestic hot water is presented. Principles of operation, sequence of installation, and procedures for the operation and maintenance of each subsystem making up the solar system are presented. Troubleshooting charts and maintenance schedules are presented.

  20. Installation, operation, and maintenance for the pyramidal optics solar system installed at Yacht Cover, Columbia, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    Information concerning the installation, operation, and maintenance of the pyramidal Solar System for space heating and domestic hot water is presented. Principles of operation, sequence of installation, and procedures for the operation and maintenance of each subsystem making up the solar system are presented. Troubleshooting charts and maintenance schedules are presented.

  1. Sustainable and efficient pathways for bioenergy recovery from low-value process streams via bioelectrochemical systems in biorefineries

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, Abhijeet P.

    2015-08-25

    Conversion of biomass into bioenergy is possible via multiple pathways resulting in production of biofuels, bioproducts and biopower. Efficient and sustainable conversion of biomass, however, requires consideration of many environmental and societal parameters in order to minimize negative impacts. Integration of multiple conversion technologies and inclusion of upcoming alternatives such as bioelectrochemical systems can minimize these impacts and improve conservation of resources such as hydrogen, water and nutrients via recycle and reuse. This report outlines alternate pathways integrating microbial electrolysis in biorefinery schemes to improve energy efficiency while evaluating environmental sustainability parameters.

  2. Assembly Installation studies for the ITER cryoline system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badgujar, S.; Shah, N.; Forgeas, A.; Navion-Maillot, N.; Monneret, E.; Grillot, D.; Benkheira, L.; Sarkar, B.

    2017-02-01

    The ITER cryoline (CL) system consists of a complex network of vacuum insulated multi and single process pipe (PP) lines distributed over three different areas at ITER site. The installation of these CLs in the Tokamak building is a very challenging and highly integrated task due to the presence of many equipment in their vicinity. Dedicated study has been performed to develop the realistic plan and to figure out constraints for complete realization of the CL network. This study includes the concept for assembly and installation of CLs within restricted premises of the Tokamak building, to fulfil the objective of generating technical inputs, defining the processes, construction sequence, tooling, resources and thorough understanding of one of the most challenging network of CLs in present time. The installation sequence for all the CLs inside Tokamak building has also been developed to respect the ITER Construction Master Schedule. The paper describes the ITER CL system, the assembly and installation plan developed considering the layout constraints and complexity arising from the integrated installation in the Tokamak building.

  3. Horizontal pumping system installed at East Texas gas plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, M.; Goodwin, B.

    1998-07-20

    Installation of horizontal, multistage centrifugal pumps in lean-amine service has proven successful and economical at Union Pacific Resources (UPR) East Texas gas plant (ETGP), Carthage, Tex. In the past, UPR had used either vertical can pumps or positive displacement (PD) pumps for amine circulation in gas-treating operations. When the need to replace a PD pump in the No. 4 amine plant arose, UPR solicited bids from both traditional pump suppliers. Additionally, UPR solicited a bid from REDA for its horizontal pumping system (HPS) based on previous success of this type of pump at ETGP for saltwater disposal. The first pump was installed in May 1996 and designed to circulate a maximum of 80 gpm. Since installation of the pump in No. 4 amine-treating unit, UPR has experienced no downtime and realized a significant cost savings on maintenance labor and parts over the previous positive displacement installation. The success of this HPS in amine service has led UPR to invest in five additional HPS pumps for ETGP`s amine service. The paper describes the decision, economics, pumping systems, preventive maintenance, and post installation performance.

  4. Experimental Systems-Biology Approaches for Clostridia-Based Bioenergy Production

    SciTech Connect

    Papoutsakis, Elefterios

    2015-04-30

    This is the final project report for project "Experimental Systems-Biology Approaches for Clostridia-Based Bioenergy Production" for the funding period of 9/1/12 to 2/28/2015 (three years with a 6-month no-cost extension) OVERVIEW AND PROJECT GOALS The bottleneck of achieving higher rates and titers of toxic metabolites (such as solvents and carboxylic acids that can used as biofuels or biofuel precursors) can be overcome by engineering the stress response system. Thus, understanding and modeling the response of cells to toxic metabolites is a problem of great fundamental and practical significance. In this project, our goal is to dissect at the molecular systems level and build models (conceptual and quantitative) for the stress response of C. acetobutylicum (Cac) to its two toxic metabolites: butanol (BuOH) and butyrate (BA). Transcriptional (RNAseq and microarray based), proteomic and fluxomic data and their analysis are key requirements for this goal. Transcriptional data from mid-exponential cultures of Cac under 4 different levels of BuOH and BA stress was obtained using both microarrays (Papoutsakis group) and deep sequencing (RNAseq; Meyers and Papoutsakis groups). These two sets of data do not only serve to validate each other, but are also used for identification of stress-induced changes in transcript levels, small regulatory RNAs, & in transcriptional start sites. Quantitative proteomic data (Lee group), collected using the iTRAQ technology, are essential for understanding of protein levels and turnover under stress and the various protein-protein interactions that orchestrate the stress response. Metabolic flux changes (Antoniewicz group) of core pathways, which provide important information on the re-allocation of energy and carbon resources under metabolite stress, were examined using 13C-labelled chemicals. Omics data are integrated at different levels and scales. At the metabolic-pathway level, omics data are integrated into a 2nd generation genome

  5. Influences of Electromagnetic Energy on Bio-Energy Transport through Protein Molecules in Living Systems and Its Experimental Evidence.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Shude; Wang, Xianghui; Zhong, Lisheng

    2016-07-25

    The influences of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on bio-energy transport and its mechanism of changes are investigated through analytic and numerical simulation and experimentation. Bio-energy transport along protein molecules is performed by soliton movement caused by the dipole-dipole electric interactions between neighboring amino acid residues. As such, EMFs can affect the structure of protein molecules and change the properties of the bio-energy transported in living systems. This mechanism of biological effect from EMFs involves the amino acid residues in protein molecules. To study and reveal this mechanism, we simulated numerically the features of the movement of solitons along protein molecules with both a single chain and with three channels by using the Runge-Kutta method and Pang's soliton model under the action of EMFs with the strengths of 25,500, 51,000, 76,500, and 102,000 V/m in the single-chain protein, as well as 17,000, 25,500, and 34,000 V/m in the three-chain protein, respectively. Results indicate that electric fields (EFs) depress the binding energy of the soliton, decrease its amplitude, and change its wave form. Also, the soliton disperses at 102,000 V/m in a single-chain protein and at 25,500 and 34,000 V/m in three-chain proteins. These findings signify that the influence of EMFs on the bio-energy transport cannot be neglected; however, these variations depend on both the strength and the direction of the EF in the EMF. This direction influences the biological effects of EMF, which decrease with increases in the angle between the direction of the EF and that of the dipole moment of amino acid residues; however, randomness at the macroscopic level remains. Lastly, we experimentally confirm the existence of a soliton and the validity of our conclusion by using the infrared spectra of absorption of the collagens, which is activated by another type of EF. Thus, we can affirm that both the described mechanism and the corresponding theory are

  6. Influences of Electromagnetic Energy on Bio-Energy Transport through Protein Molecules in Living Systems and Its Experimental Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Shude; Wang, Xianghui; Zhong, Lisheng

    2016-01-01

    The influences of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on bio-energy transport and its mechanism of changes are investigated through analytic and numerical simulation and experimentation. Bio-energy transport along protein molecules is performed by soliton movement caused by the dipole–dipole electric interactions between neighboring amino acid residues. As such, EMFs can affect the structure of protein molecules and change the properties of the bio-energy transported in living systems. This mechanism of biological effect from EMFs involves the amino acid residues in protein molecules. To study and reveal this mechanism, we simulated numerically the features of the movement of solitons along protein molecules with both a single chain and with three channels by using the Runge–Kutta method and Pang’s soliton model under the action of EMFs with the strengths of 25,500, 51,000, 76,500, and 102,000 V/m in the single-chain protein, as well as 17,000, 25,500, and 34,000 V/m in the three-chain protein, respectively. Results indicate that electric fields (EFs) depress the binding energy of the soliton, decrease its amplitude, and change its wave form. Also, the soliton disperses at 102,000 V/m in a single-chain protein and at 25,500 and 34,000 V/m in three-chain proteins. These findings signify that the influence of EMFs on the bio-energy transport cannot be neglected; however, these variations depend on both the strength and the direction of the EF in the EMF. This direction influences the biological effects of EMF, which decrease with increases in the angle between the direction of the EF and that of the dipole moment of amino acid residues; however, randomness at the macroscopic level remains. Lastly, we experimentally confirm the existence of a soliton and the validity of our conclusion by using the infrared spectra of absorption of the collagens, which is activated by another type of EF. Thus, we can affirm that both the described mechanism and the corresponding theory

  7. 14 CFR 29.1309 - Equipment, systems, and installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... rotorcraft, the equipment, systems, and installations must be designed to prevent hazards to the rotorcraft... be designed to minimize crew errors which could create additional hazards. (d) Compliance with the requirements of paragraph (b)(2) of this section must be shown by analysis and, where necessary, by...

  8. 14 CFR 29.1309 - Equipment, systems, and installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... rotorcraft, the equipment, systems, and installations must be designed to prevent hazards to the rotorcraft... be designed to minimize crew errors which could create additional hazards. (d) Compliance with the requirements of paragraph (b)(2) of this section must be shown by analysis and, where necessary, by...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1309 - Equipment, systems, and installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... rotorcraft, the equipment, systems, and installations must be designed to prevent hazards to the rotorcraft... be designed to minimize crew errors which could create additional hazards. (d) Compliance with the requirements of paragraph (b)(2) of this section must be shown by analysis and, where necessary, by...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1309 - Equipment, systems, and installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... rotorcraft, the equipment, systems, and installations must be designed to prevent hazards to the rotorcraft... be designed to minimize crew errors which could create additional hazards. (d) Compliance with the requirements of paragraph (b)(2) of this section must be shown by analysis and, where necessary, by...

  11. 20. SIMILAR TO THE SYSTEM INSTALLED IN THE GREY IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. SIMILAR TO THE SYSTEM INSTALLED IN THE GREY IRON FOUNDRY, MALLEABLE WORKERS FILLED MOLDS TRAVELING ON A CONVEYOR FROM LADLES ATTACHED TO OVERHEAD RAILS WHILE THEY STOOD ON A PLATFORM MOVING AT THE SAME SPEED AS THE CONVEYOR, CA. 1950 - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  12. 46 CFR 95.16-60 - System piping installation testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... piping installation testing. (a) Halocarbon systems. A pressure test using the extinguishing agent, air... generator rooms and paint lockers, may be tested by blowing out the piping with air pressure of at least 100... pressure of 11/2 times the cylinder charging pressure at 70 °Fahrenheit; and (ii) The leakage during a 2...

  13. Bioenergy market competition for biomass: A system dynamics review of current policies

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Robert Jeffers

    2013-07-01

    There is growing interest in the United States and abroad to increase the use of biomass as an energy source due to environmental and energy security benefits. In the United States, the biofuel and biopower industries are regulated by different policies and different agencies and have different drivers, which impact the maximum price the industries are willing to pay for biomass. This article describes a dynamic computer simulation model that analyzes future behavior of bioenergy feedstock markets based on varying policy and technical options. The model simulates the long-term dynamics of these markets by treating advanced biomass feedstocks as a commodity and projecting the total demand of each industry, as well as the market price over time. The model is used for an analysis of the United States bioenergy feedstock market that projects supply, demand, and market price given three independent buyers: domestic biopower, domestic biofuels, and foreign exports. With base-case assumptions, the biofuels industry is able to dominate the market and meet the federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) targets for advanced biofuels. Further analyses suggest that United States bioenergy studies should include estimates of export demand for biomass in their projections, and that GHG-limiting policy would partially shield both industries from export dominance.

  14. Solar hot water system installed at Anderson, South Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of the solar energy hot water system installed in the Days Inns of America, Inc., at Anderson, South Carolina. The building is a low-rise, two-story 114-room motel. The solar system was designed to provide 40 percent of the total hot water demand. The collector is a flat plate, liquid with an area of 750 square feet. Operation of this system was begun in November 1977, and has performed flawlessly for one year.

  15. A pilot plant two-phase anaerobic digestion system for bioenergy recovery from swine wastes and garbage.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chuanping; Shimada, Sadoru; Zhang, Zhenya; Maekawa, Takaaki

    2008-01-01

    A pilot plant bioenergy recovery system from swine waste and garbage was constructed. A series of experiments was performed using swine feces (SF); a mixture of swine feces and urine (MSFU); a mixture of swine feces, urine and garbage (MSFUG); garbage and a mixture of urine and garbage (AUG). The system performed well for treating the source materials at a high organic loading rate (OLR) and short hydraulic retention time (HRT). In particular, the biogas production for the MSFUG was the highest, accounting for approximately 865-930 L kg(-1)-VS added at the OLR of 5.0-5.3 kg-VS m(-3) day(-1) and the HRT of 9 days. The removal of VS was 67-75%, and that of COD was 73-74%. Therefore, co-digestion is a promising method for the recovery of bioenergy from swine waste and garbage. Furthermore, the results obtained from this study provide fundamental information for scaling up a high-performance anaerobic system in the future.

  16. Cover crop root, shoot, and rhizodeposit contributions to soil carbon in a no- till corn bioenergy cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, E.; Grandy, S.; Wickings, K.; McDaniel, M. D.; Robertson, P.

    2016-12-01

    Crop residues are potential biofuel feedstocks, but residue removal may result in reduced soil carbon (C). The inclusion of a cover crop in a corn bioenergy system could provide additional biomass and as well as help to mitigate the negative effects of residue removal by adding belowground C to stable soil C pools. In a no-till continuous corn bioenergy system in the northern portion of the US corn belt, we used 13CO2 pulse labeling to trace C in a winter rye (secale cereale) cover crop into different soil C pools for two years following rye termination. Corn stover contributed 66 (another 163 was in harvested corn stover), corn roots 57, rye shoot 61, rye roots 59, and rye rhizodeposits 27 g C m-2 to soil C. Five months following cover crop termination, belowground cover crop inputs were three times more likely to remain in soil C pools and much of the root-derived C was in mineral- associated soil fractions. Our results underscore the importance of cover crop roots vs. shoots as a source of soil C. Belowground C inputs from winter cover crops could substantially offset short term stover removal in this system.

  17. Solar heating system installed at Jackson, Tennessee. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    The solar energy heating system installed at the Coca-Cola Bottling Works in Jackson, Tennessee is described. The system consists of 9480 square feet of Owens-Illinois evacuated tubular solar collectors with attached specular cylindrical reflectors and will provide space heating for the 70,000 square foot production building in the winter, and hot water for the bottle washing equipment the remainder of the year. Component specifications and engineering drawings are included. (WHK)

  18. Solar space and water heating system installed at Charlottesville, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system located at David C. Wilson Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Charlottesville, Virginia, is described. The solar energy system consists of 88 single glazed, Sunworks 'Solector' copper base plate collector modules, hot water coils in the hot air ducts, a Domestic Hot Water (DHW) preheat tank, a 3,000 gallon concrete urethane insulated storage tank and other miscellaneous components. Extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  19. 2013 Bioenergy Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, Amy; Moriarty, Kristi; Milbrandt, Anelia; Geiger, Jesse; Lewis, John

    2016-03-28

    This report provides a status of the markets and technology development involved in growing a domestic bioenergy economy as it existed at the end of 2013. It compiles and integrates information to provide a snapshot of the current state and historical trends influencing the development of bioenergy markets. This information is intended for policy-makers as well as technology developers and investors tracking bioenergy developments. It also highlights some of the key energy and regulatory drivers of bioenergy markets.

  20. Communicating about bioenergy sustainability.

    PubMed

    Dale, Virginia H; Kline, Keith L; Perla, Donna; Lucier, Al

    2013-02-01

    Defining and measuring sustainability of bioenergy systems are difficult because the systems are complex, the science is in early stages of development, and there is a need to generalize what are inherently context-specific enterprises. These challenges, and the fact that decisions are being made now, create a need for improved communications among scientists as well as between scientists and decision makers. In order for scientists to provide information that is useful to decision makers, they need to come to an agreement on how to measure and report potential risks and benefits of diverse energy alternatives in a way that allows decision makers to compare options. Scientists also need to develop approaches that contribute information about problems and opportunities relevant to policy and decision making. The need for clear communication is especially important at this time when there is a plethora of scientific papers and reports and it is difficult for the public or decision makers to assess the merits of each analysis. We propose three communication guidelines for scientists whose work can contribute to decision making: (1) relationships between the question and the analytical approach should be clearly defined and make common sense; (2) the information should be presented in a manner that non-scientists can understand; and (3) the implications of methods, assumptions, and limitations should be clear. The scientists' job is to analyze information to build a better understanding of environmental, cultural, and socioeconomic aspects of the sustainability of energy alternatives. The scientific process requires transparency, debate, review, and collaboration across disciplines and time. This paper serves as an introduction to the papers in the special issue on "Sustainability of Bioenergy Systems: Cradle to Grave" because scientific communication is essential to developing more sustainable energy systems. Together these four papers provide a framework under which

  1. Communicating About Bioenergy Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Perla, Donna; Lucier, Al

    2013-02-01

    Defining and measuring sustainability of bioenergy systems are difficult because the systems are complex, the science is in early stages of development, and there is a need to generalize what are inherently context-specific enterprises. These challenges, and the fact that decisions are being made now, create a need for improved communications among scientists as well as between scientists and decision makers. In order for scientists to provide information that is useful to decision makers, they need to come to an agreement on how to measure and report potential risks and benefits of diverse energy alternatives in a way that allows decision makers to compare options. Scientists also need to develop approaches that contribute information about problems and opportunities relevant to policy and decision making. The need for clear communication is especially important at this time when there is a plethora of scientific papers and reports and it is difficult for the public or decision makers to assess the merits of each analysis. We propose three communication guidelines for scientists whose work can contribute to decision making: (1) relationships between the question and the analytical approach should be clearly defined and make common sense; (2) the information should be presented in a manner that non-scientists can understand; and (3) the implications of methods, assumptions, and limitations should be clear. The scientists' job is to analyze information to build a better understanding of environmental, cultural, and socioeconomic aspects of the sustainability of energy alternatives. The scientific process requires transparency, debate, review, and collaboration across disciplines and time. This paper serves as an introduction to the papers in the special issue on "Sustainability of Bioenergy Systems: Cradle to Grave" because scientific communication is essential to developing more sustainable energy systems. Together these four papers provide a framework under which

  2. Solar space and water heating system installed at Charlottesville, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Greer, Charles R.

    1980-09-01

    The solar energy system located at David C. Wilson Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Charlottesville, Virginia, consists of 88 single glazed, Sunworks Solector copper base plate collector modules; hot water coils in the hot air ducts; a domestic hot water (DHW) preheat tank; a 3,000 gallon concrete urethane-insulated storage tank and other miscellaneous components. This report includes extracts from the site files, specifications, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  3. Solar domestic hot water system installed at Texas City, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This is the final technical report of the solar energy system located at LaQuinta Motor Inn, Texas City, Texas. The system was designed to supply 63 percent of the total hot water load for a new 98 unit motor inn. The solar energy system consists of a 2100 square feet Raypack liquid flat plate collector subsystem and a 2500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 3.67 x 10 to the 8th power Btu/year. Abstracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation, and maintenance instructions are included.

  4. Solar heating and cooling system installed at Columbus, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Energy System was installed as a part of a new construction of a college building. The building will house classrooms and laboratories, administrative offices and three lecture halls. The Solar Energy System consists of 4,096 square feet (128 panels) Owens/Illinois Evacuated Glass Tube Collector Subsystem, and a 5,000 gallon steel tank below ground storage system. Hot water is circulated between the collectors and storage tank, passing through a water/lithium bromide absorption chiller to cool the building.

  5. Solar heating and cooling system installed at Columbus, Ohio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    The Solar Energy System was installed as a part of a new construction of a college building. The building will house classrooms and laboratories, administrative offices and three lecture halls. The Solar Energy System consists of 4,096 square feet (128 panels) Owens/Illinois Evacuated Glass Tube Collector Subsystem, and a 5,000 gallon steel tank below ground storage system. Hot water is circulated between the collectors and storage tank, passing through a water/lithium bromide absorption chiller to cool the building.

  6. New fertilizer-producing system installed at Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A recently installed fertilizer-producing system sits near Launch Pad 39A. Using a 'scrubber,' the system captures nitrogen tetroxide vapor that develops as a by-product when it is transferred from ground storage tanks into the Shuttle storage tanks. Nitrogen tetroxide is used as the oxidizer for the hypergolic propellant in the Shuttle's on-orbit reaction control system. The scrubber then uses hydrogen peroxide to produce nitric acid, which, after adding potassium hydroxide, converts to potassium nitrate, a commercial fertilizer. Plans call for the resulting fertilizer to be used on the orange groves that KSC leases to outside companies.

  7. System analysis of a bio-energy plantation: full greenhouse gas balance and energy accounting (POPFULL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceulemans, R.; Janssens, I.; Berhongaray, G.; Broeckx, L.; De Groote, T.; ElKasmioui, O.; Fichot, R.; Njakou Djomo, S.; Verlinden, M.; Zona, D.

    2011-12-01

    In recent year the environmental impact of fossil fuels and their reduced availability are leading to an increasing interest in renewable energy sources, among them bio-energy. However, the cost/benefit in establishing, managing, and using these plantations for energy production should be quantified together with their environmental impact. In this project we are performing a full life cycle analysis (LCA) balance of the most important greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, H2O and O3), together with full energy accounting of a short-rotation coppice (SRC) plantation with fast-growing trees. We established the plantation two years ago and we have been monitoring net fluxes of CO2, N2O, CH4, and O3, in combination with biomass pools (incl. soil) and fluxes, and volatile organic carbon (VOCs). This poplar plantation will be monitored for another two years then harvested and transformed into bio-energy. For the energy accounting we are performing a life cycle analysis and energy efficiency assessments over the entire cycle of the plantation until the production of electricity and heat. Here we present an overview of the results from the first two years from the plantation establishment, and some of the projections based on these first results.

  8. Bioenergy for sustainable development: An African context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangoyana, Robert Blessing

    This paper assesses the sustainability concerns of bioenergy systems against the prevailing and potential long term conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa with a special attention on agricultural and forestry waste, and cultivated bioenergy sources. Existing knowledge and processes about bioenergy systems are brought into a “sustainability framework” to support debate and decisions about the implementation of bioenergy systems in the region. Bioenergy systems have been recommended based on the potential to (i) meet domestic energy demand and reduce fuel importation (ii) diversify rural economies and create employment (iii) reduce poverty, and (iv) provide net energy gains and positive environmental impacts. However, biofuels will compete with food crops for land, labour, capital and entrepreneurial skills. Moreover the environmental benefits of some feedstocks are questionable. These challenges are, however, surmountable. It is concluded that biomass energy production could be an effective way to achieve sustainable development for bioenergy pathways that (i) are less land intensive, (ii) have positive net energy gains and environmental benefits, and (iii) provide local socio-economic benefits. Feasibility evaluations which put these issues into perspective are vital for sustainable application of agricultural and forest based bioenergy systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Such evaluations should consider the long run potential of biofuels accounting for demographic, economic and technological changes and the related implications.

  9. Radiation safety system (RSS) backbones: Design, engineering, fabrication and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, J.E.; Sturrock, J.C.; Gallegos, F.R.

    1998-12-01

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) Backbones are part of an electrical/electronic/mechanical system insuring safe access and exclusion of personnel to areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator. The RSS Backbones control the safety fusible beam plugs which terminate transmission of accelerated ion beams in response to predefined conditions. Any beam or access fault of the backbone inputs will cause insertion of the beam plugs in the low energy beam transport. The Backbones serve the function of tying the beam plugs to the access control systems, beam spill monitoring systems and current-level limiting systems. In some ways the Backbones may be thought of as a spinal column with beam plugs at the head and nerve centers along the spinal column. The two Linac Backbone segments and experimental area segments form a continuous cable plant over 3,500 feet from beam plugs to the tip on the longest tail. The Backbones were installed in compliance with current safety standards, such as installation of the two segments in separate conduits or tray. Monitoring for ground-faults and input wiring verification was an added enhancement to the system. The system has the capability to be tested remotely.

  10. Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones: Design, engineering, fabrication, and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, J.E.; Sturrock, J.C.; Gallegos, F.R.

    1998-12-01

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones are part of an electrical/electronic/mechanical system ensuring safe access and exclusion of personnel to areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator. The RSS backbones control the safety-fusible beam plugs which terminate transmission of accelerated ion beams in response to predefined conditions. Any beam or access fault of the backbone inputs will cause insertion of the beam plugs in the low-energy beam transport. The backbones serve the function of tying the beam plugs to the access control systems, beam spill monitoring systems and current-level limiting systems. In some ways the backbones may be thought of as a spinal column with beam plugs at the head and nerve centers along the spinal column. The two linac backbone segments and the experimental area segments form a continuous cable plant over 3500 feet from the beam plugs to the tip on the longest tail. The backbones were installed in compliance with current safety standards, such as installation of the two segments in separate conduits or tray. Monitoring for ground-faults and input wiring verification was an added enhancement to the system. The system has the capability to be tested remotely. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones: Design, engineering, fabrication, and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, J. E.; Sturrock, J. C.; Gallegos, F. R.

    1998-12-10

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones are part of an electrical/electronic/mechanical system ensuring safe access and exclusion of personnel to areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator. The RSS backbones control the safety-fusible beam plugs which terminate transmission of accelerated ion beams in response to predefined conditions. Any beam or access fault of the backbone inputs will cause insertion of the beam plugs in the low-energy beam transport. The backbones serve the function of tying the beam plugs to the access control systems, beam spill monitoring systems and current-level limiting systems. In some ways the backbones may be thought of as a spinal column with beam plugs at the head and nerve centers along the spinal column. The two linac backbone segments and the experimental area segments form a continuous cable plant over 3500 feet from the beam plugs to the tip on the longest tail. The backbones were installed in compliance with current safety standards, such as installation of the two segments in separate conduits or tray. Monitoring for ground-faults and input wiring verification was an added enhancement to the system. The system has the capability to be tested remotely.

  12. Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones: Design, engineering, fabrication, and installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmarth, J. E.; Sturrock, J. C.; Gallegos, F. R.

    1998-12-01

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones are part of an electrical/electronic/mechanical system ensuring safe access and exclusion of personnel to areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator. The RSS backbones control the safety-fusible beam plugs which terminate transmission of accelerated ion beams in response to predefined conditions. Any beam or access fault of the backbone inputs will cause insertion of the beam plugs in the low-energy beam transport. The backbones serve the function of tying the beam plugs to the access control systems, beam spill monitoring systems and current-level limiting systems. In some ways the backbones may be thought of as a spinal column with beam plugs at the head and nerve centers along the spinal column. The two linac backbone segments and the experimental area segments form a continuous cable plant over 3500 feet from the beam plugs to the tip on the longest tail. The backbones were installed in compliance with current safety standards, such as installation of the two segments in separate conduits or tray. Monitoring for ground-faults and input wiring verification was an added enhancement to the system. The system has the capability to be tested remotely.

  13. Changes in Soil Carbon Turnover after Five Years of Bioenergy Cropping Systems from a Long-Term Incubation Experiment and Radiocarbon Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanski, L. M.; Sanford, G. R.; Heckman, K. A.; Jackson, R. D.; Marin-Spiotta, E.

    2016-12-01

    In the face of climate change, the global production of bioenergy crops has increased in response to policies calling for non-fossil energy sources as a means to mitigate rising atmospheric carbon (C) concentrations. To provide overall C sequestration benefits, identifying biomass crops that can maintain or enhance soil resources is desirable for sustainable bioenergy production. The objective of our study was to compare the effects of four bioenergy cropping systems on SOM dynamics in two agricultural soils: Mollisols at the University of Wisconsin Agricultural Research Station in Arlington, Wisconsin and Alfisols at Kellogg Biological Station in Hickory Corners, Michigan, USA. We used fresh soils collected in 2013 and archived soils collected in 2008 to measure differences among biofuel crops after 5 years of management. Using a 365-day laboratory soil incubation and radiocarbon measurements of bulk soil and respired C, we separated soils into three SOM pools and determined their corresponding turnover times. Total soil C respired from surface soils increased in the order: mixed species perennials > monoculture perennials > monoculture annuals. More C was associated with the active fraction in the sandy loam Alfisol and with the slow-cycling fraction in the silt loam Mollisol. Radiocarbon content of respired CO2 did not differ between corn and switchgrass, but did differ between 2008 and 2013. The respiration of more radiocarbon-depleted C after 5 years of cultivation may be due to an initial flux of young C following tillage in 2008 or to depletion of labile plant inputs with continued harvest. All bioenergy cropping systems lost soil C after 5 years. Monoculture perennial switchgrass systems did not provide significant C sequestration benefits, as expected, compared to monoculture annual corn systems. Bioenergy crop land-use change affects soil C dynamics, with implications for assessing C costs associated with biofuel production.

  14. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Listerhill, Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Solar system was installed into a new building and was designed to provide 79% of the estimated annual space heating load and 59% of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The collectors are flat plate, liquid manufactured by Reynolds Metals Company and cover a total area of 2344 square feet. The storage medium is water inhibited with NALCO 2755 and the container is an underground, unpressurized steel tank with a capacity of 5000 gallons. This report describes in considerable detail the solar heating facility and contains detailed drawings of the completed system.

  15. View northeast of a microchip based computer control system installed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast of a microchip based computer control system installed in the early 1980's to replace Lamokin Tower, at center of photograph; panels 1 and 2 at right of photograph are part of main supervisory board; panel 1 controlled Allen Lane sub-station #7; responsiblity for this portion of the system was transferred to southeast Pennsylvania transit authority (septa) in 1985; panel 2 at extreme right controls catenary switches in a coach storage yard adjacent to the station - Thirtieth Street Station, Power Director Center, Thirtieth & Market Streets in Amtrak Railroad Station, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. Field-Based Estimates of Global Warming Potential in Bioenergy Systems of Hawaii: Crop Choice and Deficit Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Meki, Manyowa N.; Kiniry, James R.; Taylor, Andrew D.; Ogoshi, Richard; Youkhana, Adel; Nakahata, Mae

    2017-01-01

    Replacing fossil fuel with biofuel is environmentally viable from a climate change perspective only if the net greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of the system is reduced. The effects of replacing annual arable crops with perennial bioenergy feedstocks on net GHG production and soil carbon (C) stock are critical to the system-level balance. Here, we compared GHG flux, crop yield, root biomass, and soil C stock under two potential tropical, perennial grass biofuel feedstocks: conventional sugarcane and ratoon-harvested, zero-tillage napiergrass. Evaluations were conducted at two irrigation levels, 100% of plantation application and at a 50% deficit. Peaks and troughs of GHG emission followed agronomic events such as ratoon harvest of napiergrass and fertilization. Yet, net GHG flux was dominated by carbon dioxide (CO2), as methane was oxidized and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very low even following fertilization. High N2O fluxes that frequently negate other greenhouse gas benefits that come from replacing fossil fuels with agronomic forms of bioenergy were mitigated by efficient water and fertilizer management, including direct injection of fertilizer into buried irrigation lines. From soil intensively cultivated for a century in sugarcane, soil C stock and root biomass increased rapidly following cultivation in grasses selected for robust root systems and drought tolerance. The net soil C increase over the two-year crop cycle was three-fold greater than the annualized soil surface CO2 flux. Deficit irrigation reduced yield, but increased soil C accumulation as proportionately more photosynthetic resources were allocated belowground. In the first two years of cultivation napiergrass did not increase net greenhouse warming potential (GWP) compared to sugarcane, and has the advantage of multiple ratoon harvests per year and less negative effects of deficit irrigation to yield. PMID:28052075

  17. Field-Based Estimates of Global Warming Potential in Bioenergy Systems of Hawaii: Crop Choice and Deficit Irrigation.

    PubMed

    Pawlowski, Meghan N; Crow, Susan E; Meki, Manyowa N; Kiniry, James R; Taylor, Andrew D; Ogoshi, Richard; Youkhana, Adel; Nakahata, Mae

    2017-01-01

    Replacing fossil fuel with biofuel is environmentally viable from a climate change perspective only if the net greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of the system is reduced. The effects of replacing annual arable crops with perennial bioenergy feedstocks on net GHG production and soil carbon (C) stock are critical to the system-level balance. Here, we compared GHG flux, crop yield, root biomass, and soil C stock under two potential tropical, perennial grass biofuel feedstocks: conventional sugarcane and ratoon-harvested, zero-tillage napiergrass. Evaluations were conducted at two irrigation levels, 100% of plantation application and at a 50% deficit. Peaks and troughs of GHG emission followed agronomic events such as ratoon harvest of napiergrass and fertilization. Yet, net GHG flux was dominated by carbon dioxide (CO2), as methane was oxidized and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very low even following fertilization. High N2O fluxes that frequently negate other greenhouse gas benefits that come from replacing fossil fuels with agronomic forms of bioenergy were mitigated by efficient water and fertilizer management, including direct injection of fertilizer into buried irrigation lines. From soil intensively cultivated for a century in sugarcane, soil C stock and root biomass increased rapidly following cultivation in grasses selected for robust root systems and drought tolerance. The net soil C increase over the two-year crop cycle was three-fold greater than the annualized soil surface CO2 flux. Deficit irrigation reduced yield, but increased soil C accumulation as proportionately more photosynthetic resources were allocated belowground. In the first two years of cultivation napiergrass did not increase net greenhouse warming potential (GWP) compared to sugarcane, and has the advantage of multiple ratoon harvests per year and less negative effects of deficit irrigation to yield.

  18. Field-based estimates of global warming potential in bioenergy systems of Hawaii: Crop choice and deficit irrigation

    DOE PAGES

    Pawlowski, Meghan N.; Crow, Susan E.; Meki, Manyowa N.; ...

    2017-01-04

    Replacing fossil fuel with biofuel is environmentally viable from a climate change perspective only if the net greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of the system is reduced. The effects of replacing annual arable crops with perennial bioenergy feedstocks on net GHG production and soil carbon (C) stock are critical to the system-level balance. Here, we compared GHG flux, crop yield, root biomass, and soil C stock under two potential tropical, perennial grass biofuel feedstocks: conventional sugarcane and ratoon-harvested, zero-tillage napiergrass. Evaluations were conducted at two irrigation levels, 100% of plantation application and at a 50% deficit. Peaks and troughs of GHGmore » emission followed agronomic events such as ratoon harvest of napiergrass and fertilization. Yet, net GHG flux was dominated by carbon dioxide (CO2), as methane was oxidized and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very low even following fertilization. High N2O fluxes that frequently negate other greenhouse gas benefits that come from replacing fossil fuels with agronomic forms of bioenergy were mitigated by efficient water and fertilizer management, including direct injection of fertilizer into buried irrigation lines. From soil intensively cultivated for a century in sugarcane, soil C stock and root biomass increased rapidly following cultivation in grasses selected for robust root systems and drought tolerance. The net soil C increase over the two-year crop cycle was three-fold greater than the annualized soil surface CO2 flux. Furthermore, deficit irrigation reduced yield, but increased soil C accumulation as proportionately more photosynthetic resources were allocated below ground. In the first two years of cultivation napier grass did not increase net greenhouse warming potential (GWP) compared to sugarcane, and has the advantage of multiple ratoon harvests per year and less negative effects of deficit irrigation to yield.« less

  19. The drought of 2012: Effects on photosynthesis and soil respiration in bioenergy cropping systems of the Midwest USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruse, M.; Kucharik, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and severity of drought conditions across the central US. This heightened risk on producers and economies alike also supports the need to improve our understanding of how extreme environmental conditions impact other ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration, which is directly linked to net ecosystem exchange (NEE). In doing so, the scientific community aims to improve the realism of ecosystem models that are relied upon to project changes in large scale and long-term land surface-atmosphere carbon exchange as they are affected by continued land management change and climate change. One such large-scale land management change of the next several decades in the Midwest US could be the expansion of bioenergy cropping systems across the landscape. A wide range of bioenergy cropping systems (e.g., miscanthus, switchgrass, diverse prairie, hybrid poplar) are now targeted to support a feedstock supply chain for production of cellulosic biofuels. Many of these agroecosystems have only recently begun to appear as functional types in dynamic ecosystem models, and a general lack of observational data across a wide range of soils and climate has hampered model development and validation. In response to this shortcoming, from 2009 through 2012, component measurements of ecosystem carbon exchange (total soil respiration and leaf level photosynthetic rates) have been made along with measurements of other soil and meteorological variables in three model bioenergy cropping systems (continuous corn, hybrid poplar and switchgrass) at the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (GLBRC) field trial at Arlington, Wisconsin. The three cropping systems encompass a wide range of growth (e.g. C3 vs. C4, annual vs. perennial) and management (e.g., tillage, harvesting) strategies that are predicted to impart different controls on NEE given likely varying biological responses to extreme weather events. Throughout the study period, the

  20. Integrated systems for biopolymers and bioenergy production from organic waste and by-products: a review of microbial processes.

    PubMed

    Pagliano, Giorgia; Ventorino, Valeria; Panico, Antonio; Pepe, Olimpia

    2017-01-01

    Recently, issues concerning the sustainable and harmless disposal of organic solid waste have generated interest in microbial biotechnologies aimed at converting waste materials into bioenergy and biomaterials, thus contributing to a reduction in economic dependence on fossil fuels. To valorize biomass, waste materials derived from agriculture, food processing factories, and municipal organic waste can be used to produce biopolymers, such as biohydrogen and biogas, through different microbial processes. In fact, different bacterial strains can synthesize biopolymers to convert waste materials into valuable intracellular (e.g., polyhydroxyalkanoates) and extracellular (e.g., exopolysaccharides) bioproducts, which are useful for biochemical production. In particular, large numbers of bacteria, including Alcaligenes eutrophus, Alcaligenes latus, Azotobacter vinelandii, Azotobacter chroococcum, Azotobacter beijerincki, methylotrophs, Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., Rhizobium spp., Nocardia spp., and recombinant Escherichia coli, have been successfully used to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates on an industrial scale from different types of organic by-products. Therefore, the development of high-performance microbial strains and the use of by-products and waste as substrates could reasonably make the production costs of biodegradable polymers comparable to those required by petrochemical-derived plastics and promote their use. Many studies have reported use of the same organic substrates as alternative energy sources to produce biogas and biohydrogen through anaerobic digestion as well as dark and photofermentation processes under anaerobic conditions. Therefore, concurrently obtaining bioenergy and biopolymers at a reasonable cost through an integrated system is becoming feasible using by-products and waste as organic carbon sources. An overview of the suitable substrates and microbial strains used in low-cost polyhydroxyalkanoates for biohydrogen and biogas production is

  1. Farm systems assessment of bioenergy feedstock production: Integrating bio-economic models and life cycle analysis approaches.

    PubMed

    Glithero, N J; Ramsden, S J; Wilson, P

    2012-06-01

    Climate change and energy security concerns have driven the development of policies that encourage bioenergy production. Meeting EU targets for the consumption of transport fuels from bioenergy by 2020 will require a large increase in the production of bioenergy feedstock. Initially an increase in 'first generation' biofuels was observed, however 'food competition' concerns have generated interest in second generation biofuels (SGBs). These SGBs can be produced from co-products (e.g. cereal straw) or energy crops (e.g. miscanthus), with the former largely negating food competition concerns. In order to assess the sustainability of feedstock supply for SGBs, the financial, environmental and energy costs and benefits of the farm system must be quantified. Previous research has captured financial costs and benefits through linear programming (LP) approaches, whilst environmental and energy metrics have been largely been undertaken within life cycle analysis (LCA) frameworks. Assessing aspects of the financial, environmental and energy sustainability of supplying co-product second generation biofuel (CPSGB) feedstocks at the farm level requires a framework that permits the trade-offs between these objectives to be quantified and understood. The development of a modelling framework for Managing Energy and Emissions Trade-Offs in Agriculture (MEETA Model) that combines bio-economic process modelling and LCA is presented together with input data parameters obtained from literature and industry sources. The MEETA model quantifies arable farm inputs and outputs in terms of financial, energy and emissions results. The model explicitly captures fertiliser: crop-yield relationships, plus the incorporation of straw or removal for sale, with associated nutrient impacts of incorporation/removal on the following crop in the rotation. Key results of crop-mix, machinery use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per kg of crop product and energy use per hectare are in line with previous

  2. Farm systems assessment of bioenergy feedstock production: Integrating bio-economic models and life cycle analysis approaches

    PubMed Central

    Glithero, N.J.; Ramsden, S.J.; Wilson, P.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and energy security concerns have driven the development of policies that encourage bioenergy production. Meeting EU targets for the consumption of transport fuels from bioenergy by 2020 will require a large increase in the production of bioenergy feedstock. Initially an increase in ‘first generation’ biofuels was observed, however ‘food competition’ concerns have generated interest in second generation biofuels (SGBs). These SGBs can be produced from co-products (e.g. cereal straw) or energy crops (e.g. miscanthus), with the former largely negating food competition concerns. In order to assess the sustainability of feedstock supply for SGBs, the financial, environmental and energy costs and benefits of the farm system must be quantified. Previous research has captured financial costs and benefits through linear programming (LP) approaches, whilst environmental and energy metrics have been largely been undertaken within life cycle analysis (LCA) frameworks. Assessing aspects of the financial, environmental and energy sustainability of supplying co-product second generation biofuel (CPSGB) feedstocks at the farm level requires a framework that permits the trade-offs between these objectives to be quantified and understood. The development of a modelling framework for Managing Energy and Emissions Trade-Offs in Agriculture (MEETA Model) that combines bio-economic process modelling and LCA is presented together with input data parameters obtained from literature and industry sources. The MEETA model quantifies arable farm inputs and outputs in terms of financial, energy and emissions results. The model explicitly captures fertiliser: crop-yield relationships, plus the incorporation of straw or removal for sale, with associated nutrient impacts of incorporation/removal on the following crop in the rotation. Key results of crop-mix, machinery use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per kg of crop product and energy use per hectare are in line with

  3. Microfabricated devices in microbial bioenergy sciences.

    PubMed

    Han, Arum; Hou, Huijie; Li, Lei; Kim, Hyun Soo; de Figueiredo, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Microbes provide a platform for the synthesis of clean energy from renewable resources. Significant investments in discovering new microbial systems and capabilities, discerning the molecular mechanisms that mediate microbial bioenergy production, and optimizing existing microbial bioenergy systems have been made. However, further development is needed to achieve the economically feasible large-scale production of value-added energy products. Microfabricated lab-on-a-chip systems provide cost- and time-efficient opportunities for analyzing microbe-mediated bioenergy synthesis. Here, we review developments in the application of lab-on-a-chip systems to the bioenergy sciences. We focus on systems that support the analysis of microbial generation of bioelectricity, biogas, and liquid transportation fuels. We conclude by suggesting possible future directions.

  4. Solar hot water system installed at Day's Lodge, Atlanta, Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy hot water system installed in the Days Inns of America, Inc., Atlanta, Georgia is described. This system provides for 81 percent of the total hot water demand. There are two separate systems, each serving one building of the lodge (total of 65 suites). The entire system contains only potable city water. The 1024 square feet of Grumman Sunstream Model 332 liquid flat plate collectors and the outside piping drain whenever the collector plates approach freezing or when power is interrupted. Solar heated water from the two above ground cement lined steel tanks (1000 gallon tank) is drawn into the electric Domestic Hot Water (DHW) tanks as hot water is drawn. Electric resistance units in the DHW tanks top off the solar heated water, if needed, to reach thermostat setting.

  5. Integration of Feedstock Assembly System and Cellulosic Ethanol Conversion Models to Analyze Bioenergy System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Jared M. Abodeely; Douglas S. McCorkle; Kenneth M. Bryden; David J. Muth; Daniel Wendt; Kevin Kenney

    2010-09-01

    Research barriers continue to exist in all phases of the emerging cellulosic ethanol biorefining industry. These barriers include the identification and development of a sustainable and abundant biomass feedstock, the assembly of viable assembly systems formatting the feedstock and moving it from the field (e.g., the forest) to the biorefinery, and improving conversion technologies. Each of these phases of cellulosic ethanol production are fundamentally connected, but computational tools used to support and inform analysis within each phase remain largely disparate. This paper discusses the integration of a feedstock assembly system modeling toolkit and an Aspen Plus® conversion process model. Many important biomass feedstock characteristics, such as composition, moisture, particle size and distribution, ash content, etc. are impacted and most effectively managed within the assembly system, but generally come at an economic cost. This integration of the assembly system and the conversion process modeling tools will facilitate a seamless investigation of the assembly system conversion process interface. Through the integrated framework, the user can design the assembly system for a particular biorefinery by specifying location, feedstock, equipment, and unit operation specifications. The assembly system modeling toolkit then provides economic valuation, and detailed biomass feedstock composition and formatting information. This data is seamlessly and dynamically used to run the Aspen Plus® conversion process model. The model can then be used to investigate the design of systems for cellulosic ethanol production from field to final product.

  6. Installation Guidelines for Solar DHW Systems in One- and Two-Family Dwellings. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Peter; And Others

    Described are some of the better techniques for installing solar domestic hot water (DHW) systems. By using these guidelines, along with the manufacturer's manual, professional installation contractors and skilled homeowners should be able to install and fill a solar DHW system. Among the topics considered are system layouts, siting, mounting…

  7. 30 CFR 75.1101-7 - Installation of water sprinkler systems; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Installation of water sprinkler systems... Protection § 75.1101-7 Installation of water sprinkler systems; requirements. (a) The fire-control components of each water sprinkler system shall be installed, as far as practicable in accordance with...

  8. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    PubMed

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures.

  9. Bioenergy: America's Energy Future

    ScienceCinema

    Nelson, Bruce; Volz, Sara; Male, Johnathan; Wolfson, Johnathan; Pray, Todd; Mayfield, Stephen; Atherton, Scott; Weaver, Brandon

    2016-07-12

    Bioenergy: America's Energy Future is a short documentary film showcasing examples of bioenergy innovations across the biomass supply chain and the United States. The film highlights a few stories of individuals and companies who are passionate about achieving the promise of biofuels and addressing the challenges of developing a thriving bioeconomy. This outreach product supports media initiatives to expand the public's understanding of the bioenergy industry and sustainable transportation and was developed by the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Green Focus Films, and BCS, Incorporated.

  10. Bioenergy: America's Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Bruce; Volz, Sara; Male, Johnathan; Wolfson, Johnathan; Pray, Todd; Mayfield, Stephen; Atherton, Scott; Weaver, Brandon

    2014-07-31

    Bioenergy: America's Energy Future is a short documentary film showcasing examples of bioenergy innovations across the biomass supply chain and the United States. The film highlights a few stories of individuals and companies who are passionate about achieving the promise of biofuels and addressing the challenges of developing a thriving bioeconomy. This outreach product supports media initiatives to expand the public's understanding of the bioenergy industry and sustainable transportation and was developed by the U.S. Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Green Focus Films, and BCS, Incorporated.

  11. Design and installation of a multimode microscopy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helm, Johannes P.; Haug, Finn-Mogens S.; Storm, Johan F.; Ottersen, Ole-Petter

    2001-04-01

    We describe design and installation of a multi-mode microscopy core facility in an environment of varied research activity in life-sciences. The experimentators can select any combination of a) microscopes (upright, upright fixed-stage, inverted), b) microscopy modes (widefield, DIC, IRDIC, widefield epifluorescence, transmission LSM, reflection and fluorescence CLSM, MPLSM), c) imaging techniques (direct observation, video observation, photography, quantitative camera-recording, flying spot scanning), d) auxiliary systems (equipment for live specimen imaging, electrophysiology, time-coordinated laser-scanning and electrophysiology, patch-clamp). The equipment is installed on one large vibration-isolating optical table (3m X 1.5m X 0.3m). Electronics, auxiliary equipment, and a fiber-coupled, remotely controlled Ar+-Kr+ laser are mounted in a rack system fixed to the ceiling. The design of the shelves allows the head of the CSLM to be moved to any of the microscopes without increasing critical cable lengths. At the same time easy access to all the units is preserved. The beam of a Titanium-Sapphire laser, controlled by means of an EOM and a prism GVD, is coupled directly to the microscopes. Three mirrors mounted on a single precision translation table are integrated into the beam steering system so that the beam can easily be redirected to any of the microscopes. All the available instruments can be operated by the educated and trained user. The system is popular among researchers in neuroanatomy, embryology, cell biology, molecular biology - including the study of protein interactions, e.g. by means of FRET, and electrophysiology. Its colocalization with an EM facility promises to provide considerable synergy effects.

  12. Safety of Hydrogen Systems Installed in Outdoor Enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2013-11-01

    The Hydrogen Safety Panel brings a broad cross-section of expertise from the industrial, government, and academic sectors to help advise the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office through its work in hydrogen safety, codes, and standards. The Panel’s initiatives in reviewing safety plans, conducting safety evaluations, identifying safety-related technical data gaps, and supporting safety knowledge tools and databases cover the gamut from research and development to demonstration and deployment. The Panel’s recent work has focused on the safe deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell systems in support of DOE efforts to accelerate fuel cell commercialization in early market applications: vehicle refueling, material handling equipment, backup power for warehouses and telecommunication sites, and portable power devices. This paper resulted from observations and considerations stemming from the Panel’s work on early market applications. This paper focuses on hydrogen system components that are installed in outdoor enclosures. These enclosures might alternatively be called “cabinets,” but for simplicity, they are all referred to as “enclosures” in this paper. These enclosures can provide a space where a flammable mixture of hydrogen and air might accumulate, creating the potential for a fire or explosion should an ignition occur. If the enclosure is large enough for a person to enter, and ventilation is inadequate, the hydrogen concentration could be high enough to asphyxiate a person who entered the space. Manufacturers, users, and government authorities rely on requirements described in codes to guide safe design and installation of such systems. Except for small enclosures used for hydrogen gas cylinders (gas cabinets), fuel cell power systems, and the enclosures that most people would describe as buildings, there are no hydrogen safety requirements for these enclosures, leaving gaps that must be addressed. This paper proposes that

  13. Three stage vacuum system for ultralow temperature installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, N. K.; Pradhan, J.; Naser, Md Z. A.; Mandal, B. Ch; Roy, A.; Kumar, P.; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R. K.

    2012-11-01

    We use a three stage vacuum system for developing a dilution fridge at VECC, Kolkata. We aim at achieving a cooling power of 20μW at 100mK for various experiments especially in the field of condensed matter and nuclear physics. The system is essentially composed of four segments-bath cryostat, vacuum system, dilution insert and 3He circulation circuit. Requirement of vacuum system at different stages are different. The vacuum system for cryostat and for internal vacuum chamber located within the helium bath is a common turbo molecular pump backed by scroll pump as to maintain a vacuum ~10-6mbar. For bringing down the temperature of the helium evaporator, we use a high throughput Roots pump backed by a dry pump. The pumping system for 3He distillation chamber (still) requires a high pumping speed, so a turbo drag pump backed by a scroll pump has been installed. As the fridge use precious 3He gas for operation, the entire system has been made to be absolutely leak proof with respect to the 3He gas.

  14. 40 CFR 60.2939 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Qualification Monitoring § 60.2939 What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install? (a) You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for carbon... carbon monoxide. (b) You must install, evaluate, and operate each continuous emission monitoring...

  15. 40 CFR 60.2939 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Qualification Monitoring § 60.2939 What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install? (a) You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for carbon... carbon monoxide. (b) You must install, evaluate, and operate each continuous emission monitoring...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2939 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Qualification Monitoring § 60.2939 What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install? (a) You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for carbon... carbon monoxide. (b) You must install, evaluate, and operate each continuous emission monitoring...

  17. Solar, Install, Mount, Production, Labor, Equipment Balance of Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, Russell; Al-Haddad, Tristan; Valdes, Francisco; Caravati, Kevin; Goodman, Joseph

    2015-08-27

    The GTRI led project team in partnership with the DOE, universities, and numerous industry leaders, have advanced the mission of the DOE EERE, the Solar Energy Technologies Program, and the SunShot Initiative by accelerating the research, development, and demonstration of solar PV technologies that provide Extreme Balance of Systems Cost Reductions (BOS-X). The research produced 132 design concepts, resulting in 19 invention disclosures, five patent applications, four 90% pre-commercial designs, and three licensed technologies. Technology practice rights were obtained by an industry partner, and a new solar commercial start-up company was launched in Atlanta as a result of this project. Innovations in residential, commercial, and utility scale balance of systems technologies were realized through an unprecedented multi-disciplinary university/industry partnership with over 50 students and 24 faculty members that produced 18 technical publications, a PhD thesis, and two commercially deployed operating prototypes. The technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of the multidisciplinary systems based approach executed by the project team was realized through 1) a comprehensive evaluation of industry, regulatory, and public stakeholder requirements; 2) numerous industry/student/faculty engagements in design studios, technical conferences, and at solar PV installation sites; 3) time and motion studies with domain experts that provided technical data and costs for each phase and component of the solar PV installation processes; 4) extensive wind tunnel and systems engineering modeling; and 5) design, construction, and demonstration of the selected technologies in the field at high profile sites in Atlanta. The SIMPLE BOS project has benefitted the public in the following ways: • Workforce development: The launch of a start-up company to commercialize the DOE funded SIMPLE BoS designs has directly created 9 new jobs in the State of Georgia. As of November 2014, the

  18. Solar hot water system installed at Day's Lodge, Atlanta, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    The solar energy hot water system installed in the Days Inns of America, Inc., Day's Lodge I-85 and Shallowford Road, NE Atlanta, Georgia is described. This system is one of eleven systems planned under this grant and was designed to provide for 81% of the total hot water demand. There are two separate systems, each serving one building of the lodge (total of 65 suites). The entire system contains only potable city water. The 1024 square feet of Grumman Sunstream Model 332 liquid flat plate collectors and the outside piping drains whenever the collector plates approach freezing or when power is interrupted. Solar heated water from the two above ground cement lined steel tanks (1000 gallon tank) is drawn into the electric domestic hot water (DHW) tanks as hot water is drawn. Electric resistance units in the DHW tanks top off the solar heated water, if needed, to reach thermostat setting. Operation of this system was begun in August, 1979. The solar components were partly funded ($18,042 of $36,084 cost) by the Department of Energy.

  19. Installation of solar PV systems in Sri Lanka

    SciTech Connect

    Fernando, M.P.T.P.

    1995-10-01

    The tropical country of Sri Lanka has hydroelectric power plants sufficient to provide electricity to only 40% of its 25,000 villages. The electric power needs of the average Sri Lankan rural communities are basic: three or four lights to illuminate their house and a power supply for their televisions. Solar radiation is abundant throughout the year. To take advantage of this resource, the Sarvodaya Rural Technical Services launched a Solar PV pilot demonstration project in the rural areas not served by the electric grid. The systems were being installed on an individual residence basis and funded by loans. Social and cultural problems which have arisen during the course of the project have slowed its implementation. This study identifies the problems and makes recommendations to resolve the current problems and avoid new ones.

  20. Underground coal operators install several new longwall mining systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-02-15

    Several new names appear in the annual US Longwall Census, but the population remains the same: 52 although the number of longwall mines dropped from 40 to 47. CONSOL Energy remains the leader with 12 faces. Robert E. Murray owns 8 longwall mines followed by Arch Coal with 5 and Foundation Coal with 3. West Virginia has 13 longwalls followed by 9 in Pennsylvania, 7 in Utah and 6 in Alabama. The article describes CONSOL Energy's operations. A detailed table gives for each longwall installation, the ownership, seam height, cutting height, panel width and length, overburden, number of gate entries, depth of cut, model of equipment used (shearer, haulage system, roof support, face conveyor, stage loader, crusher, electrical controls and voltage to face). 2 tabs.

  1. Creating dedicated bioenergy crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bioenergy is one of the current mechanisms of producing renewable energy to reduce our use of nonrenewable fossil fuels and to reduce carbon emissions into the atmosphere. Humans have been using bioenergy since we first learned to create and control fire - burning manure, peat, and wood to cook food...

  2. Preface: Biocatalysis and Bioenergy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This book was assembled with the intent of bringing together current advances and in-depth review of biocatalysis and bioenergy with emphasis on biodiesel, bioethanol, biohydrogen and industrial products. Biocatalysis and bioenergy defined in this book include enzyme catalysis, biotransformation, b...

  3. Cabin fuselage structural design with engine installation and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, Tanapaal; Bishop, Mike; Gumus, Ilker; Gussy, Joel; Triggs, Mike

    1994-01-01

    Design requirements for the cabin, cabin system, flight controls, engine installation, and wing-fuselage interface that provide adequate interior volume for occupant seating, cabin ingress and egress, and safety are presented. The fuselage structure must be sufficient to meet the loadings specified in the appropriate sections of Federal Aviation Regulation Part 23. The critical structure must provide a safe life of 10(exp 6) load cycles and 10,000 operational mission cycles. The cabin seating and controls must provide adjustment to account for various pilot physiques and to aid in maintenance and operation of the aircraft. Seats and doors shall not bind or lockup under normal operation. Cabin systems such as heating and ventilation, electrical, lighting, intercom, and avionics must be included in the design. The control system will consist of ailerons, elevator, and rudders. The system must provide required deflections with a combination of push rods, bell cranks, pulleys, and linkages. The system will be free from slack and provide smooth operation without binding. Environmental considerations include variations in temperature and atmospheric pressure, protection against sand, dust, rain, humidity, ice, snow, salt/fog atmosphere, wind and gusts, and shock and vibration. The following design goals were set to meet the requirements of the statement of work: safety, performance, manufacturing and cost. To prevent the engine from penetrating the passenger area in the event of a crash was the primary safety concern. Weight and the fuselage aerodynamics were the primary performance concerns. Commonality and ease of manufacturing were major considerations to reduce cost.

  4. Bacterial community structures are unique and resilient in full-scale bioenergy systems

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Jeffrey J.; Knights, Dan; Garcia, Marcelo L.; Scalfone, Nicholas B.; Smith, Samual; Yarasheski, Kevin; Cummings, Theresa A.; Beers, Allen R.; Knight, Rob; Angenent, Largus T.

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is the most successful bioenergy technology worldwide with, at its core, undefined microbial communities that have poorly understood dynamics. Here, we investigated the relationships of bacterial community structure (>400,000 16S rRNA gene sequences for 112 samples) with function (i.e., bioreactor performance) and environment (i.e., operating conditions) in a yearlong monthly time series of nine full-scale bioreactor facilities treating brewery wastewater (>20,000 measurements). Each of the nine facilities had a unique community structure with an unprecedented level of stability. Using machine learning, we identified a small subset of operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 145 out of 4,962), which predicted the location of the facility of origin for almost every sample (96.4% accuracy). Of these 145 OTUs, syntrophic bacteria were systematically overrepresented, demonstrating that syntrophs rebounded following disturbances. This indicates that resilience, rather than dynamic competition, played an important role in maintaining the necessary syntrophic populations. In addition, we explained the observed phylogenetic differences between all samples on the basis of a subset of environmental gradients (using constrained ordination) and found stronger relationships between community structure and its function rather than its environment. These relationships were strongest for two performance variables—methanogenic activity and substrate removal efficiency—both of which were also affected by microbial ecology because these variables were correlated with community evenness (at any given time) and variability in phylogenetic structure (over time), respectively. Thus, we quantified relationships between community structure and function, which opens the door to engineer communities with superior functions. PMID:21368115

  5. Bioenergy and Biodiversity: Key Lessons from the Pan American Region.

    PubMed

    Kline, Keith L; Martinelli, Fernanda Silva; Mayer, Audrey L; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Camila Ortolan F; Sparovek, Gerd; Walter, Arnaldo; Venier, Lisa A

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how large-scale bioenergy production can affect biodiversity and ecosystems is important if society is to meet current and future sustainable development goals. A variety of bioenergy production systems have been established within different contexts throughout the Pan American region, with wide-ranging results in terms of documented and projected effects on biodiversity and ecosystems. The Pan American region is home to the majority of commercial bioenergy production and therefore the region offers a broad set of experiences and insights on both conflicts and opportunities for biodiversity and bioenergy. This paper synthesizes lessons learned focusing on experiences in Canada, the United States, and Brazil regarding the conflicts that can arise between bioenergy production and ecological conservation, and benefits that can be derived when bioenergy policies promote planning and more sustainable land-management systems. We propose a research agenda to address priority information gaps that are relevant to biodiversity concerns and related policy challenges in the Pan American region.

  6. Bioenergy and Biodiversity: Key Lessons from the Pan American Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, Keith L.; Martinelli, Fernanda Silva; Mayer, Audrey L.; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Camila Ortolan F.; Sparovek, Gerd; Walter, Arnaldo; Venier, Lisa A.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how large-scale bioenergy production can affect biodiversity and ecosystems is important if society is to meet current and future sustainable development goals. A variety of bioenergy production systems have been established within different contexts throughout the Pan American region, with wide-ranging results in terms of documented and projected effects on biodiversity and ecosystems. The Pan American region is home to the majority of commercial bioenergy production and therefore the region offers a broad set of experiences and insights on both conflicts and opportunities for biodiversity and bioenergy. This paper synthesizes lessons learned focusing on experiences in Canada, the United States, and Brazil regarding the conflicts that can arise between bioenergy production and ecological conservation, and benefits that can be derived when bioenergy policies promote planning and more sustainable land-management systems. We propose a research agenda to address priority information gaps that are relevant to biodiversity concerns and related policy challenges in the Pan American region.

  7. Installation package for a domestic solar heating and hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The installation of two prototype solar heating and hot water systems is described. The systems consists of the following subsystems: solar collector, storage, control, transport, and auxiliary energy.

  8. Developing an Integrated Model Framework for the Assessment of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Limits for Bioenergy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    David Muth, Jr.; Jared Abodeely; Richard Nelson; Douglas McCorkle; Joshua Koch; Kenneth Bryden

    2011-08-01

    Agricultural residues have significant potential as a feedstock for bioenergy production, but removing these residues can have negative impacts on soil health. Models and datasets that can support decisions about sustainable agricultural residue removal are available; however, no tools currently exist capable of simultaneously addressing all environmental factors that can limit availability of residue. The VE-Suite model integration framework has been used to couple a set of environmental process models to support agricultural residue removal decisions. The RUSLE2, WEPS, and Soil Conditioning Index models have been integrated. A disparate set of databases providing the soils, climate, and management practice data required to run these models have also been integrated. The integrated system has been demonstrated for two example cases. First, an assessment using high spatial fidelity crop yield data has been run for a single farm. This analysis shows the significant variance in sustainably accessible residue across a single farm and crop year. A second example is an aggregate assessment of agricultural residues available in the state of Iowa. This implementation of the integrated systems model demonstrates the capability to run a vast range of scenarios required to represent a large geographic region.

  9. Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Productivity and Nitrogen Loss in Three Grass-Based Perennial Bioenergy Cropping Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, Brianna E. L.; Duncan, David S.; Oates, Lawrence G.; Kucharik, Christopher J.; Jackson, Randall D.

    2016-03-18

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization can greatly improve plant productivity but needs to be carefully managed to avoid harmful environmental impacts. Nutrient management guidelines aimed at reducing harmful forms of N loss such as nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate (NO3 -) leaching have been tailored for many cropping systems. The developing bioenergy industry is likely to make use of novel cropping systems, such as polycultures of perennial species, for which we have limited nutrient management experience. We studied how a switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) monoculture, a 5-species native grass mixture and an 18- species restored prairie responded to annual fertilizer applications of 56 kg N ha-1 in a fieldscale agronomic trial in south-central Wisconsin over a 2-year period.We observed greater fertilizer-induced N2O emissions and sub-rooting zone NO3 - concentrations in the switchgrass monoculture than in either polyculture. Fertilization increased aboveground net primary productivity in the polycultures, but not in the switchgrass monoculture. Switchgrass was generally more productive, while the two polycultures did not differ from each other in productivity or N loss. In conclusion, our results highlight differences between polycultures and a switchgrass monoculture in responding to N fertilization.

  10. Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Productivity and Nitrogen Loss in Three Grass-Based Perennial Bioenergy Cropping Systems

    DOE PAGES

    Duran, Brianna E. L.; Duncan, David S.; Oates, Lawrence G.; ...

    2016-03-18

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization can greatly improve plant productivity but needs to be carefully managed to avoid harmful environmental impacts. Nutrient management guidelines aimed at reducing harmful forms of N loss such as nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate (NO3 -) leaching have been tailored for many cropping systems. The developing bioenergy industry is likely to make use of novel cropping systems, such as polycultures of perennial species, for which we have limited nutrient management experience. We studied how a switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) monoculture, a 5-species native grass mixture and an 18- species restored prairie responded to annual fertilizer applications ofmore » 56 kg N ha-1 in a fieldscale agronomic trial in south-central Wisconsin over a 2-year period.We observed greater fertilizer-induced N2O emissions and sub-rooting zone NO3 - concentrations in the switchgrass monoculture than in either polyculture. Fertilization increased aboveground net primary productivity in the polycultures, but not in the switchgrass monoculture. Switchgrass was generally more productive, while the two polycultures did not differ from each other in productivity or N loss. In conclusion, our results highlight differences between polycultures and a switchgrass monoculture in responding to N fertilization.« less

  11. Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Productivity and Nitrogen Loss in Three Grass-Based Perennial Bioenergy Cropping Systems

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Brianna E. L.; Duncan, David S.; Oates, Lawrence G.; Kucharik, Christopher J.; Jackson, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization can greatly improve plant productivity but needs to be carefully managed to avoid harmful environmental impacts. Nutrient management guidelines aimed at reducing harmful forms of N loss such as nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate (NO3-) leaching have been tailored for many cropping systems. The developing bioenergy industry is likely to make use of novel cropping systems, such as polycultures of perennial species, for which we have limited nutrient management experience. We studied how a switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) monoculture, a 5-species native grass mixture and an 18-species restored prairie responded to annual fertilizer applications of 56 kg N ha-1 in a field-scale agronomic trial in south-central Wisconsin over a 2-year period. We observed greater fertilizer-induced N2O emissions and sub-rooting zone NO3- concentrations in the switchgrass monoculture than in either polyculture. Fertilization increased aboveground net primary productivity in the polycultures, but not in the switchgrass monoculture. Switchgrass was generally more productive, while the two polycultures did not differ from each other in productivity or N loss. Our results highlight differences between polycultures and a switchgrass monoculture in responding to N fertilization. PMID:26991790

  12. Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Productivity and Nitrogen Loss in Three Grass-Based Perennial Bioenergy Cropping Systems.

    PubMed

    Duran, Brianna E L; Duncan, David S; Oates, Lawrence G; Kucharik, Christopher J; Jackson, Randall D

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization can greatly improve plant productivity but needs to be carefully managed to avoid harmful environmental impacts. Nutrient management guidelines aimed at reducing harmful forms of N loss such as nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate (NO3(-)) leaching have been tailored for many cropping systems. The developing bioenergy industry is likely to make use of novel cropping systems, such as polycultures of perennial species, for which we have limited nutrient management experience. We studied how a switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) monoculture, a 5-species native grass mixture and an 18-species restored prairie responded to annual fertilizer applications of 56 kg N ha(-1) in a field-scale agronomic trial in south-central Wisconsin over a 2-year period. We observed greater fertilizer-induced N2O emissions and sub-rooting zone NO3(-) concentrations in the switchgrass monoculture than in either polyculture. Fertilization increased aboveground net primary productivity in the polycultures, but not in the switchgrass monoculture. Switchgrass was generally more productive, while the two polycultures did not differ from each other in productivity or N loss. Our results highlight differences between polycultures and a switchgrass monoculture in responding to N fertilization.

  13. Large platform assembler non-structural system requirements. [installing utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernon, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    The impact on the design and operation of an automated structure assembler of requiring the assembler to also install the platform electrical and/or fluid utility circuits was examined. Possible utility requirements were defined and examined in conjunction with the automated assembler. Preliminary concepts are presented which permit the electrical and fluid circuits to be installed with the structural elements.

  14. Flexibility need prompts installation of Zeepipe modeling system

    SciTech Connect

    Thaule, S.B.; Postvoll, W.

    1998-03-23

    Installation by den norske stats oljeselskap A.S. (Statoil) of a powerful pipeline-modeling system on Zeepipe has allowed this major North Sea gas pipeline to meet the growing demands and seasonal variations of the European gas market. The Troll gas-sales agreement (TGSA) in 1986 called for large volumes of Norwegian gas to begin arriving from the North Sea Sleipner East field in october 1993. It is important to Statoil to maintain regular gas delivers from its integrated transport network. In addition, high utilization of transport capacity maximizes profits. In advance of operations, Statoil realized that state-of-the-art supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) and pipeline-modeling systems (PMS) would be necessary to meet its goals and to remain the most efficient North Sea operator. The paper describes the linking of Troll and Zeebrugge, contractual issues, the supervisory system, the scada module, pipeline modeling, real-time model, look-ahead model, predictive model, and model performance.

  15. Automated System of Diagnostic Monitoring at Bureya HPP Hydraulic Engineering Installations: a New Level of Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Musyurka, A. V.

    2016-09-15

    This article presents the design, hardware, and software solutions developed and placed in service for the automated system of diagnostic monitoring (ASDM) for hydraulic engineering installations at the Bureya HPP, and assuring a reliable process for monitoring hydraulic engineering installations. Project implementation represents a timely solution of problems addressed by the hydraulic engineering installation diagnostics section.

  16. 30 CFR 75.1101-5 - Installation of foam generator systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Installation of foam generator systems. 75.1101...-5 Installation of foam generator systems. (a) Foam generator systems shall be located so as to.... (b) Foam generator systems shall be equipped with a fire sensor which actuates the system, and each...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1101-5 - Installation of foam generator systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Installation of foam generator systems. 75.1101...-5 Installation of foam generator systems. (a) Foam generator systems shall be located so as to.... (b) Foam generator systems shall be equipped with a fire sensor which actuates the system, and each...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1101-5 - Installation of foam generator systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Installation of foam generator systems. 75.1101...-5 Installation of foam generator systems. (a) Foam generator systems shall be located so as to.... (b) Foam generator systems shall be equipped with a fire sensor which actuates the system, and each...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1101-5 - Installation of foam generator systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Installation of foam generator systems. 75.1101...-5 Installation of foam generator systems. (a) Foam generator systems shall be located so as to.... (b) Foam generator systems shall be equipped with a fire sensor which actuates the system, and each...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1101-5 - Installation of foam generator systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Installation of foam generator systems. 75.1101...-5 Installation of foam generator systems. (a) Foam generator systems shall be located so as to.... (b) Foam generator systems shall be equipped with a fire sensor which actuates the system, and each...

  1. System design package for a solar heating and cooling system installed at Akron, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Information used to evaluate the design of a solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system is given. A conventional heat pump provides summer cooling items as the design data brochure, system performance specification, system hazard analysis, spare parts list, and detailed design drawings. A solar system is installed in a single-family dwelling at Akron, Ohio, and at Duffield, Virginia.

  2. Installation package for a solar-heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Package consists of installation, operation and maintenance manuals for four commercial solar energy subsystems, including flat plate solar collector pebble bed thermal-storage. Manual gives design information, sizing data, specification drawings, and other material for subsystem.

  3. GOES data-collection system instrumentation, installation, and maintenance manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blee, J.W.; Herlong, H.E.; Kaufmann, C.D.; Hardee, J.H.; Field, M.L.; Middelburg, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the manual is to describe the installation, operation, and maintenance of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) data collection platforms (DCP's) and associated equipment. This manual is not a substitute for DCP manufacturers ' manuals but is additional material that describes the application of data-collection platforms in the Water Resources Division. Power supplies, encoders, antennas, Mini Monitors, voltage analog devices, and the installation of these at streamflow-gaging stations are discussed in detail. (USGS)

  4. Integrated dynamic landscape analysis and modeling system (IDLAMS) : installation manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.; Majerus, K. A.; Sundell, R. C.; Sydelko, P. J.; Vogt, M. C.

    1999-02-24

    The Integrated Dynamic Landscape Analysis and Modeling System (IDLAMS) is a prototype, integrated land management technology developed through a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL). Dr. Ronald C. Sundell, Ms. Pamela J. Sydelko, and Ms. Kimberly A. Majerus were the principal investigators (PIs) for this project. Dr. Zhian Li was the primary software developer. Dr. Jeffrey M. Keisler, Mr. Christopher M. Klaus, and Mr. Michael C. Vogt developed the decision analysis component of this project. It was developed with funding support from the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), a land/environmental stewardship research program with participation from the US Department of Defense (DoD), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). IDLAMS predicts land conditions (e.g., vegetation, wildlife habitats, and erosion status) by simulating changes in military land ecosystems for given training intensities and land management practices. It can be used by military land managers to help predict the future ecological condition for a given land use based on land management scenarios of various levels of training intensity. It also can be used as a tool to help land managers compare different land management practices and further determine a set of land management activities and prescriptions that best suit the needs of a specific military installation.

  5. 30 CFR 75.1101-14 - Installation of dry powder chemical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Installation of dry powder chemical systems. 75...-14 Installation of dry powder chemical systems. (a) Self-contained dry powder chemical systems shall... fire-control components of each dry powder chemical system shall be a type approved by the...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1101-14 - Installation of dry powder chemical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Installation of dry powder chemical systems. 75...-14 Installation of dry powder chemical systems. (a) Self-contained dry powder chemical systems shall... fire-control components of each dry powder chemical system shall be a type approved by the...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1101-14 - Installation of dry powder chemical systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Installation of dry powder chemical systems. 75...-14 Installation of dry powder chemical systems. (a) Self-contained dry powder chemical systems shall... fire-control components of each dry powder chemical system shall be a type approved by the Underwriters...

  8. The Endurance Bioenergy Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Laible, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Argonne biophysicist Dr. Philip Laible and Air Force Major Matt Michaud talks about he endurance bioenergy reactor—a device that contains bacteria that can convert energy from the sun into fuel molecules.

  9. Specification for installation of the crew activity planning system coaxial cable communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. A.; Roman, G. S.

    1979-01-01

    The specification used to install a broadband coaxial cable communication system to support remote terminal operations on the Crew Activity Planning system at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center are reported. The system supports high speed communications between a Harris Slash 8 computer and one or more Sanders Graphic 7 displays.

  10. Physical installation of Pelletron and electron cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Hurh, P.

    1997-09-01

    Bremsstrahlung of 5 MeV electrons at a loss current of 50 microamp in the acceleration region is estimated to produce X-ray intensities of 7 Rad/sec. Radiation losses due to a misteer or sudden obstruction will of course be much higher still (estimated at 87,500 Rad/hr for a 0.5 mA beam current). It is estimated that 1.8 meters of concrete will be necessary to adequately shield the surrounding building areas at any possible Pelletron installation site. To satisfy our present electron cooling development plan, two Pelletron installations are required, the first at our development lab in the Lab B/NEF Enclosure area and the second at the operational Main Injector service building, MI-30, in the main Injector ring. The same actual Pelletron and electron beam-line components will be used at both locations. The Lab B installation will allow experimentation with actual high energy electron beam to develop the optics necessary for the cooling straight while Main Injector/Recycler commissioning is taking place. The MI-30 installation is obviously the permanent home for the Pelletron when electron cooling becomes operational. Construction plans for both installations will be discussed here.

  11. Sustainability Impact Assessment of two forest-based bioenergy production systems related to mitigation and adaption to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arias-González, Ander; Tuomasjukka, Diana

    2016-04-01

    New forest management strategies are necessary to resist and adapt to Climate Change (CC) and to maintain ecosystem functions such as forest productivity, water storage and biomass production. The increased use of forest-based biomass for energy generation as well as the application of combustion or pyrolysis co-products such as ash or biochar back into forest soils is being suggested as a CC mitigation and adaptation strategy while trying to fulfil the targets of both: (i) Europe 2020 growth strategy in relation to CC and energy sustainability and (ii) EU Action Plan for the Circular Economy. The energy stored in harvested biomass can be released through combustion and used for energy generation to enable national energy security (reduced oil dependence) and the substitution of fossil fuel by renewable biomass can decrease the emission of greenhouse gases.In the end, the wood-ash produced in the process can return to the forest soil to replace the nutrients exported by harvesting. Another way to use biomass in this green circular framework is to pyrolyse it. Pyrolysis of the biomass produce a carbon-rich product (biochar) that can increase carbon sequestration in the soils and liquid and gas co-products of biomass pyrolysis can be used for energy generation or other fuel use thereby offsetting fossil fuel consumption and so avoiding greenhouse gas emissions. Both biomass based energy systems differ in the amount of energy produced, in the co-product (biochar or wood ash) returned to the field, and in societal impacts they have. The Tool for Sustainability Impact Assessment (ToSIA) was used for modelling both energy production systems. ToSIA integrates several different methods, and allows a quantification and objective comparison of economic, environmental and social impacts in a sustainability impact assessment for different decision alternatives/scenarios. We will interpret the results in order to support the bioenergy planning in temperate forests under the

  12. Bioenergy production systems and biochar application in forests: potential for renewable energy, soil enhancement, and carbon sequestration

    Treesearch

    Kristin McElligott; Debbie Dumroese; Mark Coleman

    2011-01-01

    Bioenergy production from forest biomass offers a unique solution to reduce wildfire hazard fuel while producing a useful source of renewable energy. However, biomass removals raise concerns about reducing soil carbon and altering forest site productivity. Biochar additions have been suggested as a way to mitigate soil carbon loss and cycle nutrients back into forestry...

  13. Greenhouse gas fluxes and root productivity in a switchgrass and loblolly pine intercropping system for bioenergy production

    Treesearch

    Paliza Shrestha; John R. Seiler; Brian D. Strahm; Eric B. Sucre; Zakiya H. Leggett

    2015-01-01

    This study is part of a larger collaborative effort to determine the overall environmental sustainability of intercropping pine (Pinus taeda L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), both of which are promising feedstock for bioenergy production in the Lower Coastal Plain in North Carolina.

  14. Sustainable agriculture, renewable energy and rural development: An analysis of bio-energy systems used by small farms in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Aiming

    Renewable energy needs to be incorporated into the larger picture of sustainable agriculture and rural development if it is to serve the needs of the 3.25 billion human beings whose livelihoods and based on rural economies and ecologies. For rural communities, increasing agriculture production is key to raising income generation and improving social well-being, but this linkage depends also upon not harming natural resources. This dissertation provides an overview of recent Chinese agriculture history, discusses the role of energy in contemporary's China's agriculture and rural development, and introduces a new approach---the integrated agricultural bio-energy (IAB) system---to address the challenge of sustainable agriculture and rural development. IAB is an innovative design and offers a renewable energy solution for improving agricultural productivity, realizing efficient resource management, and enhancing social well-being for rural development. In order to understand how the IAB system can help to achieve sustainable agricultural and rural development in China, a comprehensive evaluation methodology is developed from health, ecological, energy and economic (HE3) perspectives. With data from surveys of 200 small farm households, a detailed study of IAB and conventional agricultural energy (CAE) system applications (in China's Liaoning and Yunnan Province) is conducted. The HE3 impacts of IAB systems in China's rural areas (compared to existing CAE systems) are quantified. The dissertation analyzes the full life-cycle costs and benefits of IAB systems, including their contributions to energy savings, CO2 emissions reduction, agricultural waste reduction, increased rural incomes, better rural health, and improved ecosystem sustainability. The analysis relies upon qualitative and quantitative modeling in order to produce a comprehensive assessment of IAB system impacts. Finally, the dissertation discusses the barriers to greater diffusion of the IAB systems

  15. Investment risk in bioenergy crops

    SciTech Connect

    Skevas, Theodoros; Swinton, Scott M.; Tanner, Sophia; Sanford, Gregg; Thelen, Kurt D.

    2015-11-18

    Here, perennial, cellulosic bioenergy crops represent a risky investment. The potential for adoption of these crops depends not only on mean net returns, but also on the associated probability distributions and on the risk preferences of farmers. Using 6-year observed crop yield data from highly productive and marginally productive sites in the southern Great Lakes region and assuming risk neutrality, we calculate expected breakeven biomass yields and prices compared to corn (Zea mays L.) as a benchmark. Next we develop Monte Carlo budget simulations based on stochastic crop prices and yields. The crop yield simulations decompose yield risk into three components: crop establishment survival, time to maturity, and mature yield variability. Results reveal that corn with harvest of grain and 38% of stover (as cellulosic bioenergy feedstock) is both the most profitable and the least risky investment option. It dominates all perennial systems considered across a wide range of farmer risk preferences. Although not currently attractive for profit-oriented farmers who are risk neutral or risk averse, perennial bioenergy crops.

  16. Investment risk in bioenergy crops

    DOE PAGES

    Skevas, Theodoros; Swinton, Scott M.; Tanner, Sophia; ...

    2015-11-18

    Here, perennial, cellulosic bioenergy crops represent a risky investment. The potential for adoption of these crops depends not only on mean net returns, but also on the associated probability distributions and on the risk preferences of farmers. Using 6-year observed crop yield data from highly productive and marginally productive sites in the southern Great Lakes region and assuming risk neutrality, we calculate expected breakeven biomass yields and prices compared to corn (Zea mays L.) as a benchmark. Next we develop Monte Carlo budget simulations based on stochastic crop prices and yields. The crop yield simulations decompose yield risk into threemore » components: crop establishment survival, time to maturity, and mature yield variability. Results reveal that corn with harvest of grain and 38% of stover (as cellulosic bioenergy feedstock) is both the most profitable and the least risky investment option. It dominates all perennial systems considered across a wide range of farmer risk preferences. Although not currently attractive for profit-oriented farmers who are risk neutral or risk averse, perennial bioenergy crops.« less

  17. 40 CFR 60.2939 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 60.2939 What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install? (a) You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for carbon monoxide and for oxygen. You must..., evaluate, and operate each continuous emission monitoring system according to the “Monitoring...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2939 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 60.2939 What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install? (a) You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for carbon monoxide and for oxygen. You must..., evaluate, and operate each continuous emission monitoring system according to the “Monitoring...

  19. 40 CFR 60.3038 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Monitoring § 60.3038 What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install? (a) You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for... system according to the “Monitoring Requirements” in § 60.13....

  20. 40 CFR 60.3038 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Monitoring § 60.3038 What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install? (a) You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for... system according to the “Monitoring Requirements” in § 60.13....

  1. 40 CFR 60.3038 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Monitoring § 60.3038 What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install? (a) You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for... system according to the “Monitoring Requirements” in § 60.13....

  2. 40 CFR 60.3038 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Monitoring § 60.3038 What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install? (a) You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for... system according to the “Monitoring Requirements” in § 60.13....

  3. 40 CFR 60.3038 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Monitoring § 60.3038 What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install? (a) You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for... system according to the “Monitoring Requirements” in § 60.13....

  4. Environmental life cycle assessment of producing willow, alfalfa and straw from spring barley as feedstocks for bioenergy or biorefinery systems.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Djomo, Sylvestre Njakou; Corona, Andrea; Birkved, Morten; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2017-05-15

    The current study aimed at evaluating potential environmental impacts for the production of willow, alfalfa and straw from spring barley as feedstocks for bioenergy or biorefinery systems. A method of Life Cycle Assessment was used to evaluate based on the following impact categories: Global Warming Potential (GWP100), Eutrophication Potential (EP), Non-Renewable Energy (NRE) use, Agricultural Land Occupation (ALO), Potential Freshwater Ecotoxicity (PFWTox) and Soil quality. With regard to the methods, soil organic carbon (SOC) change related to the land occupation was calculated based on the net carbon input to the soil. Freshwater ecotoxicity was calculated using the comparative toxicity units of the active ingredients and their average emission distribution fractions to air and freshwater. Soil quality was based on the change in the SOC stock estimated during the land use transformation and land occupation. Environmental impacts for straw were economically allocated from the impacts obtained for spring barley. The results obtained per ton dry matter showed a lower carbon footprint for willow and alfalfa compared to straw. It was due to higher soil carbon sequestration and lower N2O emissions. Likewise, willow and alfalfa had lower EP than straw. Straw had lowest NRE use compared to other biomasses. PFWTox was lower in willow and alfalfa compared to straw. A critical negative effect on soil quality was found with the spring barley production and hence for straw. Based on the energy output to input ratio, willow performed better than other biomasses. On the basis of carbohydrate content of straw, the equivalent dry matter of alfalfa and willow would be requiring higher. The environmental impacts of the selected biomasses in biorefinery therefore would differ based on the conversion efficiency, e.g. of the carbohydrates in the related biorefinery processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 14 CFR 27.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....1397. (b) Forward position lights. Forward position lights must consist of a red and a green light spaced laterally as far apart as practicable and installed forward on the rotorcraft so that, with the... white light mounted as far aft as practicable, and must be approved. (d) Circuit. The two forward...

  6. 14 CFR 29.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....1397. (b) Forward position lights. Forward position lights must consist of a red and a green light spaced laterally as far apart as practicable and installed forward on the rotorcraft so that, with the... white light mounted as far aft as practicable, and must be approved. (d) Circuit. The two forward...

  7. Systems study of drilling for installation of geothermal heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Sullivan, W.N.; Jacobson, R.D.; Pierce, K.G.

    1997-09-01

    Geothermal, or ground-source, heat pumps (GHP) are much more efficient than air-source units such as conventional air conditioners. A major obstacle to their use is the relatively high initial cost of installing the heat-exchange loops into the ground. In an effort to identify drivers which influence installation cost, a number of site visits were made during 1996 to assess the state-of-the-art in drilling for GHP loop installation. As an aid to quantifying the effect of various drilling-process improvements, we constructed a spread-sheet based on estimated time and material costs for all the activities required in a typical loop-field installation. By substituting different (improved) values into specific activity costs, the effect on total project costs can be easily seen. This report contains brief descriptions of the site visits, key points learned during the visits, copies of the spread-sheet, recommendations for further work, and sample results from sensitivity analysis using the spread-sheet.

  8. 14 CFR 25.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 25.1385 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Lights § 25.1385 Position light... spaced laterally as far apart as practicable and installed forward on the airplane so that, with...

  9. Solar energy system installed at Mount Rushmore National Visitor Center in Keystone, South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The design and installation of the solar energy system installed at the Mount Rushmore Visitor Center is described. The system was designed to furnish about 45 percent of the heating for the total facility and about 53 percent partial cooling for the 2000 square foot observatory.

  10. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Charlotte Memorial Hospital, Charlotte, North Carolina. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1981-05-01

    Included in this report is detailed information regarding the design and installation of a heating and hot water system in a commercial application. This information includes descriptions of system and building, design philosophy, control logic operation modes, design and installation drawing and a brief description of problems encountered and their solutions.

  11. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Charlotte Memorial Hospital, Charlotte, North Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Detailed information regarding the design and installation of a heating and hot water system in a commercial application is given. This information includes descriptions of system and building, design philosophy, control logic operation modes, design and installation drawing and a brief description of problems encountered and their solutions.

  12. Bioenergy as a Mitigation Measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dass, P.; Brovkin, V.; Müller, C.; Cramer, W.

    2011-12-01

    Numerous studies have shown that bioenergy, being one of the renewable energies with the lowest costs, is expected to play an important role in the near future as climate change mitigation measure. Current practices of converting crop products such as carbohydrates or plant oils to ethanol or biodiesel have limited capabilities to curb emission. Moreover, they compete with food production for the most fertile lands. Thus, second generation bioenergy technologies are being developed to process lignocellulosic plant materials from fast growing tree and grass species. A number of deforestation experiments using Earth System models have shown that in the mid- to high latitudes, deforested surface albedo strongly increases in presence of snow. This biophysical effect causes cooling, which could dominate over the biogeochemical warming effect because of the carbon emissions due to deforestation. In order to find out the global bioenergy potential of extensive plantations in the mid- to high latitudes, and the resultant savings in carbon emissions, we use the dynamic global vegetation model LPJmL run at a high spatial resolution of 0.5°. It represents both natural and managed ecosystems, including the cultivation of cellulosic energy crops. LPJmL is run with 21st century projections of climate and atmospheric CO2 concentration based on the IPCC-SRES business as usual or A2 scenario. Latitudes above 45° in both hemispheres are deforested and planted with crops having the highest bioenergy return for the respective pixels of the model. The rest of the Earth has natural vegetation. The agricultural management intensity values are used such that it results in the best approximation for 1999 - 2003 national yields of wheat and maize as reported by FAOSTAT 2009. Four different scenarios of land management are used ranging from an idealistic or best case scenario, where all limitations of soil and terrain properties are managed to the worst case scenario where none of these

  13. Investigation of Sensor/Measurement Systems for Army Installation Quality Assurance Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    Poskin As the U.S. Army downsizes and many experienced ELECTE personnel leave the service, installation Directorates JAN 2 11994 of Engineering and Housing... downsizes and many experienced personnel leave the service, installation Directorates of Engineering and Housing (DEHs) must necessarily fulfill their mission...INVESTIGATION OF SENSOR/MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS FOR ARMY INSTALLATION QUALITY ASSURANCE APPLICATIONS 1 INTRODUCTION Background As the U.S. Army downsizes and many

  14. An Automatic System of Testing the Best Stress of Installation for Semiconductor Refrigeration Piece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongyan; Song, Ping

    Concerning the problems of the impact on the factors of installation about semiconductor refrigeration piece are rarely studied in China and abroad, a reasonable structure of test device is designed, using stepper motor to test the temperature of the cold surface under different stress of installation to get the best stress of installation for the semiconductor refrigeration piece. Experiments shows that the system is of good noise immunity, high controlling and measuring precision.

  15. System design and installation for RS600 programmable control system for solar heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Procedures for installing, operating, and maintaining a programmable control system which utilizes a F8 microprocessor to perform all timing, control, and calculation functions in order to customize system performance to meet individual requirements for solar heating, combined heating and cooling, and/or hot water systems are described. The manual discusses user configuration and options, displays, theory of operation, trouble-shooting procedures, and warranty and assistance. Wiring lists, parts lists, drawings, and diagrams are included.

  16. Global bioenergy resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slade, Raphael; Bauen, Ausilio; Gross, Robert

    2014-02-01

    Using biomass to provide energy services is a strategically important option for increasing the global uptake of renewable energy. Yet the practicalities of accelerating deployment are mired in controversy over the potential resource conflicts that might occur, particularly over land, water and biodiversity conservation. This calls into question whether policies to promote bioenergy are justified. Here we examine the assumptions on which global bioenergy resource estimates are predicated. We find that there is a disjunct between the evidence that global bioenergy studies can provide and policymakers' desire for estimates that can straightforwardly guide policy targets. We highlight the need for bottom-up assessments informed by empirical studies, experimentation and cross-disciplinary learning to better inform the policy debate.

  17. Solar heating and hot water system installed at the Senior Citizen Center, Huntsville, Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system installed at the Huntsville Senior Citizen Center is described. Detailed drawings of the complete system and discussions of the planning, the hardware, recommendations, and other pertinent information are presented.

  18. Characterization of the bacterial metagenome in an industrial algae bioenergy production system

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Shi; Fulbright, Scott P; Zeng, Xiaowei; Yates, Tracy; Wardle, Greg; Chisholm, Stephen T; Xu, Jian; Lammers, Peter

    2011-03-16

    Cultivation of oleaginous microalgae for fuel generally requires growth of the intended species to the maximum extent supported by available light. The presence of undesired competitors, pathogens and grazers in cultivation systems will create competition for nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, iron and other micronutrients in the growth medium and potentially decrease microalgal triglyceride production by limiting microalgal health or cell density. Pathogenic bacteria may also directly impact the metabolism or survival of individual microalgal cells. Conversely, symbiotic bacteria that enhance microalgal growth may also be present in the system. Finally, the use of agricultural and municipal wastes as nutrient inputs for microalgal production systems may lead to the introduction and proliferation of human pathogens or interfere with the growth of bacteria with beneficial effects on system performance. These considerations underscore the need to understand bacterial community dynamics in microalgal production systems in order to assess microbiome effects on microalgal productivity and pathogen risks. Here we focus on the bacterial component of microalgal production systems and describe a pipeline for metagenomic characterization of bacterial diversity in industrial cultures of an oleaginous alga, Nannochloropsis salina. Environmental DNA was isolated from 12 marine algal cultures grown at Solix Biofuels, a region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR, and 16S amplicons were sequenced using a 454 automated pyrosequencer. The approximately 70,000 sequences that passed quality control clustered into 53,950 unique sequences. The majority of sequences belonged to thirteen phyla. At the genus level, sequences from all samples represented 169 different genera. About 52.94% of all sequences could not be identified at the genus level and were classified at the next highest possible resolution level. Of all sequences, 79.92% corresponded to 169 genera and 70 other taxa. We

  19. The ATLAS Software Installation System v2: a highly available system to install and validate Grid and Cloud sites via Panda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Salvo, A.; Kataoka, M.; Sanchez Pineda, A.; Smirnov, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS Installation System v2 is the evolution of the original system, used since 2003. The original tool has been completely re-designed in terms of database backend and components, adding support for submission to multiple backends, including the original Workload Management Service (WMS) and the new PanDA modules. The database engine has been changed from plain MySQL to Galera/Percona and the table structure has been optimized to allow a full High-Availability (HA) solution over Wide Area Network. The servlets, running on each frontend, have been also decoupled from local settings, to allow an easy scalability of the system, including the possibility of an HA system with multiple sites. The clients can also be run in multiple copies and in different geographical locations, and take care of sending the installation and validation jobs to the target Grid or Cloud sites. Moreover, the Installation Database is used as source of parameters by the automatic agents running in CVMFS, in order to install the software and distribute it to the sites. The system is in production for ATLAS since 2013, having as main sites in HA the INFN Roma Tier 2 and the CERN Agile Infrastructure. The Light Job Submission Framework for Installation (LJSFi) v2 engine is directly interfacing with PanDA for the Job Management, the Atlas Grid Information System (AGIS) for the site parameter configurations, and CVMFS for both core components and the installation of the software itself. LJSFi2 is also able to use other plugins, and is essentially Virtual Organization (VO) agnostic, so can be directly used and extended to cope with the requirements of any Grid or Cloud enabled VO. In this work we will present the architecture, performance, status and possible evolutions to the system for the LHC Run2 and beyond.

  20. System installation package for the New Hampshire Vocational Technical College, Manchester, N. H.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A system installed in the residential solar laboratory located at the New Hampshire Vocational Technical College in Manchester, N. H. is described. General guidelines which may be utilized in development of detailed installation plans and specifications, as well as instructions on operation and maintenance are provided.

  1. 30 CFR 250.802 - Design, installation, and operation of surface production-safety systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.802 Design, installation, and operation of surface... installation features shall be maintained by the lessee at the lessee's offshore field office nearest the OCS...

  2. 30 CFR 250.802 - Design, installation, and operation of surface production-safety systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) and underwater safety valves (USV). All wellhead SSV's, USV's, and their actuators which are installed...). (4) Electrical system information including the following: (i) A plan for each platform deck... Locations for Electrical Installations at Petroleum Facilities Classified as Class I, Division 1 and...

  3. Comparison of cellulosic ethanol yields from midwestern maize and reconstructed tallgrass prairie systems managed for bioenergy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maize- and prairie-based systems were investigated as cellulosic feedstocks by conducting a 9 ha side-by-side comparison on fertile soils in the Midwestern United States. Maize was grown continuously with adequate fertilization over years both with and without a winter rye cover crop, and the 31-spe...

  4. South Toto Acoustic Measurement Facility (STAFAC) In-Water Systems Installation AUTEC Andros Island, Bahamas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    INTREPID using the ship’s bow roller, gantry system, two cable drums, two capstans, and two bow cranes (Figure 21). The mooring anchors were initially...lease of cable winches, cranes , and deployment/retrieval vessels and associated equipment • Shore landing, cable stabilization, and beaching systems...stern crane . The Umbilical Cables were installed beginning with the North system, followed by the South System. The installation began at the J-Box

  5. Installation Options for the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System in Surface Ships.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    Global Positioning System ( GPS ) is a highly accurate satellite based positioning and navigation system ...RD-A14B 190 INSTALLATION OPTIONS FOR THE NAYSTAR GLOBAL POSITIONING i/i SYSTEM IN SURFACE SHIPS(U) NAYAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA K S AMOS JUN...POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California DTIC CULECTE THESIS INSTALLATION OPTIONS FOR THE NAVSTAR GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM IN SURFACE SHIPS by LaJ Kevin

  6. The OMEGA system for marine bioenergy, wastewater treatment, environmental enhancement, and aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trent, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    OMEGA is an acronym for Offshore Membrane Enclosure for Growing Algae. The OMEGA system consists of photobioreactors (PBRs) made of flexible, inexpensive clear plastic tubes attached to floating docks, anchored offshore in naturally or artificially protected bays [1]. The system uses domestic wastewater and CO2 from coastal facilities to provide water, nutrients, and carbon for algae cultivation [2]. The surrounding seawater maintains the temperature inside the PBRs and prevents the cultivated (freshwater) algae from becoming invasive species in the marine environment (i.e., if a PBR module accidentally leaks, the freshwater algae that grow in wastewater cannot survive in the marine environment). The salt gradient between seawater and wastewater is used for forward osmosis (FO) to concentrate nutrients and facilitate algae harvesting [3]. Both the algae and FO clean the wastewater, removing nutrients as well as pharmaceuticals and personal-care products [4]. The offshore infrastructure provides a large surface area for solar-photovoltaic arrays and access to offshore wind or wave generators. The infrastructure can also support shellfish, finfish, or seaweed aquaculture. The economics of the OMEGA system are supported by a combination of biofuels production, wastewater treatment, alternative energy generation, and aquaculture. By using wastewater and operating offshore from coastal cities, OMEGA can be located close to wastewater and CO2 sources and it can avoid competing with agriculture for water, fertilizer, and land [5]. By combining biofuels production with wastewater treatment and aquaculture, the OMEGA system provides both products and services, which increase its economic feasibility. While the offshore location has engineering challenges and concerns about the impact and control of biofouling [6], large OMEGA structure will be floating marine habitats and will create protected 'no-fishing' zones that could increase local biodiversity and fishery

  7. Willow bioenergy plantation research in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.; Kopp, R.F.; Nowak, C.A.

    1993-12-31

    Experiments were established in Central New York in the spring of 1987 to evaluate the potential of Salix for biomass production in bioenergy plantations. Emphasis of the research was on developing and refining establishment, tending and maintenance techniques, with complimentary study of breeding, coppice physiology, pests, nutrient use and bioconversion to energy products. Current yields utilizing salix clones developed in cooperation with the University of Toronto in short-rotation intensive culture bioenergy plantations in the Northeast approximate 8 oven dry tons per acre per year with annual harvesting. Successful clones have been identified and culture techniques refined. The results are now being integrated to establish a 100 acre Salix large-scale bioenergy farm to demonstrate current successful biomass production technology and to provide plantations of sufficient size to test harvesters; adequately assess economics of the systems; and provide large quantities of uniform biomass for pilot-scale conversion facilities.

  8. Prospects in developing countries for energy from urban solid wastes: Bioenergy systems report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    This report has been designed to provide (a) a comparative analysis of the characteristics of urban solid wastes in the US, Europe, and developing countries; (b) basic information on the characteristics and operation of the principal types of waste-to-energy systems in use in the US and Europe at present; and (c) a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of using each type of system with wastes available in developing countries. The feasibility of a waste-to-energy option in a given city in a developing country is greatly influenced by the waste collection, scavenging, and waste disposal practices in that city and by the composition of the residual wastes. Although the details vary considerably from city to city, the following generalizations apply to the great majority of cities in developing countries.

  9. Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Breger, Dwayne; Rizzo, Rob

    2011-09-20

    In the state’s Electricity Restructuring Act of 1998, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts recognized the opportunity and strategic benefits to diversifying its electric generation capacity with renewable energy. Through this legislation, the Commonwealth established one of the nation’s first Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (RPS) programs, mandating the increasing use of renewable resources in its energy mix. Bioenergy, meeting low emissions and advanced technology standards, was recognized as an eligible renewable energy technology. Stimulated by the state’s RPS program, several project development groups have been looking seriously at building large woody biomass generation units in western Massachusetts to utilize the woody biomass resource. As a direct result of this development, numerous stakeholders have raised concerns and have prompted the state to take a leadership position in pursuing a science based analysis of biomass impacts on forest and carbon emissions, and proceed through a rulemaking process to establish prudent policy to support biomass development which can contribute to the state’s carbon reduction commitments and maintain safeguards for forest sustainability. The Massachusetts Sustainable Forest Bioenergy Initiative (SFBI) was funded by the Department of Energy and started by the Department of Energy Resources before these contentious biomass issues were fully raised in the state, and continued throughout the substantive periods of this policy development. Thereby, while SFBI maintained its focus on the initially proposed Scope of Work, some aspects of this scope were expanded or realigned to meet the needs for groundbreaking research and policy development being advanced by DOER. SFBI provided DOER and the Commonwealth with a foundation of state specific information on biomass technology and the biomass industry and markets, the most comprehensive biomass fuel supply assessment for the region, the economic development impact

  10. UKIRT Upgrades Program: design and installation of the Dome Ventilation System (DVS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, D. H.; Hileman, Edward A.; Kain, S. J.; Cavedoni, Charles P.; Chuter, Timothy C.

    1997-03-01

    In order to encourage adequate dome ventilation to reduce or eliminate dome seeing at the 3.8 m United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT), a dome ventilation system (DVS) was designed to be installed in the lower dome skirt. The modifications to the dome for the new DVS apertures consisted of installing a reinforcing frame containing an insulated rollup door and adjustable louvers. This paper describes the finite element structural analysis of the reinforcing frame, the detailed design of the frame hardware, the design of the programmable language control (PLC) system for controlling the opening and closing of the rollup doors, and the fabrication and installation of a prototype frame assembly. To date, a prototype assembly has been installed that confirms the design, and fifteen production assemblies are currently under fabrication for installation by September 1996.

  11. Solar heating and cooling system installed at Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Coy, R. G.; Braden, R. P.

    1980-09-01

    The Solar Energy System installed at Columbus Technical Institute, Columbus, Ohio was installed as a part of a new construction of a college building. The building will house classrooms and laboratories, administrative offices and three lecture halls. The Solar Energy System consists of 4096 square feet (128 panels) Owens/Illinois Evacuated Glass Tube Collector Subsystem, and a 5000 gallon steel tank below ground storage system, hot water is circulated between the collectors and storage tank, passing through a water/lithium bromide absorption chiller to cool the building. Extracts from the site files specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  12. Genotypic diversity effects on biomass production in native perennial bioenergy cropping systems

    DOE PAGES

    Morris, Geoffrey P.; Hu, Zhenbin; Grabowski, Paul P.; ...

    2015-10-03

    The perennial grass species that are being developed as biomass feedstock crops harbor extensive genotypic diversity, but the effects of this diversity on biomass production are not well understood. We investigated the effects of genotypic diversity in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) on perennial biomass cropping systems in two experiments conducted over 2008–2014 at a 5.4-ha fertile field site in northeastern Illinois, USA. We varied levels of switchgrass and big bluestem genotypic diversity using various local and nonlocal cultivars – under low or high species diversity, with or without nitrogen inputs – and quantified establishment, biomass yield,more » and biomass composition. In one experiment (‘agronomic trial’), we compared three switchgrass cultivars in monoculture to a switchgrass cultivar mixture and three different species mixtures, with or without N fertilization. In another experiment (‘diversity gradient’), we varied diversity levels in switchgrass and big bluestem (1, 2, 4, or 6 cultivars per plot), with one or two species per plot. In both experiments, cultivar mixtures produced yields equivalent to or greater than the best cultivars. In the agronomic trial, the three switchgrass mixture showed the highest production overall, though not significantly different than best cultivar monoculture. In the diversity gradient, genotypic mixtures had one-third higher biomass production than the average monoculture, and none of the monocultures were significantly higher yielding than the average mixture. Year-to-year variation in yields was lowest in the three-cultivar switchgrass mixtures and Cave-In-Rock (the southern Illinois cultivar) and also reduced in the mixture of switchgrass and big bluestem relative to the species monocultures. The effects of genotypic diversity on biomass composition were modest relative to the differences among species and genotypes. Our findings suggest that local genotypes

  13. Genotypic diversity effects on biomass production in native perennial bioenergy cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Morris, Geoffrey P; Hu, Zhenbin; Grabowski, Paul P; Borevitz, Justin O; de Graaff, Marie-Anne; Miller, R Michael; Jastrow, Julie D

    2016-09-01

    The perennial grass species that are being developed as biomass feedstock crops harbor extensive genotypic diversity, but the effects of this diversity on biomass production are not well understood. We investigated the effects of genotypic diversity in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) on perennial biomass cropping systems in two experiments conducted over 2008-2014 at a 5.4-ha fertile field site in northeastern Illinois, USA. We varied levels of switchgrass and big bluestem genotypic diversity using various local and nonlocal cultivars - under low or high species diversity, with or without nitrogen inputs - and quantified establishment, biomass yield, and biomass composition. In one experiment ('agronomic trial'), we compared three switchgrass cultivars in monoculture to a switchgrass cultivar mixture and three different species mixtures, with or without N fertilization. In another experiment ('diversity gradient'), we varied diversity levels in switchgrass and big bluestem (1, 2, 4, or 6 cultivars per plot), with one or two species per plot. In both experiments, cultivar mixtures produced yields equivalent to or greater than the best cultivars. In the agronomic trial, the three switchgrass mixture showed the highest production overall, though not significantly different than best cultivar monoculture. In the diversity gradient, genotypic mixtures had one-third higher biomass production than the average monoculture, and none of the monocultures were significantly higher yielding than the average mixture. Year-to-year variation in yields was lowest in the three-cultivar switchgrass mixtures and Cave-In-Rock (the southern Illinois cultivar) and also reduced in the mixture of switchgrass and big bluestem relative to the species monocultures. The effects of genotypic diversity on biomass composition were modest relative to the differences among species and genotypes. Our findings suggest that local genotypes can be included in

  14. Solar hot water system installed at Las Vegas, Nevada. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    The solar hot water system installed at LaQuinta Motor Inn Inc., at Las Vegas, Nevada is described. The Inn is a three-story building with a flat roof for installation of the solar panels. The system consists of 1200 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors, a 2500 gallon insulated vertical steel storage tank, two heat exchangers and pumps and controls. The system was designed to supply approximately 74 percent of the total hot water load.

  15. Phosphorus removal coupled to bioenergy production by three cyanobacterial isolates in a biofilm dynamic growth system.

    PubMed

    Gismondi, Alessandra; Pippo, Francesca Di; Bruno, Laura; Antonaroli, Simonetta; Congestri, Roberta

    2016-09-01

    In the present study a closed incubator, designed for biofilm growth on artificial substrata, was used to grow three isolates of biofilm-forming heterocytous cyanobacteria using an artificial wastewater secondary effluent as the culture medium. We evaluated biofilm efficiency in removing phosphorus, by simulating biofilm-based tertiary wastewater treatment and coupled this process with biodiesel production from the developed biomass. The three strains were able to grow in the synthetic medium and remove phosphorus in percentages, between 6 and 43%, which varied between strains and also among each strain according to the biofilm growth phase. Calothrix sp. biofilm turned out to be a good candidate for tertiary treatment, showing phosphorus reducing capacity (during the exponential biofilm growth) at the regulatory level for the treated effluent water being discharged into natural water systems. Besides phosphorus removal, the three cyanobacterial biofilms produced high quality lipids, whose profile showed promising chemical stability and combustion behavior. Further integration of the proposed processes could include the integration of oil extracted from these cyanobacterial biofilms with microalgal oil known for high monounsaturated fatty acids content, in order to enhance biodiesel cold flow characteristics.

  16. Development and installation of an innovative verticle containment system

    SciTech Connect

    Burson, B.; Baker, A.C.; Jones, B.; Shailer, J.

    1997-11-01

    In recent years it was discovered that coal tar was leaching from a former gas manufacturing plant into an adjacent creek. The coal tar was a major by-product of the gas manufacturing process and, although most of it was re-sold, some was stored on-site in underground tanks which permitted the coal tar to leach into the soil. As part of an approved remediation plan for this site, a barrier wall comprised of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) sheets and jet grouting was utilized together to eliminate the migration of coal tar. The jet grouting was used for the first time to eliminate leakage at the HDPE/bedrock interface. This trenchless technology also provided for a flexible construction method for dealing with site constraints, ongoing activities, geologic conditions and subsurface obstructions. Following barrier wall construction, recovery wells were installed to manage groundwater on the upgradient side of the impermeable barrier wall.

  17. Evaluating industrial drying of cellulosic feedstock for bioenergy: A systems approach

    DOE PAGES

    Sokhansanj, Shahab; Webb, Erin

    2016-01-21

    Here, a large portion of herbaceous and woody biomass must be dried following harvest. Natural field drying is possible if the weather cooperates. Mechanical drying is a certain way of reducing the moisture content of biomass. This paper presents an engineering analysis applied to drying of 10 Mg h–1 (exit mass flow) of biomass with an initial moisture content ranging from 25% to 70% (wet mass basis) down to 10% exit moisture content. The requirement for hog fuel to supply heat to the dryer increases from 0.5 dry Mg to 3.8 dry Mg h–1 with the increased initial moisture ofmore » biomass. The capital cost for the entire drying system including equipment for biomass size reduction, pollution control, dryer, and biomass combustor sums up to more than 4.7 million dollars. The operating cost (electricity, labor, repair, and maintenance) minus fuel cost for the dryer alone amount to 4.05 Mg–1 of dried biomass. For 50% moisture content biomass, the cost of fuel to heat the drying air is 7.41 dollars/ dry ton of biomass for a total 11.46 dollars per dry ton at 10% moisture content. The fuel cost ranges from a low of 2.21 dollars to a high of 18.54 dollars for a biomass at an initial moisture content of 25% to 75%, respectively. This wide range in fuel cost indicates the extreme sensitivity of the drying cost to initial moisture content of biomass and to ambient air humidity and temperature and highlights the significance of field drying for a cost effective drying operation.« less

  18. Evaluating industrial drying of cellulosic feedstock for bioenergy: A systems approach

    SciTech Connect

    Sokhansanj, Shahab; Webb, Erin

    2016-01-21

    Here, a large portion of herbaceous and woody biomass must be dried following harvest. Natural field drying is possible if the weather cooperates. Mechanical drying is a certain way of reducing the moisture content of biomass. This paper presents an engineering analysis applied to drying of 10 Mg h–1 (exit mass flow) of biomass with an initial moisture content ranging from 25% to 70% (wet mass basis) down to 10% exit moisture content. The requirement for hog fuel to supply heat to the dryer increases from 0.5 dry Mg to 3.8 dry Mg h–1 with the increased initial moisture of biomass. The capital cost for the entire drying system including equipment for biomass size reduction, pollution control, dryer, and biomass combustor sums up to more than 4.7 million dollars. The operating cost (electricity, labor, repair, and maintenance) minus fuel cost for the dryer alone amount to 4.05 Mg–1 of dried biomass. For 50% moisture content biomass, the cost of fuel to heat the drying air is 7.41 dollars/ dry ton of biomass for a total 11.46 dollars per dry ton at 10% moisture content. The fuel cost ranges from a low of 2.21 dollars to a high of 18.54 dollars for a biomass at an initial moisture content of 25% to 75%, respectively. This wide range in fuel cost indicates the extreme sensitivity of the drying cost to initial moisture content of biomass and to ambient air humidity and temperature and highlights the significance of field drying for a cost effective drying operation.

  19. Bioenergy: Agricultural Crop Residues

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The increasing cost of fossil fuels especially natural gas and petroleum as well as a desire to curtail greenhouse gas emissions are driving the expansion of bioenergy. Plant biomass (woody, grain and nongrain) is a potential energy source. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, plant biomass was a maj...

  20. Bioenergy applications for DDGS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over the last several years there has been growing interest in producing bioenergy from many biomass feedstocks, including ethanol coproducts. In fact, many have asked about the possibility of burning DDGS. More specifically, some have proposed that ethanol plant efficiencies and energy balances c...

  1. Analysis of Bioenergy Residues (biochar and digestate) to Study the Fate of Pesticides for Biopurification Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, S.

    2015-12-01

    To overcome the problem of on farm point sources of pollution, environmental friendly and low cost technology filter systems are under development. Processes like sorption-desorption, dissipation behavior of three radiolabeled pesticides (Bentazone, Boscalid and Pyrimethanil) has been investigated at lab scale. Biochar and digestate mixtures with two types of soil (sandy and silt loam) had been used as a biofilter test material for a respiration study (over three month's time period) instead of conventional soil, peat and straw mixtures. The results show that digestate is an easily available C-source leading to highest release of CO2-C. It was found that with the addition of even a small amount (1 % W/W) of biochar there is a profound suppression in the CO2-C release.The driving mechanism for this suppression can be manifold like negative priming, chemisorption of CO2-C on biochar or combinations of all. Further, the fate of applied organic contaminants to biomixtures depends on factors like soil properties as well as biological degradation by soil microbes. To analyze the degradation potential of the different soil/amendment mixtures on pesticides a degradation study was performed. The results from the 14C labelled pesticides study indicated that a mixture of digestate (5%) and biochar (5%) well balanced the mineralization (~20% for bentazone, ~6% for boscalid and ~2% for pyrimethanil) and sorption process (>85% non-extractable residues for all pesticides) resulting in favorable dissipation process. To investigate the sorption-desorption potential of the above pesticides a batch equilibrium study was carried out with selected biomixtures. A higher Kd (>1500 L kg-1), kf (>400 μM1-1/nf L1/nfkg-1) and KL (>40 L kg-1) was obtained for all pesticides for the soil/digestate/biochar mixtures, which had a higher organic matter content. SUVA254 values justified the aromatic character of digestate (5%) and biochar (5%) mixture which showed highest Koc values among all

  2. Bioenergy systems report: The AID (Agency for International Development) approach. Using agricultural and forestry wastes for the production of energy in support of rural development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    The Biomass Energy Systems and Technology project (BEST) seeks to integrate natural resources, private sector expertise, and financial support in order to convert biomass into marketable energy products at existing agro-processing facilities. This report documents BEST's approach to biomass promotion and includes sections on: the rationale for the project's commodity focus (sugar cane, rice, and wood); the relevant U.S. biomass experience with rice, cane, and wood residues, etc., which BEST draws upon; A.I.D.'s experience in the field application of rice, wood, and cane residue bioenergy systems; economic analyses of biomass systems (using examples from Indonesia and Costa Rica); research initiatives to develop off-season fuels for sugar mills, advanced biomass conversion systems, and energy efficiency in sugar factories; and the environmental aspects of biomass (including its ability to be used without increasing global warming).

  3. Sustainable bioenergy production from Missouri's Ozark forests

    Treesearch

    Henry E. Stelzer; Chris Barnett; Verel W. Bensen

    2008-01-01

    The main source of wood fiber for energy resides in Missouri's forests. Alternative bioenergy systems that can use forest thinning residues are electrical energy, thermal energy, and liquid bio-fuel. By applying a thinning rule and accounting for wood fiber that could go into higher value wood products to all live biomass data extracted from the U.S. Forest...

  4. Method permits mechanical and electrical checkout of piezoelectric transducers while installed in a system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, R. S.; Rogallo, V. L.

    1966-01-01

    Known dc voltage is applied and then removed suddenly in a method to permit checkout of the mechanical and electrical condition of piezoelectric transducers of the cantilever beam type, while installed in a system.

  5. Installation of a water disinfection system in a Mexico City hospital.

    PubMed

    Juárez Mendoza, J; Martínez Rosales, G; Díaz Sánchez, J; Brust Mascher, E; Brust Carmona, H

    1992-01-01

    With a view to evaluating a small-scale water disinfection system based on production and application of oxidizing gases, the level of equivalent residual chlorine and the degree of contamination by fecal and total coliform bacteria was assessed at various points in the drinking water system of a Mexico City hospital before and after installation of the disinfection equipment. Tests done in May and June 1989, prior to installation of the equipment, showed that residual chlorine concentrations were lower than the national standard in most of the samples and that a sizable portion of these samples were also contaminated with fecal and total coliform concentrations exceeding national standards. After installation of the disinfection system at the main inflow to the hospital's drinking water supply in August 1989, the equivalent residual chlorine concentrations were found adequate and no coliform bacteria were detected. These results indicate that the oxidant mixture generated by the newly installed system was effectively disinfecting the water.

  6. Thiokol/Wasatch installation evaluation of the redesigned field joint protection system (concepts 1 and 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    The procedures, performance, and results obtained from the Thiokol Corporation/Wasatch Redesigned Field Joint Protection System (FJPS) Installation Evaluation are documented. The purpose of the evaluation was to demonstrate and develop the procedures required to install two different concepts (referred to as Concepts 1 and 3) of the redesigned FJPS. The processing capability of each configuration was then evaluated and compared. The FJPS is installed on redesigned solid rocket motors (RSRM) to protect the field joints from rain intrusion and to maintain the joint temperature sensor measurement between 85 and 122 F while the boosters are on the launch pad. The FJPS is being redesigned to reduce installation timelines at KSC and to simplify or eliminate installation processing problems related to the present design of an EPDM moisture seal/extruded cork combination. Several installation techniques were evaluated, and a preferred method of application was developed for each concept. The installations were performed with the test article in the vertical (flight) position. Comparative timelines between the two concepts were also developed. An additional evaluation of the Concept 3 configuration was performed with the test article in the horizontal position, to simulate an overhead installation on a technical evaluation motor (TEM).

  7. Sprites and lightning observation system installed at ESRANGE, Kiruna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Sato, M.; Ohkubo, A.; Fukunishi, H.; Nozawa, S.; Fujii, R.

    2003-12-01

    Activities of sprites and elves were first recorded in the west coast of Japan when a cold front passed over Japan by Tohoku University group in 1998. This fact strongly predicts occurrence of sprites and elves in other areas in wintertime, such as Northern Scandinavia where large positive CGs are occurring in wintertime. Once sprites and/or elves in the polar region are detected, it would be expected that many important phenomena are occurring: the interaction between the lightning-induced phenomena and the polar ionosphere/magnetosphere by electron density enhancement and by field-aligned current connection, high energy particle supply to the magnetosphere and so on. In order to conduct the sprites/elves imaging in the polar region, we improved an image-intensified CCD camera at ESRANGE, Kiruna, Sweden in August 2003, and also installed VLF receiver there. Further, we set up 2-components ELF receivers as the third station of the ELF world network of Tohoku University. All equipments are remotely controlled from Japan using network. A careful examination of Scandinavian lightning data provided by SINTEF and ELF recordings by Tohoku University shows there exist some strong cloud-ground discharges with a sufficient charge moment to produce sprites in January and February in the polar region.

  8. DOE's bioenergy program sets optimistic goals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Bioenergy Program aims to produce the Btu equivalent of 1000 megawatts of electricity from wood and solid waste fuels by 1985-87. The group aims to promote the commercial use of bioenergy from direct combustion of wood, industrial cogeneration, and gasification. Two strategies will be to support projects that demonstrate the economic viability of using wood fuel, and to identify and overcome barriers and constraints. Other activities will include providing technical assistance and information. Data gathered since the beginning of the Bioenergy Program 1979 have indicated the availability of a large biomass resource base (10 to 28 million dry tons of wood per year). Use of the biomass resource has been shown to be economically competitive (40-50 mills per kWh for new thermal capacity). Top priority of the program is to determine how to get the estimated 200 megawatts of unused installed capacity in existing mills on-line as soon as possible. The 16 industrial facilities identified in a Rocket Reserach report as having a capacity of 272 to 359 megawatts will also be prime targets for the increased cogeneration effort. Compared to other power options, cogeneration facilities can be on-line more quickly, are more economically competitive and are more environmentally acceptable. They also have lower capital costs, shorter construction time, and higher energy efficiency.

  9. Incorporating bioenergy into sustainable landscape designs

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Buford, Marilyn A.; Volk, Timothy A.; Smith, C. Tattersall; Stupak, Inge

    2015-12-30

    In this paper, we describe an approach to landscape design that focuses on integrating bioenergy production with other components of environmental, social and economic systems. Landscape design as used here refers to a spatially explicit, collaborative plan for management of landscapes and supply chains. Landscape design can involve multiple scales and build on existing practices to reduce costs or enhance services. Appropriately applied to a specific context, landscape design can help people assess trade-offs when making choices about locations, types of feedstock, transport, refining and distribution of bioenergy products and services. The approach includes performance monitoring and reporting along the bioenergy supply chain. Examples of landscape design applied to bioenergy production systems are presented. Barriers to implementation of landscape design include high costs, the need to consider diverse land-management objectives from a wide array of stakeholders, up-front planning requirements, and the complexity and level of effort needed for successful stakeholder involvement. A landscape design process may be stymied by insufficient data or participation. An impetus for coordination is critical, and incentives may be required to engage landowners and the private sector. In conclusion, devising and implementing landscape designs for more sustainable outcomes require clear communication of environmental, social, and economic opportunities and concerns.

  10. Incorporating bioenergy into sustainable landscape designs

    DOE PAGES

    Dale, Virginia H.; Kline, Keith L.; Buford, Marilyn A.; ...

    2015-12-30

    In this paper, we describe an approach to landscape design that focuses on integrating bioenergy production with other components of environmental, social and economic systems. Landscape design as used here refers to a spatially explicit, collaborative plan for management of landscapes and supply chains. Landscape design can involve multiple scales and build on existing practices to reduce costs or enhance services. Appropriately applied to a specific context, landscape design can help people assess trade-offs when making choices about locations, types of feedstock, transport, refining and distribution of bioenergy products and services. The approach includes performance monitoring and reporting along themore » bioenergy supply chain. Examples of landscape design applied to bioenergy production systems are presented. Barriers to implementation of landscape design include high costs, the need to consider diverse land-management objectives from a wide array of stakeholders, up-front planning requirements, and the complexity and level of effort needed for successful stakeholder involvement. A landscape design process may be stymied by insufficient data or participation. An impetus for coordination is critical, and incentives may be required to engage landowners and the private sector. In conclusion, devising and implementing landscape designs for more sustainable outcomes require clear communication of environmental, social, and economic opportunities and concerns.« less

  11. Bioenergy Science Center KnowledgeBase

    DOE Data Explorer

    Syed, M. H.; Karpinets, T. V.; Parang, M.; Leuze, M. R.; Park, B. H.; Hyatt, D.; Brown, S. D.; Moulton, S. Galloway, M.D.; Uberbacher, E. C.

    The challenge of converting cellulosic biomass to sugars is the dominant obstacle to cost effective production of biofuels in s capable of significant enough quantities to displace U. S. consumption of fossil transportation fuels. The BioEnergy Science Center (BESC) tackles this challenge of biomass recalcitrance by closely linking (1) plant research to make cell walls easier to deconstruct, and (2) microbial research to develop multi-talented biocatalysts tailor-made to produce biofuels in a single step. [from the 2011 BESC factsheet] The BioEnergy Science Center (BESC) is a multi-institutional, multidisciplinary research (biological, chemical, physical and computational sciences, mathematics and engineering) organization focused on the fundamental understanding and elimination of biomass recalcitrance. The BESC Knowledgebase and its associated tools is a discovery platform for bioenergy research. It consists of a collection of metadata, data, and computational tools for data analysis, integration, comparison and visualization for plants and microbes in the center.The BESC Knowledgebase (KB) and BESC Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) enable bioenergy researchers to perform systemic research. [http://bobcat.ornl.gov/besc/index.jsp

  12. Solar heating system installed at Blakedale Professional Center, Greenwood, South Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Information on the solar heating system installed at the Blakedale Professional Center, in Greenwood, South Carolina is presented. The information consists of site and building description, solar system description, performance evaluation, system problems and installation drawings. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 85 percent of the building's heating requirements. The system was installed concurrently with building construction and heats 4,440 square feet of the building. There are 954 square feet of liquid flat plate collectors that are proof-mounted and have a drain-down system to protect the collectors from freezing. A 5,000 gallon steel, polyurethane insulated tank buried underground provides storage. The system was fully instrumented for performance evaluation and integrated into the National Solar Data Network.

  13. Metabolic Reconstruction of Setaria italica: A Systems Biology Approach for Integrating Tissue-Specific Omics and Pathway Analysis of Bioenergy Grasses.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Dal'Molin, Cristiana G; Orellana, Camila; Gebbie, Leigh; Steen, Jennifer; Hodson, Mark P; Chrysanthopoulos, Panagiotis; Plan, Manuel R; McQualter, Richard; Palfreyman, Robin W; Nielsen, Lars K

    2016-01-01

    The urgent need for major gains in industrial crops productivity and in biofuel production from bioenergy grasses have reinforced attention on understanding C4 photosynthesis. Systems biology studies of C4 model plants may reveal important features of C4 metabolism. Here we chose foxtail millet (Setaria italica), as a C4 model plant and developed protocols to perform systems biology studies. As part of the systems approach, we have developed and used a genome-scale metabolic reconstruction in combination with the use of multi-omics technologies to gain more insights into the metabolism of S. italica. mRNA, protein, and metabolite abundances, were measured in mature and immature stem/leaf phytomers, and the multi-omics data were integrated into the metabolic reconstruction framework to capture key metabolic features in different developmental stages of the plant. RNA-Seq reads were mapped to the S. italica resulting for 83% coverage of the protein coding genes of S. italica. Besides revealing similarities and differences in central metabolism of mature and immature tissues, transcriptome analysis indicates significant gene expression of two malic enzyme isoforms (NADP- ME and NAD-ME). Although much greater expression levels of NADP-ME genes are observed and confirmed by the correspondent protein abundances in the samples, the expression of multiple genes combined to the significant abundance of metabolites that participates in C4 metabolism of NAD-ME and NADP-ME subtypes suggest that S. italica may use mixed decarboxylation modes of C4 photosynthetic pathways under different plant developmental stages. The overall analysis also indicates different levels of regulation in mature and immature tissues in carbon fixation, glycolysis, TCA cycle, amino acids, fatty acids, lignin, and cellulose syntheses. Altogether, the multi-omics analysis reveals different biological entities and their interrelation and regulation over plant development. With this study, we demonstrated

  14. Metabolic Reconstruction of Setaria italica: A Systems Biology Approach for Integrating Tissue-Specific Omics and Pathway Analysis of Bioenergy Grasses

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Dal'Molin, Cristiana G.; Orellana, Camila; Gebbie, Leigh; Steen, Jennifer; Hodson, Mark P.; Chrysanthopoulos, Panagiotis; Plan, Manuel R.; McQualter, Richard; Palfreyman, Robin W.; Nielsen, Lars K.

    2016-01-01

    The urgent need for major gains in industrial crops productivity and in biofuel production from bioenergy grasses have reinforced attention on understanding C4 photosynthesis. Systems biology studies of C4 model plants may reveal important features of C4 metabolism. Here we chose foxtail millet (Setaria italica), as a C4 model plant and developed protocols to perform systems biology studies. As part of the systems approach, we have developed and used a genome-scale metabolic reconstruction in combination with the use of multi-omics technologies to gain more insights into the metabolism of S. italica. mRNA, protein, and metabolite abundances, were measured in mature and immature stem/leaf phytomers, and the multi-omics data were integrated into the metabolic reconstruction framework to capture key metabolic features in different developmental stages of the plant. RNA-Seq reads were mapped to the S. italica resulting for 83% coverage of the protein coding genes of S. italica. Besides revealing similarities and differences in central metabolism of mature and immature tissues, transcriptome analysis indicates significant gene expression of two malic enzyme isoforms (NADP- ME and NAD-ME). Although much greater expression levels of NADP-ME genes are observed and confirmed by the correspondent protein abundances in the samples, the expression of multiple genes combined to the significant abundance of metabolites that participates in C4 metabolism of NAD-ME and NADP-ME subtypes suggest that S. italica may use mixed decarboxylation modes of C4 photosynthetic pathways under different plant developmental stages. The overall analysis also indicates different levels of regulation in mature and immature tissues in carbon fixation, glycolysis, TCA cycle, amino acids, fatty acids, lignin, and cellulose syntheses. Altogether, the multi-omics analysis reveals different biological entities and their interrelation and regulation over plant development. With this study, we demonstrated

  15. BioenergyKDF: Enabling Spatiotemporal Data Synthesis and Research Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Aaron T; Movva, Sunil; Karthik, Rajasekar; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; White, Devin A; Thomas, Neil; Chase, Adrian S Z

    2014-01-01

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (BioenergyKDF) is a scalable, web-based collaborative environment for scientists working on bioenergy related research in which the connections between data, literature, and models can be explored and more clearly understood. The fully-operational and deployed system, built on multiple open source libraries and architectures, stores contributions from the community of practice and makes them easy to find, but that is just its base functionality. The BioenergyKDF provides a national spatiotemporal decision support capability that enables data sharing, analysis, modeling, and visualization as well as fosters the development and management of the U.S. bioenergy infrastructure, which is an essential component of the national energy infrastructure. The BioenergyKDF is built on a flexible, customizable platform that can be extended to support the requirements of any user community especially those that work with spatiotemporal data. While there are several community data-sharing software platforms available, some developed and distributed by national governments, none of them have the full suite of capabilities available in BioenergyKDF. For example, this component-based platform and database independent architecture allows it to be quickly deployed to existing infrastructure and to connect to existing data repositories (spatial or otherwise). As new data, analysis, and features are added; the BioenergyKDF will help lead research and support decisions concerning bioenergy into the future, but will also enable the development and growth of additional communities of practice both inside and outside of the Department of Energy. These communities will be able to leverage the substantial investment the agency has made in the KDF platform to quickly stand up systems that are customized to their data and research needs.

  16. Interactions among bioenergy feedstock choices, landscape dynamics, and land use.

    PubMed

    Dale, Virginia H; Kline, Keith L; Wright, Lynn L; Perlack, Robert D; Downing, Mark; Graham, Robin L

    2011-06-01

    Landscape implications of bioenergy feedstock choices are significant and depend on land-use practices and their environmental impacts. Although land-use changes and carbon emissions associated with bioenergy feedstock production are dynamic and complicated, lignocellulosic feedstocks may offer opportunities that enhance sustainability when compared to other transportation fuel alternatives. For bioenergy sustainability, major drivers and concerns revolve around energy security, food production, land productivity, soil carbon and erosion, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity, air quality, and water quantity and quality. The many implications of bioenergy feedstock choices require several indicators at multiple scales to provide a more complete accounting of effects. Ultimately, the long-term sustainability of bioenergy feedstock resources (as well as food supplies) throughout the world depends on land-use practices and landscape dynamics. Land-management decisions often invoke trade-offs among potential environmental effects and social and economic factors as well as future opportunities for resource use. The hypothesis being addressed in this paper is that sustainability of bioenergy feedstock production can be achieved via appropriately designed crop residue and perennial lignocellulosic systems. We find that decision makers need scientific advancements and adequate data that both provide quantitative and qualitative measures of the effects of bioenergy feedstock choices at different spatial and temporal scales and allow fair comparisons among available options for renewable liquid fuels.

  17. Interactions among bioenergy feedstock choices, landscape dynamics, and land use

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H; Kline, Keith L; Wright, Lynn L; Perlack, Robert D; Downing, Mark; Graham, Robin Lambert

    2011-01-01

    Landscape implications of bioenergy feedstock choices are significant and depend on land-use practices and their environmental impacts. Although land-use changes and carbon emissions associated with bioenergy feedstock production are dynamic and complicated, lignocellulosic feedstocks may offer opportunities that enhance sustainability when compared to other transportation fuel alternatives. For bioenergy sustainability, major drivers and concerns revolve around energy security, food production, land productivity, soil carbon and erosion, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity, air quality, and water quantity and quality. The many implications of bioenergy feedstock choices require several indicators at multiple scales to provide a more complete accounting of effects. Ultimately, the long-term sustainability of bioenergy feedstock resources (as well as food supplies) throughout the world depends on land-use practices and landscape dynamics. Land-management decisions often invoke trade-offs among potential environmental effects and social and economic factors as well as future opportunities for resource use. The hypothesis being addressed in this paper is that sustainability of bioenergy feedstock production can be achieved via appropriately designed crop residue and perennial lignocellulosic systems. We find that decision makers need scientific advancements and adequate data that both provide quantitative and qualitative measures of the effects of bioenergy feedstock choices at different spatial and temporal scales and allow fair comparisons among available options for renewable liquid fuels.

  18. Solar Heating System installed at Belz Investment Company, Memphis, Tennessee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A hot air solar system which utilizes flat plate air collectors is discussed. Collector areas for each of four buildings cover 780 sq ft, with storage capacity of 390 cu ft per building. The air system has a special air handling unit to move air through the collectors and into and out of the rock storage, with connection to the air duct distribution system. The heat of the motor is added to the heat delivered to the system. The solar system also includes four motorized special low leakage dampers and two gravity fabric dampers. The system is automatically controlled by a solid state controller with three thermistors: one located in the collectors, one in the rock box to plenum, one in the return air duct from the heated space. A three stage heating thermostat, located in the conditioned space, controls the operation.

  19. Solar Heating System installed at Belz Investment Company, Memphis, Tennessee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-06-01

    A hot air solar system which utilizes flat plate air collectors is discussed. Collector areas for each of four buildings cover 780 sq ft, with storage capacity of 390 cu ft per building. The air system has a special air handling unit to move air through the collectors and into and out of the rock storage, with connection to the air duct distribution system. The heat of the motor is added to the heat delivered to the system. The solar system also includes four motorized special low leakage dampers and two gravity fabric dampers. The system is automatically controlled by a solid state controller with three thermistors: one located in the collectors, one in the rock box to plenum, one in the return air duct from the heated space. A three stage heating thermostat, located in the conditioned space, controls the operation.

  20. Installation of the MPM System on USS JESSE L. BROWN.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-14

    system can pro- U’ vide information which will enable the operat- ing personnel to effect reductions in fuel consumption. It was also shown that the...the system to fall into disuse. Accordingly, it isI projected that some shore-side agency will have to sustain the effective use of the MPM System. 1...measure the effect of change in a component’s performance and to assess the effect on the entire system. The standard engineering proce.dure for deter

  1. BUILDOUT AND UPGRADE OF CENTRAL EMERGENCY GENERATOR SYSTEM, GENERATOR 3 AND 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Seifert; G. Shawn West; Kurt S. Myers; Jim Moncur

    2006-07-01

    SECTION 01000—SUMMARY OF WORK PART 1—GENERAL 1.1 SUMMARY The work to be performed under this project consists of providing the labor, equipment, and materials to perform "Buildout and Upgrade of Central Emergency Generator System, Generator 3 and 4 Electrical Installation" for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration at the Dryden Flight Research Center (NASA/DFRC), Edwards, California 93523. All modifications to existing substations and electrical distribution systems are the responsibility of the contractor. It is the contractor’s responsibility to supply a complete and functionally operational system. The work shall be performed in accordance with these specifications and the related drawings. The work of this project is defined by the plans and specifications contained and referenced herein. This work specifically includes but is not limited to the following: Scope of Work - Installation 1. Install all electrical wiring and controls for new generators 3 and 4 to match existing electrical installation for generators 1 and 2 and in accordance with drawings. Contractor shall provide as-built details for electrical installation. 2. Install battery charger systems for new generators 3 and 4 to match existing battery charging equipment and installation for generators 1 and 2. This may require exchange of some battery charger parts already on-hand. Supply power to new battery chargers from panel and breakers as shown on drawings. Utilize existing conduits already routed to generators 3 and 4 to field route the new wiring in the most reasonable way possible. 3. Install electrical wiring for fuel/lube systems for new generators 3 and 4 to match existing installation for generators 1 and 2. Supply power to lube oil heaters and fuel system (day tanks) from panel and breakers as shown on drawings. Utilize existing conduits already routed to generators 3 and 4 to field route the new wiring in the most reasonable way possible. Add any conduits necessary to

  2. Bioenergy: Potentials and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, E.-D.; Canadell, J. G.

    2015-08-01

    In this lecture we explain 1) the biochemical basis for photosynthesis and plant production and 2) the future demands on biomass for human use. Summing all physiological processes, the efficiency of converting solar energy into biomass is < 1.6% in the tropics, and between 0.4 and 0.8% for the temperate regions. In view of the present and future high demand on biomass for food, bioeconomics, fiber, construction material, only a relatively small fraction of plant production will be available for bioenergy. We estimate this fraction to be between 3 and 8% of the global energy demand by 2050. The contribution of bioenergy is at the higher end in tropical regions and in the less industrialized parts of the world, but may even be < 3% in industrialized nations.

  3. Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) Assessment Report for US Army Garrison, Japan - Honshu Installations

    SciTech Connect

    Kora, Angela R.; Brown, Daryl R.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2010-03-09

    This report documents an assessment was performed by a team of engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract to the Installation Management Command (IMCOM) Pacific Region Office (PARO). The effort used the Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) model to determine how energy is consumed at five U.S. Army Garrison-Japan (USAG-J) installations in the Honshu area, identify the most cost-effective energy retrofit measures, and calculate the potential energy and cost savings.

  4. Design, installation and operating experience of 20 photovoltaic medical refrigerator systems on four continents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hein, G. F.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center in cooperation with the World Health Organization, U.S.A. I.D., the Pan American Health Organization and national government agencies in some developing countries sponsored the installation of twenty photovoltaic powered medical vaccine storage refrigerator-freezer (R/F) systems. The Solar Power Corporation was selected as the contractor to perform the design, development and installation of these twenty units. Solar Power's experiences are described herein.

  5. Design, installation and operating experience of 20 photovoltaic medical refrigerator systems on four continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, G. F.

    The NASA Lewis Research Center in cooperation with the World Health Organization, U.S.A. I.D., the Pan American Health Organization and national government agencies in some developing countries sponsored the installation of twenty photovoltaic powered medical vaccine storage refrigerator-freezer (R/F) systems. The Solar Power Corporation was selected as the contractor to perform the design, development and installation of these twenty units. Solar Power's experiences are described herein.

  6. Design, installation and operating experience of 20 photovoltaic medical refrigerator systems on four continents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hein, G. F.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center in cooperation with the World Health Organization, U.S.A. I.D., the Pan American Health Organization and national government agencies in some developing countries sponsored the installation of twenty photovoltaic powered medical vaccine storage refrigerator-freezer (R/F) systems. The Solar Power Corporation was selected as the contractor to perform the design, development and installation of these twenty units. Solar Power's experiences are described herein.

  7. Design, installation and operating experience of 20 photovoltaic medical refrigerator systems on four continents

    SciTech Connect

    Hein, G.F.

    1982-09-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center in cooperation with the World Health Organization, U.S.A. I.D., the Pan American Health Organization and national government agencies in some developing countries sponsored the installation of twenty photovoltaic powered medical vaccine storage refrigerator-freezer (R/F) systems. The Solar Power Corporation was selected as the contractor to perform the design, development and installation of these twenty units. Solar Power's experiences are described herein.

  8. Installing an Integrated Information System in a Centralized Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelson, Andrew D.

    1992-01-01

    Many schools are looking at ways to centralize the distribution and retrieval of video, voice, and data transmissions in an integrate information system (IIS). A centralized system offers greater control of hardware and software. Describes media network planning to retrofit an Illinois' high school with a fiber optic-based IIS. (MLF)

  9. Design and Installation of SDI Systems in North Carolina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As a part of the humid Southeast, North Carolina’s climate, topography, soils, cropping systems, and water sources require special consideration when considering and implementing a subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system. This publication is not a step-by-step design manual, but it will help you in ...

  10. Hydrological and sedimentation implications of landscape changes in a Himalayan catchment due to bioenergy cropping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remesan, Renji; Holman, Ian; Janes, Victoria

    2015-04-01

    There is a global effort to focus on the development of bioenergy and energy cropping, due to the generally increasing demand for crude oil, high oil price volatility and climate change mitigation challenges. Second generation energy cropping is expected to increase greatly in India as the Government of India has recently approved a national policy of 20 % biofuel blending by 2017; furthermore, the country's biomass based power generation potential is estimated as around ~24GW and large investments are expected in coming years to increase installed capacity. In this study, we have modelled the environmental influences (e.g.: hydrology and sediment) of scenarios of increased biodiesel cropping (Jatropha curcas) using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in a northern Indian river basin. SWAT has been applied to the River Beas basin, using daily Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation and NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) meteorological data to simulate the river regime and crop yields. We have applied Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Ver. 2 (SUFI-2) to quantify the parameter uncertainty of the stream flow modelling. The model evaluation statistics for daily river flows at the Jwalamukhi and Pong gauges show good agreement with measured flows (Nash Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.70 and PBIAS of 7.54 %). The study has applied two land use change scenarios of (1) increased bioenergy cropping in marginal (grazing) lands in the lower and middle regions of catchment (2) increased bioenergy cropping in low yielding areas of row crops in the lower and middle regions of the catchment. The presentation will describe the improved understanding of the hydrological, erosion and sediment delivery and food production impacts arising from the introduction of a new cropping variety to a marginal area; and illustrate the potential prospects of bioenergy production in Himalayan valleys.

  11. Installation of aboveground storage tank cathodic protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Garrity, K.C.

    1995-12-31

    The application of cathodic protection is an effective means of controlling corrosion on tank bottom undersides. The success of the cathodic protection system is dependent upon proper design and system selection and effective monitoring of the level of protection being afforded to the entire tank bottom underside. The use of angle drilled anodes around the periphery of the storage tank should provide a better distribution of current to the tank center on existing tanks. The use of undertank ribbon anode system and secondary containment should prove effective for newly constructed tanks.

  12. Chapter 32: A Global Survey of Stakeholder Views and Experiences for Systems Needed to Effectively and Efficiently Govern Sustainability of Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Stupak, Inge; Joudrey, Jamie; Smith, C. Tattersall; Pelkmans, Luc; Chum, Helena; Cowie, Annette; Englund, Oskar; Goh, Chun Sheng; Junginger, Martin

    2016-01-02

    The increased international trade led to growing concerns over sustainability of biofuels and a variety of governance systems has emerged to regulate the bioenergy sector for maximization of the benefits and minimization of the possible negative impacts. The general concept of governance is used in different ways. But in this chapter it is used in the broad sense of governance processes undertaken by governments, market actors, voluntary organizations or networks. This concept of governance recognizes the interdependence of the public, market-based and voluntary governing processes, and the relationships that may exist between them. A survey was designed with the objective of analyzing stakeholders' views, experiences, and ideas in relation to the governance challenges. The survey revealed a broad support for existing and new co-regulation among stakeholders, but also that low share of certified land is seen as a challenge for both forestry and agriculture.

  13. Pectins, Endopolygalacturonases, and Bioenergy

    PubMed Central

    Latarullo, Mariana B. G.; Tavares, Eveline Q. P.; Maldonado, Gabriel P.; Leite, Débora C. C.; Buckeridge, Marcos S.

    2016-01-01

    The precise disassembly of the extracellular matrix of some plant species used as feedstocks for bioenergy production continues to be a major barrier to reach reasonable cost effective bioethanol production. One solution has been the use of pretreatments, which can be effective, but increase even more the cost of processing and also lead to loss of cell wall materials that could otherwise be used in industry. Although pectins are known to account for a relatively low proportion of walls of grasses, their role in recalcitrance to hydrolysis has been shown to be important. In this mini-review, we examine the importance of pectins for cell wall hydrolysis highlighting the work associated with bioenergy. Here we focus on the importance of endopolygalacturonases (EPGs) discovered to date. The EPGs cataloged by CAZy were screened, revealing that most sequences, as well as the scarce structural work performed with EPGs, are from fungi (mostly Aspergillus niger). The comparisons among the EPG from different microorganisms, suggests that EPGs from bacteria and grasses display higher similarity than each of them with fungi. This compilation strongly suggests that structural and functional studies of EPGs, mainly from plants and bacteria, should be a priority of research regarding the use of pectinases for bioenergy production purposes. PMID:27703463

  14. Pectins, Endopolygalacturonases, and Bioenergy.

    PubMed

    Latarullo, Mariana B G; Tavares, Eveline Q P; Maldonado, Gabriel P; Leite, Débora C C; Buckeridge, Marcos S

    2016-01-01

    The precise disassembly of the extracellular matrix of some plant species used as feedstocks for bioenergy production continues to be a major barrier to reach reasonable cost effective bioethanol production. One solution has been the use of pretreatments, which can be effective, but increase even more the cost of processing and also lead to loss of cell wall materials that could otherwise be used in industry. Although pectins are known to account for a relatively low proportion of walls of grasses, their role in recalcitrance to hydrolysis has been shown to be important. In this mini-review, we examine the importance of pectins for cell wall hydrolysis highlighting the work associated with bioenergy. Here we focus on the importance of endopolygalacturonases (EPGs) discovered to date. The EPGs cataloged by CAZy were screened, revealing that most sequences, as well as the scarce structural work performed with EPGs, are from fungi (mostly Aspergillus niger). The comparisons among the EPG from different microorganisms, suggests that EPGs from bacteria and grasses display higher similarity than each of them with fungi. This compilation strongly suggests that structural and functional studies of EPGs, mainly from plants and bacteria, should be a priority of research regarding the use of pectinases for bioenergy production purposes.

  15. Finnish bioenergy research

    SciTech Connect

    Malinen, H.

    1993-12-31

    Finland is one of the leading countries in the use of biofuels. The share of wood derived fuels of the total primary energy requirement was about 14% (ca. 4 million toe) and peat about 5% (1.4 million toe). The possibilities for increasing the use of biofuels in Finland are significant. There is theoretically about 10 million m{sup 3}/a (about 2 million toe/a) of harvestable wood. Areas suitable for fuel peat production (0.5 million ha) could produce ca. 420 million toe of peat. At present rates of use, the peat reserves are adequate for centuries. During the next few years 0.5--1 million hectares of fields withdrawn from farming could be used for biofuel production. The production potential of this field area is estimated to be about 0.2--0.5 million toe. In addition, the use of wastes in energy production could be increased. The aim of the new Bioenergy Research Programme is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of present peat and wood fuels. New economically competitive biofuels, new equipment and methods for production, handling and use of biofuels will also be developed. The main research areas are production of wood fuels, peat production, use of bioenergy and conversion of biomass.

  16. Investigating afforestation and bioenergy CCS as climate change mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpenöder, Florian; Popp, Alexander; Dietrich, Jan Philip; Klein, David; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Bonsch, Markus; Bodirsky, Benjamin Leon; Weindl, Isabelle; Stevanovic, Miodrag; Müller, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The land-use sector can contribute to climate change mitigation not only by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but also by increasing carbon uptake from the atmosphere and thereby creating negative CO2 emissions. In this paper, we investigate two land-based climate change mitigation strategies for carbon removal: (1) afforestation and (2) bioenergy in combination with carbon capture and storage technology (bioenergy CCS). In our approach, a global tax on GHG emissions aimed at ambitious climate change mitigation incentivizes land-based mitigation by penalizing positive and rewarding negative CO2 emissions from the land-use system. We analyze afforestation and bioenergy CCS as standalone and combined mitigation strategies. We find that afforestation is a cost-efficient strategy for carbon removal at relatively low carbon prices, while bioenergy CCS becomes competitive only at higher prices. According to our results, cumulative carbon removal due to afforestation and bioenergy CCS is similar at the end of 21st century (600-700 GtCO2), while land-demand for afforestation is much higher compared to bioenergy CCS. In the combined setting, we identify competition for land, but the impact on the mitigation potential (1000 GtCO2) is partially alleviated by productivity increases in the agricultural sector. Moreover, our results indicate that early-century afforestation presumably will not negatively impact carbon removal due to bioenergy CCS in the second half of the 21st century. A sensitivity analysis shows that land-based mitigation is very sensitive to different levels of GHG taxes. Besides that, the mitigation potential of bioenergy CCS highly depends on the development of future bioenergy yields and the availability of geological carbon storage, while for afforestation projects the length of the crediting period is crucial.

  17. 14 CFR 25.1309 - Equipment, systems, and installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1309... any foreseeable operating condition. (b) The airplane systems and associated components, considered... condition which would prevent the continued safe flight and landing of the airplane is extremely...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1309 - Equipment, systems, and installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1309... any foreseeable operating condition. (b) The airplane systems and associated components, considered... condition which would prevent the continued safe flight and landing of the airplane is extremely...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1309 - Equipment, systems, and installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1309... any foreseeable operating condition. (b) The airplane systems and associated components, considered... condition which would prevent the continued safe flight and landing of the airplane is extremely...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1309 - Equipment, systems, and installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1309... any foreseeable operating condition. (b) The airplane systems and associated components, considered... condition which would prevent the continued safe flight and landing of the airplane is extremely...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1309 - Equipment, systems, and installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1309... any foreseeable operating condition. (b) The airplane systems and associated components, considered... condition which would prevent the continued safe flight and landing of the airplane is extremely...

  2. Design and installation of solar heating and hot water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    A no-nonsense explanation of information on the use of solar energy for heating, cooling, and producing hot water. The work is both scholarly and practical. Background of high school algebra is the only mathematics expected. Worked examples but no exercises. Contents: Solar radiation. Heating loads. Design and analysis of flat-place liquid-heating collectors. Flat-plate air-heating collectors. Evacuated solar collectors. Solar hot water systems. Solar ponds. Active solar heating and cooling systems.

  3. Study of photovoltaic cost elements. Volume 5: Installation cost model for intermediate PV systems: Users manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayers, J. B.

    1981-07-01

    A cost modeling methodology is presented for estimating installation costs associated with intermediate photovoltaic (PV) systems. With only a parametric description of an intermediate power system, the model can be used to develop an installation cost estimate for that system. The model is based on conventional cost-estimating procedures widely used by the construction industry and was validated by comparing estimates for the same 10 systems made independently by a cost engineering firm. A description of the model is included as well as an example of its use with a 200 KW solar breeder plant design to be located in Rockville, Maryland.

  4. Installing a HDPE vertical containment and collection system in one pass utilizing a deep trencher

    SciTech Connect

    Bocchino, W.M.; Burson, B.

    1997-12-31

    A unique method has been developed to install high density polyethylene (HDPE) vertical containment panels and a horizontal collection system for the containment and collection of contaminated groundwater. Unlike other means of creating this type of system, this barrier wall and collection system is installed in one step and in one narrow trench, utilizing a one-pass deep trencher. Originally HDPE vertical barriers were installed using conventional slurry trenching techniques. Use of this method raised questions of trench stability and disposal costs for the trench spoils. In addition, if a collection system was desired, a separate trench or vertical wells were required. In response to these concerns, a trenchless vibratory installation method was developed. Although this method addressed the concerns of trench stability and disposal costs, it raised a whole new set of concerns dealing with drivable soil conditions, buried debris and obstructions. Again, if a collection system was desired, a separate trench or vertical wells had to be installed. The latest development, the one-pass, deep trencher, has eliminated or significantly reduced the previously discussed construction concerns. The trencher methods reduce the amount of spoils generated because a trench width of 61 cm (24 inches) is constantly maintained by the machine. Additionally, soil classification and density are not as critical as with a vibratory installation. This is due to the trencher`s ability to trench in all but the hardest of materials (blow counts exceeding 35 blows/ft). Finally, the cost to add a collection system adjacent to the cutoff wall is substantially reduced and is limited only to the cost of the additional hydraulic fill and 4 inches HDPE collection piping. The trench itself is already constructed with the installation of the wall.

  5. 40 CFR 281.30 - New UST system design, construction, installation, and notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New UST system design, construction...-Stringent § 281.30 New UST system design, construction, installation, and notification. In order to be considered no less stringent than the corresponding federal requirements for new UST system...

  6. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at North Dallas High School

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system located at the North Dallas High School, Dallas, Texas is discussed. The system is designed as a retrofit in a three story with basement, concrete frame high school building. Extracts from the site files, specification references for solar modification to existing building heating and domestic hot water systems, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  7. Evaluation of an Autonetics Stabilization System Installed in a Bell Model 47J Helicopter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1962-07-09

    in an H-19 Helicopter as Task 17-0001, " Stability Augmentation System for Rotary Wing Aircraft. " d. The equipment was received for evaluation...Stabilization System Installed in a Bell Model 47J Helicopter" b. Plan of Test, USAEPG-SIG 950-48, " Stability Augmentation System for Rotary Wing Aircraft

  8. NASIS data base management system - IBM 360/370 OS MVT implementation. 1: Installation standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The installation standards for the NASA Aerospace Safety Information System (NASIS) data base management system are presented. The standard approach to preparing systems documentation and the program design and coding rules and conventions are outlined. Included are instructions for preparing all major specifications and suggestions for improving the quality and efficiency of the programming task.

  9. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Alderson Broaddus College, Philippi, West Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Data needed necessary to evaluate the design and operation of a solar energy heating and hot water system installed in a commercial application are presented. The information includes system descriptions, acceptance test data, schematics, as built drawing, problems encountered, all solutions and photographs of the system at various stages of completion.

  10. 40 CFR 60.1720 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide... emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... also install continuous emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide and oxygen (or carbon......

  11. 40 CFR 60.1720 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide... emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... also install continuous emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide and oxygen (or carbon......

  12. 40 CFR 60.1720 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide... emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... also install continuous emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide and oxygen (or carbon......

  13. 40 CFR 60.1720 - What continuous emission monitoring systems must I install for gaseous pollutants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., maintain, and operate continuous emission monitoring systems for oxygen (or carbon dioxide), sulfur dioxide... emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and oxygen (or carbon dioxide) at the... also install continuous emission monitoring systems for sulfur dioxide and oxygen (or carbon......

  14. Design and installation of a condensate recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The Grimethorpe Experimental Facility was designed to use steam from the Grimethorpe Power Station to drive the turbo-compressor during start-up. During this period, it was intended that steam produced in the Facility Steam/Water Circuit would be vented to atmosphere and the required condensate make-up would be supplied from storage tanks. The Condensate Recovery System (CRS) and its interconnection with the Facility is shown. The resulting changes of the thermodynamic conditions of the steam are shown. The system is capable of receiving the full output of the Steam/Water Circuit at design conditions of 440/sup 0/C, 30.3 bar abs.

  15. 14 CFR 29.1309 - Equipment, systems, and installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... effects of lightning strikes on the rotorcraft must be considered. (Secs. 313(a), 601, 603, 604, and 605... subchapter and which requires a power supply is an “essential load” on the power supply. The power sources and the system must be able to supply the following power loads in probable operating combinations...

  16. Installation Manual for the Uniterm System of Coordinate Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Documentation Inc., Washington, DC.

    The Uniterm system of coordinate indexing, developed by the Armed Services Technical Information Agency, provides a method for the organization, storage, and retrieval of information. The contents of reports are analyzed, and terms are assigned to the documents. For each term there is a card upon which the accession number of documents assigned…

  17. Installation and commissioning of a cryogen distribution system for the TPS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, H. H.; Hsiao, F. Z.; Li, H. C.; Lin, M. C.; Wang, C.; Liao, W. R.; Lin, T. F.; Chiou, W. S.; Chang, S. H.; Chuang, P. S. D.

    2016-07-01

    A cryogen distribution system was installed and commissioned to transfer liquid nitrogen (LN2) and liquid helium (LHe) from storage dewars to superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities for the 3-GeV Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) project. The cryogen distribution system comprises one distribution valve box (DVB), four control valve boxes (CVB) and seven sections of multichannel transfer line (MCL). The DVB distributes the LHe and LN2 to the CVB, and then to the SRF cavities through independent vacuum-jacketed transfer lines. The vaporized GHe and GN2 from the cryomodules are collected via the MCL. The cryogen distribution system was installed and commissioned from October 2014 to the end of March 2015. This paper presents the installation, pre-commissioning and commissioning of the cryogen distribution system, and describes the heat load test. Thermal acoustic oscillation (TAO) was found in the GHe process line; this phenomenon and its solution are also presented and discussed.

  18. The properties of bio-energy transport and influence of structure nonuniformity and temperature of systems on energy transport along polypeptide chains.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiao-feng

    2012-01-01

    A new theory of bio-energy transport along protein molecules in living systems, where the energy is released by hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), is proposed based on some physical and biological reasons. In the new theory, the Davydov's Hamiltonian and wave function of the systems are simultaneously modified and extended. A new interaction has been added into Davydov's Hamiltonian. The wave function of the excitation state of single particles for the excitons in the Davydov model is replaced by a new wave function of two-quanta quasicoherent state. In such a case, the bio-energy is transported by the new soliton, which differs from the Davydov's soliton. The soliton is formed through self- trapping of two excitons interacting amino acid residues. The exciton is generated by vibrations of amide-I (CO stretching) arising from the energy of hydrolysis of ATP. The properties of the new soliton are extensively studied by analytical method and its lifetime is calculated using the nonlinear quantum perturbation theory and a wide ranges of parameter values relevant to protein molecules. The lifetime of the new soliton at the biological temperature 300 K is enough large and belongs to the order of 10⁻¹⁰ s, or τ/τ₀≥700, in which the soliton can transports over several hundreds amino acid residues. These studied results show clearly that the new soliton is thermally stable and has so larger lifetime that it can play an important role in biological processes. Thus the new model is a candidate of the bio-energy transport mechanism in protein molecules. In the meanwhile, the influences of structure nonuniformity in protein molecules and temperature of the systems on the states and properties of the soliton transport of bio-energy are numerically simulated and studied by the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The structure nonuniformity arises from the disorder distributions of masses of amino acid residues, side groups and impurities, which results also in

  19. Solar heating and cooling system installed at Leavenworth, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A solar heating and cooling is described which is designed to furnish 90 percent of the overall heating load, 70 percent of the cooling load and 100 percent of the domestic hot water load. The building has two floors with a total of 12,000 square feet gross area. The system has 120 flat-plate liquid solar panels with a net area of 2,200 square feet. Five 3 ton Arkla solar assisted absorption units provide the cooling, in conjunction with a 3,000 gallon chilled water storage tank. Two 3,000 gallon storage tanks are provided with one designated for summer use, whereas both tanks are utilized during winter.

  20. Solar heating and cooling system installed at Leavenworth, Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-06-01

    A solar heating and cooling is described which is designed to furnish 90 percent of the overall heating load, 70 percent of the cooling load and 100 percent of the domestic hot water load. The building has two floors with a total of 12,000 square feet gross area. The system has 120 flat-plate liquid solar panels with a net area of 2,200 square feet. Five 3 ton Arkla solar assisted absorption units provide the cooling, in conjunction with a 3,000 gallon chilled water storage tank. Two 3,000 gallon storage tanks are provided with one designated for summer use, whereas both tanks are utilized during winter.

  1. Joint BioEnergy Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Keasling, Jay; Simmons, Blake; Tartaglino, Virginia; Baidoo, Edward; Kothari, Ankita

    2015-06-15

    The Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Research Center dedicated to developing advanced biofuels—liquid fuels derived from the solar energy stored in plant biomass that can replace gasoline, diesel and jet fuels.

  2. Joint BioEnergy Institute

    ScienceCinema

    Keasling, Jay; Simmons, Blake; Tartaglino, Virginia; Baidoo, Edward; Kothari, Ankita

    2016-07-12

    The Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Research Center dedicated to developing advanced biofuels—liquid fuels derived from the solar energy stored in plant biomass that can replace gasoline, diesel and jet fuels.

  3. 30 CFR 250.802 - Design, installation, and operation of surface production-safety systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Production Platform Piping Systems (as incorporated by reference in § 250.198). (4) Electrical system... classified according to API RP 500, Recommended Practice for Classification of Locations for Electrical..., Recommended Practice for Classification of Locations for Electrical Installations at Petroleum Facilities...

  4. 30 CFR 250.802 - Design, installation, and operation of surface production-safety systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Production Platform Piping Systems (as incorporated by reference in § 250.198). (4) Electrical system... classified according to API RP 500, Recommended Practice for Classification of Locations for Electrical..., Recommended Practice for Classification of Locations for Electrical Installations at Petroleum Facilities...

  5. Increasing reliability of system water heaters for steam-turbine installations at the design stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brezgin, V. I.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Brezgin, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    A system for designing water heaters of steam-turbine installations based on uniting standards, reference information, and some numerical procedures with design procedures via wide use of parameterization is considered. The developed design system is based on extensive application of modern information technologies.

  6. Leapfrog Technology to Standardize Equipment and Systems Installations. Section 1. Literature Search and Benchmarking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    cycle time. The design attributes and criteria for system installations were evaluated to address the Design for Manufacturing and Assembly ( DFMA ...PRODUCIBILITY AUTOMATED HANGER SELECTION DEVELOPING A COMPUTERIZED SYSTEM ( DFMA ) THAT COULD PROVIDE A HANGER SELECTION GIVEN A MINIMUM NUMBER OF VARIABLE

  7. NASIS data base management system: IBM 360 TSS implementation. Volume 1: Installation standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The installation standards for the (NASIS) data base management system are presented. The standard approach to preparing systems documentation and the program design and coding rules and conventions are outlines. Included are instructions for preparing all major specifications and suggestions for improving the quality and efficency of the programming task.

  8. Design, installation, and monitorig of a water-preheat system for coin laundries

    SciTech Connect

    Cloud, N. E.

    1983-01-01

    This project involved the design, installation, and monitoring of a water-preheat system for coin laundries. The system has two components. One component is solar, the other is waste heat reclamation from the clothes dryer exhaust. The energy savings achieved amount to roughly 50% of the total water heating load for a typical coin laundry.

  9. An efficient optical fiber cable installation system using self-controlling cable pullers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Takanobu; Mitsuke, Hitoshi; Enami, Makoto

    1986-11-01

    In this paper, an efficient cable installation system using self-controlling cable pullers is discussed. This system is based on a computer simulation carried out to identify the cable installation system most cost efficient for conduits. These simulation results indicate that a distributed cable pulling system with a pulling force of 200 kgf can reduce cable line construction (installation and jointing) costs below that of one-end cable pulling systems. Up until now, an optical fiber cable puller with a pulling force of 200 kgf has been employed in NTT's distributed cable pulling system. Now, a self-controlling puller is being developed to improve this present puller operation. This newly developed puller can control its own pulling force and speed as well as automatically adjust the clearance between its two rubber caterpillars which arises from differences in rope or cable diameters. Its additional features of smaller size and lighter weight make it possible to set up the puller in manholes more easily. Consequently, the distributed cable pulling system employing newly developed self-controlling pullers at present appears to be the most efficient system for installing optical fiber cables in conduits.

  10. Feedstock Production Datasets from the Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework invites users to discover the power of bioenergy through an interface that provides extensive access to research data and literature, GIS mapping tools, and collaborative networks. The Bioenergy KDF supports efforts to develop a robust and sustainable bioenergy industry. The KDF facilitates informed decision making by providing a means to synthesize, analyze, and visualize vast amounts of information in a relevant and succinct manner. It harnesses Web 2.0 and social networking technologies to build a collective knowledge system that can better examine the economic and environmental impacts of development options for biomass feedstock production, biorefineries, and related infrastructure. [copied from https://www.bioenergykdf.net/content/about] Holdings include datasets, models, and maps and the collections are growing due to both DOE contributions and data uploads from individuals.

  11. Biofuel Production Datasets from DOE's Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework invites users to discover the power of bioenergy through an interface that provides extensive access to research data and literature, GIS mapping tools, and collaborative networks. The Bioenergy KDF supports efforts to develop a robust and sustainable bioenergy industry. The KDF facilitates informed decision making by providing a means to synthesize, analyze, and visualize vast amounts of information in a relevant and succinct manner. It harnesses Web 2.0 and social networking technologies to build a collective knowledge system that can better examine the economic and environmental impacts of development options for biomass feedstock production, biorefineries, and related infrastructure. [copied from https://www.bioenergykdf.net/content/about]

    Holdings include datasets, models, and maps and the collections arel growing due to both DOE contributions and data uploads from individuals.

  12. Feedstock Logistics Datasets from DOE's Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework invites users to discover the power of bioenergy through an interface that provides extensive access to research data and literature, GIS mapping tools, and collaborative networks. The Bioenergy KDF supports efforts to develop a robust and sustainable bioenergy industry. The KDF facilitates informed decision making by providing a means to synthesize, analyze, and visualize vast amounts of information in a relevant and succinct manner. It harnesses Web 2.0 and social networking technologies to build a collective knowledge system that can better examine the economic and environmental impacts of development options for biomass feedstock production, biorefineries, and related infrastructure. Holdings include datasets, models, and maps. [from https://www.bioenergykdf.net/content/about

  13. Biofuel Distribution Datasets from the Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework invites users to discover the power of bioenergy through an interface that provides extensive access to research data and literature, GIS mapping tools, and collaborative networks. The Bioenergy KDF supports efforts to develop a robust and sustainable bioenergy industry. The KDF facilitates informed decision making by providing a means to synthesize, analyze, and visualize vast amounts of information in a relevant and succinct manner. It harnesses Web 2.0 and social networking technologies to build a collective knowledge system that can better examine the economic and environmental impacts of development options for biomass feedstock production, biorefineries, and related infrastructure. [copied from https://www.bioenergykdf.net/content/about] Holdings include datasets, models, and maps and the collections are growing due to both DOE contributions and individuals' data uploads.

  14. Installation and through-life operation issues for fiber optic components and systems in aircraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Henry; Proudley, Geoff; Charlton, D. Wez; Kazemi, Alex A.

    2012-06-01

    Installation of fiber optic communication systems on aircraft is very challenging, particularly in military fighters requiring tight confinement. The issues to be addressed include developing an installation approach compatible with maintenance and through-life support whilst having affordable upfront costs. This applies both to the passive harness components (cable and connectors) and to active transceivers. In this paper we discuss the challenges for cable, connector, and transceiver installations and the system implications for civil and military platforms. This paper further demonstrates how an innovative approach to sub-system testing can help to de-risk technology by simulating installation environments in the laboratory and verifying through-life performance. Furthermore, testing of fiber optic cable in the laboratory with prototype components, representative cable lengths, routing and number of connector breaks, and even harness abuse is elaborated upon. A technique was devised using the BAE Systems Optical System and Component Assessment Rig (OSCAR) to evaluate through life operation. This report also shows prototype testing for typical fiber optic harnesses (during build) and the environmental conditions faced on aerospace platforms. Transceiver installation options (integrated onto processor boards, use of daughter PCBs, active connectors and active cables) are discussed and sub-system test setups are described. Results show how test data is used to assess subsystems: passive components have been tested over the -55 °C to +125 °C temperature range and active components over the -40 °C to +80 °C region. In addition, Gigabit Ethernet data is shown operating over the representative hardware with the results tabulated and shown in this paper. The implications for anticipated aircraft installations are summarized.

  15. Review and performance analysis of SUEDE-installed solar-energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, B.; McBride, J.; Moody, B.

    1981-12-16

    The SUEDE (Solar Utilization, Economic Development and Employment) Project consisted of two components. The initial program involved the training of 300 CETA workers to install solar devices on the houses of low-income people nationwide. The second component provided for the development and implementation of a low-cost monitoring program to assess the thermal performance and economic benefits accrued from these devices. Here, information concerning the monitoring and performance of 51 SUEDE-installed commercial and community-built solar domestic hot water systems, greenhouses, sunspaces and air heating systems is provided.

  16. Current state of the art installation techniques for in-situ reactive wall groundwater treatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    Andromalos, K.B.; Jasperse, B.H.; Schindler, R.M.

    1999-07-01

    The consideration and use of in-situ reactive wall groundwater treatment systems on remediation projects continues to gain acceptance. Such systems are attractive due to their low initial capital costs and their minimal operation and maintenance costs compared to traditional pump and treat systems. These systems often are used as a polishing step to groundwater treatment in conjunction with source removal and natural attenuation. In constructing reactive wall groundwater treatment systems, various specialty construction techniques have been utilized. These techniques have included: deep soil mixing, bio-polymer trenching and slurry walls to successfully build funnel and gate systems with replaceable treatment cartridges as well as permeable treatment walls containing iron filings. Such systems have been installed in full-scale and pilot scale applications for various private companies, the Department of Energy and the United States Air Force and others. Several case histories are presented to illustrate these various installation techniques and their applications.

  17. Halophytes As Bioenergy Crops

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rita; Wungrampha, Silas; Singh, Vinay; Pareek, Ashwani; Sharma, Manoj K.

    2016-01-01

    Shrinking arable land due to soil salinization and, depleting fresh water resources pose serious worldwide constraints to crop productivity. A vision of using plant feedstock for biofuel production can only be realized if we can identify alternate species that can be grown on saline soils and therefore, would not compete for the resources required for conventional agriculture. Halophytes have remarkable ability to grow under high salinity conditions. They can be irrigated with seawater without compromising their biomass and seed yields making them good alternate candidates as bioenergy crops. Both oil produced from the seeds and the lignocellulosic biomass of halophytes can be utilized for biofuel production. Several researchers across the globe have recognized this potential and assessed several halophytes for their tolerance to salt, seed oil contents and composition of their lignocellulosic biomass. Here, we review current advances and highlight the key species of halophytes analyzed for this purpose. We have critically assessed the challenges and opportunities associated with using halophytes as bioenergy crops. PMID:27679645

  18. Seasonal energy storage using bioenergy production from abandoned croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. Elliott; Lobell, David B.; Genova, Robert C.; Zumkehr, Andrew; Field, Christopher B.

    2013-09-01

    Bioenergy has the unique potential to provide a dispatchable and carbon-negative component to renewable energy portfolios. However, the sustainability, spatial distribution, and capacity for bioenergy are critically dependent on highly uncertain land-use impacts of biomass agriculture. Biomass cultivation on abandoned agriculture lands is thought to reduce land-use impacts relative to biomass production on currently used croplands. While coarse global estimates of abandoned agriculture lands have been used for large-scale bioenergy assessments, more practical technological and policy applications will require regional, high-resolution information on land availability. Here, we present US county-level estimates of the magnitude and distribution of abandoned cropland and potential bioenergy production on this land using remote sensing data, agriculture inventories, and land-use modeling. These abandoned land estimates are 61% larger than previous estimates for the US, mainly due to the coarse resolution of data applied in previous studies. We apply the land availability results to consider the capacity of biomass electricity to meet the seasonal energy storage requirement in a national energy system that is dominated by wind and solar electricity production. Bioenergy from abandoned croplands can supply most of the seasonal storage needs for a range of energy production scenarios, regions, and biomass yield estimates. These data provide the basis for further down-scaling using models of spatially gridded land-use areas as well as a range of applications for the exploration of bioenergy sustainability.

  19. Systems analysis of the installation, mounting, and activation of emergency locator transmitters in general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. S.

    1980-01-01

    A development program was developed to design and improve the Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) transmitter and to improve the installation in the aircraft and its activation subsystem. There were 1135 general aviation fixed wing aircraft accident files reviewed. A detailed description of the damage to the aircraft was produced. The search aspects of these accidents were studied. As much information as possible about the ELT units in these cases was collected. The data should assist in establishing installation and mounting criteria, better design standards for activation subsystems, and requirements for the new ELT system design in the area of crashworthiness.

  20. 30 CFR 250.430 - When must I install a diverter system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 250.430 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Diverter System Requirements § 250.430 When must I install a diverter...

  1. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: sizing, installation and operation of systems. 1980 edition

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    This manual was prepared as a text for a training course on solar heating and cooling of residential buildings. The course and text are directed toward sizing, installation, operation, and maintenance of solar systems for space heating and hot water supply, and solar cooling is treated only briefly. (MHR)

  2. 30 CFR 75.1103-4 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-4 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements. (a) Effective December 31, 2009, automatic fire sensor and warning...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1103-4 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-4 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; installation; minimum requirements. (a) Effective December 31, 2009, automatic fire sensor and warning...

  4. Training Community College faculty in the techniques and skills required for Solar Energy System installation

    SciTech Connect

    Leo, R.J.

    1980-05-01

    A project to train a specified number of community college, vocational/technical faculty in the techniques and skills required to install solar energy systems is described. The planning that led to the contract, the development and conduct of the training workshops, and the outcomes are detailed. An overall evaluation of the project and recommendations for the future are included. (MHR)

  5. 30 CFR 250.1628 - Design, installation, and operation of production systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur... sulphur production facilities. Prior to installation, the lessee shall submit a sulphur production system... devices, and other sulphur-handling vessels; (2) A schematic piping diagram showing the size and maximum...

  6. The Southwest Research Institute's SWUIS-A digital imaging system was installed on the instrument pa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Southwest Research Institute's SWUIS-A digital imaging system, including a sophisticated Xybion camera and associated control equipment, was installed on the instrument panel of a NASA Dryden F/A-18B for a series of astronomy flights to search for tiny vulcanoids (asteroids) that may be circling between the orbit of Mercury and the sun.

  7. Infrared scene projector system design description for installed infrared sensor testing in an anechoic chamber environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzardo, Mark A.; Joyner, Thomas W.; Thiem, Keem B.

    1999-07-01

    A modular cost-effective Infrared Scene Projector (IRSP) system has been designed for testing infrared sensor(s) installed on host aerospace platform(s) in an anechoic chamber environment. The IRSP consists of the following major functional subsystems: Control Electronics Subsystem, Infrared Emitter Subsystem, Projection Optics Subsystem, Mounting Platform Subsystem and Non-Uniformity Correction Subsystem.

  8. Environmental Control System Installer/Servicer (Residential Air Conditioning Mechanic). V-TECS Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Calvin F.; Benson, Robert T.

    This guide provides job relevant tasks, performance objectives, performance guides, resources, learning activitites, evaluation standards, and achievement testing in the occupation of environmental control system installer/servicer (residential air conditioning mechanic). It is designed to be used with any chosen teaching method. The course…

  9. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Cherry Hill, New Jersey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed in existing buildings at the Cherry Hill Inn in Cherry Hill, New Jersey is described in detail. The system is expected to furnish 31.5% of the overall heating load and 29.8% of the hot water load. The collectors are liquid evacuated tube type. The storage system is an above ground insulated steel water tank with a capacity of 7,500 gallons.

  10. Demonstration of a utility industry horizontal drilling system: Horizontal well AMH-5 installation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development initiated an integrated demonstration of innovative technologies and systems for cleanup of VOCs in soils and groundwater at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 1989. The overall goal of the program is demonstration of multiple technologies and systems in the fields of drilling, characterization, monitoring, and remediation at a single test bed. Innovative technologies are compared to one another and to baseline technologies in terms of technical performance and cost effectiveness. Transfer of successfully demonstrated technologies and systems to DOE environmental restoration organizations, to other government agencies, and to industry is a critical part of the program. Directional drilling has been shown to be a successful technique for enhancing access to the subsurface, thus improving remediation systems, especially remediation systems which perform in situ. Demonstration of an innovative directional drilling system at the Integrated Demonstration Site at the SRS, was initiated in June of 1992. The directional drilling system was designed to install an in situ remediation system. The drilling system is an experimental compaction/dry drilling technique developed by Charles Machine Works (Ditch Witch{reg_sign}) of Perry, Oklahoma. A horizontal well was installed in the M Area of the SRS below and parallel to an abandoned tile process sewer line. The installation of the horizontal well was a two-part process. Part one consisted of drilling the borehole, and part two was the horizontal well completion.

  11. Testing an Open Source installation and server provisioning tool for the INFN CNAF Tierl Storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzi, M.; Favaro, M.; Gregori, D.; Ricci, P. P.; Sapunenko, V.

    2014-06-01

    In large computing centers, such as the INFN CNAF Tier1 [1], is essential to be able to configure all the machines, depending on use, in an automated way. For several years at the Tier1 has been used Quattor[2], a server provisioning tool, which is currently used in production. Nevertheless we have recently started a comparison study involving other tools able to provide specific server installation and configuration features and also offer a proper full customizable solution as an alternative to Quattor. Our choice at the moment fell on integration between two tools: Cobbler [3] for the installation phase and Puppet [4] for the server provisioning and management operation. The tool should provide the following properties in order to replicate and gradually improve the current system features: implement a system check for storage specific constraints such as kernel modules black list at boot time to avoid undesired SAN (Storage Area Network) access during disk partitioning; a simple and effective mechanism for kernel upgrade and downgrade; the ability of setting package provider using yum, rpm or apt; easy to use Virtual Machine installation support including bonding and specific Ethernet configuration; scalability for managing thousands of nodes and parallel installations. This paper describes the results of the comparison and the tests carried out to verify the requirements and the new system suitability in the INFN-T1 environment.

  12. Cellulosic and grain bioenergy crops reduce net greenhouse gas emissions associated with transportation fuels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bioenergy cropping systems could help offset GHG emissions, but quantifying that offset is complex. Adler et al. (2007, Ecol. Appl. 17:675-691) conducted a life cycle assessment of the net greenhouse gas flux from bioenergy cropping systems. Compared with the life cycle of gasoline and diesel, ethan...

  13. IEA Bioenergy Countries' Report: Bioenergy policies and status of implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Bacovsky, Dina; Ludwiczek, Nikolaus; Pointner, Christian; Verma, Vijay Kumar

    2016-08-05

    This report was prepared from IEA statistical data, information from IRENA, and IEA Bioenergy Tasks’ country reports, combined with data provided by the IEA Bioenergy Executive Committee. All individual country reports were reviewed by the national delegates to the IEA Bioenergy Executive Committee, who have approved the content. In the first section of each country report, national renewable energy targets are presented (first table in each country report), and the main pieces of national legislation are discussed. In the second section of each country report the total primary energy supply (TPES) by resources and the contribution of bioenergy are presented. All data is taken from IEA statistics for the year 2014. Where 2014 data was not available, 2013 data was used. It is worth noting that data reported in national statistics can differ from the IEA data presented, as the reporting categories and definitions are different. In the third section of each country report, the research focus related to bioenergy is discussed. Relevant funding programs, major research institutes and projects are described. In the fourth section, recent major bioenergy developments are described. Finally, in the fifth section, links to sources of information are provided.

  14. Handbook of experiences in the design and installation of solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, D.S.; Oberoi, H.S.

    1980-07-01

    A large array of problems encountered are detailed, including design errors, installation mistakes, cases of inadequate durability of materials and unacceptable reliability of components, and wide variations in the performance and operation of different solar systems. Durability, reliability, and design problems are reviewed for solar collector subsystems, heat transfer fluids, thermal storage, passive solar components, piping/ducting, and reliability/operational problems. The following performance topics are covered: criteria for design and performance analysis, domestic hot water systems, passive space heating systems, active space heating systems, space cooling systems, analysis of systems performance, and performance evaluations. (MHR)

  15. [Problems encountered during the installation of an automated anesthesia documentation system (AIMS)].

    PubMed

    Müller, H; Naujoks, F; Dietz, S

    2002-08-01

    Problems encountered during the installation and introduction of an automated anaesthesia documentation system are discussed. Difficulties have to be expected in the area of staff training because of heterogeneous experience in computer usage and in the field of online documentation of vital signs. Moreover the areas of net administration and hardware configuration as well as general administrative issues also represent possible sources of drawbacks. System administration and reliable support provided by personnel of the department of anaesthesiology assuring staff motivation and reducing time of system failures require adequately staffed departments. Based on our own experiences, we recommend that anaesthesiology departments considering the future installation and use of an automated anaesthesia documentation system should verify sufficient personnel capacities prior to their decision.

  16. Bio-polymer slurry trench method for installation of in-situ air sparging system

    SciTech Connect

    Linneman, D.M.

    1996-08-01

    An investigation was conducted at a site in Greenville Country, South Carolina which detected contaminants in the groundwater. It was then decided that remedial action was required. The contaminants and their location in the groundwater led to the selection of an in-situ air sparging system to be installed at approximately thirty-four feet deep. Due to design depth requirements and other site conditions, the bio-polymer slurry trench (B-P drain) Method was utilized in the air sparging system installation. The two trenches were installed using a biodegradable slurry in lieu of the bentonite slurry commonly utilized in the more traditional slurry trench technique. The slurry temporarily supported the trench walls while the air sparging components were submerged and set at the proper elevations Once backfilled with stone, the slurry in both trenches was broken by introducing a breaker solution which reduced the slurry to sugar water. The trenching, air sparging piping installation, and backfilling operations were completed in about six weeks.

  17. Our Commitment to Bioenergy Sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    2011-07-01

    This fact sheet describes how the Biomass Program and its partners combine advanced analysis with applied research to understand and address the potential environmental, economic, and social impacts of bioenergy production.

  18. The role of bioenergy in a climate-changing world

    DOE PAGES

    Souza, Glaucia Mendes; Ballester, Maria Victoria R.; de Brito Cruz, Carlos Henrique; ...

    2017-02-24

    Bioenergy has been under intense scrutiny over the last ten years with significant research efforts in many countries taking place to define and measure sustainable practices. We describe here the main challenges and policy issues and provide policy recommendations for scaling up sustainable bioenergy approaches globally. The 2016 Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs defined under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change) (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties (COP21) will not reach global Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission targets of 2 °C. Sustainable biomass production can make a significant contribution. Substantive evidence exists that many bioenergy cropping systems can bring multiple benefitsmore » and off-set environmental problems associated with fossil fuels usage as well as intensive food production and urbanization. We provide evidence that there are many approaches to land use for bioenergy expansion that do not lead to competition for food or other needs. We should focus on how to manage these approaches on a synergistic basis and how to reduce tradeoffs at landscape scales. Priorities include successful synergies between bioenergy and food security (integrated resource management designed to improve both food security and access to bioenergy), investments in technology, rural extension, and innovations that build capacity and infrastructure, promotion of stable prices to incentivize local production and use of double cropping and flex crops (plants grown for both food and non-food markets) that provide food and energy as well as other services. The sustainable production of biomass requires appropriate policies to secure long-term support to improve crop productivity and also to ensure environmental as well as economic and social benefits of bioenergy cropping systems. Continuous support for cropping, infrastructure, agricultural management and related policies is needed to foster positive synergies between food crops and bioenergy

  19. Solar heating and hot water system installed at James Hurst Elementary School, Portsmouth, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Solar heating and a hot water system installed in an elementary school in Portsmouth, Virginia are examined. The building is zoned into four heating/cooling areas. Each area is equipped with an air handling unit that is monitored and controlled by central control and monitoring system. The solar system for the building uses a collector area of 3,630 sq. ft. of flat plate liquid collectors, and a 6,000 gallon storage tank. System descriptions, maintenance reports, detailed component specifications, and design drawings to evaluate this solar system are reported.

  20. Installation of the first Distributed Energy Storage System (DESS) at American Electric Power (AEP).

    SciTech Connect

    Nourai, Ali

    2007-06-01

    AEP studied the direct and indirect benefits, strengths, and weaknesses of distributed energy storage systems (DESS) and chose to transform its entire utility grid into a system that achieves optimal integration of both central and distributed energy assets. To that end, AEP installed the first NAS battery-based, energy storage system in North America. After one year of operation and testing, AEP has concluded that, although the initial costs of DESS are greater than conventional power solutions, the net benefits justify the AEP decision to create a grid of DESS with intelligent monitoring, communications, and control, in order to enable the utility grid of the future. This report details the site selection, construction, benefits and lessons learned of the first installation, at Chemical Station in North Charleston, WV.

  1. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Shoney's Restaurant, North Little Rock, Arkansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    The solar heating system is designed to supply a major portion of the space and water heating requirements for a newly built Shoney's Big Boy Restaurant which was installed with completion occurring in December 1979. The restaurant has a floor space of approximately 4,650 square feet and requires approximately 1500 gallons of hot water daily. The solar energy system consists of 1,428 square feet of Chamberlain flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 1500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 321 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/yr (specified) building heating and hot water heating. Designer - Energy Solutions, Incorporated. Contractor - Stephens Brothers, Incorporated. This report includes extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, drawings installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  2. Bridge structural health monitoring system using fiber grating sensors: development and preparation for a permanent installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvert, Sean G.; Mooney, Jason

    2004-07-01

    Blue Road Research and the University of California at San Diego have been collaborating over the past four years to develop a system employing fiber Bragg grating strain sensors and modal analysis to provide real-time, quantitative information on a bridge"s response to a dynamic input (such as a seismic event), and a fast prediction of the structure"s integrity. This research, being funded by the National Science Foundation, has several publications showing its strong progress. In the latter part of 2004, this system will be installed on the Broadway Bridge in downtown Portland, Oregon, USA. In preparation for this deployment, the system is undergoing testing from the sensors through the readout unit and bridge modeling to ensure its performance once installed. The steps of preparation and testing are discussed here.

  3. MODELING WORLD BIOENERGY CROP POTENTIAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Kensuke; Hanasaki, Naota; Kanae, Shinjiro

    Bioenergy is regarded as clean energy due to its characteristics and expected to be a new support of world energy de¬mand, but there are few integrated assessments of the potential of bioenergy considering sustainable land use. We esti¬mated the global bioenergy potential with an integrated global water resources model, the H08. It can simulate the crop yields on global-scale at a spatial resolution of 0.50.5. Seven major crops in the world were considered; namely, maize, sugar beet, sugar cane, soybean, rapeseed, rice, and wheat, of which the first 5 are commonly used to produce biofuel now. Three different land-cover types were chosen as potential area for cultivation of biofuel-producing crop: fallow land, grassland, and portion of forests (excluding areas sensitive for biodiversity such as frontier forest). We attempted to estimate the maximum global bioenergy potential and it was estimated to be 1120EJ. Bioenergy potential depends on land-use limitations for the protection of bio-diversity and security of food. In another condition which assumed more land-use limitations, bioenergy potential was estimated to be 70-233EJ.

  4. Opportunities for renewable bioenergy using microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Rittmann, Bruce E

    2008-06-01

    Global warming can be slowed, and perhaps reversed, only when society replaces fossil fuels with renewable, carbon-neutral alternatives. The best option is bioenergy: the sun's energy is captured in biomass and converted to energy forms useful to modern society. To make a dent in global warming, bioenergy must be generated at a very high rate, since the world today uses approximately 10 TW of fossil-fuel energy. And, it must do so without inflicting serious damage on the environment or disrupting our food supply. While most bioenergy options fail on both counts, several microorganism-based options have the potential to produce large amounts of renewable energy without disruptions. In one approach, microbial communities convert the energy value of various biomass residuals to socially useful energy. Biomass residuals come from agricultural, animal, and a variety of industrial operations, as well as from human wastes. Microorganisms can convert almost all of the energy in these wastes to methane, hydrogen, and electricity. In a second approach, photosynthetic microorganisms convert sunlight into biodiesel. Certain algae (eukaryotes) or cyanobacteria (prokaryotes) have high lipid contents. Under proper conditions, these photosynthetic microorganisms can produce lipids for biodiesel with yields per unit area 100 times or more than possible with any plant system. In addition, the non-lipid biomass can be converted to methane, hydrogen, or electricity. Photosynthetic microorganisms do not require arable land, an advantage because our arable land must be used to produce food. Algae or cyanobacteria may be the best option to produce bioenergy at rates high enough to replace a substantial fraction of our society's use of fossil fuels.

  5. Results of the Finnish bioenergy research programme

    SciTech Connect

    Asplund, D.A.; Helynen, S.A.

    1995-11-01

    The aim of the Finnish Bioenergy Research Programme for the period 1993-1998 is to increase the use of economically profitable and environmentally sound bioenergy by improving the competitiveness of biofuels. The main research areas are production methods of wood fuels, peat production, use of bioenergy and conversion of biomass to bio-oils. The total funding of the Bioenergy Research Programme is estimated to be 50 million USD which includes the public funding and also funding from the industrial sources. The total number of the projects in 1994 were 60, and 23 of them were at universities and research institutes, 20 industrial and 17 demonstration projects. The integrated harvesting methods, which would produce both wood raw material for pulp mills and wood fuel for energy production, have been further developed and partly demonstrated. The Massahake method, based on several different successive separation phases, has showed a debarking result for birch and bark content below 1% and economical calculations show that the method can be profitable. A full scale Massahake demonstration plant started during the spring 1995. Feeding of solid fuel into high pressure is an essential part of the pressurized power plant processes. Two new pressurized piston feeders, which could substitute lock-hopper systems and high inert gas consumption, have been designed and tested. IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle)-concepts for biomass need require a low moisture content of the fuel. A new dryer concept based on a fixed bed dryer ha been developed and tested. In research on conversion technology, new results have been created related to pyrolysis oil and upgrading processes for different pulp industry raw material producing bio-oils. Economical calculations showed that pyrolysis oil could be competitive compared to light fuel oil.

  6. Designing bioenergy crop buffers to mitigate nitrous oxide emissions and water quality impacts from agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    There is a strong societal need to evaluate and understand the environmental aspects of bioenergy production, especially due to the significant increases in production mandated by many countries, including the United States. Bioenergy is a land-based renewable resource and increases in production are likely to result in large-scale conversion of land from current uses to bioenergy crop production; potentially causing increases in the prices of food, land and agricultural commodities as well as disruption of ecosystems. Current research on the environmental sustainability of bioenergy has largely focused on the potential of bioenergy crops to sequester carbon and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and possible impacts on water quality and quantity. A key assumption in these studies is that bioenergy crops will be grown in a manner similar to current agricultural crops such as corn and hence would affect the environment similarly. This study presents a systems approach where the agricultural, energy and environmental sectors are considered as components of a single system, and bioenergy crops are used to design multi-functional agricultural landscapes that meet society’s requirements for food, energy and environmental protection. We evaluate the production of bioenergy crop buffers on marginal land and using degraded water and discuss the potential for growing cellulosic bioenergy crops such as miscanthus and switchgrass in optimized systems such that (1) marginal land is brought into productive use; (2) impaired water is used to boost yields (3); clean freshwater is left for other uses that require higher water quality; and (4) feedstock diversification is achieved that helps ecological sustainability, biodiversity, and economic opportunities for farmers. The process-based biogeochemical model DNDC was used to simulate crop yield, nitrous oxide production and nitrate concentrations in groundwater when bioenergy crops were grown in buffer strips adjacent to

  7. Installation, maintenance and operating manual for the Lucas-type fuel injection system of the 3 B rotary engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The installation procedure, maintenance, adjustment and operation of a Lucas type fuel injection system for 13B rotary racing engine is outlined. Components of the fuel injection system and installation procedure and notes are described. Maintenance, adjustment, and operation are discussed.

  8. Influence of structure disorders and temperatures of systems on the bio-energy transport in protein molecules (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Xiao-Feng

    2008-12-01

    The influence of molecular structure disorders and physiological temperature on the states and properties of solitons as transporters of bio-energy are numerically studied through the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and a new theory based on my paper [Front. Phys. China, 2007, 2(4): 469]. The structure disorders include fluctuations in the characteristic parameters of the spring constant, dipole-dipole interaction constant and exciton-phonon coupling constant, as well as the chain-chain interaction coefficient among the three channels and ground state energy resulting from the disorder distributions of masses of amino acid residues and impurities. In this paper, we investigate the behaviors and states of solitons in a single protein molecular chain, and in α-Helix protein molecules with three channels. In the former we prove first that the new solitons can move without dispersion, retaining its shape, velocity and energy in a uniform and periodic protein molecule. In this case of structure disorder, the fluctuations of the spring constant, dipole-dipole interaction constant and exciton-phonon coupling constant, as well as the ground state energy and the disorder distributions of masses of amino acid residues of the proteins influence the states and properties of motion of solitons. However, they are still quite stable and are very robust against these structure disorders, even in the presence of larger disorders in the sequence of masses, spring constants and coupling constants. Still, the solitons may disperse or be destroyed when the disorder distribution of the masses and fluctuations of structure parameters are quite great. If the effect of thermal perturbation of the environment on the soliton in nonuniform proteins is considered again, it is still thermally stable at the biological temperature of 300 K, and at the longer time period of 300 ps and larger spacing of 400 amino acids. The new soliton is also thermally stable in the case of motion over a long

  9. Measurement-Based Evaluation of Installed Filtration System Performance in Single-Family Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Wanyu Rengie; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-04-03

    This guide discusses important study design issues to consider when conducting an on-site evaluation of filtration system performance. The two most important dichotomies to consider in developing a study protocol are (1) whether systems are being evaluated in occupied or unoccupied homes and (2) whether different systems are being compared in the same homes or if the comparison is between systems installed in different homes. This document provides perspective and recommendations about a suite of implementation issues including the choice of particle measurement devices, selection of sampling locations, ways to control and/or monitor factors and processes that can impact particle concentrations, and data analysis approaches.

  10. ANESTHESIA INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: A REVIEW OF FUNCTIONALITY AND INSTALLATION CONSIDERATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenfeld, Jesse M.; Rehman, Mohamed A.

    2010-01-01

    The functionality and rate of implementation of Anesthesia Information Management Systems (AIMS) has markedly risen over the past decade. These systems have now become much more than the generic automated record keepers, originally proposed and developed in the 1980s. AIMS have now become complex integrated systems, which have been shown to improve patient care and, in some cases, the financial performance of a department. Although the underlying technology has improved greatly over the past 5 years, the process of selecting and completing an AIMS installation still presents a number of challenges, and must be approached carefully in order to maximize the benefits provided by these systems. PMID:20734117

  11. Anesthesia information management systems: a review of functionality and installation considerations.

    PubMed

    Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Rehman, Mohamed A

    2011-02-01

    The functionality and rate of implementation of Anesthesia Information Management Systems (AIMS) has markedly risen over the past decade. These systems have now become much more than the generic automated record keepers, originally proposed and developed in the 1980s. AIMS have now become complex integrated systems, which have been shown to improve patient care and, in some cases, the financial performance of a department. Although the underlying technology has improved greatly over the past 5 years, the process of selecting and completing an AIMS installation still presents a number of challenges, and must be approached carefully in order to maximize the benefits provided by these systems.

  12. Modeling carbon dynamics and social drivers of bioenergy agroecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Natalie D.

    Meeting society's energy needs through bioenergy feedstock production presents a significant and urgent challenge, as it can aid in achieving energy independence goals and mitigating climate change. With federal biofuel production standards to be met within the next decade, and with no commercial scale production or markets currently in place, many questions regarding the sustainability and social feasibility of bioenergy still persist. Clarifying these uncertainties requires the incorporation of biogeochemical, biophysical, and socioeconomic modeling tools. Chapter 2 validated the biogeochemical cycling model AGRO-BGC by comparing model estimates with empirical observations from corn and perennial C4 grass systems across Wisconsin and Illinois. AGRO-BGC, in its first application to an annual cropping system, was found to be a robust model for simulating carbon dynamics of an annual cropping system. Chapter 3 investigated the long-term implications of bioenergy feedstock harvest on soil productivity and erosion in annual corn and perennial switchgrass agroecosystems using AGRO-BGC and the soil erosion model RUSLE2. Modeling environments included biophysical landscape characteristics and management practices of bioenergy feedstock production systems. This study found that intensifying aboveground residue harvest reduces soil productivity over time, and the magnitude of these losses is greater in corn than in switchgrass systems. Results of this study will aid in the design of sustainable bioenergy feedstock management practices. Chapter 4 provided evidence that combining biophysical crop canopy characteristics with satellite-derived vegetation indices offers suitable estimates of crop canopy phenology for corn and soybeans in Southwest Wisconsin farms. LANDSAT based vegetation indices, when combined with a light use efficiency model, provide yield estimates in agreement with farmer reports, providing an efficient and accurate means of estimating crop yields from

  13. Design and Installation of Irrigation System for the Expansion of Sugar cane- Industries in Ahvaz, IRAN.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshari, E.; Afshari, S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents achievements of a twelve years ongoing project expansion of sugar cane- industries as a major agricultural development in Ahvaz, IRAN. The entire project is divided in to seven units and each unit provides irrigation water for 30,000 acres of sugar cane farms in Ahwaz. Absou Inc. is one of the consulting firms that is in charge of design and overseeing installation of irrigation system as well as the development of lands for sugar-cane cultivation at one of the units, called Farabi unit .In general, the mission of project is to Pump fresh water from Karoon River and direct it to the sugar cane farm for irrigation. In particular, the task of design and installation include, (1) build a pumping station at Karoon River with capacity of 1271 ft3/sec, (2) transfer water by main channel from Karoon rive to the farm site 19 miles (3) install a secondary pumping stations which direct water from main channel to drainage pipes and provides water for local farms (4) build a secondary channels which carries water with pipe lines with total length of 42 miles and diameter of 16 to 32 inch. (5) install drainage pump stations and collectors (6) level the ground surface and prepare it for irrigation (7) build railroad for carrying sugar canes (23 miles). Thus far, more than 15,000 acres of farm in Farabi unit is under sugar cane cultivation. The presentation will illustrate more details about different aspects of the project including design, installation and construction phases.

  14. AGARD Flight Test Instrumentation Series. Volume 13. Practical Aspects of Instrumentation System Installation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    often makes the installation of flight test instrumentation very complex . Very often available areas within the aircraft cannot be used until...Both ENI data listings should use units of voltage and current rather than decibels. The frequency spectrum ofeach level noted should also ba ...tor good design. Its very nature implies increased weight, complexity , space and power; not to mentior a usually more complicated system checkout. The

  15. Installation, Operation and Maintenance for Reverse Osmosis Element Cleaning and Preservation System (ROECPS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-31

    U.S. MARINE CORPS TECHNICAL MANUAL INSTALLATION, OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE FOR REVERSE OSMOSIS ELEMENT CLEANING AND PRESERVATION SYSTEM (ROECPS) THIS...copies are being forwarded . Indicate whether Statement A, B, C, D, E, F, or X applies. El] DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...document was previously forwarded to DTIC on (date) and the AD number is El In accordance with provisions of DoD instructions, the document requested

  16. A Framework to Survey the Energy Efficiency of Installed Motor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Prakash; Hasanbeigi, Ali; McKane, Aimee

    2013-08-01

    While motors are ubiquitous throughout the globe, there is insufficient data to properly assess their level of energy efficiency across regional boundaries. Furthermore, many of the existing data sets focus on motor efficiency and neglect the connected drive and system. Without a comprehensive survey of the installed motor system base, a baseline energy efficiency of a country or region’s motor systems cannot be developed. The lack of data impedes government agencies, utilities, manufacturers, distributers, and energy managers when identifying where to invest resources to capture potential energy savings, creating programs aimed at reducing electrical energy consumption, or quantifying the impacts of such programs. This paper will outline a data collection framework for use when conducting a survey under a variety of execution models to characterize motor system energy efficiency within a country or region. The framework is intended to standardize the data collected ensuring consistency across independently conducted surveys. Consistency allows for the surveys to be leveraged against each other enabling comparisons to motor system energy efficiencies from other regions. In creating the framework, an analysis of various motor driven systems, including compressed air, pumping, and fan systems, was conducted and relevant parameters characterizing the efficiency of these systems were identified. A database using the framework will enable policymakers and industry to better assess the improvement potential of their installed motor system base particularly with respect to other regions, assisting in efforts to promote improvements to the energy efficiency of motor driven systems.

  17. Bioenergy crop models: Descriptions, data requirements and future challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, S. Surendran; Kang, Shujiang; Zhang, Xuesong; Miguez, Fernando; Izaurralde, Dr. R. Cesar; Post, Wilfred M; Dietze, Michael; Lynd, L.; Wullschleger, Stan D

    2012-01-01

    Field studies that address the production of lignocellulosic biomass as a source of renewable energy provide critical data for the development of bioenergy crop models. A literature survey revealed that 14 models have been used for simulating bioenergy crops including herbaceous and woody bioenergy crops, and for crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) crops. These models simulate field-scale production of biomass for switchgrass (ALMANAC, EPIC, and Agro-BGC), miscanthus (MISCANFOR, MISCANMOD, and WIMOVAC), sugarcane (APSIM, AUSCANE, and CANEGRO), and poplar and willow (SECRETS and 3PG). Two models are adaptations of dynamic global vegetation models and simulate biomass yields of miscanthus and sugarcane at regional scales (Agro-IBIS and LPJmL). Although it lacks the complexity of other bioenergy crop models, the environmental productivity index (EPI) is the only model used to estimate biomass production of CAM (Agave and Opuntia) plants. Except for the EPI model, all models include representations of leaf area dynamics, phenology, radiation interception and utilization, biomass production, and partitioning of biomass to roots and shoots. A few models simulate soil water, nutrient, and carbon cycle dynamics, making them especially useful for assessing the environmental consequences (e.g., erosion and nutrient losses) associated with the large-scale deployment of bioenergy crops. The rapid increase in use of models for energy crop simulation is encouraging; however, detailed information on the influence of climate, soils, and crop management practices on biomass production is scarce. Thus considerable work remains regarding the parameterization and validation of process-based models for bioenergy crops; generation and distribution of high-quality field data for model development and validation; and implementation of an integrated framework for efficient, high-resolution simulations of biomass production for use in planning sustainable bioenergy systems.

  18. Predictive parameters of Legionella pneumophila occurrence in hospital water: HPCs and plumbing system installation age.

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh, Ghader; Mirmohamadlou, Ali; Esmaeli, Davoud

    2016-09-01

    Occurrence of Legionella pneumophila can be relevant to the installation age and the presence of heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs). This research illustrates L. pneumophila contamination of hospital water in accordance with the installation age and the presence of HPCs. One hundred and fifty samples were collected from hot and cold water systems and cultured on R2A and BCYE agar. L. pneumophila identification was done via specific biochemical tests. HPCs and L. pneumophila were detected in 96 and 37.3 % of the samples, respectively. The mean of HPCs density was 947 ± 998 CFU/ml; therefore, 52 % of the samples had higher densities than 500 CFU/ml. High densities of HPCs (>500 CFU/ml) led to colonization of L. pneumophila (≥1000 CFU/ml), mainly observed in cooling systems, gynecological, sonography, and NICU wards. Chi(2) test demonstrated that higher densities (>500 CFU/ml) of HPCs and L. pneumophila contamination in cold water were more frequent than warm water (OR: 2.3 and 1.49, respectively). Univariate regressions implied a significant difference between HPCs density and installation age in positive and negative tests of L. pneumophila (OR = 1.1, p < 0.001, OR = 1.2, p < 0.001). Mann-Whitney U test implied the significant effects of HPCs and installation age on L. pneumophila occurrences (p < 0.001). Spearman correlation and multivariate linear regression revealed significant differences between L. pneumophila and HPCs densities (r s  = 0.33, p < 0.001 and ß = 0.11, p = 0.02), but nonsignificant difference with installation age (r s  = 0.33, p < 0.001 and ß = 0.0, p = 0.91). The occurrence of L. pneumophila, HPCs, and installation age are relevant; so, plumbing system renovation with appropriate materials and promotion of the effective efforts for hospital's water quality assurance is highly recommended.

  19. Installation of Induced Current Measurement Systems in Substations and Analysis of GIC Data during Geomagnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyu-Cheol; Park, Mi-Young; Ryu, Youngsoo; Hong, Youngsu; Yi, Jong-Hyuk; Park, Sung-Won; Kim, Jae-Hun

    2015-12-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CME), which originate from active regions of the Sun's surface, e.g., sunspots, result in geomagnetic storms on Earth. The variation of the Earth's geomagnetic field during such storms induces surface currents that could cause breakdowns in electricity power grids. Hence, it is essential to both monitor Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs) in real time and analyze previous GIC data. In 2012, in order to monitor the variation of GICs, the Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) installed an induced current measurement system at SINGAPYEONG Substation, which is equipped with 765 kV extra-high-voltage transformers. Furthermore, in 2014, two induced current measurement systems were installed on the 345 kV high-voltage transformers at the MIGEUM and SINPOCHEON substations. This paper reports the installation process of the induced current measurement systems at these three substations. Furthermore, it presents the results of both an analysis performed using GIC data measured at the SINGAPYEONG Substation during periods of geomagnetic storms from July 2013 through April 2015 and the comparison between the obtained GIC data and magnetic field variation (dH/dt) data measured at the Icheon geomagnetic observatory.

  20. Design, development, and installation of a two-node, color video-teleconferencing system for the US Navy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vest, K. F.; Jones, P.; French, D.; Sachs, H.; Clements, F.

    1985-11-01

    This report discusses the design of a two-node, color Video-Teleconferencing System for the System for the U.S. Navy and its installation at sites in Suitland, Maryland, and Pearl Harbor. It details the development of the audio, video, and fast-facsimile parts of the system; integration of the system into the communications network; design of a teleconference room; and installation of the system.

  1. Solar photovoltaic applications seminar: design, installation and operation of small, stand-alone photovoltaic power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    This seminar material was developed primarily to provide solar photovoltaic (PV) applied engineering technology to the Federal community. An introduction to photoconductivity, semiconductors, and solar photovoltaic cells is included along with a demonstration of specific applications and application identification. The seminar details general systems design and incorporates most known information from industry, academia, and Government concerning small solar cell power system design engineering, presented in a practical and applied manner. Solar PV power system applications involve classical direct electrical energy conversion and electric power system analysis and synthesis. Presentations and examples involve a variety of disciplines including structural analysis, electric power and load analysis, reliability, sizing and optimization; and, installation, operation and maintenance. Four specific system designs are demonstrated: water pumping, domestic uses, navigational and aircraft aids, and telecommunications. All of the applications discussed are for small power requirement (under 2 kilowatts), stand-alone systems to be used in remote locations. Also presented are practical lessons gained from currently installed and operating systems, problems at sites and their resolution, a logical progression through each major phase of system acquisition, as well as thorough design reviews for each application.

  2. Solar PV Manufacturing Cost Model Group: Installed Solar PV System Prices (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, A. C.; Woodhouse, M.; James, T.

    2011-02-01

    EERE's Solar Energy Technologies Program is charged with leading the Secretary's SunShot Initiative to reduce the cost of electricity from solar by 75% to be cost competitive with conventional energy sources without subsidy by the end of the decade. As part of this Initiative, the program has funded the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop module manufacturing and solar PV system installation cost models to ensure that the program's cost reduction targets are carefully aligned with current and near term industry costs. The NREL cost analysis team has leveraged the laboratories' extensive experience in the areas of project finance and deployment, as well as industry partnerships, to develop cost models that mirror the project cost analysis tools used by project managers at leading U.S. installers. The cost models are constructed through a "bottoms-up" assessment of each major cost element, beginning with the system's bill of materials, labor requirements (type and hours) by component, site-specific charges, and soft costs. In addition to the relevant engineering, procurement, and construction costs, the models also consider all relevant costs to an installer, including labor burdens and overhead rates, supply chain costs, and overhead and materials inventory costs, and assume market-specific profits.

  3. Comparison of tanker drivers' occupational exposures before and after the installation of a vapour recovery system.

    PubMed

    Saarinen, L; Hakkola, M; Kangas, J

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare tanker drivers' occupational exposure level before and after the installation of vapour recovery facilities at 14 service stations. Road tanker drivers are exposed when handling volatile petrol liquid in bulk in the distribution chain. The drivers' exposure was studied during the unloading operation as the bulk petrol flowed into underground storage tanks, displacing vapours in the tank space and causing emission to the environment and the drivers' work area. The exposures were measured again when the dual point Stage I vapour recovery systems were installed for recycling vapours. Short-term measurements were carried out in the drivers' breathing zones by drawing polluted air through a charcoal tube during unloading. The samples were analysed in the laboratory by gas chromatography for C3-C11 aliphatic hydrocarbons, tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (MTAE), benzene, toluene and xylene. The road tanker loads delivered consisted of oxygenated and reformulated petrol (E95 and E98 brands), which contained on average 13% oxygenates. Before the installation of the vapour recovery system, the geometric mean (GM) concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons was 65 mg m-3 (range 6-645 mg m-3) in the drivers' breathing zones. After the installation at the same service stations, the corresponding exposure level was 8.3 mg m-3 (range < 1-79 mg m-3). The GM of the MTBE concentrations was 8.6 mg m-3 (range 1-67 mg m-3) without vapour recovery and 1.5 mg m-3 (range < 0.1-10 mg m-3) with vapour recovery. The differences between the aliphatic hydrocarbons and the MTBE exposure levels during the unloading of the road tankers without and with vapour recovery were statistically significant (p < 0.05).

  4. 75 FR 3141 - Airworthiness Directives; AVOX Systems and B/E Aerospace Oxygen Cylinder Assemblies, as Installed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... B/E Aerospace Oxygen Cylinder Assemblies, as Installed on Various Transport Airplanes AGENCY... AVOX Systems and B/E Aerospace oxygen cylinder assemblies, as installed on various transport airplanes. That AD currently requires removing certain oxygen cylinder assemblies from the airplane. This...

  5. Development of sustainable, native grass-based bioenergy production systems in the prairie region of Minnesota: Biomass production and plant community response to fertilizer and harvest treatments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Native perennial plants are emerging as an alternative, low-carbon, bioenergy feedstock. Land restored from crop monocultures to diverse, native plantings has the potential to provide a host of ecological services, as well as farm income. However, best management practices for maintaining a diverse,...

  6. Implementation of Microfiche Image Transmission System (MITS): A multifaceted assessment of demonstration installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheposh, J. P.; Hulton, V. N.

    1983-06-01

    A multifaceted approach was employed to evaluate the introduction and implementation of a technological system--the microfiche image transmission system (MITS). Four different aspects of the demonstration installation were investigated: (1) operators' perception of MITS, (2) the requesters' acceptance of the services provided, (3) image quality, and (4) management's evaluation of the MITS implementation. The results revealed that the operators' perceptions of MITS were positive, the requesters regarded MITS as highly satisfactory, the image quality of the facsimile input fiche was judged superior to the MITS output, and the managers and developers regarded the MITS implementation as a success. Issues concerning widespread application of MITS were seen as premature at this time.

  7. Neutron Technologies for Bioenergy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Langan, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Neutron scattering is a powerful technique that can be used to probe the structures and dynamics of complex systems. It can provide a fundamental understanding of the processes involved in the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. A variety of neutron scattering technologies are available to elucidate both the organization and deconstruction of this complex composite material and the associations and morphology of the component polymers and the enzymes acting on them, across multiple length scales ranging from Angstroms to micrometers and time scales from microseconds to picoseconds. Unlike most other experimental techniques, neutron scattering is uniquely sensitive to hydrogen (and its isotope deuterium), an atom abundantly present throughout biomass and a key effector in many biological, chemical, and industrial processes for producing biofuels. Sensitivity to hydrogen, the ability to replace hydrogen with deuterium to alter scattering levels, the fact that neutrons cause little or no direct radiation damage, and the ability of neutrons to exchange thermal energies with materials, provide neutron scattering technologies with unique capabilities for bioenergy research. Further, neutrons are highly penetrating, making it possible to employ sample environments that are not suitable for other techniques. The true power of neutron scattering is realized when it is combined with computer simulation and modeling and contrast variation techniques enabled through selective deuterium labeling.

  8. An Open-source Meteorological Operational System and its Installation in Portuguese- speaking Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, W. G.; Ferreira, A. L.; Mendes, M. V.; Ribeiro, A.; Yoksas, T.

    2007-05-01

    CPTEC, a division of Brazil’s INPE, has been using several open-source software packages for a variety of tasks in its Data Division. Among these tools are ones traditionally used in research and educational communities such as GrADs (Grid Analysis and Display System from the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies (COLA)), the Local Data Manager (LDM) and GEMPAK (from Unidata), andl operational tools such the Automatic File Distributor (AFD) that are popular among National Meteorological Services. In addition, some tools developed locally at CPTEC are also being made available as open-source packages. One package is being used to manage the data from Automatic Weather Stations that INPE operates. This system uses only open- source tools such as MySQL database, PERL scripts and Java programs for web access, and Unidata’s Internet Data Distribution (IDD) system and AFD for data delivery. All of these packages are get bundled into a low-cost and easy to install and package called the Meteorological Data Operational System. Recently, in a cooperation with the SICLIMAD project, this system has been modified for use by Portuguese- speaking countries in Africa to manage data from many Automatic Weather Stations that are being installed in these countries under SICLIMAD sponsorship. In this presentation we describe the tools included-in and and architecture-of the Meteorological Data Operational System.

  9. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corporation, Columbus, Ohio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy system installed in the building has 2,978 sq ft of single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/hour water tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  10. HTS Transmission Cable System for installation in the Long Island Power Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Frank; Durand, Fabien; Maguire, James

    2015-10-05

    Department of Energy (DOE) Award DE-FC26-07NT43240 was issued on October 1, 2007. Referred to as LIPA2, the principal objectives of the project were to develop key components required to deploy and demonstrate second-generation (2G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) cables in a 600 meter (2000 feet) underground segment of a 138kV three-phase transmission circuit of the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) power grid. A previous effort under DOE Award DE-FC36-03GO13032 (referred to as LIPA1) resulted in installation (and subsequent successful operation) of first-generation (1G) HTS cables at the LIPA site. As with LIPA1, American Superconductor (AMSC) led the effort for LIPA2 and was responsible for overall management of the project and producing sufficient 2G wire to fabricate the required cable. Nexans' tasks included design/manufacture/installation of the cable, joint (splice), cable terminations and field repairable cryostat; while work by Air Liquide involved engineering and installation support for the refrigeration system modifications.

  11. Solar hot water system installed at Days Inn Motel, Dallas, Texas (Valley View)

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    The solar hot water system installed in the Days Inns of America, Inc., Days Inn Motel (120 rooms), I-35/2276 Valley View Lane, Dallas, Texas is described. The solar system was designed by ILI Incorporated to provide 65 percent of the total domestic hot water (DHW) demand. The Solar Energy Products, model CU-30WW liquid (water) flat plate collector (1000 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1000 gallon steel storage tank when the solar pump is not running. This system is one of eleven systems planned. Heat is transferred from the DHW tanks through a shell and tube heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make up standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature controllers. The operation of this system was begun March 11, 1980. The solar components were partly funded ($15,000 of 30,000 cost) by a Department of Energy grant.

  12. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Arlington Raquetball Club, Arlington, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A solar space and water heating system is described. The solar energy system consists of 2,520 sq. ft. of flat plate solar collectors and a 4,000 gallon solar storage tank. The transfer medium in the forced closed loop is a nontoxic antifreeze solution (50 percent water, 50 percent propylene glycol). The service hot water system consists of a preheat coil (60 ft. of 1 1/4 in copper tubing) located in the upper third of the solar storage tank and a recirculation loop between the preheat coil and the existing electric water heaters. The space heating system consists of two separate water to air heat exchangers located in the ducts of the existing space heating/cooling systems. The heating water is supplied from the solar storage tank. Extracts from site files, specification references for solar modifications to existing building heating and hot water systems, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  13. Power Supply Reliability Assessment in UPFC-installed Transmission System for ATC Enhancement Considering Transient Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuta, Taisuke; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    With recent development of power electronics technology, power system stability enhancement and optimal power flow control by using Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices have so far been studied. The FACTS devices to relieve multiple constraints can also make it possible to enhance Available Transfer Capability (ATC) without construction of new transmission lines. The previous research revealed that ATC is expanded by avoiding multiple constraints in OPF using Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC). For long-term operation of such ATC-expanded power system, it is necessary to evaluate power system reliability. In this paper, the evaluation method of supply reliability for UPFC-installed power system is proposed. Both thermal capacity and transient stability constraints are considered. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by numerical examples for IEEJ East10-machine test system.

  14. Seismic detection system for blocking the dangerous installations in case of strong earthquake occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghica, Daniela; Corneliu Rau, Dan; Ionescu, Constantin; Grigore, Adrian

    2010-05-01

    During the last 70 years, four major earthquakes occurred in the Vrancea seismic area affected Romania territory: 10 November 1940 (Mw = 7.7, 160 km depth), 4 March 1977 (Mw = 7.5, 100 km depth), 30 August 1986 (Mw = 7.2, 140 km depth), 30 May 30 1990 (Mw = 6.9, 80 km depth). Romania is a European country with significant seismicity. So far, the 1977 event had the most catastrophic consequences: about 33,000 residences were totally destroyed or partially deteriorated, 1,571 people dies and another 11,300 were injured. Moreover, 61 natural-gas pipelines were damaged, causing destructive fires. The total losses were estimated at 3 mld. U.S. dollars. Recent studies clearly pointed out that in case of a strong earthquake occurrence in Vrancea region (Ms above 7), the biggest danger regarding the major cities comes from explosions and fires started immediately after the earthquake, and the most important factor of risk are the natural gas distribution networks. The damages are strongly amplified by the fact that, simultaneously, water and electric energy lines distributions are damaged too, making impossible the efficient firemen intervention, for localizing the fire sources. Presently, in Romania safe and efficient accepted solutions for improving the buildings securing, using antiseismic protection of the dangerous installations as natural-gas pipelines are not available. Therefore, we propose a seismic detection system based on a seismically actuated gas shut-off valve, which is automatically shut down in case of a seismic shock. The device is intended to be installed in the natural-gas supply line outside of buildings, as well at each user (group of users), inside of the buildings. The seismic detection system for blocking the dangerous installations in case of a strong earthquake occurrence was designed on the basis of 12 criteria enforced by the US regulations for seismic valves, aimed to eliminate the critical situations as fluids and under pressure gases leakage

  15. Global search tool for the Advanced Photon Source Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) database.

    SciTech Connect

    Quock, D. E. R.; Cianciarulo, M. B.; APS Engineering Support Division; Purdue Univ.

    2007-01-01

    The Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) is a relational database tool that has been implemented at the Advanced Photon Source to maintain an updated account of approximately 600 control system software applications, 400,000 process variables, and 30,000 control system hardware components. To effectively display this large amount of control system information to operators and engineers, IRMIS was initially built with nine Web-based viewers: Applications Organizing Index, IOC, PLC, Component Type, Installed Components, Network, Controls Spares, Process Variables, and Cables. However, since each viewer is designed to provide details from only one major category of the control system, the necessity for a one-stop global search tool for the entire database became apparent. The user requirements for extremely fast database search time and ease of navigation through search results led to the choice of Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) technology in the implementation of the IRMIS global search tool. Unique features of the global search tool include a two-tier level of displayed search results, and a database data integrity validation and reporting mechanism.

  16. Privatization of electrical and natural gas utility systems at Army installations

    SciTech Connect

    Eng, W.F.

    1997-06-01

    At the beginning of the 1990`s, ninety-two percent of the Army`s major CONUS (Continental United States) installations owned and operated their own natural gas distribution systems. During the past five years, four more gas systems have been transferred to the local distribution companies and many more are either under study or well on their way towards privatization. Within the Army, the growing trend is towards total privatization of both the plants and piping systems. The statistics on electrical distribution, a highly regulated utility as compared to natural gas, are comparable: ninety-eight percent Army-owned in 1990 with three transferred since then. To counteract years of severe underfunding for maintenance, repair, and rehabilitation of an aging utility infrastructure, as well as an older and shrinking workforce, the Army has embarked on a course of total divestiture of these assets and the purchase of the utility services from the {open_quotes}new utility provider.{close_quotes} The utility provider, be it a private, investor-owned utility company, or municipal utility department, as a condition of the conveyance, must accept full responsibility for system enhancements, enlargements, and environmental compliance. The Army installation, like any other customer, is then charged for service and capital improvements as part of the rate structure. Privatization, through total asset divestiture, is intended to take the burden off the installation and put it on the broader shoulders of the utility company or authority, which is organized, financed, staffed, and equipped to provide a better level of service to all its utility customers.

  17. Argonne National Laboratory`s photo-oxidation organic mixed waste treatment system - installation and startup testing

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, T.L.; Nelson, R.A.; Torres, T.; Conner, C.; Wygmans, D.

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes the installation and startup testing of the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL-E) Photo-Oxidation Organic Mixed Waste Treatment System. This system will treat organic mixed (i.e., radioactive and hazardous) waste by oxidizing the organics to carbon dioxide and inorganic salts in an aqueous media. The residue will be treated in the existing radwaste evaporators. The system is installed in the Waste Management Facility at the ANL-E site in Argonne, Illinois. 1 fig.

  18. Installation guidelines for Solar Heating System, single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Heating System installer guidelines are provided for each subsystem and includes testing and filling the system. This single-family residential heating system is a solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air system with solar-assisted domestic water heating. It is composed of the following major components: liquid cooled flat plate collectors; water storage tank; passive solar-fired domestic water preheater; electric hot water heater; heat pump with electric backup; solar hot water coil unit; tube-and-shell heat exchanger, three pumps, and associated pipes and valving in an energy transport module; control system; and air-cooled heat purge unit. Information is also provided on the operating procedures, controls, caution requirements, and routine and schedule maintenance. Information consists of written procedures, schematics, detail drawings, pictures and manufacturer's component data.

  19. Solar hot water system installed at Quality Inn, Key West, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-04-01

    The solar energy hot water system installed in the Quality Inn, Key West, Florida, which consists of four buildings is described. Three buildings are low-rise, two-story buildings containing 100 rooms. The fourth is a four-story building with 48 rooms. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50 percent of the energy required for the domestic hot water system. The solar system consists of approximately 1400 square feet of flat plate collector, two 500 gallon storage tanks, a circulating pump, and a controller. Operation of the system was begun in April 1978, and has continued to date with only three minor interruptions for pump repair. In the first year of operation, it was determined that the use of the solar facility resulted in forty percent fuel savings.

  20. Solar hot water system installed at Quality Inn, Key West, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy hot water system installed in the Quality Inn, Key West, Florida, which consists of four buildings is described. Three buildings are low-rise, two-story buildings containing 100 rooms. The fourth is a four-story building with 48 rooms. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50 percent of the energy required for the domestic hot water system. The solar system consists of approximately 1400 square feet of flat plate collector, two 500 gallon storage tanks, a circulating pump, and a controller. Operation of the system was begun in April 1978, and has continued to date with only three minor interruptions for pump repair. In the first year of operation, it was determined that the use of the solar facility resulted in forty percent fuel savings.

  1. Solar hot water system installed at Quality Inn, Key West, Florida. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    The solar energy hot water system installed in the Quality Inn, Key West, Florida, which consists of four buildings, is described. Three buildings are low-rise, two-story buildings containing 100 rooms. The fourth is a four-story building with 48 rooms. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50% of the energy required for the domestic hot water system. The solar system consists of approximately 1400 ft/sup 2/ of flat plate collector, two 500 gal storage tanks, a circulating pump, and a controller. Operation of the system was begun in April 1978, and has continued to date with only three minor interruptions for pump repair. In the first year of operation, it was determined that the use of the solar facility resulted in 40% fuel savings.

  2. Instructor's Manual for Teaching and Practical Courses on Design of Systems and Sizing, Installation and Operation of Systems for Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    Presented are guidelines for instructors of two courses in the design, installation, and operation of solar heating and cooling systems. These courses are: (1) Design of Systems, and (2) Sizing, Installation, and Operation of Systems. Limited in scope to active solar systems for residential buildings, these courses place primary emphasis upon…

  3. Determination of the optimal positions for installing gamma ray detection systems at Tehran Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayyah, A.; Rahmani, F.; Khalafi, H.

    2015-09-01

    Dosimetric instruments must constantly monitor radiation dose levels in different areas of nuclear reactor. Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) has seven beam tubes for different research purposes. All the beam tubes extend from the reactor core to Beam Port Floor (BPF) of the reactor facility. During the reactor operation, the gamma rays exiting from each beam tube outlet produce a specific gamma dose rate field in the space of the BPF. To effectively monitor the gamma dose rates on the BPF, gamma ray detection systems must be installed in optimal positions. The selection of optimal positions is a compromise between two requirements. First, the installation positions must possess largest gamma dose rates and second, gamma ray detectors must not be saturated in these positions. In this study, calculations and experimental measurements have been carried out to identify the optimal positions of the gamma ray detection systems. Eight three dimensional models of the reactor core and related facilities corresponding to eight scenarios have been simulated using MCNPX Monte Carlo code to calculate the gamma dose equivalent rate field in the space of the BPF. These facilities are beam tubes, thermal column, pool, BPF space filled with air, facilities such as neutron radiography facility, neutron powder diffraction facility embedded in the beam tubes as well as biological shields inserted into the unused beam tubes. According to the analysis results of the combined gamma dose rate field, three positions on the north side and two positions on the south side of the BPF have been recognized as optimal positions for installing the gamma ray detection systems. To ensure the consistency of the simulation data, experimental measurements were conducted using TLDs (600 and 700) pairs during the reactor operation at 4.5 MW.

  4. Installation of spectrally selective imaging system in RF negative ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, K.; Wünderlich, D.; Fantz, U.; Heinemann, B.; Kisaki, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Nakano, H.; Osakabe, M.; Tsumori, K.; Geng, S.; Kaneko, O.; Takeiri, Y.

    2016-02-01

    A spectrally selective imaging system has been installed in the RF negative ion source in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-relevant negative ion beam test facility ELISE (Extraction from a Large Ion Source Experiment) to investigate distribution of hydrogen Balmer-α emission (Hα) close to the production surface of hydrogen negative ion. We selected a GigE vision camera coupled with an optical band-path filter, which can be controlled remotely using high speed network connection. A distribution of Hα emission near the bias plate has been clearly observed. The same time trend on Hα intensities measured by the imaging diagnostic and the optical emission spectroscopy is confirmed.

  5. Bioenergy from Biofuel Residues and Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2015-10-01

    This review includes works published in the general scientific literature during 2014 on the production of bioenergy and biofuel from waste residues generated during bioethanol and biodiesel production with a brief overview of current and emerging feedstocks. Anothersection of this review summarizes literature on culturing algae for biofuels including bioreactors and open pond cultivation systems with the utilization of inorganic and organic sources of nutrients. New methods applicable to the mass culture of algae are highlighted. Algal cell harvesting and oil extraction techniques tested and developed for algae are also discussed.

  6. Bioenergy from Biofuel Residues and Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    This review includes works published in the general scientific literature during 2015 on the production of bioenergy and biofuel from waste residues generated during bioethanol and biodiesel production with a brief overview of current and emerging feedstocks. A section of this review summarizes literature on culturing algae for biofuels including bioreactors and open pond cultivation systems with the utilization of inorganic and organic sources of nutrients. New methods applicable to the mass culture of algae are highlighted. Algal cell harvesting and oil extraction techniques tested and developed for algae discussed alongwith policies and economics are also provided.

  7. Bioenergy from Biofuel Residues and Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Charabi, Yassine; Baawain, Mahad; Ahmed, Mushtaque

    2017-10-01

    This review includes works published in the general scientific literature during 2016 on the production of bioenergy and biofuel from waste residues generated during bioethanol and biodiesel production with a brief overview of current and emerging feedstocks. A section of this review summarizes literature on culturing algae for biofuels including bioreactors and open pond cultivation systems with the utilization of inorganic and organic sources of nutrients. New methods applicable to the mass culture of algae are highlighted. Algal cell harvesting and oil extraction techniques are discussed along with policies and economics.

  8. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Municipal Building complex, Abbeville, South Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Information on the solar energy system installed at the new municipal building for the City of Abbeville, SC is presented, including a description of solar energy system and buildings, lessons learned, and recommendations. The solar space heating system is a direct air heating system. The flat roof collector panel was sized to provide 75% of the heating requirement based on an average day in January. The collectors used are job-built with two layers of filon corrugated fiberglass FRP panels cross lapped make up the cover. The storage consists of a pit filled with washed 3/4 in - 1 1/2 in diameter crushed granite stone. The air handler includes the air handling mechanism, motorized dampers, air circulating blower, sensors, control relays and mode control unit. Solar heating of water is provided only those times when the hot air in the collector is exhausted to the outside.

  9. Installation guidelines for solar heating system, single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar heating system installer guidelines are presented for each subsystem. This single family residential heating system is a solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air system with solar-assisted domestic water heating. It is composed of the following major components: (1) liquid cooled flat plate collectors; (2) water storage tank; (3) passive solar-fired domestic water preheater; (4) electric hot water heater; (5) heat pump with electric backup; (6) solar hot water coil unit; (7) tube-and-shell heat exchanger, three pumps, and associated pipes and valving in an energy transport module; (8) control system; and (9) air-cooled heat purge unit. Information is provided on the operating procedures, controls, caution requirements, and routine and schedule maintenance in the form of written descriptions, schematics, detail drawings, pictures, and manufacturer's component data.

  10. Infrared scene simulation to support installed-systems avionics test and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, Peter M.

    1996-06-01

    The US Air Force and Navy are cooperating in a program to increase their capabilities for installed systems avionics test. Complete aircraft will be suspended in very large, shielded, anechoic test chambers. Hardware-in-the- loop and man-in-the-loop tests will be conducted by simulating combat mission scenarios in which aircraft systems will be stimulated as they would be on an actual mission. Current installed systems test facilities are limited to RF threats. The improvements will include radar target generation; communication, navigation, and identification stimulation; and, an infrared scene stimulator (IRSS). The iRSS must generate a realistic, real-time simulation of the IR environment including complex backgrounds, multiple dynamic targets, IR countermeasures, and atmospheric effects. Current computer image generators can create highly detailed, geo-specific, real-time visual imagery. However, high-fidelity, detailed, flexible IR predictions including source phenomenology and atmospheric effects typically require several seconds to several hours per frame. Further, IR predictions require significantly more geo-specific data than is widely available for large gaming areas. The goal of IRSS development, therefore, is to integrate two well-developed technologies: real-time image generation and IR prediction. In this paper, potential solutions and necessary compromises will be discussed and evaluated.

  11. Design and installation of a next generation pilot scale fermentation system.

    PubMed

    Junker, B; Brix, T; Lester, M; Kardos, P; Adamca, J; Lynch, J; Schmitt, J; Salmon, P

    2003-01-01

    Four new fermenters were designed and constructed for use in secondary metabolite cultivations, bioconversions, and enzyme production. A new PC/PLC-based control system also was implemented using GE Fanuc PLCs, Genius I/O blocks, and Fix Dynamics SCADA software. These systems were incorporated into an industrial research fermentation pilot plant, designed and constructed in the early 1980s. Details of the design of these new fermenters and the new control system are described and compared with the existing installation for expected effectiveness. In addition, the reasoning behind selection of some of these features has been included. Key to the design was the goal of preserving similarity between the new and previously existing and successfully utilized fermenter hardware and software installations where feasible but implementing improvements where warranted and beneficial. Examples of enhancements include strategic use of Inconel as a material of construction to reduce corrosion, piping layout design for simplified hazardous energy isolation, on-line calculation and control of nutrient feed rates, and the use of field I/O modules located near the vessel to permit low-cost addition of new instrumentation.

  12. NACA Investigations of Icing-Protection Systems for Turbojet-Engine Installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VonGlahn, Uwe; Callaghan, Edmund E.; Gray, Vernon H.

    1951-01-01

    Investigations have been made in flight and in wind tunnels to determine which components of turbojet installations are most critical in icing conditions, and to evaluate several methods of icing protection. From these studies, the requirements necessary for adequate icing protection and the consequent penalties on engine performance can be estimated. Because investigations have indicated that the compressor-inlet screen constitutes the greatest icing hazard and is difficult to protect, complete removal or retraction of the screen upon encountering an icing condition is recommended. In the absence of the screen, the inlet guide vanes of an axial-flow-type turbojet engine constitute the greatest danger to engine operation in an icing condition; a centrifugal-type engine, on the other hand, is relatively unsusceptible to icing once the screen has been removed. Of the three icing-protection systems investigated, surface heating, hot-gas bleedback, and inertia-separation inlets, only the first two offer an acceptable solution to the problem of engine icing protection. Surface heating, either by gas heating or electrical means, appears to be the most acceptable icing-protection method with regard to performance losses. Hot-gas bleedback, although causing undesirable thrust losses, offers an easy means of obtaining icing protection for some installations. The final choice of an icing-protection system depends, however, on the supply of heated gas and electrical power available and on the allowable performance and. weight penalties associated with each system.

  13. Orion Capsule and Launch Abort System (LAS) installed in the NASA Glenn 8x6 Supersonic Wind Tunnel f

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Orion Capsule and Launch Abort System (LAS) installed in the NASA Glenn 8x6 Supersonic Wind Tunnel for testing. This test is an Aero Acoustic test of the LAS. Pictured is the calibration of the model's angle of attack

  14. 205 kW Photovoltaic (PV) System Installed on the U.S. Department of Energy's Forrestal Building

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    Fact sheet on the installation of a photovoltaic system providing renewable energy for the U.S. Department of Energy and providing leadership for meeting Federal goals in the use of renewable energy technologies.

  15. Modeling Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstock Production in the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraxner, Florian; Leduc, Sylvain; Kindermann, Georg; Fuss, Sabine; Pietsch, Stephan; Lakyda, Ivan; Serrano Leon, Hernan; Shchepashchenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly

    2016-04-01

    Sustainability of bioenergy is often indicated by the neutrality of emissions at the conversion site while the feedstock production site is assumed to be carbon neutral. Recent research shows that sustainability of bioenergy systems starts with feedstock management. Even if sustainable forest management is applied, different management types can impact ecosystem services substantially. This study examines different sustainable forest management systems together with an optimal planning of green-field bioenergy plants in the Alps. Two models - the biophysical global forest model (G4M) and a techno-economic engineering model for optimizing renewable energy systems (BeWhere) are implemented. G4M is applied in a forward looking manner in order to provide information on the forest under different management scenarios: (1) managing the forest for maximizing the carbon sequestration; or (2) managing the forest for maximizing the harvestable wood amount for bioenergy production. The results from the forest modelling are then picked up by the engineering model BeWhere, which optimizes the bioenergy production in terms of energy demand (power and heat demand by population) and supply (wood harvesting potentials), feedstock harvesting and transport costs, the location and capacity of the bioenergy plant as well as the energy distribution logistics with respect to heat and electricity (e.g. considering existing grids for electricity or district heating etc.). First results highlight the importance of considering ecosystem services under different scenarios and in a geographically explicit manner. While aiming at producing the same amount of bioenergy under both forest management scenarios, it turns out that in scenario (1) a substantially larger area (distributed across the Alps) will need to be used for producing (and harvesting) the necessary amount of feedstock than under scenario (2). This result clearly shows that scenario (2) has to be seen as an "intensification

  16. Installation and operation of a large scale RAPS system in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, J. F.

    In 1997, International Lead Zinc Research Organization Inc. (ILZRO), Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA), and the Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) of Peru signed a Memorandum of Understanding to facilitate the installation of hybrid remote area power supply (RAPS) systems in the Amazon region of Peru. Many remote villages in this vast region have either no or limited electricity supplied by diesel generators running a few hours per day. Subsequently, ILZRO sponsored the engineering design of the hybrid RAPS system and SEIA supported a socio-economic study to determine the sustainability of such systems and the locations for pilot installations. In mid-1998, the Peruvian government approved the design of the system. ILZRO then began efforts to obtain governmental and inter-governmental funding to supplement its own funds to underwrite the cost of manufacture and installation of the systems in two villages in the Amazon region. Additional major funding has been received from the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) administered by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and from the Common Fund for Commodities (CFC). Funds have also been received from the US Department of Energy, the International Greenhouse Partnership (Australia) and the Peruvian government. The RAPS system consists of modules designed to provide 150 kW h per day of utility grade ac electricity over a 24 h period. Each module contains a diesel generator, battery bank using heavy-duty 2 V VRLA GEL batteries, a battery charger, a photovoltaic array and an ac/dc inverter. The batteries and electrical components are housed in modified shipping containers. The modules can be installed with a new generator or retrofitted to an existing generator. The charging and discharging regime of the batteries has been recommended by a study carried out by CSIRO, which has simulated the RAPS operation. The system will employ a partial-state-of-charge (PSOC) regime in order to optimize the life of the

  17. Tracking the Sun IX: The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen; Darghouth, Naïm; Millstein, Dev; Cates, Sarah; DiSanti, Nicholas; Widiss, Rebecca

    2016-08-16

    Now in its ninth edition, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report focuses on residential and non-residential systems installed through year-end 2015, with preliminary trends for the first half of 2016. An accompanying LBNL report, Utility-Scale Solar, addresses trends in the utility-scale sector. This year’s report incorporates a number of important changes and enhancements from prior editions. Among those changes, LBNL has made available a public data file containing all non-confidential project-level data underlying the analysis in this report. Installed pricing trends presented within this report derive primarily from project-level data reported to state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. Refer to the text box to the right for several key notes about these data. In total, data were collected and cleaned for more than 820,000 individual PV systems, representing 85% of U.S. residential and non-residential PV systems installed cumulatively through 2015 and 82% of systems installed in 2015. The analysis in this report is based on a subset of this sample, consisting of roughly 450,000 systems with available installed price data.

  18. Coal conversion systems design and process modeling. Volume 2: Installation of MPPM on the Signal 9 computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Relevant differences between the MPPM resident IBM 370computer and the NASA Sigma 9 computer are described as well as the MPPM system itself and its development. Problems encountered and solutions used to overcome these difficulties during installation of the MPPM system at MSFC are discussed. Remaining work on the installation effort is summarized. The relevant hardware features incorporated in the program are described and their implications on the transportability of the MPPM source code are examined.

  19. Optical analysis of a photovoltaic V-trough system installed in western India.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Subarna; Sarmah, Nabin; Bapat, Pratap; Mallick, Tapas K

    2012-12-20

    The low concentrating photovoltaic (PV) system such as a 2× V-trough system can be a promising choice for enhancing the power output from conventional PV panels with the inclusion of thermal management. This system is more attractive when the reflectors are retrofitted to the stationary PV panels installed in a high aspect ratio in the north-south direction and are tracked 12 times a year manually according to preset angles, thus eliminating the need of diurnal expensive tracking. In the present analysis, a V-trough system facing exactly the south direction is considered, where the tilt angle of the PV panels' row is kept constant at 18.34°. The system is installed on the terrace of CSIR-Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute in Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India (21.47 N, 71.15 E). The dimension of the entire PV system is 9.64 m×0.55 m. The V-troughs made of anodized aluminum reflectors (70% specular reflectivity) had the same dimensions. An in-house developed; experimentally validated Monte Carlo ray-trace model was used to study the effect of the angular variation of the reflectors throughout a year for the present assembly. Results of the ray trace for the optimized angles showed the maximum simulated optical efficiency to be 85.9%. The spatial distribution of solar intensity over the 0.55 m dimension of the PV panel due to the V-trough reflectors was also studied for the optimized days in periods that included solstices and equinoxes. The measured solar intensity profiles with and without the V-trough system were used to calculate the actual optical efficiencies for several sunny days in the year, and results were validated with the simulated efficiencies within an average error limit of 10%.

  20. NREL National Bioenergy Center Overview

    ScienceCinema

    Foust, Thomas; Pienkos, Phil; Sluiter, Justin; Magrini, Kim; McMillan, Jim

    2016-07-12

    The demand for clean, sustainable, secure energy is growing... and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is answering the call. NREL's National Bioenergy Center is pioneering biofuels research and development and accelerating the pace these technologies move into the marketplace.

  1. Switchgrass for forage and bioenergy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Switchgrass is a native warm-season grass that has been used for hay, forage, and conservation purposes for decades and switchgrass research in Nebraska has been ongoing since 1936. Recently, switchgrass has been identified as a model perennial grass for bioenergy in the Great Plains and Midwest. Si...

  2. NREL National Bioenergy Center Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Foust, Thomas; Pienkos, Phil; Sluiter, Justin; Magrini, Kim; McMillan, Jim

    2014-07-28

    The demand for clean, sustainable, secure energy is growing... and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is answering the call. NREL's National Bioenergy Center is pioneering biofuels research and development and accelerating the pace these technologies move into the marketplace.

  3. Bioenergy in a Multifunctional Landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, Chad; Negri, Cristina; Ssegane, Herbert

    2015-10-23

    How can our landscapes be managed most effectively to produce crops for food, feed, and bioenergy, while also protecting our water resources by preventing the loss of nutrients from the soil? Dr. Cristina Negri and her team at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory are tackling this question at an agricultural research site located in Fairbury, Illinois.

  4. NREL National Bioenergy Center Overview

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    The demand for clean, sustainable, secure energy is growing... and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is answering the call. NREL's National bioenergy Center is pioneering biofuels research and development and accelerating the pace these technologies move into the marketplace.

  5. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Saint Louis, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed at the William Tao & Associates, Inc., office building in St. Louis, Missouri is described, including maintenance and construction problems, final drawings, system requirements, and manufacturer's component data. The solar system was designed to provide 50 percent of the hot water requirements and 45 percent of the space heating needs for a 900 sq ft office space and drafting room. The solar facility has 252 sq ft of glass tube concentrator collectors and a 1000 gallon steel storage tank buried below a concrete slab floor. Freeze protection is provided by a propylene glycol/water mixture in the collector loop. The collectors are roof mounted on a variable tilt array which is adjusted seasonally and is connected to the solar thermal storage tank by a tube-in-shell heat exchanger. Incoming city water is preheated through the solar energy thermal storage tank.

  6. Development and Testing of a Post-Installable Deepwater Monitoring System Using Fiber-Optic Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seaman, Calvin H.; Brower, David V.; Le, Suy Q.; Tang, Henry H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the design and development of a fiber-optic monitoring system that can be deployed on existing deepwater risers and flowlines; and provides a summary of test article fabrication and the subsequent laboratory testing performed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Johnson Space Center (NASA-JSC). A major challenge of a post-installed instrumentation system is to ensure adequate coupling between the instruments and the riser or flowline of interest. This work investigates the sensor coupling for pipelines that are suspended in a water column (from topside platform to seabed) using a fiber-optic sensor clamp and subsea bonding adhesive. The study involved the design, fabrication, and test of several prototype clamps that contained fiber-optic sensors. A mold was produced by NASA using 3-D printing methods that allowed the casting of polyurethane clamp test articles to accommodate 4-inch and 8-inch diameter pipes. The prototype clamps were installed with a subsea adhesive in a "wet" environment and then tested in the NASA Structures Test Laboratory (STL). The tension, compression, and bending test data showed that the prototype sensor clamps achieved good structural coupling, and could provide high quality strain measurement for active monitoring.

  7. 33 CFR Appendix E to Part 157 - Specifications for the Design, Installation and Operation of a Part Flow System for Control of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Installation and Operation of a Part Flow System for Control of Overboard Discharges E Appendix E to Part 157... Appendix E to Part 157—Specifications for the Design, Installation and Operation of a Part Flow System for... criteria and installation and operational requirements for the part flow system referred to in Regulation...

  8. Farm-scale costs and returns for second generation bioenergy cropping systems in the US Corn Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manatt, Robert K.; Hallam, Arne; Schulte, Lisa A.; Heaton, Emily A.; Gunther, Theo; Hall, Richard B.; Moore, Ken J.

    2013-09-01

    While grain crops are meeting much of the initial need for biofuels in the US, cellulosic or second generation (2G) materials are mandated to provide a growing portion of biofuel feedstocks. We sought to inform development of a 2G crop portfolio by assessing the profitability of novel cropping systems that potentially mitigate the negative effects of grain-based biofuel crops on food supply and environmental quality. We analyzed farm-gate costs and returns of five systems from an ongoing experiment in central Iowa, USA. The continuous corn cropping system was most profitable under current market conditions, followed by a corn-soybean rotation that incorporated triticale as a 2G cover crop every third year, and a corn-switchgrass system. A novel triticale-hybrid aspen intercropping system had the highest yields over the long term, but could only surpass the profitability of the continuous corn system when biomass prices exceeded foreseeable market values. A triticale/sorghum double cropping system was deemed unviable. We perceive three ways 2G crops could become more cost competitive with grain crops: by (1) boosting yields through substantially greater investment in research and development, (2) increasing demand through substantially greater and sustained investment in new markets, and (3) developing new schemes to compensate farmers for environmental benefits associated with 2G crops.

  9. Wood to energy: using southern interface fuels for bioenergy

    Treesearch

    C. Staudhammer; L.A. Hermansen; D. Carter; Ed Macie

    2011-01-01

    This publications aims to increase awareness of potential uses for woody biomass in the southern wildland-urban interface (WUI) and to disseminate knowledge about putting bioenergy production systems in place, while addressing issues unique to WUI areas. Chapter topics include woody biomass sources in the wildland-urban interface; harvesting, preprocessing and delivery...

  10. Intelligent systems installed in building of research centre for research purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matusov, Jozef; Mokry, Marian; Kolkova, Zuzana; Sedivy, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    The attractiveness of intelligent buildings is nowadays directly connected with higher level of comfort and also the economic mode of consumption energy for heating, cooling and the total consumption of electricity for electric devices. The technologies of intelligent buildings compared with conventional solutions allow dynamic optimization in real time and make it easy for operational message. The basic division of functionality in horizontal direction is possible divide in to two areas such as Economical sophisticated residential care about the comfort of people in the building and Security features. The paper deals with description of intelligent systems which has a building of Research Centre. The building has installed the latest technology for utilization of renewable energy and also latest systems of controlling and driving all devices which contribute for economy operation by achieving the highest thermal comfort and overall safety.

  11. Astronauts Hoffman and Musgrave install the Magnetic Sensing System on HST

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-12-07

    STS061-77-102 (7 Dec 1993) --- Astronauts Jeffrey A. Hoffman (left) and F. Story Musgrave are partially silhouetted against the Indian Ocean as they work to install the Magnetic Sensing System (MSS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Musgrave is anchored to the end of the Space Shuttle Endeavour's Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm. The HST is positioned along the southern end of Madagascar, 325 nautical miles away. Visible on the western coast are the sediment laden Onilahy and Fiherenana Rivers which empty into Saint Augustin Bay. North of Fiherenana River is the Mangoky River. The circular feature on the southern end of Madagascar and to the right of HST is the L'ivakoany Mountains. The eastern coast is relatively straight compared to the western coast.

  12. New Spray Bar System Installed in NASA Lewis' Icing Research Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, Thomas B.

    1998-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) is the world's largest refrigerated wind tunnel dedicated to the study of aircraft icing. In the IRT, natural icing conditions are duplicated to test the effects of in-flight icing on actual aircraft components and on scale models of airplanes and helicopters. The IRT's ability to reproduce a natural icing cloud was significantly improved with the recent installation of a new spray bar system. It is the spray bar system that transforms the low-speed wind tunnel into an icing wind tunnel by producing microscopic droplets of water and injecting them into the wind tunnel air stream in order to accurately simulate cloud moisture.

  13. Astronauts Hoffman and Musgrave install the Magnetic Sensing System on HST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronauts Jeffrey A. Hoffman (left) and F. Story Musgrave are partially silhouetted against the Indian Ocean as they work to install the Magnetic Sensing System (MSS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Musgrave is anchored to the end of the Endeavour's Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm. The HST is positioned along the southern end of Madagascar, 325 nautical miles away. Visible on the western coast are the sediment laden Onilahy and Fiherenana Rivers which empty into Saint Augustin Bay. North of Fiherenana River is the Mangoky River. The circular feature on the southern end of Madagascar and to the right of HST is the L'ivakoany Mountains. The eastern coast is relatively straight compared to the western coast.

  14. 40 CFR Table 41 to Subpart Uuu of... - Requirements for Installation, Operation, and Maintenance of Continuous Parameter Monitoring Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Operation, and Maintenance of Continuous Parameter Monitoring Systems 41 Table 41 to Subpart UUU of Part 63...—Requirements for Installation, Operation, and Maintenance of Continuous Parameter Monitoring Systems As stated.... Colormetric tube sampling system Use a colormetric tube sampling system with a printed numerical scale in...

  15. LED system performance in a trial installation - one year later: Yuma border patrol, Yuma, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, Andrea M.; Davis, Robert G.

    2015-04-01

    The Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area is a high temperature and high solar radiation environment, providing an opportunity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to study thermal effects on outdoor light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires outside of the testing laboratory. Six LED luminaires were installed on three poles on the U.S.- Mexico border in February 2014 as part of a trial installation, which was detailed in a prior GATEWAY report.1 The initial trial installation was intended as a short - term test of six luminaires installed on three poles before proceeding with the complete installation of over 400 luminaires. Unexpected delays in the full installation have prevented the detailed evaluations initially planned, but the six installed LED luminaires continue to be monitored, and over the past year illuminance measurements were recorded initially in February 2014 and again in September 2014 at about 2500 hours of operation and in March 2015 at about 5000 hours of operation.

  16. Design and installation of a Prototype Geohazard Monitoring System near Machu Picchu, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulmer, M. H.; Farquhar, T.

    2010-09-01

    The town of Machu Picchu, Peru, serves the >700 000 tourists visiting Machu Picchu annually. It has grown threefold in population in the past two decades. Due to the limited low-lying ground, construction is occurring on the unstable valley slopes. Slopes range from <10° on the valley floor to >70° in the surrounding mountains. The town has grown on a delta formed at the confluence of the Alcamayo, Aguas Calientes and Vilcanota Rivers. Geohazards in and around the town of particular concern are 1) large rocks falling onto the town and/or the rail line, 2) flash flooding by any one of its three rivers, and 3) mudflows and landslides. A prototype early warning system that could monitor weather, river flow and slope stability was installed along the Aguas Calientes River in 2009. This has a distributed modular construction allowing components to be installed, maintained, salvaged, and repaired by local technicians. A diverse set of candidate power, communication and sensor technologies was evaluated. Most of the technologies had never been deployed in similar terrain, altitude or weather. The successful deployment of the prototype proved that it is technically feasible to develop early warning capacity in the town.

  17. Vadose zone monitoring system installation report for McClellan AFB

    SciTech Connect

    Zawislanski, P.; Faybishenko, B.; James, A.; Freifeld, B.; Salve, R.

    1996-10-31

    Two vadose zone monitoring systems (VZMS) have been installed at Site S-7, in Investigation Cluster 34 (IC 34), in Operable Unit A (OU A) of McClellan AFB. The two boreholes, VZMS-A and VZMS-B were instrumented at depths ranging from approximately 6 ft to 113 ft. Instruments were installed in clusters using a custom-made stainless steel cage with a spring-loaded mechanism allowing instruments to be in contact with the well bore wall once in place. Each cluster contains a tensiometer, suction lysimeter, soil gas probe and thermistor for measuring hydraulic potential, liquid- and gas-phase pressure, temperature of the formation and for collecting samples for chemical analyses in both the liquid and gas phases. Neutron probe logging is performed in two separate, smaller borings, VZMS-NP-1 and VZMS-NP-2, to obtain soil moisture content data. Preliminary details of soil gas analyses, laboratory field testing of soil samples, particle size analyses and neutron probe data are presented.

  18. Assessing wild bees in perennial bioenergy landscapes: effects of bioenergy crop composition, landscape configuration, and bioenergy crop area

    DOE PAGES

    Graham, John B.; Nassauer, Joan I.; Currie, William S.; ...

    2017-03-25

    Wild bee populations are currently under threat, which has led to recent efforts to increase pollinator habitat in North America. Simultaneously, U.S. federal energy policies are beginning to encourage perennial bioenergy cropping (PBC) systems, which have the potential to support native bees. Our objective was to explore the potentially interactive effects of crop composition, total PBC area, and PBC patches in different landscape configurations. Using a spatially-explicit modeling approach, the Lonsdorf model, we simulated the impacts of three perennial bioenergy crops (PBC: willow, switchgrass, and prairie), three scenarios with different total PBC area (11.7%, 23.5% and 28.8% of agricultural landmore » converted to PBC) and two types of landscape configurations (PBC in clustered landscape patterns that represent realistic future configurations or in dispersed neutral landscape models) on a nest abundance index in an Illinois landscape. Our modeling results suggest that crop composition and PBC area are particularly important for bee nest abundance, whereas landscape configuration is associated with bee nest abundance at the local scale but less so at the regional scale. Moreover, strategies to enhance wild bee habitat should therefore emphasize the crop composition and amount of PBC.« less

  19. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at North Dallas High School. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    This Document is the Final Technical Report of the Solar Energy System located at the North Dallas High School, Dallas, Texas. The system is designed as a retrofit in a three story with basement, concrete frame high school building. The building was air conditioned with an electric drive 300-ton chilled water central system in 1973. The building contains 126,000 square feet and the solar energy system will preheat 100 percent of domestic hot water and supply 47.5 percent of annual building heating requirements. During the building cooling seasons, the solar energy system will supply 100 percent of domestic hot water. The solar energy system consists of 4800 square feet (320 panels) Lennox/Honeywell flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 10,000 gallon steel tank storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 686.6 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/year (specified) building heating and domestic hot water heating. The start up date is December 4, 1979. Extracts from the site files, specification references for solar modification to existing building heating and domestic hot water systems, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions are presented.

  20. Bio-energy Alliance High-Tonnage Bio-energy Crop Production and Conversion into Conventional Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Capareda, Sergio; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud; Hall, Kenneth R.; Holtzapple, Mark; Searcy, Royce; Thompson, Wayne H.; Baltensperger, David; Myatt, Robert; Blumenthal, Jurg

    2012-11-30

    significantly exceed those of multiple-cut high biomass sorghum systems. Our agronomic yield and quality data will be uploaded to the Bioenergy KDF Website before the end of February 2013, with a date for public access to be determined pending peer-reviewed publication of our findings.

  1. Will more intensive forest harvesting for bioenergy cause unacceptable depletion of base cation pools - a modelling study using the Heureka decision support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futter, M. N.; Lucas, R. W.; Egnell, G.; Holmström, H.; Laudon, H.; Nilsson, U.; Oni, S. K.; Lämâs, T.

    2012-04-01

    Intensive forest harvesting has the potential to remove base cations (BC; Ca, K, Mg and Na) from ecosystems more rapidly than they can be replaced through mineral weathering. For this reason, whole tree harvesting (i.e. branches and needles harvested) for biofuel production in Sweden and elsewhere may not be ecologically sustainable. Under some circumstances, excessive BC removal may lead to re-acidification of soil and surface waters and a reduction of the growth potential in subsequent forest rotations. There is considerable uncertainty in all components of stand-scale BC mass balance estimates associated with forest harvests. Estimates of weathering rates from a single site can range over more than an order of magnitude, deposition estimates are often poorly constrained and tree element concentrations can show considerable variation. Despite these uncertainties, BC dynamics play a key role in forest management and planning. The Heureka decision support system has been developed in Sweden for multi-criteria analysis of forest management scenarios. Heureka can be used to estimate timber production and economic return under a series of user-specified constraints. Here, we present a model application based on Heureka, a database of tree element concentrations, published weathering rate estimates and long-term monitoring data to estimate BC budgets and their associated uncertainty under a series of forest harvest scenarios at the Strömsjöliden production park in northern Sweden. We evaluated BC budgets under four long term forest management scenarios associated with "business as usual", more intensive production, nature conservation and reindeer husbandry. Despite the large amount of uncertainty, a number of trends emerged. Nature conservation and reindeer husbandry scenarios were, in general, more sustainable than the other scenarios. Model results suggested that stem-only harvest could remove BC more rapidly than they could be replaced by weathering at some

  2. Technical Analysis of Installed Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel-Cell System

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe

    2014-10-31

    Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a technical analysis of 5 kWe CHP-FCSs installed in different locations in the U.S. At some sites as many as five 5 kWe system is used to provide up to 25kWe of power. Systems in this power range are considered “micro”-CHP-FCS. To better assess performance of micro-CHP-FCS and understand their benefits, the U.S. Department of Energy worked with ClearEdge Power to install fifteen 5-kWe PBI high temperature PEM fuel cells (CE5 models) in the commercial markets of California and Oregon. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated these systems in terms of their economics, operations, and technical performance. These units were monitored from September 2011 until June 2013. During this time, about 190,000 hours of data were collected and more than 17 billion data points were analyzed. Beginning in July 2013, ten of these systems were gradually replaced with ungraded systems (M5 models) containing phosphoric acid fuel cell technology. The new units were monitored until June 2014 until they went offline because ClearEdge was bought by Doosan at the time and the new manufacturer did not continue to support data collection and maintenance of these units. During these two phases, data was collected at once per second and data analysis techniques were applied to understand behavior of these systems. The results of this analysis indicate that systems installed in the second phase of this demonstration performed much better in terms of availability, consistency in generation, and reliability. The average net electrical power output increased from 4.1 to 4.9 kWe, net heat recovery from 4.7 to 5.4 kWth, and system availability improved from 94% to 95%. The average net system electric

  3. RADIATION PROTECTION SYSTEM INSTALLATION FOR THE ACCELERATOR PRODUCTION OF TRITIUM/LOW ENERGY DEMONSTRATION ACCELERATOR PROJECT (APT/LEDA)

    SciTech Connect

    J. WILMARTH; M. SMITH; T. TOMEI

    1999-07-01

    The APT/LEDA personnel radiation protection system installation was accomplished using a flexible, modular proven system which satisfied regulatory orders, project design criteria, operational modes, and facility requirements. The goal of providing exclusion and safe access of personnel to areas where prompt radiation in the LEDA facility is produced was achieved with the installation of a DOE-approved Personnel Access Control System (PACS). To satisfy the facility configuration design, the PACS, a major component of the overall radiation safety system, conveniently provided five independent areas of personnel access control. Because of its flexibility and adaptability the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) designed Radiation Security System (RSS) was efficiently configured to provide the desired operational modes and satisfy the APT/LEDA project design criteria. The Backbone Beam Enable (BBE) system based on the LANSCE RSS provided the accelerator beam control functions with redundant, hardwired, tamper-resistant hardware. The installation was accomplished using modular components.

  4. Space Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.0 Pre-Installation Acceptance (PIA) Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Carly; Vogel, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Following successful completion of the space suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 1.0 development and testing in 2011, the second system-level prototype, PLSS 2.0, was developed in 2012 to continue the maturation of the advanced PLSS design which is intended to reduce consumables, improve reliability and robustness, and incorporate additional sensing and functional capabilities over the current Space Shuttle/International Space Station Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) PLSS. PLSS 2.0 represents the first attempt at a packaged design comprising first generation or later component prototypes and medium fidelity interfaces within a flight-like representative volume. Pre-Installation Acceptance (PIA) is carryover terminology from the Space Shuttle Program referring to the series of test sequences used to verify functionality of the EMU PLSS prior to installation into the Space Shuttle airlock for launch. As applied to the PLSS 2.0 development and testing effort, PIA testing designated the series of 27 independent test sequences devised to verify component and subsystem functionality, perform in situ instrument calibrations, generate mapping data to define set-points for control algorithms, evaluate hardware performance against advanced PLSS design requirements, and provide quantitative and qualitative feedback on evolving design requirements and performance specifications. PLSS 2.0 PIA testing was carried out from 3/20/13 - 3/15/14 using a variety of test configurations to perform test sequences that ranged from stand-alone component testing to system-level testing, with evaluations becoming increasingly integrated as the test series progressed. Each of the 27 test sequences was vetted independently, with verification of basic functionality required before completion. Because PLSS 2.0 design requirements were evolving concurrently with PLSS 2.0 PIA testing, the requirements were used as guidelines to assess performance during the tests; after the completion of PIA

  5. Space Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.0 Pre-Installation Acceptance (PIA) Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anchondo, Ian; Cox, Marlon; Meginnis, Carly; Westheimer, David; Vogel, Matt R.

    2016-01-01

    Following successful completion of the space suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 1.0 development and testing in 2011, the second system-level prototype, PLSS 2.0, was developed in 2012 to continue the maturation of the advanced PLSS design. This advanced PLSS is intended to reduce consumables, improve reliability and robustness, and incorporate additional sensing and functional capabilities over the current Space Shuttle/International Space Station Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) PLSS. PLSS 2.0 represents the first attempt at a packaged design comprising first generation or later component prototypes and medium fidelity interfaces within a flight-like representative volume. Pre-Installation Acceptance (PIA) is carryover terminology from the Space Shuttle Program referring to the series of test sequences used to verify functionality of the EMU PLSS prior to installation into the Space Shuttle airlock for launch. As applied to the PLSS 2.0 development and testing effort, PIA testing designated the series of 27 independent test sequences devised to verify component and subsystem functionality, perform in situ instrument calibrations, generate mapping data, define set-points, evaluate control algorithms, evaluate hardware performance against advanced PLSS design requirements, and provide quantitative and qualitative feedback on evolving design requirements and performance specifications. PLSS 2.0 PIA testing was carried out in 2013 and 2014 using a variety of test configurations to perform test sequences that ranged from stand-alone component testing to system-level testing, with evaluations becoming increasingly integrated as the test series progressed. Each of the 27 test sequences was vetted independently, with verification of basic functionality required before completion. Because PLSS 2.0 design requirements were evolving concurrently with PLSS 2.0 PIA testing, the requirements were used as guidelines to assess performance during the tests; after the

  6. Installing and Commissioning a New Radioactive Waste Tracking System - Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Miklos Garamszeghy; Fred Rodrigues; Ed Nicholls

    2005-05-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) recognizes the importance of information management particularly with regards to its low and intermediate level waste program. Various computer based waste tracking systems have been used in OPG since the 1980s. These systems tracked the physical receipt, processing, storage, and inventory of the waste. As OPG moved towards long-term management (e.g. disposal), it was recognized that tracking of more detailed waste characterization information was important. This required either substantial modification of the existing system to include a waste characterization module or replacing it entirely with a new system. After a detailed review of available options, it was decided that the existing waste tracking application would be replaced with the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Integrated Waste Tracking System (IWTS). Installing and commissioning a system which must receive historical operational waste management information (data) and provide new features, required much more attention than was originally considered. The operational readiness of IWTS required extensive vetting and preparation of historic data (which itself had been created from multiple databases in varied formats) to ensure a consistent format for import of some 30,000-container records, and merging and linking these container records to a waste stream based characterization database. This paper will discuss some of the strengths and weaknesses contributing to project success or hindrance so that others can understand and minimize the difficulties inherent in a project of this magnitude.

  7. Installation of seafloor cabled seismic and tsunami observation system developed by using ICT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, Masanao; Yamada, Tomoaki; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Shiobara, Hajime; Kanazawa, Toshihiko

    2017-04-01

    A seafloor cabled system is useful for study of earth science and disaster mitigation, because real-time and long-term observation can be performed. Therefore seafloor cabled systems with seismometers and tsunami-meters have been used over the past 25 years around Japan. Because increase of a number of sensors is needed, a new system with low costs for production, deployment and operation is expected. In addition, the new system should have sufficient for flexibility of measurements after installation. To achieve these demands, we started development of a new system using Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for data transmission and system control. The new system can be made compact since software processes various measurements. Reliability of the system is kept by using redundant system which is easily constructed using the ICT. The first system based on this concept was developed as Ocean Bottom Cabled Seismometer (OBCS) system and deployed in Japan Sea. Development of the second system started from 2012. The Ocean Bottom Cabled Seismometer and Tsunami-meter (OBCST) system has both seismometers and tsunami-meters. Each observation node has a CPU and FPGAs. The OBCST system uses standard TCP/IP protocol with a speed of 1 Gbps for data transmission, system control and monitoring. IEEE-1588 (PTP) is implemented to synchronize a real-time clock, and accuracy is less than 300 ns. We developed two types of observation node. One equips a pressure gauge as tsunami sensor, and another has an external port for additional observation sensor using PoE. Deployment of the OBCST system was carried out in September 2015 by using a commercial telecommunication cable ship. The noise levels at the OBCST system are comparable to those at the existing cabled system off Sanriku. It is found that the noise levels at the OBCST system are low at frequencies greater than 2 Hz and smaller than 0.1 Hz. This level of ambient seismic noise is close to a typical system noise. From

  8. Parallel Work of CO2 Ejectors Installed in a Multi-Ejector Module of Refrigeration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodys, Jakub; Palacz, Michal; Haida, Michal; Smolka, Jacek; Nowak, Andrzej J.; Banasiak, Krzysztof; Hafner, Armin

    2016-09-01

    A performance analysis on of fixed ejectors installed in a multi-ejector module in a CO2 refrigeration system is presented in this study. The serial and the parallel work of four fixed-geometry units that compose the multi-ejector pack was carried out. The executed numerical simulations were performed with the use of validated Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM). The computational tool ejectorPL for typical transcritical parameters at the motive nozzle were used in all the tests. A wide range of the operating conditions for supermarket applications in three different European climate zones were taken into consideration. The obtained results present the high and stable performance of all the ejectors in the multi-ejector pack.

  9. Installation of spectrally selective imaging system in RF negative ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, K. Kisaki, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Nakano, H.; Osakabe, M.; Tsumori, K.; Kaneko, O.; Takeiri, Y.; Wünderlich, D.; Fantz, U.; Heinemann, B.; Geng, S.

    2016-02-15

    A spectrally selective imaging system has been installed in the RF negative ion source in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-relevant negative ion beam test facility ELISE (Extraction from a Large Ion Source Experiment) to investigate distribution of hydrogen Balmer-α emission (H{sub α}) close to the production surface of hydrogen negative ion. We selected a GigE vision camera coupled with an optical band-path filter, which can be controlled remotely using high speed network connection. A distribution of H{sub α} emission near the bias plate has been clearly observed. The same time trend on H{sub α} intensities measured by the imaging diagnostic and the optical emission spectroscopy is confirmed.

  10. Installation and impact of sound field systems on hearing and hearing impaired children and their teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dockrell, Julie; Rigby, Kate; Shield, Bridget; Carey, Anne

    2005-04-01

    An evaluation of the installation and use of sound field systems in ten schools in England has been carried out. The evaluation included noise surveys of classrooms, questionnaire surveys of pupils and teachers and experimental testing of children with and without the use of SFS. The aim of this project was to investigate the impact of SFS on teaching and learning in elementary school classrooms, in particular, to ascertain whether the SFS differentially benefited children with hearing impairments. Barriers to teachers use of SFS were found in terms of equipment placement and maintenance, appropriate training, and teacher's knowledge. Nonetheless positive reports are recorded from both teachers and pupils. Teachers' and pupils' perceptions are compared with objective data evaluating change in performance when SFS are used for language and cognitive tasks. Data from children with hearing impairments and additional learning needs are analyzed for comparative purposes. The results are discussed in terms of effective practice for the use of SFS with elementary school pupils.

  11. Systems engineering aspects to installation of the phased multi-year LANSCE-refurbishment project

    SciTech Connect

    Pieck, Martin; Erickson, John E; Gulley, Mark S; Jones, Kevin W; Rybarcyk, Larry J

    2009-01-01

    The LANSCE Refurbishment Project (LANSCE-R) is a phased, multiyear project. The project is scheduled to start refurbishment in the 2nd quarter of fiscal year 2011. Closeout will occur during the 4th quarter of FY2016. During the LANSCE-R project, installation of project components must be scheduled during six annual 6-month maintenance-outages and not conflict with annual LANSCE operational commitments to its user facilities. The project and operations schedules must be synchronized carefully. Therefore, the scheduled maintenance outages, functional testing (with beam off, by primarily project personnel) and commissioning (with beam on, by primarily Accelerator Operation Technology (AOT) personnel) must be managed to accommodate operation. Active and effective coordination and communication between the project and AOT personnel must be encouraged to identify, as early as possible, any operational issues. This paper will report on the systems engineering approach to the integration and control of engineering activities.

  12. DEMONSTRATiON OF A SUBSURFACE CONTAINMENT SYSTEM FOR INSTALLATION AT DOE WASTE SITES

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas J. Crocker; Verna M. Carpenter

    2003-05-21

    Between 1952 and 1970, DOE buried mixed waste in pits and trenches that now have special cleanup needs. The disposal practices used decades ago left these landfills and other trenches, pits, and disposal sites filled with three million cubic meters of buried waste. This waste is becoming harmful to human safety and health. Today's cleanup and waste removal is time-consuming and expensive with some sites scheduled to complete cleanup by 2006 or later. An interim solution to the DOE buried waste problem is to encapsulate and hydraulically isolate the waste with a geomembrane barrier and monitor the performance of the barrier over its 50-yr lifetime. The installed containment barriers would isolate the buried waste and protect groundwater from pollutants until final remediations are completed. The DOE has awarded a contract to RAHCO International, Inc.; of Spokane, Washington; to design, develop, and test a novel subsurface barrier installation system, referred to as a Subsurface Containment System (SCS). The installed containment barrier consists of commercially available geomembrane materials that isolates the underground waste, similar to the way a swimming pools hold water, without disrupting hazardous material that was buried decades ago. The barrier protects soil and groundwater from contamination and effectively meets environmental cleanup standards while reducing risks, schedules, and costs. Constructing the subsurface containment barrier uses a combination of conventional and specialized equipment and a unique continuous construction process. This innovative equipment and construction method can construct a 1000-ft-long X 34-ft-wide X 30-ft-deep barrier at construction rates to 12 Wday (8 hr/day operation). Life cycle costs including RCRA cover and long-term monitoring range from approximately $380 to $590/cu yd of waste contained or $100 to $160/sq ft of placed barrier based upon the subsurface geology surrounding the waste. Project objectives for Phase I

  13. Quantify Degradation Rates and Mechanisms of PV Modules and Systems Installed in Florida Through Comprehensive Experimental and Theoretical Analysis (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Sorloaica-Hickman, N.; Davis, K.; Kurtz, S.; Jordan, D.

    2011-02-01

    The economic viability of photovoltaic (PV) technologies is inextricably tied to both the electrical performance and degradation rate of the PV systems, which are the generators of electrical power in PV systems. Over the past 15 years, performance data have been collected on numerous PV systems installed throughout the state of Florida and will be presented.

  14. 40 CFR Table 41 to Subpart Uuu of... - Requirements for Installation, Operation, and Maintenance of Continuous Parameter Monitoring Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Operation, and Maintenance of Continuous Parameter Monitoring Systems 41 Table 41 to Subpart UUU of Part 63...—Requirements for Installation, Operation, and Maintenance of Continuous Parameter Monitoring Systems As stated... deviation for measured values of no more than ±15 percent. System must include a gas detection pump and...

  15. 40 CFR Table 41 to Subpart Uuu of... - Requirements for Installation, Operation, and Maintenance of Continuous Parameter Monitoring Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Operation, and Maintenance of Continuous Parameter Monitoring Systems 41 Table 41 to Subpart UUU of Part 63...—Requirements for Installation, Operation, and Maintenance of Continuous Parameter Monitoring Systems As stated... deviation for measured values of no more than ±15 percent. System must include a gas detection pump and...

  16. Installation of seafloor cabled seismic and tsunami observation system developed by using ICT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, M.

    2016-12-01

    A seafloor cabled system is useful for study of earth science and disaster mitigation, because real-time and long-term observation can be performed. Therefore seafloor cabled systems with seismometers and tsunami-meters have been used over the past 25 years around Japan. Because increase of a number of sensors is needed, a new system with low costs for production, deployment and operation is expected. In addition, the new system should have sufficient for flexibility of measurements after installation. To achieve these demands, we started development of a new system using Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for data transmission and system control. The new system can be made compact since software processes various measurements. Reliability of the system is kept by using redundant system which is easily constructed using the ICT. The first system based on this concept was developed as Ocean Bottom Cabled Seismometer (OBCS) system and deployed in Japan Sea. Development of the second system started from 2012. The Ocean Bottom Cabled Seismometer and tsunami-meter (OBCST) system has both seismometers and tsunami-meters. Each observation node has an CPU and FPGAs. The OBCST system uses standard TCP/IP protocol with a speed of 1 Gbps for data transmission, system control and monitoring. IEEE-1588 (PTP) is implemented to synchronize a real-time clock, and accuracy is less than 300 ns. We developed two types of observation node. One equips a pressure gauge as tsunami sensor, and another has an external port for additional observation sensor using PoE. Deployment of the OBCST system was carried out in September 2015 by using a commercial telecommunication cable ship. The noise levels at the OBCST system are comparable to those at the existing cabled system off Sanriku. It is found that the noise levels at the OBCST system are low at frequencies greater than 2 Hz and smaller than 0.1 Hz. This level of ambient seismic noise is close to a typical system noise

  17. Installation and pre-commissioning of the cryogenic system of JT-60SA tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoa, C.; Michel, F.; Roussel, P.; Fejoz, P.; Girard, S.; Goncalves, R.; Lamaison, V.; Natsume, K.; Kizu, K.; Koide, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Cardella, A.; Portone, A.; Verrecchia, M.; Wanner, M.; Beauvisage, J.; Bertholat, F.; Gaillard, G.; Heloin, V.; Langevin, B.; Legrand, J.; Maire, S.; Perrier, J. M.; Pudys, V.

    2017-02-01

    The cryogenic system for the superconducting tokamak JT-60SA is currently being commissioned in Naka, Japan and shall be ready for operation in summer 2016. This contribution is part of the Broader Approach agreement between Japan and Europe. With an equivalent refrigeration capacity of about 9.5 kW at 4.5 K the cryogenic system will supply cryo-pump panels at 3.7 K, superconducting magnets and their structures at 4.4 K, high temperature superconducting current leads at 50 K and thermal shields between 80 K and 100 K. The system has been specifically designed to handle large pulse loads at 4.4 K during plasma operation. The mechanical and electrical assembly of the cryogenic system has been achieved within six months by October 2015. The main contractor Air Liquide Advanced Technology (AL-aT) have supplied eight parallel working screw compressors with a common oil removal and dryer system, a Refrigeration Cold Box and an Auxiliary Cold box with cold rotating machines. F4E has provided six GHe storage vessels and QST has provided the complete infrastructure and the facilities for the utilities. The paper gives an overview of the main design features, the infrastructure and the status of installation and pre-commissioning.

  18. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of ITP fact sheet about installing Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces. For most fuel-fired heating equipment, a large amount of the heat supplied is wasted as exhaust or flue gases. In furnaces, air and fuel are mixed and burned to generate heat, some of which is transferred to the heating device and its load. When the heat transfer reaches its practical limit, the spent combustion gases are removed from the furnace via a flue or stack. At this point, these gases still hold considerable thermal energy. In many systems, this is the greatest single heat loss. The energy efficiency can often be increased by using waste heat gas recovery systems to capture and use some of the energy in the flue gas. For natural gas-based systems, the amount of heat contained in the flue gases as a percentage of the heat input in a heating system can be estimated by using Figure 1. Exhaust gas loss or waste heat depends on flue gas temperature and its mass flow, or in practical terms, excess air resulting from combustion air supply and air leakage into the furnace. The excess air can be estimated by measuring oxygen percentage in the flue gases.

  19. Tracking the Sun VIII. The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Barbose, Galen L.; Darghouth, Naïm R.; Millstein, Dev; Spears, Mike; Wiser, Ryan H.; Buckley, Michael; Widiss, Rebecca; Grue, Nick

    2015-08-01

    Now in its eighth edition, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report focuses on residential and nonresidential systems installed through year-end 2014, with preliminary trends for the first half of 2015. As noted in the text box below, this year’s report incorporates a number of important changes and enhancements. Among those changes, this year's report focuses solely on residential and nonresidential PV systems; data on utility-scale PV are reported in LBNL’s companion Utility-Scale Solar report series. Installed pricing trends presented within this report derive primarily from project-level data reported to state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. In total, data were collected for roughly 400,000 individual PV systems, representing 81% of all U.S. residential and non-residential PV capacity installed through 2014 and 62% of capacity installed in 2014, though a smaller subset of this data were used in analysis.

  20. Fungal Genome Sequencing and Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Scott E.; Thykaer, Jette; Adney, William S.; Brettin, T.; Brockman, Fred J.; D'haeseleer, Patrik; Martinez, Antonio D.; Miller, R. M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Torok, Tamas; Tuskan, Gerald; Bennett, Joan W.; Berka, Randy; Briggs, Steve; Heitman, Joseph; Taylor, John; Turgeon, Barbara G.; Werner-Washburne, Maggie; Himmel, Michael E.

    2008-09-30

    To date, the number of ongoing filamentous fungal genome sequencing projects is almost tenfold fewer than those of bacterial and archaeal genome projects. The fungi chosen for sequencing represent narrow kingdom diversity; most are pathogens or models. We advocate an ambitious, forward-looking phylogenetic-based genome sequencing program, designed to capture metabolic diversity within the fungal kingdom, thereby enhancing research into alternative bioenergy sources, bioremediation, and fungal-environment interactions.

  1. Bioenergy in a Multifunctional Landscape

    ScienceCinema

    Watts, Chad; Negri, Cristina; Ssegane, Herbert

    2016-11-02

    How can our landscapes be managed most effectively to produce crops for food, feed, and bioenergy, while also protecting our water resources by preventing the loss of nutrients from the soil? Dr. Cristina Negri and her team at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory are tackling this question at an agricultural research site located in Fairbury, Illinois.

  2. Dosimetry and mechanical accuracy of the first rotating gamma system installed in North America.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Hideo D; Araki, Fujio

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the dosimetry and mechanical accuracy of the first rotating gamma system (RGS) installed in North America for stereotactic radiosurgery. The data were obtained during the installation, acceptance test procedure, and commissioning of the unit. The RGS unit installed at UC Davis Cancer Center (RGSu) has modifications on the source and collimator bodies from the earlier version of the Chinese RGS (RGSc). The differences between these two RGSs are presented. The absolute dose at the focal point was measured in a 16-cm-diam acrylic phantom using a small volume chamber, which was calibrated at the University of Wisconsin Accredited Dosimetry Calibration Laboratory (UW-ADCL). The dose in acrylic was then converted to a dose in water. A collimator output factor from each of the four different collimator sizes ranging from 4, 8, 14, and 18 mm was measured with (1) a smaller volume chamber and (2) approximately 3.0 mm x 3.0 mm x 1.0 mm TLD chips in the same acrylic phantom. The Gafchromic films were used for the dose profile, collimator output factor, and mechanical/radiation field isocentricity measurements. The TLD chips were processed in-house whereas Gafchromic films were processed both at the UW-ADCL and in-house. The timer error, timer accuracy, and timer linearity were also determined. The dose profiles were found to be similar between RGSc and RGSu. The 4 mm collimator output factor of the RGSu was approximately 0.6, similar to that from RGSc, in comparison to 0.8 in the report for a Leksell Model U Gamma-Knife. The mechanical/radiation field isocentricity for RGSc and RGSu is found to be similar and is within 0.3 mm in both X and Y directions. In the Z direction, the beam center of the RGSu is shifted toward the sources by 0.75 mm from the mechanical isocenter whereas no data are available for RGSc. Little dosimetric difference is found between RGSu and RGSc. It is reported that RGSc has the same dosimetric and mechanical

  3. A framework for selecting indicators of bioenergy sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H.; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Kline, Keith L.; Davitt, Marcia S.

    2015-05-11

    A framework for selecting and evaluating indicators of bioenergy sustainability is presented. This framework is designed to facilitate decision-making about which indicators are useful for assessing sustainability of bioenergy systems and supporting their deployment. Efforts to develop sustainability indicators in the United States and Europe are reviewed. The first steps of the framework for indicator selection are defining the sustainability goals and other goals for a bioenergy project or program, gaining an understanding of the context, and identifying the values of stakeholders. From the goals, context, and stakeholders, the objectives for analysis and criteria for indicator selection can be developed. The user of the framework identifies and ranks indicators, applies them in an assessment, and then evaluates their effectiveness, while identifying gaps that prevent goals from being met, assessing lessons learned, and moving toward best practices. The framework approach emphasizes that the selection of appropriate criteria and indicators is driven by the specific purpose of an analysis. Realistic goals and measures of bioenergy sustainability can be developed systematically with the help of the framework presented here.

  4. A framework for selecting indicators of bioenergy sustainability

    DOE PAGES

    Dale, Virginia H.; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Kline, Keith L.; ...

    2015-05-11

    A framework for selecting and evaluating indicators of bioenergy sustainability is presented. This framework is designed to facilitate decision-making about which indicators are useful for assessing sustainability of bioenergy systems and supporting their deployment. Efforts to develop sustainability indicators in the United States and Europe are reviewed. The first steps of the framework for indicator selection are defining the sustainability goals and other goals for a bioenergy project or program, gaining an understanding of the context, and identifying the values of stakeholders. From the goals, context, and stakeholders, the objectives for analysis and criteria for indicator selection can be developed.more » The user of the framework identifies and ranks indicators, applies them in an assessment, and then evaluates their effectiveness, while identifying gaps that prevent goals from being met, assessing lessons learned, and moving toward best practices. The framework approach emphasizes that the selection of appropriate criteria and indicators is driven by the specific purpose of an analysis. Realistic goals and measures of bioenergy sustainability can be developed systematically with the help of the framework presented here.« less

  5. Design and development of synthetic microbial platform cells for bioenergy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Jun; Lee, Sang-Jae; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2013-01-01

    The finite reservation of fossil fuels accelerates the necessity of development of renewable energy sources. Recent advances in synthetic biology encompassing systems biology and metabolic engineering enable us to engineer and/or create tailor made microorganisms to produce alternative biofuels for the future bio-era. For the efficient transformation of biomass to bioenergy, microbial cells need to be designed and engineered to maximize the performance of cellular metabolisms for the production of biofuels during energy flow. Toward this end, two different conceptual approaches have been applied for the development of platform cell factories: forward minimization and reverse engineering. From the context of naturally minimized genomes,non-essential energy-consuming pathways and/or related gene clusters could be progressively deleted to optimize cellular energy status for bioenergy production. Alternatively, incorporation of non-indigenous parts and/or modules including biomass-degrading enzymes, carbon uptake transporters, photosynthesis, CO2 fixation, and etc. into chassis microorganisms allows the platform cells to gain novel metabolic functions for bioenergy. This review focuses on the current progress in synthetic biology-aided pathway engineering in microbial cells and discusses its impact on the production of sustainable bioenergy.

  6. Design and development of synthetic microbial platform cells for bioenergy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Jun; Lee, Sang-Jae; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2013-01-01

    The finite reservation of fossil fuels accelerates the necessity of development of renewable energy sources. Recent advances in synthetic biology encompassing systems biology and metabolic engineering enable us to engineer and/or create tailor made microorganisms to produce alternative biofuels for the future bio-era. For the efficient transformation of biomass to bioenergy, microbial cells need to be designed and engineered to maximize the performance of cellular metabolisms for the production of biofuels during energy flow. Toward this end, two different conceptual approaches have been applied for the development of platform cell factories: forward minimization and reverse engineering. From the context of naturally minimized genomes,non-essential energy-consuming pathways and/or related gene clusters could be progressively deleted to optimize cellular energy status for bioenergy production. Alternatively, incorporation of non-indigenous parts and/or modules including biomass-degrading enzymes, carbon uptake transporters, photosynthesis, CO2 fixation, and etc. into chassis microorganisms allows the platform cells to gain novel metabolic functions for bioenergy. This review focuses on the current progress in synthetic biology-aided pathway engineering in microbial cells and discusses its impact on the production of sustainable bioenergy. PMID:23626588

  7. Biofuel Enduse Datasets from the Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (KDF)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework invites users to discover the power of bioenergy through an interface that provides extensive access to research data and literature, GIS mapping tools, and collaborative networks. The Bioenergy KDF supports efforts to develop a robust and sustainable bioenergy industry. The KDF facilitates informed decision making by providing a means to synthesize, analyze, and visualize vast amounts of information in a relevant and succinct manner. It harnesses Web 2.0 and social networking technologies to build a collective knowledge system that can better examine the economic and environmental impacts of development options for biomass feedstock production, biorefineries, and related infrastructure. [copied from https://www.bioenergykdf.net/content/about]

    Holdings include datasets, models, and maps. This is a very new resource, but the collections will grow due to both DOE contributions and individualsÆ data uploads. Currently the Biofuel Enduse collection includes 133 items. Most of these are categorized as literature, but 36 are listed as datasets and ten as models.

  8. Recommendations for the design and the installation of large laser scanning microscopy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helm, P. Johannes

    2012-03-01

    Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM) has since the inventions of the Confocal Scanning Laser Microscope (CLSM) and the Multi Photon Laser Scanning Microscope (MPLSM) developed into an essential tool in contemporary life science and material science. The market provides an increasing number of turn-key and hands-off commercial LSM systems, un-problematic to purchase, set up and integrate even into minor research groups. However, the successful definition, financing, acquisition, installation and effective use of one or more large laser scanning microscopy systems, possibly of core facility character, often requires major efforts by senior staff members of large academic or industrial units. Here, a set of recommendations is presented, which are helpful during the process of establishing large systems for confocal or non-linear laser scanning microscopy as an effective operational resource in the scientific or industrial production process. Besides the description of technical difficulties and possible pitfalls, the article also illuminates some seemingly "less scientific" processes, i.e. the definition of specific laboratory demands, advertisement of the intention to purchase one or more large systems, evaluation of quotations, establishment of contracts and preparation of the local environment and laboratory infrastructure.

  9. COMPREHENSIVE DIAGNOSTIC AND IMPROVEMENT TOOLS FOR HVAC-SYSTEM INSTALLATIONS IN LIGHT COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Abram Conant; Mark Modera; Joe Pira; John Proctor; Mike Gebbie

    2004-10-31

    Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG) and Carrier-Aeroseal LLP performed an investigation of opportunities for improving air conditioning and heating system performance in existing light commercial buildings. Comprehensive diagnostic and improvement tools were created to address equipment performance parameters (including airflow, refrigerant charge, and economizer operation), duct-system performance (including duct leakage, zonal flows and thermal-energy delivery), and combustion appliance safety within these buildings. This investigation, sponsored by the National Energy Technology Laboratory, a division of the U.S. Department of Energy, involved collaboration between PEG and Aeroseal in order to refine three technologies previously developed for the residential market: (1) an aerosol-based duct sealing technology that allows the ducts to be sealed remotely (i.e., without removing the ceiling tiles), (2) a computer-driven diagnostic and improvement-tracking tool for residential duct installations, and (3) an integrated diagnosis verification and customer satisfaction system utilizing a combined computer/human expert system for HVAC performance. Prior to this work the aerosol-sealing technology was virtually untested in the light commercial sector--mostly because the savings potential and practicality of this or any other type of duct sealing had not been documented. Based upon the field experiences of PEG and Aeroseal, the overall product was tailored to suit the skill sets of typical HVAC-contractor personnel.

  10. Design, Observing and Data Systems, and Final Installation of the NEPTUNE Canada Regional Cabled Ocean Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, C. R.; Best, M. M.; Johnson, F. R.; Phibbs, P.; Pirenne, B.

    2009-05-01

    NEPTUNE Canada (NC; www.neptunecanada.ca) will complete most of the installation of the world's first regional cabled ocean observatory in late 2009 off Canada's west coast. It will comprise five main observatory nodes (100-2700m water depths) linked by an 800km backbone cable delivering 10kVDC power and 10Gbps communications bandwidth to hundreds of sensors, with a 25-year design life. Infrastructure (100M) and initial operational funding (20M) is secured. University of Victoria (UVic) leads a consortium of 12 Canadian universities, hosts the coastal VENUS cabled observatory, with Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) providing management oversight. Observatory architecture has a trunk and branch topology. Installed in late 2007, the backbone cable loops from/to UVic's Port Alberni shore station. The wet plant's design, manufacture and installation was contracted to Alcatel-Lucent. Each node provides six interface ports for connection of science instrument arrays or extensions. Each port provides dual optical Ethernet links and up to 9kW of electrical power at 400VDC. Junction boxes, designed and built by OceanWorks support up to 10 instruments each and can be daisy- chained. They accommodate both serial and 10/100 Ethernet instruments, and provide a variety of voltages (400V, 48V, 24V, 15V). Backbone equipment has all been qualified and installed; shore station re-equipping is complete; junction boxes are manufactured. A major marine program will deploy nodes and instruments in July-September 2009; instruments to one node will probably be deferred until 2010. Observatory instruments will be deployed in subsurface (boreholes), on seabed, and buoyed through the water column. Over 130 instruments (over 40 different types) will host several hundred sensors; mobile assets include a tethered crawler and a 400m vertical profiler. Experiments will address: earthquake dynamics and tsunami hazards; fluid fluxes in both ocean crust and sediments, including gas hydrates; ocean

  11. Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) Recently Installed in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR)

    SciTech Connect

    A. Joseph Palmer; Gerry L. McCormick; Shannon J. Corrigan

    2010-06-01

    2010 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP’10) ANS Annual Meeting Imbedded Topical San Diego, CA June 13 – 17, 2010 Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) Recently Installed in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Author: A. Joseph Palmer, Mechanical Engineer, Irradiation Test Programs, 208-526-8700, Joe.Palmer@INL.gov Affiliation: Idaho National Laboratory P.O. Box 1625, MS-3840 Idaho Falls, ID 83415 INL/CON-10-17680 ABSTRACT Most test reactors are equipped with shuttle facilities (sometimes called rabbit tubes) whereby small capsules can be inserted into the reactor and retrieved during power operations. With the installation of Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) this capability has been restored to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The general design and operating principles of this system were patterned after the hydraulic rabbit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), which has operated successfully for many years. Using primary coolant as the motive medium the HSIS system is designed to simultaneously transport fourteen shuttle capsules, each 16 mm OD x 57 mm long, to and from the B-7 position of the reactor. The B-7 position is one of the higher flux positions in the reactor with typical thermal and fast (>1 Mev) fluxes of 2.8E+14 n/cm2/sec and 1.9E+14 n/cm2/sec respectively. The available space inside each shuttle is approximately 14 mm diameter x 50 mm long. The shuttle containers are made from titanium which was selected for its low neutron activation properties and durability. Shuttles can be irradiated for time periods ranging from a few minutes to several months. The Send and Receive Station (SRS) for the HSIS is located 2.5 m deep in the ATR canal which allows irradiated shuttles to be easily moved from the SRS to a wet loaded cask, or transport pig. The HSIS system first irradiated (empty) shuttles in September 2009 and has since completed

  12. Advanced meteor radar installed at Tirupati: System details and comparison with different radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, S. Vijaya Bhaskara; Eswaraiah, S.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Kosalendra, E.; Kishore Kumar, K.; Sathish Kumar, S.; Patil, P. T.; Gurubaran, S.

    2014-11-01

    An advanced meteor radar, viz, Sri Venkateswara University (SVU) meteor radar (SVU MR) operating at 35.25 MHz, was installed at Sri Venkateswara University (SVU), Tirupati (13.63°N, 79.4°E), India, in August 2013 for continuous observations of horizontal winds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). This manuscript describes the purpose of the meteor radar, system configuration, measurement techniques, its data products, and operating parameters, as well as a comparison of measured mean winds in the MLT with contemporary radars over the Indian region. It is installed close to the Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar to fill the region between 85 and 100 km where this radar does not measure winds. The present radar provides additional information due to its high meteor detection rate, which results in accurate wind information from 70 to 110 km. As a first step, we made a comparison of SVU MR-derived horizontal winds in the MLT region with those measured by similar and different (MST and MF radars) techniques over the Indian region, as well as model (horizontal wind model 2007) data sets. The comparison showed an exquisite agreement between the overlapping altitudes (82-98 km) of different radars. Zonal winds compared very well, as did the meridional winds. The observed discrepancies and limitations in the wind measurement are discussed in the light of different measuring techniques and the effects of small-scale processes like gravity waves. This new radar is expected to play an important role in our understanding of the vertical and lateral coupling of different regions of the atmosphere that will be possible when measurements from nearby locations are combined.

  13. Preparation for Retrievals from Sellafield Legacy Ponds Installation of the Gantry Refurbishment System

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, M.

    2008-07-01

    Retrieval of sludge and fuel from the First Generation Magnox Fuel Storage Pond, and its safe long term storage is one of the NDA's top priorities in the UK clean up programme. The plant is currently undergoing a series of major modifications in preparation for the retrievals operations. The most visible example of these modifications is the Gantry Refurbishment System (GRS), a major work platform which has recently been lifted onto the pond long travel girders used by the Skip Handler. This paper describes the design, manufacture, works test, and site installation of this major piece of equipment. The installation lift, involving the use of an 800Te crane was one of the largest lifts undertaken at Sellafield. The GRS is a mobile platform structure which is designed to be pushed or pulled along the long travel girders by the Skip Handler. Its principle function is to provide a safe and shielded working platform from which to undertake refurbishment of the Skip Handler long travel girders and support structure. The potential hazards and consequences resulting from the modification were fully understood and controls were put in place to ensure that the risk of carrying out the work was as low as reasonably practicable. The work was authorised by the NII, Sellafield Nuclear Safety Committee and an independent readiness review panel. Despite less than perfect weather in the run up to the lift, the GRS was successfully and safely lifted onto the pond on 18 October 2006, the culmination of three years of planning, engineering and construction. (authors)

  14. Effects of red light running camera systems installation and then deactivation on intersection safety.

    PubMed

    Ko, Myunghoon; Geedipally, Srinivas Reddy; Walden, Troy Duane; Wunderlich, Robert Carl

    2017-09-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to evaluate the safety impacts of red-light running camera (RLC) system installation and then deactivation at 48 intersections in Houston, Texas. The second objective is to evaluate the spillover effect at nearby non-treated intersections in Houston after the deactivation. To accomplish study objectives, an Empirical Bayes (EB) before-after analysis was used. The results indicate statistically significant collision reductions on all red-light running (RLR) crash types (37 percent) as well as right-angle RLR crashes (47 percent) at the treated intersections after RLC activation. By way of comparison, the RLC deactivation analysis indicated that crashes increased by 20 percent for all RLR crash types and by 23 percent in right-angle RLR crashes at the formerly treated intersections. After deactivation, all severity RLR crashes increased more than expected at nearby non-treated intersections, which indicates the possibility of an adverse spillover effect. However, fatal/injury crashes associated with rear-end decreased after deactivation at both formerly treated and non-treated intersections, although those rear-end crashes account for smaller proportions when compared to all crash types/right-angle crashes. Overall, removing RLC treatments results in a negative reaction to the safety benefits that the treatment provides when it is in place and actively working and to the nearby intersections where the treatment has not been implemented. This study helps define the effects that RLCs have on safety at signalized intersections after installation and deactivation. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 40 CFR 63.9307 - What are my continuous emissions monitoring system installation, operation, and maintenance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... install, operate, and maintain each CEMS to monitor carbon monoxide (CO) or total hydrocarbons (THC) and... emission control device. (b) To comply with the CO or THC percent reduction emission limitation, you may install, operate, and maintain a CEMS to monitor CO or THC and O2 at both the inlet and the outlet of the...

  16. 40 CFR 63.9306 - What are my continuous parameter monitoring system (CPMS) installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... recorded, as well as every time the flow direction is changed. The flow control position indicator must be...) of this section. (1) For a thermal oxidizer, install a gas temperature monitor in the firebox of the... occurs. (2) For a catalytic oxidizer, you must install a gas temperature monitor in the gas...

  17. 40 CFR 63.9306 - What are my continuous parameter monitoring system (CPMS) installation, operation, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... recorded, as well as every time the flow direction is changed. The flow control position indicator must be...) of this section. (1) For a thermal oxidizer, install a gas temperature monitor in the firebox of the... occurs. (2) For a catalytic oxidizer, you must install a gas temperature monitor in the gas...

  18. Solar heating and cooling system installed at Leavenworth, Kansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, R. M.

    1980-06-01

    The solar heating and cooling system installed at the headquarters of Citizens Mutual Savings Association in Leavenworth, Kansas, is described in detail. The project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's solar demonstration program and became operational in March, 1979. The designer was TEC, Inc. Consulting Engineers, Kansas City, Missouri and contractor was Norris Brothers, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. The solar system is expected to furnish 90 percent of the overall heating load, 70 percent of the cooling load and 100 percent of the domestic hot water load. The building has two floors with a total of 12,000 square feet gross area. The system has 120 flat-plate liquid solar panels with a net area of 2200 square feet. Five, 3-ton Arkla solar assisted absorption units provide the cooling, in conjunction with a 3000 gallon chilled water storage tank. Two, 3000 gallon storage tanks are provided with one designated for summer use, whereas both tanks are utilized during winter.

  19. Geographic Information Systems for Assessing Existing and Potential Bio-energy Resources: Their Use in Determining Land Use and Management Options which Minimize Ecological and Landscape Impacts in Rural Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, A. E.; Fabos, J. G.; Carlozzi, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    A management construct is described which forms part of an overall landscape ecological planning model which has as a principal objective the extension of the traditional descriptive land use mapping capabilities of geographic information systems into land management realms. It is noted that geographic information systems appear to be moving to more comprehensive methods of data handling and storage, such as relational and hierarchical data management systems, and a clear need has simultaneously arisen therefore for planning assessment techniques and methodologies which can actually use such complex levels of data in a systematic, yet flexible and scenario dependent way. The descriptive of mapping method proposed broaches such issues and utilizes a current New England bioenergy scenario, stimulated by the use of hardwoods for household heating purposes established in the post oil crisis era and the increased awareness of the possible landscape and ecological ramifications of the continued increasing use of the resource.

  20. Geographic Information Systems for Assessing Existing and Potential Bio-energy Resources: Their Use in Determining Land Use and Management Options which Minimize Ecological and Landscape Impacts in Rural Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, A. E.; Fabos, J. G.; Carlozzi, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    A management construct is described which forms part of an overall landscape ecological planning model which has as a principal objective the extension of the traditional descriptive land use mapping capabilities of geographic information systems into land management realms. It is noted that geographic information systems appear to be moving to more comprehensive methods of data handling and storage, such as relational and hierarchical data management systems, and a clear need has simultaneously arisen therefore for planning assessment techniques and methodologies which can actually use such complex levels of data in a systematic, yet flexible and scenario dependent way. The descriptive of mapping method proposed broaches such issues and utilizes a current New England bioenergy scenario, stimulated by the use of hardwoods for household heating purposes established in the post oil crisis era and the increased awareness of the possible landscape and ecological ramifications of the continued increasing use of the resource.