McCusker, Rachel R; Fuehrlein, Brian; Goldberger, Bruce A; Gold, Mark S; Cone, Edward J
Caffeine is the most widely consumed drug in the world with coffee representing a major source of intake. Despite widespread availability, various medical conditions necessitate caffeine-restricted diets. Patients on certain prescription medications are advised to discontinue caffeine intake. Such admonition has implications for certain psychiatric patients because of pharmacokinetic interactions between caffeine and certain anti-anxiety drugs. In an effort to abstain from caffeine, patients may substitute decaffeinated for caffeinated coffee. However, decaffeinated beverages are known to contain caffeine in varying amounts. The present study determined the caffeine content in a variety of decaffeinated coffee drinks. In phase 1 of the study, 10 decaffeinated samples were collected from different coffee establishments. In phase 2 of the study, Starbucks espresso decaffeinated (N=6) and Starbucks brewed decaffeinated coffee (N=6) samples were collected from the same outlet to evaluate variability of caffeine content of the same drink. The 10 decaffeinated coffee samples from different outlets contained caffeine in the range of 0-13.9 mg/16-oz serving. The caffeine content for the Starbucks espresso and the Starbucks brewed samples collected from the same outlet were 3.0-15.8 mg/shot and 12.0-13.4 mg/16-oz serving, respectively. Patients vulnerable to caffeine effects should be advised that caffeine may be present in coffees purported to be decaffeinated. Further research is warranted on the potential deleterious effects of consumption of "decaffeinated" coffee that contains caffeine on caffeine-restricted patients. Additionally, further exploration is merited for the possible physical dependence potential of low doses of caffeine such as those concentrations found in decaffeinated coffee.
Silvarolla, Maria B; Mazzafera, Paulo; Fazuoli, Luiz C
The adverse side effects of caffeine have increased the market for decaffeinated coffee to about 10% of coffee consumption worldwide (http://www.ncausa.org), despite the loss of key flavour compounds in the industrial decaffeinating process. We have discovered a naturally decaffeinated Coffea arabica plant from Ethiopia, a species normally recognized for the high quality of its beans. It should be possible to transfer this trait to commercial varieties of arabica coffee plants by intraspecific hybridization--a process likely to be simpler than an interspecific hybridization strategy, which could require more than 30 years of breeding to fix the decaffeinated trait and would probably result in an inferior cup of coffee.
Farah, Adriana; de Paulis, Tomas; Moreira, Daniel P; Trugo, Luiz C; Martin, Peter R
The market for decaffeinated coffees has been increasingly expanding over the years. Caffeine extraction may result in losses of other compounds such as chlorogenic acids (CGA) and, consequently, their 1,5-gamma-quinolactones (CGL) in roasted coffee. These phenolic compounds are important for flavor formation as well as the health effects of coffee; therefore, losses due to decaffeination need to be investigated. The present study evaluates the impact of decaffeination processing on CGA and CGL levels of green and roasted arabica coffees. Decaffeination produced a 16% average increase in the levels of total CGA in green coffee (dry matter), along with a 237% increase in CGL direct precursors. Different degrees of roasting showed average increments of 5.5-18% in CGL levels of decaffeinated coffee, compared to regular, a change more consistent with observed levels of total CGA than with those of CGL direct precursors in green samples. On the other hand, CGA levels in roasted coffee were 3-9% lower in decaffeinated coffee compared to regular coffee. Although differences in CGA and CGL contents of regular and decaffeinated roasted coffees appear to be relatively small, they may be enough to affect flavor characteristics as well as the biopharmacological properties of the final beverage, suggesting the need for further study.
Reis, Caio E G; Paiva, Cicília L R Dos S; Amato, Angélica A; Lofrano-Porto, Adriana; Wassell, Sara; Bluck, Leslie J C; Dórea, José G; da Costa, Teresa H M
Epidemiological studies have found coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, the aim of this randomised, cross-over single-blind study was to investigate the effects of regular coffee, regular coffee with sugar and decaffeinated coffee consumption on glucose metabolism and incretin hormones. Seventeen healthy men participated in five trials each, during which they consumed coffee (decaffeinated, regular (containing caffeine) or regular with sugar) or water (with or without sugar). After 1 h of each intervention, they received an oral glucose tolerance test with one intravenous dose of [1-13C]glucose. The Oral Dose Intravenous Label Experiment was applied and glucose and insulin levels were interpreted using a stable isotope two-compartment minimal model. A mixed-model procedure (PROC MIXED), with subject as random effect and time as repeated measure, was used to compare the effects of the beverages on glucose metabolism and incretin parameters (glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP)) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)). Insulin sensitivity was higher with decaffeinated coffee than with water (P<0·05). Regular coffee with sugar did not significantly affect glucose, insulin, C-peptide and incretin hormones, compared with water with sugar. Glucose, insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1 and GIP levels were not statistically different after regular and decaffeinated coffee compared with water. Our findings demonstrated that the consumption of decaffeinated coffee improves insulin sensitivity without changing incretin hormones levels. There was no short-term adverse effect on glucose homoeostasis, after an oral glucose challenge, attributable to the consumption of regular coffee with sugar.
Wendl, B; Pfeiffer, A; Pehl, C; Schmidt, T; Kaess, H
Coffee and tea are believed to cause gastro-oesophageal reflux; however, the effects of these beverages and of their major component, caffeine, have not been quantified. The aim of this study was to evaluate gastro-oesophageal reflux induced by coffee and tea before and after a decaffeination process, and to compare it with water and water-containing caffeine. Three-hour ambulatory pH-metry was performed on 16 healthy volunteers, who received 300 ml of (i) regular coffee, decaffeinated coffee or tap water (n = 16), (ii) normal tea, decaffeinated tea, tap water, or coffee adapted to normal tea in caffeine concentration (n = 6), and (iii) caffeine-free and caffeine-containing water (n = 8) together with a standardized breakfast. Regular coffee induced a significant (P < 0.05) gastro-oesophageal reflux compared with tap water and normal tea, which were not different from each other. Decaffeination of coffee significantly (P < 0.05) diminished gastro-oesophageal reflux, whereas decaffeination of tea or addition of caffeine to water had no effect. Coffee adapted to normal tea in caffeine concentration significantly (P < 0.05) increased gastro-oesophageal reflux. Coffee, in contrast to tea, increases gastro-oesophageal reflux, an effect that is less pronounced after decaffeination. Caffeine does not seem to be responsible for gastro-oesophageal reflux which must be attributed to other components of coffee.
Wedick, Nicole M; Brennan, Aoife M; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B; Mantzoros, Christos S; van Dam, Rob M
Coffee consumption has been associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in prospective cohort studies, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of regular and decaffeinated coffee on biological risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Randomized parallel-arm intervention conducted in 45 healthy overweight volunteers who were nonsmokers and regular coffee consumers. Participants were assigned to consumption of 5 cups (177 mL each) per day of instant caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or no coffee (i.e., water) for 8 weeks. Average age was 40 years and body mass index was 29.5 kg/m2. Compared with consuming no coffee, consumption of caffeinated coffee increased adiponectin (difference in change from baseline 1.4 μg/mL; 95% CI: 0.2, 2.7) and interleukin-6 (difference: 60%; 95% CI: 8, 138) concentrations and consumption of decaffeinated coffee decreased fetuin-A concentrations (difference: -20%; 95% CI: -35, -1). For measures of glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion, no significant differences were found between treatment groups. Although no changes in glycemia and/or insulin sensitivity were observed after 8 weeks of coffee consumption, improvements in adipocyte and liver function as indicated by changes in adiponectin and fetuin-A concentrations may contribute to beneficial metabolic effects of long-term coffee consumption. clinicaltrials.gov NCT00305097.
Yulia, M.; Asnaning, A. R.; Suhandy, D.
In this work, an investigation on the classification between decaffeinated and non- decaffeinated coffee samples using UV-VIS spectroscopy and SIMCA method was investigated. Total 200 samples of ground roasted coffee were used (100 samples for decaffeinated coffee and 100 samples for non-decaffeinated coffee). After extraction and dilution, the spectra of coffee samples solution were acquired using a UV-VIS spectrometer (Genesys™ 10S UV-VIS, Thermo Scientific, USA) in the range of 190-1100 nm. The multivariate analyses of the spectra were performed using principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). The SIMCA model showed that the classification between decaffeinated and non-decaffeinated coffee samples was detected with 100% sensitivity and specificity.
Background Coffee consumption has been associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in prospective cohort studies, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of regular and decaffeinated coffee on biological risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Methods Randomized parallel-arm intervention conducted in 45 healthy overweight volunteers who were nonsmokers and regular coffee consumers. Participants were assigned to consumption of 5 cups (177 mL each) per day of instant caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or no coffee (i.e., water) for 8 weeks. Results Average age was 40 years and body mass index was 29.5 kg/m2. Compared with consuming no coffee, consumption of caffeinated coffee increased adiponectin (difference in change from baseline 1.4 μg/mL; 95% CI: 0.2, 2.7) and interleukin-6 (difference: 60%; 95% CI: 8, 138) concentrations and consumption of decaffeinated coffee decreased fetuin-A concentrations (difference: -20%; 95% CI: -35, -1). For measures of glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion, no significant differences were found between treatment groups. Conclusions Although no changes in glycemia and/or insulin sensitivity were observed after 8 weeks of coffee consumption, improvements in adipocyte and liver function as indicated by changes in adiponectin and fetuin-A concentrations may contribute to beneficial metabolic effects of long-term coffee consumption. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT00305097 PMID:21914162
Pehl, C; Pfeiffer, A; Wendl, B; Kaess, H
Patients with reflux disease often complain of heartburn after ingestion of coffee. Induction of gastro-oesophageal reflux has been demonstrated by pH-metry following the intake of coffee in healthy volunteers. The reflux was reduced when the coffee had undergone a decaffeination process. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of decaffeination of coffee on reflux in patients with reflux disease. Seventeen reflux patients underwent two osesophageal 3-h pH measurements. The patients received, in a double-blind study design in a randomized order, 300 mL of either regular or decaffeinated coffee together with a standardized breakfast. The fraction time oesophageal pH < 4 was calculated during the three postprandial hours. For regular coffee the fraction time was calculated to a median of 17.9% with a range of 0.7-56.6%. The fraction time was significantly reduced to 3.1% (0-49.9%) after ingestion of decaffeinated coffee. The amount of gastro-oesophageal reflux induced by the intake of regular coffee in patients with reflux disease can be reduce by the decaffeination of coffee.
Silvério, Alessandra dos Santos Danziger; Pereira, Rosemary Gualberto Fonseca Alvarenga; Lima, Adriene Ribeiro; Paula, Fernanda Borges de Araújo; Rodrigues, Maria Rita; Baldissera, Lineu; Duarte, Stella Maris da Silveira
The effect of coffee on cardiovascular diseases is still controversial. It is known that the process of decaffeination may influence the chemical constitution and, therefore, the biological effects of coffee. This study thus evaluated the effects of decaffeination on the levels of total phenols and chlorogenic acids in Coffea arabica L. samples, as well as the effects of ingesting both integral and decaffeinated coffee on the lipid profile and hemostatic and hematological parameters in normal and hyperlipidemic rats. Samples of integral and decaffeinated lyophilized coffee (Coffea arabica L., planted in Brazil) were used for chemical analysis (total phenols, chlorogenic acid and caffeine contents). For the bioassays, coffee beverages were prepared with non-lyophilized samples (10% w/v) and were filtered and administered to animals by gavage (7.2 mL/kg/day) over 30 days. On the 31st day after beginning the treatment with coffee beverages, hyperlipidemia was induced to the animals by administering Triton WR-1339 (300 mg/kg body weight). On day 32, blood was taken to determine the lipid profile, platelet aggregation, prothrombin time, partially activated thromboplastin time and hemogram. The contents of both phenolic compounds and chlorogenic acid in the integral coffee beverage were significantly lower than those in the decaffeinated coffee beverage. The animals treated with Triton WR-1339 presented a mixed hyperlipidemia. Although the decaffeination process caused a relative increase in total phenols and chlorogenic acids, the coffee drinks were unable to change the lipid profile or the hemostatic and hematological parameters in the studied animals.
Chen, Yumin; Brown, Peter H; Hu, Kang; Black, Richard M; Prior, Ronald L; Ou, Boxin; Chu, Yi-Fang
The supercritical CO(2)-decaffeination process causes unroasted coffee beans to turn brown. Therefore, we suspected that the decaffeinated beans contained melanoidins. Decaffeinated unroasted coffee extract absorbed light at 405 nm with a specific extinction coefficient, K(mix 405 nm), of 0.02. Membrane dialysis (molecular weight cut-off, 12 to 14 kDa) increased the K(mix 405 nm) value 15 fold. Gel filtration chromatography showed that the high-MW fraction (MW > 12 kDa) had an elution profile closer to that of melanoidins of medium-roast coffee than to the corresponding fraction of unroasted coffee, indicating the presence of melanoidins in decaffeinated unroasted beans. Using murine myoblast C2C12 cells with a stably transfected nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) luciferase reporter gene, we found that the high-MW fraction of decaffeinated unroasted beans had an NF-κB inhibitory activity of IC(50) = 499 μg/mL, more potent than that of regular-roast coffee (IC(50) = 766 μg/mL). Our results indicate that melanoidins form during the supercritical CO(2)-decaffeination process and possess biological properties distinct from those formed during the regular roasting process. We discovered the roasting effect of decaffeination process, reporting the discovery of melanoidins in green (unroasted) decaf coffee beans. Our results indicated that melanoidins form during the supercritical CO2-decaffeination process and possess biological properties distinct from those formed during the regular roasting process. Our results offer new insights into the formation of bioactive coffee components during coffee decaffeination process. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®
Song, Su Jin; Choi, Sena; Park, Taesun
This study investigated whether decaffeinated green coffee bean extract prevents obesity and improves insulin resistance and elucidated its mechanism of action. Male C57BL/6N mice (N = 48) were divided into six dietary groups: chow diet, HFD, HFD-supplemented with 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.9% decaffeinated green coffee bean extract, and 0.15% 5-caffeoylquinic acid. Based on the reduction in HFD-induced body weight gain and increments in plasma lipids, glucose, and insulin levels, the minimum effective dose of green coffee bean extract appears to be 0.3%. Green coffee bean extract resulted in downregulation of genes involved in WNT10b- and galanin-mediated adipogenesis and TLR4-mediated proinflammatory pathway and stimulation of GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane in white adipose tissue. Taken together, decaffeinated green coffee bean extract appeared to reverse HFD-induced fat accumulation and insulin resistance by downregulating the genes involved in adipogenesis and inflammation in visceral adipose tissue. PMID:24817902
Nehad, E A; Farag, M M; Kawther, M S; Abdel-Samed, A K M; Naguib, K
The fate of ochratoxin A (OTA) during the processing of artificially contaminated green coffee beans, the effect of decaffeination on the production of OTA in green and roasted coffee beans, and the effect of caffeine on the growth and OTA production by Aspergillus ochraceus were studied. The data indicated that the roasting, milling and decoction (brewing and Turkish coffee making) processes caused different percentage reductions in OTA. Decaffeinated samples showed a significantly higher concentration of OTA production than the caffeinated ones. A significantly higher percentage of OTA was reduced when the decaffeination process was performed before roasting treatment. Caffeine at 1.0 and 2.0% concentrations completely prevented OTA production and completely inhibited A. ochraceus growth in YES medium after 3-21 days.
JIMENEZ, ANGELICA; ADISA, AFOLABI; WOODHAM, CARA; SALEH, MAHMOUD
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are suspected to be carcinogenic and mutagenic. This study describes the presence of PAHs in light, medium and dark roasted coffee including instant and decaffeinated brands. Total PAHs concentration was related to the degree of roasting with light roasted coffee showing the least and dark roasted coffee showing the highest level. Both instant and decaffeinated coffee brand showed lower levels of PAHs. Naphthalene, acenaphthylene, pyrene and chrysene were the most abundant individual isomers. The concentrations ranged from 0 to 561 ng g−1 for naphthalene, 0 to 512 ng g−1 for acenaphthylene, 60 to 459 ng g−1 for pyrene and 56 to 371 ng g−1 for chrysene. Thus, roasting conditions should be controlled to avoid the formation of PAHs due to their suspected carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. PMID:25190557
Tavani, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo
The literature from 1990 to 2003 on the relation between coffee, decaffeinated coffee, tea and colorectal cancer risk has been reviewed. For the relation with coffee, three cohort (517 total cases) and nine case-control studies (7555 cases) analysed colon cancer; three cohort (307 cases) and four case-control studies (2704 cases) rectal cancer; six case-control studies (854 cases) colorectal cancer. For colon cancer most case-control studies found risk estimates below unity; the results are less clear for cohort studies. No relation emerged for rectal cancer. A meta-analysis, including five cohort and twelve case-control studies, reported a pooled relative risk of 0.76 (significant). Any methodological artefact is unlikely to account for the consistent inverse association in different countries and settings. Plausible biological explanations include coffee-related reductions of cholesterol, bile acids and neutral sterol secretion in the colon; antimutagenic properties of selected coffee components; increased colonic motility. Decaffeinated coffee was not related to either colon or rectal cancer in three case-control studies. No overall association between tea and either colon or rectal cancer risk emerged in seven cohort (1756 total cases of colon, 759 of rectal and 60 of colorectal cancer) and 12 case-control studies (8058 cases of colon, 4865 of rectal, 604 of colorectal cancer).
Trinh, Kien; Andrews, Laurie; Krause, James; Hanak, Tyler; Lee, Daewoo; Gelb, Michael
Epidemiological studies have revealed a significantly reduced risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) among coffee and tobacco users, although it is unclear whether these correlations reflect neuroprotective/symptomatic effects of these agents or preexisting differences in the brains of tobacco and coffee users. Here, we report that coffee and tobacco, but not caffeine or nicotine, are neuroprotective in fly PD models. We further report that decaffeinated coffee and nicotine-free tobacco are as neuroprotective as their caffeine and nicotine-containing counterparts and that the neuroprotective effects of decaffeinated coffee and nicotine-free tobacco are also evident in Drosophila models of Alzheimer's disease and polyglutamine disease. Finally, we report that the neuroprotective effects of decaffeinated coffee and nicotine-free tobacco require the cytoprotective transcription factor Nrf2 and that a known Nrf2 activator in coffee, cafestol, is also able to confer neuroprotection in our fly models of PD. Our findings indicate that coffee and tobacco contain Nrf2-activating compounds that may account for the reduced risk of PD among coffee and tobacco users. These compounds represent attractive candidates for therapeutic intervention in PD and perhaps other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:20410106
López-Froilán, R; Ramírez-Moreno, E; Podio, N S; Pérez-Rodríguez, M L; Cámara, M; Baroni, M V; Wunderlin, D A; Sánchez-Mata, M C
Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world, being a source of bioactive compounds as well as flavors. Hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols, and carboxylic acids have been studied in the samples of instant coffee commercialized in Spain. The studies about contents of food components should be complemented with either in vitro or in vivo bioaccessibility studies to know the amount of food components effectively available for functions in the human body. In this sense, a widely used in vitro model has been applied to assess the potential intestinal absorption of phenolic compounds and organic acids. The contents of hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols were higher in instant regular coffee samples than in the decaffeinated ones. Bioaccessible phenolic compounds in most analyzed samples account for 20-25% of hydroxycinnamic acids and 17-26% of flavonols. This could mean that a great part of them can remain in the gut, acting as potential in situ antioxidants. Quinic, acetic, pyroglutamic, citric and fumaric acids were identified in commercial instant coffee samples. Succinic acid was found in the coffee blend containing chicory. All carboxylic acids showed a very high bioaccessibility. Particularly, acetic acid and quinic acid were found in higher contents in the samples treated with the in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal processes, compared to the original ones, which can be explained by their cleavage from chlorogenic acid during digestion. This is considered as a positive effect, since quinic acid is considered as an antioxidant inducer.
Staack, Andrea; Distelberg, Brian; Schlaifer, Amy; Sabaté, Joan
Coffee reduction has been a strategy to prevent urinary symptoms with conflicting evidence. We aimed to study the effects of regular and decaffeinated coffee on urinary symptoms among low and frequent coffee users, who were young and healthy. We conducted a double-blinded parallel study on subjects, who were restricted from consuming caffeinated items outside the study. After subjects completed 5 days of caffeine abstinence they consumed regular coffee (450 mg/d caffeine content) or decaffeinated coffee (12 mg/d caffeine content) for 5 days. Previous caffeine use and urinary symptoms were assessed by a diet survey, urogenital distress inventory, and interstitial cystitis problem and symptom indices (ICPI, ICSI). Forty nine subjects completed the study. When assessing the submeasures "frequency" and "urgency" on ICPI and ICSI subjects drinking coffee reported a significant increase in urgency (P < 0.05) and frequency (P < 0.05), whereas subjects drinking decaffeinated coffee experienced no difference in those submeasures in comparison to no caffeine intake. However, previous "low coffee users" experienced the largest increase of urinary symptoms, whereas previous "frequent coffee users" showed fewer symptoms when exposed to regular coffee. The study suggests that avoiding high-dosage coffee consumption prevents urgency and frequency, which supports recommendations to limit caffeinated beverages. The study differentiates between subjects having a history of low and frequent coffee use. Subjects, who are not used to regular coffee consumption, seem to be more vulnerable to the effects of coffee on urinary symptoms. Better understanding of the effects of coffee on urinary symptoms may improve patients counseling. Neurourol. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:432-437, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Reis, Jared P; Loria, Catherine M; Steffen, Lyn M; Zhou, Xia; van Horn, Linda; Siscovick, David S; Jacobs, David R; Carr, J Jeffrey
To determine the association of coffee, decaffeinated coffee, caffeine, and tea consumption in young adulthood with the presence and progression of coronary artery calcified (CAC) plaque and carotid intima-media thickness later in life. The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study is a cohort of 5115 white and black adults who were aged 18 to 30 years when they completed a baseline clinic examination from 1985 to 1986. Subsequent examinations were conducted 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, and 20 years later. After multivariable adjustment, no association was observed between average coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or caffeine consumption (years 0 and 7) and presence of CAC (score, >0 Agatston units at year 15 or 20), CAC progression (incident CAC at year 20 or increase in CAC score by ≥20 Agatston units), or high carotid intima-media thickness (>80th percentile, year 20). However, tea consumption displayed a nonsignificant trend for an inverse association with CAC (P=0.08 for trend) and an inverse association with CAC progression (P=0.04 for trend) but no association with high carotid intima-media thickness (P>0.20 for trend). Stratification of the coffee analyses by sex, race, or smoking yielded similar nonsignificant patterns. We observed no substantial association between coffee or caffeine intake and coronary and carotid atherosclerosis. However, our results suggested an inverse association between tea and CAC but not carotid atherosclerosis.
Chang, Kai Lun; Ho, Paul C
Findings from epidemiology, preclinical and clinical studies indicate that consumption of coffee could have beneficial effects against dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The benefits appear to come from caffeinated coffee, but not decaffeinated coffee or pure caffeine itself. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use metabolomics approach to delineate the discriminant metabolites between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, which could have contributed to the observed therapeutic benefits. Gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS)-based metabolomics approach was employed to characterize the metabolic differences between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) showed distinct separation between the two types of coffee (cumulative Q(2) = 0.998). A total of 69 discriminant metabolites were identified based on the OPLS-DA model, with 37 and 32 metabolites detected to be higher in caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, respectively. These metabolites include several benzoate and cinnamate-derived phenolic compounds, organic acids, sugar, fatty acids, and amino acids. Our study successfully established GC-TOF-MS based metabolomics approach as a highly robust tool in discriminant analysis between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee samples. Discriminant metabolites identified in this study are biologically relevant and provide valuable insights into therapeutic research of coffee against AD. Our data also hint at possible involvement of gut microbial metabolism to enhance therapeutic potential of coffee components, which represents an interesting area for future research.
Chang, Kai Lun; Ho, Paul C.
Findings from epidemiology, preclinical and clinical studies indicate that consumption of coffee could have beneficial effects against dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The benefits appear to come from caffeinated coffee, but not decaffeinated coffee or pure caffeine itself. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use metabolomics approach to delineate the discriminant metabolites between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, which could have contributed to the observed therapeutic benefits. Gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS)-based metabolomics approach was employed to characterize the metabolic differences between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) showed distinct separation between the two types of coffee (cumulative Q2 = 0.998). A total of 69 discriminant metabolites were identified based on the OPLS-DA model, with 37 and 32 metabolites detected to be higher in caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, respectively. These metabolites include several benzoate and cinnamate-derived phenolic compounds, organic acids, sugar, fatty acids, and amino acids. Our study successfully established GC-TOF-MS based metabolomics approach as a highly robust tool in discriminant analysis between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee samples. Discriminant metabolites identified in this study are biologically relevant and provide valuable insights into therapeutic research of coffee against AD. Our data also hint at possible involvement of gut microbial metabolism to enhance therapeutic potential of coffee components, which represents an interesting area for future research. PMID:25098597
Ding, Ming; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N.; Chen, Mu; van Dam, Rob M.; Hu, Frank B.
OBJECTIVE Previous meta-analyses identified an inverse association of coffee consumption with the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, an updated meta-analysis is needed because new studies comparing the trends of association for caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee have since been published. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS PubMed and Embase were searched for cohort or nested case-control studies that assessed the relationship of coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes from 1966 to February 2013. A restricted cubic spline random-effects model was used. RESULTS Twenty-eight prospective studies were included in the analysis, with 1,109,272 study participants and 45,335 cases of type 2 diabetes. The follow-up duration ranged from 10 months to 20 years. Compared with no or rare coffee consumption, the relative risk (RR; 95% CI) for diabetes was 0.92 (0.90–0.94), 0.85 (0.82–0.88), 0.79 (0.75–0.83), 0.75 (0.71–0.80), 0.71 (0.65–0.76), and 0.67 (0.61–0.74) for 1–6 cups/day, respectively. The RR of diabetes for a 1 cup/day increase was 0.91 (0.89–0.94) for caffeinated coffee consumption and 0.94 (0.91–0.98) for decaffeinated coffee consumption (P for difference = 0.17). CONCLUSIONS Coffee consumption was inversely associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes in a dose-response manner. Both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee was associated with reduced diabetes risk. PMID:24459154
Xiao, Qian; Sinha, Rashmi; Graubard, Barry I.; Freedman, Neal D.
Background Coffee may have hepatoprotective effects and higher coffee consumption has been associated inversely with levels of liver enzymatic markers. However, it is unclear whether decaffeinated coffee is also associated with liver enzymes. Methods The study population included 27,793 participants, age 20 or older, in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2010). Coffee intake was evaluated by 24-hour dietary recall. Serum levels of aminotransferase (ALT), aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transaminase (GGT) were measured. We examined the relationship between coffee intake and enzymatic levels using weighted multiple variable logistic (abnormally elevated levels of enzymes) and linear regression (continuous enzymatic levels). Results Total coffee consumption was inversely associated with abnormal levels of all four liver enzymes and continuous levels of AST, ALP and GGT. Compared to those reporting no coffee consumption, participants reporting ≥3 cups per day had an odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) of 0.75 (0.63, 0.89)), 0.82 (0.68, 0.98), 0.73 (0.55, 0.95) and 0.69 (0.57, 0.83) for abnormal levels of ALT, AST, ALP and GGT, respectively. Similar inverse associations were found with decaffeinated coffee intake and abnormal levels of ALT (OR≥2 vs 0 cup/d: 0.62 (0.41, 0.94)), AST (0.74 (0.49, 1.11)), and GGT (0.70, 0.49–1.00). Conclusion Higher intakes of coffee, regardless of its caffeine content, were associated with lower levels of liver enzymes. PMID:25124935
Johansson, M.A.E.; Knize, M.G.; Felton, J.S.
Several grain-based coffee-substitute blends and instant coffees showed a mutagenic response in the Ames/Salmonella test using TA98, YG1024 and YG1O29 with metabolic activation. The beverage powders contained 150 to 500 TA98 and 1150 to 4050 YG1024 revertant colonies/gram, respectively. The mutagenic activity in the beverage powders was shown to be stable to heat and the products varied in resistance to acid nitrite treatment. Characterization of the mutagenic activity, using HPLC-and the Ames test of the collected fractions, showed the coffee-substitutes and instant coffees contain several mutagenic compounds, which are most likely aromatic amines.
Altaki, M S; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T
In this work, we evaluated the occurrence of furan in brews obtained from regular, decaffeinated, and instant coffee and commercial packed capsules. For this purpose, a previously developed automated headspace solid-phase microextraction method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was used. Initially, the influence of HS-SPME conditions on furan formation was evaluated. In addition, the effect of roasting conditions (temperature and time) used for coffee beans on furan formation was also studied. We found that low temperature and long roasting time (140°C and 20min) decreases the final furan content. Furan concentrations in regular ground coffee brews from an espresso coffee machine were higher (43-146ng/ml) than those obtained from a home drip coffee maker (20 and 78ng/ml), while decaffeinated coffee brews from a home drip coffee maker (14-65ng/ml) showed a furan concentration similar to that obtained from regular coffee. Relatively low concentrations of this compound (12-35ng/ml) were found in instant coffee brews, while commercial packed coffee capsules showed the highest concentrations (117-244ng/ml). Finally, the daily intake of furan through coffee consumption in Barcelona (Spain) (0.03-0.38μg/kg of body weight) was estimated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Morrison, Andrew; Rossing, Thomas D.
An empty coffee cup, like an ancient Chinese two-tone bell, emits two distinctly different tones, depending upon where it is tapped. When it is filled with hot water, and some instant coffee is added, however, a whole new set of sounds is heard when the cup is tapped. The pitch rises an octave or more as the foam clears due to the dramatic change in the speed of sound in the bubble-filled liquid. A similar, but smaller, effect was noted in beer by Bragg [The World of Sound (1968)] and in hot chocolate by Crawford [Am. J. Phys. (1982)]. We describe the modes of vibration in a coffee cup and the sound emitted by a coffee cup as filled with instant coffee as the bubble density changes.
Cross, Amanda J; Daniel, Carrie R; Graubard, Barry I; Wu, Jennifer W; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Gunter, Marc J; Park, Yikyung; Freedman, Neal D
Background: Coffee and tea are widely consumed globally and are rich sources of potential chemopreventive compounds. Epidemiologic data for coffee and tea intakes in relation to colorectal cancer remain unclear. Despite differences in gut physiology, few studies have conducted investigations by anatomic subsites. Objective: We evaluated coffee and tea intakes (caffeinated and decaffeinated) in relation to colon (proximal and distal) and rectal cancers. Design: The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study included 489,706 men and women who completed a baseline (1995–1996) self-administered questionnaire of demographics, diet, and lifestyle. Over a median of 10.5 y of follow-up, we identified 2863 proximal colon, 1993 distal colon, and 1874 rectal cancers. Multivariable HRs and 95% CIs were estimated by using Cox regression. Results: Approximately 16% of participants drank ≥4 cups coffee/d. Compared with nondrinkers, drinkers of 4–5 cups coffee/d (HR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.75, 0.96) and ≥6 cups coffee/d (HR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.89; P-trend < 0.001) had a lower risk of colon cancer, particularly of proximal tumors (HR for ≥6 cups/d: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.81; P-trend < 0.0001). Results were similar to those overall for drinkers of predominantly caffeinated coffee. Although individual HRs were not significant, there was a significant P-trend for both colon and rectal cancers for people who drank predominantly decaffeinated coffee. No associations were observed for tea. Conclusions: In this large US cohort, coffee was inversely associated with colon cancer, particularly proximal tumors. Additional investigations of coffee intake and its components in the prevention of colorectal cancer by subsites are warranted. The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00340015. PMID:22695871
Ashoor, S H; Seperich, G J; Monte, W C; Welty, J
A method was developed for determining caffeine in decaffeinated coffee, tea, and beverage products by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC system consisted of a Bio-Sil ODS-5S C18 column, methanol-water (25 + 75) mobile phase at 1 mL/min, and a UV detector. The method is simple and specific. Caffeine recoveries were 93.8-98.3% and coefficients of variation were 0.90-2.25%.
... section. (c) In coffee as a residue from its use as a solvent in the extraction of caffeine from green coffee beans, at a level not to exceed 10 parts per million (0.001 percent) in decaffeinated roasted coffee and in decaffeinated soluble coffee extract (instant coffee). ...
Antwi, Samuel O.; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E.; Diehl, Nancy D.; Serie, Daniel J.; Custer, Kaitlynn M.; Arnold, Michelle L.; Wu, Kevin J.; Cheville, John C.; Thiel, David D; Leibovich, Bradley C.; Parker, Alexander S.
Background Studies have suggested an inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC); however, data regarding decaffeinated coffee are limited. Methods We conducted a case-control study of 669 incident RCC cases and 1,001 frequency-matched controls. Participants completed identical risk factor questionnaires that solicited information usual coffee consumption habits, and they were categorized as non-coffee, caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee drinkers. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression, adjusting for multiple risk factors for RCC. Results Compared with no coffee consumption, we found an inverse association between caffeinated coffee consumption and RCC risk (OR=0.74; 95% CI=0.57–0.99), whereas we observed a trend toward increased risk of RCC for consumption of decaffeinated coffee (OR=1.47; 95% CI=0.98–2.19). Furthermore, decaffeinated coffee consumption was associated with increased risk of the clear cell RCC (ccRCC) subtype, particularly the aggressive form of ccRCC (OR=1.80; 95%CI=1.01–3.22). Conclusions Consumption of caffeinated coffee is associated with reduced risk of RCC, while decaffeinated coffee consumption was associated with an increase in risk of aggressive ccRCC. Further inquiry is warranted in large prospective studies and should include assessment of dose-response associations. PMID:28647866
Antwi, Samuel O; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E; Diehl, Nancy D; Serie, Daniel J; Custer, Kaitlynn M; Arnold, Michelle L; Wu, Kevin J; Cheville, John C; Thiel, David D; Leibovich, Bradley C; Parker, Alexander S
Studies have suggested an inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC); however, data regarding decaffeinated coffee are limited. We conducted a case-control study of 669 incident RCC cases and 1,001 frequency-matched controls. Participants completed identical risk factor questionnaires that solicited information about usual coffee consumption habits. The study participants were categorized as non-coffee, caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee drinkers. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression, adjusting for multiple risk factors for RCC. Compared with no coffee consumption, we found an inverse association between caffeinated coffee consumption and RCC risk (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.57-0.99), whereas we observed a trend toward increased risk of RCC for consumption of decaffeinated coffee (OR 1.47; 95% CI 0.98-2.19). Decaffeinated coffee consumption was associated also with increased risk of the clear cell RCC (ccRCC) subtype, particularly the aggressive form of ccRCC (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.01-3.22). Consumption of caffeinated coffee is associated with reduced risk of RCC, while decaffeinated coffee consumption is associated with an increase in risk of aggressive ccRCC. Further inquiry is warranted in large prospective studies and should include assessment of dose-response associations.
Greenberg, James A; Geliebter, Allan
There is evidence from several empirical studies suggesting that coffee may help people control body weight. Our objective was to assess the effects of caffeine, caffeinated coffee, and decaffeinated coffee, both alone and in combination with 75 g of glucose, on perceived hunger and satiety and related peptides. We conducted a placebo-controlled single-blinded randomized 4-way crossover trial. Eleven healthy male volunteers (mean age, 23.5 ± 5.7 years; mean BMI, 23.6 ± 4.2 kg/m(2)) ingested 1 of 3 test beverages (caffeine in water, caffeinated coffee, or decaffeinated coffee) or placebo (water), and 60 minutes later they ingested the glucose. Eight times during each laboratory visit, hunger and satiety were assessed by visual analog scales, and blood samples were drawn to measure 3 endogenous peptides associated with hunger and satiety: ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), and leptin. Compared to placebo, decaffeinated coffee yielded significantly lower hunger during the whole 180-minute study period and higher plasma PYY for the first 90 minutes (p < 0.05). Caffeine in water had no effects on hunger or PYY. Caffeinated coffee showed a pattern between that of decaffeinated coffee and caffeine in water. These findings suggest that one or more noncaffeine ingredients in coffee may have the potential to decrease body weight. Glucose ingestion did not change the effects of the beverages. Our randomized human trial showed that decaffeinated coffee can acutely decrease hunger and increase the satiety hormone PYY.
Ratnayake, W M; Hollywood, R; O'Grady, E; Stavric, B
The lipid content and composition of boiled, filtered, dripped, Turkish and espresso coffees prepared from roasted beans of Coffea arabica and Coffea robusta, and of coffees prepared from different brands of instant coffee were examined. The lipid content varied with the method of preparation. While coffee brews filtered through filter paper contained less than 7 mg lipids, those prepared by boiling without filtering and espresso coffee reached 60-160 mg lipids/150-ml cup. Coffee brew filtered through a metal screener contained 50 mg lipids/150-ml cup. Although the lipid content varied, the method of preparation of the brew and filtration had no important influence on the lipid composition. During paper filtration lipids remained mainly in spent coffee grounds, and the brew and filter paper retained only 0.4 and 9.4%, respectively, of the total lipids recovered. However, the lipids in the brew, filter paper and spent coffee grounds had the same profile, indicating that there was no preferential retention of a particular lipid component in filter paper. Triglycerides and diterpene alcohol esters were the major lipid classes in coffee brewed from ground coffee beans, and ranged from 86.6 to 92.9 and 6.5 to 12.5% of total lipids, respectively. For coffee brews made from instant coffee, the levels of these two lipid classes were 96.4-98.5 and 1.6-3.6%, respectively. The lipid contents of both regular and decaffeinated instant coffees varied slightly from one brand to the other, and ranged from 1.8 to 6.6 mg/150-ml cup.
Corso, Marinês Paula; Vignoli, Josiane Alessandra; Benassi, Marta de Toledo
The objective of this study was to present possible formulations for an instant coffee product enriched with chlorogenic acids for the Brazilian market. Formulations were prepared with different concentrations of freeze dried extracts of green Coffea canephora beans (G) added to freeze dried extracts of roasted Coffea arabica (A) and Coffea canephora (C). Medium (M) and dark (D) roasting degrees instant coffee were produced (AM, AD, CM and CD) to obtain four formulations with green extract addition (AMG, ADG, CMG and CDG). Chlorogenic acids were determined by HPLC, with average contents of 7.2 %. Roasted extracts and formulations were evaluated for 5-CQA and caffeine contents (by HPLC), browned compounds (absorbance 420 nm), and antioxidant activity (ABTS and Folin). Coffee brews of the four formulations were also assessed in a lab-scale test by 42 consumers for acceptance of the color, aroma, flavor and body, overall acceptance and purchase intent, using a 10 cm hybrid scale. The formulations obtained acceptance scores of 6.6 and 7.7 for all attributes, thus they were equally acceptable. Greater purchase intent was observed for ADG, CDG and CMG (6.9) in comparison to AMG (6.1). The formulations had, on average, 2.5 times more 5-CQA than the average obtained from conventional commercial instant coffees. In addition to being more economically viable, the formulations developed with C. canephora (CDG and CMG) showed greater antioxidant potential (32.5 g of Trolox/100 g and 13.8 g of gallic acid equivalent/100 g) due to a balance in the amount of bioactive compounds.
Mountain Dew and Sunkist Orange, simply add caffeine that is sold as a by-product of the decaffeination process by coffee companies (Gilbert, 1984...roasting process ) regardless of caffeine content, and both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee stimulate a much stronger gastric acid response than...with beverage ( decaffeinated coffee versus non- caf feinated herbal tea), thus exposing subjects to caffeine with and without coffee, and coffee with
Micek, Agnieszka; Godos, Justyna; Lafranconi, Alessandra; Marranzano, Marina; Pajak, Andrzej
To determine the association between total, caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption and melanoma risk a dose-response meta-analysis on prospective cohort studies were performed. Eligible studies were identified searching PubMed and EMBASE databases from the earliest available online indexing year to March 2017. The dose-response relationship was assessed by random-effects meta-analysis and the shape of the exposure-outcome curve was modelled linearly and using restricted cubic splines. A total of seven studies eligible for meta-analysis were identified that comprised 1,418,779 participants and 9211 melanoma cases. A linear dose-response meta-analysis showed a significant association between total coffee consumption and melanoma risk. An increase in coffee consumption of one cup per day was associated with a 3% reduction in melanoma risk (RR 0.97; 95% CI 0.95-0.99). Our findings suggest that coffee intake may be inversely associated with incidence of melanoma. Nevertheless, further studies exploring also the role of confounding factors are needed to explain the heterogeneity among studies.
Shiono, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kenichiro; Yotsumoto, Yuko; Yoshida, Aruto
The growth in health-conscious consumers continues to drive the demand for a wide variety of decaffeinated beverages. We previously developed a new technology using montmorillonite (MMT) in selective decaffeination of tea extract. This study evaluated and compared decaffeination of coffee extract using MMT and activated carbon (AC). MMT adsorbed caffeine without significant adsorption of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), feruloylquinic acids (FQAs), dicaffeoylquinic acids (di-CQAs), or caffeoylquinic lactones (CQLs). AC adsorbed caffeine, chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and CQLs simultaneously. The results suggested that the adsorption selectivity for caffeine in coffee extract is higher in MMT than AC. The caffeine adsorption isotherms of MMT in coffee extract fitted well to the Langmuir adsorption model. The adsorption properties in coffee extracts from the same species were comparable, regardless of roasting level and locality of growth. Our findings suggest that MMT is a useful adsorbent in the decaffeination of a wide range of coffee extracts.
da Encarnação, Joana Amarante; Farrell, Tracy L; Ryder, Alexandra; Kraut, Nicolai U; Williamson, Gary
Coffee is rich in quinic acid esters of phenolic acids (chlorogenic acids) but also contains some free phenolic acids. A proportion of phenolic acids appear in the blood rapidly after coffee consumption due to absorption in the small intestine. We investigated in vitro whether this appearance could potentially be derived from free phenolic acids in instant coffee or from hydrolysis of chlorogenic acids by pancreatic or brush border enzymes. We quantified six free phenolic acids in instant coffees using HPLC-DAD-mass spectrometry. The highest was caffeic acid, but all were present at low levels compared to the chlorogenic acids. Roasting and decaffeination significantly reduced free phenolic acid content. We estimated, using pharmacokinetic modelling with previously published data, that the contribution of these compounds to small intestinal absorption is minimal. Hydrolysis of certain chlorogenic acids was observed with human-differentiated Caco-2 cell monolayers and with porcine pancreatin, which showed maximal rates on 3- and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acids, respectively. The amounts of certain free phenolic acids in coffee could only minimally account for small intestinal absorption based on modelling. The hydrolysis of caffeoylquinic, but not feruloylquinic acids, by enterocyte and pancreatic esterases is potentially a contributing mechanism to small intestinal absorption. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Rhee, Jinnie J; Qin, FeiFei; Hedlin, Haley K; Chang, Tara I; Bird, Chloe E; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Manson, JoAnn E; Stefanick, Marcia L; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C
The associations of coffee and caffeine intakes with the risk of incident hypertension remain controversial. We sought to assess longitudinal relations of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and total caffeine intakes with mean blood pressure and incident hypertension in postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. In a large prospective study, type and amount of coffee and total caffeine intakes were assessed by using self-reported questionnaires. Hypertension status was ascertained by using measured blood pressure and self-reported drug-treated hypertension. The mean intakes of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeine were 2-3 cups/d, 1 cup/d, and 196 mg/d, respectively. Using multivariable linear regression, we examined the associations of baseline intakes of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeine with measured systolic and diastolic blood pressures at annual visit 3 in 29,985 postmenopausal women who were not hypertensive at baseline. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs and their 95% CIs for time to incident hypertension. During 112,935 person-years of follow-up, 5566 cases of incident hypertension were reported. Neither caffeinated coffee nor caffeine intake was associated with mean systolic or diastolic blood pressure, but decaffeinated coffee intake was associated with a small but clinically irrelevant decrease in mean diastolic blood pressure. Decaffeinated coffee intake was not associated with mean systolic blood pressure. Intakes of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeine were not associated with the risk of incident hypertension (P-trend > 0.05 for all). In summary, these findings suggest that caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeine are not risk factors for hypertension in postmenopausal women. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
Rhee, Jinnie J; Qin, FeiFei; Hedlin, Haley K; Chang, Tara I; Bird, Chloe E; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Manson, JoAnn E; Stefanick, Marcia L; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C
Background: The associations of coffee and caffeine intakes with the risk of incident hypertension remain controversial. Objective: We sought to assess longitudinal relations of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and total caffeine intakes with mean blood pressure and incident hypertension in postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Design: In a large prospective study, type and amount of coffee and total caffeine intakes were assessed by using self-reported questionnaires. Hypertension status was ascertained by using measured blood pressure and self-reported drug-treated hypertension. The mean intakes of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeine were 2–3 cups/d, 1 cup/d, and 196 mg/d, respectively. Using multivariable linear regression, we examined the associations of baseline intakes of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeine with measured systolic and diastolic blood pressures at annual visit 3 in 29,985 postmenopausal women who were not hypertensive at baseline. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs and their 95% CIs for time to incident hypertension. Results: During 112,935 person-years of follow-up, 5566 cases of incident hypertension were reported. Neither caffeinated coffee nor caffeine intake was associated with mean systolic or diastolic blood pressure, but decaffeinated coffee intake was associated with a small but clinically irrelevant decrease in mean diastolic blood pressure. Decaffeinated coffee intake was not associated with mean systolic blood pressure. Intakes of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeine were not associated with the risk of incident hypertension (P-trend > 0.05 for all). Conclusion: In summary, these findings suggest that caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeine are not risk factors for hypertension in postmenopausal women. PMID:26657046
Tesselaar, Erik; Nezirevic Dernroth, Dzeneta; Farnebo, Simon
Studies on the acute effects of coffee on the microcirculation have shown contradicting results. This study aimed to investigate if intake of caffeine-containing coffee changes blood flow and microvascular reactivity in the skin. We measured acute changes in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) in the forearm and the tip of the finger, the microvascular response to transdermal iontophoresis of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) in the skin, after intake of caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee. Vasodilatation during iontophoresis of ACh was significantly stronger after intake of caffeinated coffee compared to after intake of decaffeinated coffee (1.26±0.20PU/mmHg vs. 1.13±0.38PU/mmHg, P<0.001). Forearm CVC before and after PORH were not affected by caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee. After intake of caffeinated coffee, a more pronounced decrease in CVC in the fingertip was observed compared to after intake of decaffeinated coffee (-1.36PU/mmHg vs. -0.52PU/mmHg, P=0.002). Caffeine, as ingested by drinking caffeinated coffee acutely improves endothelium-dependent microvascular responses in the forearm skin, while endothelium-independent responses to PORH and SNP iontophoresis are not affected. Blood flow in the fingertip decreases markedly during the first hour after drinking caffeinated coffee compared to decaffeinated coffee. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Content (mr) Coffee (5-oz cup) Drip method 90-150 Percolated 64-124 Instant 40-108 Decaffeinated 2-5 Instant decaffeinated 2 Tea, loose or bags (5-oz...testing environment. effects of caffeine on sensory processing . For a recent review see Lieberman (2). 6.2 Psychomotor Performance and Cognition
Yaghjyan, Lusine; Colditz, Graham; Rosner, Bernard; Gasparova, Aleksandra; Tamimi, Rulla M
Previous studies suggest that coffee and caffeine intake may be associated with reduced breast cancer risk. We investigated the association of coffee and caffeine intake with mammographic breast density by woman's menopausal status and, in postmenopausal women, by hormone therapy (HT). This study included 4130 cancer-free women within the Nurses' Health Study and Nurses' Health Study II cohorts. Percent breast density (PD) was measured from digitized film mammograms using a computer-assisted thresholding technique and square root-transformed for the analysis. Average cumulative coffee/caffeine consumption was calculated using data from all food frequency questionnaires preceding the mammogram date. Information regarding breast cancer risk factors was obtained from questionnaires closest to the mammogram date. We used generalized linear regression to quantify associations of regular, decaffeinated, and total coffee, and energy-adjusted caffeine intake with percent density. In multivariable analyses, decaffeinated coffee was positively associated with PD in premenopausal women (2+ cups/day: β = 0.23, p trend = 0.03). In postmenopausal women, decaffeinated and total coffee were inversely associated with PD (decaffeinated 2+ cups/day: β = - 0.24, p trend = 0.04; total 4+ cups/day: β = - 0.16, p trend = 0.02). Interaction of decaffeinated coffee with menopausal status was significant (p-interaction < 0.001). Among current HT users, regular coffee and caffeine were inversely associated with PD (regular coffee 4+ cups/day: β = - 0.29, p trend = 0.01; caffeine 4th vs. 1st quartile: β = - 0.32, p trend = 0.01). Among past users, decaffeinated coffee was inversely associated with PD (2+ cups/day β = - 0.70, p trend = 0.02). Associations of decaffeinated coffee with percent density differ by woman's menopausal status. Associations of regular coffee and caffeine with percent density may differ by HT status.
Kobayashi, Misato; Kurata, Takao; Hamana, Yoshiki; Hiramitsu, Masanori; Inoue, Takashi; Murai, Atsushi; Horio, Fumihiko
Coffee consumption reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes in humans, but the mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of coffee on pancreatic β-cells in the induction of diabetes by streptozotocin (STZ) treatment in mice. We examined the effect of coffee, caffeine, or decaffeinated coffee ingestion on STZ-induced hyperglycemia. After STZ injection in Exp. 1 and 2, serum glucose concentration and water intake in coffee ingestion (Coffee group) tended to be lowered or was significantly lowered compared to those in water ingestion (Water group) instead of coffee. In Exp. 1, the values for water intake and serum glucose concentration in caffeine ingestion (Caffeine group) were similar to those in the Water group. In Exp. 2, serum glucose concentrations in the decaffeinated coffee ingestion (Decaf group) tended to be lower than those in the Water group. Pancreatic insulin contents tended to be higher in the Coffee and Decaf groups than in the Water group (Exp. 1 and 2). In Exp. 3, subsequently, we showed that coffee ingestion also suppressed the deterioration of hyperglycemia in diabetic mice which had been already injected with STZ. This study showed that coffee ingestion prevented the development of STZ-induced diabetes and suppressed hyperglycemia in STZ-diabetic mice. Caffeine or decaffeinated coffee ingestion did not significantly suppress STZ-induced hyperglycemia. These results suggest that the combination of caffeine and other components of decaffeinated coffee are needed for the preventive effect on pancreatic β-cell destruction. Coffee ingestion may contribute to the maintenance of pancreatic insulin contents.
El Okda, E A; Mohamed, M M; Shaheed, E B; Abdel-Moemin, A R
The influence of daily consumption of some common beverages on the development of cataract in rats was investigated. Total phenol content was determined in the beverages and an oral standardized dose of total phenols from each beverage was given to the treated rats. Weaned male albino rats were used and divided into five groups (n=7). Rats were fed Ain 93G and administered the standardized dose of instant coffee, black tea and hibiscus beverages for 30 days. On day 14 all rats were injected with a single dose of sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) 15 µmol/kg bodyweight, except the control groups NC (negative control, did not receive Na2SeO3) and PC (positive control, was already injected on day 1 of the study). The rats were continued on Ain 93G and the standardized dose for another 16 days. Positive control rats were used. Total phenols were 210, 40, and 44 mg/g dry weight gallic acid equivalent in black coffee, black tea, and hibiscus, respectively. Decreased levels (statistically significant P<0.05) of malondialdehyde, total nitric oxide, Ca-ATPase, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, superoxide dismutase, and conversely, increased levels (statistically significant P<0.05) of total protein, reduced glutathione, catalase were found in the lenses of the coffee group compared to PC. There are co-phenol substances in the instant black coffee that promoted coffee to be the most effective beverage.
El Okda, E. A.; Mohamed, M. M.; Shaheed, E. B.; Abdel-Moemin, A. R.
The influence of daily consumption of some common beverages on the development of cataract in rats was investigated. Total phenol content was determined in the beverages and an oral standardized dose of total phenols from each beverage was given to the treated rats. Weaned male albino rats were used and divided into five groups (n=7). Rats were fed Ain 93G and administered the standardized dose of instant coffee, black tea and hibiscus beverages for 30 days. On day 14 all rats were injected with a single dose of sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) 15 µmol/kg bodyweight, except the control groups NC (negative control, did not receive Na2SeO3) and PC (positive control, was already injected on day 1 of the study). The rats were continued on Ain 93G and the standardized dose for another 16 days. Positive control rats were used. Total phenols were 210, 40, and 44 mg/g dry weight gallic acid equivalent in black coffee, black tea, and hibiscus, respectively. Decreased levels (statistically significant P<0.05) of malondialdehyde, total nitric oxide, Ca-ATPase, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, superoxide dismutase, and conversely, increased levels (statistically significant P<0.05) of total protein, reduced glutathione, catalase were found in the lenses of the coffee group compared to PC. There are co-phenol substances in the instant black coffee that promoted coffee to be the most effective beverage. PMID:27158251
Noguchi, Katsuhiko; Matsuzaki, Toshihiro; Sakanashi, Mayuko; Hamadate, Naobumi; Uchida, Taro; Kina-Tanada, Mika; Kubota, Haruaki; Nakasone, Junko; Sakanashi, Matao; Ueda, Shinichiro; Masuzaki, Hiroaki; Ishiuchi, Shogo; Ohya, Yusuke; Tsutsui, Masato
Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated that coffee drinking is associated with reduced mortality of cardiovascular disease. However, its precise mechanisms remain to be clarified. In this study, we examined whether single ingestion of caffeine contained in a cup of coffee improves microvascular function in healthy subjects. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was performed in 27 healthy volunteers. A cup of either caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee was drunk by the subjects, and reactive hyperemia of finger blood flow was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry. In an interval of more than 2 days, the same experimental protocol was repeated with another coffee in a crossover manner. Caffeinated coffee intake slightly but significantly elevated blood pressure and decreased finger blood flow as compared with decaffeinated coffee intake. There was no significant difference in heart rate between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee intake. Importantly, caffeinated coffee intake significantly enhanced post-occlusive reactive hyperemia of finger blood flow, an index of microvascular endothelial function, compared with decaffeinated coffee intake. These results provide the first evidence that caffeine contained in a cup of coffee enhances microvascular function in healthy individuals. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cropley, Vanessa; Croft, Rodney; Silber, Beata; Neale, Chris; Scholey, Andrew; Stough, Con; Schmitt, Jeroen
Caffeine exerts positive effects on cognitive and behavioral processes, especially in sub-optimal conditions when arousal is low. Apart from caffeine, coffee contains other compounds including the phenolic compounds ferulic acid, caffeic acid, and the chlorogenic acids, which have purported antioxidant properties. The chlorogenic acids are the most abundant family of compounds found in coffee, yet their effects on cognition and mood have not been investigated. This study aims to ascertain whether a coffee rich in chlorogenic acid modulates brain function. The present pilot study examined the acute effects of decaffeinated coffee with regular chlorogenic acid content and decaffeinated coffee with high chlorogenic acid content on mood and cognitive processes, as measured by behavioral tasks and event-related potentials (ERPs). Performance and ERP responses to a battery of cognitive tasks were recorded at baseline and following the equivalent of three cups of coffee in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study of 39 healthy older participants. Compared with the decaffeinated coffee with regular chlorogenic acid and placebo, caffeinated coffee showed a robust positive effect on higher-level mood and attention processes. To a lesser extent, the decaffeinated coffee high in chlorogenic acid also improved some mood and behavioral measures, relative to regular decaffeinated coffee. Our pilot results suggest that non-caffeine compounds in coffee such as the chlorogenic acids may be capable of exerting some acute behavioral effects, thus warranting further investigation.
engineered mice for the animal study to determine whether coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or caffeine prevents BRCA1 hereditary breast cancer. We...have bred the necessary genetically engineered mice for the animal study to determine whether coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or caffeine prevents BRCA1...participates in the regulation of DNA repair. As the repair process concludes, gamma H2AX is removed from the surrounding region. We were interested in
Ding, Ming; Satija, Ambika; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Hu, Yang; Sun, Qi; Han, Jiali; Lopez-Garcia, Esther; Willett, Walter; van Dam, Rob M.; Hu, Frank B.
Background The association between consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and risk of mortality remains inconclusive. Methods and Results We examined the associations of consumption of total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee with risk of subsequent total and cause-specific mortality among 74,890 women in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), 93,054 women in the NHS 2, and 40,557 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Coffee consumption was assessed at baseline using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. During 4,690,072 person-years of follow-up, 19,524 women and 12,432 men died. Consumption of total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee were non-linearly associated with mortality. Compared to non-drinkers, coffee consumption one to five cups/d was associated with lower risk of mortality, while coffee consumption more than five cups/d was not associated with risk of mortality. However, when restricting to never smokers, compared to non-drinkers, the HRs of mortality were 0.94 (0.89 to 0.99) for ≤ 1 cup/d, 0.92 (0.87 to 0.97) for 1.1-3 cups/d, 0.85 (0.79 to 0.92) for 3.1-5 cups/d, and 0.88 (0.78 to 0.99) for > 5 cups/d (p for non-linearity = 0.32; p for trend < 0.001). Significant inverse associations were observed for caffeinated (p for trend < 0.001) and decaffeinated coffee (p for trend = 0.022). Significant inverse associations were observed between coffee consumption and deaths due to cardiovascular disease, neurological diseases, and suicide. No significant association between coffee consumption and total cancer mortality was found. Conclusions Higher consumption of total coffee, caffeinated coffee, and decaffeinated coffee was associated with lower risk of total mortality. PMID:26572796
Ding, Ming; Satija, Ambika; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Hu, Yang; Sun, Qi; Han, Jiali; Lopez-Garcia, Esther; Willett, Walter; van Dam, Rob M; Hu, Frank B
The association between consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and risk of mortality remains inconclusive. We examined the associations of consumption of total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee with risk of subsequent total and cause-specific mortality among 74,890 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), 93,054 women in the Nurses' Health Study II, and 40,557 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Coffee consumption was assessed at baseline using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. During 4,690,072 person-years of follow-up, 19,524 women and 12,432 men died. Consumption of total, caffeinated, and decaffeinated coffee were nonlinearly associated with mortality. Compared with nondrinkers, coffee consumption of 1 to 5 cups per day was associated with lower risk of mortality, whereas coffee consumption of more than 5 cups per day was not associated with risk of mortality. However, when restricting to never smokers compared with nondrinkers, the hazard ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) of mortality were 0.94 (0.89-0.99) for 1.0 or less cup per day, 0.92 (0.87-0.97) for 1.1 to 3.0 cups per day, 0.85 (0.79-0.92) for 3.1 to 5.0 cup per day, and 0.88 (0.78-0.99) for more than 5.0 cup per day (P value for nonlinearity = 0.32; P value for trend < 0.001). Significant inverse associations were observed for caffeinated (P value for trend < 0.001) and decaffeinated coffee (P value for trend = 0.022). Significant inverse associations were observed between coffee consumption and deaths attributed to cardiovascular disease, neurologic diseases, and suicide. No significant association between coffee consumption and total cancer mortality was found. Higher consumption of total coffee, caffeinated coffee, and decaffeinated coffee was associated with lower risk of total mortality. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Michels, Karin B.; Willett, Walter C.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Giovannucci, Edward
Background: Frequent coffee consumption has been associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer in a number of case–control studies. Cohort studies have not revealed such an association but were limited in size. We explored the association between consumption of coffee and tea and the incidence of colorectal cancer in two large prospective cohorts of women and men. Methods: We used data from the Nurses' Health Study (women) and the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study (men). Consumption of coffee and tea and total caffeine intake were assessed and updated in 1980, 1984, 1986, 1990, and 1994 among women and in 1986, 1990, and 1994 among men. The incidence of cancer of the colon or rectum was ascertained through 1998. Hazard ratios were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models that adjusted for potential confounders. All tests of statistical significance were two-sided. Results: During almost 2 million person-years of follow-up, 1438 cases of colorectal cancer were observed. Consumption of caffeinated coffee or tea with caffeine or caffeine intake was not associated with the incidence of colon or rectal cancer in either cohort. For both cohorts combined, the covariate-adjusted hazard ratio for colorectal cancer associated with consumption of each additional cup of caffeinated coffee was 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.96 to 1.03). However, participants who regularly consumed two or more cups of decaffeinated coffee per day had a 52% (95% CI = 19% to 71%) lower incidence of rectal cancer than those who never consumed decaffeinated coffee (crude incidence rate of 12 cases of rectal cancer per 100 000 person-years of follow-up among participants consuming two or more cups of decaffeinated coffee per day and crude incidence rate of 19 cases of rectal cancer per 100 000 person-years of follow-up among participants who never consumed decaffeinated coffee). Conclusions: Consumption of caffeinated coffee, tea with caffeine, or caffeine was not
Griffiths, R R; Bigelow, G E; Liebson, I A
In a residential research ward the reinforcing and subjective effects of caffeine were studied under double-blind conditions in volunteer subjects with histories of heavy coffee drinking. In Experiment 1, 6 subjects had 13 opportunities each day to self-administer either a caffeine (100 mg) or a placebo capsule for periods of 14 to 61 days. All subjects developed a clear preference for caffeine, with intake of caffeine becoming relatively stable after preference had been attained. Preference for caffeine was demonstrated whether or not preference testing was preceded by a period of 10 to 37 days of caffeine abstinence, suggesting that a recent history of heavy caffeine intake (tolerance/dependence) was not a necessary condition for caffeine to function as a reinforcer. In Experiment 2, 6 subjects had 10 opportunities each day to self-administer a cup of coffee or (on different days) a capsule, dependent upon completing a work requirement that progressively increased and then decreased over days. Each day, one of four conditions was studied: caffeinated coffee (100 mg/cup), decaffeinated coffee, caffeine capsules (100 mg/capsule), or placebo capsules. Caffeinated coffee maintained the most self-administration, significantly higher than decaffeinated coffee and placebo capsules but not different from caffeine capsules. Both decaffeinated coffee and caffeine capsules were significantly higher than placebo capsules but not different from each other. In both experiments, subject ratings of "linking" of coffee or capsules covaried with the self-administration measures. These experiments provide the clearest demonstrations to date of the reinforcing effects of caffeine in capsules and in coffee.
Griffiths, R R; Bigelow, G E; Liebson, I A
In a residential research ward the reinforcing and subjective effects of caffeine were studied under double-blind conditions in volunteer subjects with histories of heavy coffee drinking. In Experiment 1, 6 subjects had 13 opportunities each day to self-administer either a caffeine (100 mg) or a placebo capsule for periods of 14 to 61 days. All subjects developed a clear preference for caffeine, with intake of caffeine becoming relatively stable after preference had been attained. Preference for caffeine was demonstrated whether or not preference testing was preceded by a period of 10 to 37 days of caffeine abstinence, suggesting that a recent history of heavy caffeine intake (tolerance/dependence) was not a necessary condition for caffeine to function as a reinforcer. In Experiment 2, 6 subjects had 10 opportunities each day to self-administer a cup of coffee or (on different days) a capsule, dependent upon completing a work requirement that progressively increased and then decreased over days. Each day, one of four conditions was studied: caffeinated coffee (100 mg/cup), decaffeinated coffee, caffeine capsules (100 mg/capsule), or placebo capsules. Caffeinated coffee maintained the most self-administration, significantly higher than decaffeinated coffee and placebo capsules but not different from caffeine capsules. Both decaffeinated coffee and caffeine capsules were significantly higher than placebo capsules but not different from each other. In both experiments, subject ratings of "linking" of coffee or capsules covaried with the self-administration measures. These experiments provide the clearest demonstrations to date of the reinforcing effects of caffeine in capsules and in coffee. PMID:2794839
Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna; Welna, Maja; Pohl, Pawel
A simplified alternative to the wet digestion sample preparation procedure for roasted ground and instant coffees has been developed and validated for the determination of different elements by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) (Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Zn) and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na). The proposed procedure, i.e. the ultrasound-assisted solubilisation in aqua regia, is quite fast and simple, requires minimal use of reagents, and demonstrated good analytical performance, i.e. accuracy from -4.7% to 1.9%, precision within 0.5-8.6% and recovery in the range 93.5-103%. Detection limits of elements were from 0.086 ng ml(-1) (Sr) to 40 ng ml(-1) (Fe). A preliminary classification of 18 samples of ground and instant coffees was successfully made based on concentrations of selected elements and using principal component analysis and hierarchic cluster analysis.
Bassoli, Bruna Kempfer; Cassolla, Priscila; Borba-Murad, Glaucia Regina; Constantin, Jorgete; Salgueiro-Pagadigorria, Clairce Luzia; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa; de Souza, Helenir Medri
Coffee is the main source of chlorogenic acid in the human diet, and it contains several chlorogenic acid isomers, of which the 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) is the predominant isomer. Because there are no available data about the action of chlorogenic acids from instant coffee on hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) activity and blood glucose levels, these effects were investigated in rats. The changes on G-6-Pase activity and liver glucose output induced by 5-CQA were also investigated. Instant coffee extract with high chlorogenic acids content (37.8%) inhibited (p < 0.05) the G-6-Pase activity of the hepatocyte microsomal fraction in a dose-dependent way (up to 53), but IV administration of this extract did not change the glycaemia (p > 0.05). Similarly, 5-CQA (1 mM) reduced (p < 0.05) the activity of microsomal G-6-Pase by about 40%, but had no effect (p > 0.05) on glucose output arising from glycogenolysis in liver perfusion. It was concluded that instant coffee extract with high content of chlorogenic acids inhibited hepatic G-6-Pase in vitro, but failed to reduce the glycaemia probably because the coffee chlorogenic acids did not reach enough levels within the hepatocytes to inhibit the G-6-Pase and reduce the liver glucose output. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Passos, Cláudia P; Kukurová, Kristína; Basil, Eva; Fernandes, Pedro A R; Neto, Andreia; Nunes, Fernando M; Murkovic, Michael; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Coimbra, Manuel A
Ammonia caramels are the most common antioxidant colour agent used in bakery formulations, although their high sugars content. An alternative could be coffee melanoidins, which are brown coloured compounds with antioxidant properties, readily available from instant coffee. However, high caffeine content is limiting its direct application. To evaluate the possibility of obtaining coloured melanoidin-rich, sugars- and caffeine-poor fractions from instant coffee, in this work, simple procedures based on their ethanol insolubility (fraction EtPp) or retention by ultrafiltration (fraction HWSn) were exploited. Melanoidins incorporation into biscuits formulation (amounts of 1, 5 and 10% w/w related to flour content) resulted in acceptable coloured products with higher antioxidant activity. The biscuits supplemented with 1% EtPp or HWSn had a low caffeine content. The caffeine of one espresso coffee was equivalent to 130 biscuits containing EtPp and 31 biscuits containing HWSn. Besides, both fractions did not promote extra formation of acrylamide or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural during baking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gostner, Johanna M; Schroecksnadel, Sebastian; Jenny, Marcel; Klein, Angela; Ueberall, Florian; Schennach, Harald; Fuchs, Dietmar
Coffee consumption is considered to exert an influence on mood, the immune system, cardiovascular disease, and cancer development, but the mechanisms of action of coffee and its compounds are only partly known and understood. Immunomodulatory effects of filtered extracts of coffee and decaffeinated coffee as well as coffee compounds were investigated in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA). The activation of PBMCs was monitored by the breakdown of tryptophan to kynurenine via enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and the production of the immune activation marker neopterin by GTP-cyclohydrolase I (GCH1). Both of these biochemical pathways are induced during cellular immune activation in response to the Th1-type cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Filtered extracts of coffee and decaffeinated coffee both suppressed tryptophan breakdown and neopterin formation in mitogen-stimulated PBMCs efficiently and in a dose-dependent manner. Of 4 coffee compounds tested individually, only gallic acid and less strong also caffeic acid had a consistent suppressive influence but also affected cell viability, whereas pure caffeine and chlorogenic acid exerted no relevant effect in the PBMC assay. The parallel influence of extracts on tryptophan breakdown and neopterin production shows an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive property of coffee extracts and some of its compounds. When extrapolating the in vitro results to in vivo, IFN-γ-mediated breakdown of tryptophan could be counteracted by the consumption of coffee or decaffeinated coffee. This may increase tryptophan availability for the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) and thereby improve mood and quality of life.
Hodgson, Adrian B; Randell, Rebecca K; Jeukendrup, Asker E
There is consistent evidence supporting the ergogenic effects of caffeine for endurance based exercise. However, whether caffeine ingested through coffee has the same effects is still subject to debate. The primary aim of the study was to investigate the performance enhancing effects of caffeine and coffee using a time trial performance test, while also investigating the metabolic effects of caffeine and coffee. In a single-blind, crossover, randomised counter-balanced study design, eight trained male cyclists/triathletes (Mean ± SD: Age 41 ± 7 y, Height 1.80 ± 0.04 m, Weight 78.9 ± 4.1 kg, VO2 max 58 ± 3 ml • kg(-1) • min(-1)) completed 30 min of steady-state (SS) cycling at approximately 55% VO2max followed by a 45 min energy based target time trial (TT). One hour prior to exercise each athlete consumed drinks consisting of caffeine (5 mg CAF/kg BW), instant coffee (5 mg CAF/kg BW), instant decaffeinated coffee or placebo. The set workloads produced similar relative exercise intensities during the SS for all drinks, with no observed difference in carbohydrate or fat oxidation. Performance times during the TT were significantly faster (~5.0%) for both caffeine and coffee when compared to placebo and decaf (38.35 ± 1.53, 38.27 ± 1.80, 40.23 ± 1.98, 40.31 ± 1.22 min respectively, p<0.05). The significantly faster performance times were similar for both caffeine and coffee. Average power for caffeine and coffee during the TT was significantly greater when compared to placebo and decaf (294 ± 21 W, 291 ± 22 W, 277 ± 14 W, 276 ± 23 W respectively, p<0.05). No significant differences were observed between placebo and decaf during the TT. The present study illustrates that both caffeine (5 mg/kg/BW) and coffee (5 mg/kg/BW) consumed 1 h prior to exercise can improve endurance exercise performance.
Hodgson, Adrian B.; Randell, Rebecca K.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.
There is consistent evidence supporting the ergogenic effects of caffeine for endurance based exercise. However, whether caffeine ingested through coffee has the same effects is still subject to debate. The primary aim of the study was to investigate the performance enhancing effects of caffeine and coffee using a time trial performance test, while also investigating the metabolic effects of caffeine and coffee. In a single-blind, crossover, randomised counter-balanced study design, eight trained male cyclists/triathletes (Mean±SD: Age 41±7y, Height 1.80±0.04 m, Weight 78.9±4.1 kg, VO2 max 58±3 ml•kg−1•min−1) completed 30 min of steady-state (SS) cycling at approximately 55% VO2max followed by a 45 min energy based target time trial (TT). One hour prior to exercise each athlete consumed drinks consisting of caffeine (5 mg CAF/kg BW), instant coffee (5 mg CAF/kg BW), instant decaffeinated coffee or placebo. The set workloads produced similar relative exercise intensities during the SS for all drinks, with no observed difference in carbohydrate or fat oxidation. Performance times during the TT were significantly faster (∼5.0%) for both caffeine and coffee when compared to placebo and decaf (38.35±1.53, 38.27±1.80, 40.23±1.98, 40.31±1.22 min respectively, p<0.05). The significantly faster performance times were similar for both caffeine and coffee. Average power for caffeine and coffee during the TT was significantly greater when compared to placebo and decaf (294±21 W, 291±22 W, 277±14 W, 276±23 W respectively, p<0.05). No significant differences were observed between placebo and decaf during the TT. The present study illustrates that both caffeine (5 mg/kg/BW) and coffee (5 mg/kg/BW) consumed 1 h prior to exercise can improve endurance exercise performance. PMID:23573201
Zhou, Quan; Luo, Mei-Ling; Li, Hui; Li, Min; Zhou, Jian-Guo
This is a dose-response (DR) meta-analysis to evaluate the association of coffee consumption on endometrial cancer (EC) risk. A total 1,534,039 participants from 13 published articles were added in this meta-analysis. The RR of total coffee consumption and EC were 0.80 (95% CI: 0.74–0.86). A stronger association between coffee intake and EC incidence was found in patients who were never treated with hormones, 0.60 (95% CI: 0.50–0.72), and subjects with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2, 0.57 (95% CI: 0.46–0.71). The overall RRs for caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee were 0.66 (95% CI: 0.52–0.84) and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.63–0.94), respectively. A linear DR relationship was seen in coffee, caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee and caffeine intake. The EC risk decreased by 5% for every 1 cup per day of coffee intake, 7% for every 1 cup per day of caffeinated coffee intake, 4% for every 1 cup per day of decaffeinated intake of coffee, and 4% for every 100 mg of caffeine intake per day. In conclusion, coffee and intake of caffeine might significantly reduce the incidence of EC, and these effects may be modified by BMI and history of hormone therapy. PMID:26302813
Baker, Julie A; Beehler, Gregory P; Sawant, Abhishek C; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel; McCann, Susan E; Moysich, Kirsten B
Caffeine has been suggested as a possible risk factor for breast cancer, potentially through its effect of facilitating the development of benign breast disease. However, coffee and tea also contain polyphenols, which exhibit anticarcinogenic properties. A hospital-based, case-control study was conducted to evaluate the role of coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and black tea in breast cancer etiology. Study participants included 1932 cases with primary, incident breast cancer and 1895 hospital controls with nonneoplastic conditions. All participants completed a comprehensive epidemiological questionnaire. Among premenopausal women, consumption of regular coffee was associated with linear declines in breast cancer risk (P for trend = 0.03); consumers of >or=4 cups/d experienced a 40% risk reduction (odds ratio = 0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.98). No clear associations between intake of black tea or decaffeinated coffee and breast cancer risk were noted among premenopausal women, although black tea was associated with a protective effect unique to a subsample of cases with lobular histology. Among postmenopausal women, breast cancer risk was not associated with consumption of coffee, tea, or decaffeinated coffee. Results among postmenopausal women did not differ by histologic subtype. Our findings support a protective effect of coffee intake on premenopausal, but not postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings.
Loaëc, Grégory; Jacolot, Philippe; Helou, Cynthia; Niquet-Léridon, Céline; Tessier, Frédéric J
Sensitive analytical methods were developed and validated for the quantification of acrylamide, N(ε)-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in 24 commercial coffee substitutes (CSs) and 12 instant coffees (ICs). Acrylamide levels varied widely from 200 to 4940 µg kg(-1) with higher levels in CSs. Only two out of 24 CSs had a level of acrylamide above the indicative value set for this food category by the European Commission (4000 µg kg(-1)). None of the ICs tested in this study exceeded the indicative value set for this foodstuff (900 µg kg(-1)). CML ranged from 0.17 to 47 mg kg(-1) and it increased in proportion to the protein content of the samples. The highest concentrations were found in IC partly due to the relatively high protein content of this food group. HMF was the most abundant neoformed compound (NFC) found in the tested commercial samples. It was found between 0.59 and 13 g kg(-1). Among other food categories IC and CS could appear to be major contributors to the exposure to NFCs if consumed on a daily basis. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the acrylamide formation during processing and to determine the daily intake level of frequent consumers of these products.
Richardson, Darren L; Clarke, Neil D
Richardson, DL and Clarke, ND. Effect of coffee and caffeine ingestion on resistance exercise performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2892-2900, 2016-The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of ingesting caffeine dose-matched anhydrous caffeine, coffee, or decaffeinated coffee plus anhydrous caffeine during resistance exercise on performance. Nine resistance-trained men (mean ± SD: age, 24 ± 2 years; weight, 84 ± 8 kg; height, 180 ± 8 cm) completed a squat and bench press exercise protocol at 60% 1 repetition maximum until failure on 5 occasions consuming 0.15 g·kg caffeinated coffee (COF), 0.15 g·kg decaffeinated coffee (DEC), 0.15 g·kg decaffeinated coffee plus 5 mg·kg anhydrous caffeine (D + C), 5 mg·kg anhydrous caffeine (CAF), or a placebo (PLA). Felt arousal and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were used to assess perceptual variables and heart rate (HR) to assess physiological responses between trials. There were significant differences in total weight lifted for the squat between conditions (p < 0.01; (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.54) with a greater amount lifted during D + C compared with DEC (p < 0.01), CAF (p ≤ 0.05), and PLA (p ≤ 0.05) conditions. Total weight lifted during the COF condition was significantly greater than that lifted under PLA (p < 0.01), although not significantly greater than the amount of weight lifted during the DEC condition (p = 0.082). No significant differences were observed in total weight lifted in the bench press protocol between conditions (p = 0.186; (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.17). Significant differences in HR (p < 0.01; (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.39) but not RPE (squat: p = 0.690; (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.07; bench press: p = 0.165; (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.18) and felt arousal (p = 0.056; (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.24) were observed between conditions. Coffee and
Choi, Hyon K; Curhan, Gary
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and may affect the risk of gout via various mechanisms, but prospective data on the relation between coffee intake and the risk of incident gout are limited. Over a 26-y period, we prospectively examined the relation between coffee intake and risk of incident gout in 89,433 female participants in the Nurses' Health Study. We assessed the consumption of coffee, decaffeinated coffee, tea, and total caffeine in participants every 2-4 y through validated questionnaires. We used a supplementary questionnaire to ascertain whether participants met the survey criteria of the American College of Rheumatology for gout. During the 26 y of follow-up, we documented 896 confirmed incident cases of gout. There was an inverse association between higher coffee intake and the risk of gout. The multivariate relative risks (RRs) for incident gout according to coffee-consumption categories [ie, 0, 1-237, 238-947, and ≥948 mL coffee/d (237 mL = one 8-ounce cup)] were 1.00, 0.97, 0.78 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.95), and 0.43 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.61; P for trend < 0.0001), respectively. For decaffeinated coffee, the multivariate RRs according to consumption categories (0, 1-237, and ≥237 mL decaffeinated coffee/d) were 1.00, 1.02, and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.95; P for trend = 0.02), respectively. There was an inverse association between total caffeine from all sources and the risk of gout; the multivariate RR of the highest quintile compared with the lowest quintile was 0.52 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.68; P for trend <0.0001). These prospective data suggest that long-term coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of incident gout in women.
Schubert, Matthew M; Grant, Gary; Horner, Katy; King, Neil; Leveritt, Michael; Sabapathy, Surendran; Desbrow, Ben
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and has a number of potential health benefits. Coffee may influence energy expenditure and energy intake, which in turn may affect body weight. However, the influence of coffee and its constituents - particularly caffeine - on appetite remains largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of coffee consumption (with and without caffeine) on appetite sensations, energy intake, gastric emptying, and plasma glucose between breakfast and lunch meals. In a double-blind, randomised crossover design. Participants (n = 12, 9 women; Mean ± SD age and BMI: 26.3 ± 6.3 y and 22.7 ± 2.2 kg•m⁻²) completed 4 trials: placebo (PLA), decaffeinated coffee (DECAF), caffeine (CAF), and caffeine with decaffeinated coffee (COF). Participants were given a standardised breakfast labelled with ¹³C-octanoic acid and 225 mL of treatment beverage and a capsule containing either caffeine or placebo. Two hours later, another 225 mL of the treatment beverage and capsule was administered. Four and a half hours after breakfast, participants were given access to an ad libitum meal for determination of energy intake. Between meals, participants provided exhaled breath samples for determination of gastric emptying; venous blood and appetite sensations. Energy intake was not significantly different between the trials (Means ± SD, p> 0.05; Placebo: 2118 ± 663 kJ; Decaf: 2128 ± 739 kJ; Caffeine: 2287 ± 649 kJ; Coffee: 2016 ± 750 kJ); Other than main effects of time (p <0.05), no significant differences were detected for appetite sensations or plasma glucose between treatments (p > 0.05). Gastric emptying was not significantly different across trials (p > 0.05). No significant effects of decaffeinated coffee, caffeine or their combination were detected. However, the consumption of caffeine and/or coffee for regulation of energy balance
Lueth, Natalie A.; Anderson, Kristin E.; Harnack, Lisa J.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Robien, Kim
Laboratory data suggests that caffeine or some components of coffee may cause DNA mutations and inhibit tumor suppressor mechanisms, leading to neoplastic growth. However, coffee consumption has not been clearly implicated in the etiology of human post-menopausal ovarian cancer. This study evaluated the relationship of coffee and caffeine intake with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in a prospective cohort study of 29,060 postmenopausal women. The participants completed a mailed questionnaire that assessed diet and health history and were followed for ovarian cancer incidence from 1986 to 2004. Age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios were calculated for four exposure variables: caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, total coffee and total caffeine to assess whether or not coffee or caffeine influences the risk of ovarian cancer. An increased risk was observed in the multivariate model for women who reported drinking five or more cups/day of caffeinated coffee compared to women who reported drinking none (HR=1.81, 95% CI: 1.10-2.95). Decaffeinated coffee, total coffee and caffeine were not statistically significantly associated with ovarian cancer incidence. Our results suggest that a component of coffee other than caffeine, or in combination with caffeine, may be associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer in postmenopausal women who drink five or more cups of coffee a day. PMID:18704717
Older adults who drank coffee -- caffeinated or decaffeinated -- had a lower risk of death overall than others who did not drink coffee, according a study by researchers from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health,
Chen, Hua-zhou; Xu, Li-li; Qin, Qiang
Spectroscopic analysis was applied to the determination of the nutrient quality of ground, instant and chicory coffees. By using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-ES), nine mineral elements were determined in solid coffee samples. Caffeine was determined by ultraviolet (UV) spectrometry and organic matter was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Oxidation-reduction titration was utilized for measuring the oxalate. The differences between ground coffee and instant coffee was identified on the basis of the contents of caffeine, oxalate and mineral elements. Experimental evidence showed that, caffeine in instant coffee was 2-3 times higher than in ground coffee. Oxalate in instant coffee was significantly higher in ground coffee. Mineral elements of Mg, P and Zn in ground coffee is lower than in instant coffee, while Cu is several times higher. The mineral content in chicory coffee is overall lower than the instant coffee. In addition, we determined the content of Ti for different types of coffees, and simultaneously detected the elements of Cu, Ti and Zn in chicory coffee. As a fast detection technique, FTIR spectroscopy has the potential of detecting the differences between ground coffee and instant coffee, and is able to verify the presence of caffeine and oxalate.
Mills, Llewellyn; Boakes, Robert A; Colagiuri, Ben
Expectancies have been shown to play a role in the withdrawal syndrome of many drugs of addiction; however, no studies have examined the effects of expectancies across a broad range of caffeine withdrawal symptoms, including craving. The purpose of the current study was to use caffeine as a model to test the effect of expectancy on withdrawal symptoms, specifically whether the belief that one has ingested caffeine is sufficient to reduce caffeine withdrawal symptoms and cravings in abstinent coffee drinkers. We had 24-h abstinent regular coffee drinkers complete the Caffeine Withdrawal Symptom Questionnaire (CWSQ) before and after receiving decaffeinated coffee. One-half of the participants were led to believe the coffee was regular caffeinated coffee (the 'Told Caffeine' condition) and one-half were told that it was decaffeinated (the 'Told Decaf' condition). Participants in the Told Caffeine condition reported a significantly greater reduction in the factors of cravings, fatigue, lack of alertness and flu-like feelings of the CWSQ, than those in the Told Decaf condition. Our results indicated that the belief that one has consumed caffeine can affect caffeine withdrawal symptoms, especially cravings, even when no caffeine was consumed. © The Author(s) 2016.
Compton, Senja V.; Compton, David A.
Recently, the area of food analysis and product safety has become of major concern to consumers. Therefore, companies involved in the quality assurance of theirproducts have been encouraged to perform extensive analyses to guarantee safety and satisfaction. One of the largest consumer products in the beverage marketplace is coffee. Much emphasis has been placed upon the safety of the decaffeination processes used by various manufacturers; these involve extraction of the caffeine by a solvent system that may be aqueous or organic, and is sometimes,super-critical. Additionally, aroma (fragrance) of brewing coffee has been found to be of major concern to the individual by the marketing departments of the coffee companies. The heads ace analysis of coffees can be used to discover the species retained after the decaffeination of coffee, as well as to distinguish the volatile species released upon treatment of the coffee at boiling water temperatures.
Lopez, David S; Liu, Lydia; Rimm, Eric B; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; de Oliveira Otto, Marcia; Wang, Run; Canfield, Steven; Giovannucci, Edward
Coffee intake is suggested to have a positive impact on chronic diseases, yet its role in urological diseases such as erectile dysfunction (ED) remains unclear. We investigated the association of coffee intake with incidence of ED by conducting the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, a prospective analysis of 21,403 men aged 40-75 years old. Total, regular, and decaffeinated coffee intakes were self-reported on food frequency questionnaires. ED was assessed by mean values of questionnaires in 2000, 2004 and 2008. Multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute hazard ratios for patients with incident ED (n = 7,298). No significant differences were identified for patients with incident ED after comparing highest (≥4 cups/day) with lowest (0 cups/day) categories of total (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.90, 1.11) and regular coffee intakes (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.13). When comparing the highest category with lowest category of decaffeinated coffee intake, we found a 37% increased risk of ED (HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.73), with a significant trend (P trend = 0.02). Stratified analyses also showed an association among current smokers (P trend = 0.005). Overall, long-term coffee intake was not associated with risk of ED in a prospective cohort study.
Peter, Patricia R.; Park, Kyung Hee; Huh, Joo Young; Wedick, Nicole M.; Mantzoros, Christos S.
Irisin, secreted by skeletal muscle and possibly fat, is hypothesized to play an important role in modulating energy expenditure, obesity and metabolism. Coffee consumption also increases energy expenditure and leads to positive metabolic effects, but whether these effects are mediated by irisin remains unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the association between baseline irisin levels and the metabolic profile in humans and to investigate whether consumption of caffeinated coffee alters irisin levels. To this end, a secondary analysis was performed investigating irisin levels at baseline and after eight weeks in 32 healthy, overweight coffee drinkers who were randomized to consumption of 5 cups per day of instant caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or water. Spearman correlation and analysis of covariance analyses were performed to identify possible associations. Irisin levels were positively correlated with waist circumference (r = 0.41, p = 0.02), fat mass (r = 0.44, p = 0.01) and CRP (r = 0.47, p = 0.007). Though there was a trend towards increased levels of irisin over time in the caffeinated coffee group (+1.8%) when compared to the placebo group (−4%) this did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.75 for the trend). This first randomized trial failed to reveal any effects of coffee consumption on irisin levels, but a larger trial, appropriately sized on the basis of data provided by this study, is needed to conclusively investigate such a relationship. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00305097 PMID:24728416
Takahashi, Keita; Yanai, Shuichi; Shimokado, Kentaro; Ishigami, Akihito
Coffee, one of the world's most consumed beverages, has many benefits. Some studies have reported the effects of coffee on aging. The aim of this study was to investigate the locomotor activity, energy metabolism, and lipid metabolism of aged (20-mo-old) mice given coffee. Aged C57 BL/6 NCr mice were divided into three groups: controls that were not given coffee (n = 9), a group that received 0.1% caffeinated coffee (n = 9), and a group that received 0.1% decaffeinated coffee (n = 9). This regimen continued for 17 wk until mice reached the age of 24 mo. Regular and decaffeinated coffee consumption decreased plasma-free fatty acid levels, increased hepatic adenosine triphosphate content, and decreased total mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and phosphorylated mTOR (p-mTOR) protein content in the liver. However, no differences were found in the protein or activity levels of Akt, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), p70 S6 kinase, or sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, proteins that are upstream or downstream of the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1)-related pathways. Regular coffee consumption increased food and water intake, locomotor activity, the volume of carbon dioxide production, and the respiration exchange ratio. Regular and decaffeinated coffee consumption decreased hepatic total mTOR and p-mTOR levels independently of Akt and AMPK pathways in aged mice. Because decreased mTORC1 activity is known to have antiaging effects, coffee consumption during old age may retard aging. Moreover, coffee consumption by the aged population had a positive effect on behavioral energy and lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mojska, Hanna; Gielecińska, Iwona
Many animal studies have shown that acrylamide is both neurotoxic and carcinogenic. The first reports of acrylamide actually having been found in foodstuffs were published in 2002 by the Swedish National Food Agency in conjunction with scientists from the University of Stockholm. It has since been demonstrated that acrylamide arises in foodstuffs by the Maillard reaction, ie. between free asparagine and reducing sugars at temperatures >120 degrees C. Coffee in fact, forms one of the principal dietary sources of acrylamide, where it is normally drunk in large quantities throughout many countries worldwide that includes Poland. Thus, it constitutes a major dietary component in a wide range of population groups, mainly ranging from late adolescents to the elderly. To determine the acrylamide level in commercial samples of roasted and instant coffee and in coffee substitutes by LC-MS/MS method. The influence of coffee species and colour intensity of coffee on acrylamide level was also detailed. A total of 42 samples of coffee were analysed which included 28 that were ground roasted coffee, 11 instant coffees and 3 coffee substitutes (grain coffee). Analytical separation of acrylamide from coffee was performed by liquid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). To evaluate the colour intensity of ground roasted coffee and instant coffee we used method of arranging (sequence). The highest mean acrylamide concentrations were found in coffee substitutes (818 pg/kg) followed by instant coffee (358 microg/kg) and then roasted coffee (179 microg/kg). One single cup of coffee (160 ml) delivered on average from 0.45 microg acrylamide in roasted coffee to 3.21 microg in coffee substitutes. There were no significant differences in acrylamide level between the coffee species ie. Arabica vs Robusta or a mixture thereof. The various methods of coffee manufacture also showed no differences in acrylamide (ie. freeze-dried coffee vs agglomerated coffee). A
Robertson, Tracey M; Clifford, Michael N; Penson, Simon; Chope, Gemma; Robertson, M Denise
Previous studies regarding the acute effects of coffee on glycaemic control have used a single large dose of coffee, typically containing the caffeine equivalent of 2-4 servings of coffee. This study investigates whether the acute effects of coffee are dose-dependent, starting with a single serving. A total of ten healthy overweight males participated in a two-part randomised double-blind cross-over study. In the first part, they ingested 2, 4 or 8 g instant decaffeinated coffee (DC) dissolved in 400 ml water with caffeine added in proportion to the DC (total 100, 200 or 400 mg caffeine) or control (400 ml water) all with 50 g glucose. In the second part, they ingested the same amounts of DC (2, 4, 8 g) or control, but with a standard 100 mg caffeine added to each. Capillary blood samples were taken every 15 min for 2 h after each drink and glucose and insulin levels were measured. Repeated measures ANOVA on glucose results found an effect when caffeine was varied in line with DC (P=0·008). Post hoc analysis revealed that both 2 and 4 g DC with varied caffeine content increased the glycaemic response v. There was no effect of escalating doses of DC when caffeine remained constant at 100 mg. These results demonstrate that one standard serving of coffee (2 g) is sufficient to affect glucose metabolism. Furthermore, the amount of caffeine found in one serving (100 mg) is sufficient to mask any potential beneficial effects of increasing other components. No dose-dependent effect was found.
Cao, Chuanhai; Wang, Li; Lin, Xiaoyang; Mamcarz, Malgorzata; Zhang, Chi; Bai, Ge; Nong, Jasson; Sussman, Sam; Arendash, Gary
Retrospective and prospective epidemiologic studies suggest that enhanced coffee/caffeine intake during aging reduces risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Underscoring this premise, our studies in AD transgenic mice show that long-term caffeine administration protects against cognitive impairment and reduces brain amyloid-β levels/deposition through suppression of both β- and γ-secretase. Because coffee contains many constituents in addition to caffeine that may provide cognitive benefits against AD, we examined effects of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee on plasma cytokines, comparing their effects to caffeine alone. In both AβPPsw+PS1 transgenic mice and non-transgenic littermates, acute i.p. treatment with caffeinated coffee greatly and specifically increased plasma levels of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF), IL-10, and IL-6. Neither caffeine solution alone (which provided high plasma caffeine levels) or decaffeinated coffee provided this effect, indicating that caffeine synergized with some as yet unidentified component of coffee to selectively elevate these three plasma cytokines. The increase in GCSF is particularly important because long-term treatment with coffee (but not decaffeinated coffee) enhanced working memory in a fashion that was associated only with increased plasma GCSF levels among all cytokines. Since we have previously reported that long-term GCSF treatment enhances cognitive performance in AD mice through three possible mechanisms (e.g., recruitment of microglia from bone marrow, synaptogenesis, and neurogenesis), the same mechanisms could be complimentary to caffeine's established ability to suppress Aβ production. We conclude that coffee may be the best source of caffeine to protect against AD because of a component in coffee that synergizes with caffeine to enhance plasma GCSF levels, resulting in multiple therapeutic actions against AD.
Jiang, Xiubo; Zhang, Dongfeng; Jiang, Wenjie
Coffee and caffeine have been linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies was conducted to assess the association between coffee and caffeine intake and T2DM incidence. Pertinent studies were identified by a search of PubMed and EMBASE. The fixed- or random-effect pooled measure was selected based on between-study heterogeneity. Dose-response relationship was assessed by restricted cubic spline. Compared with the lowest level, the pooled relative risk (95 % CI) of T2DM was 0.71 (0.67-0.76) for the highest level of coffee intake (26 articles involving 50,595 T2DM cases and 1,096,647 participants), 0.79 (0.69-0.91) for the highest level of decaffeinated coffee intake (10 articles involving 29,165 T2DM cases and 491,485 participants) and 0.70 (0.65-0.75) for the highest level of caffeine intake (6 articles involving 9,302 T2DM cases and 321,960 participants). The association of coffee, decaffeinated coffee and caffeine intake with T2DM incidence was stronger for women than that for men. A stronger association of coffee intake with T2DM incidence was found for non-smokers and subjects with body mass index <25 kg/m(2). Dose-response analysis suggested that incidence of T2DM decreased by 12 % [0.88 (0.86-0.90)] for every 2 cups/day increment in coffee intake, 11 % [0.89 (0.82-0.98)] for every 2 cups/day increment in decaffeinated coffee intake and 14 % [0.86 (0.82-0.91)] for every 200 mg/day increment in caffeine intake. Coffee and caffeine intake might significantly reduce the incidence of T2DM.
Vilanova, Cristina; Iglesias, Alba; Porcar, Manuel
Microbial communities are ubiquitous in both natural and artificial environments. However, microbial diversity is usually reduced under strong selection pressures, such as those present in habitats rich in recalcitrant or toxic compounds displaying antimicrobial properties. Caffeine is a natural alkaloid present in coffee, tea and soft drinks with well-known antibacterial properties. Here we present the first systematic analysis of coffee machine-associated bacteria. We sampled the coffee waste reservoir of ten different Nespresso machines and conducted a dynamic monitoring of the colonization process in a new machine. Our results reveal the existence of a varied bacterial community in all the machines sampled, and a rapid colonisation process of the coffee leach. The community developed from a pioneering pool of enterobacteria and other opportunistic taxa to a mature but still highly variable microbiome rich in coffee-adapted bacteria. The bacterial communities described here, for the first time, are potential drivers of biotechnologically relevant processes including decaffeination and bioremediation. PMID:26592442
Vilanova, Cristina; Iglesias, Alba; Porcar, Manuel
Microbial communities are ubiquitous in both natural and artificial environments. However, microbial diversity is usually reduced under strong selection pressures, such as those present in habitats rich in recalcitrant or toxic compounds displaying antimicrobial properties. Caffeine is a natural alkaloid present in coffee, tea and soft drinks with well-known antibacterial properties. Here we present the first systematic analysis of coffee machine-associated bacteria. We sampled the coffee waste reservoir of ten different Nespresso machines and conducted a dynamic monitoring of the colonization process in a new machine. Our results reveal the existence of a varied bacterial community in all the machines sampled, and a rapid colonisation process of the coffee leach. The community developed from a pioneering pool of enterobacteria and other opportunistic taxa to a mature but still highly variable microbiome rich in coffee-adapted bacteria. The bacterial communities described here, for the first time, are potential drivers of biotechnologically relevant processes including decaffeination and bioremediation.
Kasperzyk, Julie L.; Rider, Jennifer R.; Kenfield, Stacey; van Dam, Rob M.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Giovannucci, Edward; Mucci, Lorelei A.
Background Coffee contains many biologically active compounds, including caffeine and phenolic acids, that have potent antioxidant activity and can affect glucose metabolism and sex hormone levels. Because of these biological activities, coffee may be associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. Methods We conducted a prospective analysis of 47 911 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study who reported intake of regular and decaffeinated coffee in 1986 and every 4 years thereafter. From 1986 to 2006, 5035 patients with prostate cancer were identified, including 642 patients with lethal prostate cancers, defined as fatal or metastatic. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between coffee and prostate cancer, adjusting for potential confounding by smoking, obesity, and other variables. All P values were from two-sided tests. Results The average intake of coffee in 1986 was 1.9 cups per day. Men who consumed six or more cups per day had a lower adjusted relative risk for overall prostate cancer compared with nondrinkers (RR = 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.68 to 0.98, Ptrend = .10). The association was stronger for lethal prostate cancer (consumers of more than six cups of coffee per day: RR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.75, Ptrend = .03). Coffee consumption was not associated with the risk of nonadvanced or low-grade cancers and was only weakly inversely associated with high-grade cancer. The inverse association with lethal cancer was similar for regular and decaffeinated coffee (each one cup per day increment: RR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.88 to 1.01, P = .08 for regular coffee and RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.83 to 1.00, P = .05 for decaffeinated coffee). The age-adjusted incidence rates for men who had the highest (≥6 cups per day) and lowest (no coffee) coffee consumption were 425 and 519 total prostate cancers, respectively, per 100 000 person-years and 34 and 79 lethal prostate cancers, respectively, per 100 000 person
Furtado, Kelly S; Prado, Monize G; Aguiar E Silva, Marco A; Dias, Marcos C; Rivelli, Diogo P; Rodrigues, Maria A M; Barbisan, Luis F
Coffee intake has been inversely related to the incidence of liver diseases, although there are controversies on whether these beneficial effects on human health are because of caffeine or other specific components in this popular beverage. Thus, this study evaluated the protective effects of coffee or caffeine intake on liver injury induced by repeated thioacetamide (TAA) administration in male Wistar rats. Rats were randomized into five groups: one untreated group (G1) and four groups (G2-G5) treated with the hepatotoxicant TAA (200 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) twice a week for 8 weeks. Concomitantly, rats received tap water (G1 and G2), conventional coffee (G3), decaffeinated coffee (G4) or 0.1% caffeine (G5). After 8 weeks of treatment, rats were killed and blood and liver samples were collected. Conventional and decaffeinated coffee and caffeine intake significantly reduced serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p < 0.001) and oxidized glutathione (p < 0.05), fibrosis/inflammation scores (p < 0.001), collagen volume fraction (p < 0.01) and transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β1) protein expression (p ≤ 0.001) in the liver from TAA-treated groups. In addition, conventional coffee and caffeine intake significantly reduced proliferating cellular nuclear antigen (PCNA) S-phase indexes (p < 0.001), but only conventional coffee reduced cleaved caspase-3 indexes (p < 0.001), active metalloproteinase 2 (p ≤ 0.004) and the number of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive preneoplastic lesions (p < 0.05) in the liver from TAA-treated groups. In conclusion, conventional coffee and 0.1% caffeine intake presented better beneficial effects than decaffeinated coffee against liver injury induced by TAA in male Wistar rats. © 2012 The Authors Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2012 Nordic Pharmacological Society.
Pickard, Stephanie; Becker, Irina; Merz, Karl-Heinz; Richling, Elke
A stable isotope dilution analysis based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis (SIDA-GC-MS) was developed for the quantitative analysis of 12 alkylpyrazines found in commercially available coffee samples. These compounds contribute to coffee flavor. The accuracy of this method was tested by analyzing model mixtures of alkylpyrazines. Comparisons of alkylpyrazine-concentrations suggested that water as extraction solvent was superior to dichloromethane. The distribution patterns of alkylpyrazines in different roasted coffees were quite similar. The most abundant alkylpyrazine in each coffee sample was 2-methylpyrazine, followed by 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2-ethylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, and 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine, respectively. Among the alkylpyrazines tested, 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-3-methylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-3,6-dimethylpyrazine, and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine revealed the lowest concentrations in roasted coffee. By the use of isotope dilution analysis, the total concentrations of alkylpyrazines in commercially available ground coffee ranged between 82.1 and 211.6 mg/kg, respectively. Decaffeinated coffee samples were found to contain lower amounts of alkylpyrazines than regular coffee samples by a factor of 0.3-0.7, which might be a result of the decaffeination procedure.
Arai, Kana; Terashima, Hiroyuki; Aizawa, Sen-ichi; Taga, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Tsutsumiuchi, Kaname; Kodama, Shuji
In order to analyze trigonelline, caffeine, chlorogenic acid, and their related compounds simultaneously, an HPLC method using an InertSustain C18 column and a mobile phase containing octanesulfonate as an ion-pairing reagent under an acidic condition was developed. The optimum mobile phase conditions were determined to be 0.1% phosphoric acid, 4 mM octanesulfonate, and 15% methanol at 35°C. Using the proposed method, trigonelline, nicotinic acid, caffeine, theophylline, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid in ten instant coffee samples were analyzed. These analytes except for theophylline were detected in all samples. An increase in the caffeine content in instant coffee samples tended to decrease in both trigonelline and chlorogenic acid contents, and the trigonelline content was found to be correlated well with the chlorogenic acid content (R(2) = 0.887).
Lucas, Michel; Mirzaei, Fariba; Pan, An; Okereke, Olivia I.; Willett, Walter C; O’Reilly, Éilis J; Koenen, Karestan; Ascherio, Alberto
Background Caffeine is the world’s most widely used central nervous system stimulant, with about 80% consumed in form of coffee. However, studies that analyzed prospectively the relation of coffee or caffeine consumption and depression risk are scarce. Methods A total of 50,739 U.S. women (mean age=63 years) free from depressive symptoms at baseline (1996) were prospectively followed until 2006. Caffeine and coffee consumption, and other caffeinated and decaffeinated beverages, were obtained from validated questionnaires completed between 1980 through 2002 and computed as cumulative average of consumption with a 2-year latency applied. Clinical depression was defined as reporting both physician-diagnosed depression and antidepressant use. Relative risks of clinical depression were estimate using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results During 10 years of follow-up (1996–2006), 2,607 incident cases of depression were identified. Compared to women consuming caffeinated coffee less frequently (≤1 cup/wk), multivariate relative risk of depression was 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 0.95) for those consuming 2–3 cups/d and 0.80 (95%CI, 0.64 to 0.99; P trend <0.001) for those consuming ≥4 cups/d. Multivariate relative risk for depression was 0.80 (95%CI, 0.68 to 0.95; P trend=0.02) for women in the highest (≥550 mg/d) vs. lowest (<100 mg/d) of the 5 caffeine consumption categories. Decaffeinated coffee was not associated with depression risk. Conclusions In this large longitudinal study we found that depression risk decreases with increasing caffeinated coffee consumption. Further investigations are needed to confirm this finding and to determine whether usual caffeinated coffee consumption may contribute to depression prevention. PMID:21949167
Camfield, David A; Silber, Beata Y; Scholey, Andrew B; Nolidin, Karen; Goh, Antionette; Stough, Con
In the current study, sixty healthy older adults aged 50 years or older, and who were light to moderate coffee drinkers, were administered 6g of a decaffeinated green coffee blend (NESCAFÉ Green Blend coffee; GB) or 540mg pure chlorogenic acids (CGA) or placebo in a double-blind acute cross-over design, with cognitive and mood assessments pre-dose, 40-mins and 120-mins post-dose. The primary outcome measure was accuracy in Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP). Secondary cognitive outcome measures included RVIP reaction time as well as Inspection time (IT), Jensen Box decision/reaction times, serial subtraction and N-Back working memory. Secondary mood measures included Bond-Lader and caffeine Research visual analogue scales (VAS). No significant treatment effects were found for the primary outcome measure, although significant effects were found amongst secondary measures. Overall, CGA in isolation was not found to significantly improve cognitive function relative to placebo whereas the GB was found to improve sustained attention as measured by the N-Back task in comparison to placebo overall (t=2.45,p=.05), as well as decision time on a 2-choice reaction time task (Jensen box) in comparison to placebo at 40 minutes post-dose (t=2.45,p=.05). Similarly, GB was found to improve alertness on both the Bond-Lader at 120 minutes relative to CGA (t=2.86, p=0.02) and the caffeine Research VAS relative to CGA (t=3.09, p=0.009) and placebo (t=2.75,p=0.02) at 120 minutes post-dose. Both the GB and CGA were also found to significantly improve symptoms of headache at 120 minutes relative to placebo (t=2.51,p=0.03 and t=2.43,p=.04 respectively), whilst there was a trend towards a reduction in jitteriness with GB and CGA in comparison to placebo at 40 minutes post-dose (t=2.24,p=0.06 and t=2.20,p=0.06 respectively). These findings suggest that the improvements in mood observed with GB, but not the improvements in cognitive function, are likely to some extent to be
Camfield, David A.; Silber, Beata Y.; Scholey, Andrew B.; Nolidin, Karen; Goh, Antionette; Stough, Con
In the current study, sixty healthy older adults aged 50 years or older, and who were light to moderate coffee drinkers, were administered 6g of a decaffeinated green coffee blend (NESCAFÉ Green Blend coffee; GB) or 540mg pure chlorogenic acids (CGA) or placebo in a double-blind acute cross-over design, with cognitive and mood assessments pre-dose, 40-mins and 120-mins post-dose. The primary outcome measure was accuracy in Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP). Secondary cognitive outcome measures included RVIP reaction time as well as Inspection time (IT), Jensen Box decision/reaction times, serial subtraction and N-Back working memory. Secondary mood measures included Bond-Lader and caffeine Research visual analogue scales (VAS). No significant treatment effects were found for the primary outcome measure, although significant effects were found amongst secondary measures. Overall, CGA in isolation was not found to significantly improve cognitive function relative to placebo whereas the GB was found to improve sustained attention as measured by the N-Back task in comparison to placebo overall (t=2.45,p=.05), as well as decision time on a 2-choice reaction time task (Jensen box) in comparison to placebo at 40 minutes post-dose (t=2.45,p=.05). Similarly, GB was found to improve alertness on both the Bond-Lader at 120 minutes relative to CGA (t=2.86, p=0.02) and the caffeine Research VAS relative to CGA (t=3.09, p=0.009) and placebo (t=2.75,p=0.02) at 120 minutes post-dose. Both the GB and CGA were also found to significantly improve symptoms of headache at 120 minutes relative to placebo (t=2.51,p=0.03 and t=2.43,p=.04 respectively), whilst there was a trend towards a reduction in jitteriness with GB and CGA in comparison to placebo at 40 minutes post-dose (t=2.24,p=0.06 and t=2.20,p=0.06 respectively). These findings suggest that the improvements in mood observed with GB, but not the improvements in cognitive function, are likely to some extent to be
Furtado, Kelly S; Polletini, Jossimara; Dias, Marcos C; Rodrigues, Maria A M; Barbisan, Luis F
Coffee has been inversely related to the incidence of human liver disease; however, whether caffeine is the component responsible for the beneficial effects of coffee remains controversial. This study evaluated the beneficial effects of coffee or caffeine in a medium-term bioassay for rat liver fibrosis/carcinogenesis induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). One week after the DEN injection, the groups started to receive conventional coffee, instant coffee or 0.1% caffeine ad libitum for 24 weeks. The groups receiving conventional coffee or caffeine presented a significant reduction in collagen content and mRNA expression of collagen I. The groups receiving instant coffee or caffeine had a significant reduction in the size and area of pre-neoplastic lesions and in the mean number of neoplastic lesions. A significant increase in liver bax protein levels was observed in the groups receiving instant coffee or caffeine as compared to the control group. These data indicate that the most pronounced hepatoprotective effect against fibrosis was observed in the groups receiving conventional coffee and 0.1% caffeine, and the greatest effects against liver carcinogenesis were detected in the groups receiving instant coffee and 0.1% caffeine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Dongen, Laura H; Mölenberg, Famke Jm; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Kromhout, Daan; Geleijnse, Johanna M
Background: Consumption of coffee, one of the most popular beverages around the world, has been associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in population-based studies. However, little is known about these associations in patient populations. Objective: This prospective study aimed to examine the consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality, and all-cause mortality in patients with a prior myocardial infarction (MI). Design: We included 4365 Dutch patients from the Alpha Omega Cohort who were aged 60-80 y (21% female) and had experienced an MI <10 y before study enrollment. At baseline (2002-2006), dietary data including coffee consumption over the past month was collected with a 203-item validated food-frequency questionnaire. Causes of death were monitored until 1 January 2013. HRs for mortality in categories of coffee consumption were obtained from multivariable Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for lifestyle and dietary factors. Results: Most patients (96%) drank coffee, and the median total coffee intake was 375 mL/d (∼3 cups/d). During a median follow-up of 7.1 y, a total of 945 deaths occurred, including 396 CVD-related and 266 IHD-related deaths. Coffee consumption was inversely associated with CVD mortality, with HRs of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.89) for >2-4 cups/d and 0.72 (0.55, 0.95) for >4 cups/d, compared with 0-2 cups/d. Corresponding HRs were 0.77 (95% CI: 0.57, 1.05) and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.48, 0.95) for IHD mortality and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.71, 1.00) and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.98) for all-cause mortality, respectively. Similar associations were found for decaffeinated coffee and for coffee with additives. Conclusion: Drinking coffee, either caffeinated or decaffeinated, may lower the risk of CVD and IHD mortality in patients with a prior MI. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03192410. © 2017 American
Isolation and quantification of major chlorogenic acids in three major instant coffee brands and their potential effects on H2O2-induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization and apoptosis in PC-12 cells
Coffee is a most consumed drink worldwide. In this paper, from three commercially available instant coffees, major chlorogenic acids were isolated and quantified using HPLC and NMR spectroscopic methods. Also, their anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were determined using DPPH-radical sca...
Boon, Evan A J; Croft, Kevin D; Shinde, Sujata; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Ward, Natalie C
A diet rich in plant polyphenols has been suggested to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, in part, via improvements in endothelial function. Coffee is a rich source of phenolic compounds including the phenolic acid, chlorogenic acid (CGA). The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of coffee as a whole beverage on endothelial function, blood pressure and blood glucose concentration. Twelve healthy men and women were recruited to a randomised, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, with three treatments tested: (i) 18 g of ground caffeinated coffee containing 300 mg CGA in 200 mL of hot water, (ii) 18 g of decaffeinated coffee containing 287 mg CGA in 200 mL of hot water, and (iii) 200 mL of hot water (control). Treatment beverages were consumed twice, two hours apart, with the second beverage consumed simultaneously with a 75 g glucose load. Blood pressure was recorded and the finger prick glucose test was performed at time = 0 and then every 30 minutes up to 2 hours. Endothelial function, assessed using flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery, was measured at 1 hour and a blood sample taken at 2 hours to measure plasma nitrate/nitrite and 5-CGA concentrations. The FMD response was significantly higher in the caffeinated coffee group compared to both decaffeinated coffee and water groups (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the FMD response between decaffeinated coffee and water. Blood glucose concentrations and blood pressure were not different between the three treatment groups. In conclusion, the consumption of caffeinated coffee resulted in a significant improvement in endothelial function, but there was no evidence for benefit regarding glucose metabolism or blood pressure. Although the mechanism has yet to be elucidated the results suggest that coffee as a whole beverage may improve endothelial function, or that caffeine is the component of coffee responsible for improving FMD.
Guercio, Brendan J.; Sato, Kaori; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Ye, Xing; Saltz, Leonard B.; Mayer, Robert J.; Mowat, Rex B.; Whittom, Renaud; Hantel, Alexander; Benson, Al; Atienza, Daniel; Messino, Michael; Kindler, Hedy; Venook, Alan; Hu, Frank B.; Ogino, Shuji; Wu, Kana; Willett, Walter C.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Fuchs, Charles S.
Purpose Observational studies have demonstrated increased colon cancer recurrence in states of relative hyperinsulinemia, including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and increased dietary glycemic load. Greater coffee consumption has been associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes and increased insulin sensitivity. The effect of coffee on colon cancer recurrence and survival is unknown. Patients and Methods During and 6 months after adjuvant chemotherapy, 953 patients with stage III colon cancer prospectively reported dietary intake of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and nonherbal tea, as well as 128 other items. We examined the influence of coffee, nonherbal tea, and caffeine on cancer recurrence and mortality using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results Patients consuming 4 cups/d or more of total coffee experienced an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for colon cancer recurrence or mortality of 0.58 (95% CI, 0.34 to 0.99), compared with never drinkers (Ptrend = .002). Patients consuming 4 cups/d or more of caffeinated coffee experienced significantly reduced cancer recurrence or mortality risk compared with abstainers (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.91; Ptrend = .002), and increasing caffeine intake also conferred a significant reduction in cancer recurrence or mortality (HR, 0.66 across extreme quintiles; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.93; Ptrend = .006). Nonherbal tea and decaffeinated coffee were not associated with patient outcome. The association of total coffee intake with improved outcomes seemed consistent across other predictors of cancer recurrence and mortality. Conclusion Higher coffee intake may be associated with significantly reduced cancer recurrence and death in patients with stage III colon cancer. PMID:26282659
Andrzejewski, Denis; Roach, John A G; Gay, Martha L; Musser, Steven M
A variety of popular instant, ground, and brewed coffees were analyzed using a modified liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method specifically developed for the determination of acrylamide in foods. Coffee test portions were spiked with 13C3-labeled acrylamide as an internal standard prior to their extraction and cleanup. Ground coffees (1 g) and instant coffees (0.5 g) were extracted by shaking with 9 mL of water for 20 min. Brewed coffee test portions (9 mL) were taken through the cleanup procedure without further dilution with extraction solvent. Coffee test portions were cleaned up by passing 1.5 mL first through an Oasis HLB (hydrophilic/lipophilic copolymer sorbent) solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge and then a Bond Elut-Accucat (cation and anion exchange sorbent) SPE cartridge. The cleaned up extracts were analyzed by positive ion electrospray LC-MS/MS. The MS/MS data was used to detect, confirm, and quantitate acrylamide. The limit of quantitation of the method was 10 ng/g for ground and instant coffees and 1.0 ng/mL for brewed coffee. The levels of acrylamide ranged from 45 to 374 ng/g in unbrewed coffee grounds, from 172 to 539 ng/g in instant coffee crystals, and from 6 to 16 ng/mL in brewed coffee.
Perrone, Daniel; Donangelo, Carmen Marino; Farah, Adriana
A rapid liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of caffeine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid and sucrose in coffee was developed and validated. The method involved extraction with hot water, clarification with basic lead acetate and membrane filtration, followed by chromatographic separation using a Spherisorb(®) S5 ODS2, 5μm chromatographic column and gradient elution with 0.3% aqueous formic acid/methanol at a flow rate of 0.2mL/min. The electrospray ionization source was operated in the negative mode to generate sucrose ions and in the positive mode to generate caffeine, trigonelline and nicotinic acid ions. Ionization suppression of all analytes was found due to matrix effect. Calibrations curves prepared in green and roasted coffee extracts were linear with r(2)>0.999. Roasted coffee was spiked and recoveries ranged from 93.0% to 105.1% for caffeine, from 85.2% to 116.2% for trigonelline, from 89.6% to 113.5% for nicotinic acid and from 94.1% to 109.7% for sucrose. Good repeatibilities (RSD<5%) were found for all analytes in the matrix. The limit of detection (LOD), calculated on the basis of signal-to-noise ratios of 3:1, was 11.9, 36.4, 18.5 and 5.0ng/mL for caffeine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid and sucrose, respectively. Analysis of 11 coffee samples (regular or decaffeinated green, ground roasted and instant) gave results in agreement with the literature. The method showed to be suitable for different types of coffee available in the market thus appearing as a fast and reliable alternative method to be used for routine coffee analysis. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Caini, Saverio; Masala, Giovanna; Saieva, Calogero; Kvaskoff, Marina; Savoye, Isabelle; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Hemmingsson, Oskar; Hammer Bech, Bodil; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Petersen, Kristina E N; Mancini, Francesca Romana; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cervenka, Iris; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Floegel, Anna; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elisavet; Kritikou, Maria; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Veierød, Marit B; Ghiasvand, Reza; Lukic, Marko; Quirós, José Ramón; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Salamanca Fernández, Elena; Larrañaga, Nerea; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Maria Nilsson, Lena; Ljuslinder, Ingrid; Jirström, Karin; Sonestedt, Emily; Key, Timothy J; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Gunter, Marc; Huybrechts, Inge; Murphy, Neil; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Palli, Domenico
In vitro and animal studies suggest that bioactive constituents of coffee and tea may have anticarcinogenic effects against cutaneous melanoma; however, epidemiological evidence is limited to date. We examined the relationships between coffee (total, caffeinated or decaffeinated) and tea consumption and risk of melanoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). EPIC is a multicentre prospective study that enrolled over 500,000 participants aged 25-70 years from ten European countries in 1992-2000. Information on coffee and tea drinking was collected at baseline using validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. We used adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the associations between coffee and tea consumption and melanoma risk. Overall, 2,712 melanoma cases were identified during a median follow-up of 14.9 years among 476,160 study participants. Consumption of caffeinated coffee was inversely associated with melanoma risk among men (HR for highest quartile of consumption vs. non-consumers 0.31, 95% CI 0.14-0.69) but not among women (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.62-1.47). There were no statistically significant associations between consumption of decaffeinated coffee or tea and the risk of melanoma among both men and women. The consumption of caffeinated coffee was inversely associated with melanoma risk among men in this large cohort study. Further investigations are warranted to confirm our findings and clarify the possible role of caffeine and other coffee compounds in reducing the risk of melanoma. © 2017 UICC.
Chan, J T; Koh, S H
The fluoride contents of infusions prepared from 44 different brands and types of teas were measured. Fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.34 to 3.71 ppm (mean = 1.50 ppm) in caffeinated tea infusions, 0.02-0.14 ppm (mean = 0.05 ppm) in herbal tea infusions, and 1.01-5.20 ppm (mean = 3.19) in decaffeinated tea infusions. This is the first report of the fluoride content of decaffeinated teas. The mean fluoride content of decaffeinated tea infusions is significantly (p < 0.01) higher than the corresponding caffeinated tea. The use of mineral water containing a naturally high fluoride level during the process of decaffeination is the most likely explanation of the above observation.
Doo, Taisha; Morimoto, Yukiko; Steinbrecher, Astrid; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Maskarinec, Gertraud
Objective We evaluated the influence of coffee consumption on diabetes incidence among the Hawaii component of the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC). Design Prospective cohort. Setting Population-based sample residing in Hawaii. Subjects After exclusions, 75,140 men and women of Caucasian, Japanese American, and Native Hawaiian ancestry aged 45–75 were part of this analysis. All participants provided information on diet and lifestyle through a food frequency questionnaire. After 14 years of follow-up 8,582 incident diabetes cases were identified using self-reports, medication questionnaires, and health plan linkages. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated using Cox regression while adjusting for known covariates. Results The risk for diabetes associated with total coffee consumption differed by sex (Pinteraction<0.0001). Women consuming ≥3 cups/day of any type of coffee had a significantly lower risk (HR: 0.66; 95%CI: 0.58, 0.77; Ptrend<0.0001) than those reporting <1 cup, whereas the relation in men was borderline (HR: 0.89; 95%CI: 0.80, 0.99; Ptrend=0.09). The same difference by sex was seen for regular coffee with HRs of 0.65 (95%CI: 0.54, 0.78; Ptrend<0.0001) and 0.86 (95%CI: 0.75, 0.98; Ptrend=0.09) in men and women, respectively. No significant association with diabetes was apparent for decaffeinated coffee in women (HR: 0.85; 95%CI: 0.72, 1.01; Ptrend=0.73) or men (HR: 1.07; 95%CI: 0.93, 1.23; Ptrend=0.71). Despite small differences by ethnicity, the interaction terms between coffee intake and ethnicity were not significant. Conclusions In this multiethnic population, regular, but not decaffeinated, coffee intake was much more protective against diabetes in women of all ethnic groups than in men. PMID:23442347
Pietrocola, Federico; Malik, Shoaib Ahmad; Mariño, Guillermo; Vacchelli, Erika; Senovilla, Laura; Chaba, Kariman; Niso-Santano, Mireia; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Madeo, Frank; Kroemer, Guido
Epidemiological studies and clinical trials revealed that chronic consumption coffee is associated with the inhibition of several metabolic diseases as well as reduction in overall and cause-specific mortality. We show that both natural and decaffeinated brands of coffee similarly rapidly trigger autophagy in mice. One to 4 h after coffee consumption, we observed an increase in autophagic flux in all investigated organs (liver, muscle, heart) in vivo, as indicated by the increased lipidation of LC3B and the reduction of the abundance of the autophagic substrate sequestosome 1 (p62/SQSTM1). These changes were accompanied by the inhibition of the enzymatic activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), leading to the reduced phosphorylation of p70S6K, as well as by the global deacetylation of cellular proteins detectable by immunoblot. Immunohistochemical analyses of transgenic mice expressing a GFP–LC3B fusion protein confirmed the coffee-induced relocation of LC3B to autophagosomes, as well as general protein deacetylation. Altogether, these results indicate that coffee triggers 2 phenomena that are also induced by nutrient depletion, namely a reduction of protein acetylation coupled to an increase in autophagy. We speculate that polyphenols contained in coffee promote health by stimulating autophagy. PMID:24769862
Nanjundaiah, Shwetha; Bhatt, Praveena; Rastogi, Navin Kumar; Thakur, Munna Singh
Coffee processing industries generate caffeine-containing waste that needs to be treated and decaffeinated before being disposed. Five fungal isolates obtained on caffeine-containing mineral media were tested for their ability to utilize caffeine at high concentrations. An isolate identified as Fusarium solani could utilize caffeine as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen up to 5 g/l and could degrade it to an extent of 30-53 % in 120 h. Sucrose that was added as an auxiliary substrate (5 g/l) enhanced the biodecaffeination of caffeine to 88 % in 96 h. The addition of co- substrate (sucrose) not only resulted in higher biodecaffeination efficiency, but also reduced the incubation period from the initial 120 to 96 h. Theophylline and 3-methyl xanthine were obtained as the major metabolites of decaffeination at 96 and 120 h, respectively. Response surface methodology used to optimize the process parameters for maximum biodecaffeination as well as theophylline production showed that a pH of 5.8, temperature of 24 °C and inoculum size of 4.8 × 10(5) spores/ml have resulted in a complete biodecaffeination of caffeine as well as the production of theophylline with a yield of 33 % (w/w). Results thus show that a viable and sustainable process can be developed for the detoxification of caffeine along with the recovery of theophylline, a commercially important chemical.
Clarke, Neil D; Richardson, Darren L; Thie, James; Taylor, Richard
Caffeine, often in the form of coffee, is frequently supplemented by athletes in an attempt to facilitate improved performance during exercise. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of coffee ingestion as an ergogenic aid prior to a one-mile (1609 m) race. In a double-blind, randomised, crossover, placebo-controlled design 13 trained male runners completed a one-mile race 60 minutes following the ingestion of 0.09 g·kg -1 coffee (COF), 0.09 g·kg -1 decaffeinated coffee (DEC), or a placebo (PLA). All trials were dissolved in 300 ml of hot water. The race completion time was 1.3% faster following the ingestion of COF (04:35:37 ± 00:10:51 mm·ss) compared with DEC (04:39:14 ± 00:11:21 mm·ss; P=0.018; 95%CI: -0.11, -0.01; d=0.32) and 1.9% faster compared with PLA (04:41:00 ± 00:09:57 mm:ss; P=0.006; 95%CI: -0.15, -0.03; d=0.51). A large trial and time interaction for salivary caffeine concentration was observed (P<0.001; η 2 P =0.69) with a very large increase (6.40 ± 1.57 μg·ml -1 , 95%CI: 5.5, 7.3; d=3.86) following the ingestion of COF. However, only a trivial difference between DEC and PLA was observed (P=0.602; 95%CI: -0.09, 0.03; d=0.17). Furthermore, only trivial differences for blood glucose (P=0.839; η 2 P =0.02) and lactate (P=0.096; η 2 P =0.18), and maximal heart rate (P=0.286; η 2 P =0.13) were observed between trials. The results of the present study show that 60 minutes after ingesting 0.09 g·kg -1 of caffeinated coffee one-mile race performance was enhanced by 1.9% and 1.3% compared with placebo and decaffeinated coffee respectively, in trained male runners.
Geleijnse, Johanna M
This paper summarizes the current epidemiological evidence on coffee consumption in relation to blood pressure (BP) and risk of hypertension. Data from cross-sectional studies suggest an inverse linear or U-shaped association of habitual coffee use with BP in different populations. Prospective studies suggest a protective effect of high coffee intake (4 or more cups per day) against hypertension, mainly in women. Furthermore, the risk of hypertension may be lower in coffee abstainers. Randomized controlled trials, which are mostly of short duration (1–12 weeks), have shown that coffee intake around 5 cups per day causes a small elevation in BP (∼2/1 mmHg) when compared to abstinence or use of decaffeinated coffee. With regard to underlying biological mechanisms, most research has been devoted to BP-raising effects of caffeine. However, there are many other substances in coffee, such as polyphenols, soluble fibre and potassium, which could exert a beneficial effect in the cardiovascular system. Although the precise nature of the relation between coffee and BP is still unclear, most evidence suggests that regular intake of caffeinated coffee does not increase the risk of hypertension. PMID:19183744
Coffee is one of the most popular and widely consumed beverages worldwide due to its stimulating effects on the central nervous system as well as its taste and aroma. Coffee is a complex mixture of more than 800 volatile compounds whereas caffeine and chlorogenic acids are the most common compounds. During the last years, coffee has progressively moved to a less negative position on health due to its better-known pharmacology. Caffeine, e.g., in a cup of coffee, appears to exert most of its effects through an antagonism of the adenosine receptors. Novel approaches in epidemiological studies and experimental researches suggest that coffee consumption may help to prevent several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and liver disease. Most prospective cohort studies have not found coffee consumption to be associated with a significantly increased cardiovascular disease risk. There is also evidence that decaffeinated coffee may, in some respect, have similar benefits as regular coffee, indicating that besides caffeine other components contribute to the health protecting effects. For adults consuming moderate amounts of coffee (3 - 4 cups/d providing 300 - 400 mg/d of caffeine), there is little evidence of health risks and some evidence of health benefits. This review provides up-to-date information about coffee on health. Topics addressed include the cardiovascular system, liver diseases, and diabetes as well as gastrointestinal disorders. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Passos, Cláudia P; Cepeda, Márcio R; Ferreira, Sónia S; Nunes, Fernando M; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Madureira, Pedro; Vilanova, Manuel; Coimbra, Manuel A
Instant coffee was prepared and fractionated into higher (>100kDa), medium (5-10, 10-30, 30-100kDa) and lower (1-5, <1kDa) molecular weight fractions. Sugars and linkage composition characteristics of arabinogalactans and galactomannans were recovered in all fractions. Also, amino acid analysis performed after hydrolysis showed similar compositions in all fractions. On the contrary, free chlorogenic acids and caffeine were only detected in the lowest molecular weight fraction (<1kDa). A direct relationship between the melanoidins browning index and the molecular weight was observed. The fractions obtained were incubated in vitro with murine spleen lymphocytes in order to evaluate their possible immunostimulatory abilities. The surface expression of CD69 (early activation marker) on different lymphocyte sub-populations showed that the fraction with 1-5kDa was able to induce activation of B-lymphocytes. This was the only fraction to induce B-lymphocyte activation, since all the other fractions failed, even when higher concentrations were used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Loftfield, Erikka; Freedman, Neal D.; Graubard, Barry I.; Guertin, Kristin A.; Black, Amanda; Huang, Wen-Yi; Shebl, Fatma M.; Mayne, Susan T.; Sinha, Rashmi
Abstract Concerns about high caffeine intake and coffee as a vehicle for added fat and sugar have raised questions about the net impact of coffee on health. Although inverse associations have been observed for overall mortality, data for cause-specific mortality are sparse. Additionally, few studies have considered exclusively decaffeinated coffee intake or use of coffee additives. Coffee intake was assessed at baseline by self-report in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Among 90,317 US adults without cancer at study baseline (1998–2001) or history of cardiovascular disease at study enrollment (1993–2001), 8,718 deaths occurred during 805,644 person-years of follow-up from 1998 through 2009. Following adjustment for smoking and other potential confounders, coffee drinkers, as compared with nondrinkers, had lower hazard ratios for overall mortality (<1 cup/day: hazard ratio (HR) = 0.99 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92, 1.07); 1 cup/day: HR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.02); 2–3 cups/day: HR = 0.82 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.88); 4–5 cups/day: HR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.86); ≥6 cups/day: HR = 0.84 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.95)). Similar findings were observed for decaffeinated coffee and coffee additives. Inverse associations were observed for deaths from heart disease, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes, pneumonia and influenza, and intentional self-harm, but not cancer. Coffee may reduce mortality risk by favorably affecting inflammation, lung function, insulin sensitivity, and depression. PMID:26614599
Renouf, Mathieu; Marmet, Cynthia; Guy, Philippe; Fraering, Anne-Lise; Longet, Karin; Moulin, Julie; Enslen, Marc; Barron, Denis; Cavin, Christophe; Dionisi, Fabiola; Rezzi, Serge; Kochhar, Sunil; Steiling, Heike; Williamson, Gary
Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are antioxidants found in coffee. They are becoming of interest for their health-promoting effects, but bioavailability in humans is not well understood. We hypothesized that adding whole milk or sugar and nondairy creamer to instant coffee might modulate the bioavailability of coffee phenolics. Nine healthy participants were asked to randomly drink, in a crossover design, instant coffee (Coffee); instant coffee and 10% whole milk (Milk); or instant coffee, sugar, and nondairy creamer already premixed (Sugar/NDC). All 3 treatments provided the same amount of total CGA (332 mg). Blood was collected for 12 h after ingestion and plasma samples treated using a liquid-liquid extraction method that included a full enzymatic cleavage to hydrolyze all CGA and conjugates into phenolic acid equivalents. Hence, we focused our liquid chromatography-Electrospray ionization-tandem MS detection and quantification on caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid (FA), and isoferulic acid (iFA) equivalents. Compared with a regular black instant coffee, the addition of milk did not significantly alter the area under the curve (AUC), maximum plasma concentration (C(max)), or the time needed to reach C(max) (T(max)). The C(max) of CA and iFA were significantly lower and the T(max) of FA and iFA significantly longer for the Sugar/NDC group than for the Coffee group. However, the AUC did not significantly differ. As a conclusion, adding whole milk did not alter the overall bioavailability of coffee phenolic acids, whereas sugar and nondairy creamer affected the T(max) and C(max) but not the appearance of coffee phenolics in plasma.
Liu, Jibin; Shen, Biao; Shi, Minxin; Cai, Jing
Background Several epidemiological studies have determined the associations between coffee intake level and skin cancer risk; however, the results were not yet conclusive. Herein, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the cohort and case-control studies for the association between coffee intake level and malignant melanoma (MM) risk. Methods Studies were identified through searching the PubMed and MEDLINE databases (to November, 2015). Study-specific risk estimates were pooled under the random-effects model. Results Two case-control studies (846 MM patients and 843 controls) and five cohort studies (including 844,246 participants and 5,737 MM cases) were identified. For caffeinated coffee, the pooled relative risk (RR) of MM was 0.81 [95% confidential interval (95% CI) = 0.68–0.97; P-value for Q-test = 0.003; I2 = 63.5%] for those with highest versus lowest quantity of intake. In the dose-response analysis, the RR of MM was 0.955 (95% CI = 0.912–0.999) for per 1 cup/day increment of caffeinated coffee consumption and linearity dose-response association was found (P-value for nonlinearity = 0.326). Strikingly, no significant association was found between the decaffeinated coffee intake level and MM risk (pooled RR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.81–1.05; P-value for Q-test = 0.967; I2 = 0%; highest versus lowest quantity of intake). Conclusions This meta-analysis suggested that caffeinated coffee might have chemo-preventive effects against MM but not decaffeinated coffee. However, larger prospective studies and the intervention studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:26816289
Lee, S M; Lee, H-S; Kim, K-H; Kim, K-O
Green tea has been widely consumed for its mild flavors and its health benefits, yet caffeine in green tea has been a limitation for those who want to avoid it. The limitation brought increase in need for decaffeinated products in the green tea market. Most of the conventional decaffeination techniques applied in food use organic solvents. However, supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SC-CO2) method is gaining its intension as one of the future decaffeination methods that overcomes the problems of conventional methods. The purpose of this study was to identify sensory characteristics of decaffeinated green teas applied with SC-CO2 method and to observe the relationship with consumer acceptability to elucidate the potentiality of applying SC-CO2 technique in decaffeinated green tea market. Descriptive analysis was performed on 8 samples: green teas containing 4 caffeine levels (10%, 35%, 60%, and 100%) infused at 2 infusing periods (1 or 2 min). It was found that the SC-CO2 process not only reduced caffeine but also decreased some important features of original tea flavors. Two groups were recruited for consumer acceptability test: one (GP I, N = 52), consuming all types of green teas including hot/cold canned teas; and the other (GP II, N = 40), only consuming the loose type. While GP II liked original green tea the most, GP I liked highly decaffeinated green teas. Although the SC-CO2 method had limitations of losing complex flavors of green teas, it appeared to have future potential in the decaffeinated green tea market within or without the addition of desirable flavors.
Han, Jeesoo; Kim, Mina K; Lee, Kwang-Geun
In this study, the levels of furan in coffee with consideration towards common coffee consumption was investigated. The concentration of furan in brewed coffee was the highest among the coffee types studied, with an average of 110.73 ng/mL, followed by canned coffee (28.08 ng/mL) and instant coffee (8.55 ng/mL). In instant and brewed coffee, the furan levels decreased by up to an average of 20% and 22%, after 5 min of pouring in a cup without a lid. The degree of reduction was greater when coffee was served without a lid, regardless of coffee type (P < 0.05). In canned coffee, the level of furan decreased by an average of 14% after storage at 60 °C without a lid, and the degree of furan reduction in coffee was greater in coffee served warm (60 °C) than in coffee served cold (4 °C). A time-dependent intensities of sensory attributes in commercial coffees with various handling condition were different (P < 0.05), suggesting that coffee kept in a cup with lid closed, holds the aroma of coffee longer than coffee in a cup without a lid. Consumption of coffee has increased rapidly in Korea over the past few years. Consequently, the probability of exposure to chemical hazards presence in coffee products increases. Furan is a heterocyclic compound, formed mainly from Maillard reaction, therefore present in coffee products. This work demonstrated the strategy to reduce the levels of furan in coffee products at individual consumer level, by investigating the levels of furan served in common handling scenarios of coffee in Korea: canned coffee, instant coffee, and brewed coffee. Findings of this study can practically guide industry, government, and consumer agencies to reduce the risk exposure to furan during coffee consumptions. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Lee, S; Park, M K; Kim, K H; Kim, Y-S
Volatile components in regular and decaffeinated green teas were isolated by simultaneous steam distillation and solvent extraction (SDE), and then analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 41 compounds, including 8 alcohols, 15 terpene-type compounds, 10 carbonyls, 4 N-containing compounds, and 4 miscellaneous compounds, were found in regular and decaffeinated green teas. Among them, linalool and phenylacetaldehyde were quantitatively dominant in both regular and decaffeinated green teas. By a decaffeination process using supercritical carbon dioxide, most volatile components decreased. The more caffeine was removed, the more volatile components were reduced in green teas. In particular, relatively nonpolar components such as terpene-type compounds gradually decreased according to the decaffeination process. Aroma-active compounds in regular and decaffeinated green teas were also determined and compared by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Most greenish and floral flavor compounds such as hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, and some unknown compounds disappeared or decreased after the decaffeination process.
Jiang, Chengkun; Wu, Hao; Song, Xiaojie; Ma, Xiaojun; Wang, Jihui; Tan, Mingqian
The presence of the carbon dots (C-dots) in food is a hotly debated topic and our knowledge about the presence and the use of carbon dots (C-dots) in food is still in its infancy. We report the finding of the presence of photoluminescent (PL) C-dots in commercial Nescafe instant coffee. TEM analysis reveals that the extracted C-dots have an average size of 4.4 nm. They were well-dispersed in water and strongly photoluminescent under the excitation of ultra-violet light with a quantum yield (QY) about 5.5%, which were also found to possess clear upconversion PL properties. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization demonstrates that the C-dots contain C, O and N three elements with the relative contents ca. 30.1, 62.2 and 7.8%. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates that the C-dots are amorphous. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were employed to characterize the surface groups of the C-dots. The C-dots show a pH independent behavior by varying the pH value from 2 to 11. The cytotoxicity study revealed that the C-dots did not cause any toxicity to cells at a concentration as high as 20 mg/mL. The C-dots have been directly applied in cells and fish imaging, which suggested that the C-dots present in commercial coffee may have more potential biological applications. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Loftfield, Erikka; Freedman, Neal D; Graubard, Barry I; Guertin, Kristin A; Black, Amanda; Huang, Wen-Yi; Shebl, Fatma M; Mayne, Susan T; Sinha, Rashmi
Concerns about high caffeine intake and coffee as a vehicle for added fat and sugar have raised questions about the net impact of coffee on health. Although inverse associations have been observed for overall mortality, data for cause-specific mortality are sparse. Additionally, few studies have considered exclusively decaffeinated coffee intake or use of coffee additives. Coffee intake was assessed at baseline by self-report in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Among 90,317 US adults without cancer at study baseline (1998-2001) or history of cardiovascular disease at study enrollment (1993-2001), 8,718 deaths occurred during 805,644 person-years of follow-up from 1998 through 2009. Following adjustment for smoking and other potential confounders, coffee drinkers, as compared with nondrinkers, had lower hazard ratios for overall mortality (<1 cup/day: hazard ratio (HR) = 0.99 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92, 1.07); 1 cup/day: HR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.02); 2-3 cups/day: HR = 0.82 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.88); 4-5 cups/day: HR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.86); ≥6 cups/day: HR = 0.84 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.95)). Similar findings were observed for decaffeinated coffee and coffee additives. Inverse associations were observed for deaths from heart disease, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes, pneumonia and influenza, and intentional self-harm, but not cancer. Coffee may reduce mortality risk by favorably affecting inflammation, lung function, insulin sensitivity, and depression. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Welsch, C W; DeHoog, J V; O'Connor, D H
The effect of caffeine and/or coffee consumption (via the drinking water) during the initiation phase and promotion phase of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary gland tumorigenesis in female Sprague-Dawley rats fed a commercial laboratory animal chow was examined. In the initiation studies, DMBA was administered once at 53-55 days of age; caffeine (100-860 mg/liter of drinking water) and/or coffee (moderate or high dose, sole source of drinking water) treatments were for 32 consecutive days, commencing 29 days prior to DMBA treatment and terminating 3 days after DMBA treatment. In the promotion studies, DMBA was administered once at 54-55 days of age; caffeine and/or coffee treatments were daily from 57-58 days of age to termination of experiments (12-21 weeks after carcinogen treatment). In the initiation studies, either moderate (100-400 mg) or high (860 mg) dose levels of caffeine or moderate to high dose levels of caffeinated coffee significantly (P less than 0.05) reduced mammary carcinoma multiplicity (number of tumors/rat). Consumption of high or moderate dose levels of decaffeinated coffee did not significantly alter mammary carcinoma multiplicity. The addition of caffeine to the moderate dose level of decaffeinated coffee resulted in a significant (P less than 0.05) reduction in mammary carcinoma multiplicity. In the promotion studies, prolonged consumption of moderated dose levels of caffeine or moderate or high dose levels of caffeinated coffee or decaffeinated coffee did not significantly effect mammary carcinoma multiplicity. In the early stages of promotion, however, a significant (p less than 0.05) stimulatory effect of caffeine on mammary carcinoma multiplicity was observed; an effect that was temperate and transitory. In both the initiation and promotion studies caffeine and/or coffee consumption did not significantly affect the incidence of mammary carcinomas (percentage of rats bearing mammary carcinomas) or the mean latency
Villalón-López, Nayelli; Serrano-Contreras, José I; Téllez-Medina, Darío I; Gerardo Zepeda, L
The present non-targeted 1 H NMR-based fingerprinting approach along with multivariate analysis established differences between representative aqueous extracts of commercial ground roasted coffee (GRC) and instant (soluble) coffee (IC) samples. The latter were prepared either by spray drying or freeze drying. When comparing a total of 33 compounds between GRC and IC, the latter product contained a remarkable increase in 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural and carbohydrates, as well as a clear decrease in trigonelline, N-methylpyridinium, caffeine, caffeoylquinic acids and 2-furylmethanol. Furthermore, the current protocol was able to detect the subtle chemical differences between spray-dried and freeze-dried IC. The aforementioned metabolites could serve as target molecules in the attempt to preserve, as much as possible, the organoleptic and nutraceutical properties of GRC during the industrial drying processes used in the production of the two commercial types of IC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fox, Glen P; Wu, Alex; Yiran, Liang; Force, Lesleigh
Twenty-eight coffee samples from around the world were tested for caffeine levels to develop near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations for whole and ground coffee. Twenty-five individual beans from five of those coffees were used to develop a NIRS calibration for caffeine concentration in single beans. An international standard high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to analyze for caffeine content. Coffee is a legal stimulant and possesses a number of heath properties. However, there is variation in the level of caffeine in brewed coffee and other caffeinated beverages. Being able to sort beans on the basis of caffeine concentration will improve quality control in the level of caffeine in those beverages. The range in caffeine concentration was from 0.01 mg/g (decaffeinated coffee) to 19.9 mg/g (Italian coffee). The majority of coffees were around 10.0-12.0 mg/g. The NIRS results showed r(2) values for bulk unground and ground coffees were >0.90 with standard errors <2 mg/g. For the single-bean calibration the r(2) values were between 0.85 and 0.93 with standard errors of cross validation of 0.8-1.6 mg/g depending upon calibration. The results showed it was possible to develop NIRS calibrations to estimate the caffeine concentration of individual coffee beans. One application of this calibration could be sorting beans on caffeine concentration to provide greater quality control for high-end markets. Furthermore, bean sorting may open new markets for novel coffee products.
Dat, Lai Quoc; Quyen, Nguyen Thi Ngoc
This paper focused on the application of nanofiltration (NF) for concentration of the roasted coffee extract in instant coffee processing. Three kinds of NF membranes were screened for separation capacity of total dry solid (TDS), polyphenols (PPs) and caffeine in roasted coffee extract and NF99 membrane showed the good performance for the NF of the extract. The crossflow NF with NF99 membrane at pilot scale was investigated for technical assessment of concentration of roasted coffee extract. Maximum theoretical concentration was estimated as 6.06. Recovery yields of TDS, PPs and caffeine were higher than 70% at 4.4 of concentration factor. The content of TDS in accumulative permeate was lower than 2.0 g/L. The fouling of NF was also solved by the suitable cleaning procedure with recovery index being 97.7%. Results of research indicate that it is feasible to apply NF for concentration of the roasted coffee extract in instant coffee production.
Rasaei, Behrouz; Talib, Ruzita Abd; Noor, Mohd Ismail; Karandish, Majid; Karim, Norimah A
Sleep deprivation and coffee caffeine consumption have been shown to affect glucose homeostasis separately, but the combined effects of these two variables are unknown. Forty-two healthy Iranian men, aged 20-40 years old, were assigned to three groups in a randomised crossover trial involving three treatments with two-week washout periods. Subjects were moderate coffee consumers (<=3 cups/day), and had a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index <=5. Each treatment involved three nights of deprived sleep (4 hrs. in bed) plus 3×150 cc/cup of boiled water (BW treatment), decaffeinated coffee (DC treatment, without sugar, 99.9% caffeine-free), and caffeinated coffee (CC treatment, without sugar, 65 mg caffeine/ cup). DC and CC treatments were blinded. At the end of each treatment, fasting serum glucose (using enzyme assays) and insulin (using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay) were measured and, again, two hours after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Insulin resistance was quantified with the homeostasis model. Repeated measures ANOVA indicated no significant difference between the treatments in fasting serum glucose (p=0.248) or insulin resistance (p=0.079). However, ANOVA demonstrated differences between treatments in fasting serum insulin (p=0.004) and glucose, as well as insulin after OGTT (p<0.001). Pairwise comparisons test (within subjects) showed that the CC treatment yielded higher serum glucose and insulin after OGTT (p<0.001), higher fasting serum insulin (p=0.001), and increased insulin resistance (p=0.039) as compared to the DC treatment. Thus caffeinated coffee was more adverse for glucose homeostasis compared to decaffeinated coffee in individuals who were simultaneously sleep deprived.
Zhang, W.L.; Lopez-Garcia, E.; Li, T. Y.; Hu, F. B.; van Dam, R. M.
Aims/hypothesis Coffee has been linked to both beneficial and harmful health effects, but data on its relation with cardiovascular disease and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes are sparse. Methods This is a prospective cohort study including 7,170 women with diagnosed type 2 diabetes but free of cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline. Coffee consumption was assessed in 1980 and then every 2 to 4 years through validated questionnaires. A total of 658 incident cardiovascular events (434 coronary heart disease and 224 stroke) and 734 deaths from all causes were documented between 1980 and 2004. Results After adjustment for age, smoking, and other cardiovascular risk factors, the relative risks (RRs) were 0.76 (95% CI, 0.50 to 1.14) for cardiovascular diseases (p trend = 0.09) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.55 to 1.14) for all-cause mortality (p trend = 0.05) for the consumption of ≥ 4 cups/day caffeinated coffee as compared with nondrinkers. Similarly, multivariable RRs were 0.96 (95% CI, 0.66 to 1.38) for cardiovascular diseases (p trend = 0.84) and 0.76 (95% CI, 0.54 to 1.07) for all-cause mortality (p trend = 0.08) for the consumption of ≥ 2 cups/day decaffeinated coffee as compared with nondrinkers. Higher decaffeinated coffee consumption was associated with lower concentrations of glycosylated hemoglobin (6.2% for ≥ 2 cups/d versus 6.7% for < 1 cup/mo; p trend = 0.02). Conclusions These data provides evidence that habitual coffee consumption is not associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases or premature mortality among diabetic women. PMID:19266179
Hayashi, T.; Reece, C.A.; Shibamoto, T.
Thiazolidine formed from trace quantities of formaldehyde in an aqueous solution containing cysteamine at pH 8 was extracted with chloroform and subsequently analyzed by a gas chromatograph equipped with a fused silica capillary column and a thermionic nitrogen-phosphorus specific detector. Recoveries of formaldehyde from the aqueous solutions at levels lower than 1 ppm were slightly over 100%. Quantitative analysis of formaldehyde in commercial brewed and instant coffees showed 3.4-4.5 ppm in the brewed and 10-16.3 ppm in the instant coffee.
Ganmaa, Davaasambuu; Willett, Walter C.; Li, Tricia Y.; Feskanich, Diane; van Dam, Rob M.; Lopez-Garcia, Esther; Hunter, David J.; Holmes, Michelle D.
The relation between consumption of coffee, tea, and caffeine and risk of breast cancer remains unsettled. We examined data from a large, long-term cohort study to evaluate whether high intake of coffee and caffeine is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. This was a prospective cohort study with 85,987 female participants in the Nurses’ Health Study. Consumption of coffee, tea and caffeine consumption was assessed in 1980, 1984, 1986, 1990, 1994, 1998, and the follow-up continued through 2002. We documented 5,272 cases of invasive breast cancer during 1,715,230 person-years. The multivariate relative risks (RRs) of breast cancer across categories of caffeinated coffee consumption were: 1.0 for <1cup/mo (reference category), 1.01 (95% confidence interval: 0.92–1.12) for 1/mo-4.9/wk, 0.92 (0.84–1.01) for 5/wk-1.9/d, 0.93 (0.85–1.02) for 2–3.9/d, 0.92 (0.82–1.03) for ≥4 cups per day (p for trend= 0.14). Intakes of tea and decaffeinated coffee were also not significantly associated with risk of breast cancer. RRs (95% CI) for increasing quintiles of caffeine intake were 1.00, 0.98 (0.90–1.07), 0.92 (0.84–1.00), 0.94 (0.87–1.03), and 0.93 (0.85–1.01) (p for trend=0.06). A significant inverse association of caffeine intake with breast cancers was observed among postmenopausal women; for the highest quintile of intake compared to the lowest RR 0.88 (95% CI = 0.79 to 0.97, p for trend=0.03). We observed no substantial association between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee and tea consumption and risk of breast cancer in the overall cohort. However, our results suggested a weak inverse association between caffeine-containing beverages and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. PMID:18183588
Green, Chadwick John; de Dauwe, Palina; Boyle, Terry; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Fritschi, Lin; Heyworth, Jane Shirley
Background Data regarding the effects of tea, coffee, and milk on the risk of colorectal cancer are inconsistent. We investigated associations of tea, coffee, and milk consumption with colorectal cancer risk and attempted to determine if these exposures were differentially associated with the risks of proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancers. Methods Data from 854 incident cases and 948 controls were analyzed in a case-control study of colorectal cancer in Western Australia during 2005–07. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the associations of black tea (with and without milk), green tea, herbal tea, hot coffee, iced coffee, and milk with colorectal cancer. Results Consumption of 1 or more cups of herbal tea per week was associated with a significantly decreased risk of distal colon cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16–0.82; PTrend = 0.044), and consumption of 1 or more cups of iced coffee per week was associated with increased risk of rectal cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.91–2.54; PTrend = 0.004). Neither herbal tea nor iced coffee was associated with the risk of proximal colon cancer. Hot coffee was associated with a possible increased risk of distal colon cancer. Black tea (with or without milk), green tea, decaffeinated coffee, and milk were not significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk. Conclusions Consumption of herbal tea was associated with reduced risk of distal colon cancer, and consumption of iced coffee was associated with increased rectal cancer risk. PMID:24531002
Schmit, Stephanie L.; Rennert, Hedy S.; Rennert, Gad; Gruber, Stephen B.
Background Coffee contains several bioactive compounds relevant to colon physiology. Although coffee intake is a proposed protective factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), current evidence remains inconclusive. Methods We investigated the association between coffee consumption and risk of CRC in 5,145 cases and 4,097 controls from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (MECC) study, a population-based case-control study in northern Israel. We also examined this association by type of coffee, by cancer site (colon and rectum), and by ethnic subgroup (Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, and Arabs). Coffee data were collected by interview using a validated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Results Coffee consumption was associated with 26% lower odds of developing CRC [Odds Ratio (drinkers versus non-drinkers)=0.74; 95% CI: 0.64–0.86; P<0.001]. The inverse association was also observed for decaffeinated coffee consumption alone (OR=0.82; 95% CI: 0.68–0.99; P=0.04) and for boiled coffee (OR=0.82; 95% CI: 0.71–0.94; P=0.004). Increasing consumption of coffee was associated with lower odds of developing CRC. Compared to <1 serving/day, intake of 1 to <2 servings/day (OR=0.78; 95% CI: 0.68–0.90; P<0.001), 2 to 2.5 servings/day (OR=0.59; 95% CI: 0.51–0.68; P<0.001), and >2.5 servings/day (OR=0.46; 95% CI: 0.39–0.54; P<0.001) were associated with significantly lower odds of CRC (Ptrend<0.001), and the dose-response trend was statistically significant for both colon and rectal cancers. Conclusions Coffee consumption may be inversely associated with risk of CRC in a dose-response manner. Impact Global coffee consumption patterns suggest potential health benefits of the beverage for reducing the risk of CRC. PMID:27196095
Howe, G R; Burch, J D; Miller, A B; Cook, G M; Esteve, J; Morrison, B; Gordon, P; Chambers, L W; Fodor, G; Winsor, G M
In a Canadian population-based case-control study of 480 males and 152 female case-control pairs, the relative risk for development of bladder cancer for ever used versus never used cigarettes was 3.9 for males and 2.4 for females, with a dose-response relationship in both sexes. A reduced risk was associated with the use of filter cigarettes compared to nonfilter cigarettes. After control for cigarette usage, a significant risk was noted for male pipe smokers. For male ex-smokers the risk after 15 years of no smoking was less than one-half that of current male smokers. Bladder cancer risk was found for workers in the chemical, rubber, photographic, petroleum, medical, and food processing industries among males and for workers occupationally exposed to dust or fumes among both sexes. Bladder cancer risk was elevated for males consuming all types of coffee, regular coffee, and instant coffee and for females consuming instant coffee, but no dose-response relationship was found. Risk was found for males consuming water from nonpublic supples but not for females. No risk was observed in males or females consuming nitrate-containing foods, beverages other than coffee, or fiddlehead greens. Hair dye usage in females and phenacetin usage in males and females carried no risk. Divergent findings by area for aspirin suggested that an overall association was not causal. Reevaluation of the data on artificial sweeteners confirmed a significant bladder cancer risk in males and a dose-response relationship. The cumulated population attributable risk for bladder cancer was 90% for males from cigarette smoking, industrial exposure, and exposure to nonpublic water supplies and 29% for females from cigarette smoking, industrial exposure, and instant coffee consumption.
Barone, J J; Roberts, H R
Scientific literature cites a wide range of values for caffeine content in food products. The authors suggest the following standard values for the United States: coffee (5 oz) 85 mg for ground roasted coffee, 60 mg for instant and 3 mg for decaffeinated; tea (5 oz): 30 mg for leaf/bag and 20 mg for instant; colas: 18 mg/6 oz serving; cocoa/hot chocolate: 4 mg/5 oz; chocolate milk: 4 mg/6 oz; chocolate candy: 1.5-6.0 mg/oz. Some products from the United Kingdom and Denmark have higher caffeine content. Caffeine consumption survey data are limited. Based on product usage and available consumption data, the authors suggest a mean daily caffeine intake for US consumers of 4 mg/kg. Among children younger than 18 years of age who are consumers of caffeine-containing foods, the mean daily caffeine intake is about 1 mg/kg. Both adults and children in Denmark and UK have higher levels of caffeine intake.
Lukic, Marko; Jareid, Mie; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Braaten, Tonje
Coffee contains biologically-active substances that suppress carcinogenesis in vivo, and coffee consumption has been associated with a lower risk of malignant melanoma. We studied the impact of total coffee consumption and of different brewing methods on the incidence of malignant melanoma in a prospective cohort of Norwegian women. We had baseline information on total coffee consumption and consumption of filtered, instant, and boiled coffee from self-administered questionnaires for 104,080 women in the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) Study. We also had follow-up information collected 6-8 years after baseline. Multiple imputation was used to deal with missing data, and multivariable Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for malignant melanoma by consumption category of total, filtered, instant, and boiled coffee. During 1.7 million person-years of follow-up, 762 cases of malignant melanoma were diagnosed. Compared to light consumers of filtered coffee (≤1 cup/day), we found a statistically significant inverse association with low-moderate consumption (>1-3 cups/day, HR = 0.80; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.66-0.98) and high-moderate consumption of filtered coffee (>3-5 cups/day, HR = 0.77; 95 % CI 0.61-0.97) and melanoma risk (p trend = 0.02). We did not find a statistically significant association between total, instant, or boiled coffee consumption and the risk of malignant melanoma in any of the consumption categories. The data from the NOWAC Study indicate that a moderate intake of filtered coffee could reduce the risk of malignant melanoma.
Floegel, Anna; Pischon, Tobias; Bergmann, Manuela M; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner
Early studies suggested that coffee consumption may increase the risk of chronic disease. We investigated prospectively the association between coffee consumption and the risk of chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and cancer. We used data from 42,659 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Germany study. Coffee consumption was assessed by self-administered food-frequency questionnaire at baseline, and data on medically verified incident chronic diseases were collected by active and passive follow-up procedures. HRs and 95% CIs were calculated with multivariate Cox regression models and compared by competing risk analysis. During 8.9 y of follow-up, we observed 1432 cases of T2D, 394 of MI, 310 of stroke, and 1801 of cancer as first qualifying events. Caffeinated (HR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.05) or decaffeinated (HR: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.31) coffee consumption (≥4 cups/d compared with <1 cup/d; 1 cup was defined as 150 mL) was not associated with the overall risk of chronic disease. A lower risk of T2D was associated with caffeinated (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.94; P-trend 0.009) and decaffeinated (HR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.46, 1.06; P-trend: 0.043) coffee consumption (≥4 cups/d compared with <1 cup/d), but cardiovascular disease and cancer risk were not. The competing risk analysis showed no significant differences between the risk associations of individual diseases. Our findings suggest that coffee consumption does not increase the risk of chronic disease, but it may be linked to a lower risk of T2D.
Uccella, S; Mariani, A; Wang, A H; Vierkant, R A; Cliby, W A; Robien, K; Anderson, K E; Cerhan, J R
Coffee and other sources of methylxanthines and risk of Type I vs Type II endometrial cancer (EC) have not been evaluated previously. Prospective cohort of 23,356 postmenopausal women with 471 Type I and 71 Type II EC cases. Type I EC was statistically significantly associated with caffeinated (relative risk (RR)=0.65 for 4+ cups per day vs ≤1 cup per month: 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.47-0.89) but not decaffeinated (RR=0.76; 95% CI: 0.50-1.15) coffee intake; there were no associations with tea, cola or chocolate, or for Type II EC. The inverse association with caffeinated coffee intake was specific to women with a body mass index 30+ kg m(-2) (RR=0.56; 95% CI: 0.36-0.89). Coffee may protect against Type I EC in obese postmenopausal women.
Gunter, Marc J.; Schaub, Jennifer A.; Xue, Xiaonan; Freedman, Neal D.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Rohan, Thomas E.; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Sinha, Rashmi
Coffee drinking may be associated with reduced risk of endometrial cancer; however, prospective data are limited. Further, it is not clear whether any association between coffee and endometrial cancer differs according to coffee caffeine content. The association of coffee drinking with incidence of endometrial cancer was evaluated among 226,732 women, aged 50–71, enrolled in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study who completed a baseline epidemiologic questionnaire. Following a mean 9.3 years of follow-up, data were available for 1,486 incident endometrial cancer cases. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate associations of coffee with endometrial cancer incidence. Sub-group analyses were performed according to smoking status, hormone therapy use (HT) and body habitus. Coffee drinking was inversely related to incidence of endometrial cancer (Hazard Ratio [HR] comparing drinking of >3 cups/day versus no cups=0.64, 95%CI, 0.51–0.80; Ptrend= 0.0004). The association of coffee with endometrial cancer risk was apparent for consumption of both regular (HR per cup= 0.90, 95%CI, 0.86–0.95) and decaffeinated coffee (HR per cup=0.93, 95%CI, 0.87–0.99). The relation of coffee with endometrial cancer incidence varied significantly by HT use (Pinteraction=0.03) with an association only apparent among HT-never users (HR comparing drinking >3 cups/day versus no cups= 0.54, 95%CI, 0.41–0.72; Ptrend=0.0005). Endometrial cancer incidence appears to be reduced among women that habitually drink coffee, an association that does not differ according to caffeine content. PMID:22021096
Chiang, Donyau; Lin, Chih-Yang; Hu, Chen-Ti; Lee, Sanboh
Coffee is a stimulant, psychoactive, popular daily beverage, and its caffeine affects human physiological health and behavior. These important issues prompted us to study caffeine extraction from both the raw and roasted coffee beans of 3 types at different temperatures. A hemispheric model is developed to simulate the extraction process of the caffeine from the coffee beans of hemisphere is proposed. The experimental data are in good agreement with the predicted model. The effective diffusivities of caffeine in both the raw and roasted beans increase with temperature in all 3 types. An incubation period, decreasing with increasing temperature, is observed in all samples studied. Caffeine extraction in roasted beans is more rapid than that for the raw beans and the time difference is significant at low temperatures. In both the raw and roasted samples, caffeine diffusion in the raw beans and the incubation behavior are thermally activated processes. Single activation energies are obtained for diffusion within the extraction temperature range for all beans tested with the exception of one type of the coffee beans, Mandheling, which exhibits 2 activation energies in raw samples. The surface energies of the epidermis of the raw beans and roasted beans obtained from the contact angle measurements are used to interpret the difference of incubation periods. This study has a potential application to the decaffeinated coffee industry.Caffeine affects human physiological health and behavior so that caffeine extraction from coffee beans of different types at different temperatures is important for product refining and customers. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Hu, Yang; Ding, Ming; Yuan, Chen; Wu, Kana; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Hu, Frank B; Chan, Andrew T; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Ogino, Shuji; Fuchs, Charles S; Giovannucci, Edward L; Song, Mingyang
Few studies have examined the association between coffee intake and survival after diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). We performed a prospective study to investigate the association between coffee intake after a diagnosis of CRC and mortality. We collected data from the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2012) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2012), following 1599 patients diagnosed with stage 1, 2, or 3 CRC. CRC was reported on questionnaires and ascertained by review of medical records and pathology reports; intake of food and beverages was determined from responses to semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires. Participants were asked how often during the previous year that they consumed coffee, with 1 cup as the standard portion size. The first questionnaire response collected at least 6 months but not more than 4 years after diagnosis was used for assessment of post-diagnostic intake (median time from diagnosis to the dietary assessment, 2.2 years). The last semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire prior to diagnosis was used to assess pre-diagnostic dietary intake. During a median of 7.8 years of follow-up, we documented 803 deaths, of which 188 were because of CRC. In the multivariable adjusted models, compared with nondrinkers, patients who consumed at least 4 cups of coffee per day had a 52% lower risk of CRC-specific death (hazard ratio [HR] 0.48; 95% CI, 0.28-0.83; P for trend=.003) and 30% reduced risk of all-cause death (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.54-0.91; P for trend <.001). High intake of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee (2 or more cups/day) was associated with lower risk of CRC-specific mortality and all-cause mortality. When coffee intake before vs after CRC diagnosis were examined, compared with patients consistently consuming low amounts (less than 2 cups/day), those who maintained a high intake (2 or more cups/day) had a significantly lower risk of CRC-specific death (multivariable HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.44-0.89) and death from
Washio, Takuro; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Ogoh, Shigehiko
Previous studies have suggested that the risk of ischemic stroke increases immediately after drinking coffee. Indeed, drinking coffee, that is, caffeine, acutely increases arterial stiffness as well as blood pressure and peripheral vascular resistance. On the other hand, it has been reported that arterial stiffening is associated with elevation in the pulsatility index (PI) of cerebral blood flow (CBF), which increases the risk of brain disease. However, the effect of drinking coffee on the PI of the CBF and its interaction with arterial stiffness remain unknown. Against this background, we hypothesized that an acute increase in arterial stiffness induced by drinking coffee augments cerebral pulsatile stress. To test this hypothesis, in 10 healthy young men we examined the effects of drinking coffee on the PI of middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) as indices of cerebral pulsatile stress and arterial stiffness, respectively. Mean arterial blood pressure and baPWV were higher ( P < 0.01 and P = 0.02), whereas mean MCA V and mean cerebrovascular conductance index were lower upon drinking coffee ( P = 0.02 and P < 0.01) compared with a placebo (decaffeinated coffee). However, there was no difference in the PI of MCAv between drinking coffee and the placebo condition. These findings suggest that drinking coffee does not increase cerebral pulsatile stress acutely despite an elevation in arterial stiffness in the systemic circulation. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.
Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Ngemela, Archard Ferdinand; Jensen, Lene Bai; de Medeiros, Lívia Soman; Rasmussen, Peter Have
A method was developed for simultaneous determination of the mycotoxins: ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisins B2 (FB2), B4 (FB4), and B6 (FB6) in green, roasted, and instant coffee. Extraction was performed by QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) under acidic conditions followed by mixed-mode reversed phase-anion exchange solid phase extraction. OTA and FB2 were detected at levels down to 0.5 and 2 μg/kg by UHPLC-MS/MS and quantitated via isotope dilution using U-(13)C-labeled FB2 and OTA as internal standards. Mixing 20% isopropanol in the acetonitrile of the acidic UHPLC gradient system increased the signal intensity by 50% and decreased the ion-suppression with 50-75% in roasted coffee samples. About half of the roasted coffee samples (n = 57, from 9 countries) contained detectable levels of OTA, however, with only 5 samples above the EU regulatory limit of 5 μg/kg and the highest with 21 μg/kg. None of the 25 instant coffee samples contained OTA above the EU regulatory level of 10 μg/kg. Nonetheless, the toxin could be detected in 56% of the analyzed instant coffee samples. Fumonisins were not detected in any of the roasted or instant coffee samples (n = 82). However, in the green coffee samples (n = 18) almost half of the samples were positive with a maximum value of 164 μg/kg (sum of FB2, FB4, and FB6). This discrepancy between green coffee and processed coffees indicated that the fumonisins decompose during the roasting process, which was confirmed in roasting experiments. Here fumonisins could not be detected after roasting of the green, 164 μg/kg coffee, sample. Under the same conditions, OTA was reduced from 2.4 to 0.5 μg/kg.
Graham, T E; Hibbert, E; Sathasivam, P
Caffeine (Caf) ingestion increases plasma epinephrine (Epi) and exercise endurance; these results are frequently transferred to coffee (Cof) consumption. We examined the impact of ingestion of the same dose of Caf in Cof or in water. Nine healthy, fit, young adults performed five trials after ingesting (double blind) either a capsule (Caf or placebo) with water or Cof (decaffeinated Cof, decaffeinated with Caf added, or regular Cof). In all three Caf trials, the Caf dose was 4.45 mg/kg body wt and the volume of liquid was 7.15 ml/kg. After 1 h of rest, the subject ran at 85% of maximal O2 consumption until voluntary exhaustion (approximately 32 min in the placebo and decaffeinated Cof tests). In the three Caf trials, the plasma Caf and paraxanthine concentrations were very similar. After 1 h of rest, the plasma Epi was increased (P < 0.05) by Caf ingestion, but the increase was greater (P < 0.05) with Caf capsules than with Cof. During the exercise there were no differences in Epi among the three Caf trials, and the Epi values were all greater (P < 0.05) than in the other tests. Endurance was only increased (P < 0. 05) in the Caf capsule trial; there were no differences among the other four tests. One cannot extrapolate the effects of Caf to Cof; there must be a component(s) of Cof that moderates the actions of Caf.
Contreras-Calderón, José; Mejía-Díaz, Diana; Martínez-Castaño, Marcela; Bedoya-Ramírez, Daniel; López-Rojas, Natalia; Gómez-Narváez, Faver; Medina-Pineda, Yaqueline; Vega-Castro, Oscar
Fifty-eight samples of commercial Colombian coffee with different characteristics (soluble, ground, decaffeinated, etc) were evaluated for antioxidant capacity (AC) (ABTS and FRAP), total soluble phenolics (TP), browning index (BI), color parameters (L(∗), a(∗), b(∗), c(∗) and h(∗)), HMF and furfural. The AC in Colombian coffees was very varied (164-1000, 100.8-885.9μmol of Trolox equiv/g and 12.5-127mg gallic acid equiv/g, respectively for ABTS, FRAP and TP). AC, TP, BI, color, HMF and furfural values were higher (p<0.05) in soluble coffees than in ground ones, showing the lyophilized samples which showed the highest average values. Significant lineal correlations (p<0.05) were found between AC and color parameters, BI, HMF. No significant (p<0.05) differences in the AC between the different types of coffee were found. This work confirms the direct relationship between the rate of non-enzymatic browning and antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lucas, Michel; Mirzaei, Fariba; Pan, An; Okereke, Olivia I; Willett, Walter C; O'Reilly, Éilis J; Koenen, Karestan; Ascherio, Alberto
Caffeine is the world's most widely used central nervous system stimulant, with approximately 80% consumed in the form of coffee. However, studies that analyze prospectively the relationship between coffee or caffeine consumption and depression risk are scarce. A total of 50,739 US women (mean age, 63 years) free of depressive symptoms at baseline (in 1996) were prospectively followed up through June 1, 2006. Consumption of caffeine was measured from validated questionnaires completed from May 1, 1980, through April 1, 2004, and computed as cumulative mean consumption with a 2-year latency period applied. Clinical depression was defined as self-reported physician-diagnosed depression and antidepressant use. Relative risks of clinical depression were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. During 10 years of follow-up (1996-2006), 2607 incident cases of depression were identified. Compared with women consuming 1 or less cup of caffeinated coffee per week, the multivariate relative risk of depression was 0.85 (95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.95) for those consuming 2 to 3 cups per day and 0.80 (0.64-0.99; P for trend<.001) for those consuming 4 cups per day or more. Multivariate relative risk of depression was 0.80 (95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.95; P for trend=.02) for women in the highest (≥550 mg/d) vs lowest (<100 mg/d) of the 5 caffeine consumption categories. Decaffeinated coffee was not associated with depression risk. In this large longitudinal study, we found that depression risk decreases with increasing caffeinated coffee consumption. Further investigations are needed to confirm this finding and to determine whether usual caffeinated coffee consumption can contribute to depression prevention.
Jeszka-Skowron, Magdalena; Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Agnieszka; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Stępień, Łukasz; Stanisz, Ewa
The quality of coffee depends not only on the contents of healthy compounds but also on its contamination with microorganisms that can produce mycotoxins during development, harvesting, preparation, transport and storage. The antioxidant activity of green coffee brews measured in this study by ABTS, DPPH and Folin-Ciocalteu assays showed that coffee extracts from Robusta beans possessed higher activity in all assays than extracts from Arabica beans. The occurrence of ochratoxin A and aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) in green coffee beans was studied using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Apart from mycotoxins, the content of ergosterol as a marker indicating fungal occurrence was also determined. Among aflatoxins, aflatoxin B1 was the dominant mycotoxin in coffee bean samples, with the highest level at 17.45 ng g -1 . Ochratoxin A was detected in four samples at levels ranging from 1.27 to 4.34 ng g -1 , and fungi potentially producing this toxin, namely Aspergillus oryzae, Alternaria sp., Aspergillus foetidus, Aspergillus tamarii and Penicillium citrinum, were isolated. Steaming and decaffeination of coffee beans increased antioxidant activities of brews in comparison with those prepared from unprocessed beans. Although toxins can be quantified in green coffee beans and novel fungi were isolated, their concentrations are acceptable according to legal limits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
coffee (but not decaffeinated coffee). The mechanisms that underlie this epidemiological correla- tion remain unclear. One hypothesis that caffeine might...finding was substantiated by a similar inverse relationship between the consumption of caffeinated (but not decaffeinated ) coffee and the risk of... processes from endocytosis and organelle physiology to cell migration and cytokinesis. This special issue highlights some of the current topics and future
vd Stegen, G; Jörissen, U; Pittet, A; Saccon, M; Steiner, W; Vincenzi, M; Winkler, M; Zapp, J; Schlatter, C
Samples (633) of final coffee products were drawn from the markets of different European countries relative to the market share of each product type and brand. These samples were analysed in a cooperative action with nine different laboratories. With low limits of detection (mean detection limit approximately 0.5 ng/g) no OTA was found in over half of the samples (334 negatives). In the remaining samples occurrence of OTA at a rather low level was seen. Only four samples (all instants) exceeded a level of 10 ng/g, whereas for both instants, and roast and grounds (R & G), over three-quarters of the samples were in the range from nondetectable to 1 ng/g. The overall mean for all R & Gs was 0.8 ng/g and for all instant 1.3 ng/g (for samples in which no OTA was detected, half of the detection limit was included in this calculation). In the brewing methods frequently used in Europe the OTA is essentially fully extracted. Consumption of four cups of coffee per day (approximately 24 g R & G or approximately 8 g instant coffee) contributes on average 19 or 10 ng/day respectively. Four cups/day is above the per caput consumption level in most European contries. Compared with the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) recently set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives at 100 ng/kg bodyweight/week, consumption of 28 cups/week contributes up to 2% to the PTWI.
Tea and coffee are the potentially rich source of oxalic acid, which can act as a antinutrient. The aim of this study was to determine and evaluate the content of soluble oxalates in teas and coffees available on the Polish market. The green, red and black teas, and black natural ground and instant coffees were used for preparing the infusions. The manganometric method was used for the determination of the oxalates in the infusions. The mean oxalates content in the infusions from 3 g of black teas was 115.68 mg/100 cm3 and was higher as compared to red teas (101.91 mg/100 cm3) and green teas (87.64 mg/100 cm3). Disregarding the variety of analyzed teas, the largest oxalates content was in infusions of pure one-component tea--"Sir Roger" (164.82-174.22 mg/100 cm3), while the lowest oxalates content was noted in the tea containing the components from other plants ("Bio-Active" with grapefruit juice--reaching as low level as 39.00 mg/100 cm3). Instant coffees contained larger amount of oxalates than natural ground coffees. Irrespective of the kind of the tested coffees, the lowest oxalates content was found in the infusions from the following coffees: Tchibo Exclusive--19.62 mg/100 cm3, Gala ulubiona--37.32 mg/100 cm3, and Maxwell House--38.40 mg/100 cm3, while the highest oxalates content in instant coffee--Nescafe Espiro 51.80 mg/100 cm3. The results revealed a significant relation between phytochemical composition of analyzed teas and coffees and the level of soluble oxalates in infusions prepared from the tested products.
Sustainability, & chemical product design Coffee decaffeination using methylene chloride Coffee decaffeination using CO2 (not a “solvent” by FDA) Coffee beans ...contin.) • Materials sustainability – Trace metals • Security of supply chain • Appropriate selection and use • Mass balance on use, reuse, and...Design • Transdisciplinary Collaboration and Integrative Systems • Innovation and Catalysis Scientific Values for the Path Forward 17 Office of
right). Adjacent coronal brain sections were processed for A2A receptor immunohistochemsitry (B) with a HRP-coupled secondary antibody yielding a...declines steadily with increasing intake of caffeine or of coffee (but not decaffeinated coffee). The mechanisms that underlie this epidemiological...ad Sju - 5261.[7 of decaffeinated coffee was not associated with an Furthermore. A2A knockout mice (lacking function- altered risk of PD). clearly
Kato, T; Takahashi, S; Kikugawa, K
The presence of 2 kinds of components in brewed and instant coffee that could remove and destroy heterocyclic amine mutagens was demonstrated. The component that could remove the mutagens was insoluble fiber composed of hemicellulose. The fiber could tightly adsorb the mutagens Trp-P-1, Trp-P-2, Glu-P-1 and A alpha C, and those generated in roasted coffee beans. The component that could destroy the mutagens was high-molecular-weight soluble polyphenolics. They might be converted into quinone derivatives in the presence of molecular oxygen. The quinone derivatives might destroy the mutagens. The fibers and the polyphenolics in one cup of brewed or instant coffee had the capacity to remove and destroy a substantial amount of the mutagens in pyrolysates of foodstuffs.
Ferreira, Joaquim J.; Mestre, Tiago; Guedes, Leonor Correia; Coelho, Miguel; Rosa, Mário M.; Santos, Ana T.; Barra, Márcio; Sampaio, Cristina; Rascol, Olivier
There is limited information available concerning the treatment of daytime somnolence associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD); the most frequently applied therapeutic strategies include decreasing the dose of dopamine agonists or adding potential wake-promoting agents. There is recent data from a placebo-controlled trial concluding on a non-significant trend in favor of caffeine. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of espresso-coffee in the treatment of daytime somnolence in PD. To evaluate the efficacy of espresso-coffee in the treatment of daytime somnolence in PD, we have conducted multiple single-patient (n-of-1) clinical trials comparing regular espresso coffee to decaffeinated coffee in PD patients presenting moderate to severe daytime somnolence defined as an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score >9. Each single-patient (n-of-1) trial included a sequence of three crossovers (two treatment periods separated by two days of washout). Four patients were included in the studies and three completed the three pairs of treatment periods. In two of the four patients, espresso coffee was considered beneficial. This study concludes that multiple single patient trials are feasible in PD and suggests that espresso-coffee may have a beneficial effect on daytime somnolence in some patients. These results cannot be generalized beyond the patients included in these trials. PMID:27014181
Errington, Frederick; Fujikura, Tatsuro; Gewertz, Deborah
Focusing primarily, but not exclusively, on urban and periurban Papua New Guinea (PNG), we discuss the significance of instant ramen noodles to those now known as the “bottom of the pyramid” (BOP). Although instant noodles are remarkable in that they are eaten by virtually everyone in the world, albeit in different amounts and for different reasons, they are marketed in PNG specifically as a “popularly positioned product” (PPP) for the BOP. Cheap, convenient, tasty, filling, and shelf stable, they are a modern addition to Sidney Mintz's classic “proletarian hunger killers” of sugar, tea, and coffee. But, we argue, instant noodles have a distinctive contemporary role: they do more than sustain the poor; they transform them into the aspiring consumers of the BOP. As such, instant noodles can be viewed as an antifriction device, greasing the skids of capitalism as it extends its reach.
Wang, Lei; Zhao, Pengyue; Zhang, Fengzu; Bai, Aijuan; Pan, Canping
Ambient ionization direct analysis in real time (DART) coupled to single-quadrupole MS (DART-MS) was evaluated for rapid detection of caffeine in commercial samples without chromatographic separation or sample preparation. Four commercial samples were examined: tea, instant coffee, green tea beverage, and soft drink. The response-related parameters were optimized for the DART temperature and MS fragmentor. Under optimal conditions, the molecular ion (M+H)+ was the major ion for identification of caffeine. The results showed that DART-MS is a promising tool for the quick analysis of important marker molecules in commercial samples. Furthermore, this system has demonstrated significant potential for high sample throughput and real-time analysis.
Arauz, Jonathan; Zarco, Natanael; Hernández-Aquino, Erika; Galicia-Moreno, Marina; Favari, Liliana; Segovia, José; Muriel, Pablo
Investigations demonstrated that oxidative stress plays an important role in injury promotion in cholestatic liver disease. We hypothesized that coffee attenuates cholestasis-induced hepatic necrosis and fibrosis via its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic properties. The major aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective properties of coffee and caffeine in a model of chronic bile duct ligation (BDL) in male Wistar rats. Liver injury was induced by 28-day BDL, and conventional coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or caffeine was administered daily. After treatment, the hepatic oxidative status was estimated by measuring lipid peroxidation, the reduced to oxidized glutathione ratio, and glutathione peroxidase. Fibrosis was assessed by measuring the liver hydroxyproline content. The transforming growth factor-β, connective tissue growth factor, α-smooth muscle actin, collagen 1, and interleukin-10 proteins and mRNAs were measured by Western blot and polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Conventional coffee suppressed most of the changes produced by BDL; however, caffeine showed better antifibrotic effects. Coffee demonstrated antioxidant properties by restoring the redox equilibrium, and it also prevented the elevation of liver enzymes as well as hepatic glycogen depletion. Interestingly, coffee and caffeine administration prevented collagen increases. Western blot assays showed decreased expression levels of transforming growth factor-β, connective tissue growth factor, α-smooth muscle actin, and collagen 1 in the coffee- and caffeine-treated BDL groups. Similarly, coffee decreased the mRNA levels of these proteins. We conclude that coffee prevents liver cirrhosis induced by BDL by attenuating the oxidant processes, blocking hepatic stellate cell activation, and downregulating the main profibrotic molecules involved in extracellular matrix deposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Salomone, Federico; Li Volti, Giovanni; Vitaglione, Paola; Morisco, Filomena; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Zappalà, Agata; Palmigiano, Angelo; Garozzo, Domenico; Caporaso, Nicola; D'Argenio, Giuseppe; Galvano, Fabio
Coffee consumption is inversely related to the degree of liver injury in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Molecular mediators contributing to coffee's beneficial effects in NAFLD remain to be elucidated. In this study, we administrated decaffeinated espresso coffee or vehicle to rats fed an high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks and examined the effects of coffee on liver injury by using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) proteomic analysis combined with mass spectrometry. Rats fed an HFD and water developed panacinar steatosis, lobular inflammation, and mild fibrosis, whereas rats fed an HFD and coffee exhibited only mild steatosis. Coffee consumption increased liver expression of the endoplasmic reticulum chaperones glucose-related protein 78 and protein disulfide-isomerase A3; similarly, coffee drinking enhanced the expression of the mitochondrial chaperones heat stress protein 70 and DJ-1. Furthermore, in agreement with reduced hepatic levels of 8-isoprostanes and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, proteomic analysis showed that coffee consumption induces the expression of master regulators of redox status (i.e., peroxiredoxin 1, glutathione S-transferase α2, and D-dopachrome tautomerase). Last, proteomics revealed an association of coffee intake with decreased expression of electron transfer flavoprotein subunit α, a component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, involved in de novo lipogenesis. In this study, we were able to identify by proteomic analysis the stress proteins mediating the antioxidant effects of coffee; moreover, we establish for the first time the contribution of specific coffee-induced endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial chaperones ensuring correct protein folding and degradation in the liver. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Fibrianto, K.; Ardianti, A. D.; Pradipta, K.; Sunarharum, W. B.
The coffee quality can be characterized by its multisensory perceptions. The content and mineral composition and other substances of brewing water can affect the result of brewed-coffee. The water may influence in extraction capabilities and flavor clarity. The ground Dampit coffee and two commercial instant coffee with pour-over method were used in this study. Various types of commercial drinking water were used to brew the coffee. The result suggests that the different brewing water affects the intensity of sweet and chocolate aroma, as well as oily mouth-feel. Surprisingly, taste and flavour attributes were not affected by the pH of brewing water within the range of 5.5 to 9.1.
Holick, Crystal N.; Smith, Scott G.; Giovannucci, Edward; Michaud, Dominique S.
Current data suggest that caffeinated beverages may be associated with lower risk of glioma. Caffeine has different effects on the brain, some which could play a role in brain carcinogenesis, and coffee has been consistently associated with reduced risk of liver cancer, thus suggesting a potential anticarcinogenic effect. A total of 335 incident cases of gliomas (men = 133, women = 202) were available from three independent cohort studies. Dietary intake was assessed by food-frequency questionnaires obtained at baseline and during follow-up. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between consumption of coffee, tea, carbonated beverages, caffeine, and glioma risk adjusting for age and total caloric intake. Estimates from each cohort were pooled using a random-effects model. Consumption of five or more cups of coffee and tea a day compared to no consumption was associated with a decrease risk of glioma (RR = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.41–0.87; p-trend = 0.04). Inverse, although weaker, associations were also observed between coffee, caffeinated coffee, tea, carbonated beverages and glioma risk. No association was observed between decaffeinated coffee and glioma risk. Among men, a statistically significant inverse association was observed between caffeine consumption and risk of glioma (RR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.26–0.81; p-trend = 0.03); the association was weaker among women. Our findings suggest that consumption of caffeinated beverages, including coffee and tea, may reduce the risk of adult glioma, but further research is warranted to confirm these findings in other populations. PMID:20056621
Lopez-Garcia, Esther; Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Hu, Frank B.; van Dam, Rob M.
Background Data on the association between coffee consumption and risk of stroke are sparse. We assessed the association between coffee consumption and the risk of stroke over 24 years of follow-up in women. Methods and Results We analyzed data from a prospective cohort of 83,076 women in the Nurses' Health Study without history of stroke, coronary heart disease, diabetes, or cancer at baseline. Coffee consumption was first assessed in 1980, and then repeatedly every 2-4 years; with follow-up through 2004. We documented 2280 strokes of which 426 were hemorrhagic strokes, 1224 ischemic strokes, and 630 undetermined. In multivariable Cox regression models with adjustment for age, smoking status, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol intake, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy, aspirin use, and dietary factors, the relative risks (RRs) of stroke across categories of coffee consumption (<1 cup/mo, 1/mo-4/wk, 5-7/wk, 2-3/d, and ≥4/d) were: 1, 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84-1.15), 0.88 (0.77-1.02), 0.81 (0.70-0.95), and 0.80 (0.64-0.98); p for trend= 0.003. After further adjustment for high blood pressure, hypercholesterolemia, and type 2 diabetes the inverse association remained significant. The association was stronger among never and past smokers [RR (95% CI) for ≥4 cups/d vs. <1 cup/mo: 0.57 (0.39-0.84)] than among current smokers [RR (95% CI) for ≥4 cups/d vs. <1 cup/mo: 0.97 (0.63-1.48)]. Other drinks containing caffeine, such as tea and caffeinated soft drinks, were not associated with stroke. Decaffeinated coffee was associated with a trend towards lower risk of stroke after adjustment for caffeinated coffee consumption [RR (95% CI) for 2 or more cups/d vs. <1 cup/mo: 0.89 (0.73-1.08); p for trend= 0.05]. Conclusions Long-term coffee consumption was not associated with an increased risk of stroke in women. In contrast, our data suggest that coffee consumption may modestly reduce risk of stroke. PMID:19221216
McMullen, Michael K; Whitehouse, Julie M; Shine, Gillian; Whitton, Peter A; Towell, Anthony
The immediate and short-term chemosensory impacts of coffee and caffeine on cardiovascular activity. Caffeine is detected by 5 of the 25 gustatory bitter taste receptors (hTAS2Rs) as well as by intestinal STC-1 cell lines. Thus there is a possibility that caffeine may elicit reflex autonomic responses via chemosensory stimulation. The cardiovascular impacts of double-espresso coffee, regular (130 mg caffeine) and decaffeinated, and encapsulated caffeine (134 mg) were compared with a placebo-control capsule. Measures of four post-ingestion phases were extracted from a continuous recording of cardiovascular parameters and contrasted with pre-ingestion measures. Participants (12 women) were seated in all but the last phase when they were standing. Both coffees increased heart rate immediately after ingestion by decreasing both the diastolic interval and ejection time. The increases in heart rate following the ingestion of regular coffee extended for 30 min. Encapsulated caffeine decreased arterial compliance and increased diastolic pressure when present in the gut and later in the standing posture. These divergent findings indicate that during ingestion the caffeine in coffee can elicit autonomic arousal via the chemosensory stimulation of the gustatory receptors which extends for at least 30 min. In contrast, encapsulated caffeine can stimulate gastrointestinal receptors and elicit vascular responses involving digestion. Research findings on caffeine are not directly applicable to coffee and vice versa. The increase of heart rate resulting from coffee drinking is a plausible pharmacological explanation for the observation that coffee increases risk for coronary heart disease in the hour after ingestion. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011
Takahashi, Shoko; Saito, Kenji; Jia, Huijuan; Kato, Hisanori
Many epidemiological studies have indicated that coffee consumption may reduce the risks of developing obesity and diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms of these effects are poorly understood. Our previous study revealed the changes on gene expression profiles in the livers of C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet containing three types of coffee (caffeinated, decaffeinated and green unroasted coffee), using DNA microarrays. The results revealed remarkable alterations in lipid metabolism-related molecules which may be involved in the anti-obesity effects of coffee. We conducted the present study to further elucidate the metabolic alterations underlying the effects of coffee consumption through comprehensive proteomic and metabolomic analyses. Proteomics revealed an up-regulation of isocitrate dehydrogenase (a key enzyme in the TCA cycle) and its related proteins, suggesting increased energy generation. The metabolomics showed an up-regulation of metabolites involved in the urea cycle, with which the transcriptome data were highly consistent, indicating accelerated energy expenditure. The TCA cycle and the urea cycle are likely be accelerated in a concerted manner, since they are directly connected by mutually providing each other's intermediates. The up-regulation of these pathways might result in a metabolic shift causing increased ATP turnover, which is related to the alterations of lipid metabolism. This mechanism may play an important part in the suppressive effects of coffee consumption on obesity, inflammation, and hepatosteatosis. This study newly revealed global metabolic alterations induced by coffee intake, providing significant insights into the association between coffee intake and the prevention of type 2 diabetes, utilizing the benefits of multi-omics analyses. PMID:24618914
Li, Qing-Rong; Wu, Min; Huang, Rui-Jie; Chen, Ya-Fei; Chen, Chan-Jian; Li, Hui; Ni, He; Li, Hai-Hang
The lack of aroma and natural taste is a critical problem in production and consumption of instant green teas. A method to prepare instant green teas high in-natural-aroma and low-caffeine by the novel column chromatographic extraction with gradient elution is reported. This method simultaneously extracted aroma (or volatile) and non-aroma compounds from green tea. Green tea was loaded into columns with 2.0-fold of petroleum ether (PE): ethanol (8:2). After standing for 3 h until the aroma compounds dissolved, the column was sequentially eluted with 3.0-fold 40% ethanol and 3.5-fold water. The eluant was collected together and automatically separated into PE and ethanol aqueous phases. The aroma extracts was obtained by vacuum-evaporation of PE phase at 45 °C. The ethanol aqueous phase was vacuum-concentrated to aqueous and partially or fully decaffeinated with 4% or 9% charcoal at 70 °C. A regular instant green tea with epigallocatechin-3-gallate: caffeine of 3.5:1 and a low-caffeine instant green tea (less than 1% caffeine) with excellent aroma and taste were prepared, by combining the aroma and non-aroma extracts at a 1:10 ratio. This work provides a practical approach to solve the low-aroma and low-taste problems in the production of high quality instant green teas.
Fagherazzi, Guy; Touillaud, Marina S; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Romieu, Isabelle
Numerous mechanisms for the effects of coffee, tea and caffeine on the risk of breast cancer have been suggested. Caffeine intake has already been associated with high plasma levels of female hormones, but associations have not been clearly demonstrated in epidemiological studies. We examined prospectively the association of coffee, tea and caffeine consumption with breast cancer risk in a French cohort study. Dietary information was obtained from a 208-item diet history questionnaire self-administered in 1993-1995. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazards ratios and 95 % confidence intervals. The study was conducted on 67 703 women with available dietary information. During a median follow-up of 11 years, 2868 breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Median intake was 280 ml/d (2·2 cups/d) for coffee and 214 ml/d (1·7 cups/d) for tea. Median caffeine intake was 164 mg/d. No association was found between consumption of coffee, tea or caffeine and breast cancer risk. Sub-analyses by tumour receptor status, menopausal status, type of coffee (regular or decaffeinated) and meals at which beverages were drunk led to the same conclusion. Results from this prospective study showed no relationship between coffee, tea or caffeine intake and breast cancer risk overall or by hormone receptor status.
Lucas, Michel; O'Reilly, Eilis J; Pan, An; Mirzaei, Fariba; Willett, Walter C; Okereke, Olivia I; Ascherio, Alberto
To evaluate the association between coffee and caffeine consumption and suicide risk in three large-scale cohorts of US men and women. We accessed data of 43,599 men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS, 1988-2008), 73,820 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, 1992-2008), and 91,005 women in the NHS II (1993-2007). Consumption of caffeine, coffee, and decaffeinated coffee, was assessed every 4 years by validated food-frequency questionnaires. Deaths from suicide were determined by physician review of death certificates. Multivariate adjusted relative risks (RRs) were estimated with Cox proportional hazard models. Cohort specific RRs were pooled using random-effect models. We documented 277 deaths from suicide. Compared to those consuming ≤ 1 cup/week of caffeinated coffee (< 8 oz/237 ml), the pooled multivariate RR (95% confidence interval [CI]) of suicide was 0.55 (0.38-0.78) for those consuming 2-3 cups/day and 0.47 (0.27-0.81) for those consuming ≥ 4 cups/day (P trend < 0.001). The pooled multivariate RR (95% CI) for suicide was 0.75 (0.63-0.90) for each increment of 2 cups/day of caffeinated coffee and 0.77 (0.63-0.93) for each increment of 300 mg/day of caffeine. These results from three large cohorts support an association between caffeine consumption and lower risk of suicide.
Papakonstantinou, Emilia; Kechribari, Ioanna; Sotirakoglou, Κyriaki; Tarantilis, Petros; Gourdomichali, Theodora; Michas, George; Kravvariti, Vassiliki; Voumvourakis, Konstantinos; Zampelas, Antonis
It has been suggested that coffee may affect the gut-brain axis with conflicting outcomes. Moreover, there is insufficient evidence to determine whether the type or temperature of coffee consumed will have a different impact on the gut-brain axis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute coffee consumption on the following: 1. self-reported GI symptoms and salivary gastrin, 2. stress indices [salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA)] and psychometric measures, and 3. blood pressure (BP), in healthy, daily coffee consuming individuals in non-stressful conditions. This was a randomized, double blind, crossover clinical trial, in which 40 healthy individuals (20 men, 20 women), 20-55 years of age, randomly consumed four 200 ml coffee beverages containing 160 mg caffeine (hot and cold instant coffee, cold espresso, hot filtered coffee), 1 week apart. Salivary samples and psychometric questionnaires were collected at baseline and post-coffee consumption at 15,30, and 60 min for salivary gastrin and sAA measurements and at 60,120, and 180 min for cortisol measurements. BP was measured at beginning and end of each intervention. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02253628 RESULTS: Coffee consumption significantly increased sAA activity (P = 0.041), with significant differences only between cold instant and filter coffee at 15 and 30 min post-consumption (P < 0.05). Coffee temporarily increased salivary gastrin, without differences between coffee types. Coffee did not affect salivary cortisol or self-reported anxiety levels. Coffee consumption significantly increased BP, within the healthy physiological levels, in a gender specific manner at the end of the experimental periods, without differences between coffee types. Acute coffee consumption in non-stressful conditions activated sAA and BP but not salivary cortisol, indicating activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Post-coffee sAA increase without a concomitant cortisol increase may also indicate
Guertin, Kristin A; Freedman, Neal D; Loftfield, Erikka; Graubard, Barry I; Caporaso, Neil E; Sinha, Rashmi
Background: Coffee drinkers had a higher risk of lung cancer in some previous studies, but as heavy coffee drinkers tend to also be cigarette smokers, such findings could be confounded. Therefore, we examined this association in the nearly half a million participants of the US NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Methods: Typical coffee intake and smoking history were queried at baseline. During 4 155 256 person-years of follow-up, more than 9000 incident lung cancer cases occurred. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs)and 95% confidence intervals for coffee intake and subsequent incidence of lung cancer. We also comprehensively adjusted for tobacco smoking and examined associations by detailed strata of tobacco use. Results: Coffee drinkers were far more likely to smoke than non-drinkers. Although coffee drinking was associated with lung cancer in age- and sex- adjusted models (HR for ≥ 6 cups/day compared with none: 4.56, 4.08-5.10), this association was substantially attenuated after adjusting for smoking (HR: 1.27, 1.14-1.42). Similar findings were observed for each different histological type of lung cancer, and for participants drinking predominantly caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee. Little evidence for an association was observed in our stratified analyses, either within never smokers or in most categories of tobacco use. Conclusions: Coffee drinking was positively associated with lung cancer in our study, although the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for tobacco smoking. As our adjustment for lifetime tobacco use was imperfect, it is likely that the remaining association is due to residual confounding by smoking, although other explanations are possible. PMID:26082405
Eteng, M U; Eyong, E U; Eka, O U; Umoh, I B; Ebong, P E; Ettarh, R R
Caffeine and theobromine contents (mg/g) were determined in samples of selected Nigerian beverage products. The beverages were cocoa (Milo, Bournvita, Rosevita and Enervita), coffee (Nescafe, Bongo, and Maxwell House decaffeinated) and tea (Lipton). The theobromine contents of samples of Milo, Bournvita, Rosevita, Enervita, Nescafe, Bongo, Maxwell House decaffeinated coffee and Lipton were 62.10+/-5.21, 64.80+/-6.72, 82.80+/-4.43, 80.37+/-6.80, 27.00+/-4.31, 14.67+/-2.90, 23.46+/-3.13 and 12.60+/-1.52, respectively. The corresponding caffeine contents of these samples were 2.78+/-0.43 (Milo), 3.17+/-0.36 (Bournvita), 0.92+/-0.51 (Rosevita), 1.05+/-0.68 (Enervita), 93.66+/-8.91 (Nescafe), 6.47+/-2.42 (Bongo), 37.22+/-5.34 (Lipton), and 0.21+/-0.11 (Maxwell House decaffeinated coffee). Semi-processed cocoa beverages (Rosevita and Enervita) had significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels of theobromine compared with the finished cocoas (Milo and Bournvita). Similarly, Nescafe contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels of caffeine compared to Maxwell House (decaffeinated coffee) and Bongo. Levels of caffeine in Lipton tea were moderate.
Carlström, Mattias; Larsson, Susanna C
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major health problem worldwide that is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. There is increased interest in the value of different nutrition-based strategies for preventing the development of T2D. This review aims to cover current knowledge regarding the effects of coffee consumption on development of T2D or modulation of adverse complications. A meta-analysis on coffee consumption and the risk of T2D was conducted. Moreover, bioactive components in coffee, polymorphisms, and potential underlying mechanism(s) in relation to T2D and adverse complications are discussed. PubMed was searched up to December 1, 2017, and prospective cohort and nested case-control studies of the association between coffee consumption and T2D risk were selected. Two investigators independently extracted data from included studies. A total of 30 prospective studies with 1 185 210 participants and 53 018 incident T2D cases were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled relative risk (RR) was 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-0.76) for the highest category of coffee consumption (median consumption, 5 cups/d) vs the lowest category (median consumption, 0 cups/d). The risk of T2D decreased by 6% (RR = 0.94; 95%CI, 0.93-0.95) for each cup-per-day increase in coffee consumption. Results were similar for caffeinated coffee consumption (per additional cup of coffee per day: RR = 0.93; 95%CI, 0.90-0.96) and decaffeinated coffee consumption (corresponding RR = 0.94; 95%CI, 0.90-0.98). Available evidence indicates that coffee consumption is inversely associated with risk of T2D. Possible mechanisms behind this association include thermogenic, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects; modulation of adenosine receptor signaling; and microbiome content and diversity.
meat to chicken, fish and eggs—with insufficient chicken and fish being offered—and low-joule cordials, decaffeinated coffee and rye bread not being...be available for those recruits who are overweight. Decaffeinated coffee should be available for recruits who are sensitive to the effects of...Is salt-reduced tomato paste, salt-reduced sauces (including soy & tomato sauces), salt- reduced tinned vegetables, salt-reduced processed meats used
Je, Youjin; Hankinson, Susan E.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; DeVivo, Immaculata; Giovannucci, Edward
Background Coffee has been reported to lower levels of estrogen and insulin, two hormones implicated in endometrial carcinogenesis, but prospective data on the relation between coffee consumption and risk of endometrial cancer are limited. Methods We prospectively assessed coffee consumption in relation to endometrial cancer risk in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) with 67,470 female participants aged 34–59 in 1980. Cumulative average coffee intake was calculated with all available questionnaires to assess long-term effects. Cox regression models were used to calculate incidence rate ratios (RR), controlling for other risk factors. Results Fewer than 4 cups of coffee per day were not associated with endometrial cancer risk. However, women who consumed 4 or more cups of coffee had 25% lower risk of endometrial cancer than those who consumed less than 1 cup per day (multivariable RR=0.75; 95% CI =0.57–0.97; Ptrend = 0.02). We found the similar association with caffeinated coffee consumption (RR for ≥ 4 vs. <1 cup/day = 0.70; 95% CI = 0.51–0.95). For decaffeinated coffee consumption, a suggestive inverse association was found among women who consumed 2 or more cups per day vs. <1 cup/month. Tea consumption was not associated with endometrial cancer risk. Conclusions These prospective data suggest that 4 or more cups of coffee per day are associated with a lower risk of endometrial cancer. Impact Drinking of coffee, given its widespread consumption, might be an additional strategy to reduce endometrial cancer risk. However, addition of substantial sugar and cream to coffee could offset any potential benefits. PMID:22109346
Ye, J H; Jin, J; Liang, H L; Lu, J L; Du, Y Y; Zheng, X Q; Liang, Y R
Lignocelluloses prepared from woody tea stalk, pine sawdust and sugarcane bagasse were used as adsorbents to isolate decaffeinated catechins from tea extracts and compared with synthetic macroporous resin HPD 600. HPD 600 had the highest adsorption capacity to catechins, followed by tea stalk lignocellulose while lignocelluloses of pine sawdust and bagasse the least. Tea stalk lignocellulose absorbed preferentially tea catechins and showed a good selectivity. HPD 600 absorbed caffeine and tea catechins simultaneously. The kinetics data of tea stalk lignocellulose showed a good fit with the Langmuir isotherm model. It is considered that tea stalk lignocellulose is an alternative low-cost adsorbent for preparing decaffeinated tea catechins.
Park, Song-Yi; Freedman, Neal D; Haiman, Christopher A; Le Marchand, Loïc; Wilkens, Lynne R; Setiawan, Veronica Wendy
Coffee consumption has been associated with reduced risk for death in prospective cohort studies; however, data in nonwhites are sparse. To examine the association of coffee consumption with risk for total and cause-specific death. The MEC (Multiethnic Cohort), a prospective population-based cohort study established between 1993 and 1996. Hawaii and Los Angeles, California. 185 855 African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites aged 45 to 75 years at recruitment. Outcomes were total and cause-specific mortality between 1993 and 2012. Coffee intake was assessed at baseline by means of a validated food-frequency questionnaire. 58 397 participants died during 3 195 484 person-years of follow-up (average follow-up, 16.2 years). Compared with drinking no coffee, coffee consumption was associated with lower total mortality after adjustment for smoking and other potential confounders (1 cup per day: hazard ratio [HR], 0.88 [95% CI, 0.85 to 0.91]; 2 to 3 cups per day: HR, 0.82 [CI, 0.79 to 0.86]; ≥4 cups per day: HR, 0.82 [CI, 0.78 to 0.87]; P for trend < 0.001). Trends were similar between caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee. Significant inverse associations were observed in 4 ethnic groups; the association in Native Hawaiians did not reach statistical significance. Inverse associations were also seen in never-smokers, younger participants (<55 years), and those who had not previously reported a chronic disease. Among examined end points, inverse associations were observed for deaths due to heart disease, cancer, respiratory disease, stroke, diabetes, and kidney disease. Unmeasured confounding and measurement error, although sensitivity analysis suggested that neither was likely to affect results. Higher consumption of coffee was associated with lower risk for death in African Americans, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and whites. National Cancer Institute.
Petrick, Jessica L.; Freedman, Neal D.; Graubard, Barry I.; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Lai, Gabriel Y.; Alavanja, Michael C.; Beane-Freeman, Laura E.; Boggs, Deborah A.; Buring, Julie E.; Chan, Andrew T.; Chong, Dawn Q.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaziano, John Michael; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; King, Lindsay Y.; Koshiol, Jill; Lee, I-Min; Linet, Martha S.; Palmer, Julie R.; Poynter, Jenny N.; Purdue, Mark P.; Robien, Kim; Schairer, Catherine; Sesso, Howard D.; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Campbell, Peter T.; McGlynn, Katherine A.
Background Coffee consumption has been reported to be inversely associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of liver cancer. Caffeine has chemopreventive properties, but whether caffeine is responsible for the coffee-HCC association is not well studied. In addition, few studies have examined the relationship by sex, and no studies have examined whether there is an association between coffee and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), the second most common type of liver cancer. Methods In the Liver Cancer Pooling Project, a consortium of U.S.-based cohort studies, data from 1,212,893 individuals (HCC n=860, ICC n=260) in nine cohorts were pooled. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using proportional hazards regression. Results Higher coffee consumption was associated with lower risk of HCC (HR>3 cups/day vs. non-drinker, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.53-0.99; ptrend cups/day=<0.0001). More notable reduced risk was seen among women than men (pinteraction=0.07). Women who consumed more than three cups of coffee per day were at a 54% lower risk of HCC (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.26-0.81), whereas men had more modest reduced risk of HCC (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.63-1.37). The associations were stronger for caffeinated coffee (HR>3 cups/day vs. non-drinker, 0.71, 95% CI, 0.50-1.01) than decaffeinated coffee (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.55-1.54). There was no relationship between coffee consumption and ICC. Conclusions These findings suggest that, in a U.S. population, coffee consumption is associated with reduced risk of HCC. Impact Further research into specific coffee compounds and mechanisms that may account for these associations is needed. PMID:26126626
Lucas, Michel; O’Reilly, Eilis J.; Pan, An; Mirzaei, Fariba; Willett, Walter C.; Okereke, Olivia I.; Ascherio, Alberto
Objective To evaluate the association between coffee and caffeine consumption and suicide risk in three large-scale cohorts of U.S. men and women. Methods We accessed data of 43,599 men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS, 1988–2008), 73,820 women in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS, 1992–2008), and 91,005 women in the NHS II (1993–2007). Consumption of caffeine, coffee, and decaffeinated coffee, was assessed every four years by validated food-frequency questionnaires. Deaths from suicide were determined by physician review of death certificates. Multivariate adjusted relative risks (RRs) were estimated with Cox proportional hazard models. Cohort specific RRs were pooled using random-effect models. Results We documented 277 deaths from suicide. Compared to those consuming ≤1 cup/week of caffeinated coffee (≤8 oz/237 ml), the pooled multivariate RR (95% confidence interval [CI]) of suicide was 0.55 (0.38–0.78) for those consuming 2–3 cups/day and 0.47 (0.27–0.81) for those consuming ≥4 cups/day (P trend <0.001). The pooled multivariate RR (95% CI) for suicide was 0.75 (0.63–0.90) for each increment of 2 cups/day of caffeinated coffee and 0.77 (0.63–0.93) for each increment of 300 mg/day of caffeine. Conclusions These results from three large cohorts support an association between caffeine consumption and lower risk of suicide. PMID:23819683
Jiang, Wenjie; Wu, Yili; Jiang, Xiubo
We conducted an updated meta-analysis to summarize the evidence from published studies regarding the association of coffee and caffeine intake with breast cancer risk. Pertinent studies were identified by a search of PubMed and by reviewing the reference lists of retrieved articles. The fixed or random effect model was used based on heterogeneity test. The dose-response relationship was assessed by restricted cubic spline model and multivariate random-effect meta-regression. 37 published articles, involving 59,018 breast cancer cases and 966,263 participants, were included in the meta-analysis. No significant association was found between breast cancer risk and coffee (RR=0.97, P=0.09), decaffeinated coffee (RR=0.98, P=0.55) and caffeine (RR=0.99, P=0.73), respectively. And the association was still not significant when combining coffee and caffeine (coffee/caffeine) (RR=0.97, P=0.09). However, an inverse association of coffee/caffeine with breast cancer risk was found for postmenopausal women (RR=0.94, P=0.02), and a strong and significant association of coffee with breast cancer risk was found for BRCA1 mutation carriers (RR=0.69, P<0.01). A linear dose-response relationship was found for breast cancer risk with coffee and caffeine, and the risk of breast cancer decreased by 2% (P=0.05) for every 2 cups/day increment in coffee intake, and 1% (P=0.52) for every 200mg/day increment in caffeine intake, respectively. Findings from this meta-analysis suggested that coffee/caffeine might be weakly associated with breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women, and the association for BRCA1 mutation carriers deserves further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gardener, Hannah; Rundek, Tatjana; Wright, Clinton B.; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Sacco, Ralph L.
Coffee and tea are commonly consumed beverages. Inverse associations with mortality have been suggested for coffee and tea, but the relationships with cause-specific mortality are not well understood. We examined regular and decaffeinated coffee and tea in relation to mortality due to all causes, vascular, nonvascular, and cancer in the multi-ethnic, prospective, population-based Northern Manhattan Study. The study population included 2461 participants with diet data who were free of stroke, myocardial infarction, and cancer at baseline (mean age 68.30 ± 10.23 y, 36% men, 19% white, 23% black, 56% Hispanic). During a mean follow-up of 11 y, we examined the associations between coffee and tea consumption, assessed by food frequency questionnaire, and 863 deaths (342 vascular related and 444 nonvascular including 160 cancer deaths) using multivariable-adjusted Cox models. Coffee consumption was inversely associated with all-cause mortality [for each additional cup/d, HR = 0.93 (95% CI: 0.88, 0.99); P = 0.02]. Caffeinated coffee was inversely associated with all-cause mortality, driven by a strong protection among those who drank ≥4 cups/d. An inverse dose-response relationship between tea and all-cause mortality was suggested [for each additional cup/d, HR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84, 0.99); P = 0.01]. Coffee consumption ≥4/d was protective against nonvascular death [vs. <1/mo, HR = 0.57 (95% CI: 0.33, 0.97)] and tea consumption ≥2/d was protective against nonvascular death [HR = 0.63 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.95)] and cancer [HR = 0.33 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.80)]. There was a strong inverse association between coffee and vascular-related mortality among Hispanics only. Further study is needed, including investigation into the mechanisms and compounds in coffee and tea responsible for the inverse associations with mortality. The differential relationship between coffee and vascular death across race/ethnicity underscores the need for research in similar multi-ethnic cohorts
Lee, Jeonghee; Kim, Hye Young; Kim, Jeongseon
Instant coffee mixes that contain sugar and non-dairy creamer account for 80-90% of the total coffee market in Korea. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between coffee consumption and obesity in Korean women. We included 5995 women who participated in a health screening examination at the Korean National Cancer Center between 2007 and 2016. Daily coffee consumption and the use of sugar and creamer in coffee was evaluated using a 106-item food frequency questionnaire. Obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI), and abdominal obesity was assessed by waist circumference (WC). A multiple logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of obesity according to coffee consumption. After multivariate adjustment, high coffee consumption was positively associated with obesity as measured by BMI (≥3 cups vs. no drinks, OR = 2.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.91-3.34; p for the trend < 0.001) and abdominal obesity as measured by WC (≥3 cups vs. no drinks, OR = 2.11; 95% CI = 1.59-2.79; p for the trend < 0.001). The positive association between daily coffee consumption and obesity prevalence was not altered by menopause. The amount of coffee with additives consumed per day by Korean women was positively correlated with the prevalence of obesity, but causation cannot be determined due to the cross-sectional nature of the study design. The mechanism underlying the observed relationship is yet to be elucidated.
Baker, Julie A; McCann, Susan E; Reid, Mary E; Nowell, Susan; Beehler, Gregory P; Moysich, Kirsten B
Although cigarette smoking is a clear risk factor for lung cancer, the other determinants of lung cancer risk among smokers are less clear. Tea and coffee contain catechins and flavonoids, which have been shown to exhibit anticarcinogenic properties. Conversely, caffeine may elevate cancer risk through a variety of mechanisms. The current study investigated the effects of regular consumption of black tea and coffee on lung cancer risk among 993 current and former smokers with primary incident lung cancer and 986 age-, sex-, and smoking-matched hospital controls with non-neoplastic conditions. Results indicated that lung cancer risk was not different for those with the highest black tea consumption (>or=2 cups/day) compared with nondrinkers of tea [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.66-1.24]. However, elevated lung cancer risk was observed for participants who consumed 2-3 cups of regular coffee daily (aOR=1.34; 95% CI=0.99-1.82) or >or=4 cups of regular coffee daily (aOR=1.51, 95% CI=1.11-2.05). In contrast, decaffeinated coffee drinking was associated with decreased lung cancer risk for both participants who consumed
Suseela, B; Bhalke, S; Kumar, A V; Tripathi, R M; Sastry, V N
The trace element contents of five varieties of instant coffee powder available in the Indian market have been analysed. Ca, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Sr, Zn and Pb, Cd, Cu have been determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, respectively. The metal levels in the coffee powders observed in this study are comparable with those reported for green coffe beans (Arabica and Robusta variety) reported worldwide with the exception of Sr and Zn, which were on the lower side of the reported values. Concentrations of these metals have been converted into intake figures based on coffee consumption. The daily intakes of the above metals through ingestion of coffee are 1.4 mg, 1.58 microg, 124 microg, 41.5 mg, 4.9 mg, 17.9 microg, 2.9 microg, 3.8 microg, 12.5 microg, 0.2 microg, 0.03 microg and 15.5 microg, respectively. The values, which were compared with the total dietary, intake of metals through ingestion by the Mumbai population, indicate that the contribution from coffee is less than or around 1% for most of the elements except for Cr and Ni which are around 3%.
1975) was also used to determine cooked yields from raw ingredients and appropriate USDA processing codes were selected from the CAN System to estimate...be assumed that there were some losses of the heat labile vitamins (particularly thiamin and vitamin C). While the USDA processing codes provided for...cups Li 1-2 cups Li Less than 1 cup Li Don’t know 29. I consume... H Coffee H Decaffeinated Coffee L Kool-Aid Cola - Diet Cola Decaffeinated Cola
Squires, R. G.; And Others
Purdue University (Indiana) is developing a series of computer modules of state-of-the-art chemical engineering processes to serve as the basis for computer-simulated experiments. One, sponsored by Procter and Gamble, models the extraction step in the decaffeination process and allows students to determine the optimal extraction conditions for…
Choi, Hyon K; Curhan, Gary
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and may affect serum uric acid levels and risk of gout via various mechanisms. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between coffee, tea, and caffeine intake and serum uric acid level in a nationally representative sample of men and women. Using data from 14,758 participants ages >/=20 years in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), we examined the relationship between coffee, tea, and caffeine intake and serum uric acid level using linear regression. Additionally, we examined the relationship with hyperuricemia (serum uric acid >7.0 mg/dl among men and >5.7 mg/dl among women) using logistic regression. Intake was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Serum uric acid level decreased with increasing coffee intake. After adjusting for age and sex, serum uric acid level associated with coffee intake of 4 to 5 and >/=6 cups daily was lower than that associated with no intake by 0.26 mg/dl (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.11, 0.41) and 0.43 mg/dl (95% CI 0.23, 0.65; P for trend < 0.001), respectively. After adjusting for other covariates, the differences remained significant (P for trend < 0.001). Similarly, there was a modest inverse association between decaffeinated coffee intake and serum uric acid levels (multivariate P for trend 0.035). Total caffeine from coffee and other beverages and tea intake were not associated with serum uric acid levels (multivariate P for trend 0.15). The multivariate odds ratio for hyperuricemia in individuals with coffee intake >/=6 cups daily compared with those with no coffee use was 0.57 (95% CI 0.35, 0.94; P for trend 0.001). These findings from a nationally representative sample of US adults suggest that coffee consumption is associated with lower serum uric acid level and hyperuricemia frequency, but tea consumption is not. The inverse association with coffee appears to be via components of coffee other than caffeine.
Sisti, Julia S.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Caporaso, Neil E.; Gu, Fangyi; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Rosner, Bernard; Xu, Xia; Ziegler, Regina; Eliassen, A. Heather
Background Prior studies have found weak inverse associations between breast cancer and caffeine and coffee intake, possibly mediated through their effects on sex hormones. Methods High-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify levels of 15 individual estrogens and estrogen metabolites (EM) among 587 premenopausal women in the Nurses’ Health Study II with mid-luteal phase urine samples and caffeine, coffee and/or tea intakes from self-reported food frequency questionnaires. Multivariate linear mixed models were used to estimate geometric means of individual EM, pathways and ratios by intake categories, and P-values for tests of linear trend. Results Compared to women in the lowest quartile of caffeine consumption, those in the top quartile had higher urinary concentrations of 16α-hydroxyestrone (28% difference; P-trend=0.01) and 16-epiestriol (13% difference; P-trend=0.04), and a decreased parent estrogens/2-, 4-, 16-pathway ratio (P-trend=0.03). Coffee intake was associated with higher 2-catechols, including 2-hydroxyestradiol (57% difference, ≥4 cups/day vs. ≤6 cups/week; P-trend=0.001) and 2-hydroxyestrone (52% difference; P-trend=0.001), and several ratio measures. Decaffeinated coffee was not associated with 2-pathway metabolism, but women in the highest (vs. lowest) category of intake (≥2 cups/day vs. ≤1–3 cups/month) had significantly lower levels of two 16-pathway metabolites, estriol (25% difference; P-trend=0.01) and 17-epiestriol (48% difference; Ptrend=0.0004). Tea intake was positively associated with 17-epiestriol (52% difference; Ptrend=0.01). Conclusion Caffeine and coffee intake were both associated with profiles of estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women. Impact Consumption of caffeine and coffee may alter patterns of premenopausal estrogen metabolism. PMID:26063478
Sisti, Julia S; Hankinson, Susan E; Caporaso, Neil E; Gu, Fangyi; Tamimi, Rulla M; Rosner, Bernard; Xu, Xia; Ziegler, Regina; Eliassen, A Heather
Prior studies have found weak inverse associations between breast cancer and caffeine and coffee intake, possibly mediated through their effects on sex hormones. High-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify levels of 15 individual estrogens and estrogen metabolites (EM) among 587 premenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study II with mid-luteal phase urine samples and caffeine, coffee, and/or tea intakes from self-reported food frequency questionnaires. Multivariate linear mixed models were used to estimate geometric means of individual EM, pathways, and ratios by intake categories, and P values for tests of linear trend. Compared with women in the lowest quartile of caffeine consumption, those in the top quartile had higher urinary concentrations of 16α-hydroxyestrone (28% difference; Ptrend = 0.01) and 16-epiestriol (13% difference; Ptrend = 0.04), and a decreased parent estrogens/2-, 4-, 16-pathway ratio (Ptrend = 0.03). Coffee intake was associated with higher 2-catechols, including 2-hydroxyestradiol (57% difference, ≥4 cups/day vs. ≤6 cups/week; Ptrend = 0.001) and 2-hydroxyestrone (52% difference; Ptrend = 0.001), and several ratio measures. Decaffeinated coffee was not associated with 2-pathway metabolism, but women in the highest (vs. lowest) category of intake (≥2 cups/day vs. ≤1-3 cups/month) had significantly lower levels of two 16-pathway metabolites, estriol (25% difference; Ptrend = 0.01) and 17-epiestriol (48% difference; Ptrend = 0.0004). Tea intake was positively associated with 17-epiestriol (52% difference; Ptrend = 0.01). Caffeine and coffee intake were both associated with profiles of estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women. Consumption of caffeine and coffee may alter patterns of premenopausal estrogen metabolism. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.
Je, Youjin; Giovannucci, Edward
Coffee consumption has been shown to be associated with various health outcomes, but no comprehensive review and meta-analysis of the association between coffee consumption and total mortality has been conducted. To quantitatively assess this association, we conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Eligible studies were identified by searching the PubMed and EMBASE databases for all articles published through June 2013 and reviewing the reference lists of the retrieved articles. Pooled relative risks (RR) with 95% CI were calculated using a random-effects model. We identified twenty studies of coffee consumption and total mortality, including 129,538 cases of deaths among the 973,904 participants. The RR of total mortality for the high v. low category of coffee consumption was 0.86 (95% CI 0.80, 0.92). The pooled RR for studies using ≥ 2-4 cups/d as a cut-off for the high category was similar to that for studies using ≥ 5-9 cups/d as the cut-off. By geographical region, the inverse association tended to be stronger for the eight studies conducted in Europe (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.70, 0.88) and three studies carried out in Japan (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.73, 0.92) than for the nine studies conducted in the USA (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.84, 1.00). The inverse association was similar for men (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.73, 0.90) and women (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.79, 0.89). A weak, but significant, inverse association was found with moderate coffee consumption (1-2 cups/d; RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.87, 0.98). High decaffeinated coffee consumption was also found to be associated with a lower risk of death, but the data are limited. Our findings indicate that coffee consumption is associated with a reduced risk of total mortality.
Renouf, Mathieu; Marmet, Cynthia; Giuffrida, Francesca; Lepage, Mélissa; Barron, Denis; Beaumont, Maurice; Williamson, Gary; Dionisi, Fabiola
Coffee contains phenolic compounds, mainly chlorogenic acids (CGAs). Even though coffee intake has been associated with some health benefits in epidemiological studies, the bioavailability of coffee phenolics is not fully understood. We performed a dose-response study measuring plasma bioavailability of phenolics after drinking three increasing, but still nutritionally relevant doses of instant pure soluble coffee. The study design was a one treatment (coffee) three-dose randomized cross-over design, with a washout period of 2 wks between visits. CGAs, phenolic acids, and late-appearing metabolites all increased with increasing ingested dose. Hence, the sum of area under the curve was significantly higher for the medium to low dose, and high to medium dose, by 2.23- and 2.38-fold, respectively. CGAs were not well absorbed in their intact form, regardless of the dose. CGA and phenolic acids appeared rapidly in plasma, indicating an early absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. Late-appearing metabolites were the most abundant, regardless of the dose. This study confirmed previous findings about coffee bioavailability but also showed that coffee phenolics appear in a positive dose-response manner in plasma when drank at nutritionally relevant doses. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Buscemi, S; Verga, S; Batsis, J A; Donatelli, M; Tranchina, M R; Belmonte, S; Mattina, A; Re, A; Cerasola, G
Coffee is the most widely consumed beverage in the world, but its effect on the cardiovascular system has not been fully understood. Coffee contains caffeine and antioxidants, which may influence endothelial function, both of which have not yet been investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the acute effects of coffee on endothelial function measured by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). A total of 20 (10 males and 10 females) healthy non-obese subjects underwent a double-blind, crossover study. Subjects ingested one cup of caffeinated (CC) and one cup of decaffeinated (DC) Italian espresso coffee in random order at 5- to 7-day intervals. Following CC ingestion, FMD decreased progressively and significantly (mean+/-s.e.m.: 0 min, 7.7+/-0.6; 30 min, 6.3+/-0.7; 60 min, 6.0+/-0.8%; ANOVA (analysis of variance), P<0.05), but it did not significantly increase after DC ingestion (0 min, 6.9+/-0.6; 30 min, 8.1+/-0.9; 60 min, 8.5+/-0.9%; P=0.115). Similarly, CC significantly increased both systolic and diastolic blood pressure; this effect was not observed after DC ingestion. Blood glucose concentrations remained unchanged after ingestion of both CC and DC, but insulin (0 min, 15.8+/-0.9; 60 min, 15.0+/-0.8 muU/ml; P<0.05) and C-peptide (0 min, 1.25+/-0.09; 60 min, 1.18+/-0.09 ng/ml; P<0.01) blood concentrations decreased significantly only after CC ingestion. CC acutely induced unfavorable cardiovascular effects, especially on endothelial function. In the fasting state, insulin secretion is also likely reduced after CC ingestion. Future studies will determine whether CC has detrimental clinically relevant effects, especially in unhealthy subjects.
Wu, Shaowei; Han, Jiali; Song, Fengju; Cho, Eunyoung; Gao, Xiang; Hunter, David J; Qureshi, Abrar A
Caffeine has been shown to prevent ultraviolet radiation-induced carcinogenesis and to inhibit growth of melanoma cells in experimental studies. We evaluated the association among caffeine intake, coffee consumption, and melanoma risk among three large cohort studies. The analysis used data from 89,220 women in the Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2009), 74,666 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1980-2008), and 39,424 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2008). We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of melanoma associated with dietary intakes. We documented 2,254 melanoma cases over 4 million person-years of follow-up. After adjustment for other risk factors, higher total caffeine intake was associated with a lower risk of melanoma (≥393 mg/day vs. <60 mg/day: HR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.64, 0.96; Ptrend = 0.048). The association was more apparent in women (≥393 mg/day vs. <60 mg/day: HR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.58, 0.85; Ptrend = 0.001) than in men (HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.75, 1.2; Ptrend = 0.81), and more apparent for melanomas occurring on body sites with higher continuous sun exposure (head, neck, and extremities; ≥393 mg/day vs. <60 mg/day: HR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.59, 0.86; Ptrend = 0.001) than for melanomas occurring on body sites with lower continuous sun exposure (trunk including shoulder, back, hip, abdomen, and chest; HR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.70, 1.2; Ptrend = 0.60). This pattern of association was similar to that for caffeinated coffee consumption, whereas no association was found for decaffeinated coffee consumption and melanoma risk. Increasing caffeine intake and caffeinated coffee consumption is associated with decreased risk of cutaneous malignant melanomas.
Sousa, Alessandra Gaspar; da Costa, Teresa Helena Macedo
Coffee is central to the economy of many developing countries, as well as to the world economy. However, despite the widespread consumption of coffee, there are very few available data showing the usual intake of this beverage. Surveying usual coffee intake is a way of monitoring one aspect of a population's usual dietary intake. Thus, the present study aimed to characterise the usual daily coffee intake in the Brazilian population. We used data from the National Dietary Survey collected in 2008-9 from a probabilistic sample of 34,003 Brazilians aged 10 years and older. The National Cancer Institute method was applied to obtain the usual intake based on two nonconsecutive food diaries, and descriptive statistical analyses were performed by age and sex for Brazil and its regions. The estimated average usual daily coffee intake of the Brazilian population was 163 (SE 2.8) ml. The comparison by sex showed that males had a 12% greater usual coffee intake than females. In addition, the highest intake was recorded among older males. Among the five regions surveyed, the North-East had the highest usual coffee intake (175 ml). The most common method of brewing coffee was filtered/instant coffee (71%), and the main method of sweetening beverages was with sugar (87%). In Brazil, the mean usual coffee intake corresponds to 163 ml, or 1.5 cups/d. Differences in usual coffee intake according to sex and age differed among the five Brazilian regions.
Loftfield, Erikka; Freedman, Neal D; Dodd, Kevin W; Vogtmann, Emily; Xiao, Qian; Sinha, Rashmi; Graubard, Barry I
Background: Despite widespread popularity and possible health effects, the prevalence and distribution of coffee consumption in US adults are poorly characterized. Objective: We sought to estimate usual daily coffee intakes from all coffee-containing beverages, including decaffeinated and regular coffee, among US adults according to demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related factors. Methods: Dietary intake data from ≤2 nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls and a food-frequency questionnaire administered during the NHANES 2003–2006 were used to estimate the person-specific probability of consuming coffee on a particular day and the usual amount consumed on consumption days. Trends in population mean coffee consumption over time were evaluated by using multiple linear regression and 1-d 24-h recall data from NHANES 2003–2012. Analyses were weighted to be representative of the US adult population aged ≥20 y. Results: An estimated 154 million adults, or 75% of the US population, aged ≥20 y reported drinking coffee; 49% reported drinking coffee daily. Prevalence did not vary by sex, education, income, or self-reported general health (all P ≥ 0.05) but did vary by age, race/ethnicity, smoking status, and alcohol drinking (all P < 0.05). Among coffee drinkers, the mean ± SE usual intake was 14.1 ± 0.5 fluid ounces/d (417 ± 15 mL/d). Mean usual intakes were higher in men than women, in older age groups than in those aged 20 to <30 y, in non-Hispanic whites than in non-Hispanic blacks or Hispanic/other races, in smokers than in never smokers, and in daily alcohol consumers than in nonconsumers (all P < 0.05). Population mean coffee consumption was stable from 2003 to 2012 (P-trend = 0.09). Conclusions: Coffee is widely consumed in the United States, with usual intakes varying by lifestyle and demographic factors, most notably by age. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether observed differences by age reflect birth cohort effects or changes in
Quinlan, P T; Lane, J; Moore, K L; Aspen, J; Rycroft, J A; O'Brien, D C
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of caffeine level in tea and coffee on acute physiological responses and mood. Randomised full crossover design in subjects after overnight caffeine abstention was studied. In study 1 (n = 17) the caffeine level was manipulated naturalistically by preparing tea and coffee at different strengths (1 or 2 cups equivalent). Caffeine levels were 37.5 and 75 mg in tea, 75 and 150 mg in coffee, with water and no-drink controls. In study 2 (n = 15) caffeine level alone was manipulated (water, decaffeinated tea, plus 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg caffeine). Beverage volume and temperature (55 degrees C) were constant. SBP, DBP, heart rate, skin temperature, skin conductance, and mood were monitored over each 3-h study session. In study 1, tea and coffee produced mild autonomic stimulation and an elevation in mood. There were no effects of tea vs. coffee or caffeine dose, despite a fourfold variation in the latter. Increasing beverage strength was associated with greater increases in DBP and energetic arousal. In study 2, caffeinated beverages increased SBP, DBP, and skin conductance and lowered heart rate and skin temperature compared to water. Significant dose-response relationships to caffeine were seen only for SBP, heart rate, and skin temperature. There were significant effects of caffeine on energetic arousal but no consistent dose-response effects. Caffeinated beverages acutely stimulate the autonomic nervous system and increase alertness. Although caffeine can exert dose-dependent effects on a number of acute autonomic responses, caffeine level is not an important factor. Factors besides caffeine may contribute to these acute effects.
Krakowian, Daniel; Skiba, Dominik; Kudelski, Adam; Pilawa, Barbara; Ramos, Paweł; Adamczyk, Jakub; Pawłowska-Góral, Katarzyna
Free radicals present in coffee may be responsible for exerting toxic effects on an organism. The objectives of this work were to compare free radicals properties and concentrations in different commercially available coffees, in solid and liquid states, and to determine the effect of roasting on the formation of free radicals in coffee beans of various origins. The free radicals content of 15 commercially available coffees (solid and liquid) was compared and the impact of processing examined using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at X-band (9.3 GHz). First derivative EPR spectra were measured at microwave power in the range of 0.7-70 mW. The following parameters were calculated for EPR spectra: amplitude (A), integral intensity (I), and line-width (ΔBpp); g-Factor was obtained from resonance condition. Our study showed that free radicals exist in green coffee beans (10(16) spin/g), roasted coffee beans (10(18) spin/g), and in commercially available coffee (10(17)-10(18) spin/g). Free radical concentrations were higher in solid ground coffee than in instant or lyophilised coffee. Continuous microwave saturation indicated homogeneous broadening of EPR lines from solid and liquid commercial coffee samples as well as green and roasted coffee beans. Slow spin-lattice relaxation processes were found to be present in all coffee samples tested, solid and liquid commercial coffees as well as green and roasted coffee beans. Higher free radicals concentrations were obtained for both the green and roasted at 240 °C coffee beans from Peru compared with those originating from Ethiopia, Brazil, India, or Colombia. Moreover, more free radicals occurred in Arabica coffee beans roasted at 240 °C than Robusta. EPR spectroscopy is a useful method of examining free radicals in different types of coffee. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adachi, Osao; Ano, Yoshitaka; Akakabe, Yoshihiko; Shinagawa, Emiko; Matsushita, Kazunobu
Chlorogenate hydrolase (EC 22.214.171.124, CHase) was highly induced in mycelia of Aspergillus sojae AKU 3312 grown in Czapek medium containing either instant coffee powder or coffee pulp as inducer. No CHase formation was observed in the mycelia when cultivated without the inducer. CHase was purified readily from CHase-induced mycelia to high homogeneity, and the purified CHase revealed the molecular weight of 180,000 consisting of two identical subunits of 88 kDa. Equimolar quinate (QA) and caffeate (CA) were confirmed on hydrolysis of chlorogenate (CGA). The purified CHase was only useful for a laboratory scale hydrolysis of CGA. For practical QA and CA production using scaled up hydrolysis of vegetable extracts of natural CGA resources, the enzyme activity of purified CHase decreased and denatured irreversibly. Preparation of coffee pulp koji and its application to QA and CA production were proposed instead of purified CHase. When coffee pulp koji was heated at 60 degrees C for 30 min, CHase survived without any appreciable loss of enzyme activity while vegetative mycelial growth and spore germination were terminated. The heated coffee pulp koji thus prepared was effective itself as stable immobilized catalyst of CHase for QA and CA production from vegetable CGA resources such as coffee powders, coffee pulp, and others.
Fernandes, Andréa P.; Santos, Mirian C.; Lemos, Sherlan G.; Ferreira, Márcia M. C.; Nogueira, Ana Rita A.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.
Aluminium, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, and Zn were determined in coffee and sugar-cane spirit (cachaça) samples by axial viewing inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Pattern recognition techniques such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis were applied to data sets in order to characterize samples with relation to their geographical origin and production mode (industrial or homemade and organically or conventionally produced). Attempts to correlate metal ion content with the geographical origin of coffee and the production mode (organic or conventional) of cachaça were not successful. Some differentiation was suggested for the geographical origin of cachaça of three regions (Northeast, Central, and South), and for coffee samples, related to the production mode. Clear separations were only obtained for differentiation between industrial and homemade cachaças, and between instant soluble and roasted coffees.
Weiss, Carola; Rubach, Malte; Lang, Roman; Seebach, Elisabeth; Blumberg, Simone; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas; Somoza, Veronika
As the consumption of coffee beverages sometimes is reported to cause gastric irritation, for which an increased stomach acid secretion is one of the promoting factors, different processing technologies such as steam-treatment have been developed to reduce putative stomach irritating compounds. There is evidence-based data neither on the effect of detailed processing variations nor on individual coffee components affecting the proton secretory activity (PSA). This work aimed at developing a screening model suitable for investigating the effects of commercial coffee beverages and components thereof on human parietal cells. Human gastric cancer cells (HGT-1) were treated with reconstituted freeze-dried coffee beverages prepared from customary coffee products such as regular coffee (RC, n = 4), mild bean coffee (MBC, n = 5), stomach friendly coffee (SFC, n = 4), and SFC decaffeinated (SFCD, n = 3). PSA was analyzed by flow cytometry using the pH-sensitive dye SNARF-AM. Treatment of the cells with MBC did not result in a PSA different from RC treatment (p
Boggs, Deborah A; Rosenberg, Lynn; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A; Palmer, Julie R
Background: Numerous studies have reported inverse associations of coffee, tea, and alcohol intake with risk of type 2 diabetes, but none has reported results separately among African American women. Objective: We prospectively examined the relation of coffee, tea, and alcohol consumption to diabetes risk in African American women. Design: The study included 46,906 Black Women's Health Study participants aged 30–69 y at baseline in 1995. Dietary intake was assessed in 1995 and 2001 by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. During 12 y of follow-up, there were 3671 incident cases of type 2 diabetes. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for diabetes risk factors. Results: Multivariable RRs for intakes of 0–1, 1, 2–3, and ≥4 cups of caffeinated coffee/d relative to no coffee intake were 0.94 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.04), 0.90 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.01), 0.82 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.93), and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.69, 1.01), respectively (P for trend = 0.003). Multivariable RRs for intakes of 1–3, 4–6, 7–13, and ≥14 alcoholic drinks/wk relative to never consumption were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.00), 0.68 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.81), 0.78 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.96), and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.98), respectively (P for trend < 0.0001). Intakes of decaffeinated coffee and tea were not associated with risk of diabetes. Conclusion: Our results suggest that African American women who drink moderate amounts of caffeinated coffee or alcohol have a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. PMID:20826625
Elliman, Nicola A; Ash, Jennifer; Green, Michael W
The present study investigated the impact of pre-existent expectancy regarding the effects of the caffeine load of a drink and the perception of the caffeine content on subjective mood and vigilance performance. Caffeine deprived participants (N=25) were tested in four conditions (within subjects design), using a 2×2 design, with caffeine load and information regarding the caffeine content of the drink. In two sessions, they were given caffeinated coffee and in two were given decaffeinated coffee. Within these two conditions, on one occasion they were given accurate information about the drink and on the other they were given inaccurate information about the drink. Mood and vigilance performance were assessed post ingestion. Caffeine was found to enhance performance, but only when participants were accurately told they were receiving it. When decaffeinated coffee was given, performance was poorer, irrespective of expectancy. However, when caffeine was given, but participants were told it was decaffeinated coffee, performance was as poor as when no caffeine had been administered. There were no easily interpretable effects on mood. The pharmacological effects of caffeine appear to act synergistically with expectancy.
Kurtz, Abigail M; Leong, Jessica; Anand, Monica; Dargush, Anthony E; Shah, Sachin A
To evaluate the effects of a caffeinated 5-hour Energy shot compared with a decaffeinated 5-hour Energy shot as assessed by changes in blood pressure and heart rate in healthy, nonhypertensive volunteers. Randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover study. University campus. Twenty healthy volunteers. Subjects were randomized to receive either the caffeinated 5-hour Energy shot or the decaffeinated 5-hour Energy shot; after a washout period of at least 6 days, subjects were given the alternate energy shot. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures were recorded for each subject at baseline and at 1, 3, and 5 hours after consumption of the energy shot. Heart rate, adverse effects, and energy levels were also assessed. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) baseline SBP for all study subjects was 114.06 ± 11.30 mm Hg and DBP was 69.53 ± 7.63 mm Hg. Mean changes in SBP between the caffeinated arm and the decaffeinated arm at the 1- and 3-hour time points were significantly increased compared with baseline (mean ± SD 6.08 ± 7.71 mm Hg at 1 hour [p=0.001] vs 3.33 ± 6.99 mm Hg at 3 hours [p=0.042]). Similarly, mean DBP changes between the caffeinated arm and the decaffeinated arm were significantly increased at the 1- and 3-hour time points compared with baseline (mean ± SD 5.18 ± 8.38 mm Hg at 1 hour [p=0.007] and 5.43 ± 7.21 mm Hg at 3 hours [p=0.005]). Heart rate, adverse effects, and energy levels were similar between the two groups. Caffeinated energy shots significantly increased SBP and DBP over a 3-hour period compared with decaffeinated energy shots in healthy, nonhypertensive individuals. © 2013 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.
Grembecka, Małgorzata; Malinowska, Ewa; Szefer, Piotr
The concentrations of 14 elements (Ca, Mg, K, Na, P, Co, Mn, Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb) were determined in market coffee samples after dry mineralisation of both dry samples and infusions evaporated to dryness. The total metal contents were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F-AAS) using deuterium-background correction. Phosphorus was determined in the form of phosphomolybdate by spectrophotometric method. Reliability of the procedure was checked by the analysis of the certified reference materials Tea (NCS DC 73351), Cabbage (IAEA-359) and Spinach leaves (NIST-1570). It was concluded, based on RDA calculated for essential metals, that coffee infusions are not an important source of bioelements in human diet. In the case of toxic elements Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) was estimated and there is no health hazard associated with exposure to Cd and Pb via coffee consumption. Significant correlation coefficients (p<0.001, p<0.01 and p<0.05) were found between concentrations of some metals in coffee. Factor analysis and canonical analysis were applied to the data processing in order to characterise the market coffee samples. The 12 metals determined were considered as chemical descriptors of each sample. Based on the mineral composition, it was possible to differentiate chemometrically particular types of coffee distinguishing arabica from robusta, ground from instant coffee, and their infusions.
Lignocellulose prepared from sawdust was investigated for its potential application in obtaining a raw decaffeinated tea polyphenol fraction from tea extract. Tea polyphenols having gallate residues, namely, (-)epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) and (-)epicatechin gallate (ECg), were adsorbed on the lignocellulose column, while caffeine was passed through it. Adsorbed polyphenols were eluted with 60% ethanol, and the elute was found to consist mainly of EGCg and ECg. The caffeine/EGCg ratio was 0.696 before lignocellulose column treatment, but it became 0.004 after the column treatment. These results suggest that the lignocellulose column provides a useful and convenient process of purification of tea polyphenol fraction accompanied by decaffeination.
Senyuva, Hamide Z; Gökmen, Vural
An improved analytical method for the determination of acrylamide in coffee is described using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS). A variety of instant, ground and laboratory roasted coffee samples were analysed using this method. The sample preparation entails extraction of acrylamide with methanol, purification with Carrez I and II solutions, evaporation and solvent change to water, and clean-up with an Oasis HLB solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. The chromatographic conditions allowed separation of acrylamide and the remaining matrix co-extractives with accurate and precise quantification of acrylamide during MS detection in SIM mode. Recoveries for the spiking levels of 50, 100, 250 and 500?microg/kg ranged between 99 and 100% with relative standard deviations of less than 2%. The effects of roasting on the formation of acrylamide and colour development were also investigated at 150, 200 and 225 degrees C. Change in the CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) a* colour value was found to show a good correlation with the change in acrylamide. CIE a* and acrylamide data was fitted to a non-linear logarithmic function for the estimation of acrylamide level in coffee. Measured acrylamide levels in commercial roasted coffees compared well with the predicted acrylamide levels from the CIE a* values.
Wu, Shaowei; Han, Jiali; Song, Fengju; Cho, Eunyoung; Gao, Xiang; Hunter, David J.; Qureshi, Abrar A.
Background Caffeine has been shown to prevent ultraviolet radiation-induced carcinogenesis and to inhibit growth of melanoma cells in experimental studies. Objectives We evaluated the association between caffeine intake, coffee consumption, and melanoma risk among three large cohort studies. Methods The analysis used data from 163,886 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHS II, 1991–2009) and Nurses’ Health Study (NHS, 1980–2008) and 39,424 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS, 1986–2008). We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of melanoma associated with dietary intakes. Results We documented 2,254 melanoma cases over 4 million person-years of follow-up. After adjustment for other risk factors, higher total caffeine intake was associated with a lower risk of melanoma (≥393 mg/d vs. <60 mg/d: HR=0.78, 95% CI=0.64–0.96, Ptrend=0.048). The association was more apparent in women (≥393 mg/d vs. <60 mg/d: HR=0.70, 95% CI=0.58–0.85, Ptrend=0.001) than in men (HR=0.94, 95% CI=0.75–1.18, Ptrend=0.81), and more apparent for melanomas occurred on the body sites with higher continuous sun exposure (head, neck and extremities) (≥393 mg/d vs. <60 mg/d: HR=0.71, 95% CI=0.59–0.86, Ptrend=0.001) than for melanomas occurred on the body sites with lower continuous sun exposure (trunk including shoulder, back, hip, abdomen and chest) (HR=0.90, 95% CI=0.70–1.16, Ptrend=0.60). This pattern of association was similar to that for caffeinated coffee consumption, whereas no association was found for decaffeinated coffee consumption and melanoma risk. Conclusions Increasing caffeine intake and caffeinated coffee consumption may be protective against cutaneous malignant melanomas. PMID:26172864
Dawkins, Lynne; Shahzad, Fatima-Zahra; Ahmed, Suada S; Edmonds, Caroline J
We explored whether caffeine, and expectation of having consumed caffeine, affects attention, reward responsivity and mood using double-blinded methodology. 88 participants were randomly allocated to 'drink-type' (caffeinated/decaffeinated coffee) and 'expectancy' (told caffeinated/told decaffeinated coffee) manipulations. Both caffeine and expectation of having consumed caffeine improved attention and psychomotor speed. Expectation enhanced self-reported vigour and reward responsivity. Self-reported depression increased at post-drink for all participants, but less in those receiving or expecting caffeine. These results suggest caffeine expectation can affect mood and performance but do not support a synergistic effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Park, Sunmin; Choi, Hyun-Seok; Bae, Ji-Hyun
The incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD) is continuously increasing in industrialized countries, possibly due to dietary and lifestyle changes. However, the association between processed food intake and AD has not been studied in a large adult population. We investigated the association between dietary habits and AD in 17,497 adults in the 2009-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We identified 4 dietary patterns using principal components analysis of a 63-item food frequency questionnaire: the "traditional dietary pattern", rich in rice and kimchi; the "processed food pattern", with more meat, instant noodles, soda, and processed foods; the "healthy dietary pattern", high in grains, vegetables, fruits, and seaweeds; and the "drinking dietary pattern", mainly drinking coffee and alcohol. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for AD were calculated according to dietary patterns after adjusting for potential confounders with incorporation of sample weights for the complex sample design. The "meat and processed food" pattern was associated with a significant 1.57 fold higher OR for atopic dermatitis than the low consumption group. Further analysis revealed that the increased atopic dermatitis was most closely associated with instant noodles. In contrast, the groups with high intake of rice and kimchi exhibited lower ORs, 0.38 and 0.43 folds, compared to the low intake group. Consuming instant noodles, meat and processed foods was associated with increased prevalence of atopic dermatitis, whereas consuming rice and kimchi, and coffee was associated with decreased prevalence of atopic dermatitis.
Niseteo, Tena; Komes, Draženka; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Horžić, Dunja; Budeč, Maja
Coffee is one of the most popular beverages in the world, prepared and consumed in many different ways. Taste, aroma and composition of the coffee brew vary depending on the preparation method. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of different brewing methods on the polyphenol and methylxanthine composition and antioxidant capacity of thirteen different coffee brews. The content of total phenols and flavonoids was determined spectrophotometrically and the content of chlorogenic acid derivates (3-CQA, 4-CQA and 5-CQA) and caffeine using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-PDA). Antioxidant capacity of coffee brews was evaluated by using the ABTS (2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) and FRAP (ferric-reducing antioxidant power) assays. Instant coffee brews showed the highest values in content of total phenols, chlorogenic acid derivates, caffeine and antioxidant capacity, which significantly decreased by milk addition. The antioxidant capacity of coffee brews was in compliance with the total phenol content and content of chlorogenic acid derivates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stylianou, Marinos; Agapiou, Agapios; Omirou, Michalis; Vyrides, Ioannis; Ioannides, Ioannis M; Maratheftis, Grivas; Fasoula, Dionysia
Coffee is perhaps one of the most vital ingredients in humans' daily life in modern world. However, this causes the production of million tons of relevant wastes, i.e., plastic cups, aluminum capsules, coffee chaff (silver skin), and spent coffee grounds (SCG), all thrown untreated into landfills. It is estimated that 1 kg of instant coffee generates around 2 kg of wet SCG; a relatively unique organic waste stream, with little to no contamination, separated directly in the source by the coffee shops. The produced waste has been under researchers' microscope as a useful feedstock for a number of promising applications. SCG is considered a valuable, nutrients rich source of bioactive compounds (e.g., phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, lipids, chlorogenic and protocatechuic acid, melanoidins, diterpenes, xanthines, vitamin precursors, etc.) and a useful resource material in other processes (e.g., soil improver and compost, heavy metals absorbent, biochar, biodiesel, pellets, cosmetics, food, and deodorization products). This paper aims to provide a holistic approach for the SCG waste management, highlighting a series of processes and applications in environmental solutions, food industry, and agricultural sector. Thus, the latest developments and approaches of SCG waste management are reviewed and discussed.
Andrade, Patricia F.; Nakazato, Gerson; Durán, Nelson
It is known the presence of carbon dots (CDs) in carbohydrate based foods. CDs extracted from coffee grounds and instant coffee was also published. CDs from soluble coffee revealed an average size of 4.4 nm. CDs were well-dispersed in water, fluorescent and we have characterized by XPS, XRD analysis, fluorescence and by FTIR spectra. The MIC value by serial micro-dilution assays for CDs on S. aureus ATCC 25923 was 250 μg/mL and E. coli ATCC 25922 >1000 ug/mL. For silver nanoparticles biogenically synthesized was 6.7 μg/mL. Following the checkerboard assay with combining ½ MIC values of the MICs of 125 μg/mL of carbon dots and 3.4 μg/mL of silver nanoparticles, following the fractionated inhibitory concentration (FIC) index methodology, on S. aureus gave a fractionated inhibitory concentration (FIC) value of 1.0, meaning additive interaction. In general, the unfunctionalized CDs showed to be inefficient as antibacterial compounds, however the CDs extracted from Coffee powder and together silver nanoparticles appeared interesting as antibacterial association.
information processing than someone still learning. As such, skilled responses are less susceptible to thermal stress decrements. Based on these test data...quantity you consume. Caffeine Coffee cups Tea ____ cups Soda cans Decaffeinated Coffee cups Tea _ _ cups Soda cans Alcoholic Beer 12 oz Wine 8 oz Liquor
Sanchez-Bridge, Belén; Renouf, Mathieu; Sauser, Julien; Beaumont, Maurice; Actis-Goretta, Lucas
Understanding the bioavailability and metabolism of coffee compounds will contribute to identify the unknown biological mechanism(s) linked to their beneficial effects. The influence of the roasting process on the metabolism of coffee chlorogenic acids in humans was evaluated. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover study, 12 healthy volunteers consumed four instant coffees namely, high roasted coffee (HRC), low roasted coffee (LRC), unroasted coffee (URC), and in vitro hydrolyzed unroasted coffee (HURC). The sum of areas under the curve (AUC) ranged from 8.65-17.6 to 30.9-126 µM/h (P < 0.05) for HRC, LRC, URC, and HURC, respectively. The AUC of HRC, LRC, and URC was correlated with the initial level of phenolic acids in the coffee drinks. Despite different absorption rates, the extent of conjugation was comparable between HRC, LRC, and URC coffees but different for HURC. The most abundant circulating metabolites during the first 5 H were dihydroferulic acid (DHFA), caffeic acid-3'-O-sulfate (CA3S) and isoferulic-3'-O-glucuronide (iFA3G). DHFA and 5-4-dihydro-m-coumaric acid (mDHCoA) were the main metabolites in the period of 5-24 H. The phenolic compounds after consumption of HURC were most rapidly absorbed (Tmax 1 H) compared with the other coffees (Tmax between 9 and 11 H). Using coffees with different degrees of roasting we highlighted that in spite of different absorption rates the extent of conjugation of phenolic acids was comparable. In addition, by using a hydrolyzed unroasted coffee we demonstrated an increased absorption of phenolic acids in the small intestine. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(3):259-267, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
occurring" sugars 48% Refined and processed sugars 10% Total Fat Saturated fat 10% Poly-unsaturated fat 10% Mono-unsaturated fat 10% 30% Protein 12% 300% i 3...2120 Coffee, Black 2125 Coffee, Decaffeinated 2150 Coleslaw, French or CKD Salad Dressing 2540 Cream Puffs/Eclairs with Custard Filling 2715 Doughnut
Conney, Allan H.; Zhou, Sherry; Lee Maojung
Oral administration of green tea or a caffeine solution, but not decaffeinated green tea, inhibits UVB-induced complete carcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice. Oral administration of green tea, coffee or a caffeine solution for 2 weeks enhanced UVB-induced increases in apoptosis in the epidermis, but these treatments had no effect in non-UVB treated normal epidermis. Our results suggest that administration of green tea, coffee and caffeine may inhibit UVB-induced carcinogenesis - at least in part - by enhancing UVB-induced apoptosis. Plasma levels of caffeine observed after its oral administration at cancer-preventive dose levels were within the range observed in moderate coffee drinkers.more » Topical applications of caffeine to mice previously treated with UVB for 20 weeks (high risk mice without tumors) inhibited the formation of tumors and stimulated apoptosis in the tumors but not in areas of the epidermis away from tumors. The selective effects of caffeine administration to stimulate UVB-induced apoptosis or apoptosis in tumors but not in normal epidermis or in areas of the epidermis away from tumors is of considerable interest, but the reasons for the selective effects of caffeine on apoptosis in DNA damaged tissues are unknown. Further studies are needed to determine mechanisms of these effects of caffeine and to determine the effects of caffeine administration on sunlight-induced actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinomas in humans.« less
Caini, Saverio; Cattaruzza, Maria Sofia; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Tosti, Giulio; Masala, Giovanna; Gnagnarella, Patrizia; Assedi, Melania; Stanganelli, Ignazio; Palli, Domenico; Gandini, Sara
Laboratory studies suggested that caffeine and other nutrients contained in coffee and tea may protect against non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). However, epidemiological studies conducted so far have produced conflicting results. We performed a literature review and meta-analysis of observational studies published until February 2016 that investigated the association between coffee and tea intake and NMSC risk. We calculated summary relative risk (SRR) and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) by using random effects with maximum likelihood estimation. Overall, 37,627 NMSC cases from 13 papers were available for analysis. Intake of caffeinated coffee was inversely associated with NMSC risk (SRR for those in the highest vs. lowest category of intake: 0.82, 95 % CI 0.75-0.89, I 2 = 48 %), as well as intake of caffeine (SRR 0.86, 95 % CI 0.80-0.91, I 2 = 48 %). In subgroup analysis, these associations were limited to the basal cell cancer (BCC) histotype. There was no association between intake of decaffeinated coffee (SRR 1.01, 95 % CI 0.85-1.21, I 2 = 0) and tea (0.88, 95 % CI 0.72-1.07, I 2 = 0 %) and NMSC risk. There was no evidence of publication bias affecting the results. The available evidence was not sufficient to draw conclusions on the association between green tea intake and NMSC risk. Coffee intake appears to exert a moderate protective effect against BCC development, probably through the biological effect of caffeine. However, the observational nature of studies included, subject to bias and confounding, suggests taking with caution these results that should be verified in randomized clinical trials.
Moeenfard, Marzieh; Erny, Guillaume L; Alves, Arminda
Several coffee brews, including classical and commercial beverages, were analyzed for their diterpene esters content (cafestol and kahweol linoleate, oleate, palmitate and stearate) by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) combined with spectral deconvolution. Due to the coelution of cafestol and kahweol esters at 225 nm, HPLC-DAD did not give accurate quantification of cafestol esters. Accordingly, spectral deconvolution was used to deconvolve the co-migrating profiles. Total cafestol and kahweol esters content of classical coffee brews ranged from 5-232 to 2-1016 mg/L, respectively. Commercial blends contained 1-54 mg/L of total cafestol esters and 2-403 mg/L of total kahweol esters. Boiled coffee had the highest diterpene esters content, while filtered and instant brews showed the lowest concentrations. However, individual diterpene esters content was not affected by brewing procedure as in terms of kahweol esters, kahweol palmitate was the main compound in all samples, followed by kahweol linoleate, oleate and stearate. Higher amounts of cafestol palmitate and stearate were also observed compared to cafestol linoleate and cafestol oleate. The ratio of diterpene esters esterified with unsaturated fatty acids to total diterpene esters was considered as measure of their unsaturation in analyzed samples which varied from 47 to 52%. Providing new information regarding the diterpene esters content and their distribution in coffee brews will allow a better use of coffee as a functional beverage.
Khalaf, Natalia; White, Donna; Kanwal, Fasiha; Ramsey, David; Mittal, Sahil; Tavakoli-Tabasi, Shahriar; Kuzniarek, Jill; El-Serag, Hashem B
Coffee or caffeine has been proposed to protect against hepatic fibrosis, but few data are available on their effects in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We conducted a cross-sectional study of veterans with chronic HCV infection to evaluate the association between daily intake of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee, tea, and soda, and level of hepatic fibrosis, based on the FibroSURE test (BioPredictive, Paris, France) (F0-F3, mild [controls] vs. F3/F4-F4, advanced). Models were adjusted for multiple potential confounders including age, alcohol abuse, and obesity. Among 910 patients with chronic HCV infection, 98% were male and 38% had advanced hepatic fibrosis. Daily intake of caffeinated coffee was higher among controls than patients with advanced fibrosis (1.37 vs. 1.05 cups/d; P = .038). In contrast, daily intake of caffeinated tea (0.61 vs. 0.56 cups/d; P = .651) or soda (1.14 vs. 0.95 cans/d; P = .106) did not differ between the groups. A higher percentage of controls (66.0%) than patients with advanced fibrosis (57.9%) consumed 100 mg or more of caffeine daily from all sources (P = .014); controls also received a larger proportion of their caffeine from coffee (50.2% vs. 43.0%; P = .035). Hepatoprotective effects of an average daily intake of 100 mg or more of caffeine (adjusted odds ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.53-0.95; P = .020) and 1 cup or more of caffeinated tea by non-coffee drinkers (adjusted odds ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.34-0.94; P = .028) persisted after adjustment for confounders, including insulin resistance. A modest daily caffeine intake (as little as 100 mg) may protect against advanced hepatic fibrosis in men with chronic HCV infection. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings in women and in people with other chronic liver diseases. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Martinez-Saez, Nuria; García, Alba Tamargo; Pérez, Inés Domínguez; Rebollo-Hernanz, Miguel; Mesías, Marta; Morales, Francisco J; Martín-Cabrejas, María A; Del Castillo, Maria Dolores
The present research aimed to evaluate the use of spent coffee grounds (SCG) from instant coffee as a food ingredient and its application in bakery products. Data on physicochemical characterization, thermal stability and food safety of SCG were acquired. Evaluation of feasibility as dietary fibre was also determined. Results showed SCG are natural source of antioxidant insoluble fibre, essential amino acids, low glycaemic sugars, resistant to thermal food processing and digestion process, and totally safe. In the present work, SCG were incorporated in biscuit formulations for the first time. Low-calorie sweeteners and oligofructose were also included in the food formulations. Nutritional quality, chemical (acrylamide, hydroxymethylfurfural and advanced glycation end products) and microbiological safety and sensory tests of the biscuits were carried out. Innovative biscuits were obtained according to consumers' preferences with high nutritional and sensorial quality and potential to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Renouf, Mathieu; Guy, Philippe; Marmet, Cynthia; Longet, Karin; Fraering, Anne-Lise; Moulin, Julie; Barron, Denis; Dionisi, Fabiola; Cavin, Christophe; Steiling, Heike; Williamson, Gary
Coffee and green tea are two of the most widely consumed hot beverages in the world. Their respective bioavailability has been studied separately, but absorption of their respective bioactive phenolics has not been compared. In a randomised cross-over design, nine healthy subjects drank instant coffee and green tea. Blood samples were collected over 12 h and at 24 h to assess return to baseline. After green tea consumption, (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) was the major catechin, appearing rapidly in the plasma; (-)-EGC gallate (EGCg) and (-)-epicatechin (EC) were also present, but (-)-EC gallate and C were not detected. Dihydroferulic acid and dihydrocaffeic acid were the major metabolites that appeared after coffee consumption with a long time needed to reach maximum plasma concentration, suggesting metabolism and absorption in the colon. Other phenolic acid equivalents (caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid (FA) and isoferulic acid (iFA)) were detected earlier, and they peaked at lower concentrations. Summations of the plasma area under the curves (AUC) for the measured metabolites showed 1.7-fold more coffee-derived phenolic acids than green tea-derived catechins (P = 0.0014). Furthermore, we found a significant correlation between coffee metabolites based on AUC. Inter-individual differences were observed, but individuals with a high level of CA also showed a correspondingly high level of FA. However, no such correlation was observed between the tea catechins and coffee phenolic acids. Correlation between AUC and maximum plasma concentration was also significant for CA, FA and iFA and for EGCg. This implies that the mechanisms of absorption for these two classes of compounds are different, and that a high absorber of phenolic acids is not necessarily a high absorber of catechins.
... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Solvents... with current good manufacturing practice as a solvent in the decaffeination of coffee and tea. [47 FR...
Piric, Mirela; Pasic, Fuad; Rifatbegovic, Zijah; Konjic, Ferid
Aim: Resection surgery on the colon and rectum are changing both anatomical and physiological relations within the abdominal cavity. Delayed functions of the gastrointestinal tract, flatulence, failure of peristalsis, prolonged spasms and pain, limited postoperative recovery of these patients increase the overall cost of treatment. Early consumption of coffee instead of tea should lead to faster restoration of normal function of the colon without unwanted negative repercussions. Method: This study is designed as a prospective-retrospective clinical study and was carried out at the Surgery Center Tuzla, during the year 2013/ 2014. Sixty patients were randomized in relation to the type of resection surgery, etiology of disease-malignant benign, and in relation to whether they were coffee users or not. Patients were divided into two groups. The first group of thirty patients was given 100 ml of instant coffee divided into three portions right after removing the nasogastric tube, first postoperative day, while the second group of thirty patients got 100 ml of tea. Monitored parameter was: time of first stool and the second group of monitored parameters was: whether there was returning of nasogastric tube or not, increased use of laxatives, whether there was anastomotic leak, radiologic and clinical dehiscence, audit procedures, or lethal outcomes in the treatment of patients. Results: A total of 61 patients were randomized into two groups of 30 int he group of tea and coffee 29 in the group, two patients were excluded from the study because they did not consume coffee before surgery. Time of getting stool in the postoperative period after elective resection surgery on the colon and rectum is significantly shorter after drinking coffee for about 15h (p <0.01). Also, the length of hospital stay was significantly shorter after drinking coffee (p <0.01). Time of hospitalization in subjects/respondents coffee consumers on average lasted 8.6 days with consumers of tea for 16
Piric, Mirela; Pasic, Fuad; Rifatbegovic, Zijah; Konjic, Ferid
Resection surgery on the colon and rectum are changing both anatomical and physiological relations within the abdominal cavity. Delayed functions of the gastrointestinal tract, flatulence, failure of peristalsis, prolonged spasms and pain, limited postoperative recovery of these patients increase the overall cost of treatment. Early consumption of coffee instead of tea should lead to faster restoration of normal function of the colon without unwanted negative repercussions. This study is designed as a prospective-retrospective clinical study and was carried out at the Surgery Center Tuzla, during the year 2013/ 2014. Sixty patients were randomized in relation to the type of resection surgery, etiology of disease-malignant benign, and in relation to whether they were coffee users or not. Patients were divided into two groups. The first group of thirty patients was given 100 ml of instant coffee divided into three portions right after removing the nasogastric tube, first postoperative day, while the second group of thirty patients got 100 ml of tea. Monitored parameter was: time of first stool and the second group of monitored parameters was: whether there was returning of nasogastric tube or not, increased use of laxatives, whether there was anastomotic leak, radiologic and clinical dehiscence, audit procedures, or lethal outcomes in the treatment of patients. A total of 61 patients were randomized into two groups of 30 int he group of tea and coffee 29 in the group, two patients were excluded from the study because they did not consume coffee before surgery. Time of getting stool in the postoperative period after elective resection surgery on the colon and rectum is significantly shorter after drinking coffee for about 15h (p <0.01). Also, the length of hospital stay was significantly shorter after drinking coffee (p <0.01). Time of hospitalization in subjects/respondents coffee consumers on average lasted 8.6 days with consumers of tea for 16 days. The incidence
Pasquale, Louis R; Wiggs, Janey L; Willett, Walter C; Kang, Jae H
We examined the association between caffeine and caffeinated beverage consumption in relation to the risk of exfoliation glaucoma or exfoliation glaucoma suspect (EG/EGS). We followed 78,977 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and 41,202 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) who were at least 40 years of age, did not have glaucoma, and reported undergoing eye examinations from 1980 (NHS) or 1986 (HPFS) to 2008. Information on consumption of caffeine-containing beverages and potential confounders were repeatedly ascertained in validated follow-up questionnaires. Confirmation with medical record review revealed 360 incident EG/EGS cases. Multivariate rate ratios (RRs) for EG/EGS were calculated in each cohort and then pooled using meta-analytic techniques. Compared with participants whose cumulatively updated total caffeine consumption was <125 mg/day, participants who consumed ≥ 500 mg/day had a trend toward increased risk of EG/EGS that was not statistically significant (RR = 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98-2.08); P trend = 0.06). Compared to abstainers, those who drank ≥ 3 cups of caffeinated coffee daily were at increased risk of EG/EGS (RR = 1.66; 95% CI, 1.09-2.54; P trend = 0.02). These results were not materially altered after adjustment for total fluid intake. Associations were stronger among women with a family history of glaucoma (P interaction = 0.06 for coffee; P interaction = 0.03 for caffeine). We did not find associations with consumption of other caffeinated products (caffeinated soda, caffeinated tea, decaffeinated coffee or chocolate) and risk of EG/EGS (P trend ≥ 0.31). We observed a positive association between heavier coffee consumption with risk of EG/EGS in this large prospective study.
Pasquale, Louis R.; Wiggs, Janey L.; Willett, Walter C.; Kang, Jae H.
Purpose. We examined the association between caffeine and caffeinated beverage consumption in relation to the risk of exfoliation glaucoma or exfoliation glaucoma suspect (EG/EGS). Methods. We followed 78,977 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and 41,202 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) who were at least 40 years of age, did not have glaucoma, and reported undergoing eye examinations from 1980 (NHS) or 1986 (HPFS) to 2008. Information on consumption of caffeine-containing beverages and potential confounders were repeatedly ascertained in validated follow-up questionnaires. Confirmation with medical record review revealed 360 incident EG/EGS cases. Multivariate rate ratios (RRs) for EG/EGS were calculated in each cohort and then pooled using meta-analytic techniques. Results. Compared with participants whose cumulatively updated total caffeine consumption was <125 mg/day, participants who consumed ≥500 mg/day had a trend toward increased risk of EG/EGS that was not statistically significant (RR = 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98–2.08); P trend = 0.06). Compared to abstainers, those who drank ≥3 cups of caffeinated coffee daily were at increased risk of EG/EGS (RR = 1.66; 95% CI, 1.09–2.54; P trend = 0.02). These results were not materially altered after adjustment for total fluid intake. Associations were stronger among women with a family history of glaucoma (P interaction = 0.06 for coffee; P interaction = 0.03 for caffeine). We did not find associations with consumption of other caffeinated products (caffeinated soda, caffeinated tea, decaffeinated coffee or chocolate) and risk of EG/EGS (P trend ≥0.31). Conclusions. We observed a positive association between heavier coffee consumption with risk of EG/EGS in this large prospective study. PMID:22918628
SCW is almost gas-like (more than 20 times below room- temperature viscosity), which creates an increase in the diffusion coefficients such that the...pounds per year of green coffee . Additionally, dry CO 2 is routinely used to extract the I aroma and flavor oils from roasted coffee beans. The bitter...refrigeration and processes such as U the decaffeination of coffee beans . Also, during the cleaning of the residues from metal parts, the evaporation of post
Liu, Hongcheng; Shao, Jinliang; Li, Qiwan; Li, Yangang; Yan, Hong Mei; He, Lizhong
A simple, rapid method was developed for simultaneous extraction of trigonelline, nicotinic acid, and caffeine from coffee, and separation by two chromatographic columns in series. The trigonelline, nicotinic acid, and caffeine were extracted with microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The optimal conditions selected were 3 min, 200 psi, and 120 degrees C. The chromatographic separation was performed with two columns in series, polyaromatic hydrocarbon C18 (250 x 4.6 mm id, 5 microm particle size) and Bondapak NH2 (300 x 3.9 mm id, 5 microm particle size). Isocratic elution was with 0.02 M phosphoric acid-methanol (70 + 30, v/v) mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. Good recoveries and RSD values were found for all analytes in the matrix. The LOD of the three compounds was 0.02 mg/L, and the LOQ was 0.005% in the matrix. The concentrations of trigonelline, nicotinic acid, and caffeine in instant coffee, roasted coffee, and raw coffee (Yunnan Arabica coffee) were assessed by MAE and hot water extraction; the correlation coefficients between concentrations of the three compounds obtained were close to 1.
Avelino, Jacques; Romero-Gurdián, Alí; Cruz-Cuellar, Héctor F; Declerck, Fabrice A J
Crop pest and disease incidences at plot scale vary as a result of landscape effects. Two main effects can be distinguished. First, landscape context provides habitats of variable quality for pests, pathogens, and beneficial and vector organisms. Second, the movements of these organisms are dependent on the connectivity status of the landscape. Most of the studies focus on indirect effects of landscape context on pest abundance through their predators and parasitoids, and only a few on direct effects on pests and pathogens. Here we studied three coffee pests and pathogens, with limited or no pressure from host-specific natural enemies, and with widely varying life histories, to test their relationships with landscape context: a fungus, Hemileia vastatrix, causal agent of coffee leaf rust; an insect, the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae); and root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp. Their incidence was assessed in 29 coffee plots from Turrialba, Costa Rica. In addition, we characterized the landscape context around these coffee plots in 12 nested circular sectors ranging from 50 to 1500 m in radius. We then performed correlation analysis between proportions of different land uses at different scales and coffee pest and disease incidences. We obtained significant positive correlations, peaking at the 150 m radius, between coffee berry borer abundance and proportion of coffee in the landscape. We also found significant positive correlations between coffee leaf rust incidence and proportion of pasture, peaking at the 200 m radius. Even after accounting for plot level predictors of coffee leaf rust and coffee berry borer through covariance analysis, the significance of landscape structure was maintained. We hypothesized that connected coffee plots favored coffee berry borer movements and improved its survival. We also hypothesized that wind turbulence, produced by low-wind-resistance land uses such as pasture, favored removal of coffee
... These include both regular and decaffeinated coffee, tea, chocolate, meat extracts, alcohol, black pepper, chili powder, mustard ... Disease, peptic ulcers, proton pump inhibitor, sucralfate, triple therapy January 1, 1996 Copyright © American Academy of Family ...
Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan
Modulation of coffee aroma via the biotransformation/fermentation of different coffee matrices during post-harvest remains sparingly explored despite some studies showing their positive impacts on coffee aroma. Therefore, this is an unprecedented study aimed at modulating coffee aroma via the fermentation of green coffee beans with a food-grade fungus Rhizopus oligosporus. The objective of part I of this two-part study was to characterize the volatile and non-volatile profiles of green coffee beans after fermentation. Proteolysis during fermentation resulted in 1.5-fold increase in the concentrations of proline and aspartic acid which exhibited high Maillard reactivity. Extensive degradation of ferulic and caffeic acids led to 2-fold increase in the total concentrations of volatile phenolic derivatives. 36% of the total volatiles detected in fermented green coffee beans were generated during fermentation. Hence, the work presented demonstrated that R. oligosporus fermentation of green coffee beans could induce modification of the aroma precursors of green coffees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cornelis, Marilyn C
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. Its widespread popularity and availability has fostered public health concerns of the potential health consequences of regular coffee consumption. Epidemiological studies of coffee intake and certain health outcomes have been inconsistent. The precise component of coffee potentially contributing to development of these conditions also remains unclear. One step toward addressing the challenges in studying the impact coffee has on health is a better understanding of the factors contributing to its consumption and physiological effects. This chapter focuses on those factors that are genetically determined and briefly summarizes progress in applying this knowledge to epidemiological studies of coffee and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gant, Anastasia; Leyva, Vanessa E; Gonzalez, Ana E; Maruenda, Helena
Nicotinic acid, N-methylpyridinium ion, and trigonelline are well studied nutritional biomarkers present in coffee, and they are indicators of thermal decomposition during roasting. However, no method is yet available for their simultaneous determination. This paper describes a rapid and validated HPLC-diode array detector method for the simultaneous quantitation of caffeine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid, N-methylpyridinium ion, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural that is applicable to three coffee matrixes: green, roasted, and instant. Baseline separation among all compounds was achieved in 30 min using a phenyl-hexyl RP column (250×4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size), 0.3% aqueous formic buffer (pH 2.4)-methanol mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 mL/min, and a column temperature at 30°C. The method showed good linear correlation (r2>0.9985), precision (less than 3.9%), sensitivity (LOD=0.023-0.237 μg/mL; LOQ=0.069-0.711 μg/mL), and recovery (84-102%) for all compounds. This simplified method is amenable for a more complete routine evaluation of coffee in industry.
... of coffee beans reduces amounts of the chemical chlorogenic acid. Therefore, green coffee beans have a higher level of chlorogenic acid compared to regular, roasted coffee beans. Chlorogenic acid ...
In this study, an electroanalytical methodology for the determination of chlorogenic acid (CGA) was achieved at a boron-doped diamond electrode under adsorptive transfer stripping voltammetric conditions. The values obtained for CGA were used to estimate the antioxidant properties of the coffee sample based on CGA oxidation. By using square-wave stripping mode, the compound yielded a well-defined voltammetric response at +0.49 V with respect to Ag/AgCl in Britton-Robinson buffer at pH 3.0 (after 120 s accumulations at a fixed potential of 0.40 V). At the optimum experimental conditions, linear calibration curve is obtained within the concentration range of 0.25 to 4.0 μg mL⁻¹ with the limit of detection 0.049 μg mL⁻¹ . The developed protocol was successfully applied for the analysis of antioxidant capacity in the coffee products such as Turkish coffee and instant coffee. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®
Liu, Zhen-Shu; Chen, Po-Wen; Wang, Jung-Yu; Kuo, Tai-Chen
Coffee is a popular beverage worldwide, but coffee beans can be contaminated with carcinogens. The Ames Salmonella mutagenicity test is often used for analysis of carcinogens for mutagenicity. However, previous studies have provided controversial data about the direct mutagenicity of coffee beans based on Ames test results. This study was conducted to determine the mutagenicity of popular Americano coffee based on results from the Ames test. Coffee samples without additives that were served by five international coffee chain restaurants were subjected to the analysis using Salmonella Typhimurium tester strains TA98, TA100, and TA1535. The levels of bacterial revertants in samples from coffee chains were lower than the twofold criterion of the control sets, and no significant dose-response effect was observed with or without rat liver enzyme activation. These data indicate that Americano coffees from the selected coffee chains possessed no direct mutagenic activity with or without enzyme activation. These findings suggest a low mutagenic risk from Americano coffees served by the selected coffee chains and support the use of other methods to confirm the nonmutagenicity of coffee products. These results are consistent with most recent epidemiological reports.
Stalmach, Angélique; Steiling, Heike; Williamson, Gary; Crozier, Alan
The intestinal absorption and metabolism of 385 micromol chlorogenic acids following a single intake of 200 mL of instant coffee by human volunteers with an ileostomy was investigated. HPLC-MS(3) analysis of 0-24h post-ingestion ileal effluent revealed the presence of 274+/-28 micromol of chlorogenic acids and their metabolites accounting for 71+/-7% of intake. Of the compounds recovered, 78% comprised parent compounds initially present in the coffee, and 22% were metabolites including free and sulfated caffeic and ferulic acids. Over a 24h period after ingestion of the coffee, excretion of chlorogenic acid metabolites in urine accounted for 8+/-1% of intake, the main compounds being ferulic acid-4-O-sulfate, caffeic acid-3-O-sulfate, isoferulic acid-3-O-glucuronide and dihydrocaffeic acid-3-O-sulfate. In contrast, after drinking a similar coffee, urinary excretion by humans with an intact colon corresponded to 29+/-4% of chlorogenic acid intake. This difference was due to the excretion of higher levels of dihydroferulic acid and feruloylglycine together with sulfate and glucuronide conjugates of dihydrocaffeic and dihydroferulic acids. This highlights the importance of colonic metabolism. Comparison of the data obtained in the current study with that of Stalmach et al. facilitated elucidation of the pathways involved in post-ingestion metabolism of chlorogenic acids and also helped distinguish between compounds absorbed in the small and the large intestine. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
processed for A2A receptor immunohistochemsitry (B) with a HRP-coupled secondary antibody yielding a (brown) DAB reaction product more but specifically...the striatum of ‘floxed’ A2A gene mice treated 6-8 weeks later with saline or MPTP. The processing and analyses of their brain tissues is currently...coffee (but not decaffeinated coffee). The mechanisms that underlie this epidemiological correla- tion remain unclear. One hypothesis that caffeine
Cola number of cups, __ Chocolate, cocoa, wine, beer/alcohol, decaffeinated coffee. Breads containing raisins, prunes, orange peel , banana , or...pudding, mince pie. Banana , avocado, pineapple, canned figs, raisins, plums and prunes. Oranges, orange juice, fru~ cocktail with pineapple. Tomato
knowledge to problems, processing spatial and verbal information, performing mathematical calculations, and making decisions (16). We also measured... decaffeinated coffee were also available. Subjects refrained from alcohol consumption at least twenty four hours before each test day. The evening
Waters, Deborah M; Arendt, Elke K; Moroni, Alice V
Quality of coffee is a complex trait and is influenced by physical and sensory parameters. A complex succession of transformations during the processing of seeds to roasted coffee will inevitably influence the in-cup attributes of coffee. Germination and fermentation of the beans are two bioprocesses that take place during post-harvest treatment, and may lead to significant modifications of coffee attributes. The aim of this review is to address the current knowledge of dynamics of these two processes and their significance for bean modifications and coffee quality. The first part of this review gives an overview of coffee germination and its influence on coffee chemistry and quality. The germination process initiates while these non-orthodox seeds are still inside the cherry. This process is asynchronous and the evolution of germination depends on how the beans are processed. A range of metabolic reactions takes place during germination and can influence the carbohydrate, protein, and lipid composition of the beans. The second part of this review focuses on the microbiota associated with the beans during post-harvesting, exploring its effects on coffee quality and safety. The microbiota associated with the coffee cherries and beans comprise several bacterial, yeast, and fungal species and affects the processing from cherries to coffee beans. Indigenous bacteria and yeasts play a role in the degradation of pulp/mucilage, and their metabolism can affect the sensory attributes of coffee. On the other hand, the fungal population occurring during post-harvest and storage negatively affects coffee quality, especially regarding spoilage, off-tastes, and mycotoxin production.
Amir, I. T.; Indah, P. N.; Widayanti, S.
The purpose of the study is a) to analyze the condition of internal environment industry spices coffee, b) to analyze the condition of the external environment industry spices coffee, and c) to determine the technological innovation strategy spices coffee in order to improve the competitiveness of the coffee people. Most of the coffee grown in Tutur district is cultivated by smallholder farms, resulting in low quality. The strategy of coffee spice agro-industry aims to increase the added value of the products so that farmers obtain higher coffee prices. Activities include the provision of raw materials, processing, supply of final products, and marketing.The results showed that the internal environmental conditions that have the highest value is the strengthen factors. The highest score of strengthen factors is the availability of coffee, availability of labor and communications group. The highest score of opportunity factors is technological assistance from the government and other government support for the development of people’s coffee industry and high market potential. The development of agrotourism should improve as well as expand the network to seize market. The strategy should be applied in the development of spices coffee industry is to support aggressive growth (Growth-oriented strategy).
Dubrow, Robert; Darefsky, Amy S; Freedman, Neal D; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Sinha, Rashmi
We utilized the large, prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study to further explore the hypothesis, suggested by two recent prospective cohort studies, that increased intake of coffee, tea, soda, and/or caffeine is associated with reduced adult glioma risk. At baseline in 1995-1996, dietary intake, including coffee, tea, and soda, was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for glioma risk in relation to beverage intake. During follow-up of 545,771 participants through 2006, 904 participants were diagnosed with glioma. We found no trends of decreasing glioma risk with increasing intake of specific beverages or total caffeine. HR patterns for consumption of the caffeinated versus decaffeinated form of each beverage were inconsistent with a specific caffeine effect. HR patterns of reduced glioma risk for most categories of beverage intake greater than "none" prompted a post hoc analysis that revealed borderline-significant inverse associations for any versus no intake of tea (HR = 0.84; 95 % CI, 0.69-1.03), total coffee plus tea (HR = 0.70; 95 % CI, 0.48-1.03), and soda (HR = 0.82; 95 % CI, 0.67-1.01). The borderline-significant inverse associations could be explained by a threshold effect in which any beverage intake above a low level confers a beneficial effect, most likely due to beverage constituents other than caffeine. They could also be explained by non-drinkers of these beverages sharing unknown extraneous characteristics associated with increased glioma risk, or by chance.
Dubrow, Robert; Darefsky, Amy S.; Freedman, Neal D.; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Sinha, Rashmi
Purpose We utilized the large, prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study to further explore the hypothesis, suggested by two recent prospective cohort studies, that increased intake of coffee, tea, soda, and/or caffeine is associated with reduced adult glioma risk. Methods At baseline in 1995–1996, dietary intake, including coffee, tea, and soda, was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95 percent confidence intervals (CI) for glioma risk in relation to beverage intake. Results During follow-up of 545,771 participants through 2006, 904 participants were diagnosed with glioma. We found no trends of decreasing glioma risk with increasing intake of specific beverages or total caffeine. HR patterns for consumption of the caffeinated versus decaffeinated form of each beverage were inconsistent with a specific caffeine effect. HR patterns of reduced glioma risk for most categories of beverage intake greater than “none” prompted a post hoc analysis that revealed borderline-significant inverse associations for any versus no intake of tea (HR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.69–1.03), total coffee plus tea (HR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.48–1.03), and soda (HR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.67–1.01). Conclusions The borderline-significant inverse associations could be explained by a threshold effect in which any beverage intake above a low level confers a beneficial effect, most likely due to beverage constituents other than caffeine. They also could be explained by non-drinkers of these beverages sharing unknown extraneous characteristics associated with increased glioma risk, or by chance. PMID:22457000
Ko, Bong Soo; Ahn, So Hyun; Noh, Dong Ouk; Hong, Ki-Bae; Han, Sung Hee; Suh, Hyung Joo
We hypothesized that the administration of explosion-puffed coffee, containing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), would be associated with a reduction of the caffeine effect on sleep behavior and behavioral patterns, which was investigated in a Drosophila model. The effects of feeding roasted coffee beans (RB), explosion-puffed coffee beans puffed at 0.75MPa and 0.9MPa (PB 7.5 and PB 9.0, respectively), or decaffeinated coffee beans (DeRB) on locomotor activity and behavioral patterns of Drosophila was analyzed. In the decreasing order, the total chlorogenic acid (caffeoylquinic acids, CQA) content was PB 7.5>PB 9.0>RB. PB content analysis showed high levels of GABA and 5-HTP, compared with that of RB, which corresponded with the sleep-wake behavior of Drosophila. The RB and PB (PB 7.5 and PB 9.0) groups were not significantly different with respect to an activity count during the subjective night and day period compared with the normal controls. Sleep bout numbers of the normal, PB, and DeRB groups showed significant differences as compared with the caffeine and RB groups (p<0.05). The PB and DePB groups showed a significantly increased transcript levels for the GABA receptors compared to the caffeine group. The caffeine and RB groups displayed better climbing ability than the other groups, covering an average distance 6cm in the related test; the average distance covered by the normal, PB 7.5, and DeRB groups was <4cm. The normal and DeRB groups showed similar behavior patterns with respect to total distance, velocity, moving, not moving, and meander. However, the PB 7.5 group significantly regulated not moving and meander of flies compared to flies receiving only caffeine and RB. Suppression of the stimulating effect of caffeine by explosion-puffed coffee administration was indicated in the above results, which can be attributed to the increased content of GABA and 5-HTP with explosive puffing process carried out at 0.75MPa. Results of
Park, Juyeon; Lee, Jung-Sug; Jang, Young Ai; Chung, Hae Rang
Instant noodles are widely consumed in Asian countries. The Korean population consumed the largest quantity of instant noodles in the world in 2008. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between instant noodles and nutritional status in Koreans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between instant noodle consumption and food and nutrient intake in Korean adults. We used dietary data of 6,440 subjects aged 20 years and older who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The average age of the instant noodle consumers (INC) was 36.2 and that of the non-instant noodle consumers (non-INC) was 44.9; men consumed more instant noodles than women (P < 0.001). With the exception of cereals and grain products, legumes, seaweeds, eggs, and milk and dairy products, INC consumed significantly fewer potatoes and starches, sugars, seeds and nuts, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, seasonings, beverages, meats, fishes, and oils and fats compared with those in the non-INC group. The INC group showed significantly higher nutrient intake of energy, fat, sodium, thiamine, and riboflavin; however, the INC group showed a significantly lower intake of protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, and vitamin C compared with those in the non-INC group. This study revealed that consuming instant noodles may lead to excessive intake of energy, fats, and sodium but may also cause increased intake of thiamine and riboflavin. Therefore, nutritional education helping adults to choose a balanced meal while consuming instant noodles should be implemented. Additionally, instant noodle manufacturers should consider nutritional aspects when developing new products. PMID:22125682
Park, Juyeon; Lee, Jung-Sug; Jang, Young Ai; Chung, Hae Rang; Kim, Jeongseon
Instant noodles are widely consumed in Asian countries. The Korean population consumed the largest quantity of instant noodles in the world in 2008. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between instant noodles and nutritional status in Koreans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between instant noodle consumption and food and nutrient intake in Korean adults. We used dietary data of 6,440 subjects aged 20 years and older who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. The average age of the instant noodle consumers (INC) was 36.2 and that of the non-instant noodle consumers (non-INC) was 44.9; men consumed more instant noodles than women (P < 0.001). With the exception of cereals and grain products, legumes, seaweeds, eggs, and milk and dairy products, INC consumed significantly fewer potatoes and starches, sugars, seeds and nuts, vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, seasonings, beverages, meats, fishes, and oils and fats compared with those in the non-INC group. The INC group showed significantly higher nutrient intake of energy, fat, sodium, thiamine, and riboflavin; however, the INC group showed a significantly lower intake of protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, vitamin A, niacin, and vitamin C compared with those in the non-INC group. This study revealed that consuming instant noodles may lead to excessive intake of energy, fats, and sodium but may also cause increased intake of thiamine and riboflavin. Therefore, nutritional education helping adults to choose a balanced meal while consuming instant noodles should be implemented. Additionally, instant noodle manufacturers should consider nutritional aspects when developing new products.
Coffee connoisseurs, when they quaff a cup of coffee or enjoy a jug of joe, don't generally consider the costs to the environment of their favorite beverage. But the fact is that traditional coffee production is hard on the environment, exacting a toll on the native forests and waterways of Central America and on the migratory birds of the western hemisphere. Coffee growing is the second greatest cause of rainforest destruction after cattle ranching, because a lot of trees are cut down to dry the freshly-picked coffee crop. But espresso-sipping environmentalists and an eco-conscious Joe Public can take comfort inmore » a promising new connection between solar energy and rainforest-friendly coffee--solar-dried coffee. And they can take pleasure in it too, because solar-dried coffee, according to virtually everyone who tries it, is the best-tasting coffee made. Considering that coffee is the second most-traded commodity next to oil, and the second most popular beverage in the world next to water, consumed by billions of people, any new process that reduces the environmental damage occasioned by coffee-growing and processing is significant.« less
number of cups ______________ _ Chocolate, cocoa, wine, beer/alcohol, decaffeinated coffee. Breads containing raisins, prunes, orange peel , banana or...pudding,. mince pie ••••• ) Banana , avocado, pineapple, canned figs, raisins, plums and prune •• Orange., orange juice, fruit cocktail with pineapple
Marques, Alexandre C; Jesus, Alison A; Giglio, Bruna M; Marini, Ana C; Lobo, Patrícia C B; Mota, João F; Pimentel, Gustavo D
Studies evaluating caffeinated coffee (CAF) can reveal ergogenic effects; however, studies on the effects of caffeinated coffee on running are scarce and controversial. To investigate the effects of CAF consumption compared to decaffeinated coffee (DEC) consumption on time trial performances in an 800-m run in overnight-fasting runners. A randomly counterbalanced, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 12 healthy adult males with experience in amateur endurance running. Participants conducted two trials on two different occasions, one day with either CAF or DEC, with a one-week washout. After arriving at the data collection site, participants consumed the soluble CAF (5.5 mg/kg of caffeine) or DEC and after 60 min the run was started. Before and after the 800-m race, blood pressure and lactate and glucose concentrations were measured. At the end of the run, the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) scale was applied. The runners were light consumers of habitual caffeine, with an average ingestion of 91.3 mg (range 6⁻420 mg/day). Time trial performances did not change between trials (DEF: 2.38 + 0.10 vs. CAF: 2.39 + 0.09 min, p = 0.336), nor did the RPE (DEC: 16.5 + 2.68 vs. CAF: 17.0 + 2.66, p = 0.326). No difference between the trials was observed for glucose and lactate concentrations, or for systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels. CAF consumption failed to enhance the time trial performance of an 800-m run in overnight-fasting runners, when compared with DEC ingestion. In addition, no change was found in RPE, blood pressure levels, or blood glucose and lactate concentrations between the two trials.
Muhi, Daniel; Dulai, Tibor; Jaskó, Szilárd
SIP is a general-purpose application layer protocol which is able to establish sessions between two or more parties. These sessions are mainly telephone calls and multimedia conferences. However it can be used for other purposes like instant messaging and presence service. SIP has a very important role in mobile communication as more and more communicating applications are going mobile. In this paper we would like to show how SIP can be used for instant messaging purposes.
estimating caffeine intake, but in interpretating results aq well, since coffee, including decaffeinated , has been found to contain another...relianice onl processed foods. While th ’afe nd adequate’ amount ol dietary sodium recommnended by; the National Resedrck Council is 1100t(-330t() Rig
Caffeine is a methylxanthine whose primary biologic effect is antagonism of the adenosine receptor. Its presence in coffee, tea, soda beverages, chocolate, and many prescription and over-the-counter drugs makes it the most commonly consumed stimulant drug. Initially caffeine increases blood pressure, plasma catecholamine levels, plasma renin activity, serum free fatty acid levels, urine production, and gastric acid secretion. Its long-term effects have been more difficult to substantiate. Most of the caffeine consumed in the United States is in coffee, which contains many other chemicals that may have other biologic actions. The consumption of coffee is a self-reinforcing behavior, and caffeine dependence and addiction are common. Coffee and caffeine intake have been linked to many illnesses, but definitive correlations have been difficult to substantiate. Initial trials showing coffee's association with coronary disease and myocardial infarction have been difficult to reproduce and have many confounding variables. Recent studies showing a larger effect over long follow-up periods and with heavy coffee consumption have again brought the question of the role of coffee in disease states to the fore. Caffeine in average dosages does not seem to increase the risk of arrhythmia. At present there is no convincing evidence that caffeine or coffee consumption increases the risk for any solid tumor. The intake of coffee and caffeine has clearly been decreasing in this country over the past two decades, largely brought about by the increasing health consciousness of Americans. Although there have been many studies that hint that the fears of increased disease with coffee drinking may be warranted, many questions have yet to be answered about the health effects of coffee and caffeine use. Images PMID:1441496
Caffeine is a methylxanthine whose primary biologic effect is antagonism of the adenosine receptor. Its presence in coffee, tea, soda beverages, chocolate, and many prescription and over-the-counter drugs makes it the most commonly consumed stimulant drug. Initially caffeine increases blood pressure, plasma catecholamine levels, plasma renin activity, serum free fatty acid levels, urine production, and gastric acid secretion. Its long-term effects have been more difficult to substantiate. Most of the caffeine consumed in the United States is in coffee, which contains many other chemicals that may have other biologic actions. The consumption of coffee is a self-reinforcing behavior, and caffeine dependence and addiction are common. Coffee and caffeine intake have been linked to many illnesses, but definitive correlations have been difficult to substantiate. Initial trials showing coffee's association with coronary disease and myocardial infarction have been difficult to reproduce and have many confounding variables. Recent studies showing a larger effect over long follow-up periods and with heavy coffee consumption have again brought the question of the role of coffee in disease states to the fore. Caffeine in average dosages does not seem to increase the risk of arrhythmia. At present there is no convincing evidence that caffeine or coffee consumption increases the risk for any solid tumor. The intake of coffee and caffeine has clearly been decreasing in this country over the past two decades, largely brought about by the increasing health consciousness of Americans. Although there have been many studies that hint that the fears of increased disease with coffee drinking may be warranted, many questions have yet to be answered about the health effects of coffee and caffeine use.
Alharbi, Waheeb D M; Azmat, Aisha; Ahmed, Muhammad
The comparative effects of coffee robusta and coffee arabica (Qahwa) on different attention and memory related assignments were measured in a double-blind study of 300 healthy young adult women who were randomly assigned to one of three different drinks: Group I (coffee robusta sachet dissolved in 100 ml of hot water): Group II (coffee arabica): and group III (100 ml water only). Cognitive function was assessed by standardized tests. Several monitoring cognitive tests and tasks were specifically chosen and performed to investigate the comparative effects of coffee robusta (CR) and coffee arabica (Qahwa; AC) on sleepiness (sleep and clear headed scale), attention (trail A & B, symbol digit, letter cancellation), general cognitive ability (stroop test) and memory (card test). Data was interpreted by analysis of variance (ANOVA). The present study revealed that coffee robusta has beneficial effects on attention, general cognitive ability and memory. Higher though non-significant cognitive scores were associated with coffee robusta consumption. Although, consumption of coffee arabica (Qahwa) has significant effects (P < 0.05) on sleepiness, attention, general cognitive ability and memory and it significantly improve reaction time and correct responses. Since different tasks were related to the sustained attention and working memory processes, results would suggest that coffee arabica (qahwa) could increase the memory and efficiency of the attentional system might be due to the presence of chlorogenic acids (CGA) which are found in less quantity in coffee robusta. However, more studies using larger samples and different tasks are necessary to better understand the effects of coffee robusta and arabica (Qahwa) on attention and memory.
Wadhawan, Manav; Anand, Anil C
Coffee is the most popular beverage in the world. Consumption of coffee has been shown to benefit health in general, and liver health in particular. This article reviews the effects of coffee intake on development and progression of liver disease due to various causes. We also describe the putative mechanisms by which coffee exerts the protective effect. The clinical evidence of benefit of coffee consumption in Hepatitis B and C, as well as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease, has also been presented. Coffee consumption is associated with improvement in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and GGTP), especially in individuals with risk for liver disease. Coffee intake more than 2 cups per day in patients with preexisting liver disease has been shown to be associated with lower incidence of fibrosis and cirrhosis, lower hepatocellular carcinoma rates, as well as decreased mortality.
for a while • Other: Drinking caffeinated beverages • Switch beverages (e.g. from coffee to tea) • Drink decaffeinated beverages for a while...long-term perspective on changing. • Although some people stop smoking the first time they try, for others it is a slower process . • Quitting
fortification of instant coffee with ascorbic acid; of cocoa beverag.e powder and enriched sweet chocolate with vitamin A, ascorbic acid, thiamin and...and ice cream mix Staples such as flour, sugar, rice, macaroni, and shortening Instant puddings Salt, pepper, and other spices 14 MEAL, COMBAT...Turkey Loaf Fruit, Enriched Sweet Chocolate, Crackers, and Cheese Spread *All menus include instant coffee, dry, nondairy cream substitute
Szántová, Mária; Ďurkovičová, Zuzana
The mind about the coffee did change upon the recent studies and metaanalysis of the last years. Consensual protective effect of coffee on the progression of chronic liver diseases (NASH, viral hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, hepatocelullar carcinoma) was detected in experimental, clinical and large population studies together with decrease of mortality. Antioxidant, antifibrotic, insulinsensitizing and anticarcinogenic effect of coffee were detected. Modulation of genetic expression of key enzymes of fatty acid synthesis, modulation of mRNA included in autophagia, reduction of stress of endoplasmatic reticulum together with decrease of proinflammatory cytokines and decrease of fibrogenesis are main mechanisms. Chlorogenic acids, diterpens (cafestol, kahweol), caffein, polyfenols and melanoidins are key protective components of coffee. Inverse dose-dependent correlation of coffee consumption with liver diseases was found in clinical and population studies. Coffee is non-pharmacological tool of primary and secondary prevention of chronic liver diseases. Review of published data together with supposed mechanisms of hepatoprotection are given.Key words: coffee - hepatoprotective effect - metaanalysis.
Frizzarin, Rejane M; Maya, Fernando; Estela, José M; Cerdà, Víctor
A novel fully-automated magnetic stirring-assisted lab-in-syringe analytical procedure has been developed for the fast and efficient dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) of caffeine in coffee beverages. The procedure is based on the microextraction of caffeine with a minute amount of dichloromethane, isolating caffeine from the sample matrix with no further sample pretreatment. Selection of the relevant extraction parameters such as the dispersive solvent, proportion of aqueous/organic phase, pH and flow rates have been carefully evaluated. Caffeine quantification was linear from 2 to 75mgL(-1), with detection and quantification limits of 0.46mgL(-1) and 1.54mgL(-1), respectively. A coefficient of variation (n=8; 5mgL(-1)) of a 2.1% and a sampling rate of 16h(-1), were obtained. The procedure was satisfactorily applied to the determination of caffeine in brewed, instant and decaf coffee samples, being the results for the sample analysis validated using high-performance liquid chromatography. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Instant nonfat dry milk. 58.249 Section 58.249... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.249 Instant nonfat dry milk. (a) Only instant nonfat dry milk manufactured and packaged in accordance with the requirements of this part and with the applicable...
... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Instant nonfat dry milk. 58.249 Section 58.249... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.249 Instant nonfat dry milk. (a) Only instant nonfat dry milk manufactured and packaged in accordance with the requirements of this part and with the applicable...
... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Instant nonfat dry milk. 58.249 Section 58.249... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.249 Instant nonfat dry milk. (a) Only instant nonfat dry milk manufactured and packaged in accordance with the requirements of this part and with the applicable...
Neuwirthová, J; Gál, B; Smilek, P; Urbánková, P
Coffee consumption is associated with a reduced risk of several diseases including cancer. Its chemopreventive effect has been studied in vitro, in animal models, and more recently in humans. Several modes of action have been proposed, namely, inhibition of oxidative stress and damage, activation of metabolizing liver enzymes involved in carcinogen detoxification processes, and anti-inflammatory effects. The antioxidant activity of coffee relies partly on its chlorogenic acid content and is increased during the roasting process. Maximum antioxidant activity is observed for medium-roasted coffee. The roasting process leads to the formation of several components, e.g., melanoidins, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Coffee also contains two specific diterpenes, cafestol and kahweol, which have anticarcinogenic properties. Roasted coffee is a complex mixture of various chemicals. Previous studies have reported that the chemopreventive components present in coffee induce apoptosis, inhibit growth and metastasis of tumor cells, and elicit antiangiogenic effects. A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies showed that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of developing various malignant tumors. This review summarizes the molecular mechanisms and the experimental and epidemiological evidence supporting the chemopreventive effect of coffee.Key words: coffee - chemoprevention - antioxidative enzyme - detoxification enzyme - anti-inflammatory effect The authors declare they have no potential conflicts of interest concerning drugs, products, or services used in the study. The Editorial Board declares that the manuscript met the ICMJE recommendation for biomedical papers.Submitted: 11. 9. 2016Accepted: 24. 11. 2016.
Danhelova, Hana; Hradecky, Jaromir; Prinosilova, Sarka; Cajka, Tomas; Riddellova, Katerina; Vaclavik, Lukas; Hajslova, Jana
The development and use of a fast method employing a direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source coupled to high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) for the quantitative analysis of caffeine in various coffee samples has been demonstrated in this study. A simple sample extraction procedure employing hot water was followed by direct, high-throughput (<1 min per run) examination of the extracts spread on a glass rod under optimized conditions of ambient mass spectrometry, without any prior chromatographic separation. For quantification of caffeine using DART-TOFMS, an external calibration was used. Isotopically labeled caffeine was used to compensate for the variations of the ion intensities of caffeine signal. Recoveries of the DART-TOFMS method were 97% for instant coffee at the spiking levels of 20 and 60 mg/g, respectively, while for roasted ground coffee, the obtained values were 106% and 107% at the spiking levels of 10 and 30 mg/g, respectively. The repeatability of the whole analytical procedure (expressed as relative standard deviation, RSD, %) was <5% for all tested spiking levels and matrices. Since the linearity range of the method was relatively narrow (two orders of magnitude), an optimization of sample dilution prior the DART-TOFMS measurement to avoid saturation of the detector was needed.
Shumeta, Zekarias; D'Haese, Marijke
Most coffee in Ethiopia is produced by smallholder farmers who face a daily struggle to get sufficient income but also to feed their families. At the same time, many smallholder coffee producers are members of cooperatives. Yet, literature has paid little attention to the effect of cooperatives on combating food insecurity among cash crop producers including coffee farmers. The objective of the study was to investigate how coffee cooperative membership may affect food security among coffee farm households in Southwest Ethiopia. The study used cross-sectional household data on income, expenditure on food, staple food production (maize and teff), and utilization of improved inputs (fertilizer and improved seed) collected from 256 randomly selected farm households (132 cooperative members and 124 nonmembers) and applied an inverse probability weighting (IPW) estimation to assess the impact of cooperative membership on food security. The result revealed that cooperative membership has a positive and significant effect on staple food production (maize and teff) and facilitated technological transformation via increased utilization of fertilizer and improved seeds. Nonetheless, the effect on food expenditure and income could not be confirmed. Findings suggest a trade-off between coffee marketing and input supply functions of the cooperatives, impairing their true food security impact from the pooled income and production effect.
Mohrweis, Lawrence C.; Shinham, Kathe M.
This study illustrates an active learning approach using instant feedback cards in the first course in accounting. The objectives of this study are to (1) describe instant feedback cards and (2) show how this tool, when used in an active learning environment, can enhance learning. We examined whether students exposed to immediate feedback…
Yashin, Alexander; Yashin, Yakov; Wang, Jing Yuan; Nemzer, Boris
This review summarizes published information concerning the determination of antioxidant activity (AA) in coffee samples by various methods (ORAC, FRAP, TRAP, TEAC, etc.) in vitro and limited data of antiradical activity of coffee products in vitro and in vivo. Comparison is carried out of the AA of coffee Arabica and coffee Robusta roasted at different temperatures as well as by different roasting methods (microwave, convection, etc.). Data on the antiradical activity of coffee is provided. The antioxidant activity of coffee, tea, cocoa, and red wine is compared. At the end of this review, the total antioxidant content (TAC) of coffee samples from 21 coffee-producing countries as measured by an amperometric method is provided. The TAC of green and roasted coffee beans is also compared. PMID:26784461
Raeessi, Mohammad Ali; Raeessi, Neda; Panahi, Yunes; Gharaie, Homa; Davoudi, Seyyed Masoud; Saadat, Alireza; Karimi Zarchi, Ali Akbar; Raeessi, Fereshteh; Ahmadi, Seyyed Mostafa; Jalalian, Hamidreza
Oral mucositis is one of the common complications of cancer chemotherapy and about 40% of the patients who take chemotherapy protocols, experience this irritating problem. The purpose of this study was to draw comparison between the therapeutic effects of our treatment modalities (topical steroid, honey, honey plus coffee) in patients suffering from oral mucositis. This was a double blinded randomised clinical trial of a total of 75 eligible adult participants which they randomly fell into three treatment groups. For all the participants a syrup-like solution was prepared. Each 600 grams of the product consisted of "20 eight-mg Betamethasone solution ampoules" in the Steroid (S) group, "300 grams of honey plus 20 grams of instant coffee" in the Honey plus Coffee (HC) group, and "300 grams of honey" for the Honey (H) group. The participants were told to sip 10 ml of the prescribed product, and then swallow it every three hours for one week. Severity of lesions was clinically evaluated before the treatment and also one week after the initiation of the intervention. This study adhered to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and guidelines of Good Clinical Practice. This study showed that all three treatment regimens reduce the severity of lesions. The best reduction in severity was achieved in HC group. H group and S group took the second and third places. In other words, honey plus coffee regimen was the most effective modality for the treatment of oral mucositis. Oral mucositis can be successfully treated by a combination of honey and coffee as an alternative medicine in a short time. Further investigations are warranted in this field. Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials IRCT: 201104074737N3, (9 May 2011).
Gulia, Neelam; Dhaka, Vandana; Khatkar, B S
Noodles are one of the staple foods consumed in many Asian countries. Instant noodles have become internationally recognized food, and worldwide consumption is on the rise. The properties of instant noodles like taste, nutrition, convenience, safety, longer shelf-life, and reasonable price have made them popular. Quality factors important for instant noodles are color, flavor, and texture, cooking quality, rehydration rates during final preparation, and the presence or absence of rancid taste after extended storage. Microstructure of dough and noodles has been studied to understand the influence of ingredients and processing variables on the noodle quality by employing scanning electron microscopy. Applications of newer techniques like confocal laser scanning microscopy and epifluorescence light microscopy employed to understand the microstructure changes in dough and noodles have also been discussed. Sincere efforts of researchers are underway to improve the formulation, extend the shelf life, and promote universal fortification of instant noodles. Accordingly, many researchers are exploring the potential of noodle fortification as an effective public health intervention and improve its nutritional properties. This review focuses on the functionality of ingredients, unit operations involved, quality criteria for evaluation, recent trends in fortification, and current knowledge in relation to instant noodles.
Ilgaz, Saziye; Sat, Ihsan Gungor; Polat, Atilla
In this pilot-scale study supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO 2 ) extraction technique was used for decaffeination of black tea. Pressure (250, 375, 500 bar), extraction time (60, 180, 300 min), temperature (55, 62.5, 70 °C), CO 2 flow rate (1, 2, 3 L/min) and modifier quantity (0, 2.5, 5 mol%) were selected as extraction parameters. Three-level and five-factor response surface methodology experimental design with a Box-Behnken type was employed to generate 46 different processing conditions. 100% of caffeine from black tea was removed under two different extraction conditions; one of which was consist of 375 bar pressure, 62.5 °C temperature, 300 min extraction time, 2 L/min CO 2 flow rate and 5 mol% modifier concentration and the other was composed of same temperature, pressure and extraction time conditions with 3 L/min CO 2 flow rate and 2.5 mol% modifier concentration. Results showed that extraction time, pressure, CO 2 flow rate and modifier quantity had great impact on decaffeination yield.
Al-Samadani, Khalid H
To evaluate the effect of Arabic coffee, Turkish coffee and Nescafe on the color stability of four different composite resins after a period of aging time 1, 7 and 30 days. Twenty specimens from each type of tested composite resin material were prepared. Five specimens from each tested material (Z350 XT, Artist, GC and Z250) was evaluated after storage in Arabic coffee, Turkish coffee, Nescafe and distil water (control) at 37°C in a dark container for 1, 7 and 30 days. Color measurement was done using colorimeter based on the CIE L* a* b* color scale. Color differences ΔE*ab, Δb* and Δa* among specimens immersed in distil water and staining coffee beverages were evaluated overtime. Mean values were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey test with p < 0.05 as significance level. All tested composite resins showed increase color change after a period of 1, 7 and 30 days. The color change ΔE*ab , Δb* and Δa* exhibited by Arabic coffee, in Turkish coffee and Nescafe except Δa*. The highest total color difference ΔE*ab after 30 days was in group A Arabic coffee (ΔE > 1.5 perceivable) and not perceivable in group B Turkish coffee and group C Nescafe. For Δb* all materials discolored toward yellowness after 30 days except Arabic coffee group which shifted from yellowness toward blueness (Δb*> 1.5 perceivable). The effect of staining beverages on the resin composite materials increases with time of aging toward yellowness and not perceivable in all groups except with Arabic coffee which had highest effect after 30 days and the discoloration shifted from yellowness to blueness perceivable.
Tosri, Nisanuch; Rojanasthien, Noppamas; Srichairatanakool, Somdet; Sangdee, Chaichan
The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of caffeine after single administration of a coffee enema versus coffee consumed orally in healthy male subjects. The study design was an open-label, randomized two-phase crossover study. Eleven healthy subjects were randomly assigned either to receive 500 mL of coffee enema for 10 minutes or to consume 180 mL of ready-to-drink coffee beverage. After a washout period of at least 10 days, all the subjects were switched to receive the alternate coffee procedure. Blood samples were collected immediately before and at specific time points until 12 hours after coffee administration in each phase. The mean caffeine content in both the coffee solution prepared for the coffee enema and the ready-to-drink coffee beverage was not statistically different. The C max and AUC of caffeine obtained from the coffee enema were about 3.5 times significantly less than those of the coffee consumed orally, despite having slightly but statistically faster T max. The t 1/2 of caffeine obtained following both coffee procedures did not statistically differ. In summary, the relative bioavailability of caffeine obtained from the coffee enema was about 3.5 times significantly less than those of the coffee consumed orally. PMID:23533801
Tian, Tian; Freeman, Samara; Corey, Mark; German, J Bruce; Barile, Daniela
Oligosaccharides are indigestible carbohydrates widely present in mammalian milk and in some plants. Milk oligosaccharides are associated with positive health outcomes; however, oligosaccharides in coffee have not been extensively studied. We investigated the oligosaccharides and their monomeric composition in dark roasted coffee beans, brewed coffee, and spent coffee grounds. Oligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization ranging from 3 to 15, and their constituent monosaccharides, were characterized and quantified. The oligosaccharides identified were mainly hexoses (potentially galacto-oligosaccharides and manno-oligosaccharides) containing a heterogeneous mixture of glucose, arabinose, xylose, and rhamnose. The diversity of oligosaccharides composition found in these coffee samples suggests that they could have selective prebiotic activity toward specific bacterial strains able to deconstruct the glycosidic bonds and utilize them as a carbon source.
Seventeen-day-old rat pups received intraoral infusions of two novel flavors, coffee (.625% w/v Sanka, decaffeinated) and saccharin (.5% w/v), of which one (CS+) was paired with a .75X body weight, i.p. injection of 0.4 M LiCl, and the other (CS-) was presented alone. n the follo...
Gummadi, Sathyanarayana N; Bhavya, B; Ashok, Nandhini
Caffeine, a purine alkaloid is a constituent of widely consumed beverages. The scientific evidence which has proved the harm of this alkaloid has paved the way for innumerable research in the area of caffeine degradation. In addition to this, the fact that the by-products of the coffee and tea industry pollute the environment has called for the need of decaffeinating coffee and tea industry's by-products. Though physical and chemical methods for decaffeination are available, the lack of specificity for removal of caffeine in these techniques and their non-eco-friendly nature has opened the area of microbial and enzymatic degradation of caffeine. Another important application of microbial caffeine degradation apart from its advantages like specificity, eco-friendliness and cost-effectiveness is the fact that this process will enable the production of industrially and medically useful components of the caffeine degradation pathway like theobromine and theophylline. This is a comprehensive review which mainly focuses on caffeine degradation, large-scale degradation of the same and its applications in the industrial world.
Green, Paul W C; Davis, Aaron P; Cossé, Allard A; Vega, Fernando E
Pests and pathogens threaten coffee production worldwide and are difficult to control using conventional methods, such as insecticides. We review the literature on the chemistry of coffee, concentrating on compounds most commonly reported from Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. Differences in chemistry can distinguish coffee species and varieties, and plants grown under different biogeographic conditions exhibit different chemotypes. A number of chemical groups, such as alkaloids and caffeoylquinic acids, are known to be insecticidal, but most studies have investigated their effects on coffee quality and flavor. More research is required to bridge this gap in knowledge, so that coffee can be bred to be more resistant to pests. Furthermore, we report on some pesticidal plants that have been used for control of coffee pests. Locally sourced pesticidal plants have been underutilized and offer a sustainable alternative to conventional insecticides and could be used to augment breeding for resilience of coffee plants.
Dereeper, Alexis; Bocs, Stéphanie; Rouard, Mathieu; Guignon, Valentin; Ravel, Sébastien; Tranchant-Dubreuil, Christine; Poncet, Valérie; Garsmeur, Olivier; Lashermes, Philippe; Droc, Gaëtan
The whole genome sequence of Coffea canephora, the perennial diploid species known as Robusta, has been recently released. In the context of the C. canephora genome sequencing project and to support post-genomics efforts, we developed the Coffee Genome Hub (http://coffee-genome.org/), an integrative genome information system that allows centralized access to genomics and genetics data and analysis tools to facilitate translational and applied research in coffee. We provide the complete genome sequence of C. canephora along with gene structure, gene product information, metabolism, gene families, transcriptomics, syntenic blocks, genetic markers and genetic maps. The hub relies on generic software (e.g. GMOD tools) for easy querying, visualizing and downloading research data. It includes a Genome Browser enhanced by a Community Annotation System, enabling the improvement of automatic gene annotation through an annotation editor. In addition, the hub aims at developing interoperability among other existing South Green tools managing coffee data (phylogenomics resources, SNPs) and/or supporting data analyses with the Galaxy workflow manager. PMID:25392413
Constable, A; Varga, N; Richoz, J; Stadler, R H
The antimutagenic properties of soluble instant teas were examined using the bacterial Ames assay. Inhibition of the numbers of revertants induced from a number of known mutagens indicates that aqueous extracts of instant teas have antimutagenic activity and antioxidative properties, and can inhibit nitrosation reactions. Despite a significant reduction in the amounts of major green tea catechins, quantified using reversed-phase HPLC with electro-chemical detection, no differences in antimutagenicity were observed between the instant teas, a black fermented tea and a green tea. Oxidation of polyphenolic compounds which occurs during the production of instant tea does not therefore decrease the antioxidant, free radical scavenging and antimutagenic properties. This suggests that catechins are not the only compounds responsible for the protective effects of teas.
Morisco, Filomena; Lembo, Vincenzo; Mazzone, Giovanna; Camera, Silvia; Caporaso, Nicola
Coffee is one of the most widely used beverages in the world. It includes a wide array of components that can have potential implications for health. Several epidemiological studies associate coffee consumption with a reduced incidence of various chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Over the past 20 years, an increasing number of epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated the positive effects of coffee on chronic liver diseases. Coffee consumption has been inversely associated with the activity of liver enzymes in subjects at risk, including heavy drinkers. Coffee favours an improvement in hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, and a reduction in cirrhosis and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanisms of action through which it exerts its beneficial effects are not fully understood. Experimental studies show that coffee consumption reduces fat accumulation and collagen deposition in the liver and promotes antioxidant capacity through an increase in glutathione as well as modulation of the gene and protein expression of several inflammatory mediators. Animal and in vitro studies indicate that cafestol and kahweol, 2 diterpens, can operate by modulating multiple enzymes involved in the detoxification process of carcinogens causing hepatocellular carcinoma. It is unclear whether the benefits are significant enough to "treat" patients with chronic liver disease. While we await clarification, moderate daily unsweetened coffee use is a reasonable adjuvant to therapy for these patients.
Bernstein, Adam M; de Koning, Lawrence; Flint, Alan J; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Willett, Walter C
Consumption of sugar-sweetened soda has been associated with an increased risk of cardiometabolic disease. The relation with cerebrovascular disease has not yet been closely examined. Our objective was to examine patterns of soda consumption and substitution of alternative beverages for soda in relation to stroke risk. The Nurses' Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 84,085 women followed for 28 y (1980-2008), and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, a prospective cohort study of 43,371 men followed for 22 y (1986-2008), provided data on soda consumption and incident stroke. We documented 1416 strokes in men during 841,770 person-years of follow-up and 2938 strokes in women during 2,188,230 person-years of follow-up. The pooled RR of total stroke for ≥ 1 serving of sugar-sweetened soda/d, compared with none, was 1.16 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.34). The pooled RR of total stroke for ≥ 1 serving of low-calorie soda/d, compared with none, was 1.16 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.28). Compared with 1 serving of sugar-sweetened soda/d, 1 serving of decaffeinated coffee/d was associated with a 10% (95% CI: 1%, 19%) lower risk of stroke and 1 serving of caffeinated coffee/d with a 9% (95% CI: 0%, 17%) lower risk. Similar estimated reductions in risk were seen for substitution of caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee for low-calorie soda. Greater consumption of sugar-sweetened and low-calorie sodas was associated with a significantly higher risk of stroke. This risk may be reduced by substituting alternative beverages for soda.
de Koning, Lawrence; Flint, Alan J; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Willett, Walter C
Background: Consumption of sugar-sweetened soda has been associated with an increased risk of cardiometabolic disease. The relation with cerebrovascular disease has not yet been closely examined. Objective: Our objective was to examine patterns of soda consumption and substitution of alternative beverages for soda in relation to stroke risk. Design: The Nurses’ Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 84,085 women followed for 28 y (1980–2008), and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, a prospective cohort study of 43,371 men followed for 22 y (1986–2008), provided data on soda consumption and incident stroke. Results: We documented 1416 strokes in men during 841,770 person-years of follow-up and 2938 strokes in women during 2,188,230 person-years of follow-up. The pooled RR of total stroke for ≥1 serving of sugar-sweetened soda/d, compared with none, was 1.16 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.34). The pooled RR of total stroke for ≥1 serving of low-calorie soda/d, compared with none, was 1.16 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.28). Compared with 1 serving of sugar-sweetened soda/d, 1 serving of decaffeinated coffee/d was associated with a 10% (95% CI: 1%, 19%) lower risk of stroke and 1 serving of caffeinated coffee/d with a 9% (95% CI: 0%, 17%) lower risk. Similar estimated reductions in risk were seen for substitution of caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee for low-calorie soda. Conclusions: Greater consumption of sugar-sweetened and low-calorie sodas was associated with a significantly higher risk of stroke. This risk may be reduced by substituting alternative beverages for soda. PMID:22492378
Silverstein, Barbara A; Bao, Stephen S; Russell, Steven; Stewart, Kate
The aim of this study was to reduce the physical load on coffee-harvesting workers while maintaining productivity. Coffee is second to oil in commodity trading. Water is becoming scarce worldwide. The global virtual water footprint for one cup of coffee is 140 liters. Shade-grown coffee is one approach to reducing the water footprint. A participatory ergonomics approach was used during two Nicaraguan shade-grown coffee harvesting seasons to reduce the physical load on harvesters with the use of a newly designed bag instead of a basket strapped around the waist. Productivity in the mountainous, shade-grown coffee farms was maintained while physical load on the worker was improved somewhat.Among basket users, 84.2% reported pain in at least one body area compared with 78.9% of bag users (ns). Nonetheless, 74% of participants liked the bag "much better" than the basket. Workers identified ways the bag could be improved further with the use of local materials.These suggestions included (a) reducing the horizontal distance of the bag to reduce reach and (b) having waterproof material on the bag between the worker and the bag to reduce moisture and damage to the berries.There was no difference in productivity between using the bag and using the small basket. Workers are extending this participatory approach to how to get the harvested coffee cherries down the mountain other than carrying 40-kg bags on their backs. The ultimate goal is to make the coffee-harvesting bag design available to harvesters around the world.
Tolessa, Kassaye; Rademaker, Michael; De Baets, Bernard; Boeckx, Pascal
The growing global demand for specialty coffee increases the need for improved coffee quality assessment methods. Green bean coffee quality analysis is usually carried out by physical (e.g. black beans, immature beans) and cup quality (e.g. acidity, flavour) evaluation. However, these evaluation methods are subjective, costly, time consuming, require sample preparation and may end up in poor grading systems. This calls for the development of a rapid, low-cost, reliable and reproducible analytical method to evaluate coffee quality attributes and eventually chemical compounds of interest (e.g. chlorogenic acid) in coffee beans. The aim of this study was to develop a model able to predict coffee cup quality based on NIR spectra of green coffee beans. NIR spectra of 86 samples of green Arabica beans of varying quality were analysed. Partial least squares (PLS) regression method was used to develop a model correlating spectral data to cupping score data (cup quality). The selected PLS model had a good predictive power for total specialty cup quality and its individual quality attributes (overall cup preference, acidity, body and aftertaste) showing a high correlation coefficient with r-values of 90, 90,78, 72 and 72, respectively, between measured and predicted cupping scores for 20 out of 86 samples. The corresponding root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 1.04, 0.22, 0.27, 0.24 and 0.27 for total specialty cup quality, overall cup preference, acidity, body and aftertaste, respectively. The results obtained suggest that NIR spectra of green coffee beans are a promising tool for fast and accurate prediction of coffee quality and for classifying green coffee beans into different specialty grades. However, the model should be further tested for coffee samples from different regions in Ethiopia and test if one generic or region-specific model should be developed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
in decreased fatigue and desire to sleep. improved information processing and concentration, faster temperature rhythm adaptation, greater encoding...tea, soda containing caffeine, chocolate milk, chocolate candy, etc.). Beverages without caffeine could be ingested, Including decaffeinated coffee...subjects wore devices for ambulatory monitoring of physiological processes . We used the Medilog 9-channel recorder available from Oxford Hedilog, Inc
other than detailed manufacturing or process data) to, or use of such data by, a foreign government that is in the interest of the Government and is...or can (Do NOT include decaffeinated drinks) C0ofeTaS(dCofeel Teaa Soda ooffeel Tea I oaaCoffeel Ta Soda Coffeel Tea Soda Coffeel TeaI Soda Coffee
4 Urine and blood collections .................. ..................... 5 Sample processing and biochemical analyses...and decaffeinated tea and coffee. Ingestion of fluids was encouraged. After completing the immersion, 16 oz of warm apple or cranberry juice was...day. Sample processing and biochemical analyses. Blood samples (25 ml) were drawn from an antecubital vein with minimum stasis. Each sample was divided
Cameron, P; Boehmer, J
Two hundred and seventy-two persons aged 11 to 80 were interviewed regarding whether and why they had tried and/or used coffee, tobacco, liquor, and marijuana. The attracting and capturing power of tobacco and marijuana registered as lower than those associated with coffee and liquor. A guilt/shame index was derived from avowed motives. Trying tobacco and liquor was associated with greater guilt/shame than that associated with coffee and marijuana. Most tobacco users offered motives that indicated continued guilt/shame, while the majority of the other users expressed contentment with their habits.
Cornelis, Marilyn C
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and has been associated with many health conditions. This review examines the limitations of the classic epidemiological approach to studies of coffee and health, and describes the progress in systems epidemiology of coffee and its correlated constituent, caffeine. Implications and applications of this growing body of knowledge are also discussed. Population-based metabolomic studies of coffee replicate coffee-metabolite correlations observed in clinical settings but have also identified novel metabolites of coffee response, such as specific sphingomyelin derivatives and acylcarnitines. Genome-wide analyses of self-reported coffee and caffeine intake and serum levels of caffeine support an overwhelming role for caffeine in modulating the coffee consumption behavior. Interindividual variation in the physiological exposure or response to any of the many chemicals present in coffee may alter the persistence and magnitude of their effects. It is thus imperative that future studies of coffee and health account for this variation. Systems epidemiological approaches promise to inform causality, parse the constituents of coffee responsible for health effects, and identify the subgroups most likely to benefit from increasing or decreasing coffee consumption.
Cordeiro, Liliana; Valente, Inês M; Santos, João Rodrigo; Rodrigues, José A
In this work, an analytical methodology for volatile carbonyl compounds characterization in green and roasted coffee beans was developed. The methodology relied on a recent and simple sample preparation technique, gas diffusion microextraction for extraction of the samples' volatiles, followed HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis. The experimental conditions in terms of extraction temperature and extraction time were studied. A profile for carbonyl compounds was obtained for both arabica and robusta coffee species (green and roasted samples). Twenty-seven carbonyl compounds were identified and further discussed, in light of reported literature, with different coffee characteristics: coffee ageing, organoleptic impact, presence of defective beans, authenticity, human's health implication, post-harvest coffee processing and roasting. The applied methodology showed to be a powerful analytical tool to be used for coffee characterization as it measures marker compounds of different coffee characteristics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roberts, Jeannie Ellen
This program evaluation of The Instant Word Notebook was conducted by two educators who created an instructional tool to teach and assess the most frequently occurring words in written text, commonly known as Instant Words. In an effort to increase the reading scores of first and second grade students, teachers were instructed to teach Instant…
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is the most economically important insect pest of coffee worldwide, causing millions of dollars in yearly losses to coffee growers. We present the third genomic analysis for a Coleopteran species, a draft genome of female coffee berry borers. The genome s...
Texley, Sharon; DeGennaro, Donna
This article is a brief debate on the pros and cons of allowing students to use instant messaging (IM) in school. On one hand, teenagers' desire to socialize can overcome other priorities and schools may set policies to ban instant messaging. The contrary view is that schools should embrace the IM technology being popularized by youth and find…
Doering, Aaron; Lewis, Cynthia; Veletsianos, George; Nichols-Besel, Kristen
Using an activity theory framework, we investigate how preservice teachers and middle school students utilized instant messaging in educational contexts and the impact of instant messaging on the development of community among preservice teachers. Qualitative results from six focus groups and two personal interviews indicate that instant messaging…
Oleaga, Carlota; Ciudad, Carlos J.; Noé, Véronique; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria
Background. Epidemiological studies suggest that coffee consumption reduces the risk of cancer, but the molecular mechanisms of its chemopreventive effects remain unknown. Objective. To identify differentially expressed genes upon incubation of HT29 colon cancer cells with instant caffeinated coffee (ICC) or caffeic acid (CA) using whole-genome microarrays. Results. ICC incubation of HT29 cells caused the overexpression of 57 genes and the underexpression of 161, while CA incubation induced the overexpression of 12 genes and the underexpression of 32. Using Venn-Diagrams, we built a list of five overexpressed genes and twelve underexpressed genes in common between the two experimental conditions. This list was used to generate a biological association network in which STAT5B and ATF-2 appeared as highly interconnected nodes. STAT5B overexpression was confirmed at the mRNA and protein levels. For ATF-2, the changes in mRNA levels were confirmed for both ICC and CA, whereas the decrease in protein levels was only observed in CA-treated cells. The levels of cyclin D1, a target gene for both STAT5B and ATF-2, were downregulated by CA in colon cancer cells and by ICC and CA in breast cancer cells. Conclusions. Coffee polyphenols are able to affect cyclin D1 expression in cancer cells through the modulation of STAT5B and ATF-2. PMID:22919439
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A survey of thrips (Thysanoptera) associated with coffee flowers was conducted in coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. The main objectives were to identify them and to determine whether they were carrying coffee pollen grains. A total of 40 thrips species in 22 genera were identified. The most com...
Jumhawan, Udi; Putri, Sastia Prama; Yusianto; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro
Asian palm civet coffee (Kopi Luwak), an animal-digested coffee with an exotic feature, carries a notorious reputation of being the rarest and most expensive coffee beverage in the world. Considering that illegal mixture of cheap coffee into civet coffee is a growing concern among consumers, we evaluated the use of metabolomics approach and orthogonal projection to latent structures (OPLS) prediction technique to quantify the degree of coffee adulteration. Two prediction sets, consisting of certified and commercial coffee, were made from a blend of civet and regular coffee with eleven mixing percentages. The prediction model exhibited accurate estimation of coffee blend percentage thus, successfully validating the prediction and quantification of the mixing composition of known-unknown samples. This work highlighted proof of concept of metabolomics application to predict degree of coffee adulteration by determining the civet coffee fraction in blends. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hadipernata, M.; Nugraha, S.
Indonesia has an advantage in producing exotic coffee that is Luwak coffee. Luwak coffee is produced from the fermentation process in digestion of civet. Luwak coffee production is still limited due to the difficulty level in the use of civet animals as the only medium of Luwak coffee making. The research was conducted by developing technology of luwak coffee production through bioreactor utilization and addition the bacteria isolate from gastric of civet. The process conditions in the bioreactor which include temperature, pH, and bacteria isolate of civet are adjusted to the process that occurs in civet digestion, including peristaltic movement on the stomach and small intestine of the civet will be replaced by the use of propellers that rotate on the bioreactor. The result of research showed that proximat analysis data of artificial/bioreactor luwak coffee did not significant different with original luwak coffee. However, the original luwak coffee has higher content of caffeine compared to bioreactor luwak coffee. Based on the cuping test the bioreactor luwak coffee has a value of 84.375, while the original luwak coffee is 84.875. As the result, bioreactor luwak coffee has excellent taste that similiar with original luwak coffee taste.
Wu, C; Tan, A L; Maze, D A E; Holland, A J A
Scalds and contact burns in children may occur as the result of spillage of hot food and drinks, including instant hot noodles. This study sought to determine the frequency of noodle burns in children and investigate the thermal properties of instant hot noodles. Data on instant hot noodle burns in children were retrieved from the New South Wales Severe Burn Injury Database between 2005 and 2010. Five widely available brands of instant hot noodles, including three cup and two packet varieties, were prepared following the manufacturer's instructions. For each preparation the initial temperature after cooking was recorded, together with the time to cool to 50°C. 291 children sustained instant hot noodle burns over the 6 year study period, representing 5.4% of all children referred to our burns unit. Over a third received inadequate first aid. Cup noodles cooked with boiling water reached the highest temperature of over 80°C and took the longest time to cool to 50°C: on average 52.3 min. Cup noodles in smaller, narrower containers achieved higher post-cooking temperatures compared to noodles in wider, bowel shaped containers. Packet noodles cooked in a Microwave oven attained lower peak temperatures and shorter cooling times compared to cup noodles. Although relatively uncommon in children, instant hot noodle burns often received inadequate first aid. When cooked according to manufacturer's instructions, noodles generally exceeded temperatures sufficient to cause a burn. Consumers and parents need to be aware of the risks of burn when preparing these foods. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Richmond, Tom; Young, Aaron
"Instant Insanity II" is a sliding mechanical puzzle whose solution requires the special alignment of 16 colored tiles. We count the number of solutions of the puzzle's classic challenge and show that the more difficult ultimate challenge has, up to row permutation, exactly two solutions, and further show that no…
Iversen, Tobias Buschmann; Melby, Line; Toussaint, Pieter
Clinical work is increasingly fragmented and requires extensive articulation and coordination. Computer systems may support such work. In this study, we investigate how instant messaging functions as a tool for supporting articulation work at the hospital. This paper aims to describe the characteristics of instant messaging communication in terms of number and length of messages, distribution over time, and the number of participants included in conversations. We also aim to determine what kind of articulation work is supported by analysing message content. Analysis of one month's worth of instant messages sent through the perioperative coordination and communication system at a Danish hospital. Instant messaging was found to be used extensively for articulation work, mostly through short, simple conversational exchanges. It is used particularly often for communication concerning the patient, specifically, the coordination and logistics of patient care. Instant messaging is used by all actors involved in the perioperative domain. Articulation work and clinical work are hard to separate in a real clinical setting. Predefined messages and strict workflow design do not suffice when supporting communication in the context of collaborative clinical work. Flexibility is of vital importance, and this needs to be reflected in the design of supportive communication systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Varnhagen, Connie K.; McFall, G. Peggy; Pugh, Nicole; Routledge, Lisa; Sumida-MacDonald, Heather; Kwong, Trudy E.
Written communication in instant messaging, text messaging, chat, and other forms of electronic communication appears to have generated a "new language" of abbreviations, acronyms, word combinations, and punctuation. In this naturalistic study, adolescents collected their instant messaging conversations for a 1-week period and then completed a…
Zuskin, E; Duncan, P G; Douglas, J S
The contractile or relaxant activities or both of aqueous extracts of green and roasted coffees were assayed on isolated guinea pig tracheal spirals. Contractile and relaxant activities were compared with histamine and theophylline, respectively. Green coffee extracts induced concentration dependent contraction, but the maximal tension never exceeded 76.3% +/- 5.2 of a maximal histamine contraction (0.69 +/- 0.07 g/mm2 v 0.52 +/- 0.05 g/mm2; p (0.01). One gram of green coffee dust had a biological activity equivalent to 1.23 +/- 0.1 mg of histamine. The pD2 value of histamine was -5.17 +/- 0.05. The potency of green coffee was unaffected by mepyramine maleate (1 micrograms/ml, final bath concentration) while that of histamine was reduced 500 fold. Tissues contracted with histamine were not significantly relaxed by green coffee extracts. By contrast, roasted coffee extracts induced concentration dependent relaxation of uncontracted and histamine contracted tissues. Tissues contracted with green coffee extracts were also completely relaxed by roasted coffee extracts. The pD2 value of theophylline was -4.10 +/- 0.03. The relaxant activity of 1 g of roasted coffee was equivalent to 1.95 +/- 0.16 mg of theophylline. The potency of these extracts was significantly reduced after propranolol (1 micrograms/ml; dose ratio 1.56). Our results show that coffee dust extracts have considerable biological activity which changes from a contractile to a relaxant action as a consequence of processing. The greater incidence of adverse reactions to green coffee dust(s) in coffee workers may be related to the contractile activity present in green coffee dust. PMID:6830717
Nufiqurakhmah, Nufiqurakhmah; Nasution, Aulia; Suyanto, Hery
Luwak (civet) coffee refers to a type of coffee, where the cherries have been priorly digested and then defecated by a civet (Paradoxurus Hermaphroditus), a catlike animals typically habited in Indonesia. Luwak will only selectively select ripe cherries, and digesting them by enzymatic fermentation in its digestive system. The defecated beans is then removed and cleaned from the feces. It is regarded as the world's most expensive coffee, Traditionally the quality of the coffee is subjectively determined by a tester. This research is motivated by the needs to study and develop quantitative parameters in determining the quality of coffee bean, which are more objective to measure the quality of coffee products. LIBS technique was used to identify the elemental contents of coffee beans based on its spectral characteristics in the range 200-900 nm. Samples of green beans from variant of arabica and robusta, either regular and luwak, were collected from 5 plantations in East Java. From the recorded spectra, intensity ratio of nitrogen (N), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) as essential elements in coffee is applied. In general, values extracted from luwak coffee bean is higher with increases 0.03% - 79.93%. A Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) also applied to identify marker elements that characterize the regular and luwak beans. Elements of Ca, W, Sr, Mg, and H are the ones used to differentiate the regular and luwak beans from arabica variant, while Ca and W are the ones used to differentiate the regular and luwak beans of robusta variant.
... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.249 Instant nonfat dry milk. (a) Only instant nonfat dry... compliance with these requirements may be identified with the official USDA U.S. Extra Grade, processed and...
... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.249 Instant nonfat dry milk. (a) Only instant nonfat dry... compliance with these requirements may be identified with the official USDA U.S. Extra Grade, processed and...
suppliers for such items as precooked vegetables, potatoes, noodles , rice, prepared gelatins, and salads. This creates a market dependency which could...Omlette) Coffee Bacon or Sausage (3 Strips) TOTAL Potato ( Instant Mashed/Gravy) Soup - Canned Entree (Average of 10 Entrees) Vegetable Jello...Potato (Other than Instant ) .06 Vegetable .09 Tossed Salad with Dressing .06 Dessert - Pudding .07 Bread and Butter .04 Milk .09 Coffee .06 TOTAL
Soares, C; Cunha, S; Fernandes, J
An improved gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method to determine acrylamide (AA) in coffee and coffee products was developed. The method was based on two main purification steps: the first with ethanol and Carrez solutions in order to precipitate polysaccharides and proteins, respectively; and the second with a layered solid-phase extraction (SPE) column which proved to be efficient in the elimination of the main chromatographic interferences. The method is applicable to a wide range of coffee products. Twenty-six samples of different coffee products were analysed. The levels of AA were in the range 11.4-36.2 microg l-1 for 'espresso coffee' and 200.8-229.4 microg l-1 for coffee blends with cereals. The results indicate that the presence of cereals significantly increased the levels of AA.
What may have been the birth of a new calculus problem took place when the author noticed that two coffee cups, one convex and one concave, fit nicely together, and he wondered which held more coffee. The fact that their volumes were about equal led to the topic of this article: complementary surfaces of revolution with equal volumes.
Blinová, Lenka; Bartošová, Alica; Sirotiak, Maroš
The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.
Yakhno, T. A.; Yakhno, V. G.
The instant coffee model has been taken to study self-sustained oscillations in liquid dispersive media using dynamic self-organization processes in drying droplets that stay sessile on a solid wetted substrate. The width of the formed ring and the dynamics of mechanical properties of the drying sediment and the way they fluctuated over 11 h of the experiment have been measured. Analysis has shown a high degree of correlation between these indicators. This dynamics reflects processes that develop in the examined liquid medium. The possible mechanism of self-sustained oscillations, which is related to the aggregation-disaggregation of the colloidal phase and fluctuations of the interphase tension, has been discussed. The practical significance of this work is that fluctuation processes in liquid dispersive media need to be taken into account as a natural source of systematic measurement error.
The breaking of coffee flower bud dormancy is known to be associated with one or more significant rainfall events following an extended period of dryness. In Hawaii, lack of a distinct wet-dry season poses serious problems for coffee growers because flowering is spread over several months. Multiple...
Monshouwer, Karin; Van Laar, Margriet; Vollebergh, Wilma A
The key objective of Dutch cannabis policy is to prevent and limit the risks of cannabis consumption for users, their direct environment and society ('harm reduction'). This paper will focus on the tolerated sale of cannabis in 'coffee shops'. We give a brief overview of Dutch policy on coffee shops, its history and recent developments. Furthermore, we present epidemiological data that may be indicative of the effects of the coffee shop policy on cannabis and other drug use. Dutch coffee shop policy has become more restrictive in recent years and the number of coffee shops has decreased. Cannabis prevalence rates in the adult population are somewhat below the European average; the rate is relatively high among adolescents; and age of first use appears to be low. On a European level, the use of hard drugs in both the Dutch adult and adolescent population is average to low (except for ecstasy among adults). International comparisons do not suggest a strong, upward effect of the coffee shop system on levels of cannabis use, although prevalence rates among Dutch adolescents give rise to concern. Furthermore, the coffee shop system appears to be successful in separating the hard and soft drugs markets. Nevertheless, in recent years, issues concerning the involvement of organised crime and the public nuisance related to drug tourism have given rise to several restrictive measures on the local level and have sparked a political debate on the reform of Dutch drug policy. © 2011 Trimbos Institute.
Baron, Naomi S.
Instant messaging (IM) is commonly viewed as a “spoken” medium, in light of its reputation for informality, non-standard spelling and punctuation, and use of lexical shortenings and emoticons. However, the actual nature of IM is an empirical issue that bears linguistic analysis.
Lee, Thomas H
Whether it's a basic Mr. Coffee or a gadget that sports a snazzy device for grinding beans on demand, the office coffee machine offers a place for serendipitous encounters that can improve the social aspect of work and generate new ideas. What's more, a steaming cup of joe may be as good for your health as it is for the bottom line, says Lee, a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and the CEO of Partners Community HealthCare. Fears of coffee's carcinogenic effects now appear to be unfounded, and, in fact, the brew might even protect against some types of cancer. What's more, coffee may guard against Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia and somehow soften the blow of a heart attack. Of course, its role as a pick-me-up is well known. So there's no need to take your coffee with a dollop of guilt, especially if you ease up on the sugar, cream, double chocolate, and whipped-cream topping.
applications, such as coffee decaffeination , spice extraction, and lipids purification. The processing principles have also long been well known and ipracticed...PRINCIPLES OF SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION 8 A. Background on Supercritical Fluid Solubility 8 B. Supercritical Fluid Extraction Process ...Operation I0 1. Batch Extraction of Solid Materials 10 2. Counter-Current Continuous SCF Processing of Liquid 15 Products 3. Supercritical Fluid Extraction vs
Nguyen, Thuy; Kuchera, Meredith; Smoot, Katie; Diako, Charles; Vixie, Beata; Ross, Carolyn F
The objective of this study was to determine if Chardonnay grape seed pomace (GSP), a waste stream of wine production, could be used as a functional ingredient in brewed coffee. Two consumer panels were conducted to assess the acceptance of coffee at coffee replacement (w/w) values of 0% (control), 6.25%, 12.50%, 18.75%, or 25% GSP. The 1st consumer panel (n = 80) assessed the coffee samples served "black." The 2nd panel (n = 67) assessed the coffee samples with adjustment (that is, sweeteners, milk, and cream) options available. Consumer sensory evaluation involved evaluating the 5 treatments individually for acceptance of appearance, aroma, taste/flavor, and overall acceptance using a 9-point hedonic scale. A check-all-that-apply questionnaire surveyed the sensory attributes describing aroma, appearance, and taste/flavor of the samples. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity was used to measure the effects of antioxidant levels in GSP coffee samples. Results showed that GSP could be added at 6.25% replacement without significantly affecting the overall consumer acceptance of coffee compared to the control (0% GSP). Above 6.25% GSP supplementation, the coffee beverage was described as more tan, milky, watery/dilute, and mild, and was generally less accepted by the consumers. GSP also increased the antioxidant capacity of the coffee compared to the control (0% GSP), with no significant differences among replacement values. Therefore, 6.25% GSP replacement is recommended for creating coffee beverages acceptable to consumers. Further in vivo investigation may substantiate the free-radical scavenging capacity of GSP coffee and its potential health benefits. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Church, David D; Hoffman, Jay R; LaMonica, Michael B; Riffe, Joshua J; Hoffman, Mattan W; Baker, Kayla M; Varanoske, Alyssa N; Wells, Adam J; Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R
The purpose of this study was to examine the ergogenic benefits of Turkish coffee consumed an hour before exercise. In addition, metabolic, cardiovascular, and subjective measures of energy, focus and alertness were examined in healthy, recreationally active adults who were regular caffeine consumers (>200 mg per day). Twenty males (n = 10) and females (n = 10), age 24.1 ± 2.9 y; height 1.70 ± 0.09 m; body mass 73.0 ± 13.0 kg (mean ± SD), ingested both Turkish coffee [3 mg · kg(-1) BW of caffeine, (TC)], and decaffeinated Turkish coffee (DC) in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design. Performance measures included a 5 km time trial, upper and lower body reaction to visual stimuli, and multiple object tracking. Plasma caffeine concentrations, blood pressure (BP), heart rate and subjective measures of energy, focus and alertness were assessed at baseline (BL), 30-min following coffee ingestion (30+), prior to endurance exercise (PRE) and immediately-post 5 km (IP). Metabolic measures [VO2, V E , and respiratory exchange rate (RER)] were measured during the 5 km. Plasma caffeine concentrations were significantly greater during TC (p < 0.001) at 30+, PRE, and IP compared to DC. Significantly higher energy levels were reported at 30+ and PRE for TC compared to DC. Upper body reaction performance (p = 0.023) and RER (p = 0.019) were significantly higher for TC (85.1 ± 11.6 "hits," and 0.98 ± 0.05 respectively) compared to DC (81.2 ± 13.7 "hits," and 0.96 ± 0.05, respectively). Although no significant differences (p = 0.192) were observed in 5 km run time, 12 of the 20 subjects ran faster (p = 0.012) during TC (1662 ± 252 s) compared to DC (1743 ± 296 s). Systolic BP was significantly elevated during TC in comparison to DC. No other differences (p > 0.05) were noted in any of the other performance or metabolic measures. Acute ingestion of TC resulted in a significant
Wang, Jun; Jun, Soojin; Bittenbender, H C; Gautz, Loren; Li, Qing X
Kona coffee, the variety of "Kona typica" grown in the north and south districts of Kona-Island, carries a unique stamp of the region of Big Island of Hawaii, U.S.A. The excellent quality of Kona coffee makes it among the best coffee products in the world. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy integrated with an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) accessory and multivariate analysis was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of ground and brewed Kona coffee and blends made with Kona coffee. The calibration set of Kona coffee consisted of 10 different blends of Kona-grown original coffee mixture from 14 different farms in Hawaii and a non-Kona-grown original coffee mixture from 3 different sampling sites in Hawaii. Derivative transformations (1st and 2nd), mathematical enhancements such as mean centering and variance scaling, multivariate regressions by partial least square (PLS), and principal components regression (PCR) were implemented to develop and enhance the calibration model. The calibration model was successfully validated using 9 synthetic blend sets of 100% Kona coffee mixture and its adulterant, 100% non-Kona coffee mixture. There were distinct peak variations of ground and brewed coffee blends in the spectral "fingerprint" region between 800 and 1900 cm(-1). The PLS-2nd derivative calibration model based on brewed Kona coffee with mean centering data processing showed the highest degree of accuracy with the lowest standard error of calibration value of 0.81 and the highest R(2) value of 0.999. The model was further validated by quantitative analysis of commercial Kona coffee blends. Results demonstrate that FTIR can be a rapid alternative to authenticate Kona coffee, which only needs very quick and simple sample preparations.
Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu; Alomary, Ahmed Khodran; Alfadul, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Algamdi, Mohammad Saad
The present work describes the outcomes of the assessment on acrylamide contents in a number of thermally treated foods (Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea) obtained from the Saudi Arabian markets. A total of 56 food samples of different brands and origin were studied, the amounts of acrylamide in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea were obtained in the range of 10 to 682 μg kg−1. In comparison to coffee (152–682 μg kg−1), the Arabic coffee Qahwa (73–108 μg kg−1) and tea (10–97 μg kg−1) contain lower amounts of acrylamide. Among the analyzed samples, the green tea contained low amounts of acrylamide ranged from 10 to 18 μg kg−1, and thus the green tea could be considered as a healthier hot drink. A great variation of acrylamide formation has been observed in these food products. This divergence may be due to the initial concentration of amino acids especially asparagines and reducing sugars in food products, in addition to roasting temperature and time, pH and water activity. The obtained data can also be used in epidemiological investigation to estimate the acrylamide exposure from nutritional survey. PMID:28150749
Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu; Alomary, Ahmed Khodran; Alfadul, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Algamdi, Mohammad Saad
The present work describes the outcomes of the assessment on acrylamide contents in a number of thermally treated foods (Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea) obtained from the Saudi Arabian markets. A total of 56 food samples of different brands and origin were studied, the amounts of acrylamide in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea were obtained in the range of 10 to 682 μg kg -1 . In comparison to coffee (152-682 μg kg -1 ), the Arabic coffee Qahwa (73-108 μg kg -1 ) and tea (10-97 μg kg -1 ) contain lower amounts of acrylamide. Among the analyzed samples, the green tea contained low amounts of acrylamide ranged from 10 to 18 μg kg -1 , and thus the green tea could be considered as a healthier hot drink. A great variation of acrylamide formation has been observed in these food products. This divergence may be due to the initial concentration of amino acids especially asparagines and reducing sugars in food products, in addition to roasting temperature and time, pH and water activity. The obtained data can also be used in epidemiological investigation to estimate the acrylamide exposure from nutritional survey.
Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu; Alomary, Ahmed Khodran; Alfadul, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Algamdi, Mohammad Saad
The present work describes the outcomes of the assessment on acrylamide contents in a number of thermally treated foods (Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea) obtained from the Saudi Arabian markets. A total of 56 food samples of different brands and origin were studied, the amounts of acrylamide in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea were obtained in the range of 10 to 682 μg kg-1. In comparison to coffee (152-682 μg kg-1), the Arabic coffee Qahwa (73-108 μg kg-1) and tea (10-97 μg kg-1) contain lower amounts of acrylamide. Among the analyzed samples, the green tea contained low amounts of acrylamide ranged from 10 to 18 μg kg-1, and thus the green tea could be considered as a healthier hot drink. A great variation of acrylamide formation has been observed in these food products. This divergence may be due to the initial concentration of amino acids especially asparagines and reducing sugars in food products, in addition to roasting temperature and time, pH and water activity. The obtained data can also be used in epidemiological investigation to estimate the acrylamide exposure from nutritional survey.
Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.
In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…
Griffiths, R R; Bigelow, G E; Liebson, I A; O'Keeffe, M; O'Leary, D; Russ, N
In a residential research ward coffee drinking was studied in 9 volunteer human subjects with histories of heavy coffee drinking. A series of five experiments was undertaken to characterize adlibitum coffee consumption and to investigate the effects of manipulating coffee concentration, caffeine dose per cup, and caffeine preloads prior to coffee drinking. Manipulations were double-blind and scheduled in randomized sequences across days. When cups of coffee were freely available, coffee drinking tended to be rather regularly spaced during the day with intercup intervals becoming progressively longer throughout the day; experimental manipulations showed that this lengthening of intercup intervals was not due to accumulating caffeine levels. Number of cups of coffee consumed was an inverted U-shaped function of both coffee concentration and caffeine dose per cup; however, coffee-concentration and dose-per-cup manipulations did not produce similar effects on other measures of coffee drinking (intercup interval, time to drink a cup, within-day distribution of cups). Caffeine preload produced dose-related decreases in number of cups consumed. As a whole, these experiments provide some limited evidence for both the suppressive and the reinforcing effects of caffeine on coffee consumption. Examination of total daily coffee and caffeine intake across experiments, however, provides no evidence for precise regulation (i.e., titration) of coffee or caffeine intake. PMID:3958660
Wolska, J; Janda, Katarzyna; Jakubczyk, K; Szymkowiak, M; Chlubek, D; Gutowska, I
Coffee is a rich source of dietary antioxidants, and this property links with the fact that coffee is one of the world's most popular beverages. Moreover, it is a source of macro- and microelements, including fluoride. The aim of this work was to determine antioxidant activity of coffee beverages and fluoride content depending on different coffee species and conditions of brewing. Three species of coffee, arabica, robusta and green coffee beans obtained from retail stores in Szczecin (Poland) were analyzed. Five different techniques of preparing drink were used: simple infusion, french press, espresso maker, overflow espresso and Turkish coffee. Antioxidant potential of coffee beverages was investigated spectrophotometrically by DPPH method. Fluoride concentrations were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode. Statistical analysis was performed using Stat Soft Statistica 12.5. Antioxidant activity of infusions was high (71.97-83.21% inhibition of DPPH) depending on coffee species and beverage preparing method. It has been shown that the method of brewing arabica coffee and green coffee significantly affects the antioxidant potential of infusions. The fluoride concentration in the coffee infusions changed depending, both, on the species and conditions of brewing, too (0.013-0.502 mg/L). Methods of brewing didn't make a difference to the antioxidant potential of robusta coffee, which had also the lowest level of fluoride among studied species. Except overflow espresso, the fluoride content was the highest in beverages from green coffee. The highest fluoride content was found in Turkish coffee from green coffee beans.
Gruczyńska, Eliza; Kowalska, Dorota; Kozłowska, Mariola; Majewska, Ewa; Tarnowska, Katarzyna
Coffee is the most popular hot beverage in the world. The annual coffee production in 2010, 2014 and 2016 was 8.1, 9.0 and 9.3 million tons respectively. There are more than 100 coffee species, but only two of them: Arabica (Coffea arabica) and Robusta (Coffea canephora) have gained commercial importance. During roasting of green coffee beans not only desirable compounds are formed, that exert positive influence on the taste and flavour of coffee, but also small quantities of undesirable ones. Furan (C4H4O) is one of the latter. Furan is a volatile compound (boiling temp. of 31.4 oC) formed during thermal processing of food. The toxicity of furan has been well documented and it is classified as “possible human carcinogen” (Group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Various pathways have been reported for furan formation during food processing. It can be formed from carbohydrates, amino acids by their thermal degradation or thermal re-arrangement and by oxidation of ascorbic acid and polyunsaturated acids and carotenoids. High concentrations of furan have been reported in coffee, baked and roasted food and in food subjected to preserving in cans and jars. Furan levels in brewed coffee are typically near or below 120 μg/L, but it can approach thousands μg/kg in roasted whole beans or ground coffee. The highest concentration of furan in roasted coffee reaches the level of 7000 μg/kg. Taking into account that coffee is the most popular hot drink, it becomes the main contributor to furan exposure from dietary sources for adults. In this article the published scientific papers concerned with the presence of furan in roasted non-brewed and brewed coffee have been reviewed. The formation mechanisms and occurrence of furan in coffee and the harmful influence of furan on the consumer health have been discussed.
Urgert, R; Katan, M B
Coffee beans and some types of coffee brew-not the regular types of coffee prepared with a paper filter or with soluble coffee granules-contain the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol. Cafestol and kahweol raise the serum concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides in humans, and they also appear mildly to affect the integrity of liver cells. Both effects are transient after withdrawal of the diterpenes, and it is as yet unsure whether these effects are associated. Patients at increased risk of heart disease who drink large amounts of coffee should be advised to select brews low in diterpenes. PMID:9135590
Baspinar, B; Eskici, G; Ozcelik, A O
Metabolic syndrome, with its increasing prevalence, is becoming a major public health problem throughout the world. Many risk factors including nutrition play a role in the emergence of metabolic syndrome. Of the most-consumed beverages in the world, coffee contains more than 1000 components such as caffeine, chlorogenic acid, diterpenes and trigonelline. It has been proven in many studies that coffee consumption has a positive effect on chronic diseases. In this review, starting from the beneficial effects of coffee on health, the relationship between coffee consumption and metabolic syndrome and its components has been investigated. There are few studies investigating the relationship between coffee and metabolic syndrome, and the existing ones put forward different findings. The factors leading to the differences are thought to stem from coffee variety, the physiological effects of coffee elements, and the nutritional ingredients (such as milk and sugar) added to coffee. It is reported that consumption of coffee in adults up to three cups a day reduces the risk of Type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.
other large food service organizations. The policy of adjusting the amount of R&G coffee used in brewing recipes according to consumer preferences , as...health, such as in the reduction of caffeine levels, as well as’ general consumer preferences for hot beverages with lower levels of coffee- like
de Kruijf, N.; Schouten, T.; van der Stegen, G.H.D.
A rapid and reliable analytical method is presented for the determination of trace amounts of benzo(a)pyrene in roasted coffee, coffee brew, and spent grounds. Roasted coffee and spent grounds were extracted with acetone, followed by saponification and cyclohexane extraction. Coffee brew was extracted three times with cyclohexane, and the combined extracts were purified by chromatography on a silica gel column. The extracts were analyzed by HPLC with a 5-..mu..m Vydac reversed-phase 201 TPB 5 column and fluorescence detection under isocratic conditions. The benzo(a)pyrene levels in 55 roasted coffee samples, commercially available in the Netherlands, ranged from not detectable (<0.1 ..mu..g/kg)more » to 0.5 ..mu..g/kg. Coffee brews were prepared by two different methods from an over-roasted coffee sample with an elevated benzo(a)pyrene level of 2 ..mu..g/kg. These brews yielded benzo(a)pyrene contents of approximately 1 ng/L, indicating benzo(a)pyrene extraction yields of about 1% for both coffee preparation methods.« less
Mishra, M. K.; Slater, A.
Coffee is one of the most important plantation crops, grown in about 80 countries across the world. The genus Coffea comprises approximately 100 species of which only two species, that is, Coffea arabica (commonly known as arabica coffee) and Coffea canephora (known as robusta coffee), are commercially cultivated. Genetic improvement of coffee through traditional breeding is slow due to the perennial nature of the plant. Genetic transformation has tremendous potential in developing improved coffee varieties with desired agronomic traits, which are otherwise difficult to achieve through traditional breeding. During the last twenty years, significant progress has been made in coffee biotechnology, particularly in the area of transgenic technology. This paper provides a detailed account of the advances made in the genetic transformation of coffee and their potential applications. PMID:22970380
Hermansen, Kjeld; Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Hyldstrup, Lars; Jørgensen, Kasper; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Tjønneland, Anne Marie
A moderate daily intake of 3-4 cups of coffee has convincing protective effects against development of type 2 diabetes and Parkinson's disease. The literature also indicates that moderate coffee intake reduces the risk of stroke, the overall risk of cancer, Alzheimer's disease, suicide and depression. However, pregnant women, people suffering from anxiety disorder and persons with a low calcium intake should restrain from moderate or high intake of coffee due to uncertainty regarding potential negative effects on pregnancy, anxiety and risk of osteoporosis, respectively.
Yang, Teing Yee; Dehghantanha, Ali; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Muda, Zaiton
Instant messaging (IM) has changed the way people communicate with each other. However, the interactive and instant nature of these applications (apps) made them an attractive choice for malicious cyber activities such as phishing. The forensic examination of IM apps for modern Windows 8.1 (or later) has been largely unexplored, as the platform is relatively new. In this paper, we seek to determine the data remnants from the use of two popular Windows Store application software for instant messaging, namely Facebook and Skype on a Windows 8.1 client machine. This research contributes to an in-depth understanding of the types of terrestrial artefacts that are likely to remain after the use of instant messaging services and application software on a contemporary Windows operating system. Potential artefacts detected during the research include data relating to the installation or uninstallation of the instant messaging application software, log-in and log-off information, contact lists, conversations, and transferred files. PMID:26982207
Yang, Teing Yee; Dehghantanha, Ali; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Muda, Zaiton
Instant messaging (IM) has changed the way people communicate with each other. However, the interactive and instant nature of these applications (apps) made them an attractive choice for malicious cyber activities such as phishing. The forensic examination of IM apps for modern Windows 8.1 (or later) has been largely unexplored, as the platform is relatively new. In this paper, we seek to determine the data remnants from the use of two popular Windows Store application software for instant messaging, namely Facebook and Skype on a Windows 8.1 client machine. This research contributes to an in-depth understanding of the types of terrestrial artefacts that are likely to remain after the use of instant messaging services and application software on a contemporary Windows operating system. Potential artefacts detected during the research include data relating to the installation or uninstallation of the instant messaging application software, log-in and log-off information, contact lists, conversations, and transferred files.
events, which are important for information processing within the nucleus accumbens and more largely in the striatum, should have a high impact on basal...half that of men who do not consume caffeine, whereas consumption of decaffeinated coffee is unrelated to PD risk. Results among women, however, are...immunopositive cells showed swollen and hyper-trophic cell bodies as well as processes and exhibited morphological features of activated microglia. In the
affording me the right mix of freedom and guidance, thus making the entire thesis writing process truly rewarding and memorable. - Anthony 0...have been in clinical medicine and industrial processes . The use of TCE for medicinal purposes gained recognition beginning in 1942 when Langston...fumigant mixtures and as an extractant in the decaffeination of coffee (Royal Society of Chemistry, 1986:102). Today, the major use of TCE is in
Foreman, T.; Rising, J. A.
Coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) plays a vital role in many countries' economies, providing necessary income to 25 million members of tropical countries, and supporting a $81 billion industry, making it one of the most valuable commodities in the world. At the same time, coffee is at the center of many issues of sustainability. It is vulnerable to climate change, with disease outbreaks becoming more common and suitable regions beginning to shift. We develop a statistical production model for coffee which incorporates temperature, precipitation, frost, and humidity effects using a new database of worldwide coffee production. We then use this model to project coffee yields and production into the future based on a variety of climate forecasts. This model can then be used together with a market model to forecast the locations of future coffee production as well as future prices, supply, and demand.
Lee, Andy H; Fraser, Michelle L; Binns, Colin W
Worldwide, prostate cancer has the second highest incidence of all cancers in males with incidence and mortality being much higher in affluent developed countries. Risk and progression of the disease may be linked to both genetic and environmental factors, especially dietary factors. Tea and coffee are two of the most popular beverages in the world and have been investigated for possible effects on health outcomes, including cancer. However, very little dietary advice for their consumption exists. The evidence for a relationship between coffee or tea consumption and prostate cancer is reviewed in this paper. While current evidence indicates that coffee is a safe beverage, its consumption probably has no relationship with prostate cancer. Tea, especially green tea, has shown some potential in the prevention of prostate cancer. While evidence from epidemiologic studies is currently inconclusive, strong evidence has emerged from animal and in vitro studies. We also consider what level of evidence is required to make recommendations for preventive measures to the public. Although evidence on the relationship between coffee, tea and prostate cancer is not complete, we consider it strong enough to recommend tea as a healthier alternative to coffee.
Solér, Cecilia; Sandström, Cecilia; Skoog, Hanna
This article investigates the outcomes of mainstream coffee voluntary sustainability standards for high-biodiversity coffee diversification. By viewing voluntary sustainability standards certifications as performative marketing tools, we address the question of how such certification schemes affect coffee value creation based on unique biodiversity conservation properties in coffee farming. To date, the voluntary sustainability standards literature has primarily approached biodiversity conservation in coffee farming in the context of financial remuneration to coffee farmers. The performative analysis of voluntary sustainability standards certification undertaken in this paper, in which such certifications are analyzed in terms of their effect on mutually reinforcing representational, normalizing and exchange practices, provides an understanding of coffee diversification potential as dependent on standard criteria and voluntary sustainability standards certification as branding tools. We draw on a case of high-biodiversity, shade-grown coffee-farming practice in Kodagu, South-West India, which represents one of the world's biodiversity "hotspots".
Solér, Cecilia; Sandström, Cecilia; Skoog, Hanna
This article investigates the outcomes of mainstream coffee voluntary sustainability standards for high-biodiversity coffee diversification. By viewing voluntary sustainability standards certifications as performative marketing tools, we address the question of how such certification schemes affect coffee value creation based on unique biodiversity conservation properties in coffee farming. To date, the voluntary sustainability standards literature has primarily approached biodiversity conservation in coffee farming in the context of financial remuneration to coffee farmers. The performative analysis of voluntary sustainability standards certification undertaken in this paper, in which such certifications are analyzed in terms of their effect on mutually reinforcing representational, normalizing and exchange practices, provides an understanding of coffee diversification potential as dependent on standard criteria and voluntary sustainability standards certification as branding tools. We draw on a case of high-biodiversity, shade-grown coffee-farming practice in Kodagu, South-West India, which represents one of the world's biodiversity "hotspots".
Yang, Xiaoguang; Lee, Sang Jun; Yoo, Hah Young; Choi, Han Suk; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook
Instant noodle waste, one of the main residues of the modern food industry, was employed as feedstock to convert to valuable biofuels. After isolation of used oil from the instant noodle waste surface, the starch residue was converted to bioethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae K35 with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The maximum ethanol concentration and productivity was 61.1g/l and 1.7 g/lh, respectively. After the optimization of fermentation, ethanol conversion rate of 96.8% was achieved within 36 h. The extracted oil was utilized as feedstock for high quality biodiesel conversion with typical chemical catalysts (KOH and H2SO4). The optimum conversion conditions for these two catalysts were estimated; and the highest biodiesel conversion rates were achieved 98.5% and 97.8%, within 2 and 3h, respectively. The high conversion rates of both bioethanol and biodiesel demonstrate that novel substrate instant noodle waste can be an attractive biorefinery feedstock in the biofuels industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari); Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the most important insect pest of coffee worldwide, and due to the cryptic life habit of the insect inside coffee berries, effective pest management strategies have been difficult to develop. In this pap...
Soares, Cristina M Dias; Alves, Rita C; Casal, Susana; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Fernandes, José Oliveira
The present study describes the development and validation of a new method based on a matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) sample preparation procedure followed by GC-MS for determination of acrylamide levels in coffee (ground coffee and brewed coffee) and coffee substitute samples. Samples were dispersed in C(18) sorbent and the mixture was further packed into a preconditioned custom-made ISOLUTE bilayered SPE column (C(18)/Multimode; 1 g + 1 g). Acrylamide was subsequently eluted with water, and then derivatized with bromine and quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode. The MSPD/GC-MS method presented a LOD of 5 microg/kg and a LOQ of 10 microg/kg. Intra and interday precisions ranged from 2% to 4% and 4% to 10%, respectively. To evaluate the performance of the method, 11 samples of ground and brewed coffee and coffee substitutes were simultaneously analyzed by the developed method and also by a previously validated method based in a liquid-extraction (LE) procedure, and the results were compared showing a high correlation between them.
Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira; Ramirez-Mares, Marco Vinicio
Coffee is the most frequently consumed caffeine-containing beverage. The caffeine in coffee is a bioactive compound with stimulatory effects on the central nervous system and a positive effect on long-term memory. Although coffee consumption has been historically linked to adverse health effects, new research indicates that coffee consumption may be beneficial. Here we discuss the impact of coffee and caffeine on health and bring attention to the changing caffeine landscape that includes new caffeine-containing energy drinks and supplements, often targeting children and adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kreuml, Michaela T L; Majchrzak, Dorota; Ploederl, Bettina; Koenig, Juergen
How long can roasted coffee beans be stored, without reducing the typical coffee flavor which is mainly responsible for consumers’ enjoyment? In Austria, most coffee packages have a best-before date between 12 and 24 months, but it is not regulated by law. Therefore, there is the need to evaluate changes in sensory qualities of coffee beverages prepared from stored coffee beans. For preparation of the coffee beverages, the paper filter method was used. In the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) 10 trained assessors evaluated the intensity of 30 coffee attributes after roasting at the 9th and 18th month of storage, respectively. The sensory evaluation results showed reduction in the sensory qualities of coffee beverages after 9 months storage of roasted coffee beans. The positive associated odor and flavor attributes decreased in their intensity, whereas the negative associated odor and flavor attributes increased significantly (P < 0.05). After 18 months of storage, the rancid odor and flavor which indicate oxidation processes were even considerably perceivable. Consequently, we can assume that changes in sensory quality characteristics of roasted and vacuum-packed coffee beans during storage are possible. PMID:24804030
Caporaso, Nicola; Whitworth, Martin B; Cui, Chenhao; Fisk, Ian D
We report on the analysis of volatile compounds by SPME-GC-MS for individual roasted coffee beans. The aim was to understand the relative abundance and variability of volatile compounds between individual roasted coffee beans at constant roasting conditions. Twenty-five batches of Arabica and robusta species were sampled from 13 countries, and 10 single coffee beans randomly selected from each batch were individually roasted in a fluidised-bed roaster at 210 °C for 3 min. High variability (CV = 14.0-53.3%) of 50 volatile compounds in roasted coffee was obtained within batches (10 beans per batch). Phenols and heterocyclic nitrogen compounds generally had higher intra-batch variation, while ketones were the most uniform compounds (CV < 20%). The variation between batches was much higher, with the CV ranging from 15.6 to 179.3%. The highest variation was observed for 2,3-butanediol, 3-ethylpyridine and hexanal. It was also possible to build classification models based on geographical origin, obtaining 99.5% and 90.8% accuracy using LDA or MLR classifiers respectively, and classification between Arabica and robusta beans. These results give further insight into natural variation of coffee aroma and could be used to obtain higher quality and more consistent final products. Our results suggest that coffee volatile concentration is also influenced by other factors than simply the roasting degree, especially green coffee composition, which is in turn influenced by the coffee species, geographical origin, ripening stage and pre- and post-harvest processing. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Aristizábal, Luis F; Bustillo, Alex E; Arthurs, Steven P
The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the primary arthropod pest of coffee plantations worldwide. Since its detection in Hawaii (September 2010), coffee growers are facing financial losses due to reduced quality of coffee yields. Several control strategies that include cultural practices, biological control agents (parasitoids), chemical and microbial insecticides (entomopathogenic fungi), and a range of post-harvest sanitation practices have been conducted to manage CBB around the world. In addition, sampling methods including the use of alcohol based traps for monitoring CBB populations have been implemented in some coffee producing countries in Latin America. It is currently unclear which combination of CBB control strategies is optimal under economical, environmental, and sociocultural conditions of Hawaii. This review discusses components of an integrated pest management program for CBB. We focus on practical approaches to provide guidance to coffee farmers in Hawaii. Experiences of integrated pest management (IPM) of CBB learned from Latin America over the past 25 years may be relevant for establishing strategies of control that may fit under Hawaiian coffee farmers' conditions.
Aristizábal, Luis F.; Bustillo, Alex E.; Arthurs, Steven P.
The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the primary arthropod pest of coffee plantations worldwide. Since its detection in Hawaii (September 2010), coffee growers are facing financial losses due to reduced quality of coffee yields. Several control strategies that include cultural practices, biological control agents (parasitoids), chemical and microbial insecticides (entomopathogenic fungi), and a range of post-harvest sanitation practices have been conducted to manage CBB around the world. In addition, sampling methods including the use of alcohol based traps for monitoring CBB populations have been implemented in some coffee producing countries in Latin America. It is currently unclear which combination of CBB control strategies is optimal under economical, environmental, and sociocultural conditions of Hawaii. This review discusses components of an integrated pest management program for CBB. We focus on practical approaches to provide guidance to coffee farmers in Hawaii. Experiences of integrated pest management (IPM) of CBB learned from Latin America over the past 25 years may be relevant for establishing strategies of control that may fit under Hawaiian coffee farmers’ conditions. PMID:26848690
Fernandes, F L; Picanço, M C; Campos, S O; Bastos, C S; Chediak, M; Guedes, R N C; Silva, R S
The currently existing sample procedures available for decision-making regarding the control of the coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are time-consuming, expensive, and difficult to perform, compromising their adoption. In addition, the damage functions incorporated in such decision levels only consider the quantitative losses, while dismissing the qualitative losses. Traps containing ethanol, methanol, and benzaldehyde may allow cheap and easy decision-making. Our objective was to determine the economic injury level (EIL) for the adults of the coffee berry borer by using attractant-baited traps. We considered both qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the coffee borer in estimating the EILs. These EILs were determined for conventional and organic coffee under high and average plant yield. When the quantitative losses caused by H. hampei were considered alone, the EILs ranged from 7.9 to 23.7% of bored berries for high and average-yield conventional crops, respectively. For high and average-yield organic coffee the ELs varied from 24.4 to 47.6% of bored berries, respectively. When qualitative and quantitative losses caused by the pest were considered together, the EIL was 4.3% of bored berries for both conventional and organic coffee. The EILs for H. hampei associated to the coffee plants in the flowering, pinhead fruit, and ripening fruit stages were 426, 85, and 28 adults per attractive trap, respectively.
Soar, K; Chapman, E; Lavan, N; Jansari, A S; Turner, J J D
Caffeine has been shown to have effects on certain areas of cognition, but in executive functioning the research is limited and also inconsistent. One reason could be the need for a more sensitive measure to detect the effects of caffeine on executive function. This study used a new non-immersive virtual reality assessment of executive functions known as JEF(©) (the Jansari Assessment of Executive Function) alongside the 'classic' Stroop Colour-Word task to assess the effects of a normal dose of caffeinated coffee on executive function. Using a double-blind, counterbalanced within participants procedure 43 participants were administered either a caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee and completed the 'JEF(©)' and Stroop tasks, as well as a subjective mood scale and blood pressure pre- and post condition on two separate occasions a week apart. JEF(©) yields measures for eight separate aspects of executive functions, in addition to a total average score. Findings indicate that performance was significantly improved on the planning, creative thinking, event-, time- and action-based prospective memory, as well as total JEF(©) score following caffeinated coffee relative to the decaffeinated coffee. The caffeinated beverage significantly decreased reaction times on the Stroop task, but there was no effect on Stroop interference. The results provide further support for the effects of a caffeinated beverage on cognitive functioning. In particular, it has demonstrated the ability of JEF(©) to detect the effects of caffeine across a number of executive functioning constructs, which weren't shown in the Stroop task, suggesting executive functioning improvements as a result of a 'typical' dose of caffeine may only be detected by the use of more real-world, ecologically valid tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
We describe a new class developed at U.C. Davis titled "The Design of Coffee," which serves as a nonmathematical introduction to chemical engineering as illustrated by the process of roasting and brewing coffee. Hands-on coffee experiments demonstrate key engineering principles, including material balances, chemical kinetics, mass transfer, conservation of energy, and fluid mechanics. The experiments lead to an engineering design competition where students strive to make the best tasting coffee using the least amount of energy - a classic engineering optimization problem, but one that is both fun and tasty. "The Design of Coffee" started as a freshmen seminar in 2013, and it has exploded in popularity: it now serves 1,533 students per year, and is the largest and most popular elective course at U.C. Davis. In this talk we focus on the class pedagogy as applied to fluid mechanics, with an emphasis on how coffee serves as an engaging and exciting topic for teaching students about fluid mechanics in an approachable, hands-on manner.
Salakinkop, S R; Shivaprasad, P
A field experiment was conducted to study the influence of treated coffee effluent irrigation on performance of established robusta coffee, nutrient contribution and microbial activities in the soil. The results revealed that the field irrigated with coffee effluent from aerobic tank having COD of 1009 ppm, did not affect the yield of clean coffee (1309 kg/ha) and it was statistically similar (on par) with the plots irrigated with fresh water (1310 kg/ha) with respect to clean coffee yield. Effluent irrigation increased significantly the population bacteria, yeast, fungi, actinomycetes and PSB (122, 52, 12, 34 and 6 x 104/g respectively)) in the soil compared to the soil irrigated with fresh water (87, 22, 5, 24 and 2 x 10(4)/g respectively). The organic carbon (2.60%), available nutrients in the soil like P (57.2 kg/ha), K (401.6 kg/ha, Ca (695.3 ppm), S (5.3 ppm),Cu (4.09 ppm) and Zn(4.78 ppm) were also increased due to effluent irrigation compared to fresh water irrigation. Thus analysis of coffee effluent for major and minor plant nutrients content revealed its potential as source of nutrients and water for plant growth.
Rebelo, Irene; Casal, Susana
Coffee beverages, prepared in a multitude of ways around the world, are increasingly part of our daily lives. Although considered an unhealthy beverage for decades, coffee is increasingly the headline of medical journals in association with a reduced risk for several diseases. What if this beverage could give us pleasure, while modulating mood and lowering the risk for several diseases of the modern society, including type 2 diabetes (T2D)? Based on the most recent epidemiological and research data, long-term consumption of coffee beverages is associated with a lower risk of developing T2D in healthy individuals, probably involving multiple mechanisms, with interventions on glucose homeostasis, antioxidant activity, and inflammatory biomarkers. Several coffee constituents potentially responsible for these effects are described, as well as the factors that make their presence highly variable, with interesting effects associated with chlorogenic acids, trigonelline and norharman. Due to the high number of compounds contained in coffee, we explore the potential synergic effect within the coffee matrix. Moreover, acute coffee consumption shows different health effects from those achieved on a long-term daily consumption, and not all coffee beverages are similar. Still, despite the huge amount or work developed in the last decade, the substances and mechanisms behind these protective effects on T2D are still to be fully elucidated, being therefore soon for dietary interventions based on coffee. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Johnson, Melissa Anne; Hollingsworth, Robert; Fortna, Samuel; Aristizábal, Luis F.; Manoukis, Nicholas C.
Coffee berry borer (CBB) is the most devastating insect pest for coffee crops worldwide. We developed a scientific monitoring protocol that is aimed at capturing and quantifying the dynamics and impact of this invasive insect pest as well as the development of its host plant across a heterogeneous landscape. The cornerstone of this comprehensive monitoring system is timely georeferenced data collection on CBB movement, coffee berry infestation, mortality by the fungus Beauveria bassiana, and coffee plant phenology via a mobile electronic data recording application. This electronic data collection system allows field records to be georeferenced through built-in global positioning systems, and is backed by a network of weather stations and records of farm management practices. Comprehensive monitoring of CBB and host plant dynamics is an essential part of an area-wide project in Hawaii to aggregate landscape-level data for research to improve management practices. Coffee agroecosystems in other parts of the world that experience highly variable environmental and socioeconomic factors will also benefit from implementing this protocol, in that it will drive the development of customized integrated pest management (IPM) to manage CBB populations. PMID:29608152
Johnson, Melissa Anne; Hollingsworth, Robert; Fortna, Samuel; Aristizábal, Luis F; Manoukis, Nicholas C
Coffee berry borer (CBB) is the most devastating insect pest for coffee crops worldwide. We developed a scientific monitoring protocol that is aimed at capturing and quantifying the dynamics and impact of this invasive insect pest as well as the development of its host plant across a heterogeneous landscape. The cornerstone of this comprehensive monitoring system is timely georeferenced data collection on CBB movement, coffee berry infestation, mortality by the fungus Beauveria bassiana, and coffee plant phenology via a mobile electronic data recording application. This electronic data collection system allows field records to be georeferenced through built-in global positioning systems, and is backed by a network of weather stations and records of farm management practices. Comprehensive monitoring of CBB and host plant dynamics is an essential part of an area-wide project in Hawaii to aggregate landscape-level data for research to improve management practices. Coffee agroecosystems in other parts of the world that experience highly variable environmental and socioeconomic factors will also benefit from implementing this protocol, in that it will drive the development of customized integrated pest management (IPM) to manage CBB populations.
Imbach, Pablo; Fung, Emily; Hannah, Lee; Navarro-Racines, Carlos E; Roubik, David W; Ricketts, Taylor H; Harvey, Celia A; Donatti, Camila I; Läderach, Peter; Locatelli, Bruno; Roehrdanz, Patrick R
Climate change will cause geographic range shifts for pollinators and major crops, with global implications for food security and rural livelihoods. However, little is known about the potential for coupled impacts of climate change on pollinators and crops. Coffee production exemplifies this issue, because large losses in areas suitable for coffee production have been projected due to climate change and because coffee production is dependent on bee pollination. We modeled the potential distributions of coffee and coffee pollinators under current and future climates in Latin America to understand whether future coffee-suitable areas will also be suitable for pollinators. Our results suggest that coffee-suitable areas will be reduced 73-88% by 2050 across warming scenarios, a decline 46-76% greater than estimated by global assessments. Mean bee richness will decline 8-18% within future coffee-suitable areas, but all are predicted to contain at least 5 bee species, and 46-59% of future coffee-suitable areas will contain 10 or more species. In our models, coffee suitability and bee richness each increase (i.e., positive coupling) in 10-22% of future coffee-suitable areas. Diminished coffee suitability and bee richness (i.e., negative coupling), however, occur in 34-51% of other areas. Finally, in 31-33% of the future coffee distribution areas, bee richness decreases and coffee suitability increases. Assessing coupled effects of climate change on crop suitability and pollination can help target appropriate management practices, including forest conservation, shade adjustment, crop rotation, or status quo, in different regions.
Bhatti, Salman K; O'Keefe, James H; Lavie, Carl J
Tea and coffee, after water, are the most commonly consumed beverages in the world and are the top sources of caffeine and antioxidant polyphenols in the American diet. The purpose of this review is to assess the health effects of chronic tea and/or coffee consumption. Tea consumption, especially green tea, is associated with significantly reduced risks for stroke, diabetes and depression, and improved levels of glucose, cholesterol, abdominal obesity and blood pressure. Habitual coffee consumption in large epidemiological studies is associated with reduced mortality, both for all-cause and cardiovascular deaths. In addition, coffee intake is associated with risks of heart failure, stroke, diabetes mellitus and some cancers in an inverse dose-dependent fashion. Surprisingly, coffee is associated with neutral to reduced risks for both atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. However, caffeine at high doses can increase anxiety, insomnia, calcium loss and possibly the risk of fractures. Coffee and tea can generally be recommended as health-promoting additions to an adult diet. Adequate dietary calcium intake may be particularly important for tea and coffee drinkers.
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The negative effects of climate change are already evident for many of the 25 million coffee farmers across the tropics and the 90 billion dollar coffee industry. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei), the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, has already benefited from the temperature r...
Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko
Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms. PMID:24073204
Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko
Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms.
Fajara, B. E. P.; Susanti, H.
Coffee is the second largest beverage which is consumed by people in the world, besides the water. One of the compounds which contained in coffee is caffeine. Caffeine has the pharmacological effect such as stimulating the central nervous system. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of caffeine in coffee beverages with HPLC method. Three branded coffee beverages which include in 3 of Top Brand Index 2016 Phase 2 were used as samples. Qualitative analysis was performed by Parry method, Dragendorff reagent, and comparing the retention time between sample and caffeine standard. Quantitative analysis was done by HPLC method with methanol-water (95:5v/v) as mobile phase and ODS as stationary phasewith flow rate 1 mL/min and UV 272 nm as the detector. The level of caffeine data was statistically analyzed using Anova at 95% confidence level. The Qualitative analysis showed that the three samples contained caffeine. The average of caffeine level in coffee bottles of X, Y, and Z were 138.048 mg/bottle, 109.699 mg/bottle, and 147.669 mg/bottle, respectively. The caffeine content of the three coffee beverage samples are statistically different (p<0.05). The levels of caffeine contained in X, Y, and Z coffee beverage samples were not meet the requirements set by the Indonesian Standard Agency of 50 mg/serving.
Kulshreshtha, Usha; Kulshreshtha, Daya Shankar; Vary, James
In this work we consider the instant-form and light-front quantization of some field theories. As an example, we consider a class of gauged non-linear sigma models with different regularizations. In particular, we present the path integral quantization of the gauged non-linear sigma model in the Faddeevian regularization. We also make a comparision of the possible differences in the instant-form and light-front quantization at appropriate places.
Silván, José Manuel; Morales, Francisco J; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio
There is a methodological and conceptual overlap between coffee melanoidins and dietary fiber. Green Uganda coffee beans were roasted in a range from 8.1 to 21.6% of weight loss to evaluate melanoidins and dietary fiber. Samples were characterized by color, moisture, solubility, water activity, carbohydrates, polyphenols, protein, soluble dietary fiber (SDF), and melanoidins content. Hydroxymethylfurfural and chlorogenic acids were also measured as chemical markers of the extent of roasting. Melanoidins rapidly increased from 5.6 (light roasting) to 29.1 mg/100 mg soluble dry matter (dark roasting). A melanoidins-like structure was already present in green coffee that might overestimate up to 21.0% of the melanoidins content as determined by colorimetric methods. However, its contribution is variable and very likely depends on the method of drying applied to green coffee. SDF content (mg/100 mg soluble dry matter) gradually increased from 39.4 in green coffee to 64.9 at severe roasting conditions due to incorporation of neoformed colored structures and polyphenols. Then, SDF progressively turns to a maillardized structure, which increased from 11.0 to 45.0% according to the roasting conditions. It is concluded that the content of coffee melanoidins includes a substantial part of dietary fiber and also that coffee dietary fiber includes melanoidins. A conceptual discussion on a new definition of coffee melanoidins as a type of maillardized dietary fiber is conducted.
Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria; Orlando, Valentina; D'Urso, Emanuela; Saadat, Seyed Hassan; Novellino, Ettore; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad
Coffee is among the most widespread and healthiest beverages in the world. It is known to be a highly rich source of biologically active natural metabolites which possess therapeutic effects (i.e. caffeine) and functional properties (i.e. chlorogenic acids). Therefore, coffee can be considered a drink which has different positive effects on human health such as cardioprotective, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, etc. However, heavy coffee consumption may be related to some unpleasant symptoms, mainly anxiety, headache, increased blood pressure, nausea, and restlessness. During the past two decades, several studies have indicated that there is a close correlation between consumption of coffee and incidence of depression. In addition, phytochemical studies showed that caffeine is the main responsible constituent for antidepressant effects of coffee through multiple molecular mechanisms. The aim of the present paper was to collect the latest literature data (from 1984 to 2014) on the positive and negative impacts of coffee consumption on the major depressive disorders and to clarify the role of bioactive constituents of coffee in the related different clinical trials. To the best of our knowledge, this the first review on this topic.
Kumalasari, R.; Ekafitri, R.; Indrianti, N.
Development of instant corn rice product has been successfully conducted on a laboratory scale. Corn has high carbohydrate content but low in fiber. The addition of fiber in instant corn rice, intended to improve the functioning of the product, and replace fiber loss during the process. Scale up process of Instant corn rice required to increase the production capacity. Scale up was the process to get identic output on a larger scale based on predetermined production scale. This study aimed to assess the changes and differences in the quality of instant corn rice during scale up. Instant corn rice scale up was done on production capacity 3 kg, 4 kg and 5 kg. Results showed that scale up of instant corn rice producing products with rehydration ratio ranges between 514% - 570%, the absorption rate ranged between 414% - 470%, swelling rate ranging between 119% - 134%, bulk density ranged from 0.3661 to 0.4745 (g/ml) and porosity ranging between 30-37%. The physical quality of instant corn rice on scale up were stable from the ones at laboratory scale on swelling rate, rehydration ratio, and absorption rate but not stable on bulk density and porosity. Organoleptic qualities were stable at increased scale compared on a laboratory scale. Bulk density was higher than those at laboratory scale, and the porosity was lower than those at laboratory scale.
Hylander, Kristoffer; Nemomissa, Sileshi; Delrue, Josefien; Enkosa, Woldeyohannes
Knowledge about how forest margins are utilized can be crucial for a general understanding of changes in forest cover, forest structure, and biodiversity across landscapes. We studied forest-agriculture transitions in southwestern Ethiopia and hypothesized that the presence of coffee (Coffea arabica)decreases deforestation rates because of coffee's importance to local economies and its widespread occurrence in forests and forest margins. Using satellite images and elevation data, we compared changes in forest cover over 37 years (1973-2010) across elevations in 2 forest-agriculture mosaic landscapes (1100 km(2) around Bonga and 3000 km(2) in Goma-Gera). In the field in the Bonga area, we determined coffee cover and forest structure in 40 forest margins that differed in time since deforestation. Both the absolute and relative deforestation rates were lower at coffee-growing elevations compared with at higher elevations (-10/20% vs. -40/50% comparing relative rates at 1800 m asl and 2300-2500 m asl, respectively). Within the coffee-growing elevation, the proportion of sites with high coffee cover (>20%) was significantly higher in stable margins (42% of sites that had been in the same location for the entire period) than in recently changed margins (0% of sites where expansion of annual crops had changed the margin). Disturbance level and forest structure did not differ between sites with 30% or 3% coffee. However, a growing body of literature on gradients of coffee management in Ethiopia reports coffee's negative effects on abundances of forest-specialist species. Even if the presence of coffee slows down the conversion of forest to annual-crop agriculture, there is a risk that an intensification of coffee management will still threaten forest biodiversity, including the genetic diversity of wild coffee. Conservation policy for Ethiopian forests thus needs to develop strategies that acknowledge that forests without coffee production may have higher deforestation
Oliveira, C M; Santos, M J; Amabile, R F; Frizzas, M R; Bartholo, G F
The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and to evaluate the population fluctuation of the pest in the Brazilian Cerrado (Federal District). The study was conducted, between November 2014 and October 2015, at Embrapa Cerrados (Planaltina/DF, Brazil) in an irrigated conilon coffee production area. In November 2014, 120 samples (ten berries/sample) were collected from berries that had fallen on the ground from the previous harvest. Between November 2014 and October 2015, insects were collected weekly, using traps (polyethylene terephthalate bottles) baited with ethyl alcohol (98 GL), ethyl alcohol (98 GL) with coffee powder, or molasses. Between January and July 2015, samples were collected fortnightly from 92 plants (12 berries per plant). All samples were evaluated for the presence of adult coffee berry borers. Samples from the previous harvest had an attack incidence of 72.4%. The baited traps captured 4062 H. hampei adults, and showed no statistical difference in capture efficiency among the baits. Pest population peaked in the dry season, with the largest percentage of captured adults occurring in July (31.0%). An average of 18.6% of the collected berries was attacked by the borer and the highest percentage incidence was recorded in July (33.2%). Our results suggest that the coffee berry borer, if not properly managed, could constitute a limiting factor for conilon coffee production in the Brazilian Cerrado.
Schubert, Matthew M; Irwin, Christopher; Seay, Rebekah F; Clarke, Holly E; Allegro, Deanne; Desbrow, Ben
Coffee and caffeine consumption has global popularity. However, evidence for the potential of these dietary constituents to influence energy intake, gut physiology, and appetite perceptions remains unclear. The purpose of this review was to examine the evidence regarding coffee and caffeine's influence on energy intake and appetite control. The literature was examined for studies that assessed the effects of caffeine and coffee on energy intake, gastric emptying, appetite-related hormones, and perceptual measures of appetite. The literature review indicated that coffee administered 3-4.5 h before a meal had minimal influence on food and macronutrient intake, while caffeine ingested 0.5-4 h before a meal may suppress acute energy intake. Evidence regarding the influence of caffeine and coffee on gastric emptying, appetite hormones, and appetite perceptions was equivocal. The influence of covariates such as genetics of caffeine metabolism and bitter taste phenotype remain unknown; longer controlled studies are needed.
Coffee Berry Borer (CBB) is the most devastating insect pest for coffee crops worldwide. We developed a scientific monitoring protocol aimed at capturing and quantifying the dynamics and impact of this invasive insect pest as well as the development of its host plant across a heterogeneous landscape...
Hendon, Christopher H; Colonna-Dashwood, Lesley; Colonna-Dashwood, Maxwell
The flavorsome compounds in coffee beans exist in the form of aprotic charge neutral species, as well as a collection of acids and conjugate salts. The dissolution and extraction of these organic molecules is a process dependent on the dissolved mineral content of the water. It is known that different rates and compositions of coffee extraction are achieved through the control of the water "impurities", Na(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+), which coordinate to nucleophilic motifs in coffee. Using density functional theory, we quantify the thermodynamic binding energies of five familiar coffee-contained acids, caffeine, and a representative flavor component, eugenol. From this, we provide insight into the mechanism and ideal mineral composition of water for extraction of flavorsome compounds in coffee.
Seidman, Lara M; Eckenrode, Kelsey N; Bloom, Ira T; Bashirelahi, Nasir
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages throughout the world. Its stimulating nature is responsible for much of its popularity, which paradoxically has resulted in its reputation for negative effects on consumer health. This review will address recent research on the systemic and dental health effects of coffee. Many of its supposed harmful effects have been disproved, while many protective and beneficial roles for coffee are emerging.
Alfonsi, W. M. V.; Koga-Vicente, A.; Pinto, H. S.; Alfonsi, E. L., Sr.; Coltri, P. P.; Zullo, J., Jr.; Patricio, F. R.; Avila, A. M. H. D.; Gonçalves, R. R. D. V.
Changes in climate conditions and in extreme weather events may affect the food security due to impacts in agricultural production. Despite several researches have been assessed the impacts of extremes in yield crops in climate change scenarios, there is the need to consider the effects in pests and diseases which increase losses in the sector. Coffee Arabica is an important commodity in world and plays a key role in Brazilian agricultural exports. Although the coffee crop has a world highlight, its yield is affected by several factors abiotic or biotic. The weather as well pests and diseases directly influence the development and coffee crop yield. These problems may cause serious damage with significant economic impacts. The coffee rust, caused by the fungus Hemileia vastarix,is among the diseases of greatest impact for the crop. The disease emerged in Brazil in the 70s and is widely spread in all producing regions of coffee in Brazil, and in the world. Regions with favorable weather conditions for the pathogen may exhibit losses ranging from 30% to 50% of the total grain production. The evaluation of extreme weather events of coffee rust disease in futures scenarios was carried out using the climatic data from CMIP5 models, data field of coffee rust disease incidence and, incubation period simulation data for Brazilian municipalities. Two Regional Climate Models were selected, Eta-HadGEM2-ES and Eta-MIROC5, and the Representative Concentration Pathways 8.5 w/m2 was adopted. The outcomes pointed out that in these scenarios the period of incubation tends to decrease affecting the coffee rust disease incidence, which tends to increase. Nevertheless, the changing in average trends tends to benefit the reproduction of the pathogen. Once the temperature threshold for the disease reaches the adverse conditions it may be unfavorable for the incidence.
Higdon, Jane V; Frei, Balz
Coffee is a complex mixture of chemicals that provides significant amounts of chlorogenic acid and caffeine. Unfiltered coffee is a significant source of cafestol and kahweol, which are diterpenes that have been implicated in the cholesterol-raising effects of coffee. The results of epidemiological research suggest that coffee consumption may help prevent several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, Parkinson's disease and liver disease (cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma). Most prospective cohort studies have not found coffee consumption to be associated with significantly increased cardiovascular disease risk. However, coffee consumption is associated with increases in several cardiovascular disease risk factors, including blood pressure and plasma homocysteine. At present, there is little evidence that coffee consumption increases the risk of cancer. For adults consuming moderate amounts of coffee (3-4 cups/d providing 300-400 mg/d of caffeine), there is little evidence of health risks and some evidence of health benefits. However, some groups, including people with hypertension, children, adolescents, and the elderly, may be more vulnerable to the adverse effects of caffeine. In addition, currently available evidence suggests that it may be prudent for pregnant women to limit coffee consumption to 3 cups/d providing no more than 300 mg/d of caffeine to exclude any increased probability of spontaneous abortion or impaired fetal growth.
Blinová, Lenka; Sirotiak, Maroš; Bartošová, Alica; Soldán, Maroš
Coffee is one of the most valuable primary products in the world trade, and also a central and popular part of our culture. However, coffees production generate a lot of coffee wastes and by-products, which, on the one hand, could be used for more applications (sorbent for the removal of heavy metals and dyes from aqueous solutions, production of fuel pellets or briquettes, substrate for biogas, bioethanol or biodiesel production, composting material, production of reusable cups, substrat for mushroom production, source of natural phenolic antioxidants etc.), but, on the other hand, it could be a source of severe contamination posing a serious environmental problem. In this paper, we present an overview of utilising the waste from coffee production.
Choi, Sang Yoon; Hong, Hee-Do; Bae, Hye-Min; Choi, Changsun; Kim, Kyung-Tack
The principal objective of this study was to assess the instrumental and sensory characteristics of ginseng coffee with different ratios of the ingredients: type of coffee bean (Colombia, Brazil, and Indonesia), type of ginseng extract (white ginseng, red ginseng, and America ginseng) and concentration of ginseng extract (3, 6, and 9 w/v %). The sensory optimal condition of white ginseng coffee, red ginseng coffee and America ginseng coffee were as follows: 3% Indonesian coffee bean coated with 3% white ginseng extract, Colombian coffee bean coated with 6% red ginseng extract and Colombian coffee bean coated with 3% American ginseng extract, respectively. In particular, the Colombian coffee bean coated with 6% red ginseng extract had significantly higher scores than other samples in terms of flavor, taste, and overall preference. Additionally, the contents of total ginsenoside and total sugar and total phenolic compounds were also highest in the Colombian coffee bean coated with 6% red ginseng extract. PMID:23717089
Ishikawa, Toshio; Takahashi, Satoshi; Morita, Koji; Okinaga, Hiroko; Teramoto, Tamio
Background Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is classically known to be activated by xenobiotics such as dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although it has been reported that PAHs are contained in roasted coffee beans, in general coffee beverages are not considered to be AhR activators. We tested whether exposure to coffee would activate AhR in cultured cells. Methods HepG2 cells stably expressing an AhR-responsive reporter gene were treated with coffee samples. Also, expression of CYP1A1, an endogenous AhR-responsive gene, was quantitated by RT-PCR and Western blotting in HepG2, Caco-2, and MCF-7 cells, after treatment with coffee. In order to obtain sensitive and reproducible results, all the experiments were performed with the cells placed in either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or pure serum, instead of routinely-used culture medium, whose intrinsic AhR-stimulating activity turned out to be so strong as to interfere with the analyses. Results All the coffee samples tested robustly stimulated AhR-mediated transcription in the reporter gene assays. Of note, to what extent coffee and other AhR agonists activated AhR was different, depending on whether the experiments were done in PBS or serum. CYP1A1 mRNA was induced by coffee, in HepG2, Caco-2, and MCF-7 cells placed in either PBS or serum. CYP1A1 protein expression, which was not detected in these cells incubated in PBS, was also increased by coffee in cells placed in serum. Conclusions By using culture medium-free experimental settings, we have shown that coffee is a strong AhR activator. Our observation may help elucidate as-yet-unrecognized effects of coffee on human health. PMID:25007155
Bagdonaite, Kristina; Derler, Karin; Murkovic, Michael
In this study different Arabica and Robusta coffee beans from different regions of the world were analyzed for acrylamide after roasting in a laboratory roaster. Due to the complex matrix and the comparably low selectivity of the LC-MS at m/ z 72, acrylamide was analyzed after derivatization with 2-mercaptobenzoic acid at m/ z 226. Additionally, the potential precursors of acrylamide (3-aminopropionamide, carbohydrates, and amino acids) were studied. The highest amounts of acrylamide formed in coffee were found during the first minutes of the roasting process [3800 ng/g in Robusta ( Coffea canephora robusta) and 500 ng/g in Arabica ( Coffea arabica)]. When the roasting time was increased, the concentration of acrylamide decreased. It was shown that especially the roasting time and temperature, species of coffee, and amount of precursors in raw material had an influence on acrylamide formation. Robusta coffee contained significantly larger amounts of acrylamide (mean = 708 ng/g) than Arabica coffee (mean = 374 ng/g). Asparagine is the limiting factor for acrylamide formation in coffee. 3-Aminopropionamide formation was observed in a dry model system with mixtures of asparagine with sugars (sucrose, glucose). Thermal decarboxylation and elimination of the alpha-amino group of asparagine at high temperatures (>220 degrees C) led to a measurable but low formation of acrylamide.
Lakshmi, V; Das, Nilanjana
Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine), a natural alkaloid present mainly in tea and coffee products has been suggested as an environmental pollutant. Decaffeination is an important process for the removal of caffeine from coffee industrial wastes. In the present study, caffeine removal (through degradation) by yeast isolate, Trichosporon asahii immobilized on various conventional matrices (sodium alginate, carboxymethyl cellulose, chitosan, agar and agarose) was investigated using the method of entrapment. The biofilm forming ability of T. asahii was monitored by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Exopolysaccharide produced by T asahii biofilm was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy and HPLC analysis. Caffeine removal from coffee processing industrial effluent was found to be 75 and 80 % by alginate immobilized yeast and yeast biofilm formed on gravels over a period of 48 hr in batch mode. Effectiveness of the process was also tested involving the continuous--flow column studies.
Kjærgaard, Maria; Thiele, Maja; Krag, Aleksander
Coffee is one of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. Consequently, it is important to consider the impact of coffee on health and disease. A daily intake of at least three cups of coffee is likely to have beneficial health effects, especially in patients at risk of liver diseases. Coffee has been associated with decreased liver inflammation, prevention of cirrhosis, reduced steatosis and lower incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. It is not yet possible to make clear recommendations, but coffee can likely be included as part of a healthy diet for patients with liver diseases.
Delfiol, Diego Jose Z; Oliveira-Filho, Jose P; Casalecchi, Fernanda L; Kievitsbosch, Thatiane; Hussni, Carlos A; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Araujo, João P; Borges, Alexandre S
In Brazil, coffee (Coffea arabica) husks are reused in several ways due to their abundance, including as stall bedding. However, field veterinarians have reported that horses become intoxicated after ingesting the coffee husks that are used as bedding. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether coffee husk consumption causes intoxication in horses. Six horses fed coast cross hay ad libitum were given access to coffee husks and excitability, restlessness, involuntary muscle tremors, chewing movements and constant tremors of the lips and tongue, excessive sweating and increased respiration and heart rates were the most evident clinical signs. Caffeine levels were measured in the plasma and urine of these horses on two occasions: immediately before the coffee husks were made available to the animals (T0) and at the time of the clinical presentation of intoxication, 56 h after the animals started to consume the husks (T56). The concentrations of caffeine in the plasma (p < 0.001) and urine (p < 0.001) of these animals were significantly greater at T56 than at T0. It was concluded that consumption of coffee husks was toxic to horses due to the high levels of caffeine present in their composition. Therefore, coffee husks pose a risk when used as bedding or as feed for horses.
Baggenstoss, J; Thomann, D; Perren, R; Escher, F
Aroma recovery as determined by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) was compared in coffees resulting from conventional grinding processes, and from wet grinding with cold and hot water. Freshly roasted coffee as well as old, completely degassed coffee was ground in order to estimate the relationship of internal carbon dioxide pressure in freshly roasted coffee with the aroma loss during grinding. The release of volatile aroma substances during grinding was found to be related to the internal carbon dioxide pressure, and wet grinding with cold water was shown to minimize losses of aroma compounds by trapping them in water. Due to the high solubility of roasted coffee in water, the use of wet-grinding equipment is limited to processes where grinding is followed by an extraction step. Combining grinding and extraction by the use of hot water for wet grinding resulted in considerable losses of aroma compounds because of the prolonged heat impact. Therefore, a more promising two-step process involving cold wet grinding and subsequent hot extraction in a closed system was introduced. The yield of aroma compounds in the resulting coffee was substantially higher compared to conventionally ground coffee. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®
Huh, In Sil; Kim, Hyesook; Jo, Hee Kyung; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Jong Seung; Kim, Soo Jin; Kwon, Oran; Oh, Bumjo; Chang, Namsoo
Increased consumption of instant noodles has recently been reported to be positively associated with obesity and cardiometabolic syndrome in South Korea, which has the highest per capita instant noodle consumption worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the association between instant noodle consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors among college students in Seoul. The study subjects consisted of 3,397 college students (1,782 male; 1,615 female) aged 18-29 years who participated in a health checkup. Information on instant noodle consumption was obtained from the participants' answers to a question about their average frequency of instant noodle intake over the 1 year period prior to the survey. Statistical analysis using a general linear model that adjusted for age, body mass index, gender, family income, health-related behaviors, and other dietary factors important for cardiometabolic risk, showed a positive association between the frequency of instant noodle consumption and plasma triglyceride levels, diastolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels in all subjects. Compared to the group with the lowest frequency of instant noodle intake (≤ 1/month), the odds ratio for hypertriglyceridemia in the group with an intake of ≥ 3/week was 2.639 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.393-5.000] for all subjects, while it was 2.149 (95% CI, 1.045-4.419) and 5.992 (95% CI, 1.859-21.824) for male and female students, respectively. In female students, diastolic blood pressure was also higher among more frequent consumers of instant noodles. Our results suggest that frequent consumption of instant noodles may be associated with increased cardiometabolic risk factors among apparently healthy college students aged 18-29 years.
The coffee berry borer continues to pose a formidable challenge to coffee growers worldwide. Due to the cryptic life habit of the insect inside coffee berries, effective pest management strategies have been difficult to develop. A sesquiterpene, (E,E)-a-farnesene, produced by infested coffee berries...
Moreira, Ana S P; Nunes, Fernando M; Domingues, M Rosário; Coimbra, Manuel A
During the roasting process, coffee bean components undergo structural changes leading to the formation of melanoidins, which are defined as high molecular weight nitrogenous and brown-colored compounds. As coffee brew is one of the main sources of melanoidins in the human diet, their health implications are of great interest. In fact, several biological activities, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticariogenic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, and antiglycative activities, have been attributed to coffee melanoidins. To understand the potential of coffee melanoidin health benefits, it is essential to know their chemical structures. The studies undertaken to date dealing with the structural characterization of coffee melanoidins have shown that polysaccharides, proteins, and chlorogenic acids are involved in coffee melanoidin formation. However, exact structures of coffee melanoidins and mechanisms involved in their formation are far to be elucidated. This paper systematizes the available information and provides a critical overview of the knowledge obtained so far about the structure of coffee melanoidins, mechanisms of their formation, and their potential health implications.
Ng, Nathan; Kaye, Elizabeth Krall; Garcia, Raul I
Coffee is a major dietary source of antioxidants as well as of other anti-inflammatory factors. Given the beneficial role of such factors in periodontal disease, whether coffee intake is associated with periodontal disease in adult males was explored. Existing data collected by a prospective, closed-panel cohort study of aging and oral health in adult males was used. Participants included the 1,152 dentate males in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Dental Longitudinal Study who presented for comprehensive medical and dental examinations from 1968 to 1998. Mean age at baseline was 48 years; males were followed for up to 30 years. Participants are not VA patients; rather, they receive their medical and dental care in the private sector. Periodontal status was assessed by probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing, and radiographic alveolar bone loss (ABL), measured on intraoral periapical radiographs with a modified Schei ruler method. Moderate-to-severe periodontal disease was defined as cumulative numbers of teeth exhibiting PD ≥4 mm or ABL ≥40%. Coffee intake was obtained from participant self-reports using the Cornell Medical Index and food frequency questionnaires. Multivariate repeated-measures generalized linear models estimated mean number of teeth with moderate-to-severe disease at each examination by coffee intake level. It was found that higher coffee consumption was associated with a small but significant reduction in number of teeth with periodontal bone loss. No evidence was found that coffee consumption was harmful to periodontal health. Coffee consumption may be protective against periodontal bone loss in adult males.
3. How does ’show time’ (the time between actual pickup of meals and aircraft departure), affect flight kitchen food processing ? 4. What is the...inflexible meal heating process offered through use of convection ovens to reheat the frozen meals. Through discussions with active duty person- nel it...Fruit Punch Iced Tea, Hot Tea Milk Coffee Water Diet, Decaffeinated Drinks % of Responses 39.9 38.3 28.5 23.3 23.0 21.5 13.3 5.0 -59
Mariana; Marwan; Mulana, F.; Yunardi; Ismail, T. A.; Hafdiansyah, M. F.
As the city well known for its culture of coffee drinkers, modern and traditional coffee shops are found everywhere in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. High number of coffee shops in the city generates large quantities of spent coffee grounds as waste without any effort to convert them as other valuable products. In an attempt to reduce environmental problems caused by used coffee grounds, this research was conducted to utilize waste coffee grounds as an activated carbon bio-sorbent. The specific purpose of this research is to improve the performance of coffee grounds bio-sorbent through chemical and physical activation, and to characterize the produced bio-sorbent. Following physical activation by carbonization, a chemical activation was achieved by soaking the carbonized waste coffee grounds in HCl solvent and carbonization process. The activated bio-sorbent was characterized for its morphological properties using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), its functional groups by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectrophotometer (FTIR), and its material characteristics using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Characterization of the activated carbon prepared from waste coffee grounds shows that it meets standard quality requirement in accordance with Indonesian National Standard, SNI 06-3730-1995. Activation process has modified the functional groups of the waste coffee grounds. Comparing to natural waste coffee grounds, the resulted bio-sorbent demonstrated a more porous surface morphology following activation process. Consequently, such bio-sorbent is a potential source to be used as an adsorbent for various applications.
Navy ships. Dehydrated foods like instant potatoes, powdered eggs and dry synthetic vinegar allow more endurance per package with less storage weight...Coffee, frees, dried, instant lb Coffee. roaed, ground Lb 3.oo 0.2W ga mix. dehydrated £1 cyl co Basa, trash, In-shell ai 3.460 0.2ŝ I" Witmes, tose... NOODLES , egg lb 8 F92 RICE, parboiled lb 60 G13 SPAGHETTI lb 68 G19 F82 STARCH, Corn lb 15 G21 SUGAR, CONFECTIONERY, AND NUTS COCONUT, prepared cn 4
Georgiou, S.; Imbach, P. A.; Avelino, J.; Anzueto, F.; del Carmen Calderón, G.
Coffee rust is a disease that has significant impacts on the livelihoods of those who are dependent on the Central American coffee sector. Our investigation has focussed on the weather and climate indicators that favoured the high incidence of coffee rust disease in Central America in 2012 by assessing daily temperature and precipitation data available from 81 weather stations in the INSIVUMEH and ANACAFE networks located in Guatemala. The temperature data were interpolated to determine the corresponding daily data at 1250 farms located across Guatemala, between 400 and 1800 m elevation. Additionally, CHIRPS five day (pentad) data has been used to assess the anomalies between the 2012 and the climatological average precipitation data at farm locations. The weather conditions in 2012 displayed considerable variations from the climatological data. In general the minimum daily temperatures were higher than the corresponding climatology while the maximum temperatures were lower. As a result, the daily diurnal temperature range was generally lower than the corresponding climatological range, leading to an increased number of days where the temperatures fell within the optimal range for either influencing the susceptibility of the coffee plants to coffee rust development during the dry season, or for the development of lesions on the coffee leaves during the wet season. The coffee rust latency period was probably shortened as a result, and farms at high altitudes were impacted due to these increases in minimum temperature. Factors taken into consideration in developing indicators for coffee rust development include: the diurnal temperature range, altitude, the environmental lapse rate and the phenology. We will present the results of our study and discuss the potential for each of the derived weather and climatological indicators to be used within risk assessments and to eventually be considered for use within an early warning system for coffee rust disease.
Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Hirasawa, Ai; Washio, Takuro; Ogoh, Shigehiko
Drinking coffee causes caffeine-induced physiological alterations such as increases in arterial blood pressure, sympathetic nerve activity, cerebral vasoconstriction, etc., and these physiological alterations may be associated with a reduced risk of cerebral vascular disease. However, the effect of coffee drinking on dynamic cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation remains unclear. The aim of this study was to test our hypothesis that coffee drinking enhances dynamic cerebral autoregulation. Twelve healthy young subjects participated in the present study. After a 5 min baseline measurement in a semi-recumbent position on the hospital bed, each subject drank water (CON) as a placebo condition or coffee beverage (Coffee INT). Arterial blood pressure and middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv) were measured continuously throughout the experiment. At 30 min after the intake of either water or coffee, dynamic cerebral autoregulation was examined using a thigh cuffs occlusion and release technique. Each condition was randomly performed on a different day. Under Coffee INT condition, mean arterial blood pressure was increased (P = 0.01) and mean MCAv was decreased (P = 0.01) from the baseline. The rate of regulation (RoR), as an index of dynamic cerebral autoregulation, during coffee condition was significantly higher than that during CON (P = 0.0009). The findings of the present study suggest that coffee drinking augments dynamic CBF regulation with cerebral vasoconstriction. This phenomenon may be associated with a reduction in the risk of cerebral vascular disease.
Alfaro, Tiago M; Monteiro, Rita A; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Cordeiro, Carlos Robalo
The widespread consumption of coffee means that any biological effects from its use can lead to significant public health consequences. Chronic pulmonary diseases are extremely prevalent and responsible for one of every six deaths on a global level. Major medical databases for studies reporting on the effects of coffee or caffeine consumption on a wide range of non-malignant respiratory outcomes, including incidence, prevalence, evolution or severity of respiratory disease in adults were searched. Studies on lung function and respiratory mortality were also considered. Fifteen studies, including seven cohort, six cross-sectional, one case control and one randomized control trial were found. Coffee consumption was generally associated with a reduction in prevalence of asthma. The association of coffee with natural honey was an effective treatment for persistent post-infectious cough. One case-control study found higher risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with coffee consumption. No association was found with the evolution of COPD or sarcoidosis. Coffee was associated with a reduction in respiratory mortality, and one study found improved lung function in coffee consumers. Smoking was a significant confounder in most studies. Coffee consumption was associated with some positive effects on the respiratory system. There was however limited available evidence, mostly from cross sectional and retrospective studies. The only prospective cohort studies were those reporting on respiratory mortality. These results suggest that coffee consumption may be a part of a healthy lifestyle leading to reduced respiratory morbidity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pratt, Robert C.
Instant messaging systems--a type of social networking technology that connects people who are physically separated but working together--have seen a dramatic rise in use in globally dispersed organizations, yet there is an absence of academic research in predictive factors of instant messaging adoption. This study examined the factors influencing…
Huh, In Sil; Kim, Hyesook; Jo, Hee Kyung; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Jong Seung; Kim, Soo Jin; Kwon, Oran
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Increased consumption of instant noodles has recently been reported to be positively associated with obesity and cardiometabolic syndrome in South Korea, which has the highest per capita instant noodle consumption worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the association between instant noodle consumption and cardiometabolic risk factors among college students in Seoul. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study subjects consisted of 3,397 college students (1,782 male; 1,615 female) aged 18-29 years who participated in a health checkup. Information on instant noodle consumption was obtained from the participants' answers to a question about their average frequency of instant noodle intake over the 1 year period prior to the survey. RESULTS Statistical analysis using a general linear model that adjusted for age, body mass index, gender, family income, health-related behaviors, and other dietary factors important for cardiometabolic risk, showed a positive association between the frequency of instant noodle consumption and plasma triglyceride levels, diastolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels in all subjects. Compared to the group with the lowest frequency of instant noodle intake (≤ 1/month), the odds ratio for hypertriglyceridemia in the group with an intake of ≥ 3/week was 2.639 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.393–5.000] for all subjects, while it was 2.149 (95% CI, 1.045–4.419) and 5.992 (95% CI, 1.859–21.824) for male and female students, respectively. In female students, diastolic blood pressure was also higher among more frequent consumers of instant noodles. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that frequent consumption of instant noodles may be associated with increased cardiometabolic risk factors among apparently healthy college students aged 18–29 years. PMID:28584580
Radočaj, Olga; Dimić, Etelka; Tsao, Rong
A mixture, simplex centroid, 2 components experimental design was used to evaluate the addition of hemp seed oil press-cake and decaffeinated green tea leaves, as functional ingredients to assess nutritional characteristics and antioxidant properties of gluten-free crackers. All samples with added hemp flour had much better nutritional qualities than the brown rice flour crackers in terms of higher protein, crude fibers, minerals, and essential fatty acids content. Likewise, all samples with added decaffeinated green tea leaves had much better antioxidant properties than crackers with no added green tea leaves. All crackers with added hemp flour had a significantly increased fiber content (39% to 249%) and decreased carbohydrate content (8.4% to 42.3%), compared to the brown rice flour crackers. All samples had antioxidant properties, even without the addition of green tea leaves. Optimization of the responses was conducted based on the maximized values for protein, fibers, omega-3 fatty acids content, as well as for the antioxidant activity and overall score. The suggested values for the addition of the hemp oil press-cake was 20% (total flour weight) with 4 g of decaffeinated green tea leaves that would provide protein content of 14.1 g/100 g; fibers content of 8.4 g/100 g; omega-3 fatty acids content of 3.2 g/100 g; antioxidant activity measured via 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl value of 30.3 μmol TE/g d.w.; and an overall score of 8.9. This formulation has demonstrated potential application in the baking industry and marketing of these gluten-free crackers as a value-added functional product. Hemp seed oil press-cake as a by-product of cold-pressed oil processing and brown rice flour were used to design a functional gluten-free snack-type product-savory crackers. All crackers were high in minerals, fibers, and omega-3 fatty acids with a desirable omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids ratio. Green tea leaves were added to improve antioxidant activity, which greatly
Loomba, Rohit S; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Arora, Rohit R
Previous studies have examined whether or not an association exists between the consumption of caffeinated coffee to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. This study aimed to delineate this association using population representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. Patients were included in the study if all the following criteria were met: (1) follow-up mortality data were available, (2) age of at least 45 years, and (3) reported amount of average coffee consumption. A total of 8608 patients were included, with patients stratified into the following groups of average daily coffee consumption: (1) no coffee consumption, (2) less than 1 cup, (3) 1 cup a day, (4) 2-3 cups, (5) 4-5 cups, (6) more than 6 cups a day. Odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and P values were calculated for univariate analysis to compare the prevalence of all-cause mortality, ischemia-related mortality, congestive heart failure-related mortality, and stroke-related mortality, using the no coffee consumption group as reference. These were then adjusted for confounding factors for a multivariate analysis. P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Univariate analysis demonstrated an association between coffee consumption and mortality, although this became insignificant on multivariate analysis. Coffee consumption, thus, does not seem to impact all-cause mortality or specific cardiovascular mortality. These findings do differ from those of recently published studies. Coffee consumption of any quantity seems to be safe without any increased mortality risk. There may be some protective effects but additional data are needed to further delineate this.
Background In Brazil, coffee (Coffea arabica) husks are reused in several ways due to their abundance, including as stall bedding. However, field veterinarians have reported that horses become intoxicated after ingesting the coffee husks that are used as bedding. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether coffee husk consumption causes intoxication in horses. Results Six horses fed coast cross hay ad libitum were given access to coffee husks and excitability, restlessness, involuntary muscle tremors, chewing movements and constant tremors of the lips and tongue, excessive sweating and increased respiration and heart rates were the most evident clinical signs. Caffeine levels were measured in the plasma and urine of these horses on two occasions: immediately before the coffee husks were made available to the animals (T0) and at the time of the clinical presentation of intoxication, 56 h after the animals started to consume the husks (T56). The concentrations of caffeine in the plasma (p < 0.001) and urine (p < 0.001) of these animals were significantly greater at T56 than at T0. Conclusions It was concluded that consumption of coffee husks was toxic to horses due to the high levels of caffeine present in their composition. Therefore, coffee husks pose a risk when used as bedding or as feed for horses. PMID:22239973
Salomone, Federico; Galvano, Fabio; Li Volti, Giovanni
Coffee is the most consumed beverage worldwide. Epidemiological studies with prospective cohorts showed that coffee intake is associated with reduced cardiovascular and all-cause mortality independently of caffeine content. Cohort and case-control studies reported an inverse association between coffee consumption and the degree of liver fibrosis as well as the development of liver cancer. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of coffee have been recently confirmed by large meta-analyses. In the last two decades, various in vitro and in vivo studies evaluated the molecular determinants for the hepatoprotective effects of coffee. In the present article, we aimed to critically review experimental evidence regarding the active components and the molecular bases underlying the beneficial role of coffee against chronic liver diseases. Almost all studies highlighted the beneficial effects of this beverage against liver fibrosis with the most solid results indicating a pivot role for both caffeine and chlorogenic acids. In particular, in experimental models of fibrosis, caffeine was shown to inhibit hepatic stellate cell activation by blocking adenosine receptors, and emerging evidence indicated that caffeine may also favorably impact angiogenesis and hepatic hemodynamics. On the other side, chlorogenic acids, potent phenolic antioxidants, suppress liver fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis by reducing oxidative stress and counteract steatogenesis through the modulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis in the liver. Overall, these molecular insights may have translational significance and suggest that coffee components need clinical evaluation.
Philpott, Stacy M; Bichier, Peter; Rice, Robert; Greenberg, Russell
Coffee agroecosystems are critical to the success of conservation efforts in Latin America because of their ecological and economic importance. Coffee certification programs may offer one way to protect biodiversity and maintain farmer livelihoods. Established coffee certification programs fall into three distinct, but not mutually exclusive categories: organic, fair trade, and shade. The results of previous studies demonstrate that shade certification can benefit biodiversity, but it remains unclear whether a farmer's participation in any certification program can provide both ecological and economic benefits. To assess the value of coffee certification for conservation efforts in the region, we examined economic and ecological aspects of coffee production for eight coffee cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that were certified organic, certified organic and fair trade, or uncertified. We compared vegetation and ant and bird diversity in coffee farms and forests, and interviewed farmers to determine coffee yield, gross revenue from coffee production, and area in coffee production. Although there are no shade-certified farms in the study region, we used vegetation data to determine whether cooperatives would qualify for shade certification. We found no differences in vegetation characteristics, ant or bird species richness, or fraction of forest fauna in farms based on certification. Farmers with organic and organic and fair-trade certification had more land under cultivation and in some cases higher revenue than uncertified farmers. Coffee production area did not vary among farm types. No cooperative passed shade-coffee certification standards because the plantations lacked vertical stratification, yet vegetation variables for shade certification significantly correlated with ant and bird diversity. Although farmers in the Chiapas highlands with organic and/or fair-trade certification may reap some economic benefits from their certification status, their farms may
Benvenga, Salvatore; Bartolone, Luigi; Pappalardo, Maria Angela; Russo, Antonia; Lapa, Daniela; Giorgianni, Grazia; Saraceno, Giovanna; Trimarchi, Francesco
To report eight case histories, and in vivo and in vitro studies showing coffee's potential to impair thyroxine (T4) intestinal absorption. Of eight women with inappropriately high or nonsuppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) when T4 was swallowed with coffee/espresso, six consented to the evaluation of their T4 intestinal absorption. This in vivo test was also administered to nine volunteers. In three separate tests, two 100 microg T4 tablets were swallowed with coffee, water, or water followed, 60 minutes later, by coffee. Serum T4 was assayed over the 4-hour period of the test. Two patients and two volunteers also agreed on having tested the intestinal absorption of T4 swallowed with solubilized dietary fibers. In the in vitro studies, classical recovery tests on known concentrations of T4 were performed in the presence of saline, coffee, or known T4 sequestrants (dietary fibers, aluminium hydroxide, and sucralfate). For the in vivo test, average and peak incremental rise of serum T4 (AIRST4 and PIRST4), time of maximal incremental rise of serum T4 (TMIRST4), and area under the curve (AUC) were determined. In patients and volunteers, the four outcome measures were similar in the water and water + coffee tests. In patients and volunteers, compared to water, coffee lowered AIRST4 (by 36% and 29%), PIRST4 (by 30% and 19%), and AUC (by 36% and 27%) and delayed TMIRST4 (by 38 and 43 minutes); bran was a superior interferer. In the in vitro studies, coffee was weaker than known T4 sequestrants. Coffee should be added to the list of interferers of T4 intestinal absorption, and T4 to the list of compounds whose absorption is affected by coffee.
Bøhn, Siv K; Ward, Natalie C; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Croft, Kevin D
Tea and coffee have been associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), both positively and negatively. Epidemiological data suggest that black and green tea may reduce the risk of both coronary heart disease and stroke by between 10 and 20%. Experimental and clinical trial data generally indicate either neutral or beneficial effects on risk factors and pathways linked to the development of CVD. Controversy still exists regarding the effects of coffee, where there have been concerns regarding associations with hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension and myocardial infarction. However, long term moderate intake of coffee is not associated with detrimental effects in healthy individuals and may even protect against the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The detrimental effects of coffee may be associated with the acute pressor effects, most likely due to caffeine at high daily intakes, and lipids from boiled coffee can contribute to raised serum cholesterol. Genetic polymorphisms in enzymes involved in uptake, metabolism and excretion of tea and coffee compounds are also associated with differential biological effects. Potential mechanisms by which tea and coffee phytochemicals can exert effects for CVD protection include the regulation of vascular tone through effects on endothelial function, improved glucose metabolism, increased reverse cholesterol transport and inhibition of foam cell formation, inhibition of oxidative stress, immunomodulation and effects on platelet function (adhesion and activation, aggregation and clotting). The phytochemical compounds in tea and coffee and their metabolites are suggested to influence protective endogenous pathways by modulation of gene-expression. It is not known exactly which compounds are responsible for the suggestive protective effects of tea and coffee. Although many biologically active compounds have been identified with known biological effects, tea and coffee contain many unidentified compounds with potential
Sharif, Kassem; Watad, Abdulla; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Adawi, Mohammad; Amital, Howard; Shoenfeld, Yehuda
Coffee is one of the world's most consumed beverage. In the last decades, coffee consumption has attracted a huge body of research due to its impact on health. Recent scientific evidences showed that coffee intake could be associated with decreased mortality from cardiovascular and neurological diseases, diabetes type II, as well as from endometrial and liver cancer, among others. In this review, on the basis of available data in the literature, we aimed to investigate the association between coffee intake and its influence on the immune system and the insurgence of the most relevant autoimmune diseases. While some studies reported conflicting results, general trends have been identified. Coffee consumption seems to increase the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). By contrast, coffee consumption may exert a protective role against multiple sclerosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and ulcerative colitis. Concerning other autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, primary biliary cholangitis and Crohn's disease, no significant association was found. In other studies, coffee consumption was shown to influence disease course and management options. Coffee intake led to a decrease in insulin sensitivity in T1DM, in methotrexate efficacy in RA, and in levothyroxine absorption in Hashimoto's disease. Further, coffee consumption was associated with cross reactivity with gliadin antibodies in celiac patients. Data on certain autoimmune diseases like systemic sclerosis, Sjögren's syndrome, and Behçet's disease, among others, are lacking in the existent literature. As such, further research is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Studies of spent coffee grounds (SCGs) as a potential biodiesel feedstock in recent years mostly started from solvent extraction to obtain coffee oil, and then converted it into coffee biodiesel in two steps, acid esterification followed by alkaline transesterification. This paper presents a direct ...
In low-gravity environments like the space station, fluids tend to get ‘sticky.’ Surface tension and capillary effects, which are overwhelmed by gravity on Earth, rule the day in space. As a result, coffee tends to cling to the walls of the cup. The zero-G coffee cup solves these problems by 'going with the flow': putting the strange behavior of fluid in microgravity to work.
Sabag, N.; Kosolapov, S.
This paper presents the outcomes of the preliminary survey in which the method of IFS was used to integrate motivating questions into the lecture presentations in order to increase the students' involvement. Instant Feedback System (IFS) enables the educators to improve their own teaching by getting instant and real-time feedback about how clear…
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Guertin, Kristin A; Loftfield, Erikka; Boca, Simina M; Sampson, Joshua N; Moore, Steven C; Xiao, Qian; Huang, Wen-Yi; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Freedman, Neal D; Cross, Amanda J; Sinha, Rashmi
Coffee intake may be inversely associated with colorectal cancer; however, previous studies have been inconsistent. Serum coffee metabolites are integrated exposure measures that may clarify associations with cancer and elucidate underlying mechanisms. Our aims were 2-fold as follows: 1) to identify serum metabolites associated with coffee intake and 2) to examine these metabolites in relation to colorectal cancer. In a nested case-control study of 251 colorectal cancer cases and 247 matched control subjects from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, we conducted untargeted metabolomics analyses of baseline serum by using ultrahigh-performance liquid-phase chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Usual coffee intake was self-reported in a food-frequency questionnaire. We used partial Pearson correlations and linear regression to identify serum metabolites associated with coffee intake and conditional logistic regression to evaluate associations between coffee metabolites and colorectal cancer. After Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons (P = 0.05 ÷ 657 metabolites), 29 serum metabolites were positively correlated with coffee intake (partial correlation coefficients: 0.18-0.61; P < 7.61 × 10(-5)); serum metabolites most highly correlated with coffee intake (partial correlation coefficients >0.40) included trigonelline (N'-methylnicotinate), quinate, and 7 unknown metabolites. Of 29 serum metabolites, 8 metabolites were directly related to caffeine metabolism, and 3 of these metabolites, theophylline (OR for 90th compared with 10th percentiles: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.79; P-linear trend = 0.006), caffeine (OR for 90th compared with 10th percentiles: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.89; P-linear trend = 0.015), and paraxanthine (OR for 90th compared with 10th percentiles: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.94; P-linear trend = 0.027), were inversely associated with colorectal cancer. Serum metabolites can
Cruz, Rebeca; Cardoso, Maria M; Fernandes, Luana; Oliveira, Marta; Mendes, Eulália; Baptista, Paula; Morais, Simone; Casal, Susana
Espresso spent coffee grounds were chemically characterized to predict their potential, as a source of bioactive compounds, by comparison with the ones from the soluble coffee industry. Sampling included a total of 50 samples from 14 trademarks, collected in several coffee shops and prepared with distinct coffee machines. A high compositional variability was verified, particularly with regard to such water-soluble components as caffeine, total chlorogenic acids (CGA), and minerals, supported by strong positive correlations with total soluble solids retained. This is a direct consequence of the reduced extraction efficiency during espresso coffee preparation, leaving a significant pool of bioactivity retained in the extracted grounds. Besides the lipid (12.5%) and nitrogen (2.3%) contents, similar to those of industrial coffee residues, the CGA content (478.9 mg/100 g), for its antioxidant capacity, and its caffeine content (452.6 mg/100 g), due to its extensive use in the food and pharmaceutical industries, justify the selective assembly of this residue for subsequent use.
Guessous, Idris; Eap, Chin B; Bochud, Murielle
The relationship between blood pressure (BP) and coffee is of major interest given its widespread consumption and the public health burden of high BP. Yet, there is no specific recommendation regarding coffee intake in existing hypertension guidelines. The lack of a definitive understanding of the BP-coffee relationship is partially attributable to issues that we discuss in this review, issues such as acute vs. chronic effects, genetic and smoking effect modifications, and coffee vs. caffeine effects. We also present evidence from meta-analyses of studies on the association of BP with coffee intake. The scope of this review is limited to the latest advances published with a specific focus on caffeine, acknowledging that caffeine is only one among numerous components in coffee that may influence BP. Finally, considering the state of the research, we propose a mechanism by which the CYP1A2 gene and enzyme influence BP via inhibition of the adenosine receptor differentially in smokers and non-smokers.
Ranheim, Trine; Halvorsen, Bente
Coffee is probably the most frequently ingested beverage worldwide. Especially Scandinavia has a high prevalence of coffee-drinkers, and they traditionally make their coffee by boiling ground coffee beans and water. Because of its consumption in most countries in the world, it is interesting, from both a public and a scientific perspective, to discuss its potential benefits or adverse aspects in relation to especially two main health problems, namely cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of boiled coffee is associated with elevated risk for cardiovascular disease. This is mainly due to the two diterpenes identified in the lipid fraction of coffee grounds, cafestol and kahweol. These compounds promote increased plasma concentration of cholesterol in humans. Coffee is also a rich source of many other ingredients that may contribute to its biological activity, like heterocyclic compounds that exhibit strong antioxidant activity. Based on the literature reviewed, it is apparent that moderate daily filtered, coffee intake is not associated with any adverse effects on cardiovascular outcome. On the contrary, the data shows that coffee has a significant antioxidant activity, and may have an inverse association with the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Bertrand, B; Boulanger, R; Dussert, S; Ribeyre, F; Berthiot, L; Descroix, F; Joët, T
Coffee grown at high elevations fetches a better price than that grown in lowland regions. This study was aimed at determining whether climatic conditions during bean development affected sensory perception of the coffee beverage and combinations of volatile compounds in green coffee. Green coffee samples from 16 plots representative of the broad range of climatic variations in Réunion Island were compared by sensory analysis. Volatiles were extracted by solid phase micro-extraction and the volatile compounds were analysed by GC-MS. The results revealed that, among the climatic factors, the mean air temperature during seed development greatly influenced the sensory profile. Positive quality attributes such as acidity, fruity character and flavour quality were correlated and typical of coffees produced at cool climates. Two volatile compounds (ethanal and acetone) were identified as indicators of these cool temperatures. Among detected volatiles, most of the alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons and ketones appeared to be positively linked to elevated temperatures and high solar radiation, while the sensory profiles displayed major defects (i.e. green, earthy flavour). Two alcohols (butan-1,3-diol and butan-2,3-diol) were closely correlated with a reduction in aromatic quality, acidity and an increase in earthy and green flavours. We assumed that high temperatures induce accumulation of these compounds in green coffee, and would be detected as off-flavours, even after roasting. Climate change, which generally involves a substantial increase in average temperatures in mountainous tropical regions, could be expected to have a negative impact on coffee quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Coffee and its impact on health continue to be the topic of much heated debate. Until recently, coffee consumption has been believed to be associated with adverse effects, mainly cardiovascular problems. However, the vast majority of contemporary sources not only emphasize a lack of detrimental effect, but also suggest a beneficial effect of coffee intake. According to the current state of knowledge, coffee consumption is not associated with the majority of cancers although the results of studies on bladder and lung cancer remain conflicting. In case of colorectal, liver and breast cancers, coffee drinking may even have a protective effect. Coffee contains numerous compounds, potentially beneficial as well as harmful. The former include polyphenols which inhibit harmful oxidation processes in the body, while the latter include acrylamide, whose high intake in daily diet may have carcinogenic action. The impact of coffee on the human body is associated also with other factors, e.g. the rate of metabolism and other individual features.
Salomone, Federico; Galvano, Fabio; Li Volti, Giovanni
Coffee is the most consumed beverage worldwide. Epidemiological studies with prospective cohorts showed that coffee intake is associated with reduced cardiovascular and all-cause mortality independently of caffeine content. Cohort and case-control studies reported an inverse association between coffee consumption and the degree of liver fibrosis as well as the development of liver cancer. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of coffee have been recently confirmed by large meta-analyses. In the last two decades, various in vitro and in vivo studies evaluated the molecular determinants for the hepatoprotective effects of coffee. In the present article, we aimed to critically review experimental evidence regarding the active components and the molecular bases underlying the beneficial role of coffee against chronic liver diseases. Almost all studies highlighted the beneficial effects of this beverage against liver fibrosis with the most solid results indicating a pivot role for both caffeine and chlorogenic acids. In particular, in experimental models of fibrosis, caffeine was shown to inhibit hepatic stellate cell activation by blocking adenosine receptors, and emerging evidence indicated that caffeine may also favorably impact angiogenesis and hepatic hemodynamics. On the other side, chlorogenic acids, potent phenolic antioxidants, suppress liver fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis by reducing oxidative stress and counteract steatogenesis through the modulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis in the liver. Overall, these molecular insights may have translational significance and suggest that coffee components need clinical evaluation. PMID:28124992
Alicandro, Gianfranco; Tavani, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo
We reviewed available evidence on coffee drinking and the risk of all cancers and selected cancers updated to May 2016. Coffee consumption is not associated with overall cancer risk. A meta-analysis reported a pooled relative risk (RR) for an increment of 1 cup of coffee/day of 1.00 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-1.01] for all cancers. Coffee drinking is associated with a reduced risk of liver cancer. A meta-analysis of cohort studies found an RR for an increment of consumption of 1 cup/day of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81-0.90) for liver cancer and a favorable effect on liver enzymes and cirrhosis. Another meta-analysis showed an inverse relation for endometrial cancer risk, with an RR of 0.92 (95% CI: 0.88-0.96) for an increment of 1 cup/day. A possible decreased risk was found in some studies for oral/pharyngeal cancer and for advanced prostate cancer. Although data are mixed, overall, there seems to be some favorable effect of coffee drinking on colorectal cancer in case-control studies, in the absence of a consistent relation in cohort studies. For bladder cancer, the results are not consistent; however, any possible direct association is not dose and duration related, and might depend on a residual confounding effect of smoking. A few studies suggest an increased risk of childhood leukemia after maternal coffee drinking during pregnancy, but data are limited and inconsistent. Although the results of studies are mixed, the overall evidence suggests no association of coffee intake with cancers of the stomach, pancreas, lung, breast, ovary, and prostate overall. Data are limited, with RR close to unity for other neoplasms, including those of the esophagus, small intestine, gallbladder and biliary tract, skin, kidney, brain, thyroid, as well as for soft tissue sarcoma and lymphohematopoietic cancer.
Radzeviciene, Lina; Ostrauskas, Rytas
The aim of the study was to determine the association between coffee consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A case-control study included 234 cases with newly confirmed diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and 468 controls who were free of the disease in 2001. Cases and controls were matched by gender and age (+/-5 years). Data on age, education level, occupation status, marital status, family history of diabetes, lifestyle (dietary habits, smoking habits, coffee consumption, alcohol consumption, physical activity), and stress were collected via a questionnaire. Variables were retained in models as confounders when their inclusion changed the value of the OR by more than 10% in any exposure category. Conditional logistic regression to compute the odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI), and P for trend was used. After adjustment for possible confounders (family history of diabetes, body mass index, eating speed, morning exercise, cigarette smoking, years of education, and stress), a statistically significant relationship was observed between type 2 diabetes mellitus and coffee consumption. Individuals consuming four or more cups of coffee per day were at lower risk of 2 diabetes mellitus (OR=0.51; 95% CI, 0.27-0.97) compared to those who consumed one or less than one cup of coffee per day. Habitual coffee consumption of four or more cups per day might be related to the lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Stadler, Richard H; Varga, Natalia; Milo, Christian; Schilter, Benoit; Vera, Francia Arce; Welti, Dieter H
Recent model studies on trigonelline decomposition have identified nonvolatile alkylpyridiniums as major reaction products under certain physicochemical conditions. The quaternary base 1-methylpyridinium was isolated from roasted and ground coffee and purified by ion exchange and thin-layer chromatography. The compound was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C) and mass spectrometry techniques. A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to quantify the alkaloid in coffee by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The formation of alkylpyridiniums is positively correlated to the roasting degree in arabica coffee, and highest levels of 1-methylpyridinium, reaching up to 0.25% on a per weight basis, were found in dark roasted coffee beans. Analyses of coffee extracts also showed the presence of dimethylpyridinium, at concentrations ranging from 5 to 25 mg/kg. This is the first report on the isolation and quantification of alkylpyridiniums in coffee. These compounds, described here in detail for the first time, may have an impact on the flavor/aroma profile of coffee directly (e.g., bitterness), or indirectly as precursors, and potentially open new avenues in the flavor/aroma modulation of coffee.
Arii, Yasuhiro; Nishizawa, Kaho
Espresso coffee foam, called crema, is known to be a marker of the quality of espresso coffee extraction. However, the role of foam in coffee temperature has not been quantitatively clarified. In this study, we used an automatic machine for espresso coffee extraction. We evaluated whether the foam prepared using the machine was suitable for foam analysis. After extraction, the percentage and consistency of the foam were measured using various techniques, and changes in the foam volume were tracked over time. Our extraction method, therefore, allowed consistent preparation of high-quality foam. We also quantitatively determined that the foam phase slowed cooling of the liquid phase after extraction. High-quality foam plays an important role in delaying the cooling of espresso coffee.
Ulloa, José Armando; Ibarra-Zavala, Silvia Jazmin; Ramírez-Salas, Silvia Patricia; Rosas-Ulloa, Petra; Ramírez-Ramírez, José Carmen; Ulloa-Rangel, Blanca Estela
Instant whole beans obtained by drying at 25 °C were evaluated for their chemical, physicochemical, nutritional, microbiological, sensory and rehydration characteristics. The proximal composition of instant whole beans was typical of this kind of food, whereas a w and L* , a* and b* values were 0.639, 98.55, -0.28 and -1.52, respectively. In instant whole beans, 75% of the essential amino acids had a value greater or equal to the reference standard for adult humans; the protein quality in terms of chemical score was 95%. Microbiological counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, moulds, yeasts and total coliforms of rehydrated instant whole beans were <10 CFU/g, whereas the scores for colour, flavour, texture and overall acceptability were 7.22, 7.68, 7.24 and 7.34, respectively, on a 1-9 hedonic scale. The logarithmic and Pilosof models showed close fits (R 2 >0.99) to the experimental data for drying of cooked beans and rehydration of instant whole beans, respectively. In the light of the chemical, physicochemical, nutritional, microbiological, sensory and rehydration characteristics of instant whole beans found in this study, drying at 25 °C is recommended for the production of such food.
Çelik, Ecem Evrim; Gökmen, Vural
This study aimed to investigate the interactions between insoluble fractions of different coffee infusions and major cocoa free antioxidants, catechin and epicatechin, as well as the interactions between different coffee infusions and dark chocolate. Espresso, filtered coffee, French press and Turkish coffee were used for this purpose. Antioxidant capacity (AC) measurements were performed by monitoring the percentage inhibition of 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical. Multivariate approach was adopted for experimental design and data analysis steps. In dry basis, the AC values of infusions (mmol Trolox/kg) were ranged between 953 ± 2.6 and 1184 ± 11.3, while the AC values for their insoluble fractions were ranged between 45 ± 0.0 and 105-1.3. Interactions between the insoluble fractions of coffee infusions and catechins were synergistic for espresso and additive/antagonistic for the other infusions. Interactions between coffee infusions and chocolate were synergistic for French press and Turkish coffee and additive/antagonistic for the other infusions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Snowdon, D A; Phillips, R L
In 1960, the coffee consumption habits and other lifestyle characteristics of 23,912 white Seventh-day Adventists were assessed by questionnaire. Between 1960 and 1980, deaths due to cancer were identified. There were positive associations between coffee consumption and fatal colon and bladder cancer. The group consuming two or more cups of coffee per day had an estimated relative risk (RR) of 1.7 for fatal colon cancer and 2.0 for fatal bladder cancer, compared to the group that consumed less than one cup per day (RR = 1.0). These positive associations were apparently not confounded by age, sex, cigarette smoking, or meat consumption habits. In this study, there were no significant or suggestive associations between coffee consumption and fatal pancreatic, breast, and ovarian cancer, or a combined group of all other cancer sites. PMID:6742274
Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...
As a rapidly growing global consumer base appreciates the pleasures of coffee and chocolate and health warnings are being replaced by more encouraging sounds from medical experts, their supply is under threat from climate change, pests and financial problems. Coffee farmers in Central America, in particular, are highly vulnerable to the impact of climate change, made worse by financial insecurity. Michael Gross reports. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Isshiki, Marina; Umezawa, Kazuo; Tamura, Hiroomi
Coffee is a beverage that is consumed world-wide on a daily basis and is known to induce a series of metabolic and pharmacological effects, especially in the digestive tract. However, little is known concerning the effects of coffee on transporters in the gastrointestinal tract. To elucidate the effect of coffee on intestinal transporters, we investigated its effect on expression of the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) in a human colorectal cancer cell line, Caco-2. Coffee induced BCRP gene expression in Caco-2 cells in a coffee-dose dependent manner. Coffee treatment of Caco-2 cells also increased the level of BCRP protein, which corresponded to induction of gene expression, and also increased cellular efflux activity, as judged by Hoechst33342 accumulation. None of the major constituents of coffee tested could induce BCRP gene expression. The constituent of coffee that mediated this induction was extractable with ethyl acetate and was produced during the roasting process. Dehydromethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ), an inhibitor of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, inhibited coffee-mediated induction of BCRP gene expression, suggesting involvement of NF-κB in this induction. Our data suggest that daily consumption of coffee might induce BCRP expression in the gastrointestinal tract and may affect the bioavailability of BCRP substrates.
Wang, Xiuju; Lim, Loong-Tak
Two CO 2 formation pathways (chlorogenic acid (CGA) degradation and Maillard reaction) during coffee roasting were investigated. CGA is shown not a major contributor to CO 2 formation, as heating of this compound under typical roasting conditions did not release a large quantity of CO 2 . However, heating of a CGA moiety, caffeic acid, resulted in high yield of CO 2 (>98%), suggesting that CGA hydrolysis could be the rate limiting step for CO 2 formation from CGA. A large amount of CO 2 was detected from glycine-sucrose model system under coffee roasting conditions, implying the importance of Maillard reactions in CO 2 formation. Further studies on the heating of various components isolated from green coffee beans showed that CO 2 was generated from various green coffee components, including water insoluble proteins and polysaccharides. Around 50% of CO 2 was formed from thermal reactions of lower molecular weight compounds that represent ∼25% by weight in green coffee. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Severini, Carla; Derossi, Antonio; Fiore, Anna G; De Pilli, Teresa; Alessandrino, Ofelia; Del Mastro, Arcangela
To improve the quality of espresso coffee, the variables under the control of the barista, such as grinding grade, coffee quantity and pressure applied to the coffee cake, as well as their variance, are of great importance. A nonlinear mixed effect modeling was used to obtain information on the changes in chemical attributes of espresso coffee (EC) as a function of the variability of extraction conditions. During extraction, the changes in volume were well described by a logistic model, whereas the chemical attributes were better fit by a first-order kinetic. The major source of information was contained in the grinding grade, which accounted for 87-96% of the variance of the experimental data. The variability of the grinding produced changes in caffeine content in the range of 80.03 mg and 130.36 mg when using a constant grinding grade of 6.5. The variability in volume and chemical attributes of EC is large. Grinding had the most important effect as the variability in particle size distribution observed for each grinding level had a profound effect on the quality of EC. Standardization of grinding would be of crucial importance for obtaining all espresso coffees with a high quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
Contends that the English coffee house was a social and economic institution that served as a daily newspaper and a center of commerce. Discusses coffee house origins, development, significance, and decline. Concludes that the coffee house served as a transition from medieval society to an age of rationality and industry. (CFR)
E. A. De Nadai Fernandes; P. Bode; F. S. Tagliaferro
Countries importing organic coffee are facing the difficulty of assessing the quality of the product to distinguish original organic coffee from other coffees, thereby eliminating possible fraud. Many analytical methods are matrix sensitive and require matrix-matching reference materials for validation, which are currently nonexistent. This work aims to establish the trace element characterization of organic and conventional Brazilian coffees and to establish correlations with the related soil and the type of fertilizer and agrochemicals applied. It was observed that the variability in element concentrations between the various types of coffee is not so large, which emphasizes the need for analyticalmore » methods of high accuracy, reproducibility, and a well-known uncertainty. Moreover, the analyses indicate that sometimes the coffee packages may contain some soil remnants.« less
Ho, Shuk Ching; Chung, Joanne Wai Yee
The aim of this study was to examine whether caffeine abstinence in the evening could improve the sleep quality of those who habitually consume coffee. A double-blind control group design (caffeine and caffeine-free groups). A university. A convenience sampling of 10 students (mean age 21.4 years). It was a 14-day experiment. For the first 7 days, all participants consumed caffeinated coffee. In the following 7 days, subjects consumed caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee according to their assigned group. Sleep-wake parameters, self-reported sleep quality and level of refreshment. There were no significant differences (p>.05) among the data of the two groups identified. No significant changes (p>.05) were found in the sleep quality of either group during the study. This study confirms that caffeine abstinence in the evening might not be helpful in sleep promotion. It highlights the need to implement evidence-based practice in health promotion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hu, Rong-Suo; Chu, Zhong; Gu, Feng-Lin; Lu, Min-Quan; Lu, Shao-Fang; Wu, Gui-Ping; Tan, Le-He
Chemical component of Hainan green coffee beans was analyzed with solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the discrepancy between two green coffee beans was differentiated through the spectrum database retrieval and retention index of compound characterization. The experimental results show that: the chemical composition of Wanning coffee beans and Chengmai coffee beans is basically the same. The quantity of analyzed compound in Wanning area coffee is 91, and in Chengmai area coffee is 106, the quantity of the same compound is 66, and the percent of the same component is 75.52%. The same compounds accounted for 89.86% of the total content of Wanning area coffee, and accounted for 85.70% of the total content of Chengmai area coffee.
Strøm, Vegard; Røe, Cecilie; Knardahl, Stein
The present study sought to determine if subjects who had consumed coffee before performing a simulated computer office-work task found to provoke pain in the neck and shoulders and forearms and wrists exhibited different time course in the pain development than the subjects who had abstained from coffee intake. Forty eight subjects all working fulltime, 22 with chronic shoulder and neck pain and 26 healthy pain-free subjects, were recruited to perform a computer-based office-work task for 90 min. Nineteen (40%) of the subjects had consumed coffee (1/2 -1 cup) on average 1 h 18 min before start. Pain intensity in the shoulders and neck and forearms and wrists was rated on a visual analogue scale every 15 min throughout the work task.During the work task the coffee consumers exhibited significantly lower pain increase than those who abstained from coffee. Subjects who had consumed coffee before starting a pain provoking office work task exhibited attenuated pain development compared with the subjects who had abstained from coffee intake. These results might have potentially interesting implications of a pain-modulating effect of caffeine in an everyday setting. However, studies with a double blind placebo controlled randomized design are needed.
Andrade, Kátia S; Gonçalvez, Ricardo T; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Martínez, Julian; Ferreira, Sandra R S
The present study describes the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of spent coffee grounds and coffee husks extracts, obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO(2) and with CO(2) and co-solvent. In order to evaluate the high pressure method in terms of process yield, extract composition and antioxidant activity, low pressure methods, such as ultrasound (UE) and soxhlet (SOX) with different organic solvents, were also applied to obtain the extracts. The conditions for the SFE were: temperatures of 313.15K, 323.15K and 333.15K and pressures from 100 bar to 300 bar. The SFE kinetics and the mathematical modeling of the overall extraction curves (OEC) were also investigated. The extracts obtained by LPE (low pressure extraction) with ethanol showed the best results for the global extraction yield (X(0)) when compared to SFE results. The best extraction yield was 15±2% for spent coffee grounds with ethanol and 3.1±04% for coffee husks. The antioxidant potential was evaluated by DPPH method, ABTS method and Folin-Ciocalteau method. The best antioxidant activity was showed by coffee husk extracts obtained by LPE. The quantification and the identification of the extracts were accomplished using HPLC analysis. The main compounds identified were caffeine and chlorogenic acid for the supercritical extracts from coffee husks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Green coffee bean isotopes have been used to trace the effects of different climatic and geological characteristics associated with the Hawaii islands. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ((MC)-ICP-SFMS and ICP-QMS) were applied to determine the isotopic composition of carbon (δ13C), nitrogen (δ15N), sulfur (δ34S), and oxygen (δ18O), the isotope abundance of strontium (87Sr/86Sr), and the concentrations of 30 different elements in 47 green coffees. The coffees were produced in five Hawaii regions: Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, Molokai, and Oahu. Results indicate that coffee plant seed isotopes reflect interactions between the coffee plant and the local environment. Accordingly, the obtained analytical fingerprinting could be used to discriminate between the different Hawaii regions studied. PMID:21838232
Grover, Inderpreet Singh; Sharma, Rashmi; Singh, Satnam; Pal, Bonamali
Potentially toxic 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in four brands of grounded coffee. Four to 13 PAHs were detected. Concentrations of total PAHs in different brands of coffee samples were in the range of 831.7-1,589.7 μg/kg. Benzo[a]pyrene (2A: probable human carcinogen) was found in Nescafe Premium whereas naphthalene (2B: possible human carcinogen) was found in all the samples of coffee.
Rattan, Supriya; Parande, A K; Nagaraju, V D; Ghiwari, Girish K
The coffee processing industry is one of the major agro-based industries contributing significantly in international and national growth. Coffee fruits are processed by two methods, wet and dry process. In wet processing, coffee fruits generate enormous quantities of high strength wastewater requiring systematic treatment prior to disposal. Different method approach is used to treat the wastewater. Many researchers have attempted to assess the efficiency of batch aeration as posttreatment of coffee processing wastewater from an upflow anaerobic hybrid reactor (UAHR)-continuous and intermittent aeration system. However, wet coffee processing requires a high degree of processing know-how and produces large amounts of effluents which have the potential to damage the environment. Characteristics of wastewater from coffee processing has a biological oxygen demand (BOD) of up to 20,000 mg/l and a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of up to 50,000 mg/l as well as the acidity of pH below 4. In this review paper, various methods are discussed to treat coffee processing wastewaters; the constitution of wastewater is presented and the technical solutions for wastewater treatment are discussed.
Guertin, Kristin A; Loftfield, Erikka; Boca, Simina M; Sampson, Joshua N; Moore, Steven C; Xiao, Qian; Huang, Wen-Yi; Xiong, Xiaoqin; Freedman, Neal D; Cross, Amanda J; Sinha, Rashmi
Background: Coffee intake may be inversely associated with colorectal cancer; however, previous studies have been inconsistent. Serum coffee metabolites are integrated exposure measures that may clarify associations with cancer and elucidate underlying mechanisms. Objectives: Our aims were 2-fold as follows: 1) to identify serum metabolites associated with coffee intake and 2) to examine these metabolites in relation to colorectal cancer. Design: In a nested case-control study of 251 colorectal cancer cases and 247 matched control subjects from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, we conducted untargeted metabolomics analyses of baseline serum by using ultrahigh-performance liquid-phase chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Usual coffee intake was self-reported in a food-frequency questionnaire. We used partial Pearson correlations and linear regression to identify serum metabolites associated with coffee intake and conditional logistic regression to evaluate associations between coffee metabolites and colorectal cancer. Results: After Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons (P = 0.05 ÷ 657 metabolites), 29 serum metabolites were positively correlated with coffee intake (partial correlation coefficients: 0.18–0.61; P < 7.61 × 10−5); serum metabolites most highly correlated with coffee intake (partial correlation coefficients >0.40) included trigonelline (N′-methylnicotinate), quinate, and 7 unknown metabolites. Of 29 serum metabolites, 8 metabolites were directly related to caffeine metabolism, and 3 of these metabolites, theophylline (OR for 90th compared with 10th percentiles: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.79; P-linear trend = 0.006), caffeine (OR for 90th compared with 10th percentiles: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.89; P-linear trend = 0.015), and paraxanthine (OR for 90th compared with 10th percentiles: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.94; P-linear trend = 0.027), were inversely associated with
Alonso-Torres, Beatriz; Hernández-Pérez, José Alfredo; Sierra-Espinoza, Fernando; Schenker, Stefan; Yeretzian, Chahan
Heat and mass transfer in individual coffee beans during roasting were simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Numerical equations for heat and mass transfer inside the coffee bean were solved using the finite volume technique in the commercial CFD code Fluent; the software was complemented with specific user-defined functions (UDFs). To experimentally validate the numerical model, a single coffee bean was placed in a cylindrical glass tube and roasted by a hot air flow, using the identical geometrical 3D configuration and hot air flow conditions as the ones used for numerical simulations. Temperature and humidity calculations obtained with the model were compared with experimental data. The model predicts the actual process quite accurately and represents a useful approach to monitor the coffee roasting process in real time. It provides valuable information on time-resolved process variables that are otherwise difficult to obtain experimentally, but critical to a better understanding of the coffee roasting process at the individual bean level. This includes variables such as time-resolved 3D profiles of bean temperature and moisture content, and temperature profiles of the roasting air in the vicinity of the coffee bean.
Vinícius de Melo Pereira, Gilberto; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Neto, Ensei; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo
Coffee has been for decades the most commercialized food product and most widely consumed beverage in the world, with over 600 billion cups served per year. Before coffee cherries can be traded and processed into a final industrial product, they have to undergo postharvest processing on farms, which have a direct impact on the cost and quality of a coffee. Three different methods can be used for transforming the coffee cherries into beans, known as wet, dry, and semi-dry methods. In all these processing methods, a spontaneous fermentation is carried out in order to eliminate any mucilage still stuck to the beans and helps improve beverage flavor by microbial metabolites. The microorganisms responsible for the fermentation (e.g., yeasts and lactic acid bacteria) can play a number of roles, such as degradation of mucilage (pectinolytic activity), inhibition of mycotoxin-producing fungi growth, and production of flavor-active components. The use of starter cultures (mainly yeast strains) has emerged in recent years as a promising alternative to control the fermentation process and to promote quality development of coffee product. However, scarce information is still available about the effects of controlled starter cultures in coffee fermentation performance and bean quality, making it impossible to use this technology in actual field conditions. A broader knowledge about the ecology, biochemistry, and molecular biology could facilitate the understanding and application of starter cultures for coffee fermentation process. This review provides a comprehensive coverage of these issues, while pointing out new directions for exploiting starter cultures in coffee processing.
Jin, Li; Erben, Tony
This paper reports on a qualitative study investigating the viability of instant messenger (IM) interaction to facilitate intercultural learning in a foreign language class. Eight students in a Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) class participated in the study. Each student was paired with a native speaker (NS) of Chinese, and each pair…
Vega, Fernando E.; Davis, Aaron; Borgemeister, Christian; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin
The negative effects of climate change are already evident for many of the 25 million coffee farmers across the tropics and the 90 billion dollar (US) coffee industry. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei), the most important pest of coffee worldwide, has already benefited from the temperature rise in East Africa: increased damage to coffee crops and expansion in its distribution range have been reported. In order to anticipate threats and prioritize management actions for H. hampei we present here, maps on future distributions of H. hampei in coffee producing areas of East Africa. Using the CLIMEX model we relate present-day insect distributions to current climate and then project the fitted climatic envelopes under future scenarios A2A and B2B (for HADCM3 model). In both scenarios, the situation with H. hampei is forecasted to worsen in the current Coffea arabica producing areas of Ethiopia, the Ugandan part of the Lake Victoria and Mt. Elgon regions, Mt. Kenya and the Kenyan side of Mt. Elgon, and most of Rwanda and Burundi. The calculated hypothetical number of generations per year of H. hampei is predicted to increase in all C. arabica-producing areas from five to ten. These outcomes will have serious implications for C. arabica production and livelihoods in East Africa. We suggest that the best way to adapt to a rise of temperatures in coffee plantations could be via the introduction of shade trees in sun grown plantations. The aims of this study are to fill knowledge gaps existing in the coffee industry, and to draft an outline for the development of an adaptation strategy package for climate change on coffee production. An abstract in Spanish is provided as Abstract S1. PMID:21935419
Jaramillo, Juliana; Muchugu, Eric; Vega, Fernando E; Davis, Aaron; Borgemeister, Christian; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin
The negative effects of climate change are already evident for many of the 25 million coffee farmers across the tropics and the 90 billion dollar (US) coffee industry. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei), the most important pest of coffee worldwide, has already benefited from the temperature rise in East Africa: increased damage to coffee crops and expansion in its distribution range have been reported. In order to anticipate threats and prioritize management actions for H. hampei we present here, maps on future distributions of H. hampei in coffee producing areas of East Africa. Using the CLIMEX model we relate present-day insect distributions to current climate and then project the fitted climatic envelopes under future scenarios A2A and B2B (for HADCM3 model). In both scenarios, the situation with H. hampei is forecasted to worsen in the current Coffea arabica producing areas of Ethiopia, the Ugandan part of the Lake Victoria and Mt. Elgon regions, Mt. Kenya and the Kenyan side of Mt. Elgon, and most of Rwanda and Burundi. The calculated hypothetical number of generations per year of H. hampei is predicted to increase in all C. arabica-producing areas from five to ten. These outcomes will have serious implications for C. arabica production and livelihoods in East Africa. We suggest that the best way to adapt to a rise of temperatures in coffee plantations could be via the introduction of shade trees in sun grown plantations. The aims of this study are to fill knowledge gaps existing in the coffee industry, and to draft an outline for the development of an adaptation strategy package for climate change on coffee production. An abstract in Spanish is provided as Abstract S1.
Ibarra-Zavala, Silvia Jazmin; Ramírez-Salas, Silvia Patricia; Rosas-Ulloa, Petra; Ramírez-Ramírez, José Carmen; Ulloa-Rangel, Blanca Estela
Summary Instant whole beans obtained by drying at 25 °C were evaluated for their chemical, physicochemical, nutritional, microbiological, sensory and rehydration characteristics. The proximal composition of instant whole beans was typical of this kind of food, whereas aw and L*, a* and b* values were 0.639, 98.55, –0.28 and –1.52, respectively. In instant whole beans, 75% of the essential amino acids had a value greater or equal to the reference standard for adult humans; the protein quality in terms of chemical score was 95%. Microbiological counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, moulds, yeasts and total coliforms of rehydrated instant whole beans were <10 CFU/g, whereas the scores for colour, flavour, texture and overall acceptability were 7.22, 7.68, 7.24 and 7.34, respectively, on a 1–9 hedonic scale. The logarithmic and Pilosof models showed close fits (R2>0.99) to the experimental data for drying of cooked beans and rehydration of instant whole beans, respectively. In the light of the chemical, physicochemical, nutritional, microbiological, sensory and rehydration characteristics of instant whole beans found in this study, drying at 25 °C is recommended for the production of such food. PMID:27904331
Bailey, David G; Dresser, George K; Urquhart, Brad L; Freeman, David J; Arnold, John Malcolm
A period of abstinence from coffee to permit caffeine elimination appears to enable increased blood pressure on subsequent exposure. We hypothesized that this would offset the antihypertensive effect of the dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker felodipine. A randomized, single-dose, crossover study assessed hemodynamic and pharmacokinetic effects following 2 days without coffee and caffeine-containing foods. Consistently brewed black coffee (2×300ml), felodipine maximum recommended dose (10mg), and coffee plus felodipine were tested in middle-aged normotensive subjects. Pretreatment plasma caffeine concentrations were unquantifiable. After coffee, blood pressure changes (mm Hg) averaged over study hours 1-4 were increased for brachial systolic (7.6, P < 0.001) and diastolic (4.9, P < 0.001) and aortic systolic (7.4, P < 0.001), pulse (3.0, P < 0.05) and augmentation (1.4, P < 0.05) relative to baseline. After coffee plus felodipine, they were higher for brachial systolic (4.0, P < 0.05) and diastolic (3.9, P < 0.001) and aortic systolic (4.6, P < 0.05) compared to felodipine alone. The pressor effects of coffee and its modulation by felodipine were variable among individuals. Coffee containing caffeine (127mg) caused maximum pressor effect. Caffeine and felodipine pharmacokinetics were similar for coffee and felodipine given alone or in combination indicating an interaction having a pharmacodynamic basis. Plasma felodipine concentration-diastolic blood pressure reduction relationship shifted with coffee such that doubling the felodipine concentration would eliminate the pressor effect. However, this may increase the risk of adverse drug events particularly during the timeframe without coffee. Intermittent coffee ingestion might complicate hypertension diagnosis and management for many individuals. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2016. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Ware, Jennifer J.; Tanner, Julie‐Anne; Taylor, Amy E.; Bin, Zhao; Haycock, Philip; Bowden, Jack; Rogers, Peter J.; Davey Smith, George; Tyndale, Rachel F.
Abstract Background and Aims Coffee consumption and cigarette smoking are strongly associated, but whether this association is causal remains unclear. We sought to: (1) determine whether coffee consumption influences cigarette smoking causally, (2) estimate the magnitude of any association and (3) explore potential mechanisms. Design We used Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses of observational data, using publicly available summarized data from the Tobacco and Genetics (TAG) consortium, individual‐level data from the UK Biobank and in‐vitro experiments of candidate compounds. Setting The TAG consortium includes data from studies in several countries. The UK Biobank includes data from men and women recruited across England, Wales and Scotland. Participants The TAG consortium provided data on n ≤ 38 181 participants. The UK Biobank provided data on 8072 participants. Measurements In MR analyses, the exposure was coffee consumption (cups/day) and the outcome was heaviness of smoking (cigarettes/day). In our in‐vitro experiments we assessed the effect of caffeic acid, quercetin and p‐coumaric acid on the rate of nicotine metabolism in human liver microsomes and cDNA‐expressed human CYP2A6. Findings Two‐sample MR analyses of TAG consortium data indicated that heavier coffee consumption might lead to reduced heaviness of smoking [beta = −1.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) = −2.88 to −0.09]. However, in‐vitro experiments found that the compounds investigated are unlikely to inhibit significantly the rate of nicotine metabolism following coffee consumption. Further MR analyses in UK Biobank found no evidence of a causal relationship between coffee consumption and heaviness of smoking (beta = 0.20, 95% CI = –1.72 to 2.12). Conclusions Amount of coffee consumption is unlikely to have a major causal impact upon amount of cigarette smoking. If it does influence smoking, this is not likely to operate via effects of caffeic acid, quercetin
Ware, Jennifer J; Tanner, Julie-Anne; Taylor, Amy E; Bin, Zhao; Haycock, Philip; Bowden, Jack; Rogers, Peter J; Davey Smith, George; Tyndale, Rachel F; Munafò, Marcus R
Coffee consumption and cigarette smoking are strongly associated, but whether this association is causal remains unclear. We sought to: (1) determine whether coffee consumption influences cigarette smoking causally, (2) estimate the magnitude of any association and (3) explore potential mechanisms. We used Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses of observational data, using publicly available summarized data from the Tobacco and Genetics (TAG) consortium, individual-level data from the UK Biobank and in-vitro experiments of candidate compounds. The TAG consortium includes data from studies in several countries. The UK Biobank includes data from men and women recruited across England, Wales and Scotland. The TAG consortium provided data on n ≤ 38 181 participants. The UK Biobank provided data on 8072 participants. In MR analyses, the exposure was coffee consumption (cups/day) and the outcome was heaviness of smoking (cigarettes/day). In our in-vitro experiments we assessed the effect of caffeic acid, quercetin and p-coumaric acid on the rate of nicotine metabolism in human liver microsomes and cDNA-expressed human CYP2A6. Two-sample MR analyses of TAG consortium data indicated that heavier coffee consumption might lead to reduced heaviness of smoking [beta = -1.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -2.88 to -0.09]. However, in-vitro experiments found that the compounds investigated are unlikely to inhibit significantly the rate of nicotine metabolism following coffee consumption. Further MR analyses in UK Biobank found no evidence of a causal relationship between coffee consumption and heaviness of smoking (beta = 0.20, 95% CI = -1.72 to 2.12). Amount of coffee consumption is unlikely to have a major causal impact upon amount of cigarette smoking. If it does influence smoking, this is not likely to operate via effects of caffeic acid, quercetin or p-coumaric acid on nicotine metabolism. The observational association between coffee consumption and cigarette
Yang, Li-Xin; Zhang, Gui-Xiang; Yang, Li-Xue; He, Yan
Acrylamide (AA) concentrations in instant noodles (90 samples, covering 10 different brands) from Hebei Province of China were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The instant noodles were sampled from the southern and northern areas of Hebei Province (Shijiazhuang and Tangshan, respectively). The average content of AA for all 10 instant noodle brands was 6-145 µg/kg. The average content of AA in fried instant noodles was 4.47 times of those in non-fried ones, indicating the influence of the frying process. The average content of AA in instant noodles from Shijiazhuang was 1.64 times that of the samples from Tangshan (56 µg/kg). Eighty-four percent of the instant noodle samples in Hebei were contaminated with AA, with an average content of 80 µg/kg. These observations will be helpful for evaluating individual exposure to AA from instant noodles in China.
Shilling, K.; Brauman, K. A.
Through its effect on export crops, climate change will have important effects on economic systems and government capacity in sub-Saharan Africa. We show that climate change effects on three important export crops - coffee, cocoa and cotton - will undermine large portions of the economy, not just the rural farmers who grow these crops. Our analysis is based high-resolution data on crop location, temperature, and water requirements in conjunction with new projections for temperature increases and precipitation changes in sub-Saharan Africa. Our focus on export crops is distinct from most work on the effects of climate change on agriculture, which often focuses on subsistence and food crops. We posit that substantial and important effects on the economy and political systems will come from negative impacts on cash crops, which underpin many economies in sub-Saharan Africa. For instance, 3% of cropland in Uganda (and 2% in Ethiopia) is used for coffee production and over 3.5 million households are involved in the sector; by contrast, 7% of cropland in Uganda (and 11% in Ethiopia) is used for maize, which contributes much less to the formal economy. The relationship between the value of coffee exported and government revenue illustrates the importance of coffee to political and economic stability. A drop in the export value of coffee by 10% in Uganda will drive government revenue down by 20%, and while there is uncertainty around the exact impact of climate change, it is likely that production will take a turn for the worse. We use these factors to assess reliance of select country's economy on these crops, from the farmer to the exporter; the sensitivity of the crops to variation in the climate; and the subsequent impact on government capacity. Our research illustrates how strongly the impacts of climate change are linked to economic and political structures.
Nzeyimana, Innocent; Hartemink, Alfred E.; Geissen, Violette
The Government of Rwanda is implementing policies to increase the area of Arabica coffee production. Information on the suitable areas for sustainably growing Arabica coffee is still scarce. This study aimed to analyze suitable areas for Arabica coffee production. We analyzed the spatial distribution of actual and potential production zones for Arabica coffee, their productivity levels and predicted potential yields. We used a geographic information system (GIS) for a weighted overlay analysis to assess the major production zones of Arabica coffee and their qualitative productivity indices. Actual coffee yields were measured in the field and were used to assess potential productivity zones and yields using ordinary kriging with ArcGIS software. The production of coffee covers about 32 000 ha, or 2.3% of all cultivated land in the country. The major zones of production are the Kivu Lake Borders, Central Plateau, Eastern Plateau, and Mayaga agro-ecological zones, where coffee is mainly cultivated on moderate slopes. In the highlands, coffee is grown on steep slopes that can exceed 55%. About 21% percent of the country has a moderate yield potential, ranging between 1.0 and 1.6 t coffee ha−1, and 70% has a low yield potential (<1.0 t coffee ha−1). Only 9% of the country has a high yield potential of 1.6–2.4 t coffee ha−1. Those areas are found near Lake Kivu where the dominant soil Orders are Inceptisols and Ultisols. Moderate yield potential is found in the Birunga (volcano), Congo-Nile watershed Divide, Impala and Imbo zones. Low-yield regions (<1 t ha−1) occur in the eastern semi-dry lowlands, Central Plateau, Eastern Plateau, Buberuka Highlands, and Mayaga zones. The weighted overlay analysis and ordinary kriging indicated a large spatial variability of potential productivity indices. Increasing the area and productivity of coffee in Rwanda thus has considerable potential. PMID:25299459
Nunes, Fernando M; Reis, Ana; Domingues, M Rosário M; Coimbra, Manuel A
In this work, the galactomannans from roasted coffee infusions were purified by 50% ethanol precipitation, anion exchange chromatography, and phenylboronic acid-immobilized Sepharose chromatography. Specific enzymatic hydrolysis of the beta-(1-->4)-D-mannan backbone allowed us to conclude that the galactomannans of roasted coffee infusions are high molecular weight supports of low molecular weight brown compounds. Also, the molecular weight of the brown compounds linked to the galactomannan increases with the increase of the coffee degree of roast. The reaction pathways of galactomannans during the coffee roasting process were inferred from the detection of specific chemical markers by gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry and/or electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Maillard reaction, caramelization, isomerization, oxidation, and decarboxylation pathways were identified by detection of Amadori compounds, 1,6-beta-anhydromannose, fructose, glucose, mannonic acid, 2-ketogluconic acid, and arabinonic acid in the reducing end of the obtained oligosaccharides. The implication of the several competitive reaction pathways is discussed and related to the structural changes of the galactomannans present in the roasted coffee infusions.
Muqaku, Besnik; Tahir, Ammar; Klepeisz, Philip; Bileck, Andrea; Kreutz, Dominique; Mayer, Rupert L; Meier, Samuel M; Gerner, Marlene; Schmetterer, Klaus; Gerner, Christopher
Anti-inflammatory effects of coffee consumption have been reported to be caused by caffeine and adenosine receptor signaling. However, contradictory effects have been observed. Many kinds of chronic diseases are linked to inflammation; therefore a profound understanding of potential effects of coffee consumption is desirable. We performed ex vivo experiments with eight individuals investigating peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from venous blood before and after coffee consumption, as well as in vitro experiments applying caffeine on isolated cells. After in vitro inflammatory stimulation of the cells, released cytokines, chemokines, and eicosanoids were determined and quantified using targeted mass spectrometric methods. Remarkably, the release of inflammation mediators IL6, IL8, GROA, CXCL2, CXCL5 as well as PGA2, PGD2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), LTC4, LTE4, and 15S-HETE was significantly affected after coffee consumption. While in several individuals coffee consumption or caffeine treatment caused significant downregulation of most inflammation mediators, in other healthy individuals exactly the opposite effects were observed. Ruling out age, sex, coffee consumption habits, the metabolic kinetics of caffeine in blood and the individual amount of regulatory T cells or CD39 expression as predictive parameters, we demonstrated here that coffee consumption may have significant pro- or anti-inflammatory effects in an individual fashion. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Hu, Jie-Bi; Chen, Yu-Chie; Urban, Pawel L
This report focuses on the heterogeneous distribution of small molecules (e.g. metabolites) within dry deposits of suspensions and solutions of inorganic and organic compounds with implications for chemical analysis of small molecules by laser desorption/ionization (LDI) mass spectrometry (MS). Taking advantage of the imaging capabilities of a modern mass spectrometer, we have investigated the occurrence of "coffee rings" in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SALDI) sample spots. It is seen that the "coffee-ring effect" in MALDI/SALDI samples can be both beneficial and disadvantageous. For example, formation of the coffee rings gives rise to heterogeneous distribution of analytes and matrices, thus compromising analytical performance and reproducibility of the mass spectrometric analysis. On the other hand, the coffee-ring effect can also be advantageous because it enables partial separation of analytes from some of the interfering molecules present in the sample. We report a "hidden coffee-ring effect" where under certain conditions the sample/matrix deposit appears relatively homogeneous when inspected by optical microscopy. Even in such cases, hidden coffee rings can still be found by implementing the MALDI-MS imaging technique. We have also found that to some extent, the coffee-ring effect can be suppressed during SALDI sample preparation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sunarharum, W. B.; Yuwono, S. S.; Pangestu, N. B. S. W.; Nadhiroh, H.
Demand on high quality coffee for consumption is continually increasing not only in the consuming countries (importers) but also in the producing countries (exporters). Coffee quality could be affected by several factors from farm to cup including the post-harvest processing methods. This research aimed to investigate the influence of different post-harvest processing methods on physical and sensory quality of Java Arabica green coffee beans. The two factors being evaluated were three different post-harvest processing methods to produce green coffee beans (natural/dry, semi-washed and fully-washed processing) under sun drying. Physical quality evaluation was based on The Indonesian National Standard (SNI 01-2907-2008) while sensory quality was evaluated by five expert judges. The result shows that less defects observed in wet processed coffee as compared to the dry processing. The mechanical drying was also proven to yield a higher quality green coffee beans and minimise losses.
Sánchez, G; Olguín, E J; Mercado, G
The effect of two abundant, easily available and very low-cost agro-industrial organic residues, i.e., filter cake from the sugar industry and poultry litter, on the composting stabilization time of coffee pulp and on the quality of the produced compost, was evaluated. Piles of one cubic meter were built and monitored within the facilities of a coffee processing plant in the Coatepec region of the State of Veracruz, Mexico. Manual aeration was carried out once a week. A longer thermophilic period (28 days) and a much lower C/N ratio (in the range of 6.9-9.1) were observed in the piles containing the amendments, as compared to the control pile containing only coffee pulp (14 days and a C/N ratio of 14.4, respectively). The maximum assimilation rate of the reducing sugars was 1.6 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.5 to 5.3%) during the first two weeks when accelerators were present in the proportion of 20% filter cake plus 20% poultry litter, while they accumulated at a rate of 1.2 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.4 to 9.13%) during the same period in the control pile. The best combination of amendments was 30% filter cake with 20% poultry litter, resulting in a final nitrogen content as high as 4.81%. The second best combination was 20% filter cake with 10% poultry litter, resulting in a compost which also contained a high level of total nitrogen (4.54%). It was concluded that the use of these two residues enhanced the composting process of coffee pulp, promoting a shorter stabilization period and yielding a higher quality of compost.
Suhandy, D.; Yulia, M.
Indonesia is one of the important producers of several specialty coffees, which have a particularly high economic value, including Civet coffee (‘kopi luwak’ in Indonesian language) and Peaberry coffee (‘kopi lanang’ in Indonesian language). The production of Civet and Peaberry coffee is very limited. In order to provide authentication of Civet and Peaberry coffee and protect consumers from adulteration, a robust and easy method for evaluating ground Civet and Peaberry coffee and detection of its adulteration is needed. In this study, we investigate the use of fluorescence spectroscopy combined with SIMCA (soft independent modelling of class analogies) method to discriminate three Indonesian specialty coffee: ground Peaberry, Civet and Pagar Alam coffee. Total 90 samples were used (30 samples for Civet, Peaberry and Pagar Alam coffee, respectively). All coffee samples were ground using a home-coffee-grinder. Since particle size in coffee powder has a significant influence on the spectra obtained, we sieved all coffee samples through a nest of U. S. standard sieves (mesh number of 40) on a Meinzer II sieve shaker for 10 minutes to obtain a particle size of 420 µm. The experiments were performed at room temperature (around 27-29°C). All samples were extracted with distilled water and then filtered. For each samples, 3 mL of extracted sample then was pipetted into 10 mm cuvettes for spectral data acquisition. The EEM (excitation-emission matrix) spectral data of coffee samples were acquired using JASCO FP-8300 Fluorescence Spectrometer. The principal component analysis (PCA) result shows that it is possible to discriminate types of coffee based on information from EEM (excitation-emission matrix) spectral data. Using SIMCA method, the discrimination model of Indonesian specialty coffee was successfully developed and resulted in high performance of discrimination with 100% of sensitivity and specificity for Peaberry, Civet and Pagar Alam coffee. This research
Liebeskind, David S; Sanossian, Nerses; Fu, Katherine A; Wang, He-Jing; Arab, Lenore
To determine the association in amount of daily coffee consumption with incidence of stroke in a broad cohort, considering other vascular risk factors. We utilized the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994; NHANES III) data on participants aged ≥17 years old to examine coffee consumption and stroke. Multivariate logistic regression models related the amount of coffee use reported in a food frequency questionnaire with stroke, controlling for other vascular risk factors. Of 33 994 NHANES III subjects, coffee consumption and stroke data in adults ≥17 years old were available in 19 994. Daily coffee consumption ranged from 0 to 20 (median 1) cups and 644 (3.2%) participants had a stroke diagnosed by a physician. Coffee intake varied with age, gender, and ethnicity (P < 0.001). Interestingly, heart failure, diabetes, and hypertension were less frequent, and high cholesterol more frequent in those consuming ≥3 cups per day (P < 0.001). Smoking was more frequent in all coffee drinkers (P < 0.0001). Multivariate analyses revealed an independent effect of heavier coffee consumption (≥3 cups/day) on reduced stroke (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.22-0.87, P < 0.02) in healthy subjects that was attenuated by vascular risk factors (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.58-1.07, P ≈ 0.12). Heavier daily coffee consumption is associated with decreased stroke prevalence, despite smoking tendency in heavy coffee drinkers.
Ortiz, Américo; Ortiz, Aristófeles; Vega, Fernando E; Posada, Francisco
The analysis of volatile emissions of coffee berries in different physiological states of ripeness was performed using dynamic headspace and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis for Coffea arabica, var. Colombia. The composition of the volatiles emitted by coffee berries is dominated by very high levels of alcohols, mainly ethanol, in all stages of ripeness in comparison with other compounds. Overripe coffee berries have high volatile emissions and show a composition dominated mainly by esters followed by alcohols, ketones, and aldehydes. The lowest level compounds were monoterpenes. 2-Methyl furan was detected in various ripening stages; this compound has not been previously reported as a coffee berry volatile. The presence of ethanol and other alcohols in the volatile composition might explain the effectiveness of using traps with mixed alcohols for detection and capture of coffee berry borers.
Papetti, Adele; Mascherpa, Dora; Gazzani, Gabriella
α-Dicarbonyl (α-DC) compounds were characterised in roasted (coffee, barley coffee) and in fermented (soy sauce) food matrices. Glyoxal (GO), methylglyoxal (MGO), diacetyl (DA) and 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) were found in all samples, and hydroxypyruvaldehyde and 5-hydroxypentane-2,3-dione in barley and soy. Cis and trans 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene (3,4-DGE) isomers and 4-glucosyl-5,6-dihydroxy-2-oxohexanal (4-G,3-DG) were found only in barley, and 3,4-DGE only in soy sauce with molasses. GO, MGO, and DA were quantified. Findings indicate that i) α-DC profiles depend on the food matrix and any technological treatments applied; ii) α-DC quantitation by HPLC requires matrix-specific, validated methods; iii) GO and MGO were the most abundant α-DCs; and iv) barley coffee was the matrix richest in α-DCs both qualitatively and quantitatively. In vitro simulated digestion reduced (coffee) or strongly increased (barley, soy sauce) free α-DC content. These findings suggest that α-DC bioavailability could actually depend not on food content but rather on reactions occurring during digestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Siu, Y; Mejia, G; Mejia-Saavedra, J; Pohlan, J; Sokolov, M
One of the driving forces of the economy in southeast Mexico is agriculture. In Soconusco, Chiapas, coffee is one of the main agricultural products and is traded on the international market. Coffee grown in this region is processed using the wet method in order to be commercialized as green coffee. In the beneficio (coffee processing plant) water is an essential resource which is required in great quantities (Matuk et al., 1997; Sokolov, 2002) as it is used to separate good coffee berries from defective ones, as a method of transporting the coffee berries to the processing machinery, in the elimination of the berry husk from the coffee grains (pulping) and finally in the post-fermentation washing process. This process gives rise to one of the smoothest, high-quality coffees available (Zuluaga, 1989; Herrera, 2002). Currently, many producers in Soconusco are opting for ecological coffee production, which has, among its many criteria, human health and environmental protection (Pohlan, 2005). Furthermore, increasing concern during the past few years regarding the production of food that is free from contaminants such as heavy metals, and recent environmental policies in relation to aquatic ecosystem protection, have given rise to questions concerning the quality of water used in coffee processing, as well as pollutants produced by this agroindustry. Water used in the coffee processing plants originates from the main regional rivers whose hydrological basins stretch from the Sierra Madre mountain range down to the coastal plain. As well as providing water, these rivers also receive the wastewater produced during coffee processing (Sokolov, 2002).
Hasan, H A H
The aflatoxins produced byAspergillus parasiticus var. globosus IMI 12090 in detannin-caffeinated coffee and black tea were five times more concentrated than in regular coffee and tea. The activity of caffeine and tannin on the fungus growth and aflatoxin production in liquid broth was tested at three levels: viz. 0.1, 0.3, and 0.6%. Tannin and caffeine induced 95% inhibition in aflatoxins at 0.3% and 0.6%, respectively. The antiaflatoxigenic properties of regular coffee and tea appear to be due to tannin, followed by caffeine. The roasting of contaminated coffee beans at 200 degrees C for 20 min is effective in the destruction of aflatoxins.
Flermoso-Gallardo, L; Menóndez-Yuffá, A
Cell suspensions offer several advantages as a system for massive propagation because of the high rates of multiplication, the higher homogeneity in the culture conditions and the possibility of automatization. In this study, different experimental conditions were analyzed to establish embryogenic cell suspension cultures of coffee. The best conditions to establish the embryogenic cell suspension cultures of coffee were as follows: coffee leaf sections were cultivated during 12 weeks (Stage I) in a solid medium with the Murashige and Skoog salts, 2 mg/l kinetin and 0.5 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxiacetic acid (medium 1). Under these conditions the explants formed a callus tissue that was transferred to a liquid medium containing 5 mg/l of 6-benzylamlno-purine (medium 2). After 12 days in a shaking liquid medium (Stage II), the cultures were sieved and were maintained In the same media, which was renewed every eight days (Stage III). This method yielded 1884 embryos in 50 ml; placing the embryos under conditions for germination yielded plantlets of normal appearance.
Albuquerque, Érika V S; Bezerra, Caroline A; Romero, Juan V; Valencia, Jorge W A; Valencia-Jiménez, Arnubio; Pimenta, Lucas M; Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Silva, Maria C M; Meneguim, Ana M; Sá, Maria Eugênia L; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida-Engler, Janice; Fernandez, Diana; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F
Genetic transformation of coffee ( Coffea spp.), the second most traded commodity worldwide, is an alternative approach to introducing features that cannot be introgressed by traditional crossings. The transgenic stability, heritability and quantitative and spatial expression patterns of the seed-specific promoter phytohemagglutinin (PHA-L) from Phaseolus vulgaris were characterized in genetically modified C. arabica expressing the α-amylase inhibitor-1 ( α-AI1 ) gene. The α-AI1 inhibitor shows considerable activity toward digestive enzymes of the coffee berry borer (CBB) Hypothenemus hampei . This insect pest expends its life cycle almost entirely in coffee berries. Transgene containment in the fruit is important to meeting food and environmental safety requirements for releasing genetically modified (GM) crops. PCR analysis of T2 coffee plants showed a Mendelian single-copy segregation pattern. Ectopic transgene expression was only detected in coffee grains, as demonstrated by reverse transcription-PCR analysis of different plant tissues. An intense immunocytochemical signal associated with α-AI1 protein expression was localized to endospermic cells. In addition, a delay in the larval development of CBB was observed after challenging transgenic coffee seeds with the insect. These results indicate that the PHA-L promoter might be a useful tool in coffee for the seed-specific expression of genes related to coffee bean productivity, quality and pest protection. The biotechnological applicability of the α-AI1 gene for controlling CBB is also discussed. This work is the first report showing a seed-specific transgene expression in coffee plants.
Wu, Weixiang; Tong, Yeqing; Zhao, Qiang; Yu, Guangxia; Wei, Xiaoyun; Lu, Qing
Controversial results of the association between coffee consumption and bladder cancer (BC) risk were reported among epidemiological studies. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to clarify the association. Relevant studies were identified according to the inclusion criteria. Totally, 34 case-control studies and 6 cohort studies were included in our meta-analysis. The overall odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) between coffee consumption and BC risk was 1.33 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.48). The summary ORs of BC for an increase of 1 cup of coffee per day were 1.05 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.06) for case-control studies and 1.03 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.06) for cohort studies. The overall ORs for male coffee drinkers, female coffee drinkers and coffee drinkers of both gender were 1.31 (95% CI: 1.08 to 1.59), 1.30 (95% CI: 0.87 to 1.96) and 1.35 (95% CI: 1.20 to 1.51). Compared with smokers (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.70), non-smokers had a higher risk (OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.25 to 2.35) for BC. Results of this meta-analysis suggested that there was an increased risk between coffee consumption and BC. Male coffee drinkers and non-smoking coffee drinkers were more likely to develop BC. PMID:25761588
Mattioli, A V; Farinetti, A; Miloro, C; Pedrazzi, P; Mattioli, G
Coffee and caffeine are widely consumed in Western countries. Little information is available on the influence of coffee and caffeine consumption on atrial fibrillation (AF) in hypertensive patients. We sought to investigate the relationship between coffee consumption and atrial fibrillation with regard to spontaneous conversion of arrhythmia. A group of 600 patients presenting with a first known episode of AF was investigated, and we identified 247 hypertensive patients. The prevalence of nutritional parameters was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Coffee and caffeine intake were specifically estimated. Left ventricular hypertrophy was evaluated by electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiogram. Coffee consumption was higher in normotensive patients. High coffee consumers were more frequent in normotensive patients compared with hypertensive patients. On the other hand, the intake of caffeine was similar in hypertensive and normotensive patients, owing to a higher intake in hypertensive patients from sources other than coffee. Within normotensive patients, we report that non-habitual and low coffee consumers showed the highest probability of spontaneous conversion (OR 1.93 95%CI 0.88-3.23; p=0.001), whereas, within hypertensive patients, moderate but not high coffee consumers had the lowest probability of spontaneous conversion (OR 1.13 95%CI 0.67-1.99; p=0.05). Coffee and caffeine consumption influence spontaneous conversion of atrial fibrillation. Normotensive non-habitual coffee consumers are more likely to convert arrhythmia within 48h from the onset of symptoms. Hypertensive patients showed a U-shaped relationship between coffee consumption and spontaneous conversion of AF, moderate coffee consumers were less likely to show spontaneous conversion of arrhythmia. Patients with left ventricular hypertrophy showed a reduced rate of spontaneous conversion of arrhythmia. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) is the most devastating insect pest of coffee worldwide. It infests crops in most coffee producing countries, and is of particular concern in developing countries where coffee comprises a significant component of gross domestic product. Of more than 850 i...
Kondamudi, Narasimharao; Mohapatra, Susanta K; Misra, Mano
The production of energy from renewable and waste materials is an attractive alternative to the conventional agricultural feed stocks such as corn and soybean. This paper describes an approach to extract oil from spent coffee grounds and to further transesterify the processed oil to convert it into biodiesel. This process yields 10-15% oil depending on the coffee species (Arabica or Robusta). The biodiesel derived from the coffee grounds (100% conversion of oil to biodiesel) was found to be stable for more than 1 month under ambient conditions. It is projected that 340 million gallons of biodiesel can be produced from the waste coffee grounds around the world. The coffee grounds after oil extraction are ideal materials for garden fertilizer, feedstock for ethanol, and as fuel pellets.
The Pocket-4-Life project, bioavailability and beneficial properties of the bioactive compounds of espresso coffee and cocoa-based confectionery containing coffee: study protocol for a randomized cross-over trial.
Mena, Pedro; Tassotti, Michele; Martini, Daniela; Rosi, Alice; Brighenti, Furio; Del Rio, Daniele
Coffee is an important source of bioactive compounds, including caffeine, phenolic compounds (mainly chlorogenic acids), trigonelline, and diterpenes. Several studies have highlighted the preventive effects of coffee consumption on major cardiometabolic diseases, but the impact of coffee dosage on markers of cardiometabolic risk is not well understood. Moreover, the pool of coffee-derived circulating metabolites and the contribution of each metabolite to disease prevention still need to be evaluated in real-life settings. The aim of this study will be to define the bioavailability and beneficial properties of coffee bioactive compounds on the basis of different levels of consumption, by using an innovative experimental design. The contribution of cocoa-based products containing coffee to the pool of circulating metabolites and their putative bioactivity will also be investigated. A three-arm, crossover, randomized trial will be conducted. Twenty-one volunteers will be randomly assigned to consume three treatments in a random order for 1 month: 1 cup of espresso coffee/day, 3 cups of espresso coffee/day, and 1 cup of espresso coffee plus 2 cocoa-based products containing coffee twice per day. The last day of each treatment, blood and urine samples will be collected at specific time points, up to 24 hours following the consumption of the first product. At the end of each treatment the same protocol will be repeated, switching the allocation group. Besides the bioavailability of the coffee/cocoa bioactive compounds, the effect of the coffee/cocoa consumption on several cardiometabolic risk factors (anthropometric measures, blood pressure, inflammatory markers, trimethylamine N-oxide, nitric oxide, blood lipids, fasting indices of glucose/insulin metabolism, DNA damage, eicosanoids, and nutri-metabolomics) will be investigated. Results will provide information on the bioavailability of the main groups of phytochemicals in coffee and on their modulation by the level
Lina, B A; Rutten, A A; Woutersen, R A
A possible effect of freshly brewed drip coffee on urinary bladder carcinogenesis was investigated in male Wistar rats using cell proliferation in urinary bladder epithelium as the indicator of tumour promotion. Male rats were given either undiluted coffee brew (100% coffee), coffee diluted 10 times (10% coffee) or tap water (controls), as their only source of drinking fluid for 2 or 6 wk. Uracil, known to induce cell proliferation in urinary bladder epithelium, was included in the study as a positive control. In rats receiving 100% coffee, body weights, liquid intake and urinary volume were decreased. Neither histopathological examination of urinary bladder tissue nor the bromodeoxyuridine labelling index revealed biologically significant differences between rats receiving coffee and the tap water controls. Uracil increased the labelling index and induced hyperplasia of the urinary bladder epithelium, as expected. It was concluded that these results produced no evidence that drinking coffee predisposes to tumour development in the urinary bladder.
Bidel, S; Hu, G; Jousilahti, P; Antikainen, R; Pukkala, E; Hakulinen, T; Tuomilehto, J
The possible association between coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer has been extensively studied in the many populations. The aim of this study is to examine this relationship among Finns, who are the heaviest coffee consumers in the world. A total of 60 041 Finnish men and women who were 26-74 years of age and without history of any cancer at baseline were included in the present analyses. Their coffee consumption and other study characteristics were determined at baseline, and they were prospectively followed up for onset of colon and rectal cancer, emigration, death or until 30 June 2006. During a mean follow-up period of 18 years, 538 cases of colorectal cancer (304 cases of colon cancer and 234 cases of rectal cancer) were diagnosed. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio of colorectal cancer incidence for > or =10 cups of coffee per day compared with non-drinkers was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.47-2.03) for men (P for trend=0.86), 1.24 (95% CI, 0.49-3.14) for women (p for trend=0.83) and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.58-1.83) for men and women combined (P for trend=0.61). In this study, we found no association between coffee consumption and the risk of colorectal, colon and rectal cancer.
ISS043E128431 (04/22/2015) --- The International Space Station employs one of the most complex water recycling systems ever designed, reclaiming waste water from astronauts and the environment and turning it into potable water. NASA astronaut Scott Kelly tweeted out this image of part of the innovative device with this remark: " Recycle Good to the last drop! Making pee potable and turning it into coffee on @space station. #NoPlaceLikeHome"
Foxx, R M; Rubinoff, A
Excessive coffee drinking can have deleterious effects because of the large amounts of caffeine that are ingested. Caffeine is thought to be addicting, and prolonged and excessive use can lead to caffeinism, a condition that has serious behavioral and physiological side effects. The present study developed and evaluated a treatment program to reduce excessive daily coffee drinking to moderate and presumably safer levels. Three habitual coffee drinkers received individualized changing criterion programs that systematically and gradually reduced their daily caffeine intake. The coffee drinkers were required to self-monitor and plot their daily intake of caffeine. They received monetary prizes for not exceeding the treatment phase criteria and forfeited a portion of their pretreatment deposit when they did. Their coffee drinking decreased from almost nine cups per day (over 1100 mg of caffeine) during baseline to less than three cups per day (less than 343 mg) at the end of treatment or a reduction of 69%. The treatment effect was maintained during a 10-month follow-up, averaging a 67% reduction from baseline. The program appears to be a reasonable method of reducing and then maintaining daily caffeine intake at less harmful levels. PMID:511802
Brown, Oliver I; Allgar, Victoria; Wong, Kenneth Y-K
Habitual coffee consumption is protective against coronary heart disease in women; however, it is not clear whether such cardioprotection is conferred on those who have already experienced an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Our aim was to investigate whether coffee consumption affected mortality after AMI. We carried out a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies that examined the relationship between coffee intake and mortality after an AMI. Using a defined-search strategy, electronic databases (MEDLINE and Embase) were searched for papers published between 1946 and 2015. Two eligible studies investigating post-AMI mortality risk against coffee consumption were identified and assessed using set criteria. Combined, these studies recruited a total of 3271 patients and 604 died. The hazard ratios for the following experimental groups were defined: light coffee drinkers (1-2 cups/day) versus noncoffee drinkers, heavy coffee drinkers (>2 cups/day) versus noncoffee drinkers and heavy coffee drinkers versus light coffee drinkers. A statistically significant inverse correlation was observed between coffee drinking and mortality; all three groups showed a significant reduction in risk ratio. Light coffee drinkers versus noncoffee drinkers were associated with a risk ratio of 0.79 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66-0.94, P=0.008]; heavy coffee drinkers versus noncoffee drinkers were associated with a risk ratio of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.45-0.65, P<0.00001); and heavy coffee drinkers versus light coffee drinkers were associated with a risk ratio of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.58-0.83, P<0.0001). Drinking coffee habitually following AMI was associated with a reduced risk of mortality.
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, is a bark beetle endemic to Africa. This species was first detected in the field in 1897 in Mount Coffee, Liberia, and years later was reported as a pest of coffee in several African countries. In 1913 the coffee berry borer was accidentally introduced in...
Nikić, Petar M; Andrić, Branislav R; Stojimirović, Biljana B; Trbojevic-Stanković, Jasna; Bukumirić, Zoran
Coffee drinking is the main source of caffeine intake among adult population in the western world. It has been reported that low to moderate caffeine intake has beneficial effect on alertness and cognitive functions in healthy subjects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of habitual coffee consumption on cognitive function in hemodialysis patients. In a cross-sectional study, 86 patients from a single-dialysis centre underwent assessment by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment tool and evaluation for symptoms of fatigue, mood, and sleep disorders by well-validated questionnaires. The habitual coffee use and the average daily caffeine intake were estimated by participants' response to a dietary questionnaire. Sixty-seven subjects (78%) consumed black coffee daily, mostly in low to moderate dose. Cognitive impairment was found in three-quarters of tested patients. Normal mental performance was more often in habitual coffee users (25% versus 16%). Regular coffee drinkers achieved higher mean scores on all tested cognitive domains, but a significant positive correlation was found only for items that measure attention and concentration (P = 0.024). Moderate caffeine intake by habitual coffee consumption could have beneficial impact on cognitive function in hemodialysis patients due to selective enhancement of attention and vigilance.
Crozier, Thomas W M; Stalmach, Angelique; Lean, Michael E J; Crozier, Alan
HPLC analysis of 20 commercial espresso coffees revealed 6-fold differences in caffeine levels, a 17-fold range of caffeoylquinic acid contents, and 4-fold differences in the caffeoylquinic acid : caffeine ratio. These variations reflect differences in batch-to-batch bean composition, possible blending of arabica with robusta beans, as well as roasting and grinding procedures, but the predominant factor is likely to be the amount of beans used in the coffee-making/barista processes. The most caffeine in a single espresso was 322 mg and a further three contained >200 mg, exceeding the 200 mg day(-1) upper limit recommended during pregnancy by the UK Food Standards Agency. This snap-shot of high-street expresso coffees suggests the published assumption that a cup of strong coffee contains 50 mg caffeine may be misleading. Consumers at risk of toxicity, including pregnant women, children and those with liver disease, may unknowingly ingest excessive caffeine from a single cup of espresso coffee. As many coffee houses prepare larger volume coffees, such as Latte and Cappuccino, by dilution of a single or double shot of expresso, further study on these products is warranted. New data are needed to provide informative labelling, with attention to bean variety, preparation, and barista methods.
Gordillo-Delgado, Fernando; Marín, Ernesto; Cortés-Hernández, Diego Mauricio; Mejía-Morales, Claudia; García-Salcedo, Angela Janet
Procedures for the evaluation of the origin and quality of ground and roasted coffee are constantly needed for the associated industry due to complexity of the related market. Conventional Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy can be used for detecting changes in functional groups of compounds, such as coffee. However, dispersion, reflection and non-homogeneity of the sample matrix can cause problems resulting in low spectral quality. On the other hand, sample preparation frequently takes place in a destructive way. To overcome these difficulties, in this work a photoacoustic cell has been adapted as a detector in a FTIR spectrophotometer to perform a study of roasted and ground coffee from three varieties of Coffea arabica grown by organic and conventional methods. Comparison between spectra of coffee recorded by FTIR-photoacoustic spectrometry (PAS) and by FTIR spectrophotometry showed a better resolution of the former method, which, aided by principal components analysis, allowed the identification of some absorption bands that allow the discrimination between organic and conventional coffee. The results obtained provide information about the spectral behavior of coffee powder which can be useful for establishing discrimination criteria. It has been demonstrated that FTIR-PAS can be a useful experimental tool for the characterization of coffee. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
Nikić, Petar M.; Andrić, Branislav R.; Stojimirović, Biljana B.; Trbojevic-Stanković, Jasna; Bukumirić, Zoran
Objective. Coffee drinking is the main source of caffeine intake among adult population in the western world. It has been reported that low to moderate caffeine intake has beneficial effect on alertness and cognitive functions in healthy subjects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of habitual coffee consumption on cognitive function in hemodialysis patients. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, 86 patients from a single-dialysis centre underwent assessment by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment tool and evaluation for symptoms of fatigue, mood, and sleep disorders by well-validated questionnaires. The habitual coffee use and the average daily caffeine intake were estimated by participants' response to a dietary questionnaire. Results. Sixty-seven subjects (78%) consumed black coffee daily, mostly in low to moderate dose. Cognitive impairment was found in three-quarters of tested patients. Normal mental performance was more often in habitual coffee users (25% versus 16%). Regular coffee drinkers achieved higher mean scores on all tested cognitive domains, but a significant positive correlation was found only for items that measure attention and concentration (P = 0.024). Conclusions. Moderate caffeine intake by habitual coffee consumption could have beneficial impact on cognitive function in hemodialysis patients due to selective enhancement of attention and vigilance. PMID:24895603
Tesfaye, H; Blahos, J; Janatová, J
In the introductory part of this article the history/legend of coffee as well as its spread to different parts of the world including Europe is discussed. Data sofar available in literature do not give any convincing evidence regarding clear relationship between coffee and the etiopathogenesis of several diseases including diabetes mellitus type 2, cardiovascular diseases, gout, osteoporosis, neurologic disorders and colorectal cancer. Favorable (protective) effects of coffee consumption against hepatocellular cancer have been repeatedly described. The autors discuss on todate findings about relationship between blood cholesterol and uric acid in literature and remind their own experience with different population groups in Harar, Ethiopia, where consumption of coffee is habitual in daily life of the inhabitants.
Cai, Tie; Ting, Hu; Jin-Lan, Zhang
Coffee is one of the most common and most valuable beverages. According to International Coffee Organization (ICO) reports, the adulteration of coffee for financial reasons is regarded as the most serious threat to the sustainable development of the coffee market. In this work, a novel strategy for adulteration identification in ground coffee was developed based on UPLC-HRMS oligosaccharide profiling. Along with integrated statistical analysis, 17 oligosaccharide composition were identified as markers for the identification of soybeans and rice in ground coffee. This strategy, validated by manual mixtures, optimized both the reliability and authority of adulteration identification. Rice and soybean adulterants present in ground coffee in amounts as low as 5% were identified and evaluated. Some commercial ground coffees were also successfully tested using this strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Odžaković, Božana; Džinić, Natalija; Kukrić, Zoran; Grujić, Slavica
Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, because of its unique sensory properties and physiological properties. Coffee beverages represent a significant source of antioxidants in the consumers' diet and contribute significantly to their daily intake. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of different roasting degrees on the content of biologically active compounds and antioxidant activity in different quality classes of Arabica coffee. Samples of green Arabica coffee (Rio Minas) of two quality classes from two production batches were used for the research. Roasting was carried out at temperatures of 167, 175 and 171°C. The total phenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), flavonol content (FC) and antioxidant activity (DPPH, ABTS) in the coffee extracts was determined. This research shows that TPC was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in green coffee compared to TPC in roasted coffee, and TPC decreases as the roasting temperature increases. TFC and FC were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in green coffee than in roasted coffee. Differences in TPC between the 1st and 2nd classes of Arabica coffee were not significant (P > 0.05), while differences in TFC were significant (P < 0.05) only for green coffee from the second production