Science.gov

Sample records for institutional control policies

  1. Institutional Policy and Its Abuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogue, E. G.; Riggs, R. O.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews the role of institutional policy, cites frequent abuses of institutional policy, and delineates several principles of policy management (development, communication, execution and evaluation). (Author/PG)

  2. Institutional Control Policies and Implementation for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Vefa Yucel, Greg Shott, Denise Wieland, et al.

    2007-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) has implemented varying institutional control policies in performance assessment/composite analysis (PA/CA) calculations for the Area 5 and Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) (Shott et al., 1998; 2000; Bechtel Nevada [BN] and Neptune and Company Inc. [Neptune], 2006). The facilities are within the actively maintained boundaries of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) that are enforced by NNSA/NSO. Under current policies, access required for exposure of the member of public (MOP) or the inadvertent human intruder (IHI) is prohibited. Uncertainties affecting institutional control policies are the duration and effectiveness of the controls during the post-closure period. Implementing a uniform set of institutional control policies for the RWMSs that encompasses waste management and environmental restoration programs and is consistent with the end-state vision for the environmental management programs for the NTS (DOE, 2006) is a primary goal of the maintenance program. The NNSA/NSO Performance Management Plan (DOE, 2002) complies with DOE Policy P455.1, 'Use of Risk-Based End States' (DOE, 2003a). Expected future land uses are a driver in selecting acceptable end state conditions and clean-up goals for the NTS. NNSA/NSO Environmental Management's (EM's) land management assumptions and framework for Environmental Management activities are as follows: The NTS will remain under federal control in perpetuity as an NNSA test site, and the large buffer zone surrounding the NTS (the Nevada Test and Training Range) is assumed to remain under the control of the U.S. Air Force. There are no plans for transfer of any NTS lands to other agencies or public entities. Access will continue to be restricted to the NTS and the surrounding areas. For management purposes, NNSA/NV EM activities have been established based on the source of contamination and type of waste

  3. Crossing institutional boundaries: mapping the policy process for improved control of endemic and neglected zoonoses in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Okello, Anna; Welburn, Susan; Smith, James

    2015-07-01

    The recent adoption of the World Health Assembly Resolution 66.12 for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in May 2013 is an important turning point for advocacy regarding a number of endemic zoonotic infections, defined by the World Health Organization as the neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs). In addition to NTD-listed zoonoses such as rabies, echinococcosis (hydatid disease), leishmaniasis, Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) and Taenia solium cysticercosis, the NZDs also include important bacterial zoonoses such as anthrax, bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis. To date, analysis of the processes that prioritize, develop and deliver zoonoses control programmes in many low- and middle-income countries is lacking, despite its potential to highlight significant evidence gaps and institutional constraints to the intersectoral approach required for their control. Policy process analysis was conducted via a series of semi-structured interviews with key policy actors within various ministries and institutes in Uganda and Nigeria. The study concluded that despite the rhetoric around 'linear' models of health policy development promoting consultation with a wide range of national stakeholders, the decision-making process for zoonotic disease control appears instead overtly influenced by the external political economy of trending pandemic threats, often overlooking national and regional zoonoses priorities. The inclusion of political systems remains a key factor in the zoonoses analysis matrix, enhancing our understanding of the intersectoral and transdisciplinary approaches required for their control. The authors consider policy process analysis to be a fundamental first step of any attempt to holistically strengthen human and animal health systems in a development context, particularly regarding the promotion of integrated control policies for regionally important zoonoses under the growing One Health movement.

  4. Institutional analysis for energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, F.A.; Cole, R.J.

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes principles, techniques, and other information for doing institutional analyses in the area of energy policy. The report was prepared to support DOE's Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program. RIIA identifies environmental, health, safety, socioeconomic, and institutional issues that could accompany hypothetical future scenarios for energy consumption and production on a regional basis. Chapter 1 provides some theoretical grounding in institutional analysis. Chapter 2 provides information on constructing institutional maps of the processes for bringing on line energy technologies and facilities contemplated in RIIA scenarios. Chapter 3 assesses the institutional constraints, opportunities, and impacts that affect whether these technologies and facilities would in fact be developed. Chapters 4 and 5 show how institutional analysis can support use of exercises such as RIIA in planning institutional change and making energy policy choices.

  5. Barriers and challenges of implementing tobacco control policies in hospitals: applying the institutional analysis and development framework to the Catalan Network of Smoke-Free Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Cristina

    2009-08-01

    This article analyzes tobacco control policies in hospitals based on the experience of the Catalan Network of Smoke-Free Hospitals, Spain. The objective is to understand through this case study how tobacco policies are designed and implemented in health care organizations. Because tobacco control is a public health issue, governmental, institutional, and professional involvement is necessary. This article identifies and examines the structure and relationships among the different actors involved in the tobacco control policies in health care organizations using Ostrom's Institutional Analysis and Development framework.This theory helps one understand the policy failures and rethink the future challenges. Critical issues should be reviewed to enhance implementation of smoke-free hospitals-such as assuring the compliance of nonsmoking areas and introducing compulsory tobacco cessation activities that are promoted and monitored by the public administration. The author suggests that relying primarily on an organization's interpretation of rules leads to irregular implementation.

  6. Institute for International Public Policy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Institute for International Public Policy program provides a single grant to assist a consortia of institutions of higher education in establishing an institute designed to increase the representation of minorities in international service, including private international voluntary organizations and the Foreign Service of the United States. A…

  7. International institutions and China's health policy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanzhong

    2015-02-01

    This article examines the role of international institutional actors in China's health policy process. Particular attention is paid to three major international institutional actors: the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Through process tracing and comparative case studies, the article looks at how international institutions contribute to policy change in China and seeks to explain different outcomes in the relationship between international institutions and China's health policies. It finds that despite the opaque and exclusive authoritarian structure in China, international institutions play a significant role in the country's domestic health governance. By investing their resources and capabilities selectively and strategically, international institutions can change the preferences of government policy makers, move latent public health issues to the government's agenda, and affect the timing of government action and the content of policy design. Furthermore, the study suggests that different outcomes in the relationship between China's health policies and global health governance can be explained through the seriousness of the externalities China faces.

  8. International institutions and China's health policy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanzhong

    2015-02-01

    This article examines the role of international institutional actors in China's health policy process. Particular attention is paid to three major international institutional actors: the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Through process tracing and comparative case studies, the article looks at how international institutions contribute to policy change in China and seeks to explain different outcomes in the relationship between international institutions and China's health policies. It finds that despite the opaque and exclusive authoritarian structure in China, international institutions play a significant role in the country's domestic health governance. By investing their resources and capabilities selectively and strategically, international institutions can change the preferences of government policy makers, move latent public health issues to the government's agenda, and affect the timing of government action and the content of policy design. Furthermore, the study suggests that different outcomes in the relationship between China's health policies and global health governance can be explained through the seriousness of the externalities China faces. PMID:25480846

  9. State Policy Toward Independent Postsecondary Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    The statement of state policy toward independent degree-granting colleges and universities in California addresses these issues: independent institutions as a public resource (enrollment, degrees awarded, levels of support, tuition and fees, government revenues, program diversity, and geographic location); state policy toward independent…

  10. Extended Learning Institute. Policies and Procedures Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Larry

    This manual describes the Extended Learning Institute (ELI) at John Tyler Community College in Virginia. The ELI is a comprehensive program of instruction using alternative delivery systems (e.g., television, print-based, radio, and newspapers). General procedures and policies are delineated in section I, including registration and student and…

  11. Academic Values, Institutional Management and Public Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, David

    2007-01-01

    The impacts of market-related policies and revenues on higher education are not uniform but globalisation has opened most institutions to new pressures. The public funding models developed 50 years ago underestimated the full cost of mass higher education as an entitlement while the sheer scale of resources needed to sustain a comprehensive…

  12. Introduction: Institutional corruption and the pharmaceutical policy.

    PubMed

    Rodwin, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Today, the goals of pharmaceutical policy and medical practice are often undermined due to institutional corruption - that is, widespread or systemic practices, usually legal, that undermine an institution's objectives or integrity. In this symposium, 16 articles investigate the corruption of pharmaceutical policy, each taking a different look at the sources of corruption, how it occurs, and what is corrupted. We will see that the pharmaceutical industry's own purposes are often undermined. Furthermore, pharmaceutical industry funding of election campaigns and lobbying skews the legislative process that sets pharmaceutical policy. Moreover, certain practices have corrupted medical research, the production of medical knowledge, the practice of medicine, drug safety, the Food and Drug Administration's oversight of the pharmaceutical market, and the trustworthiness of patient advocacy organizations.

  13. Introduction: Institutional corruption and the pharmaceutical policy.

    PubMed

    Rodwin, Marc A

    2013-01-01

    Today, the goals of pharmaceutical policy and medical practice are often undermined due to institutional corruption - that is, widespread or systemic practices, usually legal, that undermine an institution's objectives or integrity. In this symposium, 16 articles investigate the corruption of pharmaceutical policy, each taking a different look at the sources of corruption, how it occurs, and what is corrupted. We will see that the pharmaceutical industry's own purposes are often undermined. Furthermore, pharmaceutical industry funding of election campaigns and lobbying skews the legislative process that sets pharmaceutical policy. Moreover, certain practices have corrupted medical research, the production of medical knowledge, the practice of medicine, drug safety, the Food and Drug Administration's oversight of the pharmaceutical market, and the trustworthiness of patient advocacy organizations. PMID:24088143

  14. Budgetary Control Procedures for Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Ray M.

    Budgetary control procedures for not-for-profit institutions are presented in this compilation of budgetary materials and ideas gathered at the Program for Institutional Administrators at the University of Notre Dame. Budgetary reporting and control are suggested as the most effective tools for coordinating and controlling the acquisition and use…

  15. Alleviating the Policy Paradox through Improved Institutional Policy Systems: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Steven C.; Griffin, Rick A.; Martin, Cameron K.

    2012-01-01

    Institutional policies and policy systems are vital to the well-being of institutions of higher education. While many institutions dedicate time and resources to the development of key policies, the establishment of a well-designed and well-functioning policy system is often neglected. We refer to the discrepancy between the importance of…

  16. Institutional Admissions Policies in Higher Education: A Widening Participation Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article analyses how higher education institutions (HEIs) have responded to government policy to increase the participation rates of students from lower social classes through their admissions policies. Design/methodology/approach: The article uses documentary evidence and interviews with institutional policy makers to examine HEI…

  17. The Implementation of Policies Regulating Institutional Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebauer, Petra; Kirchner, Ingo; Hirt, Mirjam

    2013-04-01

    Data management in geosciences, especially at university and other research institutes commonly isn't very well coordinated. Due to changing staff and limited funding this topic has no priority in general. The process to implement policies regulating data management in an university institute is complex. First of all existing structures and workflows had to be reviewed. That means an inventory of different data sets, reviewing quality tests, but also data requirements of scientists as well as their willingness to follow rules simplifying their work. Awareness of complying with regulations is essential for the acceptance of policies. A leading team, formed by several scientists, will bring together different points of view to control the development of institutional policies. Determining the actual state of personal data management using a questionary was one of the activities in the project EWIG (Developing workflow components for long-term archiving of research data in geosciences). The intention of the project is to support geoscientists in transferring their data in a standardized way for storage in digital long-term archives and in using documented data from these archives. Project partners are Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam and Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum für Informationstechnik Berlin. Other activities were to discuss existing problems and approved solutions with many institutions and tried to find out, where are the gaps in already realized workflows and which structures could be an ideal model to be generalized. Policies for the workflow independent from the working area will be defined. University lectures were started to teach future scientific generations from the beginning on how to deal with all sorts of different data in a transparent way. Their feedback will be used to improve data documentations and data curation, so that the re-use of archived research data will be encouraged. The whole process of different approaches in the project EWIG, funded

  18. Institutional challenges for national groundwater governance: policies and issues.

    PubMed

    Theesfeld, Insa

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the issues surrounding groundwater governance is a precondition for developing policy recommendations for both national and transboundary groundwater governance. This review discusses groundwater attributes relevant to the design of governance systems and provides a systematic review of current national groundwater governance differentiated by various policy instruments. The synthesis of both resource system characteristics and experience with policy instruments allows us to conceptualize institutional aspects of groundwater governance. This leads to six institutional aspects: (1) voluntary compliance; (2) tradition and mental models; (3) administrative responsibility and bureaucratic inertia; (4) conflict resolution mechanisms; (5) political economy; and (6) information deficits. Each of these issues embodies institutional challenges for national and international policy implementation.

  19. [Urbanization control policies in Indonesia].

    PubMed

    Syafrizal

    1987-06-01

    Urbanization policy in Indonesia is outlined. Elements of this policy include the issuing of residency permits for major urban areas, the migration program to assist jobless urban residents in moving to underpopulated areas, and rural development and the encouragement of growth in smaller urban centers. The effectiveness of existing policies in controlling urbanization is assessed. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  20. Institutional Mission vs Policy Constraint?: Unlocking Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelkorn, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    The research-intensive and competitive knowledge society is putting HEIs (higher education institutions) under the spotlight. While many HEIs around the world do not proclaim or wish to be research-intensive institutions the majority desire to intensify their research activity because it is seen as a sine qua non of higher education. Accordingly,…

  1. Smoke-Free Policies in New Zealand Public Tertiary Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Lindsay A.; Marsh, L.

    2015-01-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control mandates the creation of smoke-free environments to protect non-smokers from second-hand smoke and reduce demand for tobacco. We aimed to examine the extent and nature of smoke-free campus policies at tertiary education institutions throughout New Zealand, and examine the policy development process.…

  2. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  3. Undergraduate Admissions: The Realities of Institutional Policies, Practices, and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers, Washington, DC.

    Undergraduate admissions policies and practices at 1,463 institutions were surveyed. The investigation dealt with many aspects of admission, including policy-making authority, application procedures, accessibility and selectivity, student credentials, recruitment, and marketing, guidance and course placement, and differential treatment of various…

  4. Rethinking Institutional Secularization as an (Im)possible "Policy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez Caride, Ezequiel

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzes through a genealogical discourse analysis how religion as a cultural practice escapes into the borders of state institutions. While most studies about secularization focus on institutional aspects, such approaches tend to link state secularist policies with cultural secularization. This essay argues that state promotion of…

  5. Fordham Institute's Pretend Research. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    The Thomas B. Fordham Institute has released a report, "Evaluating the Content and Quality of Next Generation Assessments," ostensibly an evaluative comparison of four testing programs, the Common Core derived SBAC and PARCC, ACT's Aspire, and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts' MCAS. Of course, anyone familiar with Fordham's past work…

  6. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Sitewide Institutional Controls Plan

    SciTech Connect

    W. L. Jolley

    2006-07-27

    On November 9, 2002, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality approved the Record of Decision Experimental Breeder Reactor-I/Boiling Water Reactor Experiment Area and Miscellaneous Sites, which requires a Sitewide Institutional Controls Plan for the then Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (now known as the Idaho National Laboratory). This document, first issued in June 2004, fulfilled that requirement. The revision is needed to provide an update as remedial actions are completed and new areas of concern are found. This Sitewide Institutional Controls Plan is based on guidance in the May 3, 1999, EPA Region 10 Final Policy on the Use of Institutional Controls at Federal Facilities; the September 29, 2000, EPA guidance Institutional Controls: A Site Manager's Guide to Identifying, Evaluating, and Selecting Institutional Controls at Superfund and RCRA Corrective Action Cleanups; and the April 9, 2003, DOE Policy 454.1, "Use of Institutional Controls." These policies establish measures that ensure short- and long-term effectiveness of institutional controls that protect human health and the environment at federal facility sites undergoing remedial action pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and/or corrective action pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The site-specific institutional controls currently in place at the Idaho National Laboratory are documented in this Sitewide Institutional Controls Plan. This plan is being updated, along with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Comprehensive Facilities and Land Use Plan, to reflect the progress of remedial activities and changes in CERCLA sites.

  7. Stewardship in mental health policy: inspiration, influence, institution?

    PubMed

    Brown, Lawrence D; Isett, Kimberley R; Hogan, Michael

    2010-06-01

    The venerable but amorphous concept of stewardship has lately gained prominence in discussions of public policy and management and is sometimes offered as a "strategy" with a distinctive potential to mobilize effective public leadership in the service of broad social missions. In this article we explore how stewardship may be useful to the theory and practice of mental health policy, and, reciprocally, how examples from mental health policy may elucidate the dynamics of stewardship. After examining its key political ingredients--authority, advocacy, and analysis--we discuss the practical challenges in moving stewardship from moral inspiration to institutional reality.

  8. MOOCs, Institutional Policy and Change Dynamics in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The last couple of years have witnessed a growing debate about online learning in higher education, notably in response to the global massive open online course (MOOC) phenomenon. This paper explores these developments from an institutional policy perspective, drawing on an analysis of the initial stages of different approaches to MOOCs and…

  9. Higher Education Policy Change and Institutional Development in Mongolia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, David; Thomas, Harold

    2003-01-01

    Changes in higher education policy in Mongolia involved an abruptness that both facilitated reform and challenged institutional managers. This article reports on the nature of these changes and their impact on the School of Economic Studies (SES) at the National University. It focuses on the negotiation between the SES, the National University and…

  10. Institutional Statements of Commitment and Widening Participation Policy in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Amy; Mangion, Antoine; Buchanan, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    This article describes ways in which the equity agenda, as outlined in the Bradley Review of Higher Education (Bradley et al., 2008), is translated into action in one Australian university. Drawing on the conceptual work of Ahmed (2012) to elaborate institutional life, we investigate the effects of the widening participation policy. Ahmed (2012)…

  11. 42 CFR 93.304 - Institutional policies and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Institutional policies and procedures. 93.304 Section 93.304 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH...

  12. 42 CFR 93.304 - Institutional policies and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Institutional policies and procedures. 93.304 Section 93.304 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH...

  13. 42 CFR 93.304 - Institutional policies and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Institutional policies and procedures. 93.304 Section 93.304 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH...

  14. 42 CFR 93.304 - Institutional policies and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Institutional policies and procedures. 93.304 Section 93.304 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH...

  15. Local Responses to Institutional Policy: A Discursive Approach to Positioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanghanel, Joelle

    2007-01-01

    This article examines how academics position themselves towards an ideologically complex policy text, which outlines an institutional strategy for teaching and learning. It focuses on two main issues: the way their position is established through discourse, and the range of factors that come into play in determining that position. A sample of six…

  16. NCAA Academic Performance Metrics: Implications for Institutional Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaForge, Larry; Hodge, Janie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the higher education community with information about the Federal Graduation Rate (FGR), the Academic Progress Rate (APR), and the Graduation Success Rate (GSR) to assist in developing sound institutional policy. First, relevant background information is provided to clarify the context underlying the…

  17. Toward Instituting a Chaperone Policy in Outpatient Pediatric Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Kenneth W.; Jenkins, Carol; Laney, Tyler; Seidel, Kristy

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to evaluate child, parent and medical provider preferences for chaperones for outpatient encounters and to evaluate the acceptability and frequency of utilization following institution of a chaperone policy. Secondarily, we sought to understand what medical history and examinations teens consider "sensitive." Design: We…

  18. Review of Canadian mobile satellite systems institutional arrangements policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilvary, David

    1990-01-01

    Development of institutional arrangements policy for maritime, land, and aeronautical mobile satellite systems (MSS) is an integral part of the Canadian telecommunications policy process. An ongoing activity in that process is fitting of MSS institutional arrangements policy within the confines of the 1987 Canadian Telecom Policy Framework. Making sure the fit is correct is a major task at present because technology seems to be driving service demand at rapid growth rates, particularly in the case of land MSS. This growth is stimulating policy and regulatory development efforts to keep pace. In Canada, this is happening in four planned MSS applications areas: Canada-US transborder (immediate), aeronautical MSS (1990/94), Telesat Mobile Inc. EMDS via INMARSAT (1990), and MSAT (1993/94). The need for an up-to-date MSS policy in these areas is emphasized by related developments in the US and elsewhere. It arises because of the growing number of market initiatives proposing North American rather than Canada-only or US-only coverage, such as INMARSAT, Geostar, OmniTRACS, and Starlink.

  19. Review of Canadian mobile satellite systems institutional arrangements policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilvary, David

    Development of institutional arrangements policy for maritime, land, and aeronautical mobile satellite systems (MSS) is an integral part of the Canadian telecommunications policy process. An ongoing activity in that process is fitting of MSS institutional arrangements policy within the confines of the 1987 Canadian Telecom Policy Framework. Making sure the fit is correct is a major task at present because technology seems to be driving service demand at rapid growth rates, particularly in the case of land MSS. This growth is stimulating policy and regulatory development efforts to keep pace. In Canada, this is happening in four planned MSS applications areas: Canada-US transborder (immediate), aeronautical MSS (1990/94), Telesat Mobile Inc. EMDS via INMARSAT (1990), and MSAT (1993/94). The need for an up-to-date MSS policy in these areas is emphasized by related developments in the US and elsewhere. It arises because of the growing number of market initiatives proposing North American rather than Canada-only or US-only coverage, such as INMARSAT, Geostar, OmniTRACS, and Starlink.

  20. Why do policies change? Institutions, interests, ideas and networks in three cases of policy reform.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Jessica C; Abelson, Julia; Kouyaté, Bocar; Lavis, John N; Walt, Gill

    2016-11-01

    Policy researchers have used various categories of variables to explain why policies change, including those related to institutions, interests and ideas. Recent research has paid growing attention to the role of policy networks-the actors involved in policy-making, their relationships with each other, and the structure formed by those relationships-in policy reform across settings and issues; however, this literature has largely ignored the theoretical integration of networks with other policy theories, including the '3Is' of institutions, interests and ideas. This article proposes a conceptual framework integrating these variables and tests it on three cases of policy change in Burkina Faso, addressing the need for theoretical integration with networks as well as the broader aim of theory-driven health policy analysis research in low- and middle-income countries. We use historical process tracing, a type of comparative case study, to interpret and compare documents and in-depth interview data within and between cases. We found that while network changes were indeed associated with policy reform, this relationship was mediated by one or more of institutions, interests and ideas. In a context of high donor dependency, new donor rules affected the composition and structure of actors in the networks, which enabled the entry and dissemination of new ideas and shifts in the overall balance of interest power ultimately leading to policy change. The case of strategic networking occurred in only one case, by civil society actors, suggesting that network change is rarely the spark that initiates the process towards policy change. This analysis highlights the important role of changes in institutions and ideas to drive policymaking, but hints that network change is a necessary intermediate step in these processes. PMID:27233927

  1. Rethinking forest carbon assessments to account for policy institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, Andrew; Keith, Heather; Lindenmayer, David

    2015-10-01

    There has been extensive debate about whether the sustainable use of forests (forest management aimed at producing a sustainable yield of timber or other products) results in superior climate outcomes to conservation (maintenance or enhancement of conservation values without commercial harvesting). Most of the relevant research has relied on consequential life-cycle assessment (LCA), with the results tending to show that sustainable use has lower net greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions than conservation in the long term. However, the literature cautions that results are sensitive to forest- and market-related contextual factors: the carbon density of the forests, silvicultural and wood processing practices, and the extent to which wood products and forest bioenergy displace carbon-intensive alternatives. Depending on these issues, conservation can be better for the climate than sustainable use. Policy institutions are another key contextual factor but, so far, they have largely been ignored. Using a case study on the Southern Forestry Region (SFR) of New South Wales (NSW), Australia, we show how policy institutions can affect the assessed outcomes from alternative forest management strategies. Our results highlight the need for greater attention to be paid to policy institutions in forest carbon research.

  2. Disposal of mixed waste: Technical, institutional, and policy factors

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Letourneau, M.J.; Case, J.T.

    1996-03-01

    In conjunction with the affected States as part of their interactions required by the Federal Facilities Compliance Act, the Department of Energy has been developing a process for a disposal configuration for its mixed low-level waste (MLLW). This effort, spanning more than two years, has reduced the potential disposal sites from 49 to 15. The remaining 15 sites have been subjected to a performance evaluation to determine their strengths and weaknesses for disposal of MLLW. The process has included institutional and policy factors as well as strictly technical analyses, and technical analyses must be supported by technical analyses, and technical analyses must be performed within a framework which includes some institutional considerations, with the institutional considerations selected for inclusion largely a matter of policy. While the disposal configuration process is yet to be completed, the experience to date offers a viable approach for solving some of these issues. Additionally, several factors remain to be addressed before an MLLW disposal configuration can be developed.

  3. Development of Policies, Institutions and Procedures for Water Reuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demouche, L.; Pfiefer, J.; Hanson, A.; Skaggs, R.

    2009-12-01

    In the arid, water scarce region of New Mexico and West Texas there is growing interest in the potential for water reuse to extend existing supplies and mitigate drought shortage impacts. There are no new sources of water in New Mexico, except reclaimed water. Communities and individuals are uncertain about and have many unanswered questions about polices, institutions involved (agencies), legal and regulatory requirements, and procedures governing water reuse. Issues to be addressed by this project include: the legal ability to reuse water, ownership of water rights, downstream or third party impacts, regulatory and procedural requirements, water quality concerns, state and local agency involvement, and cost effectiveness of water reuse compared to alternative sources. Presently, there is very little implementation or directives in New Mexico policy that addresses reuse, reclamation, or recycled water. The only regulations pertaining to reuse is New Mexico Environmental Department currently allows the use of reclaimed domestic wastewater for irrigation of golf courses and green spaces, which is listed in the Policy for the Above Ground Use of Reclaimed Domestic Wastewater (NMED, 2003). This document identifies the various reclaimed quality classifications that are required for specific applications and the permits required for application. This document does not identify or address policy applications on the distribution, ownership, or trading of reclaimed water. Even though reclaimed water reuse projects are currently being implemented in many cities in the U.S., mainly for commercial and municipal irrigation (golf courses and green space), its potential has not yet been exploited. A policy analysis matrix (PAM) is being designed to identify and examine the policy framework and consequences of non-policy implementation for decision makers and interest groups and assist them in understanding the consequences of policy actions and project outcomes if no laws or

  4. Locating regional health policy: Institutions, politics, and practices

    PubMed Central

    Riggirozzi, Pia; Yeates, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Poverty reduction and health became central in the agendas of Southern regional organisations in the last two decades. Yet, little is known about how these organisations address poverty, inclusion and social inequality, and how Southern regional formations are engaging in power constellations, institutions, processes, interests and ideological positions within different spheres of governance. This article reviews academic literatures spanning global social policy, regional studies and diplomacy studies, and the state of knowledge and understanding of the ‘place’ of regional actors in health governance as a global political practice therein. It identifies theoretical and thematic points of connection between disparate literatures and how these can be bridged through research focusing on the social policies of regional organisations and regional integration processes. This framework hence locates the contributions of each of the research articles of this Special Issue of Global Social Policy on the regional dimension of health policy and diplomacy in relation to Southern Africa and South America. It also highlights the ways in which the articles bring new evidence about how social relations of welfare are being (re)made over larger scales and how regional actors may initiate new norms to improve health rights in international arenas engaging in new forms of ‘regional’ diplomacy. PMID:26635495

  5. Strategies for Success: Open Access Policies at North American Educational Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruin, Christine; Sutton, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the paucity of quantitative and qualitative data from North American educational institutions that have pursued open access policies, the authors devised a survey to collect information on the characteristics of these institutions, as well as the elements of the open access policies, the methods of promoting these policies, faculty…

  6. 34 CFR 668.49 - Institutional fire safety policies and fire statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... doors and walls that reduce the spread of a fire. Value of property damage: The estimated value of the... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Institutional fire safety policies and fire statistics... Institutional and Financial Assistance Information for Students § 668.49 Institutional fire safety policies...

  7. 34 CFR 668.49 - Institutional fire safety policies and fire statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... doors and walls that reduce the spread of a fire. Value of property damage: The estimated value of the... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Institutional fire safety policies and fire statistics... Institutional and Financial Assistance Information for Students § 668.49 Institutional fire safety policies...

  8. 34 CFR 668.49 - Institutional fire safety policies and fire statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... doors and walls that reduce the spread of a fire. Value of property damage: The estimated value of the... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Institutional fire safety policies and fire statistics... Institutional and Financial Assistance Information for Students § 668.49 Institutional fire safety policies...

  9. Pitfalls in Health Communication: Healthcare Policy, Institution, Structure, & Process

    PubMed Central

    Calderón, José L; Beltrán, Robert A

    2004-01-01

    The state of health communication for a given population is a function of several tiers of structure and process: government policy, healthcare directives, healthcare structure and process, and the ethnosocial realities of a multicultural society. Common yet specific to these tiers of health communication is the interpersonal and intergroup use of language in all its forms. Language is the most common behavior exhibited by humankind. Its use at all tiers determines quality of healthcare and quality of life for healthcare consumers: patients and their families. Of note, at the consumer end, mounting evidence demonstrates that barriers to health communication contribute to poorer access to care, quality of care, and health outcomes. The lack of comprehensible and usable written and spoken language is a major barrier to health communication targeting primary and secondary disease prevention and is a major contributor to the misuse of healthcare, patient noncompliance, rising healthcare costs. In this paper, we cursorily examine the relationship among government policy, institutional directives, and healthcare structure and process and its influence on the public health, especially vulnerable populations. We conclude that limited health communication in the context of changing healthcare environments and diverse populations is an important underpinning of rising healthcare costs and sustained health disparities. More research is needed to improve communication about health at all tiers and to develop health communication interventions that are usable by all population groups. PMID:15208522

  10. 77 FR 45606 - Policy Statement Concerning Assistance to Troubled Farm Credit System Institutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Corporation's present Policy Statement Concerning Stand- Alone Assistance. The draft revised policy statement... Institutions to replace the Corporation's present Policy Statement Concerning Stand-Alone Assistance.\\1\\ The... policy statement and invites all interested parties to review and provide comments. \\1\\ See 77 FR...

  11. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity. National institute on alcohol and drugs policies, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Mitsuhiro, Sandro Sendin

    2012-04-01

    The National Institute of Public Policy for Alcohol and Other Drugs (INPAD) is based at the Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil, and was created to collect scientific evidence regarding epidemiology, develop new therapeutic approaches, study health economics and provide education to subsidize the proper measures to change the Brazilian scenario of alcohol and drug consumption. Policies directed towards the control of alcohol and drugs in Brazil are fragmented, poorly enforced and therefore ineffective. The unregulated market of alcohol in Brazil has contributed to the worsening health of the Brazilian population. Since 1994, INPAD has participated actively in academic debates and discussions about alcohol and drug policies and their effects on the political welfare of the country. Many scientific papers and books have been published on this subject, and the internet and other media have provided excellent opportunities for the dissemination of specialized information to the general population.

  12. Institutional, Legal, and Economic Instruments in Ghana's Environmental Policy.

    PubMed

    Hens; Boon

    1999-10-01

    / This paper reviews the state of the environment in Ghana and explores the potential for the use of institutional, legal, and economic instruments in environmental management in the specific context of this developing country.The environmental situation in Ghana is characterized by desertification, land degradation, deforestation, soil erosion, and inadequate water supply in the northern regions of the country. The population as a whole is growing at a rate of 3% per annum, with even greater urban growth rates, due to rural out-migration. Large parts of the coastal zone in the south are rapidly developing to become one large suburbanized area. Water quality is particularly threatened in the urban and industrialized areas, which are mainly located in the southern part of the country. The coastal lagoons and coastal waters are moderately to heavily polluted. Erosion extends along the whole Ghanaian coast with excesses, for example, in the Keta area, where during the last century over 90% of the original buildings have been washed awayby the sea. The obvious environmental consequences of the mining sector are illustrative of the environmental threats caused by a fast growing industry and industrializing agriculture, in a country where environmental policy is only in its formative years. Desertification, food insecurity and coastal erosion all contribute to an increasing number of environmental refugees.Environmental policy in Ghana is a post-Rio phenomenon. Environmental laws, a Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology, an advisory National Committee for the Implementation of Agenda 21, and a fully mandated environmental administration have been established. This administration advocates a progressive attitude towards environmental legislation and points out the specific utility of economic and legal instruments in environmental management in this relatively fast developing country.The choice of instruments for environmental management is increasingly

  13. Widening Participation in Higher Education: An Examination of the Factors Influencing Institutional Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the factors influencing the development of widening participation policy in 16 higher education institutions (HEIs). It utilises documentary research, followed by interviews with key policy makers in three of the institutions: an "old" university, a "new" university and a college of higher education. The paper demonstrates…

  14. Framing Student Perspectives into the Higher Education Institutional Review Policy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poth, Cheryl; Riedel, Alex; Luth, Robert

    2015-01-01

    It is necessary and desirable to enhance student learning in higher education by integrating multiple perspectives during institutional policy reviews, yet few examples of such a process exist. This article describes an institutional assessment policy review process that used a questionnaire to elicit 269 students' perspectives on a draft policy…

  15. Approaches to developing the capacity of health policy analysis institutes: a comparative case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To review and assess (i) the factors that facilitate the development of sustainable health policy analysis institutes in low and middle income countries and (ii) the nature of external support for capacity development provided to such institutes. Methods Comparative case studies of six health policy analysis institutes (3 from Asia and 3 from Africa) were conducted. In each region an NGO institute, an institute linked to government and a university based institute were included. Data collection comprised document review, semi-structured interviews with stakeholders and discussion of preliminary findings with institute staff. Findings The findings are organized around four key themes: (i) Financial resources: three of the institutes had received substantial external grants at start-up, however two of these institutes subsequently collapsed. At all but one institute, reliance upon short term, donor funding, created high administrative costs and unpredictability. (ii) Human resources: the retention of skilled human resources was perceived to be key to institute success but was problematic at all but one institute. In particular staff often moved to better paid positions elsewhere once having acquired necessary skills and experience, leaving remaining senior staff with heavy workloads. (iii) Governance and management: board structures and roles varied according to the nature of institute ownership. Boards made important contributions to organizational capacity through promoting continuity, independence and fund raising. Routine management systems were typically perceived to be strong. (iv) Networks: linkages to policy makers helped promote policy influences. External networks with other research organizations, particularly where these were longer term institutional collaborations helped promote capacity. Conclusions The development of strong in-country analytical and research capacity to guide health policy development is critical, yet many health policy

  16. Transmission and Institutional Infection Control of Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Nardell, Edward A

    2016-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) transmission control in institutions is evolving with increased awareness of the rapid impact of treatment on transmission, the importance of the unsuspected, untreated case of transmission, and the advent of rapid molecular diagnostics. With active case finding based on cough surveillance and rapid drug susceptibility testing, in theory, it is possible to be reasonably sure that no patient enters a facility with undiagnosed TB or drug resistance. Droplet nuclei transmission of TB is reviewed with an emphasis on risk factors relevant to control. Among environmental controls, natural ventilation and upper-room ultraviolet germicidal ultraviolet air disinfection are the most cost-effective choices, although high-volume mechanical ventilation can also be used. Room air cleaners are generally not recommended. Maintenance is required for all engineering solutions. Finally, personal protection with fit-tested respirators is used in many situations where administrative and engineering methods cannot assure protection. PMID:26292985

  17. Transmission and Institutional Infection Control of Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Nardell, Edward A

    2016-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) transmission control in institutions is evolving with increased awareness of the rapid impact of treatment on transmission, the importance of the unsuspected, untreated case of transmission, and the advent of rapid molecular diagnostics. With active case finding based on cough surveillance and rapid drug susceptibility testing, in theory, it is possible to be reasonably sure that no patient enters a facility with undiagnosed TB or drug resistance. Droplet nuclei transmission of TB is reviewed with an emphasis on risk factors relevant to control. Among environmental controls, natural ventilation and upper-room ultraviolet germicidal ultraviolet air disinfection are the most cost-effective choices, although high-volume mechanical ventilation can also be used. Room air cleaners are generally not recommended. Maintenance is required for all engineering solutions. Finally, personal protection with fit-tested respirators is used in many situations where administrative and engineering methods cannot assure protection.

  18. Teachers as Frontline Researchers and Policy Makers--A Midyear Perspective from the First IMPACT II Teacher Policy Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberberg, Mark; And Others

    The five essays included in this document focus on the First IMPACT II Teacher Policy Institute (50 New York City Public School teachers "committed to affecting real change in educational policy in this city"). "Teachers as Researchers" (Mark Silberberg) discusses the relationship between teaching and research, particularly with regard to policy…

  19. Campus Sustainability Governance in Canada: A Content Analysis of Post-Secondary Institutions' Sustainability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughter, Philip; McKenzie, Marcia; Lidstone, Lauri; Wright, Tarah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of a content analysis of sustainability policies from Canadian post-secondary education institutions. The paper reports findings on the orientations to sustainability evident in the policies; references to other policies within the documents; and other key themes on how sustainability is engaged in…

  20. Universities as Communities of Fate: Institutional Rhetoric and Student Retention Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, David; Goldman, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: What is the rhetoric that higher education institutions use when they develop and publish policies to improve student retention? Using the organization literature on institutional environments, this study examines the nature and evolution of institutional rhetoric used by three public universities in a single state over a 20-year period.…

  1. The Development and Application of Policy-Based Tools for Institutional Green Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cupido, Anthony F.

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, APPA forwarded a Web-based survey on the author's behalf to all designated representatives of APPA member institutions. The purpose of the survey was to determine if institutional policies are an important criterion for an institution's sustainable building practices and the use of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED[R]).…

  2. Educational Policy and Practice from the Perspective of Institutional Theory: Crafting a Wider Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Institutional analyses of public education have increased in number in recent years. However, studies in education drawing on institutional analyses have not fully incorporated recent contributions from institutional theory, particularly relative to other domains such as law and health policy. The author sketches a framework that integrates recent…

  3. Gun Control: The Debate and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Christine

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview and background information on the debate over gun control, as well as several teaching ideas. Handouts include a list of related topics drawn from various disciplines (economics, U.S. history), seven arguments for and against gun control, and a set of policy evaluation guidelines. (MJP)

  4. Serials Control System Procedures and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlembach, Mary C.

    This document includes procedures and policies for a networked serials control system originally developed at the Grainger Engineering Library Information Center at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). The serials control systems encompass serials processing, public service, and end-user functions. The system employs a…

  5. Research Productivity and Its Policy Implications in Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quimbo, Maria Ana T.; Sulabo, Evangeline C.

    2014-01-01

    Responding to the Commission on Higher Education's development plan of enhancing research culture among higher education institutions, this study was conducted to analyze the research productivity of selected higher education institutions. It covered five state universities in the Philippines where a total of 377 randomly selected faculty…

  6. Mining Institutional Datasets to Support Policy Making and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorke, Mantz; Barnett, Greg; Evanson, Peter; Haines, Chris; Jenkins, Don; Knight, Peter; Scurry, Dave; Stowell, Marie; Woolf, Harvey

    2005-01-01

    Datasets are often under-exploited by institutions, yet they contain evidence that is potentially of high value for planning and decision-making. This article shows how institutional data were used to determine whether the demographic background of students might have an influence on their performance: this is a matter of particular interest where…

  7. Developing a Policy on Institutional Research for Black Hawk College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quayle, Thomas; Stevens, Mary A.

    In order to study the general objectives, methods, and provisions for institutional research in the community college, this document surveys the pertinent literature and reviews institutional research practices at selected community colleges. In general, three basic governance structure models are identified which represent varying relationships…

  8. 34 CFR 668.49 - Institutional fire safety policies and fire statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... institution's policies or rules on portable electrical appliances, smoking, and open flames in a student...-related injuries that resulted in treatment at a medical facility, including at an on-campus health...

  9. 34 CFR 668.49 - Institutional fire safety policies and fire statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... institution's policies or rules on portable electrical appliances, smoking, and open flames in a student...-related injuries that resulted in treatment at a medical facility, including at an on-campus health...

  10. [Ups and downs of chronicity: policies, institutions, mechanisms and therapists].

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gustavo P

    2009-01-01

    Chronicity is approached from several angles: that of the individual patient, the sociopolitical background, the therapist's role, the institutional framework for the treatment of chronic patients. Relevant themes are discussed and authors visited that contribute to fresh thinking regarding the position of the therapist (psychiatrist, psychologist, psychoanalyst) towards these patients. More often than not, these patients are classified as unclassifiable, or refractory. As it has been said before, this implies that from the professional's viewpoint these patients are intrinsically difficult and "little rewarding". This raises the question of health ideals and expectations, as well as the institutional inconveniences of current models of treatments and institutional devices. PMID:20038987

  11. Policy, institutional and market barriers to the implementation of clean development mechanisms (CDM) in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, L.; Yan, J.Y.

    2005-07-15

    This paper reviews current Chinese policies and administrative and institutional settings for CDM cooperation, and discusses existing policy, institutional and other barriers in the energy market by drawing on observations and experience from previous initiatives such as Cleaner Production and energy efficiency. Some options to remove these barriers are addressed. In order to make CDM projects feasible, China's government needs to promote awareness, streamline administrative systems, and be more active in budding a competitive edge in the world carbon market.

  12. Statewide Mandatory Remediation Policies: National, State, and Institutional Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peak, Charity S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite uncertainty related to student outcomes resulting from remediation (Bettinger & Long, 2009), eleven states mandate remedial education through common placement testing and standardized cutoff scores rather than permitting individual postsecondary institutions to establish remediation guidelines. Colorado, in particular, offers an…

  13. Foreign Students and Institutional Policy: Toward an Agenda for Action. A Report of the Committee on Foreign Students and Institutional Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC.

    The costs and benefits of enrolling foreign students at U.S. colleges and universities and implications for institutional policy are discussed in 5 chapters. In chapter 1, information is presented on: numbers of foreign college students in the United States, the national origins of foreign students, the location of foreign students in the United…

  14. Missions Statements in Wales: The Impact of Markets and Policy on Congruence between Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Helen; Huisman, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    This study seeks to compare the mission statements of higher education institutions in Wales as well as to compare these with regional level policy statements and demands from the market. The underlying idea is to reveal the extent to which mission statements actually differ and are (or are not) in line with such regional policies and market…

  15. Institutional Aid in the 1990s: The Consequences of Policy Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reindl, Travis; Redd, Kenneth

    This report discusses the policy implications of the increasing role played by grants provided by colleges and universities as a source of financial aid for students and their families. It underscores the direct and indirect connections between changes in federal and state policy and institutions' aid programs, focusing on the effects of the…

  16. 77 FR 37399 - Policy Statement Concerning Assistance to Troubled Farm Credit System Institutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... Corporation's present Policy Statement Concerning Stand- Alone Assistance. The draft revised policy statement... Act of 1971, as amended (Act),\\1\\ to provide assistance to a stand-alone System institution or to... Corporation's Board of Directors may provide, to: (1) A stand-alone ``troubled Farm Credit System...

  17. Managing the Dynamics of the Bologna Reforms: How Institutional Actors Re-Construct the Policy Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga, Amélia; Neave, Guy

    2015-01-01

    How do the constituencies in higher education re-interpret Bologna's function with regard to the European Higher Education Area? This research examines how institutional actors re-construct the policy framework in the light of their own institutional agendas. Drawing on empirical data from a survey of academics, students and administrative and…

  18. Circulation Policies for External Users: A Comparative Study of Public Urban Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weare, William H., Jr.; Stevenson, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This article is a study of the policies that govern the use of the university library by external users at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) and 12 peer institutions used by IUPUI for comparative purposes. A search of each institution's Web site was conducted as well as interviews with circulation librarians and managers.…

  19. Introducing Widening Participation Policies in Higher Education: The Influence of Institutional Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the role of culture in the development of higher education institution (HEI) policy on widening participation. The study involved documentary research and interviews with senior and middle managers. It suggests that a culture of widening participation is often not embedded throughout institutions. Therefore, widening…

  20. Small States and Big Institutions: USAID and Education Policy Formation in El Salvador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the institutional power of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) in the process of education policy formation in El Salvador during 2003-2005. The results show how bi- and multi-lateral institutions are able to leverage financial and intellectual capital to guide the policymaking process and sway…

  1. Politics in India: A Research Bibliography on Indian Political Institutions, Behavior and Public Policy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohapatra, Urmila

    This bibliography is a classified list of published research material on the contemporary Indian political system. The research references assembled have been organized under three broad categories: Indian political institutions, Indian political behavior, and public policy issues. The political institutions section focuses on the presidency,…

  2. Changing Labour Markets in Europe: The Role of Institutions and Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer, Peter, Ed.

    This book contains five papers on the role of institutions in changing labor markets in Europe. "Introduction" (Peter Auer) explores the following topics: institutions and labor market forces; macroeconomic policy; redistribution of working times; equality of opportunity; and industrial relations and social dialogue. "Small-Economy Macroeconomics"…

  3. The Influence of Higher Education Policies on College Readiness at Two Texas Hispanic-Serving Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Anthony R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the dissertation is to gain insight into how higher education policies can influence institutional performance in Latino postsecondary degree completion; specifically, through an examination of the college readiness efforts of two Hispanic-Serving Institutions in Texas. Over half of all Latinos in postsecondary education in the…

  4. Public Policy and Hispanic-Serving Institutions: From Invention to Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental premise for creating the Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI) designation assumes that a critical mass of students motivates an institution to change how it operates to better serve these students to degree attainment. Increasing Hispanic degree attainment is in the national interest, and programs created by public policy to support…

  5. Controlling Reactive Nitrogen: Attaining Cost Effectiveness and Institutional Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doering, O.

    2012-12-01

    The fact that reactive nitrogen (Nr) cascades by changing form and moving between air, land and water makes its management and control especially difficult. The cascade means that excess Nr's negative impacts may initially occur, flow through, or linger in air, land or water. The critical question becomes where and how to interdict, not only in terms of technical capacity but also in terms of cost effectiveness and institutional capacity. The nature of Nr also needs to inform the questions that need to be asked to be able to deal with Nr. For much of the world, agriculture is the major contributor to Nr.The stark trade-off often involves excess Nr that is the product of increased food production. As it is often the largest source of excess Nr, agriculture has to be a focus for Nr control and management efforts. This paper will start with the Nr balance sheet for the US and outline some of the trade-offs and opportunities for controlling Nr.The institutional responsibility and capacity to take effective action will be assessed on the basis of US institutions and their history. This will involve illustrating some of the difficulties posed by the cascading nature of Nr as it movesfrom one regulatory jurisdiction to another. Within the US agricultural sector. the history and politics of dealing with such problems will be traced as they relate to the willingness and capacity of the sector to more effectively control or manage problems like Nr. The institutional history of the sector has a strong influence onwhat can be accomplished in a cost effective way - one that is very different from the history and practice in Australia or Europe. The EPA Science Advisory Boards' suggestion that a twenty five percent reduction in excess Nr should be achievable will be traced through for agriculture and allied situations illustrating some of the possibilities and dilemmas. Finally, the issue of metrics will be addressed. As a caution to policy makers, one can obtain very different

  6. Critical Issues in Crime Control Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Edith Elisabeth, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Entire issue discusses crime control policy in the United States, including such issues as the relation of social and environmental variables to criminal activity, dealing with the career offender, biological correlates of criminal behavior, juvenile delinquency, and white collar crime. (CS)

  7. Survey of Mandatory Education Policies in State Penal Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Vito, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Of the 50 states, 37 do not mandate education in prisons, although 8 are considering a policy change. Many programs include incentives and sanctions, and various evaluation criteria, such as General Educational Development achievement, test scores, and retention in the program are used. (SK)

  8. Loose Coupling and Inhabited Institutions: Inclusion Policy and Teacher Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRoche, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This case study uses interviews and participant observation to study how teachers negotiate inclusion policy in their everyday classroom interactions and strategies. Interviews consisted of two teachers and an educational assistant from one Northern Ontario classroom while participant observation was conducted for a period of seven weeks. Drawing…

  9. Global Integration Policies versus Institutional Dynamics of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doh, Pascal S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of one of the most recent integration trends in higher education, the Bologna process. The Bologna process can be understood as a sustained, broad-scale initiative among institutions of higher education and national governments to respond to the forces of globalization (Kalvermark and Van der Wende 1997). The…

  10. International Financial Institution Policies of Conditionality and Public Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPhail, Scott; McGray, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Conditionalities are most broadly defined as the provisos that are to be met by a country when borrowing money from the International Financial Institutions (IFIs). Increasingly, they have proven to have far reaching consequences for countries entering into agreements with The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade…

  11. Hispanic-Serving Institutions: Contributions and Challenges. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcom-Piqueux, Lindsey E.; Lee, John Michael, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This brief presents information about the characteristics of the nation's Hispanic-serving institutions (HSIs) and their students, as well as the HSIs' contributions to the educational attainment of the Latino population. The brief concludes by outlining some of the challenges faced by HSIs as they aim to meet their implied mission of serving…

  12. Reviewing Institutional Policies for Electronic Management of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voce, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Electronic assignment submission (e-submission) tools, such as those within course management systems (e.g. Blackboard), or systems such as Turnitin, which enable students to submit coursework online are now one of the main centrally supported institutional tools in Higher Education (HE) in the United Kingdom (UK), however the development of…

  13. Critical Interactives: Improving Public Understanding of Institutional Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buell, Duncan A.; Cooley, Heidi Rae

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 3 years, the authors have pursued unique cross-college collaboration. They have hosted a National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH)-funded Humanities Gaming Institute and team-taught a cross-listed course that brought together students from the humanities and computer science. Currently, they are overseeing the development of an…

  14. Does Federal Financial Aid Policy Influence the Institutional Aid Policies of Four-Year Colleges and Universities? An Exploratory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossler, Don; Kwon, Jihye

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical work that examines the relationships between federal financial aid policy and institutional financial aid priorities and expenditures. This study uses Resource Dependency Theory to explore whether changes the amount of financial aid awarded by colleges and universities during the last fifty years are best explained…

  15. Written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia: an empirical-based organizational-ethical framework.

    PubMed

    Lemiengre, Joke; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Schotsmans, Paul; Gastmans, Chris

    2014-05-01

    As euthanasia has become a widely debated issue in many Western countries, hospitals and nursing homes especially are increasingly being confronted with this ethically sensitive societal issue. The focus of this paper is how healthcare institutions can deal with euthanasia requests on an organizational level by means of a written institutional ethics policy. The general aim is to make a critical analysis whether these policies can be considered as organizational-ethical instruments that support healthcare institutions to take their institutional responsibility for dealing with euthanasia requests. By means of an interpretative analysis, we conducted a process of reinterpretation of results of former Belgian empirical studies on written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia in dialogue with the existing international literature. The study findings revealed that legal regulations, ethical and care-oriented aspects strongly affected the development, the content, and the impact of written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia. Hence, these three cornerstones-law, care and ethics-constituted the basis for the empirical-based organizational-ethical framework for written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia that is presented in this paper. However, having a euthanasia policy does not automatically lead to more legal transparency, or to a more professional and ethical care practice. The study findings suggest that the development and implementation of an ethics policy on euthanasia as an organizational-ethical instrument should be considered as a dynamic process. Administrators and ethics committees must take responsibility to actively create an ethical climate supporting care providers who have to deal with ethical dilemmas in their practice.

  16. INL Sitewide Institutional Controls Annual Report FY2006

    SciTech Connect

    W. L. Jolley

    2006-08-01

    This document reports the results of the fiscal year 2006 institutional controls assessment at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act sites at the Idaho National Laboratory. These activities are described in the INEEL Sitewide Institutional Control Plan. Inspections were performed by Long-term Stewardship Program personnel with representatives of the various facilities. The assessments showed that the various institutional control measures in place across the Idaho National Laboratory Site are functioning as intended. Information in the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Comprehensive Facilities and Land Use Plan was reviewed as part of the annual assessment and was revised as needed to reflect the current status of the institutional control sites.

  17. When an indigent patient needs a helicopter: a case report and an accepted institutional policy.

    PubMed

    La Puma, J; Balskus, M

    1988-01-01

    Emergency aeromedical systems have become an integral part of the practice of critical care medicine. These systems provide specialized care to the severely injured, including transport to the nearest trauma center with the highest level. Aeromedical physicians and nurses called to care for injured indigent patients, however, may be placed at odds with the financial interests of their institution. "Patient dumping" in aeromedicine may lead to ethical, legal, professional, and regulatory dilemmas for emergency professionals and health care institutions. Institutional policy for aeromedical transport of severely injured patients must be instituted, regardless of their ability to pay.

  18. European healthcare policies for controlling drug expenditure.

    PubMed

    Ess, Silvia M; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Szucs, Thomas D

    2003-01-01

    In the last 20 years, expenditures on pharmaceuticals - as well as total health expenditures - have grown faster than the gross national product in all European countries. The aim of this paper was to review policies that European governments apply to reduce or at least slow down public expenditure on pharmaceutical products. Such policies can target the industry, the wholesalers and retailers, prescribers, and patients. The objectives of pharmaceutical policies are multidimensional and must take into account issues relating to public health, public expenditure and industrial incentives. Both price levels and consumption patterns determine the level of total drug expenditure in a particular country, and both factors vary greatly across countries. Licensing and pricing policies intend to influence the supply side. Three types of pricing policies can be recognised: product price control, reference pricing and profit control. Profit control is mainly used in the UK. Reference pricing systems were first used in Germany and The Netherlands and are being considered in other countries. Product price control is still the most common method for establishing the price of drugs. For the aim of fiscal consolidation, price-freeze and price-cut measures have been frequently used in the 1980s and 1990s. They have affected all types of schemes. For drug wholesalers and retailers, most governments have defined profit margins. The differences in price levels as well as the introduction of a Single European Pharmaceutical Market has led to the phenomenon of parallel imports among member countries of the European Union. This may be facilitated by larger and more powerful wholesalers and the vertical integration between wholesalers and retailers. To control costs, the use of generic drugs is encouraged in most countries, but only few countries allow pharmacists to substitute generic drugs for proprietary brands. Various interventions are used to reduce the patients' demand for drugs by

  19. Science and agriculture policy at Land-Grant Institutions.

    PubMed

    Westendorf, M L; Zimbelman, R G; Pray, C E

    1995-06-01

    United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) funding of science and education at Land-Grant College institutions is in transition. The traditional "science pipeline" model linking basic science funding with the application of technology is in question as some policymakers dispute the premise that non-directed science results in benefits to society. Historically, research at USDA and Land-Grant institutions is much more directed than that funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), National Institutes of Health (NIH), or Department of Energy (DOE). Nevertheless, there are calls for change at the USDA as well. An approach that both the Congress and the Executive branch are taking seeks to direct research dollars according to predetermined goals. This is being emphasized in part due to budget pressures and may force the system to struggle maintaining funding in constant dollars. Deficit cutters are first considering cutting "earmarked grants" for research and facilities at USDA and Land Grant Institutions. Savings in these categories may help to support modest increases in formula funding and competitive grants. Earmarked grants for research and facilities at the Cooperative State Research Service (CSRS) for Fiscal Year 1993 were approximately 26% of total appropriations and distributed to well over 100 specific line items. This level has increased from approximately 15% of CSRS appropriations in 1985. At the same time formula funding has remained static and competitive grants, although increasing, are below authorized levels. As state and federal budgets face pressure and as concerns from consumer and environmental groups are encountered, balancing the percentage of research dollars devoted to research intended to increase production efficiency and the percentage devoted to meeting concerns about food safety, pesticides, water quality, sustainability, animal welfare, and so on will be a challenge. Linking research priorities with producer and consumer needs

  20. Science and agriculture policy at Land-Grant Institutions.

    PubMed

    Westendorf, M L; Zimbelman, R G; Pray, C E

    1995-06-01

    United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) funding of science and education at Land-Grant College institutions is in transition. The traditional "science pipeline" model linking basic science funding with the application of technology is in question as some policymakers dispute the premise that non-directed science results in benefits to society. Historically, research at USDA and Land-Grant institutions is much more directed than that funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), National Institutes of Health (NIH), or Department of Energy (DOE). Nevertheless, there are calls for change at the USDA as well. An approach that both the Congress and the Executive branch are taking seeks to direct research dollars according to predetermined goals. This is being emphasized in part due to budget pressures and may force the system to struggle maintaining funding in constant dollars. Deficit cutters are first considering cutting "earmarked grants" for research and facilities at USDA and Land Grant Institutions. Savings in these categories may help to support modest increases in formula funding and competitive grants. Earmarked grants for research and facilities at the Cooperative State Research Service (CSRS) for Fiscal Year 1993 were approximately 26% of total appropriations and distributed to well over 100 specific line items. This level has increased from approximately 15% of CSRS appropriations in 1985. At the same time formula funding has remained static and competitive grants, although increasing, are below authorized levels. As state and federal budgets face pressure and as concerns from consumer and environmental groups are encountered, balancing the percentage of research dollars devoted to research intended to increase production efficiency and the percentage devoted to meeting concerns about food safety, pesticides, water quality, sustainability, animal welfare, and so on will be a challenge. Linking research priorities with producer and consumer needs

  1. Politics Can Limit Policy Opportunism in Fiscal Institutions: Evidence from Official General Fund Revenue Forecasts in the American States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, George A.; Lewis, David E.; Douglas, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Governments make policy decisions in the same areas in quite different institutions. Some assign policymaking responsibility to institutions designed to be insulated from myopic partisan and electoral pressures and others do not. In this study, we claim that differences in political context and institutional design constrain the policy choices…

  2. Media violence, gun control, and public policy.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, D M

    1996-07-01

    Public concern with the national level of violence is discussed, and the complexity of the issue delineated. Research findings in two key areas of the topic, media violence and availability of firearms, are examined, as is their applicability to public policy efforts and recommendations for the prevention of violence. An approach that combines efforts to counteract media violence with those aimed at effective gun control is outlined in terms of bringing about changes in attitudes toward violence and firearm possession. PMID:8827261

  3. 40 CFR 194.41 - Active institutional controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Assurance Requirements § 194.41 Active institutional controls. (a) Any compliance application shall include... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Active institutional controls....

  4. 40 CFR 194.41 - Active institutional controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Assurance Requirements § 194.41 Active institutional controls. (a) Any compliance application shall include... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Active institutional controls....

  5. 40 CFR 194.41 - Active institutional controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Assurance Requirements § 194.41 Active institutional controls. (a) Any compliance application shall include... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Active institutional controls....

  6. 40 CFR 194.41 - Active institutional controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Assurance Requirements § 194.41 Active institutional controls. (a) Any compliance application shall include... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Active institutional controls....

  7. 40 CFR 194.41 - Active institutional controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Compliance Certification and Re-certification Assurance Requirements § 194.41 Active institutional controls. (a) Any compliance application shall include... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Active institutional controls....

  8. 10 CFR 61.63 - Financial assurances for institutional controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financial assurances for institutional controls. 61.63 Section 61.63 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Financial Assurances § 61.63 Financial assurances for institutional controls. (a) Prior...

  9. 10 CFR 61.63 - Financial assurances for institutional controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Financial assurances for institutional controls. 61.63 Section 61.63 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Financial Assurances § 61.63 Financial assurances for institutional controls. (a) Prior...

  10. 10 CFR 61.63 - Financial assurances for institutional controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Financial assurances for institutional controls. 61.63 Section 61.63 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Financial Assurances § 61.63 Financial assurances for institutional controls. (a) Prior...

  11. 10 CFR 61.63 - Financial assurances for institutional controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Financial assurances for institutional controls. 61.63 Section 61.63 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Financial Assurances § 61.63 Financial assurances for institutional controls. (a) Prior...

  12. 10 CFR 61.63 - Financial assurances for institutional controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial assurances for institutional controls. 61.63 Section 61.63 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Financial Assurances § 61.63 Financial assurances for institutional controls. (a) Prior...

  13. Erosion Control at Construction Sites: The Science-Policy Gap.

    PubMed

    Kaufman

    2000-07-01

    / To test the effectiveness of Michigan's soil erosion control law, 30 construction sites were evaluated in the east-central part of the state. The analytical framework lumped nine best management practices (BMPs) most closely related to the law into three categories: slope stabilization, soil stabilization, and water management. All sites were in the land clearing or foundation/framing stage of construction and were evaluated within 2 days after a rainfall event. Only four of the sites performed above the mean of the scoring scale, with the categorical scoring of BMPs indicating the worst performance for slope stabilization measures. The poor results suggest a failure to integrate scientific knowledge of erosion control with policy. A fundamental problem is the lack of basic site data on soil, topography, and hydrology, resulting in the incorrect application of BMPs, such as staging, filter fences, and berms. The current institutional framework for soil erosion control also provides disincentives to mitigate local erosion problems. PMID:10799643

  14. Erosion Control at Construction Sites: The Science-Policy Gap.

    PubMed

    Kaufman

    2000-07-01

    / To test the effectiveness of Michigan's soil erosion control law, 30 construction sites were evaluated in the east-central part of the state. The analytical framework lumped nine best management practices (BMPs) most closely related to the law into three categories: slope stabilization, soil stabilization, and water management. All sites were in the land clearing or foundation/framing stage of construction and were evaluated within 2 days after a rainfall event. Only four of the sites performed above the mean of the scoring scale, with the categorical scoring of BMPs indicating the worst performance for slope stabilization measures. The poor results suggest a failure to integrate scientific knowledge of erosion control with policy. A fundamental problem is the lack of basic site data on soil, topography, and hydrology, resulting in the incorrect application of BMPs, such as staging, filter fences, and berms. The current institutional framework for soil erosion control also provides disincentives to mitigate local erosion problems.

  15. 78 FR 12788 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Institution of Investigation; Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Institution of Investigation; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1337 AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice....

  16. The National Tobacco Control Program: focusing on policy to broaden impact.

    PubMed Central

    Wisotzky, Myra; Albuquerque, Melissa; Pechacek, Terry F.; Park, Barbara Z.

    2004-01-01

    Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of death and disease in the United States, causing more than 440,000 premature deaths annually. We can dramatically reduce the health and economic burden of tobacco use by employing proven tobacco control and prevention strategies. Policy interventions offer the greatest opportunity to influence decisions regarding tobacco use at the societal level. Tobacco control policy can drive social, environmental, and systems changes, and has a substantially greater impact than interventions that target individuals. A policy approach engages the larger community and empowers it to establish healthy social norms. Health departments, the primary governmental institutions charged with protecting the health of the public, play many different roles in advancing policy. The National Tobacco Control Program funds state health departments to educate the public and decision makers regarding evidence-based policy strategies. This article outlines those strategies, critical success factors, and challenges associated with policy-based interventions. PMID:15158109

  17. [An assessment of Brazilian psychiatric reform: institutions, actors and policies].

    PubMed

    Pitta, Ana Maria Fernandes

    2011-12-01

    The article takes a look at Brazilian Psychiatric Reform over the past decade, after the approval of Federal Law 10.216/2001 and seeks to elicit long overdue discussion about the pressing challenges that Brazilian Psychiatric Reform needs to tackle to promote or review the long-desired utopia of "full citizenship for all in a society without asylums." Is the Reform showing signs of exhaustion? The redirection of the care model for Mental Health in Brazil from the hospital to the community over the past decade is an undeniable achievement. Taking the use of psychoactive substances as the scope of policy and intervention, this incorporates complex demands that the current Crack drama makes it more urgent to question its history, its limits, its power. What will keep the flame alight of a successful movement that, surprisingly, has resisted the force of time and stigma in the ten years since the Law was enacted? These and other questions need to be worked on. It is time to recycle the focus of assessment and analysis in order to identify what threatens its vitality. This is the challenge to which the writer and debaters will be enjoined to contribute. PMID:22124894

  18. [An assessment of Brazilian psychiatric reform: institutions, actors and policies].

    PubMed

    Pitta, Ana Maria Fernandes

    2011-12-01

    The article takes a look at Brazilian Psychiatric Reform over the past decade, after the approval of Federal Law 10.216/2001 and seeks to elicit long overdue discussion about the pressing challenges that Brazilian Psychiatric Reform needs to tackle to promote or review the long-desired utopia of "full citizenship for all in a society without asylums." Is the Reform showing signs of exhaustion? The redirection of the care model for Mental Health in Brazil from the hospital to the community over the past decade is an undeniable achievement. Taking the use of psychoactive substances as the scope of policy and intervention, this incorporates complex demands that the current Crack drama makes it more urgent to question its history, its limits, its power. What will keep the flame alight of a successful movement that, surprisingly, has resisted the force of time and stigma in the ten years since the Law was enacted? These and other questions need to be worked on. It is time to recycle the focus of assessment and analysis in order to identify what threatens its vitality. This is the challenge to which the writer and debaters will be enjoined to contribute.

  19. Equilibrium Control Policies for Markov Chains

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The average cost criterion has held great intuitive appeal and has attracted considerable attention. It is widely employed when controlling dynamic systems that evolve stochastically over time by means of formulating an optimization problem to achieve long-term goals efficiently. The average cost criterion is especially appealing when the decision-making process is long compared to other timescales involved, and there is no compelling motivation to select short-term optimization. This paper addresses the problem of controlling a Markov chain so as to minimize the average cost per unit time. Our approach treats the problem as a dual constrained optimization problem. We derive conditions guaranteeing that a saddle point exists for the new dual problem and we show that this saddle point is an equilibrium control policy for each state of the Markov chain. For practical situations with constraints consistent to those we study here, our results imply that recognition of such saddle points may be of value in deriving in real time an optimal control policy.

  20. The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute: Building Competencies for Public Health Practice.

    PubMed

    Luck, Jeff; Yoon, Jangho; Bernell, Stephanie; Tynan, Michael; Alvarado, Carla Sarai; Eversole, Tom; Mosbaek, Craig; Beathard, Candice

    2015-08-01

    The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute (PHPI) was designed to enhance public health policy competencies among state and local health department staff. The Oregon Health Authority funded the College of Public Health and Human Sciences at Oregon State University to develop the PHPI curriculum in 2012 and offer it to participants from 4 state public health programs and 5 local health departments in 2013. The curriculum interspersed short instructional sessions on policy development, implementation, and evaluation with longer hands-on team exercises in which participants applied these skills to policy topics their teams had selected. Panel discussions provided insights from legislators and senior Oregon health experts. Participants reported statistically significant increases in public health policy competencies and high satisfaction with PHPI overall.

  1. Integrated community case management in Malawi: an analysis of innovation and institutional characteristics for policy adoption.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Daniela C; Banda, Hastings; Namakhoma, Ireen

    2015-12-01

    In 2007, Malawi became an early adopter of integrated community case management for childhood illnesses (iCCM), a policy aimed at community-level treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia for children below 5 years. Through a retrospective case study, this article explores critical issues in implementation that arose during policy formulation through the lens of the innovation (i.e. iCCM) and of the institutions involved in the policy process. Data analysis is founded on a documentary review and 21 in-depth stakeholder interviews across institutions in Malawi. Findings indicate that the characteristics of iCCM made it a suitable policy to address persistent challenges in child mortality, namely that ill children were not interacting with health workers on a timely basis and consequently were dying in their communities. Further, iCCM was compatible with the Malawian health system due to the ability to build on an existing community health worker cadre of health surveillance assistants (HSAs) and previous experiences with treatment provision at the community level. In terms of institutions, the Ministry of Health (MoH) demonstrated leadership in the overall policy process despite early challenges of co-ordination within the MoH. WHO, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and implementing organizations played a supportive role in their position as knowledge brokers. Greater challenges were faced in the organizational capacity of the MoH. Regulatory issues around HSA training as well as concerns around supervision and overburdening of HSAs were discussed, though not fully addressed during policy development. Similarly, the financial sustainability of iCCM, including the mechanisms for channelling funding flows, also remains an unresolved issue. This analysis highlights the role of implementation questions during policy development. Despite several outstanding concerns, the compatibility between iCCM as a policy alternative and the local context laid the

  2. Integrated community case management in Malawi: an analysis of innovation and institutional characteristics for policy adoption.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Daniela C; Banda, Hastings; Namakhoma, Ireen

    2015-12-01

    In 2007, Malawi became an early adopter of integrated community case management for childhood illnesses (iCCM), a policy aimed at community-level treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia for children below 5 years. Through a retrospective case study, this article explores critical issues in implementation that arose during policy formulation through the lens of the innovation (i.e. iCCM) and of the institutions involved in the policy process. Data analysis is founded on a documentary review and 21 in-depth stakeholder interviews across institutions in Malawi. Findings indicate that the characteristics of iCCM made it a suitable policy to address persistent challenges in child mortality, namely that ill children were not interacting with health workers on a timely basis and consequently were dying in their communities. Further, iCCM was compatible with the Malawian health system due to the ability to build on an existing community health worker cadre of health surveillance assistants (HSAs) and previous experiences with treatment provision at the community level. In terms of institutions, the Ministry of Health (MoH) demonstrated leadership in the overall policy process despite early challenges of co-ordination within the MoH. WHO, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and implementing organizations played a supportive role in their position as knowledge brokers. Greater challenges were faced in the organizational capacity of the MoH. Regulatory issues around HSA training as well as concerns around supervision and overburdening of HSAs were discussed, though not fully addressed during policy development. Similarly, the financial sustainability of iCCM, including the mechanisms for channelling funding flows, also remains an unresolved issue. This analysis highlights the role of implementation questions during policy development. Despite several outstanding concerns, the compatibility between iCCM as a policy alternative and the local context laid the

  3. Administrative Practices as Institutional Identity: Bureaucratic Impediments to HE "Internationalisation" Policy in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Gregory S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores how bureaucracy impedes the implementation of higher education (HE) policy at Japanese universities. Administrative systems employ Weberian legal-rational bureaucratic practices that are central to the institutional identity of a university. Rather than the means to internationalisation and reform in general, these systems…

  4. Current Institutional Policies on A) Grade Submission and B) Issuance of Transcripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwender, James C.

    1978-01-01

    Policies on grade submission and issuance of transcripts were surveyed for 135 U.S. institutions of higher education with enrollments over 12,800. Information is provided on submission schedules, proportion of final grades not submitted in time, penalties for late submission, transcript production, annual volume, processing time, and conditions…

  5. Transnational Higher Education Institutions in China: A Comparison of Policy Orientation and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Lan

    2016-01-01

    In June 2015, a total of 64 transnational higher education institutions (TEIs) were approved by the Ministry of Education (MOE) to operate in China's higher education sector. The TEIs were established in two batches. The first batch of 24 TEIs resulted from a policy promulgated in 1995, whereas the second batch of 40 TEIs resulted from two…

  6. Higher and Further Education Institution Policies on Student and Staff Involvement in Commercial Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusick, Linda; Roberts, Ron; Paton, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns higher and further education institutions' policies as they relate to the interactions of their staff and students with the sex industry. In Scotland and England, consenting adults may legally buy and sell sex and commercial sexual entertainment, such as erotic dance and phone sex, provided that they do not do so in a public…

  7. The Roots of Urban Discontent: Public Policy, Municipal Institutions, and the Ghetto.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Peter H.; And Others

    The central concern of this volume is to examine the interrelationships between three levels of urban social structure: (1) local public policy-makers, comprised of elected public officials, the heads of major municipal departments, and "civic notables," or persons who play important roles in urban civic life; (2) "institutional agents," or…

  8. 34 CFR 668.46 - Institutional security policies and crime statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... crime statistics. (5) A description of the type and frequency of programs designed to inform students... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Institutional security policies and crime statistics... crime statistics. (a) Additional definitions that apply to this section. Business day: Monday...

  9. 34 CFR 668.46 - Institutional security policies and crime statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... crime statistics. (5) A description of the type and frequency of programs designed to inform students... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Institutional security policies and crime statistics... crime statistics. (a) Additional definitions that apply to this section. Business day: Monday...

  10. 34 CFR 668.46 - Institutional security policies and crime statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... crime statistics. (5) A description of the type and frequency of programs designed to inform students... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Institutional security policies and crime statistics... crime statistics. (a) Additional definitions that apply to this section. Business day: Monday...

  11. 34 CFR 668.46 - Institutional security policies and crime statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... crime statistics. (5) A description of the type and frequency of programs designed to inform students... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Institutional security policies and crime statistics... crime statistics. (a) Additional definitions that apply to this section. Business day: Monday...

  12. 34 CFR 668.46 - Institutional security policies and crime statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... crime statistics. (5) A description of the type and frequency of programs designed to inform students... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Institutional security policies and crime statistics... crime statistics. (a) Additional definitions that apply to this section. Business day: Monday...

  13. China's Policy of Chinese as a Foreign Language and the Use of Overseas Confucius Institutes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Hongqin; Huang, Jianbin

    2010-01-01

    China's economic power is changing attitudes towards Mandarin Chinese worldwide. Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) consequently emerges as a subject for research as well as an educational market. This article investigates the modern evolution of CFL curriculum policy that has led to the current rapid growth of the Confucius Institute (CI) around…

  14. Current Drug Education Policies in NCAA Institutions: Perceptions of Head Athletic Trainers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirazi, Aida; Tricker, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the perceptions of head athletic trainers (HATS) from NCAA member Divisions I, II, and III regarding current athletic department drug education policies in their institutions. A Web-based questionnaire collected responses from 353 HATS. Drug education programs focused more on providing information about the negative…

  15. 45 CFR 1182.13 - Policies and procedures for Institute disclosure of its records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Policies and procedures for Institute disclosure of its records. 1182.13 Section 1182.13 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... regulations published at 45 CFR part 1100; (3) For a routine use as published in the annual notice in...

  16. 45 CFR 1182.13 - Policies and procedures for Institute disclosure of its records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Policies and procedures for Institute disclosure of its records. 1182.13 Section 1182.13 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... regulations published at 45 CFR part 1100; (3) For a routine use as published in the annual notice in...

  17. 45 CFR 1182.13 - Policies and procedures for Institute disclosure of its records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policies and procedures for Institute disclosure of its records. 1182.13 Section 1182.13 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... regulations published at 45 CFR part 1100; (3) For a routine use as published in the annual notice in...

  18. Determining the Influence of Heterogeneity in Graduate Institutions on University-Industry Collaboration Policy in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Hung-Jen; Chang, Dian-Fu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we assumed that organizational heterogeneity is a key factor influencing the effects of university-industry cooperation policy in higher education institutes. Gender difference, faculty position, faculty member nationality, and diversity in academic expertise were considered as the indicators of heterogeneity. One-hundred graduate…

  19. SUPPORT FOR POPULATION LEVEL TOBACCO CONTROL POLICIES IN HUNGARY

    PubMed Central

    Paulik, Edit; Maróti-Nagy, Ágnes; Nagymajtényi, László; Rogers, Todd; Easterling, Doug

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Smoking is the leading, preventable risk factor for premature death and disability in Hungary. The objective of this paper was to assess the social acceptability of and the predictors of holding favourable attitudes toward tobacco control policies among the Hungarian population. Methods A self-administered questionnaire-based study was carried out among individuals aged 16–70 years. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess whether support for the ten tobacco control policies varies as a function of age, sex, educational level, and smoking status. Results The majority of the respondents supported the studied tobacco control measures. Over 90 percent of the sample supported: fines for retailers selling tobacco products to minors (92.3%), stricter enforcement of restrictions on selling tobacco products to minors (90.5%), and a ban on smoking in health care institutions (91.4%). The lowest levels of support were for bans on sponsorship by the tobacco industry (52.8%) and price increases on tobacco products (54.9%). For each measure, support was significantly lower among smokers than non-smokers. Age and education were significantly related to support for some but not all measures. Conclusions Strong majorities of Hungarians support the enactment and enforcement of a wide range of tobacco control measures, a fact that was acknowledged by Parliament’s passage of the 2011 Anti-Smoking Law. Advocacy efforts to encourage the acceptance of tobacco control policies should focus not only on smokers, but also on younger and less educated non-smokers. PMID:22571024

  20. Political and Institutional Influences on the Use of Evidence in Public Health Policy. A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Liverani, Marco; Hawkins, Benjamin; Parkhurst, Justin O.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is increasing recognition that the development of evidence-informed health policy is not only a technical problem of knowledge exchange or translation, but also a political challenge. Yet, while political scientists have long considered the nature of political systems, the role of institutional structures, and the political contestation of policy issues as central to understanding policy decisions, these issues remain largely unexplored by scholars of evidence-informed policy making. Methods We conducted a systematic review of empirical studies that examined the influence of key features of political systems and institutional mechanisms on evidence use, and contextual factors that may contribute to the politicisation of health evidence. Eligible studies were identified through searches of seven health and social sciences databases, websites of relevant organisations, the British Library database, and manual searches of academic journals. Relevant findings were extracted using a uniform data extraction tool and synthesised by narrative review. Findings 56 studies were selected for inclusion. Relevant political and institutional aspects affecting the use of health evidence included the level of state centralisation and democratisation, the influence of external donors and organisations, the organisation and function of bureaucracies, and the framing of evidence in relation to social norms and values. However, our understanding of such influences remains piecemeal given the limited number of empirical analyses on this subject, the paucity of comparative works, and the limited consideration of political and institutional theory in these studies. Conclusions This review highlights the need for a more explicit engagement with the political and institutional factors affecting the use of health evidence in decision-making. A more nuanced understanding of evidence use in health policy making requires both additional empirical studies of evidence use, and an

  1. Evaluating California Campus Tobacco Policies Using the American College Health Association Guidelines and the Institutional Grammar Tool

    PubMed Central

    Roditis, Maria L; Wang, Donna; Glantz, Stanton; Fallin, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Objective Measure comprehensiveness of California campus tobacco policies. Participants 16 campuses representing different regions, institution types, and policies. Research occurred June-August, 2013. Methods Comprehensiveness was scored using American College Health Association's (ACHA) Position Statement on Tobacco. The Institutional Grammar Tool was used to breakdown policy statements into Strategies, Norms, or Rules. Differences in ACHA score and number of Strategies, Norms, and Rules were assessed by region, policy, and institution type. Results Median ACHA score was 0.35 (scale of 0–1). Schools with 100% tobacco-free policies had highest ACHA scores, but failed to address relationships between schools and tobacco companies. Less than half the schools assessed (7/16) had Rules (enforceable penalties related to policies). In 67% of the policy statements, individuals doing the action were implied (not specifically stated). Conclusion Campuses should address ACHA recommendations related to campus relationships with tobacco companies, include enforceable rules, and specify individuals and entities covered by policy. PMID:25257333

  2. Putting policy theory to work: tobacco control in California.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Virginia Schmied

    2005-05-01

    Policy theory provides a useful lens for nurses evaluating how problems are understood and responded to within the policy arena. This article examines and critiques the agenda-setting model offered by John Kingdon. Furthermore, the theory is applied to the issue of tobacco control in the state of California, suggesting policy solutions and strategies to achieve their placement on the policy agenda. Strategies and techniques that may be useful to nurse policy champions are elucidated.

  3. 78 FR 12369 - United States Government Policy for Institutional Oversight of Life Sciences Dual Use Research of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Research of Concern AGENCY: Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). ACTION: Notice; request for... Government Policy for Institutional Oversight of Life Sciences Dual Use Research of Concern. The proposed... sciences research at institutions that accept Federal funding for such research. These requirements...

  4. An appraisal of policies and institutional frameworks impacting on smallholder agricultural water management in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyagumbo, I.; Rurinda, J.

    Policies and institutional frameworks associated with and / or impacting on agricultural water management (AWM) in smallholder farming systems in Zimbabwe were analyzed through literature reviews, feedback from stakeholder workshops, key informant interviews and evaluation of policy impacts on implemented case study projects/programmes. The study showed that Zimbabwe has gone a long way towards developing a water management policy addressing both equity and access, through the Water and ZINWA of 1998. However, lack of incentives for improving efficient management and utilization of water resources once water has reached the farm gate was apparent, apart from punitive economic instruments levied on usage of increased volumes of water. For example, the new water reforms of 1998 penalized water savers through loss of any unused water in their permits to other users. In addition, the ability of smallholder farmers to access water for irrigation or other purposes was influenced by macro and micro-economic policies such as Economic Structural and Adjustment Programme (ESAP), Zimbabwe Programme for Economic and Social Transformation (ZIMPREST), prevailing monetary and fiscal policies, as well as the Land and Agrarian Reform policies. For instance, the implementation of ESAP from 1991 to 95 resulted in a decline in government support to management of communal irrigation schemes, and as a result only gravity-fed schemes survived. Also AWM projects/programmes that were in progress were prematurely terminated. While considerable emphasis was placed on rehabilitation of irrigation infrastructure since the fast track land reform in 1998, the policies remained rather silent on strategies for water management in rainfed systems. The piecemeal nature and fragmentation of policies and institutional frameworks scattered across government ministries and sectors were complex and created difficulties for smallholder farmers to access water resources. Poor policy implementation

  5. Water protection in the Baltic Sea and the Chesapeake Bay: institutions, policies and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Iho, Antti; Ribaudo, Marc; Hyytiäinen, Kari

    2015-04-15

    The Baltic Sea and the Chesapeake Bay share many characteristics. Both are shallow, brackish marine areas that suffer from eutrophication. Successful policies targeting point source pollution have lowered nutrient loads in both areas, but achieving the desired marine quality will require further abatement: efforts may be extended to more complicated and expensive pollution sources, notably agricultural nonpoint loads. Despite their ecological similarities, the two watersheds have different histories and institutional settings and have thus adopted different policies. Comparing and contrasting the policies reveal ways to improve the efficiency of each and ways to avoid the path of trial and error. No comparison of the parallel protection efforts, which involve expenditures of hundreds of millions of dollars annually, has been carried out to date. The present paper analyzes the policies applied in the two regions, distilling the results into six recommendations for future steps in preserving what are valuable sea areas. PMID:25752532

  6. Water protection in the Baltic Sea and the Chesapeake Bay: institutions, policies and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Iho, Antti; Ribaudo, Marc; Hyytiäinen, Kari

    2015-04-15

    The Baltic Sea and the Chesapeake Bay share many characteristics. Both are shallow, brackish marine areas that suffer from eutrophication. Successful policies targeting point source pollution have lowered nutrient loads in both areas, but achieving the desired marine quality will require further abatement: efforts may be extended to more complicated and expensive pollution sources, notably agricultural nonpoint loads. Despite their ecological similarities, the two watersheds have different histories and institutional settings and have thus adopted different policies. Comparing and contrasting the policies reveal ways to improve the efficiency of each and ways to avoid the path of trial and error. No comparison of the parallel protection efforts, which involve expenditures of hundreds of millions of dollars annually, has been carried out to date. The present paper analyzes the policies applied in the two regions, distilling the results into six recommendations for future steps in preserving what are valuable sea areas.

  7. Institutional Knots: A Comparative Analysis of Cord Blood Policy in Canada and the United States.

    PubMed

    Denburg, Avram

    2016-02-01

    Umbilical cord blood is a rich source of blood stem cells, which are of critical clinical importance in the treatment of a variety of malignant and genetic conditions requiring stem cell transplantation. Many countries have established national public cord blood banks; such banks often coexist with a panoply of private options for cord blood banking. Until recently, Canada was the only G8 country without a national cord blood bank. This differs markedly from the United States, which years ago established a national cord blood bank policy and inventory. This article investigates potential reasons for this discrepancy through a comparative analysis of the evolution of programs and policies on national cord blood banking in Canada and the United States. My analysis suggests that cross-national discrepancies in policy on public cord blood banking were determined primarily by institutional factors, principal among them formal governmental structure and the legacy of past policies. Institutional entrepreneurialism in the health sector played a constitutive role in the earlier evolution of national cord blood policy in the United States as compared to Canada. PMID:26567379

  8. Institutional Knots: A Comparative Analysis of Cord Blood Policy in Canada and the United States.

    PubMed

    Denburg, Avram

    2016-02-01

    Umbilical cord blood is a rich source of blood stem cells, which are of critical clinical importance in the treatment of a variety of malignant and genetic conditions requiring stem cell transplantation. Many countries have established national public cord blood banks; such banks often coexist with a panoply of private options for cord blood banking. Until recently, Canada was the only G8 country without a national cord blood bank. This differs markedly from the United States, which years ago established a national cord blood bank policy and inventory. This article investigates potential reasons for this discrepancy through a comparative analysis of the evolution of programs and policies on national cord blood banking in Canada and the United States. My analysis suggests that cross-national discrepancies in policy on public cord blood banking were determined primarily by institutional factors, principal among them formal governmental structure and the legacy of past policies. Institutional entrepreneurialism in the health sector played a constitutive role in the earlier evolution of national cord blood policy in the United States as compared to Canada.

  9. From local development policies to strategic planning-Assessing continuity in institutional coalitions.

    PubMed

    Mazzeo Rinaldi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    In the last two decades, EU policies have had a fundamental role in orienting regional/local development. The objective of this work is set in this context as it intends to analyze the local development programs activated in Sicily in the last three programming periods. The main aim is to explore whether the EU partnership principle influenced cooperation among local actors, assessing the continuity of local institutional coalition in managing different local development programs within the regional development policy system. We focus, in particular, on Strategic Plans (SP) promoted in Sicily in the transition phase between the 2000-2006 and the 2007-2013 periods.

  10. From local development policies to strategic planning-Assessing continuity in institutional coalitions.

    PubMed

    Mazzeo Rinaldi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    In the last two decades, EU policies have had a fundamental role in orienting regional/local development. The objective of this work is set in this context as it intends to analyze the local development programs activated in Sicily in the last three programming periods. The main aim is to explore whether the EU partnership principle influenced cooperation among local actors, assessing the continuity of local institutional coalition in managing different local development programs within the regional development policy system. We focus, in particular, on Strategic Plans (SP) promoted in Sicily in the transition phase between the 2000-2006 and the 2007-2013 periods. PMID:27065045

  11. Many-objective reservoir policy identification and refinement to reduce institutional myopia in water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Herman, Jonathan D.; Castelletti, Andrea; Reed, Patrick M.

    2014-05-01

    Current water reservoir operating policies are facing growing water demands as well as increasing uncertainties associated with a changing climate. However, policy inertia and myopia strongly limit the possibility of adapting current water reservoir operations to the undergoing change. Historical agreements and regulatory constraints limit the rate that reservoir operations are innovated and creates policy inertia, where water institutions are unlikely to change their current practices in absence of dramatic failures. Yet, no guarantee exists that historical management policies will not fail in coming years. In reference to policy myopia, although it has long been recognized that water reservoir systems are generally framed in heterogeneous socio-economic contexts involving a myriad of conflicting, non-commensurable operating objectives, the broader understanding of the multi-objective consequences of current operating rules as well as their vulnerability to hydroclimatic uncertainties is severely limited. This study proposes a decision analytic framework to overcome both policy inertia and myopia in complex river basin management contexts. The framework combines reservoir policy identification, many-objective optimization under uncertainty, and visual analytics to characterize current operations and discover key tradeoffs between alternative policies for balancing evolving demands and system uncertainties. The approach is demonstrated on the Conowingo Dam, located within the Lower Susquehanna River, USA. The Lower Susquehanna River is an interstate water body that has been subject to intensive water management efforts due to the system's competing demands from urban water supply, atomic power plant cooling, hydropower production, and federally regulated environmental flows. The proposed framework initially uses available streamflow observations to implicitly identify the current but unknown operating policy of Conowingo Dam. The quality of the identified baseline

  12. Local knowledge, science, and institutional change: the case of desertification control in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lihua

    2015-03-01

    This article studies the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change in ecological and environmental management. Based on an empirical study on desertification control in 12 counties in north China, the study found the following major results: (1) although there was a cubic relationship between the extent and effect of local knowledge, local knowledge significantly influenced the impact of science on institutional change; (2) local knowledge took effect mainly through affecting formal laws and regulations, major actors, and methods of desertification control in institutional change but had no significant impact on the types of property rights; and (3) local knowledge enhanced the impact of science on the results of desertification control through affecting the impact of science on institutional change. These findings provide a reference for researchers, policy makers, and practitioners, both in China and in other regions of the world, to further explore the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change and the roles of local knowledge or knowledge in institutional change and governance.

  13. Local Knowledge, Science, and Institutional Change: The Case of Desertification Control in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lihua

    2015-03-01

    This article studies the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change in ecological and environmental management. Based on an empirical study on desertification control in 12 counties in north China, the study found the following major results: (1) although there was a cubic relationship between the extent and effect of local knowledge, local knowledge significantly influenced the impact of science on institutional change; (2) local knowledge took effect mainly through affecting formal laws and regulations, major actors, and methods of desertification control in institutional change but had no significant impact on the types of property rights; and (3) local knowledge enhanced the impact of science on the results of desertification control through affecting the impact of science on institutional change. These findings provide a reference for researchers, policy makers, and practitioners, both in China and in other regions of the world, to further explore the influence of local knowledge on the impact of science on institutional change and the roles of local knowledge or knowledge in institutional change and governance.

  14. Safety Control and Safety Education at Technical Institutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iino, Hiroshi

    The importance of safety education for students at technical institutes is emphasized on three grounds including safety of all working members and students in their education, research and other activities. The Kanazawa Institute of Technology re-organized the safety organization into a line structure and improved safety minds of all their members and now has a chemical materials control system and a set of compulsory safety education programs for their students, although many problems still remain.

  15. Quality of service policy control in virtual private networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yiqing; Wang, Hongbin; Zhou, Zhi; Zhou, Dongru

    2004-04-01

    This paper studies the QoS of VPN in an environment where the public network prices connection-oriented services based on source, destination and grade of service, and advertises these prices to its VPN customers (users). As different QoS technologies can produce different QoS, there are according different traffic classification rules and priority rules. The internet service provider (ISP) may need to build complex mechanisms separately for each node. In order to reduce the burden of network configuration, we need to design policy control technologies. We considers mainly directory server, policy server, policy manager and policy enforcers. Policy decision point (PDP) decide its control according to policy rules. In network, policy enforce point (PEP) decide its network controlled unit. For InterServ and DiffServ, we will adopt different policy control methods as following: (1) In InterServ, traffic uses resource reservation protocol (RSVP) to guarantee the network resource. (2) In DiffServ, policy server controls the DiffServ code points and per hop behavior (PHB), its PDP distributes information to each network node. Policy server will function as following: information searching; decision mechanism; decision delivering; auto-configuration. In order to prove the effectiveness of QoS policy control, we make the corrective simulation.

  16. Public science policy and administration. [cooperation of government industry, foundations, and educational institutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, A. H. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    Science, the overwhelming concern of our time, is no longer a matter of private research and development but one of public policy and administration, in which government, industry, foundations, and educational institutions must all work together as never before. Few other single tasks are of such decisive importance to the collective and individual welfare of American citizens as the formulation of public science policy and the administration of scientific programs. Eleven national authorities of varied background in science, education, and government administration contribute their experience and their judgment in an effort to deal with the major aspects of the subject. Their focus is on the meeting of actual problems; they consider the decision making process in both public and public-private organizations. Topics are grouped in three general categories: personnel needs and resources, organizational problems and techniques, and the administrative role in policy leadership.

  17. Many-Objective Reservoir Policy Identification and Refinement to Reduce Institutional Myopia in Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, M.; Herman, J. D.; Castelletti, A.; Reed, P. M.

    2013-12-01

    Institutional inertia strongly limits our ability to adapt water reservoir operations to better manage growing water demands as well as their associated uncertainties in a changing climate. Although it has long been recognized that these systems are generally framed in heterogeneous socio-economic contexts involving a myriad of conflicting, non-commensurable operating objectives, our broader understanding of the multiobjective consequences of current operating rules as well as their vulnerability to hydroclimatic uncertainties is severely limited. This study proposes a decision analytic framework to overcome policy inertia and myopia in complex river basin management contexts. The framework combines reservoir policy identification and many-objective optimization under uncertainty to characterize current operations and discover key tradeoffs between alternative policies for balancing evolving demands and system uncertainties. The approach is demonstrated on the Conowingo Dam, located within the Lower Susquehanna River, USA. The Lower Susquehanna River is an interstate water body that has been subject to intensive water management efforts due to the system's competing demands from urban water supply, atomic power plant cooling, hydropower production, and federally regulated environmental flows. Initially our proposed framework uses available streamflow observations to implicitly identify the Conowingo Dam's current but unknown operating policy. This baseline policy is identified by fitting radial basis functions to existing system dynamics. Our assumption in the baseline policy is that the dam operator is represented as a rational agent seeking to maximize primary operational objectives (i.e., guaranteeing the public water supply and maximizing the hydropower revenue). The quality of the identified baseline policy is evaluated by its ability to replicate historical release dynamics. Once identified, the historical baseline policy then provides a means of representing

  18. Conservatism, institutionalism, and the social control of intergroup conflict.

    PubMed

    King, Ryan D

    2008-03-01

    This research investigates the state social control of intergroup conflict by assessing the sociopolitical determinants of hate crime prosecutions. Consistent with insights from the political sociology of punishment, group-threat accounts of intergroup relations and the state, and neoinstitutional theory, the findings suggest that hate crime prosecutions are fewer where political conservatism, Christian fundamentalism, and black population size are higher, although this last effect is nonlinear. Linkages between district attorneys' offices and communities, on the other hand, increase hate crime prosecutions and the likelihood of offices' creating hate crime policies. Yet these policies are sometimes decoupled from actual enforcement, and such decoupling is more likely in politically conservative districts. The results indicate that common correlates of criminal punishment have very different effects on types of state social control that are protective of minority groups, and also suggest conditions under which policy and practice become decoupled in organizational settings.

  19. Health services and policy research in the first decade at the Canadian Institutes of Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Tamblyn, Robyn; McMahon, Meghan; Girard, Nadyne; Drake, Elizabeth; Nadigel, Jessica; Gaudreau, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health services and policy research is the innovation engine of a health care system. In 2000, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) was formed to foster the growth of all sciences that could improve health care. We evaluated trends in health services and policy research funding, in addition to determinants of funding success. Methods: All applications submitted to CIHR strategic and open operating grant competitions between 2001 and 2011 were included in our analysis. Age, sex, size of research team, critical mass, season, year and research discipline were retrieved from application information. A cohort of 4725 applicants successfully funded between 2001 and 2005 were followed for 5 years to evaluate predictors of continuous funding. Multivariate generalized estimating equation logistic regression was used to estimate predictors of funding success and sustained funding. Results: Between 2001 and 2011, 80 163 applications were submitted to open and strategic grant competitions. Over time, grant applications increased from 327 to 1137 per year, and annual funding increased from $12.6 to $48.0 million. Grant applications from young male researchers were more likely to be funded than those from female researchers (odds ratio [OR] 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.95), as were applications from larger research teams and institutions with a large critical mass. Only 24.0% of scientists whose first funded grant was in health services and policy research had sustained 5-year funding, compared with 52.8% of biomedical scientists (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.24-0.49). Interpretation: The CIHR has successfully increased the amount of health services and policy research in Canada. To enhance conditions for success, researchers should be encouraged to work in teams, request longer duration grants, resubmit unsuccessful applications and affiliate themselves with institutions with a greater critical mass. PMID:27398366

  20. Industrial and Institutional Pest Control. Sale Publication 4073.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide gives information needed to meet Environmental Protection Agency standards on industrial and institutional pest control, and to help prepare for certification. It gives descriptions and pictures of general insect pests, parasitic pests of man, occasional invaders, wood-destroying pests, stored product pests, vertebrates, and weeds. The…

  1. Energy, environment, and policy choices: Summer institutes for science and social studies educators

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, E.A.; Chiodo, J.J.; Gerber, B.L.

    1997-06-01

    The Center for Energy Education (CEE) is a partnership linking the University of Oklahoma, Close Up Foundation and Department of Energy. Based upon the theme of energy, environment and public policy, the CEE`s main purposes are to: (1) educate teachers on energy sources, environmental issues and decisionmaking choices regarding public policy; (2) develop interdisciplinary curricula that are interactive in nature (see attachments); (3) disseminate energy education curricula; (4) serve as a resource center for a wide variety of energy education materials; (5) provide a national support system for teachers in energy education; and (6) conduct research in energy education. The CEE conducted its first two-week experimentially-based program for educators during the summer of 1993. Beginning at the University of Oklahoma, 57 teachers from across the country examined concepts and issues related to energy and environment, and how the interdependence of energy and environment significantly influences daily life. During the second week of the institute, participants went to Washington, D.C. to examine the processes used by government officials to make critical decisions involving interrelationships among energy, environment and public policy. Similar institutes were conducted during the summers of 1994 and 1995 resulting in nearly 160 science and social studies educators who had participated in the CEE programs. Collectively the participants represented 36 states, the Pacific Territories, Puerto Rico, and Japan.

  2. 76 FR 50226 - Announcement of a Single Source Grant Award to the Tribal Law and Policy Institute

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... well-being for children. The Tribal Law and Policy Institute NRC for Tribes and its partner agencies... programs. Implementation of the NRC4Tribes work will include engaging, assessing, informing and...

  3. Sites of institutional racism in public health policy making in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Came, Heather

    2014-04-01

    Although New Zealanders have historically prided ourselves on being a country where everyone has a 'fair go', the systemic and longstanding existence of health inequities between Māori and non-Māori suggests something isn't working. This paper informed by critical race theory, asks the reader to consider the counter narrative viewpoints of Māori health leaders; that suggest institutional racism has permeated public health policy making in New Zealand and is a contributor to health inequities alongside colonisation and uneven access to the determinants of health. Using a mixed methods approach and critical anti-racism scholarship this paper identifies five specific sites of institutional racism. These sites are: majoritarian decision making, the misuse of evidence, deficiencies in both cultural competencies and consultation processes and the impact of Crown filters. These findings suggest the failure of quality assurance systems, existing anti-racism initiatives and health sector leadership to detect and eliminate racism. The author calls for institutional racism to be urgently addressed within New Zealand and this paper serves as a reminder to policy makers operating within other colonial contexts to be vigilant for such racism.

  4. Office of National Drug Control Policy

    MedlinePlus

    ... See All Top Issues Civil Rights Climate Change Economy Education Foreign Policy Health Care Immigration Iran Deal ... Seniors & Social Security Taxes Technology Trade Urban and Economic Mobility Veterans Women The Administration People President Barack ...

  5. Emerging policies to control nonpoint source pollution of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Water quality impairment is among the highest ranking public issues of concern in the developed world. While, in Europe and North America, many water quality programs have been put in place over the past half century, regulators difficulties tackling the geographically most widespread water quality degradation in these regions: pollution of groundwater (as opposed to surface water) from diffuse sources (as opposed to point sources), including contamination with nitrate (affecting drinking water supplies in rural areas and at the rural-urban interface) and salinity (affecting irrigation water quality). Other diffuse pollution contaminants include pesticides and emerging contaminants (e.g., antibiotics and pathogens from animal farming). The geographic and hydrologic characteristics of nonpoint source pollution of groundwater are distinctly different from other types of water pollution: individually liable sources are contiguous across the landscape, and internally heterogeneous in space and time. On annually aggregated time scales (most relevant to groundwater), sources are continuously emitting pollution, while pollution levels typically do not exceed MCLs by less than a factor 2. An analysis of key elements of existing water pollution policies to control groundwater pollution from diffuse sources demonstrates the lack of both, science and institutional capacity, while existing point-source approaches cannot be applied toward the control of diffuse pollution to groundwater. For the latter, a key to a successful policy is a tiered, three-way monitoring program based on proxy compliance metrics instead of direct measurement of pollutant discharge, research linking actual pollutant discharges to proxy metrics, and long-term regional groundwater monitoring to establish large scale, long-term trends. Several examples of emerging regulations from California and the EU are given to demonstrate these principles.

  6. Public policy for the control of tobacco-related disease.

    PubMed

    Bierer, M F; Rigotti, N A

    1992-03-01

    Public policies concerning tobacco shape the environment of the smoker and nonsmoker alike. These policies use diverse means to achieve the common goal of reducing tobacco use and its attendant health consequences. Educational interventions such as warning labels, school curricula, and public service announcements serve to inform the public about the hazards of tobacco smoke. These are countered by the pervasive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry, despite a ban on tobacco advertising on radio and television. Further restrictions on tobacco advertising and promotion have been proposed and await action. Cigarette excise taxes and smoker-nonsmoker insurance premium differentials discourage smoking by making it more costly to purchase cigarettes. Conversely, health insurance reimbursement for smoking cessation programs could reduce the cost of giving up the habit and might encourage cessation. Restricting or banning smoking in public places and workplaces decreases a smoker's opportunities to smoke, further inhibiting this behavior. Reducing the availability of cigarettes to children and adolescents may help to prevent them from starting to smoke. The environment of the smoker is conditioned by this pastiche of influences. Physicians who become involved in tobacco-control issues have the opportunity to alter the environmental influences on their patients. This is likely to be synergistic with physicians' efforts inside the office to encourage individual smokers to quit. As a first step toward advocacy outside the office, physicians can help to create a smoke-free health-care facility in their own institution. Beyond that, advocacy groups or the voluntary health organizations (e.g., American Lung Association) provide avenues for physicians to take a stand on community issues relevant to tobacco control. Physicians who take these steps to alter the environment of smokers beyond the office are likely to magnify the effect of their work with individual

  7. Livermore energy policy model and projections of energy futures for the Gas Research Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castleton, R.

    1981-06-01

    The Energy and Resource Planning Group at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was asked by the Gas Research Institute to evaluate ten of their research projects relative to proposed funding levels for 1982. These energy technology projects included gas from unconventional and synthetic sources as well as utilization technologies. The primary tool used in the evaluation was the LLNL Policy Model (EPM). The report gives background information about the study, the basic assumptions used in the study, and some conclusions, and presents selected supporting results from the EPM runs.

  8. Evaluating California Campus Tobacco Policies Using the American College Health Association Guidelines and the Institutional Grammar Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roditis, Maria L.; Wang, Donna; Glantz, Stanton A.; Fallin, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To measure comprehensiveness of California campus tobacco policies. Participants: Sixteen campuses representing different regions, institution types, and policies. Research occurred June-August 2013. Methods: Comprehensiveness was scored using American College Health Association's (ACHA) "Position Statement on Tobacco."…

  9. Higher Education Quality: Why Documenting Learning Matters. A Policy Statement from the National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment (NILOA) policy statement outlines the warrant for multiple, systematic approaches to obtain evidence of authentic student achievement. The importance of assessing student learning in college has yet to capture the attention of policy makers or the public. Indeed, few outside the academy know…

  10. Seeing It through: Advanced Strategies "for" Influencing Education Policy. Education Grantmakers Institute (Cambridge, Massachusetts, May 19-21, 2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackinnon, Anne

    2009-01-01

    "No education grantmaker can afford to ignore public policy. Local, state and federal policies shape the context in which we work by establishing education standards, allocating resources and setting priorities for people working in education." So begins the report on Grantmakers for Educations' 2005 Grantmakers Institute, Foundation Strategies…

  11. New institutional mechanisms to bridge the information gap between climate science and public policy decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, W.; Gulledge, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Many decision makers lack actionable scientific information needed to prepare for future challenges associated with climate change. Although the scope and quality of available scientific information has increased dramatically in recent years, this information does not always reach - or is not presented in a form that is useful to - decision makers who need it. The producer (i.e. scientists) community tends to be stovepiped, even though consumers (i.e. decision makers) often need interdisciplinary science and analysis. Consumers, who may also be stovepiped in various agencies or subject areas, may lack familiarity with or access to these separate communities, as well as the tools or time to navigate scientific information and disciplines. Closing the communication gap between these communities could be facilitated by institutionalizing processes designed for this purpose. We recommend a variety of mainstreaming policies within the consumer community, as well as mechanisms to generate a strong demand signal that will resonate more strongly with the producer community. We also recommend institutional reforms and methods of incentivizing policy-oriented scientific analysis within the producer community. Our recommendations focus on improving information flow to national security and foreign policy decision makers, but many are relevant to public policy writ large. Recommendations for Producers 1. The scientific community should formally encourage collaborations between natural and social scientists and reward publications in interdisciplinary outlets Incentives could include research funding and honorary awards recognizing service to public policy. 2. Academic merit review should reward research grants and publications targeted at interdisciplinary and/or policy-oriented audiences. Reforms of merit review may require new policies and engaged institutional leadership. Recommendations for Consumers 1. Congress should amend Title VI of the National Defense Education Act

  12. College and University Commitments to Student Access and Success: An Overview of Institutional Postsecondary Opportunity Programs. WISCAPE Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaade, Elizabeth Stransky

    2010-01-01

    The federal and state governments are placing greater emphasis on postsecondary attainment while concerns about rising college costs for students and families surge. Both groups are calling on institutions to do more to help improve student access and achievement rates. Further, recent research and policy have put pressure on institutions to admit…

  13. The Long-Term Impact of Admission Policies: A Comparative Study of Two Emergent Research Institutions in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Gloria; Horn, Catherine; Dizinno, Gerry; Barlow, Libby

    2013-01-01

    The present study explored the long-term impact of admission policies at two aspiring research institutions in Texas. Six years of longitudinal institutional data were analyzed for all full-time first time in college undergraduate students at both universities. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to identify relationships and…

  14. The Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government: From State to National Focus on Political and Policy Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gais, Thomas; Lawrence, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    Describes the early years, shift toward greater autonomy, and current structure and roles of the Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government, a public policy research institute of State University of New York. Founded to facilitate relationships between the university system and state government, it has emerged as a more autonomous research…

  15. Institutional Policies and Practices Regarding Faculty in Higher Education. 1993 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF-93). Statistical Analysis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirshstein, Rita J.; And Others

    This is the second publication released from the 1993 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF), a study about faculty and instructional staff in U.S. higher education institutions. The document presents findings from the institution survey of NSOPF-93 regarding their policies and practices toward faculty and staff, including: full-time,…

  16. Early Contributions to the Evolution of the Canadian Scientific Integrity System: Institutional and Governmental Interaction in the Policy Diffusion Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenherr, Jordan Richard; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2016-01-01

    Academic institutions and research funders have in the last decade devoted considerable effort to developing policies to support academic integrity and prevent misconduct. In this study, we consider the extent to which various initiatives of Canadian federal and provincial (Québec) funders have affected the development of institutional research…

  17. Ancillary effects of selected acid deposition control policies

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, R.J.; Lyke, A.J.; Nesse, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    NAPAP is examining a number of potential ways to reduce the precursors (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) to acid deposition. However, the policies to reduce acid deposition will have other physical, biological and economic effects unrelated to acid deposition. For example, control policies that reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may also increase visibility. The effects of an acid deposition policy that are unrelated to acid deposition are referred to as ''ancillary'' effects. This reserch identifies and characterizes the principle physical and economic ancillary effects associated with acid deposition control and mitigation policies. In this study the ancillary benefits associated with four specific acid deposition policy options were investigated. The four policy options investigated are: (1) flue gas desulfurization, (2) coal blending or switching, (3) reductions in automobile emissions of NO/sub x/, and (4) lake liming. Potential ancillary benefits of each option were identified and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the literature on economic valuation of potential ancillary effects.

  18. Tobacco control, global health policy and development: towards policy coherence in global governance.

    PubMed

    Collin, Jeff

    2012-03-01

    The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) demonstrates the international political will invested in combating the tobacco pandemic and a newfound prominence for tobacco control within the global health agenda. However, major difficulties exist in managing conflicts with foreign and trade policy priorities, and significant obstacles confront efforts to create synergies with development policy and avoid tensions with other health priorities. This paper uses the concept of policy coherence to explore congruence and inconsistencies in objectives, policy, and practice between tobacco control and trade, development and global health priorities. Following the inability of the FCTC negotiations to satisfactorily address the relationship between trade and health, several disputes highlight the challenges posed to tobacco control policies by multilateral and bilateral agreements. While the work of the World Bank has demonstrated the potential contribution of tobacco control to development, the absence of non-communicable diseases from the Millennium Development Goals has limited scope to offer developing countries support for FCTC implementation. Even within international health, tobacco control priorities may be hard to reconcile with other agendas. The paper concludes by discussing the extent to which tobacco control has been pursued via a model of governance very deliberately different from those used in other health issues, in what can be termed 'tobacco exceptionalism'. The analysis developed here suggests that non-communicable disease (NCD) policies, global health, development and tobacco control would have much to gain from re-examining this presumption of difference. PMID:22345267

  19. Tobacco control, global health policy and development: towards policy coherence in global governance.

    PubMed

    Collin, Jeff

    2012-03-01

    The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) demonstrates the international political will invested in combating the tobacco pandemic and a newfound prominence for tobacco control within the global health agenda. However, major difficulties exist in managing conflicts with foreign and trade policy priorities, and significant obstacles confront efforts to create synergies with development policy and avoid tensions with other health priorities. This paper uses the concept of policy coherence to explore congruence and inconsistencies in objectives, policy, and practice between tobacco control and trade, development and global health priorities. Following the inability of the FCTC negotiations to satisfactorily address the relationship between trade and health, several disputes highlight the challenges posed to tobacco control policies by multilateral and bilateral agreements. While the work of the World Bank has demonstrated the potential contribution of tobacco control to development, the absence of non-communicable diseases from the Millennium Development Goals has limited scope to offer developing countries support for FCTC implementation. Even within international health, tobacco control priorities may be hard to reconcile with other agendas. The paper concludes by discussing the extent to which tobacco control has been pursued via a model of governance very deliberately different from those used in other health issues, in what can be termed 'tobacco exceptionalism'. The analysis developed here suggests that non-communicable disease (NCD) policies, global health, development and tobacco control would have much to gain from re-examining this presumption of difference.

  20. Tobacco control, global health policy and development: towards policy coherence in global governance

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) demonstrates the international political will invested in combating the tobacco pandemic and a newfound prominence for tobacco control within the global health agenda. However, major difficulties exist in managing conflicts with foreign and trade policy priorities, and significant obstacles confront efforts to create synergies with development policy and avoid tensions with other health priorities. This paper uses the concept of policy coherence to explore congruence and inconsistencies in objectives, policy, and practice between tobacco control and trade, development and global health priorities. Following the inability of the FCTC negotiations to satisfactorily address the relationship between trade and health, several disputes highlight the challenges posed to tobacco control policies by multilateral and bilateral agreements. While the work of the World Bank has demonstrated the potential contribution of tobacco control to development, the absence of non-communicable diseases from the Millennium Development Goals has limited scope to offer developing countries support for FCTC implementation. Even within international health, tobacco control priorities may be hard to reconcile with other agendas. The paper concludes by discussing the extent to which tobacco control has been pursued via a model of governance very deliberately different from those used in other health issues, in what can be termed ‘tobacco exceptionalism’. The analysis developed here suggests that non-communicable disease (NCD) policies, global health, development and tobacco control would have much to gain from re-examining this presumption of difference. PMID:22345267

  1. Do the states now control energy policy?

    SciTech Connect

    Huard, David; Keen, Randall

    2007-04-15

    Ironically, in the year that has passed since adoption of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), it appears that EPAct has shifted the primary forum for M and A and infrastructure siting issues from the federal government to the states. The effect has been to stymie the transactions and infrastructure development that EPAct should have streamlined. (author)

  2. Public Opinion in Puerto Rico on Alcohol Control Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Eileen M.; Bernat, Debra H.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Vazquez, Mary Jo; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the first study to assess public opinion of alcohol policies in Puerto Rico. In 2001, a telephone survey of 514 adults on the island assessed levels of support for 20 alcohol control policies covering five domains: (a) raising alcohol taxes, (b) restricting alcohol consumption in public places, (c) punishing adult providers…

  3. Equity in Elementary Science Education: A Study of Institutional and Policy Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Kathryn N.

    Despite recognition that the foundation for interest in science is laid down at the elementary level (Tai, et al., 2006), in the last ten years elementary science instruction time has declined in K-6 schooling (Center on Education Policy, 2007). A lack of access to excellent science education is exacerbated for low-income students, prompting significant questions regarding inequities within the science education pipeline (Maulucci, 2010). The critical factors needed to address these inequities include teacher preparation, access to resources, and instructional leadership, as well as a supportive policy and institutional milieu. However, although the former three have been studied extensively, the role of policy and institutions in creating the conditions for equity in science education are little understood despite their likely significant role (Lemke, 2001). This mixed methods study addressed this gap by examining the role the policy and institutional milieu play in constraining or supporting equitable elementary science education. Institutional theory provides the framework for understanding how various institutional logics and regulatory pressures permeate schools and districts across contexts, influencing science education implementation (Scott, 2014). Two distinct approaches were used to first quantitatively examine the predictors of differentiation in elementary science education instructional time and methods, and second qualitatively analyze the nature and process by which these mechanisms exert influence. Data for the first two papers was derived from a case study of a purposively sampled district, including surveys of 200 teachers and embedded case studies of four schools. Analysis consisted of multi-level models of teacher attributes and school and policy factors in predicting differential distribution of science education instructional time and methods (Raudenbush & Bryk, 2002). Data for the third paper arose out of a series of principal, administrator

  4. Esse Quam Videri, Perhaps: State Policy and Institutional Factors Impacting Low-Income Student Enrollment at North Carolina's Public and Private Four-Year Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holly, Leslie Neal

    2012-01-01

    North Carolina is a state with a rich higher education history, which matches the diversity and number of higher education institutions that can be found there. The significant investment of both tax dollars and public support for higher education in North Carolina has created a unique environment in which public policy significantly impacts both…

  5. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month continued with the DOE/PRDA Phase I investigation of the Clear Liquor Scrubbing Process with Anhydrite Production. The DOE/PRDA Phase I testing of the B&W/Condensing Heat Exchanger (CH) was completed this month. This one-year tube wear analysis investigation was completed on 3/10/97, and a final inspection of the unit was made on 3/21/97. The CH unit and its related equipment are currently being removed from the ECTC test configuration, disassembled, and returned to B&W and CH Corp. for additional analyses. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the Carbon Injection System (the Pulse-jet Fabric Filter) remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly.

  6. Urban stormwater source control policies: why and how?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, G.; Deroubaix, J.-F.; Tassin, B.

    2014-09-01

    Stormwater source control is becoming a common strategy for urban stormwater management in many countries. It relies on regulations or other policy instruments compelling or inciting implementation, for each new urban development, of small-scale facilities to locally store and manage stormwater. Local authorities that pioneered source control since the 1980s have already observed that small-scale facilities systematically implemented over a catchment are able to influence its hydrological behaviour. This capability is the main strength of source control, as it allows compensation for the negative effects of urbanization. Yet, it also represents its main risk: if initial decision-making is not sufficiently accurate, source control can produce long-term negative effects. Because of its current spreading, source control will acquire an increasing role as a driver of hydrological changes in urban catchments, and the directions of these changes depend on current policy-making practices. This paper presents an analysis and a critical discussion of the main objectives that policy-makers attribute to stormwater source control. The investigation is based on a sample of French case studies, completed by a literature review for international comparison. It identifies four main objectives, some typical of urban stormwater management and some more innovative: flood reduction, receiving waters protection, sustainable development, costs reduction. The discussion focuses on how current policy-making practices are able to translate these objectives in concrete policy instruments, and on which knowledge and tools could improve this process. It is shown that for some objectives, basic knowledge is available, but the creation of policy instruments which are effective at the catchment scale and adapted to local conditions is still problematic. For other objectives, substantial lacks of knowledge exist, casting doubts on long-term effectiveness of current policy instruments. Research

  7. Tobacco control in Nigeria- policy recommendations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Major strides towards national tobacco control have been made since Nigeria became signatory to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in June 2004. The Nigerian senate passed a bill on March 15, 2011 which is expected to be signed into law shortly, to regulate and control production, manufacture, sale, advertising, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco or tobacco products. This paper highlights how the proposed tobacco control law provides a unique opportunity to domesticate the WHO FCTC, expand on smokeless tobacco regulation and develop a science base to improve tobacco control measures in Nigeria. PMID:22713586

  8. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month continued with the Phase I DOE/PRDA investigation of the Clear Liquor Scrubbing Process with Anhydrite Production and Chloride Control. The Phase I DOE/PRDA testing of the B&W/Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHE) also continued this month as the inlet particulate control system (installed September 1996) is maintaining the inlet particulate mass loading to the unit at an average value of 0.2 lb./MMBTU. The one-year tube wear analysis project conducted across this unit will be completed in the early part of March. At the completion of testing, a final inspection will be conducted before the unit is cleaned, disassembled, and returned to B&W and CH Corp. for additional analysis. Once the unit is removed from the ECTC, the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Wet Scrubber unit will be assembled and configured back into the flue gas path for future testing. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the Carbon Injection System (the Pulse-jet Fabric Filter configuration) remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. In February 1997, the Clear Liquor Scrubbing with Anhydrite Production test block continued. This PRDA project is being jointly funded by the Electric Power Research Institute and the Department of Energy and is part of the DOE`s Advanced Power Systems Program, whose mission is to accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. The pilot portion of the CLS/Anhydrite project is being conducted on the 4.0 MW wet FGD pilot unit at EPRI`s Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). The project is designed to develop an advanced FGD process incorporating chloride control, clear liquor scrubbing, and anhydrite (anhydrous calcium sulfate) production. While the three areas of the

  9. Italy between drinking culture and control policies for alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Allamani, Allaman; Voller, Fabio; Pepe, Pasquale; Baccini, Michela; Massini, Giulia; Cipriani, Francesco

    2014-10-01

    This paper focuses on whether the on-going dramatic decrease in alcohol consumption in Italy, especially of wine, during 1961-2008, was associated with which parallel sociodemographic and economic changes and with alcohol control policies. The study, using both time series (TS) and artificial neural network (ANN)-based analyses documents that its selected sociodemographic and economic factors, and particularly urbanization, had a definite connection with wine consumption decrease, spirits decrease, and the increase in beer consumption over time. On the other hand, control policies showed no effect on the decline in alcohol consumption, since no alcohol control policy existed in Italy between 1960 and 1987. A few policies introduced since 1988 (BAC and sale restrictions during mass events) may have contributed to reducing or to maintaining the on-going reduction. Study limitations are noted and future needed research is suggested.

  10. Enhancing supply chain performance with improved order-control policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilakantan, K.

    2010-09-01

    This article takes up the study of the dynamics of a single product in a prototype three-stage supply chain system, at the downstream warehouse end of the chain, under a responsive chain strategy. The dynamics under various ordering policies and the parameters which will yield desired responses are systematically analysed, both for deterministic and stochastic systems. Higher-order control policies are then proposed and analysed. The considered key performance criteria are the permanent inventory deviations from the desired levels, or the offset, the maximum dip in inventory, the 'undershoot', the damping effect and decay rates, and the duration of time in the negative region, for deterministic systems; and additionally, the inventory variance for stochastic systems. It is shown that the disadvantages of the conventional (proportional-integral-derivative) control policies, like large negative deviations, low decay rates, and high inventory variance, can be overcome by the use of higher-order control policies proposed herein.

  11. Tobacco control in the Russian Federation- a policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Russian Federation (Russia) has one of the highest smoking rates in the world. The purpose of this study is to analyze past and current trends of the tobacco epidemic in the Russian Federation, review current tobacco control policy responses, and identify areas of opportunity for policy priorities. Methods We used a policy triangle as analytical framework to examine content, context, and processes of Russian tobacco control policy. The analysis was based on secondary data on supply and demand sides of the Russian tobacco epidemic, tobacco-related economic and health effects during Russia’s economic transition, and compliance of Russian tobacco policy with international standards and regulations. Results Tobacco-promoting strategies have specifically targeted women and youth. Russia’s approval of a “National Tobacco Control Concept” and draft for a comprehensive tobacco control bill increasingly align national legislature with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). However, several structural and cultural factors represent substantial barriers to the policy process. The influence of transnational tobacco companies on policy processes in Russia has so far impeded a full implementation of the FCTC mandates. Conclusions Several strategies have been identified as having the potential to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use in Russia and decrease tobacco-related national health and economic burden: adjusting national tobacco policy by raising tobacco tax from the current lowest level in Europe to at least 70%; consequent enforcement of a complete smoking ban in public places; marketing restrictions; and smoking cessation interventions integrated into primary care. Russia’s tobacco control efforts need to target women and youths specifically to efficiently counter industry efforts. PMID:23339756

  12. Current Status of Tobacco Policy and Control

    PubMed Central

    Paoletti, Luca; Jardin, Bianca; Carpenter, Matthew; Cummings, K. Michael; Silvestri, Gerard A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Tobacco use behaviors have changed significantly over the past century. Compared to 1964, smoking prevalence rates have halved from 40% to 20% and as a result there has been a slow but steady decline in the rates of tobacco-induced diseases such as heart disease and cancer. Growing awareness of the health risks of smoking were aided by the United States Surgeon Reports which were issued on a nearly annual basis starting in 1964. Concerns about the hazards of breathing in secondhand smoke pollution further contributed to the declining social acceptance of smoking, which evolved into regulatory actions restricting smoking on buses, planes, retail outlets, restaurants and bars. Today, 23 states and 493 localities have comprehensive laws restricting indoor smoking. This paper examines public policies that have made a significant impact on smoking and lung cancer rates and discusses potential future research directions to further reduce the diseases caused by smoking. PMID:22847588

  13. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) test block was conducted using the Carbon Injection System (the 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber and the Pulse-jet Fabric Filter). Testing also continued across the B&W/CHX Heat Exchanger this month as the effects of increased particulate loading are being studied. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. Testing in October at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC) included tests from the Pilot Trace Elements Removal (TER) test block as part of EPRI`s overall program to develop control technology options for reduction of trace element emissions. This experimental program investigates mercury removal and mercury speciation under different operating conditions. The 1996 program is being performed on the 4.0 MW wet FGD pilot unit and the spray dryer/pulse jet fabric filter (SDA/PJFF) pilot units. The 1996 Trace Elements Removal (TER) test block is a continuation of the 1995 TER test block and will focus on up to five research areas, depending on experimental results. These areas are: (1) Mercury speciation methods; (2) Effect of FGD system operating variables on mercury removal; (3) Novel methods for elemental mercury control; (4) Catalytic methods for converting elemental mercury to oxidized mercury; and (5) Electrostatic charging of particulate material in the FGD inlet flue gas stream. The work during October continued to focus on catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury. These tests included the evaluation of two different loadings of catalyst CT-9 (carbon-based material) over extended periods (8-10 days) and an evaluation of FAB-2B (bulk bituminous fly ash taken from the first hopper of the

  14. The Legal and Policy Implications of Male-Benefiting Admissions Policies at Public Institutions: Can They Ever Be Considered Affirmative Action for Men?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Matthew; Yakaboski, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Women represent an increasingly large majority of undergraduate students, currently comprising 57% of total U.S. undergraduate enrollment. To address this gap between women and men undergraduates, some institutions have developed admissions policies to yield more men. This study examines the key issues the U.S. Supreme Court might use when…

  15. Schools and Suspensions: Self-Reported Crime and the Growing Use of Suspensions. Justice Policy Institute Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiraldi, Vincent; Ziedenberg, Jason

    Though the media depicts U.S. youth as more criminally prone than they actually are and highlights school shootings, schools are still one of the safest places for youth to be. This policy brief adds perspective to punitive school policies (e.g., zero tolerance policies that require suspension or expulsion) in the face of stable or declining rates…

  16. Equity in Elementary Science Education: A Study of Institutional and Policy Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Kathryn N.

    Despite recognition that the foundation for interest in science is laid down at the elementary level (Tai, et al., 2006), in the last ten years elementary science instruction time has declined in K-6 schooling (Center on Education Policy, 2007). A lack of access to excellent science education is exacerbated for low-income students, prompting significant questions regarding inequities within the science education pipeline (Maulucci, 2010). The critical factors needed to address these inequities include teacher preparation, access to resources, and instructional leadership, as well as a supportive policy and institutional milieu. However, although the former three have been studied extensively, the role of policy and institutions in creating the conditions for equity in science education are little understood despite their likely significant role (Lemke, 2001). This mixed methods study addressed this gap by examining the role the policy and institutional milieu play in constraining or supporting equitable elementary science education. Institutional theory provides the framework for understanding how various institutional logics and regulatory pressures permeate schools and districts across contexts, influencing science education implementation (Scott, 2014). Two distinct approaches were used to first quantitatively examine the predictors of differentiation in elementary science education instructional time and methods, and second qualitatively analyze the nature and process by which these mechanisms exert influence. Data for the first two papers was derived from a case study of a purposively sampled district, including surveys of 200 teachers and embedded case studies of four schools. Analysis consisted of multi-level models of teacher attributes and school and policy factors in predicting differential distribution of science education instructional time and methods (Raudenbush & Bryk, 2002). Data for the third paper arose out of a series of principal, administrator

  17. The Impacts of State Control Policies on College Tuition Increase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mikyong Minsun; Ko, Jangwan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined state efforts to control tuition increases over the past 10 years. Using data from 50 states and 540 public 4-year universities and colleges, we examined average tuition increases in dollar amount and percentage of change by the type of state tuition control policy and by the authority for tuition-setting power. The state…

  18. Analysis of Access Control Policies in Operating Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Operating systems rely heavily on access control mechanisms to achieve security goals and defend against remote and local attacks. The complexities of modern access control mechanisms and the scale of policy configurations are often overwhelming to system administrators and software developers. Therefore, mis-configurations are common, and the…

  19. 75 FR 74045 - Guidance on Planning, Implementing, Maintaining, and Enforcing Institutional Controls at...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Contaminated Sites AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: EPA... Enforcing Institutional Controls at Contaminated Sites. The Agency will consider the information gathered... Enforcing Institutional Controls at Contaminated Sites addresses some of the common issues that may...

  20. 77 FR 9218 - Tribally Controlled Postsecondary Career and Technical Institutions Program; Proposed Waivers and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... the Federal Register (72 FR 27297) (May 15, 2007, notice), operate career and technical education... Tribally Controlled Postsecondary Career and Technical Institutions Program; Proposed Waivers and Extension... the Tribally Controlled Postsecondary Career and Technical Institutions Program (TCPCTIP),...

  1. Determinants of Institutional Delivery among Childbearing Age Women in Western Ethiopia, 2013: Unmatched Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa; Genemo, Gebi Agero

    2014-01-01

    Background Place of delivery is a crucial factor which affects the health and wellbeing of the mother and newborn. Institutional delivery helps the women to access skilled assistance, drugs, equipment, and referral transport. Even though 34% of pregnant women received at least one antenatal care from a skilled provider in Ethiopia by 2013, institutional delivery was 10%. The main objective of the study was to assess determinants of institutional delivery in Western Ethiopia. Methods Retrospective unmatched case control study design was used to assess determinants of institutional delivery in Western Ethiopia from September to October 2013. A total of 320 respondents from six districts of East Wollega zone, West Ethiopia were included. Data were collected using pretested and structured questionnaires. Data were entered and cleaned by Epi-info then exported and analyzed using SPSS software. Statistical significance was determined through a 95% confidence level. Results Education [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) (95% Confidence Interval (CI)) = 2.754(1.510–8.911)], family size [AOR (95% CI) = .454(.209–.984)], residence [AOR (95% CI) = 3.822 (1.766–8.272)] were important predictors of place of delivery. Four or more antenatal care [(ANC) (AOR (95% CI) = 2.914(1.105–7.682)], birth order [(AOR (95% CI) = .136(.054–.344), age at last delivery [(AOR (95% CI) = 9.995(2.101–47.556)], birth preparedness [AOR (95% CI) = 6.957(2.422–19.987)], duration of labour [AOR (95% CI) = 3.541(1.732–7.239)] were significantly associated with institutional delivery. Moreover service related factors such as distance from health institutions [AOR (95% CI) = .665(.173–.954)], respondents’ awareness of skill of health care professionals [AOR (95% CI) = 2.454 (1.663–6.255)], mode of transportations [AOR (95% CI) = .258(.122–.549)] were significantly associated with institutional delivery. Conclusions and Recommendations Policy

  2. Medicaid hospital spending: Effects of reimbursement and utilization control policies

    PubMed Central

    Zuckerman, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Numerous Medicaid hospital spending policies were developed following the passage of the 1981 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act. The impact of reimbursement and utilization control policies on Medicaid hospital spending was measured using Medicaid program data for 1977-84. Medicaid prospective reimbursement was found to contain real hospital spending by controlling spending per recipient. However, sustained reductions in the growth in real Medicaid spending are achieved only when Medicaid is included in a broader regulatory framework, not when it is the sole regulated payer. Prior authorization for specific services reduces growth in hospital spending by reducing the growth in inpatient recipients. PMID:10312394

  3. Electric Power Esearch Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month involved the EPRI Integrated SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} removal process, the DOE PRDA testing of the B&W/Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX), and support for the Semi-Continuous On-line Mercury Analyzer. The test configuration utilized in the EPRI Integrated SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} removal process included the 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber (SDA), the Pulse-jet Fabric Filter (PJFF), and a new Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) reactor installed at the ECTC. During this testing, O&M support was also required to conclude the test efforts under the EPRI Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) test block. This included the on-site development efforts for the Semi-Continuous On-line Mercury Analyzer. In the DOE PRDA project with the B&W/Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX), the effects of the increased particulate loading to the unit were monitored throughout the month. Also, the 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly.

  4. Cooperation and control: the Tobacco Institute of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To describe the history of the Tobacco Institute of Australia (TIA), particularly regarding connections between local and international cigarette manufacturers and tobacco organisations. Design: Analysis of 4541 industry documents from the world wide web. Results: From 1978 to 1983 the TIA built strong international networks via ICOSI/INFOTAB and the US Tobacco Institute, and defended existing industry freedoms. 1983 to 1989 was the TIA's aggressive heyday, led primarily by John Dollisson. From 1989 to 1994, following the decision in Australian Federation of Consumer Organisations vs TIA, local and international industry lawyers assumed control. Between 1994 and 1997 a brief revival led into decline and then dissolution, as previously common ground became commercially competitive issues for the manufacturers. The TIA facilitated interconnectedness: between local manufacturers; via individuals who played multiple roles; to international tobacco organisations; through the industry's local and international counsel; and by acting as a conduit for information. Conclusion: The local tobacco industry was comprehensively informed on issues including smoking and health, and connected to the international industry, via the TIA. The manufacturers were closely involved in the TIA's activities, and cooperated through the TIA in a manner detrimental to Australian consumers. The TIA's conduct was the responsibility of local and international manufacturers and their counsel. PMID:14645949

  5. Alternative Student-Based Revenue Streams for Higher Education Institutions: A Difference-in-Difference Analysis Using Guaranteed Tuition Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Jennifer A.; Kearney, Tyler D.

    2016-01-01

    This study considered the impact of state-level guaranteed tuition programs on alternative student-based revenue streams. It used a quasi-experimental, difference-in-difference methodology with a panel dataset of public four-year institutions from 2000-2012. Illinois' 2004 "Truth-in-Tuition" law was used as the policy of interest and the…

  6. How Institutional and University Counselor Policies Effectively Respond to Victims of Cyber Violent Acts: A Multisite Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Gretchen M.

    2012-01-01

    This multisite case study examined how institutional and university counselor policies effectively respond to cyber violent acts. Stake's (2006) multisite case study methodology was used to identify seven themes from current literature. Two sites with four participants were selected. The participants included two counseling directors and the…

  7. Collection Development and Circulation Policies in Prison Libraries: An Exploratory Survey of Librarians in US Correctional Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Suzanna

    2012-01-01

    Prison libraries have traditionally fulfilled many purposes for their incarcerated patrons, and these libraries often carry a diverse collection to serve varied patron needs. However, during the trial of Steven Hayes for the Petit family murders, the prosecution questioned the collection development policies of the institutions where Hayes had…

  8. 75 FR 62839 - Award of a Single-Source Expansion Supplement to the Tribal Law and Policy Institute

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... Number: 93.658. Legislative Authority: Section 476(c)(2)(iii) of the Social Security Act, as amended by... of the Social Security Act. Under the agreement, Tribal Law and Policy Institute identifies promising... Sec. 479B, which allows Indian Tribes the option to apply for Federal funding to support...

  9. Police, Design, Plan and Manage: Developing a Framework for Integrating Staff Roles and Institutional Policies into a Plagiarism Prevention Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Christopher; White, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    When student plagiarism occurs, academic interest and institutional policy generally assume the fault rests with the student. This paper questions this assumption. We claim that plagiarism is a shared responsibility and a complex phenomenon that requires an ongoing calibration of the relative skills and experiences of students and staff in…

  10. Employment Patterns in OECD Countries: Reassessing the Role of Policies and Institutions. OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 486

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassanini, Andrea; Duval, Romain

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of policies and institutions on employment and unemployment of OECD countries in the past decades. Reduced-form unemployment equations, consistent with standard wage setting/price-setting models, are estimated using cross-country/time-series data from 21 OECD countries over the period 1982-2003. In the "average" OECD…

  11. Politics of Leadership and Implementation of Educational Policies and Programmes of Tertiary Institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekpiken, W. E.; Ifere, Francis O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines issues of politics of leadership and implementation of Educational policies and programmes of tertiary institutions in Cross River State with a view to determine the problems are situated and suggest the way forward. It examines the concept of politics of education, concept of leadership, meaning of planning and generation of…

  12. Participation Patterns in Adult Education: The Role of Institutions and Public Policy Frameworks in Resolving Coordination Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Richard; Rubenson, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on evidence regarding cross-national patterns of participation in adult education and an interpretation of these patterns from an institutional and public policy perspective. The interpretation follows from the perspective that sustaining high and widely distributed levels of investment in the development and maintenance of…

  13. The politics of markets: The acid rain control policy in the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments

    SciTech Connect

    Kete, N.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis is a review and critique of the development of the acid rain control policy codified as Title IV of the Clean Air Act. The amendments include provisions to address acid rain-air pollution that has been transformed and transported over long distances. Title IV also embodies the first large scale adoption of market principles and economic incentives in the cause of environmental protection. The acid rain control amendments are being hailed as a break with past environmental protection practice and are being offered as a model for further regulatory reform. The thesis looks at the roots of the acid rain policy and considers the set of legal, social, and economic relations embedded in the policy which define the nature of its legal controls over pollution and its inverse, environmental quality. It explores whether the creation of the emissions allowance trading system changes the social relationships that prevailed under the pre-amended Clean Air Act. It responds to and rebuts the concerns of some critics that the policy represents an alienation of the public's right to clean air. A review of the acid rain policymaking process provides a recent and concrete example of the two central concerns inherent in public policy: the making of decisions that establish institutional arrangements, or structures, that both constrain and liberate individual action at the operational level; and the search for the boundary between autonomous behavior and collective decision making. The policy responds to regulatory reform recommendations concerned with improving the effectiveness, accountability, and cost-effectiveness of environmental protection. As a model for future policymaking, the policy goes beyond and encompasses more than the welfare economics ideal of static economic efficiency and the [open quotes]free market environmentalism[close quotes] emphasis on private property and common law.

  14. A supervisory control policy over an acoustic communication network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhadi, Alireza; Dumon, Jonathan; Canudas-de-Wit, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a supervisory multi-agent control policy over an acoustic communication network subject to imperfections (packet dropout and transmission delay) for localisation of an underwater flow source (e.g., source of chemical pollution, fresh water, etc.) with an unknown location at the bottom of the ocean. A two-loop control policy combined with a coding strategy for reliable communication is presented to perform the above task. A simulator is developed and used to evaluate the trade-offs between quality of communication, transmission delay and control for a fleet of autonomous underwater vehicles supervised over a noisy acoustic communication network by an autonomous surface vessel. It is illustrated that without compensation of the effects of severe random packet dropout, localisation of an unknown underwater flow source is not possible for the condition simulated just by implementing a two-loop control policy. But a two-loop control policy combined with a strategy for reliable communication locates the unknown location of flow source.

  15. [Hospital infection and our policy to control].

    PubMed

    Aiba, S; Shiozaki, H; Matsumoto, H; Ikeya, T

    1992-09-01

    Since we organized the committee to control hospital infection in April 1980, we have adopted various investigations and strategies. When wide spread of infection caused by Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was recognized in 1981 our strategies were set up of water faucets with footpedal, frequent to wash of hands and use of disposable paper towels. Investigation of HBV markers revealed that the positive rate of HBV antibody was 21% in scrub and ward nurse group. Vaccination was performed to our HVB antibody negative members to protect them from the infection of HBV antigen. After HBV antigen positive patients were operated, we sterilized the operating room using our ultraviolet ray irradiation apparatus. In 1990, 50 cases infected with MRSA were detected bacteriologically, which occupied 68.5% of all those infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, we cultured MRSA from nose swabs and investigated numbers of bacteria in the air which were gathered with air sampler in the operating rooms and wards. PMID:1470157

  16. Towards a Usage Control Policy Specification with Petri Nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katt, Basel; Zhang, Xinwen; Hafner, Michael

    Access control aims at restricting access to resources instantly. However, in collaborative computing environments with shared resources and distributed right management systems more advanced controlling mechanisms are required. For example, the control of the usage of a resource may need to be continuous, obligations is required, and concurrency is an important aspect when different users use a shared resource. To overcome these shortcomings of traditional access control, usage control has been proposed and investigated recently. In this paper we introduce a new usage control policy specification. Beyond existing approaches, the novelty of our policy is threefold: first, the ability to integrate the functional and security aspects of the system, thus lending support to control system behavior continuously. Second, post obligation is supported in a way that a violation of any rule during the current usage session, or after it ends, can affect the decisions of future usages. Finally, concurrency rules are embodied in the policy model, thus concurrent usages by different users to shared resources are controlled.

  17. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental Control Technology Center.

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month involved the completion of the Clear Liquor Scrubbing with Anhydrite Production test block extension. Also, the test plan for July (Dry Sorbent Injection with the Carbon Injection System) was developed and reconfiguration activities were initiated. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. These units remain available for testing as future project work is identified. In June 1997, the extension to the Anhydrite Production test block was completed. The extended Anhydrite test block was funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) after reviewing the promising results from the original test program. Both EPRI and the Department of Energy (DOE) funded the original PRDA test program as part of the DOE`s Advanced Power Systems Program, whose mission is to accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high-efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. The project is designed to develop an advanced FGD process that produces a usable byproduct, anhydrite (anhydrous calcium sulfate). While the pilot portion of the Anhydrite PRDA project was conducted on the 4-MW wet FGD pilot unit at EPRI`s Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC) in Barker, New York, the extension testing mainly used the 0.4 MW wet FGD pilot unit to reduce operating costs. As discussed in previous progress reports, the original CLS/Anhydrite process included three steps: chloride removal, clear liquor scrubbing, and anhydrite production. The final step in the process involved sending the calcium sulfite slurry from the sludge bed reactor to the anhydrite reaction tank for conversion to anhydrous calcium sulfate (anhydrite). The original objective in the PRDA

  18. Electric Power Research Institute: environmental Control Technology Center.

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-04

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month involved continued investigations into the Clear Liquor Scrubbing Process for the production of Anhydrous Calcium Sulfate (Anhydrite). The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the Carbon Injection System (the Pulse-jet Fabric Filter) remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. From May 3-18, the NYSEG Kintigh Station and the ECTC were off-line for a two-week scheduled Station outage. During the ECTC outage, the major systems of the Center were inspected, and several preventive maintenance activities were completed. A listing of the major O&M outage activities completed during this period is presented in the Pilot/Mini-Pilot section of this report. In May 1997, an extension to the Anhydrite Production test block was started following the NYSEG outage. The extension to the Anhydrite Production test block is being funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) after promising results from the original test program. Both EPRI and the Department of Energy (DOE) funded the original test program as part of the DOE`s Advanced Power Systems Program, whose mission is to accelerate the commercialization of affordable, high- efficiency, low-emission, coal-fueled electric generating technologies. While the pilot portion of the Anhydrite project was conducted on the 4.0 MW wet FGD pilot unit at EPRI`s Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC) in Barker, New York, the extension mainly used the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot wet FGD unit to reduce operating costs. The project is designed to develop an advanced FGD process that produces a useable byproduct, anhydrite (anhydrous calcium sulfate). The original CLS/Anhydrite process included three steps: chloride removal, clear liquor scrubbing, and anhydrite production. The final step in the process involved

  19. Training leaders from priority populations to implement social norm changes in tobacco control: lessons from the LAAMPP Institute.

    PubMed

    Lew, Rod; Martinez, Jaime; Soto, Claradina; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2011-11-01

    The development of leadership in tobacco control has been crucial in the fight against the number one most preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Yet today, little scientific evidence exists regarding its actual impact, particularly among priority populations. This article describes the impact of the Leadership and Advocacy Institute to Advance Minnesota's Parity for Priority Populations (LAAMPP Institute), a major tobacco control leadership program for five priority populations: African/African Americans, American Indians, Asian Americans, Chicano/Latinos, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender communities in Minnesota. The LAAMPP Institute, a year-long institute with 17 days of training, focused on the core competencies of advocacy, collaboration, cultural or community competency, facilitation, and tobacco control. A logic model helped to guide and frame the institute's efforts. The LAAMPP Institute has been effective in increasing fellows' capacity to do advocacy, which in turn has led to increased involvement in implementing social norm-change activities. Leadership development can provide a solid foundation for training leaders and a catalyst for mobilizing key advocates and priority population communities toward the implementation and sustainment of social norm or policy changes.

  20. There's Lots to Learn from L.A.: Policy Levers for Institutional Change. Policy Brief 10-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerchner, Charles Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Big institutions, like public education, change slowly but often dramatically. The history of the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) over the past five decades reveals an organization pulled up from its early 20th Century Progressive Era roots. Decades of reform efforts have provided a lively audition for what a new institution of public…

  1. [The role of the National Institute of Neoplastic Diseases in the control of cancer in Peru].

    PubMed

    Salazar, Miriam Rosario; Regalado-Rafael, Roxana; Navarro, Jeannie Magalli; Montanez, Dayana Melissa; Abugattas, Julio Elías; Vidaurre, Tatiana

    2013-03-01

    With a mortality rate that constitutes the second nationwide, the estimated incidence of cancer in Peru is 150 cases x 100 000 inhabitants. Around 75% of the cases are diagnosed at an advanced stage and mainly in Lima. In this context, the National Institute of Neoplastic Diseases (INEN) has promoted the decentralization of oncological care creating regional institutes of neoplastic diseases, oncological units and prevention centers. In addition, INEN has designed, developed and implemented the Budgetary Program for Cancer Prevention and Control, which, since 2011, has allowed for more than 7000 centers around the country to allocate resources to the prevention, promotion and early detection of the most frequent cancers in Peru. With the financial support of the state's health insurance system, the basic strategic central points were integrated to provide low-income cancer patients with comprehensive medical care. Through this way, and within the framework of a state policy integrated to and articulated with the health sector, the National Plan for Comprehensive Medical Care for Cancer Patients and the Improvement in the Access to Oncological Services in Peru, known as "The Hope Plan", was born. This article elaborates on the role that INEN plays in the control of cancer as a public health issue, highlighting the importance of the Strategic Budgetary Program for Cancer Prevention and Control and its role in the "The Hope Plan".

  2. Illegal drugs, anti-drug policy failure, and the need for institutional reforms in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Thoumi, Francisco E

    2012-01-01

    This paper is inspired by two anomalies encountered in the study of the illegal drugs industry. First, despite the very high profits of coca/cocaine and poppy/opium/heroin production, most countries that can produce do not. Why, for example, does Colombia face much greater competition in the international coffee, banana, and other legal product markets than in cocaine? And second, though illegal drugs are clearly associated with violence, why is it that illegal drug trafficking organizations have been so much more violent in Colombia and Mexico than in the rest of the world? The answers to these questions cannot be found in factors external to Colombia (and Mexico). They require identifying the societal weaknesses of each country. To do so, the history of the illegal drugs industry is surveyed, a simple model of human behavior that stresses the conflict between formal (legal) and informal (socially accepted) norms as a source of the weaknesses that make societies vulnerable is formulated. The reasons why there is a wide gap between formal and informal norms in Colombia are explored and the effectiveness of anti-drug policies is considered to explain why they fail to achieve their posited goals. The essay ends with reflections and conclusion on the need for institutional change.

  3. Exposure to Tobacco Marketing and Support for Tobacco Control Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, David; Costello, Mary-Jean; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Topham, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the salience of tobacco marketing on postsecondary campuses and student support for tobacco control policies. Methods: Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 1690 students at 3 universities in southwestern Ontario. Results: Virtually all (97%) students reported noticing tobacco marketing in the past year, and 35% reported…

  4. Hispanic-Serving Institutions: Patterns, Predictions, and Implications for Informing Policy Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Vasti; Zerquera, Desiree

    2012-01-01

    This article seeks to identify and assess the readiness of "Potential" Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs)--institutions located within Latino communities projected to increase the number of Latino/a high school graduates. Institutions are described based on evaluation of institutional missions, planning documents, programs, and marketing…

  5. Science Policy at the Wrong Scale and Without Adequate Political Institutions: Parallels between the U.S. 19th Century and the 21st Century Global Contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Constitution of the United States is a document for economic development written by people wary of government failure at the extremes, whether too heavy handed a central government or too loose a confederation. The strong central government favored by Hamilton, Industrialists and later by forward thinking men of the 19th century created a discontinuity wherein government institutions designed to facilitate agriculture were incapable of regulating corporations operating on a national scale, which made mineral and other natural resource exploitation needed to support industrialization enormously profitable. At the same time, Agriculturalists and other conservative citizens sought to control the economy by protecting their rural interests and power. The political institutional power remained with states as agriculturalists and industrialists struggled for economic superiority in the 19th century. As Agriculture moved west, Science warned of the dangers of extending Homesteading regulations into arid regions to no avail. The west was settled in townships without concern for watersheds, carrying capacity, or climatic variability. Gold seekers ignored the consequences of massive hydraulic mining techniques. The tension resident in the Constitution between strong local control of government (states' rights) and a strong central government (nationalism) provided no institutional context to resolve mining problems or other 19th century policy problems linked to rapid population expansion and industrialization. Environmental protection in the late 20th century has been the last wave of nationalized policy solutions following the institution-building blueprint provided by electoral successes in the Progressive, New Deal, and Great Society eras. Suddenly in the 21st century, scientific warnings of dangers again go unheeded, this time as evidence of global warming mounts. Again, tension in policy making exists in all political arenas (executive, legislative and judicial at

  6. International trade agreements challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Donald W

    2006-11-01

    This report reviews aspects of trade agreements that challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies. Trade agreements reduce barriers, increase competition, lower prices and promote consumption. Conversely, tobacco and alcohol control measures seek to reduce access and consumption, raise prices and restrict advertising and promotion in order to reduce health and social problems. However, under current and pending international agreements, negotiated by trade experts without public health input, governments and corporations may challenge these protections as constraints on trade. Advocates must recognise the inherent conflicts between free trade and public health and work to exclude alcohol and tobacco from trade agreements. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has potential to protect tobacco policies and serve as a model for alcohol control.

  7. Off-policy reinforcement learning for H∞ control design.

    PubMed

    Luo, Biao; Wu, Huai-Ning; Huang, Tingwen

    2015-01-01

    The H∞ control design problem is considered for nonlinear systems with unknown internal system model. It is known that the nonlinear H∞ control problem can be transformed into solving the so-called Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs (HJI) equation, which is a nonlinear partial differential equation that is generally impossible to be solved analytically. Even worse, model-based approaches cannot be used for approximately solving HJI equation, when the accurate system model is unavailable or costly to obtain in practice. To overcome these difficulties, an off-policy reinforcement leaning (RL) method is introduced to learn the solution of HJI equation from real system data instead of mathematical system model, and its convergence is proved. In the off-policy RL method, the system data can be generated with arbitrary policies rather than the evaluating policy, which is extremely important and promising for practical systems. For implementation purpose, a neural network (NN)-based actor-critic structure is employed and a least-square NN weight update algorithm is derived based on the method of weighted residuals. Finally, the developed NN-based off-policy RL method is tested on a linear F16 aircraft plant, and further applied to a rotational/translational actuator system. PMID:25532162

  8. Off-policy reinforcement learning for H∞ control design.

    PubMed

    Luo, Biao; Wu, Huai-Ning; Huang, Tingwen

    2015-01-01

    The H∞ control design problem is considered for nonlinear systems with unknown internal system model. It is known that the nonlinear H∞ control problem can be transformed into solving the so-called Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs (HJI) equation, which is a nonlinear partial differential equation that is generally impossible to be solved analytically. Even worse, model-based approaches cannot be used for approximately solving HJI equation, when the accurate system model is unavailable or costly to obtain in practice. To overcome these difficulties, an off-policy reinforcement leaning (RL) method is introduced to learn the solution of HJI equation from real system data instead of mathematical system model, and its convergence is proved. In the off-policy RL method, the system data can be generated with arbitrary policies rather than the evaluating policy, which is extremely important and promising for practical systems. For implementation purpose, a neural network (NN)-based actor-critic structure is employed and a least-square NN weight update algorithm is derived based on the method of weighted residuals. Finally, the developed NN-based off-policy RL method is tested on a linear F16 aircraft plant, and further applied to a rotational/translational actuator system.

  9. Examining the Impact of the National Institutes of Health Public Access Policy on the Citation Rates of Journal Articles

    PubMed Central

    De Groote, Sandra L.; Shultz, Mary; Smalheiser, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether National Institutes of Health (NIH) funded articles that were archived in PubMed Central (PMC) after the release of the 2008 NIH Public Access Policy show greater scholarly impact than comparable articles not archived in PMC. Methods A list of journals across several subject areas was developed from which to collect article citation data. Citation information and cited reference counts of the articles published in 2006 and 2009 from 122 journals were obtained from the Scopus database. The articles were separated into categories of NIH funded, non-NIH funded and whether they were deposited in PubMed Central. An analysis of citation data across a five-year timespan was performed on this set of articles. Results A total of 45,716 articles were examined, including 7,960 with NIH-funding. An analysis of the number of times these articles were cited found that NIH-funded 2006 articles in PMC were not cited significantly more than NIH-funded non-PMC articles. However, 2009 NIH funded articles in PMC were cited 26% more than 2009 NIH funded articles not in PMC, 5 years after publication. This result is highly significant even after controlling for journal (as a proxy of article quality and topic). Conclusion Our analysis suggests that factors occurring between 2006 and 2009 produced a subsequent boost in scholarly impact of PubMed Central. The 2008 Public Access Policy is likely to be one such factor, but others may have contributed as well (e.g., growing size and visibility of PMC, increasing availability of full-text linkouts from PubMed, and indexing of PMC articles by Google Scholar). PMID:26448551

  10. A Pollution Control Strategy Game: Costs of Control Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierma, Thomas J.; Walbert, Mark S.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an interactive classroom game designed to enhance student understanding of air pollution control strategies. Discusses the game's focus on the differences in compliance costs that can occur between the three principal control approaches of emission limits, emission permits, and emission taxes. (TW)

  11. Local Irrigation Management Institutions Mediate Changes Driven by External Policy and Market Pressures in Nepal and Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastakoti, Ram C.; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.; Lebel, Louis

    2010-09-01

    This article assesses the role of local institutions in managing irrigation water use. Fifty irrigation systems in each country were studied in Nepal and Thailand to compare the influence of local institutions on performance of irrigation systems amid changes in external policy and market pressures. Nepal’s new irrigation policy after the re-instatement of multiparty democracy in 1990 emphasized participatory irrigation management transferring the management responsibility from state authorities to water users. The water user associations of traditional farmer-managed irrigation systems were formally recognized by requiring registration with related state authorities. In Thailand also government policies encouraged people’s participation in irrigation management. Today water users are directly involved in management of even some large irrigation systems at the level of tertiary canals. Traditional communal irrigation systems in northern Thailand received support for system infrastructure improvement but have faced increased interference from government. In Thailand market development supported diversification in farming practices resulting in increased areas under high water-demanding commercial crops in the dry season. In contrast, the command areas of most irrigation systems in Nepal include cereal-based subsistence farming with only one-third having commercial farming. Cropping intensities are higher in Nepal than in Thailand reflecting, in part, differences in availability of land and management. In both countries local institutions play an important role in maintaining the performance of irrigation systems as external drivers and local contexts change. Local institutions have provided alternative options for irrigation water use by mediating external pressures.

  12. Do stormwater source control policies deliver the right hydrologic outcomes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, Guido; Rioust, Emilie; Deroubaix, José-Frédéric; Tassin, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    SummaryThe number of stormwater source control (SC) regulations adopted by local authorities is rapidly growing in many countries. We can expect that, in the near future, the hydrologic behavior of many urban and periurban catchments will reflect this diffusion. This paper discusses SC regulations through two complementary approaches: starting on three French case-studies, it analyzes how regulations are developed today and identifies a set of shortcuts in policy-making practices. Then, the hydrologic model of a periurban catchment in the Paris region is used to test the impacts that these regulations can produce if widely applied. The main finding is that inertia in policy-making, driving a singular focus on flow-rate based regulations, can produce negative impacts in the long-term. Further efforts on volume-based regulations are advocated, both in terms of research and policy-making.

  13. Building the evidence base for effective tobacco control policies: the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (the ITC Project).

    PubMed

    Fong, G T; Cummings, K M; Shopland, D R

    2006-06-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is a seminal event in tobacco control and in global health. Scientific evidence guided the creation of the FCTC, and as the treaty moves into its implementation phase, scientific evidence can be used to guide the formulation of evidence-based tobacco control policies. The International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC Project) is a transdisciplinary international collaboration of tobacco control researchers who have created research studies to evaluate and understand the psychosocial and behavioural impact of FCTC policies as they are implemented in participating ITC countries, which together are inhabited by over 45% of the world's smokers. This introduction to the ITC Project supplement of Tobacco Control presents a brief outline of the ITC Project, including a summary of key findings to date. The overall conceptual model and methodology of the ITC Project--involving representative national cohort surveys created from a common conceptual model, with common methods and measures across countries--may hold promise as a useful paradigm in efforts to evaluate and understand the impact of population-based interventions in other important domains of health, such as obesity. PMID:16754940

  14. 75 FR 24384 - Reserve Requirements of Depository Institutions Policy on Payment System Risk

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... deposits. Term deposits are intended to facilitate the conduct of monetary policy by providing a tool for... INFORMATION: I. Summary of Proposal In order to help the Federal Reserve implement monetary policy, on... support the effective implementation of monetary policy and stated that offering term deposits would...

  15. Terminating Entrenched Policies in Educational Institutions: A Case History of Free Tuition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Judith S.

    1984-01-01

    The development of free tuition policy at the City University of New York is traced, focusing on four phases of the policy cycle: initiation, implementation, evaluation, and termination. This study was intended to add to general models of the policy termination process now in circulation. (MLW)

  16. Pareto Efficient Policy for Supervisory Power Management Control

    SciTech Connect

    Malikopoulos, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    n this paper we address the problem of online optimization of the supervisory power management control in parallel hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). We model HEV opera- tion as a controlled Markov chain using the long-run expected average cost per unit time criterion, and we show that the control policy yielding the Pareto optimal solution minimizes the average cost criterion online. The effectiveness of the proposed solution is validated through simulation and compared to the solution derived with dynamic programming using the average cost criterion.

  17. International trade agreements: a threat to tobacco control policy

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, E; Brenner, J; Houston, T

    2005-01-01

    International covenants establish a role for governments in ensuring the conditions for human health and wellbeing, which has been recognised as a central human right. International trade agreements, conversely, prioritise the rights of corporations over health and human rights. International trade agreements are threatening existing tobacco control policies and restrict the possibility of implementing new controls. This situation is unrecognised by many tobacco control advocates in signatory nations, especially those in developing countries. Recent agreements on eliminating various trade restrictions, including those on tobacco, have expanded far beyond simply international movement of goods to include internal tobacco distribution regulations and intellectual property rules regulating advertising and labelling. Our analysis shows that to the extent trade agreements protect the tobacco industry, in itself a deadly enterprise, they erode human rights principles and contribute to ill health. The tobacco industry has used trade policy to undermine effective barriers to tobacco importation. Trade negotiations provide an unwarranted opportunity for the tobacco industry to assert its interests without public scrutiny. Trade agreements provide the industry with additional tools to obstruct control policies in both developed and developing countries and at every level. The health community should become involved in reversing these trends, and help promote additional measures to protect public health. PMID:16046697

  18. Historical analysis of SO2 pollution control policies in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Cailing; Yin, Huaqiang; Ai, Nanshan; Huang, Zhengwen

    2009-03-01

    Coal is not only an important energy source in China but also a major source of air pollution. Because of this, China's national sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) emissions have been the highest in the world for many years, and since the 1990s, the territory of China's south and southwest has become the third largest acid-rain-prone region in the world. In order to control SO(2) emissions, the Chinese government has formulated and promulgated a series of policies and regulations, but it faces great difficulties in putting them into practice. In this retrospective look at the history of SO(2) control in China, we found that Chinese SO(2) control policies have become increasingly strict and rigid. We also found that the environmental policies and regulations are more effective when central officials consistently give environmental protection top priority. Achieving China's environmental goals, however, has been made difficult by China's economic growth. Part of this is due to the practice of environmental protection appearing in the form of an ideological "campaign" or "storm" that lacks effective economic measures. More recently, better enforcement of environmental laws and regulations has been achieved by adding environmental quality to the performance assessment metrics for leaders at all levels. To continue making advances, China needs to reinforce the economic and environmental assessments for pollution control projects and work harder to integrate economic measures into environmental protection. Nonetheless, China has a long way to go before economic growth and environmental protection are balanced.

  19. Groundwater socio-ecology and governance: a review of institutions and policies in selected countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherji, Aditi; Shah, Tushaar

    2005-03-01

    Groundwater is crucial for the livelihoods and food security of millions of people, and yet, knowledge formation in the field of groundwater has remained asymmetrical. While, scientific knowledge in the discipline (hydrology and hydrogeology) has advanced remarkably, relatively little is known about the socio-economic impacts and institutions that govern groundwater use. This paper therefore has two objectives. The first is to provide a balanced view of the plus and the down side of groundwater use, especially in agriculture. In doing so, examples are drawn from countries such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, China, Spain and Mexico—all of which make very intensive use of groundwater. Second, institutions and policies that influence groundwater use are analyzed in order to understand how groundwater is governed in these countries and whether successful models of governance could be replicated elsewhere. Finally, the authors argue that there is a need for a paradigm shift in the way groundwater is presently perceived and managed—from management to governance mode. In this attempt, a number of instruments such as direct regulation, indirect policy levers, livelihood adaptation and people's participation will have to be deployed simultaneously in a quest for better governance. L'eau souterraine est cruciale pour la survie et la sécurité alimentaire de plusieurs millions de personnes mais cependant la foramtion en matière d'eaux souterraines reste asymmétrique. Alors que la connaissance scientifique dans la discipline (hydrologie et hydrogéologie) a avancée de manière remarquable, on connaît peu de choses sur les impacts socio-économiques et les institutions qui gouvernent l'utilisation des eaux souterraines. Cet article a par conséquent deux objectifs. Le premier est d'assurer un point de vue balancé entre le côté positif et le côté négatif de l'utilisation de l'eau souterraine, spécialement en agriculture. De cette manière, des exemples d

  20. Groundwater socio-ecology and governance: a review of institutions and policies in selected countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherji, Aditi; Shah, Tushaar

    2005-03-01

    Groundwater is crucial for the livelihoods and food security of millions of people, and yet, knowledge formation in the field of groundwater has remained asymmetrical. While, scientific knowledge in the discipline (hydrology and hydrogeology) has advanced remarkably, relatively little is known about the socio-economic impacts and institutions that govern groundwater use. This paper therefore has two objectives. The first is to provide a balanced view of the plus and the down side of groundwater use, especially in agriculture. In doing so, examples are drawn from countries such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, China, Spain and Mexico—all of which make very intensive use of groundwater. Second, institutions and policies that influence groundwater use are analyzed in order to understand how groundwater is governed in these countries and whether successful models of governance could be replicated elsewhere. Finally, the authors argue that there is a need for a paradigm shift in the way groundwater is presently perceived and managed—from management to governance mode. In this attempt, a number of instruments such as direct regulation, indirect policy levers, livelihood adaptation and people's participation will have to be deployed simultaneously in a quest for better governance. L'eau souterraine est cruciale pour la survie et la sécurité alimentaire de plusieurs millions de personnes mais cependant la foramtion en matière d'eaux souterraines reste asymmétrique. Alors que la connaissance scientifique dans la discipline (hydrologie et hydrogéologie) a avancée de manière remarquable, on connaît peu de choses sur les impacts socio-économiques et les institutions qui gouvernent l'utilisation des eaux souterraines. Cet article a par conséquent deux objectifs. Le premier est d'assurer un point de vue balancé entre le côté positif et le côté négatif de l'utilisation de l'eau souterraine, spécialement en agriculture. De cette manière, des exemples d

  1. Predictors of Canadian legislators' support for tobacco control policies.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joanna E; de Guia, Nicole A; Ashley, Mary Jane; Ferrence, Roberta; Northrup, David A; Studlar, Donley T

    2002-09-01

    It is clear that regulatory strategies can be effective in reducing tobacco use. Because legislators ultimately determine whether many of these policies are enacted, they are a key focus for tobacco policy research. This study identifies political and personal predictors of Canadian legislators' support for tobacco control policies. Data are from a 1996-97 survey of federal, provincial and territorial legislators. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess relationships between five groups of variables (political factors including political ideology, personal characteristics, tobacco experiences, tobacco knowledge, interest group saliency) and support for tobacco control based on an 11-item scale. Support for tobacco control varied by political party. Support was higher among legislators who thought government had a duty to promote healthy lifestyles, knew second-hand smoke could cause lung cancer, knew tobacco caused more deaths than alcohol, and said they wanted more contact with medical associations about tobacco issues. Support was lower among current smokers and those with tobacco industry jobs in their ridings. The findings indicate that political party membership cannot be ignored in enlisting legislator support for tobacco control. It also appears that legislators who oppose tobacco control measures may not be opposed to tobacco control per se, but are more generally opposed to a government role in health promotion. Thus, public health professionals and tobacco control advocates need to be more attentive to the way tobacco control issues are framed for particular legislators. Further, meetings with health groups about tobacco issues would be welcomed by many legislators; non-governmental organizations and other health advocates could work to increase tobacco knowledge among legislators.

  2. Policy Analysis: An Analysis of Institutional Admissions and State Policies in Higher Education as They Impact Undocumented Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Arcadio J., III

    2013-01-01

    The term residency and definition of that term is the driving force that acts as the foundation of many, if not all, state funded college and university admissions policies. With over 65,000 undocumented students graduating from American high schools every year, it is essential that state colleges and universities look at their admissions policies…

  3. Crossing Science-Policy-Societal Boundaries to Reduce Scientific and Institutional Uncertainty in Small-Scale Fisheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Abigail M.; Rudd, Murray A.

    2016-10-01

    The governance of small-scale fisheries (SSF) is challenging due to the uncertainty, complexity, and interconnectedness of social, political, ecological, and economical processes. Conventional SSF management has focused on a centralized and top-down approach. A major criticism of conventional management is the over-reliance on `expert science' to guide decision-making and poor consideration of fishers' contextually rich knowledge. That is thought to exacerbate the already low governance potential of SSF. Integrating scientific knowledge with fishers' knowledge is increasingly popular and is often assumed to help reduce levels of biophysical and institutional uncertainties. Many projects aimed at encouraging knowledge integration have, however, been unsuccessful. Our objective in this research was to assess factors that influence knowledge integration and the uptake of integrated knowledge into policy-making. We report results from 54 semi-structured interviews with SSF researchers and practitioners from around the globe. Our analysis is framed in terms of scientific credibility, societal legitimacy, and policy saliency, and we discuss cases that have been partially or fully successful in reducing uncertainty via push-and-pull-oriented boundary crossing initiatives. Our findings suggest that two important factors affect the science-policy-societal boundary: a lack of consensus among stakeholders about what constitutes credible knowledge and institutional uncertainty resulting from shifting policies and leadership change. A lack of training for scientific leaders and an apparent `shelf-life' for community organizations highlight the importance of ongoing institutional support for knowledge integration projects. Institutional support may be enhanced through such investments, such as capacity building and specialized platforms for knowledge integration.

  4. Crossing Science-Policy-Societal Boundaries to Reduce Scientific and Institutional Uncertainty in Small-Scale Fisheries.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Abigail M; Rudd, Murray A

    2016-10-01

    The governance of small-scale fisheries (SSF) is challenging due to the uncertainty, complexity, and interconnectedness of social, political, ecological, and economical processes. Conventional SSF management has focused on a centralized and top-down approach. A major criticism of conventional management is the over-reliance on 'expert science' to guide decision-making and poor consideration of fishers' contextually rich knowledge. That is thought to exacerbate the already low governance potential of SSF. Integrating scientific knowledge with fishers' knowledge is increasingly popular and is often assumed to help reduce levels of biophysical and institutional uncertainties. Many projects aimed at encouraging knowledge integration have, however, been unsuccessful. Our objective in this research was to assess factors that influence knowledge integration and the uptake of integrated knowledge into policy-making. We report results from 54 semi-structured interviews with SSF researchers and practitioners from around the globe. Our analysis is framed in terms of scientific credibility, societal legitimacy, and policy saliency, and we discuss cases that have been partially or fully successful in reducing uncertainty via push-and-pull-oriented boundary crossing initiatives. Our findings suggest that two important factors affect the science-policy-societal boundary: a lack of consensus among stakeholders about what constitutes credible knowledge and institutional uncertainty resulting from shifting policies and leadership change. A lack of training for scientific leaders and an apparent 'shelf-life' for community organizations highlight the importance of ongoing institutional support for knowledge integration projects. Institutional support may be enhanced through such investments, such as capacity building and specialized platforms for knowledge integration.

  5. Crossing Science-Policy-Societal Boundaries to Reduce Scientific and Institutional Uncertainty in Small-Scale Fisheries.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Abigail M; Rudd, Murray A

    2016-10-01

    The governance of small-scale fisheries (SSF) is challenging due to the uncertainty, complexity, and interconnectedness of social, political, ecological, and economical processes. Conventional SSF management has focused on a centralized and top-down approach. A major criticism of conventional management is the over-reliance on 'expert science' to guide decision-making and poor consideration of fishers' contextually rich knowledge. That is thought to exacerbate the already low governance potential of SSF. Integrating scientific knowledge with fishers' knowledge is increasingly popular and is often assumed to help reduce levels of biophysical and institutional uncertainties. Many projects aimed at encouraging knowledge integration have, however, been unsuccessful. Our objective in this research was to assess factors that influence knowledge integration and the uptake of integrated knowledge into policy-making. We report results from 54 semi-structured interviews with SSF researchers and practitioners from around the globe. Our analysis is framed in terms of scientific credibility, societal legitimacy, and policy saliency, and we discuss cases that have been partially or fully successful in reducing uncertainty via push-and-pull-oriented boundary crossing initiatives. Our findings suggest that two important factors affect the science-policy-societal boundary: a lack of consensus among stakeholders about what constitutes credible knowledge and institutional uncertainty resulting from shifting policies and leadership change. A lack of training for scientific leaders and an apparent 'shelf-life' for community organizations highlight the importance of ongoing institutional support for knowledge integration projects. Institutional support may be enhanced through such investments, such as capacity building and specialized platforms for knowledge integration. PMID:27389712

  6. Virtual Control Policy for Binary Ordered Resources Petri Net Class.

    PubMed

    Rovetto, Carlos A; Concepción, Tomás J; Cano, Elia Esther

    2016-01-01

    Prevention and avoidance of deadlocks in sensor networks that use the wormhole routing algorithm is an active research domain. There are diverse control policies that will address this problem being our approach a new method. In this paper we present a virtual control policy for the new specialized Petri net subclass called Binary Ordered Resources Petri Net (BORPN). Essentially, it is an ordinary class constructed from various state machines that share unitary resources in a complex form, which allows branching and joining of processes. The reduced structure of this new class gives advantages that allow analysis of the entire system's behavior, which is a prohibitive task for large systems because of the complexity and routing algorithms. PMID:27548170

  7. Virtual Control Policy for Binary Ordered Resources Petri Net Class.

    PubMed

    Rovetto, Carlos A; Concepción, Tomás J; Cano, Elia Esther

    2016-08-18

    Prevention and avoidance of deadlocks in sensor networks that use the wormhole routing algorithm is an active research domain. There are diverse control policies that will address this problem being our approach a new method. In this paper we present a virtual control policy for the new specialized Petri net subclass called Binary Ordered Resources Petri Net (BORPN). Essentially, it is an ordinary class constructed from various state machines that share unitary resources in a complex form, which allows branching and joining of processes. The reduced structure of this new class gives advantages that allow analysis of the entire system's behavior, which is a prohibitive task for large systems because of the complexity and routing algorithms.

  8. Virtual Control Policy for Binary Ordered Resources Petri Net Class

    PubMed Central

    Rovetto, Carlos A.; Concepción, Tomás J.; Cano, Elia Esther

    2016-01-01

    Prevention and avoidance of deadlocks in sensor networks that use the wormhole routing algorithm is an active research domain. There are diverse control policies that will address this problem being our approach a new method. In this paper we present a virtual control policy for the new specialized Petri net subclass called Binary Ordered Resources Petri Net (BORPN). Essentially, it is an ordinary class constructed from various state machines that share unitary resources in a complex form, which allows branching and joining of processes. The reduced structure of this new class gives advantages that allow analysis of the entire system’s behavior, which is a prohibitive task for large systems because of the complexity and routing algorithms. PMID:27548170

  9. Staff Governance and Institutional Policy Formation. Educational Policy in the 21st Century: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, John W., Ed.; Miller, Michael T., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The number of staff members serving American higher education institutions has more than doubled in the past twenty years, as occupations in technology, development, government relations, and even athletic administration have grown as never before in the history of the academy. As the number, variety, and importance of these positions have grown,…

  10. Student Governance and Institutional Policy: Formation and Implementation. Educational Policy in the 21st Century: Opportunities, Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael T., Ed.; Nadler, Daniel P., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Colleges and universities face a variety of challenges in meeting the needs of students, and one of the greatest is their ability to respond to student needs while protecting institutional and academic integrity. For those working with students, a primary example of this challenge is the involvement of students in shared decision-making, a process…

  11. Explaining Large-Scale Policy Change in the Turkish Health Care System: Ideas, Institutions, and Political Actors.

    PubMed

    Agartan, Tuba I

    2015-10-01

    Explaining policy change has been one of the major concerns of the health care politics and policy development literature. This article aims to explain the specific dynamics of large-scale reforms introduced within the framework of the Health Transformation Program in Turkey. It argues that confluence of the three streams - problem, policy, and politics - with the exceptional political will of the Justice and Development Party's (JDP) leaders opened up a window of opportunity for a large-scale policy change. The article also underscores the contribution of recent ideational perspectives that help explain "why" political actors in Turkey would focus on health care reform, given that there are a number of issues waiting to be addressed in the policy agenda. Examining how political actors framed problems and policies deepens our understanding of the content of the reform initiatives as well as the construction of the need to reform. The article builds on the insights of both the ideational and institutionalist perspectives when it argues that the interests, aspirations, and fears of the JDP, alongside the peculiar characteristics of the institutional context, have shaped its priorities and determination to carry out this reform initiative. PMID:26195607

  12. Explaining Large-Scale Policy Change in the Turkish Health Care System: Ideas, Institutions, and Political Actors.

    PubMed

    Agartan, Tuba I

    2015-10-01

    Explaining policy change has been one of the major concerns of the health care politics and policy development literature. This article aims to explain the specific dynamics of large-scale reforms introduced within the framework of the Health Transformation Program in Turkey. It argues that confluence of the three streams - problem, policy, and politics - with the exceptional political will of the Justice and Development Party's (JDP) leaders opened up a window of opportunity for a large-scale policy change. The article also underscores the contribution of recent ideational perspectives that help explain "why" political actors in Turkey would focus on health care reform, given that there are a number of issues waiting to be addressed in the policy agenda. Examining how political actors framed problems and policies deepens our understanding of the content of the reform initiatives as well as the construction of the need to reform. The article builds on the insights of both the ideational and institutionalist perspectives when it argues that the interests, aspirations, and fears of the JDP, alongside the peculiar characteristics of the institutional context, have shaped its priorities and determination to carry out this reform initiative.

  13. 42 CFR 84.43 - Quality control records; review by the Institute; revocation of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quality control records; review by the Institute... HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Quality Control § 84.43 Quality control records; review by the Institute; revocation...

  14. 42 CFR 84.43 - Quality control records; review by the Institute; revocation of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Quality control records; review by the Institute... HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Quality Control § 84.43 Quality control records; review by the Institute; revocation...

  15. 42 CFR 84.43 - Quality control records; review by the Institute; revocation of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quality control records; review by the Institute... HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Quality Control § 84.43 Quality control records; review by the Institute; revocation...

  16. 42 CFR 84.43 - Quality control records; review by the Institute; revocation of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quality control records; review by the Institute... HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Quality Control § 84.43 Quality control records; review by the Institute; revocation...

  17. 42 CFR 84.43 - Quality control records; review by the Institute; revocation of approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quality control records; review by the Institute... HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Quality Control § 84.43 Quality control records; review by the Institute; revocation...

  18. The Control of Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Policy Review

    PubMed Central

    McNabola, Aonghus; Gill, Laurence William

    2009-01-01

    According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area. PMID:19440413

  19. Agricultural pollution control under Spanish and European environmental policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Yolanda; Albiac, José

    2004-10-01

    Nonpoint pollution from agriculture is an important environmental policy issue in Spain and the European Union. Agricultural pollution in Spain is being addressed by the National Irrigation Plan and by the European Water Framework Directive. This article contributes to the ongoing policy decision process by analyzing nonpoint pollution control and presenting results on the efficiency of abatement measures. Results question the reliance of the Water Framework Directive on water pricing as a pollution instrument for reaching good status for all waters because higher water prices close to full recovery cost advocated by the directive appear to be inefficient as an emission control instrument. Another important result is that abatement measures based on input taxes and standards on nitrogen appear to be more suitable than the National Irrigation Plan subsidies designed to promote irrigation investments. The results also contribute with further evidence to the discussion on the appropriate instrument base for pollution control, proving that nonpoint pollution control instruments cannot be assessed accurately without a correct understanding of the key underlying biophysical processes. Nonpoint pollution is characterized by nonlinearities, dynamics, and spatial dependency, and neglect of the dynamic aspects may lead to serious consequences for the design of measures. Finally, a quantitative assessment has been performed to explore discriminating measures based on crop pollution potential on vulnerable soils. No significant welfare gains are found from discriminating control, although results are contingent upon the level of damage, and discrimination could be justified in areas with valuable ecosystems and severe pollution damages.

  20. Instituting a Smoke-Free Policy for City Recreation Centers and Playgrounds, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Mallya, Giridhar; Dean, Lorraine T.; Rizvi, Amna; Dignam, Leo; Schwarz, Donald F.

    2013-01-01

    Background In the United States, more than 600 municipalities have smoke-free parks, and more than 100 have smoke-free beaches. Nevertheless, adoption of outdoor smoke-free policies has been slow in certain regions. Critical to widespread adoption is the sharing of knowledge about the policy development and implementation process. In this article, we describe our experience in making City of Philadelphia recreation centers and playgrounds smoke-free. Community Context Of the 10 largest US cities, Philadelphia has among the highest rates of adult and youth smoking. Our objectives for an outdoor smoke-free policy included protecting against secondhand smoke, supporting a normative message that smoking is harmful, motivating smokers to quit, and mitigating tobacco-related sanitation costs. Methods The Philadelphia Department of Public Health and the Department of Parks and Recreation engaged civic leaders, agency staff, and community stakeholders in the following steps: 1) making the policy case, 2) vetting policy options and engaging stakeholders, and 3) implementing policy. Near-term policy impacts were assessed through available data sources. Outcome More than 220 recreation centers, playgrounds, and outdoor pools became smoke-free through a combined mayoral executive order and agency regulation. Support for the policy was high. Estimates suggest a policy reach of 3.6 million annual visitors and almost 850 acres of new smoke-free municipal property. Interpretation Localities can successfully implement outdoor smoke-free policies with careful planning and execution. Such policies hold great potential for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke, promoting nonsmoking norms, and providing additional motivation for residents to quit smoking. PMID:23845177

  1. One Policy, Disparate Reactions: Institutional Responses in Florida's Developmental Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Toby J.; Tandberg, David A.; Hu, Shouping; Hankerson, Dava

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to better understand how community colleges in Florida planned to implement a new sweeping state policy pertaining to developmental education. Via a cluster analysis, we identify three distinct patterns in the ways in which the colleges responded to the policy: reformers, responders, and resisters. Further, we find that these…

  2. Two Decades of E-Learning Policy Evolution at EU Level: Motivations, Institutions and Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salajan, Florin D.; Roumell, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    This article records and documents the historical development of e-learning policies at EU level by conducting a discourse and content analysis of four key e-learning policy documents drafted and implemented by the European Commission over the past 20 years: "Learning in the Information Society: Action Plan for a European Education…

  3. The Relationship between Web Accessibility Policy and Practice in Postsecondary Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    From computer workstations to the world of the web, statutes and policies have afforded students with disabilities the right to participate in postsecondary education in a non-discriminatory manner. Automatic doors and adjustable tables are a commonplace on campuses and represent prime examples of accessible policy adherence, but what affect do…

  4. Beyond interests and institutions: US health policy reform and the surprising silence of big business.

    PubMed

    Smyrl, Marc E

    2014-02-01

    Interest-based arguments do not provide satisfying explanations for the surprising reticence of major US employers to take a more active role in the debate surrounding the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Through focused comparison with the Bismarckian systems of France and Germany, on the one hand, and with the 1950s and 1960s in the United States, on the other, this article concludes that while institutional elements do account for some of the observed behavior of big business, a necessary complement to this is a fuller understanding of the historically determined legitimating ideology of US firms. From the era of the "corporate commonwealth," US business inherited the principles of private welfare provision and of resistance to any expansion of government control. Once complementary, these principles are now mutually exclusive: employer-provided health insurance increasingly is possible only at the cost of ever-increasing government subsidy and regulation. Paralyzed by the uncertainty that followed from this clash of legitimate ideas, major employers found themselves unable to take a coherent and unified stand for or against the law. As a consequence, they failed either to oppose it successfully or to secure modifications to it that would have been useful to them.

  5. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Home, Institutional, and Structural Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed to assist pest control operators to prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on home, institutional, and structural pest control. The ten sections included describe: (1) Insect control; (2) Rodent control; (3) Special situation pest control; (4)…

  6. Knowledge Sharing: Exploring Institutional Policy and Educator Practice through ePortfolios in Music and Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blom, Diana; Rowley, Jennifer; Bennett, Dawn; Hitchcock, Matthew; Dunbar-Hall, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Many higher education institutions have embraced e-Learning and urge, or make compulsory, engagement by academics. Despite this, it is often the educators themselves who take the initiative to engage with innovative e-learning approaches. These approaches, in turn, can influence both peer-and institution-wide thinking about e-Learning. This paper…

  7. A Multicase Study Analysis of the Intersection of Institutional and State Policy and Educational Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Kathleen Patrice

    2013-01-01

    American higher education institutions, specifically public universities and colleges, have reached a key point in their histories and it is within this moment that these institutions must transform operations, deliver education in new ways, and demonstrate unquestionable social and economic impact. Universities and colleges must increase…

  8. Complying with the National Institutes of Health Public Access Policy to Facilitate Science Availability for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.

    2015-01-01

    Social work researchers are making significant advances in science funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to improve the health of underserved and marginalized populations throughout the world. Unfortunately, research results are often only available to other scientists at academic institutions, limiting their impact. To facilitate the…

  9. File Sharing, Napster, and Institutional Responses: Educative, Developmental, or Responsive Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Jason E.; Healy, Margaret A.

    2005-01-01

    Student use of the Internet for such purposes as sharing and downloading illegal copies of music and movies presents new and complex challenges in the relationship between the institution and student. This article reviews the development of the file sharing phenomena; and through analysis of existing institutional responses, legal advice, media…

  10. Historical Analysis of SO2 Pollution Control Policies in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Cailing; Yin, Huaqiang; Ai, Nanshan; Huang, Zhengwen

    2009-03-01

    Coal is not only an important energy source in China but also a major source of air pollution. Because of this, China’s national sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions have been the highest in the world for many years, and since the 1990s, the territory of China’s south and southwest has become the third largest acid-rain-prone region in the world. In order to control SO2 emissions, the Chinese government has formulated and promulgated a series of policies and regulations, but it faces great difficulties in putting them into practice. In this retrospective look at the history of SO2 control in China, we found that Chinese SO2 control policies have become increasingly strict and rigid. We also found that the environmental policies and regulations are more effective when central officials consistently give environmental protection top priority. Achieving China’s environmental goals, however, has been made difficult by China’s economic growth. Part of this is due to the practice of environmental protection appearing in the form of an ideological “campaign” or “storm” that lacks effective economic measures. More recently, better enforcement of environmental laws and regulations has been achieved by adding environmental quality to the performance assessment metrics for leaders at all levels. To continue making advances, China needs to reinforce the economic and environmental assessments for pollution control projects and work harder to integrate economic measures into environmental protection. Nonetheless, China has a long way to go before economic growth and environmental protection are balanced.

  11. Rapid increase in contraceptive rate: since 1981 new population control policy.

    PubMed

    1984-03-01

    In December 1981 the government of the Republic of Korea announced new population control policy measures calling for an improvement of the current family planning program management system; institution of a new social and institutional support system to inculcate the small size family norm and to eradicate the parental son preference attitude; strengthening information, education, and communication (IEC) activities; and establishment of close coordination among the government organizations relating to the population programs. As a result of the policy measures, since 1982 there has been a rapid increase in the contraceptive acceptance rate. The number of contraceptive acceptors through the government program increased from 614,100 in 1981 to 1,094,600 in 1983, a 78.3% increase. There has been a marked increase in sterilization and menstrual regulation services. The program achievement for 1983 is equivalent to about 19% of the total eligible women aged 15-44. According to the contraceptive acceptors' coupon analysis, the age of women at the time of contraceptive acceptance through the government program dropped steadily from 31.4 in 1981 to 30.2 in 1983 and their number of children declined from 2.8 to 2.5 during the same period. In line with the new population control policy, several social support measures for the small size family have been strengthened. These include: income tax exemption up to 2 children; corporation tax exemption on expenditure for family planning services to employees; inclusion of population education in the formal school curriculum; and reduction of child delivery charges for sterilization acceptors after 2nd delivery in public hospitals. The 1982 National Family Health Survey revealed that the total fertility rate declined to 2.7 and the contraceptive practice rate of women aged 15-44 increased to 58% in 1982. Yet, in recent years virtually no substantial change in the fertility level and in the contraceptive practice rate has been

  12. From population control to "reproductive rights": ideological influences in population policy.

    PubMed

    Grimes, S

    1998-01-01

    The author examines some of the ideological influences which have shaped population control policy in recent decades and considers the growing critique of what is now regarded as a narrowly focused policy, one which is based upon a simplistic definition and analysis of population growth in the less developed world. Focus is given to the important role of professional demographers in the US, who tailored their theories to provide a respectable justification for questionable policy intervention. The emergence of a population establishment in the US, based upon interconnected networks of foundations, private population organizations, and university population centers is outlined. These institutions provide a willing conduit for US government funding through the US Agency for International Development. Relevant interdisciplinary literature has raised concerns over issues such as the outside intervention in national sovereignty, ethical aspects associated with the implementation of fertility control programs, the exclusion of Third World scholars from research programs conducted in their own countries, and the unwillingness of programs to consider complex social and cultural dimensions of high fertility.

  13. Eradication versus control: the economics of global infectious disease policies.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Scott

    2004-01-01

    A disease is controlled if, by means of a public policy, the circulation of an infectious agent is restricted below the level that would be sustained by individuals acting independently to control the disease. A disease is eliminated if it is controlled sufficiently to prevent an epidemic from occurring in a given geographical area. Control and elimination are achieved locally, but a disease can only be eradicated if it is eliminated everywhere. Eradication is plainly a more demanding goal, but it has two advantages over control. First, the economics of eradication can be very favourable when eradication not only reduces infections but also avoids the need for vaccinations in future. Indeed, when eradication is feasible, it will either pay to control it to a fairly low level or to eradicate it. This suggests that, from an economics perspective, diseases that are eliminated in high-income countries are prime candidates for future eradication efforts. Second, the incentives for countries to participate in an eradication initiative can be strong; indeed they can be even stronger than an international control programme. Moreover, high-income countries typically benefit so much that they will be willing to finance elimination in developing countries. Full financing of an eradication effort by nation-states is not always guaranteed, but it can be facilitated by a variety of means. Hence, from the perspective of economics and international relations, eradication has a number of advantages over control. The implications for smallpox and polio eradication programmes are discussed. PMID:15628206

  14. Supervision Exercised by States over Privately Controlled Institutions of Higher Education. Bulletin, 1934, No. 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeely, John H.

    1934-01-01

    In most of the States there are privately controlled institutions providing higher education. An obligation rests upon the State in the interest of public welfare to insure the high quality of that higher education. The purpose of this inquiry is to analyze the extent of supervision exercised over privately controlled institutions of higher…

  15. 3 CFR 101.6 - Office of National Drug Control Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... THE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES ACT § 101.6 Office of National Drug Control Policy. Freedom of Information regulations for the Office of National Drug Control Policy appear at 21 CFR parts 1400-1499. ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of National Drug Control Policy....

  16. 32 CFR 196.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conflict with a specific tenet of the religious organization. ... controlled by religious organizations. 196.205 Section 196.205 National Defense Department of Defense... Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These...

  17. 36 CFR 1211.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conflict with a specific tenet of the religious organization. ... other entities controlled by religious organizations. 1211.205 Section 1211.205 Parks, Forests, and... Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These...

  18. Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue is devoted to discussions of early childhood policy issues. "Creating a Shared Vision: How Policy Affects Early Childhood Care and Development" (Judith L. Evans) defines policy, discusses the motivation for changing or creating national policy and the process for changing such policies, and provides a sample design for an early…

  19. Tobacco control policies and their impacts. Past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Warner, Kenneth E

    2014-02-01

    The 1964 Surgeon General's report on smoking and health concluded that "Cigarette smoking is a health hazard of sufficient importance in the United States to warrant appropriate remedial action." The adoption of remedial actions over the next half century produced what is arguably the most important public health triumph of that period in the United States and in other developed nations. At the heart of the remedial actions were governmental policies. By raising cigarette price, taxation is especially effective at reducing smoking, encouraging some smokers to quit and others to reduce their daily consumption, while also discouraging the initiation of smoking by children. Smoke-free workplace policies have dramatically reduced workers' exposure to the toxins in cigarette smoke, smoking, employers' costs, and the incidence of acute myocardial infarctions. Other policies have also helped diminish the toll of smoking. The successes of tobacco control notwithstanding, future progress will occur slowly unless society finds new, possibly radical "endgame" strategies to hasten the arrival of a smoke-free society.

  20. Implementing a mandatory password change policy at an academic medical institution.

    PubMed

    Brogan, Michael W; Lin, Ching-Ping; Pai, Rakesh; Kalet, Ira J

    2007-01-01

    UW Medicine implemented a new policy requiring users to change passwords at least once every 120 days. In the first two password change cycles, many users did not take action upon notification, and their passwords expired, causing high help desk loads. Compliance and support loads improved in subsequent cycles. We conclude that policy changes requiring user behavior modification should be seen as a cultural change, and the implementation strategy should consider socio-technical factors. PMID:18693985

  1. Tobacco-Control Policies in Tobacco-Growing States: Where Tobacco Was King

    PubMed Central

    Fallin, Amanda; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-01-01

    Context The 5 major tobacco-growing states (Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) are disproportionately affected by the tobacco epidemic, with higher rates of smoking and smoking-induced disease. These states also have fewer smoke-free laws and lower tobacco taxes, 2 evidence-based policies that reduce tobacco use. Historically, the tobacco farmers and hospitality associations allied with the tobacco companies to oppose these policies. Methods This research is based on 5 detailed case studies of these states, which included key informant interviews, previously secret tobacco industry documents (available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu), and media articles. This was supplemented with additional tobacco document and media searches specifically for this article. Findings The tobacco companies were particularly concerned about blocking tobacco-control policies in the tobacco-growing states by promoting a pro-tobacco culture, beginning in the late 1960s. Nevertheless, since 2003, there has been rapid progress in the tobacco-growing states’ passage of smoke-free laws. This progress came after the alliance between the tobacco companies and the tobacco farmers fractured and hospitality organizations stopped opposing smoke-free laws. In addition, infrastructure built by National Cancer Institute research projects (COMMIT and ASSIST) led to long-standing tobacco-control coalitions that capitalized on these changes. Although tobacco production has dramatically fallen in these states, pro-tobacco sentiment still hinders tobacco-control policies in the major tobacco-growing states. Conclusions The environment has changed in the tobacco-growing states, following a fracture of the alliance between the tobacco companies and their former allies (tobacco growers and hospitality organizations). To continue this progress, health advocates should educate the public and policymakers on the changing reality in the tobacco-growing states, notably the

  2. Institutional and policy analysis of wastewater (re)use for agriculture: case study Hyderabad, India.

    PubMed

    Saldías, C; Speelman, S; Amerasinghe, P; van Huylenbroeck, G

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater constitutes an alternative water source for the irrigation sector. To fully benefit from it, and reduce possible adverse effects on public health and the environment, we need to look at the regulation of the practice. A prerequisite for this is an institutional analysis, and the points to consider are the institutional mandates. We used the city of Hyderabad, India, as a case study. There, irrigation with wastewater is not supported or recognized, but it happens in practice. It takes place in an indirect and unplanned way. Institutions fail at enforcing regulations, and little attention is given to formalization of the practice. With this article, we aim to untangle the institutional setup, and by doing so, identify the constraints surrounding development of a formal practice. Ultimately, we aim at contributing to the discussion on the agricultural use of wastewater.

  3. 45 CFR 1182.13 - Policies and procedures for Institute disclosure of its records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... regulations published at 45 CFR part 1100; (3) For a routine use as published in the annual notice in the... (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INSTITUTE OF MUSEUM AND LIBRARY...

  4. Proof of quasi-adaptivity for the m-measurement feedback class of stochastic control policies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.

    1987-01-01

    Bounds on expected performance are established which show that the m-measurement feedback (mM) policy for nonlinear stochastic control performs as well or better than the open-loop optimal control policy, and thus is quasi-adaptive in the sense of Witenhausen (1966). The chain of performance inequalities indicate a tendency for the mM policy performance to improve with increasing m. It is suggested that the present analytical method, based on the construction of artificial control sequences denoted as utility controls, can be used to establish performance bounds on other well-known policies, avoiding the extensive Monte Carlo simulations necessary in comparing stochastic control policies.

  5. The impact of tobacco control policies in Albania

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Hana; Levy, David T

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of a tobacco control law adopted in Albania in 2007 and to estimate the share of illicit cigarettes on the market. Design Comparative analysis of two waves of a nationally representative household survey, one conducted before the new law went into effect and the other after 2 years. Official sales data were contrasted with the consumption estimate based on the survey. Main outcome measures Smoking prevalence, quit attempts, exposure to cigarette advertising, exposure to second-hand smoke, total cigarette consumption, share of illicit packs among packs possessed by smokers. Results Despite the adoption of strong smoke-free policies and adverting restrictions, smoking prevalence in Albania has risen. The increase in prevalence has been driven by higher smoking rates among females (18.9% in 2007 vs 29.3% in 2009) and young adults (23.2% in 2007 vs 38.5% in 2009 among 18–19 year olds). Self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke and cigarette advertising have been reduced since 2007. The majority of respondents are still exposed to second-hand smoke and more than half are exposed to tobacco advertising. Nevertheless, there are signs that the consumption of illicit cigarettes is declining. Conclusions The impacts of smoke-free policies and an advertising ban have been limited due to lack of enforcement and failure to adopt a comprehensive set of tobacco control measures. These measures should include sizeable and regular tobacco tax increases in excess of the general level of inflation and income growth. The decline in the share of illicit cigarettes should improve the effectiveness of the cigarette tax policy. PMID:20679417

  6. Health and climate policy impacts on sulfur emission control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Yi; Russell, Lynn M.; Bradford, David F.

    2005-12-01

    Sulfate aerosol from burning fossil fuels not only has strong cooling effects on the Earth's climate but also imposes substantial costs on human health. To assess the impact of addressing air pollution on climate policy, we incorporate both the climate and health effects of sulfate aerosol into an integrated-assessment model of fossil fuel emission control. Our simulations show that a policy that adjusts fossil fuel and sulfur emissions to address both warming and health simultaneously will support more stringent fossil fuel and sulfur controls. The combination of both climate and health objectives leads to an acceleration of global warming in the 21st century as a result of the short-term climate response to the decreased cooling from the immediate removal of short-lived sulfate aerosol. In the long term (more than 100 years), reducing sulfate aerosol emissions requires that we decrease fossil fuel combustion in general, thereby removing some of the coemitted carbon emissions and leading to a reduction in global warming.

  7. The History of the Reserve Officer Training Corps among the Association of American Universities from 1982 to 1992: Review of Institutional Responses to ROTC Policy regarding Homosexuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duemer, Lee S.

    1997-01-01

    Qualitative methods are used to analyze data about how Association of American Universities institutions responded to the Reserve Officer Training Corps policies excluding homosexuals between 1982 and 1992. Seven different positions universities took, from support for the policy through neutrality and challenge, are identified. (SLD)

  8. How to Make Big Improvements in the Small PR Shop. Samples of Policy Statements, Guidelines, and Forms Collected from Educational Institutions with Small Public Relations Staffs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, R. Keith, Comp.

    Sample policy statements, guidelines, and forms collected from 16 educational institutions with small public relations staffs are presented as a guide to campus relations personnel. The importance of written policies for small public relations staffs is emphasized, and it is proposed that there be a written job description for the public relations…

  9. Planning for Diversity: Education in Multi-Ethnic and Multicultural Societies. International Institute for Educational Planning Policy Forum (17th, Paris, France, June 19-20, 2003)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernes, Gudmund

    2004-01-01

    In June 2003, the International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) organized its annual Policy Forum to discuss the impact of increasingly multi-ethnic and multicultural societies on education in general and the implications for educational planning in particular. The proceedings of this Policy Forum are presented in this volume. Part I,…

  10. Calling the shots: immunization finance policies and practices. Executive summary of the report of the Institute of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Guyer, B; Smith, D R; Chalk, R

    2000-10-01

    Federal, state, and private-sector investments in vaccine purchases and immunization programs are lagging behind emerging opportunities to reduce the risks of vaccine-preventable disease. Although federal assistance to the states for immunization programs and data collection efforts rapidly expanded in the early part of the 1990s, significant cutbacks have occurred in the last 5 years that have reduced the size of state grant awards by more than 50% from their highest point. During this same period, the vaccine delivery system for children and adults has become more complex and fragmented. This combination of new challenges and reduced resources has led to instability in the public health infrastructure that supports the U. S. immunization system. Many states have reduced the scale of their immunization programs and currently lack adequate strength in areas such as data collection among at-risk populations, strategic planning, program coordination, and assessment of immunization status in communities that are served by multiple health care providers. If unmet immunization needs are not identified and addressed, states will have difficulty in achieving the national goal of 90% coverage by the year 2010 for completion of the childhood immunization series for young children. Furthermore, state and national coverage rates, which reached record levels for vaccines in widespread use (79%, 1998), can be expected to decline and preventable disease outbreaks may occur as a result, particularly among persons who are vulnerable to vaccine-preventable disease because of their underimmunization status. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee on Immunization Finance Policies and Practices has therefore concluded that a renewal and strengthening of the federal and state immunization partnership is necessary. The goal of this renewed partnership is to prevent infectious disease; to monitor, sustain, and improve vaccine coverage rates for child and adult populations within more

  11. Reliable multicast protocol specifications flow control and NACK policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Montgomery, Todd L.; Whetten, Brian

    1995-01-01

    This appendix presents the flow and congestion control schemes recommended for RMP and a NACK policy based on the whiteboard tool. Because RMP uses a primarily NACK based error detection scheme, there is no direct feedback path through which receivers can signal losses through low buffer space or congestion. Reliable multicast protocols also suffer from the fact that throughput for a multicast group must be divided among the members of the group. This division is usually very dynamic in nature and therefore does not lend itself well to a priori determination. These facts have led the flow and congestion control schemes of RMP to be made completely orthogonal to the protocol specification. This allows several differing schemes to be used in different environments to produce the best results. As a default, a modified sliding window scheme based on previous algorithms are suggested and described below.

  12. Funding and Distribution of Institutional Grants in 1999-2000: Results from the 2001 Survey of Undergraduate Financial Aid Policies, Practices, and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    2002-01-01

    Examined data from the 2001 Survey of Undergraduate Financial Aid Policies, Practices, and Procedures. Findings included that all institutional types, even low-cost community colleges, have awarded a large share of their institutional grants based on students' academic merit or other criteria besides their demonstrated financial need, but that…

  13. Positioning Institutional Research as a Major Player in Policy Decisions: Problems To Solve, Actions To Take. AIR 1998 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohmann, David

    This paper reports on a project to create and integrate an institutional research function into the executive-level policy decision making process at a private university. The paper identifies ten problems that needed to be overcome; they include: timeliness, consideration of qualitative factors, the limited scope of institutional research…

  14. White Control and Minority Oppression. Fact Sheets on Institutional Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Change, Inc., New York, NY.

    Salient facts about white control and minority oppression are provided for major areas such as the economy, health, housing, education, the media, government, and the census. Economic data on white control cover topics such as wealth, the stock exchange, businesses, banks, union control and membership, and others. Data per training to minority…

  15. Transition to an IP Environment. A Report of the Annual Aspen Institute Conference on Telecommunications Policy (15th, Aspen, Colorado, August 12-16, 2000) with Thoughts on the Implications of Technological Change for Telecommunications Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entman, Robert M.; Katz, Michael L.

    The Aspen Institute's Communications and Society Program convened leaders and experts in the telecommunications and related fields to address telecommunications regulation in an IP (Internet Protocols) environment at the 15th annual Aspen Institute Telecommunications Policy Conference (Aspen, Colorado, August 12-16, 2000). The report from this…

  16. Building capacity for tobacco control research and policy

    PubMed Central

    Stillman, F; Yang, G; Figueiredo, V; Hernandez‐Avila, M; Samet, J

    2006-01-01

    The Fogarty International Center (FIC) initiative, “International Tobacco and Health Research Capacity Building Program” represents an important step in US government funding for global tobacco control. Low‐ and middle‐income countries of the world face a rising threat to public health from the rapidly escalating epidemic of tobacco use. Many are now parties to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and capacity development to meet FCTC provisions. One initial grant provided through the FIC was to the Institute for Global Tobacco Control (IGTC) at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHSPH) to support capacity building and research programmes in China, Brazil, and Mexico. The initiative's capacity building effort focused on: (1) building the evidence base for tobacco control, (2) expanding the infrastructure of each country to deliver tobacco control, and (3) developing the next generation of leaders as well as encouraging networking throughout the country and with neighbouring countries. This paper describes the approach taken and the research foci, as well some of the main outcomes and some identified challenges posed by the effort. Individual research papers are in progress to provide more in‐depth reporting of study results. PMID:16723670

  17. Implementing General Education in Hong Kong: Government Policies, Institutional Responses, Opportunities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Gano-Phillips, Susan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the authors explore the implementation of the government mandate in Hong Kong to move from three-year to four-year undergraduate degree programs which include studies in general education (GE), through an analysis of policies and activities related to the curriculum reform. While the authors are interested in the substance of these…

  18. Overcoming obstacles to implementation: addressing political, institutional and behavioral problems in earthquake hazard mitigation policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alesch, Daniel J.; Petak, William J.

    2002-06-01

    This project is aimed at bridging the three planes, from basic research, through enabling processes, to engineered systems. At the basic research plane, we have been working to improve our collective understanding about obstacles to implementing mitigation practices, owner decision processes (in connection with other MCEER projects), and public policy processes. At the level of enabling processes, we have been seeking to develop an understanding of how obstacles to greater mitigation can be overcome by improved policy design and processes. At the engineered systems plane, our work is intended to result in practical guidelines for devising policies and programs with appropriate motivation and incentives for implementing policies and programs once adopted. This phase of the research has been aimed, first, at a thorough, multidisciplinary review of the literature concerning obstacles to implementation. Second, the research has focused on advancing the state of the art by developing means for integrating the insights offered by diverse perspectives on the implementation process from the several social, behavioral, and decision sciences. The research establishes a basis for testing our understanding of these processes in the case of hospital retrofit decisions.

  19. Justice across Generations: What Does It Mean? A Publication of the Public Policy Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Lee M., Ed.

    In the introduction to this book, Lee Cohen notes that difficulties in allocating resources are as old as recorded history, and that just solutions must evolve and adapt with the changing society. The concluding statement that only with a full understanding of the divergent approaches to justice can intergenerational policies be forged leads to…

  20. Dropouts and Institutional Educational Policies at Cumberland College, 1975-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Roger D.; Baker, George

    A study was conducted at Cumberland College, Kentucky, to determine whether educational policies of the school were related to student retention. A questionnaire was sent to the 126 students who had dropped out of the college during the 1975-76 academic year; 100 students responded either by mail or telephone, but it was determined that 29 of the…

  1. The Effect of Collective Bargaining on Policy Development at Institutions of Higher Education: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring-Ellis, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    For over three decades, collective bargaining in higher education has given faculty a voice in which to be heard in decision making involving tenure, faculty appointments, salaries, and education policies. However, as recent as 2011, the voice once afforded to faculty through its collective bargaining rights has been threatened with attempts to…

  2. ICT Policies and Strategies in Higher Education in South Africa: National and Institutional Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Michael; Adam, Fatima

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on policy initiatives and strategies used to promote the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in higher education in South Africa. It explores a wider international outlook and current debates in South Africa to map out an emerging South African perspective concerning the integration of ICT in higher…

  3. Towards "Thick Description" of Educational Transfer: Understanding a Japanese Institution's "Import" of European Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappleye, Jeremy; Imoto, Yuki; Horiguchi, Sachiko

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation and convergence in educational policy worldwide has reinvigorated, while rendering more complex, the classic theme of educational transfer. Framed by this wider pursuit of new understandings of a changing transfer/context puzzle, this paper explores how an ethnographic "thick description" might complement and extend recent research.…

  4. Multi-Level Steering and Institution Building: The European Union's Approach to Research Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Adopting the conception of the university as a primary driver of innovation and economic growth has brought increased pressure for the European Union (EU) to actively steer university-based research policy, despite its being outside of the EU's direct jurisdiction. While the open method of coordination (OMC) was developed for such situations, the…

  5. The National Energy Policy Institute (NEPI) at The University of Tulsa (FINAL REPORT)

    SciTech Connect

    Blais, Roger

    2013-10-31

    NEPI, a non-profit organization located at The University of Tulsa (TU), was established to develop and disseminate national energy policy recommendations. Research under this grant covered a wide variety of projects, including research into the future of nuclear power, oil market pricing, and the feasibility of biofuels.

  6. Comments on "The Findings and Policy Implications of the GAO Report and the Urban Institute Hiring Audit" by Michael Fix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Vernon M., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Responds to the article by Fix and Bean in this issue on the General Accounting Office (GAO) report on discrimination related to provisions of the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA). Questions interpretation of the GAO report and an Urban Institute-sponsored study. Endorses IRCA and recommends stronger employer sanctions. (AF)

  7. Rankings and the Battle for World-Class Excellence: Institutional Strategies and Policy Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelkorn, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Global rankings are creating a furore wherever or whenever they are published or mentioned. They have become a barometer of global competition measuring the knowledge-producing and talent-catching capacity of higher education institutions. These developments are injecting a new competitive dynamic into higher education, nationally and globally,…

  8. Financing Institutions of Higher Education in India: The Need for a Realistic Fee Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azad, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    The contribution of tuition fees to higher education institutions in India is reviewed against a background of inadequate financial support. A differential system of tuition fees is proposed under which students not deemed suitable for higher education would be admitted subject to payment of tuition fees which reflected the full costs of their…

  9. School Consolidation and Transportation Policy: An Empirical and Institutional Analysis. A Working Paper. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killeen, Kieran; Sipple, John

    This study examines the relationship between school consolidation and district transportation costs, effects on instructional expenditures, and institutional factors supporting consolidation. Data on actual student transportation costs across the United States indicate that despite widespread school and school district consolidation,…

  10. Quality Matters[TM] Accessibility Survey: Institutional Practices and Policies for Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Barbara A.; King, Denise K.

    2011-01-01

    Quality Matters (QM) is a professional organization that offers a faculty-centered, peer review process to certify the quality of online and blended courses. The purpose of this white paper is to share the results of a Quality Matters accessibility benchmarking study administered to 84 subscriber institutions. The primary goal of the survey was to…

  11. User Agency Policies and Mechanisms for Utilizing the Resources of Institutions of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Robert

    Higher education institutions have the potential for creating and advancing programs for the betterment of society, but the programs should not be chosen haphazardly and without great thought. Universities, more specifically, can be involved in the areas of production of knowledge and research in domestic affairs, urban and environmental problems,…

  12. Reconciling Federal, State, and Institutional Policies Determining Educational Access for Undocumented Students: Implications for Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhardt, John C.; Ortega, Noe; Vidal Rodriguez, Angela; Frye, Joanna R.; Nellum, Christopher J.; Reyes, Kimberly A.; Hussain, Omar; Badke, Lara Kovacheff; Hernandez, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Given the intense efforts to change federal legislation, it is surprising that relatively little research has examined how postsecondary institutions respond to organizational pressures and local contexts. These "boundary activities" determine actual practice (Birnbaum, 1991) and may be the only way to remedy the exclusion of undocumented…

  13. Formalization, implementation, and modeling of institutional controllers for distributed robotic systems.

    PubMed

    Pereira, José N; Silva, Porfírio; Lima, Pedro U; Martinoli, Alcherio

    2014-01-01

    The work described is part of a long term program of introducing institutional robotics, a novel framework for the coordination of robot teams that stems from institutional economics concepts. Under the framework, institutions are cumulative sets of persistent artificial modifications made to the environment or to the internal mechanisms of a subset of agents, thought to be functional for the collective order. In this article we introduce a formal model of institutional controllers based on Petri nets. We define executable Petri nets-an extension of Petri nets that takes into account robot actions and sensing-to design, program, and execute institutional controllers. We use a generalized stochastic Petri net view of the robot team controlled by the institutional controllers to model and analyze the stochastic performance of the resulting distributed robotic system. The ability of our formalism to replicate results obtained using other approaches is assessed through realistic simulations of up to 40 e-puck robots. In particular, we model a robot swarm and its institutional controller with the goal of maintaining wireless connectivity, and successfully compare our model predictions and simulation results with previously reported results, obtained by using finite state automaton models and controllers. PMID:23373975

  14. Measuring the Strength of State-Level Alcohol Control Policies

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Darin J.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Toomey, Traci L.; Nelson, Toben F.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Mosher, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We describe a multi-step method of coding the strength of 18 alcohol policies included in the Alcohol Policy Information System for each of the 50 states. Method After thoroughly reviewing each policy area, we chose components that were most important in categorizing the strength or restrictiveness of the policy using the following criteria: overall reach, enforceability, and implementation. We determined a unique coding scheme for each policy area. Results The total number of categories per policy area ranged from two to six, with categories numbered in an ordered sequence from least to most restrictive. We provide three examples of our coding schemes: Keg Registration, Underage Possession, and Sunday Sales. We also rank the states on their alcohol policy sum score. Discussion This study demonstrates how alcohol policies can be measured quantitatively, an important step for assessing the effects of alcohol policies on various outcomes. PMID:25574422

  15. The U. H. Institute for Astronomy CCD Camera Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jim, K. T. C.; Yamada, H. T.; Luppino, G. A.; Hlivak, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    The U. H. CCD Camera Control System consists of a NeXT workstation, a graphical user interface, and a fiber optics interface which is connected to a San Diego State University CCD controller. The U. H. system employs the NeXT-resident Motorola DSP 56001 as a real time hardware controller interfaced to the Mach-based UNIX of the NeXT workstation by DMA. Since the SDSU controller also uses the DSP 56001, the NeXT is used as a development platform for the embedded control software. The fiber optic interface links the two DSP 56001s through their Synchronous Serial Interfaces. The user interface is based on the NeXTStep windowing system. It is easy to use and features real-time display of image data and control over all camera functions. Both Loral and Tektronix 2048times 2048 CCDs have been driven at full readout speeds, and the system is designed to readout four such CCDs simultaneously. The total hardware package is compact and portable, and has been used on five different telescopes on Mauna Kea. The complete CCD control system can be assembled for a very low cost. The hardware and software of the control system have proven to be reliable, well adapted to the needs of astronomers, and extensible to increasingly complicated control requirements.

  16. 78 FR 46372 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Research Triangle Institute

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... Institute By Notice dated April 16, 2013, and published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2013, 78 FR... classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Cocaine (9041) II The Institute will manufacture marihuana, and cocaine derivatives for use by their customers in analytical kits, reagents,...

  17. 78 FR 23958 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Research Triangle Institute

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Cocaine (9041) II The Institute will manufacture marihuana, and cocaine derivatives for use by their customers in analytical...

  18. Supplementary Annuity Program Patterns among CUPA Member Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickler, Lester B.; Widicus, Wilbur W.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of institutions' policies regarding supplementary annuity programs revealed information about program administration, eligibility, investment instruments, companies, admission patterns and policies, marketing controls, employee counseling, and information dissemination. (MSE)

  19. Relationship of Antimicrobial Control Policies and Hospital and Infection Control Characteristics to Antimicrobial Resistance Rates

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Elaine L.; Quiros, Dave; Giblin, Tara; Lin, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Background Antibiotic misuse and noncompliance with infection control precautions have contributed to increasing levels of antimicrobial resistance in hospitals. Objectives To assess the extent to which resistance is monitored in infection control programs and to correlate resistance rates with characteristics of antimicrobial control policies, provider attitudes and practices, and systems-level indicators of implementation of the hand hygiene guideline of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Methods An on-site survey of intensive care unit staff and infection control directors of 33 hospitals in the United States was conducted. The following data were collected: antimicrobial control policies; rates during the previous 12 months of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and ceftazidime-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae; an implementation score of systems-level efforts to implement the guideline; staff attitudes toward practice guidelines; and observations of staff hand hygiene. Variables associated with resistance rates were examined for independent effects by using logistic regression. Results Resistance rates for S aureus, enterococci, and K pneumoniae were 52.5%, 18.2%, and 16.0%, respectively. Ten (30.3%) hospitals had an antibiotic control policy. No statistically significant correlation was observed between staff attitudes toward practice guidelines, observed hand hygiene behavior, or having an antibiotic use policy and resistance rates. In logistic regression analysis, higher scores on measures of systems-level efforts to implement the guideline were associated with lower rates of resistant S aureus and enterococci (P=.046). Conclusions Organizational-level factors independent of the practices of individual clinicians may be associated with rates of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:17322010

  20. 42 CFR 84.42 - Proposed quality control plans; approval by the Institute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Proposed quality control plans; approval by the... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Quality Control § 84.42 Proposed quality control plans; approval by the Institute. (a) Each...

  1. 42 CFR 84.42 - Proposed quality control plans; approval by the Institute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Proposed quality control plans; approval by the... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Quality Control § 84.42 Proposed quality control plans; approval by the Institute. (a) Each...

  2. 42 CFR 84.42 - Proposed quality control plans; approval by the Institute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Proposed quality control plans; approval by the... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Quality Control § 84.42 Proposed quality control plans; approval by the Institute. (a) Each...

  3. 42 CFR 84.42 - Proposed quality control plans; approval by the Institute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Proposed quality control plans; approval by the... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Quality Control § 84.42 Proposed quality control plans; approval by the Institute. (a) Each...

  4. 42 CFR 84.42 - Proposed quality control plans; approval by the Institute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Proposed quality control plans; approval by the... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Quality Control § 84.42 Proposed quality control plans; approval by the Institute. (a) Each...

  5. 15 CFR 8a.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... entities controlled by religious organizations. 8a.205 Section 8a.205 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of... controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX regulations do not apply to any operation of an educational institution or other entity that is controlled by a religious organization...

  6. Involving citizens in the ethics of biobank research: informing institutional policy through structured public deliberation.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, Kieran C; Hawkins, Alice K; Burgess, Michael M

    2012-11-01

    This paper reports on the design, implementation, and results of a structured public deliberation on human tissue biobanking conducted in Vancouver, Canada, in 2009. This study builds on previous work on the use of deliberative democratic principles and methods to engage publics on the social and ethical implications of human tissue biobanking. In a significant refinement of methods, we focus on providing public input to institutional practice and governance of biobanks using a tailored workbook structure to guide participants' discussion. Our focus is on the local context and practices of a particular institution, the BC BioLibrary. However, elements of both the methodological innovations and the ethical guidance implied by our findings are generalisable for biobanking internationally. Recommendations from the deliberative forum include issues of informed consent, privacy protections, collection of biospecimens, governance of biobanks, and how to manage the process of introduction between biobanks and potential donors. Notable findings include public support for research use of anonymised un-consented tissue samples when these come from archived collections, but lack of support when they are collected prospectively.

  7. 21 CFR 1401.2 - The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions. 1401.2 Section 1401.2 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.2 The Office of National Drug Control Policy—organization and functions....

  8. 21 CFR 1401.2 - The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions. 1401.2 Section 1401.2 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.2 The Office of National Drug Control Policy—organization and functions....

  9. 21 CFR 1401.2 - The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The Office of National Drug Control Policy-organization and functions. 1401.2 Section 1401.2 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.2 The Office of National Drug Control Policy—organization and functions....

  10. Investigation of Perception in Electric Field based on Scholastic Tests of National Institute for Educational Policy Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, Kei; Sugimura, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Toshiya; Kurebayashi, Shuji

    To investigate the perception of science and technology of university students, the scholastic test concerning electric field was conducted in this paper. The scholastic test, which was conducted to university students, is based on the scholastic test provided by the National Institute for Educational Policy Research of Japan's Curriculum Research Center. The result of the scholastic test showed that 1. For the questions related to “A4(i): Maintenance check and prevention of accidents of equipment” in the junior high school government guidelines for teaching, the percentage of correct answer was the lowest and 2. Not only liberal arts course students but also science course students do not have sufficient perception concerning the capability of “Device and Creativity”, because the percentage of correct answer to the questions concerning “Device and Creativity” was about 70%. The results of this study will give us the directivity of electricity education.

  11. The Clearlake Hot Dry Rock geothermal project: Institutional policies, administrative issues, and technical tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Clearlake Project is a three-party collaboration between the California Energy Commission, City of Clearlake, and Los Alamos National Laboratory. It aims to develop a deep hot, dry geothermal resource under the city. The project is funded by the Commission, and administered by the City. Technical operations are conducted by Laboratory staff and resources seconded from the Hot Dry Rock program. In addition to the normal geothermal exploration problems of predicting geological and geophysical properties of the subsurface, there are uncertainties as to what further material and environmental parameters are relevant, and how they might be measured. In addition to technical factors, policy objectives are an influence in choosing the most appropriate development scenario. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Report of the Energy Field Institute V on western energy opportunities, problems, and policy issues

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, J.C.; Foss, M.M.

    1982-12-01

    The fifth Energy and Minerals Field Institute program for Washington, D.C. Congressional and Executive Aides was held during August 15-21, 1982. The five-and-one-half day program was conducted through Wyoming, Colorado and Utah and consisted of visits to: an R and D tertiary petroleum production facility; an historic oil field entering secondary production; a surface uranium mine; a petroleum exploration drilling rig; a surface coal mine; an air cooled, coal-fired power plant; an oil shale site; a geothermal-electrical generating facility; and open pit copper mine and associated smelter and refinery; a petroleum refinery and an oil shale semi-works retort. During the field program, participants had opportunities to view communities affected by these activities, such as Wright City and Gillette, Wyoming, Parachute, Colorado and Milford and Cedar City, Utah. Throughout the program, aides met with local, state and industry officials and citizen leaders during bus rides, meals and site visits.

  13. Abortion and public policy. A report of the work of the Abortion Task Force of the Western Behavioral Sciences Institute.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    In an effort to avoid continued clashes of ideologies the Abortion Task Force of the Western Behavioral Sciences Institute decided to attempt to find what middle ground there is in the abortion debate. The Task Force communicated by computer. There were 7 ground rules for participants: seek mutual understanding of each other's views, agreement to seek understanding for each segment of the discussion before moving on to the next, agreement to explain, but not proselytize, agreement to announce and explain annoyance at each others' remarks instead of counter-attacking or building up tension, agreement to sign on at least twice a week, agreement to enter comments at least once a week, agreement to maintain complete confidentiality of the conversations. The statement issued by the task force attempts to concentrate public policy on reducing or eliminating those conditions that make abortion necessary or desirable. The statement has 7 policy recommendations: provide financial support for women and families whose income is inadequate to provide a decent quality of life for the woman, child and family; require parental leaves for employment, day care and other social measures to improve the usefulness of a parent; assure competent sexual education at an early enough time to be effective; provide free contraceptives and other family planning services to low income people; support reproductive research that effects the health of mothers and babies; make adoption more efficient including counseling; assure counseling at all levels of the issues from pre-teens through parents. PMID:12178919

  14. Residuals Charges for Pollution Control: A Policy Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, A. Myrick, III; Haveman, Robert H.

    1972-01-01

    Contrasts the effects of a policy of regulation of pollutant discharge by enforcement of a permit system with the likely consequences of a policy of charging for effluents, thus increasing the cost of discharge. The charge for residuals is favored, and it is suggested that trials of the system be conducted, perhaps with a federal tax on emission…

  15. 38 CFR 23.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and other entities controlled by religious organizations. 23.205 Section 23.205 Pensions, Bonuses, and... institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. (a) Exemption. These Title IX... a religious organization to the extent that application of these Title IX regulations would not...

  16. Automated Serials Control at the Indian Institutes of Technology: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Tapas Kumar; Panda, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the functional attributes of the automated serials control systems of the libraries in seven Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) and provide a comparative analysis. Design/methodology/approach: Features of the serials control modules of the library management systems (LMSs) in use in the…

  17. The Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences: formulating AIDS policy.

    PubMed

    Weiss, R; Thier, S O

    1988-01-01

    In 1985 the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences devoted its annual meeting to an exploration of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The questions raised at the meeting propelled the IOM/NAS to initiate an assessment of the dimensions of the AIDS epidemic and to propose an appropriate national response. The Committee on a National Strategy for AIDS issued its report, "Confronting AIDS: Directions for Public Health, Health Care, and Research," in October 1986. The report detailed strategies for curbing the spread of infection, and for accelerating biomedical and social science research into the causes and possible cures for AIDS. In March 1987, the IOM/NAS established the AIDS Activities Oversight Committee to monitor and assess the nation's progress against AIDS and to coordinate the Academy's growing program of AIDS-related activities. Studies, conferences, and workshops are planned in the areas of drug and vaccine development, modeling the course of the epidemic, research in the behavioral and social sciences, equitable financing of care, pediatric AIDS, early cognitive impairment in HIV infection, IV drug abuse, and other topics.

  18. Traditional vs. Contemporary Management Control Practices for Developing Public Health Policies

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo-Gil, David; Sánchez-Expósito, María Jesús; Gómez-Ruiz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Public health policies must address multiple goals and complex community health needs. Recently, management control practices have emerged to provide a broader type of information for evaluating the effectiveness of healthcare policies, and relate activities and processes to multiple strategic outcomes. This study compares the effect of traditional and contemporary management control practices on the achievement of public health policies. It is also analyzed how two different uses of such practices (enabling vs. coercive) facilitate the achievement of public health policies. Relationships are explored using data collected from managers from public health agencies and public hospitals in Spain. The findings show that contemporary management control practices are more suitable than traditional practices to achieve public health policies. Furthermore, results show that public health policies are better achieved when managers use management control practices in an enabling way rather than in a coercive way. PMID:27428985

  19. Traditional vs. Contemporary Management Control Practices for Developing Public Health Policies.

    PubMed

    Naranjo-Gil, David; Sánchez-Expósito, María Jesús; Gómez-Ruiz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Public health policies must address multiple goals and complex community health needs. Recently, management control practices have emerged to provide a broader type of information for evaluating the effectiveness of healthcare policies, and relate activities and processes to multiple strategic outcomes. This study compares the effect of traditional and contemporary management control practices on the achievement of public health policies. It is also analyzed how two different uses of such practices (enabling vs. coercive) facilitate the achievement of public health policies. Relationships are explored using data collected from managers from public health agencies and public hospitals in Spain. The findings show that contemporary management control practices are more suitable than traditional practices to achieve public health policies. Furthermore, results show that public health policies are better achieved when managers use management control practices in an enabling way rather than in a coercive way. PMID:27428985

  20. Traditional vs. Contemporary Management Control Practices for Developing Public Health Policies.

    PubMed

    Naranjo-Gil, David; Sánchez-Expósito, María Jesús; Gómez-Ruiz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Public health policies must address multiple goals and complex community health needs. Recently, management control practices have emerged to provide a broader type of information for evaluating the effectiveness of healthcare policies, and relate activities and processes to multiple strategic outcomes. This study compares the effect of traditional and contemporary management control practices on the achievement of public health policies. It is also analyzed how two different uses of such practices (enabling vs. coercive) facilitate the achievement of public health policies. Relationships are explored using data collected from managers from public health agencies and public hospitals in Spain. The findings show that contemporary management control practices are more suitable than traditional practices to achieve public health policies. Furthermore, results show that public health policies are better achieved when managers use management control practices in an enabling way rather than in a coercive way.

  1. The path to impact of operational research on tuberculosis control policies and practices in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Probandari, Ari; Widjanarko, Bagoes; Mahendradhata, Yodi; Sanjoto, Hary; Cerisha, Ancila; Nungky, Saverina; Riono, Pandu; Simon, Sumanto; Farid, Muhammad Noor; Giriputra, Sardikin; Putra, Artawan Eka; Burhan, Erlina; Wahyuni, Chatarina U.; Mustikawati, Dyah; Widianingrum, Christina; Tiemersma, Edine W.; Alisjahbana, Bachti

    2016-01-01

    Background Operational research is currently one of the pillars of the global strategy to control tuberculosis. Indonesia initiated capacity building for operational research on tuberculosis over the last decade. Although publication of the research in peer-reviewed journals is an important indicator for measuring the success of this endeavor, the influence of operational research on policy and practices is considered even more important. However, little is known about the process by which operational research influences tuberculosis control policy and practices. Objective We aimed to investigate the influence of operational research on tuberculosis control policy and practice in Indonesia between 2004 and 2014. Design Using a qualitative study design, we conducted in-depth interviews of 50 researchers and 30 policy makers/program managers and performed document reviews. Transcripts of these interviews were evaluated while applying content analysis. Results Operational research contributed to tuberculosis control policy and practice improvements, including development of new policies, introduction of new practices, and reinforcement of current program policies and practices. However, most of these developments had limited sustainability. The path from the dissemination of research results and recommendations to policy and practice changes was long and complex. The skills, interests, and political power of researchers and policy makers, as well as health system response, could influence the process. Conclusions Operational research contributed to improving tuberculosis control policy and practices. A systematic approach to improve the sustainability of the impact of operational research should be explored. PMID:26928217

  2. A Review of Alcohol and Other Drug Control Policy Research

    PubMed Central

    Treno, Andrew J.; Marzell, Miesha; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Holder, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This article provides a historical review of alcohol and other drug policy research and its impact on public health over the past 75 years. We begin our summary with the state of the field circa 1940 and trace the development across the subsequent decades. We summarize current thinking and suggest possible future directions the field of alcohol and other drug policy may take. Specific topics discussed include the minimum legal drinking age, pricing and taxation, hours and days of sale, outlet density, and privatization effects. The future of drug policy research is also considered. Method: A comprehensive search of the literature identified empirical studies, reviews, and commentaries of alcohol and other drug policy research published from 1940 to 2013 that contributed to the current state of the field. Results: Our review demonstrates the historical emergence of alcohol problems as a public health issue over the early part of the 20th century, the public health policy response to this issue, subsequent research, and current and future research trends. Conclusions: Alcohol and other drug policy research over the last several decades has made great strides in its empirical and theoretical sophistication of evaluating alcohol policy effects. This history is not only remarkable for its analytic complexity, but also for its conceptual sophistication. PMID:24565316

  3. 12 CFR 1233.4 - Internal controls, policies, procedures, and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... The examination by FHFA of fraud reporting programs of each regulated entity includes an evaluation of... REPORTING OF FRAUDULENT FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS § 1233.4 Internal controls, policies, procedures, and training... controls, policies, procedures, and an operational training program to discover and report fraud...

  4. 12 CFR 1233.4 - Internal controls, policies, procedures, and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... The examination by FHFA of fraud reporting programs of each regulated entity includes an evaluation of... REPORTING OF FRAUDULENT FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS § 1233.4 Internal controls, policies, procedures, and training... controls, policies, procedures, and an operational training program to discover and report fraud...

  5. 12 CFR 1233.4 - Internal controls, policies, procedures, and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... The examination by FHFA of fraud reporting programs of each regulated entity includes an evaluation of... REPORTING OF FRAUDULENT FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS § 1233.4 Internal controls, policies, procedures, and training... controls, policies, procedures, and an operational training program to discover and report fraud...

  6. 12 CFR 1233.4 - Internal controls, policies, procedures, and training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... controls, policies, procedures, and an operational training program to discover and report fraud or possible fraud in connection with the purchase or sale of any loan or financial instrument. (b) Examination... REPORTING OF FRAUDULENT FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS § 1233.4 Internal controls, policies, procedures, and...

  7. Social Organization in Bars: Implications for Tobacco Control Policy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Juliet P.; Antin, Tamar M.J.; Moore, Roland S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers social roles and relationships of the patrons, staff and owners of bars as critical factors determining adherence to public health policies, and specifically California’s smokefree workplace law. Specific elements of social organization in bars affecting health policy include the community within which the bar is set, the unique identity the bar creates, the bar staff and patrons who enact this identity, and their bar society. These elements were found to contribute to the development of power relations within the bar and solidarity against the outside world, resulting in either resistance to or compliance with smokefree workplace policy. PMID:22522904

  8. First birth cesarean proportion: A missed indicator in controlling policies

    PubMed Central

    Safari-Faramani, Roya; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Nakhaei, Nouzar; Foroudnia, Shohreh; Mahmoodabadi, Zahra; Safizadeh, Mansooreh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Around one out of two mothers give births by cesarean section (CS) surgery in Iran and about half of this number is due to previous CS. Recently Health Sector Evolution (HSEP) program (started in April 2014) targets the high rate of CS in Iran. To assess the impact of the interventions, we emphasized that the First Birth Cesarean (FBC) proportion is one of the main indicators to assess the controlling programs. Methods: Data on the mode of delivery were collected in Kerman province between 21 March and 20 March 2015 classified by hospital ownership. FBC proportion is defined as the number of CS in the first pregnancies divided by the total number of first births. Chi-square test for trend was used to assess the trends. Results: Total number of births was around 34000. There were 8.9 and 13.1 percent reduction in CS and FBC proportion respectively. CS proportion was 54.5 at the end of the first quarter of the studied period and reached to 49.6 at the end of the period (p<0.0001). Also, FBC proportion was 54.1 percent at first and reached to 47 percent at the end of the study period. The main reason for CS was due to previous CS. At the hospital level, the highest reduction in CS and FBC proportion were in public hospitals. Conclusion: Results suggested more reduction in FBC proportion than the CS proportion, so this is a very good sign since more potential CS cases will be prevented. As repeated CS is one of the main indications for the operation, in the short term, even effective policies may change the overall proportion slightly, while the FBC proportion is more sensitive to reflect the impacts. Therefore, it is necessary to target the main fuel to reduce CS proportion effectively. PMID:27579285

  9. INL SITEWIDE INSTITUTIONAL CONTROLS, AND OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE PLAN FOR CERCLA RESPONSE ACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    JOLLEY, WENDELL L

    2008-02-05

    On November 9, 2002, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality approved the 'Record of Decision Experimental Breeder Reactor-I/Boiling Water Reactor Experiment Area and Miscellaneous Sites', which required a Site-wide institutional controls plan for the then Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (now known as the Idaho National Laboratory). This document, first issued in June 2004, fulfilled that requirement. This revision identifies and consolidates the institutional controls and operations and maintenance requirements into a single document.

  10. Bilingual Higher Education Summer Institute. Bilingual Higher Education: Foundations, Policy, and Practice. Report of Proceedings (Seton Hall University, August 24-29, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotayo, Rosa Maria, Ed.

    Papers are presented from the New Jersey Department of Higher Education Summer Institute. Focus is on sociolinguistic, anthropological, social psychological, pedagogical, and socio-political-economic considerations. Each analyzes particular factors that influence the form and quality of bilingual policy and instruction programs, and offers…

  11. At the Scene of the Crime: Law Enforcement Agencies and Lawmakers Rely on Studies from the Institute for Social Research To Inform Policy-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Rachel

    1998-01-01

    The University of New Mexico's Institute for Social Research operates eight centers that conduct policy-related research on criminal justice, criminology, delinquency, and social problems. Projects have focused on inequities in criminal sentencing in New Mexico, juveniles' access to and use of guns, New Mexico's need for a juvenile prison, and the…

  12. The Costs of Online Learning. Creating Sound Policy for Digital Learning: A Working Paper Series from the Thomas B. Fordham Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battaglino, Tamara Butler; Haldeman, Matt; Laurans, Eleanor

    2012-01-01

    The latest installment of the Fordham Institute's "Creating Sound Policy for Digital Learning" series investigates one of the more controversial aspects of digital learning: How much does it cost? In this paper, the Parthenon Group uses interviews with more than fifty vendors and online-schooling experts to estimate today's average per-pupil cost…

  13. Black Economic Advancement in the New Millennium: Globalization, Education, and Technology. Special Report: National Policy Institute (8th, Washington, DC, January 20-22, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focus, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This special issue presents, in capsule form, presentations from workshops at the Eighth National Policy Institute. The conference theme of black economic advancement in the new century focused on globalization, education, and technology. Ten workshops were the core of the conference, and their topics were: (1) overcoming the 2000 Census…

  14. Granting Credit for College Proficiency and Regents External Degree Examinations in New York State: A Summary of Institutional Policies, 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Independent Study and Programs Development.

    A guide is presented for students on the policies and practices of public and private New York colleges and universities in regard to granting credit, course waiver, or advanced standing to those who pass the College Proficiency Examinations (CPEs) and the Regents External Degree Examinations (REDEs). A chart indicates, for each institution and…

  15. Putting English Language Learners on the Educational Map: The No Child Left Behind Act Implemented. Education in Focus: Urban Institute Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Cohen, Clemencia Cosentino; Clewell, Beatriz Chu

    2007-01-01

    To expand knowledge about young immigrant populations and to document how the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) affects the education of English language learner (ELL) and limited English proficient (LEP) students, the Urban Institute was funded by the Foundation for Child Development to undertake a series of reports. This policy brief draws on this…

  16. L'evaluation des politiques institutionnelles d'evaluation des apprentissages. Rapport synthese (The Evaluation of Institutional Policies of Evaluation of Learning. Synthesis Report). 2410-0520.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindfelt, Bengt, Ed.

    In accordance with provincial educational regulations, Quebec's community colleges have adopted "politiques institutionnelles d'evaluation des apprentissages" (PIEA), or institutional policies of the evaluation of learning. This report provides a synthesis of evaluations of the PIEA conducted by the province's Commission on the Evaluation of…

  17. The economics of tobacco control: evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project.

    PubMed

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviours, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximise the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes.

  18. Controlling nonpoint pollution in Virginia's urbanizing areas: an institutional perspective. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, G.M.

    1986-01-20

    This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the institutional framework of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the implementation and enforcement of nonpoint source (NPS) pollution-control measures in the state's urbanizing areas. The institutional framework is developed primarily around the existing governmental framework. The federal, state and local roles are examined in terms of the relevant legislative and executive NPS control activities already taking place. The judicial function is considered in terms of constitutional guarantees of protection of private property and the potential for liability stemming from the implementation of structural and nonstructural best management practices (BMP's). Three generic categories of BMP's are evaluated in light of this institutional environment: on-site BMP's, off-site BMP's, and nonstructural BMP's. Where they are relevant, various sub-categories of the institutional environment are examined: mechanisms and responsibility for financing and maintenance, managing future urban growth and mediating interjurisdictional arrangements. The introduction and first four chapters develop this material and the final chapter is an analysis of the existing state programs ( the Erosion and Sediment Control Law and the State Water Control Board's voluntary Urban NPS Control and Abatement Program). The product of this analysis is the conclusion that both state programs are weak due to a lack of adequate state oversight.

  19. The politics of 'branding' in policy transfer: the case of DOTS for tuberculosis control.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Jessica; Walt, Gill; Lush, Louisiana

    2003-07-01

    How and why policies are transferred between countries has attracted considerable interest from scholars of public policy over the last decade. This paper, based on a larger study, sets out to explore the processes involved in policy transfer between international and national levels. These processes are illustrated by looking at a particular public health policy--DOTS for the control and treatment of tuberculosis. The paper demonstrates how, after a long period of neglect, resources were mobilised to put tuberculosis back on international and national public policy agendas, and then how the policy was 'branded' and marketed as DOTS, and transferred to low and middle income countries. It focuses specifically on international agenda setting and policy formulation, and the role played by international organisations in those processes. It shows that policy communities, and particular individuals within them, may take political rather than technical positions in these processes, which can result in considerable contestation. The paper ends by suggesting that while it is possible to raise the profile of a policy dramatically through branding and marketing, success also depends on external events providing windows of opportunity for action. Second, it warns that simplifying policy approaches to 'one-size-fits-all' carries inherent risks, and can be perceived to harm locally appropriate programmes. Third, top-down internationally driven policy changes may lead to apparent policy transfer, but not necessarily to successfully implemented programmes. PMID:12753826

  20. Comparison of tobacco control policies in the Eastern Mediterranean countries based on Tobacco Control Scale scores.

    PubMed

    Heydari, G; Talischi, F; Masjedi, M R; Alguomani, H; Joossens, L; Ghafari, M

    2012-08-01

    This cross-sectional survey aimed to provide an overview of tobacco control strategies in the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). A questionnaire to collate data on implementation of 6 major policies was developed based on the previously published Tobacco Control Scale and using MPOWER measures of the WHO Tobacco Free Initiative and the Tobacco Atlas. Only 3 of the 21 countries scored higher than 50 out of 100: Islamic Republic of Iran (61), Jordan (55) and Egypt (51) More than half of countries scored less than 26. Highest scores were achieved by Afghanistan in cigarette pricing, Oman in smoking bans in public places, Islamic Republic of Iran in budgeting, prohibition of advertisements and health warnings against smoking and Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia and Kuwait in tobacco cessation programmes. The low mean total score in EMR countries (29.7) compared with European countries (47.2) highlights the need for better future planning and policy-making for tobacco control in the Region.

  1. Interactions between greenhouse gas policies and acid rain control strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, D.E.; Kane, R.L.; Mansueti, L.

    1997-12-31

    Conventional wisdom and much of the public policy debate have usually drawn a clean delineation between acid rain issues and global warming concerns. This traditional approach of evaluating one policy at a time is too simplistic to serve as a framework for electric utilities making major capital investment and fuel procurement decisions to comply with various environmental requirements. Potential Climate change regulation can affect acid rain compliance decisions, and acid rain compliance decisions will affect future GHG emissions. This paper explores two categories of linkages between these different environmental issues. First, the assumptions one makes regarding future climate change policies can have a profound impact on the economic attractiveness of various acid rain compliance strategies. Second, decisions regarding acid rain compliance strategy can have greenhouse gas implications that might prove more or less difficult to address in future climate change legislation.

  2. 21 CFR 1311.130 - Requirements for establishing logical access control-Institutional practitioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for establishing logical access...) Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.130 Requirements for establishing logical access control—Institutional... practitioner that enters permissions for logical access controls into the application. The...

  3. 34 CFR 410.1 - What is the Tribally Controlled Postsecondary Vocational Institutions Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the Tribally Controlled Postsecondary Vocational Institutions Program? 410.1 Section 410.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION...

  4. 34 CFR 410.1 - What is the Tribally Controlled Postsecondary Vocational Institutions Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the Tribally Controlled Postsecondary Vocational Institutions Program? 410.1 Section 410.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION...

  5. 34 CFR 410.1 - What is the Tribally Controlled Postsecondary Vocational Institutions Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the Tribally Controlled Postsecondary Vocational Institutions Program? 410.1 Section 410.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION...

  6. 24 CFR 3.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. 3.205 Section 3.205 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX...

  7. 24 CFR 3.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. 3.205 Section 3.205 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX...

  8. 24 CFR 3.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. 3.205 Section 3.205 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX...

  9. 24 CFR 3.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. 3.205 Section 3.205 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX...

  10. 24 CFR 3.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. 3.205 Section 3.205 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX...

  11. 34 CFR 106.12 - Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations. 106.12 Section 106.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION...

  12. 18 CFR 1317.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Educational... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 1317.205 Educational... regulations do not apply to any operation of an educational institution or other entity that is controlled...

  13. 45 CFR 86.12 - Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations. 86.12 Section 86.12 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL...

  14. 45 CFR 86.12 - Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations. 86.12 Section 86.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL...

  15. 45 CFR 86.12 - Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations. 86.12 Section 86.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL...

  16. 45 CFR 86.12 - Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations. 86.12 Section 86.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL...

  17. 45 CFR 86.12 - Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations. 86.12 Section 86.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL...

  18. 34 CFR 106.12 - Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations. 106.12 Section 106.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION...

  19. 7 CFR 15a.12 - Educational institutions controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... identifying the provisions of this part which conflict with a specific tenet of the religious organization. ... organizations. 15a.12 Section 15a.12 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... institutions controlled by religious organizations. (a) Application. This part does not apply to an...

  20. 14 CFR 1253.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. 1253.205 Section 1253.205 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR...

  1. 14 CFR 1253.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. 1253.205 Section 1253.205 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR...

  2. 14 CFR 1253.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. 1253.205 Section 1253.205 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR...

  3. 14 CFR 1253.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. 1253.205 Section 1253.205 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR...

  4. 14 CFR § 1253.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. § 1253.205 Section § 1253.205 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR...

  5. 44 CFR 19.205 - Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Educational institutions and other entities controlled by religious organizations. 19.205 Section 19.205 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION...

  6. New Cancer Prevention and Control Central Institutional Review Board Established | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Central Institutional Review Board (CIRB) Initiative announced the establishment of the Cancer Prevention and Control (CPC) CIRB January 14, extending the benefits of centralized review to investigators participating in clinical trials sponsored by the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP). |

  7. 78 FR 64018 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Research Triangle Institute

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Research Triangle Institute Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on July 25, 2013,...

  8. 34 CFR 410.1 - What is the Tribally Controlled Postsecondary Vocational Institutions Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the Tribally Controlled Postsecondary Vocational Institutions Program? 410.1 Section 410.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION...

  9. 34 CFR 410.1 - What is the Tribally Controlled Postsecondary Vocational Institutions Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Tribally Controlled Postsecondary Vocational Institutions Program? 410.1 Section 410.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION...

  10. Institutional Level Identity Control Strategies in the Distance Education Environment: A Survey of Administrative Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amigud, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Physical separation of students and instructors creates the gap of anonymity and limited control over the remote learning environment. The ability of academic institutions to authenticate students and validate authorship of academic work at various points during a course is necessary for preserving not only perceived credibility but also public…

  11. 77 FR 30516 - Tribally Controlled Postsecondary Career and Technical Institutions Program; Final Waivers and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Federal Register (77 FR 9218) (February 2012 notice) proposing to waive 34 CFR 75.250 and 75.261(c)(2) as... applications (72 FR 27297) (May 2007 notice). The project period for the two TCPCTIP grantees is scheduled to... Tribally Controlled Postsecondary Career and Technical Institutions Program; Final Waivers and Extension...

  12. Local Support for Alcohol Control Policies and Perceptions of Neighborhood Issues in Two College Communities

    PubMed Central

    Fairlie, Anne M.; DeJong, William; Wood, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although valuable, national opinion surveys on alcohol policy may be less informative for policy development at the local level. Using samples of adult residents in two college communities, the present study: 1) measured public support for local alcohol control policies to stem underage drinking and alcohol over-service in on-premise outlets; 2) assessed residents' opinions regarding neighborhood problems; and 3) identified factors associated with strong policy support. Methods We administered random-sample telephone surveys to residents ages 21 years and older in college communities located in Community 1 (N = 501; mean age = 57.4 years, SD = 14.7) and Community 2 (N = 505; mean age = 56.0 years, SD = 15.2). The response rates were typical of telephone surveys (Community 1: 33.5%; Community 2: 29.9%). We assessed support for 16 alcohol control policies and the occurrence of specific types of neighborhood incidents (e.g., witnessing intoxicated people). We used multiple regression analyses to determine factors associated with policy support. Results Residents in Community 1 reported significantly higher weekly alcohol use, a greater number of witnessed neighborhood incidents, and a higher level of perceived neighborhood problems than did residents in Community 2. Residents in Community 1 perceived local alcohol control policies and their enforcement to be significantly stricter. Overall, policy support was high and did not differ between the communities. In both communities, higher policy support was significantly associated with being female, being older, less weekly alcohol use, and lower perceived strictness of alcohol control policies and enforcement. Conclusions It is important for campus officials and community leaders to be aware of and publicize favorable public opinion when advocating for policy change, especially at the local level. Information on residents' perceptions of the neighborhood issues they face can also inform local policy and

  13. Addressing Teachers' Feelings of Lack of Control over Policy Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on how an American Education System course, traditionally taught with broad objectives, was contextualized for science teachers. Using pre-assessment data, specific policy issues were targeted with the objective of increasing teachers' feelings of influence over issues. The approach used was adapted from exposure therapy, a…

  14. Educational Policy in Scotland: Inclusion and the Control Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Cate

    2010-01-01

    This paper sets out to examine educational policy and practice in Scotland, showing how the "comprehensive and coherent programme to promote social inclusion"--inculcating "readiness to learn", ensuring that education equips the young for adult life, creating a demand for lifelong learning, above all through the presumption of mainstreaming--is…

  15. The Economics of Tobacco Control: Evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project

    PubMed Central

    Tauras, John A.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviors, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the ITC Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximize the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes. PMID:24500268

  16. Tobacco control policy advocacy attitudes and self-efficacy among ethnically diverse high school students.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Velez, Luis F; Chalela, Patricia; Grussendorf, Jeannie; McAlister, Alfred L

    2006-08-01

    This study applied self-efficacy theory to assess empowerment to advocate on behalf of tobacco control policies. The Youth Tobacco Survey with added policy advocacy self-efficacy, attitudes, and outcome expectations scales was given to 9,177 high school students in Texas. Asians showed the lowest prevalence of experimentation and current smoking, followed by African Americans. Anglo-Europeans had higher rates of current smoking. Latino male students had the highest experimentation and current smoking rates. Policy advocacy self-efficacy was higher among African Americans. Latinos scored lowest. Asians had the highest level of approval for tobacco control policies. African Americans had the highest scores in policy advocacy outcome expectations, followed by Asians and Latinos. Anglo-Europeans scored lowest. Students who had never tried smoking had the highest scores in all three scales, with a decreasing trend as the frequency of smoking increased. Associations with smoking status remained significant when controlling by gender and ethnicity.

  17. Tobacco Control Policy Advocacy Attitudes and Self-Efficacy among Ethnically Diverse High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Amelie G.; Velez, Luis F.; Chalela, Patricia; Grussendorf, Jeannie; McAlister, Alfred L.

    2006-01-01

    This study applied self-efficacy theory to assess empowerment to advocate on behalf of tobacco control policies. The Youth Tobacco Survey with added policy advocacy self-efficacy, attitudes, and outcome expectations scales was given to 9,177 high school students in Texas. Asians showed the lowest prevalence of experimentation and current smoking,…

  18. Alternative Policies for the Finance, Control, and Delivery of Basic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, William K., Ed.; Riddell, Abby, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    The introductory chapter of this theme issue considers alternative policies for the finance, control, and delivery of basic education in developing countries. Agency of delivery, source of funding, and prevalence of subsidies are emphasized. Seven subsequent chapters present reactions to proposed policies and strategies, with international…

  19. Policy and institutional dimensions of small-holder farmer innovations in the Thukela River Basin of South Africa and the Pangani River Basin of Tanzania: A comparative perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikozho, Claudious

    Over the last decade, prompted by shifts in international thinking about natural resources management, by donor conditionalities, and by fiscal crises, many developing countries have instituted sweeping reforms of their water management regimes. Most of the reforms generally focus on management of blue water while excluding green water. On the other hand, agricultural policy is generally focused on modernization of agriculture through extension services at the farm level. Small-holder system innovations (SSIs) and the interactions between water for food and ecosystem services are not properly addressed in terms of their policy and institutional dimensions. Using case studies from the Thukela and Pangani river basins, this paper demonstrates the importance of SSIs in improving food production. It traces the history of the SSIs and the institutional configurations arising therefrom. Preliminary evidence from the research being carried out in the two basins indicates that when rainfall is inadequate or unreliable and water shortages limit crop production, the uptake of resource conserving technologies can bring about sustainable agriculture for local communities. The challenge is to find ways in which these can spread beyond their small localities and reach other communities. The paper focuses on institutional arrangements, support systems and policy requirements at different scales that can enhance adoption of SSIs. The SSIs include rainwater harvesting and conservation farming.

  20. [Risks and control of complete market-oriented reforms of medical institutions].

    PubMed

    Ding, Jiannong; Tian, Yongquan

    2014-04-01

    Marketization has become the mainstream since the new public management emerges globally in second half of the 20th century. Some countries infuse private capital into medical institutions which used to be managed by the government originally, and cause the medical industry reforms to be market-oriented. Market-oriented reforms of medical institutions may have risks in the following aspects: the risk of uneven distribution of medical resources, the risk of market failure, the moral risk of government renting-seeking and corruption and the decay of social justice values. Measures of controlling these risks include defining the function orientation of the government, completing the institution-building of healthcare system, improving primary medical system and strengthening social consciousness of hospitals.

  1. [Risks and control of complete market-oriented reforms of medical institutions].

    PubMed

    Ding, Jiannong; Tian, Yongquan

    2014-04-01

    Marketization has become the mainstream since the new public management emerges globally in second half of the 20th century. Some countries infuse private capital into medical institutions which used to be managed by the government originally, and cause the medical industry reforms to be market-oriented. Market-oriented reforms of medical institutions may have risks in the following aspects: the risk of uneven distribution of medical resources, the risk of market failure, the moral risk of government renting-seeking and corruption and the decay of social justice values. Measures of controlling these risks include defining the function orientation of the government, completing the institution-building of healthcare system, improving primary medical system and strengthening social consciousness of hospitals. PMID:24820269

  2. Antibiotic Control Policies in South Korea, 2000-2013

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic stewardship is a key strategy for limiting antibiotic resistance. Over the last decade the South Korean government has implemented a series of healthcare policies directed to this end, consisting of legislative separation of drug prescribing and dispensing, antibiotic utilization reviews, healthcare quality assessment, and public reporting. As a result, the proportion of antibiotic prescriptions for acute upper respiratory tract infections in primary healthcare facilities decreased from 72.9% in 2002 to 42.7% in 2013. However, no significant decrease in antibiotic resistance occurred over the same period in clinically important bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae. These government-driven policies played a pivotal role in improving antibiotic use for outpatients and surgical patients in South Korea. However, to achieve long-lasting successful outcomes, coordinated efforts and communications among the stakeholders, including physicians and medical societies, are needed. PMID:27704729

  3. School-Based Obesity Policy, Social Capital, and Gender Differences in Weight Control Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Breanca

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the associations among school-based obesity policies, social capital, and adolescents’ self-reported weight control behaviors, focusing on how the collective roles of community and adopted policies affect gender groups differently. Methods. We estimated state-level ecologic models using 1-way random effects seemingly unrelated regressions derived from panel data for 43 states from 1991 to 2009, which we obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. We used multiplicative interaction terms to assess how social capital moderates the effects of school-based obesity policies. Results. School-based obesity policies in active communities were mixed in improving weight control behaviors. They increased both healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors among boys but did not increase healthy weight control behaviors among girls. Conclusions. Social capital is an important contextual factor that conditions policy effectiveness in large contexts. Heterogeneous behavioral responses are associated with both school-based obesity policies and social capital. Building social capital and developing policy programs to balance outcomes for both gender groups may be challenging in managing childhood obesity. PMID:23597368

  4. Static Enforcement of Static Separation-of-Duty Policies in Usage Control Authorization Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jianfeng; Li, Ruixuan; Hu, Jinwei; Xu, Dewu

    Separation-of-Duty (SoD) is a fundamental security principle for prevention of fraud and errors in computer security. It has been studied extensively in traditional access control models. However, the research of SoD policy in the recently proposed usage control (UCON) model has not been well studied. This paper formulates and studies the fundamental problem of static enforcement of static SoD (SSoD) policies in the context of UCONA, a sub-model of UCON only considering authorizations. Firstly, we define a set-based specification of SSoD policies, and the safety checking problem for SSoD in UCONA. Secondly, we study the problem of determining whether an SSoD policy is enforceable. Thirdly, we show that it is intractable (coNP-complete) to direct statically enforce SSoD policies in UCONA, while checking whether a UCONA state satisfies a set of static mutually exclusive attribute (SMEA) constraints is efficient, which provides a justification for using SMEA constraints to enforce SSoD policies. Finally, we introduce a indirect static enforcement for SSoD policies in UCONA. We show how to generate the least restrictive SMEA constraints for enforcing SSoD policies in UCONA, by using the attribute-level SSoD requirement as an intermediate step. The results are fundamental to understanding SSoD policies in UCON.

  5. Federal Control Out of Control: The Office for Civil Rights' Hidden Policies on Bilingual Education. CEO Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Jim

    This report examines the policies and practices of the Department of Education's Office of Civil Rights (OCR) for determining whether school systems are providing appropriate educational services to language minority students who are learning English as a Second Language (ESL). Data are drawn from OCR documents in the public domain, including…

  6. 21 CFR 1404.135 - May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is not currently...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May the Office of National Drug Control Policy....135 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1404.135 May the Office of National Drug Control Policy exclude a person who is...

  7. The administration`s non-proliferation and export control policy

    SciTech Connect

    1993-11-01

    On September 27, during his speech to the United Nations, President Bill Clinton outlined his administration`s arm control policies, urging tighter restraints on international export control policies and measures to enhance nuclear non-proliferation. That same day, the White House released a fact sheet summarizing the framework for U.S. efforts to prevent proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and missiles that deliver them.

  8. An evidence-based process for evaluating infection control policies.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Stacey S; Lara, Gregory L; Courts, Monique R; Wanzer, Linda J; Bibb, Sandra C Garmon

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe evidence-based criteria for evaluating the appropriateness of policies for decontamination of noncritical equipment. An integrated literature review, guided by the Stetler Research Utilization Model and Bibb-Wanzer Identifying, Organizing, and Synthesizing strategy, provided the framework. A confirmatory search and document review process guided identification of documents and data extraction. Data synthesis was conducted using manifest content analysis. Five major criteria for disinfecting noncritical items were identified: use of personal protective equipment, removal of contamination, cleaning items before disinfecting, low-level disinfectant use, and following manufacturers' recommendations for disinfectants.

  9. Influence of export control policy on the competitiveness of machine tool producing organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrstrom, Jeffrey D.

    The possible influence of export control policies on producers of export controlled machine tools is examined in this quantitative study. International market competitiveness theories hold that market controlling policies such as export control regulations may influence an organization's ability to compete (Burris, 2010). Differences in domestic application of export control policy on machine tool exports may impose throttling effects on the competitiveness of participating firms (Freedenberg, 2010). Commodity shipments from Japan, Germany, and the United States to the Russian market will be examined using descriptive statistics; gravity modeling of these specific markets provides a foundation for comparison to actual shipment data; and industry participant responses to a user developed survey will provide additional data for analysis using a Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. There is scarce academic research data on the topic of export control effects within the machine tool industry. Research results may be of interest to industry leadership in market participation decisions, advocacy arguments, and strategic planning. Industry advocates and export policy decision makers could find data of interest in supporting positions for or against modifications of export control policies.

  10. Policy Innovation and Policy Pathways: Tuberculosis Control in Sri Lanka, 1948-1990.

    PubMed

    Jones, Margaret

    2016-10-01

    This paper, based on World Health Organization and Sri Lankan sources, examines the attempts to control tuberculosis in Sri Lanka from independence in 1948. It focuses particularly on the attempt in 1966 to implement a World Health Organization model of community-orientated tuberculosis control that sought to establish a horizontally structured programme through the integration of control into the general health services. The objective was to create a cost- effective method of control that relied on a simple bacteriological test for case finding and for treatment at the nearest health facility that would take case detection and treatment to the rural periphery where specialist services were lacking. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, Sri Lanka had already established a specialist control programme composed of chest clinics, mass X-ray, inpatient and domiciliary treatment, and social assistance for sufferers. This programme had both reduced mortality and enhanced awareness of the disease. This paper exposes the obstacles presented in trying to impose the World Health Organization's internationally devised model onto the existing structure of tuberculosis control already operating in Sri Lanka. One significant hindrance to the WHO approach was lack of resources but, equally important, was the existing medical culture that militated against its acceptance. PMID:27628860

  11. Electrical Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center Report to the Steering Committee

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1998-02-18

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month involved the EPRI/ADA Technologies dry sorbent sampling unit and the testing of Hg catalysts/sorbents in this low-flow, temperature controlled system. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, the 0.4 MW Mini Pilot Wet Scrubber, and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. These units remain available for testing as future work is identified.

  12. The effect of hospital infection control policy on the prevalence of surgical site infection in a tertiary hospital in South-South Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Brisibe, Seiyefa Fun-Akpa; Ordinioha, Best; Gbeneolol, Precious K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a significant cause of morbidity, emotional stress and financial cost to the affected patients and health care institutions; and infection control policy has been shown to reduce the burden of SSIs in several health care institutions. This study assessed the effects of the implementation of the policy on the prevalence of SSI in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: A review of the records of all Caesarean sections carried out in the hospital, before and 2 years after the implementation of the infection control policy was conducted. Data collected include the number and characteristics of the patients that had Caesarean section in the hospital during the period and those that developed SSI while on admission. Results: The proportion of patients with SSI decreased from 13.33% to 10.34%, 2 years after the implementation of the policy (P-value = 0.18). The implementation of the policy did not also result in any statistically significant change in the nature of the wound infection (P-value = 0.230), in the schedule of the operations (P-value = 0.93) and in the other predisposing factors of the infections (P-value = 0.72); except for the significant decrease in the infection rate among the un-booked patients (P-value = 0.032). Conclusion: The implementation of the policy led to a small decrease in SSI, due to the non-implementation of some important aspects of the WHO policy. The introduction of surveillance activities, continuous practice reinforcing communications and environmental sanitation are recommended to further decrease the prevalence of SSI in the hospital. PMID:26229228

  13. Environmental and policy interventions to control tobacco use and prevent cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Brownson, R C; Koffman, D M; Novotny, T E; Hughes, R G; Eriksen, M P

    1995-11-01

    Despite its declining prevalence during the past few decades, tobacco use remains one of the most significant public health issues of the 1990s. Environmental and policy interventions are among the most cost-effective approaches to control tobacco use and prevent cardiovascular diseases. In this article, the authors review and offer to state and local health departments and other public health partners a summary of recommended policy and environmental interventions that have either reduced or show potential to reduce tobacco use. Priority recommendations include clean indoor air policies, restrictions on tobacco advertising and promotion, policies limiting youth access to tobacco, comprehensive school health programs, and excise taxes and other economic incentives. Many of these recommendations should be integrated with other health promotion interventions to also improve nutrition and physical activity. The authors also highlight several successful interventions and strategies used to establish policies at the state and local levels. PMID:8550372

  14. A review of existing models and methods to estimate employment effects of pollution control policies

    SciTech Connect

    Darwin, R.F.; Nesse, R.J.

    1988-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information about existing models and methods used to estimate coal mining employment impacts of pollution control policies. The EPA is currently assessing the consequences of various alternative policies to reduce air pollution. One important potential consequence of these policies is that coal mining employment may decline or shift from low-sulfur to high-sulfur coal producing regions. The EPA requires models that can estimate the magnitude and cost of these employment changes at the local level. This paper contains descriptions and evaluations of three models and methods currently used to estimate the size and cost of coal mining employment changes. The first model reviewed is the Coal and Electric Utilities Model (CEUM), a well established, general purpose model that has been used by the EPA and other groups to simulate air pollution control policies. The second model reviewed is the Advanced Utility Simulation Model (AUSM), which was developed for the EPA specifically to analyze the impacts of air pollution control policies. Finally, the methodology used by Arthur D. Little, Inc. to estimate the costs of alternative air pollution control policies for the Consolidated Coal Company is discussed. These descriptions and evaluations are based on information obtained from published reports and from draft documentation of the models provided by the EPA. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  15. The conceptual framework of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project

    PubMed Central

    Fong, G T; Cummings, K M; Borland, R; Hastings, G; Hyland, A; Giovino, G A; Hammond, D; Thompson, M E

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the conceptual model that underlies the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC Project), whose mission is to measure the psychosocial and behavioural impact of key policies of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) among adult smokers, and in some countries, among adult non‐smokers and among youth. The evaluation framework utilises multiple country controls, a longitudinal design, and a pre‐specified, theory‐driven conceptual model to test hypotheses about the anticipated effects of specific policies. The ITC Project consists of parallel prospective cohort surveys of representative samples of adult smokers currently in nine countries (inhabited by over 45% of the world's smokers), with other countries being added in the future. Collectively, the ITC Surveys constitute the first‐ever international cohort study of tobacco use. The conceptual model of the ITC Project draws on the psychosocial and health communication literature and assumes that tobacco control policies influence tobacco related behaviours through a causal chain of psychological events, with some variables more closely related to the policy itself (policy‐specific variables) and other variables that are more downstream from the policy, which have been identified by health behaviour and social psychological theories as being important causal precursors of behaviour (psychosocial mediators). We discuss the objectives of the ITC Project and its potential for building the evidence base for the FCTC. PMID:16754944

  16. The challenges of tobacco control in Romania. Policy review.

    PubMed

    Loubeau, Patricia R

    2013-06-01

    This article investigates elements of tobacco control issues in Romania. Using European Union requirements for tobacco control legislation as a backdrop, it examines the key issues of smuggling, taxation, and unemployment in a transitional economy. Romania has made some progress by adding text and pictorial warnings to cigarette packages and offering comprehensive help to quit smoking. Using empirical examples, it is argued that more progress in tobacco control is needed in the area of increased taxation, enforcement of non-smoking bans, and new legislation requiring advertising bans at point of sale, kiosks, and billboards. This article draws wider public attention to the problems that smuggling and taxation present for tobacco control, helps identify other countries confronting similar issues, and stimulates effective interventions. PMID:24053066

  17. Managing ISR sharing policies at the network edge using Controlled English

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Preece, Alun; Zerfos, Petros

    2013-05-01

    In domains such as emergency response and military operations the sharing of Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) assets among different coalition partners is regulated through policies. Traditionally, poli­ cies are created at the center of a coalitions network by high-level decision makers and expressed in low-level policy languages (e.g. Common Information Model SPL) by technical personnel, which makes them difficult to be understood by non-technical users at the edge of the network. Moreover, policies must often be modified by negotiation among coalition partners, typically in rapid response to the changing operational situation. Com­ monly, the users who must cope first with situational changes are those on the edge, so it would be very effective if they were able to create and negotiate policies themselves. We investigate the use of Controlled English (CE) as a means to define a policy representation that is both human-friendly and machine processable. We show how a CE model can capture a variety of policy types, including those based on a traditional asset ownership model, and those defining team-based asset sharing across a coalition. The use of CE is intended to benefit coalition networks by bridging the gap between technical and non-technical users in terms of policy creation and negoti­ ation, while at the same time being directly processable by a policy-checking system without transformation to any other technical representation.

  18. Epidemiology and Pathogenesis of C. difficile and MRSA in the Light of Current NHS Control Policies: A Policy review.

    PubMed

    Agha, Maliha

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare associated infections (HCAIs) cause significant morbidity and mortality, and are estimated to cost the United Kingdom National Health Service £1 billion annually. The current health care infection rates suggest that the level of performance to avoid HCAIs is not maintained consistently. Increasing screening, improving local accountability and performance management, careful use of antibiotics in the management of emergency patients, health economy wide approaches, and improved hand washing will be effective in lowering the rate of HCAIs. This paper reviews current NHS Control Policies in place for Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) and C. difficile.

  19. Electric Power Research Institute: Environmental control technology. Final technical monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Trace Element Removal (TER) test block. A second phase of the lime Forced Oxidation process with DBA addition (LDG) was also conducted simultaneously on the Pilot System this month. This month the ECTC was off-line from 6/9 through 6/19 to complete a Facility retrofit project. During this brief outage, modifications were made to the ECTC Flue Gas Handling System to enhance the facility capabilities, and to prepare for future High Velocity Wet FGD Testing. On the Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, the low temperature performance testing resumed this month as measurements were taken for NO{sub x} removal efficiency, residual ammonia slip, and SO{sub 3} generation across the new SCR catalysts.

  20. Electric Power Research Institute, Environmental Control Technology Center report to the Steering Committee. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued this month with the Trace Element Removal (TER) test block, and a simultaneous testing of the Lime Forced Oxidation process with DBA addition (LDG). At the end of the month, a series of Duct Injection tests began in a study to determine the efficiencies of alkaline injection for removing trace elements (mercury). On the Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, low temperature performance testing continued this month as measurements were taken for NO{sub x} removal efficiency, residual ammonia slip, and SO{sub 3} generation across the catalysts installed in the SCR reactor. This report describes the status of the facilities and test activities at the pilot and mini-pilot plants.

  1. Electric Power Research Institute, Environmental Control Technology Center monthly report to the Steering Committee, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-02

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot FGD unit continued this month with High Velocity Scrubbing and the Tampa Electric Company (TECO) Tailored Collaboration test block. Additionally, Phase III of the Toxics Removal/Carbon Injection test block was conducted concurrently with FGD testing. At the beginning of the month, a second phase of third-party testing began for Suncor, Inc. The Suncor Gypsum Sample Collection test block (MSUN) began on June 5 on the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Wet FGD unit. Testing was completed on June 13. On the Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, testing continued this month as ammonia slip measurements were conducted under low catalyst inlet temperatures and at baseline conditions.

  2. Policy Space and the Governance of Education: Transnational Influences on Institutions and Identities in the Netherlands and the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexiadou, Nafsika; van de Bunt-Kokhuis, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of two country-specific cases. The comparative analysis is situated within the broad domain of the changing knowledge economy landscape for educational policy. The two cases examine the transfer, embedding and enactment of policies during the interactions between supranational, national, institutional…

  3. A Case Study in Policy Change: Mayoral Control in New York City's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlynn, Adam

    2010-01-01

    During the 33 years New York City schools were controlled primarily by community school boards, the city's mayors posited that greater mayoral influence was the cure for the ills afflicting the city's schools. This paper applies theories of policy change to the 30-year battle for control of New York's schools while highlighting the role of the…

  4. Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2003 and 2006 Data to Tobacco Control Policy in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Gupta, Prakash C.; Reddy, K. Srinath; Prasad, Vinayak M.; Rahman, Khalilur; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Background: India made 2 important policy statements regarding tobacco control in the past decade. First, the India Tobacco Control Act (ITCA) was signed into law in 2003 with the goal to reduce tobacco consumption and protect citizens from exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Second, in 2005, India ratified the World Health Organization Framework…

  5. School Decentralization and Community Control: Policy in Search of a Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivak, Harriet

    The relationship between research and educational policy in the areas of school system decentralization and community control is analyzed in this dissertation. The literature on decentraliztion and community control is reviewed. It is contended that existing empirical research on these subjects has not systematically tested the assumptions…

  6. Impact of surveillance rounds on adherence to infection control policies and procedures at a children's hospital.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Archana; Heybrock, Brenda; Plummer, Sharon; Eischen, Kay

    2004-09-01

    Adherence to written infection control policies and procedures was studied and on-site education was provided for 1 year at a children's hospital. There was significant improvement in sharp objects disposal, hazardous waste handling, availability of personal protective equipment, isolation precautions, and staff knowledge regarding location of the exposure control plan.

  7. Cancer prevention through stealth: science, policy advocacy, and multilevel governance in the establishment of a "National Tobacco Control Regime" in the United States.

    PubMed

    Studlar, Donley T

    2014-06-01

    The role of the US federal government in developing tobacco control through a cooperative, interactive program with state and local private and public organizations has been underestimated. This article investigates how the government initiated and sustained a program of "capacity building" through the scientific authority of the National Cancer Institute, beginning in the 1980s. There are several major questions to be answered: (1) How did this program manage to be adopted and sustained despite the well-documented hindrances to effective tobacco control policy at the federal level? (2) How did a tobacco control policy program become incorporated into the scientific research agenda of the National Cancer Institute? (3) How have science, social factors, and government at various levels interacted in this capacity-building program? The study emphasizes how the US federal government, blocked by a tobacco-friendly Congress from enacting effective tobacco control legislation, utilized its scientific research role and, with the cooperation of other levels of government and large, private antitobacco organizations, established an ongoing policy effort. PMID:24879831

  8. Cancer prevention through stealth: science, policy advocacy, and multilevel governance in the establishment of a "National Tobacco Control Regime" in the United States.

    PubMed

    Studlar, Donley T

    2014-06-01

    The role of the US federal government in developing tobacco control through a cooperative, interactive program with state and local private and public organizations has been underestimated. This article investigates how the government initiated and sustained a program of "capacity building" through the scientific authority of the National Cancer Institute, beginning in the 1980s. There are several major questions to be answered: (1) How did this program manage to be adopted and sustained despite the well-documented hindrances to effective tobacco control policy at the federal level? (2) How did a tobacco control policy program become incorporated into the scientific research agenda of the National Cancer Institute? (3) How have science, social factors, and government at various levels interacted in this capacity-building program? The study emphasizes how the US federal government, blocked by a tobacco-friendly Congress from enacting effective tobacco control legislation, utilized its scientific research role and, with the cooperation of other levels of government and large, private antitobacco organizations, established an ongoing policy effort.

  9. Report to the Higher Education Policy Commission. West Virginia Higher Education Facilities Information System Statewide Institution Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The West Virginia Higher Education Facilities Information System was formed as a method for instituting statewide standardization of space use and classification; to serve as a vehicle for statewide data acquisition; and to provide statistical data that contributes to detailed institutional planning analysis. The result thus far is the production…

  10. A Theory of Motivation and Ontological Enhancement: The Role of Disability Policy in Student Empowerment and Institutional Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundie, David

    2009-01-01

    As debate continues around the nature and values of education, it is important to ask the question of what factors motivate a student to engage with the ends of an educational institution. In this paper, a broad, holistic view of learner motivation, derived from Aristotelian ethics, is used to provide a model to drive institutional change.…

  11. Graduation Rates at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: An Underperforming Performance Measure for Determining Institutional Funding Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Rene; Montgomery, Beronda L.

    2012-01-01

    Historically Black Colleges and Universities have been in existence in the United States since the mid-1800s. Currently there are 105, which include private and public institutions, with most being four-year programs. In this study, we compare graduation rates of Historically Black Colleges and Universities to predominately White institutions and…

  12. The Humphrey Institute: Designing Institutions of Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandl, John E.; Schuh, G. Edward

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs at the University of Minnesota. Addresses financing, policy making as institutional design, the institutional design perspective at the institute, scope and range of activities, decision-making about programs, and activities (including Sasakawa Global 2000 Program in Sub-Saharan Africa…

  13. A Short Guide to U.S. Arms Control Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Norman, Ed.; Sussman, Colleen, Ed.

    Steps the United States is taking to lessen the danger of war while building international confidence and security are described. The commitment of the United States to arms control is based on the conviction that the United States and the Soviet Union have a common interest in the avoidance of nuclear war and the survival of the human race. A…

  14. Changing policy and practice in the control of pediatric schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Mutapi, Francisca

    2015-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease that affects ∼200 million people. The extended health impact of the disease has been estimated to exceed that of malaria or tuberculosis and to be nearer to that of HIV/AIDS. Within endemic areas, children carry the heaviest burden of infection. Infection/disease is controlled by the treatment of infected subjects with the anthelminthic drug praziquantel. Global initiatives from Partners of Parasite Control, including the World Health Organization (WHO), advocate regular school-based deworming strategies to reduce the development of severe morbidity, promote school-child health and development, and improve the cognitive potential of children. Until recently, preschool-aged children were excluded from schistosome treatment, creating a health inequity in affected populations. In 2010, the WHO updated their recommendations for the treatment of schistosomiasis in preschool-aged children (ie, children aged ≤5 years). This change was the culmination of several decades of research on schistosome epidemiology, immunology, and pathology in this age group. The recent development of a pediatric formulation of praziquantel (soon to enter clinical trials) should advance control efforts in preschool-aged children, with the goal of including these children in preventative chemotherapy (as currently occurs for soil-transmitted helminths). This review discusses the research work supporting the WHO revision of recommendations for treating preschool-aged children, as well as current barriers and knowledge gaps in pediatric schistosomiasis control.

  15. [Tocopherol Acetate Reference Standard (Control 021) of National Institute of Health Sciences].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Miho; Morita, Yukiko; Koide, Tatsuo; Saito, Hiroyuki; Tanimoto, Tsuyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The raw material of tocopherol acetate was examined for the preparation of the "Tocopherol Acetate Reference Standard (Control 021)", The analytical data obtained were: UV spectrum, lambda max of 278.5 and 284.8 nm and specific absorbance in ethanol at 284 nm = 42.9; IR spectrum, same as that of the Tocopherol Acetate Reference Standard (Control 001); thin-layer chromatography, no impurities were detected until 50 micrograms; high-performance liquid chromatography, total amount of impurities estimated to be less than 0.6%. Based on the above results, the raw material was authorized as the Japanese Pharmacopoeia Tocopherol Acetate Reference Standard (Control 021) of the National Institute of Health Sciences.

  16. [Tocopherol Acetate Reference Standard (Control 971) of National Institute of Health Sciences].

    PubMed

    Kitajima, A; Iwata, M; Maekawa, K; Saito, H; Tanimoto, T; Okada, S

    1998-01-01

    The raw material of tocopherol acetate was examined for the preparation of the "Tocopherol Acetate Reference Standard (Control 971)". Analytical data obtained were as follows: infrared spectrum, the same as that of the Tocopherol Acetate Reference Standard (Control 941); specific absorbance, E1 cm 1% (284 nm) = 43.0; thin-layer chromatography, no impurities were detected until 50.0 micrograms of the loaded raw material; high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), one impurity was detected and the amount was estimated to be about 0.68%; assay by HPLC, 100.2%. Based on the above results, the raw material was authorized as the Tocopherol Acetate Reference Standard (Control 971) of National Institute of Health Sciences.

  17. New directions in orphan and vulnerable children policy and research: A focus on supporting "suitable" institutions when placement is "necessary" for a child.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Hy V

    2014-07-01

    As the number of children without parental care continues to increase in resource-poor countries, it is important not to discount institutional care as an option before conclusively assessing whether these structures have systematic negative impacts on the millions of children for which they provide care. An almost universal emphasis and focus on deinstitutionalizing children in the face of the urgent necessity for large-scale measures to care for the global orphaned population puts millions of children at risk of deprivation, degradation, and early death. Deinstitutionalizing children in underresourced countries without alternate systems in place could leave many children behind. This article proposes an equal assessment of suitability and necessity of all alternative care options, without relegating institutions as a last resort. Institutional care should be considered as no less suitable in certain cases and for certain children than other options, especially when there is a serious need for such an option in some parts of the world. In addition, recent research challenges early conclusions, shows variability in international institutions, and also documents positive effects of interventions seeking to improve institutions. The Convention of the Rights of the Child and its implicit "last resort" language, as well as subsequent global policies that also use this language, do not create a constructive way of approaching alternative care solutions for any children without parental care. Instead, policymakers and practitioners should establish individualized care plans for all children without parental care, regulate their admission to institutions with periodic reviews of the necessity and appropriateness of their placement, and develop standards for "suitability" of institutions to improve conditions.

  18. Policy issues papers: six papers on controlled trading

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, J.; Carson, B.; Lyders, J.; Weiss, M.; Foster, D.

    1981-08-01

    Contents: Emission allocation - a tool for air quality planning and implementation of reasonable further progress; An emission offset and banking regulation for the Puget Sound Region; The Puget Sound emissions banking experience; Emission reductions from shutdowns - Their role in banking and trading systems; The potential of generating emission reduction credits from solar and energy conservation under innovative reforms in air pollution control; Indirect offsets - A supplemental program to facilitate interfirm trades in emission reductions.

  19. The New Federalism and State Tax Policies toward the Working Poor. Assessing the New Federalism: An Urban Institute Program To Assess Changing Social Policies. Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, Elaine; Rogers, Diane Lim

    This paper discusses some of the ways in which state tax systems affect low-income families. The focus is on the working poor. Why state tax policy matters for these families is explained, describing some general trends in state tax structure among the 50 states. Attention is then paid to details on personal income and sales taxes in a subset of…

  20. 2003 Sitewide Institutional Controls Annual Assessment Report for Hanford CERCLA Response Action

    SciTech Connect

    TEIMOURI, A.E.

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this assessment as specified in the Institutional Controls (IC) Plan was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of ICs associated with ''Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980'' (CERCLA) Records of Decision (RODs); and (2) to identify corrective actions as necessary. Additionally, this assessment covered an assessment of sitewide ICs at the Hanford Site. The IC Plan was approved by the Tri-Party agencies July 2002, ''Sitewide Institutional Controls Plan for Hanford CERCLA Response Actions,'' DOE/RL-2001-41, Revision 0. The goal of the Plan was to identify ICs for current CERCLA response actions, describe how they are implemented and maintained, and serve as a reference for the selection of ICs in the future. Section 4.2 of the IC Plan summarizes the objectives for the assessment as follows: ''A focused and periodic self-assessment and reporting of ICs provides for an evaluation of the effectiveness of the controls and the opportunity for cost-effective improvements.

  1. Strengthening the policy setting process for global malaria control and elimination.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Bianca J; Newman, Robert D

    2012-01-27

    The scale-up of malaria control efforts in recent years, coupled with major investments in malaria research, has produced impressive public health impact in a number of countries and has led to the development of new tools and strategies aimed at further consolidating malaria control goals. As a result, there is a growing need for the malaria policy setting process to rapidly review increasing amounts of evidence. The World Health Organization Global Malaria Programme, in keeping with its mandate to set evidence-informed policies for malaria control, has convened the Malaria Policy Advisory Committee as a mechanism to increase the timeliness, transparency, independence and relevance of its recommendations to World Health Organization member states in relation to malaria control and elimination. The Malaria Policy Advisory Committee, composed of 15 world-renowned malaria experts, will meet in full twice a year, with the inaugural meeting scheduled for 31 January to 2 February 2012 in Geneva. Policy recommendations, and the evidence to support them, will be published within two months of every meeting as part of an open access Malaria Journal thematic series. This article is a prelude to that series and provides the global malaria community with the background and overview of the Committee and its terms of reference.

  2. Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center Report to the Steering Committee

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1998-01-12

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month involved the Dry Sorbent Injection (DSI) test block with the Carbon Injection System. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Wet Scrubber, and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. These units remain available for testing as future project work is identified.

  3. Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center Report to the Steering Committee

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1997-10-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the month involved the Dry Sorbent Injection (DSI) test block with the Carbon Injection System. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, the 0.4 MW Mini Pilot Wet Scrubber, and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. These units remain available for testing as future work is identified.

  4. Perioperative Glycemic Control in Plastic Surgery: Review and Discussion of an Institutional Protocol.

    PubMed

    Dortch, John D; Eck, Dustin L; Ladlie, Beth; TerKonda, Sarvam P

    2016-07-01

    Perioperative hyperglycemia is a well-known risk factor for surgical morbidity such as wound healing, infection, and prolonged hospitalization. This association has been reported for a number of surgical subspecialties, including plastic surgery. Specialty-specific guidelines have become increasingly available in the literature. Currently, glucose management guidelines for plastic surgery are lacking. Recognizing that multiple approaches exist for perioperative glucose, protocol-based models provide the necessary structure and guidance for approaching glycemic control. In this article, we review the influence of diabetes on outcomes in plastic surgery patients and propose a practical approach to perioperative blood glucose management based on current Endocrine Society and Mayo Clinic institutional guidelines. PMID:27301370

  5. Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center Report to the Steering Committee, July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-15

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute's Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing for the Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) test block was conducted using the Carbon Injection System (the 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber System and the Pulse Jet Fabric Filter). Testing also continued across the B and W/CHX Heat Exchanger project. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode. Inspections of these idled systems were conducted this month.

  6. The effectiveness of alcohol control policies on alcohol-related traffic fatalities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Chang, Koyin; Wu, Chin-Chih; Ying, Yung-Hsiang

    2012-03-01

    Multiple alcohol control policies have been enacted since the early 1980s to keep drunk drivers off the roads and to prevent more alcohol-related traffic fatalities. In this paper, we analyze nine traffic policies to determine the extent to which each policy contributes to effective alcohol-related fatality prevention. Compared with the existing literature, this paper addresses a more comprehensive set of traffic policies. In addition, we used a panel GLS model that holds regional effects and state-specific time effects constant to analyze their impact on alcohol-related fatalities with two distinct rates: alcohol-related traffic deaths per capita and alcohol-related traffic deaths per total traffic deaths. While per capita alcohol-related traffic deaths is used more often in other studies, alcohol-related traffic deaths per total traffic deaths better reflects the impact of policies on deterring drunk driving. In addition, regional analyses were conducted to determine the policies that are more effective in certain regions. The findings of this study suggest that zero tolerance laws and increased beer taxes are the most effective policies in reducing alcohol-related fatalities in all regions.

  7. Methaqualone misuse: foreign experience and United States drug control policy.

    PubMed

    Falco, M

    1976-01-01

    In 1972 methaqualone emerged as a major drug of nonmedical use in the United States--a subject of widespread publicity and public concern. In late 1973, government officials responded by taking the unprecedented measure of imposing the strictest controls available under United States law on a drug which had previously been subject only to a simple prescription requirement. Methaqualone had a similar history in other countries, particularly in Germany, Japan, and Great Britain. However, this history was ignored by United States officials until nonmedical methaqualone use had become a substantial problem in the United States.

  8. Off-policy integral reinforcement learning optimal tracking control for continuous-time chaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qing-Lai; Song, Rui-Zhuo; Sun, Qiu-Ye; Xiao, Wen-Dong

    2015-09-01

    This paper estimates an off-policy integral reinforcement learning (IRL) algorithm to obtain the optimal tracking control of unknown chaotic systems. Off-policy IRL can learn the solution of the HJB equation from the system data generated by an arbitrary control. Moreover, off-policy IRL can be regarded as a direct learning method, which avoids the identification of system dynamics. In this paper, the performance index function is first given based on the system tracking error and control error. For solving the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation, an off-policy IRL algorithm is proposed. It is proven that the iterative control makes the tracking error system asymptotically stable, and the iterative performance index function is convergent. Simulation study demonstrates the effectiveness of the developed tracking control method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61304079 and 61374105), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant Nos. 4132078 and 4143065), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2013M530527), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. FRF-TP-14-119A2), and the Open Research Project from State Key Laboratory of Management and Control for Complex Systems, China (Grant No. 20150104).

  9. Vocational Education and Training in the Republic of Ireland: Institutional Reform and Policy Developments since the 1960s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heraty, Noreen; Morley, Michael J.; McCarthy, Alma

    2000-01-01

    This overview of the Irish educational system examines vocational education and training, the role of the European Union, legislative measures, and institutional reforms. The following challenges are discussed: economic infrastructure, skill shortages, and the inclusiveness of the educational system. (SK)

  10. Telecommuting, Control, and Boundary Management: Correlates of Policy Use and Practice, Job Control, and Work-Family Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Lautsch, Brenda A.; Eaton, Susan C.

    2006-01-01

    We examine professionals' use of telecommuting, perceptions of psychological job control, and boundary management strategies. We contend that work-family research should distinguish between descriptions of flexibility use (formal telecommuting policy user, amount of telecommuting practiced) and how the individual psychologically experiences…

  11. Strengthening institutional and organizational capacity for social health protection of the informal sector in lesser-developed countries: a study of policy barriers and opportunities in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Annear, Peter Leslie; Ahmed, Shakil; Ros, Chhun Eang; Ir, Por

    2013-11-01

    Reaching out to the poor and the informal sector is a major challenge for achieving universal coverage in lesser-developed countries. In Cambodia, extensive coverage by health equity funds for the poor has created the opportunity to consolidate various non-government health financing schemes under the government's proposed social health protection structure. This paper identifies the main policy and operational challenges to strengthening existing arrangements for the poor and the informal sector, and considers policy options to address these barriers. Conducted in conjunction with the Cambodian Ministry of Health in 2011-12, the study reviewed policy documents and collected qualitative data through 18 semi-structured key informant interviews with government, non-government and donor officials. Data were analysed using the Organizational Assessment for Improving and Strengthening Health Financing conceptual framework. We found that a significant shortfall related to institutional, organisational and health financing issues resulted in fragmentation and constrained the implementation of social health protection schemes, including health equity funds, community-based health insurance, vouchers and others. Key documents proposed the establishment of a national structure for the unification of the informal-sector schemes but left unresolved issues related to structure, institutional capacity and the third-party status of the national agency. This study adds to the evidence base on appropriate and effective institutional and organizational arrangements for social health protection in the informal sector in developing countries. Among the key lessons are: the need to expand the fiscal space for health care; a commitment to equity; specific measures to protect the poor; building national capacity for administration of universal coverage; and working within the specific national context.

  12. Public support for tobacco control policy extensions in Western Australia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Michael; Wood, Lisa; Ferguson, Renee; Houghton, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Policy makers seeking to introduce new tobacco control measures need to anticipate community support to assist them in planning appropriate implementation strategies. This study assessed community support for plain packaging and smoking bans in outdoor locations in Australia. Design Analytical cross-sectional survey. Setting and participants 2005 Western Australian adults participated in a computer-assisted telephone interview. Random household telephone numbers were used to obtain a representative sample. Outcome measures Support for plain packaging of cigarettes and smoking bans at outdoor venues by demographic characteristics. Results Around half of the survey respondents supported plain packaging and almost a further quarter reported being neutral on the issue. Only one in three smokers disagreed with the introduction of a plain packaging policy. A majority of respondents supported smoking bans at five of the six nominated venues, with support being strongest among those with children under the age of 15 years. The venues with the highest levels of support were those where smoke-free policies had already been voluntarily introduced by the venue managers, where children were most likely to be in attendance, and that were more limited in size. Conclusions The study results demonstrate community support for new tobacco control policies. This evidence can be used by public policy makers in their deliberations relating to the introduction of more extensive tobacco control regulations. PMID:22382124

  13. State-Level Tobacco Control Policies and Youth Smoking Cessation Measures

    PubMed Central

    Tworek, Cindy; Yamaguchi, Ryoko; Kloska, Deborah D.; Emery, Sherry; Barker, Dianne; Giovino, Gary A.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Research on the effects of state-level tobacco control policies targeted at youth has been mixed, with little on the effects of these policies and youth smoking cessation. This study explored the association between state-level tobacco control policies and youth smoking cessation behaviors from 1991–2006. Methods The study design was a population-based, nested survey of students within states. Study participants were 8th, 10th, and 12th graders who reported smoking “regularly in the past” or “regularly now” from the Monitoring the Future study. Main cessation outcome measures were: any quit attempt; want to quit; non-continuation of smoking; and discontinuation of smoking. Results Results showed that cigarette price was positively associated with a majority of cessation-related measures among high school smokers. Strength of sales to minors’ laws was also associated with adolescent non-continuation of smoking among 10th and 12th graders. Conclusions Findings suggest that increasing cigarette price can encourage cessation-related behaviors among high school smokers. Evidence-based policy, such as tax increases on tobacco products, should be included as an important part of comprehensive tobacco control policy, which can have a positive effect on decreasing smoking prevalence and increasing smoking cessation among youth. PMID:20483500

  14. [A history of primary health care policy in the Federal District, Brazil (1960-2007): an analysis based on the theoretical framework of historical neo-institutionalism].

    PubMed

    Göttems, Leila Bernardo Donato; Evangelista, Maria do Socorro Nantua; Pires, Maria Raquel Gomes Maia; Silva, Aline Ferreira Melgaço da; Silva, Priscila Avelino da

    2009-06-01

    This article analyzes the history of primary health care policy in the Federal District, Brazil, based on the theoretical framework of historical neo-institutionalism, identifying the predominant configurations and trends in the various administrations of the State Health Secretariat (SES-DF) from 1960 to 2007. The study indicates that the characteristics of the Federal District's health policy are dependent on the history of the original health system plans for setting priorities and goals, as well as for the health system's implementation. This influence, in addition to the centralization of decision-making processes and limited political participation, can contribute to making primary care ancillary to hospital care, thus jeopardizing its potential to produce change in the health care model.

  15. Electric Power Research Institute, Environmental Control Technology Center report to the steering committee. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit continued with the Pilot High Velocity FGD (PHV) and the Trace Element Removal (TER) test blocks. In the High Velocity test block, SO{sub 2} removal and mist eliminator carryover rates were investigated while operating the absorber unit with various spray nozzle types and vertical mist eliminator sections. During the Trace Element Removal test block, the mercury measurements and control studies involving the EPA Method 29 continued with testing of several impinger capture solutions, and the use of activated carbon injection across the Pulse-Jet Fabric Filter (PJFF) unit. The 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber System was utilized this month in the TER test configuration to inject and transfer activated carbon to the PJFF bags for downstream mercury capture. Work also began in December to prepare the 0.4 MW Mini-Pilot Absorber system for receipt of the B and W Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX) unit to be used in the 1996 DOE/PRDA testing. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit remained in cold-standby this month.

  16. Fine-grained policy control in U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) multimodal signatures database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Kelly; Grueneberg, Keith; Wood, David; Calo, Seraphin

    2014-06-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Multimodal Signatures Database (MMSDB) consists of a number of colocated relational databases representing a collection of data from various sensors. Role-based access to this data is granted to external organizations such as DoD contractors and other government agencies through a client Web portal. In the current MMSDB system, access control is only at the database and firewall level. In order to offer finer grained security, changes to existing user profile schemas and authentication mechanisms are usually needed. In this paper, we describe a software middleware architecture and implementation that allows fine-grained access control to the MMSDB at a dataset, table, and row level. Result sets from MMSDB queries issued in the client portal are filtered with the use of a policy enforcement proxy, with minimal changes to the existing client software and database. Before resulting data is returned to the client, policies are evaluated to determine if the user or role is authorized to access the data. Policies can be authored to filter data at the row, table or column level of a result set. The system uses various technologies developed in the International Technology Alliance in Network and Information Science (ITA) for policy-controlled information sharing and dissemination1. Use of the Policy Management Library provides a mechanism for the management and evaluation of policies to support finer grained access to the data in the MMSDB system. The GaianDB is a policy-enabled, federated database that acts as a proxy between the client application and the MMSDB system.

  17. Economic policies for tobacco control in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ross, H; Chaloupka, F J

    2006-01-01

    Raising tobacco taxes can have an income distributional impact on the population. Since lower socio-economic groups usually smoke more, they also contribute more to total cigarette tax collection. Thus, those who can afford it least contribute the most in terms of tobacco taxes. This means that tobacco taxes are regressive. However, tobacco tax increases are likely to be progressive, decreasing the relative tax incidence on the poor, vis-à-vis the rich. This is based on the premise that the poor are likely to be more sensitive to price changes, and would thus reduce their cigarette consumption by a greater percentage than the rich in response to an excise tax-induced increase in cigarette prices. Recent empirical studies confirm this hypothesis by demonstrating that the price responsiveness of cigarette demand increases with income. Research in China confirmed that reducing cigarette expenditures could release household resources for spending on food, housing, and other goods that improve living standards. Therefore, in the long run, tobacco control measures will reduce social inequality.

  18. [Diflucortolone-21-valerate Reference Standard (Control 871) of National Institute of Hygienic Sciences].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M; Hiroshige, R; Murai, M; Tokunaga, H; Okada, S; Kimura, T

    1989-01-01

    Diflucortolone-21-valerate was tested for the preparation of "Diflucortolone-21-valerate Reference Standard (Control 871)". Analytical data obtained were as follows: loss on drying, 0.05%; infrared spectrum, 1745, 1727, 1667, 1625, 1611, 1169 cm-1; ultraviolet spectrum, lambda max = 239 nm; absorbance, E1%1cm (239 nm) = 348.8; optical rotation, [alpha]20D: + 100.8 degrees; melting point, 203.2 degrees C; thin-layer chromatography, three contaminants were detected; high-performance liquid chromatography, two contaminants were detected; fluorine, 8.06%. On the basis of those results, this material was authorized as the National Institute of Hygienic Sciences Reference Standard (Control 871). PMID:2636922

  19. Learning in the tutorial group: a balance between individual freedom and institutional control.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Anita; Aanstoot, Janna; Hammarström, Inger Lundeborg; Samuelsson, Christina; Johannesson, Eva; Sandström, Karin; Berglind, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates factors in problem-based learning tutorial groups which promote or inhibit learning. The informants were tutors and students from speech-language pathology and physiotherapy programmes. Semi-structured focus-group interviews and individual interviews were used. Results revealed three themes: Responsibility. Time and Support. Under responsibility, the delicate balance between individual and institutional responsibility and control was shown. Time included short and long-term perspectives on learning. Under support, supporting documents, activities and personnel resources were mentioned. In summary, an increased control by the program and tutors decreases student's motivation to assume responsibility for learning. Support in tutorial groups needs to adapt to student progression and to be well aligned to tutorial work to have the intended effect. A lifelong learning perspective may help students develop a meta-awareness regarding learning that could make tutorial work more meaningful. PMID:23848371

  20. Learning in the tutorial group: a balance between individual freedom and institutional control.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Anita; Aanstoot, Janna; Hammarström, Inger Lundeborg; Samuelsson, Christina; Johannesson, Eva; Sandström, Karin; Berglind, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates factors in problem-based learning tutorial groups which promote or inhibit learning. The informants were tutors and students from speech-language pathology and physiotherapy programmes. Semi-structured focus-group interviews and individual interviews were used. Results revealed three themes: Responsibility. Time and Support. Under responsibility, the delicate balance between individual and institutional responsibility and control was shown. Time included short and long-term perspectives on learning. Under support, supporting documents, activities and personnel resources were mentioned. In summary, an increased control by the program and tutors decreases student's motivation to assume responsibility for learning. Support in tutorial groups needs to adapt to student progression and to be well aligned to tutorial work to have the intended effect. A lifelong learning perspective may help students develop a meta-awareness regarding learning that could make tutorial work more meaningful.

  1. Political economy of tobacco control policy on public health in Japan.

    PubMed

    Desapriya, E B R; Iwase, Nobutada; Shimizu, Shinji

    2003-02-01

    Tobacco use, particularly smoking, remains the number one cause of preventable disease and mortality in Japan. This review of the tobacco control policy and public health is the first to offer a composite review of the subject within Japan. This review attempts to evaluate the most important aspects of the current political economy of the tobacco control policy, and concludes that more effective control policies must be employed to minimize the impact of smoking on the public's health in Japan. Further the article attempts to place the approaches in the larger context of tobacco control, providing a vision for the future of tobacco prevention and control based on current knowledge. Tobacco use will remain the leading cause of preventable illness and death in Japan, until tobacco prevention and control efforts are commensurate with the harm caused by tobacco. Taken together, the results of various studies have clearly shown that control measures can influence tobacco smoking patterns, and in turn, the rate of tobacco-related problems. Government tobacco taxes have not kept pace with inflation for years. Availability of tobacco is virtually unlimited with easy access and the prices being very low due to the strong currency of Japan. Thus Japan must be one of the most tobacco accessible countries. It is important to ensure that people are not conditioned to smoke tobacco by an unduly favourable economic and commercial environment. For that reason, prevention advocates have called for substantial regulation of tobacco products and appeal for both tobacco tax increases and tobacco taxes to be indexed to inflation. In this review, present tobacco related public health policies in Japan are discussed with implication for prevention of tobacco related problems. Continued research in this area will be necessary to determine the most effective policies of reducing tobacco related problems in Japan.

  2. Incomplete Markets and Imperfect Institutions: Some Challenges Posed by Trust for Contemporary Health Care and Health Policy.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Mark; Gray, Bradford H

    2016-08-01

    As contemporary health policy promotes evidence-based practices using targeted incentives, policy makers may lose track of vital aspects of care that are difficult to measure. For more than a half century, scholars have recognized that these latter aspects play a crucial role in high-quality care and equitable health system performance but depend on the potentially frail reed of providers' trustworthiness: that is, their commitment to facets and outcomes of care not easily assessed by external parties. More recently, early experience with pay for performance in health settings suggests that enhancing financial rewards for the measurable undermines providers' commitment to the unmeasurable, degrading the trustworthiness of their practices. Reformers have looked to revised professional norms or reorganized practice arrangements to bolster the intrinsic motivations required for trustworthiness. We suggest here that these responses are likely to prove inadequate. We propose that they be complemented by a renewed policy-making commitment to nonprofit ownership among health care providers, insurers, and integrated delivery systems. We identify some of the concerns raised in the past with ownership-based policies and propose a set of responses. If these are pursued in combination, they hold the promise of a sustainable ownership-based policy reform for the United States. PMID:27127254

  3. Leveraging the water-energy-food nexus for a sustainability transition: Institutional and policy design choices in a fragmented world (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, R.

    2013-12-01

    Given the critical - but often subtle - feedbacks between water, energy, and food security, a nexus approach that integrates management and governance across sectors and scales is increasingly being advocated in research and policy circles. As a first step, such an approach calls for an integrated multi-disciplinary assessment of the externalities across sectors and tradeoffs involved in enhancing security in one sector on the other sectors. Recent research efforts have focused on understanding these tradeoffs, say, through estimating the energy costs of expanding irrigation for greater food security; or estimating the embodied land and water costs in increased energy production. While such efforts have increased awareness about the inter-connectedness of such issues, the fundamental question of how such an understanding influences decision-making and how it can lead to coordinated action towards a transition to more sustainable pathways still remains largely unanswered. The long legacy of sectoral organization of political and bureaucratic structures has led to a fragmentary policy and institutional landscape, on which cross-sectoral public action and coordination poses several challenges. Moreover, poorly defined property rights, imperfect or absent markets, and uncertainty about resource dynamics imply that economic signals about relative scarcity in one sector are not necessarily clear to decision makers in the other sectors. In this study, we examine these issues related to water-energy food nexus in the context of semi-arid groundwater irrigated regions of western and southern India. Using a social-ecological systems framework, we begin by characterizing some of the key inter-dependencies among food, water, and energy at the farm household, village and state level. We then examine the factors that influence decision-making at these levels, and the extent to which these decisions internalize the externalities. Specifically, we examine the role of energy

  4. Do fertility control policies affect health in old age? Evidence from China's one-child experiment.

    PubMed

    Islam, Asadul; Smyth, Russell

    2015-05-01

    How do fertility control policies contribute to the welfare of women, and their husbands, particularly as they get older? We consider whether the reduction in fertility resulting from population control policies has had any effect on the health of elderly parents in China. In particular, we examine the influence of this fertility decline, experienced due to China's one-child policy, on several measures of the health of parents in middle and old age. Overall, our results suggest that having fewer children has a positive effect on self-reported parental health but generally no effect on other measures of health. The results also suggest that upstream financial transfers have a positive effect on several measures of parental health. PMID:24692342

  5. Changes in Tobacco Smoke Exposure following the Institution of a Smoke-Free Policy in the Boston Housing Authority

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Douglas E.; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Rigotti, Nancy A.; Fang, Shona C.; Winickoff, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To protect residents from tobacco smoke exposure (TSE), the Boston Housing Authority (BHA) prohibited smoking in BHA-owned apartments beginning in 2012. Our goal was to determine if the smoke-free policy reduced TSE for non-smoking BHA residents. Methods We compared TSE before the smoke-free policy (2012) and one year later among BHA residents as well as residents of the neighboring Cambridge Housing Authority (CHA) where no such policy was in place. Participants were a convenience sample of adult non-smoking BHA and CHA residents cohabitating with only non-smokers. Main outcomes were 7-day airborne nicotine in participants’ apartments; residents’ saliva cotinine; and residents’ self-reported TSE. Results We enrolled 287 confirmed non-smokers (192 BHA, 95 CHA). Seventy-nine percent (229) were assessed at follow-up. At baseline, apartment and resident TSE were high in both housing authorities (detectable airborne nicotine: 46% BHA, 48% CHA; detectable saliva cotinine: 49% BHA, 70% CHA). At follow-up there were significant but similar declines in nicotine in both sites (detectable: -33% BHA, -39% CHA, p = 0.40). Detectable cotinine rose among BHA residents while declining among CHA participants (+17% BHA vs. -13% CHA, p = 0.002). Resident self-reported TSE within and outside of the housing environment decreased similarly for both BHA and CHA residents. Conclusions Apartment air nicotine decreased after the introduction of the smoke-free policy, though the decline may not have resulted from the policy. The BHA policy did not result in reduced individual-level TSE. Unmeasured sources of non-residential TSE may have contributed to BHA residents’ cotinine levels. PMID:26360258

  6. Legitimacy and modernity via policy transfer: the utility of the 2003 Afghan National Drug Control Strategy.

    PubMed

    Bewley-Taylor, David R

    2014-09-01

    Very much an exercise in historical reconstruction, this article is concerned with the development of the first version of the Afghan NDCS. It is hoped that this domain of enquiry will contribute to discussions around the 'governance of drug policy' in this special issue of the International Journal of Drug Policy by focusing on how different policy actors operate in influencing the policy process; or parts thereof. More specifically, exploration of the formulation of the Strategy does much to help us understand not only the origins and shifting nature of ownership of drug policy within Afghanistan but also the relationship between the NDCS and the broader normative expectations of what has been referred to as the global drug prohibition regime (Andreas & Nadelmann, 2006, p. 38). As will be discussed, while indisputably the product of a process of policy transfer involving a number of non-Afghan actors - and as such arguably not always appropriate to the peculiarities of the drug market within the country - it can be argued that the 2003 National Drug Control Strategy fulfilled a useful functional role that in many ways exceeded its utility as a guiding document beyond the confines of Kabul.

  7. Community-Based School Finance and Accountability: A New Era for Local Control in Education Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez Heilig, Julian; Ward, Derrick R.; Weisman, Eric; Cole, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Top-down accountability policies have arguably had very limited impact over the past 20 years. Education stakeholders are now contemplating new forms of bottom-up accountability. In 2013, policymakers in California enacted a community-based approach that creates the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) process for school finance to increase…

  8. Association of School Nutrition Policy and Parental Control with Childhood Overweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Lee, Chung Gun

    2012-01-01

    Background: Schools and parents may play important roles in preventing childhood obesity by affecting children's behaviors related to energy balance. This study examined how school nutrition policy and parental control over children's eating and physical activity habits are associated with the children's overweight/obesity…

  9. Soviet Education Policy 1917-1935: From Ideology to Bureaucratic Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauglo, Jon

    1988-01-01

    Examining early Soviet educational policy, Lauglo analyzes the initial expression of Marxist humanist values, popular participation, and the value of productive work for general education. Discusses the routinization into a Stalinist pattern of bureaucratically controlled utilitarianism and comments briefly on recent indications of change in…

  10. Mandatory Production Controls. Issues in Agricultural Policy. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 520.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Mandatory restrictions on agricultural production continue to be suggested as an alternative policy for reducing price-depressing surplus production, increasing farm income, and cutting farm program costs. A mandatory production control program (MPCP) can be implemented through two methods: (1) acreage allotments, which restrict individual farmers…

  11. A policy iteration approach to online optimal control of continuous-time constrained-input systems.

    PubMed

    Modares, Hamidreza; Naghibi Sistani, Mohammad-Bagher; Lewis, Frank L

    2013-09-01

    This paper is an effort towards developing an online learning algorithm to find the optimal control solution for continuous-time (CT) systems subject to input constraints. The proposed method is based on the policy iteration (PI) technique which has recently evolved as a major technique for solving optimal control problems. Although a number of online PI algorithms have been developed for CT systems, none of them take into account the input constraints caused by actuator saturation. In practice, however, ignoring these constraints leads to performance degradation or even system instability. In this paper, to deal with the input constraints, a suitable nonquadratic functional is employed to encode the constraints into the optimization formulation. Then, the proposed PI algorithm is implemented on an actor-critic structure to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation associated with this nonquadratic cost functional in an online fashion. That is, two coupled neural network (NN) approximators, namely an actor and a critic are tuned online and simultaneously for approximating the associated HJB solution and computing the optimal control policy. The critic is used to evaluate the cost associated with the current policy, while the actor is used to find an improved policy based on information provided by the critic. Convergence to a close approximation of the HJB solution as well as stability of the proposed feedback control law are shown. Simulation results of the proposed method on a nonlinear CT system illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:23706414

  12. GMPLS inter-domain signaling and routing to control LSPs based on per-domain policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, S.; Guo, H.; Otani, T.

    2008-11-01

    GMPLS inter-domain network control was investigated by employing BGP-based inter-domain routing and flexible signaling with loose hop expansion. Per-domain based operational policy was successfully applied to the establishment of GMPLS inter-domain LSPs.

  13. Off-Policy Actor-Critic Structure for Optimal Control of Unknown Systems With Disturbances.

    PubMed

    Song, Ruizhuo; Lewis, Frank L; Wei, Qinglai; Zhang, Huaguang

    2016-05-01

    An optimal control method is developed for unknown continuous-time systems with unknown disturbances in this paper. The integral reinforcement learning (IRL) algorithm is presented to obtain the iterative control. Off-policy learning is used to allow the dynamics to be completely unknown. Neural networks are used to construct critic and action networks. It is shown that if there are unknown disturbances, off-policy IRL may not converge or may be biased. For reducing the influence of unknown disturbances, a disturbances compensation controller is added. It is proven that the weight errors are uniformly ultimately bounded based on Lyapunov techniques. Convergence of the Hamiltonian function is also proven. The simulation study demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed optimal control method for unknown systems with disturbances. PMID:25935054

  14. Off-Policy Actor-Critic Structure for Optimal Control of Unknown Systems With Disturbances.

    PubMed

    Song, Ruizhuo; Lewis, Frank L; Wei, Qinglai; Zhang, Huaguang

    2016-05-01

    An optimal control method is developed for unknown continuous-time systems with unknown disturbances in this paper. The integral reinforcement learning (IRL) algorithm is presented to obtain the iterative control. Off-policy learning is used to allow the dynamics to be completely unknown. Neural networks are used to construct critic and action networks. It is shown that if there are unknown disturbances, off-policy IRL may not converge or may be biased. For reducing the influence of unknown disturbances, a disturbances compensation controller is added. It is proven that the weight errors are uniformly ultimately bounded based on Lyapunov techniques. Convergence of the Hamiltonian function is also proven. The simulation study demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed optimal control method for unknown systems with disturbances.

  15. Effectiveness of hospital-wide methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection control policies differs by ward specialty.

    PubMed

    Sadsad, Rosemarie; Sintchenko, Vitali; McDonnell, Geoff D; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of preventable nosocomial infections and is endemic in hospitals worldwide. The effectiveness of infection control policies varies significantly across hospital settings. The impact of the hospital context towards the rate of nosocomial MRSA infections and the success of infection control is understudied. We conducted a modelling study to evaluate several infection control policies in surgical, intensive care, and medical ward specialties, each with distinct ward conditions and policies, of a tertiary public hospital in Sydney, Australia. We reconfirm hand hygiene as the most successful policy and find it to be necessary for the success of other policies. Active screening for MRSA, patient isolation in single-bed rooms, and additional staffing were found to be less effective. Across these ward specialties, MRSA transmission risk varied by 13% and reductions in the prevalence and nosocomial incidence rate of MRSA due to infection control policies varied by up to 45%. Different levels of infection control were required to reduce and control nosocomial MRSA infections for each ward specialty. Infection control policies and policy targets should be specific for the ward and context of the hospital. The model we developed is generic and can be calibrated to represent different ward settings and pathogens transmitted between patients indirectly through health care workers. This can aid the timely and cost effective design of synergistic and context specific infection control policies.

  16. Effectiveness of Hospital-Wide Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Infection Control Policies Differs by Ward Specialty

    PubMed Central

    Sadsad, Rosemarie; Sintchenko, Vitali; McDonnell, Geoff D.; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L.

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of preventable nosocomial infections and is endemic in hospitals worldwide. The effectiveness of infection control policies varies significantly across hospital settings. The impact of the hospital context towards the rate of nosocomial MRSA infections and the success of infection control is understudied. We conducted a modelling study to evaluate several infection control policies in surgical, intensive care, and medical ward specialties, each with distinct ward conditions and policies, of a tertiary public hospital in Sydney, Australia. We reconfirm hand hygiene as the most successful policy and find it to be necessary for the success of other policies. Active screening for MRSA, patient isolation in single-bed rooms, and additional staffing were found to be less effective. Across these ward specialties, MRSA transmission risk varied by 13% and reductions in the prevalence and nosocomial incidence rate of MRSA due to infection control policies varied by up to 45%. Different levels of infection control were required to reduce and control nosocomial MRSA infections for each ward specialty. Infection control policies and policy targets should be specific for the ward and context of the hospital. The model we developed is generic and can be calibrated to represent different ward settings and pathogens transmitted between patients indirectly through health care workers. This can aid the timely and cost effective design of synergistic and context specific infection control policies. PMID:24340085

  17. Using a Policy Classification Model to Analyze Major Changes Regarding Control and Administration of Policies Relative to Professional Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozma, Ernest J.; Walker, John H.

    There has been a diversity of activity to change policies relating to the recruitment, admission, and preparation of new educational professionals in college and university settings. These policies, coupled with state mandated polices to upgrade the competence of current teachers and administrators, has resulted in a great amount of policy to…

  18. Changing Social Institutions to Improve the Status of Women in Developing Countries. OECD Development Centre Policy Brief No. 27

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jutting, Johannes: Morrisson, Christian

    2005-01-01

    One of the long-standing priorities of the international community is to reduce gender disparity in developing countries. Yet, the overall picture is still gloomy: women continue to be excluded from access to resources and employment and are denied basic human rights. This Policy Brief explains why progress has been so minimal and what should be…

  19. Stimulating Innovation in Russia: The Role of Institutions and Policies. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 539

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gianella, Christian; Tompson, William

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the potential role of innovation policy in enhancing long-term productivity growth in Russia. It begins by exploring the role of framework conditions for business in encouraging innovative activities, particularly with respect to intellectual property rights and competition. Realising Russia's innovation potential will also…

  20. A New Agenda for Teaching Public Administration and Public Policy in Brazil: Institutional Opportunities and Educational Reasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Sandra; Almeida, Lindijane S. B.; Lucio, Magda L.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the reasons and teaching objectives of an array of new undergraduate courses on public administration and public policy management which have emerged recently in Brazil. While in 2001 there were only two undergraduate courses teaching formal public administration in the country, by 2015, they had risen to 40, and also…

  1. A Study of the Effect of Information Security Policies on Information Security Breaches in Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Stanie Adolphus

    2013-01-01

    Many articles within the literature point to the information security policy as one of the most important elements of an effective information security program. Even though this belief is continually referred to in many information security scholarly articles, very few research studies have been performed to corroborate this sentiment. Doherty and…

  2. America's Demography in the New Century: Aging Baby Boomers and New Immigrants as Major Players. Milken Institute Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, William H.; DeVol, Ross C.

    America's demography in the new century will be affected by the aging baby boom generation and by new immigrants. Focus on just the national implications of aging baby boomers and the new immigrants is inadequate. This policy brief takes a regional perspective, examining recent trends and population statistics and making the case that aging baby…

  3. A Study of the Relationship between Institutional Policy, Organisational culture and E-Learning Use in Four South African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerniewicz, Laura; Brown, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between policy (conceptualised as goals, values and resources), organisational culture and e-learning use. Through both qualitative and quantitative research methods, we gathered data about staff and student perspectives from four diverse South African universities representing a selection of ICT in…

  4. The Impact of a National-Goal-Driven Higher Education Policy on an Ethnic Minority Serving Institution in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clothey, Rebecca A.; Hu, Diya

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the implementation of Project 985 at Minzu University of China, an ethnic minority serving university in China. As a university established specifically for the education of ethnic minorities, the paper examines in what ways the implementation of a policy uniformly mandated to serve national higher education goals by China's…

  5. Employment and Training Policy in the United States during the Economic Crisis. Upjohn Institute Working Paper No. 10-161

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Christopher J.; Eberts, Randall W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines labor market conditions and public employment policies in the United States during what some are calling the Great Recession. We document the dramatic labor market changes that rapidly unfolded when the rate of gross domestic product growth turned negative, from the end of 2007 through early 2009. The paper reviews the…

  6. Long-Term Stewardship: Institutional Controls on Department of Energy Sites. Development and Management of Institutional Controls at U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Schiesswohl, S.; Bahrke, C.; Deyo, Y.; Uhlmeyer, T.

    2007-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has managed the Long Term Stewardship and Maintenance activities at DOE sites since 1988. DOE's Office of Legacy Management (LM) was established in December 2003, and its specific mission is to manage the DOE's post-closure responsibilities and ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. LM has control and custody for legacy land, structures, and facilities and is responsible for maintaining them at levels suitable for their long-term use. LM uses DOE Policy 454.1: Use of Institutional Controls (ICs) and Associated Guidance. Many major Federal laws, Executive Orders, regulations, and various other drivers influence the establishment and use of ICs at LM sites. LM uses a wide range of ICs as part of efforts to appropriately limit access to, or uses of, land, facilities and other real and personal property assets; protect the environment; maintain the physical safety and security of DOE facilities; and prevent or limit inadvertent human and environmental exposure to residual contaminants and other hazards. ICs generally fall into one of four categories identified by EPA guidance, and DOE is successfully using a 'defense in depth' strategy which uses multiple mechanisms to provide 'layering' for additional durability and protectiveness: - Proprietary controls - such as easements and covenants. - Governmental controls - implemented and enforced by state or local governments. - Enforcement and permit tools with IC components - such as CERCLA agreements or RCRA permits. - Informational devices - such as state registries or public advisories. An additional practice that supports ICs at LM sites entails the use of engineered controls, such as fences, gates, access controls, etc. to ensure public access to applicable areas is limited. An engineered control that is not an IC is the disposal cell itself with its design criteria that protects the contaminated interior, controls the penetration of precipitation, and the

  7. Tobacco control policies and perinatal and child health: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol

    PubMed Central

    Been, Jasper V; Mackenbach, Johan P; Millett, Christopher; Basu, Sanjay; Sheikh, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Children experience considerable morbidity and mortality due to tobacco smoke exposure. Tobacco control policies may benefit child health by reducing this exposure. We aim to comprehensively assess the effects of the range of tobacco control policies advocated by the WHO on perinatal and child health. Methods and analysis We will systematically search 19 electronic literature databases (from inception) for published studies, and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for unpublished studies. Additional work will be identified via handsearching references and citations, and through consulting an international panel of experts. No language restrictions will apply. Following Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) guidelines, randomised and clinical controlled trials, controlled before-and-after studies, and interrupted time series designs, are eligible. Studies of interest will assess the impact of any of the WHO-advocated tobacco control policies contained in the MPOWER acronym (except ‘Monitoring tobacco use’) on at least one outcome of interest among children aged 0–12 years. The primary outcomes are: perinatal mortality, preterm birth, asthma exacerbations requiring hospital attendance and respiratory infections requiring hospital attendance. Data will be extracted using customised forms and authors will be contacted to obtain missing information. Risk of bias will be assessed using EPOC criteria. Findings will be reported in narrative and tabular form. Between-study heterogeneity will be assessed clinically and statistically using I2. If appropriate and possible, random-effects meta-analysis will be conducted for each unique combination of intervention and outcome. Subgroup analyses will be performed to assess the influence of the comprehensiveness of each policy, and to explore the impact of each policy according to socioeconomic status. Ethics and dissemination No ethical assessment is necessary as we

  8. Practice and Policy to Enhance Student Induction and Transition: A Case Study of Institution-Wide Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsford, Sally; Rose, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This case study gives an analytical account of institutional development in induction provision. Driven by student experience concerns, a London post-1992 University set up an "enhanced induction project" to provide a more integrated, personalised approach through more coordinated processes. In a large, diverse context, university-wide…

  9. Actualizing panarchy within environmental policy: mechanisms for tweaking institutional hierarchies to mimic the social-ecological systems they manage

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental law plays a key role in shaping approaches to sustainability. In particular, the role of legal instruments, institutions, and the relationship of law to the inherent variability in social-ecological systems is critical. Sustainability likely must occur via the insti...

  10. Explorations of the Policy Drive to Foster a Research Culture within a Dual Sector Scottish HE Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    In August 2011, the University of the Highlands and Islands (UHI) celebrated the accolade of university title, becoming Scotland's newest university. Modelled on a federal, collegiate university based on a number of existing and geographically dispersed Further Education (FE) colleges and research institutions, the UHI has clearly abandoned the…

  11. Getting Serious about Institutional Performance in Student Retention: Research-Based Lessons on Effective Policies and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossler, Don; Ziskin, Mary; Gross, Jacob P. K.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors share what they have learned in two distinct but complementary research projects that focus on institutional efforts to enhance student persistence and graduation--one funded by the Lumina Foundation for Education and the second by the College Board. Together, these projects have helped them develop a fuller picture of…

  12. Health Manpower Credentialing: Legal Implications of Institutional Licensure. Health Manpower Policy Discussion Paper Series No.: C3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Stephen

    The objective of this analysis is to outline in broad fashion the current trends and issues in the licensure of health manpower and to contrast two proposed alternative systems of credentialing that focus on licensure of health care institutions instead of individual health care providers. The argument of the analysis is that the current system of…

  13. The Visioning of Policy and the Hope of Implementation: Support for Graduate Students' Teaching at a Canadian Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoessler, Carolyn; Godden, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    Graduate students teach within the complex higher education environment of financial constraint, greater student diversity, and growing graduate enrolment (e.g., Austin, 2003). Teaching roles offer financial support and skill development while multiplying responsibilities (Price, 2008). Across the national working papers and institutional reports,…

  14. Results from an evaluation of tobacco control policies at the 2010 Shanghai World Expo

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Zheng, PinPin; Fu, Hua; Berg, Carla; Kegler, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Background Large-scale international events such as World Expos and Olympic Games have the potential to strengthen smoke-free norms globally. The Shanghai 2010 World Expo was one of the first large-scale events to implement and evaluate the adoption of strict tobacco control policies. Objective To evaluate implementation of tobacco control policies at the 2010 World Expo in Shanghai, China. Methods This mixed methods evaluation was conducted from July to October 2010. Observations were conducted in all 155 pavilions and outdoor queuing areas, all 45 souvenir shops, a random sample of restaurants (51 of 119) and selected outdoor non-smoking areas in all sections of the Expo. In addition, intercept surveys were completed with 3022 visitors over a 4-month period. Results All pavilions and souvenir shops were smoke-free. Restaurants were smoke-free, with only 0.1% of customers observed smoking. Smoking was more common in outdoor non-smoking areas, but still relatively rare overall with only 4.5% of visitors observed smoking. Tobacco products were not sold or marketed in any public settings except for three pavilions that had special exemptions from the policy. Overall, 80.3% of visitors were aware of the smoke-free policy at the World Expo, 92.5% of visitors supported the policy and 97.1% of visitors were satisfied with the smoke-free environment. Conclusions Tobacco control policies at the World Expo sites were generally well-enforced and accepted although compliance was not 100%, particularly in outdoor non-smoking areas. PMID:23708269

  15. Electric Power Research Institute Environmental Control Technology Center final monthly technical report, August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute`s Environmental Control Technology Center. Testing on the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet FGD unit this month involved the Trace Element Removal (TER) test block, and the simultaneous testing of the Lime Forced Oxidation process with DBA addition (LDG). Additionally, the second phase of the 1995 Carbon Injection test block began this month with the SDA/PJFF test configuration. At the end of the LDG testing this month, a one-week baseline test was conducted to generate approximately 200 lbs. of magnesium-lime FGD solids for analysis. On the 1.0 MW Post-FGD Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit, performance testing was continued this month as measurements were taken for NO{sub x} removal efficiency, residual ammonia slip, and S0{sub 3} generation across the catalysts installed in the reactor. As a result of new directions received from EPRI, this will be the last scheduled month of testing for the SCR unit in 1995. At the completion of this month, the unit will be isolated from the flue gas path and placed in a cold-standby mode for future test activities. This report describes the status of facilities and test facilities at the pilot and mini-pilot plants.

  16. Emergence of viral diseases: mathematical modeling as a tool for infection control, policy and decision making.

    PubMed

    Louz, Derrick; Bergmans, Hans E; Loos, Birgit P; Hoeben, Rob C

    2010-08-01

    Mathematical modeling can be used for the development and implementation of infection control policy to combat outbreaks and epidemics of communicable viral diseases. Here an outline is provided of basic concepts and approaches used in mathematical modeling and parameterization of disease transmission. The use of mathematical models is illustrated, using the 2001 UK foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic, the 2003 global severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic, and human influenza pandemics, as examples. This provides insights in the strengths, limitations, and weaknesses of the various models, and demonstrates their potential for supporting policy and decision making. PMID:20218764

  17. Emergence of viral diseases: mathematical modeling as a tool for infection control, policy and decision making.

    PubMed

    Louz, Derrick; Bergmans, Hans E; Loos, Birgit P; Hoeben, Rob C

    2010-08-01

    Mathematical modeling can be used for the development and implementation of infection control policy to combat outbreaks and epidemics of communicable viral diseases. Here an outline is provided of basic concepts and approaches used in mathematical modeling and parameterization of disease transmission. The use of mathematical models is illustrated, using the 2001 UK foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic, the 2003 global severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic, and human influenza pandemics, as examples. This provides insights in the strengths, limitations, and weaknesses of the various models, and demonstrates their potential for supporting policy and decision making.

  18. Domestic politics, citizen activism, and U. S. nuclear arms control policy

    SciTech Connect

    Knopf, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The author seeks to ascertain whether and how citizens' movements concerning nuclear arms control and disarmament affect US arms control policy. The author employs a comparative case study methodology. He examines cases of the Eisenhower and Kennedy Administrations during the period of protest against nuclear testing, and the Reagan Administration during the nuclear weapons freeze campaign and the subsequent campaign for a comprehensive test ban. He hows there are four mechanisms through which public advocacy efforts can influence arms control policy, identifies the conditions under which each can be effective, and details the type of impact each mechanism has. Domestic activism interacts with broader public opinion in a way that creates electoral pressure; with elite-level debates in a way that removes a consensus behind presidential policy or changes the winning coalition in Congress; with bureaucratic politics, by generating ideas that have utility for some agents within the Executive; or with the public diplomacy of foreign governments, especially the Soviet Union. Citizens' movements had an impact on policy in each of the cases studied. The type and extent of impact, and the mechanisms involved in giving activism influence, are different for each case.

  19. Impact of Tobacco Control Policy on Quitting and Nicotine Dependence among Women in Five European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Allen, JA; Gritz, ER; Xiao, H; Rubenstein, R; Kralikova, Eva; Haglund, Margaretha; Heck, JE; Niaura, R; Vallone, DM

    2014-01-01

    Objective Describe differences in and factors associated with former smoking and nicotine dependence among women in Ireland, Sweden, France, Italy and the Czech Republic. Methods A cross-sectional, random digit dial telephone survey of 5000 women, ages 18 and older, conducted in 2008. Analyses were conducted using logistic regression models. Results Respondents from Ireland and Sweden had statistically significantly higher odds of having quit smoking within the 5 years prior to survey administration as compared with respondents from the Czech Republic. Current smokers from Ireland, Sweden, France and Italy are more nicotine dependent than those from the Czech Republic. Conclusions Respondents from countries with stronger tobacco control policies were more likely to be have quit smoking compared with those living in the Czech Republic. However, respondents in countries with some of the strongest policies (Ireland, Sweden, France and Italy) had higher odds of smoking within 30 minutes of waking, an established indicator of nicotine dependence. More research in this area is warranted, but this study suggests that: 1) now that the Czech Republic is beginning to implement strong tobacco control policy, they will likely achieve a rapid decline in population-level smoking; and 2) Ireland, Sweden, France, Italy and other countries with established, strong tobacco control policies would do well to consider what additional programs they can put in place to help their highly nicotine dependent population of smokers successfully quit. PMID:23152098

  20. Update on Performance in Tobacco Control: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Impact of Tobacco Control Policy and the US Adult Smoking Rate, 2011-2013

    PubMed Central

    Lapin, Brittany; Cameron, Brianna J.; Carr, Thomas A.; Morley, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Tobacco use remains the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. States and municipalities have instituted a variety of tobacco control measures (TCMs) to address the significant impact tobacco use has on population health. The American Lung Association annually grades state performance of tobacco control using the State of Tobacco Control grading framework. Objective: To gain an updated understanding of how recent efforts in tobacco control have impacted tobacco use across the United States, using yearly State of Tobacco Control TCM assessments. Design: The independent TCM variables of smoke-free air score, cessation score, excise tax, and percentage of recommended funding were selected from the American Lung Association State of Tobacco Control reports. Predictors of adult smoking rates were determined by a mixed-effects model. Setting/Participants: The 50 US states and District of Columbia. Main Outcome Measure: Adult smoking rate in each state from 2011 to 2013. Results: The average adult smoking rate decreased significantly from 2011 to 2013 (21.3% [SD: 3.5] to 19.3% [SD: 3.5], P = .016). All forms of TCMs varied widely in implementation levels across states. Excise taxes (β = −.812, P = .006) and smoke-free air regulations (β = −.057, P = .008) were significant, negative predictors of adult smoking. Cessation services (β = .015, P = .46) did not have a measurable effect on adult smoking. Conclusion: Tobacco control measures with the strongest influence on adult smoking include the state excise tax and state smoke-free air regulations. The lack of robust funding for tobacco cessation services across the majority of US states highlights an important shortfall in current tobacco control policy. PMID:26618847